Sample records for self-rating anxiety scale

  1. Relationship between the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale score and the success rate of 64-slice computed tomography coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Jin, Dan; Qiao, Fang; Chen, Jianchang; Gong, Jianping

    Computed tomography coronary angiography, a key method for obtaining coronary artery images, is widely used to screen for coronary artery diseases due to its noninvasive nature. In China, 64-slice computed tomography systems are now the most common models. As factors that directly affect computed tomography performance, heart rate and rhythm control are regulated by the autonomic nervous system and are highly related to the emotional state of the patient. The aim of this prospective study is to use a pre-computed tomography scan Self-Rating Anxiety Scale assessment to analyze the effects of tension and anxiety on computed tomography coronary angiography success. Subjects aged 18-85 years who were planned to undergo computed tomography coronary angiography were enrolled; 1 to 2 h before the computed tomography scan, basic patient data (gender, age, heart rate at rest, and family history) and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale score were obtained. The same group of imaging department doctors, technicians, and nurses performed computed tomography coronary angiography for all the enrolled subjects and observed whether those subjects could finish the computed tomography coronary angiography scan and provide clear, diagnostically valuable images. Participants were divided into successful (obtained diagnostically useful coronary images) and unsuccessful groups. Basic data and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale scores were compared between the groups. The Self-Rating Anxiety Scale standard score of the successful group was lower than that of the unsuccessful group (P = 0.001). As the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale standard score rose, the success rate of computed tomography coronary angiography decreased. The Self-Rating Anxiety Scale score has a negative relationship with computed tomography coronary angiography success. Anxiety can be a disadvantage in computed tomography coronary angiography examination. The pre-computed tomography coronary angiography scan Self-Rating Anxiety Scale

  2. Is the Parkinson Anxiety Scale comparable across raters?

    PubMed

    Forjaz, Maria João; Ayala, Alba; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Dujardin, Kathy; Pontone, Gregory M; Starkstein, Sergio E; Weintraub, Daniel; Leentjens, Albert F G

    2015-04-01

    The Parkinson Anxiety Scale is a new scale developed to measure anxiety severity in Parkinson's disease specifically. It consists of three dimensions: persistent anxiety, episodic anxiety, and avoidance behavior. This study aimed to assess the measurement properties of the scale while controlling for the rater (self- vs. clinician-rated) effect. The Parkinson Anxiety Scale was administered to a cross-sectional multicenter international sample of 362 Parkinson's disease patients. Both patients and clinicians rated the patient's anxiety independently. A many-facet Rasch model design was applied to estimate and remove the rater effect. The following measurement properties were assessed: fit to the Rasch model, unidimensionality, reliability, differential item functioning, item local independency, interrater reliability (self or clinician), and scale targeting. In addition, test-retest stability, construct validity, precision, and diagnostic properties of the Parkinson Anxiety Scale were also analyzed. A good fit to the Rasch model was obtained for Parkinson Anxiety Scale dimensions A and B, after the removal of one item and rescoring of the response scale for certain items, whereas dimension C showed marginal fit. Self versus clinician rating differences were of small magnitude, with patients reporting higher anxiety levels than clinicians. The linear measure for Parkinson Anxiety Scale dimensions A and B showed good convergent construct with other anxiety measures and good diagnostic properties. Parkinson Anxiety Scale modified dimensions A and B provide valid and reliable measures of anxiety in Parkinson's disease that are comparable across raters. Further studies are needed with dimension C. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  3. Impact of Self-concept on Preschoolers’ Dental Anxiety and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Erfanparast, Leila; Vafaei, Ali; Sohrabi, Azin; Ranjkesh, Bahram; Bahadori, Zahra; Pourkazemi, Maryam; Dadashi, Shabnam; Shirazi, Sajjad

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Different factors affect children’s behavior during dental treatment, including psychological and behavioral characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of self-concept on child’s anxiety and behavior during dental treatment in 4 to 6-year-old children. Materials and methods. A total of 235 preschoolers aged 4 to 6 years were included in this descriptive analytic study. Total self-concept score for each child was assessed according to Primary Self-concept Scale before dental treatment. Child’s anxiety and child’s behavior were assessed, during the restoration of mandibular primary molar, using clinical anxiety rating scale and Frankl Scale, respectively. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between the total self-concept score with the results of clinical anxiety rating scale and Frankl Scale. Results. There was a moderate inverse correlation between the self-concept and clinical anxiety rating scale scores (r = -0.545, P < 0.001), and a moderate correlation between the self-concept and child’s behavior scores (r = 0.491, P < 0.001). A strong inverse relation was also found between the anxiety and behavior scores (r = -0.91, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Children with higher self-concept had lower anxiety level and better behavioral feedback during dental treatment. PMID:26697152

  4. Development and Validation of the Physics Anxiety Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; Caliskan, Serap; Dilek, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the development and validation process for an instrument to measure university students' anxiety in physics courses. The development of the Physics Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) included the following steps: Generation of scale items, content validation, construct validation, and reliability calculation. The results of construct…

  5. Outcome Rating Scale and Session Rating Scale in Psychological Practice: Clinical Utility of Ultra-Brief Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Alistair; Hemsley, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    The validity and reliability of the Outcome Rating Scale (ORS) and the Session Rating Scale (SRS) were evaluated against existing longer measures, including the Outcome Questionnaire-45, Working Alliance Inventory, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, Quality of Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and General Self-efficacy Scale. The measures…

  6. [The relationship among self-focused attention, depression, and anxiety].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Seiichi; Sato, Hiroshi; Sakai, Motohiro; Sakano, Yuji

    2007-10-01

    Self-focused attention is considered to be a cognitive characteristic of depression. However, some articles report that self-focused attention is also related to anxiety. This study examines the differential relationships of self-focused attention to depression and anxiety. The Preoccupation Scale, Self-rating Depression Scale, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory T-Form were administered to 454 undergraduate students. The results showed a partial correlation between self-focused attention and anxiety that was significant while controlling for depression, but the partial correlation between self-focused attention and depression was not significant while controlling for anxiety. In addition, the results of an analysis of covariance structure revealed that self-focused attention was related to anxiety, and the relationship between self-focused attention and depression was due to the mediating effect of anxiety. Therefore, it was suggested that self-focused attention appears to be a significant component of cognitive operations for anxiety, but not for depression.

  7. Construction and evaluation of a self rating scale for stress-induced Exhaustion Disorder, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale

    PubMed Central

    Besèr, Aniella; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Wahlberg, Kristina; Peterson, Ulla; Nygren, Åke; Åsberg, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged stress (≥ six months) may cause a condition which has been named exhaustion disorder (ED) with ICD-10 code F43.8. ED is characterised by exhaustion, cognitive problems, poor sleep and reduced tolerance to further stress. ED can cause long term disability and depressive symptoms may develop. The aim was to construct and evaluate a self-rating scale, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), for the assessment of ED symptoms. A second aim was to examine the relationship between self-rated symptoms of ED, depression, and anxiety using KEDS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD). Items were selected based on their correspondence to criteria for ED as formulated by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare (NBHW), with seven response alternatives in a Likert-format. Self-ratings performed by 317 clinically assessed participants were used to analyse the scale’s psychometric properties. KEDS consists of nine items with a scale range of 0–54. Receiver operating characteristics analysis demonstrated that a cut-off score of 19 was accompanied by high sensitivity and specificity (each above 95%) in the discrimination between healthy subjects and patients with ED. Reliability was satisfactory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed that ED, depression and anxiety are best regarded as different phenomena. KEDS may be a useful tool in the assessment of symptoms of Exhaustion Disorder in clinical as well as research settings. There is evidence that the symptom clusters of ED, anxiety and depression, respectively, reflect three different underlying dimensions. PMID:24236500

  8. Construction and evaluation of a self rating scale for stress-induced exhaustion disorder, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale.

    PubMed

    Besèr, Aniella; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Wahlberg, Kristina; Peterson, Ulla; Nygren, Ake; Asberg, Marie

    2014-02-01

    Prolonged stress (≥ six months) may cause a condition which has been named exhaustion disorder (ED) with ICD-10 code F43.8. ED is characterised by exhaustion, cognitive problems, poor sleep and reduced tolerance to further stress. ED can cause long term disability and depressive symptoms may develop. The aim was to construct and evaluate a self-rating scale, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), for the assessment of ED symptoms. A second aim was to examine the relationship between self-rated symptoms of ED, depression, and anxiety using KEDS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD). Items were selected based on their correspondence to criteria for ED as formulated by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare (NBHW), with seven response alternatives in a Likert-format. Self-ratings performed by 317 clinically assessed participants were used to analyse the scale's psychometric properties. KEDS consists of nine items with a scale range of 0-54. Receiver operating characteristics analysis demonstrated that a cut-off score of 19 was accompanied by high sensitivity and specificity (each above 95%) in the discrimination between healthy subjects and patients with ED. Reliability was satisfactory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed that ED, depression and anxiety are best regarded as different phenomena. KEDS may be a useful tool in the assessment of symptoms of Exhaustion Disorder in clinical as well as research settings. There is evidence that the symptom clusters of ED, anxiety and depression, respectively, reflect three different underlying dimensions. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Assessment of social anxiety in first episode psychosis using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety scale as a self-report measure.

    PubMed

    Romm, K L; Rossberg, J I; Berg, A O; Hansen, C F; Andreassen, O A; Melle, I

    2011-03-01

    Social anxiety is a common problem in psychotic disorders. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Self-Rating version (LSAS-SR) is a widely used instrument to capture different aspects of social anxiety, but its psychometric properties have not been tested in this patient group. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the psychometric properties of the LSAS-SR in patients with first episode psychosis, to investigate whether it differentiated between active and passive social withdrawal and to test which clinical factors contributed to current level of social anxiety. A total of 144 first episode psychosis patients from the ongoing Thematically Organized Psychosis (TOP) study were included at the time of first treatment. Diagnoses were set according to the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID-1) for DSM-IV. A factor analysis was carried out and the relationship of social anxiety to psychotic and general symptomatology measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was evaluated. Possible contributors to social anxiety were analyzed using multiple hierarchic regression analysis. The factor analysis identified three subscales: public performance, social interaction and observation. All three subscales showed satisfactory psychometric properties, acceptable convergent and discriminate properties, and confirmed previous findings in social anxiety samples. Self-esteem explained a significant amount of the variance in social anxiety, even after adjusting for the effects of delusions, suspiciousness and depression. The study shows that the LSAS-SR can be used in this patient group, that social anxiety is strongly related to both behavioral social avoidance and to self-esteem. The results support the use of this measure in assessment of social anxiety in both clinical settings and in research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. HPA and SAM axis responses as correlates of self- vs parental ratings of anxiety in boys with an Autistic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F; Sweeney, John A; McFarlane, James R

    2014-03-29

    Anxiety and Autistic Disorder (AD) are both neurological conditions and both disorders share some features that make it difficult to precisely allocate specific symptoms to each disorder. HPA and SAM axis activities have been conclusively associated with anxiety, and may provide a method of validating anxiety rating scale assessments given by parents and their children with AD about those children. Data from HPA axis (salivary cortisol) and SAM axis (salivary alpha amylase) responses were collected from a sample of 32 high-functioning boys (M age=11yr) with an Autistic Disorder (AD) and were compared with the boys' and their mothers' ratings of the boys' anxiety. There was a significant difference between the self-ratings given by the boys and ratings given about them by their mothers. Further, only the boys' self-ratings of their anxiety significantly predicted the HPA axis responses and neither were significantly related to SAM axis responses. Some boys showed cortisol responses which were similar to that previously reported in children who had suffered chronic and severe anxiety arising from stressful social interactions. As well as suggesting that some boys with an AD can provide valid self-assessments of their anxiety, these data also point to the presence of very high levels of chronic HPA-axis arousal and consequent chronic anxiety in these boys. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The German Version of the Gaze Anxiety Rating Scale (GARS): Reliability and Validity

    PubMed Central

    Domes, Gregor; Marx, Lisa; Spenthof, Ines; Heinrichs, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fear of eye gaze and avoidance of eye contact are core features of social anxiety disorders (SAD). To measure self-reported fear and avoidance of eye gaze, the Gaze Anxiety Rating Scale (GARS) has been developed and validated in recent years in its English version. The main objectives of the present study were to psychometrically evaluate the German translation of the GARS concerning its reliability, factorial structure, and validity. Methods Three samples of participants were enrolled in the study. (1) A non-patient sample (n = 353) completed the GARS and a set of trait questionnaires to assess internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factorial structure, and concurrent and divergent validity. (2) A sample of patients with SAD (n = 33) was compared to a healthy control group (n = 30) regarding their scores on the GARS and the trait measures. Results The German GARS fear and avoidance scales exhibited excellent internal consistency and high stability over 2 and 4 months, as did the original version. The English version’s factorial structure was replicated, yielding two categories of situations: (1) everyday situations and (2) situations involving high evaluative threat. GARS fear and avoidance displayed convergent validity with trait measures of social anxiety and were markedly higher in patients with GSAD than in healthy controls. Fear and avoidance of eye contact in situations involving high levels of evaluative threat related more closely to social anxiety than to gaze anxiety in everyday situations. Conclusions The German version of the GARS has demonstrated reliability and validity similar to the original version, and is thus well suited to capture fear and avoidance of eye contact in different social situations as a valid self-report measure of social anxiety and related disorders in the social domain for use in both clinical practice and research. PMID:26937638

  12. The German Version of the Gaze Anxiety Rating Scale (GARS): Reliability and Validity.

    PubMed

    Domes, Gregor; Marx, Lisa; Spenthof, Ines; Heinrichs, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Fear of eye gaze and avoidance of eye contact are core features of social anxiety disorders (SAD). To measure self-reported fear and avoidance of eye gaze, the Gaze Anxiety Rating Scale (GARS) has been developed and validated in recent years in its English version. The main objectives of the present study were to psychometrically evaluate the German translation of the GARS concerning its reliability, factorial structure, and validity. Three samples of participants were enrolled in the study. (1) A non-patient sample (n = 353) completed the GARS and a set of trait questionnaires to assess internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factorial structure, and concurrent and divergent validity. (2) A sample of patients with SAD (n = 33) was compared to a healthy control group (n = 30) regarding their scores on the GARS and the trait measures. The German GARS fear and avoidance scales exhibited excellent internal consistency and high stability over 2 and 4 months, as did the original version. The English version's factorial structure was replicated, yielding two categories of situations: (1) everyday situations and (2) situations involving high evaluative threat. GARS fear and avoidance displayed convergent validity with trait measures of social anxiety and were markedly higher in patients with GSAD than in healthy controls. Fear and avoidance of eye contact in situations involving high levels of evaluative threat related more closely to social anxiety than to gaze anxiety in everyday situations. The German version of the GARS has demonstrated reliability and validity similar to the original version, and is thus well suited to capture fear and avoidance of eye contact in different social situations as a valid self-report measure of social anxiety and related disorders in the social domain for use in both clinical practice and research.

  13. Technical Adequacy of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Miller, Emily M.; Isbister, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This study provides preliminary analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report, which was designed to screen individuals aged 10 years and older for anxiety and behavior symptoms. Score reliability and internal and external facets of validity were good for a screening-level test.

  14. Relationship between the structure of anxiety and the self-educational ability in new pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, Yutaka; Ito, Marika; Doshi, Masaru; Kunii, Midori; Ideguchi, Naoko

    2009-05-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the structure of anxiety and the self-educational ability in new pharmacists. Ninety seven new pharmacists rated the 42 items of our anxiety scale toward working in the pharmacy in June and October, 2006 and 40 items of established self-educational ability scale in June, 2006. A factor analysis of anxiety scale indicated four factors including communication ability, professional technique of pharmacist, working condition, and self-respecting. From the evaluation of correlation between factors of anxiety scale and factors of self-educational ability scale, the anxiety concerning communication ability or the problem concerning self-respecting correlated significantly with the poorness of all four factors of self-educational ability such as the aim of self-growth and self-development, self-objectifying, practice and technique of study, and self-confidence and pride. However, working condition did not correlate all four factors. For 4 months, the anxiety of professional technique of pharmacist decreased significantly although three other factors did not indicated significant changes.

  15. [Social anxiety and self-esteem: Hungarian validation of the "Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale - Straightforward Items"].

    PubMed

    Perczel-Forintos, Dóra; Kresznerits, Szilvia

    2017-06-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is the third most frequent emotional disorder with 13-15% prevalence rate, it remains unrecognized very often. Social phobia is associated with low self-esteem, high self-criticism and fear of negative evaluation by others. It shows high comorbidity with depression, alcoholism, drug addiction and eating disorders. To adapt the widely used "Fear of Negative Evaluation" (FNE) social phobia questionnaire. Anxiety and mood disorder patients (n = 255) completed the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (30, 12 and 8 item-versions) as well as social cognition, anxiety and self-esteem questionnaires. All the three versions of the FNE have strong internal validity (α>0.83) and moderate significant correlation with low self-esteem, negative social cognitions and anxiety. The short 8-item BFNE-S has the strongest disciminative value in differentiating patients with social phobia and with other emotional disorders. The Hungarian version of the BFNE-S is an effective tool for the quick recognition of social phobia. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(22): 843-850.

  16. Dental anxiety and personality: investigating the relationship between dental anxiety and self-consciousness.

    PubMed

    Economou, George C

    2003-09-01

    This study investigated whether personality plays a role in a condition called dental anxiety. Specifically, the study examined the relationship between dental anxiety (the negative response to the stress elicited from a dental interaction) and self-consciousness (the tendency to evaluate aspects of oneself that are subject to private and public display). The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics possessed by dentally anxious individuals who face potential health risks because of their avoidance. Sixty York University undergraduate students were recruited by convenience sampling to participate. These subjects completed Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale and the Self-Consciousness Scale. The Self-Consciousness Scale consists of three subscales, including private self-consciousness, public self-consciousness, and social anxiety. Results indicated an 0.54 significant correlation between dental anxiety and self-consciousness. The public self-consciousness and social anxiety subscales correlated the most with dental anxiety. Furthermore, the data did not indicate a significant moderating relationship for gender between the two aforementioned variables. These results contribute to the establishment of personality characteristics as one of the dimensions determining dental anxiety.

  17. Defining Treatment Response and Remission in Child Anxiety: Signal Detection Analysis Using the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caporino, Nicole E.; Brodman, Douglas M.; Kendall, Philip C.; Albano, Anne Marie; Sherrill, Joel; Piacentini, John; Sakolsky, Dara; Birmaher, Boris; Compton, Scott N.; Ginsburg, Golda; Rynn, Moira; McCracken, James; Gosch, Elizabeth; Keeton, Courtney; March, John; Walkup, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine optimal Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) percent reduction and raw score cut-offs for predicting treatment response and remission among children and adolescents with anxiety disorders. Method: Data were from a subset of youth (N = 438; 7-17 years of age) who participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study…

  18. Measuring anxiety in depressed patients: A comparison of the Hamilton anxiety rating scale and the DSM-5 Anxious Distress Specifier Interview.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Mark; Martin, Jacob; Clark, Heather; McGonigal, Patrick; Harris, Lauren; Holst, Carolina Guzman

    2017-10-01

    DSM-5 included criteria for an anxious distress specifier for major depressive disorder (MDD). In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project we examined whether a measure of the specifier, the DSM-5 Anxious Distress Specifier Interview (DADSI), was as valid as the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) as a measure of the severity of anxiety in depressed patients. Two hundred three psychiatric patients with MDD were interviewed by trained diagnostic raters who administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) supplemented with questions to rate the DADSI, HAMA, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD). The patients completed self-report measures of depression, anxiety, and irritability. Sensitivity to change was examined in 30 patients. The DADSI and HAMA were significantly correlated (r = 0.60, p < 0.001). Both the DADSI and HAMA were more highly correlated with measures of anxiety than with measures of the other symptom domains. The HAMD was significantly more highly correlated with the HAMA than with the DADSI. For each anxiety disorder, patients with the disorder scored significantly higher on both the DADSI and HAMA than did patients with no current anxiety disorder. A large effect size of treatment was found for both measures (DADSI: d = 1.48; HAMA: d = 1.37). Both the DADSI and HAMA were valid measures of anxiety severity in depressed patients, though the HAMA was more highly confounded with measures of depression than the DADSI. The DADSI is briefer than the HAMA, and may be more feasible to use in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Screening for anxiety and depression: reassessing the utility of the Zung scales.

    PubMed

    Dunstan, Debra A; Scott, Ned; Todd, Anna K

    2017-09-08

    While the gold standard for the diagnosis of mental disorders remains the structured clinical interview, self-report measures continue to play an important role in screening and measuring progress, as well as being frequently employed in research studies. Two widely-used self-report measures in the area of depression and anxiety are Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Self Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). However, considerable confusion exists in their application, with clinical cut-offs often applied incorrectly. This study re-examines the credentials of the Zung scales by comparing them with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) in terms of their ability to predict clinical diagnoses of anxiety and depression made using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). A total sample of 376 adults, of whom 87 reported being in receipt of psychological treatment, completed the two-page version of the PHQ relating to depression and anxiety, together with the SDS, the SAS and the DASS. Overall, although the respective DASS scales emerged as marginally stronger predictors of PHQ diagnoses of anxiety and depression, the Zung indices performed more than acceptably in comparison. The DASS also had an advantage in discriminative ability. Using the current recommended cut-offs for all scales, the DASS has the edge on specificity, while the Zung scales are superior in terms of sensitivity. There are grounds to consider making the Zung cut-offs more conservative, and doing this would produce comparable numbers of 'Misses' and 'False Positives' to those obtained with the DASS. Given these promising results, further research is justified to assess the Zung scales ability against full clinical diagnoses and to further explore optimum cut-off levels.

  20. Measuring Math Anxiety (in Spanish) with the Rasch Rating Scale Model.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Gerardo; Delgado, Ana R

    2007-01-01

    Two successive studies probed the psychometric properties of a Math Anxiety questionnaire (in Spanish) by means of the Rasch Rating Scale Model. Participants were 411 and 216 Spanish adolescents. Convergent validity was examined by correlating the scale with both the Fennema and Sherman Attitude Scale and a math achievement test. The results show that the scores are psychometrically appropriate, and replicate those reported in meta-analyses: medium-sized negative correlations with achievement and with attitudes toward mathematics, as well as moderate sex-related differences (with girls presenting higher anxiety levels than boys).

  1. Anxiety and Self-Concept Among American and Chinese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paschal, Billy J.; You-Yuh, Kuo

    1973-01-01

    In this study, 60 pairs of Ss were randomly selected and individually matched on age, sex, grade equivalence, and birth order. The seven null hypotheses dealt with culture, sex, birth order, and their interactions. The main self-rating scales employed were the IPAT Anxiety Scale and the Tennessee Self Concept Scale. (Author/EK)

  2. The negative self-portrayal scale: development, validation, and application to social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Moscovitch, David A; Huyder, Vanessa

    2011-06-01

    The Negative Self-Portrayal Scale (NSPS) is a new questionnaire designed to assess the extent to which individuals are concerned that specific self-attributes they view as being deficient will be exposed to scrutiny and evaluation by critical others in social situations. These concerns have been proposed to drive symptoms of social anxiety and account for individual differences in social fears and avoidance behaviors (Moscovitch, 2009). Here, we introduce the NSPS and examine its factor structure and psychometric properties across two large samples of North American undergraduate students with normally distributed symptoms of social anxiety. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 3-factor solution representing concerns about (a) social competence; (b) physical appearance; and (c) signs of anxiety. The NSPS was found to have good internal consistency and test-retest reliability, strong convergent validity, and adequate discriminant validity. In addition, NSPS total scores accounted for a significant proportion of unique variance in self-concealment (i.e., safety) behaviors over and above established symptom measures of social interaction anxiety, social performance anxiety, and depression. Results are discussed in relation to theoretical models of social anxiety and the potential utility of the NSPS for both clinical research and practice. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. An Examination of Elementary Math Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillian, Kimberley Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to explore the level of suburban 5th grade students' mathematics self-efficacy, math anxiety, and academic achievement, to discover the possible interconnections between these parameters. The measures used to evaluate each included the Math Anxiety Rating Scale, the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, and the North Carolina End of Grade…

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Revised Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baloglu, Mustafa; Zelhart, Paul F.

    2007-01-01

    An exploratory factor analysis and several confirmatory analyses were performed to evaluate the factorial structure of the Revised Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (RMARS) through the responses of 805 college students. On 559 students' scores, the instrument's construct validity was tested through a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and was found…

  5. Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific case definition. Methods Patients meeting the criteria for RA were recruited in Leeds, UK and Sydney, Australia and asked to complete a survey that included both scales. The data was analysed using the Rasch measurement model. Results A total of 169 RA patients were assessed, with a repeat subsample, resulting in 323 cases for analysis. Both scales met Rasch model expectations. Using the 'possible+probable' cut point from the HADS, 58.3% had neither anxiety nor depression; 13.5% had anxiety only; 6.4% depression only and 21.8% had both 'possible+probable' anxiety and depression. Cut points for depression were comparable across the two scales while a lower cut point for anxiety in the DASS was required to equate prevalence. Conclusions This study provides further support for high prevalence of depression and anxiety in RA. It also shows that while these two scales provide a good indication of possible depression and anxiety, the estimates of prevalence so derived could vary, particularly for anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of comparisons across studies and selection of scales for clinical use. PMID:22269280

  6. Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).

    PubMed

    Covic, Tanya; Cumming, Steven R; Pallant, Julie F; Manolios, Nick; Emery, Paul; Conaghan, Philip G; Tennant, Alan

    2012-01-24

    While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific case definition. Patients meeting the criteria for RA were recruited in Leeds, UK and Sydney, Australia and asked to complete a survey that included both scales. The data was analysed using the Rasch measurement model. A total of 169 RA patients were assessed, with a repeat subsample, resulting in 323 cases for analysis. Both scales met Rasch model expectations. Using the 'possible+probable' cut point from the HADS, 58.3% had neither anxiety nor depression; 13.5% had anxiety only; 6.4% depression only and 21.8% had both 'possible+probable' anxiety and depression. Cut points for depression were comparable across the two scales while a lower cut point for anxiety in the DASS was required to equate prevalence. This study provides further support for high prevalence of depression and anxiety in RA. It also shows that while these two scales provide a good indication of possible depression and anxiety, the estimates of prevalence so derived could vary, particularly for anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of comparisons across studies and selection of scales for clinical use.

  7. Afraid to be there? Evaluating the relation between presence, self-reported anxiety, and heart rate in a virtual public speaking task.

    PubMed

    Felnhofer, Anna; Kothgassner, Oswald D; Hetterle, Thomas; Beutl, Leon; Hlavacs, Helmut; Kryspin-Exner, Ilse

    2014-05-01

    The link between anxiety and presence in a virtual environment (VE) is still a subject of an unresolved debate, with little empirical research to support theoretical claims. Thus, the current study analyzed presence, self-reported anxiety, and a physiological parameter (heart rate [HR]) in a sample of 30 high anxious and 35 low anxious participants. Both groups delivered a 5 minute speech in a virtual lecture hall. Results indicate no mediating influences of presence on group differences in self-reported state anxiety during the speech, but point toward negative correlations between state anxiety and the iGroup Presence Questionnaire (IPQ) scales "sense of being there" and "realism." Furthermore, HR was found to be unrelated to self-reported presence. Only the IPQ scale "spatial presence" showed a marginally significant influence on group differences in state anxiety. The present results support the assumption that presence and anxiety are logically distinct, meaning that presence does not directly influence the intensity of an emotion felt in a VE. Rather, it constitutes a precondition for an emotion to be at all elicited by a VE. Also, HR has proven to be no adequate substitute measure for presence, since it only assesses anxiety not presence. It may, however, mediate the interplay between trait anxiety and state anxiety. Possible implications of the current findings are discussed alongside the problem of using presence questionnaires that seem to be prone to subjective bias (i.e., participants confusing presence and emotion).

  8. Negative Self-Focused Cognitions Mediate the Effect of Trait Social Anxiety on State Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Stefan M.; Alpers, Georg W.; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    The cognitive model of social anxiety predicts that negative self-focused cognitions increase anxiety when anticipating social threat. To test this prediction, 36 individuals were asked to anticipate and perform a public speaking task. During anticipation, negative self-focused cognitions or relaxation were experimentally induced while self-reported anxiety, autonomic arousal (heart rate, heart rate variability, skin conductance level), and acoustic eye-blink startle response were assessed. As predicted, negative self-focused cognitions mediated the effects of trait social anxiety on self-reported anxiety and heart rate variability during negative anticipation. Furthermore, trait social anxiety predicted increased startle amplitudes. These findings support a central assumption of the cognitive model of social anxiety. PMID:18321469

  9. The LAOM Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Measuring Anxiety in Children and Adolescents: Addressing the Psychometric Properties of the Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozina, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The article introduces a new anxiety scale, called the LAOM (Lestvica anksioznosti za otroke in mladostnike [The anxiety scale for children and adolescents]) for measuring self-reported multidimensional anxiety. The scale has been developed with a special focus on the school setting, using one sample from an elementary school which is…

  10. Screening for social anxiety disorder with the self-report version of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale.

    PubMed

    Rytwinski, Nina K; Fresco, David M; Heimberg, Richard G; Coles, Meredith E; Liebowitz, Michael R; Cissell, Shadha; Stein, Murray B; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the self-report version of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS-SR) could accurately identify individuals with social anxiety disorder and individuals with the generalized subtype of social anxiety disorder. Furthermore, the study sought to determine the optimal cutoffs for the LSAS-SR for identifying patients with social anxiety disorder and its generalized subtype. Two hundred and ninety-one patients with clinician-assessed social anxiety disorder (240 with generalized social anxiety disorder) and 53 control participants who were free from current Axis-1 disorders completed the LSAS-SR. Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses revealed that the LSAS-SR performed well in identifying participants with social anxiety disorder and generalized social anxiety disorder. Consistent with Mennin et al.'s [2002: J Anxiety Disord 16:661-673] research on the clinician-administered version of the LSAS, cutoffs of 30 and 60 on the LSAS-SR provided the best balance of sensitivity and specificity for classifying participants with social anxiety and generalized social anxiety disorder, respectively. The LSAS-SR may be an accurate and cost-effective way to identify and subtype patients with social anxiety disorder, which could help increase the percentage of people who receive appropriate treatment for this debilitating disorder. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Current Mood Symptoms Do Not Affect the Accuracy of Retrospective Self-Ratings of Childhood ADHD Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Grogan, Katie; Bramham, Jessica

    2016-12-01

    Given that the diagnosis of adulthood ADHD depends on the retrospective self-report of childhood ADHD symptoms, this study aimed to establish whether current mood affects the accuracy of retrospective self-ratings of childhood ADHD. Barkley's Adult ADHD Rating Scale (BAARS) was used to assess the retrospective self- and parent-reports of childhood ADHD symptoms of 160 adults with ADHD and 92 adults without ADHD. Self-rated current mood was also measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Higher BAARS self-ratings correlated with higher HADS self-ratings. Strongest correlations were evident between hyperactive/impulsive symptoms and anxiety symptoms. There was no relationship between current mood and accuracy of self-report. Current mood does not affect the accuracy of retrospective self-ratings of ADHD. Future research should aim to provide new measures of anxiety in ADHD to avoid the double counting of hyperactive/impulsive and anxiety symptoms. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Differences between self- and peer-rated likability in relation to social anxiety and depression in adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Klein, Anke M; Houtkamp, Esther O; Salemink, Elske; Baartmans, Jeanine M D; Rinck, Mike; van der Molen, Mariët J

    2018-06-13

    Social anxiety and depressive symptoms are relatively common in adolescents with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities (MBID). Unfortunately, there are only a few studies that focus on examining processes underlying social anxiety and depression in these adolescents. The aim was to examine the differences between self- and peer-rated likability in relation to social anxiety and depression in the classroom environment. 631 normative non-clinical adolescents with MBID completed questionnaires to measure social anxiety, depression, and the estimation of their own likability by peers. Peer-reported likability was derived from peer-rating scales on likability. Adolescents with higher levels of social anxiety significantly rated their own likability as lower than their non-anxious peers. However, socially adolescents were equally liked by their peers. Adolescents with higher levels of depression were significantly less liked by their peers, but still underestimated their own likability than adolescents with lower levels of depression. Social anxiety and depression are linked to a biased interpretation of likability, but only depression is linked to actually being less liked by peers. Social anxiety and depression are partly based on similar underlying cognitive biases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anxiety in early Parkinson's disease: Validation of the Italian observer-rated version of the Parkinson Anxiety Scale (OR-PAS).

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Gabriella; Falco, Fabrizia; D'Iorio, Alfonsina; Cuoco, Sofia; Raimo, Simona; Amboni, Marianna; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Longo, Katia; Vitale, Carmine; Barone, Paolo

    2016-08-15

    Anxiety disorders are common in Parkinson's Disease (PD) and their identification is relevant even at early stages. The Parkinson Anxiety Scale (PAS) evaluates anxiety in PD; it was used only in the original validation study in PD patients mainly at 2-3 stages of Hoehn & Yahr system (H&Y). The study aimed to investigate psychometric properties of observer-rated version of the PAS (OR-PAS), prevalence rate of anxiety and its features, compared with diagnostic criteria in early PD patients. A sample of 101 PD patients with H&Y:1-2 underwent the OR-PAS. To assess convergent and divergent validity, PD patients underwent Beck Anxiety Inventory, and scales assessing depression, apathy, anhedonia and cognition. To diagnose anxiety disorders, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory was used as gold standard. A "receiver operating characteristics" curve was obtained; positive and negative predictive values were calculated for different cut-off points of the OR-PAS and its subscales. There was no missing data, no floor and ceiling effects; mean score was 12.2±10.1; Cronbach's alpha was 0.899. The OR-PAS showed good convergent and divergent validity. Maximum discrimination was obtained with a cut-off score of 8.5. The anxiety occurred in 59 patients (58.4%). The OR-PAS is a reliable and valid screening instrument for assessing anxiety in patients at early PD. Anxiety was found in 58.4% of PD patients, demonstrating that anxiety occurs even at early stages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-Esteem and the Acute Effect of Anxiety on Ambulatory Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, Donald; Arndt, Jamie; Alcántara, Carmela; Chaplin, William; Schwartz, Joseph E

    2015-09-01

    Recent research suggests that self-esteem may be associated with improved parasympathetic nervous system functioning. This study tested whether high self-esteem is associated with decreased ambulatory systolic blood pressure (ASBP) reactivity to anxiety in healthy adults during the waking hours of a normal day. Each of 858 participants completed a short version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and then wore an ABP monitor that took two blood pressure readings per hour for 24 hours. Immediately after each blood pressure reading, participants completed an electronic diary report that included an anxiety rating on a 100-point visual analog scale. Using multilevel models, we assessed the association of momentary anxiety, high trait self-esteem, and their interaction on momentary ASBP, with adjustment for age, sex, race, ethnicity, and body mass index. Sensitivity analyses were conducted examining psychological factors associated with self-esteem: sense of mastery, optimism, social support, and depressive symptoms. On average, a 1-point increase in cube root-transformed anxiety was associated with a 0.80-mm Hg (standard error = 0.09, p < .001) increase in ASBP, and the interaction of high self-esteem and momentary anxiety was significant, such that this effect was 0.48 (standard error = 0.20, p = .015) less in individuals with high self-esteem compared with all others. Results for self-esteem remained significant when adjusting for sex and psychological factors. Momentary increases in anxiety are associated with acute increases in ASBP, and high self-esteem buffers the effect of momentary anxiety on blood pressure. Thus, high self-esteem may confer cardiovascular benefit by reducing the acute effects of anxiety on systolic blood pressure.

  15. Self-esteem and the acute effect of anxiety on ambulatory blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Edmondson, Donald; Arndt, Jamie; Alcántara, Carmela; Chaplin, William; Schwartz, Joseph E

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent research suggests that self-esteem may be associated with improved parasympathetic nervous system functioning. This study tested whether high self-esteem is associated with decreased ambulatory systolic blood pressure (ASBP) reactivity to anxiety in healthy adults during the waking hours of a normal day. Methods Each of 858 participants completed a short version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and then wore an ABP monitor which took two blood pressure readings per hour for 24 hours. Immediately after each blood pressure reading, participants completed an electronic diary report that included an anxiety rating on a 100-point visual analog scale (VAS). Using multilevel models, we assessed the association of momentary anxiety, high trait self-esteem, and their interaction on momentary ASBP, with adjustment for age, sex, race, ethnicity, and body mass index. Sensitivity analyses were conducted examining psychological factors associated with self-esteem: sense of mastery, optimism, social support, and depressive symptoms. Results On average, a 1-point increase in cube root-transformed anxiety was associated with a 0.80 mmHg (SE=0.09, p<0.001) increase in ASBP, and the interaction of high self-esteem and momentary anxiety was significant, such that this effect was 0.48 (SE=0.20, p=0.015) less in individuals with high self-esteem compared to all others. Results for self-esteem remained significant when adjusting for sex and psychological factors. Conclusions Momentary increases in anxiety are associated with acute increases in ASBP, and high self-esteem buffers the effect of momentary anxiety on blood pressure. Thus, high self-esteem may confer cardiovascular benefit by reducing the acute effects of anxiety on systolic blood pressure. PMID:26230481

  16. Burn-related factors affecting anxiety, depression and self-esteem in burn patients: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Jain, M; Khadilkar, N; De Sousa, A

    2017-03-31

    Burns are physically, psychologically and economically challenging injuries, and the factors leading to them are many and under-studied. The aim of the current study was to assess level of anxiety, depression and self-esteem in burn patients, and look at various burn-related variables that affect them. This cross-sectional study included 100 patients with burn injuries admitted to a tertiary care private hospital in an urban metropolis in India. The patients were assessed for anxiety, depression and self-esteem using the Hamilton anxiety rating scale, Hamilton depression rating scale and Rosenberg self-esteem scale respectively. Assessment was carried out within 2-8 weeks of injury following medical stabilization. The data was tabulated and statistically analyzed. The study sample was predominantly male (54%), married (69%), with a mean age of 34.1 ± 10.8 years. Accidental burns (94%) were the most common modality of injury. The majority (46%) suffered burns involving 20-59% total body surface area (TBSA), and facial burns were present (57%). No significant association was found between TBSA and anxiety, depression or self-esteem, and the same was true for facial burns. Deep burns, however, were significantly associated with anxiety (p=0.03) and depression (p=0.0002). High rates of anxiety and depression are associated with burn injuries and related to burn depth. Adjustment and recovery in these patients depends on various other factors like the patient's psychological status, nature/extent of the injury and ensuing medical care. Further research is warranted to reveal the magnitude and predictors of psychological problems in burn patients.

  17. Investigation of the relationship between anxiety and heart rate variability in fibromyalgia: A new quantitative approach to evaluate anxiety level in fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Suleyman; Arslan, Evren; Elmas, Onur; Yildiz, Sedat; Colak, Omer H; Bilgin, Gurkan; Koyuncuoglu, Hasan Rifat; Akkus, Selami; Comlekci, Selcuk; Koklukaya, Etem

    2015-12-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is identified by widespread musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbance, nonrestorative sleep, fatigue, morning stiffness and anxiety. Anxiety is very common in Fibromyalgia and generally leads to a misdiagnosis. Self-rated Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and doctor-rated Hamilton Anxiety Inventory (HAM-A) are frequently used by specialists to determine anxiety that accompanies fibromyalgia. However, these semi-quantitative anxiety tests are still subjective as the tests are scored using doctor-rated or self-rated scales. In this study, we investigated the relationship between heart rate variability (HRV) frequency subbands and anxiety tests. The study was conducted with 56 FMS patients and 34 healthy controls. BAI and HAM-A test scores were determined for each participant. ECG signals were then recruited and 71 HRV subbands were obtained from these ECG signals using Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT). The subbands and anxiety tests scores were analyzed and compared using multilayer perceptron neural networks (MLPNN). The results show that a HRV high frequency (HF) subband in the range of 0.15235Hz to 0.40235Hz, is correlated with BAI scores and another HRV HF subband, frequency range of 0.15235Hz to 0.28907Hz is correlated with HAM-A scores. The overall accuracy is 91.11% for HAM-A and 90% for BAI with MLPNN analysis. Doctor-rated or self-rated anxiety tests should be supported with quantitative and more objective methods. Our results show that the HRV parameters will be able to support the anxiety tests in the clinical evaluation of fibromyalgia. In other words, HRV parameters can potentially be used as an auxiliary diagnostic method in conjunction with anxiety tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Validation of the Self-Beliefs Related to Social Anxiety Scale

    PubMed Central

    Moulds, Michelle L.; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of self-beliefs in prominent models of social phobia has led to the development of measures that tap this cognitive construct. The Self-Beliefs Related to Social Anxiety (SBSA) Scale is one such measure and taps the three maladaptive belief types proposed in Clark and Wells’s model of social phobia. This study aimed to replicate and extend previous research on the psychometric properties of the SBSA. Replicating previous research, in an (undiagnosed) undergraduate sample (n = 235), the SBSA was found to have a correlated three-factor structure using confirmatory factor analyses, and the SBSA and its subscales demonstrated good internal consistency and test–retest reliability. The SBSA and its subscales also had unique relationships with social anxiety and depression, the majority of which replicated previous research. Extending previous research, the SBSA and its subscales showed good incremental validity in the undergraduate sample and good discriminative validity using the undergraduate sample and a sample of individuals with social phobia (n = 33). The SBSA’s strong theoretical basis and the findings of this study suggest that the SBSA is an ideal research and clinical tool to assess the cognitions characteristic of social phobia. PMID:23575344

  19. Adaptation of abbreviated mathematics anxiety rating scale for engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Sultan, Al Amin Mohamed; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Mafazi, Nurul Wirdah

    2015-05-01

    Mathematics is an essential and fundamental tool used by engineers to analyse and solve problems in their field. Due to this, most engineering education programs involve a concentration of study in mathematics courses whereby engineering students have to take mathematics courses such as numerical methods, differential equations and calculus in the first two years and continue to do so until the completion of the sequence. However, the students struggled and had difficulties in learning courses that require mathematical abilities. Hence, this study presents the factors that caused mathematics anxiety among engineering students using Abbreviated Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (AMARS) through 95 students of Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM). From 25 items in AMARS, principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that there are four mathematics anxiety factors, namely experiences of learning mathematics, cognitive skills, mathematics evaluation anxiety and students' perception on mathematics. Minitab 16 software was used to analyse the nonparametric statistics. Kruskal-Wallis Test indicated that there is a significant difference in the experience of learning mathematics and mathematics evaluation anxiety among races. The Chi-Square Test of Independence revealed that the experience of learning mathematics, cognitive skills and mathematics evaluation anxiety depend on the results of their SPM additional mathematics. Based on this study, it is recommended to address the anxiety problems among engineering students at the early stage of studying in the university. Thus, lecturers should play their part by ensuring a positive classroom environment which encourages students to study mathematics without fear.

  20. Development of the Self-Esteem Rating Scale for Children (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Lian-Hwang

    1987-01-01

    Developed a teacher's rating scale of self-esteem for children. Participants were 231 school children in grades K-7. Used sociometric measures, popularity ranking by teachers, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory to estimate validity. The Self-Esteem Rating Scale for Children (SERSC) included 12 behavioral characteristics rated most…

  1. Symptoms of anxiety in depression: assessment of item performance of the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale in patients with depression.

    PubMed

    Vaccarino, Anthony L; Evans, Kenneth R; Sills, Terrence L; Kalali, Amir H

    2008-01-01

    Although diagnostically dissociable, anxiety is strongly co-morbid with depression. To examine further the clinical symptoms of anxiety in major depressive disorder (MDD), a non-parametric item response analysis on "blinded" data from four pharmaceutical company clinical trials was performed on the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) across levels of depressive severity. The severity of depressive symptoms was assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD). HAMA and HAMD measures were supplied for each patient on each of two post-screen visits (n=1,668 observations). Option characteristic curves were generated for all 14 HAMA items to determine the probability of scoring a particular option on the HAMA in relation to the total HAMD score. Additional analyses were conducted using Pearson's product-moment correlations. Results showed that anxiety-related symptomatology generally increased as a function of overall depressive severity, though there were clear differences between individual anxiety symptoms in their relationship with depressive severity. In particular, anxious mood, tension, insomnia, difficulties in concentration and memory, and depressed mood were found to discriminate over the full range of HAMD scores, increasing continuously with increases in depressive severity. By contrast, many somatic-related symptoms, including muscular, sensory, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastro-intestinal, and genito-urinary were manifested primarily at higher levels of depression and did not discriminate well at lower HAMD scores. These results demonstrate anxiety as a core feature of depression, and the relationship between anxiety-related symptoms and depression should be considered in the assessment of depression and evaluation of treatment strategies and outcome.

  2. Music Teachers' Computer Anxiety and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiliç, Deniz Beste Çevik

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the computer anxiety and self-efficacy of music teachers in terms of different variables. The research is implemented on 124 music teachers. A personal information form and scales of Computer Anxiety and Self Efficacy are implemented on 124 music teachers. Data are analyzed with one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and…

  3. Self esteem, dependency, self-efficacy and self-criticism in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Iancu, Iulian; Bodner, Ehud; Ben-Zion, Itzhak Z

    2015-04-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by fear and avoidance in social situations where one perceives being in danger of scrutiny by others. Low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, high self-criticism and high dependency are additional potential features of SAD, and thus their examination is warranted, as is the elucidation of their inter-relationship. Thirty-two SAD subjects diagnosed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and 30 healthy controls, were administered the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ) that assesses self-criticism, dependency and self-efficacy, and a socio-demographic questionnaire. We hypothesized that the SAD group would present higher scores of dependency and self-criticism and lower self-esteem and self-efficacy. We also hypothesized that low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, high self-criticism and high dependency will predict the severity of SAD. In line with the hypotheses, SAD patients had higher scores of self-criticism and dependency and lower scores of self-esteem. The social anxiety score correlated negatively with self-esteem and self-efficacy, and positively with dependency and self-criticism. Self-criticism, but not the other measures, predicted the total LSAS score. Self-esteem, self-criticism, dependency and self-efficacy are related to SAD and their relations should be examined in future studies that will employ larger samples. It is suggested to search for ways to affect these factors through cognitive-behavioral interventions and additional psychotherapeutic treatments. Research should also focus on the specific role of self-criticism in SAD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Validity of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in assessing depression and anxiety following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Dahm, Jane; Wong, Dana; Ponsford, Jennie

    2013-10-01

    Anxiety and depression following traumatic brain injury (TBI) are associated with poorer outcomes. A brief self-report questionnaire would assist in identifying those at risk, however validity of such measures is complicated by confounding symptoms of the injury. This study investigated the validity of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in screening for clinical diagnoses of anxiety and mood disorders following TBI. One hundred and twenty-three participants with mild to severe TBI were interviewed using the SCID (Axis I) and completed the DASS and HADS. The DASS, DASS21 and HADS scales demonstrated validity compared with SCID diagnoses of anxiety and mood disorders as measured by Area Under ROC Curve, sensitivity and specificity. Validity of the DASS depression scale benefited from items reflecting symptoms of devaluation of life, self-deprecation, and hopelessness that are not present on the HADS. Validity of the HADS anxiety scale benefited from items reflecting symptoms of tension and worry that are measured separately for the DASS on the stress scale. Participants were predominantly drawn from a rehabilitation centre which may limit the extent to which results can be generalized. Scores for the DASS21 were derived from the DASS rather than being administered separately. The DASS, DASS21 and HADS demonstrated validity as screening measures of anxiety and mood disorders in this TBI sample. The findings support use of these self-report questionnaires for individuals with TBI to identify those who should be referred for clinical diagnostic follow-up. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sensitivity and specificity of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in the detection of anxiety disorders in older people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Gary; Patrick, Colin; Sullivan, Glenda; Cooray, Manisha; Chang, Catherina L

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are prevalent in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study evaluates the sensitivity and specificity of two self-administered anxiety rating scales in older people with COPD. The Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) are established useful screening tools but they have not been previously validated in this population. Older people with COPD completed the GAI and the HADS along with a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The outcomes of both rating scales were compared against the diagnosis of anxiety disorders based on the MINI. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify the optimal diagnostic cut points for each scale. Fourteen (25.5%) of the 55 participants, were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Mean GAI and HADS-anxiety subscale scores were significantly higher in subjects with an anxiety disorder than those without the diagnosis (p = 0.002 and 0.005 respectively). Both scales demonstrated moderate diagnostic value (area under the ROC curve was 0.83 for GAI and 0.79 for HADS). Optimal cut points were ≥3 (GAI) and ≥4 (HADS-anxiety subscale). At these cut-points, the GAI had a sensitivity of 85.7%, specificity of 78.0% and the HADS had a sensitivity of 78.6%, specificity 70.7%. Our results support the use of the GAI and HADS as screening instruments for anxiety disorders in older people with COPD. The optimal cut points in this population were lower than previously recommended for both rating scales. The results of this study should be replicated before these cut points can be recommended for general use in older people with COPD.

  6. The outcome of health anxiety in primary care. A two-year follow-up study on health care costs and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Fink, Per; Ørnbøl, Eva; Christensen, Kaj Sparle

    2010-03-24

    Hypochondriasis is prevalent in primary care, but the diagnosis is hampered by its stigmatizing label and lack of valid diagnostic criteria. Recently, new empirically established criteria for Health anxiety were introduced. Little is known about Health anxiety's impact on longitudinal outcome, and this study aimed to examine impact on self-rated health and health care costs. 1785 consecutive primary care patients aged 18-65 consulting their family physicians (FPs) for a new illness were followed-up for two years. A stratified subsample of 701 patients was assessed by the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry interview. Patients with mild (N = 21) and severe Health anxiety (N = 81) and Hypochondriasis according to the DSM-IV (N = 59) were compared with a comparison group of patients who had a well-defined medical condition according to their FPs and a low score on the screening questionnaire (N = 968). Self-rated health was measured by questionnaire at index and at three, 12, and 24 months, and health care use was extracted from patient registers. Compared with the 968 patients with well-defined medical conditions, the 81 severe Health anxiety patients and the 59 DSM-IV Hypochondriasis patients continued during follow-up to manifest significantly more Health anxiety (Whiteley-7 scale). They also continued to have significantly worse self-rated functioning related to physical and mental health (component scores of the SF-36). The severe Health anxiety patients used about 41-78% more health care per year in total, both during the 3 years preceding inclusion and during follow-up, whereas the DSM-IV Hypochondriasis patients did not have statistically significantly higher total use. A poor outcome of Health anxiety was not explained by comorbid depression, anxiety disorder or well-defined medical condition. Patients with mild Health anxiety did not have a worse outcome on physical health and incurred significantly less health care costs than the group of

  7. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale in adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder: Signal detection and validation.

    PubMed

    Mossman, Sarah A; Luft, Marissa J; Schroeder, Heidi K; Varney, Sara T; Fleck, David E; Barzman, Drew H; Gilman, Richard; DelBello, Melissa P; Strawn, Jeffrey R

    2017-11-01

    In pediatric patients with anxiety disorders, existing symptom inventories are either not freely available or require extensive time and effort to administer. We sought to evaluate a brief self-report scale-the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7)-in adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) and the GAD-7 were administered to youth with GAD (confirmed by structured interview). Relationships between the measures were assessed, and sensitivity and specificity was determined with regard to a global symptom severity measure (Clinical Global Impression-Severity). In adolescents with GAD (N = 40; mean age, 14.8 ± 2.8), PARS and GAD-7 scores strongly correlated (R = 0.65, P ≤ .001) and a main effect for symptom severity was observed (P ≤ .001). GAD-7 scores ≥11 and ≥17 represented the optimum specificity and sensitivity for detecting moderate and severe anxiety, respectively. The PARS and GAD-7 similarly reflect symptom severity. The GAD-7 is associated with acceptable specificity and sensitivity for detecting clinically significant anxiety symptoms. GAD-7 scores may be used to assess anxiety symptoms and to differentiate between mild and moderate GAD in adolescents, and may be more efficient than the PARS.

  8. The direct and indirect benefits of dispositional mindfulness on self-esteem and social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Michael K; Pidgeon, Aileen M

    2011-03-01

    The current study investigated relationships between dispositional mindfulness, self-esteem, and social anxiety using self-report measures. Correlational data were collected from 205 Australian undergraduate students who completed the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). Mindfulness significantly predicted high levels of self-esteem and low levels of social anxiety. Mediation analysis supported the role of self-esteem as a partial mediator between mindfulness and social anxiety. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  9. The effects of impression management demands on heart rate, self-reported social anxiety, and social competence in undergraduate males.

    PubMed

    Sheffer, C E; Penn, D L; Cassisi, J E

    2001-01-01

    The effects of self-presentation demands were evaluated through conversational probe (CP) role-play tasks. Participants (N = 29) were required to manage their self-presentations (i.e., the impression they made, in each of two conditions). During high impression management (IM) demand, participants were evaluated on their performance. During Low IM demand, participants evaluated a confederate's performance. The High IM demand condition produced significantly higher heart rate (HR) and self-reported anxiety. HR and self-reported anxiety accounted for a significant amount of the variance in criterion measures of social competence. Greater social competence during High IM was associated with higher HR. Greater social competence during Low IM was associated with lower HR and lower self-reported anxiety. Although preliminary, these results suggest that uncontrolled IM demands contributed to mixed results found within and between social anxiety studies in the literature. Implications for the treatment of social anxiety are discussed.

  10. Assessing Anxiety in Youth with the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC)

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chiaying; Hoff, Alexandra; Villabø, Marianne A.; Peterman, Jeremy; Kendall, Philip C.; Piacentini, John; McCracken, James; Walkup, John T.; Albano, Anne Marie; Rynn, Moira; Sherrill, Joel; Sakolsky, Dara; Birmaher, Boris; Ginsburg, Golda; Keaton, Courtney; Gosch, Elizabeth; Compton, Scott N.; March, John

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the psychometric properties, including discriminant validity and clinical utility, of the youth self-report and parent-report forms of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) among youth with anxiety disorders. The sample included parents and youth (N= 488, 49.6% male) ages 7 – 17 who participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). Although the typical low agreement between parent and youth self-reports was found, the MASC evidenced good internal reliability across MASC subscales and informants. The main MASC subscales (i.e., Physical Symptoms, Harm Avoidance, Social Anxiety, and Separation/Panic) were examined. The Social Anxiety and Separation/Panic subscales were found to be significantly predictive of the presence and severity of social phobia and separation anxiety disorder, respectively. Using multiple informants improved the accuracy of prediction. The MASC subscales demonstrated good psychometric properties and clinical utilities in identifying youth with anxiety disorders. PMID:23845036

  11. Suicidality, self-stigma, social anxiety and personality traits in stabilized schizophrenia patients - a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Vrbova, Kristyna; Prasko, Jan; Ociskova, Marie; Holubova, Michaela; Kantor, Krystof; Kolek, Antonin; Grambal, Aleš; Slepecky, Milos

    2018-01-01

    Patients who have schizophrenia are more prone to suicidal behavior than the general population. This study aimed to find connections between suicidality and self-stigma, hope, and personality traits in patients with schizophrenia. Forty-eight stabilized outpatients with schizophrenia attended this cross-sectional study. Patients were diagnosed by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) using the ICD-10 research diagnostic criteria. The assessments included Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, objective and subjective Clinical Global Impression, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-second edition, Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness, the Temperament and Character Inventory, and Adult Dispositional Hope Scale. The individual rate of suicidality (suicidal index from MINI) strongly positively correlated with self-stigma, level of depression, social anxiety, and harm-avoidance, and negatively correlated with hope, self-directedness, and stigma resistance. Individuals with additional symptoms of depression, social anxiety, trait-like anxiety, and self-stigma should be carefully monitored for suicidal ideation. On the opposite side, patients with sufficient hope, self-esteem, and goal-directed attitudes are less likely to have suicidal thoughts and may potentially be role models in group rehabilitation programs, motivating more distressed colleagues and showing them ways to cope.

  12. Self-Concept and Anxiety of Adolescent and Adult Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Bryan E.; Barret, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship between age of unmarried fathers and their self-concept and anxiety level. Twelve unmarried adolescent fathers and 12 unmarried adult fathers completed the State-Trait Anxiety Scale and the Personal Attribute Inventory. Results revealed no significant differences between adolescent and adult fathers on self-concept or anxiety…

  13. The Outcome of Health Anxiety in Primary Care. A Two-Year Follow-up Study on Health Care Costs and Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Per; Ørnbøl, Eva; Christensen, Kaj Sparle

    2010-01-01

    Background Hypochondriasis is prevalent in primary care, but the diagnosis is hampered by its stigmatizing label and lack of valid diagnostic criteria. Recently, new empirically established criteria for Health anxiety were introduced. Little is known about Health anxiety's impact on longitudinal outcome, and this study aimed to examine impact on self-rated health and health care costs. Methodology/Principal Findings 1785 consecutive primary care patients aged 18–65 consulting their family physicians (FPs) for a new illness were followed-up for two years. A stratified subsample of 701 patients was assessed by the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry interview. Patients with mild (N = 21) and severe Health anxiety (N = 81) and Hypochondriasis according to the DSM-IV (N = 59) were compared with a comparison group of patients who had a well-defined medical condition according to their FPs and a low score on the screening questionnaire (N = 968). Self-rated health was measured by questionnaire at index and at three, 12, and 24 months, and health care use was extracted from patient registers. Compared with the 968 patients with well-defined medical conditions, the 81 severe Health anxiety patients and the 59 DSM-IV Hypochondriasis patients continued during follow-up to manifest significantly more Health anxiety (Whiteley-7 scale). They also continued to have significantly worse self-rated functioning related to physical and mental health (component scores of the SF-36). The severe Health anxiety patients used about 41–78% more health care per year in total, both during the 3 years preceding inclusion and during follow-up, whereas the DSM-IV Hypochondriasis patients did not have statistically significantly higher total use. A poor outcome of Health anxiety was not explained by comorbid depression, anxiety disorder or well-defined medical condition. Patients with mild Health anxiety did not have a worse outcome on physical health and

  14. The Single-Item Math Anxiety Scale: An Alternative Way of Measuring Mathematical Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Núñez-Peña, M. Isabel; Guilera, Georgina; Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the Single-Item Math Anxiety Scale (SIMA), based on the item suggested by Ashcraft, provided valid and reliable scores of mathematical anxiety. A large sample of university students (n = 279) was administered the SIMA and the 25-item Shortened Math Anxiety Rating Scale (sMARS) to evaluate the relation between the scores…

  15. Anxiety, depression, resilience and self-esteem in individuals with cardiovascular diseases 1

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Isabela Gonzales; Bertolli, Eduarda dos Santos; Paiva, Luciana; Rossi, Lidia Aparecida; Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadoti; Pompeo, Daniele Alcalá

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to analyze the relationship between anxiety and depression symptoms, resilience and self-esteem with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics; correlate resilience and self-esteem with age and duration of the disease; check associations between anxiety and depression with measures of resilience and self-esteem among individuals with cardiovascular diseases. Method: correlational study conducted in a large university hospital in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The population was composed of adult inpatients with cardiovascular diseases. A non-probabilistic consecutive sample was composed of 120 patients. Variables of interest were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Resilience Scale, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results: anxiety and depression symptoms were present in 32.5% and 17.5% of the patients, respectively, and were associated with the female sex (p = 0.002; p = 0.022). Manifestations of depression were associated with the presence of comorbidities (p = 0.020). More resilient patients did not present depression symptoms (p < 0.001) and anxious women were more resilient (p = 0.042). The highest scores regarding self-esteem were present in patients with anxiety and depression. Men presented higher resilience and lower self-esteem compared to women. Conclusion: patients with anxiety and depression were less resilient but presented higher self-esteem. PMID:27901221

  16. The Relationships between University Students' Chemistry Laboratory Anxiety, Attitudes, and Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurbanoglu, N. Izzet; Akin, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationships between chemistry laboratory anxiety, chemistry attitudes, and self-efficacy. Participants were 395 university students. Participants completed the Chemistry Laboratory Anxiety Scale, the Chemistry Attitudes Scale, and the Self-efficacy Scale. Results showed that chemistry laboratory anxiety…

  17. The DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales in a Dutch non‐clinical sample: psychometric properties including the adult separation anxiety disorder scale

    PubMed Central

    Bögels, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract With DSM‐5, the American Psychiatric Association encourages complementing categorical diagnoses with dimensional severity ratings. We therefore examined the psychometric properties of the DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales, a set of brief dimensional scales that are consistent in content and structure and assess DSM‐5‐based core features of anxiety disorders. Participants (285 males, 255 females) completed the DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales for social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder that were included in previous studies on the scales, and also for separation anxiety disorder, which is included in the DSM‐5 chapter on anxiety disorders. Moreover, they completed the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders Adult version (SCARED‐A). The DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales demonstrated high internal consistency, and the scales correlated significantly and substantially with corresponding SCARED‐A subscales, supporting convergent validity. Separation anxiety appeared present among adults, supporting the DSM‐5 recognition of separation anxiety as an anxiety disorder across the life span. To conclude, the DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales are a valuable tool to screen for specific adult anxiety disorders, including separation anxiety. Research in more diverse and clinical samples with anxiety disorders is needed. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27378317

  18. Initial validation of a numeric zero to ten scale to measure children's state anxiety.

    PubMed

    Crandall, Margie; Lammers, Cathy; Senders, Craig; Savedra, Marilyn; Braun, Jerome V

    2007-11-01

    Although children experience physical and behavioral consequences from anxiety in many health care settings, anxiety assessment and subsequent management is not often performed because of the lack of clinically useful subjective scales. Current state anxiety scales are either observational or multidimensional self-report measures requiring significant clinician and patient time. Because anxiety is subjective, in this pilot study, we evaluated the validity of a self-report numeric 0-10 anxiety scale that is easy to administer to children in the clinical setting. A descriptive correlation research design was used to determine the concurrent validity for a numeric 0-10 anxiety scale with the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC). During clinic preoperative visits, 60 children, 7-13 yr, provided anxiety scores for the 0-10 scale and the STAIC pre- and posteducation. Simple linear regression and Pearson correlation were performed to determine the strength of the relationship. STAIC was associated with the anxiety scale both preeducation (beta = 1.20, SE[beta] = 0.34, F[1,58] = 12.74, P = 0.0007) and posteducation (beta = 1.97, SE[beta]) = 0.31, F[1,58] = 40.11, P < 0.0001). Correlations were moderate for pre-education (r = 0.424) and posteducation (r = 0.639). This initial study supports the validity of the numeric 0-10 anxiety self-report scale to assess state anxiety in children as young as 7 yr.

  19. Childhood parental bonding affects adulthood trait anxiety through self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Akiyoshi; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Nakai, Yukiei; Murakoshi, Akiko; Ono, Yasuyuki; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Kusumi, Ichiro; Inoue, Takeshi

    2017-04-01

    The association between trait anxiety and parental bonding has been suggested. However, the mechanism remains uncertain and there is no study focused on general adult population. We investigated the association and the mechanism between childhood parental bonding and adulthood trait anxiety in the general adult population. A cross-sectional retrospective survey was conducted in 2014 with 853 adult volunteers from the general population. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y (STAI-Y) were self-administered. Structural equation modelling was used for the analysis. Childhood parental bonding affected adulthood trait anxiety indirectly mediated by self-esteem. Trait anxiety was decreased by parental care and increased by parental overprotection through self-esteem. This model explained 51.1% of the variability in STAI-Y trait anxiety scores. This study suggests an important role of self-esteem as a mediator between childhood parental bonding and adulthood trait anxiety. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Identifying Dental Anxiety in Children's Drawings and correlating It with Frankl's Behavior Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Jyoti; Diwanji, Amish; Sarvaiya, Bhumi; Sharma, Dipal

    2017-01-01

    To develop a simple method to assess the level of anxiety by using children's drawings and correlating them with Frankl's behavior rating scale. A total of 178 patients aged of 3 to 14 years were handed out two-page forms which contained three sections on coloring and drawing, along with general information, and Frankl's behavior rating scale for the visit. The three types of drawing exercises given to the patients were geometric copy drawings, coloring a nonthreatening figure, and an empty sheet for freehand drawing. Out of 178 patients, 60 showed definitely positive behavior, 73 exhibited positive behavior, 37 showed negative behavior, and 8 were definitely negative on Frankl's behavior rating scale; 133 children had none or, 1 stress marker and 45 exhibited 2 or 3 stress markers in their drawings. Chi-square (χ 2 ) analysis was done with a 2 × 2 contingency table. Observed χ 2 value was 46.166, which at 1 degree of freedom was much greater than that at 0.995 percentile. Therefore, the result was highly significant. Children requiring specialized behavioral techniques can be identified by the presence of stress markers in their drawings. This nonverbal activity by itself can have an overall positive effect on the behavior displayed in the dental clinic. Mathur J, Diwanji A, Sarvaiya B, Sharma D. Identifying Dental Anxiety in Children's Drawings and correlating It with Frankl's Behavior Rating Scale. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):24-28.

  1. Sex and mathematical background as predictors of anxiety and self-efficacy in mathematics.

    PubMed

    Lussier, G

    1996-12-01

    Anxiety and self-efficacy in mathematics as a function of sex and mathematical background were investigated. This study employed an ex post facto 2 x 2 factorial design in which sex and mathematical background were classification variables. It was predicted that men would report lower anxiety scores and higher self-efficacy scores than women and that students with a high mathematical background would report lower anxiety scores and higher self-efficacy scores than those with a low background in mathematics. An interaction between sex and mathematical background was also predicted. 51 subjects were given the revised Mathematics Anxiety Scale and the Mathematics Self-efficacy Scale. Results supported the hypotheses with respect to background in mathematics for anxiety in mathematics, and all of the hypotheses were supported for self-efficacy in mathematics.

  2. [The relationship between career decision-making self efficacy and anxiety].

    PubMed

    Yao, Chen; Cai, Yun; Liu, Jia; Shan, Dan; Zhou, Xia

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of the paper is to examine the relationship among Career Decision-Making Self Efficacy, existential anxiety and anxiety in the sample of college students during the professional choice. Data on The Revised Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy-Shot Form, Existential Anxiety Scale (EAS), SCL-90 and self-identity status were collected and analyzed on a sample of 500 college students. 201 rural students' career decision making self-efficacy scores were as follows: self-appraisal (12.58 ± 3.48), occupational information (12.07 ± 3.05), goal selection (12.48 ± 3.51), planning (12.17 ± 3.10), problem solving (9.75 ± 2.38), all scores were lower than urban students, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Rural Students' anxiety dimension score were as follows: death and the fate of anxiety (14.75 ± 2.56), the meaningless and empty anxiety (19.32 ± 2.88), condemnation and guilt anxiety (13.72 ± 2.38), alienation and loneliness anxiety (16.82 ± 2.51), all scores are higher than urban students, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). There is negative correlation between Anxiety and career decision making self-efficacy. There is a significant positive correlation between anxiety and existential anxiety. There exists a significant negative correlation among factors of student and career decision making self-efficacy and anxiety. Meaningless and emptiness anxiety on career decision making self-efficacy are significant predictors. There is negative correlation among existential anxiety, occupational information and anxiety during the professional choice.

  3. The Relation between Self-Esteem, Parenting Style and Social Anxiety in Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yousaf, Saira

    2015-01-01

    This study is an attempt to explore the relationship between self-esteem, parenting style and social anxiety in girls. A sample of 100 female students selected from different schools. For data collection Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, Parental Authority Questionnaire and Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scales were used together with demographic sheet.…

  4. The DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales in a Dutch non-clinical sample: psychometric properties including the adult separation anxiety disorder scale.

    PubMed

    Möller, Eline L; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-09-01

    With DSM-5, the American Psychiatric Association encourages complementing categorical diagnoses with dimensional severity ratings. We therefore examined the psychometric properties of the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales, a set of brief dimensional scales that are consistent in content and structure and assess DSM-5-based core features of anxiety disorders. Participants (285 males, 255 females) completed the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales for social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder that were included in previous studies on the scales, and also for separation anxiety disorder, which is included in the DSM-5 chapter on anxiety disorders. Moreover, they completed the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders Adult version (SCARED-A). The DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales demonstrated high internal consistency, and the scales correlated significantly and substantially with corresponding SCARED-A subscales, supporting convergent validity. Separation anxiety appeared present among adults, supporting the DSM-5 recognition of separation anxiety as an anxiety disorder across the life span. To conclude, the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales are a valuable tool to screen for specific adult anxiety disorders, including separation anxiety. Research in more diverse and clinical samples with anxiety disorders is needed. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Screening for anxiety disorders in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Bunevicius, Adomas; Staniute, Margarita; Brozaitiene, Julija; Pop, Victor J M; Neverauskas, Julius; Bunevicius, Robertas

    2013-03-11

    Anxiety disorders are prevalent and associated with poor prognosis in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, studies examining screening of anxiety disorders in CAD patients are lacking. In the present study we evaluated the prevalence of anxiety disorders in patients with CAD and diagnostic utility of self-rating scales for screening of anxiety disorders. Five-hundred and twenty-three CAD patients not receiving psychotropic treatments at initiation of rehabilitation program completed self-rating scales (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale or HADS; Spielberger State-Anxiety Inventory or SSAI; and Spielberger Trait-Anxiety Inventory or STAI) and were interviewed for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia, panic disorder and agoraphobia (Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview or MINI). Thirty-eight (7%) patients were diagnosed with anxiety disorder(s), including GAD (5%), social phobia (2%), agoraphobia (1%) and panic disorder (1%). Areas under the ROC curve of the HADS Anxiety subscale (HADS-A), STAI and SSAI for screening of any anxiety disorder were .81, .80 and .72, respectively. Optimal cut-off values for screening of any anxiety disorders were ≥ 8 for the HADS-A (sensitivity = 82%; specificity = 76%; and positive predictive value (PPV) = 21%); ≥ 45 for the STAI (sensitivity = 89%; specificity = 56%; and PPV = 14%); and ≥ 40 for the SSAI (sensitivity = 84%; specificity = 55%; PPV = 13%). In a subgroup of patients (n = 340) scoring below the optimal major depressive disorder screening cut-off value of HADS-Depression subscale (score <5), the HADS-A, STAI and SSAI had moderate-high sensitivity (range from 69% to 89%) and low PPVs (≤ 22%) for GAD and any anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorders are prevalent in CAD patients but can be reliably identified using self-rating scales. Anxiety self-rating scales had comparable sensitivities but the HADS-A had greater specificity and PPV when compared to the STAI and SSAI for

  6. The meaning of self-reported death anxiety in advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Tong, Eryn; Deckert, Amy; Gani, Nina; Nissim, Rinat; Rydall, Anne; Hales, Sarah; Rodin, Gary; Lo, Chris

    2016-09-01

    Death anxiety is important but understudied in palliative care. New self-report measurements have been developed, but their interpretation and clinical utility may not be evident. To inform our understanding of death anxiety in patients with advanced cancer by exploring the relationship between this self-reported symptom and its clinical presentation. Participants were part of a psychotherapy trial in advanced cancer. First therapy session transcripts were analyzed using interpretive description in patients reporting low, moderate, and high death anxiety on the Death and Dying Distress Scale (DADDS). A total of 16 participants (10 women and 6 men) with advanced or metastatic cancer were sampled from the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Canada. Six participants reported low death anxiety scores (Death and Dying Distress Scale: 0-19), five moderate (Death and Dying Distress Scale: 20-50), and five high (Death and Dying Distress Scale: 51-75). The low death anxiety group exhibited psychological readiness for death, or contrastingly, non-reflectiveness about death. The moderate group recognized the imminence of mortality, which impacted treatment decisions and future plans. Prior experience with death was discussed as raising the salience of mortality. The high group felt dominated by powerful emotions and could not make sense of their situation. Their distress was exacerbated by substantial relational concerns. Self-reported death anxiety is affected by the awareness and ability to reflect on mortality. Death and Dying Distress Scale scores may facilitate exploration of this symptom as part of a clinical assessment and may serve to guide treatment approaches. Greater attention to death anxiety is consistent with and recommended by contemporary approaches to palliative care. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Suicidality, self-stigma, social anxiety and personality traits in stabilized schizophrenia patients – a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Vrbova, Kristyna; Prasko, Jan; Ociskova, Marie; Holubova, Michaela; Kantor, Krystof; Kolek, Antonin; Grambal, Aleš; Slepecky, Milos

    2018-01-01

    Background and aim Patients who have schizophrenia are more prone to suicidal behavior than the general population. This study aimed to find connections between suicidality and self-stigma, hope, and personality traits in patients with schizophrenia. Methods Forty-eight stabilized outpatients with schizophrenia attended this cross-sectional study. Patients were diagnosed by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) using the ICD-10 research diagnostic criteria. The assessments included Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, objective and subjective Clinical Global Impression, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-second edition, Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness, the Temperament and Character Inventory, and Adult Dispositional Hope Scale. Results The individual rate of suicidality (suicidal index from MINI) strongly positively correlated with self-stigma, level of depression, social anxiety, and harm-avoidance, and negatively correlated with hope, self-directedness, and stigma resistance. Conclusion Individuals with additional symptoms of depression, social anxiety, trait-like anxiety, and self-stigma should be carefully monitored for suicidal ideation. On the opposite side, patients with sufficient hope, self-esteem, and goal-directed attitudes are less likely to have suicidal thoughts and may potentially be role models in group rehabilitation programs, motivating more distressed colleagues and showing them ways to cope. PMID:29910618

  8. Internet addiction and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder: Effects of anxiety, depression and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Kahraman, Özlem; Demirci, Esra Özdemir

    2018-06-01

    Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood. Behavioral disinhibition, poor neurocognitive skills and immediate reward preference in children with ADHD have been suggested as risk factors for Internet addiction (IA). The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the relationship between IA and depression, anxiety, and self-esteem in adolescents with ADHD, and to identify the features of Internet use that predict IA. We studied 111 patients with ADHD aged 12-18 years, and 108 healthy controls. The ADHD patients and controls were asked to complete a sociodemographic data form, the Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), Children's Depression Inventory, Childhood Screening Scale for Anxiety in Children, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. IAS total score in the adolescents with ADHD was significantly higher than in the control group. Compared with the control group, the ADHD group depression scale score was significantly higher, and self-esteem score significantly lower (P < 0.05 for both). There was no difference between the groups in anxiety score. IAS score had a positive correlation with depression and anxiety scores, and a negative correlation with self-esteem score. The relationship between IA scale score and depression, anxiety and self-esteem scale scores were similar in the ADHD and the control group. In addition, IAS subscale and total scores were significantly higher in the ADHD group than the control group, even after controlling for the effects of self-esteem, depression and anxiety scores. Thus, ADHD is thought to be an independent risk factor for depression, anxiety and self-esteem, and, hence, for IA. © 2018 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. A Korean validation study of the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale: Comorbidity and differentiation of anxiety and depressive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sang Won; Ko, Young-Hoon; Yoon, Seoyoung; Pae, Chi-Un; Choi, Joonho; Kim, Jae-Min; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Hoseon; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Zimmerman, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale (CUXOS) and to examine the current diagnostic comorbidity and differential severity of anxiety symptoms between major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders. Methodology In total, 838 psychiatric outpatients were analyzed at their intake appointment. Diagnostic characteristics were examined using the structured clinical interview from the DSM-IV because the DSM5 was not available at the start of the study. The CUXOS score was measured and compared with that of 3 clinician rating scales and 4 self-report scales. Principal findings The CUXOS showed excellent results for internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.90), test–retest reliability (r = 0.74), and discriminant and convergent validity. The CUXOS significantly discriminated between different levels of anxiety severity, and the measure was sensitive to change after treatment. Approximately 45% of patients with MDD were additionally diagnosed with anxiety disorders while 55% of patients with anxiety disorders additionally reported an MDD. There was a significant difference in CUXOS scores between diagnostic categories (MDD only, anxiety only, both disorders, and no MDD or anxiety disorder). The CUXOS scores differed significantly between all categories of depression (major, minor, and non-depression) except for the comparison between minor depression and non-depression groups. Conclusions The Korean version of the CUXOS is a reliable and valid measure of the severity of anxiety symptoms. The use of the CUXOS could broaden the understanding of coexisting and differentiating characteristics of anxiety and depression. PMID:28604808

  10. Psychometric Validation Study of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale - Self-Reported Version for Brazilian Portuguese

    PubMed Central

    Forni dos Santos, Larissa; Loureiro, Sonia Regina; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Osório, Flávia de Lima

    2013-01-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is prevalent and rarely diagnosed due to the difficulty in recognizing its symptoms as belonging to a disorder. Therefore, the evaluation/screening scales are of great importance for its detection, with the most used being the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Thus, this study proposed to evaluate the psychometric properties of internal consistency and convergent validity, as well as the confirmatory factorial analysis and reliability of the self-reported version of the LSAS (LSAS-SR), translated into Brazilian Portuguese, in a sample of the general population (N = 413) and in a SAD clinical sample (N = 252). The convergent validity with specific scales for the evaluation of SAD and a general anxiety scale presented correlations ranging from 0.21 to 0.84. The confirmatory factorial analysis did not replicate the previously indicated findings of the literature, with the difficulty being in obtaining a consensus factorial structure common to the diverse cultures in which the instrument was studied. The LSAS-SR presented excellent internal consistency (α = 0.90–0.96) and test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient = 0.81; Pearson’s = 0.82). The present findings support those of international studies that attest to the excellent psychometric properties of the LSAS-SR, endorsing its status as the gold standard. PMID:23922961

  11. Evaluation of the utility of Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale in the diagnosis of social anxiety, impulsivity and depression.

    PubMed

    Tyrała, Kinga; Seweryn, Mariusz; Bonk, Magdalena; Bulska, Weronika; Orszulak, Kamila; Bratek, Agnieszka; Krysta, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Often mental disorders are serious problems concerning psychological well-being. They require comprehensive and specialized psychiatric and psychological help, but there are no public methods of controlling your mental state. The aim of study was the evaluation of the utility of Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale in the diagnosis of social anxiety, impulsivity and depression. The study included 85 persons. The study group had 34 patients treated in an open ward of the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. The control group included 51 persons without mental disorders. Three self-rating questionnaires were used: Beck Depression Inventory, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Statistica v10 Statsoft software was used for statistical analysis. The analyzed groups had significant differences in terms of Beck Scale (U Mann-Whitney test p=0.000001). Average score in study group: 22.94±12.50; in control group: 7.15±6.44. Groups had significant differences in terms of Liebowitz Scale (U test Mann-Whitney test, p=0.000164). Average score in the study group: 60.41±30.30; in control group: 35.01±23.94. Groups had significant differences in terms of Barratt Scale (t-student test p=0.000601). Average in study group: 66.35±9,49; in control group: 59.54±7.87. Significant positive correlation was observed between the results of Beck Scale and Liebowitz Scale (r=0.64465). Correlation was not observed between the results of the Liebowitz and Barrat (r=0.12091 and Beck and Barrat (r=0.21482). The intensity of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale is directly proportional to the severity of depression according to the Beck Depression Inventory. The degree of impulsivity by Barrat Impulsiveness Scale does not correlate with the level of depression according to Beck Depression Inventory. The analyzed scales are relevant in the diagnosis of mental disorders.

  12. Reliability and Validity of Parent- and Child-Rated Anxiety Measures in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaat, Aaron J.; Lecavalier, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and anxiety frequently co-occur. Research on the phenomenology and treatment of anxiety in ASD is expanding, but is hampered by the lack of instruments validated for this population. This study evaluated the self- and parent-reported Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale in…

  13. Non-suicidal Self-Injury in Eating Disordered Patients: Associations with Heart Rate Variability and State-Trait Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Giner-Bartolome, Cristina; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Tolosa-Sola, Iris; Steward, Trevor; Jimenez-Murcia, Susana; Granero, Roser; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Background: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is commonly present in individuals with eating disorders (EDs) and is often employed as a maladaptive emotion regulation strategy to avoid or abate negative emotions. One of the most prevalent negative emotions experienced by self-injurers is anxiety; however, this emotion has not been extensively studied in this population. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the influence of anxiety on NSSI in patients with ED from two different dimensions: state anxiety and trait anxiety. Methods: The study comprised a total of 66 females: 12 ED patients with NSSI, 32 ED patients without a history of NSSI, and 22 healthy controls. State and trait anxiety were assessed by means of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S-T) and physiological data [i.e., heart rate variability (HRV)] were collected. Results: STAI-trait scores were significantly higher in ED patients with NSSI than ED patients without NSSI. Furthermore, when conducting logistic regression analyses higher STAI-trait scores were associated with NSSI in ED patients. However, no differences in STAI-state scores and HRV were found between ED patients with and without NSSI. Discussion: The present findings suggest that anxiety as a trait is associated with the use of maladaptive strategies (i.e., NSSI) in ED patients. These results uphold the need to target trait anxiety in ED treatment in order to prevent possible NSSI behaviors.

  14. The factor structure of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, Thomas; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Schramm, Elisabeth; Hofmann, Stefan G; Stangier, Ulrich

    2011-05-01

    The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) are two compendium measures that have become some of the most popular self-report scales of social anxiety. Despite their popularity, it remains unclear whether it is necessary to maintain two separate scales of social anxiety. The primary objective of the present study was to examine the factor analytic structure of both measures to determine the factorial validity of each scale. For this purpose, we administered both scales to 577 patients at the beginning of outpatient treatment. Analyzing both scales simultaneously, a CFA with two correlated factors showed a better fit to the data than a single factor model. An additional EFA with an oblique rotation on all 40 items using the WLSMV estimator further supported the two factor solution. These results suggest that the SIAS and SPS measure similar, but not identical facets of social anxiety. Thus, our findings provide support to retain the SIAS and SPS as two separate scales. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effectiveness of a Releasing Exercise Program on Anxiety and Self-Efficacy Among Nurses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huei-Mein; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chiu, Min-Hui

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a releasing exercise program (REP) on anxiety and exercise self-efficacy among nurses. The REP consisted of warm-up and tension-releasing exercises and mood adjustment. Ninety-nine nurses (age = 33.38 ± 7.38 years) experiencing anxiety (average Visual Analog Scale for Anxiety [VASA] score of 5.63 ± 1.44 at baseline) were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 50) that received 50-min REP sessions 3 times a week or a control group (n = 49) that did not attend REP sessions. The outcome measures were VASA, the Chinese Version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale scores. At Weeks 12 and 24, the experimental group had significantly lower anxiety levels and higher exercise self-efficacy scores than the control group. Therefore, the REP effectively reduces anxiety and enhances self-confidence in exercise capability. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Identifying correlates of self-stigma in adults who stutter: Further establishing the construct validity of the Self-Stigma of Stuttering Scale (4S).

    PubMed

    Boyle, Michael P

    2015-03-01

    This study was set up to further establish the construct validity of the Self-Stigma of Stuttering Scale (4S) by demonstrating its associations with other established scales and replicating its original factor structure and reliability estimates. Web surveys were completed by 354 adults who stutter recruited from Board Certified Specialists in Fluency Disorders, and adult chapters of the National Stuttering Association. Participants completed a series of psychometrically validated scales measuring self-stigma, hope, empowerment, quality of life, social support, anxiety, depression, and self-rated speech disruption. Higher subscale and total stigma scores on the 4S were associated with significantly lower levels of hope, empowerment, quality of life, and social support, and significantly higher levels of anxiety, depression, and self-rated speech disruption. The original factor structure of the 4S was replicated, and reliability estimates of the subscales ranged from adequate to excellent. The findings of this study support the construct validity of the 4S and its use by clinicians and researchers intending to measure the construct of self-stigma in adults who stutter. Readers should be able to: (a) distinguish between the various components of self-stigma; (b) describe how the various components of the self-stigma model relate to hope, empowerment, quality of life, and social support, self-rated speech disruption, anxiety, and depression; (c) summarize the psychometric properties of the Self-Stigma of Stuttering Scale (4S) in terms of reliability, factor structure, and construct validity; (d) discuss how the 4S could be used in research and clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Test anxiety and self-esteem in senior high school students: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sarı, Seda Aybüke; Bilek, Günal; Çelik, Ekrem

    2018-02-01

    In this study, it is aimed to determine the level of test anxiety and self-esteem in the high school students preparing for the university exam in Bitlis, Turkey, and to investigate the effect of test anxiety on self-esteem. Seven-hundred and twenty-four high school students who were preparing for the university entrance examination in Bitlis participated in the study. A questionnaire which includes socio-demographic data form, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Revised Test Anxiety Scale was prepared as an e-questionnaire for the students to fill easily and uploaded to the Bitlis State Hospital's website. Schools were called and informed for the students to fill out the e-questionnaire on the Internet. The most important findings from our study are that gender is influential on test anxiety and self-esteem score and test anxiety level are negatively correlated. It was observed that female students had more test anxiety than male students and those who had higher self-esteem had less test anxiety. Consequently, our study shows that university entrance examination creates anxiety on students and reduces self-esteem, especially in female students.

  18. Subscales to the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale in Three Chronically Ill Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Peter N.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examines factors of anxiety in the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale in 150 asthma, tuberculosis, and chronic pain patients. Key cluster analysis revealed five clusters: restlessness, embarrassment, sensitivity, physiological anxiety, and self-confidence. Embarrassment is fairly dependent on the other factors. (JAC)

  19. Translation and Initial Validation of the Japanese Version of the Self-Beliefs Related to Social Anxiety Scale.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Shunta; Shimada, Hironori; Sato, Tomoya; Tashiro, Kyoko; Tanaka, Yuki

    2017-04-01

    Cognitive models of social anxiety posit that there are several types of maladaptive beliefs responsible for persistent social anxiety. Although these beliefs are theoretically important, currently there is no validated measure of these beliefs in Japan. In the present study, we translated into Japanese a well-validated measure of these beliefs, the Self-Beliefs Related to Social Anxiety (SBSA) Scale. The psychometric properties of the scale were also examined in two nonclinical samples ( ns = 401 and 30). Using confirmatory factor analysis, the Japanese version of the SBSA was found to have a correlated three-factor structure that consisted of "conditional beliefs," "unconditional beliefs," and "high standard beliefs." In addition, the Japanese version of the SBSA and its subscales demonstrated good internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability. The Japanese version of the SBSA also demonstrated good convergent and divergent validity. Future applications of the Japanese version of the SBSA are discussed.

  20. Factors related to self-reported social anxiety symptoms among incoming university students.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shu Hui; Sun, Zih-Jie; Lee, I Hui; Lee, Chih-Ting; Chen, Kao Chin; Tsai, Chung Hung; Yang, Yen Kuang; Yang, Yi Ching

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the lifestyle/social, personality trait and mental factors among incoming university students with higher self-reported social anxiety symptoms (SAS). A total of 5126 incoming university students were recruited. The test battery included a self-administered questionnaire that examined personal lifestyle, the Measurement of Support Functions, the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale-Revision, the Organizational Citizenship Behaviour Scale, the Social Phobia Inventory, the suicide ideation from the Brief Symptoms Rating Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire. SAS (23.7%) were prevalent. Using logistic regression analysis, we found that the significant predictors of higher levels of SAS were being an undergraduate student and a non-smoker, having lower Measurement of Support Functions score (poorer social support), having higher Chinese Internet Addiction Scale-Revision score (Internet addiction), having lower Organizational Citizenship Behaviour Scale score (less altruistic behaviour), having suicide ideation and having higher Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire score (poorer sleeper). Given the high prevalence of SAS among university students, it is necessary to build a better strategy to detect students with potential social anxiety-related problems/disorders or other mental problems early on. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Body self-discrepancies and women's social physique anxiety: the moderating role of the feared body.

    PubMed

    Woodman, Tim; Steer, Rebecca

    2011-05-01

    We explored ideal, ought, and feared body image self-discrepancies as predictors of social physique anxiety within Carver, Lawrence, and Scheier's and Woodman and Hemmings' interaction frameworks. One hundred women completed actual, ideal, ought, and feared body self-discrepancy visual analogue scales, the Social Physique Anxiety Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Moderated hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the relationship between ought body fat discrepancies and social physique anxiety was moderated by proximity to the feared fat self. Specifically, the positive relationship between ought fat discrepancies and social physique anxiety was stronger when women were far from their feared body self. The results highlight the importance of considering the feared self in order to more fully understand the relationship between body image and social physique anxiety. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Social anxiety and self-concept in children with epilepsy: a pilot intervention study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jana E; Blocher, Jacquelyn B; Jackson, Daren C; Sung, Connie; Fujikawa, Mayu

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) anxiety intervention on social phobia, social skill development, and self-concept. Fifteen children with epilepsy and a primary anxiety disorder participated in a CBT intervention for 12 weeks plus a 3-month follow-up visit. Children were assessed at baseline, week 7, week 12, and 3 months post treatment to measure changes in social phobia using the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Self-concept was also assessed by using the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale II (Piers-Harris 2). There was a significant reduction in symptoms of social phobia and improved self-concept at the end of the 12-week intervention and at the 3 month follow-up. Repeated measures ANOVA's of child ratings revealed significant change over time on the SCARED-Social Phobia/Social Anxiety subscale score (p=0.024). In terms of self-concept, significant change over time was detected on the Piers-Harris 2-Total score (p=0.015) and several subscale scores of Piers-Harris 2, including: Physical Appearance and Attributes (p=0.016), Freedom from Anxiety (p=0.005), and Popularity (p=0.003). This pilot investigation utilized an evidenced based CBT intervention to reduce symptoms of social phobia, which in turn provided a vehicle to address specific social skills improving self-concept in children with epilepsy. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Non-suicidal Self-Injury in Eating Disordered Patients: Associations with Heart Rate Variability and State-Trait Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Giner-Bartolome, Cristina; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Tolosa-Sola, Iris; Steward, Trevor; Jimenez-Murcia, Susana; Granero, Roser; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Background: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is commonly present in individuals with eating disorders (EDs) and is often employed as a maladaptive emotion regulation strategy to avoid or abate negative emotions. One of the most prevalent negative emotions experienced by self-injurers is anxiety; however, this emotion has not been extensively studied in this population. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the influence of anxiety on NSSI in patients with ED from two different dimensions: state anxiety and trait anxiety. Methods: The study comprised a total of 66 females: 12 ED patients with NSSI, 32 ED patients without a history of NSSI, and 22 healthy controls. State and trait anxiety were assessed by means of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S-T) and physiological data [i.e., heart rate variability (HRV)] were collected. Results: STAI-trait scores were significantly higher in ED patients with NSSI than ED patients without NSSI. Furthermore, when conducting logistic regression analyses higher STAI-trait scores were associated with NSSI in ED patients. However, no differences in STAI-state scores and HRV were found between ED patients with and without NSSI. Discussion: The present findings suggest that anxiety as a trait is associated with the use of maladaptive strategies (i.e., NSSI) in ED patients. These results uphold the need to target trait anxiety in ED treatment in order to prevent possible NSSI behaviors. PMID:28736544

  4. Self-esteem and trait anxiety in relation to drug misuse in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    al-Najjar, M; Clarke, D D

    1996-05-01

    This study was designed to document knowledge about Kuwaiti drug users and to investigate whether or not there is an association between their poor self-concept and high level of anxiety. One hundred and seven incarcerated drug users, 107 individuals serving prison terms for offenses other than drug use, and 107 "normal" individuals were included in this pilot study. The Arabic version of Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale and Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to measure the subjects' self-esteem and state-trait anxiety, respectively. The results documented revealed that there is a relationship between levels of self-esteem and anxiety in Kuwaiti drug user behavior.

  5. Moderating role of self-efficacy on the associations of social support with depressive and anxiety symptoms in Chinese patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Xu, Neili; Wang, Lie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is significantly associated with depression and anxiety. Social support and self-efficacy are the coping resources of psychological distress. However, little research is available on the interaction of social support and self-efficacy in RA patients. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and to examine whether or not self-efficacy moderates the associations of social support with depressive and anxiety symptoms in Chinese RA patients. Methods A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in northeast of China from December 2014 to January 2016. A total of 297 RA patients completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and General Self-Efficacy Scale. The associations of social support, self-efficacy and social support × self-efficacy interaction with depressive and anxiety symptoms were examined by hierarchical regression analysis. If the interaction was statistically significant, simple slope analysis was conducted. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 58.2%, while 47.5% RA patients had anxiety symptoms. Social support and social support × self-efficacy interaction were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Social support, self-efficacy and their interaction were significantly associated with anxiety symptoms. The association between social support and depressive symptoms was gradually reduced in the low (1 standard deviation [SD] below the mean, B=−0.614, β=−0.876, P<0.001), mean (B=−0.395, β=−0.563, P<0.001) and high (1 SD above the mean, B=−0.176, β=−0.251, P=0.002) groups of self-efficacy. For anxiety symptoms, the association was also gradually reduced in the low (B=−0.527, β=−0.774, P<0.001), mean (B=−0.288, β=−423, P<0.001) and high (B=−0.049, β=−0.071, P=0.447) groups of self-efficacy. Conclusion There was a high

  6. Moderating role of self-efficacy on the associations of social support with depressive and anxiety symptoms in Chinese patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Xu, Neili; Wang, Lie

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is significantly associated with depression and anxiety. Social support and self-efficacy are the coping resources of psychological distress. However, little research is available on the interaction of social support and self-efficacy in RA patients. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and to examine whether or not self-efficacy moderates the associations of social support with depressive and anxiety symptoms in Chinese RA patients. A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in northeast of China from December 2014 to January 2016. A total of 297 RA patients completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and General Self-Efficacy Scale. The associations of social support, self-efficacy and social support × self-efficacy interaction with depressive and anxiety symptoms were examined by hierarchical regression analysis. If the interaction was statistically significant, simple slope analysis was conducted. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 58.2%, while 47.5% RA patients had anxiety symptoms. Social support and social support × self-efficacy interaction were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Social support, self-efficacy and their interaction were significantly associated with anxiety symptoms. The association between social support and depressive symptoms was gradually reduced in the low (1 standard deviation [SD] below the mean, B =-0.614, β =-0.876, P <0.001), mean ( B =-0.395, β =-0.563, P <0.001) and high (1 SD above the mean, B =-0.176, β =-0.251, P =0.002) groups of self-efficacy. For anxiety symptoms, the association was also gradually reduced in the low ( B =-0.527, β =-0.774, P <0.001), mean ( B =-0.288, β =-423, P <0.001) and high ( B =-0.049, β =-0.071, P =0.447) groups of self-efficacy. There was a high prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms

  7. Psychological assessment of ICU survivors: a comparison between the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress scale.

    PubMed

    Sukantarat, K T; Williamson, R C N; Brett, S J

    2007-03-01

    Recovery from a critical illness can be delayed by persistent anxiety and depression. To identify such patients, a new self-report questionnaire (the Depression, Anxiety and Stress scale, DASS) was used alongside an established instrument (the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, HADS) in those who had spent a minimum of 3 days (median 9 days) in a general intensive care unit. Fifty-one patients were studied 3 months later, and 45 survivors were reviewed at 9 months. High Cronbach alpha values (0.92-0.95) for each subscale of DASS confirmed its internal consistency, and likewise for HADS (0.82-0.86). HADS and DASS correlated strongly at each time point both for anxiety (r = 0.88) and depression (r = 0.93), with few discrepant values on a Bland and Altman plot. DASS performs as consistently as HADS in screening for anxiety and depression, and its psychometric properties support its use in an intensive care setting.

  8. Analysis of the Professional Choice Self-Efficacy Scale Using the Rasch-Andrich Rating Scale Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambiel, Rodolfo A. M.; Noronha, Ana Paula Porto; de Francisco Carvalho, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to analyze the psychometrics properties of the professional choice self-efficacy scale (PCSES), using the Rasch-Andrich rating scale model. The PCSES assesses four factors: self-appraisal, gathering occupational information, practical professional information search and future planning. Participants were 883 Brazilian…

  9. Determining the predictors of change in quality of life self-ratings and carer-ratings for community-dwelling people with Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Bosboom, Pascalle R; Alfonso, Helman; Almeida, Osvaldo P

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the factors that mediate changes in Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) ratings by community-dwelling people with Alzheimer disease (AD) and carers over a period of 18 months. We completed an 18-month longitudinal study of 80 community-dwelling older adults diagnosed with probable AD of mild or moderate severity (NINCDS-ADRD criteria) and their family carers. The primary outcome of interest was the 18-month change in HRQoL ratings as measured with the Quality of Life-AD (QoL-AD) (by carer and by self). Explanatory variables included demographics, lifestyle, cognition, awareness, psychopathology, burden-of-care, use of medication, and functionality in daily life. We found a significant decline (8.7%, P=0.003) in QoL-AD carer-ratings, but not in self-ratings. The final parsimonious model of predictors of changes in QoL-AD self-ratings explained 22.6% of the variance; only changes on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Anxiety retained significance. The final model of predictors of changes in carer-ratings explained 55.0% of the variance: that is, changes on Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly, changes on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Depression, practicing hobbies at 18 months, and number of visit(s) or admission(s) to hospital. HRQoL self-ratings and carer-ratings of community-dwelling people with AD do not decline at same rate over 18 months and changes are associated with different factors. Interventions designed to optimize quality of life of people with AD should consider carefully whose HRQoL ratings they wish to change.

  10. Effect of ketamine dose on self-rated dissociation in patients with treatment refractory anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Castle, Cameron; Gray, Andrew; Neehoff, Shona; Glue, Paul

    2017-10-01

    Patients receiving ketamine for refractory depression and anxiety report dissociative symptoms in the first 60 min post-dose. The most commonly used instrument to assess this is the Clinician-Administered Dissociative States Scale (CADSS), developed based on the assessment of patients with dissociative symptoms. Its psychometric properties for ketamine-induced dissociation have not been reported. We evaluated these from a study using 0.25-1 mg/kg ketamine and midazolam (as an active control) in 18 patients with treatment-resistant anxiety. Dissociation ratings were increased by ketamine in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, midazolam showed no effect on ratings of dissociation. For individual CADSS items, the magnitude of change and the ketamine dose at which changes were observed were not homogenous. The Cronbach alpha for the total scale was high (0.937), with acceptable item-rest correlations for almost all individual items. Purposefully removing items to maximise alpha did not lead to meaningful improvements. Acceptable internal consistency was still observed after removing items which lacked evidence of responsiveness at lower doses. The high Cronbach alpha values identified in this study suggests that the CADSS is an internally consistent instrument for evaluating ketamine-induced dissociation in clinical trials in anxiety, although it does not capture symptoms such as thought disorder.

  11. Illness appraisals and self-esteem as correlates of anxiety and affective comorbid disorders in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Karatzias, Thanos; Gumley, Andrew; Power, Kevin; O'Grady, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Comorbidity of anxiety and affective disorders in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia is common. This study investigated the hypothesis that greater negative beliefs about illness and lower self-esteem will be significantly associated with the presence of anxiety or affective comorbidity in a sample of persons (n = 138) diagnosed with schizophrenia. The Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition; the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale; the Personal Beliefs about Illness Questionnaire; and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were all completed for each participant. Of the total sample, 62 (44.9%) had a comorbid anxiety or affective disorder. Logistic regression revealed that those with a comorbid anxiety or affective disorder had significantly lower levels of functioning (Global Assessment of Functioning), more negative appraisals of entrapment in psychosis (Personal Beliefs about Illness Questionnaire), and lower levels of self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). Although further research is required, the strong association between personal beliefs about self and illness and comorbidity suggests that negative beliefs about psychotic experiences and self-esteem may be linked to the development and maintenance of anxiety and affective comorbid conditions among people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or the like.

  12. Self-concept and self-esteem after acquired brain injury: a control group comparison.

    PubMed

    Ponsford, Jennie; Kelly, Amber; Couchman, Grace

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the multidimensional self-concept, global self-esteem and psychological adjustment of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) as compared with healthy controls. Group comparison on self-report questionnaires. Forty-one individuals who had sustained a TBI were compared with an age- and gender-matched sample of 41 trauma-free control participants on the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, the Tennessee Self Concept Scale (second edition) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS). Participants with TBI rated significantly lower mean levels of global self-esteem and self-concept on the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and Tennessee Self Concept Scale than the control group. Survivors of TBI rated themselves more poorly on a range of self-dimensions, including social, family, academic/work and personal self-concept compared to controls. They also reported higher mean levels of depression and anxiety on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Overall self-concept was most strongly associated with depressive symptoms and anxiety. Self-concept may be lowered following TBI and is associated with negative emotional consequences. Clinicians may improve the emotional adjustment of survivors of TBI by considering particular dimensions of self-concept for intervention focus.

  13. Convergent and discriminant validity and reliability of the pediatric anxiety rating scale in youth with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Storch, Eric A; Wood, Jeffrey J; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Jones, Anna M; Park, Jennifer M; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K

    2012-11-01

    The psychometric properties of the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS), a clinician-administered measure for assessing severity of anxiety symptoms, were examined in 72 children and adolescents diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The internal consistency of the PARS was 0.59, suggesting that the items were related but not repetitive. The PARS showed high 26-day test-retest (ICC = 0.83) and inter-rater reliability (ICC = 0.86). The PARS was strongly correlated with clinician-ratings of overall anxiety severity and parent-report anxiety measures, supporting convergent validity. Results for divergent validity were mixed. Although the PARS was not associated with the sum of the Social and Communication items on the Autism Diagnostic Observation System, it was moderately correlated with parent-reported inattention, aggression and externalizing behavior. Overall, these results suggest that the psychometric properties of the PARS are adequate for assessing anxiety symptoms in youth with ASD, although additional clarification of divergent validity is needed.

  14. Key Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) items associated with DSM-IV depressive and anxiety disorder 12-months post traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Dean P; Downing, Marina G; Ponsford, Jennie L

    2018-08-15

    Anxiety and depression are common problems following traumatic brain injury (TBI), warranting routine screening. Self-report rating scales including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) are associated with depression and anxiety diagnoses in individuals with TBI. The relationship between individual HADS symptoms and structured clinical interview methods (SCID) requires further investigation, particularly in regard to identifying a small number of key items that can potentially be recognised by clinicians and carers of individuals with TBI. 138 individuals sustaining a complicated-mild to severe TBI completed the HADS, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Research Version (SCID) at 12-months post-injury. The associations between individual HADS items, separately and in combination, as well as overall depression and anxiety subscale scores, and SCID-diagnosed depressive and anxiety disorders were analysed. CART (Classification and Regression Tree) analysis found HADS depression item 2 "I still enjoy the things I used to enjoy" and a combination of two anxiety items, 3 "I get a sort of frightened feeling as if something awful is about to happen" and 5 "worrying thoughts go through my mind", performed similarly to total depression and anxiety subscales in terms of their association with depressive and anxiety disorders respectively, at 12-months post-injury. Patients were predominantly injured in motor vehicle accidents and received comprehensive care within a no-fault accident compensation system and so may not be representative of the wider TBI population. Although validation is required, a small number of self-report items are highly associated with 12-month post-injury diagnoses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation of the self-beliefs related to social anxiety scale: a replication and extension.

    PubMed

    Wong, Quincy J J; Moulds, Michelle L; Rapee, Ronald M

    2014-06-01

    The importance of self-beliefs in prominent models of social phobia has led to the development of measures that tap this cognitive construct. The Self-Beliefs Related to Social Anxiety (SBSA) Scale is one such measure and taps the three maladaptive belief types proposed in Clark and Wells's model of social phobia. This study aimed to replicate and extend previous research on the psychometric properties of the SBSA. Replicating previous research, in an (undiagnosed) undergraduate sample (n = 235), the SBSA was found to have a correlated three-factor structure using confirmatory factor analyses, and the SBSA and its subscales demonstrated good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The SBSA and its subscales also had unique relationships with social anxiety and depression, the majority of which replicated previous research. Extending previous research, the SBSA and its subscales showed good incremental validity in the undergraduate sample and good discriminative validity using the undergraduate sample and a sample of individuals with social phobia (n = 33). The SBSA's strong theoretical basis and the findings of this study suggest that the SBSA is an ideal research and clinical tool to assess the cognitions characteristic of social phobia. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Patients with OCD report lower quality of life after controlling for expert-rated symptoms of depression and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Jahangard, Leila; Fadaei, Vahid; Sajadi, Arezoo; Haghighi, Mohammad; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Matinnia, Nasrin; Bajoghli, Hafez; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Lang, Undine; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2017-12-02

    One to three percent of the adult population suffers from obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). Previous studies have also shown that, compared to controls, patients with OCD report a lower QoL. The latter is associated with self-rated symptoms of depression and anxiety. The aim of the present study was to compare the quality of life of OCD patients with that of healthy controls, while introducing expert-rated symptoms of depression and anxiety as covariates. Gender was also taken into account as an additional associated factor. A total of 100 patients diagnosed with OCD (mean age: 32 years; 64% females) and healthy 100 controls (mean age: 31 years; 59% females; no discernible psychiatric disorder) took part in the present cross-sectional study. All participants completed questionnaires covering socio-demographic characteristics and dimensions of QoL. Experts rated participants' symptoms of OCD (Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale), anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale) and depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale). Compared to healthy controls, patients with OCD reported a lower QoL, and had higher symptoms of depression and anxiety. This pattern was particularly pronounced among female patients with OCD. QoL was lower in patients with OCD, even when controlling for depression and anxiety. Results from binary logistic regressions showed that female gender, low QoL and higher symptoms of OCD, depression and anxiety together predicted status as patient with OCD. Compared to healthy controls, patients with OCD have a poorer quality of life and this is independent of depression or anxiety, and is particularly pronounced among female patients. Thus, treatment of OCD might take into account patients' comorbidities and gender. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Self and friend's differing views of social anxiety disorder's effects on friendships.

    PubMed

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Lim, Michelle H; Fernandez, Katya C; Langer, Julia K; Weisman, Jaclyn S; Tonge, Natasha; Levinson, Cheri A; Shumaker, Erik A

    2014-11-01

    Social anxiety disorder is known to be associated with self-report of global friendship quality. However, information about specific friendships, as well as information beyond self-report, is lacking. Such information is crucial, because known biases in information processing related to social anxiety disorder render global self-ratings particularly difficult to interpret. We examined these issues focusing on diagnosed participants (n = 77) compared with community control participants (n = 63). We examined self-report regarding global (i.e., overall) friendship quality and a specific friendship's quality; in addition, we examined friend-report of that friendship's quality. Results suggested that social anxiety disorder has a negative impact on self-perception of friendship quality for a specific friendship, but that this effect is less evident as reported by the friends. Specifically, social anxiety disorder was associated with a tendency to report worse friendship quality in comparison to friend-report, particularly in participants who were younger or had less long-lasting friendships. However, friend-report did show clear differences based on diagnostic group, with friends reporting participants with social anxiety disorder to be less dominant in the friendship and less well-adjusted. Overall, the findings are consistent with results of other studies indicating that social anxiety disorder has a strong association with self-ratings of impairment, but that these ratings appear out of proportion with the report of observers (in this case, friends).

  18. Level of Anxiety, Depression, Self-Esteem, Social Anxiety, and Quality of Life among the Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Açmaz, Gökhan; Albayrak, Evrim; Acmaz, Banu; Başer, Mürüvvet; Soyak, Murat; Zararsız, Gökmen; İpekMüderris, İptisam

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disease and many symptoms are seen with varying degrees. The aim of the present study was to determine which symptoms increased such problems as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and social worry by classifying PCOS according to symptoms. Methods. The study was carried out with two groups. The first group consisted of 86 patients who were diagnosed with PCOS and the second group consisted of 47 healthy volunteers. Liebowitz' Social Anxiety Scale, Rosenberg' Self-Esteem Scale, Short-Form 36, Quality of Life Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory were administered to each volunteer. Results. Depression scores of infertile group were higher while anxiety scores of the obese group were bigger than other groups. It was the obesity group that received the smallest score in self-esteem and trust in people and the highest score in sensitiveness to criticism. The most affected group was oligomenorrhea-hirsutism group in terms of physical functioning, physical role function, pain, social functioning, emotional role function, and emotional well-being. Conclusion. We suggest that not only gynecologist but also a multidisciplinary team may examine these patients. PMID:23935436

  19. Short forms of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale.

    PubMed

    Fergus, Thomas A; Valentiner, David P; McGrath, Patrick B; Gier-Lonsway, Stephanie L; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Mattick and Clarke's (1998) Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and Social Phobia Scale (SPS) are commonly used self-report measures that assess 2 dimensions of social anxiety. Given the need for short, readable measures, this research proposes short forms of both scales. Item-level analyses of readability characteristics of the SIAS and SPS items led to the selection of 6 items from each scale for use in the short forms. The SIAS and SPS short forms had reading levels at approximately the 6th and 5th grade level, respectively. Results using nonclinical (Study 1: N = 469) and clinical (Study 2: N = 145) samples identified these short forms as being factorially sound, possessing adequate internal consistency, and having strong convergence with their full-length counterparts. Moreover, these short forms showed convergence with other measures of social anxiety, showed divergence from measures assessing related constructs, and predicted concurrent interpersonal functioning. Recommendations for the use of these short forms are discussed.

  20. The Levels of Speech Usage rating scale: comparison of client self-ratings with speech pathologist ratings.

    PubMed

    Gray, Christina; Baylor, Carolyn; Eadie, Tanya; Kendall, Diane; Yorkston, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    The term 'speech usage' refers to what people want or need to do with their speech to fulfil the communication demands in their life roles. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) need to know about clients' speech usage to plan appropriate interventions to meet their life participation goals. The Levels of Speech Usage is a categorical scale intended for client self-report of speech usage, but SLPs may want the option to use it as a proxy-report tool. The relationship between self-report and clinician ratings should be examined before the instrument is used in a proxy format. The primary purpose of this study was to compare client self-ratings with SLP ratings on the Levels of Speech Usage scale. The secondary purpose was to determine if the SLP ratings differed depending on whether or not the SLPs knew about the clients' medical condition. Self-ratings of adults with communication disorders on the Levels of Speech Usage scale were available from prior research. Vignettes about these individuals were created from existing data. Two sets of vignettes were created. One set contained information about demographic information, living situation, occupational status and hobbies or social activities. The second set was identical to the first with the addition of information about the clients' medical conditions and communication disorders. Various communication disorders were represented including dysarthria, voice disorders, laryngectomy, and mild cognitive and language disorders. Sixty SLPs were randomly divided into two groups with each group rating one set of vignettes. The task was completed online. While this does not replicate typical in-person clinical interactions, it was a feasible method for this study. For data analysis, the client self-ratings were considered fixed points and the percentage of SLP ratings in agreement with the self-ratings was calculated. The percentage of SLP ratings in exact agreement with client self-ratings was 44.9%. Agreement was lowest

  1. [The relationship between test anxiety and personality, self-esteem in grade one senior high students].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-tong; Meng, Xian-peng; Xu, Qing-zhi

    2006-01-01

    To explore the relationship between test anxiety and personality, self-esteem in grade one senior high school students. Totally 538 senior high school students of grade one were investigated by Test Anxiety Scale (TAS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and Self-Esteem Scale (SES) in a Senior High School in Shandong Province. The prevalence of test anxiety among all the surveyed students was rated 65.2%. The Psychoticism (P) (51.60 +/- 9.66) or Neuroticism (N) (51.57 +/- 10.75) factor score of EPQ in students with test anxiety was significantly higher than that in students without test anxiety (48.07 +/- 8.62, 45.65 +/- 10.14) (P < 0.001), while the Extroversion or Introversion (E) score (50.76 +/- 11.09) was on the contrary (53.68 +/- 11.60) (P < 0.01). The total score of TAS was significantly positively related to the P (r = 0.14) and N (r = 0.36) factor score and significantly negatively related to the E factor score of EPQ (r = -0.15) (P < 0.001). The prevalence of test anxiety in introversive students (72.3%) was higher than that in extroversive students (53.2%) (P < 0.05), and that in students with unstable emotion (81.4%) and in students with apparent psychoticism (84.1%) were also higher than that in those with stable emotion (41.0%) and in those without psychoticism (57.7%) (P < 0.01). The total score of SES in students with test anxiety (29.12 +/- 4.41) was significantly lower than that in students without test anxiety (30.29 +/- 4.25) (P < 0.01). The total score of TAS was significantly negatively related to the total score of SES (r = -0.23) (P < 0.001). Test anxiety should be related to the personality and self-esteem, and the prevalence of test anxiety in introversive, unstable emotional, apparent psychoticism or low self-esteem students should be higher.

  2. Clinical validation of a non-heteronormative version of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS).

    PubMed

    Lindner, Philip; Martell, Christopher; Bergström, Jan; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2013-12-19

    Despite welcomed changes in societal attitudes and practices towards sexual minorities, instances of heteronormativity can still be found within healthcare and research. The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) is a valid and reliable self-rating scale of social anxiety, which includes one item (number 14) with an explicit heteronormative assumption about the respondent's sexual orientation. This heteronormative phrasing may confuse, insult or alienate sexual minority respondents. A clinically validated version of the SIAS featuring a non-heteronormative phrasing of item 14 is thus needed. 129 participants with diagnosed social anxiety disorder, enrolled in an Internet-based intervention trial, were randomly assigned to responding to the SIAS featuring either the original or a novel non-heteronormative phrasing of item 14, and then answered the other item version. Within-subject, correlation between item versions was calculated and the two scores were statistically compared. The two items' correlations with the other SIAS items and other psychiatric rating scales were also statistically compared. Item versions were highly correlated and scores did not differ statistically. The two items' correlations with other measures did not differ statistically either. The SIAS can be revised with a non-heteronormative formulation of item 14 with psychometric equivalence on item and scale level. Implications for other psychiatric instruments with heteronormative phrasings are discussed.

  3. Reliability and validity of two self-rating scales in the assessment of childhood depression.

    PubMed

    Fundudis, T; Berney, T P; Kolvin, I; Famuyiwa, O O; Barrett, L; Bhate, S; Tyrer, S P

    1991-07-01

    A comparison was made of the reliability and validity of two self-rating scales, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS), in the diagnosis of depression in 93 children (aged 8-16 years) attending a university child psychiatry department. The two scales were of comparable merit but had only moderate discrimination between depressed and non-depressed children, with each scale having a misclassification rate of 25%. Better agreement was obtained in more verbally intelligent children, irrespective of age. Girls scored higher on the instruments than boys. No significant relationship was found between teacher assessment of classroom behaviour and the two self-rating depression instruments.

  4. Effects of gender role self-discrepancies and self-perceived attractiveness on social anxiety for women across social situations.

    PubMed

    Howell, Ashley N; Weeks, Justin W

    2017-01-01

    Psychosocial factors, such as gender role norms, may impact how social anxiety disorder (SAD) is experienced and expressed in different social contexts for women. However to date, these factors have not been examined via experimental methodology. This was a cross-sectional, quasi-experimental controlled study. The current study included 48 highly socially anxious (HSA) women (70.9% meeting criteria for SAD) and examined the relationships among psychosocial factors (i.e. gender role self-discrepancies and self-perceived physical attractiveness), self-perceived social performance, and state anxiety, across two in vivo social tasks (i.e. conversation and opinion speech). On average, participants reported belief that they ought to be less feminine for the speech task and more masculine for both the conversation and speech tasks. Also, for the conversation task, only lower self-rated attractiveness predicted poorer self-perceived performance and greater post-task state anxiety, above gender role self-discrepancies and confederate gender. For the speech task, only greater self-discrepancy in prototypical masculine traits predicted poorer performance ratings, and it was related to greater state anxiety in anticipation of the task. For HSA women, psychosocial factors may play different roles in social anxiety across social contexts.

  5. Effect of a cognitive behavioral self-help intervention on depression, anxiety, and coping self-efficacy in people with rheumatic disease.

    PubMed

    Garnefski, N; Kraaij, V; Benoist, M; Bout, Z; Karels, E; Smit, A

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a new cognitive-behavioral self-help program with minimal coaching could improve psychological well-being (depression, anxiety, and coping self-efficacy) in people with rheumatic disease and depressive symptoms. In total, 82 persons with a rheumatic disease enrolled in a randomized controlled trial were allocated to either a group receiving the self-help program or a waiting list control condition group. For both groups, measurements were done at baseline, posttest, and followup. The outcome measures were the depression and anxiety scales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and an adaptation of the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. Repeated-measures analyses of covariance were performed to evaluate changes in outcome measures from pretest to posttest and from posttest to followup. The results showed that the self-help program was effective in reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety and in strengthening coping self-efficacy. The positive effects remained after a followup period of 2 months. This cost-effective program could very well be used as a first step in a stepped care approach or as one of the treatment possibilities in a matched care approach. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  6. Validation of the Self-Regulation Strategy Inventory-Parent Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubin, Audrey Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The current dissertation gathered empirical evidence of convergent and predictive validity for the Self-Regulation Strategies Inventory-Parent Rating Scale (SRSI-PRS), which measures parents' perception of their child's use of self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies during mathematics activities. The SRSI-PRS, which is part of the larger SRSI…

  7. [Sleep Quality, Depression, Anxiety, and Self-Esteem in People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA)].

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsiang-Chun; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Wen-Chuan; Yu, Chien-Tai; Feng, Ming-Chu

    2017-12-01

    HIV has become a chronic disease. Therefore, the mental health and sleep quality of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have become increasingly important issues of concern. To explore the sleep quality, depression, anxiety, and self-esteem of PLWHA and the correlation between sleep quality and various related mental-health factors. A cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study was conducted at a medical center in southern Taiwan in 2013-2014. Data on the sleep quality, depression, anxiety, and self-esteem of 146 PLWHA cases were collected using a structural questionnaire (the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Zung's Self-Administered Anxiety Scale, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). Three-fifths (60.3%) of the cases had poor sleep quality, 50% were inclined toward depression, and 36.3% were inclined toward anxiety, indicating that sleep quality, depression, and anxiety levels in these cases were worse than the general population. Moreover, significant correlations were identified between poor sleep quality and the variables of depression (r = .40, p < .001) and anxiety (r = .53, p < .001). Multiple variate analysis revealed that older age, subjective feelings that HIV significantly influenced personal life, anxiety, and depression were all significant predictors of sleep quality. No significant correlations were found between CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) lymphocyte count, HIV viral load, or receiving antiretroviral therapy and the variables of sleep quality, depression, anxiety, or self-esteem. About half of the PLWHA cases in the present study exhibited poor sleep quality and tendencies toward depression and anxiety. Moreover, sleep quality and mental health factors were found to be not correlated with CD4 lymphocyte count, HIV viral load, or receiving antiretroviral therapy. Therefore, early evaluation of the sleep quality and mental health of people living with HIV/AIDS is recommended in order to

  8. Does verruca vulgaris affect social anxiety and self-esteem in adolescents?

    PubMed

    Unal, Dilek; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Emiroglu, Nazan

    2017-05-24

    Objective Sensitivity about appearance is one of the sine qua non of adolescence and adolescents' self-esteem effecting their socialization processes. We explored if verruca vulgaris, a common visible infectious skin disease, affects social anxiety levels and self-esteem in adolescents compared to controls. Also, the difference in sociodemographic properties between two groups and the effect of clinical properties (the distribution and number of warts) on these parameters were investigated in the patient group. Materials and methods The study group consisted 98 adolescents (49 controls and 49 patients) without other medical/psychiatric diseases. The Sociodemographic form (SDF), the Çapa Social Phobia Scale for Children and Adolescents (ÇCASPS) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) were completed by both groups. Results There was no difference in social anxiety levels and self-esteem between the two groups. Also, the control and patient groups were found matched. However, lower self-esteem was the only factor that increased the risk for social phobia in the patient group. Conclusion Verruca vulgaris distributed in hands and face in adolescents were not found to be related with higher social anxiety and lower self-esteem. However, clinicians should monitor psychiatric symptoms and especially lower self-esteem should be taken into account.

  9. An examination of the MASC Social Anxiety Scale in a non-referred sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Emily R; Jordan, Judith A; Smith, Ashley J; Inderbitzen-Nolan, Heidi M

    2009-12-01

    Social phobia is prevalent during adolescence and is associated with negative outcomes. Two self-report instruments are empirically validated to specifically assess social phobia symptomatology in youth: the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children and the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents. The Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children is a broad-band measure of anxiety containing a scale assessing the social phobia construct. The present study investigated the MASC Social Anxiety Scale in relation to other well-established measures of social phobia and depression in a non-referred sample of adolescents. Results support the convergent validity of the MASC Social Anxiety Scale and provide some support for its discriminant validity, suggesting its utility in the initial assessment of social phobia. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROCs) calculated the sensitivity and specificity of the MASC Social Anxiety Scale. Binary logistic regression analyses determined the predictive utility of the MASC Social Anxiety Scale. Implications for assessment are discussed.

  10. Constructing a self: the role of self-structure and self-certainty in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Stopa, Lusia; Brown, Mike A; Luke, Michelle A; Hirsch, Colette R

    2010-10-01

    Current cognitive models stress the importance of negative self-perceptions in maintaining social anxiety, but focus predominantly on content rather than structure. Two studies examine the role of self-structure (self-organisation, self-complexity, and self-concept clarity) in social anxiety. In study one, self-organisation and self-concept clarity were correlated with social anxiety, and a step-wise multiple regression showed that after controlling for depression and self-esteem, which explained 35% of the variance in social anxiety scores, self-concept clarity uniquely predicted social anxiety and accounted for an additional 7% of the variance in social anxiety scores in an undergraduate sample (N=95) and the interaction between self-concept clarity and compartmentalisation (an aspect of evaluative self-organisation) at step 3 of the multiple regression accounted for a further 3% of the variance in social anxiety scores. In study two, high (n=26) socially anxious participants demonstrated less self-concept clarity than low socially anxious participants (n=26) on both self-report (used in study one) and on computerised measures of self-consistency and confidence in self-related judgments. The high socially anxious group had more compartmentalised self-organisation than the low anxious group, but there were no differences between the two groups on any of the other measures of self-organisation. Self-complexity did not contribute to social anxiety in either study, although this may have been due to the absence of a stressor. Overall, the results suggest that self-structure has a potentially important role in understanding social anxiety and that self-concept clarity and other aspects of self-structure such as compartmentalisation interact with each other and could be potential maintaining factors in social anxiety. Cognitive therapy for social phobia might influence self-structure, and understanding the role of structural variables in maintenance and treatment could

  11. Constructing a self: The role of self-structure and self-certainty in social anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Stopa, Lusia; Brown, Mike A.; Luke, Michelle A.; Hirsch, Colette R.

    2010-01-01

    Current cognitive models stress the importance of negative self-perceptions in maintaining social anxiety, but focus predominantly on content rather than structure. Two studies examine the role of self-structure (self-organisation, self-complexity, and self-concept clarity) in social anxiety. In study one, self-organisation and self-concept clarity were correlated with social anxiety, and a step-wise multiple regression showed that after controlling for depression and self-esteem, which explained 35% of the variance in social anxiety scores, self-concept clarity uniquely predicted social anxiety and accounted for an additional 7% of the variance in social anxiety scores in an undergraduate sample (N = 95) and the interaction between self-concept clarity and compartmentalisation (an aspect of evaluative self-organisation) at step 3 of the multiple regression accounted for a further 3% of the variance in social anxiety scores. In study two, high (n = 26) socially anxious participants demonstrated less self-concept clarity than low socially anxious participants (n = 26) on both self-report (used in study one) and on computerised measures of self-consistency and confidence in self-related judgments. The high socially anxious group had more compartmentalised self-organisation than the low anxious group, but there were no differences between the two groups on any of the other measures of self-organisation. Self-complexity did not contribute to social anxiety in either study, although this may have been due to the absence of a stressor. Overall, the results suggest that self-structure has a potentially important role in understanding social anxiety and that self-concept clarity and other aspects of self-structure such as compartmentalisation interact with each other and could be potential maintaining factors in social anxiety. Cognitive therapy for social phobia might influence self-structure, and understanding the role of structural variables in maintenance and

  12. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults

    PubMed Central

    Lobbezoo, Frank; Ahlberg, Kristiina; Manfredini, Daniele; Hublin, Christer; Sinisalo, Juha; Könönen, Mauno; Savolainen, Aslak

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on irregular shift work, a questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (number of subjects: n=750) and to an equal number of randomly selected employees in the same company with regular eight-hour daytime work. Results: The response rates were 82.3% (56.6 % men) and 34.3 % (46.7 % men), respectively. Among the 874 respondents, those aware of more frequent bruxism reported significantly more severe anxiety (p<0.001). Adjusted by age and gender, frequent bruxers were more than two times more likely to report severe stress (odds ratio 2.5; 95% confidence interval 1.5-4.2) and anxiety (odds ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.3-3.6) than non-or-mild bruxers. Conclusions: Present findings suggest that self-reported bruxism and psychological states such as anxiety or stress may be related in working age subjects. Key words:Bruxism, self-report, anxiety, stress, adult. PMID:22926484

  13. Relationship of self-reported mysticism with depression and anxiety in Iranian Muslims.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Nima; Watson, P J; Rostami, Reza

    2007-04-01

    This study examined relationships of self-reported Mysticism with dispositional Depression and Anxiety in Iranian Muslims. The sample contained 80 women and 51 men undergraduates who volunteered to participate (M age=20.5 yr., SD= 2.0). Participants responded to the Hood Mysticism Scale and to the Costello and Comrey Depression and Anxiety Scales. Scores on the Religious Interpretation dimension of mystical experience correlated negatively with those on Depression, explained a similar relationship observed for Extrovertive Mysticism, and moderated the otherwise positive relationship between Introvertive Mysticism and Anxiety. Moderation occurred when Introvertive Mysticism correlated negatively rather than positively with Anxiety in those who scored high on Religious Interpretation and very high on the Introvertive factor. These data suggested possibilities for reconciling conflicts that have appeared between philosophical interpretations of Introvertive Mysticism and previous self-report data.

  14. Psychometric properties of the dimensional anxiety scales for DSM-V in an unselected sample of German treatment seeking patients.

    PubMed

    Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Klotsche, Jens; Knappe, Susanne; Craske, Michelle G; Lebeau, Richard T; Hoyer, Jürgen; Strobel, Anja; Pieper, Lars; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-12-01

    Dimensional assessments are planned to be included as supplements to categorical diagnoses in DSM-V. The aim of this study was to examine the unidimensionality, reliability, validity, and clinical sensitivity of brief self-rated scales for specific anxiety disorders in an unselected German sample of consecutive attendees to a psychological clinic. These scales use a common template to assess core constructs of fear and anxiety. Dimensional scales for social anxiety disorder, specific phobia, agoraphobia, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder were administered along with established scales to 102 adults seeking treatment for mental health problems at a German university outpatient clinic for psychotherapy. The computer-assisted clinical version of the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess mental disorders according to DSM-IV criteria. Dimensionality and scale reliability were examined using confirmatory factor analyses. Convergent and discriminant validity were examined by testing differences in the size of correlations between each dimensional anxiety scale and each of the previously validated scales. Each dimensional scale's ability to correctly differentiate between individuals with versus without an anxiety diagnosis was examined via the area under the curve. Analyses revealed unidimensionality for each scale, high reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity. Classification performance was good to excellent for all scales except for specific phobia. The application of the dimensional anxiety scales may be an effective way to screen for specific anxiety disorders and to supplement categorical diagnoses in DSM-V, although further evaluation and refinement of the scales (particularly the specific phobia scale) is needed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Pain catastrophizing mediates the relationship between self-reported strenuous exercise involvement and pain ratings: moderating role of anxiety sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Goodin, Burel R; McGuire, Lynanne M; Stapleton, Laura M; Quinn, Noel B; Fabian, Lacy A; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Edwards, Robert R

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the cross-sectional associations among self-reported weekly strenuous exercise bouts, anxiety sensitivity, and their interaction with pain catastrophizing and pain responses to the cold pressor task (CPT) in healthy, ethnically diverse young adults (n = 79). Exercise involvement has been shown to have hypoalgesic effects and cognitive factors may partially explain this effect. Particularly, alterations in pain catastrophizing have been found to mediate the positive pain outcomes of multidisciplinary treatments incorporating exercise. Further, recent evidence suggests that exercise involvement and anxiety sensitivity may act together, as interacting factors, to exert an effect on catastrophizing and pain outcomes; however, further research is needed to clarify the nature of this interaction. Before the CPT, participants were asked to complete the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index. After the CPT, participants completed a modified version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and the Short Form-McGill Pain Questionnaire. At a high level of anxiety sensitivity, controlling for depressive symptoms, CPT immersion time, and sex differences, a bias-corrected (BC), bootstrapped confidence interval revealed that pain catastrophizing significantly mediated the relationship between self-reported weekly strenuous exercise bouts and pain response (95% BC Confidence Interval = -9.558, -0.800 with 1000 resamples). At intermediate and low levels of anxiety sensitivity, no significant mediation effects were found. These findings support that, for pain catastrophizing to mediate the strenuous exercise-pain response relation, individuals must possess a high level of anxiety sensitivity.

  16. Test-retest reliability and sensitivity to change of the dimensional anxiety scales for DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Knappe, Susanne; Klotsche, Jens; Heyde, Franziska; Hiob, Sarah; Siegert, Jens; Hoyer, Jürgen; Strobel, Anja; LeBeau, Richard T; Craske, Michelle G; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2014-06-01

    This article reports on the test-retest reliability and sensitivity to change of a set of brief dimensional self-rating questionnaires for social anxiety disorder (SAD-D), specific phobia (SP-D), agoraphobia (AG-D), panic disorder (PD-D), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-D), as well as a general cross-cutting anxiety scale (Cross-D), which were developed to supplement categorical diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5). The German versions of the dimensional anxiety scales were administered to 218 students followed up approximately 2 weeks later (Study 1) and 55 outpatients (23 with anxiety diagnoses) followed-up 1 year later (Study 2). Probable diagnostic status in students was determined by the DIA-X/M-CIDI stem screening-questionnaire (SSQ). In the clinical sample, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) diagnoses were assessed at Time 1 using the DIA-X/M-CIDI. At Time 2, the patient-version of the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale (CGI-I) was applied to assess change. Good psychometric properties, including high test-retest reliability, were found for the dimensional scales except for SP-D. In outpatients, improvement at Time 2 was associated with significant decrease in PD-D, GAD-D, and Cross-D scores. Discussion Major advantages of the scales include that they are brief, concise, and based on a consistent template to measure the cognitive, physiological, and behavioral symptoms of fear and anxiety. Further replication in larger samples is needed. Given its modest psychometric properties, SP-D needs refinement. Increasing evidence from diverse samples suggests clinical utility of the dimensional anxiety scales.

  17. Co-occurrence of social anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescence: differential links with implicit and explicit self-esteem?

    PubMed

    de Jong, P J; Sportel, B E; de Hullu, E; Nauta, M H

    2012-03-01

    Social anxiety and depression often co-occur. As low self-esteem has been identified as a risk factor for both types of symptoms, it may help to explain their co-morbidity. Current dual process models of psychopathology differentiate between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Explicit self-esteem would reflect deliberate self-evaluative processes whereas implicit self-esteem would reflect simple associations in memory. Previous research suggests that low explicit self-esteem is involved in both social anxiety and depression whereas low implicit self-esteem is only involved in social anxiety. We tested whether the association between symptoms of social phobia and depression can indeed be explained by low explicit self-esteem, whereas low implicit self-esteem is only involved in social anxiety. Adolescents during the first stage of secondary education (n=1806) completed the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) to measure symptoms of social anxiety and depression, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) to index explicit self-esteem and the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure implicit self-esteem. There was a strong association between symptoms of depression and social anxiety that could be largely explained by participants' explicit self-esteem. Only for girls did implicit self-esteem and the interaction between implicit and explicit self-esteem show small cumulative predictive validity for social anxiety, indicating that the association between low implicit self-esteem and social anxiety was most evident for girls with relatively low explicit self-esteem. Implicit self-esteem showed no significant predictive validity for depressive symptoms. The findings support the view that both shared and differential self-evaluative processes are involved in depression and social anxiety.

  18. Investigating self-esteem in individuals with schizophrenia: relevance of the Self-Esteem Rating Scale-Short Form.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, Tania; Corbière, Marc; Laisné, François

    2006-06-30

    Studies investigating self-esteem in individuals with severe mental illness, either as a treatment goal, outcome or correlate to other variables, have increased over the past few years. One of the main difficulties in assessing self-esteem is the assessment itself, often measuring global and stable self-esteem as in the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, or requiring extensive training and long interviews. The present article aims at demonstrating the relevance of the French and English versions of the Self-Esteem Rating Scale-Short Form with individuals with severe mental illness. The instrument's reliability and validity were investigated in a sample of 250 French Canadian college students, 247 British college students and three samples of English- or French-speaking individuals with severe mental illness (N=254, N=150 and N=171). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that a shorter version of the instrument (20 items), with a positive and a negative self-esteem factor, had a great validity for all the samples studied. The Self-Esteem Rating Scale-Short Form, with its positive and negative self-esteem subscales, appears to be a valid and reliable self-esteem measure for individuals with mental health problems. Limitations of this study and future directions are discussed.

  19. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with anxiety, depression and self-esteem among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Yang, Pinchen; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2014-10-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the associations of the severity of Internet addiction symptoms with various dimensions of anxiety (physical anxiety symptoms, harm avoidance, social anxiety, and separation/panic) and depression symptoms (depressed affect, somatic symptoms, interpersonal problems, and positive affect) and self-esteem among adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan. A total of 287 adolescents aged between 11 and 18 years who had been diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their severity of Internet addiction symptoms was assessed using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Anxiety and depression symptoms and self-esteem were assessed using the Taiwanese version of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC-T), the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), respectively. The association between the severity of Internet addiction symptoms and anxiety and depression symptoms and self-esteem were examined using multiple regression analyses. The results indicated that higher physical symptoms and lower harm avoidance scores on the MASC-T, higher somatic discomfort/retarded activity scores on the CES-D, and lower self-esteem scores on the RSES were significantly associated with more severe Internet addiction symptoms. Prevention and intervention programs for Internet addiction in adolescents with ADHD should take anxiety, depression, and self-esteem into consideration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Depression and anxiety in patients with coronary artery disease, measured by means of self-report measures and clinician-rated instrument.

    PubMed

    Moryś, Joanna M; Bellwon, Jerzy; Adamczyk, Katarzyna; Gruchała, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The presence of depression symptomatology significantly deteriorates the prognosis for the patient. There are many instruments developed to measure depression and anxiety in clinical trials; however, the suitability of the specific scale for screening these disorders in cardiovascular patients is debatable. The aim of current study is to verify which of the major assessment instruments is the most relevant for the screening evaluation of depression and anxiety in patients with cardiovascular system diseases. The sample studied consisted of 120 patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). They did not display serious psychiatric or somatic disorders. To assess depressive and anxiety symptoms we used self-reporting measures (BDI-II, HADS, SSAI/STAI, and PHQ), the results of which were compared to results obtained on the basis of a clinician-rating instrument (HRSD). We found that depressive symptoms assessed on the basis of HRSD, BDI-II, and PHQ-9 were equivalent in results, while the results obtained in HADS-D were significantly lower. Anxiety symptoms were found at approximate levels in HADS, SSAI, and GAD-7. The assessment of somatic symptoms in patients with CAD indicates that 87.5% of the subjects reported somatic symptoms of various intensity. Screening assessment of depression in patients with CAD gives different results depending on the tool used. We found that HADS significantly underestimates the percentage of patients with symptoms of depression in patients with CAD. Assessing anxiety symptoms with the aid of HADS gave outcomes close to the results gained by use of other tools.

  1. Psychometric properties of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and separation criterion between Spanish youths with and without subtypes of social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Zubeidat, Ihab; Salinas, José María; Sierra, Juan Carlos; Fernández-Parra, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the reliability and validity of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and propose a separation criterion between youths with specific and generalized social anxiety and youths without social anxiety. A sample of 1012 Spanish youths attending school completed the SIAS, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale, the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, the Youth Self-Report for Ages 11-18 and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent. The factor analysis suggests the existence of three factors in the SIAS, the first two of which explain most of the variance of the construct assessed. Internal consistency is adequate in the first two factors. The SIAS features an adequate theoretical validity with the scores of different variables related to social interaction. Analysis of the criterion scores yields three groups pertaining to three clearly differentiated clusters. In the third cluster, two of social anxiety groups - specific and generalized - have been identified by means of a quantitative separation criterion.

  2. What does age-comparative self-rated health measure? A cross-sectional study from the Northern Sweden MONICA Project.

    PubMed

    Waller, Göran; Janlert, Urban; Hamberg, Katarina; Forssén, Annika

    2016-05-01

    Self-rated health comprehensively accounts for many health domains. Using self-ratings and a knowledge of associations with health domains might help personnel in the health care sector to understand reports of ill health. The aim of this paper was to investigate associations between age-comparative self-rated health and disease, risk factors, emotions and psychosocial factors in a general population. We based our study on population-based cross-sectional surveys performed in 1999, 2004 and 2009 in northern Sweden. Participants were 25-74 years of age and 5314 of the 7500 people invited completed the survey. Comparative self-rated health was measured on a three-grade ordinal scale by the question 'How would you assess your general health condition compared to persons of your own age?' with the alternatives 'better', 'worse' or 'similar'. The independent variables were sex, age, blood pressure, cholesterol, body mass index, self-reported myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes, physical activity, smoking, risk of unemployment, satisfaction with economic situation, anxiety and depressive emotions, education and Karasek scale of working conditions. Odds ratios using ordinal regression were calculated. Age, sex, stroke, myocardial infarction, diabetes, body mass index, physical activity, economic satisfaction, anxiety and depressive emotions were associated with comparative self-rated health. The risk of unemployment, a tense work situation and educational level were also associated with comparative self-rated health, although they were considerably weaker when adjusted for the the other variables. Anxiety, depressive emotions, low economic satisfaction and a tense work situation were common in the population. Emotions and economic satisfaction were associated with comparative self-rated health as well as some medical variables. Utilization of the knowledge of these associations in health care should be further investigated. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public

  3. Individual correlates of self-stigma in patients with anxiety disorders with and without comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Ociskova, Marie; Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Grambal, Ales; Sigmundova, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    Background A number of psychiatric patients experience stigma connected to prejudices about mental disorders. It has been shown that stigma is most harmful when it is internalized. Most of the studies were performed on individuals either with psychoses or with mood disorders, and hence, there are almost no studies with other diagnostic categories. The goals of this research were to identify factors that are significantly related to self-stigma in patients with anxiety disorders and to suggest possible models of causality for these relationships. Methods A total of 109 patients with anxiety disorders and possible comorbid depressive or personality disorders, who were admitted to the psychotherapeutic department participated in this study. All patients completed several psychodiagnostic methods, ie, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised Version, Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, and Clinical Global Impression (also completed by the senior psychiatrist). Results The overall level of self-stigma was positively associated with a comorbid personality disorder, more severe symptomatology, more intense symptoms of anxiety and depression, and higher levels of dissociation and harm avoidance. Self-stigma was negatively related to hope, reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness. Multiple regression analysis showed that the most significant factors connected to self-stigma are harm avoidance, the intensity of depressive symptoms, and self-directedness. Two models of causality were proposed and validated. It seems that the tendency to dissociate in stress increases the probability of development of self-stigma, and this relationship is entirely mediated by avoidance of harm. Conversely, self-directedness lowers the probability of occurrence of self-stigma, and this effect is partly mediated by hope

  4. Reliability and preliminary evidence of validity of a Farsi version of the depression anxiety stress scales.

    PubMed

    Bayani, Ali Asghar

    2010-08-01

    The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the Farsi version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales were examined, with a sample of 306 undergraduate students (123 men, 183 women) ranging from 18 to 51 years of age (M age = 25.4, SD = 6.1). Participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. The findings confirmed the preliminary reliabilities and preliminary construct validity of the Farsi translation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales.

  5. Evaluation of social anxiety, self-esteem, life quality in adolescents with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Unal, Dilek; Emiroğlu, Nazan; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin

    2016-08-05

    Acne vulgaris is a visible skin disease commonly seen in adolescence. As it affects the appearance, it is likely to bring stress to the adolescent's life regarding sensitivity about their appearance. The aim of the study was to investigate the social anxiety level, acne-specific life quality, and self-esteem among adolescents with acne vulgaris. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between these parameters, clinical severity, and sociodemographic data. One hundred and two adolescents with acne vulgaris, aged 12-17 years without any psychiatric or medical comorbidity were recruited. The control group consisted of 83 adolescents in the same age range, who had neither psychiatric disease nor acne. Sociodemographic form (SDF), Capa Social Phobia Scale for Children and Adolescents (CSPSCA), and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES) were applied to both groups. Additionally, the severity of acne was determined with Global Acne Grading System (GAGS), and life quality of the patients was evaluated with Acne Quality of Life Scale (AQOL). There was no significant difference in social anxiety levels and self-esteem between the study and control groups. Life quality impairment and high social anxiety levels, as well as low self-esteem, were found to be associated regardless of the clinical severity. Clinicians should be aware of the psychiatric comorbidities when treating adolescents with acne vulgaris. Especially, low self-esteem and life quality impairment should warn clinicians to predict high social anxiety levels in adolescent acne patients.

  6. The self-esteem and anxiety of children with and without mentally retarded siblings.

    PubMed

    Saban, Fatma; Arıkan, Duygu

    2013-11-01

    The study was carried out with the aim of determining the factors affecting and to evaluate anxiety situations and self-esteem of children with and without mentally retarded siblings. The sampling included 227 healthy children: 108 of them have mental retarded sibling and 119 of them do not have mental retarded sibling. The context of this study consisted of 15-18 year of age healthy children with mentally retarded siblings and 15-18 year of aged healthy children having at least one sibling between the dates February 15(st) and June 26(st) 2010. Personal Information Form, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Trait Anxiety Scale were used. It was found out that trait anxiety of 17-18 aged of children with mental retarded sibling (47.04 ± 7.3) was higher than that of the children without mental retarded siblings (44.05 ± 11.23) (P < 0.05). It was observed that self-esteem of children with mentally retarded sibling was not affected from the handicap of their siblings (P > 0.05). Trait anxiety score averages of children with mentally retarded sibling and experience some difficulties due to his or her siblings's handicap (47.00 ± 7.76) were found higher than those of those of the children without any problem with the environment (42.61 ± 7.48) (P < 0.05). Although the average score of trait anxiety and self-esteem in both groups were not significant different, score of trait anxiety for children with mentally disabled siblings was higher in comparison. It was concluded that anxiety of children with and without mentally retarded siblings increased as self-esteem of these children decreased.

  7. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults.

    PubMed

    Ahlberg, Jari; Lobbezoo, Frank; Ahlberg, Kristiina; Manfredini, Daniele; Hublin, Christer; Sinisalo, Juha; Könönen, Mauno; Savolainen, Aslak

    2013-01-01

    The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. As part of a study on irregular shift work, a questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (number of subjects: n=750) and to an equal number of randomly selected employees in the same company with regular eight-hour daytime work. The response rates were 82.3% (56.6 % men) and 34.3 % (46.7 % men), respectively. Among the 874 respondents, those aware of more frequent bruxism reported significantly more severe anxiety (p<0.001). Adjusted by age and gender, frequent bruxers were more than two times more likely to report severe stress (odds ratio 2.5; 95% confidence interval 1.5-4.2) and anxiety (odds ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.3-3.6) than non-or-mild bruxers. Present findings suggest that self-reported bruxism and psychological states such as anxiety or stress may be related in working age subjects.

  8. Self and Friend’s Differing Views of Social Anxiety Disorder’s Effects on Friendships

    PubMed Central

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Lim, Michelle H.; Fernandez, Katya C.; Langer, Julia K.; Weisman, Jaclyn S.; Tonge, Natasha; Levinson, Cheri A.; Shumaker, Erik A.

    2014-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder is known to be associated with self-report of global friendship quality. However, information about specific friendships, as well as information beyond self-report, is lacking. Such information is crucial, because known biases in information processing related to social anxiety disorder render global self-ratings particularly difficult to interpret. We examined these issues focusing on diagnosed participants (n = 77) compared with community control participants (n = 63). We examined self-report regarding global (i.e., overall) friendship quality and a specific friendship’s quality; in addition, we examined friend-report of that friendship’s quality. Results suggested that social anxiety disorder has a negative impact on self-perception of friendship quality for a specific friendship, but that this effect is less evident as reported by the friends. Specifically, social anxiety disorder was associated with a tendency to report worse friendship quality in comparison to friend-report, particularly in participants who were younger or had less long-lasting friendships. However, friend-report did show clear differences based on diagnostic group, with friends reporting participants with social anxiety disorder to be less dominant in the friendship and less well-adjusted. Overall, the findings are consistent with results of other studies indicating that social anxiety disorder has a strong association with self-ratings of impairment, but that these ratings appear out of proportion with the report of observers (in this case, friends). PMID:25314261

  9. Social Interpretation Bias in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders: Psychometric Examination of the Self-report of Ambiguous Social Situations for Youth (SASSY) Scale.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Araceli; Rozenman, Michelle; Langley, Audra K; Kendall, Philip C; Ginsburg, Golda S; Compton, Scott; Walkup, John T; Birmaher, Boris; Albano, Anne Marie; Piacentini, John

    2017-06-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental health problems in youth, and faulty interpretation bias has been positively linked to anxiety severity, even within anxiety-disordered youth. Quick, reliable assessment of interpretation bias may be useful in identifying youth with certain types of anxiety or assessing changes on cognitive bias during intervention. This study examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Self-report of Ambiguous Social Situations for Youth (SASSY) scale, a self-report measure developed to assess interpretation bias in youth. Participants (N=488, age 7 to 17) met diagnostic criteria for Social Phobia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and/or Separation Anxiety Disorder. An exploratory factor analysis was performed on baseline data from youth participating in a large randomized clinical trial. Exploratory factor analysis yielded two factors (Accusation/Blame, Social Rejection). The SASSY full scale and Social Rejection factor demonstrated adequate internal consistency, convergent validity with social anxiety, and discriminant validity as evidenced by non-significant correlations with measures of non-social anxiety. Further, the SASSY Social Rejection factor accurately distinguished children and adolescents with Social Phobia from those with other anxiety disorders, supporting its criterion validity, and revealed sensitivity to changes with treatment. Given the relevance to youth with social phobia, pre- and post-intervention data were examined for youth social phobia to test sensitivity to treatment effects; results suggested that SASSY scores reduced for treatment responders. Findings suggest the potential utility of the SASSY Social Rejection factor as a quick, reliable, and efficient way of assessing interpretation bias in anxious youth, particularly as related to social concerns, in research and clinical settings.

  10. Sensitivity to change and concurrent validity of direct behavior ratings for academic anxiety.

    PubMed

    von der Embse, Nathaniel P; Scott, Emma-Catherine; Kilgus, Stephen P

    2015-06-01

    Multitiered frameworks of service delivery have traditionally underserved students with mental health needs. Whereas research has supported the assessment and intervention of social and academic behavior across tiers, evidence is limited with regard to mental health concerns including internalizing behaviors (e.g., anxiety and depression). In particular, there is a notable shortage of brief anxiety assessment tools to be used for progress monitoring purposes. Moreover, traditional omnibus rating scale approaches may fail to capture contextually dependent anxiety. The purpose of the present investigation is to examine the sensitivity to change and concurrent validity of Direct Behavior Ratings (DBR; Chafouleas, Riley-Tillman, & Christ, 2009; Chafouleas, Riley-Tillman, & Sugai, 2007) of anxiety and traditional rating scales in measuring academic anxiety directly before, during, and after a potentially anxiety provoking stimulus. Research was conducted with 115 undergraduate students in a Southeastern university. Results indicated significant relationships between DBRs and pre- and postmeasures of anxiety. Change metrics suggested an overall lack of correspondence between DBR and the criterion measure, with DBR scales detecting greater change both across the testing situation and participants. The use of DBR for anxiety is considered within a multitiered, problem-solving framework. Feasibility and limitations associated with implementation are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. The Modified Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: A Valid and Reliable Instrument for Use with Children.

    PubMed

    Carey, Emma; Hill, Francesca; Devine, Amy; Szűcs, Dénes

    2017-01-01

    Mathematics anxiety (MA) can be observed in children from primary school age into the teenage years and adulthood, but many MA rating scales are only suitable for use with adults or older adolescents. We have adapted one such rating scale, the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS), to be used with British children aged 8-13. In this study, we assess the scale's reliability, factor structure, and divergent validity. The modified AMAS (mAMAS) was administered to a very large ( n = 1746) cohort of British children and adolescents. This large sample size meant that as well as conducting confirmatory factor analysis on the scale itself, we were also able to split the sample to conduct exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of items from the mAMAS alongside items from child test anxiety and general anxiety rating scales. Factor analysis of the mAMAS confirmed that it has the same underlying factor structure as the original AMAS, with subscales measuring anxiety about Learning and Evaluation in math. Furthermore, both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the mAMAS alongside scales measuring test anxiety and general anxiety showed that mAMAS items cluster onto one factor (perceived to represent MA). The mAMAS provides a valid and reliable scale for measuring MA in children and adolescents, from a younger age than is possible with the original AMAS. Results from this study also suggest that MA is truly a unique construct, separate from both test anxiety and general anxiety, even in childhood.

  12. Probability of assertive behaviour, interpersonal anxiety and self-efficacy of South African registered dietitians.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Marie; Green, J M; Basson, C J; Ross, F

    2002-02-01

    There is little information on the probability of assertive behaviour, interpersonal anxiety and self-efficacy in the literature regarding dietitians. The objective of this study was to establish baseline information of these attributes and the factors affecting them. Questionnaires collecting biographical information and self-assessment psychometric scales measuring levels of probability of assertiveness, interpersonal anxiety and self-efficacy were mailed to 350 subjects, who comprised a random sample of dietitians registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa. Forty-one per cent (n=145) of the sample responded. Self-assessment inventory results were compared to test levels of probability of assertive behaviour, interpersonal anxiety and self-efficacy. The inventory results were compared with the biographical findings to establish statistical relationships between the variables. The hypotheses were formulated before data collection. Dietitians had acceptable levels of probability of assertive behaviour and interpersonal anxiety. The probability of assertive behaviour was significantly lower than the level noted in the literature and was negatively related to interpersonal anxiety and positively related to self-efficacy.

  13. The self-esteem and anxiety of children with and without mentally retarded siblings

    PubMed Central

    Saban, Fatma; Arıkan, Duygu

    2013-01-01

    Background: The study was carried out with the aim of determining the factors affecting and to evaluate anxiety situations and self-esteem of children with and without mentally retarded siblings. Materials and Methods: The sampling included 227 healthy children: 108 of them have mental retarded sibling and 119 of them do not have mental retarded sibling. The context of this study consisted of 15-18 year of age healthy children with mentally retarded siblings and 15-18 year of aged healthy children having at least one sibling between the dates February 15st and June 26st 2010. Personal Information Form, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Trait Anxiety Scale were used. Results: It was found out that trait anxiety of 17-18 aged of children with mental retarded sibling (47.04 ± 7.3) was higher than that of the children without mental retarded siblings (44.05 ± 11.23) (P < 0.05). It was observed that self-esteem of children with mentally retarded sibling was not affected from the handicap of their siblings (P > 0.05). Trait anxiety score averages of children with mentally retarded sibling and experience some difficulties due to his or her siblings's handicap (47.00 ± 7.76) were found higher than those of those of the children without any problem with the environment (42.61 ± 7.48) (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Although the average score of trait anxiety and self-esteem in both groups were not significant different, score of trait anxiety for children with mentally disabled siblings was higher in comparison. It was concluded that anxiety of children with and without mentally retarded siblings increased as self-esteem of these children decreased. PMID:24523782

  14. The Adaptation of the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Elementary Form into Turkish, Language Validity, and Preliminary Psychometric Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baloglu, Mustafa; Balgalmis, Esra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to adapt the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale- Elementary Form (MARS-E, Suinn, 1988) into Turkish by first doing the translation of its items and then the preliminary psychometric investigation of the Turkish form. The study included four different samples: 30 bilingual language experts, 50 Turkish language…

  15. Optimal Cut-Off Points on the Health Anxiety Inventory, Illness Attitude Scales and Whiteley Index to Identify Severe Health Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Hedman, Erik; Lekander, Mats; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Lindefors, Nils; Rück, Christian; Andersson, Gerhard; Andersson, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Background Health anxiety can be viewed as a dimensional phenomenon where severe health anxiety in form of DSM-IV hypochondriasis represents a cut-off where the health anxiety becomes clinically significant. Three of the most reliable and used self-report measures of health anxiety are the Health Anxiety Inventory (HAI), the Illness Attitude Scales (IAS) and the Whiteley Index (WI). Identifying the optimal cut-offs for classification of presence of a diagnosis of severe health anxiety on these measures has several advantages in clinical and research settings. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the HAI, IAS and WI as proximal diagnostic instruments for severe health anxiety defined as DSM-IV hypochondriasis. Methods We investigated sensitivity, specificity and predictive value on the HAI, IAS and WI using a total of 347 adult participants of whom 158 had a diagnosis of severe health anxiety, 97 had obsessive-compulsive disorder and 92 were healthy non-clinical controls. Diagnostic assessments were conducted using the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule. Results Optimal cut-offs for identifying a diagnosis of severe health anxiety was 67 on the HAI, 47 on the IAS, and 5 on the WI. Sensitivity and specificity were high, ranging from 92.6 to 99.4%. Positive and negative predictive values ranged from 91.6 to 99.4% using unadjusted prevalence rates. Conclusions The HAI, IAS and WI have very good properties as diagnostic indicators of severe health anxiety and can be used as cost-efficient proximal estimates of the diagnosis. PMID:25849477

  16. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and Usefulness: Insights from the Polish Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Cipora, Krzysztof; Szczygieł, Monika; Willmes, Klaus; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS), known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations. We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857) was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance, and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety. The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS. PMID:26648893

  17. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and Usefulness: Insights from the Polish Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Cipora, Krzysztof; Szczygieł, Monika; Willmes, Klaus; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS), known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations. We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857) was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance, and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety. The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS.

  18. [Effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy in childhood anxiety disorders in a university psychiatric outpatient clinic].

    PubMed

    Goletz, Hildegard; Yang, Young-Im; Suhr-Dachs, Lydia; Walter, Daniel; Döpfner, Manfred

    2013-07-01

    Only few studies have examined whether the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for childhood anxiety disorders as demonstrated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) generalizes to clinical practice. This study examines the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy for juvenile anxiety disorders under routine care conditions in a university-based psychiatric outpatient clinic. 92 children and adolescents with parent-ratings regarding anxiety and comorbid symptoms and 61 children and adolescents with self-ratings regarding anxiety and comorbid symptoms were treated with cognitive-behavioral interventions. Pre/post mean comparisons, effect sizes, and the clinical significance of changes in symptoms were examined. The effect size for reduction of anxiety symptoms was .81 for children whose parents had completed the rating scale and .79 for children who had filled in a self-rating scale. Effect sizes for reduction of comorbid symptoms varied between .37 and .84 for parent ratings and between .21 and .62 for self-ratings. The percentage of children and adolescents who achieved clinically significant improvements in anxiety symptoms was 55.1 % according to the parent ratings and 65.7 % according to the children's self-ratings. More than 50 % of parents and children reported clinically significant improvements in comorbid symptoms. Significant reductions in both anxiety and comorbid symptoms were demonstrated over the course of cognitive-behavioral therapy of juvenile anxiety disorders in a university psychiatric outpatient clinic. The effect sizes for anxiety symptoms were found to be comparable to the effect sizes reported in RCTs. Similarly, clinically significant improvements were as frequent as the rates of remission of anxiety symptoms reported in RCTs.

  19. An Investigation of the Validity and Reliability of the Adapted Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Short Version (MARS-SV) among Turkish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baloglu, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    This study adapted the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Short Version (MARS-SV) into Turkish and investigated the validity and reliability of the adapted instrument. Twenty-five bilingual experts agreed on the language validity, and 49 Turkish language experts agreed on the conformity and understandability of the scale's items. Thirty-two subject…

  20. The Stability of Self-Reported Anxiety in Youth with Autism Versus ADHD or Typical Development.

    PubMed

    Schiltz, Hillary; McIntyre, Nancy; Swain-Lerro, Lindsay; Zajic, Matthew; Mundy, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at risk for anxiety symptoms. Few anxiety measures are validated for individuals with ASD, and the nature of ASD raises questions about reliability of self-reported anxiety. This study examined longitudinal stability and change of self-reported anxiety in higher functioning youth with ASD (HFASD) compared to youth with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and typical development (TD) using the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (March, 2012; March et al. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36(4):554-565, 1997). Diagnostic groups demonstrated comparable evidence of stability for most dimensions of anxiety. The HFASD group displayed higher anxiety than both comparison groups, especially physical symptoms. These findings have implications for identification and measurement of anxiety in ASD.

  1. Anxiety, depression and coping strategies in post-hysterectomy Chinese women prior to discharge.

    PubMed

    Wang, X Q; Lambert, C E; Lambert, V A

    2007-09-01

    This survey investigated the relationships among anxiety, depression, coping strategies and demographic characteristics of post-hysterectomy Chinese women before discharge and further determined the best predictors of anxiety and depression among this group. The sample consisted of 105 women who were administered, 1-2 days prior to discharge, via one-to-one interview, the Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale, the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale, the Brief COPE Scale and a demographic questionnaire. Only 1.9% of the participants experienced anxiety, while 4.8% experienced depression after having a hysterectomy. Active coping, positive reframing, planning, emotional support and venting were the most frequently used coping strategies. Significant positive and negative correlations were found among anxiety, depression, coping strategies and the demographic characteristics of the subjects. The best predictors of anxiety were self-blame, venting and medical payment. The best predictors of depression were self-blame and employment status. Self-blame was the predictor of both anxiety and depression. It implied that a patient's negative self-evaluation may influence both psychological status and mental health. The ways of medical payment and employment status were predictors of anxiety and depression respectively, both of which reflected the economic stress that affected the psychological status and quality of life of the Chinese women, post-hysterectomy, before discharge. The findings of this study indicate that care for Chinese women post-hysterectomy, before discharge, should address their physical, psychological, social and economic well-being.

  2. Students' Mathematics Self-Efficacy, Anxiety, and Course Level at a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaniol, Scott R.

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that student success in mathematics is positively correlated to math self-efficacy and negatively correlated to math anxiety. At a Hispanic serving community college in the Midwest, developmental math students had a lower pass rate than did college-level math students, but the role of math self-efficacy and math anxiety on these…

  3. The Social Physique Anxiety Scale: construct validity in adolescent females.

    PubMed

    McAuley, E; Burman, G

    1993-09-01

    Hart, Leary, and Rejeski have developed the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPA), a measure of the anxiety experienced in response to having one's physique evaluated by other people. The present study cross-validated the psychometric properties of this measure in a sample (N = 236) of adolescent competitive female gymnasts. Employing structural equation modeling, the proposed unidimensional factor structure of the SPA was supported, although some questions regarding the robustness of the fit are raised. Construct validity was demonstrated by significant inverse relationships between aspects of physical efficacy (perceived physical ability and physical self-presentation confidence) and degree of social physique anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of possible alternative factor structures and integration of social anxiety and other psychosocial constructs to better understand physical activity behavior.

  4. [College students social anxiety associated with stress and mental health].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuefeng; Wang, Zhen; Gao, Jing; Hu, Weipeng

    2007-03-01

    To explore the mediator effects of social anxiety on college students' life stress and mental health. 1430 college students were tested by revised Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and social anxiety scale chose from Self-Consciousness Scale. 1. Social anxiety was the mediator variable between stress and mental health. 2. Female students were easily suffered from higher losing stress and human relationship stress in comparision with male. 3. Non-only child Students got a higher score in social anxiety and lower GHQ in comparision with only child. It may be helpful to improve the stress management and mental health of college students by testing and intervening their social anxiety perception.

  5. Gender differences in patients with dizziness and unsteadiness regarding self-perceived disability, anxiety, depression, and its associations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background It is known that anxiety and depression influence the level of disability experienced by persons with vertigo, dizziness or unsteadiness. Because higher prevalence rates of disabling dizziness have been found in women and some studies reported a higher level of psychiatric distress in female patients our primary aim was to explore whether women and men with vertigo, dizziness or unsteadiness differ regarding self-perceived disability, anxiety and depression. Secondly we planned to investigate the associations between disabling dizziness and anxiety and depression. Method Patients were recruited from a tertiary centre for vertigo and balance disorders. Participants rated their global disability as mild, moderate or severe. They filled out the Dizziness Handicap Inventory and the two subscales of the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). The HADS was analysed 1) by calculating the median values, 2) by estimating the prevalence rates of abnormal anxiety/depression based on recommended cut-off criteria. Mann-Whitney U-tests, Chi-square statistics and odds ratios (OR) were calculated to compare the observations in both genders. Significance values were adjusted with respect to multiple comparisons. Results Two-hundred and two patients (124 women) mean age (standard deviation) of 49.7 (13.5) years participated. Both genders did not differ significantly in the mean level of self-perceived disability, anxiety, depression and symptom severity. There was a tendency of a higher prevalence of abnormal anxiety and depression in men (23.7%; 28.9%) compared to women (14.5%; 15.3%). Patients with abnormal depression felt themselves 2.75 (95% CI: 1.31-5.78) times more severely disabled by dizziness and unsteadiness than patients without depression. In men the OR was 8.2 (2.35-28.4). In women chi-square statistic was not significant. The ORs (95% CI) of abnormal anxiety and severe disability were 4.2 (1.9-8.9) in the whole sample, 8.7 (2.5-30.3) in men, and not

  6. Validation of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale across the Anxiety Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Elissa J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The psychometric adequacy of the Social Interaction Scale and the Social Phobia Scale (both by R. P. Mattick and J. C. Clark, 1989) was studied with 165 patients with anxiety disorders and 21 people without anxiety. Results support the usefulness of the scales for screening and treatment design and evaluation. (SLD)

  7. High Agreement was Obtained Across Scores from Multiple Equated Scales for Social Anxiety Disorder using Item Response Theory.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Matthew; Batterham, Philip; Calear, Alison; Carragher, Natacha; Baillie, Andrew; Slade, Tim

    2018-04-10

    There is no standardized approach to the measurement of social anxiety. Researchers and clinicians are faced with numerous self-report scales with varying strengths, weaknesses, and psychometric properties. The lack of standardization makes it difficult to compare scores across populations that utilise different scales. Item response theory offers one solution to this problem via equating different scales using an anchor scale to set a standardized metric. This study is the first to equate several scales for social anxiety disorder. Data from two samples (n=3,175 and n=1,052), recruited from the Australian community using online advertisements, were utilised to equate a network of 11 self-report social anxiety scales via a fixed parameter item calibration method. Comparisons between actual and equated scores for most of the scales indicted a high level of agreement with mean differences <0.10 (equivalent to a mean difference of less than one point on the standardized metric). This study demonstrates that scores from multiple scales that measure social anxiety can be converted to a common scale. Re-scoring observed scores to a common scale provides opportunities to combine research from multiple studies and ultimately better assess social anxiety in treatment and research settings. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Heart-rate variability and precompetitive anxiety in swimmers.

    PubMed

    Cervantes Blásquez, Julio César; Rodas Font, Gil; Capdevila Ortís, Lluís

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to test the utility of heart-rate variability (HRV) analyses as a noninvasive means of quantifying cardiac autonomic regulation during precompetitive anxiety situations in swimmers. Psychophysiological state evaluation of 10 volunteer swimmers (6 women and 4 men) was obtained by comparing baseline training condition (TC) with competition condition (CC). Self-evaluation of precompetitive somatic anxiety measured by CSAI-2 showed significant increase from the TC to CC. Analysis showed that during higher precompetitive anxiety level, a significant reduction in the timing (RMSSD), frequency (HFms2 and HFnu) and Poincaré plot (SD1) of heart-rate variability was observed, and a significant increase in the low frequency to high frequency ratio (LF/HF %). The results indicate a shift towards sympathetic predominance as a result of parasympathetic withdrawal. Our results provide an HRV analysis in a valid, useful and non-invasive way to evaluate the change of sympathovagal balance in presence of precompetitive stress.

  9. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan: effects of family function and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen; Wu, Yu-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between three indicators of family adversity (domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage) and the severity of social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan, as well as the mediating effects of perceived family function and self-esteem on that relationship, using structural equation modeling (SEM). A total of 5607 adolescents completed the social anxiety subscale of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; the Family APGAR Index; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; and a questionnaire for domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety, as well as the mediating effects of family function and self-esteem, was examined using SEM. SEM analysis revealed that all three indicators of family adversity reduced the level of family function, that decreased family function compromised the level of self-esteem, and that a low level of self-esteem further increased the severity of social anxiety. The results indicated that, along with intervening to change family adversity, evaluating and improving adolescents' self-esteem and family function are also important clinical issues when helping adolescents reduce their social anxiety.

  10. Birth order and its relationship to depression, anxiety, and self-concept test scores in children.

    PubMed

    Gates, L; Lineberger, M R; Crockett, J; Hubbard, J

    1988-03-01

    Children (N = 404), 7 to 12 years old, were given the Children's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, and the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale. First-born children scored significantly lower on depression than second-, third-, fourth-born, and youngest children. First borns showed significantly less trait anxiety than third-born children. First-born children also showed significantly higher levels of self-esteem than second-born and youngest children. Girls in this study showed significantly more trait anxiety than boys.

  11. The impact of dental appearance and anxiety on self-esteem in adult orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Romero-Maroto, M; Santos-Puerta, N; González Olmo, M J; Peñacoba-Puente, C

    2015-08-01

    To analyse the relationship between different dimensions of dental appearance impact and self-esteem in adult patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, with special attention to the possible mediating role of anxiety. A quasi-experimental design was used with a matched control group (without orthodontic treatment). In each group (experimental and control), there were 85 patients. The impact of dental appearance was measured using the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ). State anxiety was assessed with the State Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S) and self-esteem with Rosenberg's self-esteem scale. In both groups (experimental and control), self-esteem correlates negatively, ranging between 0.26 and 0.43, with all dimensions of dental appearance impact (except for the positive dental self-confidence dimension, where all correlations were positive). Anxiety correlates positively, ranges between 0.35 and 0.44, with social impact, psychological impact and aesthetic concern, although it maintains no significant correlations with dental self-confidence. Nevertheless, in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, anxiety plays a mediating role between dental impact dimensions and self-esteem, whilst for the control group anxiety only plays a mediator role between psychological impact and self-esteem. Anxiety plays a fundamental role in the effect of perceived dental impact on self-esteem in adult patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. These results have important practical implications for the design of bio-psycho-social intervention programs that contemplate cognitive-affective variables as an essential part of orthodontic treatment in adults. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Different personalities between depression and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, E; Sakamoto, S; Kijima, N; Kitamura, T

    1998-12-01

    We examined the different personality dimensions between depression and anxiety with Cloninger's seven-factor model of temperament and character. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which measures four temperament and three character dimensions of Cloninger's personality theory (125-item short version), the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were administered to 223 Japanese students. With hierarchical regression analysis, the SDS score was predicted by scores of Harm-Avoidance, Self-Directedness, and Self-Transcendence, even after controlling for the STAI score. The STAI score was predicted by scores of Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness, even after controlling for the SDS score. More importance should be attached to these dimensions of character because they might contribute to both depression and anxiety.

  13. Role of Alexithymia, Anxiety, and Depression in Predicting Self-Efficacy in Academic Students.

    PubMed

    Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Khafri, Soraya

    2017-01-01

    Objective . Little research is available on the predictive factors of self-efficacy in college students. The aim of the present study is to examine the role of alexithymia, anxiety, and depression in predicting self-efficacy in academic students. Design . In a cross-sectional study, a total of 133 students at Babol University of Medical Sciences (Medicine, Dentistry, and Paramedicine) participated in the study between 2014 and 2015. All participants completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), College Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (CASES), and 14 items on anxiety and depression derived from the 28 items of the General Health Questionnaire (28-GHQ). Results . Pearson correlation coefficients revealed negative significant relationships between alexithymia and the three subscales with student self-efficacy. There was no significant correlation between anxiety/depression symptoms and student self-efficacy. A backward multiple regression analysis revealed that alexithymia was a negative significant predictor of self-efficacy in academic students ( B = -0.512, P < 0.001). The prevalence of alexithymia was 21.8% in students. Multiple backward logistic analysis regression revealed that number of passed semesters, gender, mother's education, father's education, and doctoral level did not accurately predict alexithymia in college students. Conclusion . As alexithymia is prevalent in college students and affects self-efficacy and academic functioning, we suggest it should be routinely evaluated by mental physicians at universities.

  14. Role of Alexithymia, Anxiety, and Depression in Predicting Self-Efficacy in Academic Students

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Little research is available on the predictive factors of self-efficacy in college students. The aim of the present study is to examine the role of alexithymia, anxiety, and depression in predicting self-efficacy in academic students. Design. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 133 students at Babol University of Medical Sciences (Medicine, Dentistry, and Paramedicine) participated in the study between 2014 and 2015. All participants completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), College Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (CASES), and 14 items on anxiety and depression derived from the 28 items of the General Health Questionnaire (28-GHQ). Results. Pearson correlation coefficients revealed negative significant relationships between alexithymia and the three subscales with student self-efficacy. There was no significant correlation between anxiety/depression symptoms and student self-efficacy. A backward multiple regression analysis revealed that alexithymia was a negative significant predictor of self-efficacy in academic students (B = −0.512, P < 0.001). The prevalence of alexithymia was 21.8% in students. Multiple backward logistic analysis regression revealed that number of passed semesters, gender, mother's education, father's education, and doctoral level did not accurately predict alexithymia in college students. Conclusion. As alexithymia is prevalent in college students and affects self-efficacy and academic functioning, we suggest it should be routinely evaluated by mental physicians at universities. PMID:28154839

  15. Reliability, validity and sensitivity of a computerized visual analog scale measuring state anxiety.

    PubMed

    Abend, Rany; Dan, Orrie; Maoz, Keren; Raz, Sivan; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2014-12-01

    Assessment of state anxiety is frequently required in clinical and research settings, but its measurement using standard multi-item inventories entails practical challenges. Such inventories are increasingly complemented by paper-and-pencil, single-item visual analog scales measuring state anxiety (VAS-A), which allow rapid assessment of current anxiety states. Computerized versions of VAS-A offer additional advantages, including facilitated and accurate data collection and analysis, and applicability to computer-based protocols. Here, we establish the psychometric properties of a computerized VAS-A. Experiment 1 assessed the reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity of the computerized VAS-A in a non-selected sample. Experiment 2 assessed its sensitivity to increase in state anxiety following social stress induction, in participants with high levels of social anxiety. Experiment 1 demonstrated the computerized VAS-A's test-retest reliability (r = .44, p < .001); convergent validity with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory's state subscale (STAI-State; r = .60, p < .001); and discriminant validity as indicated by significantly lower correlations between VAS-A and different psychological measures relative to the correlation between VAS-A and STAI-State. Experiment 2 demonstrated the VAS-A's sensitivity to changes in state anxiety via a significant pre- to during-stressor rise in VAS-A scores (F(1,48) = 25.13, p < .001). Set-order administration of measures, absence of clinically-anxious population, and gender-unbalanced samples. The adequate psychometric characteristics, combined with simple and rapid administration, make the computerized VAS-A a valuable self-rating tool for state anxiety. It may prove particularly useful for clinical and research settings where multi-item inventories are less applicable, including computer-based treatment and assessment protocols. The VAS-A is freely available: http://people.socsci.tau.ac.il/mu/anxietytrauma/visual-analog-scale

  16. Norwegian version of the rating anxiety in dementia scale (RAID-N): a validity and reliability study.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Alka R; Bergh, Sverre; Engedal, Knut; Kirkevold, Marit; Kirkevold, Øyvind

    2017-12-01

    Dementia-specific anxiety scales in the Norwegian language are lacking; the aim of this study was to investigate the validity and inter-rater reliability of a Norwegian version of the Rating Anxiety in Dementia (RAID-N) scale. The validity of the RAID-N was tested in a sample of 101 patients with dementia from seven Norwegian nursing homes. One psychogeriatrician (n = 50) or a physician with long experience with nursing home patients (n = 51) 'blind' to the RAID-N score diagnosed anxiety according to DSM-5 criteria of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis assessed the best cut-off point for the RAID-N, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Inter-rater reliability was tested in a subgroup of 53 patients by intraclass correlation (ICC) and Cohen's kappa. Twenty-eight of 101 (27.7%) met the GAD criteria. The mean RAID-N score for patients with GAD was 16.1 (SD 6.3) and without GAD, 8.8 (SD 6.5) (p < 0.001). A cut-off score of ≥12 on the RAID-N gave a sensitivity of 82.1%, specificity of 70.0%, and 73.3% accuracy in identifying clinically significant GAD in patients with dementia. Inter-rater reliability on overall RAID-N items was good (ICC = 0.82), Cohen's kappa was 0.58 for total RAID-N score, with satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.81). The RAID-N has fairly good validity and inter-rater reliability, and could be useful to assess GAD in patients with dementia. Further studies should investigate the optimal RAID-N cut-off score in different settings.

  17. The level of emotion control, anxiety, and self-efficacy in the elderly in Bialystok, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Cybulski, Mateusz; Cybulski, Lukasz; Krajewska-Kulak, Elzbieta; Cwalina, Urszula

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to assess the level of emotion control, anxiety, and self-efficacy in the inhabitants of Bialystok (Poland) aged above 60. Patients and methods The study included 300 people above the age of 60, inhabitants of Bialystok and its neighborhoods: 100 residents of public nursing home, 100 participants of the University of the Third Age in Bialystok, and 100 students of the University of Healthy Senior. The three standardized psychometric scales were used in the study: Courtauld Emotional Control Scale (CECS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES). Results The median of the overall score of CECS equaled 54 points, which is considered average in terms of negative emotions acceptance. The mean score of perceiving anxiety as the condition of STAI (X1) was 48 points, while anxiety as a trait of STAI (X2) was 49 points. The overall score for GSES proved that respondents had a subjective feeling of self-efficacy at the level of 29 points out of 40 points possible, which means that their self-efficacy was rather at the high level in their self-assessment. In women, a negative correlation was revealed between the sense of self-efficacy and age (r=−0.320, P<0.001). Analyzing the study group affiliation of respondents, a negative correlation was reported between the sense of self-efficacy and age among the elderly residents of public nursing home (r=−0.408, P<0.001). Taking into consideration the study group affiliation of respondents, a positive correlation between anger control (CECS) and the sense of anxiety as a trait of STAI (X2) was found among participants of the University of Healthy Senior (r=0.307, P=0.002). Conclusion The social and demographic features (gender, group affiliation, age) analyzed in the study were found to be correlated significantly with the control of negative emotions, the level of anxiety, and self-efficacy. The study group affiliation was a key variable conditioning the

  18. The Self-Consciousness Scale: A Discriminant Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Charles S.; Glass, David C.

    1976-01-01

    A validity study is conducted of the Self-Consciousness Scale components with male undergraduates. The components, Private and Public Self Consciousness and Social Anxiety did not correlate with any other measures used to establish their validity and thus seem to be independent of other measures tested. (Author/DEP)

  19. Ten-year review of rating scales. III: scales assessing suicidality, cognitive style, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Winters, Nancy C; Myers, Kathleen; Proud, Laura

    2002-10-01

    This is the third article in a series of 10-year reviews of rating scales. Here, the authors review scales that are useful in tapping the affective disturbances experienced with various psychiatric disorders, including suicidality, cognitive style, and self-esteem. The authors sampled articles incorporating these constructs over the past 25 years and selected scales with established uses or new development. Those presented here have adequate psychometric properties and high utility for efficiently elucidating youths' functioning, plus either wide literature citations or a special niche. These scales were developed bimodally. Many were developed in the 1980s when internalizing disorders were elucidated, but there has been a resurgence of interest in these constructs. Scales assessing suicidality have clear constructs, whereas scales of cognitive style demonstrate deficits in developmental relevance, and scales of self-esteem suffer from lax constructs. The constructs underlying these scales tap core symptoms of internalizing disorders, mediate the expression of affective disturbances associated with various disorders, and depict the impairments resulting from these disorders. Overall, the psychometrics of these scales are adequate. These scales provide a broader representation of youths' functioning than that conveyed with diagnostic scales alone.

  20. The Relationship between Virtual Self Similarity and Social Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Aymerich-Franch, Laura; Kizilcec, René F; Bailenson, Jeremy N

    2014-01-01

    In virtual reality (VR), it is possible to embody avatars that are dissimilar to the physical self. We examined whether embodying a dissimilar self in VR would decrease anxiety in a public speaking situation. We report the results of an observational pilot study and two laboratory experiments. In the pilot study (N = 252), participants chose an avatar to use in a public speaking task. Trait public speaking anxiety correlated with avatar preference, such that anxious individuals preferred dissimilar self-representations. In Study 1 (N = 82), differences in anxiety during a speech in front of a virtual audience were compared among participants embodying an assigned avatar whose face was identical to their real self, an assigned avatar whose face was other than their real face, or embodied an avatar of their choice. Anxiety differences were not significant, but there was a trend for lower anxiety with the assigned dissimilar avatar compared to the avatar looking like the real self. Study 2 (N = 105) was designed to explicate that trend, and further investigated anxiety differences with an assigned self or dissimilar avatar. The assigned dissimilar avatar reduced anxiety relative to the assigned self avatar for one measure of anxiety. We discuss implications for theories of self-representation as well as for applied uses of VR to treat social anxiety.

  1. The Relationship between Virtual Self Similarity and Social Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Aymerich-Franch, Laura; Kizilcec, René F.; Bailenson, Jeremy N.

    2014-01-01

    In virtual reality (VR), it is possible to embody avatars that are dissimilar to the physical self. We examined whether embodying a dissimilar self in VR would decrease anxiety in a public speaking situation. We report the results of an observational pilot study and two laboratory experiments. In the pilot study (N = 252), participants chose an avatar to use in a public speaking task. Trait public speaking anxiety correlated with avatar preference, such that anxious individuals preferred dissimilar self-representations. In Study 1 (N = 82), differences in anxiety during a speech in front of a virtual audience were compared among participants embodying an assigned avatar whose face was identical to their real self, an assigned avatar whose face was other than their real face, or embodied an avatar of their choice. Anxiety differences were not significant, but there was a trend for lower anxiety with the assigned dissimilar avatar compared to the avatar looking like the real self. Study 2 (N = 105) was designed to explicate that trend, and further investigated anxiety differences with an assigned self or dissimilar avatar. The assigned dissimilar avatar reduced anxiety relative to the assigned self avatar for one measure of anxiety. We discuss implications for theories of self-representation as well as for applied uses of VR to treat social anxiety. PMID:25477810

  2. Effects of Self-Image on Anxiety, Judgement Bias and Emotion Regulation in Social Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hannah; Ahn, Jung-Kwang; Kwon, Jung-Hye

    2018-04-25

    Research to date has focused on the detrimental effects of negative self-images for individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD), but the benefits of positive self-images have been neglected. The present study examined the effect of holding a positive versus negative self-image in mind on anxiety, judgement bias and emotion regulation (ER) in individuals with SAD. Forty-two individuals who met the diagnostic criteria for SAD were randomly assigned to either a positive or a negative self-image group. Participants were assessed twice with a week's interval in between using the Reactivity and Regulation Situation Task, which measures social anxiety, discomfort, judgement bias and ER, prior to and after the inducement of a positive or negative self-image. Individuals in the positive self-image group reported less social anxiety, discomfort and distress from social cost when compared with their pre-induction state. They also used more adaptive ER strategies and experienced less anxiety and discomfort after using ER. In contrast, individuals in the negative self-image group showed no significant differences in anxiety, judgement bias or ER strategies before and after the induction. This study highlights the beneficial effects of positive self-images on social anxiety and ER.

  3. Sexual Self-concept and Its Relationship to Depression, Stress and Anxiety in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Mohammad; Ghodusi, Mansureh; Rafiei, Hossein

    2017-04-01

    Women in menopause have the more mood swings than before menopause. At the same time seem to sexual self-concept and sexual aspects of self-knowledge has a great impact on their mental health. This study aimed to investigate the sexual self-concept and its relationship to depression, stress and anxiety in postmenopausal women's. In this descriptive correlation research, 300 of postmenopausal women referred to healthcare and medical treatment centers in Abadeh city were selected by convenience sampling method. The information in this study was collected by using questionnaires of multidimensional sexual self-concept and depression anxiety stress scale 21 (DASS-21). For data analysis, SPSS/17 software was used. The results showed the mean score positive sexual self-concept was 41.03 ± 8.66 and the average score of negative sexual self in women's was 110.32 ± 43.05. As well as scores of depression, stress, and anxiety, 35.67%, 32.33% and 37.67% respectively were in severe level. Positive and negative sexual self-concept scores with scores of stress, anxiety, and depression, of post-menopausal women in the confidence of 0.01, is significantly correlated ( P < 0.05). Being stress, anxiety, and depression in severe level and also a significant correlation between increased stress, anxiety and depression with negative and weak self-concept of women's, it is necessary to devote more careful attention to mental health issues of women's and have appropriate interventions.

  4. Sexual Self-concept and Its Relationship to Depression, Stress and Anxiety in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Mohammad; Rafiei, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Women in menopause have the more mood swings than before menopause. At the same time seem to sexual self-concept and sexual aspects of self-knowledge has a great impact on their mental health. This study aimed to investigate the sexual self-concept and its relationship to depression, stress and anxiety in postmenopausal women's. Methods In this descriptive correlation research, 300 of postmenopausal women referred to healthcare and medical treatment centers in Abadeh city were selected by convenience sampling method. The information in this study was collected by using questionnaires of multidimensional sexual self-concept and depression anxiety stress scale 21 (DASS-21). For data analysis, SPSS/17 software was used. Results The results showed the mean score positive sexual self-concept was 41.03 ± 8.66 and the average score of negative sexual self in women's was 110.32 ± 43.05. As well as scores of depression, stress, and anxiety, 35.67%, 32.33% and 37.67% respectively were in severe level. Positive and negative sexual self-concept scores with scores of stress, anxiety, and depression, of post-menopausal women in the confidence of 0.01, is significantly correlated (P < 0.05). Conclusions Being stress, anxiety, and depression in severe level and also a significant correlation between increased stress, anxiety and depression with negative and weak self-concept of women's, it is necessary to devote more careful attention to mental health issues of women's and have appropriate interventions. PMID:28523258

  5. Relationship between anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and conduct disorder symptoms in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Bilgiç, Ayhan; Türkoğlu, Serhat; Ozcan, Ozlem; Tufan, Ali Evren; Yılmaz, Savaş; Yüksel, Tuğba

    2013-09-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often comorbid with anxiety disorders and previous studies observed that anxiety could have an impact on the clinical course of ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavioral disorders (conduct disorders and oppositional-defiant disorders). Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a different concept from anxiety per se and it is believed to represent the constitutionally based sensitivity of individuals to anxiety and anxiety symptoms. We aimed to assess the associations between anxiety, AS and symptoms of disruptive behavioral disorders (DBD) in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample consisted of 274 treatment naive children with ADHD aged 8-17 years. The severity of ADHD symptoms and comorbid DBD were assessed via parent rated Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Behavioral Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S), Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS), and Conners' Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS). AS and severity of anxiety symptoms of children were evaluated by self-report inventories. The association between anxiety, AS, and DBD was evaluated using structural equation modeling. Analyses revealed that AS social subscale scores negatively predicted symptoms of conduct disorder (CD) reported in T-DSM-IV-S. On the other hand, CD symptoms positively predicted severity of anxiety. No direct relationships were detected between anxiety, AS and oppositional-defiant behavior scores in any scales. These results may suggest a protective effect of AS social area on the development of conduct disorder in the presence of a diagnosis of ADHD, while the presence of symptoms of CD may be a vulnerability factor for the development of anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  6. Not self-focused attention but negative beliefs affect poor social performance in social anxiety: an investigation of pathways in the social anxiety-social rejection relationship.

    PubMed

    Voncken, Marisol J; Dijk, Corine; de Jong, Peter J; Roelofs, Jeffrey

    2010-10-01

    Patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) not only fear negative evaluation but are indeed less likeable than people without SAD. Previous research shows social performance to mediate this social anxiety-social rejection relationship. This study studied two pathways hypothesized to lead to poor social performance in social anxiety: increased self-focused attention and negative beliefs. State social anxiety was experimentally manipulated in high and low-blushing-fearful individuals by letting half of the participants believe that they blushed intensely during a 5 min getting-acquainted interaction with two confederates. Participants rated their state social anxiety, self-focused attention, and level of negative beliefs. Two confederates and two video-observers rated subsequently likeability (i.e., social rejection) and social performance of the participants. In both groups, the social anxiety-social rejection relationship was present. Although state social anxiety was related to heightened self-focused attention and negative beliefs, only negative beliefs were associated with relatively poor social performance. In contrast to current SAD models, self-focused attention did not play a key-role in poor social performance but seemed to function as a by-product of state social anxiety. Beliefs of being negatively evaluated seem to elicit changes in behavioral repertoire resulting in a poor social performance and subsequent rejection. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms in school-aged Singaporean children.

    PubMed

    Magiati, Iliana; Ponniah, Kathryn; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Chan, Yiong Huak; Fung, Daniel; Woo, Bernardine

    2015-03-01

    Few studies have examined anxiety and depression experiences of primary (middle) school-aged children from ethnically diverse backgrounds, and most have relied on parents or others as informants. The present study aimed to investigate self-reported anxiety and depression symptoms in Singaporean primary school-aged children. Age, gender, and ethnic differences and interactions were explored as well as similarities and differences between Singaporean children and US norms. A large representative community sample of 1655 8- to 12-year-old Singaporean children (Chinese, Malay, and Indian) completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) as part of a larger epidemiological study of mental health in Singaporean children. Rates of clinically elevated symptoms of anxiety and depression were 9.3% and 16.9% on the MASC and the CDI, respectively. Separation and social anxieties were most common. Evidence of a gender difference in levels of emotional symptoms was most evident in Indian children, with girls reporting more symptoms than boys. The relationship between age and internalizing problems was weak. A substantial minority of primary school-aged Singaporean children reported elevated anxious and depressive symptoms. Better understanding of the factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of these problems can help the development of culture-specific interventions and facilitate the planning of community-tailored services and initiatives. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. The nature of self-esteem and its relationship to anxiety and depression in adult acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Longworth, Catherine; Deakins, Joseph; Rose, David; Gracey, Fergus

    2016-08-31

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) has a negative impact on self-esteem, which is in turn associated with mood disorders, maladaptive coping and reduced community participation. The aim of the current research was to explore self-esteem as a multi-dimensional construct and identify which factors are associated with symptoms of anxiety or depression. Eighty adults with ABI aged 17-56 years completed the Robson Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), of whom 65 also completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; 57.5% of the sample had clinically low self-esteem. The RSES had good internal consistency (α =   .89), and factor analysis identified four factors, which differed from those found previously in other populations. Multiple regression analysis revealed anxiety was differentially predicted by "Self-Worth" and "Self-Efficacy", R 2  =   .44, F(4, 58) =   9, p <   .001, and depression by "Self-Regard", R 2  =   .38, F(4, 58) =   9, p <   .001. A fourth factor, "Confidence", did not predict depression or anxiety. In conclusion, the RSES is a reliable measure of self-esteem after ABI. Self-esteem after ABI is multidimensional and differs in structure from self-esteem in the general population. A multidimensional model of self-esteem may be helpful in development of transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural accounts of adjustment.

  9. Do self-report measures of social anxiety reflect cultural bias or real difficulties for Asian American college students?

    PubMed

    Ho, Lorinda Y; Lau, Anna S

    2011-01-01

    Construal of the self as independent or interdependent in relation to others has been found to correlate significantly with social anxiety symptom ratings, raising concerns about possible cultural bias in these measures for Asian Americans. To investigate the validity of self-reported social anxiety symptoms, we examined the role of ethnicity in the associations among social anxiety, self-construal, and adaptive social functioning in a sample of 229 Asian- and European American college students. Results revealed that ethnicity moderated the relationship between self-construal and social anxiety such that interdependent self-construal was associated with higher social anxiety only for first generation Asian Americans. However, there were no significant ethnic differences in the associations between social anxiety self-reports and several measures of social functioning.

  10. A symptom self-rating scale for schizophrenia (4S): psychometric properties, reliability and validity.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Eva; Jedenius, Erik; Levander, Sten

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to validate a self-administrated symptom rating scale for use in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders by item analysis, exploration of factor structure, and analyses of reliability and validity. Data on 151 patients, initially treated by risperidone, obtained within the framework of a naturalistic Phase IV longitudinal study, were analysed by comparing patient and clinician ratings of symptoms, side-effects and global indices of illness. The Symptom Self-rating Scale for Schizophrenia (4S) is psychometrically adequate (item analysis, internal consistency, factor structure). Side-effect ratings were reliable. Symptom ratings displayed consistent associations with clinicians' ratings of corresponding symptom dimensions, suggesting construct validity. Patients had most difficulties assessing negative symptom items. Patients were well able to assess their own symptoms and drug side-effects. The factor structure of symptom ratings differs between patients and clinicians as well as how they construe global indices of illness. Clinicians focus on psychotic, patients on affective symptoms. Use of symptom self-ratings is one way to improve communication and thereby strengthen the therapeutic alliance and increase treatment adherence.

  11. Influence of Competitive-Anxiety on Heart Rate Variability in Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Leonardo S; da Costa, Bruna D V; Paes, Pedro P; do Nascimento Júnior, José R A; Fiorese, Lenamar; Ferreira, Maria E C

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between competitive anxiety and heart rate variability (HRV) in swimming athletes. A total of 66 volunteers (41 male and 27 female) who swam the 400-m freestyle in the Brazilian Swimming Championships participated. Thirty minutes before the 400-m freestyle event, the athletes answered the Competitive Anxiety Inventory (CSAI-2R) questionnaire, then underwent anthropometric (body weight, height, and skinfold thickness) and HRV measurements. Then, at a second meeting, held 3 h after the 400-m freestyle event, the athletes returned to the evaluation room for HRV measurement (Polar ® RS800cx, Kempele, Finland). Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between competitive anxiety and HRV. The multiple linear regression was performed in three blocks (block 1: cognitive anxiety, block 2: somatic anxiety, and block 3: self-confidence), adopting the forward model. The results indicated a significant association between cognitive anxiety (p = 0.001) and HRV. An increased magnitude of the association was observed when somatic anxiety was inserted in the model (p = 0.001). In contrast, self-confidence showed, which was inserted in block 3, no relationship with HRV (p = 0.27). It was concluded that cognitive and somatic anxieties were associated with the HRV of swimmers. Athletes with a high magnitude of cognitive and/or somatic anxiety demonstrated more significant autonomic nervous system disturbance. Practically, psychological interventions are needed to improve anxiety states that are specific to perform well, and to improve HRV.

  12. Perceived appraisals by others, self-esteem, and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, D C; Schwab, M R

    1977-11-01

    Questionnaire data from 595 male and female college students were used to test four hypotheses regarding interpersonal sources of anxiety--i.e., that high anxiety occurs as a function of (a) low subjective public-esteem (perceived negative appraisals of self by others); (b) low self-esteem; (c) discrepancies where subjective public-esteem is more negative than self-esteem; and (d) absolute discrepancies between subjective public-esteem and self-esteem, regardless of evaluative direction. The results suggested that level of self-esteem and absolute discrepancies between subjective public-esteem and self-esteem are important and relatively independent factors in anxiety.

  13. Library Anxiety of Law Students: A Study Utilizing the Multidimensional Library Anxiety Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Stacey L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether law students experienced library anxiety and, if so, which components contributed to that anxiety. The Multidimensional Library Anxiety Scale (MLAS) developed by Dr. Doris Van Kampen was used to assess library anxiety levels of law students. The MLAS is a 53 question Likert scale instrument that…

  14. Level of anxiety versus self-care in the preoperative and postoperative periods of total laryngectomy patients 1

    PubMed Central

    Almonacid, Clara Inés Flórez; Ramos, Alfredo Jurado; Rodríguez-Borrego, María-Aurora

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: estimate the prevalence of anxiety in laryngectomy patients in the pre and postoperative periods and its relation with the self-care level. Method: observational research of 40 patients with stage IV laryngeal cancer. Three observations took place: in the preoperative phase, at seven and at 14 days after the surgery; between June 2010 and December 2012. Two self-care levels were defined: self-sufficient and needing help for activities of daily living and treatment-related activities. To assess the anxiety levels, Zigmond's hospital anxiety scale (1983) was used. Results: in the preoperative and postoperative phases, the patients presented high levels of anxiety. Concerning self-care, on average, self-sufficient patients presented lower levels of anxiety than patients who needed help to accomplish activities of daily living and activities deriving from the surgery, without significant differences. Conclusion: anxiety is present at all times in laryngectomy patients and the reduction of the self-care deficit seems to decrease it, without putting a permanent end to it. PMID:27305181

  15. Self-Efficacy, Gender and Trait Anxiety as Moderators of Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyeizugbo, Euckay U.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Test anxiety inhibits students from performing according to their full potential in academic setting. Objectives: This study investigated self-efficacy, gender and trait anxiety as moderators of test anxiety. Method: Two hundred and forty nine (249) psychology majors drawn from a university in Eastern Nigeria participated in the…

  16. The Dutch Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale: Reliability, Validity, and Clinical Utility

    PubMed Central

    Tielen, Deirdre; Wollmann, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The social interaction anxiety scale (SIAS) and the social phobia scale (SPS) assess anxiety in social interactions and fear of scrutiny by others. This study examines the psychometric properties of the Dutch versions of the SIAS and SPS using data from a large group of patients with social phobia and a community-based sample. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the SIAS is unidimensional, whereas the SPS is comprised of three subscales. The internal consistency of the scales and subscales was good. The concurrent and discriminant validity was supported and the scales were well able to discriminate between patients and community-based respondents. Cut-off values with excellent sensitivity and specificity are presented. Of all self-report measures included, the SPS was the most sensitive for treatment effects. Normative data are provided which can be used to assess whether clinically significant change has occurred in individual patients. PMID:24701560

  17. The dutch social interaction anxiety scale and the social phobia scale: reliability, validity, and clinical utility.

    PubMed

    de Beurs, Edwin; Tielen, Deirdre; Wollmann, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The social interaction anxiety scale (SIAS) and the social phobia scale (SPS) assess anxiety in social interactions and fear of scrutiny by others. This study examines the psychometric properties of the Dutch versions of the SIAS and SPS using data from a large group of patients with social phobia and a community-based sample. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the SIAS is unidimensional, whereas the SPS is comprised of three subscales. The internal consistency of the scales and subscales was good. The concurrent and discriminant validity was supported and the scales were well able to discriminate between patients and community-based respondents. Cut-off values with excellent sensitivity and specificity are presented. Of all self-report measures included, the SPS was the most sensitive for treatment effects. Normative data are provided which can be used to assess whether clinically significant change has occurred in individual patients.

  18. Influence of Competitive-Anxiety on Heart Rate Variability in Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, Leonardo S.; da Costa, Bruna D. V.; Paes, Pedro P.; do Nascimento Júnior, José R.A.; Fiorese, Lenamar; Ferreira, Maria E.C.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between competitive anxiety and heart rate variability (HRV) in swimming athletes. A total of 66 volunteers (41 male and 27 female) who swam the 400-m freestyle in the Brazilian Swimming Championships participated. Thirty minutes before the 400-m freestyle event, the athletes answered the Competitive Anxiety Inventory (CSAI-2R) questionnaire, then underwent anthropometric (body weight, height, and skinfold thickness) and HRV measurements. Then, at a second meeting, held 3 h after the 400-m freestyle event, the athletes returned to the evaluation room for HRV measurement (Polar® RS800cx, Kempele, Finland). Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between competitive anxiety and HRV. The multiple linear regression was performed in three blocks (block 1: cognitive anxiety, block 2: somatic anxiety, and block 3: self-confidence), adopting the forward model. The results indicated a significant association between cognitive anxiety (p = 0.001) and HRV. An increased magnitude of the association was observed when somatic anxiety was inserted in the model (p = 0.001). In contrast, self-confidence showed, which was inserted in block 3, no relationship with HRV (p = 0.27). It was concluded that cognitive and somatic anxieties were associated with the HRV of swimmers. Athletes with a high magnitude of cognitive and/or somatic anxiety demonstrated more significant autonomic nervous system disturbance. Practically, psychological interventions are needed to improve anxiety states that are specific to perform well, and to improve HRV. Key points The level of competitive-anxiety can predict HRV’s response after competition in young swimming athletes. Young swimming athletes who demonstrate higher competitive-anxiety, may present high autonomic nervous system disorder, which can be evaluated by HRV. Coaches are encouraged to periodically evaluate the competitive-anxiety of young swimming athletes. PMID

  19. Anxiety levels in adolescents who stutter.

    PubMed

    Blood, Gordon W; Blood, Ingrid M; Maloney, Kristy; Meyer, Crystal; Qualls, Constance Dean

    2007-01-01

    High levels of anxiety can negatively affect the lives of children and adolescents. Thirty-six adolescents who stutter and 36 adolescents who do not stutter were administered standardized scales for anxiety and self-esteem. Significant differences were found for the total T-scores for Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale for the two groups, although both groups mean T-scores were within normal range. Eighty-three percent of adolescents who stutter and 95% of adolescents who do not stutter earned scores in the normal range. No significant differences were found on the self-esteem scale, with 86% of adolescents who stutter and 97% of adolescents who do not stutter earning scores in the normal/positive range. Adolescents who stutter with co-occurring disorders displayed significantly higher levels of anxiety than adolescents who stutter with no co-occurring disorders. No significant differences were found between groups on ethnicity, socioeconomic class, gender and anxiety levels. A positive, significant correlation between anxiety scores and self-esteem scores was found for both groups. Readers will learn about and understand (a) the role of anxiety and self-esteem in stuttering; (b) the methods used to evaluate anxiety and self-esteem in adolescents; and (c) the similarities between adolescents who stutter and adolescents who do not stutter on anxiety and self-esteem scales.

  20. Internet Addiction and Relationships with Insomnia, Anxiety, Depression, Stress and Self-Esteem in University Students: A Cross-Sectional Designed Study

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Hicham; El Osta, Nada; Karam, Latife; Hajj, Aline; Rabbaa Khabbaz, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Internet addiction (IA) could be a major concern in university medical students aiming to develop into health professionals. The implications of this addiction as well as its association with sleep, mood disorders and self-esteem can hinder their studies, impact their long-term career goals and have wide and detrimental consequences for society as a whole. The objectives of this study were to: 1) Assess potential IA in university medical students, as well as factors associated with it; 2) Assess the relationships between potential IA, insomnia, depression, anxiety, stress and self-esteem. Methods Our study was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey conducted among 600 students of three faculties: medicine, dentistry and pharmacy at Saint-Joseph University. Four validated and reliable questionnaires were used: the Young Internet Addiction Test, the Insomnia Severity Index, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS 21), and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES). Results The average YIAT score was 30 ± 18.474; Potential IA prevalence rate was 16.8% (95% confidence interval: 13.81–19.79%) and it was significantly different between males and females (p-value = 0.003), with a higher prevalence in males (23.6% versus 13.9%). Significant correlations were found between potential IA and insomnia, stress, anxiety, depression and self-esteem (p-value < 0.001); ISI and DASS sub-scores were higher and self-esteem lower in students with potential IA. Conclusions Identifying students with potential IA is important because this addiction often coexists with other psychological problems. Therefore, interventions should include not only IA management but also associated psychosocial stressors such as insomnia, anxiety, depression, stress, and self-esteem. PMID:27618306

  1. Internet Addiction and Relationships with Insomnia, Anxiety, Depression, Stress and Self-Esteem in University Students: A Cross-Sectional Designed Study.

    PubMed

    Younes, Farah; Halawi, Ghinwa; Jabbour, Hicham; El Osta, Nada; Karam, Latife; Hajj, Aline; Rabbaa Khabbaz, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) could be a major concern in university medical students aiming to develop into health professionals. The implications of this addiction as well as its association with sleep, mood disorders and self-esteem can hinder their studies, impact their long-term career goals and have wide and detrimental consequences for society as a whole. The objectives of this study were to: 1) Assess potential IA in university medical students, as well as factors associated with it; 2) Assess the relationships between potential IA, insomnia, depression, anxiety, stress and self-esteem. Our study was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey conducted among 600 students of three faculties: medicine, dentistry and pharmacy at Saint-Joseph University. Four validated and reliable questionnaires were used: the Young Internet Addiction Test, the Insomnia Severity Index, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS 21), and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES). The average YIAT score was 30 ± 18.474; Potential IA prevalence rate was 16.8% (95% confidence interval: 13.81-19.79%) and it was significantly different between males and females (p-value = 0.003), with a higher prevalence in males (23.6% versus 13.9%). Significant correlations were found between potential IA and insomnia, stress, anxiety, depression and self-esteem (p-value < 0.001); ISI and DASS sub-scores were higher and self-esteem lower in students with potential IA. Identifying students with potential IA is important because this addiction often coexists with other psychological problems. Therefore, interventions should include not only IA management but also associated psychosocial stressors such as insomnia, anxiety, depression, stress, and self-esteem.

  2. Decrease in heart rate variability response to task is related to anxiety and depressiveness in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Shinba, Toshikazu; Kariya, Nobutoshi; Matsui, Yasue; Ozawa, Nobuyuki; Matsuda, Yoshiki; Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that heart rate variability (HRV) measurement is useful in investigating the pathophysiology of various psychiatric disorders. The present study further examined its usefulness in evaluating the mental health of normal subjects with respect to anxiety and depressiveness. Heart rate (HR) and HRV were measured tonometrically at the wrist in 43 normal subjects not only in the resting condition but also during a task (random number generation) to assess the responsiveness. For HRV measurement, high-frequency (HF; 0.15-0.4 Hz) and low-frequency (LF; 0.04-0.15 Hz) components of HRV were obtained using MemCalc, a time series analysis technique that combines a non-linear least square method with maximum entropy method. For psychological evaluation of anxiety and depressiveness, two self-report questionnaires were used: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). No significant relation was observed between HR and HRV indices, and the psychological scores both in the resting and task conditions. By task application, HF decreased, and LF/HF and HR increased, and significant correlation with psychological scores was found in the responsiveness to task measured by the ratio of HRV and HR indices during the task to that at rest (task/rest ratio). A positive relationship was found between task/rest ratio for HF, and STAI and SDS scores. Task/rest ratio of HR was negatively correlated with STAI-state score. Decreased HRV response to task application is related to anxiety and depressiveness. Decreased autonomic responsiveness could serve as a sign of psychological dysfunction.

  3. The Spanish Version of the Self-Statements during Public Speaking Scale: Validation in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Raul; Garcia-Lopez, Luisjoaquin; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary theories of social anxiety emphasize the role of cognitive processes. Although social anxiety disorder is one of the most common mental health problems in adolescents, there are very few self-report instruments available to measure cognitive processes related to social anxiety in adolescents, let alone non-English instruments. The Self-Statements during Public Speaking Scale (SSPS; Hofmann & DiBartolo, 2000) is a brief self-report measure designed to assess self-statements related to public speaking, the most commonly feared social performance situation. In order to fill this gap in the literature, we translated the SSPS into Spanish and administered it to 1,694 adolescents from a community sample, a clinical sample composed of 71 subjects with a principal diagnosis of social anxiety disorder; and a clinical control group consisting of 154 patients. The scale showed good psychometric properties, supporting the use of the Spanish version of the SSPS in adolescents.

  4. Detecting the severity of perinatal anxiety with the Perinatal Anxiety Screening Scale (PASS).

    PubMed

    Somerville, Susanne; Byrne, Shannon L; Dedman, Kellie; Hagan, Rosemary; Coo, Soledad; Oxnam, Elizabeth; Doherty, Dorota; Cunningham, Nadia; Page, Andrew C

    2015-11-01

    The Perinatal Anxiety Screening Scale (PASS; Somerville et al., 2014) reliably identifies perinatal women at risk of problematic anxiety when a clinical cut-off score of 26 is used. This study aimed to identify a severity continuum of anxiety symptoms with the PASS to enhance screening, treatment and research for perinatal anxiety. Antenatal and postnatal women (n=410) recruited from the antenatal clinics and mental health services at an obstetric hospital completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), the Spielberg State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI), and the PASS. The women referred to mental health services were assessed to determine anxiety diagnoses via a diagnostic interview conducted by an experienced mental health professional from the Department of Psychological Medicine - King Edward Memorial Hospital. Three normative groups for the PASS, namely minimal anxiety, mild-moderate anxiety, and severe anxiety, were identified based on the severity of anxiety indicated on the standardised scales and anxiety diagnoses. Two cut-off points for the normative groups were calculated using the Jacobson-Truax method (Jacobson and Truax, 1991) resulting in three severity ranges: 'minimal anxiety'; 'mild-moderate anxiety'; and 'severe anxiety'. The most frequent diagnoses in the study sample were adjustment disorder, mixed anxiety and depression, generalised anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. This may limit the generalisability of the severity range results to other anxiety diagnoses including obsessive compulsive disorder and specific phobia. Severity ranges for the PASS add value to having a clinically validated cut-off score in the detection and monitoring of problematic perinatal anxiety. The PASS can now be used to identify risk of an anxiety disorder and the severity ranges can indicate developing risk for early referrals for further assessments

  5. Factor solutions of the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) in a Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Mörtberg, Ewa; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Tillfors, Maria; Furmark, Tomas; Öst, Lars-Göran

    2017-06-01

    Culturally validated rating scales for social anxiety disorder (SAD) are of significant importance when screening for the disorder, as well as for evaluating treatment efficacy. This study examined construct validity and additional psychometric properties of two commonly used scales, the Social Phobia Scale and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, in a clinical SAD population (n = 180) and in a normal population (n = 614) in Sweden. Confirmatory factor analyses of previously reported factor solutions were tested but did not reveal acceptable fit. Exploratory factor analyses (EFA) of the joint structure of the scales in the total population yielded a two-factor model (performance anxiety and social interaction anxiety), whereas EFA in the clinical sample revealed a three-factor solution, a social interaction anxiety factor and two performance anxiety factors. The SPS and SIAS showed good to excellent internal consistency, and discriminated well between patients with SAD and a normal population sample. Both scales showed good convergent validity with an established measure of SAD, whereas the discriminant validity of symptoms of social anxiety and depression could not be confirmed. The optimal cut-off score for SPS and SIAS were 18 and 22 points, respectively. It is concluded that the factor structure and the additional psychometric properties of SPS and SIAS support the use of the scales for assessment in a Swedish population.

  6. Validation of the Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) with Supervisors' Self-Ratings.

    PubMed

    Torres, Elisa M; Ehrhart, Mark G; Beidas, Rinad S; Farahnak, Lauren R; Finn, Natalie K; Aarons, Gregory A

    2018-01-01

    Although often discussed, there is a lack of empirical research on the role of leadership in the management and delivery of health services. The implementation leadership scale (ILS) assesses the degree to which leaders are knowledgeable, proactive, perseverant, and supportive during evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the ILS for leaders' self-ratings using a sample of mental health clinic supervisors (N = 119). Supervisors (i.e., leaders) completed surveys including self-ratings of their implementation leadership. Confirmatory factor analysis, reliability, and validity of the ILS were evaluated. The ILS factor structure was supported in the sample of supervisors. Results demonstrated internal consistency reliability and validity. Cronbach alpha's ranged from 0.92 to 0.96 for the ILS subscales and 0.95 for the ILS overall scale. The factor structure replication and reliability of the ILS in a sample of supervisors demonstrates its applicability with employees across organizational levels.

  7. Rating scale item assessment of self-harm in postpartum women: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Coker, Jessica L; Tripathi, Shanti P; Knight, Bettina T; Pennell, Page B; Magann, Everett F; Newport, D Jeffrey; Stowe, Zachary N

    2017-10-01

    We examined the utility of screening instruments to identify risk factors for suicidal ideation (SI) in a population of women with neuropsychiatric illnesses at high risk for postpartum depression. Pregnant women with neuropsychiatric illness enrolled prior to 20 weeks of gestation. Follow-up visits at 4-8-week intervals through 13 weeks postpartum included assessment of depressive symptoms with both clinician and self-rated scales. A total of 842 women were included in the study. Up to 22.3% of postpartum women admitted SI on rating scales, despite the majority (79%) receiving active pharmacological treatment for psychiatric illness. Postpartum women admitting self-harm/SI were more likely to meet criteria for current major depressive episode (MDE), less than college education, an unplanned pregnancy, a history of past suicide attempt, and a higher score on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. In women with a history of neuropsychiatric illness, over 20% admitted SI during the postpartum period despite ongoing psychiatric treatment. Patient-rated depression scales are more sensitive screening tools than a clinician-rated depression scale for +SI in the postpartum period.

  8. Correlative analysis of social support with anxiety and depression in men undergoing in vitro fertilization embryo transfer for the first time.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yue-Zhi; Yang, Xiao-Xia; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2013-08-01

    To explore the correlation between the level of social support and the extent of anxiety and depression in Chinese men undergoing in vitro fertilization embryo transfer (IVF-ET) for the first time, in order to provide a basis for male mental health counselling. Self-administered questionnaires covering general health status, anxiety (self-rating anxiety scale), depression (self-rating depression scale) and social support (social support rating scale) were completed by men undergoing their first round of IVF-ET. A total of 502 completed questionnaires were considered valid and were analysed. The anxiety, depression and social support scores for men undergoing their first round of IVF-ET were significantly higher than those for Chinese normative data. Social support was inversely correlated with anxiety and depression. These findings suggest that health care professionals should provide specific psychological counselling to Chinese men undergoing their first round of IVF-ET, in order to improve their psychological health and to facilitate increased levels of social support.

  9. The Spanish Version of the Self-Statements during Public Speaking Scale: Validation in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rivero, Raul; Garcia-Lopez, LuisJoaquin; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary theories of social anxiety emphasize the role of cognitive processes. Although social anxiety disorder is one of the most common mental health problems in adolescents, there are very few self-report instruments available to measure cognitive processes related to social anxiety in adolescents, let alone non-English instruments. The Self-Statements during Public Speaking Scale (SSPS; Hofmann & DiBartolo, 2000) is a brief self-report measure designed to assess self-statements related to public speaking, the most commonly feared social performance situation. In order to fill this gap in the literature, we translated the SSPS into Spanish and administered it to 1,694 adolescents from a community sample, a clinical sample composed of 71 subjects with a principal diagnosis of social anxiety disorder; and a clinical control group consisting of 154 patients. The scale showed good psychometric properties, supporting the use of the Spanish version of the SSPS in adolescents. PMID:20490370

  10. Test Anxiety in Spanish Adolescents: Examining the Role of Emotional Attention, and Ruminative Self-focus and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Pena, Mario; Losada, Lidia

    2017-01-01

    Emotional attention has been found as a key predictive dimension of stress. However, very few studies have investigated the relationship between emotional attention and test anxiety. The objective of the present study was to analyze the role of emotional attention, measured using the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS), on the level of test anxiety, and measured using the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI). In addition, we examined the potential mediating role of Self-Rumination and Self-Reflection, as measured through the Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire (RRQ), on the relationship between emotional attention and test anxiety. The sample included 385 Spanish adolescents between 14 and 19 years of age. Mediation analysis results are consistent with a model in which Self-Rumination, but no Self-Reflection, mediates the relationship between Emotional Attention and Test Anxiety. Finally, several potential implications of these findings to improve quality of life in adolescents are discussed. PMID:28871234

  11. [Analysis of self-rated health status of the floating population in a district of Guangzhou].

    PubMed

    Duan, Jun-Jie; Wang, Dong; Nie, Jun

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the self-rated health status of the floating population in a district of Guangzhou. Cluster stratified random sampling was applied to survey 219 floating people from a community in Guangzhou, who were assessed with self-rated health status was assessed with Self-Rated Health Measurement Scale. The scores of the floating population were significantly higher than the normal individuals in physical health sub-scales (P<0.01), while the scores of the floating population were significantly lower in psychological and social health sub-scales (P<0.05). The low score items in the subscale of physical health mainly consisted of fatigue and gastrointestinal symptoms, those in the subscale of psychological health mainly in anxiety, depression and obsession, and those in the subscale of social health mainly in participation in social activities and seeking help from others. To improve the health status of the floating population, campaigns of health education need to be launched periodically and psychological counseling should be provided for these individuals. Additionally, interactive activities should be increased in their daily social life.

  12. The Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MAP-SR): reliability and validity of a self-report measure of negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Llerena, Katiah; Park, Stephanie G; McCarthy, Julie M; Couture, Shannon M; Bennett, Melanie E; Blanchard, Jack J

    2013-07-01

    The Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) is an empirically developed interview measure of negative symptoms. Building on prior work, this study examined the reliability and validity of a self-report measure based on the CAINS-the Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MAP-SR)-that assesses the motivation and pleasure domain of negative symptoms. Thirty-seven participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder completed the 18-item MAP-SR, the CAINS, and other measures of functional outcome. Item analyses revealed three items that performed poorly. The revised 15-item MAP-SR demonstrated good internal consistency and convergent validity with the clinician-rated Motivation and Pleasure scale of the CAINS, as well as good discriminant validity, with little association with psychotic symptoms or depression/anxiety. MAP-SR scores were related to social anhedonia, social closeness, and clinician-rated social functioning. The MAP-SR is a promising self-report measure of severity of negative symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bilingual/Multilingual Learners' Willingness to Communicate in and Anxiety on Speaking Chinese and Their Associations with Self-Rated Proficiency in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Meihua

    2018-01-01

    The present research explored bilingual/multilingual students' willingness to communicate in Chinese (WTCC) and foreign language anxiety (FLA) when speaking Chinese and their associations with self-rated proficiency in Chinese in a university in Beijing. The study recruited 167 bilingual and multilingual learners of Chinese to fill in a battery of…

  14. Concise Associated Symptoms Tracking scale: a brief self-report and clinician rating of symptoms associated with suicidality.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Madhukar H; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Morris, David W; Fava, Maurizio; Kurian, Benji T; Gollan, Jackie K; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Warden, Diane; Gaynes, Bradley N; Luther, James F; Rush, A John

    2011-06-01

    US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warnings recommend monitoring negative symptoms associated with the initiation of antidepressant medications as these symptoms may interfere with full recovery and pose safety concerns. There is currently no brief, reliable rating instrument for assessing treatment-emergent, negative symptoms. We evaluated the psychometric properties of 2 versions of the newly developed 17-item Concise Associated Symptom Tracking (CAST) scale, the CAST Clinician Rating (CAST-C) and CAST Self-Rated (CAST-SR), which are brief instruments designed to measure the 5 relevant associated symptom domains (irritability, anxiety, mania, insomnia, and panic). The study enrolled 265 outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD), from July 2007 through February 2008, into an 8-week, open-label trial with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Diagnosis of MDD was determined by the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening questionnaire and an MDD checklist based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. Suicidality (suicidal ideation with associated behaviors) is 1 of 9 symptoms of MDD (depressed mood, loss of interest, appetite or weight change, sleep disturbance, reduced concentration or indecisiveness, fatigue or decreased energy, psychomotor agitation or retardation, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt). Psychometric evaluations were conducted on both versions of the CAST. Cronbach α was .80 (CAST-C) and .81 (CAST-SR). Factor analysis identified 5 factors for each scale: (1) irritability, (2) anxiety, (3) mania, (4) insomnia, and (5) panic. When the item that cross-loaded on 2 factors was eliminated, the 16-item solution had a better goodness of fit (CAST-C: 0.90 vs 0.87; CAST-SR: 0.88 vs 0.84). Cronbach α for the 16-item versions was .77 (CAST-C) and .78 (CAST-SR). The 5 associated CAST symptom domains correlated well with other standard measures of these domains. The 16-item CAST-C and CAST-SR demonstrated excellent psychometric properties. These are potentially

  15. Trait anxiety and self-concept among children and adolescents with food neophobia.

    PubMed

    Maiz, Edurne; Balluerka, Nekane

    2018-03-01

    Food problems in children and adolescents often have a detrimental effect on the emotional and psychological wellbeing of their parents. However, the impact of such problems on the psychological wellbeing of children and adolescents themselves has been less widely studied. The purpose of this study was to determine whether children and adolescents with food neophobia differed in trait anxiety and dimensions of self-concept from their neophilic and their average peers. A community sample of 831 participants (368 males and 463 females) between the ages of 8 and 16 were classified into six groups based on scores obtained on the Spanish Child Food Neophobia Scale (i.e., neophobic, average, and neophilic) and their age (i.e., children vs. adolescents). Compared with their neophilic peers, children with food neophobia showed higher levels of trait anxiety and a poorer social, physical, and academic self-concept. Among adolescents similar results were observed for trait anxiety and physical self-concept, but instead of social and academic self-concept it was family self-concept which distinguished between neophobic and neophilic participants. These results suggest that food neophobia is associated with trait anxiety and with some dimensions of self-concept. This highlights the need to ascertain the threshold between 'normal' and 'problematic' eating behaviors, since the fact that a behavior is to some extent usual does not imply that it is harmless. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Validation of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale: factor, convergent, and divergent validity.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Cheri A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L

    2011-09-01

    The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) was created to assess fear of overall appearance evaluation. Initial psychometric work indicated that the measure had a single-factor structure and exhibited excellent internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity. In the current study, the authors further examined the factor, convergent, and divergent validity of the SAAS in two samples of undergraduates. In Study 1 (N = 323), the authors tested the factor structure, convergent, and divergent validity of the SAAS with measures of the Big Five personality traits, negative affect, fear of negative evaluation, and social interaction anxiety. In Study 2 (N = 118), participants completed a body evaluation that included measurements of height, weight, and body fat content. The SAAS exhibited excellent convergent and divergent validity with self-report measures (i.e., self-esteem, trait anxiety, ethnic identity, and sympathy), predicted state anxiety experienced during the body evaluation, and predicted body fat content. In both studies, results confirmed a single-factor structure as the best fit to the data. These results lend additional support for the use of the SAAS as a valid measure of social appearance anxiety.

  17. The development and validation of the Visual Analogue Self-Esteem Scale (VASES).

    PubMed

    Brumfitt, S M; Sheeran, P

    1999-11-01

    To develop a visual analogue measure of self-esteem and test its psychometric properties. Two correlational studies involving samples of university students and aphasic speakers. Two hundred and forty-three university students completed multiple measures of self-esteem, depression and anxiety as well as measures of transitory mood and social desirability (Study 1). Two samples of aphasic speakers (N = 14 and N = 20) completed the Visual Analogue Self-Esteem Scale (VASES), the Rosenberg (1965) self-esteem scale and measures of depression and anxiety. (Study 2). Study 1 found evidence of good internal and test-retest reliability, construct validity and convergent and discriminant validity for a 10-item VASES. Study 2 demonstrated good internal reliability among aphasic speakers. The VASES is a short and easy to administer measure of self-esteem that possesses good psychometric properties.

  18. Validation of the Polish version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for anxiety disorders in patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Wiglusz, Mariusz S; Landowski, Jerzy; Cubała, Wiesław J

    2018-05-24

    Anxiety disorders are frequent comorbid disorders in patients with epilepsy (PWEs). The availability of validated screening instruments to detect anxiety disorders in PWEs is limited. The aim of the present study was to validate the Polish version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in adult PWEs for the detection of anxiety disorders. A total of 96 outpatients with epilepsy completed the self-reported symptom scale, the HADS, and were diagnosed using the structured clinical interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) axis I disorders (SCID-I). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were assessed to determine the optimal threshold scores for the HADS anxiety subscale (HADS-A). Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed areas under the curve at 80.8%. For diagnoses of anxiety disorder, the HADS-A demonstrated the best psychometric properties for a cutoff score ≥10 with sensitivity of 81.3%, specificity of 70.0%, PPV of 31.5%, and NPV of 94.9%. The HADS-A proved to be a valid and reliable psychometric instrument in terms of screening for anxiety disorders in our sample of PWEs. In the epilepsy setting, the HADS-A maintains adequate sensitivity, acceptable specificity, and high NPV but low PPV for diagnosing anxiety disorders with an optimum cutoff score ≥10. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [The correlations between varying tinnitus severity and anxiety and depression in non-acute tinnitus patients].

    PubMed

    Chen, Danping; Wang, Xiaoqian; Huang, Hongming; Fu, Min; Ge, Runmei; Wu, Peina; Cui, Yong

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the correlation betwen varying degrees of non-acute tinnitus and anxiety and depression. Seventy-seven outpatients with non-acute tinnitus as their in chief complaint were submitted to Tinnitus Handicap Inventory(THI), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale(SAS), and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). THI and its three subscales were found to have significant correlations with SAS and SDS. The group (THI ≥ 38) had more anxiety and depression than the mild (THI < 38). Significant correlations were also observed between THI, SAS and SDS in the group with THI ≥ 38, in contrast with the group of THI < 38. Patients with THI ≥ 38 suffered from severe anxiety and depression than the mild. Doctors should pay more attention to these patients, especially their psychological disorders.

  20. Screening efficiency of the self-report version of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children in a highly comorbid inpatient sample.

    PubMed

    Skarphedinsson, Gudmundur; Villabø, Marianne A; Lauth, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    The Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) is a widely used self-report questionnaire for the assessment of anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents with well documented predictive validity of the total score and subscales in internalizing and mixed clinical samples. However, no data exist on the screening efficiency in an inpatient sample of adolescents. To examine the psychometric properties and screening efficiency of the MASC in a high comorbid inpatient sample. The current study used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses to investigate the predictive value of the MASC total and subscale scores for the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL), DSM-IV diagnoses of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), separation anxiety disorder (SAD) and social phobia (SoP) in a highly comorbid inpatient sample of adolescents (11-18 years). The MASC total score predicted any anxiety disorder (AD) and GAD moderately well. Physical symptoms predicted GAD moderately well. Social anxiety and separation anxiety/panic did not predict SoP or SAD, respectively. Physical symptoms and harm avoidance also predicted the presence of major depressive disorder. The findings support the utility of the MASC total score to predict the presence of any AD and GAD. However, the utility of the social anxiety and separation anxiety/panic subscales showed limited utility to predict the presence of SAD and SoP, respectively. The MASC has probably a more limited function in screening for AD among a highly comorbid inpatient sample of severely affected adolescents. Our results should be interpreted in the light of a small, mixed sample of inpatient adolescents.

  1. Images of the Self and Self-Esteem: Do Positive Self-Images Improve Self-Esteem in Social Anxiety?

    PubMed Central

    Hulme, Natalie; Hirsch, Colette; Stopa, Lusia

    2012-01-01

    Negative self-images play an important role in maintaining social anxiety disorder. We propose that these images represent the working self in a Self-Memory System that regulates retrieval of self-relevant information in particular situations. Self-esteem, one aspect of the working self, comprises explicit (conscious) and implicit (automatic) components. Implicit self-esteem reflects an automatic evaluative bias towards the self that is normally positive, but is reduced in socially anxious individuals. Forty-four high and 44 low socially anxious participants generated either a positive or a negative self-image and then completed measures of implicit and explicit self-esteem. Participants who held a negative self-image in mind reported lower implicit and explicit positive self-esteem, and higher explicit negative self-esteem than participants holding a positive image in mind, irrespective of social anxiety group. We then tested whether positive self-images protected high and low socially anxious individuals equally well against the threat to explicit self-esteem posed by social exclusion in a virtual ball toss game (Cyberball). We failed to find a predicted interaction between social anxiety and image condition. Instead, all participants holding positive self-images reported higher levels of explicit self-esteem after Cyberball than those holding negative self-images. Deliberate retrieval of positive self-images appears to facilitate access to a healthy positive implicit bias, as well as improving explicit self-esteem, whereas deliberate retrieval of negative self-images does the opposite. This is consistent with the idea that negative self-images may have a causal, as well as a maintaining, role in social anxiety disorder. PMID:22439697

  2. Online self-test identifies women at high familial breast cancer risk in population-based breast cancer screening without inducing anxiety or distress.

    PubMed

    van Erkelens, A; Sie, A S; Manders, P; Visser, A; Duijm, L E; Mann, R M; Ten Voorde, M; Kroeze, H; Prins, J B; Hoogerbrugge, N

    2017-06-01

    Identifying high familial breast cancer (FBC) risk improves detection of yet unknown BRCA1/2-mutation carriers, for whom BC risk is both highly likely and potentially preventable. We assessed whether a new online self-test could identify women at high FBC risk in population-based BC screening without inducing anxiety or distress. After their visit for screening mammography, women were invited by email to take an online self-test for identifying highly increased FBC risk-based on Dutch guidelines. Exclusion criteria were previously diagnosed as increased FBC risk or a personal history of BC. Anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Dutch Version), distress (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale) and BC risk perception were assessed using questionnaires, which were completed immediately before and after taking the online self-test and 2 weeks later. Of the 562 women invited by email, 406 (72%) completed the online self-test while 304 also completed questionnaires (response rate 54%). After exclusion criteria, 287 (51%) were included for data analysis. Median age was 56 years (range 50-74). A high or moderate FBC risk was identified in 12 (4%) and three (1%) women, respectively. After completion of the online self-test, anxiety and BC risk perception were decreased while distress scores remained unchanged. Levels were below clinical relevance. Most women (85%) would recommend the self-test; few (3%) would not. The online self-test identified previously unknown women at high FBC risk (4%), who may carry a BRCA1/2-mutation, without inducing anxiety or distress. We therefore recommend offering this self-test to women who attend population-based screening mammography for the first time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Feasibility, Reproducibility, and Clinical Validity of the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale--Revised for Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo-Ponsaran, Nicole M.; Yesensky, Jessica; Hessl, David; Berry-Kravis Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and the most common known genetic cause of autism. FXS is associated with psychiatric impairments, including anxiety disorders. There is a paucity of well-developed measures to characterize anxiety in FXS. However, such scales are needed to measure therapeutic…

  4. Balance treatment ameliorates anxiety and increases self-esteem in children with comorbid anxiety and balance disorder.

    PubMed

    Bart, Orit; Bar-Haim, Yair; Weizman, Einat; Levin, Moran; Sadeh, Avi; Mintz, Matti

    2009-01-01

    Comorbidity between balance and anxiety disorders in adult population is a well-studied clinical entity. Children might be particularly prone to develop balance-anxiety comorbidity, but surprisingly they are practically neglected in this field of research. The consequence is that children are treated for what seems to be the primary disorder without noticing possible effects on the other disorder. In Study 1, children with balance dysfunction were compared to normally balanced controls on anxiety and self-esteem. In study 2, children with balance dysfunction were assigned to either balance training or a waiting-list control. Training consisted of 12 weekly sessions of balance treatment. Anxiety and self-esteem were tested before and after treatment/waiting. Study 1 confirmed significantly higher anxiety and lower self-esteem in the balance dysfunction group compared to the control group. Study 2 showed that treatment improved balance performance, reduced anxiety, and increased self-esteem relative to the control waiting list group. Taken together, the present findings are in accord with the observations of comorbidity between balance and anxiety disorders in adults and confirm their validity in children younger than 7 years of age. This profile of comorbidity between balance dysfunction and anxiety also include lower self-esteem.

  5. The cerebral neurobiology of anxiety, anxiety displacement, and anxiety denial.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, L A; Fronczek, J; Abel, L; Buchsbaum, M S; Fallon, J H

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies examining the relationship of anxiety scores, derived from the content analysis of speech of normal individuals, have revealed that the anxiety scores occurring in the dreams associated with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep are significantly correlated with localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates assessed by positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. These significant intercorrelations occur in different cerebral areas when the anxiety scores are obtained from mental experiences reported during non-REM sleep or during wakeful silent mentation. The purpose of the present study was to examine the intercorrelations found between anxiety attributed to the self, anxiety-displacement, and anxiety denial measured from computerized content analysis of 5-min verbal reports of subjective thoughts and feelings obtained from wakeful normal subjects and localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates during PET scanning. The subjects were 10 wakeful young males. Their anxiety scores were derived from computerized content analysis of 5-min reports they gave of their subjective thoughts, feelings and fantasies during a 30-min period following an intravenous injection of F D-deoxyglucose (FDG). The subjects were moved 32--45 min after this injection to obtain a PET scan, which records all of the localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates during the 30 min following the FDG injection. Significant intercorrelations of localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates with the scores of self-anxiety, anxiety displacement, and anxiety-denial were found in dissimilar cerebral locations depending on the type of anxiety involved. The significant correlations occurred in brain regions known to be associated with the functions of emotions, cognition, memory, and vision. Specific combinations of cerebral areas, based on glucose metabolic rates, appear to distinguish and be associated with different verbal expressions of anxiety. Replication of this preliminary research will be

  6. Anxiety management training for anxiety states: positive compared with negative self-statements.

    PubMed

    Ramm, E; Marks, I M; Yuksel, S; Stern, R S

    1982-04-01

    Twelve patients complaining of chronic free-floating anxiety, usually also with panic attacks, were assigned at random to treatment by six hour-long sessions of anxiety-management training, either with positive or with negative self-statements, given over six weeks. Patients in both treatment conditions improved, with a small trend favouring positive over negative self-instruction, especially at follow-up. It is unclear how much self-instruction, rather than therapeutic attention or mere passage of time, accounted for the bulk of the modest improvement obtained.

  7. Mentors Offering Maternal Support Reduces Prenatal, Pregnancy-Specific Anxiety in a Sample of Military Women.

    PubMed

    Weis, Karen L; Lederman, Regina P; Walker, Katherine C; Chan, Wenyaw

    To determine the efficacy of the Mentors Offering Maternal Support (MOMS) program to reduce pregnancy-specific anxiety and depression and build self-esteem and resilience in military women. Randomized controlled trial with repeated measures. Large military community in Texas. Pregnant women (N = 246) in a military sample defined as active duty or spouse of military personnel. Participants were randomized in the first trimester to the MOMS program or normal prenatal care. Participants attended eight 1-hour sessions every other week during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Pregnancy-specific anxiety, depression, self-esteem, and resilience were measured in each trimester. Linear mixed models were used to compare the two-group difference in slope for prenatal anxiety, depression, self-esteem, and resilience. The Prenatal Self-Evaluation Questionnaire was used to measure perinatal anxiety. Rates of prenatal anxiety on the Identification With a Motherhood Role (p = .049) scale and the Preparation for Labor (p = .017) scale were significantly reduced for participants in MOMS. Nulliparous participants showed significantly lower anxiety on the Acceptance of Pregnancy scale and significantly greater anxiety on the Preparation for Labor scale. Single participants had significantly greater anxiety on the Well-Being of Self and Baby in Labor scale, and participants with deployed husbands had significantly greater anxiety on the Identification With a Motherhood Role scale. Participation in the MOMS program reduced pregnancy-specific prenatal anxiety for the dimensions of Identification With a Motherhood Role and Preparation for Labor. Both dimensions of anxiety were previously found to be significantly associated with preterm birth and low birth weight. Military leaders have recognized the urgent need to support military families. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  8. Randomized Trial of Group Music Therapy With Chinese Prisoners: Impact on Anxiety, Depression, and Self-Esteem.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi-Jing; Hannibal, Niels; Gold, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of group music therapy on improving anxiety, depression, and self-esteem in Chinese prisoners. Two-hundred male prisoners were randomly assigned to music therapy (n = 100) or standard care (n = 100). The music therapy had 20 sessions of group therapy compared with standard care. Anxiety (State and Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI]), depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]), and self-esteem (Texas Social Behavior Inventory [TSBI], Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory [RSI]) were measured by standardized scales at baseline, mid-program, and post-program. Data were analyzed based on the intention to treat principle. Compared with standard care, anxiety and depression in the music therapy condition decreased significantly at mid-test and post-test; self-esteem improved significantly at mid-test (TSBI) and at post-test (TSBI, RSI). Improvements were greater in younger participants (STAI-Trait, RSI) and/or in those with a lower level of education (STAI-State, STAI-Trait). Group music therapy seems to be effective in improving anxiety, depression, and self-esteem and was shown to be most beneficial for prisoners of younger age or with lower education level. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Self-perceived depression, anxiety, stress and their relationships with psychosocial job factors in male automotive assembly workers.

    PubMed

    Edimansyah, Bin Abdin; Rusli, Bin Nordin; Naing, Lin; Mohamed Rusli, Bin Abdullah; Winn, Than; Tengku Mohamed Ariff, Bin Raja Hussin

    2008-01-01

    Depression, anxiety and stress have been recognized as important mental outcome measures in stressful working settings. The present study explores the prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress; and their relationships with psychosocial job factors. A cross-sectional study involving 728 male automotive assembly workers was conducted in two major automotive assembly plants in Malaysia using the validated Malay versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Based on the DASS cut-off of > or =78 percentile scores, the prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress was 35.4%, 47.2% and 31.1%, respectively. Four (0.5%), 29 (4.0%) and 2 (0.3%) workers, respectively, reported extremely severe self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress. Multiple linear regression analyses, controlling for age, education, salary, duration of work and marital status, revealed that psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous condition were positively associated with DASS-Depression, DASS-Anxiety and DASS-Stress; supervisor support was inversely associated with DASS-Depression and DASS-Stress. We suggest that reducing psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous condition factors may improve the self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress in male automotive assembly workers. Supervisor support is protective for self-perceived depression and stress.

  10. Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition during Math Examinations.

    PubMed

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F; Englert, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158) completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition 5 months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests.

  11. Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition during Math Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F.; Englert, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158) completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition 5 months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests. PMID:27065013

  12. Factor structure of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Storch, Eric A; Masia-Warner, Carrie; Heidgerken, Amanda D; Fisher, Paige H; Pincus, Donna B; Liebowitz, Michael R

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents (LSAS-CA). The LSAS-CA was administered to 225 children and adolescents as a component of various clinical studies. In addition, other measures of psychopathology and impairment were administered to a subgroup of the sample. Confirmatory factor analyses of the social interaction and performance subscales for the anxiety and avoidance ratings yielded poor fit indices. Exploratory factor analysis supported a two-factor solution with a higher order factor for the LSAS-CA anxiety and avoidance ratings. Based on item content, factors were named Social and School Performance. The internal consistency of the factors was high and the convergent and divergent validity was supported vis-à-vis correlations with measures of depression and social anxiety, and clinician ratings of impairment and functioning. Findings suggest that the anxiety and avoidance ratings are best explained by a two-factor solution that measures social anxiety and avoidance in social and school performance interactions. This factor structure appears to be a reliable and valid framework for assessing childhood social phobia.

  13. Evaluation of maternal attachment, self-efficacy, levels of depression, and anxiety in mothers who have babies diagnosed with retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Özyurt, Gonca; Özyurt, Ayhan; Ozturk, Taylan; Yaman, Aylin; Berk, A Tulin

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the emotional stress and its effects on parental self-efficacy and mother-infant attachment in mothers whose babies were diagnosed with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Study sample was consisted of voluntarily participating 82 mothers whose babies were first diagnosed with ROP, 83 mothers of preterm babies without ROP, and 85 mothers of term babies admitting for their routine visits. Sociodemographic data form maternal attachment scale, state-trait anxiety inventory, Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, and parental self-efficacy scale were applied to study participants, and the overall results of three groups were statistically compared. The sociodemographic features of three study groups were similar. Statistical significant differences were found in depression and state anxiety levels among study groups, while maternal attachment scale and trait anxiety level scores and parental self-efficacy scale total score were similar in study groups. Maternal depression and state-anxiety levels were tend to be higher in mother of children diagnosed with ROP and prematurity; however, there were no statistically significant differences between levels of mothers' of premature children with or without ROP. This is the first study in literature assessing the additional effect of ROP on the anxiety and depression levels of recent mothers, as well as mother-infant attachment and parental self-efficacy. Supporting of mothers having an infant with diagnosed ROP is crucial because of feeling themselves inefficient and responsible for all interventions applied to their babies.

  14. Anxiety Management Training and Self-Control Desensitization: 15 Months Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Michaels, Ann C.

    1981-01-01

    A 15-month follow-up study found that anxiety management training and self-control desensitization groups continued to report significantly less debilitating test anxiety than the control group. Anxiety management training and self-control desensitization groups also reported significantly less nontargeted anxiety than controls on both measures of…

  15. The factor structure of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents: development of a brief version.

    PubMed

    Shachar, Iris; Aderka, Idan M; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2014-06-01

    The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents (LSAS-CA-SR) is a validated instrument for the assessment of social anxiety in youth. The three main objectives of the present study were to (a) examine the factor structure of the LSAS-CA-SR; (b) to validate the factors against relevant personality measures, and (c) to create a brief and reliable version of the questionnaire. A total of 1,362 adolescents completed self-report measures of social anxiety, temperament, character and personality traits. The factor structure was examined using a combination of confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis. The analysis was conducted on both the anxiety and avoidance sub-scales, and identical items for both sub-scales were maintained. Two factors emerged: social interaction and school performance. These factors demonstrated high internal consistency and a significant correlation with relevant self-report measures. A brief version comprised of 14 items was highly correlated (0.96) with the full version. The new factor structure represents advancement over the previous efforts, and holds promise for efficient utilization of the LSAS-CA.

  16. The role of self-math overlap in understanding math anxiety and the relation between math anxiety and performance

    PubMed Central

    Necka, Elizabeth A.; Sokolowski, H. Moriah; Lyons, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap) to assess individuals’ self-math overlap. This non-verbal single-item measure showed that identifying oneself with math (having higher self-math overlap) was strongly associated with lower math anxiety (r = -0.610). We also expected that having higher self-math overlap would leave one especially susceptible to the threat of poor math performance to the self. We identified two competing hypotheses regarding how this plays out in terms of math anxiety. Those higher in self-math overlap might be more likely to worry about poor math performance, exacerbating the negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. Alternatively, those higher in self-math overlap might exhibit self-serving biases regarding their math ability, which would instead predict a decoupling of the relation between their perceived and actual math ability, and in turn the relation between their math ability and math anxiety. Results clearly favored the latter hypothesis: those higher in self-math overlap exhibited almost no relation between math anxiety and math ability, whereas those lower in self-math overlap showed a strong negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. This was partially explained by greater self-serving biases among those higher in self-math overlap. In sum, these results reveal that the degree to which one integrates math into one’s selfself-math overlap – may provide insight into how the pernicious negative relation between math anxiety and math ability may be ameliorated. PMID

  17. The role of self-math overlap in understanding math anxiety and the relation between math anxiety and performance.

    PubMed

    Necka, Elizabeth A; Sokolowski, H Moriah; Lyons, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap) to assess individuals' self-math overlap. This non-verbal single-item measure showed that identifying oneself with math (having higher self-math overlap) was strongly associated with lower math anxiety (r = -0.610). We also expected that having higher self-math overlap would leave one especially susceptible to the threat of poor math performance to the self. We identified two competing hypotheses regarding how this plays out in terms of math anxiety. Those higher in self-math overlap might be more likely to worry about poor math performance, exacerbating the negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. Alternatively, those higher in self-math overlap might exhibit self-serving biases regarding their math ability, which would instead predict a decoupling of the relation between their perceived and actual math ability, and in turn the relation between their math ability and math anxiety. Results clearly favored the latter hypothesis: those higher in self-math overlap exhibited almost no relation between math anxiety and math ability, whereas those lower in self-math overlap showed a strong negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. This was partially explained by greater self-serving biases among those higher in self-math overlap. In sum, these results reveal that the degree to which one integrates math into one's self - self-math overlap - may provide insight into how the pernicious negative relation between math anxiety and math ability may be ameliorated.

  18. Determining the Accuracy of Self-Report Versus Informant-Report Using the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Lisa; Liljequist, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The present research examined the validity of self-report versus informant-report in relation to a performance-based indicator of adult ADHD. Archival data from 118 participants (52 males, 66 females) were used to compare Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Self-Report: Long Format (CAARS-S:L) and Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Observer Report: Long Format (CAARS-O:L) with discrepancy scores calculated between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) Verbal Comprehension Index - Working Memory Index (VCI - WMI) and Perceptual-Organizational Index - Processing Speed Index (POI - PSI) scaled scores. Neither the self- nor informant-report formats of the CAARS were better predictors of discrepancies between WAIS-III Index scores. Intercorrelations between the CAARS-S:L and CAARS-O:L revealed generally higher correlations between the same scales of different formats and among scales measuring externally visible symptoms. Furthermore, regression analysis indicated that both the CAARS-S:L and CAARS-O:L clinical scales contributed a significant proportion of variance in WAIS-III VCI - WMI discrepancy scores (14.7% and 16.4%, respectively). Results did not establish greater accuracy of self-report versus informant-report of ADHD symptomatology, rather demonstrate the need for multimodal assessment of ADHD in adults. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. The effects of rational and irrational self-verbalizations on performance efficiency and levels of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Rosin, L; Nelson, W M

    1983-03-01

    Investigated the effects of rational vs. irrational belief systems (as measured by the Ellis Irrational Values Scale) and rational vs. irrational self-verbalizations on levels of anxiety and persistence on a performance task. Ss (N = 40) were instructed to assemble a virtually insolvable task call Soma. The variables of interest were how long each S would persist on this task and how much anxiety (as measured by the A-State portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) was aroused in working on this task. Following a baseline trial trying to solve Soma, Ss were assigned to either a rational or irrational self-talk condition and were led to believe that such self-talk would help in a second attempt to solve Soma. In line with cognitive models of psychology, it was found that rational self-talk Ss showed a significant decrease in levels of state anxiety compared to irrational self-talk Ss in attempting to solve Soma in the second trial. Contrary to cognitive models of psychology, scores obtained from the EIVS and the A-Trait portion of the STAI were not found to be related to persistence.

  20. Examining the Relationships Among Self-Compassion, Social Anxiety, and Post-Event Processing.

    PubMed

    Blackie, Rebecca A; Kocovski, Nancy L

    2017-01-01

    Post-event processing refers to negative and repetitive thinking following anxiety provoking social situations. Those who engage in post-event processing may lack self-compassion in relation to social situations. As such, the primary aim of this research was to evaluate whether those high in self-compassion are less likely to engage in post-event processing and the specific self-compassion domains that may be most protective. In study 1 ( N = 156 undergraduate students) and study 2 ( N = 150 individuals seeking help for social anxiety and shyness), participants completed a battery of questionnaires, recalled a social situation, and then rated state post-event processing. Self-compassion negatively correlated with post-event processing, with some differences depending on situation type. Even after controlling for self-esteem, self-compassion remained significantly correlated with state post-event processing. Given these findings, self-compassion may serve as a buffer against post-event processing. Future studies should experimentally examine whether increasing self-compassion leads to reduced post-event processing.

  1. Looking at the heart of low and high heart rate variability fearful flyers: self-reported anxiety when confronting feared stimuli.

    PubMed

    Bornas, Xavier; Llabrés, Jordi; Noguera, Miquel; López, Ana Ma; Barceló, Francesca; Tortella-Feliu, Miquel; Fullana, Miquel Angel

    2005-12-01

    Previous research has shown that phobic subjects with low heart rate variability (HRV) are less able to inhibit an inappropriate response when confronted with threatening words compared to phobic subjects with high HRV [Johnsen, B.H., Thayer, J.F., Laberg, J.C., Wormnes, B., Raadal, M., Skaret, E., et al., 2003. Attentional and physiological characteristics of patients with dental anxiety. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 17, 75-87]. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in self-reported anxiety when low HRV and high HRV fearful flyers (N=15) and a matched control group (N=15) were exposed to flight-related pictures, flight-related sounds or both pictures and sounds. We hypothesized that sounds would be crucial to evoke fear. Also, low HRV fearful flyers were expected to report higher anxiety than high HRV fearful flyers assuming anxiety as their inappropriate response. Decreases on HRV measures were also predicted for a subgroup of phobic participants (N=10) when confronted with the feared stimuli. Our data supported the hypothesis that sounds are crucial in this kind of phobia. Low HRV fearful flyers reported higher anxiety than high HRV fearful flyers in two out of three aversive conditions. The predicted HRV decreases were not found in this study. Results are discussed in the context of avoidance of exposure-based treatments.

  2. Anxiety and Self-Concept of Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margalit, Malka; Zak, Itai

    1984-01-01

    One hundred learning disabled (LD) and 118 nondisabled children (six-13 years old) participated in the study which demonstrated significantly higher anxiety and lower self-concept in the first group. The differences emphasized the self-dissatisfaction of the LD group and their pawning related anxiety. (Author/CL)

  3. Body dissatisfaction and psychological distress in adolescents: Is self-esteem a mediator?

    PubMed

    Duchesne, Annie-Pier; Dion, Jacinthe; Lalande, Daniel; Bégin, Catherine; Émond, Claudie; Lalande, Gilles; McDuff, Pierre

    2017-10-01

    This brief report tests the mediating effect of self-esteem in the relationship between body dissatisfaction and symptoms of depression and anxiety. A sample of 409 adolescents (females = 58.4%) aged between 14 and 18 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Contour Drawing Rating Scale, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Overall, results for the indirect effects analysis were significant for both anxiety and depression, which confirmed the mediating role of self-esteem. Thus, a negative perception of one's body image has the effect of lowering self-esteem, which in turn increases psychological distress.

  4. Can father inclusive practice reduce paternal postnatal anxiety? A repeated measures cohort study using the hospital anxiety and depression scale

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Perinatal research on anxiety and depression has primarily focused on mothers. We have limited knowledge of fathers’ anxiety during the perinatal period yet there is evidence that the parenting capacity of a person can be compromised by anxiety and depression. The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact of a father inclusive intervention on perinatal anxiety and depression. The prime focus of the intervention was to provide education and support to fathers of breastfeeding partners with the aim of increasing both initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Methods A repeated measures cohort study was conducted during a RCT that was implemented across eight public maternity hospitals in Perth, Western Australia between May 2008 and June 2009. A baseline questionnaire which included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was administered to all participants on the first night of their hospital based antenatal education program and was repeated at six weeks postnatal. SPSS version 17 was used for reporting descriptive results. Results The mean anxiety levels at baseline for the fathers in the intervention group (n=289) and control group (n=244) were 4.58 and 4.22 respectively. At 6 weeks postnatal (only matched pairs), intervention and control group were 3.93 and 3.79. More intervention group fathers self-rated less anxiety compared to the fathers in the control group from baseline to post test (p=0.048). Depression scores for intervention fathers at baseline (mean =1.09) and at six weeks (mean=1.09) were very similar to fathers in the control group at baseline (mean=1.11) and at six weeks (mean =1.07) with no significant changes. Conclusions Both intervention and control group fathers experienced some anxiety prior to the birth of their baby, but this was rapidly reduced at six weeks. Paternal anxiety is common to new fathers and providing them with information and strategies for problem-solving can increase their knowledge and

  5. [Study of stutter originating from the frustrated clinging instinct and its relation to anxiety and self-esteem].

    PubMed

    Nagy, Beáta Erika; Józsa, Tamás

    2016-05-22

    The analytic and family therapeutic theories connected to the topic of stutter have to be actualized. The aim of this work was to point out connections which originate from the instinct of frustrated clinging, however, these can be interpretated in new ways these days. Two questionnaires in 48 subjects suffering from stutter were used; Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale measured the children's self representation, while the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children measured the degree of their anxiety. At first the subjects had to anwser the questions as themselves, for the second time they had to anwser as an ordinary person without a speech disorder. The hypothesis of the authors was verified: stutterers attributed a significant role to the speech disorder of the subjects in connection with their self-esteem. According to this a significant amount of their anxiety is based on their deficit. An unexpected result was that girls and boys estimated ordinary people's level of anxiety similarly. There was no significant difference between boys and girls regarding the level of other's self-esteem. Based on the thesis of evolutionary psychology, the adequate use of speech is more important to women who have a connecting role in the family. This results that they see stutter as a major problem.

  6. Validation of the oesophageal hypervigilance and anxiety scale for chronic oesophageal disease.

    PubMed

    Taft, T H; Triggs, J R; Carlson, D A; Guadagnoli, L; Tomasino, K N; Keefer, L; Pandolfino, J E

    2018-05-01

    Oesophageal hypervigilance and anxiety can drive symptom experience in chronic oesophageal conditions, including gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, achalasia and functional oesophageal disorders. To date, no validated self-report measure exists to evaluate oesophageal hypervigilance and anxiety. This study aims to develop a brief and reliable questionnaire assessing these constructs, the oesophageal hypervigilance and anxiety scale (EHAS). Questions for the EHAS were drawn from 4 existing validated measures that assessed hypervigilance and anxiety adapted for the oesophagus. Patients who previously underwent high-resolution manometry testing at a university-based oesophageal motility clinic were retrospectively identified. Patients were included in the analysis if they completed the EHAS as well as questionnaires assessing symptom severity and health-related quality of life at the time of the high-resolution manometry. Nine hundred and eighty-two patients aged 18-85 completed the study. The EHAS demonstrates excellent internal consistency (α = 0.93) and split-half reliability (Guttman = 0.87). Inter-item correlations indicated multicollinearity was not achieved; thus, no items were removed from the original 15-item scale. Principal components factor analysis revealed two subscales measuring symptom-specific anxiety and symptom-specific hypervigilance. Construct validity for total and subscale scores was supported by positive correlations with symptom severity and negative correlations with health-related quality of life. The EHAS is a 15-item scale assessing oesophageal hypervigilance and symptom-specfic anxiety. The EHAS could be useful in evaluating the role of these constructs in several oesophageal conditions in which hypersensitivity, hypervigilance and anxiety may contribute to symptoms and impact treatment outcomes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid mental disorders : ADHD-specific self-rating scales in differential diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Paucke, M; Stark, T; Exner, C; Kallweit, C; Hegerl, U; Strauß, M

    2018-06-18

    It is still unclear how well the established attention deficit-hyperactive disorder (ADHD)-specific rating scales can differentiate between ADHD symptoms and symptoms of other mental disorders. A total of 274 patients with suspected adult ADHD were extensively examined clinically and guideline-conform in an ADHD outpatient clinic. In 190 patients the diagnosis of ADHD could be made with certainty. The patients were also subsequently assessed according to the DSM IV criteria by self-rating scales on current (ADHS-SB, ASRS, CAARS) and retrospective (WURS-K) complaints. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed in order to extract from the questionnaires, which could best distinguish the diagnosis of ADHD from other mental disorders. The results showed that two self-rating scales (WURS-K and ADHS-SB) were sufficient to correctly diagnose ADHD in 83% of the patients examined with a sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 56%. The ADHD-specific self-rating scales are additionally useful for the diagnostic differentiation between ADHD-specific and other psychiatric symptoms in the clinical practice and can improve the safety of the diagnosis.

  8. Revision and Factor Analysis of a Death Anxiety Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorson, James A.; Powell, F. C.

    Earlier research on death anxiety using the 34-item scale developed by Nehrke-Templer-Boyar (NTB) indicated that females and younger persons have significantly higher death anxiety. To simplify a death anxiety scale for use with different age groups, and to determine the conceptual factors actually measured by the scale, a revised 25-item…

  9. Effects of self-consciousness and social anxiety on self-disclosure among unacquainted individuals: an application of the social relations model.

    PubMed

    Reno, R R; Kenny, D A

    1992-03-01

    Recent research has demonstrated a positive relationship between private self-consciousness and the tendency to self-disclose. These studies have relied exclusively upon self-reports of disclosure. In the present study, Kenny's Social Relations Model (Kenny & La Voie, 1984) was employed to examine the relationship between a subject's self-reports and others' reports of a subject's level of self-disclosure and the relationship of these reports to private self-consciousness, as well as the other traits measured by the self-consciousness scale: public self-consciousness and social anxiety. Unacquainted college women (N = 102) participated in one-on-one interactions in a round-robin design. Subject's self-reports of disclosure and their levels of private self-consciousness correlated positively. The partners' reports of an individual's disclosure, however, were not related to the individual's level of private self-consciousness. The discrepancy between these correlations emphasizes the necessity to ground research in personal relationships on interacting pairs and not only on the self-reports of one member. Future research that would explore this difference is discussed. The examination of the self- and partner reports and subjects' levels of public self-consciousness and social anxiety demonstrated that these two traits significantly influence the acquaintance process. Public self-consciousness related positively to subjects' beliefs that they had created consistent impressions upon their partners. Social anxiety correlated negatively with partners' reports of a subject's dyadic involvement and openness.

  10. Effect of Yoga on anxiety, depression and self-esteem in orphanage residents: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tejvani, Ravishankar; Metri, Kashinath G; Agrawal, Jyotsna; Nagendra, H R

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increase in a number of orphanages and children living in orphanages in last few years. The children living in orphanages often have psychological problems among which anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem are considered to be most prominent. Yoga is a noninvasive, cost-effective, and safe intervention among complementary and alternative medicine which is known to have a positive impact on psychological problems. The present pilot study intended to assess the effect of a two week Yoga intervention on anxiety, depression, and self-esteem of adolescents and young adults living in an orphanage. Adolescent and young adults participants who were the permanent residents of an orphanage ( n = 34; males = 27, females = 7) between age ranges of 12-20 years underwent 2 week of Yoga intervention. Yoga intervention comprised Asana (Yogic postures), Pranayama (Yogic breathing practices), and Dharana-Dhyana (Yogic relaxation techniques) for 1 h daily over 15 days. Hospital anxiety and depression and Rosenberg self-esteem scale were administered at baseline and after the intervention to assess anxiety, depression, and self-esteem, respectively. There was a significant reduction ( P = 0.001) in anxiety, depression, and significant improvement in self-esteem ( P = 0.001) at the end of 2 weeks Yoga intervention. This pilot study suggests that 2 weeks of Yoga practice potentially reduced anxiety and depression and improved self-esteem of orphanage adolescents and young adults. These findings need confirmation from studies with a larger sample size and randomized controlled design, which are implicated in the future.

  11. Adaptation and initial psychometric study of the self-report version of Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS-SR).

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Larissa Forni; Loureiro, Sonia Regina; Crippa, José Alexandre S; de Lima Osório, Flávia

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of the present study were to adapt the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale from the clinician administered to the self-report version (LSAS-SR) and to perform the initial psychometric studies concerning internal consistency and item analysis. The phase of adaptation was performed by two specialists in the Mental Health area and the face validity was tested by a group of 30 university students. As part of the psychometric study of the LSAS-SR, the internal consistency was assessed and the items were analyzed by applying the scale to 682 university students. The LSAS-SR proved to be easy to understand by the group studied, with no need to make any changes in the instructions for application. The scale showed adequate internal consistency (α = 0.96) as well as an acceptable correlation between items and total score (0.38-0.72). The initial psychometric studies of the LSAS-SR presented adequate indicators, stimulating the continuation of studies involving the validation and reliability of the scale not only when applied to a sample of the general population, but also when applied to clinical groups.

  12. Subscales measuring symptoms of non-specific depression, anhedonia, and anxiety in the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.

    PubMed

    Tuohy, Alan; McVey, Cynthia

    2008-06-01

    There has been considerable research and clinical interest in the comorbidity of anxiety and depression in the post-partum period, and specifically in the possibility that the commonly used Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) incorporates an anxiety component. We hypothesized that the recommended version of factor analysis (Fabrigar, Wegener, MacCallum, & Strahan, 1999) would identify such covert dimensions more reliably than the commonly used principal components analysis with varimax rotation and eigenvalues greater than 1. Principal axis factor extraction with parallel analysis and oblique (direct quartimin) factor rotation was applied to the 10 EPDS items. The study used a sample of recent mothers recruited and assessed via e-mail and the Internet (N=440). In addition to the EPDS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Positive and Negative Affect Scales (PANAS) were also administered. Three factors were found, which were identified as 'non-specific depressive symptoms', 'anhedonia', and 'anxietal symptoms' subscales, respectively. These subscales were regressed on the HADS anxiety and depression and the PANAS positive and negative affectivity scales, with results substantially consistent with current structural models of the taxonomy of the emotional disorders. The data were obtained from a self-selected non-clinical sample. In addition, it is known that the use of computer-based assessment may tend to inflate self-report scores. It was concluded that there is now sufficient evidence that clinicians should not assume the EPDS to be unidimensional, but should assess all three subscales when screening for susceptibility to post-partum depression and/or post-partum anxiety.

  13. Self-verification and social anxiety: preference for negative social feedback and low social self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Valentiner, David P; Skowronski, John J; McGrath, Patrick B; Smith, Sarah A; Renner, Kerry A

    2011-10-01

    A self-verification model of social anxiety views negative social self-esteem as a core feature of social anxiety. This core feature is proposed to be maintained through self-verification processes, such as by leading individuals with negative social self-esteem to prefer negative social feedback. This model is tested in two studies. In Study 1, questionnaires were administered to a college sample (N = 317). In Study 2, questionnaires were administered to anxiety disordered patients (N = 62) before and after treatment. Study 1 developed measures of preference for negative social feedback and social self-esteem, and provided evidence of their incremental validity in a college sample. Study 2 found that these two variables are not strongly related to fears of evaluation, are relatively unaffected by a treatment that targets such fears, and predict residual social anxiety following treatment. Overall, these studies provide preliminary evidence for a self-verification model of social anxiety.

  14. Scales for evaluating self-perceived anxiety levels in patients admitted to intensive care units: a review.

    PubMed

    Perpiñá-Galvañ, Juana; Richart-Martínez, Miguel

    2009-11-01

    To review studies of anxiety in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit to describe the level of anxiety and synthesize the psychometric properties of the instruments used to measure anxiety. The CUIDEN, IME, ISOC, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and PSYCINFO databases for 1995 to 2005 were searched. The search focused on 3 concepts: anxiety, intensive care, and mechanical ventilation for the English-language databases and ansiedad, cuidados intensivos, and ventilación mecánica for the Spanish-language databases. Information was extracted from 18 selected articles on the level of anxiety experienced by patients and the psychometric properties of the instruments used to measure anxiety. Moderate levels of anxiety were reported. Levels were higher in women than in men, and higher in patients undergoing positive pressure ventilation regardless of sex. Most multi-item instruments had high coefficients of internal consistency. The reliability of instruments with only a single item was not demonstrated, even though the instruments had moderate-to-high correlations with other measurements. Midlength scales, such the anxiety subscale of the Brief Symptom Inventory or the shortened state version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory are best for measuring anxiety in critical care patients.

  15. The association between self-reported anxiety symptoms and suicidality.

    PubMed

    Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Woolley, Stephen B; Goethe, John W

    2009-02-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed the association between self-reported anxiety symptoms and self-reported suicidality among a mixed diagnostic sample of psychiatric outpatients. Data were obtained from chart review of 2,778 outpatients who completed a routine diagnostic clinical interview and a standardized self-report of psychiatric symptoms on admission. Bivariate analyses indicated that those with >or= moderate anxiety symptoms were over three times as likely to report >or= moderate difficulty with suicidality. Self-reported anxiety symptoms were associated with a 2-fold increased likelihood of reporting suicidality after controlling for confounding (demographics, depressive symptoms, and diagnoses). These data are consistent with a growing literature demonstrating an association between anxiety symptoms and suicidality, and suggest that this association is not accounted for by coexisting mood symptoms or diagnoses. A single item, self-report may be a useful screening tool for symptoms that are pertinent to assessment of suicide risk.

  16. Origins of individual differences in anxiety proneness: a twin/adoption study of the anxiety-related scales from the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP).

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, J P; Pedersen, N L; Asberg, M; Schalling, D

    1996-06-01

    The genetic and environmental origins of individual differences in scores on the anxiety-proneness scales from the Karolinska Scales of Personality were explored using a twin/adoption study design in a sample consisting of 15 monozygotic twin pairs reared apart, and 26 monozygotic and 29 dizygotic twin pairs reared together. The results showed that genetic factors accounted for individual differences in scores on the psychasthenia and somatic anxiety scales. The genetic determinants were not specific to each scale, but were common to both scales. Shared-rearing environmental determinants were important for individual differences in lack of assertiveness and psychic anxiety, and were common to both scales. Individual differences in muscular tension were found to be attributable to the effects of correlated environments. The most important factor explaining individual differences for all scales was the non-shared environment component. The evidence for an aetiologically heterogeneous anxiety-proneness construct emphasizes the appropriateness of a multi-dimensional approach to anxiety proneness.

  17. How do gender and anxiety affect students' self-assessment and actual performance on a high-stakes clinical skills examination?

    PubMed

    Colbert-Getz, Jorie M; Fleishman, Carol; Jung, Julianna; Shilkofski, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that medical students are not accurate in self-assessment, but it is not clear whether students over- or underestimate their skills or how certain characteristics correlate with accuracy in self-assessment. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of gender and anxiety on accuracy of students' self-assessment and on actual performance in the context of a high-stakes assessment. Prior to their fourth year of medical school, two classes of medical students at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine completed a required clinical skills exam in fall 2010 and 2011, respectively. Two hundred two students rated their anxiety in anticipation of the exam and predicted their overall scores in the history taking and physical examination performance domains. A self-assessment deviation score was calculated by subtracting each student's predicted score from his or her score as rated by standardized patients. When students self-assessed their data gathering performance, there was a weak negative correlation between their predicted scores and their actual scores on the examination. Additionally, there was an interaction effect of anxiety and gender on both self-assessment deviation scores and actual performance. Specifically, females with high anxiety were more accurate in self-assessment and achieved higher actual scores compared with males with high anxiety. No differences by gender emerged for students with moderate or low anxiety. Educators should take into account not only gender but also the role of emotion, in this case anxiety, when planning interventions to help improve accuracy of students' self-assessment.

  18. A clinician-administered severity rating scale for illness anxiety: development, reliability, and validity of the H-YBOCS-M.

    PubMed

    Skritskaya, Natalia A; Carson-Wong, Amanda R; Moeller, James R; Shen, Sa; Barsky, Arthur J; Fallon, Brian A

    2012-07-01

    Clinician-administered measures to assess severity of illness anxiety and response to treatment are few. The authors evaluated a modified version of the hypochondriasis-Y-BOCS (H-YBOCS-M), a 19-item, semistructured, clinician-administered instrument designed to rate severity of illness-related thoughts, behaviors, and avoidance. The scale was administered to 195 treatment-seeking adults with DSM-IV hypochondriasis. Test-retest reliability was assessed in a subsample of 20 patients. Interrater reliability was assessed by 27 interviews independently rated by four raters. Sensitivity to change was evaluated in a subsample of 149 patients. Convergent and discriminant validity was examined by comparing H-YBOCS-M scores to other measures administered. Item clustering was examined with confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses. The H-YBOCS-M demonstrated good internal consistency, interrater and test-retest reliability, and sensitivity to symptom change with treatment. Construct validity was supported by significant higher correlations with scores on other measures of hypochondriasis than with nonhypochondriacal measures. Improvement over time in response to treatment correlated with improvement both on measures of hypochondriasis and on measures of somatization, depression, anxiety, and functional status. Confirmatory factor analysis did not show adequate fit for a three-factor model. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a five-factor solution with the first two factors consistent with the separation of the H-YBOCS-M items into the subscales of illness-related avoidance and compulsions. H-YBOCS-M appears to be valid, reliable, and appropriate as an outcome measure for treatment studies of illness anxiety. Study results highlight "avoidance" as a key feature of illness anxiety-with potentially important nosologic and treatment implications. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Elementary Pre-Service Teachers' Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Teaching Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haciomeroglu, Guney

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the structure of elementary pre-service teachers' mathematics anxiety and mathematics teaching anxiety by asking whether the two systems of anxiety are related. The Turkish Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale Short Version and the Mathematics Teaching Anxiety Scale were administered to 260 elementary pre-service teachers.…

  20. Detecting anxiety in individuals with Parkinson disease: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mele, Bria; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna; Smith, Eric E; Pringsheim, Tamara; Ismail, Zahinoor; Goodarzi, Zahra

    2018-01-02

    To examine diagnostic accuracy of anxiety detection tools compared with a gold standard in outpatient settings among adults with Parkinson disease (PD). A systematic review was conducted. MEDLINE, EMABASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched to April 7, 2017. Prevalence of anxiety and diagnostic accuracy measures including sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were gathered. Pooled prevalence of anxiety was calculated using Mantel-Haenszel-weighted DerSimonian and Laird models. A total of 6,300 citations were reviewed with 6 full-text articles included for synthesis. Tools included within this study were the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety, Parkinson's Anxiety Scale (PAS), and Mini-Social Phobia Inventory. Anxiety diagnoses made included generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and any anxiety type. Pooled prevalence of anxiety was 30.1% (95% confidence interval 26.1%-34.0%). The GAI had the best-reported sensitivity of 0.86 and specificity of 0.88. The observer-rated PAS had a sensitivity of 0.71 and the highest specificity of 0.91. While there are 6 tools validated for anxiety screening in PD populations, most tools are only validated in single studies. The GAI is brief and easy to use, with a good balance of sensitivity and specificity. The PAS was specifically developed for PD, is brief, and has self-/observer-rated scales, but with lower sensitivity. Health care practitioners involved in PD care need to be aware of available validated tools and choose one that fits their practice. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  1. Comparison of Anxiety Management Training and Self-Control Desensitization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Anxiety management training and self-control desensitization effectively reduced debilitating test anxiety and increased facilitating test anxiety. Follow-up demonstrated maintenance of debilitating test anxiety reduction. Subjects receiving treatment had significantly higher psychology grades. (Author)

  2. Failure causes fear: the effect of self-esteem threat on death-anxiety.

    PubMed

    Routledge, Clay

    2012-01-01

    According to terror management theory (TMT; Greenberg, Pyszczynski, 1986), self-esteem protects people from anxiety associated with the knowledge of certain mortality. A number of studies provide evidence consistent with this assertion, but no studies have experimentally examined the effect of threatened self-esteem on death-anxiety. In the current study, self-esteem was manipulated and death-anxiety measured. A self-esteem threat increased death-anxiety relative to a self-esteem boost and non-self threat control condition.

  3. Trajectories of Change in Youth Anxiety during Cognitive Behavior Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Peris, Tara S.; Compton, Scott N.; Kendall, Philip C.; Birmaher, Boris; Sherill, Joel; March, John; Gosch, Elizabeth; Ginsburg, Golda; Rynn, Moira; McCracken, James T.; Keeton, Courtney P.; Sakolsky, Dara; Suveg, Cynthia; Aschenbrand, Sasha; Almirall, Daniel; Iyengar, Satish; Walkup, John T.; Albano, Anne Marie; Piacentini, John

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate changes in the trajectory of youth anxiety following the introduction of specific cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) components: relaxation training, cognitive restructuring, and exposure tasks. Methods 488 youths ages 7–17 years (50% female; 74% ≤ 12 years) were randomly assigned to receive either CBT, sertraline (SRT), their combination (COMB), or pill placebo (PBO) as part of their participation in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). Youths in the CBT conditions were evaluated weekly by therapists using the Clinical Global Impression Scale-Severity (CGI-S; Guy, 1976) and the Children’s Global Assessment Scale (CGAS; Schaffer et al., 1983) and every four weeks by blind independent evaluators (IEs) using the Pediatric Anxiety Ratings Scale (PARS; Rupp Study Group, 2002). Youths in SRT and PBO were included as controls. Results Longitudinal discontinuity analyses indicated that the introduction of both cognitive restructuring (e.g., changing self-talk) and exposure tasks significantly accelerated the rate of progress on measures of symptom severity and global functioning moving forward in treatment; the introduction of relaxation training had limited impact. Counter to expectations, no strategy altered the rate of progress in the specific domain of anxiety that it was intended to target (i.e., somatic symptoms, anxious self-talk, avoidance behavior). Conclusions Findings support CBT theory and suggest that cognitive restructuring and exposure tasks each make substantial contributions to improvement in youth anxiety. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:25486372

  4. Controlling for Response Bias in Self-Ratings of Personality: A Comparison of Impression Management Scales and the Overclaiming Technique.

    PubMed

    Müller, Sascha; Moshagen, Morten

    2018-04-12

    Self-serving response distortions pose a threat to the validity of personality scales. A common approach to deal with this issue is to rely on impression management (IM) scales. More recently, the overclaiming technique (OCT) has been proposed as an alternative and arguably superior measure of such biases. In this study (N = 162), we tested these approaches in the context of self- and other-ratings using the HEXACO personality inventory. To the extent that the OCT and IM scales can be considered valid measures of response distortions, they are expected to account for inflated self-ratings in particular for those personality dimensions that are prone to socially desirable responding. However, the results show that neither the OCT nor IM account for overly favorable self-ratings. The validity of IM as a measure of response biases was further scrutinized by a substantial correlation with other-rated honesty-humility. As such, this study questions the use of both the OCT and IM to assess self-serving response distortions.

  5. Validity Studies of the Filial Anxiety Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Paul D.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Factor analytic and construct validity studies were conducted to explore the validity of Cicirelli's 13-item Filial Anxiety Scale (FAS). The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale were a part of the investigation. Results offer support for the validity of the FAS subscales and the FAS' usefulness as an…

  6. Multiple Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the DASS-21 Depression and Anxiety Scales: How Do They Perform in a Cancer Sample?

    PubMed

    Fox, Rina S; Lillis, Teresa A; Gerhart, James; Hoerger, Michael; Duberstein, Paul

    2018-06-01

    The DASS-21 is a public domain instrument that is commonly used to evaluate depression and anxiety in psychiatric and community populations; however, the factor structure of the measure has not previously been examined in oncologic settings. Given that the psychometric properties of measures of distress may be compromised in the context of symptoms related to cancer and its treatment, the present study evaluated the psychometric properties of the DASS-21 Depression and Anxiety scales in cancer patients ( n = 376) as compared to noncancer control participants ( n = 207). Cancer patients ranged in age from 21 to 84 years (mean = 58.3, standard deviation = 10.4) and noncancer control participants ranged in age from 18 to 81 years (mean = 45.0, standard deviation = 11.7). Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis supported the structural invariance of the DASS-21 Depression and Anxiety scales across groups; the factor variance/covariance invariance model was the best fit to the data. Cronbach's coefficient alpha values demonstrated acceptable internal consistency reliability across the total sample as well as within subgroups of cancer patients and noncancer control participants. Expected relationships of DASS-21 Depression and Anxiety scale scores to measures of suicidal ideation, quality of life, self-rated health, and depressed mood supported construct validity. These results support the psychometric properties of the DASS-21 Depression and Anxiety scales when measuring psychological distress in cancer patients.

  7. Reciprocal Relationships between Math Self-Concept and Math Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Wondimu; Minnaert, Alexander; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Greetje

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the reciprocal relationships between self-concept and anxiety in mathematics. A sample of 495 grade 7 students (51% girls) completed self-report measures assessing self-concept and anxiety three times in a school year. Structural equation modeling was used to test a cross-lagged panel model of reciprocal effects between…

  8. College English Writing Affect: Self-Efficacy and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow, Lindy

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a research project into the self-efficacy and anxiety of college English students at four universities in China. A total of 738 participants completed a questionnaire measuring self-efficacy and anxiety in writing in English. This was immediately followed by a writing task. The questionnaire used a seven point Likert type…

  9. Anxiety disorders in 8-11-year-old children: motor skill performance and self-perception of competence.

    PubMed

    Ekornås, Belinda; Lundervold, Astri J; Tjus, Tomas; Heimann, Mikael

    2010-06-01

    This study investigates motor skill performance and self-perceived competence in children with anxiety disorders compared with children without psychiatric disorders. Motor skills and self-perception were assessed in 329 children aged 8 to 11 years, from the Bergen Child Study. The Kiddie-SADS PL diagnostic interview was employed to define a group of children with an anxiety disorder without comorbid diagnosis, and a control group (no diagnosis) matched according to gender, age, and full-scale IQ. Children in the anxiety disorder group displayed impaired motor skills and poor self-perceived peer acceptance and physical competence compared with the control group. Two-thirds of the anxious boys scored on the Motor Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) as having motor problems. The present study demonstrated impaired motor skills in boys with "pure" anxiety disorders. Anxious children also perceived themselves as being less accepted by peers and less competent in physical activities compared with children in the control group.

  10. Orofacial esthetics and dental anxiety: associations with oral and psychological health.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Viktor; Hakeberg, Magnus; Blomkvist, Klas; Wide Boman, Ulla

    2014-11-01

    Severe dental anxiety (DA) is associated with both oral health and psychosocial consequences in what has been described as a vicious circle of DA. The aim of this study was to investigate self-rated orofacial esthetics in patients with DA and its relationship to psychological and oral health. A consecutive sample of 152 adult patients who were referred or self-referred to a specialized dental anxiety clinic filled out the Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES) as well as measurements on DA, self-rated oral health and general anxiety and depression. Clinical measures of dental status were also obtained. Compared with the general population, patients with DA had lower ratings of satisfaction on all aspects of their orofacial esthetics, which included the teeth, gingiva, mouth and face, as well as a global orofacial assessment. Furthermore, the perception of the orofacial appearance was related both to dental status and self-rated oral health, as well as to general anxiety and depression. The level of dissatisfaction with the orofacial appearance was similar for both genders, but women reported more regular dental care and better dental status. The results of this study clearly show less satisfaction with dental and facial appearance in patients with DA, and that the self-rating of orofacial esthetics is related to both oral and psychological health. The OES can be used to assess orofacial esthetics in patients with DA.

  11. Influence of 5-HTT variation, childhood trauma and self-efficacy on anxiety traits: a gene-environment-coping interaction study.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Miriam A; Ziegler, Christiane; Holitschke, Karoline; Schartner, Christoph; Schmidt, Brigitte; Weber, Heike; Reif, Andreas; Romanos, Marcel; Pauli, Paul; Zwanzger, Peter; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina

    2016-08-01

    Environmental vulnerability factors such as adverse childhood experiences in interaction with genetic risk variants, e.g., the serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), are assumed to play a role in the development of anxiety and affective disorders. However, positive influences such as general self-efficacy (GSE) may exert a compensatory effect on genetic disposition, environmental adversity, and anxiety traits. We, thus, assessed childhood trauma (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, CTQ) and GSE in 678 adults genotyped for 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 and their interaction on agoraphobic cognitions (Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire, ACQ), social anxiety (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, LSAS), and trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, STAI-T). The relationship between anxiety traits and childhood trauma was moderated by self-efficacy in 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 LALA genotype carriers: LALA probands maltreated as children showed high anxiety scores when self-efficacy was low, but low anxiety scores in the presence of high self-efficacy despite childhood maltreatment. Our results extend previous findings regarding anxiety-related traits showing an interactive relationship between 5-HTT genotype and adverse childhood experiences by suggesting coping-related measures to function as an additional dimension buffering the effects of a gene-environment risk constellation. Given that anxiety disorders manifest already early in childhood, this insight could contribute to the improvement of psychotherapeutic interventions by including measures strengthening self-efficacy and inform early targeted preventive interventions in at-risk populations, particularly within the crucial time window of childhood and adolescence.

  12. Telephone versus internet administration of self-report measures of social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and insomnia: psychometric evaluation of a method to reduce the impact of missing data.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Erik; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Blom, Kerstin; El Alaoui, Samir; Kraepelien, Martin; Rück, Christian; Andersson, Gerhard; Svanborg, Cecilia; Lindefors, Nils; Kaldo, Viktor

    2013-10-18

    Internet-administered self-report measures of social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and sleep difficulties are widely used in clinical trials and in clinical routine care, but data loss is a common problem that could render skewed estimates of symptom levels and treatment effects. One way of reducing the negative impact of missing data could be to use telephone administration of self-report measures as a means to complete the data missing from the online data collection. The aim of the study was to compare the convergence of telephone and Internet administration of self-report measures of social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and sleep difficulties. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale-Self-Report (LSAS-SR), Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale-Self-Rated (MADRS-S), and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) were administered over the telephone and via the Internet to a clinical sample (N=82) of psychiatric patients at a clinic specializing in Internet-delivered treatment. Shortened versions of the LSAS-SR and the ISI were used when administered via telephone. As predicted, the results showed that the estimates produced by the two administration formats were highly correlated (r=.82-.91; P<.001) and internal consistencies were high in both administration formats (telephone: Cronbach alpha=.76-.86 and Internet: Cronbach alpha=.79-.93). The correlation coefficients were similar across questionnaires and the shorter versions of the questionnaires used in the telephone administration of the LSAS-SR and ISI performed in general equally well compared to when the full scale was used, as was the case with the MADRS-S. Telephone administration of self-report questionnaires is a valid method that can be used to reduce data loss in routine psychiatric practice as well as in clinical trials, thereby contributing to more accurate symptom estimates.

  13. A new, female-specific irritability rating scale

    PubMed Central

    Born, Leslie; Koren, Gideon; Lin, Elizabeth; Steiner, Meir

    2008-01-01

    Objective Irritability is a prominent symptom in the spectrum of female-specific mood disorders, and in some women, irritability is serious enough to disrupt their lives and warrant treatment. The objective of this research was to develop a new, female-specific state measure of irritability. Methods We constructed self-rating and observer rating scales using items derived from spontaneous descriptions of irritability by women with mood disturbances related to the menstrual cycle, childbearing or menopause. Following a pretest, the scales were shortened to the core items of irritability (annoyance, anger, tension, hostility, sensitivity to noise and touch) and tested on a new cohort of patients. Results The 14-item Self-Rating Scale and the 5-item Observer Rating Scale showed evidence for internal consistency (Self-Rating: n = 36 patients, Cronbach's α = 0.9257, mean interitem correlation = 0.4690; Observer Rating: Cronbach's α = 0.7418, mean interitem correlation = 0.3616), Self-Rating test–retest reliability (n = 29 patients, rs = 0.704, p = 0.01) and interrater reliability (n = 20 patients; τb = 1.000, p = 0.001). Conclusion This new, female-specific scale for rating irritability has the potential to further the evaluation of this prominent symptom cluster and increase specificity in clinical assessments of emotional disturbances related to reproductive cyclicity in women. PMID:18592028

  14. Anxiety, Self-Esteem and Coping with Stress in Secondary School Students in Relation to Involvement in Organized Sports

    PubMed Central

    DOLENC, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Aim The objective of the study was to examine self-esteem, anxiety level and coping strategies among secondary school students in relation to their involvement in organized sports. Methods The sample included 280 Slovenian male and female secondary school students aged between 15 and 19 years. The participants completed The Adolescent Coping Scale, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the PSDQ Selfesteem Scale. Results Participants engaged in organized sports exhibited higher self-esteem scores and lower anxiety scores in comparison to non-sport participants. Differences between the two groups have also been identified with respect to the use of certain coping strategies. Sport participants reported more productive coping than non-sport participants, which represents an active and problem-focused approach to dealing with everyday problems. Gender differences in the referred variables have also been studied, with female athletes exhibiting higher levels of anxiety than male athletes. Female participants were also found to use more non-productive coping than males, focused mainly on reducing emotional effects of stress. Conclusions Organized youth sports have an important role in improving and maintaining a favorable sense of self-worth, reducing anxiety, and promoting productive coping strategies in adolescents when dealing with everyday problems. PMID:27646730

  15. Self-Efficacy and Anxiety within an EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Cemile

    2016-01-01

    The current study is a quantitative research that aims to investigate the university students' self-efficacy levels and their relation to their anxiety within an EFL context. To do this, a quantitative research was conducted to scrutinize the self-efficacy and anxiety levels of students at a state university. The participants of the study were 150…

  16. On the self-serving function of an academic wooden leg: test anxiety as a self-handicapping strategy.

    PubMed

    Smith, C W; Snyder, D R; Handelsman, M M

    1982-02-01

    The present study investigated the hypothesis that psychological symptoms may serve a self-protective function by providing an alternative explanation for potential failure in evaluating situations. It was hypothesized that highly test-anxious subjects would report anxiety symptoms in a pattern that reflected strategic presentation of symptoms; more specifically, it was predicted that greater reported anxiety should result when anxiety was a viable explanation for poor performance on an intelligence test and that lower reported anxiety should result when anxiety was not a viable explanation for poor performance. Analysis of state measures of self-reported anxiety supported these predictions. Further analysis indicated that when anxiety was not a viable explanation for poor test performance, high test-anxiety subjects reported reduced effort as an alternative self-protective strategy. These results are discussed in terms of traditional models of symptoms as self-protective strategies, current social psychological models of symptoms, and in reference to recent theory and research about the nature and treatment of test anxiety.

  17. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Olivares, José; Sánchez-García, Raquel; López-Pina, José Antonio

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the component structure and reliability of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents, self-report version (LSAS-CA-SR), in a Spanish community population. The sample was made up of 422 students from elementary and high schools, aged between 10 and 17 years. Exploratory factor analysis isolated one component for the Anxiety subscale and one component for the Avoidance subscale. Medium-strong associations were found between the total score and subscale scores. LSAS-CA-SR scores had stronger associations with instruments of social anxiety. Internal consistency for the Fear subscale was .91, and for the Avoidance subscale, it was .89. Gender and age effects were assessed for LSAS-CA-SR scores. Effect sizes for age and gender and interaction of age and gender were very low on both the Fear and the Avoidance subscales. There were significant differences between female and male means on the Fear subscale. The findings suggest that the LSAS-CA-SR is reliable and valid.

  18. The relationship among self-efficacy, negative self-referent cognitions, and social anxiety in children: a multiple mediator model.

    PubMed

    Rudy, Brittany M; Davis, Thompson E; Matthews, Russell A

    2012-09-01

    Evidence suggests that general self-efficacy, an individual's beliefs about his global abilities, and social self-efficacy, an individual's beliefs in his ability to navigate social situations, are strongly connected to levels of social anxiety. Negative self-statements, also known as negative self-referent cognitions, have also been linked with levels of social anxiety. Although self-efficacy and negative self-statements have been shown to be important variables in the phenomenology and maintenance of social anxiety in children, they have yet to be examined in conjunction with one another. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between negative self-referent cognitions and self-efficacy and to examine both general self-efficacy and social self-efficacy as mediator variables in the relationship between negative self-statements and social anxiety. Results were based on a sample of 126 children ages 11 to 14 years. A significant association between negative self-statements and both general self-efficacy and social self-efficacy was established. Results also indicated that general self-efficacy fully mediated the relationship between negative self-statements and social anxiety; however, contrary to hypotheses, social self-efficacy did not mediate the relationship between negative self-statements and social anxiety. Implications and future recommendations are discussed. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Computer Self-Efficacy, Computer Anxiety, and Attitudes toward the Internet: A Study among Undergraduates in Unimas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, Hong Kian; Othman, Abang Ekhsan Abang; Nordin, Zaimuarifuddin Shukri

    2005-01-01

    Eighty-one female and sixty-seven male undergraduates at a Malaysian university, from seven faculties and a Center for Language Studies completed a Computer Self-Efficacy Scale, Computer Anxiety Scale, and an Attitudes toward the Internet Scale and give information about their use of the Internet. This survey research investigated undergraduates'…

  20. A self-rating scale to measure tridoṣas in children

    PubMed Central

    Suchitra, S.P.; Nagendra, H.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Selfrating inventories to assess the Prakṛti (constitution) and personality have been developed and validated for adults. To analyze the effect of personality development programs on Prakṛti of the children, standardized scale is not available. Hence, present study was carried out to develop and standardize Caraka Child Personality inventory (CCPI). Materials and Methods: The 77- item CCPI scale was developed on the basis of translation of Sanskrit verses describing vātaja (a), pittaja (b) and kaphaja prakṛti (c) characteristics described in Ayurveda texts and by taking the opinions of 5 Ayurveda experts and psychologists. The scale was administered on children of the age group 8-12 years in New Generation National public school, Bangalore. Results: This inventory was named CCPI and showed excellent internal consistency. The Cronbach's alpha for A, B and C scales were 0.54, 0.64 and 0.64 respectively. The Split - Half reliability scores for A, B and C subscales were 0.64. 0.60 and 0.66 respectively. Factor validity coefficient Scores on each item was above 0.4. Scores on vātaja, pittaja and kaphaja scales were inversely correlated. Test-retest reliability scores for A,B and C scales were 0.87,0.88 and 0.89 respectively. The result of CCPI was compared with a parent rating scale Ayurveda Child Personality Inventory (ACPI). Subscales of CCPI correlated significantly highly (above 0.80) with subscales of ACPI which was done for the purpose of cross-validation with respect to ACPI. Conclusions: The prakṛti of the children can be measured consistently by this scale. Correlations with ACPI pointed toward concurrent validity. PMID:25284940

  1. A qualitative examination of women's self-presentation and social physique anxiety during injury rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Driediger, Molly V; McKay, Carly D; Hall, Craig R; Echlin, Paul S

    2016-12-01

    To understand women's self-presentation experiences in the rehabilitation setting, and their attitudes and preferences toward the social and physical features of the rehabilitation environment. Qualitative study. Outpatient physiotherapy clinic. Ten women (age 18 to 64) with high social physique anxiety (Social Physique Anxiety Scale score ≥25) referred for physiotherapy following acute injury. Semi-structured interviews were conducted prior to commencement of treatment, and again after a third treatment session. Participants experienced extensive self-presentational concerns that were intensified due to the nature of the physiotherapy environment. The women reported that their self-presentational anxiety did not diminish over time, and was related to others' negative perceptions regarding their physical appearance and inability to perform exercises as well as expected. The presence of men or younger women in the clinic was identified as a barrier to appointment attendance, along with open concept clinic settings, which were associated with the most potential for evaluation. Mirrors and windows in the physiotherapy clinic were highlighted as anxiety provoking. The women suggested that they would feel apprehensive about advocating for themselves if they felt uncomfortable with the area in which they were receiving treatment, and instead used avoidance coping strategies (e.g., hiding behind equipment, preventing eye contact) to manage their anxiety. Physique-anxious women experience extensive self-presentational concerns in the rehabilitation environment, which could affect treatment adherence. Modifying the treatment setting, providing protective self-presentational strategies such as positive self-talk, and open patient-therapist communication could be implemented to help mitigate these concerns. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Discriminant of validity the Wender Utah rating scale in Iranian adults.

    PubMed

    Farokhzadi, Farideh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Salmanian, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is the normalization of the Wender Utah rating scale which is used to detect adults with Attention-Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD as compared to 200 parents of normal children). Wender Utah rating scale, which has been designed to diagnose ADHD in adults, is filled out by each of the parents to most accurately diagnose of ADHD in parents. Wender Utah rating scale was divided into 6 sub scales which consist of dysthymia, oppositional defiant disorder; school work problems, conduct disorder, anxiety, and ADHD were analyzed with exploratory factor analysis method. The value of (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) KMO was 86.5% for dysthymia, 86.9% for oppositional defiant disorder, 77.5% for school related problems, 90.9% for conduct disorder, 79.6% for anxiety and 93.5% for Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, also the chi square value based on Bartlett's Test was 2242.947 for dysthymia, 2239.112 for oppositional defiant disorder, 1221.917 for school work problems, 5031.511 for conduct, 1421.1 for anxiety, and 7644.122 for ADHD. Since mentioned values were larger than the chi square critical values (P<0.05), it found that the factor correlation matrix is appropriate for factor analysis. Based on the findings, we can conclude that Wender Utah rating scale can be appropriately used for predicting dysthymia, oppositional defiant disorder, school work problems, conduct disorder, anxiety, in adults with ADHD.

  3. Anxiety and depression among patients with different types of vestibular peripheral vertigo.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qing; Yu, Lisheng; Shi, Dongmei; Ke, Xingxing; Zhang, Hua

    2015-02-01

    Numerous studies have been published on comorbid anxiety and depression in patients with vertigo. However, very few studies have separately described and analyzed anxiety or depression in patients with different types of vestibular peripheral vertigo. The present study investigated anxiety and depression among patients with 4 different types of peripheral vertigo. A total of 129 patients with 4 types of peripheral vertigo, namely, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, n = 49), migrainous vertigo (MV, n = 37), Menière disease (MD, n = 28), and vestibular neuritis (VN, n = 15), were included in the present study. Otological and neurootological examinations were carefully performed, and self-rating anxiety scale and self-rating depression scale were used to evaluate anxiety and depression. Patients were divided into 2 groups, according to the vestibular function: normal and abnormal vestibular function. There was no significant difference in the risk of anxiety/depression between these 2 groups. However, for patients with the 4 different vertigo types, the prevalence of anxiety (MV = 45.9%, MD = 50%) and depression (MV = 27%, MD = 28.6%) was significantly higher in the patients with MV or MD than those with BPPV or VN (P < 0.05). Vestibular function is not significantly associated with the risk of anxiety/depression. Anxiety/depression is more common in patients with MV or MD than those with BPPV or VN. This may be due to the different mechanisms involved in these 4 types of vertigo, as well as differences in the prevention and self-control of the patients against the vertigo.

  4. [Anxiety disorders and influence factors in adolescent patients with cleft lip and palate].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Ran, Hao; Jiang, Chang-wei; Zhou, Meng

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the anxiety disorders and influence factors that occur in adolescent patients with cleft lip and palate and to provide theoretical foundation for mental intervention. A total of 120 adolescent patients with cleft lip and palate were investigated using a general information questionnaire, the self-rating anxiety scale, and the social support rating scale (SSRS). The influence factors of anxiety disorders were analyzed. The effective questionnaires were 119. The occurrence rate of anxiety disorder in adolescent patients was 49.6% (59/119), and the occurrence rates of mild, moderate, and severe anxieties were 41.2% (49/119), 7.6% (9/119), and 0.8% (1/119), respectively. The gender, residential area, disease category, family status (one child or no children), and incidence rate of anxiety disorder in patients were statistically different (P<0.05). The SSRS scores of patients with anxiety disorder were lower than those of patients without anxiety disorder (P<0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that gender and social support were predictive factors of the occurrence of anxiety disorder (R=0.318). A high anxiety disorder rate occurred in adolescent patients with cleft lip and palate. dender and social support were important influencing factors for anxiety disorder. In the after-mental intervention, considerable attention should be given to the anxiety disorders of patients and improve their mental health.

  5. The Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5): Correlations with anxiety, fear, and depression scales in non-clinical children.

    PubMed

    Muris, Peter; Mannens, Janne; Peters, Lisanne; Meesters, Cor

    2017-10-01

    The Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5) is a newly developed rating scale for assessing anxiety disorder symptoms of children and adolescents in terms of the contemporary classification system. In the present study, 187 children aged 8-12 years completed the new measure as well as the trait version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC), the Short Form of the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (FSSC-R-SF), the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS), the Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ), and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Results indicated that part one of the YAM-5, which measures symptoms of the major anxiety disorders, was most substantially linked with the trait anxiety scale of the STAIC, whereas part two, which measures phobic symptoms, was most clearly associated with the FSSC-R-SF. The correlation between the YAM-5 and the SCAS was also robust, and particularly strong correlations were found between subscales of both questionnaires that assessed similar symptoms. Further, the selective mutism subscale of the YAM-5 was most clearly linked to the SMQ. Finally, the YAM-5 was also significantly correlated with depression symptoms as indexed by the CDI. These findings provide further support for the concurrent validity of the YAM-5. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relaxation therapy and anxiety, self-esteem, and emotional regulation among adults with intellectual disabilities: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Cyrille; Coulet, Aurélie

    2016-09-01

    This pilot study is a randomized controlled trial on the effects of relaxation on anxiety, self-esteem, and emotional regulation in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) working in a center of supported employment in France. We studied 30 adults with mild or moderate ID who were split at random into a relaxation group (RG, 15 subjects), who completed 10 sessions of relaxation therapy, and a control group (CG, 15 subjects), who were on a waiting list. The method used is the pretest and posttest. Variables were assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory form Y scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. We found that in the RG, relaxation significantly reduced state anxiety, t(14, 15) = 17.8***, d = -0.72, and improved self-esteem, t(14, 15) = -7.7***, d = 1.03, and cognitive reappraisal, t(14, 15) = -6.3***, d = 1.3, while the CG showed no change for these variables. We conclude that relaxation seems to be an interesting therapeutic option for reducing anxiety in people with ID in a supported employment setting. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Refining and validating the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale.

    PubMed

    Carleton, R Nicholas; Collimore, Kelsey C; Asmundson, Gordon J G; McCabe, Randi E; Rowa, Karen; Antony, Martin M

    2009-01-01

    The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale are companion measures for assessing symptoms of social anxiety and social phobia. The scales have good reliability and validity across several samples, however, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses have yielded solutions comprising substantially different item content and factor structures. These discrepancies are likely the result of analyzing items from each scale separately or simultaneously. The current investigation sets out to assess items from those scales, both simultaneously and separately, using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in an effort to resolve the factor structure. Participants consisted of a clinical sample (n 5353; 54% women) and an undergraduate sample (n 5317; 75% women) who completed the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale, along with additional fear-related measures to assess convergent and discriminant validity. A three-factor solution with a reduced set of items was found to be most stable, irrespective of whether the items from each scale are assessed together or separately. Items from the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale represented one factor, whereas items from the Social Phobia Scale represented two other factors. Initial support for scale and factor validity, along with implications and recommendations for future research, is provided. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. The initial development of the Pregnancy-related Anxiety Scale.

    PubMed

    Brunton, Robyn J; Dryer, Rachel; Saliba, Anthony; Kohlhoff, Jane

    2018-05-30

    Pregnancy-related anxiety is a distinct anxiety characterised by pregnancy-specific concerns. This anxiety is consistently associated with adverse birth outcomes, and obstetric and paediatric risk factors, associations generally not seen with other anxieties. The need exists for a psychometrically sound scale for this anxiety type. This study, therefore, reports on the initial development of the Pregnancy-related Anxiety Scale. The item pool was developed following a literature review and the formulation of a definition for pregnancy-related anxiety. An Expert Review Panel reviewed the definition, item pool and test specifications. Pregnant women were recruited online (N=671). Using a subsample (N=262, M=27.94, SD=4.99), fourteen factors were extracted using Principal Components Analysis accounting for 63.18% of the variance. Further refinement resulted in 11 distinct factors. Confirmatory Factor Analysis further tested the model with a second subsample (N=369, M=26.59, SD=4.76). After additional refinement, the resulting model was a good fit with nine factors (childbirth, appearance, attitudes towards childbirth, motherhood, acceptance, anxiety, medical, avoidance, and baby concerns). Internal consistency reliability was good with the majority of subscales exceeding α=.80. The Pregnancy-related Anxiety Scale is easy to administer with higher scores indicative of greater pregnancy-related anxiety. The inclusion of reverse-scored items is a potential limitation with poorer reliability evident for these factors. Although still in its development stage, the Pregnancy-related Anxiety Scale will eventually be useful both clinically (affording early intervention) and in research settings. Copyright © 2018 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The DSM-5 social anxiety disorder severity scale: Evidence of validity and reliability in a clinical sample.

    PubMed

    LeBeau, Richard T; Mesri, Bita; Craske, Michelle G

    2016-10-30

    With DSM-5, the APA began providing guidelines for anxiety disorder severity assessment that incorporates newly developed self-report scales. The scales share a common template, are brief, and are free of copyright restrictions. Initial validation studies have been promising, but the English-language versions of the scales have not been formally validated in clinical samples. Forty-seven individuals with a principal diagnosis of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) completed a diagnostic assessment, as well as the DSM-5 SAD severity scale and several previously validated measures. The scale demonstrated internal consistency, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. The next steps in the validation process are outlined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Implicit and explicit self-esteem and their reciprocal relationship with symptoms of depression and social anxiety: a longitudinal study in adolescents.

    PubMed

    van Tuijl, Lonneke A; de Jong, Peter J; Sportel, B Esther; de Hullu, Eva; Nauta, Maaike H

    2014-03-01

    A negative self-view is a prominent factor in most cognitive vulnerability models of depression and anxiety. Recently, there has been increased attention to differentiate between the implicit (automatic) and the explicit (reflective) processing of self-related evaluations. This longitudinal study aimed to test the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and symptoms of adolescent depression and social anxiety disorder. Two complementary models were tested: the vulnerability model and the scarring effect model. Participants were 1641 first and second year pupils of secondary schools in the Netherlands. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, self-esteem Implicit Association Test and Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale were completed to measure explicit self-esteem, implicit self-esteem and symptoms of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), respectively, at baseline and two-year follow-up. Explicit self-esteem at baseline was associated with symptoms of MDD and SAD at follow-up. Symptomatology at baseline was not associated with explicit self-esteem at follow-up. Implicit self-esteem was not associated with symptoms of MDD or SAD in either direction. We relied on self-report measures of MDD and SAD symptomatology. Also, findings are based on a non-clinical sample. Our findings support the vulnerability model, and not the scarring effect model. The implications of these findings suggest support of an explicit self-esteem intervention to prevent increases in MDD and SAD symptomatology in non-clinical adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Measuring the impact of multiple sclerosis on psychosocial functioning: the development of a new self-efficacy scale.

    PubMed

    Airlie, J; Baker, G A; Smith, S J; Young, C A

    2001-06-01

    To develop a scale to measure self-efficacy in neurologically impaired patients with multiple sclerosis and to assess the scale's psychometric properties. Cross-sectional questionnaire study in a clinical setting, the retest questionnaire returned by mail after completion at home. Regional multiple sclerosis (MS) outpatient clinic or the Clinical Trials Unit (CTU) at a large neuroscience centre in the UK. One hundred persons with MS attending the Walton Centre for Neurology and Neurosurgery and Clatterbridge Hospital, Wirral, as outpatients. Cognitively impaired patients were excluded at an initial clinic assessment. Patients were asked to provide demographic data and complete the self-efficacy scale along with the following validated scales: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Impact, Stigma and Mastery and Rankin Scales. The Rankin Scale and Barthel Index were also assessed by the physician. A new 11-item self-efficacy scale was constructed consisting of two domains of control and personal agency. The validity of the scale was confirmed using Cronbach's alpha analysis of internal consistency (alpha = 0.81). The test-retest reliability of the scale over two weeks was acceptable with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.79. Construct validity was investigated using Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient resulting in significant correlations with depression (r= -0.52) anxiety (r =-0.50) and mastery (r= 0.73). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that these factors accounted for 70% of the variance of scores on the self-efficacy scale, with scores on mastery, anxiety and perceived disability being independently significant. Assessment of the psychometric properties of this new self-efficacy scale suggest that it possesses good validity and reliability in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  12. Critical thinking, self-esteem, and state anxiety of nursing students.

    PubMed

    Suliman, Wafika A; Halabi, Jehad

    2007-02-01

    This study aimed at exploring the existing predominant critical thinking disposition(s) of baccalaureate nursing students and the relationship among their critical thinking (CT), self-esteem (SE), and state anxiety (SA). Cross-sectional correlational design was utilized to achieve the said aim. A voluntary convenient sample consisted of first year (n=105) and fourth year (n=60) nursing students. The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory were used for data collection after their translation to Arabic language and test for validity and reliability. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data. Results showed that both groups overall CT was marginal indicating no serious deficiency, their SE was average, and their SA was relatively high; they reported analyticity, open-mindedness, systematicity, inquisitiveness, and truth seeking as predominant critical thinking dispositions with no significant difference between them. However, the two groups were weak with significant difference on CT self-confidence (t=-2.053, df=136.904, p=.042) with beginning students reporting poorer level of CT self-confidence. Significant correlation results showed that critical thinking is positively correlated with SE, negatively correlated with SA, and SE is negatively correlated with SA; however, all correlations were actually quite low.

  13. Investigating Pre-Service Teachers' Mathematics Anxiety Using the Revised Mathematics Anxiety Scale (RMARS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Pre-service primary (elementary) teachers' mathematics anxiety affects their engagement with and future teaching of mathematics. The study measured the range of mathematics anxiety in 219 pre-service teachers starting a teacher education course in an Australian university. They responded to the Revised Mathematics Anxiety Scale (RMARS) and a set…

  14. Relations among religiosity, health, happiness, and anxiety for Kuwaiti adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baroun, Khader A

    2006-12-01

    The present study investigated correlations among religiosity, health, happiness, and anxiety for 941 Kuwaiti adolescents. A convenience sample of male (n=408) and female (n=533) students (M age = 16.5, SD = 1.2 yr.) was randomly selected from secondary school students of different districts of the State of Kuwait. The Intrinsic Religious Motivation scale, the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, and six self-rating scales assessing religiosity, strength of religious belief, physical health, mental health, happiness, and life satisfaction were applied to assess correlations among Kuwaiti adolescents. Analysis showed boys had significantly higher mean scores than girls on all measures except anxiety, on which girls scored significantly higher than boys. There also were significant and positive correlations among the variables, except for anxiety, which was significant and negative.

  15. Effects of Maternal Anxiety Disorders on Infant Self-Comforting Behaviors: The Role of Maternal Bonding, Infant Gender and Age.

    PubMed

    Müller, Mitho; Tronick, Ed; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Verschoor, Stephan; Träuble, Birgit

    We investigated the links between maternal bonding, maternal anxiety disorders, and infant self-comforting behaviors. Furthermore, we looked at the moderating roles of infant gender and age. Our sample (n = 69) comprised 28 mothers with an anxiety disorder (according to DSM-IV criteria) and 41 controls, each with their 2.5- to 8-month-old infant (41 females and 28 males). Infant behaviors were recorded during the Face-to-Face Still-Face paradigm. Maternal bonding was assessed by the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire. Conditional process analyses revealed that lower maternal bonding partially mediated between maternal anxiety disorders and increased self-comforting behaviors but only in older female infants (over 5.5 months of age). However, considering maternal anxiety disorders without the influence of bonding, older female infants (over 5.5 months of age) showed decreased rates of self-comforting behaviors, while younger male infants (under 3 months of age) showed increased rates in the case of maternal anxiety disorder. The results suggest that older female infants (over 5.5 months of age) are more sensitive to lower maternal bonding in the context of maternal anxiety disorders. Furthermore, results suggest a different use of self-directed regulation strategies for male and female infants of mothers with anxiety disorders and low bonding, depending on infant age. The results are discussed in the light of gender-specific developmental trajectories. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Preliminary study of self-reported experience of physical aggression and bullying of boys who stutter: relation to increased anxiety.

    PubMed

    Blood, Gordon W; Blood, Ingrid M

    2007-06-01

    This study examined the relationship of self-reported anxiety and vulnerability to bullying for 18 children who stuttered and 18 children who did not stutter. More children who stuttered were at significantly higher risk of experiencing bullying behavior (61%) than children who did not stutter (22%); 39% of children who stuttered scored at least one standard deviation above the mean on the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, suggestive of higher anxiety. In contrast, only 6% of children who did not stutter scored at least one standard deviation above the mean. The correlation was .82 for children who stuttered between greater vulnerability to bullying and self-reported anxiety. A bidirectional relationship is hypothesized between high anxiety and bullying of children who stutter.

  17. Effect of stress, anxiety and depression on unstimulated salivary flow rate and xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Neda; Hosseini Sabzvari, Behrous; Razzaghi, Alireza; Salah, Shilan

    2017-01-01

    Background. Unstimulated salivary flow rate can be influenced by different factors. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of stress, anxiety and depression on unstimulated salivary flow rate in adults. Methods. A total of 247 adult subjects, randomly selected from patients referring to Zanjan Dental School, were included in this investigation. The study procedures consisted of collecting salivary samples (in 5 minutes), completing a form for feeling of xerostomia and completing Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) Questionnaire to assess the severity of stress, anxiety and depression. Based on the results, the patients were categorized in four groups: Low salivary flow rate plus xerostomia (group 1, n=60), normal salivary flow rate plus xerostomia (group 2, n=59), low salivary flow rate without xerostomia (group 3, n=60) and normal salivary flow rate without xerostomia (control group, n=68). Results. The frequencies of subjects with severe and major depression in groups 1, 2 and 3 were 31.4%, 11.7% and 8.5%, respectively, with 4.4% in the control group. The frequencies of subjects with severe stress in groups 1, 2 and 3 were 21.7%, 3.3% and 11.9%, respectively, with 1.5% in the control group. The frequencies of patients with severe anxiety in groups 1, 2 and 3 were 50%, 30% and 61.1%, respectively, with 4.4% in the control group. Stress, anxiety and depression exhibited a statistically significant relationship with unstimulated salivary flow rate and xerostomia (P<0.05). Conclusion. Stress, anxiety and depression can influence unstimulated salivary flow rate and lead to xerostomia.

  18. The role of self-control strength in the development of state anxiety in test situations.

    PubMed

    Englert, C; Bertrams, A

    2013-06-01

    Self-control strength may affect state anxiety because emotion regulation is impaired in individuals whose self-control strength has been temporarily depleted. Increases in state anxiety were expected to be larger for participants with depleted compared to nondepleted self-control strength, and trait test anxiety should predict increases in state anxiety more strongly if self-control strength is depleted. In a sample of 76 university students, trait test anxiety was assessed, self-control strength experimentally manipulated, and state anxiety measured before and after the announcement of a test. State anxiety increased after the announcement. Trait test anxiety predicted increases in state anxiety only in students with depleted self-control strength, suggesting that increased self-control strength may be useful for coping with anxiety.

  19. The Mediational Effect of Weight Self-Stigma in the Relationship between Blatant and Subtle Discrimination and Depression and Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Magallares, Alejandro; Bolaños-Rios, Patricia; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Benito de Valle, Pilar; Irles, Jose Antonio; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2017-02-06

    Obesity may be considered a social stigma. In addition, people with obesity are frequently aware of stigma directed at others who have a similar weight and come to think stigmatized thoughts about themselves. Our study focused specifically on how blatant and subtle discrimination and weight self-stigma are related to depression and anxiety in people with obesity. The sample comprised 170 participants from the Clinical Nutrition Unit of the "Hospital de Valme" (Seville, Spain). The Weight Self-Stigma Questionnaire, the Multidimensional Perceived Discrimination Scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used. It was found that blatant and subtle discrimination and weight self-stigma were positively related to depression (.31, .38, and .45 respectively) and anxiety (.30, .36, and .49 respectively; all ps < .01). The path analysis conducted showed that there was a mediational effect of weight self-stigma between blatant (β = .36) and subtle discrimination (β = .40) and depression (β = .24) and anxiety (β = .49; all ps < .01). According to these results, it can be said that weight self-stigma was a full mediator in the model found because the relationships between the independent and the dependent variables were non-significant. Finally, results are discussed in the frame of the obesity stigma literature, and some clinical implications of the results of the study are suggested.

  20. Predicting Relationships between Mathematics Anxiety, Mathematics Teaching Anxiety, Self-Efficacy Beliefs towards Mathematics and Mathematics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unlu, Melihan; Ertekin, Erhan; Dilmac, Bulent

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to investigate the relationships between self-efficacy beliefs toward mathematics, mathematics anxiety and self-efficacy beliefs toward mathematics teaching, mathematics teaching anxiety variables and testing the relationships between these variables with structural equation model. The sample of the research, which…

  1. Maternal self-confidence during the first four months postpartum and its association with anxiety and early infant regulatory problems.

    PubMed

    Matthies, Lina Maria; Wallwiener, Stephanie; Müller, Mitho; Doster, Anne; Plewniok, Katharina; Feller, Sandra; Sohn, Christof; Wallwiener, Markus; Reck, Corinna

    2017-11-01

    Maternal self-confidence has become an essential concept in understanding early disturbances in the mother-child relationship. Recent research suggests that maternal self-confidence may be associated with maternal mental health and infant development. The current study investigated the dynamics of maternal self-confidence during the first four months postpartum and the predictive ability of maternal symptoms of depression, anxiety, and early regulatory problems in infants. Questionnaires assessing symptoms of depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), and early regulatory problems (Questionnaire for crying, sleeping and feeding) were completed in a sample of 130 women at three different time points (third trimester (T1), first week postpartum (T2), and 4 months postpartum (T3). Maternal self-confidence increased significantly over time. High maternal trait anxiety and early infant regulatory problems negatively contributed to the prediction of maternal self-confidence, explaining 31.8% of the variance (R=.583, F 3,96 =15.950, p<.001). Our results emphasize the transactional association between maternal self-confidence, regulatory problems in infants, and maternal mental distress. There is an urgent need for appropriate programs to reduce maternal anxiety and to promote maternal self-confidence in order to prevent early regulatory problems in infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential relationship of recent self-reported stress and acute anxiety with divided attention performance.

    PubMed

    Petrac, D C; Bedwell, J S; Renk, K; Orem, D M; Sims, V

    2009-07-01

    There have been relatively few studies on the relationship between recent perceived environmental stress and cognitive performance, and the existing studies do not control for state anxiety during the cognitive testing. The current study addressed this need by examining recent self-reported environmental stress and divided attention performance, while controlling for state anxiety. Fifty-four university undergraduates who self-reported a wide range of perceived recent stress (10-item perceived stress scale) completed both single and dual (simultaneous auditory and visual stimuli) continuous performance tests. Partial correlation analysis showed a statistically significant positive correlation between perceived stress and the auditory omission errors from the dual condition, after controlling for state anxiety and auditory omission errors from the single condition (r = 0.41). This suggests that increased environmental stress relates to decreased divided attention performance in auditory vigilance. In contrast, an increase in state anxiety (controlling for perceived stress) was related to a decrease in auditory omission errors from the dual condition (r = - 0.37), which suggests that state anxiety may improve divided attention performance. Results suggest that further examination of the neurobiological consequences of environmental stress on divided attention and other executive functioning tasks is needed.

  3. Religious and spiritual beliefs, self-esteem, anxiety, and depression among nursing students.

    PubMed

    Papazisis, Georgios; Nicolaou, Panagiotis; Tsiga, Evangelia; Christoforou, Theodora; Sapountzi-Krepia, Despina

    2014-06-01

    Research of the role of religious belief and/or spirituality has been conducted on a wide range of health-related topics, across many disciplines, and in many countries. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between religious beliefs, self-esteem, anxiety, and depression in nursing students in Cyprus. One hundred and twenty-three nursing students were asked to complete a survey consisting of four self-report questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, The Royal Free Interview for Religious and Spiritual Beliefs, and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale). The lowest levels of depression were observed in the third and fourth study year. Normal self-esteem levels were found in the majority of the students (71.3%) and most of them perceived current stress at mild levels. No significant differences on the basis of sex were observed. The vast majority (98.2%) of the students stated a strong religious and/or a spiritual belief that was strongly positively correlated with increased self-esteem and negatively correlated with depression, current stress, and stress as personality trait. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Two Self-Control Procedures in the Reduction of Targeted and Nontargeted Anxieties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Compared effects of relaxation as self-control and a self-control variant of systematic desensitization in reducing targeted (test anxiety) and nontargeted anxieties with those of wait-list and no-treatment expectancy controls. Groups given relaxation as self-control and modified desensitization reported less debilitating test anxiety than…

  5. Reading anxiety, classroom anxiety, language motivation, reader self-perception, and arabic achievement of Arab-American students learning arabic as a second language.

    PubMed

    Alkhateeb, Haitham M

    2014-12-01

    The present study assessed the relations between reading anxiety, classroom anxiety, language motivation, and readers' self-perception for a sample of Arab-American students in Arabic classes. The effects of sex, grade, and years studying Arabic on academic achievement were examined as well. Measures were administered to 118 middle school students (56 boys, 62 girls; M age = 13.0 yr., SD = 0.8), and teachers reported academic grades in Arabic. Reading anxiety was significantly correlated with classroom anxiety and reader self-perception. Classroom anxiety scores were significantly correlated with motivation and reader self-perception. Significant positive correlations were found between language motivation and reader self-perception scores, and between years studying Arabic and reader self-perception scores. Boys in the second year of Arabic had significantly lower classroom anxiety than girls, and students in Grade 7 had higher reader self-perception than those in Grade 8. Classroom anxiety, language motivation, and reader self-perception significantly predicted Arabic achievement. Pedagogical implications are discussed.

  6. Can the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale - Self-Report Version Be Used to Differentiate Clinical and Non-Clinical SAD Groups among Brazilians?

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Larissa F.; Loureiro, Sonia R.; Crippa, José A. S.; Osório, Flávia L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) was the first evaluation instrument developed for screening for the signs and symptoms of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and is currently still the most used worldwide. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of the LSAS - self-report version (LSAS-SR) to discriminate different Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) clinical groups. Method The sample was composed of Brazilians university students, allocated into three different groups, i.e., cases (C=118), non-cases (NC=95) and subclinical cases (SC=39). To achieve the aim, calculations of the ROC Curve and ANOVA were performed. Results The results found were excellent regardless of the technique used, highlighting the discriminatory capacity of the LSAS-SR. The score equal to or greater than 32 is suggested as a cutoff score for the Brazilian population, since this presented balance between the standards evaluated and the ability to differentiate both clinical and subclinical SAD cases from non-cases. Conclusion Despite the specific sample used in this study being composed only of university students, the use of the LSAS-SR can be indicated, in the Brazilian setting, for SAD screening in both clinical and research contexts. PMID:25811489

  7. Can the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale - self-report version be used to differentiate clinical and non-clinical SAD groups among Brazilians?

    PubMed

    Santos, Larissa F; Loureiro, Sonia R; Crippa, José A S; Osório, Flávia L

    2015-01-01

    The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) was the first evaluation instrument developed for screening for the signs and symptoms of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and is currently still the most used worldwide. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of the LSAS - self-report version (LSAS-SR) to discriminate different Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) clinical groups. The sample was composed of Brazilians university students, allocated into three different groups, i.e., cases (C=118), non-cases (NC=95) and subclinical cases (SC=39). To achieve the aim, calculations of the ROC Curve and ANOVA were performed. The results found were excellent regardless of the technique used, highlighting the discriminatory capacity of the LSAS-SR. The score equal to or greater than 32 is suggested as a cutoff score for the Brazilian population, since this presented balance between the standards evaluated and the ability to differentiate both clinical and subclinical SAD cases from non-cases. Despite the specific sample used in this study being composed only of university students, the use of the LSAS-SR can be indicated, in the Brazilian setting, for SAD screening in both clinical and research contexts.

  8. Predictors of personal, perceived and self-stigma towards anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Busby Grant, J; Bruce, C P; Batterham, P J

    2016-06-01

    Stigma towards individuals experiencing a mental illness is associated with a range of negative psychological, social and financial outcomes. Factors associated with stigma remain unclear; the relationship between stigma and various personal factors may depend on both the type of disorder being stigmatised and what type of stigma is assessed. Different forms of stigma include personal stigma (negative attitudes towards others), perceived stigma (perceived attitudes of others) and self-stigma (self-attribution of others' negative attitudes). Three hundred and fifty university students and members of the general public completed an online survey assessing contact with and knowledge of both depression and anxiety, age, gender, current depression and anxiety symptoms, and personal, perceived and self-stigma for both depression and anxiety. Greater contact with, and knowledge of that illness predicted lower personal stigma for both anxiety and depression. Participants with greater levels of current depression symptomatology and females, reported higher perceived stigma towards depression. Males reported higher personal stigma for anxiety. For both anxiety and depression, higher current symptomatology was associated with greater levels of self-stigma towards the illness. Findings confirm the role of contact and knowledge in personal stigma for both disorders, consistent with previous findings. This finding also supports evidence that interventions addressing these factors are associated with a decline in personal stigma. However, lack of relationship between contact with, and knowledge of a mental illness and perceived and self-stigma for either depression or anxiety suggests that these factors may not play a major role in perceived or self-stigma. The identification of symptomatology as a key factor associated with self-stigma for both anxiety and depression is significant, and has implications for community-wide interventions aiming to increase help-seeking behaviour

  9. Yohimbine enhancement of exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Smits, Jasper A J; Rosenfield, David; Davis, Michelle L; Julian, Kristin; Handelsman, Pamela R; Otto, Michael W; Tuerk, Peter; Shiekh, Michael; Rosenfield, Ben; Hofmann, Stefan G; Powers, Mark B

    2014-06-01

    Preclinical and clinical trials suggest that yohimbine may augment extinction learning without significant side effects. However, previous clinical trials have only examined adults with specific phobias. Yohimbine has not yet been investigated in the augmentation of exposure therapy for other anxiety disorders. Adults (n = 40) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of social anxiety disorder were randomized to placebo or yohimbine HCl (10.8 mg) 1 hour before each of four exposure sessions. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, each treatment session, posttreatment, and 1-month follow-up. Yohimbine was well tolerated. Yohimbine augmentation, relative to placebo augmentation, resulted in faster improvement and better outcomes on self-report measures of social anxiety disorder severity (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, d = .53) and depressed mood severity (Beck Depression Inventory, d = .37) but not on the clinician-rated measures (Clinical Global Impressions-Severity Scale, d = .09; Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement Scale, d = .25). Between-group differences on the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale were moderated by the level of fear reported at the end of an exposure exercise (end fear), such that the advantage of yohimbine over placebo was only evident among patients who reported low end fear. The results provide moderate support for yohimbine as a therapeutic augmentation strategy for exposure therapy in social anxiety disorder, one that may be especially effective when coupled with successful exposure experiences. Beneficial effects for yohimbine were readily evident for self-report measures but not for clinician-rated outcomes of social anxiety severity and improvement. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry All rights reserved.

  10. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale in patients with tinnitus and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Gomaa, Mohammed Abdel Motaal; Elmagd, Manal Hassan Abo; Elbadry, Mohammed Mohammed; Kader, Rafeek Mohammed Abdel

    2014-08-01

    The study was proposed to evaluate co-morbid depression, anxiety and stress associated with tinnitus patients. The study was done on 196 subjects: 100 patients suffering from subjective tinnitus associated with hearing loss (tinnitus group), 45 patients suffering from hearing loss only (hearing loss group) and 50 healthy subjects not suffering from tinnitus or hearing loss (control group); the age ranges from 20 to 60 years old. The studied sample was subjected to full ear, nose and throat examinations and audiological evaluation. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) was developed by Levibond H and Levibond F to assess three self-report scales designed to measure the negative emotional status of depression, anxiety and stress. All patients and control group were evaluated by DASS. (1) Depression: males were affected more than females. All patients over 60 years were affected by depression. The duration of tinnitus seems correlating with the severity of depression. Only 2 patients (4.3 %) of the hearing loss group suffer from depression. (2) Anxiety: 90 % of males suffer from anxiety as compared to 83.3 % females. The age group 20-29 years old suffers more than other age groups. Only 4 patients (8.7 %) of hearing loss group suffer from anxiety. (3) Stress: females seem to be affected by the stress (76.7 %) more than males (67.5). Patients in age group 30-39 suffer the most from the disease. There is a direct correlation between duration of tinnitus and severity of stress. No one of the hearing loss group suffers from stress. In conclusion, depression, anxiety and stress should be taken into consideration in the treatment of patients suffering from tinnitus.

  11. Correlations among Social Anxiety, Self-Esteem, Impulsivity, and Game Genre in Patients with Problematic Online Game Playing

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Ha; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recent studies of online game addiction have suggested that social interaction and impulsivity are critical factors for the etiology and progress of online game addiction. We hypothesized that the genre of the online game is associated with impulsivity and sociality in individuals with online game addictions. Methods In total, 212 patients with problematic online game playing were divided into four groups by game genre: 1) massive multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG), 2) real-time strategy (RTS), 3) first-person shooter (FPS), and 4) other. Their symptoms and characteristics were assessed using 8 scales and 2 tests to estimate self-esteem, impulsiveness, comorbidity, social interaction status, and cognitive function. Results The mean social anxiety score was highest in the MMORPG group and lowest in the FPS group. The mean self-esteem score was highest in the RTS group. Social anxiety score was positively correlated with Internet addiction score in the MMORPG group, and the self-esteem score was positively correlated with Internet addiction score in the RTS group. Conclusion The genre of online game was not associated with impulsivity, but social anxiety status varied significantly with game genre, and differences in social anxiety were especially pronounced in patients playing the MMORPG (highest social anxiety) and FPS (lowest social anxiety) game genres. In addition, self-esteem was highest in the RTS game genre. PMID:27247595

  12. Correlations among Social Anxiety, Self-Esteem, Impulsivity, and Game Genre in Patients with Problematic Online Game Playing.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Ha; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Lee, Young-Sik

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies of online game addiction have suggested that social interaction and impulsivity are critical factors for the etiology and progress of online game addiction. We hypothesized that the genre of the online game is associated with impulsivity and sociality in individuals with online game addictions. In total, 212 patients with problematic online game playing were divided into four groups by game genre: 1) massive multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG), 2) real-time strategy (RTS), 3) first-person shooter (FPS), and 4) other. Their symptoms and characteristics were assessed using 8 scales and 2 tests to estimate self-esteem, impulsiveness, comorbidity, social interaction status, and cognitive function. The mean social anxiety score was highest in the MMORPG group and lowest in the FPS group. The mean self-esteem score was highest in the RTS group. Social anxiety score was positively correlated with Internet addiction score in the MMORPG group, and the self-esteem score was positively correlated with Internet addiction score in the RTS group. The genre of online game was not associated with impulsivity, but social anxiety status varied significantly with game genre, and differences in social anxiety were especially pronounced in patients playing the MMORPG (highest social anxiety) and FPS (lowest social anxiety) game genres. In addition, self-esteem was highest in the RTS game genre.

  13. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Self-Presentational Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamarche, Larkin; Gammage, Kimberley L.; Sullivan, Philip J.; Gabriel, David A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Self-Presentational Efficacy Scale (SPES) developed by Gammage, Hall, and Martin Ginis (2004). University students (196 men and 269 women) completed the SPES and measures of social physique anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, and physical activity. Participants also completed the SPES a…

  14. The Importance of the Maternal/Self-Role Satisfaction for Reducing Anxiety: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Japanese Mothers.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Riho; Arimoto, Azusa; Naruse, Takashi; Nagata, Satoko; Murashima, Sachiyo

    Women who rear children have two types of roles: the maternal role and the self-role. Previous studies have suggested that maternal role satisfaction is related to anxiety, but the importance of self-role satisfaction in promoting the health of mothers has received less attention. The changing roles of women in society, especially in urban areas, have altered mothers' views of child-rearing. Our primary focus was on the relationship between maternal/self-role satisfaction and anxiety in mothers. To examine this, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using self-administered questionnaires that were distributed in 2011 to 2,342 mothers attending the 18-month health checkup of their children, in 7 cities of the Tokyo metropolitan area. A total of 881 responded (effective response rate = 38.0%). Multiple regression analysis revealed that maternal role satisfaction and self-role satisfaction were both significantly and negatively associated with anxiety. Thus, self-role satisfaction should be considered alongside maternal role satisfaction in evaluating and reducing anxiety. Health care professionals in community settings should conduct comprehensive assessments of maternal role satisfaction and self-role satisfaction.

  15. Anxiety and Depression Among Patients With Different Types of Vestibular Peripheral Vertigo

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Qing; Yu, Lisheng; Shi, Dongmei; Ke, Xingxing; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Numerous studies have been published on comorbid anxiety and depression in patients with vertigo. However, very few studies have separately described and analyzed anxiety or depression in patients with different types of vestibular peripheral vertigo. The present study investigated anxiety and depression among patients with 4 different types of peripheral vertigo. A total of 129 patients with 4 types of peripheral vertigo, namely, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, n = 49), migrainous vertigo (MV, n = 37), Menière disease (MD, n = 28), and vestibular neuritis (VN, n = 15), were included in the present study. Otological and neurootological examinations were carefully performed, and self-rating anxiety scale and self-rating depression scale were used to evaluate anxiety and depression. Patients were divided into 2 groups, according to the vestibular function: normal and abnormal vestibular function. There was no significant difference in the risk of anxiety/depression between these 2 groups. However, for patients with the 4 different vertigo types, the prevalence of anxiety (MV = 45.9%, MD = 50%) and depression (MV = 27%, MD = 28.6%) was significantly higher in the patients with MV or MD than those with BPPV or VN (P < 0.05). Vestibular function is not significantly associated with the risk of anxiety/depression. Anxiety/depression is more common in patients with MV or MD than those with BPPV or VN. This may be due to the different mechanisms involved in these 4 types of vertigo, as well as differences in the prevention and self-control of the patients against the vertigo. PMID:25654382

  16. The roles of social support in helping chinese women with antenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms cope with perceived stress.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ying; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Wang, Yuqiong; Kwong, Dennis Ho Keung; Wang, Ying

    2014-10-01

    A community-based sample of 755 pregnant Chinese women were recruited to test the direct and moderating effects of social support in mitigating perceived stress associated with antenatal depressive or anxiety symptoms. The Social Support Rating Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Edinburgh Depressive Postnatal Scale and the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale were used. Social support was found to have direct effects and moderating effects on the women's perceived stress on antenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms in multiple linear regression models. This knowledge of the separate effects of social support on behavioral health is important to psychiatric nurse in planning preventive interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Twelve month follow-up on a randomised controlled trial of relaxation training for post-stroke anxiety.

    PubMed

    Golding, Katherine; Fife-Schaw, Chris; Kneebone, Ian

    2017-09-01

    To follow up participants in a randomised controlled trial of relaxation training for anxiety after stroke at 12 months. Twelve month follow-up to a randomised controlled trial, in which the control group also received treatment. Community. Fifteen of twenty one original participants with post-stroke anxiety participated in a one year follow-up study. A self-help autogenic relaxation CD listened to five times a week for one month, immediately in the intervention group and after three months in the control group. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety subscale and the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status for inclusion. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety subscale for outcome. All measures were administered by phone. Anxiety ratings reduced significantly between pre and post-intervention, and between pre-intervention and one year follow-up ( χ 2 (2) = 22.29, p < 0.001). Reductions in anxiety in stroke survivors who received a self-help autogenic relaxation CD appear to be maintained after one year.

  18. Recovery and concordance in a secure forensic psychiatry hospital - the self rated DUNDRUM-3 programme completion and DUNDRUM-4 recovery scales.

    PubMed

    Davoren, Mary; Hennessy, Sarah; Conway, Catherine; Marrinan, Seamus; Gill, Pauline; Kennedy, Harry G

    2015-03-28

    Detention in a secure forensic psychiatric hospital may inhibit engagement and recovery. Having validated the clinician rated DUNDRUM-3 (programme completion) and DUNDRUM-4 (recovery) in a forensic hospital, we set out to draft and validate scales measuring the same programme completion and recovery items that patients could use to self-rate. Based on previous work, we hypothesised that self-rating scores might be predictors of objective progress including conditional discharge. We hypothesised also that the difference between patients' and clinicians' ratings of progress in treatment and other factors relevant to readiness for discharge (concordance) would diminish as patients neared discharge. We hypothesised also that this difference in matched scores would predict objective progress including conditional discharge. In a prospective naturalistic observational cohort study in a forensic hospital, we examined whether scores on the self-rated DUNDRUM-3 programme completion and DUNDRUM-4 recovery scales or differences between clinician and patient ratings on the same scales (concordance) would predict moves between levels of therapeutic security and conditional discharge over the next twelve months. Both scales stratified along the recovery pathway of the hospital, but clinician ratings matched the level of therapeutic security more accurately than self ratings. The clinician rated scales predicted moves to less secure units and to more secure units and predicted conditional discharge but the self-rated scores did not. The difference between clinician and self-rated scores (concordance) predicted positive and negative moves and conditional discharge, but this was not always an independent predictor as shown by regression analysis. In regression analysis the DUNDRUM-3 predicted moves to less secure places though the HCR-20 C & R score dominated the model. Moves back to more secure places were predicted by lack of concordance on the DUNDRUM-4. Conditional discharge

  19. Exploring the relationship between appearance-contingent self-worth and self-esteem: The roles of self-objectification and appearance anxiety.

    PubMed

    Adams, Katherine E; Tyler, James M; Calogero, Rachel; Lee, Jenifer

    2017-12-01

    Previous work has shown that both an appearance-contingent self-worth (i.e., staking one's overall self-evaluation on one's physical appearance) and self-objectification are associated with higher appearance anxiety and lower self-esteem among women. Although prior evidence separately links both appearance-contingent self-worth and self-objectification to these negative outcomes, no work has examined the mediating processes that may underlie this relationship. With the current project, we examined the relationship between appearance-contingent self-worth and self-objectification, and the degree to which this relationship is associated with higher appearance anxiety and lower overall self-esteem. We hypothesized that appearance-contingent self-worth would be positively associated with self-objectification; in turn, we expected self-objectification to be related to higher appearance anxiety, and ultimately, lower self-esteem. Across two studies, one cross-sectional (N=208) and one short-term longitudinal (N=191), we found compelling support for this hypothesis. These findings have practical and theoretical significance for both the self-objectification and contingent self-worth literatures. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Validation Study of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Spanish Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jennifer L.; Sifuentes, Lucía Macías

    2016-01-01

    With growing numbers of Hispanic students enrolling in post-secondary school, there is a need to increase retention and graduation rates. The purpose of this study was to validate the Spanish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS). The AMAS was translated and administered to 804 freshman students at a post-secondary institution in…

  1. The brief negative symptom scale: validation of the German translation and convergent validity with self-rated anhedonia and observer-rated apathy.

    PubMed

    Bischof, Martin; Obermann, Caitriona; Hartmann, Matthias N; Hager, Oliver M; Kirschner, Matthias; Kluge, Agne; Strauss, Gregory P; Kaiser, Stefan

    2016-11-22

    Negative symptoms are considered core symptoms of schizophrenia. The Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) was developed to measure this symptomatic dimension according to a current consensus definition. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the German version of the BNSS. To expand former findings on convergent validity, we employed the Temporal Experience Pleasure Scale (TEPS), a hedonic self-report that distinguishes between consummatory and anticipatory pleasure. Additionally, we addressed convergent validity with observer-rated assessment of apathy with the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES), which was completed by the patient's primary nurse. Data were collected from 75 in- and outpatients from the Psychiatric Hospital, University Zurich diagnosed with either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. We assessed convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency and inter-rater reliability. We largely replicated the findings of the original version showing good psychometric properties of the BNSS. In addition, the primary nurses evaluation correlated moderately with interview-based clinician rating. BNSS anhedonia items showed good convergent validity with the TEPS. Overall, the German BNSS shows good psychometric properties comparable to the original English version. Convergent validity extends beyond interview-based assessments of negative symptoms to self-rated anhedonia and observer-rated apathy.

  2. Anxiety Levels in Adolescents Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Gordon W.; Blood, Ingrid M.; Maloney, Kristy; Meyer, Crystal; Qualls, Constance Dean

    2007-01-01

    High levels of anxiety can negatively affect the lives of children and adolescents. Thirty-six adolescents who stutter and 36 adolescents who do not stutter were administered standardized scales for anxiety and self-esteem. Significant differences were found for the total T-scores for "Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale" for the two groups,…

  3. The Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5): Development and First Psychometric Evidence of a New Scale for Assessing Anxiety Disorders Symptoms of Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Muris, Peter; Simon, Ellin; Lijphart, Hester; Bos, Arjan; Hale, William; Schmeitz, Kelly

    2017-02-01

    The Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5) is a new self- and parent-report questionnaire to assess anxiety disorder symptoms in children and adolescents in terms of the contemporary classification system. International panels of childhood anxiety researchers and clinicians were used to construct a scale consisting of two parts: part one consists of 28 items and measures the major anxiety disorders including separation anxiety disorder, selective mutism, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, whereas part two contains 22 items that focus on specific phobias and (given its overlap with situational phobias) agoraphobia. In general, the face validity of the new scale was good; most of its items were successfully linked to the intended anxiety disorders. Notable exceptions were the selective mutism items, which were frequently considered as symptoms of social anxiety disorder, and some specific phobia items especially of the natural environment, situational and other type, that were regularly assigned to an incorrect category. A preliminary investigation of the YAM-5 in non-clinical (N = 132) and clinically referred (N = 64) children and adolescents indicated that the measure was easy to complete by youngsters. In addition, support was found for the psychometric qualities of the measure: that is, the internal consistency was good for both parts, as well as for most of the subscales, the parent-child agreement appeared satisfactory, and there was also evidence for the validity of the scale. The YAM-5 holds promise as a tool for assessing anxiety disorder symptoms in children and adolescents.

  4. Development of Science Anxiety Scale for Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzeller, Cem Oktay; Dogru, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    The principal aim of the study is to develop a new scale Science Anxiety Scale and to examine its the psychometric properties and construct validity of the Science Anxiety Scale in a sample of 797 primary school students. Exploratory factor analysis was applied and found to have a two-dimensional structure. Confirmatory factor analyses provide…

  5. On the context dependency of implicit self-esteem in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Thomas S; Steffens, Melanie C; Ritter, Viktoria; Stangier, Ulrich

    2017-12-01

    Cognitive models assume that negative self-evaluations are automatically activated in individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) during social situations, increasing their individual level of anxiety. This study examined automatic self-evaluations (i.e., implicit self-esteem) and state anxiety in a group of individuals with SAD (n = 45) and a non-clinical comparison group (NC; n = 46). Participants were randomly assigned to either a speech condition with social threat induction (giving an impromptu speech) or to a no-speech condition without social threat induction. We measured implicit self-esteem with an Implicit Association Test (IAT). Implicit self-esteem differed significantly between SAD and NC groups under the speech condition but not under the no-speech condition. The SAD group showed lower implicit self-esteem than the NC group under the speech-condition. State anxiety was significantly higher under the speech condition than under the no-speech condition in the SAD group but not in the NC group. Mediation analyses supported the idea that for the SAD group, the effect of experimental condition on state anxiety was mediated by implicit self-esteem. The causal relation between implicit self-esteem and state anxiety could not be determined. The findings corroborate hypotheses derived from cognitive models of SAD: Automatic self-evaluations were negatively biased in individuals with SAD facing social threat and showed an inverse relationship to levels of state anxiety. However, automatic self-evaluations in individuals with SAD can be unbiased (similar to NC) in situations without social threat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reliability and Validity of the Dutch Version of the Glasgow Anxiety Scale for People with an Intellectual Disability (GAS-ID)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermans, H.; Wieland, J.; Jelluma, N.; Van der Pas, F.; Evenhuis, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands, no self-report screening questionnaire for anxiety in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) was available yet. Therefore, we have translated the Glasgow Anxiety Scale for people with an Intellectual Disability (GAS-ID) into Dutch and studied its reliability and validity in adults with borderline, mild or…

  7. A CLINICIAN-ADMINISTERED SEVERITY RATING SCALE FOR ILLNESS ANXIETY: DEVELOPMENT, RELIABILITY, AND VALIDITY OF THE H-YBOCS-M

    PubMed Central

    Skritskaya, Natalia A.; Carson-Wong, Amanda R.; Moeller, James R.; Shen, Sa; Barsky, Arthur J.; Fallon, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinician-administered measures to assess severity of illness anxiety and response to treatment are few. The authors evaluated a modified version of the hypochondriasis-Y-BOCS (H-YBOCS-M), a 19-item, semistructured, clinician-administered instrument designed to rate severity of illness-related thoughts, behaviors, and avoidance. Methods The scale was administered to 195 treatment-seeking adults with DSM-IV hypochondriasis. Test–retest reliability was assessed in a subsample of 20 patients. Interrater reliability was assessed by 27 interviews independently rated by four raters. Sensitivity to change was evaluated in a subsample of 149 patients. Convergent and discriminant validity was examined by comparing H-YBOCS-M scores to other measures administered. Item clustering was examined with confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses. Results The H-YBOCS-M demonstrated good internal consistency, interrater and test–retest reliability, and sensitivity to symptom change with treatment. Construct validity was supported by significant higher correlations with scores on other measures of hypochondriasis than with nonhypochondriacal measures. Improvement over time in response to treatment correlated with improvement both on measures of hypochondriasis and on measures of somatization, depression, anxiety, and functional status. Confirmatory factor analysis did not show adequate fit for a three-factor model. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a five-factor solution with the first two factors consistent with the separation of the H-YBOCS-M items into the subscales of illness-related avoidance and compulsions. Conclusions H-YBOCS-M appears to be valid, reliable, and appropriate as an outcome measure for treatment studies of illness anxiety. Study results highlight “avoidance” as a key feature of illness anxiety—with potentially important nosologic and treatment implications. PMID:22504935

  8. A Tele-Behavioral Health Intervention to Reduce Depression, Anxiety, and Stress and Improve Diabetes Self-Management.

    PubMed

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Vue, Lee; Luka, Andi; Peters, Aimee; Pande, Reena L

    2016-08-01

    Depression is prevalent among individuals with diabetes and associated with suboptimal self-management. Little is known about the feasibility and potential impact of tele-behavioral therapy to improve depressive symptoms and self-management among diabetes patients. This was a retrospective observational study of consecutive graduates enrolled in a national 8-week diabetes behavioral telehealth program between August 1, 2014, and January 31, 2015 (N = 466; mean age 56.8 ± 5.0 years; 56% female). Participant characteristics (demographics, comorbidities) were obtained by standardized questionnaire. Depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms (DASS; validated Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 survey), and glucose self-testing frequency and values (point-of-care monitor) were measured at program start and completion. Changes in DASS severity and glucose self-testing frequency were assessed by chi-square tests. Changes in DASS and blood glucose levels were evaluated by paired t-tests. At baseline, approximately one in three participants had elevated depression (32%), anxiety (33%), or stress (31%) scores. Significant reductions in average DASS, depression (-8.8), anxiety (-6.9), and stress (-9.9), scores were observed at graduation among those with elevated baseline scores (p < 0.0001); most (≥80%) improved to less severe depression, anxiety, or stress categories. Improved glucose self-testing frequency (69% vs. 60% tested ≥once per week; p = 0.0005) and significant reductions in mean morning glucose levels (-12.3 mg/dL; p = 0.0002) were observed from baseline to graduation. Participants with normal versus non-normal depression scores were more likely to have lower (anxiety, stress, and glucose levels, as well as increased frequency of glucose self-testing, among participants in a diabetes behavioral

  9. Mediators of Change in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Philip C.; Cummings, Colleen M.; Villabø, Marianne A.; Narayanan, Martina K.; Treadwell, Kimberli; Birmaher, Boris; Compton, Scott; Piacentini, John; Sherrill, Joel; Walkup, John; Gosch, Elizabeth; Keeton, Courtney; Ginsburg, Golda; Suveg, Cindy; Albano, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Test changes in (a) coping efficacy and (b) anxious self-talk as potential mediators of treatment gains at 3-month follow-up in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Treatment Study (CAMS). Method Participants were 488 youth (ages 7-17; 50.4% male) randomized to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT; Coping cat program), pharmacotherapy (sertraline), their combination, or pill placebo. Participants met DSM-IV criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and/or separation anxiety disorder. Coping efficacy (reported ability to manage anxiety provoking situations) was measured by youth and parent reports on the Coping Questionnaire, and anxious self-talk was measured by youth report on the Negative Affectivity Self-Statement Questionnaire. Outcome was measured using the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (completed by Independent Evaluators blind to condition). For temporal precedence, residualized treatment gains were assessed at 3-month follow-up. Results Residualized gains in coping efficacy mediated gains in the CBT, sertraline, and combination conditions. In the combination condition, some unique effect of treatment remained. Treatment assignment was not associated with a reduction in anxious self-talk, nor did anxious self-talk predict changes in anxiety symptoms. Conclusions The findings suggest that improvements in coping efficacy are a mediator of treatment gains. Anxious self-talk did not emerge as a mediator. PMID:26460572

  10. [Effect of Adolescents' Abuse Experience on Suicidal Ideation: Focused on Moderated Mediation Effect of Self-esteem on Depression and Anxiety].

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Kyunghee

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating mediation effect of self-esteem on the relations among adolescents' abuse experiences, depression and anxiety, and suicidal ideation. The participants were selected using secondary data from a population in the 2012 Korea Welfare Panel Survey (KOWEPS). Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 and SPSS Macro, and bootstrapping and hierarchical regression analysis were performed to analyze multilevel models. First, analysis of the mediating effect of the adolescents' abuse showed that there was significant mediating influence between suicidal ideation and depression and anxiety. Second, hierarchical regression analysis showed that self-esteem had significant mediation effect on depression and anxiety in adolescents' suicidal ideation. Third, SPSS Macro showed that self-esteem also significantly moderated the mediating effect of adolescents' abuse experiences on suicidal ideation through depression and anxiety. The study results suggest that in future research on adolescent's abuse experience, the risk of suicide in depression and anxiety scores should be selected through evaluation of each individual's self-esteem scale. Coping strategies with immediate early intervention should be suggested.

  11. Cross-validating a bidimensional mathematics anxiety scale.

    PubMed

    Haiyan Bai

    2011-03-01

    The psychometric properties of a 14-item bidimensional Mathematics Anxiety Scale-Revised (MAS-R) were empirically cross-validated with two independent samples consisting of 647 secondary school students. An exploratory factor analysis on the scale yielded strong construct validity with a clear two-factor structure. The results from a confirmatory factor analysis indicated an excellent model-fit (χ(2) = 98.32, df = 62; normed fit index = .92, comparative fit index = .97; root mean square error of approximation = .04). The internal consistency (.85), test-retest reliability (.71), interfactor correlation (.26, p < .001), and positive discrimination power indicated that MAS-R is a psychometrically reliable and valid instrument for measuring mathematics anxiety. Math anxiety, as measured by MAS-R, correlated negatively with student achievement scores (r = -.38), suggesting that MAS-R may be a useful tool for classroom teachers and other educational personnel tasked with identifying students at risk of reduced math achievement because of anxiety.

  12. Depression and anxiety as predictors of heart rate variability after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Martens, E J; Nyklícek, I; Szabó, B M; Kupper, N

    2008-03-01

    Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) is a prognostic factor for cardiac mortality. Both depression and anxiety have been associated with increased risk for mortality in cardiac patients. Low HRV may act as an intermediary in this association. The present study examined to what extent depression and anxiety differently predict 24-h HRV indices recorded post-myocardial infarction (MI). Ninety-three patients were recruited during hospitalization for MI and assessed on self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety. Two months post-MI, patients were assessed on clinical diagnoses of lifetime depressive and anxiety disorder. Adequate 24-h ambulatory electrocardiography data were obtained from 82 patients on average 78 days post-MI. In unadjusted analyses, lifetime diagnoses of major depressive disorder was predictive of lower SDNN [standard deviation of all normal-to-normal (NN) intervals; beta=-0.26, p=0.022] and SDANN (standard deviation of all 5-min mean NN intervals; beta=0.25, p=0.023), and lifetime anxiety disorder of lower RMSSD (root mean square of successive differences; beta=-0.23, p=0.039). Depression and anxiety symptoms did not significantly predict HRV. After adjustment for age, sex, cardiac history and multi-vessel disease, lifetime depressive disorder was no longer predictive of HRV. Lifetime anxiety disorder predicted reduced high-frequency spectral power (beta=-0.22, p=0.039) and RMSSD (beta=-0.25, p=0.019), even after additional adjustment of anxiety symptoms. Clinical anxiety, but not depression, negatively influenced parasympathetic modulation of heart rate in post-MI patients. These findings elucidate the physiological mechanisms underlying anxiety as a risk factor for adverse outcomes, but also raise questions about the potential role of HRV as an intermediary between depression and post-MI prognosis.

  13. Socioeconomic and therapy factor influence on self-reported fatigue, anxiety and depression in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Lapčević, Mirjana; Vuković, Mira; Gvozdenović, Branislav S; Mioljević, Vesna; Marjanović, Snežana

    Fatigue, anxiety and depression are very frequent symptoms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study we evaluated the influence of socioeconomic characteristics, therapy and comorbidities on the self-reported high fatigue, anxiety and depression in patients with RA. Multicenter cross-sectional study was performed in 22 health institutions in Serbia during the period from April-August 2014 in population of older RA patients. Self-reported patients health status was measured by: Fatigue Assessment Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7. Treatment modalities were defined as: (1) non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or analgesics and/or corticosteroids; (2) synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) alone or in combination with corticosteroids and/or NSAIDs and (3) any RA treatment which includes biologic DMARDs. There were significant predictors of high depression: synthetic DMARDs therapy in combination with corticosteroids and/or NSAIDs, physiotherapist self-payment, frequent taxi use, alternative treatment and employment status. The need for another person's assistance, supplemental calcium therapy and professional qualifications were the predictors of a high fatigue, whereas the age above 65 years had the protective effect on it. Anxiety was an independent high fatigue predictor. The predictors of a high anxiety were: gastroprotection with proton-pump inhibitors and patient occupation. Socioeconomic predictors of self-reported high depression, anxiety or fatigue are different for each of the mentioned outcomes, while accompanied with the basic RA treatment they exclusively explain a high depression. The anxiety, jointed with the socioeconomic variables and supplemental therapy, is a significant fatigue predictor in RA patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Health-Related Quality of Life, Depression, Anxiety, and Self-Image in Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Survivors.

    PubMed

    Baytan, Birol; Aşut, Çiğdem; Çırpan Kantarcıoğlu, Arzu; Sezgin Evim, Melike; Güneş, Adalet Meral

    2016-12-01

    With increasing survival rates in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), the long-term side effects of treatment have become important. Our aim was to investigate health-related quality of life, depression, anxiety, and self-image among ALL survivors. Fifty patients diagnosed with ALL and their siblings were enrolled. The Kovacs Children's Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Offer Self-Image Questionnaire, and Pediatric Quality of Life InventoryTM were used for collecting data. ANOVA tests were used to determine if there were any significant differences between groups. ALL survivors had higher depression, more anxiety symptoms, lower quality of life, and more negative self-image when compared to their siblings. Continuous diagnostic and interventional mental health services might be necessary for possible emotional side effects of treatment during and after the treatment. Rehabilitation and follow-up programs should be implemented for children during and after treatment for ALL.

  15. Self-efficacy, self-care behavior, anxiety, and depression in Taiwanese with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-Fang Vivienne; Huang, Yi-Ching; Lee, Mei-Chen; Wang, Tsae-Jyy; Tung, Heng-Hsin; Wu, Meng-Ping

    2013-06-01

    The relationships between self-efficacy, self-care behavior, anxiety, and depression for Taiwanese individuals with type 2 diabetes were determined in this study. Depression and anxiety are common symptoms that can contribute toward adverse medical outcomes. A descriptive, cross-sectional, correlational design was used. The sample comprised 201 patients with type 2 diabetes from diabetes outpatient clinics at three teaching hospitals in Taiwan. The results of this study revealed that people with diabetes who had received diabetes health education, regularly made clinical visits, underwent treatment, and did not smoke demonstrated a high self-efficacy score (P < 0.05). Self-efficacy among people with diabetes positively correlated with illness duration (P < 0.05), treatment (P < 0.01), and self-care behavior (P < 0.01). Self-efficacy among people with diabetes negatively correlated with anxiety and depression (P < 0.01). Self-efficacy can be a predictor of anxiety and depression (P < 0.01). This study revealed that enhancing self-efficacy levels might reduce anxiety and depression. Self-efficacy-enhancing programs should be held regularly in clinical practices. Conducting psychological research on diabetes drives policy and healthcare system change. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Illness Attitudes Scale dimensions and their associations with anxiety-related constructs in a nonclinical sample.

    PubMed

    Stewart, S H; Watt, M C

    2000-01-01

    The Illness Attitudes Scale (IAS) is a self-rated measure that consists of nine subscales designed to assess fears, attitudes and beliefs associated with hypochondriacal concerns and abnormal illness behavior [Kellner, R. (1986). Somatization and hypochondriasis. New York: Praeger; Kellner, R. (1987). Abridged manual of the Illness Attitudes Scale. Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of New Mexico]. The purposes of the present study were to explore the hierarchical factor structure of the IAS in a nonclinical sample of young adult volunteers and to examine the relations of each illness attitudes dimension to a set of anxiety-related measures. One-hundred and ninety-seven undergraduate university students (156 F, 41 M; mean age = 21.9 years) completed the IAS as well as measures of anxiety sensitivity, trait anxiety and panic attack history. The results of principal components analyses with oblique (Oblimin) rotation suggested that the IAS is best conceptualized as a four-factor measure at the lower order level (with lower-order dimensions tapping illness-related Fears, Behavior, Beliefs and Effects, respectively), and a unifactorial measure at the higher-order level (i.e. higher-order dimension tapping General Hypochondriacal Concerns). The factor structure overlapped to some degree with the scoring of the IAS proposed by Kellner (1986, 1987), as well as with the factor structures identified in previously-tested clinical and nonclinical samples [Ferguson, E. & Daniel, E. (1995). The Illness Attitudes Scale (IAS): a psychometric evaluation on a nonclinical population. Personality and Individual Differences, 18, 463-469; Hadjistavropoulos, H. D. & Asmundson, G. J. G. (1998). Factor analytic investigation of the Illness Attitudes Scale in a chronic pain sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 1185-1195; Hadjistavropoulos, H. D., Frombach, I. & Asmundson, G. J. G. (in press). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic investigations of the

  17. The revised scale for caregiving self-efficacy: reliability and validity studies.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Ann M; McKibbin, Christine; Zeiss, Antonette M; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores; Bandura, Albert

    2002-01-01

    Two samples of family caregivers (Study 1: N = 169; Study 2: N = 145) of cognitively impaired older adults were used to revise, extend, and evaluate a measure of perceived self-efficacy for caregiving tasks. The Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy measures 3 domains of caregiving self-efficacy: Obtaining Respite, Responding to Disruptive Patient Behaviors, and Controlling Upsetting Thoughts. The 3 subscales show strong internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability. Construct validity is supported by relationships between these 3 facets of perceived caregiving efficacy and depression, anxiety, anger, perceived social support, and criticism expressed in speech samples. The Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy has potential uses for both research and clinical purposes.

  18. Self-esteem mediates associations of physical activity with anxiety in college women.

    PubMed

    Herring, Matthew P; O'Connor, Patrick J; Dishman, Rodney K

    2014-10-01

    Why physically active people report lower anxiety than those who are inactive is not well understood. This study examined whether physical self-concept and self-esteem would mediate associations of self-reported physical activity with anxiety disorder symptoms in young women, a population with elevated risk for developing an anxiety disorder. College women (N = 1036, mean ± SD = 19.7 ± 2.9 yr) completed a physical activity recall, the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire, and the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypotheses. Physical activity had inverse, indirect associations with symptoms of social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder that were expressed through its positive association with specific and global physical self-concept and self-esteem. The results were independent of similar relations with symptoms of major depressive disorder as well as the estimates of body fatness and use of psychotropic medications. These correlational findings provide initial evidence to warrant experimental efficacy trials of whether physical activity will reduce the risk of anxiety disorders in young women by positive influences on physical self-concept and self-esteem.

  19. The Blood Donor Anxiety Scale: a six-item state anxiety measure based on the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.

    PubMed

    Chell, Kathleen; Waller, Daniel; Masser, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Research demonstrates that anxiety elevates the risk of blood donors experiencing adverse events, which in turn deters the performance of repeat blood donations. Identifying donors suffering from heightened state anxiety is important to assess the impact of evidence-based interventions. This study analyzed the appropriateness of a shortened version of the state subscale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) in a blood donation context. STAI-State questionnaire data were collected from two separate samples of Australian blood donors (n = 919 and n = 824 after cleaning). Responses to demographic, donation history, and adverse reaction questions were also obtained. Identification of items and analysis was performed systematically to assess and compare internal reliability and content, construct, convergent, and criterion validity of three potential short-form state anxiety scales. Of the three short-form scales tested, STAI-State six-item scale demonstrated the best metric properties with the least number of items across both sample groups. Cronbach's alpha was acceptable (α = 0.844 and α = 0.820), correlated positively with the original measure (r = 0.927 and r = 0.931) and criterion-related variables, and maintained the two-dimension factorial structure of the original measure. The six-item short version of the STAI-State subscale presented the most reliable and valid scale for use with blood donors. A validated donor anxiety tool provides a standardized assessment and record of donor anxiety to gauge the effectiveness of ongoing efforts to enhance the donation experience. © 2016 AABB.

  20. On the self-serving function of social anxiety: shyness as a self-handicapping strategy.

    PubMed

    Snyder, C R; Smith, T W; Augelli, R W; Ingram, R E

    1985-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that socially anxious or shy individuals use their anxiety symptoms as a strategy to control attributions made about their performances in social-evaluative settings (i.e., self-handicapping strategies). Specifically, we predicted that trait-socially anxious or shy persons would report more symptoms of social anxiety in an evaluative setting in which anxiety or shyness could serve as an excuse for poor performance than would individuals in (a) an evaluative setting in which shyness was precluded as an excuse or (b) a nonevaluative setting. Furthermore, we predicted that this self-protective pattern of symptom reporting would not occur for individuals who were not trait-socially anxious because these persons would not commonly use such symptoms as a self-handicapping strategy. Results supported these predictions for male subjects, but not for female subjects. Sex differences in the strategic use of shyness are discussed in relation to other research on sex differences in the etiology and correlates of social anxiety.

  1. A literature review of the application of the Geriatric Depression Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist to community nursing cohorts.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jacqui; Annells, Merilyn

    2009-04-01

    To explore through literature review the appropriateness of three common tools for use by community nurses to screen war veteran and war widow(er) clients for depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. War veterans and, to a lesser extent, war widow(er)s, are prone to mental health challenges, especially depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Community nurses do not accurately identify such people with depression and related disorders although they are well positioned to do so. The use of valid and reliable self-report tools is one method of improving nurses' identification of people with actual or potential mental health difficulties for referral to a general practitioner or mental health practitioner for diagnostic assessment and treatment. The Geriatric Depression Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist are frequently recommended for mental health screening but the appropriateness of using the tools for screening war veteran and war widow(er) community nursing clients who are often aged and have functional impairment, is unknown. Systematic review. Current literature informs that the Geriatric Depression Scale accurately predicts a diagnosis of depression in community nursing cohorts. The three Depression Anxiety Stress Scales subscales of depression, anxiety and stress are valid; however, no studies were identified that compared the performance of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in predicting diagnoses of depression or anxiety. The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist predicts post-traumatic stress disorder in community cohorts although no studies meeting the selection criteria included male participants. This review provides recommendations for the use of the Geriatric Depression Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist based on examination of the published evidence for the application of these screening tools in samples

  2. Effect of a preoperative self-catheterization video on anxiety: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Oliphant, Sallie S; Lowder, Jerry L; Ghetti, Chiara; Zyczynski, Halina M

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a clean intermittent self-catheterization (CISC) instructional video could improve anxiety in women undergoing prolapse and/or incontinence surgery. A total of 199 women were randomized to preoperative CISC video or routine counseling prior to prolapse/incontinence surgery. Patient anxiety, satisfaction, and concerns about CISC were evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S) and study-specific visual analog scale (VAS) questions at four perioperative time points. STAI-S and VAS anxiety measures were similar at baseline between groups; no significant differences were seen by group at any time point. STAI-S scores varied considerably over time, with highest scores at voiding trial failure and lowest scores at postoperative visit. Women in the video group had improved STAI-S scores and reported less worry and more comfort with CISC immediately following video viewing. Women with anxiety/depression had higher STAI-S scores at voiding trial failure and discharge and reported less anxiety reduction following video viewing compared to non-anxious/non-depressed peers. Women undergoing prolapse/incontinence surgery have significant perioperative anxiety, which is exacerbated by voiding trial failure. Preoperative CISC video viewing decreases anxiety scores immediately following viewing, but this effect is not sustained at voiding trial failure. Women with baseline anxiety/depression exhibit less anxiety score improvement after video viewing and have overall higher anxiety scores perioperatively.

  3. Effects of aromatherapy massage on anxiety and self-esteem in korean elderly women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rho, Kook-Hee; Han, Sun-Hee; Kim, Keum-Soon; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2006-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on the anxiety and self-esteem experienced by Korean elderly women. A quasi-experimental, control group, pretest-posttest design was used. The subjects comprised 36 elderly females: 16 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. Aromatherapy massage using lavender, chamomile, rosemary, and lemon was given to the experimental group only. Each massage session lasted 20 min, and was performed 3 times per week for two 3-week periods with an intervening 1-week break. The intervention produced significant differences in the anxiety and self-esteem and no significant differences in blood pressure or pulse rate between the two groups. These results suggest that aromatherapy massage exerts positive effects on anxiety and self-esteem. However, more objective, clinical measures should be applied in a future study with a randomized placebo-controlled design.

  4. Self-Mutilation and Symptoms of Depression, Anxiety, and Borderline Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andover, Margaret S.; Pepper, Carolyn M.; Ryabchenko, Karen A.; Orrico, Elizabeth G.; Gibb, Brandon E.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between self-mutilation and symptoms of depression and anxiety in a nonclinical population. Self-mutilators reported significantly more symptoms of depression and anxiety than did the control group. When the group of self-mutilators was divided into individuals who cut themselves and…

  5. Bullying Experiences, Anxiety about Bullying, and Special Education Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saia, Danielle M.; Saylor, Conway F.; Allen, Ryan A.; Arnau, Penny L.

    2009-01-01

    Bullying experiences and self-reported anxiety about bullying and were compared in 72 elementary and middle school students including 16 in self contained (SC) special education classes, 20 receiving resource or consultation (RC), and 36 matched peers. Individually administered Bully Victimization Scale and School Violence Anxiety Scale scores…

  6. Evaluating High School Students' Anxiety and Self-Efficacy towards Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çimen, Osman; Yilmaz, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety and self-efficacy are among the factors that impact students' performance in biology. The current study aims to investigate high school students' perception of biology anxiety and self-efficacy, in relation to gender, grade level, interest in biology, negative experience associated with biology classes, and teachers' approaches in the…

  7. Screening for anxiety and depression in dialysis patients: comparison of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory.

    PubMed

    Preljevic, Valjbona T; Østhus, Tone Brit Hortemo; Sandvik, Leiv; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Nordhus, Inger Hilde; Os, Ingrid; Dammen, Toril

    2012-08-01

    Although anxiety and depression are frequent comorbid disorders in dialysis patients, they remain underrecognized and often untreated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and a truncated version of the BDI, the Cognitive Depression Index (CDI), as screening tools for anxiety and depression in dialysis patients. A total of 109 participants (69.7% males), from four dialysis centers, completed the self-report symptom scales HADS and BDI. Depression and anxiety disorders were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, overall agreement, kappa and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were assessed. Depressive disorders were found in 22% of the patients based on the SCID-I, while anxiety disorders occurred in 17%. The optimal screening cut-off score for depression was ≥ 7 for the HADS depression subscale (HADS-D), ≥ 14 for the HADS-total, ≥ 11 for the CDI and ≥ 17 for the BDI. The optimal screening cut-off for anxiety was ≥ 6 for the HADS anxiety subscale (HADS-A) and ≥ 14 for the HADS-total. At cut-offs commonly used in clinical practice for depression screening (HADS-D: 8; BDI: 16), the BDI performed slightly better than HADS-D. The BDI, CDI and HADS demonstrated acceptable performance as screening tools for depression, as did the HADS-A for anxiety, in our sample of dialysis patients. The recommended cut-off scores for each instrument were: ≥ 17 for BDI, ≥ 11 for CDI, ≥ 7 for HADS depression subscale, ≥ 6 for HADS anxiety subscale and ≥ 14 for HADS total. The CDI did not perform better than the BDI in our study. Lower cut-off for the HADS-A than recommended in medically ill patients may be considered when screening for anxiety in dialysis patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The relationship among preconception depression, anxiety, and social support of the reproductive-aged women in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jihong; Chen, Ping; Ma, Xu

    2018-02-14

    The reproductive-aged women have to face physiological and psychological challenges as long as they plan to conceive. However, most previous studies focused on depression and anxiety during pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate the association among preconception depression, anxiety, and social support of the Chinese reproductive-aged women. Nine-hundred five reproductive-aged women who planned to conceive for the first or second time in the next three months were recruited through the Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital and Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital from three provinces in China. Social Support Rating Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale, and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale were used in this study. The hierarchical regression model was employed to examine the prediction effect of the three sub-dimensions of social support on preconception depression and anxiety. Of the reproductive-aged women, 25.86 and 13.04% had preconception depression and anxiety symptoms. Nearly all reproductive-aged women had moderate and high social support before pregnancy. The significant differences in depression and anxiety among different levels of occupation and monthly income were found. For depression and anxiety, objective support, support availability, and subjective support simultaneously entered into the model still could significantly explain 5.9 and 6.7% of variations after controlling for the demographic variables, respectively. According to this study, there were significant correlations among preconception depression, anxiety, and social support. And objective support, support availability, and subjective support could negatively predict preconception depression and anxiety. Attaching importance to the preconception mental health and social support can provide effective scientific support for helping women fully understand and effectively use the social resources, and scientifically prepare for pregnancy.

  9. The hospital anxiety and depression rating scale: A cross-sectional study of psychometrics and case finding abilities in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Olssøn, Ingrid; Mykletun, Arnstein; Dahl, Alv A

    2005-01-01

    Background General practitioners' (GPs) diagnostic skills lead to underidentification of generalized anxiety disorders (GAD) and major depressive episodes (MDE). Supplement of brief questionnaires could improve the diagnostic accuracy of GPs for these common mental disorders. The aims of this study were to examine the usefulness of The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Rating Scale (HADS) for GPs by: 1) Examining its psychometrics in the GPs' setting; 2) Testing its case-finding properties compared to patient-rated GAD and MDE (DSM-IV); and 3) Comparing its case finding abilities to that of the GPs using Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) rating. Methods In a cross-sectional survey study 1,781 patients in three consecutive days in September 2001 attended 141 GPs geographically spread in Norway. Sensitivity, specificity, optimal cut off score, and Area under the curve (AUC) for the HADS and the CGI-S were calculated with Generalized Anxiety Questionnaire (GAS-Q) as reference standard for GAD, and Depression Screening Questionnaire (DSQ) for MDE. Results The HADS-A had optimal cut off ≥8 (sensitivity 0.89, specificity 0.75), AUC 0.88 and 76% of patients were correctly classified in relation to GAD. The HADS-D had by optimal cut off ≥8 (sensitivity 0.80 and specificity 0.88) AUC 0.93 and 87% of the patients were correctly classified in relation to MDE. Proportions of the total correctly classified at the CGI-S optimal cut-off ≥3 were 83% of patients for GAD and 81% for MDE. Conclusion The results indicate that addition of the patients' HADS scores to GPs' information could improve their diagnostic accuracy of GAD and MDE. PMID:16351733

  10. Does Executive Functioning (EF) Predict Depression in Clinic-Referred Adults?: EF Tests vs. Rating Scales

    PubMed Central

    Knouse, Laura E.; Barkley, Russell A.; Murphy, Kevin R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Deficits in executive functioning (EF) are implicated in neurobiological and cognitive-processing theories of depression. EF deficits are also associated with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults, who are also at increased risk for depressive disorders. Given debate about the ecological validity of laboratory measures of EF, we investigated the relationship between depression diagnoses and symptoms and EF as measured by both rating scales and tests in a sample of adults referred for evaluation of adult ADHD. Method Data from two groups of adults recruited from an ADHD specialty clinic were analyzed together: Adults diagnosed with ADHD (N=146) and a clinical control group of adults referred for adult ADHD assessment but not diagnosed with the disorder ADHD (N=97). EF was assessed using a rating scale of EF deficits in daily life and a battery of tests tapping various EF constructs. Depression was assessed using current and lifetime SCID diagnoses (major depression, dysthymia) and self-report symptom ratings. Results EF as assessed via rating scale predicted depression across measures even when controlling for current anxiety and impairment. Self-Management to Time and Self-Organization and Problem-Solving showed the most robust relationships. EF tests were weakly and inconsistently related to depression measures. Limitations Prospective studies are needed to rigorously evaluate EF problems as true risk factors for depressive onset. Conclusions EF problems in everyday life were important predictors of depression. Researchers and clinicians should consistently assess for the ADHD-depression comorbidity. Clinicians should consider incorporating strategies to address EF deficits when treating people with depression. PMID:22858220

  11. Factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Japanese version of the Hoarding Rating Scale-Self-Report (HRS-SR-J).

    PubMed

    Tsuchiyagaito, Aki; Horiuchi, Satoshi; Igarashi, Toko; Kawanori, Yoshiya; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Yabe, Hirooki; Nakagawa, Akiko

    2017-01-01

    The Hoarding Rating Scale-Self-Report (HRS-SR) is a five-item scale that assesses the symptoms of hoarding. These symptoms include excessive acquisition, difficulty in discarding, and excessive clutter that causes distress. We conducted three studies to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Japanese version of the HRS-SR (HRS-SR-J). Study 1 examined its reliability; 193 college students and 320 adolescents and adults completed the HRS-SR-J and, of the college students, 32 took it again 2 weeks later. Study 2 aimed to confirm that its scores in a sample of 210 adolescents and adults are independent of social desirability. Study 3 aimed to validate the HRS-SR-J in the aspects of convergent and discriminant validity in a sample of 550 adults. The HRS-SR-J showed good internal consistency and 2-week test-retest reliability. Based on the nonsignificant correlations between the HRS-SR-J and social desirability, the HRS-SR-J was not strongly affected by social desirability. In addition, it also had a good convergent validity with the Japanese version of the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R-J) and the hoarding subscale of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, while having a significantly weaker correlation with the five subscales of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, except for the hoarding subscale. In addition, the strength of the correlation between the HRS-SR-J and the Japanese version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and that between the HRS-SR-J and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 were significantly weaker than the correlation between the HRS-SR-J and the SI-R-J. These results demonstrate that the HRS-SR-J has good convergent and discriminant validity. The HRS-SR-J is a notable self-report scale for examining the severity of hoarding symptoms.

  12. Evaluation of depressive symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease using the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Bunevicius, Adomas; Staniute, Margarita; Brozaitiene, Julija; Pommer, Antoinette M; Pop, Victor J M; Montgomery, Stuart A; Bunevicius, Robertas

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), factor structure and psychometric properties of the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) to identify patients with current major depressive episode (MDE). The construct validity of the MADRS against self-rating scales was also evaluated. Consecutive 522 CAD patients at admission to the cardiac rehabilitation program were interviewed for the severity of depressive symptoms using the MADRS and for current MDE using the structured MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Also, all patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. The MADRS had one-factor structure and high internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient α=0.82). Confirmative factor analysis indicated an adequate fit: comparative fit index=0.95, normed fit index=0.91, and root mean square error of approximation=0.07. At a cut-off value of 10 or higher, the MADRS had good psychometric properties for the identification of current MDE (positive predictive value=42%, with sensitivity=88% and specificity=85%). There was also a moderate to strong correlation of MADRS scores with scores on self-rating depression scales. In sum, in CAD patients undergoing rehabilitation, the MADRS is a unidimensional instrument with high internal consistency and can be used for the identification of depressed CAD patients. The association between MADRS and self-rating depression scores is moderate to strong. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  13. Health-Related Quality of Life, Depression, Anxiety, and Self-Image in Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Baytan, Birol; Aşut, Çiğdem; Çırpan Kantarcıoğlu, Arzu; Sezgin Evim, Melike; Güneş, Adalet Meral

    2016-01-01

    Objective: With increasing survival rates in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), the long-term side effects of treatment have become important. Our aim was to investigate health-related quality of life, depression, anxiety, and self-image among ALL survivors. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients diagnosed with ALL and their siblings were enrolled. The Kovacs Children’s Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Offer Self-Image Questionnaire, and Pediatric Quality of Life InventoryTM were used for collecting data. ANOVA tests were used to determine if there were any significant differences between groups. Results: ALL survivors had higher depression, more anxiety symptoms, lower quality of life, and more negative self-image when compared to their siblings. Conclusion: Continuous diagnostic and interventional mental health services might be necessary for possible emotional side effects of treatment during and after the treatment. Rehabilitation and follow-up programs should be implemented for children during and after treatment for ALL. PMID:27094799

  14. Foreign Language Listening Anxiety: A Self-Presentational View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Harumi

    2017-01-01

    This study used a self-presentational framework to investigate second language listening anxiety among university students and demonstrated that second language listening involves social concerns that are specific to second language settings. A set of anxiety questionnaires was administered to 1,177 students, and 17 learners provided verbal…

  15. Characteristics of social anxiety from virtual interpersonal interactions in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Park, Il Ho; Kim, Jae-Jin; Ku, Jeonghun; Jang, Hee Jeong; Park, Sung-Hyouk; Kim, Chan-Hyung; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun I

    2009-01-01

    Dysfunctional emotional processing affects social functioning in patients with schizophrenia. However, the relationship between emotional perception and response in social interaction has not been elucidated. Twenty-seven patients with schizophrenia and 27 normal controls performed a virtual reality social encounter task in which they introduced themselves to avatars expressing happy, neutral, or angry emotions while verbal response duration and onset time were measured and perception of emotional valence and arousal, and state anxiety were rated afterwards. Self-reported trait-affective scale scores and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) ratings were also obtained. Patient group significantly underestimated the valence and arousal of angry emotions expressed by an avatar. While valence and arousal ratings of happy avatars were comparable between groups, patient group reported significantly higher state anxiety in response to happy avatars. State anxiety ratings significantly decreased from encounters with neutral to happy avatars in normal controls while no significant decrease was observed in the patient group. The Social Anhedonia Scale and PANSS negative symptom subscale scores (blunted affect, emotional withdrawal, and passive/ apathetic social withdrawal items) were significantly correlated with state anxiety ratings of the encounters with happy avatars. These results suggest that patients with schizophrenia have interference with the experience of pleasure in social interactions which may be associated with negative symptoms.

  16. Correlations among Psychological Resilience, Self-Efficacy, and Negative Emotion in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Liu, Neng; Liu, Shaohui; Yu, Nan; Peng, Yunhua; Wen, Yumei; Tang, Jie; Kong, Lingyu

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the influencing factors of the psychological resilience and self-efficacy of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and the relationships of psychological resilience and self-efficacy with negative emotion. Eighty-eight participants were enrolled. Psychological resilience, self-efficacy, and negative emotion were assessed with the Psychological Resilience Scale, Self-Efficacy Scale, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), respectively. Furthermore, the relationships of psychological resilience and self-efficacy with negative emotion were investigated. The average scores of psychological resilience, self-efficacy, anxiety, and depression were 70.08 ± 13.26, 21.56 ± 9.66, 53.68 ± 13.10, and 56.12 ± 12.37, respectively. The incidences of anxiety and depression were 23.90% (21/88) and 28.40% (25/88), respectively. The psychological resilience and self-efficacy scores of AMI patients after PCI varied significantly with age and economic status. SAS scores and SDS scores were significantly negatively correlated with psychological resilience and self-efficacy. Negative emotions in AMI patients after PCI are closely related to psychological resilience and self-efficacy. Therefore, anxiety and depression could be alleviated by improving the psychological resilience and self-efficacy of patients undergoing PCI, thus improving patients' quality of life.

  17. Prevalence and some psychosocial characteristics of social anxiety disorder in an urban population of Turkish children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Demir, T; Karacetin, G; Eralp Demir, D; Uysal, O

    2013-01-01

    To define the prevalence and some of the psychosocial characteristics of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in an urban population of Turkish children and adolescents. This was a two-stage cross-sectional urban-based study conducted in Fatih, Istanbul, Turkey. The initial sample included 1,482 students between the 4th and 8th grades. The first stage involved screening using the Social Anxiety Scale for Children-Revised (SASC-R) and the Capa Social Phobia Scale for Children and Adolescents (CSPSCA). According to the test results, 324 children were interviewed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) in the second stage. The SAD prevalence rate was 3.9%. According to the multiple regression analysis, low paternal education and trait anxiety were associated with SASC-R scores, whereas female gender and trait anxiety were associated with CSPSCA scores. According to logistic regression analysis, the anxiety subscale of the self-concept scale and trait anxiety were associated with SAD. SAD is a relatively common disorder that is associated with lower self-concept in children and adolescents. Low paternal education, trait anxiety, and low self-concept may be the intervention targets for SAD prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. [Shame and social anxiety in anorexia and bulimia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Grabhorn, Ralph; Stenner, Hanna; Kaufbold, Johannes; Overbeck, Gerd; Stangier, Ullrich

    2005-01-01

    The importance of shame for the understanding of eating disorders has been well-known for a long time, but only few empirical studies exist to date on this aspect. Particularly the sense of self-esteem and external appearance have been attributed a major influence in the emergence of shame. Since social anxiety has increasingly been considered to be a factor in recent discussions related to eating disorders, and shame is a primary symptom of social phobia and of social anxiety in general, the present study focuses on shame and social anxiety in anorexia and bulimia, as compared to other clinical disorders. Another research question is the extent to which the prevalence of shame in eating disorders is influenced by self-esteem, attitudes about appearance and social anxiety. The sample consists of 104 (female) patients, comprising 26 patients, respectively, with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, anxiety disorders and depression. The various variables were recorded with the Internalized Shame Scale (ISS), the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS), the Social Phobia Scale (SPS), the Appearance Attitude Scale (AAS) and the Social Autonomous Self-Esteem Scale (SAS). Patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa have higher scores in internalized global shame than patients with anxiety disorders and depressions. In contrast to anorectic patients, however, patients with bulimia also have higher scores than the other two groups in the area of social performance anxiety; they also differ significantly from the anxiety disorders in terms of interaction anxiety. In the multiple regression analysis of the patients with eating disorders, self-esteem, performance anxiety and perfectionism with regard to appearance prove to be predictors of the affect of shame. The findings indicate that not just shame, but also social anxiety, should be regarded as important influencing factors, especially in the case of bulimia nervosa. The question remains as to what extent social anxiety is a

  19. Generalized anxiety disorder, comorbid major depression and heart rate variability: a case-control study in taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsin-An; Chang, Chuan-Chia; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Kuo, Terry B J; Lu, Ru-Band; Huang, San-Yuan

    2013-12-01

    Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) has been reported in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), but the results are mixed. Little is known about the impact of comorbid major depression (MD) on HRV in GAD patients. Both issues necessitate further investigation. Twenty unmedicated, physically healthy GAD patients, 20 GAD patients with a secondary diagnosis of MD, 40 MD patients and 60 matched controls were recruited. We used the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale to assess anxiety and depression severity, respectively. Cardiac autonomic function was evaluated by measuring HRV parameters. Frequency-domain indices of HRV were obtained. Three patient groups had more anxiety and depression symptoms than control subjects, but heart rates (HRs) were significantly elevated only in GAD patients with comorbid depression. Relative to controls, GAD patients had reduced HRV while GAD patients with comorbid depression displayed the greatest reductions in HRV among three patients groups. Correlation analyses revealed anxiety/depression severity significantly associated with HRs, variance, LF-HRV and HF-HRV. However, separately analyzing among individual groups and adjusting for HRV-associated covariables rendered the correlations non-significant. Our results suggest that reduction in HRV is a psychophysiological marker of GAD and individuals with comorbid GAD and MD may be distinguished based on psychophysiological correlates (for example, HF-HRV) from non-comorbid GAD patients. Taken into account that comorbid depression may confer increased risks for cardiovascular events in GAD patients, this subgroup of GAD patients may benefit better from cardiovascular risk reduction strategies.

  20. Anxiety, depression, and fall-related psychological concerns in community-dwelling older people.

    PubMed

    Hull, Samantha L; Kneebone, Ian I; Farquharson, Lorna

    2013-12-01

    Establish the association between affect and fall-related psychological concerns (fear of falling, fall-related self-efficacy, balance confidence, and outcome expectancy). A total of 205 community-dwelling older people (mean age 81, SD 7.5 years) completed the Geriatric Depression Scale-15, Geriatric Anxiety Inventory, Modified Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling, Falls-Efficacy Scale- International, Activity-Specific Balance Confidence Scale, and the Consequences of Falling Scale. Hierarchical regression models showed that anxiety was independently associated with all fall-related psychological concerns; depression was only associated with falls efficacy. Associations between fall-related psychological concerns and age, gender, accommodation,medications, self-rated physical health, falls history, mobility, and sensory aids are also discussed. This is the first study that investigates the association between affect and the four fall-related psychological concerns. Anxiety was a significant factor associated with all four, whereas depression was only associated with activity avoidance. Implications for healthcare providers are discussed. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Math anxiety and math performance in children: The mediating roles of working memory and math self-concept.

    PubMed

    Justicia-Galiano, M José; Martín-Puga, M Eva; Linares, Rocío; Pelegrina, Santiago

    2017-12-01

    Numerous studies, most of them involving adolescents and adults, have evidenced a moderate negative relationship between math anxiety and math performance. There are, however, a limited number of studies that have addressed the mechanisms underlying this relation. This study aimed to investigate the role of two possible mediational mechanisms between math anxiety and math performance. Specifically, we sought to test the simultaneous mediating role of working memory and math self-concept. A total of 167 children aged 8-12 years participated in this study. Children completed a set of questionnaires used to assess math and trait anxiety, math self-concept as well as measures of math fluency and math problem-solving. Teachers were asked to rate each student's math achievement. As measures of working memory, two backward span tasks were administered to the children. A series of multiple mediation analyses were conducted. Results indicated that both mediators (working memory and math self-concept) contributed to explaining the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement. Results suggest that working memory and self-concept could be worth considering when designing interventions aimed at helping students with math anxiety. Longitudinal designs could also be used to better understand the mediational mechanisms that may explain the relationship between math anxiety and math performance. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Development of the Sport Injury Anxiety Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rex, Camille C.; Metzler, Jonathan N.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a measure of sport injury anxiety (SIA), defined as the tendency to make threat appraisals in sport situations where injury is seen as possible and/or likely. The Sport Injury Anxiety Scale (SIAS) was developed in three stages. In Stage 1, expert raters evaluated items to determine their adequacy. In…

  3. Exploring the link between maternal attachment-related anxiety and avoidance and mindful parenting: The mediating role of self-compassion.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Helena; Carona, Carlos; Silva, Neuza; Nunes, Joana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2016-12-01

    Mindful parenting has been described as a set of parental practices or skills that seek to enhance moment-to-moment awareness in the parent-child relationship. Although it has been suggested that adopting a mindful approach in parenting may foster positive parent-child relationships and promote the psychological functioning of children and parents, little is known about the factors that may be associated with this parental skill. In this study, we aimed to examine whether attachment-related anxiety and avoidance were associated with mindful parenting through self-compassion. The sample included 290 mothers of school-aged children and adolescents recruited in school settings, who completed self-reported measures of adult attachment (Experiences in Close Relationships - Relationships Structures), self-compassion (Self-compassion Scale), and mindful parenting (Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale). Structural equation modelling was used to test the proposed mediation model and to ascertain direct and indirect effects among study variables. Whereas attachment avoidance had a direct effect on mindful parenting, attachment anxiety was indirectly associated with mindful parenting through self-compassion. Specifically, higher levels of anxiety were associated with lower self-compassion, which, in turn, was associated with lower levels of mindful parenting. Higher levels of avoidance were directly associated with lower levels of mindful parenting. These results demonstrate that mothers' attachment dimensions play an important role in their levels of mindful parenting, although through different pathways. Interventions aimed at promoting mindful parenting skills should attempt to promote parents' self-compassion and consider parents' levels of attachment insecurity. The results underline the important role of mothers' attachment on levels of mindful parenting and evidence different pathways through which attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance are associated with

  4. Measuring the executive regulation of emotion with self-rating scales in a nonclinical population.

    PubMed

    Spinella, Marcello

    2007-01-01

    Prefrontal systems play an important role in the regulation of emotion as evidenced by clinical neuroimaging studies. Both subjective and objective neuropsychological tests provide functional evidence of executive dysfunction in emotional deregulation. The present authors evaluated these relationships here in a nonclinical community sample using the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale, Profile of Mood States (POMS), and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS). Positive correlations uniformly emerged between prefrontal system dysfunction and negative emotional states (anger, depression, anxiety, stress, confusion, and fatigue), whereas positive emotion (vigor) showed a modest inverse correlation with prefrontal system dysfunction, even after control for demographic influences. These relationships may result from cognitive strategies for managing emotion mediated by reciprocal connections between prefrontal systems and the limbic system. The findings corroborated those of other methodologies, supporting the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe) as a valid tool to measure prefrontal function in nonclinical populations.

  5. Effects of anxiety on the execution of police arrest and self-defense skills.

    PubMed

    Renden, Peter G; Landman, Annemarie; Geerts, Suzanne F; Jansen, Sander E M; Faber, Gert S; Savelsbergh, Geert J P; Oudejans, Raôul R D

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of anxiety on the execution of police officers' arrest and self-defense skills. Police officers (n=13) performed three tasks in which they kicked, blocked, or restrained an opponent who attacked them with a rubber knife (low anxiety, LA) or a shock knife (high anxiety, HA) in a within-subject design. We analyzed performance (on a 5-point Likert scale), movement times, posture, and movement velocity and acceleration. Results revealed that performance was worse in the HA compared to the LA condition. Furthermore, analysis of full-body movement showed that under increased anxiety, police officers' performance contained characteristics of avoidance behavior, such as faster reactions (to reduce the time being exposed to the threat), leaning further backward (kick), and ducking down (block). In line with recent theoretical developments, it appears that under increased anxiety, police officers were less able to inhibit stimulus-driven processing (fear of getting hit) and enforce goal-directed processing (perform the skill as well as possible) leading to avoidance behavior and a decrease in performance.

  6. Children of the closet: a measurement of the anxiety and self-esteem of children raised by a non-disclosed homosexual or bisexual parent.

    PubMed

    Murray, Paul D; McClintock, Karen

    2005-01-01

    This research examined whether a parent's non-disclosure of his or her homosexual or bisexual orientation within the family unit negatively affects self-esteem and anxiety in children, as measured in adulthood. Thirty-six subjects indicated that they had not known of their parent's sexual orientation until an average age of sixteen for the children of lesbian or bisexual mothers, and twenty-two for the children of gay or bisexual fathers. This group's scores on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Marlowe Crowne Social Desirabilty Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Scale were compared to scores obtained by sixty-three participants who did not have a homosexual/bisexual parent. The number of years a secretive environment surrounded the child was measured, as were participants' attitudes about the secret sexual identity. Although the study did not find that adults previously raised with a closeted parent had significantly higher levels of anxiety or lower levels of self-esteem, results indicated that those who had been raised as children with non-disclosed lesbian mothers showed a significantly higher level of self-esteem than participants with heterosexual parents. Implications of the findings for the targeted population are discussed.

  7. Parent-Youth Rating Concordance for Hair Pulling Variables, Functional Impairment, and Anxiety Scale Scores in Trichotillomania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keuthen, Nancy J.; Flessner, Christopher A.; Woods, Douglas W.; Franklin, Martin E.; Piacentini, John A.; Khanna, Muniya; Moore, Phoebe; Cashin, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of cross-informant rating concordance is critical for the assessment of child and adolescent problems in clinical and research settings. We explored parent-youth rating concordance for hair pulling variables, functional impairment, and anxiety symptoms in a sample of child and adolescent hair pullers (n = 133) satisfying conservative…

  8. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: Factor Structure, Internal Consistency and Convergent Validity in Patients with Dizziness.

    PubMed

    Piker, Erin G; Kaylie, David M; Garrison, Douglas; Tucci, Debara L

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidities, particularly anxiety-related pathologies, are often observed in dizzy patients. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a widely used self-report instrument used to screen for anxiety and depression in medical outpatient settings. The purpose of this study was to assess the factor structure, internal consistency and convergent validity of the HADS in an unselected group of patients with dizziness. The HADS and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) were administered to 205 dizzy patients. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted and indicated a 3-factor structure, inconsistent with the 2-subscale structure (i.e. anxiety and depression) of the HADS. The total scale was found to be internally consistent, and convergent validity, as assessed using the DHI, was acceptable. Overall findings suggest that the HADS should not be used as a tool for psychiatric differential diagnosis, but rather as a helpful screener for general psychiatric distress in the two domains of psychiatric illness most germane in dizzy patients. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Predictors of Biased Self-perception in Individuals with High Social Anxiety: The Effect of Self-consciousness in the Private and Public Self Domains.

    PubMed

    Nordahl, Henrik; Plummer, Alice; Wells, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    "Biased self-perception," the tendency to perceive one's social performance as more negative than observers do, is characteristic of socially anxious individuals. Self-attention processes are hypothesised to underlie biased self-perception, however, different models emphasise different aspects of self-attention, with attention to the public aspects of the self being prominent. The current study aimed to investigate the relative contribution of two types of dispositional self-attention; public- and private self-consciousness to biased self-perception in a high ( n = 48) versus a low ( n = 48) social anxiety group undergoing an interaction task. The main finding was that private self-consciousness explained substantial and unique variance in biased negative self-perception in individuals with high social anxiety, while public self-consciousness did not. This relationship was independent of increments in state anxiety. Private self-consciousness appeared to have a specific association with bias related to overestimation of negative social performance rather than underestimation of positive social performance. The implication of this finding is that current treatment models of Social anxiety disorder might include broader aspects of self-focused attention, especially in the context of formulating self-evaluation biases.

  10. MATERNAL ANXIETY SYMPTOMS AND MOTHER–INFANT SELF- AND INTERACTIVE CONTINGENCY

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Beatrice; Steele, Miriam; Jaffe, Joseph; Buck, Karen A.; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Kaitz, Marsha; Markese, Sara; Andrews, Howard; Margolis, Amy; Feldstein, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Associations of maternal self-report anxiety-related symptoms with mother–infant 4-month face-to-face play were investigated in 119 pairs. Attention, affect, spatial orientation, and touch were coded from split-screen videotape on a 1-s time base. Self- and interactive contingency were assessed by time-series methods. Because anxiety symptoms signal emotional dysregulation, we expected to find atypical patterns of mother–infant interactive contingencies, and of degree of stability/lability within an individual’s own rhythms of behavior (self-contingencies). Consistent with our optimum midrange model, maternal anxiety-related symptoms biased the interaction toward interactive contingencies that were both heightened (vigilant) in some modalities and lowered (withdrawn) in others; both may be efforts to adapt to stress. Infant self-contingency was lowered (“destabilized”) with maternal anxiety symptoms; however, maternal self-contingency was both lowered in some modalities and heightened (overly stable) in others. Interactive contingency patterns were characterized by intermodal discrepancies, confusing forms of communication. For example, mothers vigilantly monitored infants visually, but withdrew from contingently coordinating with infants emotionally, as if mothers were “looking through” them. This picture fits descriptions of mothers with anxiety symptoms as overaroused/fearful, leading to vigilance, but dealing with their fear through emotional distancing. Infants heightened facial affect coordination (vigilance), but dampened vocal affect coordination (withdrawal), with mother’s face—a pattern of conflict. The maternal and infant patterns together generated a mutual ambivalence. PMID:25983359

  11. Mokken scaling analysis of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in individuals with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Cosco, Theodore D; Doyle, Frank; Watson, Roger; Ward, Mark; McGee, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a prolifically used scale of anxiety and depression. The original bidimensional anxiety-depression latent structure of the HADS has come under significant scrutiny, with previous studies revealing one-, two-, three- and four-dimensional structures. The current study examines the latent structure of the HADS using a non-parametric item response theory method. Using data conglomerated from four independent studies of cardiovascular disease employing the HADS (n=893), Mokken scaling procedure was conducted to assess the latent structure of the HADS. A single scale consisting of 12 of 14 HADS items was revealed, indicating a unidimensional latent HADS structure. The HADS was initially intended to measure mutually exclusive levels of anxiety and depression; however, the current study indicates that a single dimension of general psychological distress is captured. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Temperament and character personality dimensions in patients with dental anxiety.

    PubMed

    Bergdahl, Maud; Bergdahl, Jan

    2003-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate character and temperament dimensions of personality in six men and 31 women (aged 20-57 yr) with severe dental anxiety, and to evaluate whether these dimensions were associated with the level of dental anxiety. The Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) were used. High ratings in novelty seeking and female gender predicted high DAS scores. Compared with controls, the patients scored significantly higher on the temperament dimension, novelty seeking. For character dimensions, the patients scored lower on cooperativeness and higher on self-transcendence than controls. Our results indicated that patients with dental anxiety are neurotic extravert (i.e. novelty seekers who experience brief dissociative periods and magical thinking). Furthermore, the combination of the inherited temperament dimension novelty seeking and the social learned character dimension cooperativeness and self-transcendence seem to form a vulnerable personality to develop dental anxiety.

  13. High-Stakes Accountability: Student Anxiety and Large-Scale Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von der Embse, Nathaniel P.; Witmer, Sara E.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between student anxiety about high-stakes testing and their subsequent test performance. The FRIEDBEN Test Anxiety Scale was administered to 1,134 11th-grade students, and data were subsequently collected on their statewide assessment performance. Test anxiety was a significant predictor of test performance…

  14. Anxiety, depression, resilience and self-esteem in individuals with cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Isabela Gonzales; Bertolli, Eduarda Dos Santos; Paiva, Luciana; Rossi, Lidia Aparecida; Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadoti; Pompeo, Daniele Alcalá

    2016-11-28

    to analyze the relationship between anxiety and depression symptoms, resilience and self-esteem with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics; correlate resilience and self-esteem with age and duration of the disease; check associations between anxiety and depression with measures of resilience and self-esteem among individuals with cardiovascular diseases. correlational study conducted in a large university hospital in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The population was composed of adult inpatients with cardiovascular diseases. A non-probabilistic consecutive sample was composed of 120 patients. Variables of interest were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Resilience Scale, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. anxiety and depression symptoms were present in 32.5% and 17.5% of the patients, respectively, and were associated with the female sex (p = 0.002; p = 0.022). Manifestations of depression were associated with the presence of comorbidities (p = 0.020). More resilient patients did not present depression symptoms (p < 0.001) and anxious women were more resilient (p = 0.042). The highest scores regarding self-esteem were present in patients with anxiety and depression. Men presented higher resilience and lower self-esteem compared to women. patients with anxiety and depression were less resilient but presented higher self-esteem. analisar as relações entre os sintomas ansiosos e depressivos, resiliência e autoestima com as características sociodemográficas e clínicas; correlacionar resiliência e autoestima com a idade e o tempo da doença; analisar associações entre ansiedade e depressão com as medidas de resiliência e autoestima em indivíduos com doenças cardiovasculares. estudo correlacional, realizado em Hospital de Ensino de grande porte do interior do Estado de São Paulo. A população era constituída por pacientes adultos internados com doenças cardiovasculares. Uma amostra consecutiva e não probabil

  15. Can the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale be used on Chinese elderly in general practice?

    PubMed

    Lam, C L; Pan, P C; Chan, A W; Chan, S Y; Munro, C

    1995-06-01

    A study was carried out in a general practice in Hong Kong to find out if the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale could be used to detect psychological problems in Chinese elderly. The HAD Scale was translated into Cantonese and administered by an interviewer to 298 Chinese aged 60 or above before their doctor consultations. The acceptance rate of the Scale was 96% and each interview took only 5-10 min to complete. All 298 elderly understood and completed the HAD Scale. Validation of the results of the HAD Scale by the Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS) was done on a random sample of 100 elderly. Relative operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the optimal cut-off points of the HAD Scale was a depression score of 6 and an anxiety score of 3. The sensitivity was 80%, specificity was 90%, OMR (overall misclassification rate) was 12%, positive predictive value was 67% and negative predictive value was 95%. Thirty-six per cent of the elderly had scores above these cut-off points. More females than males had high anxiety scores. Nearly half of those with positive HAD scores were not known to have any psychological illness. The HAD Scale has great potential to be used as a screening instrument for psychological illnesses in Cantonese-speaking Chinese elderly all over the world.

  16. The effect of music distraction on pain, anxiety and behavior in pediatric dental patients.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Jennifer Creem; Wilson, Stephen; Coury, Daniel; Moursi, Amr M

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if audio distraction could decrease patient anxiety, pain and disruptive behavior during pediatric dental procedures. Forty-five children between the ages of 4 to 6 years had two visits each involving restorative dentistry with local anesthesia in a mandibular quadrant. Visit #1 was a baseline session for all patients. During visit #2, the children were assigned to either an upbeat music group, a relaxing music group or a no music group. Variables measured were: (1) parent-reported anxiety via the Modified Corah Anxiety Scale, (2) self-reported anxiety via the Venham picture scale, (3) heart rate, (4) behavior via the North Carolina Behavior Rating Scale and (5) pain via a visual analogue scale. No significant differences were found among the three groups during experimental visit #2 across any variables. A majority of patients (90%) stated that they enjoyed the music and would like to listen to it during their next visit. Audio distraction was not an effective means of reducing anxiety, pain or uncooperative behavior during pediatric restorative dental procedures. However, patients did enjoy listening to the music during their visits.

  17. Is therapist evaluation of Social Anxiety/Avoidance traits associated with patient-reported attachment style?

    PubMed

    Katz, Michael; Hilsenroth, Mark J

    2017-11-01

    The Social Anxiety/Avoidance Scale was recently added to the Shedler Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP), and requires independent validation. This study used data drawn from a larger ongoing project in order to retrospectively examine its convergent validity with two self-report attachment measures: Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) and Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire-Revised (ECR-R). Fifty-two patients completed the RQ and the ECR-R before beginning psychotherapy treatment. Clinicians rated the patients on the SWAP after six sessions. The SWAP Social Anxiety/Avoidance Scale (SWAP-SAAS) was negatively related to the RQ secure attachment prototype scale and positively related to the ECR-R attachment anxiety scale. Our findings provide initial support for the use of the SWAP-SAAS as a therapist-rated measure associated with lower patient-reported levels of fit with a secure attachment prototype and with higher patient-reported levels of attachment anxiety. Implications and suggestions for future research on the SWAP-SAAS, as well as for clinical work with socially anxious and avoidant patients, are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. "Social Anxiety Disorder Carved at its Joints": evidence for the taxonicity of social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Justin W; Carleton, R Nicholas; Asmundson, Gordon J G; McCabe, Randi E; Antony, Martin M

    2010-10-01

    Previous findings suggest that social anxiety disorder may be best characterized as having a dimensional latent structure (Kollman et al., 2006; Weeks et al., 2009). We attempted to extend previous taxometric investigations of social anxiety by examining the latent structure of social anxiety disorder symptoms in a large sample comprised of social anxiety disorder patients (i.e., putative taxon members) and community residents/undergraduate respondents (i.e., putative complement class members). MAXEIG and MAMBAC were performed with indicator sets drawn from a self-report measure of social anxiety symptoms, the Social Interaction Phobia Scale (Carleton et al., 2009). MAXEIG and MAMBAC analyses, as well as comparison analyses utilizing simulated taxonic and dimensional datasets, yielded converging evidence that social anxiety disorder has a taxonic latent structure. Moreover, 100% of the confirmed social anxiety disorder patients in our overall sample were correctly assigned to the identified taxon class, providing strong support for the external validity of the identified taxon; and k-means cluster analysis results corroborated our taxometric base-rate estimates. Implications regarding the conceptualization, diagnosis, and assessment of social anxiety disorder are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Further development and validation of the Unhelpful Thoughts and Beliefs About Stuttering (UTBAS) scales: relationship to anxiety and social phobia among adults who stutter.

    PubMed

    Iverach, Lisa; Menzies, Ross; Jones, Mark; O'Brian, Sue; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In an initial validation study, the Unhelpful Thoughts and Beliefs About Stuttering (UTBAS I) scale, demonstrated excellent psychometric properties as a self-report measure of the frequency of unhelpful cognitions associated with social anxiety for adults who stutter. The aim was to further validate the original UTBAS I scale, and to develop two additional scales to assess beliefs (UTBAS II) and anxiety (UTBAS III) associated with negative thoughts. A total of 140 adults seeking speech-restructuring treatment for stuttering completed the original UTBAS I scale, the newly developed UTBAS II and III scales, and self-report measures of psychological functioning. Participants also completed a first-stage screener for the presence of anxious personality disorder, and a diagnostic assessment to evaluate the presence of social phobia, according to criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The mean UTBAS I score for the present sample did not differ significantly from the mean score reported in the original UTBAS I validation study. Convergent validity was confirmed by significant correlations between the UTBAS Total score and all anxiety-related measures. Discriminant validity was established by the absence of strong correlations between the UTBAS Total score and some of the self-report measures of unrelated constructs, although it was found to tap into the negative cognitions associated with depression and life problems. Approximately one-quarter of participants met criteria for a diagnosis of DSM-IV or ICD-10 social phobia (23.5% and 27.2% respectively), and nearly one-third met first-stage screening criteria for anxious personality disorder (30%). The mean UTBAS scores for participants who met criteria for these disorders were significantly higher than scores for participants who did not, confirming known-groups validity. The present study demonstrates the validity and

  20. The Effectiveness of Group Training of CBT-Based Stress Management on Anxiety, Psychological Hardiness and General Self-Efficacy Among University Students.

    PubMed

    Molla Jafar, Hamdam; Salabifard, Seddigheh; Mousavi, Seyedeh Maryam; Sobhani, Zahra

    2015-09-28

    Admission to university is a very sensitive period of life for efficient, active, and young workforces in any country, and it is mostly associated with many changes in social and human relationships. These changes lead to anxiety in students. Moreover, humans need certain functions in order to adaptively deal with different life situations and challenges. By training stress management, these functions can help human acquire the required abilities. The present study was aimed at investigating the effectiveness of stress management training in anxiety, psychological hardiness, and general self-efficacy among university students. The study was a quasi-experimental intervention (pretest-posttest-follow-up) including a control group, it was a fundamental applied study. The statistical population consisted of all students of Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran. Convenient sampling was employed to select 30 students who were divided into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). Before stress management training, both groups filled out Beck Anxiety Inventory, Long and Goulet scale of psychological hardiness, and General Self-efficacy Scale (GSE-10). Afterwards, the experimental group was provided with stress management training. And after the experiment, the abovementioned questionnaires and scales were responded by the two groups. Finally the collected data were analyzed and compared using one-way MANOVA. The results of MANOVA indicated that there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of anxiety, hardiness, and general self-efficacy (p<0.001). According to the results of the present study and those of previous investigations that are in agreement with those of the present study, it can be concluded that stress management among university students cause anxiety to drop; moreover, it enhances their psychological hardiness and self-efficacy. In regard with the role and importance of stress management, training this skill should be

  1. Trait and state anxiety across academic evaluative contexts: development and validation of the MTEA-12 and MSEA-12 scales.

    PubMed

    Sotardi, Valerie A

    2018-05-01

    Educational measures of anxiety focus heavily on students' experiences with tests yet overlook other assessment contexts. In this research, two brief multiscale questionnaires were developed and validated to measure trait evaluation anxiety (MTEA-12) and state evaluation anxiety (MSEA-12) for use in various assessment contexts in non-clinical, educational settings. The research included a cross-sectional analysis of self-report data using authentic assessment settings in which evaluation anxiety was measured. Instruments were tested using a validation sample of 241 first-year university students in New Zealand. Scale development included component structures for state and trait scales based on existing theoretical frameworks. Analyses using confirmatory factor analysis and descriptive statistics indicate that the scales are reliable and structurally valid. Multivariate general linear modeling using subscales from the MTEA-12, MSEA-12, and student grades suggest adequate criterion-related validity. Initial predictive validity in which one relevant MTEA-12 factor explained between 21% and 54% of the variance in three MSEA-12 factors. Results document MTEA-12 and MSEA-12 as reliable measures of trait and state dimensions of evaluation anxiety for test and writing contexts. Initial estimates suggest the scales as having promising validity, and recommendations for further validation are outlined.

  2. Feeling safe but appearing anxious: Differential effects of alcohol on anxiety and social performance in individuals with social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Stephan; Cooper, Ruth; Bantin, Trisha; Hermann, Christiane; Gerlach, Alexander L

    2017-07-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD) co-occur frequently and there is preliminary evidence that alcohol might reduce social anxiety. It is, however, unclear which mechanisms contribute to the anxiety reducing effect, particularly regarding key aspects of social anxiety such as deficits in social performance. We compared self-rated and physiological measures of anxiety as well as self- and observer-rated social performance in a sample of 62 individuals with SAD and 60 nonanxious control participants during a speech task after receiving either alcohol, an alcohol-free placebo drink or orange juice. SAD patients reported more anxiety during the speech task than did control participants. Furthermore, SAD patients underestimated their performance in comparison to observer ratings. Alcohol reduced self-report anxiety only in SAD patients, while observers rated all participants as less competent when intoxicated. Although individuals with SAD experience a reduction in anxiety when drinking alcohol, simultaneous decreases in social performance might contribute to negative reactions from others and consequently increase the risk of further alcohol use to cope with these negative reactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Regular extra curricular sports practice does not prevent moderate or severe variations in self-esteem or trait anxiety in early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Binsinger, Caroline; Laure, Patrick; Ambard, Marie-France

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity is often presented as an effective tool to improve self-esteem and/or to reduce anxiety. The aim of this study was to measure the influence of a regular extra curricular sports practice on self-esteem and anxiety. We conducted a prospective cohort study, which has included all of the pupils entering the first year of secondary school (sixth grade) in the Vosges Department (east France) during the school year 2001-2002 and followed during three years. Data were collected every six months by self-reported questionnaires. 1791 pupils were present at each of the six data collection sessions and completed all the questionnaires, representing 10,746 documents: 835 boys (46.6 %) and 956 girls (53.4 %), in November 2001, the average age was 11.1 ± 0.5 years (mean ± standard deviation). 722 pupils (40.3 %) reported that they had practiced an extra-school physical activity in a sporting association from November 2001 to May 2004 (ECS group), whereas, 195 (10.9 %) pupils had not practiced any extra-school physical activity at all (NECS group). The average global scores of self-esteem (Rosenberg's Scale) and trait anxiety (Spielberger's Scale) of the ECS pupils were, respectively, higher and lower than those of the NECS group. However, the incidence density (number of new cases during a given period / total person-time of observation) of moderate or severe decrease of self-esteem (less than "mean - one standard deviation "or less than "mean - two standard deviations") was not significantly different between the two groups, a finding that was also evident also in the case of trait anxiety. Finally, among ECS pupils, the incidence density of severe decrease of self-esteem was lower at the girls'. Practitioners and physical education teachers, as well as parents, should be encouraged to seek out ways to involve pupils in extra-school physical activities. Key PointsA regular extra-curricular sports practice is associated to better levels of self-esteem and

  4. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A): Measuring Social Anxiety among Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M.; Niemi, Paivi M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the "Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents" (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure…

  5. Self-esteem as mediator and moderator of the relationship between stigma perception and social alienation of Chinese adults with disability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Li, Wentao; Liu, Binbin; Xie, Wenlan

    2014-01-01

    Several studies show the relationship between self-esteem and stigma perception and also between self-esteem and social alienation, but none sufficiently analyze the relationship between stigma perception and social alienation of people with disability. The primary aim of this paper is to investigate the mediator and moderator effects of self-esteem on the relationship between stigma perception and social alienation of people with disability. The participants were 129 adults with disability (80 males and 49 females) from eight communities in China. Data was collected by using the stigma perception scale, self-esteem scale, social avoidance scale, social anxiety subscale of the self-consciousness scale, and loneliness scale. Each item is rated on a 5-point scale (1 = "strongly disagree" to 5 = "strongly agree"). Stigma perception was positively correlated with social avoidance (p < 0.001), social anxiety (p < 0.001), and loneliness (p < 0.001). Self-esteem was inversely correlated with social avoidance (p < 0.001), social anxiety (p < 0.001), loneliness (p < 0.001), and stigma perception (p < 0.001). Self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between stigma perception and social avoidance, social anxiety and loneliness. Moreover, self-esteem moderated the relationship between stigma perception and social avoidance, but not on social anxiety and loneliness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Comorbid Major Depression and Heart Rate Variability: A Case-Control Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsin-An; Chang, Chuan-Chia; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Kuo, Terry B. J.; Lu, Ru-Band

    2013-01-01

    Objective Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) has been reported in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), but the results are mixed. Little is known about the impact of comorbid major depression (MD) on HRV in GAD patients. Both issues necessitate further investigation. Methods Twenty unmedicated, physically healthy GAD patients, 20 GAD patients with a secondary diagnosis of MD, 40 MD patients and 60 matched controls were recruited. We used the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale to assess anxiety and depression severity, respectively. Cardiac autonomic function was evaluated by measuring HRV parameters. Frequency-domain indices of HRV were obtained. Results Three patient groups had more anxiety and depression symptoms than control subjects, but heart rates (HRs) were significantly elevated only in GAD patients with comorbid depression. Relative to controls, GAD patients had reduced HRV while GAD patients with comorbid depression displayed the greatest reductions in HRV among three patients groups. Correlation analyses revealed anxiety/depression severity significantly associated with HRs, variance, LF-HRV and HF-HRV. However, separately analyzing among individual groups and adjusting for HRV-associated covariables rendered the correlations non-significant. Conclusion Our results suggest that reduction in HRV is a psychophysiological marker of GAD and individuals with comorbid GAD and MD may be distinguished based on psychophysiological correlates (for example, HF-HRV) from non-comorbid GAD patients. Taken into account that comorbid depression may confer increased risks for cardiovascular events in GAD patients, this subgroup of GAD patients may benefit better from cardiovascular risk reduction strategies. PMID:24474980

  7. Effect of audiovisual distraction on children's behaviour, anxiety and pain in the dental setting.

    PubMed

    Guinot Jimeno, F; Mercadé Bellido, M; Cuadros Fernández, C; Lorente Rodríguez, A I; Llopis Pérez, J; Boj Quesada, J R

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate whether the parental perception of the patient's anxiety, children's anxiety, pain, behaviour and heart rate of paediatric patients improves when an audiovisual technique is used as a distraction method during dental treatment. This non-randomised crossover trial was performed with 34 patients aged 6-8 years, who required a minimum of two treatment visits for restorative therapy. During the last visit, the patient was shown a cartoon film. There was a significant improvement in the global behaviour when children were shown a cartoon film (P < 0.001). A significant increase in heart rate was recorded in both visits (P = 0.0001) when the anaesthetic was injected. A 97% of the sample would like to continue seeing their chosen film during subsequent visits. No statistically significant differences were found (P > 0.05) between the visits in terms of parental perception of the patient's anxiety, or the patient's self-reported anxiety, pain and heart rate. The use of the audiovisual material used as a method of distraction produces a global improvement in patient behaviour, but not in parental perception of the patient's anxiety, self-reported anxiety, pain or heart rate according to the measurement scales used. This material is also highly accepted by paediatric patients.

  8. Social support as a moderator of the relationship between anxiety and depression: an empirical study with adult survivors of Wenchuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiuping; Wei, Ying

    2013-01-01

    On May 12th 2008, an earthquake with a magnitude of 8.0 on the Richter scale struck China, causing a large number of casualties and significant economic losses. By interviewing 2080 survivors of Wenchuan earthquake, the objective of this study is to estimate the role of different types of social support as possible moderating factors between anxiety and depression. A stratified random sampling strategy about the cross-sectional study was adopted. The self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) were used. A total of 2080 adult survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake from 19 damaged countries participated in the survey. Correlation analysis and regression analysis were performed to evaluate the moderating role of social support on the relationship between anxiety and depression. One year after the Wenchuan earthquake, anxiety and depression were found to be 37.6% and 40.7%, respectively. Demographic characteristics were seen as significant in the cases of depression, except for age (p=0.599), while age and education level were not found to be significant for anxiety. The results showed that social support, especially subjective support could moderate the association between anxiety and depression. Social support should be particularly focused on female survivors, those of the Han ethnic group, and those with a lower level of education and a lower income. Psychological intervention and care for survivors should focus on those most disoriented by the disaster.

  9. Cultural Aspects in Social Anxiety and Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Hinton, Devon E.

    2010-01-01

    To examine cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD), we reviewed the literature on the prevalence rates, expressions, and treatments of social anxiety/SAD as they relate to culture, race, and ethnicity. We further reviewed factors that contribute to the differences in social anxiety/SAD between different cultures, including individualism/collectivism, perception of social norms, self-construal, gender roles, and gender role identification. Our review suggests that the prevalence and expression of social anxiety/SAD depends on the particular culture. Asian cultures typically show the lowest rates, whereas Russian and US samples show the highest rates, of SAD. Taijin kyofusho is discussed as a possible culture-specific expression of social anxiety, although the empirical evidence concerning the validity of this syndrome has been mixed. It is concluded that the individual's social concerns need to be examined in the context of the person's cultural, racial, and ethnic background in order to adequately assess the degree and expression of social anxiety and social anxiety disorder. This has direct relevance for the upcoming DSM-V. PMID:21132847

  10. The effect of heart rate variability biofeedback training on stress and anxiety: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Goessl, V C; Curtiss, J E; Hofmann, S G

    2017-11-01

    Some evidence suggests that heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback might be an effective way to treat anxiety and stress symptoms. To examine the effect of HRV biofeedback on symptoms of anxiety and stress, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies extracted from PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library. The search identified 24 studies totaling 484 participants who received HRV biofeedback training for stress and anxiety. We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis. The pre-post within-group effect size (Hedges' g) was 0.81. The between-groups analysis comparing biofeedback to a control condition yielded Hedges' g = 0.83. Moderator analyses revealed that treatment efficacy was not moderated by study year, risk of study bias, percentage of females, number of sessions, or presence of an anxiety disorder. HRV biofeedback training is associated with a large reduction in self-reported stress and anxiety. Although more well-controlled studies are needed, this intervention offers a promising approach for treating stress and anxiety with wearable devices.

  11. Cross-Cultural adaption, validity and reliability of a Hindi version of the Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale.

    PubMed

    Jain, Meena; Tandon, Shourya; Sharma, Ankur; Jain, Vishal; Rani Yadav, Nisha

    2018-01-01

    Background: An appropriate scale to assess the dental anxiety of Hindi speaking population is lacking. This study, therefore, aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of Hindi version of one of the oldest dental anxiety scale, Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale (CDAS) in Hindi speaking Indian adults. Methods: A total of 348 subjects from the outpatient department of a dental hospital in India participated in this cross-sectional study. The scale was cross-culturally adapted by forward and backward translation, committee review and pretesting method. The construct validity of the translated scale was explored with exploratory factor analysis. The correlation of the Hindi version of CDAS with visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the convergent validity. Reliability was assessed through calculations of Cronbach's alpha and intra class correlation 48 forms were completed for test-retest. Results: Prevalence of dental anxiety in the sample within the age range of 18-80 years was 85.63% [95% CI: 0.815-0.891]. The response rate was 100 %. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test value was 0.776. After factor analysis, a single factor (dental anxiety) was obtained with 4 items.The single factor model explained 61% variance. Pearson correlation coefficient between CDASand VAS was 0.494. Test-retest showed the Cronbach's alpha value of 0.814. The test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient of the total CDAS score was 0.881 [95% CI: 0.318-0.554]. Conclusion: Hindi version of CDAS is a valid and reliable scale to assess dental anxiety in Hindi speaking population. Convergent validity is well recognized but discriminant validity is limited and requires further study.

  12. [The effect of self-determination on time perspective and child-care anxiety].

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Junko

    2013-06-01

    This study examines the effect of self-determination on time perspectives and child-care anxiety from a viewpoint of life course. A total of 1,726 mothers with small children participated in a questionnaire survey. They were classified into four groups based on their planned life courses: mothers who work; mothers who stopped working, but plan on returning to work; mothers who don't want to work and plan to stay at home; and mothers who stopped working, but plan on returning to work when their children grow up. Child-care anxiety was classified into four categories: (a) sense of stagnation and sacrifice, (b) fatigue, (c) diffidence, (d) feeling disaffection. The results show that fulfillment associated with child-care anxiety exists for all groups and factors of child-care anxiety, and that fulfillment was influenced by differences between self-determination and self-determination desires. The effect of self-determination on time perspectives and child-care anxiety differed between groups. It is suggested that society should provide different support to mothers with small children and child-care anxiety related to their different planned life courses.

  13. Sleep was associated with depression and anxiety status during pregnancy: a prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yunxian; Li, Minchao; Pu, Liuyan; Wang, Shuojia; Wu, Jinhua; Ruan, Lingli; Jiang, Shuying; Wang, Zhaopin; Jiang, Wen

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the cross-sectional and longitudinal association of sleep with depression and anxiety among Chinese pregnant women. Pregnant women were recruited in Zhoushan Pregnant Women Cohort at Zhoushan Maternal and Child Care Hospital from 2011 to 2015. Self-rating depression scales (SDS) and self-rating anxiety scales (SAS) were used for evaluating depression and anxiety status at each trimester; corresponding sleep quality and duration were reported by pregnant women. Ordinary or multilevel linear and logistic regression model were used to estimate the cross-sectional or longitudinal association of sleep with depression and anxiety. The prevalence rates were 35.64, 24.23, and 26.24% for depression and 22.57, 17.41, and 21.04% for anxiety at 1st (T1), 2nd (T2), and 3rd trimester (T3), respectively. Controlling for potential confounders, it revealed significant cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of sleep with depression and anxiety status. In cross-sectional analysis, women who slept less than 8 h/day had higher risk of depression (T1: OR (95%CI) = 1.75 (1.39, 2.20); T2: 1.52 (1.26, 2.05); T3: 1.60 (1.18, 2.05)) and anxiety (T1: 2.00 (1.57, 2.55); T2: 1.86 (1.37, 2.54); T3: 1.33 (0.99, 1.79)). In the longitudinal analysis, multilevel model revealed that women with subjective "fair" or "bad" sleep quality had elevated risk of depression (OR ranging from 1.54 to 3.71) and anxiety (2.38 to 7.53) during pregnancy. Prenatal depression and anxiety status were prevalent in pregnant women. Sleep quality was associated with depression and anxiety status in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, implying that improving sleep quality should benefit for mental health of pregnant women.

  14. Family Support, Self-Rated Health, and Psychological Distress

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Annmarie; Scaturo, Douglas J.; Sprafkin, Robert P.; Lantinga, Larry J.; Fiese, Barbara H.; Brand, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive health care is becoming an important issue; however, little is known about the complex relationships between perceived family support, self-rated health, and psychological distress in mixed middle-aged/older primary care patient samples. Method: In this cross-sectional and predominantly male sample of 137 patients attending their appointments at a primary care clinic in a Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, participants completed several questionnaires including the Family Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve; the General Health Questionnaire-12; the Symptom Checklist-10; and the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) screening questionnaire and interview. Data were collected in 1998. Eighteen percent of the participants were diagnosed with a mood disorder, and 15% were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder (PRIME-MD diagnoses). Results: Perceived family support and self-rated health were negatively associated with psychological symptoms and certain psychological disorders, while perceived family support and self-rated health were positively rated. In addition, the interaction between perceived family support and self-rated health was significant (p < .01) in relating to psychological symptoms such that psychological symptoms were most elevated in participants reporting dissatisfying family support combined with poor self-rated health. However, the cross-sectional nature of the study prevents causal conclusions from being made. Conclusions: Physicians and other health care professionals are encouraged to assess both the perceived family support and self-rated health in an effort to conceptualize their patients' problems in a more comprehensive manner. PMID:15154021

  15. Universals and Specifics of Math Self-Concept, Math Self-Efficacy, and Math Anxiety across 41 PISA 2003 Participating Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jihyun

    2009-01-01

    The overarching goal of the present study is to investigate the factorial structure of three closely related constructs: math self-concept, math self-efficacy, and math anxiety. The factorial structure consisting of three factors, each representing math self-concept, math self-efficacy, and math anxiety, is supported in all 41 countries employed…

  16. Associations Among Plasma Stress Markers and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Breast Cancer Following Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Hyun-Bin; Kang, Eun-Chan; Jeon, Dong-Wook; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Moon, Jung-Joon; Kim, Sung-Jin; Choi, Ji-Min; Jung, Do-Un

    2018-01-01

    Objective The objective of present study is to analyze the prevalence of depression and anxiety following breast cancer surgery and to assess the factors that affect postoperative psychological symptoms. Methods The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Body Image Scale (BIS), and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES) were used to assess the psychological states of patients who had been diagnosed with and had undergone surgery for breast cancer. Blood concentrations of the stress markers adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, arginine-vasopressin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme were measured. Pearson’s correlation analysis and multilinear regression analysis were used to analyse the data. Results At least mild depressive symptoms were noted in 50.5% of patients, while 42.4% of patients exhibited at least mild anxiety symptoms. HAM-D score was positively correlated with HAM-A (r=0.83, p<0.001) and BIS (r=0.29, p<0.001) scores and negatively correlated with RSES score (r=-0.41, p<0.001). HAM-A score was positively correlated with BIS score (r=0.32, p<0.001) and negatively correlated with RSES score (r=-0.27, p<0.001). There were no statistically significant associations between stress markers and depression/anxiety. Conclusion Patients with breast cancer frequently exhibit postoperative depression and anxiety, which are related to low levels of self-esteem and distorted body image. PMID:29475233

  17. The relationship between academic self-concept, intrinsic motivation, test anxiety, and academic achievement among nursing students: mediating and moderating effects.

    PubMed

    Khalaila, Rabia

    2015-03-01

    The impact of cognitive factors on academic achievement is well documented. However, little is known about the mediating and moderating effects of non-cognitive, motivational and situational factors on academic achievement among nursing students. The aim of this study is to explore the direct and/or indirect effects of academic self-concept on academic achievement, and examine whether intrinsic motivation moderates the negative effect of test anxiety on academic achievement. This descriptive-correlational study was carried out on a convenience sample of 170 undergraduate nursing students, in an academic college in northern Israel. Academic motivation, academic self-concept and test anxiety scales were used as measuring instruments. Bootstrapping with resampling strategies was used for testing multiple mediators' model and examining the moderator effect. A higher self-concept was found to be directly related to greater academic achievement. Test anxiety and intrinsic motivation were found to be significant mediators in the relationship between self-concept and academic achievement. In addition, intrinsic motivation significantly moderated the negative effect of test anxiety on academic achievement. The results suggested that institutions should pay more attention to the enhancement of motivational factors (e.g., self-concept and motivation) and alleviate the negative impact of situational factors (e.g., test anxiety) when offering psycho-educational interventions designed to improve nursing students' academic achievements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of early adolescent anxiety disorders on self-esteem development from adolescence to young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Lizmarie; Huang, Yangxin; Chen, Ren; Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between early adolescent anxiety disorders and self-esteem development from early adolescence to young adulthood. Methods Self-esteem was measured at mean ages 13, 16 and 22 for 821 participants from the Children in the Community Study, a population-based longitudinal cohort. Anxiety disorders were measured at mean age 13 years. Multilevel growth models were employed to analyze the change in self-esteem from early adolescence to young adulthood and to evaluate whether adolescent anxiety disorders predict both average and slope of self-esteem development. Results Self-esteem increased during adolescence and continued to increase in young adulthood. Girls had lower average self-esteem than boys, but this difference disappeared when examining the effect of anxiety. Adolescents with anxiety disorder had lower self-esteem, on average, compared with healthy adolescents (effect size (ES) =−0.35, p<0.01). Social phobia was found to have the greatest relative impact on average self-esteem (ES=−0.30, p<0.01), followed by overanxious disorder (ES=−0.17, p<0.05), and simple phobia (ES=−0.17, p<0.05). Obsessive compulsive-disorder (OCD) predicted a significant decline in self-esteem from adolescence to young-adulthood ( =−0.1, p<0.05). Separation anxiety disorder was not found to have any significant impact on self-esteem development. Conclusions All but one of the assessed adolescent anxiety disorders were related to lower self-esteem, with social phobia having the greatest impact. OCD predicted a decline in self-esteem trajectory with age. The importance of raising self-esteem in adolescents with anxiety and other mental disorders is discussed. PMID:23648133

  19. Impact of early adolescent anxiety disorders on self-esteem development from adolescence to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Lizmarie; Huang, Yangxin; Chen, Ren; Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian

    2013-08-01

    To examine the association between early adolescent anxiety disorders and self-esteem development from early adolescence through young adulthood. Self-esteem was measured at mean ages 13, 16, and 22 for 821 participants from the Children in the Community Study, a population-based longitudinal cohort. Anxiety disorders were measured at mean age 13 years. Multilevel growth models were employed to analyze the change in self-esteem from early adolescence to young adulthood and to evaluate whether adolescent anxiety disorders predict both average and slope of self-esteem development. Self-esteem increased during adolescence and continued to increase in young adulthood. Girls had lower average self-esteem than boys, but this difference disappeared when examining the effect of anxiety. Adolescents with anxiety disorder had lower self-esteem, on average, compared with healthy adolescents (effect size [ES] = -.35, p < .01). Social phobia was found to have the greatest relative impact on average self-esteem (ES = -.30, p < .01), followed by overanxious disorder (ES = -.17, p < .05), and simple phobia (ES = -.17, p < .05). Obsessive compulsive-disorder (OCD) predicted a significant decline in self-esteem from adolescence to young adulthood (β = -.1, p < .05). Separation anxiety disorder was not found to have any significant impact on self-esteem development. All but one of the assessed adolescent anxiety disorders were related to lower self-esteem, with social phobia having the greatest impact. OCD predicted a decline in self-esteem trajectory with age. The importance of raising self-esteem in adolescents with anxiety and other mental disorders is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Does low self-esteem predict depression and anxiety? A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Sowislo, Julia Friederike; Orth, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Low self-esteem and depression are strongly related, but there is not yet consistent evidence on the nature of the relation. Whereas the vulnerability model states that low self-esteem contributes to depression, the scar model states that depression erodes self-esteem. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the models are specific for depression or whether they are also valid for anxiety. We evaluated the vulnerability and scar models of low self-esteem and depression, and low self-esteem and anxiety, by meta-analyzing the available longitudinal data (covering 77 studies on depression and 18 studies on anxiety). The mean age of the samples ranged from childhood to old age. In the analyses, we used a random-effects model and examined prospective effects between the variables, controlling for prior levels of the predicted variables. For depression, the findings supported the vulnerability model: The effect of self-esteem on depression (β = -.16) was significantly stronger than the effect of depression on self-esteem (β = -.08). In contrast, the effects between low self-esteem and anxiety were relatively balanced: Self-esteem predicted anxiety with β = -.10, and anxiety predicted self-esteem with β = -.08. Moderator analyses were conducted for the effect of low self-esteem on depression; these suggested that the effect is not significantly influenced by gender, age, measures of self-esteem and depression, or time lag between assessments. If future research supports the hypothesized causality of the vulnerability effect of low self-esteem on depression, interventions aimed at increasing self-esteem might be useful in reducing the risk of depression.

  1. Decreasing Neuroscience Anxiety in an Introductory Neuroscience Course: An Analysis Using Data from a Modified Science Anxiety Scale

    PubMed Central

    Birkett, Melissa; Shelton, Kerisa

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether participation in a neuroscience course reduced neuroscience anxiety, a modified version of the Science Anxiety Scale was administered to students at the beginning and end of an introductory course. Neuroscience anxiety scores were significantly reduced at the end of the course and correlated with higher final grades. Reduced neuroscience anxiety did not correlate with reduced science anxiety, suggesting that neuroscience anxiety is a distinct subtype of anxiety. PMID:23626491

  2. A study of statistics anxiety levels of graduate dental hygiene students.

    PubMed

    Welch, Paul S; Jacks, Mary E; Smiley, Lynn A; Walden, Carolyn E; Clark, William D; Nguyen, Carol A

    2015-02-01

    In light of increased emphasis on evidence-based practice in the profession of dental hygiene, it is important that today's dental hygienist comprehend statistical measures to fully understand research articles, and thereby apply scientific evidence to practice. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate statistics anxiety among graduate dental hygiene students in the U.S. A web-based self-report, anonymous survey was emailed to directors of 17 MSDH programs in the U.S. with a request to distribute to graduate students. The survey collected data on statistics anxiety, sociodemographic characteristics and evidence-based practice. Statistic anxiety was assessed using the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale. Study significance level was α=0.05. Only 8 of the 17 invited programs participated in the study. Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale data revealed graduate dental hygiene students experience low to moderate levels of statistics anxiety. Specifically, the level of anxiety on the Interpretation Anxiety factor indicated this population could struggle with making sense of scientific research. A decisive majority (92%) of students indicated statistics is essential for evidence-based practice and should be a required course for all dental hygienists. This study served to identify statistics anxiety in a previously unexplored population. The findings should be useful in both theory building and in practical applications. Furthermore, the results can be used to direct future research. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  3. The effects of self-focus on attentional biases in social anxiety:An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Judah, Matt R; Grant, DeMond M; Carlisle, Nancy B

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive theories of social anxiety disorder suggest that biased attention plays a key role in maintaining symptoms. These biases include self-focus and attention to socially threatening stimuli in the environment. The goal of this study was to utilize ERPs that are elicited by a change detection task to examine biases in selective attention (i.e., N2pc) and working memory maintenance (i.e., contralateral delay activity; CDA). Additionally, the effect of self-focus was examined using false heart rate feedback. In support of the manipulation, self-focus cues resulted in greater self-reported self-consciousness and task interference, enhanced anterior P2 amplitude and reduced SPN amplitude. Moreover, P2 amplitude for self-focus cues was correlated with reduced task performance for socially anxious subjects only. The difference in P2 amplitude between self-focus and standard cues was correlated with social anxiety independent of depression. As hypothesized, socially anxious participants (n = 20) showed early selection and maintenance of disgust faces relative to neutral faces as indicated by the N2pc and CDA components. Nonanxious controls (n = 22) did not show these biases. During self-focus cues, controls showed marginal evidence of biased selection for disgust faces, whereas socially anxious subjects showed no bias in this condition. Controls showed an ipsilateral delay activity after being cued to attend to one hemifield. Overall, this study supports early and persistent attentional bias for social threat in socially anxious individuals. Furthermore, self-focus may disrupt these biases. These findings and supplementary data are discussed in light of cognitive models of social anxiety disorder, recent empirical findings, and treatment.

  4. Rating Scale Analysis and Psychometric Properties of the Caregiver Self-Efficacy Scale for Transfers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipriani, Daniel J.; Hensen, Francine E.; McPeck, Danielle L.; Kubec, Gina L. D.; Thomas, Julie J.

    2012-01-01

    Parents and caregivers faced with the challenges of transferring children with disability are at risk of musculoskeletal injuries and/or emotional stress. The Caregiver Self-Efficacy Scale for Transfers (CSEST) is a 14-item questionnaire that measures self-efficacy for transferring under common conditions. The CSEST yields reliable data and valid…

  5. The development and psychometric properties of the Turkish death anxiety scale (TDAS).

    PubMed

    Sarıkaya, Yusuf; Baloğlu, Mustafa

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop the Turkish Death Anxiety Scale (TDAS) and test its initial psychometric properties. Four independent samples participated in the study: 943 college students in item generation, 388 college students in validation, 171 college students in reliability investigation, and 338 adults in cross-validation. Principal component analysis with a varimax rotation revealed that 20 items of the scale contained three factors (i.e., Ambiguity of Death, Exposure to Death, and Agony of Death), which explained over 67% of the total variability. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated acceptable fit. Significant correlations were found between the scale and death anxiety, state anxiety, trait anxiety, depression, and hopelessness in the student sample. In the adult sample, death anxiety significantly correlated with trait anxiety. Reliability coefficients were also found acceptable. The authors conclude that the TDAS is a promising instrument in assessing the death anxiety levels in Turkey.

  6. The Psychometric Properties of Attentional Control Scale and Its Relationship with Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression: A Study on Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Abasi, Imaneh; Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh; Pourshahbaz, Abbas; Dolatshahi, Behrouz

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The attentional control scale is a self- report questionnaire that assesses individual differences in attentional control. Despite its extensive use, the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the ACS are not well understood. Thus, the present study aimed at investigating the psychometric properties of the attentional control scale and its relationship with symptoms of anxiety and depression in Iranian population. Method: Using quota sampling, we asked a community sample of 524 to respond to Attentional Control Scale, mindfulness, emotion regulation, social anxiety, depression, generalized anxiety, worry, and rumination. SPSS (Version 23) was used for data analysis. Results: Exploratory factor analysis yielded 2 factors of focusing and shifting, which accounted for 30.93% of the total variance. The results of convergent validity revealed that reappraisal, as an emotion regulation strategy and mindfulness facets, had a positive relationship with focusing, shifting, and the total score of the attentional control scale. Furthermore, worry, rumination, depression, generalized anxiety, and social anxiety symptoms all had negative relationships with focusing, rumination, and the total score of the attentional control scale. In addition, the results of incremental validity revealed that focusing, not shifting, uniquely predicted depression and generalized anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, both focusing and shifting uniquely predicted social anxiety symptoms. Test- retest reliability of focusing and shifting was 0.80 and 0. 76, respectively. Conclusion: Attentional control scale has been demonstrated to have acceptable validity and reliability in Iranian population. However, further studies are needed to evaluate other aspects of the ACS like CFA. PMID:28659983

  7. Computer Anxiety and Student Teachers: Interrelationships between Computer Anxiety, Demographic Variables and an Intervention Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Valentina; And Others

    This study examined the effects of increased computing experience on the computer anxiety of 101 first year preservice teacher education students at a regional university in Australia. Three instruments measuring computer anxiety and attitudes--the Computer Anxiety Rating Scale (CARS), Attitudes Towards Computers Scale (ATCS), and Computer…

  8. The mediating role of state maladaptive emotion regulation in the relation between social anxiety symptoms and self-evaluation bias.

    PubMed

    Sarfan, Laurel D; Cody, Meghan W; Clerkin, Elise M

    2018-03-16

    Although social anxiety symptoms are robustly linked to biased self-evaluations across time, the mechanisms of this relation remain unclear. The present study tested three maladaptive emotion regulation strategies - state post-event processing, state experiential avoidance, and state expressive suppression - as potential mediators of this relation. Undergraduate participants (N = 88; 61.4% Female) rated their social skill in an impromptu conversation task and then returned to the laboratory approximately two days later to evaluate their social skill in the conversation again. Consistent with expectations, state post-event processing and state experiential avoidance mediated the relation between social anxiety symptoms and worsening self-evaluations of social skill (controlling for research assistant evaluations), particularly for positive qualities (e.g. appeared confident, demonstrated social skill). State expressive suppression did not mediate the relation between social anxiety symptoms and changes in self-evaluation bias across time. These findings highlight the role that spontaneous, state experiential avoidance and state post-event processing may play in the relation between social anxiety symptoms and worsening self-evaluation biases of social skill across time.

  9. Factor analysis of the Zung self-rating depression scale in a large sample of patients with major depressive disorder in primary care.

    PubMed

    Romera, Irene; Delgado-Cohen, Helena; Perez, Teresa; Caballero, Luis; Gilaberte, Immaculada

    2008-01-14

    The aim of this study was to examine the symptomatic dimensions of depression in a large sample of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) in the primary care (PC) setting by means of a factor analysis of the Zung self-rating depression scale (ZSDS). A factor analysis was performed, based on the polychoric correlations matrix, between ZSDS items using promax oblique rotation in 1049 PC patients with a diagnosis of MDD (DSM-IV). A clinical interpretable four-factor solution consisting of a core depressive factor (I); a cognitive factor (II); an anxiety factor (III) and a somatic factor (IV) was extracted. These factors accounted for 36.9% of the variance on the ZSDS. The 4-factor structure was validated and high coefficients of congruence were obtained (0.98, 0.95, 0.92 and 0.87 for factors I, II, III and IV, respectively). The model seemed to fit the data well with fit indexes within recommended ranges (GFI = 0.9330, AGFI = 0.9112 and RMR = 0.0843). Our findings suggest that depressive symptoms in patients with MDD in the PC setting cluster into four dimensions: core depressive, cognitive, anxiety and somatic, by means of a factor analysis of the ZSDS. Further research is needed to identify possible diagnostic, therapeutic or prognostic implications of the different depressive symptomatic profiles.

  10. Factor analysis of the Zung self-rating depression scale in a large sample of patients with major depressive disorder in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Romera, Irene; Delgado-Cohen, Helena; Perez, Teresa; Caballero, Luis; Gilaberte, Immaculada

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the symptomatic dimensions of depression in a large sample of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) in the primary care (PC) setting by means of a factor analysis of the Zung self-rating depression scale (ZSDS). Methods A factor analysis was performed, based on the polychoric correlations matrix, between ZSDS items using promax oblique rotation in 1049 PC patients with a diagnosis of MDD (DSM-IV). Results A clinical interpretable four-factor solution consisting of a core depressive factor (I); a cognitive factor (II); an anxiety factor (III) and a somatic factor (IV) was extracted. These factors accounted for 36.9% of the variance on the ZSDS. The 4-factor structure was validated and high coefficients of congruence were obtained (0.98, 0.95, 0.92 and 0.87 for factors I, II, III and IV, respectively). The model seemed to fit the data well with fit indexes within recommended ranges (GFI = 0.9330, AGFI = 0.9112 and RMR = 0.0843). Conclusion Our findings suggest that depressive symptoms in patients with MDD in the PC setting cluster into four dimensions: core depressive, cognitive, anxiety and somatic, by means of a factor analysis of the ZSDS. Further research is needed to identify possible diagnostic, therapeutic or prognostic implications of the different depressive symptomatic profiles. PMID:18194524

  11. Cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Anu Asnaani, M A; Hinton, Devon E

    2010-12-01

    To examine cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD), we reviewed the literature on the prevalence rates, expressions, and treatments of social anxiety/SAD as they relate to culture, race, and ethnicity. We further reviewed factors that contribute to the differences in social anxiety/SAD between different cultures, including individualism/collectivism, perception of social norms, self-construal, gender roles, and gender role identification. Our review suggests that the prevalence and expression of social anxiety/SAD depends on the particular culture. Asian cultures typically show the lowest rates, whereas Russian and US samples show the highest rates, of SAD. Taijin kyofusho is discussed as a possible culture-specific expression of social anxiety, although the empirical evidence concerning the validity of this syndrome has been mixed. It is concluded that the individual's social concerns need to be examined in the context of the person's cultural, racial, and ethnic background in order to adequately assess the degree and expression of social anxiety and SAD. This has direct relevance for the upcoming DSM-V. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Anxiety, depression, and somatization in DSM-III hypochondriasis.

    PubMed

    Kellner, R; Abbott, P; Winslow, W W; Pathak, D

    1989-01-01

    To assess the severity of distress and of somatization in hypochondriasis, the authors administered several validated self-rating scales of depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms, and anger/hostility to 21 psychiatric outpatients with the DSM-III diagnosis of hypochondriasis and to matched groups of other nonpsychotic psychiatric patients, family practice patients, and employees. Anxiety and somatic symptoms were highest in hypochondriacal patients; depression and anger/hostility did not differ from those of other psychiatric patients but were higher than in the other groups. The findings do not support the theory that hypochondriasis is a defense against anxiety or that it is a masked depression or depressive equivalent. The findings are consistent with the view that the interaction of severe anxiety and severe somatic symptoms is a common feature of the psychopathology of hypochondriasis.

  13. Detection of stress/anxiety state from EEG features during video watching.

    PubMed

    Giannakakis, Giorgos; Grigoriadis, Dimitris; Tsiknakis, Manolis

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of stress/anxiety states on EEG signals during video sessions. The levels of arousal and valence that are induced to each subject while watching each video are self rated. These levels are mapped in stress and relaxed states and subjects that fufill criteria of adequate anxiety/stress scale were chosen leading to a subset of 18 subjects. Then, temporal, spectral and non linear EEG features are evaluated for being able to represent accurately states under investigation. Feature selection schemes choose the most significant of them in order to provide increased discrimination ability between relaxed and anxiety/stress states.

  14. The Role of Performance Quality in Adolescents' Self-Evaluation and Rumination after a Speech: Is it Contingent on Social Anxiety Level?

    PubMed

    Blöte, Anke W; Miers, Anne C; Van den Bos, Esther; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2018-05-17

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has relatively poor outcomes for youth with social anxiety, possibly because broad-based CBT is not tailored to their specific needs. Treatment of social anxiety in youth may need to pay more attention to negative social cognitions that are considered a key factor in social anxiety development and maintenance. The aim of the present study was to learn more about the role of performance quality in adolescents' cognitions about their social performance and, in particular, the moderating role social anxiety plays in the relationship between performance quality and self-cognitions. A community sample of 229 participants, aged 11 to 18 years, gave a speech and filled in questionnaires addressing social anxiety, depression, expected and self-evaluated performance, and post-event rumination. Independent observers rated the quality of the speech. The data were analysed using moderated mediation analysis. Performance quality mediated the link between expected and self-evaluated performance in adolescents with low and medium levels of social anxiety. For adolescents with high levels of social anxiety, only a direct link between expected and self-evaluated performance was found. Their self-evaluation was not related to the quality of their performance. Performance quality also mediated the link between expected performance and rumination, but social anxiety did not moderate this mediation effect. Results suggest that a good performance does not help socially anxious adolescents to replace their negative self-evaluations with more realistic ones. Specific cognitive intervention strategies should be tailored to the needs of socially anxious adolescents who perform well.

  15. Low implicit self-esteem and dysfunctional automatic associations in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Glashouwer, Klaske A; Vroling, Maartje S; de Jong, Peter J; Lange, Wolf-Gero; de Keijser, Jos

    2013-06-01

    Negative automatic associations towards the self and social cues are assumed to play an important role in social anxiety disorder. We tested whether social anxiety disorder patients (n = 45) showed stronger dysfunctional automatic associations than non-clinical controls (n = 45) and panic disorder patients (n = 24) and whether there existed gender differences in this respect. We used a single-target Implicit Association Test and an Implicit Association Test to measure dysfunctional automatic associations with social cues and implicit self-esteem, respectively. Results showed that automatic associations with social cues were more dysfunctional in socially anxious patients than in both control groups, suggesting this might be a specific characteristic of social anxiety disorder. Socially anxious patients showed relatively low implicit self-esteem compared to non-clinical controls, whereas panic disorder patients scored in between both groups. Unexpectedly, we found that lower implicit self-esteem was related to higher severity of social anxiety symptoms in men, whereas no such relationship was found in women. These findings support the view that automatic negative associations with social cues and lowered implicit self-esteem may both help to enhance our understanding of the cognitive processes that underlie social anxiety disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impaired decision making in opiate addiction correlates with anxiety and self-directedness but not substance use parameters.

    PubMed

    Lemenager, Tagrid; Richter, Anne; Reinhard, Iris; Gelbke, Jan; Beckmann, Bettina; Heinrich, Milena; Kniest, Anja; Mann, Karl; Hermann, Derik

    2011-09-01

    Despite a large number of empirical reports of impaired decision making in substance use disorders, the underlying factors contributing to such deficits remain to be elucidated. This study examined the potential influences of personality traits, affective symptoms, and pharmacological variables on decision making, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in a sample of opioid-dependent patients. A total of 46 opioid-dependent patients taking part in an opiate maintenance outpatient program and 46 healthy control subjects performed the IGT. Personality traits and affective symptoms were examined by using Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory. In addition, Cloninger Temperament and Character Inventory was administered in the patient group. Information on current and life-time substance use was acquired with a standardized interview. Opioid-dependent patients performed significantly worse on the IGT than controls. This difference disappeared after statistically controlling for trait anxiety, state anxiety, disinhibition, depressive symptoms, and lifetime alcohol consumption. Trait and state anxiety and self-directedness were significantly associated with the IGT final score. Hierarchical regression analyses suggested that self-directedness differentially moderated the relationships between the anxiety variables and IGT performance. The decision-making impairments observed in opioid-dependent patients are influenced by current levels of anxiety and the personality markers trait anxiety and self-directedness. Differences in decision making between opioid-dependent and healthy individuals may also be due to differences in other personality facets, affective symptoms, and alcohol consumption. Amount of opioid and other substance intake did not show any effects. These results indicate that psychological characteristics may have a higher impact on decision-making performance than drug-induced pharmacological

  17. Suitability of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Andrew R; Lawrence, Blake J; Corti, Emily J; Booth, Leon; Gasson, N; Thomas, Meghan G; Loftus, A M; Bucks, Romola S

    2016-05-27

    The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale -21 (DASS-21) is a frequently used measure of emotional disturbance symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the factor structure of the DASS-21 in PD has yet to be explored. To assess whether the scale is measuring these symptoms in PD in the same way as the general population. The present study fit a series of established DASS-21 factor structures with both confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) using data from 251 participants with PD. The 3-factor ESEM provided the best fit. The depression and stress scales fit well, however, few items on the anxiety subscale loaded clearly, with several items significantly loading onto the depression or stress factors. Whilst the depression and stress subscales appear suitable in PD, poor loadings and internal consistency indicate the anxiety subscale may not accurately assess anxiety symptomology in PD. This may be due to the scale's reliance on physiological symptoms as indicators of anxiety, when many of these are present in PD. Thus, the anxiety subscale of the DASS-21 may not be a suitable measure of anxiety in PD.

  18. The role of anxiety in vulnerability for self-injurious behaviour: studies in a rodent model.

    PubMed

    Yuan, X; Devine, D P

    2016-09-15

    Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a debilitating characteristic that is highly prevalent in autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Pathological anxiety is also common, and there are reports of comorbid anxiety and self-injury in some children. We have investigated potential interactions between anxiety and self-injury, using a rat model of pemoline-induced self-biting. In one experiment, rats were pre-screened for trait anxiety by measuring expression of anxiety-related behaviour on the elevated plus maze and open field emergence test. The rats were then treated with pemoline once daily for ten days, and vulnerability for pemoline-induced self-injury was evaluated. This revealed modest correlations between innate levels of anxiety-related behaviour in the open field test (time in the start box, and latency to enter the open field), and vulnerability for pemoline-induced self-biting (total duration of self-injurious oral contact, and total size of tissue injury). Measures in the elevated plus maze were not significantly correlated with vulnerability for pemoline-induced self-injury. In a second experiment, rats were treated with the beta-carboline FG 7142 twice daily, during 5days of treatment with pemoline. The rats that were treated with this anxiogenic drug exhibited greater duration of self-injurious oral contact, and larger injuries than vehicle-treated controls did. Overall, these results suggest that anxiety may contribute to the etiology and/or expression of self-injurious behaviour, and indicate that further research is warranted. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Social anxiety and disordered eating: The influence of stress reactivity and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Ciarma, Jessica Lyn; Mathew, Jaya Miriam

    2017-08-01

    While previous research indicates a strong link between social anxiety and disordered eating, more research is needed in order to understand the mechanisms that underlie this relationship. Given that stress is often implicated in disordered eating, it was hypothesised that ones reaction to stress (i.e. stress reactivity) would mediate the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. Similarly, given that low self-esteem is commonly reported in both those with social anxiety and eating disorders, it was hypothesised that self-esteem would also mediate the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. In order to test this, an online survey measuring social anxiety, disordered eating, stress reactivity and self-esteem, was administered to 282 participants in the community, aged between 18 and 35years. Results showed that self-esteem and a reactivity to stress during social conflict - but not during negative social evaluations - partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. These findings demonstrate that low self-esteem and interpersonal conflict are powerful mechanisms that can maintain eating disorder psychopathology in those who are socially anxious. This highlights the importance of ensuring that these mechanisms are sufficiently addressed in eating disorder prevention and treatment programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cross-Cultural adaption, validity and reliability of a Hindi version of the Corah’s Dental Anxiety Scale

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Meena; Tandon, Shourya; Sharma, Ankur; Jain, Vishal; Rani Yadav, Nisha

    2018-01-01

    Background: An appropriate scale to assess the dental anxiety of Hindi speaking population is lacking. This study, therefore, aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of Hindi version of one of the oldest dental anxiety scale, Corah’s Dental Anxiety Scale (CDAS) in Hindi speaking Indian adults. Methods: A total of 348 subjects from the outpatient department of a dental hospital in India participated in this cross-sectional study. The scale was cross-culturally adapted by forward and backward translation, committee review and pretesting method. The construct validity of the translated scale was explored with exploratory factor analysis. The correlation of the Hindi version of CDAS with visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the convergent validity. Reliability was assessed through calculations of Cronbach’s alpha and intra class correlation 48 forms were completed for test-retest. Results: Prevalence of dental anxiety in the sample within the age range of 18-80 years was 85.63% [95% CI: 0.815-0.891]. The response rate was 100 %. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test value was 0.776. After factor analysis, a single factor (dental anxiety) was obtained with 4 items.The single factor model explained 61% variance. Pearson correlation coefficient between CDASand VAS was 0.494. Test-retest showed the Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.814. The test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient of the total CDAS score was 0.881 [95% CI: 0.318-0.554]. Conclusion: Hindi version of CDAS is a valid and reliable scale to assess dental anxiety in Hindi speaking population. Convergent validity is well recognized but discriminant validity is limited and requires further study. PMID:29744307

  1. Self-Competence Mediates Earlier and Later Anxiety in Adolescent Mothers: A 3-Year Longitudinal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefelbein, Virginia L.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Dorn, Lorah D.

    2005-01-01

    Anxiety is prevalent in adolescents and may be particularly problematic in pregnant adolescents. The purpose of this structural equation modeling analysis was to test a biobehavioral model in which postpartum self-competence mediated pathways from anxiety and cortisol during pregnancy to anxiety 3 years later. Self-reports of anxiety and…

  2. Regular Extra Curricular Sports Practice Does Not Prevent Moderate Or Severe Variations in Self-Esteem Or Trait Anxiety in Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Binsinger, Caroline; Laure, Patrick; Ambard, Marie-France

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity is often presented as an effective tool to improve self-esteem and/or to reduce anxiety. The aim of this study was to measure the influence of a regular extra curricular sports practice on self-esteem and anxiety. We conducted a prospective cohort study, which has included all of the pupils entering the first year of secondary school (sixth grade) in the Vosges Department (east France) during the school year 2001-2002 and followed during three years. Data were collected every six months by self-reported questionnaires. 1791 pupils were present at each of the six data collection sessions and completed all the questionnaires, representing 10,746 documents: 835 boys (46.6 %) and 956 girls (53.4 %), in November 2001, the average age was 11.1 ± 0.5 years (mean ± standard deviation). 722 pupils (40.3 %) reported that they had practiced an extra-school physical activity in a sporting association from November 2001 to May 2004 (ECS group), whereas, 195 (10.9 %) pupils had not practiced any extra-school physical activity at all (NECS group). The average global scores of self-esteem (Rosenberg’s Scale) and trait anxiety (Spielberger’s Scale) of the ECS pupils were, respectively, higher and lower than those of the NECS group. However, the incidence density (number of new cases during a given period / total person-time of observation) of moderate or severe decrease of self-esteem (less than “mean - one standard deviation ”or less than “mean - two standard deviations”) was not significantly different between the two groups, a finding that was also evident also in the case of trait anxiety. Finally, among ECS pupils, the incidence density of severe decrease of self-esteem was lower at the girls’. Practitioners and physical education teachers, as well as parents, should be encouraged to seek out ways to involve pupils in extra-school physical activities. Key Points A regular extra-curricular sports practice is associated to better levels of self

  3. Memory perspective and self-concept in social anxiety: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Stopa, Lusia; Bryant, Tess

    2004-07-01

    The mental representation of self and observer perspective images are important maintaining factors in cognitive models of social phobia (Clark & Wells, 1995; Rapee & Heimberg, 1997). This study investigates Libby and Eibach's (2002) hypothesis that the observer perspective is used to recall memories that are incongruent with current self-concept. A total of 60 participants (divided into high and low social anxiety groups) completed a questionnaire in which they described current self-concept, recalled four memories of social occasions (two congruent, two incongruent), and rated memory age and vividness. Congruence was defined as memories that "fit" with current self-descriptions. A qualitative analysis of self-concept showed that both groups used a similar range of themes. High socially anxious participants recalled more observer perspective memories in the second incongruent memory. Congruence did not influence vividness, but public self-consciousness did. The implications of the results are discussed and suggestions made for future research.

  4. Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Mistake-Handling Learning as Predictors of Mathematics Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksu, Zeki; Ozkaya, Merve; Gedik, Solmaz Damla; Konyalioglu, Alper Cihan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the relationship between secondary school seventh grade students' perception of mathematical self-efficacy, mistake-handling learning awareness, and mathematical anxiety; and to define the power of mistake-handling learning and self-efficacy in predicting mathematical anxiety. In this study, relational model was used and…

  5. Preschool Teachers' Perceived Math Anxiety and Self-Efficacy for Teaching Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Carolyn D.

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between math anxiety and perceived self-efficacy for teaching mathematics in preschool teachers. Perceptions of and attributions for the teachers' perceived math anxiety and perceived self-efficacy for teaching mathematics were also explored. The study employed a mixed-method design consisting of both…

  6. Ethnic Differences in Separate and Additive Effects of Anxiety and Depression on Self-rated Mental Health Among Blacks.

    PubMed

    Assari, Shervin; Dejman, Masoumeh; Neighbors, Harold W

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore ethnic differences in the separate and additive effects of anxiety and depression on self-rated mental health (SRMH) of Blacks in the USA. With a cross-sectional design, we used data from a national household probability sample of African Americans (n = 3570) and Caribbean Blacks (n = 1621) who participated in the National Survey of American Life, 2001-2003. Demographic factors, socio-economic factors, 12-month general anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), and current SRMH were measured. In each ethnic group, three logistic regressions were used to assess the effects of GAD, MDD, and their combinations on SRMH. Among African Americans, GAD and MDD had separate effects on SRMH. Among Caribbean Blacks, only MDD but not GAD had separate effect on SRMH. Among African Americans, when the combined effects of GAD and MDD were tested, GAD but not MDD was associated with SRMH. The separate and additive effects of GAD and MDD on SRMH among Blacks depend on ethnicity. Although single-item SRMH measures are easy methods for the screening of mental health need, community-based programs that aim to meet the need for mental health services among Blacks in the USA should consider within-race ethnic differences in the applicability of such instruments.

  7. Self-rated function, self-rated health, and postmortem evidence of brain infarcts: findings from the Nun Study.

    PubMed

    Greiner, P A; Snowdon, D A; Greiner, L H

    1999-07-01

    Self-rated function is a new global measure. Previous findings suggest that self-rated function predicts future functional decline and is strongly associated with all-cause mortality. We hypothesized that the strength of the relationship of self-rated function to all-cause mortality was in part due to functional decline, such as would occur with brain infarcts. Self-ratings of function and health (on a 5-point scale, ranging from excellent to poor) were assessed annually on 630 participants in the Nun Study. Mortality surveillance extended from October 31, 1991 to March 1, 1998, and, among those who died, neuropathological examination determined postmortem evidence of brain infarcts. Cox regression modeling with self-rated function and health as time-dependent covariates and stratification by assessment period were used in these analyses. Self-rated function and health ratings of good, fair, and poor were significantly associated with doubling of the risk of mortality, compared with ratings of very good and excellent. Self-rated function ratings of fair or poor were associated with a threefold increase in the risk of mortality with brain infarcts, but self-rated function and health ratings of fair and poor were comparable in their association with all-cause mortality and mortality without brain infarcts. Self-rated function was significantly associated with mortality with brain infarcts, suggesting that brain infarcts may be experienced as functional loss but not recognized or labeled as disease. Our results suggest that self-rated function and health should be explored simultaneously in future research.

  8. Social inference and social anxiety: evidence of a fear-congruent self-referential learning bias.

    PubMed

    Button, Katherine S; Browning, Michael; Munafò, Marcus R; Lewis, Glyn

    2012-12-01

    Fears of negative evaluation characterise social anxiety, and preferential processing of fear-relevant information is implicated in maintaining symptoms. Little is known, however, about the relationship between social anxiety and the process of inferring negative evaluation. The ability to use social information to learn what others think about one, referred to here as self-referential learning, is fundamental for effective social interaction. The aim of this research was to examine whether social anxiety is associated with self-referential learning. 102 Females with either high (n = 52) or low (n = 50) self-reported social anxiety completed a novel probabilistic social learning task. Using trial and error, the task required participants to learn two self-referential rules, 'I am liked' and 'I am disliked'. Participants across the sample were better at learning the positive rule 'I am liked' than the negative rule 'I am disliked', β = -6.4, 95% CI [-8.0, -4.7], p < 0.001. This preference for learning positive self-referential information was strongest in the lowest socially anxious and was abolished in the most symptomatic participants. Relative to the low group, the high anxiety group were better at learning they were disliked and worse at learning they were liked, social anxiety by rule interaction β = 3.6; 95% CI [+0.3, +7.0], p = 0.03. The specificity of the results to self-referential processing requires further research. Healthy individuals show a robust preference for learning that they are liked relative to disliked. This positive self-referential bias is reduced in social anxiety in a way that would be expected to exacerbate anxiety symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and Validation of a Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Ho Kyoung; Yi, Hyun Sook

    2011-01-01

    This study developed and validated a Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Students (MASS) that can be used to measure the level of mathematics anxiety that students experience in school settings and help them overcome anxiety and perform better in mathematics achievement. We conducted a series of preliminary analyses and panel reviews to evaluate quality…

  10. Self-referential and anxiety-relevant information processing in subclinical social anxiety: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Anna; Kaufmann, Carolin; Redlich, Ronny; Hermann, Andrea; Stark, Rudolf; Stevens, Stephan; Hermann, Christiane

    2013-03-01

    The fear of negative evaluation is one of the hallmark features of social anxiety. Behavioral evidence thus far largely supports cognitive models which postulate that information processing biases in the face of socially relevant information are a key factor underlying this widespread phobia. So far only one neuroimaging study has explicitly focused on the fear of negative evaluation in social anxiety where the brain responses of social phobics were compared to healthy participants during the processing of self-referential relative to other-referential criticism, praise or neutral information. Only self-referential criticism led to stronger activations in emotion-relevant regions of the brain, such as the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortices (mPFC), in the social phobics. The objective of the current study was to determine whether these findings could be extended to subclinical social anxiety. In doing so, the specificity of this self-referential bias was also examined by including both social and non-social (physical illness-related) threat information as well as a highly health anxious control group in the experimental paradigm. The fMRI findings indicated that the processing of emotional stimuli was accompanied by activations in the amygdala and the ventral mPFC, while self-referential processing was associated with activity in regions such as the mPFC, posterior cingulate and temporal poles. Despite the validation of the paradigm, the results revealed that the previously reported behavioral and brain biases associated with social phobia could not be unequivocally extended to subclinical social anxiety. The divergence between the findings is explored in detail with reference to paradigm differences and conceptual issues.

  11. The Stability of Self-Reported Anxiety in Youth with Autism versus ADHD or Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiltz, Hillary; McIntyre, Nancy; Swain-Lerro, Lindsay; Zajic, Matthew; Mundy, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at risk for anxiety symptoms. Few anxiety measures are validated for individuals with ASD, and the nature of ASD raises questions about reliability of self-reported anxiety. This study examined longitudinal stability and change of self-reported anxiety in higher functioning youth with ASD (HFASD)…

  12. Prevalence and associated positive psychological variables of anxiety and depression among patients with central nervous system tumors in China: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yijun; Li, Lizhuo; Guan, Yanlei; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yan; Wang, Pengfei; Huang, Xiaolong; Tao, Shanwei; Wang, Yunjie

    2017-02-01

    Anxiety and depression have been identified as common psychological distresses faced by the majority of patients with cancer. However, no studies have investigated the relationship between positive psychological variables (hope, optimism and general self-efficacy) and anxiety and depression among patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors in China. Our hypothesis is that the patients with higher levels of hope, optimism or general self-efficacy have lower levels of anxiety and depression when encountered by stressful life events such as CNS tumors. Questionnaires, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Herth Hope Index, the Life Orientation Scale-Revised and the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and demographic and clinical records were used to collect information about patients with CNS tumors in Liaoning Province, China. The study included 222 patients (effective response rate: 66.1%). Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the associations among hope, optimism, general self-efficacy and anxiety/depression. Prevalence of anxiety and depression were 42.8 and 32.4%, respectively, among patients with CNS tumors. Hope and optimism both were negatively associated with anxiety and together accounted for 21.4% of variance in anxiety. Similarly, hope and optimism both were negatively associated with depression and accounted for 32.4% of variance in depression. The high prevalence of anxiety and depression among patients with CNS tumors should receive more attention in Chinese medical settings. To help reduce anxiety and depression, health care professionals should develop interventions to promote hope and optimism based on patients' specific needs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The Effectiveness of Group Training of CBT-Based Stress Management on Anxiety, Psychological Hardiness and General Self-Efficacy among University Students

    PubMed Central

    Jafar, Hamdam Molla; Salabifard, Seddigheh; Mousavi, Seyedeh Maryam; Sobhani, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Admission to university is a very sensitive period of life for efficient, active, and young workforces in any country, and it is mostly associated with many changes in social and human relationships. These changes lead to anxiety in students. Moreover, humans need certain functions in order to adaptively deal with different life situations and challenges. By training stress management, these functions can help human acquire the required abilities. Objective: The present study was aimed at investigating the effectiveness of stress management training in anxiety, psychological hardiness, and general self-efficacy among university students. Method: The study was a quasi-experimental intervention (pretest-posttest-follow-up) including a control group, it was a fundamental applied study. The statistical population consisted of all students of Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran. Convenient sampling was employed to select 30 students who were divided into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). Before stress management training, both groups filled out Beck Anxiety Inventory, Long and Goulet scale of psychological hardiness, and General Self-efficacy Scale (GSE-10). Afterwards, the experimental group was provided with stress management training. And after the experiment, the abovementioned questionnaires and scales were responded by the two groups. Finally the collected data were analyzed and compared using one-way MANOVA. Results: The results of MANOVA indicated that there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of anxiety, hardiness, and general self-efficacy (p<0.001). Conclusion: According to the results of the present study and those of previous investigations that are in agreement with those of the present study, it can be concluded that stress management among university students cause anxiety to drop; moreover, it enhances their psychological hardiness and self-efficacy. In regard with the role and importance of

  14. Anxiety Management Training and Relaxation as Self-Control in the Treatment of Generalized Anxiety in Medical Outpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cragan, Mary K.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.

    1984-01-01

    Compared Anxiety Management Training (AMT) and Relaxation as Self-Control (RSC) in reducing stress in 55 anxious medical outpatients. At posttreatment and follow-up assessments, both AMT and RSC groups reported significantly less anxiety, stress reactivity, general physiological arousal, depression, and anger than controls. (JAC)

  15. [Anxiety and its inducing factors in men undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer].

    PubMed

    Shu, Ling; Chen, Dan; Jiang, Ling; Zhang, Qiong; Jiang, Li-Ping

    2016-11-01

    To explore the prevalence of anxiety and its inducing factors in men undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). We randomly selected 202 men undergoing IVF-ET in the Infertility and Reproduction Center of the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University. On the first day of the IVF-ET cycle, we completed an investigation among the men using a self-designed questionnaire, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), and 3 subscales (marital satisfaction, husband-wife communication, and sexual relationship) of Olson Marital Inventory. Mild anxiety was found in 55 (27.2%) of the included men while the other 147 (72.8%) were non-anxiety males. Compared with the non-anxiety group, the anxiety group showed significant decreases in the total SSRS score (38.65±4.87 vs 36.44±4.21), objective support score (9.22±1.82 vs 8.36±1.18), and utility degree of social support score (6.89±1.50 vs 6.24±1.61) on the first day of the treatment cycle (P<0.01) as well as in the total scores of marital satisfaction (103.04±9.97 vs 96.89±9.90), husband-wife communication (32.29±4.24 vs 30.56±5.43), and sexual relationship (38.03±5.27 vs 34.20±4.41) (P<0.05). There were statistically significant differences in the incidence rate of anxiety in the men with different housing conditions, monthly incomes, treatment costs, attitudes towards IVF-ET, pressure from social opinion, status of parenthood (P<0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the major factors associated with anxiety included the attitude towards IVF-ET, pressure from social opinion, and sexual relationship in the men undergoing IVF-ET (P<0.05). The incidence rate of anxiety is high in males undergoing IVF-ET and it is associated with various factors. Psychological aid is needed to these male patients from the staff of the reproduction center.

  16. Preschool attachment, self-esteem and the development of preadolescent anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lecompte, Vanessa; Moss, Ellen; Cyr, Chantal; Pascuzzo, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between preschool attachment patterns, the development of anxiety and depression at preadolescence and the mediational role of self-esteem. Child-mother attachment classifications of 68 children (33 girls) were assessed between 3-4 years of age (M = 3.7 years, SD = 4.4 months) using the Separation-Reunion Procedure. At age 11-12 (M = 11.7 years, SD = 4.3 months), anxiety and depressive symptoms (Dominic Interactive Questionnaire), and self-esteem (Self-Perception Profile for Children) were also evaluated. Preadolescents who had shown disorganized attachment at preschool age scored higher on both anxiety and depression and lower on self-esteem than those who had shown secure and insecure-organized attachment strategies. Self-esteem was a partial mediator of the association between preschool disorganization and symptoms of preadolescent depression, but the model was not supported for anxiety. These findings support the idea that early attachment and self-esteem should be central themes in prevention programs with young children.

  17. The Dating Anxiety Scale for Adolescents: Scale Development and Associations with Adolescent Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glickman, Alissa R.; La Greca, Annette M.

    2004-01-01

    Given the importance of romantic and dating relationships during adolescence, the purpose of the study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dating Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (DAS-A). Participants were 757 high school students (56% girls, ages 15 to 18 years). Adolescents completed the DAS-A, the Social Anxiety Scale…

  18. The effects of anxiety and depression on in vitro fertilisation outcomes of infertile Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongmei; Ouyang, Nengyong; Li, Ruiqi; Tuo, Ping; Mai, Meiqi; Wang, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    The object was to assess anxiety and depression during in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment and determine IVF-related psychological factors in infertile Chinese women. The self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) were used to evaluate anxiety and depression among 842 patients, respectively. A univariate analysis was used to compare variables among three SAS groups and three SDS groups. Anxiety and depression were both represented in 21.3% of the cases. Patients <35 years tended to be more anxious. In women <35 years, the SDS scores were higher with lower educational backgrounds and female or couple's infertility, while the SAS scores were higher in female or couple's infertility. In older ones, the SDS scores were higher in those with lower educational backgrounds and longer time for infertility, while the SAS scores were higher in those with lower educational backgrounds. In SAS groups 1-3, the embryo availability was 5.0 (3.0-8.0), 5.0 (3.0-8.0), and 3.0 (2.0-4.5) (p = .013); and the fertilisation rate was 91.9, 90.4, and 81.8% (p < .001), respectively. We concluded that infertile women experience anxiety and depression during IVF treatment, especially in women <35 years. Younger women with female infertility would be more anxious and depressive while higher education can protect them from depression. In older ones, they would experience more depressive with longer time for infertility and be less anxious and depressive with higher education. Anxiety affects the fertilisation rate and embryo availability.

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale in a Longitudinal Study of Latinos with Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Courtney; Rodriguez, Benjamin F.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Perry, Ashley; Keller, Martin B.

    2012-01-01

    The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) is one of the most commonly used measures of social anxiety symptoms. To date, no study has examined its psychometric properties in a Latino sample. The authors examined the reliability, temporal stability, and convergent validity of the LSAS in 73 Latinos diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. The original…

  20. Factors associated with social interaction anxiety among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Peng, Z W; Lam, L T; Jin, J

    2011-12-01

    To investigate potential risk factors for social anxiety, particularly social interaction anxiety among the Chinese adolescents. A cross-sectional health survey was conducted in Guangzhou city of the Guangdong Province where high school students aged 13 to 18 years were recruited. The sample was selected from all high schools in the city using a 2-stage random cluster sampling technique. Social interaction anxiety was assessed using the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale. Information collected in the survey included: demographics, self-perception on school performance, relationship with teachers and peers, satisfaction with self-image, achievements, and parenting style of the mother. The parent-child relationship, specifically the relationship between respondents and their mothers, was assessed using the mother attachment subscale of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment. Self-esteem was assessed using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The multiple linear regression technique was applied to investigate associations between selected potential risk factors and social interaction anxiety, with adjustments for cluster sampling. Lower family income, lower self-esteem, and hostility were significantly associated with social interaction anxiety among adolescents. Variables identified as risk factors of anxiety disorder in the literature, such as gender, were not associated with social interaction anxiety in this sample. These results were consistent with those of other studies conducted mainly in the United States and Europe. Regarding non-significant results related to gender, they need viewing in the context of parenting styles of Chinese mothers.

  1. How Informative Are Self-Reported Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms? An Examination of the Agreement Between the Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Self-Report Scale V1.1 and Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Investigator Symptom Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Michael J; Faraone, Stephen V; Alperin, Samuel; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Adler, Lenard A

    2018-06-01

    Assess agreement between self-ratings via the adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Self-Report Scale (ASRS)-v1.1 Symptom Checklist and clinician ratings via the adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) expanded version using DSM-5 adult ADHD patients (referred sample) and ADHD controls (recruited from a primary care physician practice). The ASRS v1.1 Symptom Checklist was administered to measure self-reported ADHD symptoms and impairment, the Adult ADHD Clinical Diagnostic Scale v1.2 was used to establish an adult ADHD diagnosis and the childhood and adult/current sections of the scale were used to provide scores to measure symptoms of childhood ADHD and recent symptoms of adult ADHD, the AISRS to measure ADHD current symptom severity. Participants (n = 299; range 18-58), of which 171 were ADHD+ and 128 ADHD-. ASRS and AISRS total scores and individual subsections examining inattention, hyperactivity, emotional dysfunction (EF), and emotional dyscontrol (EC) were all significantly correlated (Spearman's ρ's = 0.78-0.89, ps < 0.01). Correlations remained significant when controlling for demographic factors and psychiatric conditions. The ASRS (self) and AISRS (clinician rated) scales have high agreement. This agreement extended not only the to the core 18 DSM symptoms, but also to the additional 13 symptoms that examine EC and EF.

  2. Predictors of anxiety recurrence in the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) trial

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jerome H.; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Bloch, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined anxiety recurrence after symptom remission in the primary care setting. We examined anxiety recurrence in the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) trial. From 2006-2009, CALM randomized adults with anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder) in primary care clinics to usual care (UC) or a collaborative care (CC) intervention of pharmacotherapy and/or cognitive behavioral therapy. We examined 274 patients who met criteria for anxiety remission (Brief Symptom Inventory for anxiety and somatization (BSI-12) < 6) after 6 months of randomized treatment and completed a follow-up of 18 months. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) were used to identify predictors of anxiety recurrence (BSI-12 ≥ 6 and 50% increase from 6-month ratings) during the year following remission. Recurrence was lower in CC (29%) compared to UC (41%) (p = 0.04). Patients with comorbid depression or lower self-perceived socioeconomic status particularly benefited (in terms of reduced recurrence) if assigned to CC instead of UC. In the multivariable logistic regression model, smoking, being single, Anxiety Sensitivity Index score, functional impairment at month 6 due to residual anxiety (measured with the Sheehan Disability Scale), and treatment with benzodiazepines were associated with subsequent anxiety recurrence. ROC identified prognostic subgroups based on the risk of recurrence. Our study was exploratory, and our findings require replication. Future studies should also examine the effectiveness of relapse prevention programs in patients at highest risk for recurrence. PMID:25896121

  3. The Relationship between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL) Symptom Endorsement and Self-Reported Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    percent. All statistical comparisons (χ2) were between items self reported anxiety and self reported treatment for anxiety or McNemars test of...endorsing both row and column items. Statistical comparisons (t- test , χ2) were between self reported anxiety and self reported treatment for anxiety...McNemar’s test was used to compare items and subjects endorsing Both Self Reported Anxiety and Sought Treatment. *** p< 0.0001; ** p< 0.001; * pɘ.05

  4. [The moderating effect of self-esteem on the relationship between public self-consciousness, social anxiety and exhibitionism in Japan and South Korea].

    PubMed

    Cho, Sunyoung; Matsumoto, Yoshiyuki; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of self-esteem on the relationship between public self-consciousness and social anxiety, and on the relationship between public self-consciousness and exhibitionism in Japan and South Korea. The participants were 213 university students in Japan and 234 university students in Korea. The results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that self-esteem was a moderator of the relationship between public self-consciousness and social anxiety and of the relationship between public self-consciousness and exhibitionism in Korea, but not in Japan. In Korea, public self-consciousness was related to social anxiety for people with low self-esteem, while for people with high self-esteem, public self-consciousness was related to exhibitionism.

  5. Death Anxiety and Education: A Comparison Among Undergraduate and Graduate Students.

    PubMed

    Nienaber, Kristie; Goedereis, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the association between level of education and self-reported levels of anxiety regarding death of self and others among undergraduate students (n = 149) and graduate students (n = 92). Participants completed the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (MFODS) and the Revised Death Anxiety Scale (RDAS). Although undergraduate and graduate students did not differ on Fear of Being Destroyed, graduate students reported lower levels of death anxiety on all remaining measures. Suggestions for future research and implications are discussed.

  6. Alcohol use, anxiety, and insomnia in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Ivan, M Cristina; Amspoker, Amber B; Nadorff, Michael R; Kunik, Mark E; Cully, Jeffrey A; Wilson, Nancy; Calleo, Jessica; Kraus-Schuman, Cynthia; Stanley, Melinda A

    2014-09-01

    To examine alcohol consumption among older primary care patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD); its relationship to demographic variables, insomnia, worry, and anxiety; and its moderating role on the anxiety-insomnia relationship. We expected alcohol use to be similar to previous reports, correlate with higher anxiety and insomnia, and worsen the anxiety-insomnia relationship. Baseline data from a randomized controlled trial. Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center and Baylor College of Medicine. 223 patients, 60 years and older, with GAD. Frequency of alcohol use, insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index), worry (Penn State Worry Questionnaire - Abbreviated, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale), and anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait subscale, Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [SIGH-A]). Most patients endorsed alcohol use, but frequency was low. Presence and frequency were greater than in previous reports of primary care samples. Alcohol use was associated with higher education, female gender, less severe insomnia, and lower worry (Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale) and anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait subscale; SIGH-A). Whites reported more drinks/week than African-Americans. More drinks/week were associated with higher education and lower anxiety (SIGH-A). Weaker relationships between worry/anxiety and insomnia occurred for those drinking. Drink frequency moderated the positive association between the Penn State Worry Questionnaire-Abbreviated and insomnia, which was lower with higher frequency of drinking. Older adults with GAD use alcohol at an increased rate, but mild to moderate drinkers do not experience sleep difficulties. A modest amount of alcohol may minimize the association between anxiety/worry and insomnia among this group. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Statistics anxiety, state anxiety during an examination, and academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai; Freudenthaler, H Harald; Arendasy, Martin

    2013-12-01

    A large proportion of students identify statistics courses as the most anxiety-inducing courses in their curriculum. Many students feel impaired by feelings of state anxiety in the examination and therefore probably show lower achievements. The study investigates how statistics anxiety, attitudes (e.g., interest, mathematical self-concept) and trait anxiety, as a general disposition to anxiety, influence experiences of anxiety as well as achievement in an examination. Participants were 284 undergraduate psychology students, 225 females and 59 males. Two weeks prior to the examination, participants completed a demographic questionnaire and measures of the STARS, the STAI, self-concept in mathematics, and interest in statistics. At the beginning of the statistics examination, students assessed their present state anxiety by the KUSTA scale. After 25 min, all examination participants gave another assessment of their anxiety at that moment. Students' examination scores were recorded. Structural equation modelling techniques were used to test relationships between the variables in a multivariate context. Statistics anxiety was the only variable related to state anxiety in the examination. Via state anxiety experienced before and during the examination, statistics anxiety had a negative influence on achievement. However, statistics anxiety also had a direct positive influence on achievement. This result may be explained by students' motivational goals in the specific educational setting. The results provide insight into the relationship between students' attitudes, dispositions, experiences of anxiety in the examination, and academic achievement, and give recommendations to instructors on how to support students prior to and in the examination. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  8. [Examination of the criterion validity of the MMPI-2 Depression, Anxiety, and Anger Content scales].

    PubMed

    Uluç, Sait

    2008-01-01

    Examination of the psychometric properties and content areas of the revised MMPI's (MMPI-2 [Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2]) content scales is required. In this study the criterion-related validity of the MMPI-2 Depression, Anxiety, and Anger Content scales was examined using the following conceptually relevant scales: The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and State Triad Anger Scale (STAS). MMPI-2 Depression, Anxiety, and Anger Content scales, and BDI, BAI, and STAS were administered to a sample of 196 students at Middle East Technical University (n= 196; 122 female, 74 male). Regression analyses were performed to determine if these conceptually relevant scales contributed significantly beyond the content scales. The MMPI-2 Depression Content Scale was compared to BDI, the MMPI-2 Anxiety Scale was compared to BAI, and the MMPI-2 Anger Content Scale was compared to STAS. The internal consistency of the MMPI-2 Depression Content Scale (alpha = 0.82), the MMPI-2 Anxiety Content Scale (alpha = 0.73), and the MMPI-2 Anger Content Scale (alpha = 0.72) was obtained. Criterion validity of the 3 analyzed content scales was demonstrated for both males and females. The findings indicated that (1) the MMPI-2 Depression Content Scale provides information about the general level of depression, (2) the MMPI-2 Anxiety Content Scale assesses subjective anxiety rather than somatic anxiety, and (3) the MMPI-2 Anger Content Scale may provide information about the potential to act out. The findings also provide further evidence that the 3 conceptually relevant scales aid in the interpretation of MMPI-2 scores by contributing additional information beyond the clinical scales.

  9. Allergy and high trait anxiety are related to increases in heart rate variability: results of naturalistic long-term design study.

    PubMed

    Rajcani, J; Solarikova, P; Brezina, I

    2018-01-01

    A number of studies report heart rate variability (HRV) changes in allergic as well as high trait anxious people, and associations between allergic inflammation and trait anxiety. This study investigated HRV of 20 low anxious allergic, 19 healthy high trait anxious and 18 healthy low anxious, in naturalistic setting. On arranged research days, subjects performed measurements using portable ECG device and subjective self-assessment of perceived stress. Five repeated measurements data from each subject have shown increases in overall HRV, as well as HRV on respiratory frequencies in both allergy and high trait anxiety. Subject's sex was an important factor, because HRV increases in allergy were only apparent in women. Data from self-assessment show no differences in experienced stress attributable to allergy, only to trait anxiety.

  10. Development and Examination of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Trevor A.; Flora, David B.; Palyo, Sarah A.; Fresco, David M.; Holle, Christian; Heimberg, Richard G.

    2008-01-01

    The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) was created to measure anxiety about being negatively evaluated by others because of one's overall appearance, including body shape. This study examined the psychometric properties of the SAAS in three large samples of undergraduate students (respective ns = 512, 853, and 541). The SAAS demonstrated a…

  11. The psychometric properties, sensitivity and specificity of the geriatric anxiety inventory, hospital anxiety and depression scale, and rating anxiety in dementia scale in aged care residents.

    PubMed

    Creighton, Alexandra S; Davison, Tanya E; Kissane, David W

    2018-02-22

    Limited research has been conducted into the identification of a valid and reliable screening measure for anxiety in aged care settings, despite it being one of the most common psychological conditions. This study aimed to determine an appropriate anxiety screening tool for aged care by comparing the reliability and validity of three commonly used measures and identifying specific cut-offs for the identification of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). One-hundred and eighty nursing home residents (M age = 85.39 years) completed the GAI, HADS-A, and RAID, along with a structured diagnostic interview. Twenty participants (11.1%) met DSM-5 criteria for GAD. All measures had good psychometric properties , although reliability estimates for the HADS-A were sub-optimal. Privileging sensitivity , the GAI cut-off score of 9 gave sensitivity of 90.0% and specificity of 86.3%; HADS-A cut-off of 6 gave sensitivity of 90.0% and specificity of 80.6%; and RAID cut-off of 11 gave sensitivity of 85.0% and specificity of 72.5%. While all three measures had adequate reliability, validity, and cut-scores with high levels of sensitivity and specificity to detect anxiety within aged care, the GAI was the most consistently reliable and valid measure for screening for GAD.

  12. Effects of an exercise programme on anxiety in adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Carraro, Attilio; Gobbi, Erica

    2012-01-01

    Although high anxiety is common in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and the anxiolytic effects of exercise have been systematically recognised in clinical and non-clinical populations, research is scant concerning the role played by exercise on anxiety in people with ID. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week exercise programme on anxiety states in a group of adults with ID. Twenty-seven individuals with mild to moderate ID were randomly assigned to an exercise group or a control group. The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale adapted for individuals with ID and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory form Y were used to assess trait and state anxiety. In comparison with the control group, the anxiety scores of people in the exercise group decreased significantly over time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Metacognition in schizophrenia: the relationship of mastery to coping, insight, self-esteem, social anxiety, and various facets of neurocognition.

    PubMed

    Lysaker, Paul H; Erickson, Molly; Ringer, Jamie; Buck, Kelly D; Semerari, Antonio; Carcione, Antonino; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2011-11-01

    OBJECTIVES. Deficits in metacognition, or the ability to think about thinking, are common in schizophrenia and associated with functional impairment. Unknown are what elements of function are affected by what aspects of metacognition. DESIGN. This study explored whether participants with differing capacities for Mastery, a domain of metacognition that reflects the ability to use knowledge about mental states to respond to psychological challenges, had difficulties in different elements of daily function. METHODS. Participants were 98 adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in a non-acute phase, classified into three groups on the basis of ratings of their capacity for metacognitive Mastery using the Metacognitive Assessment Scale: low Mastery (those unable to plausibly represent psychological challenges), Intermediate Mastery (those able to plausibly represent psychological problems but cope primarily through passive measures or avoidance), and high Mastery (those able to cope with plausible problems through cognitive means). Participants completed assessments of coping preference, insight, self-esteem, and anxiety. RESULTS. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed that the high-Mastery group had a greater preference for coping with stressors by thinking and talking about them, and greater insight than all other groups, and higher levels of feeling accepted by peers than the intermediate-Mastery group. The intermediate-Mastery group reported higher levels of resignation when facing stressors and more social phobia than the other two groups. These findings of Mastery group differences in self-esteem and anxiety persisted when neurocognition was controlled for in an Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). CONCLUSIONS. Mastery appears linked to coping preference, insight, self-esteem, and anxiety in a generally non-linear manner. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.