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Sample records for self-report symptom inventory

  1. Subtyping patients with heroin addiction at treatment entry: factor derived from the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Addiction is a relapsing chronic condition in which psychiatric phenomena play a crucial role. Psychopathological symptoms in patients with heroin addiction are generally considered to be part of the drug addict's personality, or else to be related to the presence of psychiatric comorbidity, raising doubts about whether patients with long-term abuse of opioids actually possess specific psychopathological dimensions. Methods Using the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90), we studied the psychopathological dimensions of 1,055 patients with heroin addiction (884 males and 171 females) aged between 16 and 59 years at the beginning of treatment, and their relationship to age, sex and duration of dependence. Results A total of 150 (14.2%) patients with heroin addiction showed depressive symptomatology characterised by feelings of worthlessness and being trapped or caught; 257 (24.4%) had somatisation symptoms, 205 (19.4%) interpersonal sensitivity and psychotic symptoms, 235 (22.3%) panic symptomatology, 208 (19.7%) violence and self-aggression. These dimensions were not correlated with sex or duration of dependence. Younger patients with heroin addiction were characterised by higher scores for violence-suicide, sensitivity and panic anxiety symptomatology. Older patients with heroin addiction showed higher scores for somatisation and worthlessness-being trapped symptomatology. Conclusions This study supports the hypothesis that mood, anxiety and impulse-control dysregulation are the core of the clinical phenomenology of addiction and should be incorporated into its nosology. PMID:20388223

  2. Children' Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory: Psychometric Properties and Feasibility of a Self-Report Measure of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Khanna, Muniya; Merlo, Lisa J.; Loew, Benjamin A.; Franklin, Martin; Reid, Jeannette M.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the development and psychometric properties of the Children's Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (C-FOCI). Designed specifically as a brief measure for assessing obsessive-compulsive symptoms, the C-FOCI was created for use in both clinical and community settings. Study 1 included 82 children and adolescents diagnosed…

  3. The association between self-reported anxiety symptoms and suicidality.

    PubMed

    Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Woolley, Stephen B; Goethe, John W

    2009-02-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed the association between self-reported anxiety symptoms and self-reported suicidality among a mixed diagnostic sample of psychiatric outpatients. Data were obtained from chart review of 2,778 outpatients who completed a routine diagnostic clinical interview and a standardized self-report of psychiatric symptoms on admission. Bivariate analyses indicated that those with >or= moderate anxiety symptoms were over three times as likely to report >or= moderate difficulty with suicidality. Self-reported anxiety symptoms were associated with a 2-fold increased likelihood of reporting suicidality after controlling for confounding (demographics, depressive symptoms, and diagnoses). These data are consistent with a growing literature demonstrating an association between anxiety symptoms and suicidality, and suggest that this association is not accounted for by coexisting mood symptoms or diagnoses. A single item, self-report may be a useful screening tool for symptoms that are pertinent to assessment of suicide risk.

  4. The Self-Report Family Inventory: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Selig, James P.; Trahan, Don P., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers explored the factor structure of the Self-Report Family Inventory with a sample of heterosexual parents who have a son or daughter who self-identifies as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Results suggest that a two-factor solution is appropriate. Research and clinical implications are offered. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  5. Prevalence of Self-Reported Depressive Symptoms in Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenbach, Victor J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    To investigate significance and measurement of depressive symptoms in young adolescents, 624 students were asked to complete the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) during home interviews. The presence of persistent symptoms varied by both race and sex. Results support the feasibility of using a self-report symptom scale to…

  6. Prevalence of self-reported depressive symptoms in young adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Schoenbach, V J; Kaplan, B H; Wagner, E H; Grimson, R C; Miller, F T

    1983-01-01

    To investigate the significance and measurement of depressive symptoms in young adolescents, 624 junior high school students were asked to complete the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) during home interviews. In 384 usable symptom scales, item-scale correlations (most were above .50), inter-item correlations, coefficient alpha (.85), and patterns of reported symptoms were reasonable. Persistent symptoms were reported more often by Blacks, especially Black males. Prevalence of persistent symptoms in Whites was quite close to reported figures for adults, ranging from 1 per cent to 15 per cent in adolescent males and 2 per cent to 13 per cent in adolescent females. Adolescents reported persistent vegetative symptoms less often and psychosocial symptoms more often. Reports of symptoms without regard to duration were much more frequent in the adolescents, ranging from 18 per cent to 76 per cent in White males, 34 per cent to 76 per cent in White and Black females, and 41 per cent to 85 per cent in Black males. The results support the feasibility of using a self-report symptom scale to measure depressive symptoms in young adolescents. Transient symptoms reported by adolescents probably reflect their stage of development, but persistent symptoms are likely to have social psychiatric importance. PMID:6625033

  7. Self-Reported ADHD Symptoms among College Students: Item Positioning Affects Symptom Endorsement Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, John T.; Knouse, Laura E.; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Kwapil, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The effect of manipulating item positioning on self-reported ADHD symptoms was examined. We assessed whether listing DSM-IV ADHD symptoms serially or interspersed affected (a) the correlation between ADHD symptoms and (b) the rate of symptom endorsement. Method: In Study 1, an undergraduate sample (n = 102) completed a measure that…

  8. Test Review: Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function--Self-Report Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Justin M.; D'Amato, Rik Carl

    2006-01-01

    The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Self-Report version (BRIEF-SR) is the first self-report measure of executive functioning for adolescents. With the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act authorization, there is a greater need for appropriate assessment of severely impaired children. Recent studies have…

  9. Symptom attribution after a plane crash: comparison between self-reported symptoms and GP records.

    PubMed Central

    Donker, G A; Yzermans, C J; Spreeuwenberg, P; van der Zee, J

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: On 4 October 1992, an El Al Boeing 747-F cargo aeroplane crashed on two apartment buildings in Amsterdam. Thirty-nine residents on the ground and the four crew members of the plane died. In the years after, a gradually increasing number of people attributed physical signs and symptoms to their presence at the disaster scene. AIM: To investigate the consistency between patients' symptoms attributed to the crash and GPs' diagnoses and perception of the association with the crash. DESIGN OF STUDY: Comparison between self-reported symptoms to a call centre and GPs' medical records on onset and type of symptoms, diagnoses, and GPs' perception of association with the disaster, assessed by questionnaire. SETTING: Consenting patients (n = 621) contacting the call centre and their GPs. METHOD: Patients were interviewed by the call centre staff and interview data were recorded on a database. Questionnaires were sent to the consenting patients' GPs, requesting their opinions on whether or not their patients' symptoms were attributable to the effects of disaster. Baseline differences and differences in reported symptoms between interviewed patients and their GP records were tested using the chi2 test. RESULTS: The 553 responders reported on average 4.3 symptoms to the call centre. The majority of these symptoms (74%) were reported to the GP. Of the ten most commonly reported symptoms, fatigue, skin complaints, feeling anxious or nervous, dyspnoea, and backache featured in 80% of symptoms reported to the GP. One out of four symptoms was either reported to the GP before the disaster took place, or six or more years after (1998/1999, during a period of much media attention). Depression (7%), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (5%) and eczema (5%) were most frequently diagnosed by GPs. They related 6% of all reported symptoms to the disaster. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the symptoms attributed to a disaster by patients have been reported to their GP, who related only a

  10. The Development of a Mathematics Self-Report Inventory for Turkish Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Ayça; Güzeller, Cem Oktay; Evcan, Sinem Sezer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to develop a mathematics self-report inventory (MSRI) to measure Turkish elementary students' mathematics expectancy beliefs and task values based on the expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation. In Study-1 (n = 1,315), exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and reliability analysis are used to evaluate the…

  11. Development of the Multicultural Counseling Inventory: A Self-Report Measure of Multicultural Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sodowsky, Gargi Roysircar; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Developed Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI), self-report instrument that measures multicultural counseling competencies. Administered MCI to 604 psychology students, psychologists, and counselors (Study 1) and to 320 university counselors (Study 2). Results indicated that MCI has four factors: Multicultural Counseling Skills, Multicultural…

  12. An Empirical comparison of Two Self-Report Multicultural Counseling Competency Inventories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Dings, Jonathan G.

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation comparing two measures of perceived multicultural counseling awareness: the Multicultural Counseling Awareness Scale (MCAS) and the Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI). Based on results, suggests that MCI is more appropriate as self-report, that replication of results is warranted, and that generalizability from this…

  13. Self-Reported Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Report the distribution of scores from the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and estimate the prevalence of self-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as compared to clinical diagnoses. Participants: Participants were 1,080 college students, divided into 3 groups: (1) no ADHD diagnosis (n = 972), (2)…

  14. Self-Report of Depressive Symptoms in Low Back Pain Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisson, James; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Presents two studies designed to examine the self-report of depressive symptoms in low back pain patients (N=134). Both studies found that patients were more likely to report somatic than cognitive symptoms of depression. Patients with multiple physical findings were not more likely to report somatic symptoms than patients with few physical…

  15. Development and Validation of the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, David; O'Hara, Michael W.; Simms, Leonard J.; Kotov, Roman; Chmielewski, Michael; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth A.; Gamez, Wakiza; Stuart, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe a new self-report instrument, the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS), which was designed to assess specific symptom dimensions of major depression and related anxiety disorders. They created the IDAS by conducting principal factor analyses in 3 large samples (college students, psychiatric patients, community…

  16. The Child Concentration Inventory (CCI): Initial validation of a child self-report measure of sluggish cognitive tempo.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M; Joyce, Ann Marie

    2015-09-01

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is characterized by excessive daydreaming, mental confusion, slowness, and low motivation. Several teacher- and parent-report measures of SCT have recently been developed but a child self-report measure of SCT does not yet exist despite clear links between SCT and internalizing psychopathology (for which self-report is often desired). This study examined the initial reliability and validity of the Child Concentration Inventory (CCI), a child self-report measure of SCT symptoms, in a school-based sample of 124 children (ages 8-13; 55% female). Children completed the CCI and measures of academic/social functioning, emotion regulation, and self-esteem. Teachers completed measures of psychopathology symptoms (including SCT) and academic/social functioning. Although exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) supported a 3-factor model of the CCI (consisting of slow, sleepy, and daydreamer scales closely resembling the factor structure of the parent-report version of this measure), bifactor modeling and omega reliability indices indicated that the CCI is best conceptualized as unidimensional. CCI scores were significantly correlated with teacher-rated SCT and were statistically distinct from teacher-rated ADHD and child-rated anxiety/depression. After controlling for sex, grade, and other psychopathology symptoms, the CCI total score was significantly associated with poorer child-reported academic/social functioning and self-worth in addition to increased loneliness and emotion dysregulation. Child ratings on the CCI were moderately to strongly correlated with poorer teacher-rated academic/social functioning but these associations were reduced to nonsignificance after controlling for demographics and other psychopathology symptoms. Findings provide preliminary support for the CCI, and future directions include replication with adolescents and clinical samples in order to further examine the CCI's factor structure, reliability, validity

  17. Self-Reported versus Informant-Reported Depressive Symptoms in Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mileviciute, I.; Hartley, S. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Virtually nothing is known about potential differences in the types of depression symptoms reported by adults with mild intellectual disability (ID) on self-reported questionnaires as compared with the types of symptoms reported by caregivers on informant questionnaires. Moreover, little is known about how the presentation of…

  18. The Relationship between ADHD Symptoms, Mood Instability, and Self-Reported Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Adalsteinsson, Tomas F.; Young, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relative importance of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality disorder traits in predicting self-reported offending. Method: A total of 295 Icelandic students completed two scales of offending behavior and measures of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality traits. Results:…

  19. Internal Factor Structure and Convergent Validity Evidence: The Self-Report Version of Self-Regulation Strategy Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Timothy J.; Dembitzer, Leah; Kettler, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    Using a sample of 348 middle school students, we gathered evidence regarding the internal consistency of scores, as well as the internal factor structure and convergent validity evidence for inferences from a self-report questionnaire called the Self-Regulation Strategy Inventory-Self Report. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the fit…

  20. Predictors of Self-Reported Physical Symptoms in Low-Income, Inner-City African American Women: The Role of Optimism, Depressive Symptoms, and Chronic Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah J.; O'Connell, Cara; Gound, Mary; Heller, Laurie; Forehand, Rex

    2004-01-01

    In this study we examined the association of optimism and depressive symptoms with self-reported physical symptoms in 241 low-income, inner-city African American women with or without a chronic illness (HIV). Although optimism was not a unique predictor of self-reported physical symptoms over and above depressive symptoms, optimism interacted with…

  1. Behavioral approach system activity and self-reported somatic symptoms in fibromyalgia: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Becerra-García, Juan A; Robles Jurado, Manuel J

    2014-01-01

    The first objective was to investigate the behavioural activity in the systems of Gray's theory; these are the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) and Behavioural Approach System (BAS), in fibromyalgia (FM) patients. The second aim was to assess in FM patients whether there is an association between BIS or BAS with self-reported somatic symptoms. Twenty FM patients and 20 healthy controls completed questionnaire measures of BIS and BAS activity (Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire), self-reported somatic symptoms (Somatic Symptoms Scale Revised), positive and negative affect (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) and health status (EuroQoL Visual Analogue Scale). The results showed that FM patients had lower Sensitivity to Reward (SR) scores than controls. The SR score correlated with different somatic symptoms groups. The partial correlation (controlling for other variables measured) showed that the SR score correlated specifically with musculoskeletal symptoms. Furthermore, in regression analysis, SR score significantly predicted musculoskeletal symptoms, after controlling for other variables measured in this study. Our findings suggest that FM patients show BAS hypoactivity. This BAS activity in FM is similar to patients with depression, where a lower BAS functioning has also been found. The BAS activity predicts the musculoskeletal self-reported symptoms in FM better than other measures included in this study. Although this is a preliminary study, it suggests the importance of BAS activity in FM.

  2. Behavioral approach system activity and self-reported somatic symptoms in fibromyalgia: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Becerra-García, Juan A; Robles Jurado, Manuel J

    2014-01-01

    The first objective was to investigate the behavioural activity in the systems of Gray's theory; these are the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) and Behavioural Approach System (BAS), in fibromyalgia (FM) patients. The second aim was to assess in FM patients whether there is an association between BIS or BAS with self-reported somatic symptoms. Twenty FM patients and 20 healthy controls completed questionnaire measures of BIS and BAS activity (Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire), self-reported somatic symptoms (Somatic Symptoms Scale Revised), positive and negative affect (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) and health status (EuroQoL Visual Analogue Scale). The results showed that FM patients had lower Sensitivity to Reward (SR) scores than controls. The SR score correlated with different somatic symptoms groups. The partial correlation (controlling for other variables measured) showed that the SR score correlated specifically with musculoskeletal symptoms. Furthermore, in regression analysis, SR score significantly predicted musculoskeletal symptoms, after controlling for other variables measured in this study. Our findings suggest that FM patients show BAS hypoactivity. This BAS activity in FM is similar to patients with depression, where a lower BAS functioning has also been found. The BAS activity predicts the musculoskeletal self-reported symptoms in FM better than other measures included in this study. Although this is a preliminary study, it suggests the importance of BAS activity in FM. PMID:24472271

  3. Screening for negative symptoms: preliminary results from the self-report version of the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Park, Stephanie G; Llerena, Katiah; McCarthy, Julie M; Couture, Shannon M; Bennett, Melanie E; Blanchard, Jack J

    2012-03-01

    Though negative symptoms in schizophrenia are associated with a host of deleterious outcomes (e.g., White et al., 2009), not all individuals with schizophrenia suffer from negative symptoms (e.g., Blanchard et al., 2005). Thus, methods to quickly screen and identify patients for more intensive clinical interview assessments may have significant clinical and research utility. The present study is a preliminary examination of the reliability and validity of a self-report version of the newly developed Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS; Blanchard et al., 2011; Forbes et al., 2010; Horan et al., 2011). The CAINS-SR is a 30-item self-report measure that assesses Experiential (avolition, anhedonia, asociality) and Expressive (blunted affect, alogia) domains of negative symptoms. Participants (N = 69) completed the CAINS-SR questionnaire and were evaluated with symptom interviews using the CAINS and other non-negative symptom interviews that assessed psychotic, affective, and other symptoms. The Experience subscale of the CAINS-SR demonstrated good internal consistency, convergent validity, and discriminant validity, while the poorer psychometric properties of the Expression subscale suggest that self-report of negative symptoms should focus on the experiential domain. Overall, preliminary findings indicate that the CAINS-SR (addressing experiential deficits) may be a useful complement to the clinician-rated interview measure. Future research on the sensitivity and specificity of the CAINS-SR will determine its suitability as a screening measure.

  4. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals#

    EPA Science Inventory

    Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animalsWhitney S. Krueger1,2, Elizabeth D. Hilborn2, Timothy J. Wade21Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA2Environmental Public Health Division, Office of Research and Development, U...

  5. Self-Reported Depressive Symptoms in Lesbian Birth Mothers and Comothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maccio, Elaine M.; Pangburn, Jaimee A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the frequency of postpartum depression, little is known about the experiences of lesbian birth mothers and their female partners, or comothers. In this modest yet important exploratory investigation, 20 lesbian mothers completed a survey of self-reported postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS) and related risk factors. Results indicate that…

  6. Psychosocial Factors in Adolescent and Young Adult Self-Reported Depressive Symptoms: Causal or Correlational Associations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Haslimeier, Claudia; Metzke, Christa Winkler

    2007-01-01

    Using a large longitudinal representative community sample, this study identified three groups of subjects who were depressed either in pre-adolescence, late adolescence or early adulthood, and matched by age and gender to controls without depression. The 90th percentile on one or two self-reported symptom scales [i. e. the Center for…

  7. A new self-report inventory of dyslexia for students: criterion and construct validity.

    PubMed

    Tamboer, Peter; Vorst, Harrie C M

    2015-02-01

    The validity of a Dutch self-report inventory of dyslexia was ascertained in two samples of students. Six biographical questions, 20 general language statements and 56 specific language statements were based on dyslexia as a multi-dimensional deficit. Dyslexia and non-dyslexia were assessed with two criteria: identification with test results (Sample 1) and classification using biographical information (both samples). Using discriminant analyses, these criteria were predicted with various groups of statements. All together, 11 discriminant functions were used to estimate classification accuracy of the inventory. In Sample 1, 15 statements predicted the test criterion with classification accuracy of 98%, and 18 statements predicted the biographical criterion with classification accuracy of 97%. In Sample 2, 16 statements predicted the biographical criterion with classification accuracy of 94%. Estimations of positive and negative predictive value were 89% and 99%. Items of various discriminant functions were factor analysed to find characteristic difficulties of students with dyslexia, resulting in a five-factor structure in Sample 1 and a four-factor structure in Sample 2. Answer bias was investigated with measures of internal consistency reliability. Less than 20 self-report items are sufficient to accurately classify students with and without dyslexia. This supports the usefulness of self-assessment of dyslexia as a valid alternative to diagnostic test batteries.

  8. Mindfulness in schizophrenia: Associations with self-reported motivation, emotion regulation, dysfunctional attitudes, and negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Naomi T; Horan, William P; Green, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are gaining empirical support as alternative or adjunctive treatments for a variety of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. Emerging evidence now suggests that mindfulness-based treatments may also improve clinical features of schizophrenia, including negative symptoms. However, no research has examined the construct of mindfulness and its correlates in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined self-reported mindfulness in patients (n=35) and controls (n=25) using the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. We examined correlations among mindfulness, negative symptoms, and psychological constructs associated with negative symptoms and adaptive functioning, including motivation, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional attitudes. As hypothesized, patients endorsed lower levels of mindfulness than controls. In patients, mindfulness was unrelated to negative symptoms, but it was associated with more adaptive emotion regulation (greater reappraisal) and beliefs (lower dysfunctional attitudes). Some facets of mindfulness were also associated with self-reported motivation (behavioral activation and inhibition). These patterns of correlations were similar in patients and controls. Findings from this initial study suggest that schizophrenia patients may benefit from mindfulness-based interventions because they (a) have lower self-reported mindfulness than controls and (b) demonstrate strong relationships between mindfulness and psychological constructs related to adaptive functioning. PMID:26232242

  9. Mindfulness in schizophrenia: Associations with self-reported motivation, emotion regulation, dysfunctional attitudes, and negative symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Tabak, Naomi T.; Horan, William P.; Green, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are gaining empirical support as alternative or adjunctive treatments for a variety of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. Emerging evidence now suggests that mindfulness-based treatments may also improve clinical features of schizophrenia, including negative symptoms. However, no research has examined the construct of mindfulness and its correlates in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined self-reported mindfulness in patients (n=35) and controls (n=25) using the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. We examined correlations among mindfulness, negative symptoms, and psychological constructs associated with negative symptoms and adaptive functioning, including motivation, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional attitudes. As hypothesized, patients endorsed lower levels of mindfulness than controls. In patients, mindfulness was unrelated to negative symptoms, but it was associated with more adaptive emotion regulation (greater reappraisal) and beliefs (lower dysfunctional attitudes). Some facets of mindfulness were also associated with self-reported motivation (behavioral activation and inhibition). These patterns of correlations were similar in patients and controls. Findings from this initial study suggest that schizophrenia patients may benefit from mindfulness-based interventions because they (a) have lower self-reported mindfulness than controls and (b) demonstrate strong relationships between mindfulness and psychological constructs related to adaptive functioning. PMID:26232242

  10. Mindfulness in schizophrenia: Associations with self-reported motivation, emotion regulation, dysfunctional attitudes, and negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Naomi T; Horan, William P; Green, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are gaining empirical support as alternative or adjunctive treatments for a variety of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. Emerging evidence now suggests that mindfulness-based treatments may also improve clinical features of schizophrenia, including negative symptoms. However, no research has examined the construct of mindfulness and its correlates in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined self-reported mindfulness in patients (n=35) and controls (n=25) using the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. We examined correlations among mindfulness, negative symptoms, and psychological constructs associated with negative symptoms and adaptive functioning, including motivation, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional attitudes. As hypothesized, patients endorsed lower levels of mindfulness than controls. In patients, mindfulness was unrelated to negative symptoms, but it was associated with more adaptive emotion regulation (greater reappraisal) and beliefs (lower dysfunctional attitudes). Some facets of mindfulness were also associated with self-reported motivation (behavioral activation and inhibition). These patterns of correlations were similar in patients and controls. Findings from this initial study suggest that schizophrenia patients may benefit from mindfulness-based interventions because they (a) have lower self-reported mindfulness than controls and (b) demonstrate strong relationships between mindfulness and psychological constructs related to adaptive functioning.

  11. Influence of poor effort on self-reported symptoms and neurocognitive test performance following mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Iverson, Grant L; Brooks, Brian L; Rennison, V Lynn Ashton

    2010-11-01

    When considering a diagnosis of postconcussion syndrome, clinicians must systematically evaluate and eliminate the possible contribution of many differential diagnoses, comorbidities, and factors that may cause or maintain self-reported symptoms long after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). One potentially significant contributing factor is symptom exaggeration. The purpose of the study is to examine the influence of poor effort on self-reported symptoms (postconcussion symptoms and cognitive complaints) and neurocognitive test performance following MTBI. The MTBI sample consisted of 63 referrals to a concussion clinic, evaluated within 5 months post injury (M = 2.0, SD = 1.0, range = 0.6-4.6), who were receiving financial compensation from the Workers' Compensation Board. Participants completed the Post-Concussion Scale (PCS), British Columbia Cognitive Complaints Inventory (BC-CCI), selected tests from the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery Screening Module (S-NAB), and the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM). Participants were divided into two groups based on TOMM performance (15 fail, 48 pass). There were significant main effects and large effect sizes for the PCS (p = .002, d = 0.79) and BC-CCI (p = .011, d = 0.98) total scores. Patients in the TOMM fail group scored higher than those in the TOMM pass group on both measures. Similarly, there were significant main effects and/or large effect sizes on the S-NAB. Patients in the TOMM fail group performed more poorly on the Attention (p = .004, d = 1.26), Memory (p = .006, d = 1.16), and Executive Functioning (p > .05, d = 0.70) indexes. These results highlight the importance of considering the influence of poor effort, in conjunction with a growing list of factors that can influence, maintain, and/or mimic the persistent postconcussion syndrome. PMID:20437284

  12. Training attention improves decision making in individuals with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jessica A; Gorlick, Marissa A; Denny, Taylor; Worthy, Darrell A; Beevers, Christopher G; Maddox, W Todd

    2014-06-01

    Depression is often characterized by attentional biases toward negative items and away from positive items, which likely affects reward and punishment processing. Recent work has reported that training attention away from negative stimuli reduced this bias and reduced depressive symptoms. However, the effect of attention training on subsequent learning has yet to be explored. In the present study, participants were required to learn to maximize reward during decision making. Undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms received attention training toward positive stimuli prior to performing the decision-making task (n = 20; active training). The active-training group was compared to two other groups: undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms who received placebo training (n = 22; placebo training) and a control group with low levels of depressive symptoms (n = 33; nondepressive control). The placebo-training depressive group performed worse and switched between options more than did the nondepressive controls on the reward maximization task. However, depressives that received active training performed as well as the nondepressive controls. Computational modeling indicated that the placebo-trained group learned more from negative than from positive prediction errors, leading to more frequent switching. The nondepressive control and active-training depressive groups showed similar learning from positive and negative prediction errors, leading to less-frequent switching and better performance. Our results indicate that individuals with elevated depressive symptoms are impaired at reward maximization, but that the deficit can be improved with attention training toward positive stimuli.

  13. Training attention improves decision making in individuals with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jessica A; Gorlick, Marissa A; Denny, Taylor; Worthy, Darrell A; Beevers, Christopher G; Maddox, W Todd

    2014-06-01

    Depression is often characterized by attentional biases toward negative items and away from positive items, which likely affects reward and punishment processing. Recent work has reported that training attention away from negative stimuli reduced this bias and reduced depressive symptoms. However, the effect of attention training on subsequent learning has yet to be explored. In the present study, participants were required to learn to maximize reward during decision making. Undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms received attention training toward positive stimuli prior to performing the decision-making task (n = 20; active training). The active-training group was compared to two other groups: undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms who received placebo training (n = 22; placebo training) and a control group with low levels of depressive symptoms (n = 33; nondepressive control). The placebo-training depressive group performed worse and switched between options more than did the nondepressive controls on the reward maximization task. However, depressives that received active training performed as well as the nondepressive controls. Computational modeling indicated that the placebo-trained group learned more from negative than from positive prediction errors, leading to more frequent switching. The nondepressive control and active-training depressive groups showed similar learning from positive and negative prediction errors, leading to less-frequent switching and better performance. Our results indicate that individuals with elevated depressive symptoms are impaired at reward maximization, but that the deficit can be improved with attention training toward positive stimuli. PMID:24197612

  14. Building a new Rasch-based self-report inventory of depression

    PubMed Central

    Balsamo, Michela; Giampaglia, Giuseppe; Saggino, Aristide

    2014-01-01

    This paper illustrates a sequential item development process to create a new self-report instrument of depression refined with Rasch analysis from a larger pool of potential diagnostic items elicited through a consensus approach by clinical experts according to the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for major depression. A 51-item pool was administered to a sample of 529 subjects (300 healthy community-dwelling adults and 229 psychiatric outpatients). Item selection resulted in a 21-item set, named the Teate Depression Inventory, with an excellent Person Separation Index and no evidence of bias due to an item–trait interaction (χ2=147.71; df =168; P=0.48). Additional support for the unidimensionality, local independence, appropriateness of the response format, and discrimination ability between clinical and nonclinical subjects was provided. No substantial differential item functioning by sex was observed. The Teate Depression Inventory shows considerable promise as a unidimensional tool for the screening of depression. Finally, advantages and disadvantages of this methodology will be discussed in terms of subsequent possible mathematical analyses, statistical tests, and implications for clinical investigations. PMID:24511231

  15. MATERNAL SELF-REPORTED DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AND MATERNAL CORTISOL LEVELS INTERACT TO PREDICT INFANT CORTISOL LEVELS.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Jennifer E; Gonzalez, Andrea; Levitan, Robert; Masellis, Mario; Basile, Vincenzo; Atkinson, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Three basic findings have emerged from research on maternal depressive symptoms and offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning: (a) Mothers' depressive symptoms are positively associated with their offsprings' cortisol stress response, (b) numerous individual and interpersonal maternal characteristics moderate this association, and (c) maternal and infant cortisol levels are highly correlated. In combination, these findings have suggested that maternal cortisol levels may moderate the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and infant cortisol responsivity; the current study assessed this hypothesis. Participants were 297 mother-infant dyads who were recruited from the community. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed via self-report. Dyads participated in two differentially stressful infant challenges when infants were 16 and 17 months old. Mother and infant salivary cortisol was collected before and after challenges. Results indicate that maternal cortisol levels moderated associations between maternal depressive symptoms and infant cortisol levels across both challenges. Infants showed higher cortisol levels if their mothers had both higher depressive symptoms and higher cortisol levels, as compared to infants of mothers with higher depressive symptoms and lower cortisol, and to infants of mothers with lower depressive symptoms and either higher or lower cortisol levels. We discuss findings in relation to environmental and biological factors that may contribute to the intergenerational transmission of depressive symptoms. PMID:26939829

  16. MATERNAL SELF-REPORTED DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AND MATERNAL CORTISOL LEVELS INTERACT TO PREDICT INFANT CORTISOL LEVELS.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Jennifer E; Gonzalez, Andrea; Levitan, Robert; Masellis, Mario; Basile, Vincenzo; Atkinson, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Three basic findings have emerged from research on maternal depressive symptoms and offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning: (a) Mothers' depressive symptoms are positively associated with their offsprings' cortisol stress response, (b) numerous individual and interpersonal maternal characteristics moderate this association, and (c) maternal and infant cortisol levels are highly correlated. In combination, these findings have suggested that maternal cortisol levels may moderate the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and infant cortisol responsivity; the current study assessed this hypothesis. Participants were 297 mother-infant dyads who were recruited from the community. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed via self-report. Dyads participated in two differentially stressful infant challenges when infants were 16 and 17 months old. Mother and infant salivary cortisol was collected before and after challenges. Results indicate that maternal cortisol levels moderated associations between maternal depressive symptoms and infant cortisol levels across both challenges. Infants showed higher cortisol levels if their mothers had both higher depressive symptoms and higher cortisol levels, as compared to infants of mothers with higher depressive symptoms and lower cortisol, and to infants of mothers with lower depressive symptoms and either higher or lower cortisol levels. We discuss findings in relation to environmental and biological factors that may contribute to the intergenerational transmission of depressive symptoms.

  17. The Association between Hair Cortisol and Self-Reported Symptoms of Depression in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Wikenius, Ellen; Moe, Vibeke; Kjellevold, Marian; Smith, Lars; Lyle, Robert; Waagbø, Rune; Page, Christian Magnus; Myhre, Anne Margrethe

    2016-01-01

    Depression has been linked to an imbalance in cortisol. Until recently, cortisol has been studied by measuring concentrations at single time points in blood or saliva samples. Cortisol concentrations vary with circadian rhythm and experiences, from time point to time point. The measurement of hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a new method of accessing mean, long-term cortisol concentrations. Recent studies show positive associations between depression and HCC, and prenatal maternal cortisol is thought to influence the developing fetus. We therefore examined the association between HCC and self-reported symptoms of depression in second trimester pregnant women. Participants were 181 women, recruited between September 2011 and October 2013 to the Little-in-Norway (LiN)-study. These women answered the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Rating Scale (EPDS) on self-reported symptoms of depression, and one cm maternal scalp hair was collected and analyzed for cortisol concentrations. Multiple regression analyses did not show depressive symptoms as a predictor for HCC in our selection of pregnant women, while gestational age was significantly related. In conclusion, our study indicated that symptoms of depression during pregnancy did not predict HCC, but further studies of clinically depressed, pregnant women using gestational age as an adjustment variable are warranted. PMID:27584584

  18. The Association between Hair Cortisol and Self-Reported Symptoms of Depression in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Wikenius, Ellen; Moe, Vibeke; Kjellevold, Marian; Smith, Lars; Lyle, Robert; Waagbø, Rune; Page, Christian Magnus; Myhre, Anne Margrethe

    2016-01-01

    Depression has been linked to an imbalance in cortisol. Until recently, cortisol has been studied by measuring concentrations at single time points in blood or saliva samples. Cortisol concentrations vary with circadian rhythm and experiences, from time point to time point. The measurement of hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a new method of accessing mean, long-term cortisol concentrations. Recent studies show positive associations between depression and HCC, and prenatal maternal cortisol is thought to influence the developing fetus. We therefore examined the association between HCC and self-reported symptoms of depression in second trimester pregnant women. Participants were 181 women, recruited between September 2011 and October 2013 to the Little-in-Norway (LiN)-study. These women answered the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Rating Scale (EPDS) on self-reported symptoms of depression, and one cm maternal scalp hair was collected and analyzed for cortisol concentrations. Multiple regression analyses did not show depressive symptoms as a predictor for HCC in our selection of pregnant women, while gestational age was significantly related. In conclusion, our study indicated that symptoms of depression during pregnancy did not predict HCC, but further studies of clinically depressed, pregnant women using gestational age as an adjustment variable are warranted. PMID:27584584

  19. Borderline but not antisocial personality disorder symptoms are related to self-reported partner aggression in late middle-age.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yana; Gleason, Marci E J; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2012-08-01

    We examined the relationship between personality pathology and the frequency of self-reported psychological and physical partner aggression in a community sample of 872 adults aged 55-64. Previous research suggests that antisocial and borderline personality disorder (PD) symptoms are associated with partner aggression. Controlling for gender, education, alcohol dependence, and other personality pathology, we found that borderline PD symptoms, which include abandonment fears, unstable identity, and affective instability, were significantly related to the frequency of self-reported aggression toward one's partner. This relationship was observed regardless of whether the participant's personality was described by a clinical interviewer, the participant themselves, or an informant chosen by the participant. Further, the relationship between borderline PD symptoms and self-reported partner aggression was moderated by gender such that women were driving the association. Conversely, antisocial PD symptoms, which include deceitfulness, irresponsibility, disregard for rules, and lack of remorse did not significantly account for variance in self-reported partner aggression.

  20. Self-reported symptoms associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields: a questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Küçer, Nermin; Pamukçu, Tuğba

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the last years, it has been discussed frequently whether there are any harmful effects of electromagnetic fields on human health. Electromagnetic fields are generated by several natural and man-made sources. Part of the electromagnetic spectrum called Radiofrequency is used in communication systems such as mobile (cellular) phone and computer. The aim of our study was to explore different self-reported symptoms that may be associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields. This survey study was conducted, using a questionnaire, on 350 people aged +9 years in Turkey. The chi-square test was used for data analysis. Self-reported symptoms were headache, vertigo/dizziness, fatigue, forgetfulness, sleep disturbance-insomnia, tension-anxiety, joint and bone pain, lacrimation of the eyes, hearing loss and tinnitus. As a result of the survey, the study has shown that users of mobile phone and computer more often complained of headache, joint and bone pain, hearing loss, vertigo/dizziness, tension-anxiety symptoms according to time of daily usage (p < 0.05). In users of mobile phone and computer, women significantly (p < 0.05) complained more often of headache, vertigo/dizziness, fatigue, forgetfulness and tension-anxiety than men.

  1. Psychobehavioral validity of self-reported symptoms based on spontaneous physical activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinhyuk; Nakamura, Toru; Kikuchi, Hiroe; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2015-08-01

    A limitation of self-reports is the presence of recall biases including retrospective distortions of the respondents' experiences. To overcome this concern, ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and day reconstruction method (DRM) have recently been developed. Very recently, we reported the psychobehavioral validity of within-individual temporal variations in momentary depressive mood recorded with EMA by examining co-variant properties with spontaneous physical activity as the external criteria. However, the validity of DRM in this context has not been objectively examined yet. Therefore, in this study, we examined the psychobehavioral validity of DRM by examining temporal associations with spontaneous physical activity and then showed the difference from EMA. Twenty-two healthy undergraduates wore a watch-type computer for two consecutive days and recorded self-reported symptoms (fatigue, depressive mood, and anxious mood) by EMA. They also recorded the symptoms afterward according to the series of behavioral episodes they reconstructed (DRM) about the same days. Physical activity was also obtained using an actigraph built into the watch-type computer. Multilevel analysis showed the significant association between depressive mood recorded with EMA and local statistics (mean activity levels calculated from 60 min data length) of physical activity around EMA recordings. However, depressive mood recorded with DRM had no significant association with physical activity. As for fatigue and anxious mood, none of the methods showed significant associations with the local statistics of physical activity. These results imply that depressive mood recorded with EMA would include psychobehavioral information which cannot be captured with DRM.

  2. Dissimilarity in vulnerability: self-reported symptoms among children with experiences of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Georgsson, Anna; Almqvist, Kjerstin; Broberg, Anders G

    2011-10-01

    Children with experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV) are at risk. Not all children, however, display symptoms, and differences connected to gender and age have been demonstrated. In this exploratory study, children's own reports of symptoms were used. The 41 recruited children, between 7 and 19 years old, were entered into a group program specially directed toward children with experiences of IPV. These children reported experiencing more symptoms overall when compared with non-exposed children. The relationship to the abuser and children's symptoms related differently for boys and for girls. Girls who had continued contact with the abusive father described more mental health problems than did other girls exposed to IPV and more than did boys with continued contact. Among children with experiences of custody disputes or other judicial processes, age rather than gender was connected to differences in self-reported symptoms. Younger children with experiences of judicial processes reported more mental health problems than did those with no experience.

  3. Exploratory factor analysis of self-reported symptoms in a large, population-based military cohort

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background US military engagements have consistently raised concern over the array of health outcomes experienced by service members postdeployment. Exploratory factor analysis has been used in studies of 1991 Gulf War-related illnesses, and may increase understanding of symptoms and health outcomes associated with current military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The objective of this study was to use exploratory factor analysis to describe the correlations among numerous physical and psychological symptoms in terms of a smaller number of unobserved variables or factors. Methods The Millennium Cohort Study collects extensive self-reported health data from a large, population-based military cohort, providing a unique opportunity to investigate the interrelationships of numerous physical and psychological symptoms among US military personnel. This study used data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a large, population-based military cohort. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the covariance structure of symptoms reported by approximately 50,000 cohort members during 2004-2006. Analyses incorporated 89 symptoms, including responses to several validated instruments embedded in the questionnaire. Techniques accommodated the categorical and sometimes incomplete nature of the survey data. Results A 14-factor model accounted for 60 percent of the total variance in symptoms data and included factors related to several physical, psychological, and behavioral constructs. A notable finding was that many factors appeared to load in accordance with symptom co-location within the survey instrument, highlighting the difficulty in disassociating the effects of question content, location, and response format on factor structure. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential strengths and weaknesses of exploratory factor analysis to heighten understanding of the complex associations among symptoms. Further research is needed to investigate the relationship between

  4. Self-Reported Pain and Disease Symptoms Persist in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Despite Treatment Advances

    PubMed Central

    Bromberg, Maggie H.; Connelly, Mark; Anthony, Kelly K.; Gil, Karen M.; Schanberg, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To use electronic diaries (e-diaries) to determine whether pain, stiffness, and fatigue continue to be common, disabling symptoms in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) despite the use of aggressive treatments in contemporary medical management. Methods Fifty-nine children with JIA (ages 8–18 years) provided ratings of pain, stiffness, and fatigue intensity and functional limitations using a smartphone e-diary 3 times each day for 1 month. Medication information was collected via parent report and checked for accuracy by chart review. Descriptive analyses were conducted to determine typical symptom intensity, frequency, and variability. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze associations between symptoms and functional outcomes and between medication use and symptom intensity. Results Children reported moments of pain in 66% of e-diary entries. No children were entirely pain-free across the reporting period. In 31% of all e-diary entries the visual analog scale score for pain was >40 (high pain intensity), with 86% of children reporting a high level of pain at least once during the study period. The mean ratings of pain, stiffness, and fatigue intensity were in the mild-to-moderate range. Medication class was not a reliable predictor of differences in symptom intensity, even though 79% of children were prescribed a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug and 47% were prescribed a biologic agent. Moments of higher pain intensity and higher stiffness intensity were each uniquely predictive of higher concurrent functional limitations. Conclusion Self-reported pain, stiffness, and fatigue continue to be common in children with JIA, despite contemporary advances in treatment strategies, including use of biologic agents. These findings are surprisingly consistent with previous results from research using daily paper diaries in the pre-biologics era. There remains a pressing and ongoing need to optimize pain and symptom management in JIA. PMID

  5. Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Health Symptoms Among Rice Farmers in Zanzibar.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marisa; Stadlinger, Nadja; Mmochi, Aviti J; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Marrone, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    The agrarian population in low- and middle-income countries suffers from a number of adverse health effects due to pesticide exposure. In Zanzibar, the government subsidizes pesticides to enhance local rice production. The objectives of this study were to assess Zanzibar smallholder rice farmers' pesticide use and self-reported health symptoms in relation to pesticide exposure, training, and use of protective measures and to raise awareness for future local policy formulation. An exploratory cross-sectional interviewer-administered study was conducted among 99 rice farmers. Participants were selected based on convenience sampling and stratified by expected exposure category. The study participants reported using pesticides in World Health Organization (WHO) Class II. Of pesticide users, 61% reported one or more symptoms of possible acute pesticide poisoning. Only 50% of pesticide users had received training in safe handling and application of pesticides, but those who had displayed a higher use of protective measures. Farmers who did not use protective measures were more likely to have reported skin irritation and headache, which, together with eye irritation, were the most commonly reported acute symptoms. The main sociodemographic differences between the expected exposure categories of pesticide users and nonusers were in gender and education level. Scaling up of training in safe handling and application of pesticides is needed. Further studies are required to better understand the mechanisms behind the choice to use pesticides or not. PMID:27439957

  6. Daily and Retrospective Mood and Physical Symptom Self-Reports and Their Relationship to the Menstrual Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swandby, Janet R.

    The literature on the relationships between changes in mood and the menstrual cycle reveals many inconsistencies due to the absence of certain control procedures. Daily self-reports of moods and physical symptoms were collected from women with normal cycles, women using oral contraceptives, and men for 35 days in a camouflaged study. Retrospective…

  7. Agreement Rates between Parent and Self-Report on Past ADHD Symptoms in an Adult Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, Gabriela; Mattos, Paulo; Coutinho, Gabriel; Segenreich, Daniel; Saboya, Eloisa; Ayrao, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate agreement rates between parent and self-report on childhood symptoms of ADHD. Method: Sixty-eight self-referred treatment-naive adults (33 men, 35 women) were interviewed with a modified version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Epidemiological Version (K-SADS-E) and asked about past ADHD…

  8. Measuring self-report obsessionality in anorexia nervosa: Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) or obsessive-compulsive inventory-revised (OCI-R)?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Marion; Lavender, Anna; Tchanturia, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Self-report measures are often used in research and clinical practise as they efficiently gather a large amount of information. With growing numbers of self-report measures available to target single constructs, it is important to revisit one's choice of instrument to be sure that the most valid and reliable measure is employed. The Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) and the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R) were administered to 223 female participants: 30 inpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN), 62 community cases with AN, 69 community cases weight restored from AN and 62 healthy controls. Both measures distinguished between clinical and healthy groups; however, the OCI-R showed superior internal reliability. Additionally, the OCI-R measures six (to the MOCI's four) obsessive-compulsive constructs, and uses a more sensitive response format (likert scale vs. categorical). It is recommended that the OCI-R be employed as the self-report instrument of choice for assessing obsessive-compulsive pathology in those with AN.

  9. Serum brain biomarker level, neurocognitive performance, and self-reported symptom changes in soldiers repeatedly exposed to low-level blast: a breacher pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tate, Charmaine M; Wang, Kevin K W; Eonta, Stephanie; Zhang, Yang; Carr, Walter; Tortella, Frank C; Hayes, Ronald L; Kamimori, Gary H

    2013-10-01

    "Breachers" are a unique military and law enforcement population because they are routinely exposed to low-level blast (LLB) during training and operations. This repeated exposure has been associated with symptoms similar to that of sports concussion. This study examined effects of repeated exposure to LLB during an explosive entry course. Twenty-one members of the New Zealand Defence Force volunteered for this study. Serum samples, neurocognitive performance, and self-reported symptoms were periodically measured before, during, and after a 2-week course. Serum concentrations of three biomarkers, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1, αII-spectrin breakdown product, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, were determined with sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and rank scores were derived using the area under the curve (relative to baseline) for each subject. Neurocognitive performance was measured with a computer-based test battery, and symptoms were assessed by paper-based inventory. There was a significant relationship (p<0.05) between composite biomarker and neurocognitive performance and between neurocognitive performance and symptoms. The individuals with the five highest (Top 5) and lowest (Bottom 5) composite biomarker scores were identified and compared using Wilcoxon's rank-sum test. The Top 5 had significantly longer reaction times and lower percent correct on neurocognitive performance and an increase in symptom reporting. The difference between individuals expressing the highest biomarker load during breacher training (Top 5) and those with the lowest biomarker load (Bottom 5) is reflected in neurocognitive performance deficits and self-reported symptoms. This suggests a measureable degree of brain perturbation linked to LLB exposure. Follow-up studies are underway to expand upon these results.

  10. The effects of childhood abuse on self-reported psychotic symptoms in severe mental illness: Mediating effects of posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Young; Choi, Young Min; Kim, Bongseog; Lee, Dong Woo; Gim, Min Sook; Park, Soo Hyun

    2015-09-30

    The present study examined the role of posttraumatic stress symptoms in the relationship between childhood abuse and self-reported psychotic symptoms in severe mental illness. A total of 126 patients diagnosed with major psychiatric conditions with comorbid symptoms of psychosis participated in the present study. The representative psychiatric diagnoses included schizophrenia, bipolar disorder with psychotic features, major depressive disorder with psychotic features, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder, and delusional disorder. The Korean Child Trauma Questionnaire measured the type and degree of childhood abuse including emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. Korean version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised assessed posttraumatic stress symptoms, and PSYC subscale of the PSY-5 Factor Scale of the MMPI-2 was used as a measure of self-reported psychotic symptoms. There was a significant relationship between childhood physical, emotional, sexual abuse and psychotic symptoms. Posttraumatic stress symptoms partially mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and psychotic symptoms. This implies that childhood abuse is significantly associated with the experience of chronic posttraumatic stress symptoms, and that such symptoms in turn increases the likelihood of experiencing psychotic symptoms. The results highlight the need for appropriate assessment and intervention concerning childhood abuse and posttraumatic stress symptoms in severe mental illness.

  11. The effects of childhood abuse on self-reported psychotic symptoms in severe mental illness: Mediating effects of posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Young; Choi, Young Min; Kim, Bongseog; Lee, Dong Woo; Gim, Min Sook; Park, Soo Hyun

    2015-09-30

    The present study examined the role of posttraumatic stress symptoms in the relationship between childhood abuse and self-reported psychotic symptoms in severe mental illness. A total of 126 patients diagnosed with major psychiatric conditions with comorbid symptoms of psychosis participated in the present study. The representative psychiatric diagnoses included schizophrenia, bipolar disorder with psychotic features, major depressive disorder with psychotic features, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder, and delusional disorder. The Korean Child Trauma Questionnaire measured the type and degree of childhood abuse including emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. Korean version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised assessed posttraumatic stress symptoms, and PSYC subscale of the PSY-5 Factor Scale of the MMPI-2 was used as a measure of self-reported psychotic symptoms. There was a significant relationship between childhood physical, emotional, sexual abuse and psychotic symptoms. Posttraumatic stress symptoms partially mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and psychotic symptoms. This implies that childhood abuse is significantly associated with the experience of chronic posttraumatic stress symptoms, and that such symptoms in turn increases the likelihood of experiencing psychotic symptoms. The results highlight the need for appropriate assessment and intervention concerning childhood abuse and posttraumatic stress symptoms in severe mental illness. PMID:26144585

  12. Psychometric Characteristics of the Postconcussion Symptom Inventory in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sady, Maegan D.; Vaughan, Christopher G.; Gioia, Gerard A.

    2014-01-01

    Psychometric characteristics of the Postconcussion Symptom Inventory (PCSI) were examined in both concussed (n = 633) and uninjured (n = 1,273) 5 to 18 year olds. Parent- and self-report forms were created with developmentally appropriate wording and content. Factor analyses identified physical, cognitive, emotional, and sleep factors; that did not load strongly or discriminate between groups were eliminated. Internal consistency was strong for the total scales (α = 0.8–0.9). Test–retest reliability for the self-report forms was moderate to strong (intraclass coeffecients, ICCs = 0.65–0.89). Parent and self-report concordance was moderate (r = .44–.65), underscoring the importance of both perspectives. Convergent validity with another symptom measure was good (r = .8). Classification analyses indicated greater discriminability from parent report, but caveats to this are presented. With strong psychometric characteristics, the four versions of the PCSI capture important postconcussion symptoms and can be utilized to track recovery from pediatric concussion and guide treatment recommendations. PMID:24739735

  13. The effect of self-reported and observed job conditions on depression and anxiety symptoms: a comparison of theoretical models.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Joan M; Greiner, Birgit A; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Marmot, Michael

    2007-10-01

    The demand/control/support and effort/reward imbalance models have relied on self-reported methods to describe how poor psychosocial working conditions lead to harmful health outcomes. The hindrance/utilization model uses an observational methodology to assess these relationships. Cross-sectional observational and self-reported data from 98 civil servants participating in the Whitehall II Study of British civil servants were used to test whether work conditions measured by each of the three theoretical models explained a significant amount of the variance in depression and anxiety symptoms. Observational measures were also used to assess potential common methods variance bias between the self-reported job conditions and the outcomes. Results showed that the demand/control/support model explained the most variance in depression and anxiety symptoms and the associations were not wholly due to common methods variance. Moreover, measures associated with job resources (e.g., skill discretion, social support and skill utilization) had a protective effect on depression and anxiety symptoms. Exertion-related conditions (e.g., demands, effort, over commitment) were not consistently associated with depression or anxiety symptoms. PMID:17953493

  14. Physical Activity and Self-reported Symptoms of Insomnia, Restless Legs Syndrome and Depression: the Comprehensive Dialysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Shuchi; Johansen, Kirsten L.; Grimes, Barbara; Kaysen, George A.; Dalrymple, Lorien S.; Kutner, Nancy G.; Chertow, Glenn M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Symptoms of sleep and mood disturbances are common among patients on dialysis and are associated with significant decrements in survival and health-related quality of life. We used data from the Comprehensive Dialysis Study (CDS) to examine the association of self-reported physical activity with self-reported symptoms of insomnia, restless legs syndrome (RLS) and depression in patients new to dialysis. Methods The CDS collected data on physical activity, functional status, and health-related quality of life from 1678 patients on either peritoneal (n=169) or hemodialysis (n=1509). The Human Activity Profile was used to measure self-reported physical activity. Symptoms were elicited in the following manner: insomnia using three questions designed to capture difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep, RLS using three questions based on the National Institutes of Health workshop, and depression using the 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Results We obtained data on symptoms of insomnia and depression for 1636, and on symptoms of RLS for 1622 (>98%) patients. Of these, 863 (53%) reported one of three insomnia symptoms as occurring at a persistent frequency. Symptoms of RLS and depression occurred in 477 (29%) and 451 (28%) of patients, respectively. The Adjusted Activity Score of the Human Activity Profile was inversely correlated with all three conditions in models adjusting for demographics, comorbid conditions, and laboratory variables. Conclusion Sleep and mood disturbances were commonly reported in our large, diverse cohort of patients new to dialysis. Patients who reported lower levels of physical activity were more likely to report symptoms of insomnia, RLS and depression. PMID:22812496

  15. Self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms and usage of computers and mobile phones among working-age Finns.

    PubMed

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work is to study self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms among working-age Finns using logistical regression models. The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study by posting a questionnaire to 15,000 working-age persons. The responses (6121) revealed that 101 (1.7%) Finnish working-age persons suffered depression very often and 77 (1.3%) suffered anxiety very often during the last 12 months. Symptoms uncovered in the comparative analysis of respondents who had quite often or more often depression to respondents who had less depression showed differentiation. The same result was obtained in the analysis of self-reported anxiety symptoms. With the logistical regression models (from depression and anxiety), we found associations between physical symptoms (in shoulder) and depression and between different mental symptoms and anxiety or depression. In the future, it is important to take into accout that persons with physical symptoms can also have mental symptoms (depression or anxiety).

  16. Job Strain and Self-Reported Insomnia Symptoms among Nurses: What about the Influence of Emotional Demands and Social Support?

    PubMed Central

    Portela, Luciana Fernandes; Kröning Luna, Caroline; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Silva-Costa, Aline; Toivanen, Susanna; Araújo, Tania; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2015-01-01

    Job strain, derived from high psychological demands and low job control, is associated with insomnia, but information on the role of emotional demands and social support in this relationship is scarce. The aims of this study were (i) to test the association between job strain and self-reported insomnia symptoms, (ii) to evaluate the combination of emotional demands and job control regarding insomnia symptoms, and (iii) to analyze the influence of social support in these relationships. This cross-sectional study refers to a sample of nurses (N = 3,013 and N = 3,035 for Job Strain and Emotional demand-control model, resp.) working at public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were collected through a self-report questionnaire. The prevalence of insomnia symptoms was 34.3%. Job strain was associated with increased odds for insomnia symptoms (OR: 2.20); the same result was observed with the combination of emotional demands and low job control (OR: 1.99). In both models, the inclusion of low social support combined with high demands and low job control led to increased odds for insomnia symptoms, compared to groups with high social support from coworkers and supervisors. Besides job strain, the study of emotional demands and social support are promising with regards to insomnia symptoms, particularly among nurses. PMID:26557699

  17. Normative Data for the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) and post-concussion symptom profiles among TBI, PTSD, and nonclinical samples.

    PubMed

    Soble, Jason R; Silva, Marc A; Vanderploeg, Rodney D; Curtiss, Glenn; Belanger, Heather G; Donnell, Alison J; Scott, Steven G

    2014-01-01

    The Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) is a self-report measure of symptoms commonly associated with Post-Concussion Syndrome (PCS) that may emerge after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Despite frequent clinical use, no NSI norms have been developed. Thus, the main objective of this study was to establish NSI normative data using the four NSI factors (i.e., vestibular, somatic, cognitive, and affective) identified by Vanderploeg, Silva, et al. ( 2014 ) among nonclinical epidemiological samples of deployed and non-deployed Florida National Guard members as well as a reference sample of Guard members with combat-related mTBI. In addition, NSI subscale profile patterns were compared across four distinct subgroups (i.e., non-deployed-nonclinical, deployed-nonclinical, deployed-mTBI, and deployed-PTSD). The deployed-nonclinical group endorsed greater PCS symptom severity than the non-deployed group, and the mTBI group uniformly endorsed more symptoms than both nonclinical groups. However, the PTSD group endorsed higher symptom severity relative to the other three subgroups. As such, this highlights the non-specificity of PCS symptoms and suggests that PTSD is associated with higher symptom endorsement than mTBI.

  18. Effects of 6-Times-Weekly Versus 3-Times-Weekly Hemodialysis on Depressive Symptoms and Self-reported Mental Health: Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) Trials

    PubMed Central

    Unruh, Mark L.; Larive, Brett; Chertow, Glenn M; Eggers, Paul W.; Garg, Amit X.; Gassman, Jennifer; Tarallo, Maria; Finkelstein, Fredric O.; Kimmel, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis frequently exhibit poor mental health. We studied the effects of frequent in-center and nocturnal hemodialysis on depressive symptoms and self-reported mental health. Study Design 1-year randomized-controlled clinical trials. Setting & Participants Hemodialysis centers in the United States and Canada. A total of 332 patients were randomized to frequent (six times per week) as compared with conventional (three times per week) hemodialysis in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) Daily (n=245) and Nocturnal (n=87) Trials. Intervention Daily Trial was a trial of frequent (six times per week), as compared with conventional (three times per week) in-center hemodialysis. The Nocturnal Trial assigned patients to either frequent nocturnal hemodialysis (six times per week) or conventional hemodialysis (three times per week). Outcomes Self-reported depressive symptoms and mental health. Measurements Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the mental health composite (MHC) score and emotional subscale of the RAND 36-Item Health Survey at baseline, 4 and 12 months. The MHC score is derived by summarizing these domains of the RAND 36-Item Health Survey: emotional, role emotional, energy/fatigue, and social functioning scales. Results In the Daily Trial, subjects randomized to frequent as compared with conventional in-center hemodialysis demonstrated no significant change over 12 months in adjusted mean BDI (−1.9 ± 0.7 vs. −0.6 ± 0.7; p=0.2), but experienced clinically significant improvements in adjusted mean MHC (3.7 ± 0.9 vs. 0.2 ± 1.0; P<0.01) and the emotional subscale (5.2 ± 1.6 vs. −0.3 ± 1.7; p=0.01). In the Nocturnal Trial, there were no significant changes among subjects randomized to nocturnal as compared with conventional hemodialysis on the same metrics. Limitations The trial interventions were not blinded. Conclusions Frequent in-center hemodialysis, as compared with conventional in

  19. Psychometrics Properties of Early Trauma Inventory Self Report – Short Form (ETISR-SR) for the Brazilian Context

    PubMed Central

    Osório, Flávia L.; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Donadon, Mariana Fortunata; Forni-dos-Santos, Larissa; Loureiro, Sonia Regina; Crippa, José Alexandre S.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to translate and validate Early Trauma Inventory Self Report -Short Form (ETISR-SF) to Brazilian Portuguese. 253 adult subjects answered the ETISR-SF, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST). The instrument showed good internal consistency (0.83). Correlations with the PHQ-9 and BAI were moderate (r=0.26-0.47) and showed the expected associations with psychiatric constructs. No associations were found for FTND and FAST. Confirmatory Factor Analysis revealed that a correlated four-factor model as well as a second order model subsuming four lower order components presented the best model fit. Test-retest reliability was also excellent (ICC=0.78-0.90). ETISR-SF is suitable for assessing traumatic experiences in a Brazilian community sample. Given the importance of trauma as a public health problem, tools such as ETISR-SF may help clinicians/ researchers to better evaluate and measure such events and further advance clinical care of trauma victims. PMID:24098478

  20. Development and Initial Psychometric Properties of the Computer Assisted Maltreatment Inventory (CAMI): A Comprehensive Self-Report Measure of Child Maltreatment History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLillo, David; Hayes-Skelton, Sarah A.; Fortier, Michelle A.; Perry, Andrea R.; Evans, Sarah E.; Messman Moore, Terri L.; Walsh, Kate; Nash, Cindy; Fauchier, Angele

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The present study reports on the development and initial psychometric properties of the Computer Assisted Maltreatment Inventory (CAMI), a web-based self-report measure of child maltreatment history, including sexual and physical abuse, exposure to interparental violence, psychological abuse, and neglect. Methods: The CAMI was…

  1. Comparison of children's self-reports of depressive symptoms among different family interaction types in northern Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wen-chi; Kao, Chi-Hsien; Yen, Lee-Lan; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien

    2007-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown that family interactions are associated with depressive symptoms in children. However, detailed classifications of family interaction types have not been studied thoroughly. This study aims to understand the types of family interactions children experience and to identify the specific types of family interactions that are associated with a higher risk of depressive symptoms in children. Methods Data used in the study was collected as part of the Child and Adolescent Behavior in Long term Evolution (CABLE) project in 2003. CABLE is a longitudinal cohort study that commenced in 2001 and collects data annually from children in Taipei city and Hsinchu county in northern Taiwan. The data analyzed in this study was that obtained from the sixth graders (aged 11 to 12 years old) in 2003. Of the 2,449 sixth graders, 51.2% were boys and 48.8% were girls. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to investigate the types of family interactions. One way ANOVA was used to establish the relationship between family interaction types and children's self-reports of depressive symptoms. Results Based on the results of factor analysis, the latent factors for family interactions included supporting activities, psychological control, parental discipline, behavioral supervision, and family conflict. After conducting cluster analysis using factor scores, four types of family interactions were revealed: supervised (29.66%), disciplined (13.56%), nurtured (40.96%) and conflict (15.82%). Children from the disciplined or conflict families were more likely to report depressive symptoms. Children from the nurtured families were least likely to report depressive symptoms. Conclusion Family interactions can be classified into four different types, which are related to children's self-reports of depressive symptoms. The creation of a family interaction environment that is beneficial for children's mental health is an important issue for health education

  2. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In order to understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms (e.g. gastrointestinal [GI], respiratory, dermatological), it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar ...

  3. Self-reported symptoms and risk factors for digital ischaemia among international world-class beach volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Van De Pol, Daan; Alaeikhanehshir, Sena; Maas, Mario; Kuijer, P Paul F M

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of ischaemia-related symptoms is remarkably high among elite indoor volleyball players. Since the exposure to sport-specific demands may be higher in beach volleyball compared to indoor volleyball, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ischaemia-related symptoms and associated risk factors among world-class beach volleyball players. Therefore, a questionnaire survey was performed among beach volleyball players active during the 2013 Grand Slam Beach Volleyball in the Netherlands. In total, 60 of the 128 beach volleyball players (47%) participated: 26 males and 34 females from 17 countries. The self-reported prevalence of cold or blue or pale digits in the dominant hand during or immediately after practice or competition was 38% (n = 23). Two risk factors were independently associated with symptoms of blue or pale digits: more than 14 years playing volleyball (odds ratio (OR) 4.42, 90% confidence interval (90% CI) 1.30-15.07) and sex (female) (OR 4.62, 90% CI 1.15-18.57). In conclusion, the prevalence of symptoms associated with digital ischaemia is high among international world-class beach volleyball players. Female sex and the length of the volleyball career were independently associated with an increased risk of ischaemia-related symptoms. The high prevalence of these seemingly innocuous symptoms and possible associated risk factors warrant regular monitoring since early detection can potentially prevent thromboembolic complications and irreversible tissue damage.

  4. Self-reported symptoms and risk factors for digital ischaemia among international world-class beach volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Van De Pol, Daan; Alaeikhanehshir, Sena; Maas, Mario; Kuijer, P Paul F M

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of ischaemia-related symptoms is remarkably high among elite indoor volleyball players. Since the exposure to sport-specific demands may be higher in beach volleyball compared to indoor volleyball, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ischaemia-related symptoms and associated risk factors among world-class beach volleyball players. Therefore, a questionnaire survey was performed among beach volleyball players active during the 2013 Grand Slam Beach Volleyball in the Netherlands. In total, 60 of the 128 beach volleyball players (47%) participated: 26 males and 34 females from 17 countries. The self-reported prevalence of cold or blue or pale digits in the dominant hand during or immediately after practice or competition was 38% (n = 23). Two risk factors were independently associated with symptoms of blue or pale digits: more than 14 years playing volleyball (odds ratio (OR) 4.42, 90% confidence interval (90% CI) 1.30-15.07) and sex (female) (OR 4.62, 90% CI 1.15-18.57). In conclusion, the prevalence of symptoms associated with digital ischaemia is high among international world-class beach volleyball players. Female sex and the length of the volleyball career were independently associated with an increased risk of ischaemia-related symptoms. The high prevalence of these seemingly innocuous symptoms and possible associated risk factors warrant regular monitoring since early detection can potentially prevent thromboembolic complications and irreversible tissue damage. PMID:26436960

  5. Symptom profile of persons self-reporting whiplash: a Norwegian population-based study (HUNT 2)

    PubMed Central

    Mykletun, Arnstein; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of chronic whiplash associated disorder (WAD) is unclear and the condition has been perceived both as a chronic pain disorder, based on the injury to the neck, and as a functional somatic disorder. Based on the hypothesis that chronic WAD should be perceived as a functional somatic syndrome, we compared the symptom profile of persons with chronic WAD with the profile of persons with a functional somatic disorder, and with the profile of persons with an organic pain disorder. A sample of 55,046 persons participating in a Norwegian population-based health study (HUNT 2) was divided into four study groups: chronic WAD, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, and controls (none of these disorders). Symptoms were categorized as pain and stiffness, cardiopulmonary and gastrointestinal symptoms, and mental disorders. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from logistic regression were used to compare the prevalence of symptoms among the groups. The chronic WAD group had a significantly higher prevalence of symptoms from all body parts, across organ systems and also mental symptoms, compared to the control group. The fibromyalgia group had an even higher prevalence of all symptoms, while the rheumatoid arthritis group showed an increase in the prevalence of particularly pain and stiffness symptoms and also a minor increase in the prevalence of other symptoms compared to the control group. We conclude that this study provide evidence in favour of the hypothesis that chronic WAD should be perceived as a functional somatic syndrome. Persons with chronic WAD had a symptom profile more similar to people with a functional somatic disorder than an organic pain disorder, consisting of a wide array of symptoms, not only predominantly pain symptoms. PMID:19669172

  6. Cross-sectional study of the severity of self-reported depressive symptoms in heroin users who participate in a methadone maintenance treatment program

    PubMed Central

    WU, Yafei; YAN, Shiyan; BAO, Yanping; LIAN, Zhi; QU, Zhi; LIU, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Background Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is widely recognized as an effective method of combatting narcotic addiction. MMT reduces heroin withdrawal symptoms and, thus, makes it possible to provide the psychological and social support that is essential to the rehabilitation of drug users. Aim Compare the severity of depressive symptoms in heroin users who are currently receiving MMT to that of heroin users who are not receiving MMT. Methods We administered the 13-item version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13) and a demographic history form to 929 heroin users who had been receiving MMT at nine methadone treatment clinics in three Chinese cities for an average of 9 months and to 238 heroin users who had enrolled in a MMT program at the centers but had not yet begun MMT. Results Seventy-nine percent (188/238) of the untreated individuals reported depressive symptoms compared to 68% (628/929) of the individuals receiving MMT (χ2=11.69, p<0.001). The median (interquartile range) BDI score in the untreated group was 10.4 (7.9-11.4) compared to 8.0 (5.7-11.6) in the MMT group (Z=2.75, p=0.006). In the MMT group, there was a negative correlation between the severity of reported depressive symptoms and the duration of participation in the MMT program (rs=-0.24, Z=2.88, p=0.004). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that after adjusting for all demographic variables the treated group still had less severe depressive symptoms than the untreated group. After adjusting for the effect of MMT treatment, depressive symptoms were more severe in heroin users who self-reported poor family relationships (standardized regression coefficient β=0.118, t=6.56, p<0.001) and in those who were divorced (β=0.120, t=3.73, p<0.001). Conclusions Moderate to severe depressive symptoms are common in heroin users. MMT is associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in heroin users, but prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether or

  7. Cross-sectional study of the severity of self-reported depressive symptoms in heroin users who participate in a methadone maintenance treatment program

    PubMed Central

    WU, Yafei; YAN, Shiyan; BAO, Yanping; LIAN, Zhi; QU, Zhi; LIU, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Background Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is widely recognized as an effective method of combatting narcotic addiction. MMT reduces heroin withdrawal symptoms and, thus, makes it possible to provide the psychological and social support that is essential to the rehabilitation of drug users. Aim Compare the severity of depressive symptoms in heroin users who are currently receiving MMT to that of heroin users who are not receiving MMT. Methods We administered the 13-item version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13) and a demographic history form to 929 heroin users who had been receiving MMT at nine methadone treatment clinics in three Chinese cities for an average of 9 months and to 238 heroin users who had enrolled in a MMT program at the centers but had not yet begun MMT. Results Seventy-nine percent (188/238) of the untreated individuals reported depressive symptoms compared to 68% (628/929) of the individuals receiving MMT (χ2=11.69, p<0.001). The median (interquartile range) BDI score in the untreated group was 10.4 (7.9-11.4) compared to 8.0 (5.7-11.6) in the MMT group (Z=2.75, p=0.006). In the MMT group, there was a negative correlation between the severity of reported depressive symptoms and the duration of participation in the MMT program (rs=-0.24, Z=2.88, p=0.004). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that after adjusting for all demographic variables the treated group still had less severe depressive symptoms than the untreated group. After adjusting for the effect of MMT treatment, depressive symptoms were more severe in heroin users who self-reported poor family relationships (standardized regression coefficient β=0.118, t=6.56, p<0.001) and in those who were divorced (β=0.120, t=3.73, p<0.001). Conclusions Moderate to severe depressive symptoms are common in heroin users. MMT is associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in heroin users, but prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether or

  8. Self-Reported Symptoms of ADHD among College Students in China and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norvilitis, Jill M.; Ingersoll, Travis; Zhang, Jie; Jia, Shuhua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined ADHD symptoms among college students in China and the United States. Method: A total of 283 (45%) American and 343 (55%) Chinese students completed the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and the Current Symptoms Scale (CSS), in addition to other measures. Results: Both of the ADHD measures appear to be reliable…

  9. Longitudinal Construct Validity of Brief Symptom Inventory Subscales in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Jeffrey D.; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Brekke, John S.; Test, Mary Ann; Greenberg, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Longitudinal validity of Brief Symptom Inventory subscales was examined in a sample (N = 318) with schizophrenia-related illness measured at baseline and every 6 months for 3 years. Nonlinear factor analysis of items was used to test graded response models (GRMs) for subscales in isolation. The models varied in their within-time and between-times…

  10. Prevalence of self-reported specific phobia symptoms in an Israeli sample of young conscripts.

    PubMed

    Iancu, Iulian; Levin, Jennifer; Dannon, Pinhas N; Poreh, Amir; Yehuda, Yoram Ben; Kotler, Moshe

    2007-01-01

    Specific phobia is a very prevalent disorder with high comorbidity rates. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence of specific phobia symptoms in a sample of Israeli young adults. Eight hundred fifty young Israeli soldiers participated in the study. Measures included a questionnaire on specific phobias and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Data on eight specific fears representing DSM-IV-TR specific phobias were analyzed to evaluate prevalence of phobic symptoms and find potential socio-demographic correlates. Prevalence of fears and specific phobic symptoms was 49.1 and 8.7%, respectively. Most frequent phobic symptoms were from animals, being alone, heights, injury and closed places. The following variables were accompanied by more phobic symptoms: male gender, role of mechanic, not having completed the matriculation exams, lack of friends and romantic relationships, therapy prior to enlistment or during the military service and having received psychotropic drugs in the past. Based on a stepwise regression analysis, the following variables contributed significantly to the prediction of phobic symptoms: lack of friends and romantic relationships, school absenteeism and role of mechanic. Our findings corroborate results from other studies in the Western world regarding the high prevalence of specific phobia symptomatology, as well as its distribution and socio-demographic correlates.

  11. Identifying Students with Self-Report of Asthma and Respiratory Symptoms in an Urban, High School Setting

    PubMed Central

    Baptist, Alan P.; Stringer, Sonja; Havstad, Suzanne; Ownby, Dennis R.; Johnson, Christine Cole; Williams, L. Keoki; Peterson, Edward L.

    2007-01-01

    Strategies for identifying urban youth with asthma have not been described for high school settings. African-American high school students are rarely included in asthma studies, despite a high risk of asthma mortality when compared to other age and race groups. Identification and follow-up of children with uncontrolled respiratory symptoms are necessary to reduce the burden of asthma morbidity and mortality, especially in underserved areas. We describe a process used to identify high school students who could benefit from intervention based on self-report of asthma and/or respiratory symptoms, and the costs associated with symptom-identification. Letters announcing a survey were mailed to parents of 9th–11th graders by an authorized vendor managing student data for the school district. Scan sheets with student identifiers were distributed to English teachers at participating schools who administered the survey during a scheduled class. Forms were completed by 5,967 of the 7,446 students assigned an English class (80% response). Although prevalence of lifetime asthma was 15.8%, about 11% of students met program criteria for enrollment through report of an asthma diagnosis and recent symptoms, medication use, or health care utilization. Another 9.2% met criteria by reported symptoms only. Cost of symptom-identification was $5.23/student or $32.29/program-eligible student. There is a need for school-based asthma programs targeting urban adolescents, and program initiation will likely require identification of students with uncontrolled symptoms. The approach described was successfully implemented with a relatively high response rate. Itemized expenses are presented to facilitate modifications to reduce costs. This information may benefit providers, researchers, or administrators targeting similar populations. PMID:17200800

  12. Self-reported concussion symptoms and training routines in mixed martial arts athletes.

    PubMed

    Heath, Christopher J; Callahan, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full-contact, fighting sport that has risen in popularity over recent years, resulting in an increase in both training facilities and sport participants. To date, little research has examined the complications and vulnerability to head trauma, or concussive symptomatology, in MMA athletes. In this study, we assessed relationships between training routines and concussive symptoms, as well as medical care, in MMA athletes. A sample (N = 119) of MMA athletes reported concussive symptoms, training routines, and medical histories through an online survey. Nearly 15% of the MMA athletes reported history of a knockout, and nearly one-third reported a technical knockout. Subjective ratings of concussive symptoms were high for these athletes, with many of them waiting only a brief time after such incidents to return to competition. These findings have important implications for informing the medical treatment and safety decision for returning to participation for these athletes. PMID:23777375

  13. Self-reported concussion symptoms and training routines in mixed martial arts athletes.

    PubMed

    Heath, Christopher J; Callahan, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full-contact, fighting sport that has risen in popularity over recent years, resulting in an increase in both training facilities and sport participants. To date, little research has examined the complications and vulnerability to head trauma, or concussive symptomatology, in MMA athletes. In this study, we assessed relationships between training routines and concussive symptoms, as well as medical care, in MMA athletes. A sample (N = 119) of MMA athletes reported concussive symptoms, training routines, and medical histories through an online survey. Nearly 15% of the MMA athletes reported history of a knockout, and nearly one-third reported a technical knockout. Subjective ratings of concussive symptoms were high for these athletes, with many of them waiting only a brief time after such incidents to return to competition. These findings have important implications for informing the medical treatment and safety decision for returning to participation for these athletes.

  14. White-collar workers' self-reported physical symptoms associated with using computers.

    PubMed

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno; Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our work was to study the physical symptoms of upper- and lower-level white-collar workers using a questionnaire. The study was cross-sectional with a questionnaire posted to 15 000 working-age persons. The responses (6121) included 970 upper- and 1150 lower-level white-collar workers. In the upper- and lower-level white-collar worker groups, 45.7 and 56.0%, respectively, had experienced pain, numbness and aches in the neck either pretty often or more frequently. When comparing daily computer users and nonusers, there were significant differences in pain, numbness and aches in the neck or in the shoulders. In addition, age and gender influenced some physical symptoms. In the future, it is essential to take into account that working with computers can be especially associated with physical symptoms in the neck and in the shoulders when workers use computers daily.

  15. Diagnostic validity of the Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (ESI): a self-report screen for ultrahigh risk and acute psychosis.

    PubMed

    Niessen, Maurice A J; Dingemans, Peter M A J; van de Fliert, Reinaud; Becker, Hiske E; Nieman, Dorien H; Linszen, Don

    2010-12-01

    Providers of mental health services need tools to screen for acute psychosis and ultrahigh risk (UHR) for transition to psychosis in help-seeking individuals. In this study, the Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (ESI) was examined as a screening tool and for its ability to correctly predict diagnostic group membership (e.g., help seeking, mild psychiatric complaints, highly symptomatic mood or anxiety disorder, UHR, acute psychosis). Diagnostic evaluation with established instruments was used for diagnosis in 3 research samples. UHR status was assessed with the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms/Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (Miller et al., 1999) and the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms Prediction list (Gross, Huber, Klosterkötter, & Linz, 1987; Klosterkötter, Hellmich, Steinmeyer, & Schulze-Lutter, 2001). This study showed that members of different diagnostic groups rate themselves significantly differently on the ESI and its subscales. A new subscale was constructed, the UHR-Psychosis scale, that showed good utility in detecting individuals with interview-diagnosed UHR status and acute psychosis. The scale is also sensitive to the threshold between UHR and acute psychosis. Practical applications of the ESI include use as a diagnostic tool within various settings. PMID:21133552

  16. Hyperactive-Impulsive Symptoms Associated with Self-Reported Sleep Quality in Nonmedicated Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahajan, Neha; Hong, Nuong; Wigal, Timothy L.; Gehricke, Jean-G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with ADHD often report sleep problems. Though most studies on ADHD and sleep examined children or nonclinically diagnosed adults, the present study specifically examines nonmedicated adults with ADHD to determine whether inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms are associated with sleep problems. Method: A total of 22…

  17. Self-Reported Autism Symptoms in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Somer L.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2012-01-01

    Scores on the autism spectrum quotient (AQ) were examined in 65 adults with ASD. Maternal reports of symptoms were collected simultaneously using the autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R) and the Vineland Screener. A slightly revised AQ administration procedure was used to accommodate adults with below average IQ. AQ scores were lower than…

  18. Self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms and observed risk factors in bareroot tree nurseries.

    PubMed

    Howard, N L; Spielholz, P; Cohen, M A; Silverstein, B

    2005-02-01

    A cross-sectional study of jobs at four bareroot reforestation tree nurseries in Washington and Oregon investigated the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and potential work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs), and analyzed their association with physical and psychosocial risk factors of the jobs. Questionnaires were used to assess symptoms and psychosocial factors. Direct observational work sampling was utilized to estimate physical risk factors. The response rate for the questionnaires was 41% (203 subjects), of which 72% reported recurring symptoms in the past year. The most common body region was the wrist/hand (42%). Pain was the most commonly reported symptom. Forty-one percent of the subjects had at least one potential WMSD, the hand region having the greatest number of cases (n = 51). The average age of those with and without potential WMSDs did not significantly differ; however, tenure at the nursery (p < 0.03) did. Being female (OR = 7.37; 95% CI = 2.75, 19.7,) high job satisfaction (OR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.15, 0.72), and having a second job (OR = 3.76; 95% CI = 1.12, 12.57) were significantly associated with potential WMSDs. No significant difference in WMSD prevalence was found between the field and packing shed areas of the nurseries (p = 0.88). Pinch gripping was observed 24% of the time in the shed and 8% of the time in the field. Torso flexion was observed more often in the field than the shed (38% vs. 18% of the time). This study found that both physical and psychosocial factors associated with WMSDs are present in bareroot trees nurseries.

  19. Fertilizer use and self-reported respiratory and dermal symptoms among tree planters.

    PubMed

    Gorman Ng, Melanie; Stjernberg, Ernst; Koehoorn, Mieke; Demers, Paul A; Winters, Meghan; Davies, Hugh W

    2013-01-01

    In British Columbia, some tree planting operations require workers to fertilize planted seedlings with polymer-coated nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) fertilizers. This study examined respiratory and dermal health associated with fertilizer exposure among tree planters. We interviewed 223 tree planters using an adapted version of the American Thoracic Society questionnaire supplemented with questions on dermal health. Subjects were grouped by categories of increasing duration of exposure, with workers who had not worked with fertilizer as a reference group. The relationship between exposure and reported work-related symptoms was analyzed using logistic regression, adjusting for age, cumulative tobacco cigarettes smoked, marijuana smoking status, sex, and exposure to abrasive spruce needles. An elevated odds ratio was seen for work-related cough, phlegm, nasal symptoms, nosebleed, and skin rash in the highest exposure group (>37 days of fertilizer use in the past 2 years) but was significant only for phlegm (odds ratio = 3.59, 95% confidence interval = 1.10-11.70). Trends of increasing odds ratios with increasing exposure were seen for cough, phlegm, nasal symptoms, and skin rash. The results suggest a weak association between respiratory and dermal irritation and work with fertilizer. Results highlight the need for further exposure monitoring within the tree planting industry, and larger studies to investigate the relationship between work with fertilizer and respiratory and dermal health symptoms. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resource: a PDF file containing a respiratory and dermal health questionnaire.]. PMID:23194098

  20. Fertilizer use and self-reported respiratory and dermal symptoms among tree planters.

    PubMed

    Gorman Ng, Melanie; Stjernberg, Ernst; Koehoorn, Mieke; Demers, Paul A; Winters, Meghan; Davies, Hugh W

    2013-01-01

    In British Columbia, some tree planting operations require workers to fertilize planted seedlings with polymer-coated nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) fertilizers. This study examined respiratory and dermal health associated with fertilizer exposure among tree planters. We interviewed 223 tree planters using an adapted version of the American Thoracic Society questionnaire supplemented with questions on dermal health. Subjects were grouped by categories of increasing duration of exposure, with workers who had not worked with fertilizer as a reference group. The relationship between exposure and reported work-related symptoms was analyzed using logistic regression, adjusting for age, cumulative tobacco cigarettes smoked, marijuana smoking status, sex, and exposure to abrasive spruce needles. An elevated odds ratio was seen for work-related cough, phlegm, nasal symptoms, nosebleed, and skin rash in the highest exposure group (>37 days of fertilizer use in the past 2 years) but was significant only for phlegm (odds ratio = 3.59, 95% confidence interval = 1.10-11.70). Trends of increasing odds ratios with increasing exposure were seen for cough, phlegm, nasal symptoms, and skin rash. The results suggest a weak association between respiratory and dermal irritation and work with fertilizer. Results highlight the need for further exposure monitoring within the tree planting industry, and larger studies to investigate the relationship between work with fertilizer and respiratory and dermal health symptoms. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resource: a PDF file containing a respiratory and dermal health questionnaire.].

  1. Energy Drinks and Youth Self-Reported Hyperactivity/Inattention Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Deborah L.; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Grilo, Stepanie A.; McCaslin, Catherine; Schwartz, Marlene; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (1) Describe patterns in sweetened beverage consumption by race/ethnicity and sex, documenting both the amount and types of sweetened beverages consumed; and (2) examine the association of sweetened beverage consumption with hyperactivity/inattention symptoms among middle school students in a single urban school district. Methods Middle-school students (N=1649; 47% Hispanic and 38% Black, non-Hispanic) from 12 schools, randomly selected out of 27 district schools, completed health behavior surveys in Fall 2011. Students reported quantity and types of sweetened beverages consumed in the past 24 hours and completed the five-item Hyperactivity/Inattention Subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to measure symptoms. Results Amount and variety of reported sweetened beverage consumption (including energy drinks) were greater among males versus females and among Black and Hispanic versus White students. Risk of hyperactivity/inattention increased by 14% for each additional sweetened beverage consumed, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, sex, school lunch eligibility, family structure and sugary food consumption. Students reporting consumption of energy drinks were 66% more likely to be at risk for hyperactivity/inattention after adjusting for number of drinks, other types of drinks consumed and other potential confounders. Conclusions Results support recommendations to limit consumption of sweetened beverages and to avoid consumption of energy drinks among children. Interventions to reduce sweetened beverage consumption should explicitly focus on energy drinks and other emerging sweetened beverages such as sports and sweetened coffee drinks. More research is needed to understand the direction of effects and the mechanisms behind the association between sweetened beverages and hyperactivity/inattention symptoms. PMID:25676784

  2. Inventory of Complicated Grief: a scale to measure maladaptive symptoms of loss.

    PubMed

    Prigerson, H G; Maciejewski, P K; Reynolds, C F; Bierhals, A J; Newsom, J T; Fasiczka, A; Frank, E; Doman, J; Miller, M

    1995-11-29

    Certain symptoms of grief have been shown (a) to be distinct from bereavement-related depression and anxiety, and (b) to predict long-term functional impairments. We termed these symptoms of "complicated grief" and developed the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG) to assess them. Data were derived from 97 conjugally bereaved elders who completed the ICG, along with other self-report scales measuring grief, depression, and background characteristics. Exploratory factor analyses indicated that the ICG measured a single underlying construct of complicated grief. High internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities were evidence of the ICG's reliability. The ICG total score's association with severity of depressive symptoms and a general measure of grief suggested a valid, yet distinct, assessment of emotional distress. Respondents with ICG scores > 25 were significantly more impaired in social, general, mental, and physical health functioning and in bodily pain than those with ICG scores < or = 25. Thus, the ICG, a scale with demonstrated internal consistency, and convergent and criterion validity, provides an easily administered assessment for symptoms of complicated grief. PMID:8771222

  3. Self-reported symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: rate of endorsement and association with neuropsychological performance in an adult psychiatric sample.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Brooke C; Thoering, Teresa; Cludius, Barbara; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-05-01

    The lack of specificity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms represents a diagnostic challenge, especially when assessing psychiatric patients reporting a wide range of complaints. Rate of endorsement of ADHD symptoms, and their association with neuropsychological performance, was examined in a psychiatric sample of 71 adults, who had been referred for a neuropsychological evaluation. Patients completed two self-report measures of ADHD symptoms, the ADHD Self-Report Scale (ADHD-SR) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale-Short Form, as well as measures of attention, executive functioning, visuoconstructional ability, and verbal learning and memory. On the ADHD-SR, 74.6% of the sample met the cutoff for inattention or hyperactivity, while 81.7% met the cutoff for impulsivity. Neuropsychological performance was weakly associated with self-reported symptoms. Our results suggest that psychiatric patients commonly report symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Assessment utilizing multiple sources is necessary to confirm whether self-reported symptoms are indicative of ADHD or reflect other causes.

  4. Brain lateralization and self-reported symptoms of ADHD in a population sample of adults: a dimensional approach

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Saleh M. H.; Börger, Norbert A.; Geuze, Reint H.; van der Meere, Jaap J.

    2015-01-01

    Many clinical studies reported a compromised brain lateralization in patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) without being conclusive about whether the deficit existed in the left or right hemisphere. It is well-recognized that studying ADHD dimensionally is more controlled for comorbid problems and medication effects, and provides more accurate assessment of the symptoms. Therefore, the present study applied the dimensional approach to test the relationship between brain lateralization and self-reported ADHD symptoms in a population sample. Eighty-five right-handed university students filled in the Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scales and performed a lateralization reaction time task. The task consists of two matching conditions: one condition requires nominal identification for letters tapping left hemisphere specialization (Letter Name-Identity condition) and the other one requires physical and visuospatial identification for shapes tapping right hemisphere specialization (Shape Physical-Identity condition). The letters or shapes to be matched are presented in left or right visual field of a fixation cross. For both task conditions, brain lateralization was indexed as the difference in mean reaction time between left and right visual field. Linear regression analyses, controlled for mood symptoms reported by a depression, anxiety, and stress scale, showed no relationship between the variables. These findings from a population sample of adults do not support the dimensionality of lateralized information processing deficit in ADHD symptomatology. However, group comparison analyses showed that subjects with high level of inattention symptoms close to or above the clinical cut-off had a reduced right hemisphere processing in the Shape Physical-Identity condition. PMID:26441789

  5. Characteristics and Psychiatric Symptoms of Internet Gaming Disorder among Adults Using Self-Reported DSM-5 Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na Ri; Hwang, Samuel Suk-Hyun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Kim, Dai-Jin; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Griffiths, Mark. D.; Hyun, So Yeon; Youn, Hyun Chul

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) proposed nine diagnostic criteria and five cut-point criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD). We aimed to examine the efficacy of such criteria. Methods Adults (n=3041, men: 1824, women: 1217) who engaged in internet gaming within last 6 months completed a self-report online survey using the suggested wordings of the criteria in DSM-5. Major characteristics, gaming behavior, and psychiatric symptoms of IGD were analyzed using ANOVA, chi-square, and correlation analyses. Results The sociodemographic variables were not statistically significant between the healthy controls and the risk group. Among the participants, 419 (13.8%) were identified and labeled as the IGD risk group. The IGD risk group scored significantly higher on all motivation subscales (p<0.001). The IGD risk group showed significantly higher scores than healthy controls in all nine psychiatric symptom dimensions, i.e., somatization, obsession-compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism (p<0.001). Conclusion The IGD risk group showed differential psychopathological manifestations according to DSM-5 IGD diagnostic criteria. Further studies are needed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the specific criteria, especially for developing screening instruments. PMID:26766947

  6. Mechanisms of Resilience in Children of Mothers Who Self-Report with Depressive Symptoms in the First Postnatal Year

    PubMed Central

    Savage-McGlynn, Emily; Redshaw, Maggie; Heron, Jon; Stein, Alan; Quigley, Maria A.; Evans, Jonathan; Ramchandani, Paul; Gray, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Background Symptoms of maternal postnatal depression are associated with an increased risk of adverse effects on child development. However, some children exposed to postnatal depression have outcomes similar to unexposed children, and can be referred to as resilient. This study aimed to determine the mechanisms of resilience in children exposed to depressive symptoms postnatally. Method Data are from a prospective cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Self-report questionnaire data were collected during pregnancy and the child’s first 2 years regarding maternal views of parenting and her perception of the child. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was completed postnatally at 8 months and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) at age 11 years. Exposed children who scored above the median score of non-exposed children were defined as resilient. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the development of resilience. Results From the core ALSPAC cohort, 1,009 children (6.9%) were exposed to maternal depression at 8 months postnatally. The SDQ total difficulties scores at 11 years of age indicated that 325 (32.2%) were resilient, 684 were non-resilient. Maternal positive feelings about parenting and child non-verbal communication at 15 months increased the likelihood of later resilience. Conclusions In this study, resilience was associated with two factors: the child’s nonverbal communication at 15 months and by maternal positive feelings about parenting. Early intervention to support mother-child interaction and foster child development in women identified with postnatal depressive symptoms may benefit later child resilience. PMID:26618860

  7. The latent symptom structure of the Beck depression inventory: second edition in Latina pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Lisa A; de la Fey Rodríguez Muñoz, Maria; Perry, Deborah F; Le, Huynh-Nhu

    2014-07-01

    Pregnancy represents a unique period of time when women are at an increased risk of developing depression. Although the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II) is one of the most widely used self-report measures of depression symptomology, its psychometric properties and underlying factor structures have not been determined for antenatal women and among Latinas. The current study evaluated the latent symptom structure of the BDI-II in a community-based sample of Latina pregnant women (N = 217) identified to be at high risk for depression. Exploratory factor analyses were used to identify underlying salient individual item loadings for two- and three-factor models. Confirmatory factor analyses then examined several different indices to determine the best model fit. Examination of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supports a three-factor oblique structure of the BDI-II composed of Cognitive-Affective, Somatic, and Pregnancy Symptoms. The three-factor model provides clinicians with the ability to target specific constellations of depressive symptoms instead of relying on the BDI-II total score that represents the overall severity of depression in this population. PMID:23929560

  8. Symptoms of Anxiety, Depression, and Aggression in Non-Clinical Children: Relationships with Self-Report and Performance-Based Measures of Attention and Effortful Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter; van der Pennen, Els; Sigmond, Rianne; Mayer, Birgit

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between the regulative trait of effortful control, and in particular attention control, and psychopathological symptoms in a sample of 207 non-clinical children aged 8-12 years. For this purpose, children completed self-report scales for measuring regulative traits and various types of psychopathological…

  9. Examining the Effects of Self-Reported Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Positive Relations with Others on Self-Regulated Learning for Student Service Members/Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Bryan M.; Middleton, Michael J.; Hildebrandt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationships between self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, perceived positive relations with others, self-regulation strategy use, and academic motivation among student service members/veterans (SSM/V) enrolled in postsecondary education. Participants: SSM/V (N = 214), defined as veterans, active…

  10. Brief Report: The Use of Self-Report Measures in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorder to Access Symptoms of Anxiety, Depression and Negative Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozsivadjian, Ann; Hibberd, Charlotte; Hollocks, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were two-fold; firstly, to investigate whether self-report measures are useful and reflect parent-reported psychiatric symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and secondly, to investigate whether children with ASD are able to access and report their cognitions, a prerequisite skill for cognitive behavior…

  11. Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071 decreases stress-associated diarrhoea-related symptoms and self-reported stress: a secondary analysis of a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Culpepper, T; Christman, M C; Nieves, C; Specht, G J; Rowe, C C; Spaiser, S J; Ford, A L; Dahl, W J; Girard, S A; Langkamp-Henken, B

    2016-06-01

    Psychological stress is associated with gastrointestinal (GI) distress. This secondary analysis from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined whether three different probiotics could normalise self-reported stress-associated GI discomfort and reduce overall self-reported stress. Undergraduate students (n=581) received Lactobacillus helveticus R0052, Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis R0033, Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071, or placebo. Participants self-reported 2 outcomes for a 6-week period, which included final academic exams: daily level of stress (0=no stress to 10=extremely stressed) and weekly three diarrhoea-related symptoms (DS, 1=no discomfort to 7=severe discomfort) using the GI Symptom Rating Scale. Self-reported stress was positively related to DS (P=0.0068). Mean DS scores were lower with B. bifidum versus placebo at week 2 at the average level of stress and the average body mass index (BMI). DS scores were lower with B. bifidum at week 5 versus week 0 and 1 and with B. infantis R0033 at week 6 versus week 0. DS scores were higher when antibiotics were used in the prior week with placebo (P=0.0092). DS were not different with or without antibiotic use with the probiotics. Only B. bifidum had an effect on self-reported stress scores (P=0.0086). The self-reported stress score was also dependent on hours of sleep per day where it decreased by 0.13 for each additional hour of sleep. During a stressful period, B. bifidum R0071 decreases DS and self-reported stress scores. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01709825. PMID:26839075

  12. Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071 decreases stress-associated diarrhoea-related symptoms and self-reported stress: a secondary analysis of a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Culpepper, T; Christman, M C; Nieves, C; Specht, G J; Rowe, C C; Spaiser, S J; Ford, A L; Dahl, W J; Girard, S A; Langkamp-Henken, B

    2016-06-01

    Psychological stress is associated with gastrointestinal (GI) distress. This secondary analysis from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined whether three different probiotics could normalise self-reported stress-associated GI discomfort and reduce overall self-reported stress. Undergraduate students (n=581) received Lactobacillus helveticus R0052, Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis R0033, Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071, or placebo. Participants self-reported 2 outcomes for a 6-week period, which included final academic exams: daily level of stress (0=no stress to 10=extremely stressed) and weekly three diarrhoea-related symptoms (DS, 1=no discomfort to 7=severe discomfort) using the GI Symptom Rating Scale. Self-reported stress was positively related to DS (P=0.0068). Mean DS scores were lower with B. bifidum versus placebo at week 2 at the average level of stress and the average body mass index (BMI). DS scores were lower with B. bifidum at week 5 versus week 0 and 1 and with B. infantis R0033 at week 6 versus week 0. DS scores were higher when antibiotics were used in the prior week with placebo (P=0.0092). DS were not different with or without antibiotic use with the probiotics. Only B. bifidum had an effect on self-reported stress scores (P=0.0086). The self-reported stress score was also dependent on hours of sleep per day where it decreased by 0.13 for each additional hour of sleep. During a stressful period, B. bifidum R0071 decreases DS and self-reported stress scores. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01709825.

  13. Early life trauma predicts self-reported levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms in nonclinical community adults: relative contributions of early life stressor types and adult trauma exposure.

    PubMed

    Chu, Denise A; Williams, Leanne M; Harris, Anthony W F; Bryant, Richard A; Gatt, Justine M

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to early life trauma is a known risk factor for depression and anxiety disorders in adulthood. This study aimed to evaluate the relative contributions of early life versus adult trauma in predicting levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms in nonclinical community adults. 1209 nonclinical community adults (18-70 years; 45% male) were assessed for mental health status, early life stressors, lifetime trauma exposure, and self-reported levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms. A subset of the full sample subjected to group comparisons (n = 1088) indicated that early life stressor exposure primarily accounted for significantly higher depressive and anxiety symptom scores when compared against adults reporting to be free of childhood stressor or adult trauma exposure. Subsequent hierarchical multiple regression analyses of this subset using five distinct early life stressor types, namely 'Interpersonal violation', 'Family breakup', 'Disasters/war', 'Familial health trauma/death' and 'Personal health trauma' derived from principal component analysis of a wide range of self-reported early stressor events in the full sample, showed childhood 'Interpersonal violation' differentially predicted higher self-reported depressive and anxiety symptom scores in both males and females. Adult trauma exposure did not significantly predict these symptom scores. These findings underline the relative importance of exposure to 'interpersonal violation' relative to other types of early life stressors and adult trauma in the risk of depressive and anxiety symptoms in nonclinical community adults.

  14. Measuring negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia: reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Sun; Jang, Seon-Kyeong; Park, Seon-Cheol; Yi, Jung-Seo; Park, Joong-Kyu; Lee, Jung Suk; Choi, Kee-Hong; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Background The Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) is one of the validated interview measures of negative symptoms in psychotic disorders. The Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MPSR) is a self-report measure that assesses the motivation and pleasure domains of negative symptoms based on the CAINS. This study evaluated the reliability and validity of a Korean version of the MPSR. Methods A total of 139 patients with schizophrenia completed the MPSR, CAINS, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scales, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, and other measures of trait and cognitive function. Results The 15-item MPSR showed good internal consistency. In addition, it also had a good convergent validity with the Motivation and Pleasure subscale of the CAINS and the anhedonia/avolition subscale of the SANS. The scale was not associated with psychotic symptoms, agitation/mania, and depression/anxiety, and it showed good discriminant validity. MPSR scores were significantly correlated with Behavioral Activation System total score for trait measure. Conclusion The Korean version of the MPSR is a notable self-report method for examining the severity of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. PMID:27274251

  15. Self-reported symptoms of chronic cough and breathlessness in working-age men in the city of Izhevsk, Russia: associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors and comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Sarah; Quint, Jennifer K; Vasiljev, Maxim; Leon, David A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Very little is known about the prevalence of respiratory symptoms or their associations with other health conditions in Russia. Methods Between 2008 and 2010, a sample of 983 men resident in Izhevsk, Russia, took part in a cross-sectional survey. Presence of respiratory symptoms was determined from self-report of chronic productive cough and breathlessness assessed using the British Medical Research Council (MRC) breathlessness scale. Self-reported physical and mental health were measured using the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Hypertension was assessed from mean blood pressure measured at the health check and/or self-reported use of antihypertensive medication. Other comorbidities were assessed from self-report. Logistic regression models were fitted assessing the association between respiratory symptoms and comorbidities. Linear regression models were fitted to investigate the association between respiratory symptoms and self-reported health scores. All models were adjusted for age, education and smoking status. Results The age-standardised prevalence of cough and breathlessness was 20.9% (prevalence with breathlessness MRC grade 3 or above 3.7%). The majority of men with respiratory symptoms (87.3%) were current smokers. Cough and breathlessness were associated with substantially worse self-reported physical and mental health (test for trend with severity of breathlessness p<0.001). Those with chronic cough and grade 3 or above breathlessness had higher odds of having hypertension (OR 3.03; 95% CI 1.36 to 6.74), diabetes (OR 10.55; 95% CI 2.69 to 41.37), angina pectoris (OR 7.54; 95% CI 3.61 to 15.73), previous myocardial infarction (OR 7.61; 95% CI 2.10 to 27.4) and previous stroke (OR 6.61; 95% CI 1.75 to 23.34) compared with those without respiratory symptoms. Conclusions The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was high. Strong associations were found between respiratory symptoms and cardiovascular comorbidities. These are of

  16. Self-Reported Psychopathology, Trauma Symptoms, and Emotion Coping Among Child Suicide Attempters and Ideators: An Exploratory Study of Young Children.

    PubMed

    Bodzy, Mary E; Barreto, Steven J; Swenson, Lance P; Liguori, Gina; Costea, Geanina

    2016-01-01

    This study examined self-reported psychopathology, trauma symptoms, and emotion coping in 7 to 12 year old children with suicidal ideation and attempts. This study compared 70 psychiatric inpatient children with current suicidal ideation to 59 psychiatric inpatient children with recent suicide attempts on measures of depression, anxiety, anger, emotional intelligence, and family/contextual factors. Results revealed greater self-reported anger as well as psychological distress associated with traumatic experiences (dissociation, anger, depression), among children who attempted suicide, in addition to increased reports of special education utilization, when compared to ideators only. These relationships were not affected by age or gender. Overall, the findings suggest self-reports of younger children who attempt suicide share similarities with older children and adolescent attempters, when compared with ideators who do not attempt. Implications for assessment and treatment are discussed. PMID:25751265

  17. Psychiatric symptom typology in a sample of youth receiving substance abuse treatment services: associations with self-reported child maltreatment and sexual risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Oshri, Assaf; Tubman, Jonathan G; Jaccard, James

    2011-11-01

    Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to classify 394 adolescents undergoing substance use treatment, based on past year psychiatric symptoms. Relations between profile membership and (a) self-reported childhood maltreatment experiences and (b) current sexual risk behavior were examined. LPA generated three psychiatric symptom profiles: Low-, High- Alcohol-, and High- Internalizing Symptoms profiles. Analyses identified significant associations between profile membership and childhood sexual abuse and emotional neglect ratings, as well as co-occurring sex with substance use and unprotected intercourse. Profiles with elevated psychiatric symptom scores (e.g., internalizing problems, alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms) and more severe maltreatment histories reported higher scores for behavioral risk factors for HIV/STI exposure. Heterogeneity in psychiatric symptom patterns among youth receiving substance use treatment services, and prior histories of childhood maltreatment, have significant implications for the design and delivery of HIV/STI prevention programs to this population.

  18. Controlled human exposure to methyl tertiary butyl ether in gasoline: symptoms, psychophysiologic and neurobehavioral responses of self-reported sensitive persons.

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, N; Kelly-McNeil, K; Mohr, S; Lehrer, P; Opiekun, R E; Lee, C; Wainman, T; Hamer, R; Weisel, C; Edelberg, R; Lioy, P J

    2000-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act mandated oxygenation of gasoline in regions where carbon monoxide standards were not met. To achieve this standard, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) was increased to 15% by volume during winter months in many locations. Subsequent to the increase of MTBE in gasoline, commuters reported increases in symptoms such as headache, nausea, and eye, nose, and throat irritation. The present study compared 12 individuals selected based on self-report of symptoms (self-reported sensitives; SRSs) associated with MTBE to 19 controls without self-reported sensitivities. In a double-blind, repeated measures, controlled exposure, subjects were exposed for 15 min to clean air, gasoline, gasoline with 11% MTBE, and gasoline with 15% MTBE. Symptoms, odor ratings, neurobehavioral performance on a task of driving simulation, and psychophysiologic responses (heart and respiration rate, end-tidal CO(2), finger pulse volume, electromyograph, finger temperature) were measured before, during, and immediately after exposure. Relative to controls, SRSs reported significantly more total symptoms when exposed to gasoline with 15% MTBE than when exposed to gasoline with 11% MTBE or to clean air. However, these differences in symptoms were not accompanied by significant differences in neurobehavioral performance or psychophysiologic responses. No significant differences in symptoms or neurobehavioral or psychophysiologic responses were observed when exposure to gasoline with 11% MTBE was compared to clean air or to gasoline. Thus, the present study, although showing increased total symptoms among SRSs when exposed to gasoline with 15% MTBE, did not support a dose-response relationship for MTBE exposure nor the symptom specificity associated with MTBE in epidemiologic studies. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10964796

  19. The Latent Symptom Structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in Outpatients with Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quilty, Lena C.; Zhang, K. Anne; Bagby, R. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a self-report instrument frequently used in clinical and research settings to assess depression severity. Although investigators have examined the factor structure of the BDI-II, a clear consensus on the best fitting model has not yet emerged, resulting in different recommendations regarding how to best…

  20. The Brief Symptom Inventory and the Outcome Questionnaire-45 in the Assessment of the Outcome Quality of Mental Health Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Schuetz, Christopher; Andreae, Andreas; Koemeda, Margit; Schulthess, Peter; Tschuschke, Volker; von Wyl, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Self-report questionnaires are economical instruments for routine outcome assessment. In this study, the performance of the German version of the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) was evaluated when applied in analysis of the outcome quality of psychiatric and psychotherapeutic interventions. Pre-post data from two inpatient samples (N = 5711) and one outpatient sample (N = 239) were analyzed. Critical differences (reliable change index) and cut-off points between functional and dysfunctional populations were calculated using the Jacobson and Truax method of calculating clinical significance. Overall, the results indicated that the BSI was more accurate than the OQ-45 in correctly classifying patients as clinical subjects. Nonetheless, even with the BSI, about 25% of inpatients with schizophrenia attained a score at admission below the clinical cut-off. Both questionnaires exhibited the highest sensitivity to psychopathology with patients with personality disorders. When considering the differences in the prescores, both questionnaires showed the same sensitivity to change. The advantage of using these self-report measures is observed primarily in assessing outpatient psychotherapy outcome. In an inpatient setting two main problems—namely, the low response rate and the scarce sensitivity to psychopathology with severely ill patients—limit the usability of self-report questionnaires.

  1. The Brief Symptom Inventory and the Outcome Questionnaire-45 in the Assessment of the Outcome Quality of Mental Health Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Schuetz, Christopher; Andreae, Andreas; Koemeda, Margit; Schulthess, Peter; Tschuschke, Volker; von Wyl, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Self-report questionnaires are economical instruments for routine outcome assessment. In this study, the performance of the German version of the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) was evaluated when applied in analysis of the outcome quality of psychiatric and psychotherapeutic interventions. Pre-post data from two inpatient samples (N = 5711) and one outpatient sample (N = 239) were analyzed. Critical differences (reliable change index) and cut-off points between functional and dysfunctional populations were calculated using the Jacobson and Truax method of calculating clinical significance. Overall, the results indicated that the BSI was more accurate than the OQ-45 in correctly classifying patients as clinical subjects. Nonetheless, even with the BSI, about 25% of inpatients with schizophrenia attained a score at admission below the clinical cut-off. Both questionnaires exhibited the highest sensitivity to psychopathology with patients with personality disorders. When considering the differences in the prescores, both questionnaires showed the same sensitivity to change. The advantage of using these self-report measures is observed primarily in assessing outpatient psychotherapy outcome. In an inpatient setting two main problems—namely, the low response rate and the scarce sensitivity to psychopathology with severely ill patients—limit the usability of self-report questionnaires. PMID:27699166

  2. Patient communication self-efficacy, self-reported illness symptoms, physician communication style and mental health and illness in hospital outpatients.

    PubMed

    Capone, Vincenza

    2016-07-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the associations between patient communication self-efficacy and self-reported symptoms in doctor-patient communication, as perceived by patients, and the mental health and illness of hospital outpatients. Using data from a sample of 74 outpatients (mean age = 37.58 years, standard deviation = 12.54), a structural equation model was calculated. The results showed that communication self-efficacy and respectful behaviour were associated with mental health and illness. Furthermore, self-reported symptoms were correlated with mental illness. Gender and educational differences also occurred. The findings suggest that enhancing patients' communication skills could benefit outpatients in general, but female and less educated patients in particular.

  3. Prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among indigenous Sami and non-Sami in Northern- and Mid-Norway – the SAMINOR study

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Brustad, Magritt; Johnsen, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Objective The main purpose of this work was to identify the prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among Sami and non-Sami adults. Study design A cross-sectional population-based study (the SAMINOR study). Data were collected by self-administrated questionnaires. Method SAMINOR is a population-based study of health and living conditions conducted in 24 municipalities in Northern Norway during 2003 and 2004. The present study included 15,546 individuals aged between 36 and 79, whose ethnicity was categorized as Sami (33.4%), Kven (7.3%) and Norwegian majority population (57.2%). Results Sami respondents had a higher prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk than the Norwegian majority population. The reporting was highest among Sami females (27.1%). Consumption of milk and dairy products (yoghurt and cheese) was high among all the ethnic groups. However, significantly more Sami than non-Sami never (or rarely) consume milk or cheese, and individuals who reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk had an significant lower intake of dairy products than those not reporting stomach symptoms after consuming dairy products. Sami reported general abdominal pain more often than the majority population. The adjusted models show a significant effect of Sami ethnicity in both men and women on self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk. In females, the odds ratio (OR)=1.77 (p=0.001) and in males OR=1.64 (p=0.001). Conclusion Our study shows that the Sami population reported more stomach symptoms after consuming milk, suggesting a higher prevalence of milk intolerance among the Sami population than the Norwegian majority population. PMID:25694052

  4. Somatic Symptoms among Children and Adolescents in Poland: A Confirmatory Factor Analytic Study of the Children Somatization Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Olaya, Beatriz; Bokszczanin, Anna; Gilvarry, Catherine; Bray, Diane

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the factor structure and psychometric properties of the short version of the Children’s Somatization Inventory (CSI-24) in Poland. The CSI-24 is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess somatic symptoms in children and adolescents. A total of 733 children and adolescents, aged 12–17 years, participated in this research. The participants for this study were recruited from urban and suburban schools of Opole province in South Western Poland. In addition to the CSI-24, all participants completed the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The correlated four-factor model that included four-correlated dimensions (pain/weakness, gastrointestinal problems, cardiovascular symptoms, and pseudoneurological problems) showed a better fit compared to the single-factor model. The Cronbach’s Alpha for the CSI-24 was 0.91. Somatic symptoms correlated significantly highly with the SCAS total scores and the SDQ emotional subscale, suggesting good construct validity. Somatic symptoms had low correlation with the SDQ behavioral problems symptoms, suggesting adequate discriminant validity. The CSI-24 reliably measured somatic symptoms in children and adolescents in Poland. PMID:24400299

  5. Diagnostic Validity of the Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (ESI): A Self-Report Screen for Ultrahigh Risk and Acute Psychosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niessen, Maurice A. J.; Dingemans, Peter M. A. J.; van de Fliert, Reinaud; Becker, Hiske E.; Nieman, Dorien H.; Linszen, Don

    2010-01-01

    Providers of mental health services need tools to screen for acute psychosis and ultrahigh risk (UHR) for transition to psychosis in help-seeking individuals. In this study, the Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (ESI) was examined as a screening tool and for its ability to correctly predict diagnostic group membership (e.g., help seeking, mild…

  6. The structure of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in three female trauma samples: A comparison of interview and self-report measures

    PubMed Central

    Scher, Christine D.; McCreary, Donald R.; Asmundson, Gordon J.G.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Empirical research increasingly suggests that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is comprised of four factors: re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal. Nonetheless, there remains some inconsistency in the findings of factor analyses that form the bulk of this empirical literature. One source of such inconsistency may be assessment measure idiosyncrasies. To examine this issue, we conducted confirmatory factor analyses of interview and self-report data across three trauma samples. Analyses of the interview data indicated a good fit for a four-factor model across all samples; analyses of the self-report data indicated an adequate fit in two of three samples. Overall, findings suggest that measure idiosyncrasies may account for some of the inconsistency in previous factor analyses of PTSD symptoms. PMID:18206346

  7. Self-reported neurological symptoms in relation to CO emissions due to problem gas appliance installations in London: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Croxford, Ben; Leonardi, Giovanni S; Kreis, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous research by the authors found evidence that up to 10% of particular household categories may be exposed to elevated carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations from poor quality gas appliance installations. The literature suggests certain neurological symptoms are linked to exposure to low levels of CO. This paper addresses the hypothesis that certain self-reported neurological symptoms experienced by a householder are linked to an estimate of their CO exposure. Methods Between 27 April and 27 June 2006, 597 homes with a mains supply of natural gas were surveyed, mainly in old, urban areas of London. Qualified gas engineers tested all gas appliances (cooker, boiler, gas fire, and water heater) and reported, according to the Gas Industry Unsafe Situations Procedure, appliances considered At Risk (AR), Immediately Dangerous (ID) or Not to Current Standards (NCS). Five exposure risk categories were defined based on measurement of CO emitted by the appliance, its features and its use, with "high or very high" exposure category where occupants were considered likely to be exposed to levels greater than 26 ppm for one hour. The prevalence of symptoms at each level of exposure was compared with that at lowest level of exposure. Results Of the households, 6% were assessed as having a "high or very high" risk of exposure to CO. Of the individuals, 9% reported at least one neurological symptom. There was a statistically significant association between "high or very high" exposure risk to CO and self-reported symptoms compared to "no exposure" likelihood, for households not in receipt of benefit, controlling for "number of residents" and presence of pensioners, OR = 3.23 (95%CI: 1.28, 8.15). Risk ratios across all categories of exposure likelihood indicate a dose-response pattern. Those households in receipt of benefit showed no dose-response pattern. Conclusion This study found an association between risk of CO exposure at low concentration, and prevalence of

  8. The psychometric properties of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (QIDS-SR) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) in depressed inpatients in China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuan; Huang, Wei; Tian, Teng-Fei; Wang, Gang; Hu, Chen; Chiu, Helen F K; Ungvari, Gabor S; Kilbourne, Amy M; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2016-09-30

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (QIDS-SR) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). The study sample comprised 297 depressed inpatients. The severity of depressive symptoms was assessed with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the QIDS-SR and the PHQ-9 in all subjects at baseline and a random sample of 50 subjects two weeks later. The internal consistency, convergent validity, factor structure and sensitivity to change of these scales were assessed. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of the PHQ-9 and QIDS-SR were 0.88 and 0.83, respectively at baseline and 0.91 and 0.87, respectively at exit. Item to total score correlations were higher for the PHQ-9 than those for the QIDS-SR at baseline and exit. Three domains at baseline and two at study exit of the QIDS-SR had a correlation less than 0.65; while only two items at baseline and no item at exit were less than 0.65 for the PHQ-9. Both the PHQ-9 and the QIDS-SR showed uni-dimensional measurement properties at baseline; the two instruments were less sensitive than the HAMD to detect changes of depressive symptoms suggesting low convergent validity. The QIDS-SR and the PHQ-9 have similar and acceptable psychometric properties in most domains as tested in depressed inpatients. PMID:27376668

  9. Kindergarteners’ Self-Reported Social Inhibition and Observed Social Reticence: Moderation by Adult-Reported Social Inhibition and Social Anxiety Disorder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Molitor, Joseph G.

    2014-01-01

    Prevention of later anxiety problems would best be accomplished by identifying at-risk children early in development. For example, children who develop Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) may show social withdrawal in the form of social inhibition (i.e., shyness with unfamiliar adults and peers) at school entry. Although the use of children’s perceptions of their own social inhibition would provide insight into early risk, the utility of young children’s self-reports remains unclear. The current study examined whether children deemed more extreme on social inhibition or social anxiety by adult report provided self-report of social inhibition that related to observed social reticence in the laboratory. Participants included 85 kindergarten children (36 female, 49 male), their parents, and their teachers. Moderation analyses revealed that children’s self-reported social inhibition related significantly to observed social reticence under the conditions of high parent-reported social inhibition, high teacher-reported social inhibition, and high SAD symptoms. These results suggest that the most inhibited children are aware of their behavior and can report it in a meaningfully way as young as kindergarten age. PMID:25113397

  10. The use of the trauma symptom inventory in the assessment of PTSD symptoms.

    PubMed

    McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Weathers, Frank W; Adkins, Jennifer W

    2005-02-01

    This study examined the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI; Briere, 1995) in a sample of 62 trauma-exposed community residents (80% Caucasian, 89% women), including 16 who had posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD and non-PTSD groups differed on seven TSI clinical scales and one validity scale, with effect sizes (r) ranging from 0.26 to 0.53. The largest effect sizes and best diagnostic utility were found for the Defensive Avoidance and Anxious Arousal scales. Diagnostic utility analyses suggest that TSI subscales in isolation are not superior to existing measures of PTSD. A logistic regression using the five most discriminating TSI scales produced a correct classification rate of 85.5%. TSI scales also demonstrated good convergent validity with other measures of PTSD. Overall, the results provide preliminary support for the use of the TSI in the assessment of PTSD. PMID:16281197

  11. A dysphoric's TALE: The relationship between the self-reported functions of autobiographical memory and symptoms of depression.

    PubMed

    Grace, Lydia; Dewhurst, Stephen A; Anderson, Rachel J

    2016-10-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) is believed to serve self, social and directive functions; however, little is known regarding how this triad of functions operates in depression. Using the Thinking About Life Experiences questionnaire [Bluck, S., & Alea, N. (2011). Crafting the TALE: Construction of a measure to assess the functions of autobiographical remembering. Memory, 19, 470-486.; Bluck, S., Alea, N., Habermas, T., & Rubin, D. C. (2005). A TALE of three functions: The self-reported uses of autobiographical memory. Social Cognition, 23, 91-117.], two studies explored the relationship between depressive symptomology and the self-reported frequency and usefulness of AMs for self, social and directive purposes. Study 1 revealed that thinking more frequently but talking less frequently about past life events was significantly associated with higher depression scores. Recalling past events more frequently to maintain self-continuity was also significantly associated with higher depressive symptomology. However, results from Study 2 indicated that higher levels of depression were also significantly associated with less-frequent useful recollections of past life events for self-continuity purposes. Taken together, the findings suggest atypical utilisations of AM to serve self-continuity functions in depression and can be interpreted within the wider context of ruminative thought processes.

  12. A dysphoric's TALE: The relationship between the self-reported functions of autobiographical memory and symptoms of depression.

    PubMed

    Grace, Lydia; Dewhurst, Stephen A; Anderson, Rachel J

    2016-10-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) is believed to serve self, social and directive functions; however, little is known regarding how this triad of functions operates in depression. Using the Thinking About Life Experiences questionnaire [Bluck, S., & Alea, N. (2011). Crafting the TALE: Construction of a measure to assess the functions of autobiographical remembering. Memory, 19, 470-486.; Bluck, S., Alea, N., Habermas, T., & Rubin, D. C. (2005). A TALE of three functions: The self-reported uses of autobiographical memory. Social Cognition, 23, 91-117.], two studies explored the relationship between depressive symptomology and the self-reported frequency and usefulness of AMs for self, social and directive purposes. Study 1 revealed that thinking more frequently but talking less frequently about past life events was significantly associated with higher depression scores. Recalling past events more frequently to maintain self-continuity was also significantly associated with higher depressive symptomology. However, results from Study 2 indicated that higher levels of depression were also significantly associated with less-frequent useful recollections of past life events for self-continuity purposes. Taken together, the findings suggest atypical utilisations of AM to serve self-continuity functions in depression and can be interpreted within the wider context of ruminative thought processes. PMID:26371517

  13. Postpartum Depressive Symptoms Across Time and Place: Structural Invariance of the Self-Reporting Questionnaire Among Women from the International, Multi-Site MAL-ED Study

    PubMed Central

    Pendergast, Laura L.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Rasmussen, Zeba A.; Seidman, Jessica C.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Svensen, Erling; Tofail, Fahmida; Koshy, Beena; Kosek, Margaret; Rasheed, Muneera A.; Roshan, Reeba; Maphula, Angelina; Shrestha, Rita; Murray-Kolb, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) is a screening instrument that has been shown to be an effective measure of depression in postpartum women and is widely used in developing nations. Methods The SRQ was administered to 2,028 mothers from eight nations at two time points: one and six months postpartum. All data were obtained from the Interactions of Malnutrition and Enteric Infections: Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study. The sample included women from MAL-ED sites in Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Peru, South Africa, and Tanzania. This study examined three aspects of validity of SRQ scores including (a) structural validity, (b) cross-cultural invariance, and (c) invariance over time. Results A 16-item, one-factor structure with items reflecting somatic symptoms removed was deemed to be superior to the original structure in this postpartum population. Although differential item functioning (DIF) across sites was evident, the one-factor model was a good fit to the data from seven sites, and the structure was invariant across the one- and six-month time points. Limitations Findings are based on data from self-report scales. No information about the clinical status of the participants was available. Conclusions Overall, findings support the validity of a modified model of the SRQ among postpartum women. Somatic symptoms (e.g., headaches, not sleeping well) may not reflect internalizing problems in a postpartum population. Implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed. PMID:24981251

  14. The relationship between self-reported substance use and psychiatric symptoms in low-threshold methadone maintenance treatment clients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ongoing psychiatric symptoms and substance use are common difficulties experienced by clients enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). However, little research to date has evaluated if specific types of current substance use are related to specific types of current psychiatric symptoms. The present study investigated these relationships with a sample of clients enrolled in a low-threshold MMT program (i.e., clients are not expelled if they continue to use substances). Some clients enrolled in low-threshold programs may never achieve complete abstinence from all substances. Thus, understanding the possibly perpetuating relationships between concurrent substance use and psychiatric symptoms is important. Understanding such relationships may aid in developing possible target areas of treatment to reduce substance use and/or related harms in this population. Methods Seventy-seven individuals were interviewed regarding methadone usage and current and past substance use. Current psychiatric symptoms were assessed using a modified version of the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire (PDSQ). Relationships between types of substances used in the past 30 days and the types and number of psychiatric symptoms experienced in the same timeframe were examined. Results The majority of participants (87.0%) reported using alcohol, illicit substances, non-prescribed prescription opioids, or non-prescribed benzodiazepines in the past 30 days and 77.9% of participants reported currently experiencing psychiatric symptoms at levels that would likely warrant diagnosis. Current non-prescribed benzodiazepine use was a predictor for increased severity (i.e., symptom count) of almost all anxiety and mood disorders assessed. Conversely, number and presence of generalized anxiety symptoms and presence of social phobia symptoms predicted current non-prescribed benzodiazepine and alcohol use, respectively. Conclusions Individuals enrolled in the present low

  15. Self-Reported Treatment-Associated Symptoms among Patients with Urea Cycle Disorders Participating in Glycerol Phenylbutyrate Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Nagamani, Sandesh C. S.; Diaz, George A.; Rhead, William; Berry, Susan A.; Le Mons, Cynthia; Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Bartley, James; Feigenbaum, Annette; Schulze, Andreas; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Gallagher, Renata; Bartholomew, Dennis; Harding, Cary O.; Korson, Mark S.; McCandless, Shawn E.; Smith, Wendy; Vockley, Jerry; Kronn, David; Zori, Robert; Cederbaum, Stephen; Merritt, J. Lawrence; Wong, Derek; Coakley, Dion F.; Scharschmidt, Bruce F.; Dickinson, Klara; Marino, Miguel; Lee, Brendan H.; Mokhtarani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Health care outcomes have been increasingly assessed through health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures. While the introduction of nitrogen-scavenging medications has improved survival in patients with urea cycle disorders (UCDs), they are often associated with side effects that may affect patient compliance and outcomes. Methods Symptoms commonly associated with nitrogen-scavenging medications were evaluated in 100 adult and pediatric participants using a non-validated UCD-specific questionnaire. Patients or their caregivers responded to a pre-defined list of symptoms known to be associated with the use of these medications. Responses were collected at baseline (while patients were receiving sodium phenylbutyrate [NaPBA]) and during treatment with glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB). Results After 3 months of GPB dosing, there were significant reductions in the proportion of patients with treatment-associated symptoms (69% vs. 46%; p<0.0001), the number of symptoms per patient (2.5 vs. 1.1; p<0.0001), and the frequency of the more commonly reported individual symptoms such as body odor, abdominal pain, nausea, burning sensation in mouth, vomiting, and heartburn (p<0.05). The reduction in symptoms was observed in both pediatric and adult patients. The presence or absence of symptoms or change in severity did not correlate with plasma ammonia levels or NaPBA dose. Conclusions The reduction in symptoms following 3 months of open-label GPB dosing was similar in pediatric and adult patients and may be related to chemical structure and intrinsic characteristics of the product rather than its effect on ammonia control. PMID:26296711

  16. Performance and comparison of self-reported STI symptoms among high-risk populations - MSM, sex workers, persons living with HIV/AIDS - in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Shah, Neha S; Kim, Evelyn; de Maria Hernández Ayala, Flor; Guardado Escobar, Maria Elena; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Kim, Andrea A; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2014-12-01

    Resource-limited countries have limited laboratory capability and rely on syndromic management to diagnose sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We aimed to estimate the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of STI syndromic management when used as a screening method within a study setting. Men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSWs) and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) participated in a behavioural surveillance study. Data were obtained on demographics, sexual behaviours, STI history and service utilisation. Biological specimens were tested for genital inflammatory infections (Neisseria gonorrhoeae [GC], Chlamydia trachomatis [CT], Mycoplasma genitalium [MG], Trichomonas vaginalis [TV]) and genital ulcerative infection (syphilis and Herpes simplex virus-2). There was a high prevalence of Herpes simplex virus-2 (MSM 48.1%, FSW 82.0% and PLWHA 84.4%). Most participants reported no ulcerative symptoms and the majority of men reported no inflammatory symptoms. Sensitivity and PPV were poor for inflammatory infections among PLWHA and MSM. Sensitivity in FSWs for inflammatory infections was 75%. For ulcerative infections, sensitivity was poor, but specificity and PPV were high. Reliance on self-reported symptoms may not be an effective screening strategy for these populations. STI prevention studies should focus on symptom recognition and consider routine screening and referral for high-risk populations.

  17. Further Validity Evidence for the Teacher Version of the Child Symptom Inventory-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Sprafkin, Joyce; Salisbury, Helen; Schneider, Jayne; Loney, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The reliability and validity of the teacher version of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4) was examined in 248 boys referred for evaluation of behavioral and emotional problems. The CSI-4 is a behavior rating scale whose items correspond to the symptoms of DSM?IV-defined disorders. The results indicated satisfactory internal consistency…

  18. Screening for Obsessive and Compulsive Symptoms: Validation of the Clark-Beck Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David A.; Antony, Martin M.; Beck, Aaron T.; Swinson, Richard P.; Steer, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    The 25-item Clark-Beck Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (CBOCI) was developed to assess the frequency and severity of obsessive and compulsive symptoms. The measure uses a graded-response format to assess core symptom features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American…

  19. Are self-reports valid for schizophrenia patients with poor insight? Relationship of unawareness of illness to psychological self-report instruments.

    PubMed

    Bell, Morris; Fiszdon, Joanna; Richardson, Randall; Lysaker, Paul; Bryson, Gary

    2007-05-30

    This investigation aimed to determine whether impaired insight influences the validity of self-report test scores in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. 274 outpatients enrolled in work rehabilitation completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory (BORRTI), and NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Self-report scores were compared to clinician's ratings on comparable personality and symptom dimensions on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Work Behavior Inventory (WBI), and the Quality of Life Scale (QLS). The influence of insight was determined using the Scale for Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD). In the first analysis, clinician SUMD ratings of patient insight were associated with self-report accuracy. In a second analysis, patients were categorized into good and poor insight groups based on SUMD ratings and compared on self-report and clinician report variables. Results suggest that poor insight patients accurately report less Neuroticism and Agreeableness, and more Psychoticism than good insight patients, but individuals with poor insight wish to present themselves as more extraverted than they actually are, and they are likely to be more certain of their perceptions than they should be. It appears that self-report measures may be valid for most personality and symptom domains.

  20. Infant Emotion Regulation Strategy Moderates Relations between Self-Reported Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Infant HPA Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoury, Jennifer E.; Gonzalez, Andrea; Levitan, Robert; Masellis, Mario; Basile, Vincenzo; Atkinson, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Children of mothers with depressive symptoms often have high cortisol levels. Research shows that various child characteristics (e.g., attachment pattern, internalizing behaviours, and temperament) moderate this association. We suggest that these characteristics share common variance with emotion regulation strategy. Therefore, we examine infant…

  1. Reliability, Validity, and Utility of Instruments for Self-Report and Informant Report Concerning Symptoms of ADHD in Adult Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooij, J. J. Sandra; Boonstra, A. Marije; Swinkels, S. H. N.; Bekker, Evelijne M.; de Noord, Ineke; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between symptoms of ADHD in adults, obtained with different methods and from different sources. Method: Information was obtained from 120 adults with ADHD, their partners, and their parents, using the ADHD Rating Scale, the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS), the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale…

  2. Parental Reports of Global Physical Health at Ages 3 and 6 Predict Self-Reported Depressive Symptoms 17 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raikkonen, Katri; Schubert, Carla; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Viikari, Jorma; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2004-01-01

    Research studies testing longitudinal relations between childhood physical health measures and adulthood sub-clinical depressive symptoms are rare. In the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, longitudinal relations of parental reports of the global physical health of the child (1 = good, 2 = moderately good, 3 = average/not good) and of…

  3. Middle Childhood Support-Seeking Behavior during Stress: Links with Self-Reported Attachment and Future Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dujardin, Adinda; Santens, Tara; Braet, Caroline; De Raedt, Rudi; Vos, Pieter; Maes, Bea; Bosmans, Guy

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether children's more anxious and avoidant attachment is linked to decreased support-seeking behavior toward their mother during stress in middle childhood, and whether children's decreased support-seeking behavior enhances the impact of experiencing life events on the increase of depressive symptoms 18 months later.…

  4. Early Adolescent Depression Symptoms and School Dropout: Mediating Processes Involving Self-Reported Academic Competence and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroga, Cintia V.; Janosz, Michel; Bisset, Sherri; Morin, Alexandre J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Research on adolescent well-being has shown that students with depression have an increased risk of facing academic failure, yet few studies have looked at the implications of adolescent depression in the process of school dropout. This study examined mediation processes linking depression symptoms, self-perceived academic competence, and…

  5. The Pattern of Mobile Phone Use and Prevalence of Self-Reported Symptoms in Elementary and Junior High School Students in Shiraz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Atefi, Mohammad; Kholghi, Fatemeh

    2011-01-01

    Background: The use of mobile phone by children is increasing drastically. Children are likely to accumulate many years of exposure during their lives. Furthermore, as nervous systems in children are developing, children may be at a greater risk compared to adults. In this light, some scientists have suggested that the use of mobile phones should be restricted in high-risk groups such as children. This study is an attempt to explore the pattern of mobile phone use and its health effects among students from the city of Shiraz, Iran. Methods: A total of 469 (235 males and 234 females; 250 elementary and 219 junior high school) healthy students participated in this study. The students were randomly selected from three different educational districts of the city. For each student, a questionnaire regarding the possible sources of exposure to electromagnetic fields or microwave radiation, specially the pattern of mobile phone use, medical history and life style was filled out by interviewers. Results: Only 31.42% of the students used to use mobile phones. The average daily time of using mobile phones in talk mode was 7.08±21.42 minutes. Not only the relative frequency of mobile phone ownership in boys was significantly more than the girls, but also the boys used their mobile phones more frequently. Statistically significant associations were found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and some symptoms. Furthermore, a statistically significant association was found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and the number of headaches per month, number of vertigo per month, or number of sleeping problem per month. Conclusion: Results obtained in this study show that a large proportion of children in the city of Shiraz use mobile phones. A significant increase was found in some self-reported symptoms among users of mobile phones. These findings are in line with what is widely believed regarding the higher vulnerability of children to exhibit

  6. A prospective cohort study of the association between drinking water arsenic exposure and self-reported maternal health symptoms during pregnancy in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Arsenic, a common groundwater pollutant, is associated with adverse reproductive health but few studies have examined its effect on maternal health. Methods A prospective cohort was recruited in Bangladesh from 2008–2011 (N = 1,458). At enrollment (<16 weeks gestational age [WGA]), arsenic was measured in personal drinking water using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Questionnaires collected health data at enrollment, at 28 WGA, and within one month of delivery. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for self-reported health symptoms were estimated for each arsenic quartile using logistic regression. Results Overall, the mean concentration of arsenic was 38 μg/L (Standard deviation, 92.7 μg/L). A total of 795 women reported one or more of the following symptoms during pregnancy (cold/flu/infection, nausea/vomiting, abdominal cramping, headache, vaginal bleeding, or swollen ankles). Compared to participants exposed to the lowest quartile of arsenic (≤0.9 μg/L), the aOR for reporting any symptom during pregnancy was 0.62 (95% CI = 0.44-0.88) in the second quartile, 1.83 (95% CI = 1.25-2.69) in the third quartile, and 2.11 (95% CI = 1.42-3.13) in the fourth quartile where the mean arsenic concentration in each quartile was 1.5 μg/L, 12.0 μg/L and 144.7 μg/L, respectively. Upon examining individual symptoms, only nausea/vomiting and abdominal cramping showed consistent associations with arsenic exposure. The odds of self-reported nausea/vomiting was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.68, 1.41), 1.52 (95% CI: 1.05, 2.18), and 1.81 (95% CI: 1.26, 2.60) in the second, third and fourth quartile of arsenic relative to the lowest quartile after adjusting for age, body mass index, second-hand tobacco smoke exposure, educational status, parity, anemia, ferritin, medication usage, type of sanitation at home, and household income. A positive trend was also observed for abdominal cramping (P for trend <0.0001). A

  7. Screening of Tanzanian women of childbearing age for urinary schistosomiasis: validity of urine reagent strip readings and self-reported symptoms.

    PubMed Central

    Poggensee, G.; Krantz, I.; Kiwelu, I.; Feldmeier, H.

    2000-01-01

    The screening of women of childbearing age for haematuria, leukocyturia and proteinuria to detect urinary schistosomiasis can be confounded by several factors such as menstruation, pregnancy and genitourinary infections. We therefore undertook a study in an area endemic for Schistosoma haematobium in the United Republic of Tanzania to carry out the following: assess the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values--in women of childbearing age--of indirect indicators of urinary schistosomiasis, as measured by urine reagent strip readings; assess the predictive values of self-reported symptoms; and finally to estimate the morbidity attributable to S. haematobium. A total of 303 women (128 and 175, respectively, living in high- and low-risk sites) participated in the study. Haematuria was more frequent among women excreting S. haematobium eggs than among those who did not (65% versus 32%). The predictive potential of all indirect disease markers was poor in the highly endemic site, while in the sites with low endemicity the negative predictive values were high. Among infected women, 54% of haematuria could be attributed to S. haematobium, but for patients with more than 10 eggs/10 ml the attributable fraction rose to 70%. Symptoms of "bloody urine" and "pain while urinating" were recalled significantly more often by women living in the highly endemic site. On a population level, one-third of the self-reported cases with bloody urine could be attributed to urinary schistosomiasis. Screening of women of childbearing age for urinary schistosomiasis using urine reagent strips can be biased in two directions. The prevalence of S. haematobium will be overestimated if other causes of haematuria, such as reproductive tract infections, are highly endemic. On the other hand, women with light or very light infections will be missed and will not be treated. This is of concern because genital schistosomiasis, a possible risk factor for the transmission of HIV, occurs among

  8. Exposure-response relationship of wind turbine noise with self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems: A nationwide socioacoustic survey in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Takayuki; Yano, Takashi; Kuwano, Sonoko; Sueoka, Shinichi; Tachibana, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The association of wind turbine noise (WTN) with sleep and physical/mental health has not been fully investigated. To investigate the relationship of WTN with the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems, a socioacoustic survey of 1079 adult residents was conducted throughout Japan (2010-2012): 747 in 34 areas surrounding wind turbine plants and 332 in 16 control areas. During face-to-face interviews, the respondents were not informed of the purpose of the survey. Questions on symptoms such as sleeplessness and physical/mental complaints were asked without specifying reasons. Insomnia was defined as having one or any combination of the following that occurs three or more times a week and bothers a respondent: Difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, premature morning awakening, and feeling of light overnight sleep. Poor health was defined as having high scores for health complaints, as determined using the Total Health Index, exceeding the criteria proposed by the authors of the index. The noise descriptor for WTN was LAeq,n outdoor, estimated from the results of actual measurement at some locations in each site. Multiple logistic analysis was applied to the LAeq,n and insomnia or poor health. The odds ratio (OR) of insomnia was significantly higher when the noise exposure level exceeded 40 dB, whereas the self-reported sensitivity to noise and visual annoyance with wind turbines were also independently associated with insomnia. OR of poor health was not significant for noise exposure, but significant for noise sensitivity and visual annoyance. The above two moderators appear to indicate the features of respondents who are sensitive to stimuli or changes in their homeostasis.

  9. Exposure-response relationship of wind turbine noise with self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems: A nationwide socioacoustic survey in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kageyama, Takayuki; Yano, Takashi; Kuwano, Sonoko; Sueoka, Shinichi; Tachibana, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The association of wind turbine noise (WTN) with sleep and physical/mental health has not been fully investigated. To investigate the relationship of WTN with the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems, a socioacoustic survey of 1079 adult residents was conducted throughout Japan (2010-2012): 747 in 34 areas surrounding wind turbine plants and 332 in 16 control areas. During face-to-face interviews, the respondents were not informed of the purpose of the survey. Questions on symptoms such as sleeplessness and physical/mental complaints were asked without specifying reasons. Insomnia was defined as having one or any combination of the following that occurs three or more times a week and bothers a respondent: Difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, premature morning awakening, and feeling of light overnight sleep. Poor health was defined as having high scores for health complaints, as determined using the Total Health Index, exceeding the criteria proposed by the authors of the index. The noise descriptor for WTN was LAeq,n outdoor, estimated from the results of actual measurement at some locations in each site. Multiple logistic analysis was applied to the LAeq,n and insomnia or poor health. The odds ratio (OR) of insomnia was significantly higher when the noise exposure level exceeded 40 dB, whereas the self-reported sensitivity to noise and visual annoyance with wind turbines were also independently associated with insomnia. OR of poor health was not significant for noise exposure, but significant for noise sensitivity and visual annoyance. The above two moderators appear to indicate the features of respondents who are sensitive to stimuli or changes in their homeostasis. PMID:26960782

  10. Exposure-response relationship of wind turbine noise with self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems: A nationwide socioacoustic survey in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Takayuki; Yano, Takashi; Kuwano, Sonoko; Sueoka, Shinichi; Tachibana, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The association of wind turbine noise (WTN) with sleep and physical/mental health has not been fully investigated. To investigate the relationship of WTN with the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems, a socioacoustic survey of 1079 adult residents was conducted throughout Japan (2010-2012): 747 in 34 areas surrounding wind turbine plants and 332 in 16 control areas. During face-to-face interviews, the respondents were not informed of the purpose of the survey. Questions on symptoms such as sleeplessness and physical/mental complaints were asked without specifying reasons. Insomnia was defined as having one or any combination of the following that occurs three or more times a week and bothers a respondent: Difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, premature morning awakening, and feeling of light overnight sleep. Poor health was defined as having high scores for health complaints, as determined using the Total Health Index, exceeding the criteria proposed by the authors of the index. The noise descriptor for WTN was LAeq,n outdoor, estimated from the results of actual measurement at some locations in each site. Multiple logistic analysis was applied to the LAeq,n and insomnia or poor health. The odds ratio (OR) of insomnia was significantly higher when the noise exposure level exceeded 40 dB, whereas the self-reported sensitivity to noise and visual annoyance with wind turbines were also independently associated with insomnia. OR of poor health was not significant for noise exposure, but significant for noise sensitivity and visual annoyance. The above two moderators appear to indicate the features of respondents who are sensitive to stimuli or changes in their homeostasis. PMID:26960782

  11. STD care: variations in clinical care associated with provider sex, patient sex, patients' self-reported symptoms or high-risk behaviors, partner STD history.

    PubMed

    St Lawrence, Janet S; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Hogben, Matthew; Montaño, Daniel E; Kasprzyk, Danuta; Phillips, William R

    2004-09-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases in the United States are frequently diagnosed by private, as well as public, physicians. However, we know little about the decision processes that physicians employ when faced with people who may or may not be infected. To address this gap, we compared physicians' responses to different patient vignettes to assess how variations in patients' presentations affect physicians' clinical behavior. We systematically varied reported symptoms, behavioral risk, partner STD, and sex of patients in 16 different vignettes, with one vignette randomly presented to each physician in a national survey. Physicians rated the likelihood of 12 clinical management actions they might take with the patient vignette presented. Responses varied with self-reported symptoms, high-risk behavior, and report of an STD infected partner such that female physicians were more attentive to sexual health, and all physicians were more likely to treat female patients aggressively, relative to their male patients. Overall behavior was broadly congruent with sound medical practice, although we discuss several caveats to this general statement.

  12. Changes in self-reported experienced health and psychosomatic symptoms in voluntary participants in a 1-year extensive newspaper exercise campaign.

    PubMed

    Andersson, G; Malmgren, S

    1986-01-01

    Starting in 1977 the newspaper Ostgötacorrespondenten carried through a 1-year health information campaign in Linköping. The campaign included exercise, dietary and anti-smoking components. It was given a great deal of space in the paper with special supplements almost every week. The purpose of the study is to throw light upon self-reported changed general well-being and experienced psychosomatic symptoms and health of the participants in this campaign. 2,887 persons registered voluntarily for the campaign. After the campaign a questionnaire was sent to the 1,568 participants who had been the most active in the campaign. 935 persons (60%) answered the questionnaire. One fourth of the participants with headache, back pain, stomach problems or sleeping trouble before the campaign experienced that their symptoms had decreased during the campaign, primarily due to changed exercise habits. Half of the participants reported that their general well-being was better and 42% experienced themselves healthier as a result of changed health habits in connection with the campaign. In the group that felt healthier, almost twice as many, 62% compared with 34%, had increased their exercising compared with those who experienced themselves as neither healthier nor less healthy.

  13. [Discontinuation-Emergent Signs and Symptoms Inventory--Polish translation of the discontinuation signs and symptoms checklist].

    PubMed

    Cubała, Wiesław Jerzy; Landowski, Jerzy; Springer, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    A number of preclinical and clinical studies are focused on mechanisms of SSRI discontinuation syndrome as well as the patient populations and agents that are most affected by this phenomenon. Characteristics of onset, duration, and severity of any discontinuation symptoms and spontaneous reports of taper/poststudy-emergent adverse events should be compared with those of the active comparator in these studies. Besides, common clinical practice supplies a number of problems associated with SSRI discontinuation syndrome as related to treatment planning and management. The recommended instrument for evaluating SSRI discontinuation syndrome symptoms is the Discontinuation-Emergent Signs and Symptoms (DESS) inventory. DESS is a 43-item checklist that can be administered in a clinician-rated form, a self-rated form, or an interactive voice-response form. The paper presents the Polish version of DESS inventory along with its application and interpretation instructions. DESS inventory is of substantial advance in common psychiatric practice as it enables effective SSRI discontinuation management on drug tapering and in case of the non-compliance with the treatment. Its use in the systematic studies facilitates conclusive outcome results and is of prime importance as being comparable with literature outcomes. PMID:24946477

  14. Symptom and personality profiles of young adults from a college student population with self-reported illness from foods and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Bell, I R; Schwartz, G E; Peterson, J M; Amend, D

    1993-12-01

    Despite much debate over a presumptively somatic vs psychological etiology of nonatopic food and chemical sensitivities, little systematic research has addressed the issues. The present study investigated self-reported illness from several common foods (wheat, dairy, eggs) and chemicals (pesticide, car exhaust, paint, perfume, new carpet), symptom patterns, and psychological profiles of a sample of young adult college students (n = 490, age 19.4 +/- 2.4, 52% female/48% male). Subjects were divided into 4 groups on the basis of sample medians for frequency of illness from the foods (FI) and chemicals (CI); high FI with high CI (FI/CI), high FI alone, high CI alone, and NOILL (low FI and CI). FI was associated with more defensiveness (denial of negativity) while CI was linked with more shyness (avoidance of novelty). Women outnumbered men in all groups (FI/CI: 61%; FI: 80% CI: 55%) except the NOILL (40% women). Nevertheless, the FI/CI, FI, and/or CI groups still had significantly higher total symptom scores as well as more indigestion, headache, and memory trouble than did the NOILL group, even after depression, anxiety, shyness, defensiveness, and gender were covaried. The illness groups reported significantly more limitation of foods that mobilize endogenous opioids or generate exogenous opioids (sweets, fats, bread) as well as more illness from opiate drugs, small amounts of beverage alcohol, and late meals. Nasal symptoms from pollens or animals were more common in the FI/CI (42%) and CI (42%) than in FI (26%) or NOILL (28%) groups. Premenstrual tension syndrome and irritable bowel were also more common in the FI/CI group. The findings indicate that young adults outside the clinical setting who are relatively higher in FI and/or CI have distinctive symptom and psychological patterns. Covariate analyses suggest that important symptoms in FI and CI individuals such as indigestion, headache, and memory problems may occur in addition to rather than as simply part of

  15. Simulation of traumatic brain injury symptoms on the Personality Assessment Inventory: an analogue study.

    PubMed

    Keiski, Michelle A; Shore, Douglas L; Hamilton, Joanna M; Malec, James F

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the operating characteristics of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) validity scales in distinguishing simulators feigning symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI) while completing the PAI (n = 84) from a clinical sample of patients with TBI who achieved adequate scores on performance validity tests (n = 112). The simulators were divided into two groups: (a) Specific Simulators feigning cognitive and somatic symptoms only or (b) Global Simulators feigning cognitive, somatic, and psychiatric symptoms. The PAI overreporting scales were indeed sensitive to the simulation of TBI symptoms in this analogue design. However, these scales were less sensitive to the feigning of somatic and cognitive TBI symptoms than the feigning of a broad range of cognitive, somatic, and emotional symptoms often associated with TBI. The relationships of TBI simulation to consistency and underreporting scales are also explored.

  16. A Review of the Factorial Structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI): Greek Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loutsiou-Ladd, Anthi; Panayiotou, Georgia; Kokkinos, Costantinos M.

    2008-01-01

    This study extends the psychometric evidence on the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) in a sample of Greek-speaking adults (N = 818). Alpha coefficients for the nine dimensions indicated high consistency among the comprising items of each scale. The convergent and discriminant validity of the Greek-BSI were checked against the personality constructs…

  17. Testing the Cross-Ethnic Construct Validity of the Brief Symptom Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoe, Maanse; Brekke, John

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the cross-ethnic construct validity of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Method: The sample consisted of 1,166 individuals diagnosed with severe and persistent mental illness who were receiving treatment in community-based mental health programs. Multiple-group confirmatory factor…

  18. Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish-Language Trauma Symptom Inventory in Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez Wang, Lisa; Cosden, Merith; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This research was conducted to assess the Spanish-language Trauma Symptom Inventory's (Briere, 1995) suitability for use with a Puerto Rican sample. Minor revisions were made to the original instrument following a comprehensive appraisal involving a bilingual committee and pilot focus group. The present study outlines the review and…

  19. Self-Report Measures of Family Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Robert G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes and compares two self-report measures of family competence: the Family Awareness Scales (FAS) (Green and Kolevzon, late 1970s) and the Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI) (Beavers, 1983). Discusses reliability and validity. Their focus on the "insider" (family member) is different from the traditional examination of family competence from…

  20. Use of wireless telephones and self-reported health symptoms: a population-based study among Swedish adolescents aged 15–19 years

    PubMed Central

    Söderqvist, Fredrik; Carlberg, Michael; Hardell, Lennart

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite the last years of rapid increase in use of wireless phones little data on the use of these devices has been systematically assessed among young persons. The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to assess use of wireless phones and to study such use in relation to explanatory factors and self-reported health symptoms. Methods A postal questionnaire comprising 8 pages of 27 questions with 75 items in total was sent to 2000 Swedish adolescents aged 15–19 years and selected from the population registry using a stratified sampling scheme. Results The questionnaire was answered by 63.5% of the study subjects. Most participants reported access to a mobile phone (99.6%) and use increased with age; 55.6% of the 15-year-olds and 82.2% of the 19-year-olds were regular users. Girls generally reported more frequent use than boys. Use of wired hands-free equipment 'anytime' was reported by 17.4%. Cordless phones were used by 81.9%, and 67.3% were regular users. Watching TV increased the odds ratio for use of wireless phones, adjusted for age and gender. Some of the most frequently reported health complaints were tiredness, stress, headache, anxiety, concentration difficulties and sleep disturbances. Regular users of wireless phones had health symptoms more often and reported poorer perceived health than less frequent users. Conclusion Almost all adolescence in this study used a wireless phone, girls more than boys. The most frequent use was seen among the older adolescents, and those who watched TV extensively. The study further showed that perceived health and certain health symptoms seemed to be related to the use of wireless phones. However, this part of the investigation was explorative and should therefore be interpreted with caution since bias and chance findings due to multiple testing might have influenced the results. Potentially this study will stimulate more sophisticated studies that may also investigate directions of associations

  1. Psychometric validation of the Portuguese version of the Neuropathic Pain Symptoms Inventory

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Backgroud It has been shown that different symptoms or symptom combinations of neuropathic pain (NeP) may correspond to different mechanistic backgrounds and respond differently to treatment. The Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI) is able to detect distinct clusters of symptoms (i.e. dimensions) with a putative common mechanistic background. The present study described the psychometric validation of the Portuguese version (PV) of the NPSI. Methods Patients were seen in two consecutive visits, three to four weeks apart. They were asked to: (i) rate their mean pain intensity in the last 24 hours on an 11-point (0-10) numerical scale; (ii) complete the PV-NPSI; (iii) provide the list of pain medications and doses currently in use. VAS and Global Impression of Change (GIC) were filled out in the second visit. Results PV-NPSI underwent test-retest reliability, factor analysis, analysis of sensitivity to changes between both visits. The PV-NPSI was reliable in this setting, with a good intra-class correlation for all items. The factorial analysis showed that the PV-NPSI inventory assessed different components of neuropathic pain. Five different factors were found. The PV-NPSI was adequate to evaluate patients with neuropathic pain and to detect clusters of NeP symptoms. Conclusions The psychometric properties of the PV-NPSI rendered it adequate to evaluate patients with both central and peripheral neuropathic pain syndromes and to detect clusters of NeP symptoms. PMID:22128801

  2. The use of immersive virtual reality (VR) to predict the occurrence 6 months later of paranoid thinking and posttraumatic stress symptoms assessed by self-report and interviewer methods: a study of individuals who have been physically assaulted.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Daniel; Antley, Angus; Ehlers, Anke; Dunn, Graham; Thompson, Claire; Vorontsova, Natasha; Garety, Philippa; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Glucksman, Edward; Slater, Mel

    2014-09-01

    Presentation of social situations via immersive virtual reality (VR) has the potential to be an ecologically valid way of assessing psychiatric symptoms. In this study we assess the occurrence of paranoid thinking and of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to a single neutral VR social environment as predictors of later psychiatric symptoms assessed by standard methods. One hundred six people entered an immersive VR social environment (a train ride), presented via a head-mounted display, 4 weeks after having attended hospital because of a physical assault. Paranoid thinking about the neutral computer-generated characters and the occurrence of PTSD symptoms in VR were assessed. Reactions in VR were then used to predict the occurrence 6 months later of symptoms of paranoia and PTSD, as assessed by standard interviewer and self-report methods. Responses to VR predicted the severity of paranoia and PTSD symptoms as assessed by standard measures 6 months later. The VR assessments also added predictive value to the baseline interviewer methods, especially for paranoia. Brief exposure to environments presented via virtual reality provides a symptom assessment with predictive ability over many months. VR assessment may be of particular benefit for difficult to assess problems, such as paranoia, that have no gold standard assessment method. In the future, VR environments may be used in the clinic to complement standard self-report and clinical interview methods.

  3. The Use of Immersive Virtual Reality (VR) to Predict the Occurrence 6 Months Later of Paranoid Thinking and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Assessed by Self-Report and Interviewer Methods: A Study of Individuals Who Have Been Physically Assaulted

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Presentation of social situations via immersive virtual reality (VR) has the potential to be an ecologically valid way of assessing psychiatric symptoms. In this study we assess the occurrence of paranoid thinking and of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to a single neutral VR social environment as predictors of later psychiatric symptoms assessed by standard methods. One hundred six people entered an immersive VR social environment (a train ride), presented via a head-mounted display, 4 weeks after having attended hospital because of a physical assault. Paranoid thinking about the neutral computer-generated characters and the occurrence of PTSD symptoms in VR were assessed. Reactions in VR were then used to predict the occurrence 6 months later of symptoms of paranoia and PTSD, as assessed by standard interviewer and self-report methods. Responses to VR predicted the severity of paranoia and PTSD symptoms as assessed by standard measures 6 months later. The VR assessments also added predictive value to the baseline interviewer methods, especially for paranoia. Brief exposure to environments presented via virtual reality provides a symptom assessment with predictive ability over many months. VR assessment may be of particular benefit for difficult to assess problems, such as paranoia, that have no gold standard assessment method. In the future, VR environments may be used in the clinic to complement standard self-report and clinical interview methods. PMID:24708073

  4. Screening for obsessive and compulsive symptoms: validation of the Clark-Beck Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory.

    PubMed

    Clark, David A; Antony, Martin M; Beck, Aaron T; Swinson, Richard P; Steer, Robert A

    2005-06-01

    The 25-item Clark-Beck Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (CBOCI) was developed to assess the frequency and severity of obsessive and compulsive symptoms. The measure uses a graded-response format to assess core symptom features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria and current cognitive-behavioral formulations. Revisions were made to the CBOCI on the basis of psychometric and item analyses of an initial pilot study of clinical and nonclinical participants. The construct validity of the revised CBOCI was supported in a subsequent validation study involving OCD, nonobsessional clinical, and nonclinical samples. A principal-factor analysis of the 25 items found 2 highly correlated factors of Obsessions and Compulsions. OCD patients scored significantly higher on the measure than nonobsessional anxious, depressed, and nonclinical samples. The questionnaire had strong convergent validity with other OCD symptom measures but more modest discriminant validity.

  5. Eating-related Intrusive Thoughts Inventory: exploring the dimensionality of eating disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Perpiñá, Conxa; Roncero, María; Belloch, Amparo; Sánchez-Reales, Sergio

    2011-08-01

    The aims of this study were, first, to examine the structure and validity of the Eating-related Intrusive Thoughts Inventory (INPIAS), a self-report questionnaire designed to assess eating disorders related to intrusive thoughts (EDITs), and second, to explore the existence of a continuum ranging from normal to abnormal thought intrusions related to eating, weight, and shape. Participants were 574 (408 women) nonclinical community individuals. Analyses revealed that EDITs can be clustered into three sets: appearance-dieting, need to exercise, and thoughts-impulses related to eating disorders. EDITs' consequences showed a two-factor structure: emotional consequences/personal meaning and thought-action fusion responsibility; and four factors of strategies: "anxiety," suppression, obsessive-compulsive rituals, and distraction. The sample was then divided according to reported restrained eating. The High dietary restraint group reported a higher frequency of EDITs, whereas differences in the other factors were mediated by depression, anxiety, and obsessionality. The results suggest that eating disorder-related cognitions are experienced by nonclinical individuals, and distributed on a continuum.

  6. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) predictors of police officer problem behavior and collateral self-report test scores.

    PubMed

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Fischler, Gary L; Cappo, Bruce M; Hill, David O; Corey, David M; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2015-03-01

    The current study examined the predictive validity of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011) scores in police officer screenings. We utilized a sample of 712 police officer candidates (82.6% male) from 2 Midwestern police departments. The sample included 426 hired officers, most of whom had supervisor ratings of problem behaviors and human resource records of civilian complaints. With the full sample, we calculated zero-order correlations between MMPI-2-RF scale scores and scale scores from the California Psychological Inventory (Gough, 1956) and Inwald Personality Inventory (Inwald, 2006) by gender. In the hired sample, we correlated MMPI-2-RF scale scores with the outcome data for males only, owing to the relatively small number of hired women. Several scales demonstrated meaningful correlations with the criteria, particularly in the thought dysfunction and behavioral/externalizing dysfunction domains. After applying a correction for range restriction, the correlation coefficient magnitudes were generally in the moderate to large range. The practical implications of these findings were explored by means of risk ratio analyses, which indicated that officers who produced elevations at cutscores lower than the traditionally used 65 T-score level were as much as 10 times more likely than those scoring below the cutoff to exhibit problem behaviors. Overall, the results supported the validity of the MMPI-2-RF in this setting. Implications and limitations of this study are discussed. PMID:25383586

  7. Incremental Validity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised with Mental Health Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonds, Elise C.; Handel, Richard W.; Archer, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the incremental validity of scores from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) in a sample of mental health inpatients originally published by Archer, Griffin, and Aiduk (1995). The incremental validity of scores from the SCL-90-R primary symptom dimensions…

  8. Development of the family symptom inventory: a psychosocial screener for children with hematology/oncology conditions.

    PubMed

    Karlson, Cynthia W; Haynes, Stacey; Faith, Melissa A; Elkin, Thomas D; Smith, Maria L; Megason, Gail

    2015-03-01

    A growing body of literature has begun to underscore the importance of integrating family-based comprehensive psychological screening into standard medical care for children with oncology and hematology conditions. There are no known family-based measures designed to screen for clinically significant emotional and behavioral concerns in pediatric oncology and hematology patients. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the Family Symptom Inventory (FSI), a brief screener of patient and family member psychological symptoms. The FSI also screens for common comorbid physical symptoms (pain and sleep disturbance) and is designed for use at any point during treatment and follow-up. A total of 488 caregivers completed the FSI during regular hematology/oncology visits for 193 cancer, 219 sickle cell disease, and 76 hematology pediatric patients. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and tests of reliability and preliminary validity were conducted. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a 34-item, 4-factor solution, which was confirmed in an independent sample using confirmatory factor analysis (factor loadings=0.49 to 0.88). The FSI demonstrated good internal reliability (α's=0.86 to 0.92) and good preliminary validity. Regular psychosocial screening throughout the course of treatment and follow-up may lead to improved quality of care for children with oncology and hematology conditions.

  9. Polish adaptation of three self-report measures of job stressors: the Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale, the Quantitative Workload Inventory and the Organizational Constraints Scale

    PubMed Central

    Baka, Łukasz; Bazińska, Róża

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The objective of the present study was to test the psychometric properties, reliability and validity of three job stressor measures, namely, the Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale, the Organizational Constraints Scale and the Quantitative Workload Inventory. Method. The study was conducted on two samples (N = 382 and 3368) representing a wide range of occupations. The estimation of internal consistency with Cronbach's α and the test–retest method as well as both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were the main statistical methods. Results. The internal consistency of the scales proved satisfactory, ranging from 0.80 to 0.90 for Cronbach's α test and from 0.72 to 0.86 for the test–retest method. The one-dimensional structure of the three measurements was confirmed. The three scales have acceptable fit to the data. The one-factor structures and other psychometric properties of the Polish version of the scales seem to be similar to those found in the US version of the scales. It was also proved that the three job stressors are positively related to all the job strain measures. Conclusions. The Polish versions of the three analysed scales can be used to measure the job stressors in Polish conditions. PMID:26652317

  10. The association between self-reported change in vote for the presidential election of 2012 and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms following Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Palgi, Yuval; Rubin, G James; Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Goodwin, Robin

    2013-12-30

    The relationship between vote change for the presidential election in 2012 and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has not been previously explored. An online sample of 1000 people mainly from New York Metropolitan Area was surveyed during the fourth week of November 2012 after Hurricane Sandy, shortly after the US Presidential election. Participants completed a questionnaire battery which included disaster related questions and PTSD symptoms. Logistic regression revealed a significant association between vote change and elevated risk for PTSD symptoms. This result may indicate that PTSD symptoms are associated with behavioral actions such as vote change.

  11. Self-Reported Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Type 2 Diabetes Improve With an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention: Results From the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Neiberg, Rebecca H; Rejeski, Jared J; Applegate, William B; Clark, Jeanne M; Knowler, William C; Bray, George A; Espeland, Mark A; Cheskin, Lawrence J

    2015-10-01

    In Brief This article reports on an investigation of whether an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) would reduce gastrointestinal symptoms over 4 years of follow-up for participants in the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial compared to a diabetes support and education (DSE) group. Look AHEAD is a randomized, multicenter trial comparing overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes treated with ILI versus DSE. ILI, and weight loss in general, had beneficial effects on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, with some variability in the strength of the effect depending on the specific symptom and time course. Potential modifiers were analyzed, yet ILI retained an association with improvement in GI symptoms.

  12. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Self-Report Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Dutch Adolescents at Ages 12, 14, and 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Grootheest, Daniel S.; Bartels, Meike; Van Beijsterveldt, Catarina E. M.; Cath, Danielle C.; Beekman, Aartjan T.; Hudziak, James J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2008-01-01

    The involvement of genetic and environmental factors to the development of obsessive compulsion symptoms during the adolescent period is examined. Study revealed that individual differences in OC symptoms are heritable during puberty and shared environmental influences played a role only in the beginning of adolescence but no sex differences in…

  13. Assessment of the relationship between self-reported cognitive distortions and adult ADHD, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness.

    PubMed

    Strohmeier, Craig W; Rosenfield, Brad; DiTomasso, Robert A; Ramsay, J Russell

    2016-04-30

    The current chart review study examined the relationship between self-reported cognitive distortions, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and co-occurring symptoms of depression and anxiety in a clinical sample of adults diagnosed with ADHD. Thirty subjects completed inventories measuring cognitive distortions, ADHD, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness as part of the standard diagnostic evaluation protocol used in a university-based outpatient clinic specializing in adult ADHD. A series of correlational analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between self-reported cognitive distortions, ADHD, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness. Results indicated a significant, positive correlation between self-reported cognitive distortions and ADHD. Responses to individual items on the measure of cognitive distortions were tabulated to identify the prevalence of specific cognitive distortion categories, with Perfectionism emerging as the most frequently endorsed. Further clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27086226

  14. Assessment of the relationship between self-reported cognitive distortions and adult ADHD, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness.

    PubMed

    Strohmeier, Craig W; Rosenfield, Brad; DiTomasso, Robert A; Ramsay, J Russell

    2016-04-30

    The current chart review study examined the relationship between self-reported cognitive distortions, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and co-occurring symptoms of depression and anxiety in a clinical sample of adults diagnosed with ADHD. Thirty subjects completed inventories measuring cognitive distortions, ADHD, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness as part of the standard diagnostic evaluation protocol used in a university-based outpatient clinic specializing in adult ADHD. A series of correlational analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between self-reported cognitive distortions, ADHD, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness. Results indicated a significant, positive correlation between self-reported cognitive distortions and ADHD. Responses to individual items on the measure of cognitive distortions were tabulated to identify the prevalence of specific cognitive distortion categories, with Perfectionism emerging as the most frequently endorsed. Further clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Self-Reported Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Type 2 Diabetes Improve With an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention: Results From the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rejeski, Jared J.; Applegate, William B.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Knowler, William C.; Bray, George A.; Espeland, Mark A.; Cheskin, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    In Brief This article reports on an investigation of whether an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) would reduce gastrointestinal symptoms over 4 years of follow-up for participants in the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial compared to a diabetes support and education (DSE) group. Look AHEAD is a randomized, multicenter trial comparing overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes treated with ILI versus DSE. ILI, and weight loss in general, had beneficial effects on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, with some variability in the strength of the effect depending on the specific symptom and time course. Potential modifiers were analyzed, yet ILI retained an association with improvement in GI symptoms. PMID:26487792

  16. Utility of the Trauma Symptom Inventory's Atypical Response Scale in Detecting Malingered Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elhai, Jon D.; Gray, Matthew J.; Naifeh, James A.; Butcher, Jimmie J.; Davis, Joanne L.; Falsetti, Sherry A.; Best, Connie L.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the Trauma Symptom Inventorys (TSI) ability to discriminate 88 student post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) simulators screened for genuine PTSD from 48 clinical PTSD-diagnosed outpatients. Results demonstrated between-group differences on several TSI clinical scales and the Atypical Response (ATR) validity scale.…

  17. Associations between Macronutrient Intake and Obstructive Sleep Apnoea as Well as Self-Reported Sleep Symptoms: Results from a Cohort of Community Dwelling Australian Men

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yingting; Wittert, Gary; Taylor, Anne W.; Adams, Robert; Shi, Zumin

    2016-01-01

    Background: macronutrient intake has been found to affect sleep parameters including obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in experimental studies, but there is uncertainty at the population level in adults. Methods: cross-sectional analysis was conducted of participants in the Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress cohort (n = 784, age 35–80 years). Dietary intake was measured by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Self-reported poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness were measured by questionnaires. Overnight in-home polysomnography (PSG) was conducted among participants with without previously diagnosed OSA. Results: after adjusting for demographic, lifestyle factors, and chronic diseases, the highest quartile of fat intake was positively associated with excessive daytime sleepiness (relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.78, 95% CI 1.10, 2.89) and apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) ≥20, (RRR = 2.98, 95% CI 1.20–7.38). Body mass index mediated the association between fat intake and AHI (30%), but not daytime sleepiness. There were no associations between other intake of macronutrient and sleep outcomes. Conclusion: high fat is associated with daytime sleepiness and AHI. Sleep outcomes are generally not assessed in studies investigating the effects of varying macronutrient diets on weight loss. The current result highlights the potential public health significance of doing so. PMID:27070639

  18. Health care utilization by United Nations peacekeeping veterans with co-occurring, self-reported, post-traumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms versus those without.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Jennifer A; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Woods, Meghan; Taylor, Steven; Stein, Murray B

    2006-06-01

    It remains to be determined whether patients with comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression use more health care resources than do those without. United Nations peacekeeping veterans from Canada were divided into four groups, i.e., PTSD alone (n = 23), depression alone (n = 167), comorbid PTSD and depression (n = 119), and neither (n = 164), and compared with respect to total number of visits to any health care professional in the past year. Analysis of variance revealed that the groups significantly differed in total visits. Post hoc analyses indicated that veterans with co-occurring PTSD and depression symptoms had more visits than did those in the other groups and that veterans with PTSD symptoms alone and depression symptoms alone had more visits than did those with neither PTSD nor depression. Additional analyses revealed that veterans with co-occurring PTSD and depression symptoms made more visits to general practitioners, specialists, pharmacists, and mental health professionals than did the others. Future research directions and implications for treatment planning are discussed. PMID:16808142

  19. [Valutazione delle guardie di sicurezza privata attraverso la Suicide Probability Scale e la Brief Symptom Inventory].

    PubMed

    Dogan, Bulent; Canturk, Gurol; Canturk, Nergis; Guney, Sevgi; Özcan, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Lo scopo di questo studio è stato quello di investigare l'influenza della probabilità di suicidio, con le sue caratteristiche sociodemografiche, e di procurare i dati per la prevenzione del suicidio tra le guardie di sicurezza privata che lavorano in condizioni di stress, essendo a contatto ininterrottamente con eventi negativi e traumatici di vita durante il loro lavoro. Metodi. Hanno partecipato allo studio 200 guardie di sicurezza privata e 200 persone dell'Università di Ankara. Per raccogliere i dati sono stati utilizzati un questionario riguardante le condizioni sociodemografiche dei partecipanti, la Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) e la Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Risultati. Genere, stato civile, stipendio, credenze religiose, vivere una situazione di pericolo di vita, passato di tentativi di suicidio, fumare e non avere una malattia cronica hanno causato statisticamente una differenza significativa sui punteggi di SPS tra il gruppo di guardie di sicurezza privata e quello di controllo. In aggiunta, c'è stata una correlazione positiva statisticamente significativa tra i punteggi totali delle sottoscale di SPS e quelli di BSI. Conclusioni. Allo stesso modo degli agenti di polizia e dei gendarmi, le guardie di sicurezza privata sono ad alto rischio di commettere e tentare il suicidio trovandosi in condizioni stressanti di lavoro e anche soffrendo del trauma secondario. È necessario che essi siano consapevoli della propria tendenza al suicidio e avere controlli psichiatrici regolari.

  20. Factorial Structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI)-18 among Chinese Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jichuan; Kelly, Brian C; Liu, Tieqiao; Zhang, Guanbai; Hao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) has been widely used for mental health screenings in both clinical and non-clinical populations, the validation of its application to Chinese populations has been very limited. The objective of this research is to assess the factorial structure of the BSI-18 within a Chinese drug using population. METHODS AND RESULTS A total sample of 303 drug users recruited via Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) from Changsha, China was used for the study. Our results show: 1) The BSI-18 item scores are highly skewed; 2) With dichotomous items measures (1-problem at least moderately caused respondent discomfort during the past week; 0-otherwise), our findings support the designed 3-factor solution of the BSI-18 (somatization, depression, and anxiety); 3) The BSI-18 has a hierarchical factorial structure with 3 first-order factors and an underlying second-order factor (general psychological distress); 4) Tentative support should also be given to a single dimension of general psychological distress in Chinese drug using populations. Our study recommends a useful alternative approach for evaluating the factorial structure of the BSI-18 – i.e. CFA with dichotomous item measures. Both the total BSI-18 score and the three subscales (SOM, DEP, and ANX) can be used in applications of the BSI-18. CONCLUSION Overall, our findings suggest the BSI-18 is useful with Chinese drug users, and shows potential for use with non-Western and substance using populations more generally. PMID:23906998

  1. [Valutazione delle guardie di sicurezza privata attraverso la Suicide Probability Scale e la Brief Symptom Inventory].

    PubMed

    Dogan, Bulent; Canturk, Gurol; Canturk, Nergis; Guney, Sevgi; Özcan, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Lo scopo di questo studio è stato quello di investigare l'influenza della probabilità di suicidio, con le sue caratteristiche sociodemografiche, e di procurare i dati per la prevenzione del suicidio tra le guardie di sicurezza privata che lavorano in condizioni di stress, essendo a contatto ininterrottamente con eventi negativi e traumatici di vita durante il loro lavoro. Metodi. Hanno partecipato allo studio 200 guardie di sicurezza privata e 200 persone dell'Università di Ankara. Per raccogliere i dati sono stati utilizzati un questionario riguardante le condizioni sociodemografiche dei partecipanti, la Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) e la Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Risultati. Genere, stato civile, stipendio, credenze religiose, vivere una situazione di pericolo di vita, passato di tentativi di suicidio, fumare e non avere una malattia cronica hanno causato statisticamente una differenza significativa sui punteggi di SPS tra il gruppo di guardie di sicurezza privata e quello di controllo. In aggiunta, c'è stata una correlazione positiva statisticamente significativa tra i punteggi totali delle sottoscale di SPS e quelli di BSI. Conclusioni. Allo stesso modo degli agenti di polizia e dei gendarmi, le guardie di sicurezza privata sono ad alto rischio di commettere e tentare il suicidio trovandosi in condizioni stressanti di lavoro e anche soffrendo del trauma secondario. È necessario che essi siano consapevoli della propria tendenza al suicidio e avere controlli psichiatrici regolari. PMID:27183512

  2. How robust are the Dermatology Life Quality Index and other self-reported subjective symptom scores when exposed to a range of experimental biases?

    PubMed

    Murray, Caroline S; Rees, Jonathan L

    2010-01-01

    Subjective-symptom tools used in dermatology have rarely been experimentally tested for cognitive "focus" and "framing" biases. We investigated the effects of affective biases on the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), the Global Health Question and visual analogue scores. Two experiments tested the response to affect-eliciting words and film. We demonstrated no significant difference in median DLQI scores for subjects exposed to negative vs. neutral words (medians 8.5 and 9.5, respectively), or negative vs. positive words (medians 6.0 and 9.0, respectively, overall p = 0.41.) Median DLQI scores were similar for groups who had (8.0), or had not (9.0), seen a video clip about a severe skin condition (p = 0.34). Finally, we compared an Amended DLQI (ADLQI), the DLQI re-worded into neutral "frames", with the standard DLQI. ADLQI median scores were higher (ADLQI 8.25, DLQI 6.75), but not significantly so (p = 0.47). We have been unable to demonstrate any effects of the biases studied, but the statistical power of our study is modest.

  3. The Utility and Comparative Incremental Validity of the MMPI-2 and Trauma Symptom Inventory Validity Scales in the Detection of Feigned PTSD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efendov, Adele A.; Sellbom, Martin; Bagby, R. Michael

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the comparative predictive capacity of the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) Atypical Response Scale (ATR) and the standard set of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) fake-bad validity scales (i.e., F, F[subscript B[prime

  4. Self-Report Measures of Parent-Adolescent Attachment and Separation-Individuation: A Selective Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Gover, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews and critiques three self-report measures of parent-adolescent attachment (Parental Bonding Instrument, Parental Attachment Questionnaire, Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment) and three self-report measures of parent-adolescent separation-individuation (Psychological Separation Inventory, Personal Authority in the Family System…

  5. Association study of monoamine oxidase-A gene promoter polymorphism (MAOA-uVNTR) with self-reported anxiety and other psychopathological symptoms in a community sample of early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Voltas, Núria; Aparicio, Estefania; Arija, Victoria; Canals, Josefa

    2015-04-01

    The polymorphism upstream of the gene for monoamine oxidase A (MAOA-uVNTR) is reported to be an important enzyme involved in human physiology and behavior. With a sample of 228 early-adolescents from a community sample (143 girls) and adjusting for environmental variables, we examined the influence of MAOA-uVNTR alleles on the scores obtained in the Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders and in the Child Symptom Inventory-4. Our results showed that girls with the high-activity MAOA allele had higher scores for generalized and total anxiety than their low-activity peers, whereas boys with the low-activity allele had higher social phobia scores than boys with the high-activity allele. Results for conduct disorder symptoms did not show a significant relationship between the MAOA alleles and the presence of these symptoms. Our findings support a possible association, depending on gender, between the MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism and psychopathological disorders such as anxiety, which affects high rates of children and adolescents. PMID:25747527

  6. Extreme Appraisals of Internal States and Bipolar Symptoms: The Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive Predictions Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Alyson L.; Mansell, Warren; Morrison, Anthony P.; Tai, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive Predictions Inventory (HAPPI; W. Mansell, 2006) was developed to assess multiple, extreme, self-relevant appraisals of internal states. The present study aimed to validate the HAPPI in a clinical sample. Participants (N = 50) with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (confirmed by a structured clinical interview)…

  7. Reliability and Concurrent Validity of the Palliative Outcome Scale, the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist, and the Brief Pain Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Agra-Varela, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Some domains of the questionnaires used to measure symptoms and quality of life (QOL) in patients with advanced cancer seem to measure similar dimensions or constructs, so it would be useful for clinicians to demonstrate the interchangeability of equivalent domains of the questionnaires in measuring the same constructs. Objective This study investigated the reliability and concurrent validity of the Palliative Outcome Scale (POS), the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL), and the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), used to measure symptom control in patients with advanced cancer. Design This was an evaluative study. Setting/Subjects Subjects were patients with advanced cancer attended by Spanish primary care physicians. Measurements Secondary analysis was performed of 117 outpatients who completed the POS, BPI, and RSCL at two different times, with an interval of 7 to 10 days. Bland and Altman analyses and plot, repeatability coefficient, as well as Spearman correlations were carried out. Results There were 117 included patients. Mean age was 69.4 (11.5) years, gender was 60% male, 37.6% completed only elementary school, diagnoses were mainly digestive and lung cancer, with a low functional rate and presence of oncologic pain. First and second questionnaire rounds showed significant correlations and agreement. Agreement was shown between pain intensity of BPI and pain and physical scales of RSCL, and between physical symptoms of RSCL and of POS, with significant correlations in equivalent dimensions. Conclusion BPI, POS, and RSCL have shown adequate reliability and moderate concurrent validity among them. PMID:23808642

  8. Anger Dysregulation, Depressive Symptoms, and Health in Married Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Carrère, Sybil; Mittmann, Angela; Woodin, Erica; Tabares, Amber; Yoshimoto, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Background Anger problems (anger dysregulation) and depressive symptoms have been linked to risk for all causes of mortality, but less is known about the association between anger dysregulation and depressive symptoms within the context of gender differences and health outcomes. Objectives The association between anger dysregulation, depressive symptoms, and self-reports of health in married adults was evaluated using an emotion-regulation model. Method Fifty-two married couples completed a series of procedures that included an interview assessing their ability to regulate anger, a questionnaire reporting depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory) and self-reports indicating health. Results Results provided support for hypothesized links between the variables, but they varied by gender: (a) greater anger dysregulation in the wives, but not the husbands, was predictive of depressive symptoms; (b) anger dysregulation was predictive of the husbands’ self-reports of health but was not predictive of the wives’ self-reports of health; (c) depressive symptoms were not significantly associated with self-reports of health for either married women or men. Discussion These results suggest that anger dysregulation may play different roles in the depressive symptoms and self-reports of health for married women and men. PMID:15897794

  9. Differences in the Prevalence, Severity and Symptom Profiles of Depression in Boys and Adolescents with an Autism Spectrum Disorder versus Normally Developing Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence, severity and symptom profiles for major depressive disorder (MDD) were compared in samples of boys and adolescents with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Self-reports were obtained on the Depression subscale of the Child and Adolescent Symptoms Inventory (CASI-D) with 70 ASD and 50 non-ASD male participants between the…

  10. Utility of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) in Psychiatric Outpatients with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, J.; Wardenaar, K. J.; Fontein, E.; Zitman, F. G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diagnostics and care for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and psychiatric disorders need to be improved. This can be done by using assessment instruments to routinely measure the nature and severity of psychiatric symptoms. Up until now, in the Netherlands, assessment measures are seldom used in the psychiatric care for this…

  11. Convergent and Discriminant Validity of Psychopathy Factors Assessed Via Self-Report

    PubMed Central

    Benning, Stephen D.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Salekin, Randall T.; Leistico, Anne-Marie R.

    2008-01-01

    Psychopathy has been conceptualized as a personality disorder with distinctive interpersonal-affective and behavioral deviance features. The authors examine correlates of the factors of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), Self-Report Psychopathy–II (SRP-II) scale, and Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) to understand similarities and differences among the constructs embodied in these instruments. PPI Fearless Dominance and SRP-II Factor 1 were negatively related to most personality disorder symptoms and were both predicted by high Dominance and low Neuroticism. In addition, PPI Fearless Dominance correlated positively with antisocial personality features, although SRP-II Factor 1 did not. In contrast, PPI Impulsive Antisociality, SRP-II Factor 2, and both APSD factors correlated with antisocial personality features and symptoms of nearly all personality disorders, and were predicted by low Love. Results suggest ways in which the measurement of the constructs in each instrument may be improved. PMID:16123248

  12. Cognitive Abilities Relate to Self-Reported Hearing Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zekveld, Adriana A.; George, Erwin L. J.; Houtgast, Tammo; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this explorative study, the authors investigated the relationship between auditory and cognitive abilities and self-reported hearing disability. Method: Thirty-two adults with mild to moderate hearing loss completed the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH; Kramer, Kapteyn, Festen, & Tobi, 1996) and…

  13. Effect of Symptom Information and Intelligence in Dissimulation. An Examination of Faking Response Styles by Inmates on the Basic Personality Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffan, Jarrod S.; Kroner, Daryl G.; Morgan, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    This study employed the Basic Personality Inventory (BPI) to differentiate various types of dis-simulation, including malingered psychopathology and faking good, by inmates. In particular, the role of intelligence in utilizing symptom information to successfully malinger was examined. On admission to a correctional facility, 161 inmates completed…

  14. An Evaluation of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 Using Item Response Theory: Which Items Are Most Strongly Related to Psychological Distress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijer, Rob R.; de Vries, Rivka M.; van Bruggen, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) was investigated using Mokken scaling and parametric item response theory. Data of 487 outpatients, 266 students, and 207 prisoners were analyzed. Results of the Mokken analysis indicated that the BSI-18 formed a strong Mokken scale for outpatients and…

  15. Factorial Invariance of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) for Adults of Mexican Descent across Nativity Status, Language Format, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Lucas; Miller, Matthew J.; Moore, Kelly M.

    2013-01-01

    The cultural equivalence of psychological outcome measures remains a major area of investigation. The current study sought to test the factor structure and factorial invariance of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) with a sample of adult individuals of Mexican descent (N = 923) across nativity status (U.S.- vs. foreign-born), language format…

  16. A comparison of self-report and caregiver assessment of depression, apathy, and irritability in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Anjan; Anderson, Karen E; Moskowitz, Carol B; Hauser, Willard A; Marder, Karen S

    2005-01-01

    The natural history of psychiatric syndromes associated with Huntington's disease (HD) remains unclear, and longitudinal studies of symptoms such as depression, apathy, and irritability are required to better understand the progression and role of these syndromes and their effect on disability. Self-administered scales such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) may be useful to document changes in symptoms over time, but the validity of self-report may be questionable with the inevitable progression of cognitive deficits. An alternative to the patient's self-report would be assessments by the caregiver. The authors assessed interrater agreement between patient self-assessment and caregiver assessment of patients status for the presence of depressed mood using the BDI and apathy and irritability using an apathy and irritability scale. Agreement between these scales across strata of cognitive status was also examined. Interrater agreement varied from moderate to good for the BDI, depending on patient cognitive status. Agreement for the apathy scores was low for patients with poor cognition and fair in patients with better cognition. Irritability scale agreement was fair at best and was the worst in patients with the most intact cognition. Caregiver assessment of patients' moods and apathy may be an acceptable alternative to patient self-report as patients' cognitive status worsens.

  17. Validity of Self-Report Measures of Defense Mechanisms

    PubMed

    Mehlman; Slane

    1994-06-01

    The Life Style Index (LSI), the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ), the Defense Mechanisms Inventory (DMI), and the FIRO Coping Operations Preferences Enquiry (FIRO) were administered to 187 undergraduates in order to determine convergent and discriminant validity of self-report measures of defense mechanisms. A correlational analysis of the four scales resulted in low correlations among subscales measuring similar defense mechanisms. A factor analysis produced factors based on particular scales rather than identical or similar constructs. Results suggest that self-report measures may not be an effective method for assessing various ego defense strategies.

  18. The stability of self-reported adverse experiences in childhood: a longitudinal study on obesity.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Susana Sofia Pereira; da Costa Maia, Angela

    2013-07-01

    The literature on the effect of maltreatment has revealed several methodological problems of retrospective studies, such as the validity and stability of retrospective reports, which may be influenced by factors such as one's mental health at the time of the report. This study aims to assess the temporal stability of self-reported adverse childhood experiences at three different time points, separated by 6 months each, and to analyze the relationship between general psychopathology and the number of reported experiences. Thirty obese participants responded to the Portuguese version of the Childhood History Questionnaire, a self-report measure that assesses adverse childhood experiences, and the Brief Symptom Inventory. The results suggest that adverse childhood experiences are common in these participants (time 1: X = 1.87, SD = 1.3; time 2: X = 1.98, SD = 1.6; time 3: X = 1.98, SD = 1.6). The agreement levels, as measured by kappa values, were satisfactory for the dimensions of maltreatment focused on the individual, with kappas ranging between .34 and .44. Our participants did not exhibit psychopathology at any of the time points, and the psychopathological symptoms were not related to total adversity reported. The major contribution of this study is the comparison of self-reports at three time points, separated by significant time intervals, and the inclusion of 10 different dimensions of childhood adversity. The data show an adequate stability in the report of maltreatment toward the individual (abuse and physical neglect) and in specific aspects of adversity in the family. PMID:23360751

  19. Concordance of the Mini-Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults Who Have Developmental Disabilities (PASADD) and the Brief Symptom Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beail, N.; Mitchell, K.; Vlissides, N.; Jackson, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: When assessing the mental health needs of people who have intellectual disabilities (ID) it is important to use measures that have good validity and reliability to ensure accurate case recognition and reliable and valid outcome data. Measures developed for this purpose tend to be self-report or by informant report. Multi-trait…

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Self-Reports: Testing Validity and Reliability Using the NEO-PI-R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesselmark, Eva; Eriksson, Jonna M.; Westerlund, Joakim; Bejerot, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Although self-reported measures are frequently used to assess adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the validity of self-reports is under-researched in ASD. The core symptoms of ASD may negatively affect the psychometric properties of self-reported measures. The aim of the present study was to test the validity and reliability of…

  1. Depressive symptoms in youth with type 1 or type 2 diabetes: Results of the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium screening assessment of depression in diabetes study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the frequency of depressive symptoms and the diagnosis and management of depression in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) enrolled in the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium T1D and T2D registries. The Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) 2 Self-Report (Short) version ...

  2. Validation of self-reported periodontal disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Blicher, B; Joshipura, K; Eke, P

    2005-10-01

    Self-report is an efficient and accepted means of assessing many population characteristics, risk factors, and diseases, but has rarely been used for periodontal disease (chronic periodontitis). The availability of valid self-reported measures of periodontal disease would facilitate epidemiologic studies on a much larger scale, allow for integration of new studies of periodontal disease within large ongoing studies, and facilitate lower-cost population surveillance of periodontitis. Several studies have been conducted to validate self-reported measures for periodontal disease, but results have been inconsistent. In this report, we conducted a systematic review of the validation studies. We reviewed the 16 studies that assessed the validity of self-reported periodontal and gingivitis measures against clinical gold standards. Seven of the studies included self-reported measures specific to gingivitis, four included measures only for periodontitis, and five included both gingivitis and periodontal measures. Three of the studies used a self-assessment method where they provided the patient with a detailed manual for performing a self-exam. The remaining 13 studies asked participants to self-report symptoms, presence of periodontal disease itself, or their recollection of a dental health professional diagnosing them or providing treatment for periodontal disease. The review indicates that some measures showed promise, but results varied across populations and self-reported measures. One example of a good measure is, "Has any dentist/hygienist told you that you have deep pockets?", which had a sensitivity of 55%, a specificity of 90%, positive predictive value of 77%, and negative predictive value of 75% against clinical pocket depth. Higher validity could be potentially obtained by the use of combinations of several self-reported questions and other predictors of periodontal disease. PMID:16183785

  3. Using Cluster Analysis to Segment Students Based on Self-Reported Emotionally Intelligent Leadership Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facca, Tina M.; Allen, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    Using emotionally intelligent leadership (EIL) as the model, the authors identify behaviors that three levels of leaders engage in based on a self-report inventory (Emotionally Intelligent Leadership for Students-Inventory). Three clusters of students are identified: those that are "Less-involved, Less Others-oriented," "Self-Improvers," and…

  4. Depressive symptoms and observed eating in youth.

    PubMed

    Mooreville, Mira; Shomaker, Lauren B; Reina, Samantha A; Hannallah, Louise M; Adelyn Cohen, L; Courville, Amber B; Kozlosky, Merel; Brady, Sheila M; Condarco, Tania; Yanovski, Susan Z; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A

    2014-04-01

    Depressive symptoms in youth may be a risk factor for obesity, with altered eating behaviors as one possible mechanism. We tested whether depressive symptoms were associated with observed eating patterns expected to promote excessive weight gain in two separate samples. In Study 1, 228 non-treatment-seeking youth, ages 12-17y (15.3±1.4y; 54.7% female), self-reported depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory. Energy intake was measured as consumption from a 10,934-kcal buffet meal served at 11:00am after an overnight fast. In Study 2, 204 non-treatment-seeking youth, ages 8-17y (13.0±2.8y; 49.5% female), self-reported depressive symptoms using the Children's Depression Inventory. Energy intake was measured as consumption from a 9835-kcal buffet meal served at 2:30pm after a standard breakfast. In Study 1, controlling for body composition and other relevant covariates, depressive symptoms were positively related to total energy intake in girls and boys. In Study 2, adjusting for the same covariates, depressive symptoms among girls only were positively associated with total energy intake. Youth high in depressive symptoms and dietary restraint consumed the most energy from sweets. In both studies, the effects of depressive symptoms on intake were small. Nevertheless, depressive symptoms were associated with significantly greater consumption of total energy and energy from sweet snack foods, which, over time, could be anticipated to promote excess weight gain. PMID:24424352

  5. Validation of Self-Reported Cognitive Problems with Objective Neuropsychological Performance in Manganese-Exposed Residents

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a lack of validation of self-reported cognitive problems with objective neuropsychological measures. The validity of four self-reported cognitive items from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was examined with objective clinical ...

  6. Personality, psychological stress, and self-reported influenza symptomatology

    PubMed Central

    Smolderen, Kim GE; Vingerhoets, Ad JJM; Croon, Marcel A; Denollet, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Background Psychological stress and negative mood have been related to increased vulnerability to influenza-like illness (ILI). This prospective study re-evaluated the predictive value of perceived stress for self-reported ILI. We additionally explored the role of the negative affectivity and social inhibition traits. Methods In this study, 5,404 respondents from the general population were assessed in terms of perceived stress, personality, and control variables (vaccination, vitamin use, exercise, etc.). ILI were registered weekly using self-report measures during a follow-up period of four weeks. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis on ILI was performed to test the predictive power of stress and personality. In this model, negative affectivity (OR = 1.05, p = 0.009), social inhibition (OR = 0.97, p = 0.011), and perceived stress (OR = 1.03, p = 0.048) predicted ILI reporting. Having a history of asthma (OR = 2.33, p = < 0.0001) was also associated with ILI reporting. Older age was associated with less self-reported ILI (OR = 0.98, P = 0.017). Conclusion Elderly and socially inhibited persons tend to report less ILI as compared to their younger and less socially inhibited counterparts. In contrast, asthma, trait negative affectivity, and perceived stress were associated with higher self-report of ILI. Our results demonstrate the importance of including trait markers in future studies examining the relation between stress and self-report symptom measures. PMID:18036207

  7. The cumulative effect of different childhood trauma types on self-reported symptoms of adult male depression and PTSD, substance abuse and health-related quality of life in a large active-duty military cohort.

    PubMed

    Agorastos, Agorastos; Pittman, James O E; Angkaw, Abigail C; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Hansen, Christian J; Aversa, Laura H; Parisi, Sarah A; Barkauskas, Donald A; Baker, Dewleen G

    2014-11-01

    History of childhood trauma (CT) is highly prevalent and may lead to long-term consequences on physical and mental health. This study investigated the independent association of CT with symptoms of adult depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mental and physical health-related quality of life (HRQoL), as well as current tobacco consumption and alcohol abuse in a large homogenous cohort of 1254 never-deployed, young male Marines enrolled in the Marine Resiliency Study. Independent effects of CT history, number and type of CT on outcomes were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate logistic regression models. Our results suggested dose-dependent negative effect of an increasing number of trauma types of CT on depression, PTSD and HRQoL. Experience of single CT type demonstrated overall weak effects, while history of multiple CT types distinctively increased the likelihood of adult PTSD symptomology (OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.5-6.2), poor mental (OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.1) and physical HRQoL (OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.9). Risk for depression symptoms was similar for both single and multiple CT (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.8 and OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2-3.5 respectively). CT history had no effects on current tobacco use and alcohol abuse. Our study thus provides evidence for substantial additive effect of different CT types on adult mental and physical health with increasing levels of exposure.

  8. Depressive symptoms and concussions in aging retired NFL players.

    PubMed

    Didehbani, Nyaz; Munro Cullum, C; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Conover, Heather; Hart, John

    2013-08-01

    We examined the relationship between a remote history of concussions with current symptoms of depression in retired professional athletes. Thirty retired National Football League (NFL) athletes with a history of concussion and 29 age- and IQ-matched controls without a history of concussion were recruited. We found a significant correlation between the number of lifetime concussions and depressive symptom severity using the Beck Depression Inventory II. Upon investigating a three-factor model of depressive symptoms (affective, cognitive, and somatic; Buckley et al., 2001) from the BDI-II, the cognitive factor was the only factor that was significantly related to concussions. In general, NFL players endorsed more symptoms of depression on all three Buckley factors compared with matched controls. Findings suggest that the number of self-reported concussions may be related to later depressive symptomology (particularly cognitive symptoms of depression).

  9. Depressive Symptoms and Concussions in Aging Retired NFL Players

    PubMed Central

    Didehbani, Nyaz; Munro Cullum, C.; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Conover, Heather; Hart, John

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relationship between a remote history of concussions with current symptoms of depression in retired professional athletes. Thirty retired National Football League (NFL) athletes with a history of concussion and 29 age- and IQ-matched controls without a history of concussion were recruited. We found a significant correlation between the number of lifetime concussions and depressive symptom severity using the Beck Depression Inventory II. Upon investigating a three-factor model of depressive symptoms (affective, cognitive, and somatic; Buckley et al., 2001) from the BDI-II, the cognitive factor was the only factor that was significantly related to concussions. In general, NFL players endorsed more symptoms of depression on all three Buckley factors compared with matched controls. Findings suggest that the number of self-reported concussions may be related to later depressive symptomology (particularly cognitive symptoms of depression). PMID:23644673

  10. The relationship of PTSD to key somatic complaints and cultural syndromes among Cambodian refugees attending a psychiatric clinic: the Cambodian Somatic Symptom and Syndrome Inventory (CSSI).

    PubMed

    Hinton, Devon E; Kredlow, M Alexandra; Pich, Vuth; Bui, Eric; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2013-06-01

    This article describes a culturally sensitive questionnaire for the assessment of the effects of trauma in the Cambodian refugee population, the Cambodian Somatic Symptom and Syndrome Inventory (CSSI), and gives the results of a survey with the instrument. The survey examined the relationship of the CSSI, the two CSSI subscales, and the CSSI items to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity and self-perceived functioning. A total of 226 traumatized Cambodian refugees were assessed at a psychiatric clinic in Lowell, MA, USA. There was a high correlation of the CSSI, the CSSI somatic and syndrome scales, and all the CSSI items to the PTSD Checklist (PCL), a measure of PTSD severity. All the CSSI items varied greatly across three levels of PTSD severity, and patients with higher levels of PTSD had very high scores on certain CSSI-assessed somatic items such as dizziness, orthostatic dizziness (upon standing), and headache, and on certain CSSI-assessed cultural syndromes such as khyâl attacks, "fear of fainting and dying upon standing up," and "thinking a lot." The CSSI was more highly correlated than the PCL to self-perceived disability assessed by the Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12). The study demonstrates that the somatic symptoms and cultural syndromes described by the CSSI form a central part of the Cambodian refugee trauma ontology. The survey indicates that locally salient somatic symptoms and cultural syndromes need be profiled to adequately assess the effects of trauma. PMID:23630226

  11. Menstrual Symptoms in Adolescent Girls: Association with Smoking, Depressive Symptoms and Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Lorah D.; Negriff, Sonya; Huang, Bin; Pabst, Stephanie; Hillman, Jennifer; Braverman, Paula; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Dysmenorrhea affects quality of life and contributes to absenteeism from school and work diminishing opportunities for successful psychosocial and cognitive development during adolescence. In adults, depression, anxiety, and smoking have an impact on menstrual cycles and dysmenorrhea. Associations between these potential problems have not been examined in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between depressive symptoms and anxiety with menstrual symptoms. Smoking was examined as a moderator of this relationship. Methods This study enrolled 154 post-menarcheal girls from a sample of 207 girls age 11, 13, 15, and 17 years [M = 15.4 years (± 1.9)]. Self-reported measures included the Menstrual Symptom Questionnaire (MSQ), Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and smoking behavior. Generalized linear regression modeled MSQ outcomes separately for depressive symptoms and anxiety. Results More depressive symptoms/anxiety were related to higher numbers of menstrual symptoms (r = 0.23–0.44, p < .05). Smoking status (ever) was related to higher MSQ scores. Moderating effects of smoking and depressive symptoms or anxiety on menstrual symptoms were consistent across most MSQ factors where effects were stronger in never smokers. Conclusion This is the first study in adolescents showing smoking status and depressive symptoms/anxiety are related to menstrual symptoms and that the impact of depressive symptoms/anxiety on menstrual symptoms is stronger in never smokers. The dynamic and complex nature of smoking, moods, and dysmenorrhea cannot be disentangled without longitudinal analyses. Efforts to reduce menstrual symptoms should begin at a young gynecological age and include consideration of mood and smoking status. PMID:19237109

  12. Self-report reliability and symptomatology of habitual caffeine consumption.

    PubMed Central

    James, J E; Bruce, M S; Lader, M H; Scott, N R

    1989-01-01

    1. A large body of research on the demography of caffeine use and its potential health consequences has been undermined by the absence of empirical data on the reliability of retrospective self-reports of caffeine consumption. 2. The principal aim of the present study was to use standard bioanalytic method to assess the reliability of subjects' self-reported caffeine use. Saliva samples were obtained from 142 first-and second-year medical students and assayed for caffeine and paraxanthine. 3. Self-reported caffeine use was found to be significantly correlated with salivary caffeine (r = 0.31, P less than 0.001) and paraxanthine (r = 0.42, P less than 0.001), thereby providing qualified support for use of questionnaires to estimate patterns of caffeine consumption. 4. A secondary aim of the study was to extend previous research concerning the symptomatology of caffeine use by examining the association between caffeine exposure and a variety of measures of somatic and psychological health. Caffeine consumption was reliably associated with the self-reported occurrence of somatic symptoms, but not psychological well-being. PMID:2719904

  13. Depressive Symptoms Correlate with Disability and Disease Course in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: An Italian Multi-Center Study Using the Beck Depression Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Solaro, C.; Trabucco, E.; Signori, A.; Martinelli, V.; Radaelli, M.; Centonze, D.; Rossi, S.; Grasso, M. G.; Clemenzi, A.; Bonavita, S.; D’Ambrosio, A.; Patti, F.; D’Amico, E.; Cruccu, G.; Truini, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression occurs in about 50% of patients with multiple sclerosis. The aims of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms in a multicenter MS population using the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI II) and to identify possible correlations between the BDI II score and demographic and clinical variables. Methods Data were collected in a multi-center, cross-sectional study over a period of six months in six MS centers in Italy using BDI II. Results 1,011 MS patients participated in the study. 676 subjects were female, with a mean age of 34 years (SD 10.8), mean EDSS of 3.3 (0–8.5) and mean disease duration of 10.3 years (range 1–50 years). 668 (%) subjects scored lower than 14 on the BDI II and 343 (33.9%) scored greater than 14 (14 cut-off score). For patients with BDI>14 multivariate analysis showed a significant difference between EDSS and disease course. BDI II scores for subjects with secondary progressive (SP) MS were significantly different from primary progressive (PP) patients (p < 0.001) but similar to relapsing-remitting (RR) patients. Considering subjects with moderate to severe depressive symptoms (BDI II score from 20–63), in relation to disease course, 11.7% (83/710) had RR MS, 40.7% (96/236) SP and 13.6% (6/44) PP. Conclusions Using the BDI II, 30% of the current sample had depressive symptoms. BDI II score correlates with disability and disease course, particularly in subjects with SP MS. The BDI II scale can be a useful tool in clinical practice to screen depressive symptoms in people with MS. PMID:27632167

  14. Concordance of self- and proxy-rated worry and anxiety symptoms in older adults with dementia.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Andrea; Brenes, Gretchen A; Robinson, Roberta A; Wilson, Nancy; Snow, A Lynn; Kunik, Mark E; Calleo, Jessica; Petersen, Nancy J; Stanley, Melinda A; Amspoker, Amber B

    2013-01-01

    We compared the psychometric performance of two validated self-report anxiety symptom measures when rated by people with dementia versus collaterals (as proxies). Forty-one participants with mild-to-moderate dementia and their respective collaterals completed the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory, the Penn State Worry Questionnaire-Abbreviated, and a structured diagnostic interview. We used descriptive and nonparametric statistics to compare scores according to respondent characteristics. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated to establish the predictive validity of each instrument by rater type against a clinical diagnosis of an anxiety disorder. Participant and collateral ratings performed comparably for both instruments. However, collaterals tended to give more severe symptom ratings, and the best-performing cut-off scores were higher for collaterals. Our findings suggest that people with mild-to-moderate dementia can give reliable self-reports of anxiety symptoms, with validity comparable to reports obtained from collaterals. Scores obtained from multiple informants should be interpreted in context.

  15. On the Use of Self-Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hample, Dale

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the case against and for verbal self-reports, then attempts a balanced assessment. Also critiques recent argumentation studies. (Examples of self-reports include disclosures under psychoanalysis, thinking aloud protocols of undergraduates reading a message, oral choices made in perceptual judgment tasks, marks on a Likert scale.) (PD)

  16. Validity of the Externalizing Spectrum Inventory in a Criminal Offender Sample: Relations with Disinhibitory Psychopathology, Personality, and Psychopathic Features

    PubMed Central

    Venables, Noah C.; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The Externalizing Spectrum Inventory (ESI; Krueger, Markon, Patrick, Benning, & Kramer, 2007) provides a self-report based method for indexing a range of correlated problem behaviors and traits in the domain of deficient impulse control. The ESI organizes lower-order behaviors and traits of this kind around higher-order factors encompassing general disinhibitory proneness, callous-aggression, and substance abuse. The current study used data from a male prisoner sample (N = 235) to evaluate the validity of ESI total and factor scores in relation to external criterion measures consisting of externalizing disorder symptoms (including child and adult antisocial deviance and substance-related problems) assessed via diagnostic interview, personality traits assessed by self-report, and psychopathic features as assessed by both interview and self-report. Results provide evidence for the validity of the ESI measurement model and point to its potential utility as a referent for research on the neurobiological correlates and etiological bases of externalizing proneness. PMID:21787091

  17. Self-reported versus behavioral self-handicapping: empirical evidence for a theoretical distinction.

    PubMed

    Hirt, E R; Deppe, R K; Gordon, L J

    1991-12-01

    The present study was an investigation of how Ss would respond when given 2 self-handicapping options, 1 behavioral (withdrawal of practice effort) and 1 self-reported (reporting high levels of stress). Ss anticipating a diagnostic test of intellectual ability were given different instructions regarding the effects of stress and practice on test performance. Ss were told that (a) stress only, (b) practice only, (c) both stress and practice, or (d) neither stress nor practice affected test scores. Ss were then given the opportunity to self-report a handicap on a stress inventory and to behaviorally self-handicap by failing to practice before the test. High self-handicapping men and women showed evidence of self-reported handicapping, but only high self-handicapping men behaviorally self-handicapped. However, when both self-handicaps were viable, both high self-handicapping men and women preferred the self-reported over the behavioral self-handicap.

  18. A comparison of self-reported emotional and trauma-related concerns among sexually abused children with and without sexual behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Allen, Brian; Thorn, Brian L; Gully, Kevin J

    2015-05-01

    Numerous studies document concomitant features of sexual behavior problems (SBPs) among children 12 years of age or younger, but rarely does research involve child self-report assessments. This study provides the most comprehensive examination to date of self-reported concerns among children with SBP, using a large sample (N = 392) of clinically referred participants who reported sexual abuse histories. Children between the ages of 8 and 12 were categorized as demonstrating SBP (n = 203) or not demonstrating SBP (n = 189) as determined by scores on the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory. Children completed the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children, and caregivers completed the Child Behavior Checklist. Self-reports of children showed that those with SBP reported significantly greater concerns in all areas, including sexual preoccupation and sexual distress, than their peers not demonstrating SBP. Caregivers of children in the SBP group reported greater concerns of internalizing and externalizing problems than the caregivers of children who did not have SBP. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. Specifically, it is recommended that future research improve on the manner in which sexual abuse and SBPs were defined and assessed.

  19. Executive functions after orbital or lateral prefrontal lesions: Neuropsychological profiles and self-reported executive functions in everyday living

    PubMed Central

    LØVSTAD, M.; FUNDERUD, I.; ENDESTAD, T.; DUE-TØNNESSEN, P.; MELING, T. R.; LINDGREN, M.; KNIGHT, R. T.; SOLBAKK, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined the effects of chronic focal lesions to the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) or orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) on neuropsychological test performance and self-reported executive functioning in everyday living. Methods Fourteen adults with OFC lesions were compared to 10 patients with LPFC injuries and 21 healthy controls. Neuropsychological tests with emphasis on measures of cognitive executive function were administered along with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF-A) and a psychiatric screening instrument. Results The LPFC group differed from healthy controls on neuropsychological tests of sustained mental effort, response inhibition, working memory and mental switching, while the BRIEF-A provided more clinically important information on deficits in everyday life in the OFC group compared to the LPFC group. Correlations between neuropsychological test results and BRIEF-A were weak, while the BRIEF-A correlated strongly with emotional distress. Conclusions It was demonstrated that LPFC damage is particularly prone to cause cognitive executive deficit, while OFC injury is more strongly associated with self-reported dysexecutive symptoms in everyday living. The study illustrates the challenge of identifying executive deficit in individual patients and the lack of strong anatomical specificity of the currently employed methods. There is a need for an integrative methodological approach where standard testing batteries are supplemented with neuropsychiatric and frontal-specific rating scales. PMID:22731818

  20. Self-Reported Sexual Function Measures Administered to Female Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review, 2008–2014

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, Diana D.; Barbera, Lisa; Andersen, Barbara L.; Siston, Amy K.; Jhingran, Anuja; Baron, Shirley R.; Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Coady, Deborah J.; Carter, Jeanne; Flynn, Kathryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Background A systematic review was conducted to identify and characterize self-reported sexual function (SF) measures administered to women with a history of cancer. Methods Using 2009 PRISMA guidelines, we searched electronic bibliographic databases for quantitative studies published January 2008–September 2014 that used a self-reported measure of SF, or a quality of life (QOL) measure that contained at least one item pertaining to SF. Results Of 1,487 articles initially identified, 171 were retained. The studies originated in 36 different countries with 23% from U.S.-based authors. Most studies focused on women treated for breast, gynecologic, or colorectal cancer. About 70% of the articles examined SF as the primary focus; the remaining examined QOL, menopausal symptoms, or compared treatment modalities. We identified 37 measures that assessed at least one domain of SF, eight of which were dedicated SF measures developed with cancer patients. Almost one-third of the studies used EORTC QLQ modules to assess SF, and another third used the Female Sexual Function Inventory. There were few commonalities among studies, though nearly all demonstrated worse SF after cancer treatment or compared to healthy controls. Conclusions QOL measures are better suited to screening while dedicated SF questionnaires provide data for more in depth assessment. This systematic review will assist oncology clinicians and researchers in their selection of measures of SF and encourage integration of this quality of life domain in patient care. PMID:25997102

  1. Personality Correlates of Self-Report, Role-Playing, and In Vivo Measures of Assertiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Samuel B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Undergraduates completed self-report inventories of assertiveness, participated in behavior role-playing tasks and in vivo measures of assertiveness, and completed the Personality Research Form E (PRF-E). Of 22 PRF-E scales, 11 had at least one significant correlation with assertiveness measures. Some composites of PRF-E scales were related to…

  2. MMPI-2 Random Responding Indices: Validation Using a Self-Report Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, David T. R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Validity of 3 scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), the F, back F, and variable response inconsistency, for detecting self-reported partially random responding was supported by 3 studies involving 195 college students and 68 community participants but not by a study with 32 police job applicants. (SLD)

  3. Reliability and Validity of Two Self-Report Measures of Psychopathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falkenbach, Diana; Poythress, Norman; Falki, Marielle; Manchak, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The present study assessed the psychometric properties and construct validity of two self-report measures of psychopathy in a male-college sample: the Levenson Psychopathy scales (LPS; Levenson, Kiehl, & Fitzpatrick, 1995) and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996). Both the LPS and the PPI demonstrated good…

  4. The Psychometric Properties of the Brief Symptom Inventory in Men under Criminal Justice Involvement: Implications for Forensic Social Workers in Practice Settings

    PubMed Central

    Valera, Pamela; Fullilove, Robert; Cali, Shae; Nunes, Edward; Chiongbian, Victoria; Clark, Wayne; Covey, Lirio

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the factor structure and psychometric properties of the original and a revised modification of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) in 259 black and Latino males, aged thirty-five to sixty-seven, who had been released from a New York state prison or a New York City jail. The data were analysed using exploratory factor analysis, principal axis factoring and confirmatory factor analysis. Standardised factor loadings were evaluated at 0.05, model fit was evaluated using the chi-square statistic, and fit indices were examined. Items whose communalities fell below 0.30 were eliminated from the procedure. The findings did not yield the same number of factors as the original BSI, but the revised BSI model fitted the current data better. This modified factor structure reduced the BSI to the nineteen most appropriate items to assess five key common psychiatric symptoms affecting men under community supervision. The results of the current factor structure suggest that the psychiatric disorders experienced by men under community supervision may differ from the populations studied by the original BSI factor structure. Forensic social work ought to examine the psychometric properties of standardised measures for different populations such that appropriate instruments may be specifically targeted and maximised. PMID:27516643

  5. Determinants of physical activity in obese children assessed by accelerometer and self-report.

    PubMed

    Epstein, L H; Paluch, R A; Coleman, K J; Vito, D; Anderson, K

    1996-09-01

    Previous research has shown that predictors of activity in adults depend upon the method of measurement. This study is designed to assess the predictors of activity in a sample of 59 obese children. Activity was measured using self-reported and TriTrac accelerometer METs. Self-report and TriTrac accelerometer measures were moderately correlated, r = 0.46, with the self-reported activity (2.3 METs) significantly greater than TriTrac (1.6 METs). Hierarchical regression analysis examined the influence of socioeconomic level, body composition, fitness, hedonics of child and adult activity behaviors, and decisional balance on self-reported and accelerometer-measured activity, controlling for child and parent psychopathology. Child and parent psychological symptoms accounted for 8.3% and 3.4% of the variance in accelerometer and self-reported METs, respectively. The model for accelerometer-measured activity showed socioeconomic level and parent self-report of activity accounted for 14.8% of the incremental variance in child activity. The model for self-report of child activity found that child fitness accounted for 23.5% of the incremental variance in child activity. These results suggest that the predictors of activity level are different based upon the method of measurement, consistent with research in adults.

  6. Self-reports and spouse ratings of neuroticism: perspectives on emotional adjustment in couples.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy W; Williams, Paula G

    2015-04-01

    Evidence of reciprocal associations between individual emotional adjustment and the quality of intimate relationships has led to the growing use of interventions that combine a focus on couple issues with a focus on individual emotional functioning. In these approaches, spouse ratings of emotional functioning can provide an important second method of assessment, beyond the much more commonly used self-reports. Although an extensive literature demonstrates substantial convergent correlations between self-reported and spouse-rated emotional adjustment, levels of adjustment evident across these 2 assessment methods are much less commonly compared, especially among couples reporting higher levels of marital distress. Well-documented limitations of both self-reports and spouse ratings suggest that differences--which would not necessarily be evident in correlations between methods--might be common and substantial, perhaps raising complications in couple assessments and intervention. The present study compared self-reports and spouse ratings of neuroticism and its specific components using the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised in a sample of 301 middle-aged and older couples. For overall neuroticism and the specific facets of anxiety, angry hostility, and vulnerability, self-reported levels of negative emotionality were consistently lower than the parallel ratings by spouses, most notably among couples reporting low levels of marital adjustment. Hence, substantial underestimates of negative emotionality obtained through self-reports as compared to ratings by spouses (or overestimates as obtained through spouse ratings) may be common and could complicate couple assessment and intervention. PMID:25844498

  7. Use of the Beck Depression Inventory for assessing depression in patients hospitalized with severe burn. Disentangling symptoms of depression from injury and treatment factors.

    PubMed

    Thombs, Brett D

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are biased by injury severity among hospitalized survivors of burn (N=262). A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) model was developed with a general depression factor that loaded on all items and somatic and cognitive factors that were orthogonal to the general factor and to each other. The model fit the data well and substantially better than an alternative three-factor model with correlated factors. Percent total body surface area burned (TBSA) was significantly associated with the general depression factor (p=.04), but also with the orthogonal somatic factor (p<.001), suggesting biased measurement due to overlap between somatic symptoms of depression and the severity of the burn injury. Analysis of item communalities, however, suggested that only approximately 2% of total predicted item variance was associated with bias related to injury severity. It was concluded that, despite a small amount of bias, the BDI is a reasonably accurate clinical tool even in the context of severe burn. Appropriate adjustments for bias, however, should be made in research with the BDI among patients with acute burn.

  8. Work Temperament Inventory and Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Brian; Brookings, Jeffrey

    This manual is a guide to the Work Temperament Inventory (WTI), a self-report measure of 12 work temperaments that were originally identified and defined by the U.S. Department of Labor. The WTI consists of 134 items requiring a simple "like" or "dislike" response and a reading level of seventh grade. It can be completed in 15 to 20 minutes using…

  9. The relationship of neuroticism and extraversion to symptoms of anxiety and depression in the general population.

    PubMed

    Jylhä, Pekka; Isometsä, Erkki

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship of the personality dimensions of neuroticism and extraversion to the symptoms of depression and anxiety in the general population. A random general population sample (ages 20-70 years), from two Finnish cities was surveyed with the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). In addition, questions regarding diagnosed lifetime mental disorders, health care use for psychiatric reasons in the past 12 months, and history of mental disorders in first-degree relatives were posed. Among the 441 subjects who participated, neuroticism correlated strongly with symptoms of depression (r(s)=.71, P<.001) and anxiety (r(s)=.69, P<.001), and somewhat with self-reported lifetime mental disorder (r(s)=.30, P<.001) and health care use for psychiatric reasons in the past 12 months (r(s)=.24, P<.001). Extraversion correlated negatively with symptoms of depression (r(s)=-.47, P<.001), anxiety (r(s)=-.36, P<.001), self-reported lifetime mental disorder (r(s)=-.17, P<.001), and health care use for psychiatric reasons in the past 12 months (r(s)=-.14, P=.004). In multiple regression models, even after adjusting for gender, age, and education, BDI scores were significantly associated with neuroticism, extraversion, and age, whereas BAI scores were associated only with neuroticism. Neuroticism is strongly associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, and intraversion is moderately associated with depressive symptoms in the urban general population. The relationship of these personality dimensions to both self-reported lifetime mental disorders and use of health services for psychiatric reasons strengthens the clinical validity of these personality dimensions.

  10. Structure and Correlates of Self-Reported Empathy in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Horan, William P.; Reise, Steven P.; Kern, Robert S.; Lee, Junghee; Penn, David L.; Green, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Research on empathy in schizophrenia has relied on dated self-report scales that do not conform to contemporary social neuroscience models of empathy. The current study evaluated the structure and correlates of the recently-developed Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy (QCAE) in schizophrenia. This measure, whose structure and validity was established in healthy individuals, includes separate scales to assess the two main components of empathy: Cognitive Empathy (assessed by two subscales) and Affective Empathy (assessed by three subscales). Stable outpatients with schizophrenia (n=145) and healthy individuals (n= 45) completed the QCAE, alternative measures of empathy, and assessments of clinical symptoms, neurocognition, and functional outcome. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided consistent support for a two-factor solution in the schizophrenia group, justifying the use of separate cognitive and affective empathy scales in this population. However, one of the three Affective Empathy subscales was not psychometrically sound and was excluded from further analyses. Patients reported significantly lower Cognitive Empathy but higher Affective Empathy than controls. Among patients, the QCAE scales showed significant correlations with an alternative self-report empathy scale, but not with performance on an empathic accuracy task. The QCAE Cognitive Empathy subscales also showed significant, though modest, correlations with negative symptoms and functional outcome. These findings indicate that structure of self-reported empathy is similar in people with schizophrenia and healthy subjects, and can be meaningfully compared between groups. They also contribute to emerging evidence that some aspects of empathy may be intact or hyper-responsive in schizophrenia. PMID:25985922

  11. Structure and correlates of self-reported empathy in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Horan, William P; Reise, Steven P; Kern, Robert S; Lee, Junghee; Penn, David L; Green, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Research on empathy in schizophrenia has relied on dated self-report scales that do not conform to contemporary social neuroscience models of empathy. The current study evaluated the structure and correlates of the recently-developed Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy (QCAE) in schizophrenia. This measure, whose structure and validity was established in healthy individuals, includes separate scales to assess the two main components of empathy: Cognitive Empathy (assessed by two subscales) and Affective Empathy (assessed by three subscales). Stable outpatients with schizophrenia (n = 145) and healthy individuals (n = 45) completed the QCAE, alternative measures of empathy, and assessments of clinical symptoms, neurocognition, and functional outcome. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided consistent support for a two-factor solution in the schizophrenia group, justifying the use of separate cognitive and affective empathy scales in this population. However, one of the three Affective Empathy subscales was not psychometrically sound and was excluded from further analyses. Patients reported significantly lower Cognitive Empathy but higher Affective Empathy than controls. Among patients, the QCAE scales showed significant correlations with an alternative self-report empathy scale, but not with performance on an empathic accuracy task. The QCAE Cognitive Empathy subscales also showed significant, though modest, correlations with negative symptoms and functional outcome. These findings indicate that structure of self-reported empathy is similar in people with schizophrenia and healthy subjects, and can be meaningfully compared between groups. They also contribute to emerging evidence that some aspects of empathy may be intact or hyper-responsive in schizophrenia. PMID:25985922

  12. Structure and correlates of self-reported empathy in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Horan, William P; Reise, Steven P; Kern, Robert S; Lee, Junghee; Penn, David L; Green, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Research on empathy in schizophrenia has relied on dated self-report scales that do not conform to contemporary social neuroscience models of empathy. The current study evaluated the structure and correlates of the recently-developed Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy (QCAE) in schizophrenia. This measure, whose structure and validity was established in healthy individuals, includes separate scales to assess the two main components of empathy: Cognitive Empathy (assessed by two subscales) and Affective Empathy (assessed by three subscales). Stable outpatients with schizophrenia (n = 145) and healthy individuals (n = 45) completed the QCAE, alternative measures of empathy, and assessments of clinical symptoms, neurocognition, and functional outcome. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided consistent support for a two-factor solution in the schizophrenia group, justifying the use of separate cognitive and affective empathy scales in this population. However, one of the three Affective Empathy subscales was not psychometrically sound and was excluded from further analyses. Patients reported significantly lower Cognitive Empathy but higher Affective Empathy than controls. Among patients, the QCAE scales showed significant correlations with an alternative self-report empathy scale, but not with performance on an empathic accuracy task. The QCAE Cognitive Empathy subscales also showed significant, though modest, correlations with negative symptoms and functional outcome. These findings indicate that structure of self-reported empathy is similar in people with schizophrenia and healthy subjects, and can be meaningfully compared between groups. They also contribute to emerging evidence that some aspects of empathy may be intact or hyper-responsive in schizophrenia.

  13. Individual differences in self-reported difficulty sleeping across the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Van Reen, Eliza; Kiesner, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    The effect of menstrual cycle phase on sleep has been studied for decades; however, individual differences in the associations between sleep and menstrual phase have not been well studied. In addition, the associations between changes in sleep and other physiological and psychological factors that vary as a function of menstrual phase have not been thoroughly assessed. This study explored individual differences in daily self-reports of difficulty sleeping across the menstrual cycle, as well as associations between daily changes in difficulty sleeping and psychological/vegetative and somatic symptoms. Participants (n = 213 females, mean age = 21.29 ± 4.01 years) completed daily online questionnaires assessing` sleep, psychological and physical symptoms for two menstrual cycles. Two patterns of menstrual cycle-related self-reported difficulty sleeping emerged in addition to women who showed no cyclical change in self-reported difficulty sleeping: a perimenstrual increase and a mid-cycle increase. All psychological/vegetative symptoms and some of the somatic symptoms showed significant associations with self-reported difficulty sleeping. These findings highlight the importance of examining individual differences in sleep across the menstrual cycle and the significant contribution of a wide range of menstrual cycle-related psychological/vegetative and somatic symptoms.

  14. The Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-Progress Monitor: a brief Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition-referenced parent-report scale for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, John V; Cromley, Taya; Sprafkin, Joyce; Gadow, Kenneth D

    2009-06-01

    The Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-Progress Monitor-Parent Form (CASI-PM-P) is a 29-item rating scale designed to evaluate symptom change for commonly referred child and adolescent disorders. Its intended applications include monitoring longer-term changes in clinical status and assessing intervention responsiveness. To enhance practicality, there is one version of the CASI-PM-P for all age groups with a common set of norms for both genders. Scoring procedures allow clinicians to assess whether observed symptom changes exceeded chance fluctuations. Using a clinical sample of 2,693 children ages 3-17 years, the 29 symptom-related items were identified that had the best item-to-total minus item correlations on the three age-appropriate scales of the Symptom Inventories. Item-to-total minus item correlations of similar magnitude were also obtained for those items with the standardization sample. In clinical samples, the CASI-PM-P scores had both high levels of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and were sensitive to change in a treated sample. Collectively, the findings support the reliability and validity of the CASI-PM-P as a measure of behavioral change in clinical settings, while continued research will be necessary to improve clinical utility and provide better documentation of the scale's strengths and weaknesses.

  15. Adolescent Depression: Relationships of Self-Report to Intellectual and Adaptive Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manikam, Ramasamy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Self-report measures of depression, general psychopathology, and social skills were administered to 100 adolescents ranging from moderate mental retardation to above normal intelligence. Adolescents with mental retardation reported more depression and general psychopathology symptoms. Adaptive behavior functioned as a moderator variable, mediating…

  16. Perceived Motivational Climates and Self-Reported Emotional and Behavioural Problems among Norwegian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stornes, Tor; Bru, Edvin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between perceived motivational climates and self-reported emotional and behavioural problems (EBP: symptoms of depression, lack of on-task-orientation and disruptive behaviour), among 1171 Norwegian 8th grade secondary school students from 65 school classes. Statistical analyses showed significant…

  17. Technical Adequacy of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Miller, Emily M.; Isbister, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This study provides preliminary analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report, which was designed to screen individuals aged 10 years and older for anxiety and behavior symptoms. Score reliability and internal and external facets of validity were good for a screening-level test.

  18. A pilot evaluation of associations between displayed depression references on Facebook and self-reported depression using a clinical scale.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Megan Andreas; Christakis, Dimitri A; Egan, Katie G; Jelenchick, Lauren A; Cox, Elizabeth; Young, Henry; Villiard, Hope; Becker, Tara

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine associations between displayed depression symptoms on Facebook and self-reported depression symptoms using a clinical screen. Public Facebook profiles of undergraduates from two universities were examined for displayed depression references. Profiles were categorized as depression symptom displayers or non-displayers. Participants completed an online PHQ-9 depression scale. Analyses examined associations between PHQ-9 score and depression symptom displayers versus non-displayers. The mean PHQ-9 score for non-displayers was 4.7 (SD = 4.0), the mean PHQ-9 score for depression symptom displayers was 6.4 (SD = 5.1; p = 0.018). A trend approaching significance was noted that participants who scored into a depression category by their PHQ-9 score were more likely to display depression symptom references. Displayed references to depression symptoms were associated with self-reported depression symptoms. PMID:21863354

  19. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: What Does Self-Report with the OCI-R Tell Us?

    PubMed

    Cadman, Tim; Spain, Debbie; Johnston, Patrick; Russell, Ailsa; Mataix-Cols, David; Craig, Michael; Deeley, Quinton; Robertson, Dene; Murphy, Clodagh; Gillan, Nicola; Wilson, C Ellie; Mendez, Maria; Ecker, Christine; Daly, Eileen; Findon, James; Glaser, Karen; Happé, Francesca; Murphy, Declan

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the symptom profile of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in individuals who have autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It is also unknown whether self-report questionnaires are useful in measuring OCD in ASD. We sought to describe the symptom profiles of adults with ASD, OCD, and ASD + OCD using the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R), and to assess the utility of the OCI-R as a screening measure in a high-functioning adult ASD sample. Individuals with ASD (n = 171), OCD (n = 108), ASD + OCD (n = 54) and control participants (n = 92) completed the OCI-R. Individuals with ASD + OCD reported significantly higher levels of obsessive-compulsive symptoms than those with ASD alone. OCD symptoms were not significantly correlated with core ASD repetitive behaviors as measured on the ADI-R or ADOS-G. The OCI-R showed good psychometric properties and corresponded well with clinician diagnosis of OCD. Receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested cut-offs for OCI-R Total and Checking scores that discriminated well between ASD + versus -OCD, and fairly well between ASD-alone and OCD-alone. OCD manifests separately from ASD and is characterized by a different profile of repetitive thoughts and behaviors. The OCI-R appears to be useful as a screening tool in the ASD adult population.

  20. Social Desirability, Non-Response Bias and Reliability in a Long Self-Report Measure: Illustrations from the MMPI-2 Administered to Brunei Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundia, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    The survey investigated the problems of social desirability (SD), non-response bias (NRB) and reliability in the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--Revised (MMPI-2) self-report inventory administered to Brunei student teachers. Bruneians scored higher on all the validity scales than the normative US sample, thereby threatening the…

  1. Using the PCL-R to Help Estimate the Validity of Two Self-Report Measures of Psychopathy with Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poythress, Norman G.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Edens, John F.; Epstein, Monica; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Two self-report measures of psychopathy, Levenson's Primary and Secondary Psychopathy scales (LPSP) and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), were administered to a large sample of 1,603 offenders. The most widely researched measure of criminal psychopathy, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), served as a provisional referent…

  2. Convergent and Discriminant Validity of Psychopathy Factors Assessed via Self-Report: A Comparison of Three Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benning, Stephen D.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Salekin, Randall T.; Leistico, Anne-Marie R.

    2005-01-01

    Psychopathy has been conceptualized as a personality disorder with distinctive interpersonal-affective and behavioral deviance features. The authors examine correlates of the factors of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), Self-Report Psychopathy-II (SRP-II) scale, and Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) to understand similarities…

  3. Impression Management and Self-Report among Violent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jeremy F.; Kroner, Daryl G.

    2006-01-01

    Offenders are assumed by many to employ socially desirable responding (SDR) response styles when completing self-report measures. Contrary to expectations, prior research has shown that accounting for SDR in self-report measures of antisocial constructs does not improve the relationship with outcome. Despite this, many self-report measures…

  4. The usefulness of a self-report questionnaire measuring auditory verbal hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Hyun; Jung, Hee Yeon; Hwang, Samuel S; Chang, Jae Seung; Kim, Yeni; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik

    2010-08-16

    A self-report measure of psychotic symptoms has been considered to be unsuitable due to the possible denial of symptoms in the patients with schizophrenia. However, a self-report questionnaire would be an efficient tool for the evaluation of subjective aspects of auditory verbal hallucination (AVH), which requires further clarification. In this study, a total of 87 patients with schizophrenia took baseline evaluations for Hamilton Program for Schizophrenia Voices Questionnaire (HPSVQ), a self-report questionnaire for AVH, and Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales-Auditory Hallucination Subscale (PSYRATS-AH) and an item measuring hallucinations (P3) on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS), both interviewer-rated scales for AVH. At 1 week and at 6 months post-baseline, 39 and 68 patients repeated HPSVQ and PSYRATS-AH, respectively. Total scores on HPSVQ showed good agreement with those on PSYRATS-AH and PANSS, Item P3, and HPSVQ showed good test-retest reliability and internal consistency. In addition, the changes in total scores of HPSVQ during 6-month follow-up were also highly correlated to those of PSYRATS-AH. The findings of factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis suggested that the items addressing emotional characteristics of AVH constituted one factor and that the remaining items, primarily concerning the physical characteristics, combined to form another factor. Taken together, the HPSVQ, a self-report questionnaire measuring AVH, was characterized by good psychometric properties, which suggests the appropriateness of a self-report scale for examining the internal structure of AVH in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:20472012

  5. Severe Preeclampsia and Maternal Self-Report of Oral Health, Hygiene, and Dental Care

    PubMed Central

    Boggess, Kim A.; Berggren, Erica K.; Koskenoja, Viktoria; Urlaub, Diana; Lorenz, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal periodontal disease diagnosed by a detailed oral health examination is associated with preeclampsia. Our objective was to measure the association between maternal self-report of oral symptoms/problems, oral hygiene practices, and/or dental service utilization prior to or during pregnancy and severe preeclampsia. Methods A written questionnaire was administered to pregnant women at the time of prenatal ultrasound, and outcomes ascertained by chart abstraction. Chi square test compared maternal oral symptoms/problems, hygiene practices, and dental service utilization between women with severe preeclampsia versus normotensive women. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for severe preeclampsia. Results: 48 (10%) of 470 women reported ≥ 2 oral symptoms/problems in the 6 months prior to pregnancy and 77 (16%) since pregnancy. 51(11%) reported prior periodontal treatment. 28 (6%) of 470 developed severe preeclampsia. Women with a history of periodontal treatment were more likely to develop severe preeclampsia (aOR, 95%CI: 3.71, 1.40-9.83) than women without a prior history of periodontal treatment. Self-reported oral health symptoms/problems, oral hygiene practices, or dental service utilization prior to or during pregnancy were not associated with severe preeclampsia when considered in the context of other maternal risk factors. Conclusion: Maternal self report of previous periodontal treatment prior to pregnancy is associated with severe preeclampsia. PMID:22509752

  6. Accuracy of Professional Self-Reports: Medical Student Self-Report and the Scoring of Professional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter Lagha, Regina Anne

    2014-01-01

    Self-report is currently used as an indicator of professional practice in a variety of fields, including medicine and education. Important to consider, therefore, is the ability of self-report to accurately capture professional practice. This study investigated how well professionals' self-reports of behavior agreed with an expert observer's…

  7. Development of a self-reporting tool to obtain a Combined Index of Severity of Fibromyalgia (ICAF*)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia is a syndrome with heterogeneous symptoms. The evaluation in the clinical setting usually fails to cover the complexity of the syndrome. This study aims to determine how different aspects of fibromyalgia are inter-related when measured by means of a self-reporting tool. The objective is to develop a more complete evaluation model adjusted to the complexity and multi-dimensional nature of the syndrome. Methods Application was made of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Brief Pain Inventory, the Fatigue Assessment Scale, the Health Assessment Questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory, the Arthritis Self-efficacy Scale and the Sleep Quality Scale. An assessment was made, on the basis of clinical interviews, case histories and specific tests, of the patient sociodemographic data, comorbidity, physical exploration and other clinical indexes. An exploratory factor analysis was made, with comparisons of the clinical index scores in extreme groups of patients. Results The ICAF composed of 59 items was obtained, offering four factors that explain 64% of the variance, and referred to as Emotional Factor (33.7%), Physical-Activity (15%), Active Coping (9%) and Passive Coping (6.3%). A t-test between the extreme scores of these factors in the 301 patients revealed statistically significant differences in occupational status, medically unexplained syndromes, number of tender points, the six-minutes walk test, comorbidity and health care costs. Conclusions This study offers a tool allowing more complete and rapid evaluation of patients with fibromyalgia. The test intrinsically evaluates the emotional aspects: anxiety and depression, and their impact upon social aspects. It also evaluates patient functional capacity, fatigue, sleep quality, pain, and the way in which the patient copes with the disease. This is achieved by means of a self

  8. Cognitive and self-reported psychological outcomes of blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury in veterans: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Bolzenius, Jacob D; Roskos, P Tyler; Salminen, Lauren E; Paul, Robert H; Bucholz, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of explosives in combat has resulted in a large number of returning veterans suffering from blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and self-reported complications. It remains unclear whether this increase in self-reported difficulties is unique to the blast mechanism or stressful preinjury environment and whether cognitive-functioning deficits correspond with these difficulties in the postacute phase. This study examined the relationship between cognitive performance and self-reported psychological and somatic symptoms of blast-related mTBI compared with civilian mTBI, independent of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Twelve veterans with blast-related mTBI were compared to 18 individuals with civilian mTBI on cognitive tests and self-report questionnaires. Univariate analyses failed to reveal differences on any individual cognitive test. Further, veterans reported more psychological and somatic complaints. These self-reported difficulties were not significantly correlated with neuropsychological performance. Overall, preliminary results suggest that in the postacute phase, subjective complaints related to blast-related mTBI do not covary with objective cognitive performance. Additionally, cognitive outcomes from blast-related mTBI were similar to those of civilian forms of mTBI. Future studies should identify the cognitive and self-reported sequelae of blast-related mTBI independent of comorbid PTSD in a larger sample of veterans.

  9. Validity of Self-Reported Running Distance.

    PubMed

    Dideriksen, Mette; Soegaard, Cristina; Nielsen, Rasmus O

    2016-06-01

    Dideriksen, M, Soegaard, C, and Nielsen, RO. Validity of self-reported running distance. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1592-1596, 2016-It is unclear whether there is a difference between subjective evaluation and objective global positioning systems (GPS) measurement of running distance. The purpose of this study was to investigate if such difference exists. A total of 100 participants (51% men; median age, 41.5; body mass, 78.1 kg ±13.8 SD) completed a run of free choice, then subjectively reported the distance in kilometer (km). This information was subsequently compared with the distance derived from a nondifferential GPS watch using paired t-tests and Bland-Altman's 95% limits of agreement. No significant difference was found between the mean paired differences between subjective evaluations and GPS measurements (1.86%, 95% confidence interval = -1.53%; 5.25%, p = 0.96). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement revealed considerable variation (lower limit = -28% and upper limit = 40%). Such variation exceeds the clinical error range of 10%. In conclusion, the mean running distance (km) is similar between self-reporting and GPS measurements. However, researchers should consider using GPS measurements in favor of subjective reporting of running distance because of considerable variation on an individual level. PMID:26479023

  10. Concurrent Validity of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory Depression Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Joel O.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared two new measures of depression (Millon Multiaxial Inventory Dysthymia and Major Depression subscales) with two established instruments: Beck Depression Inventory, a self-report measure which emphasizes the cognitive-affective aspects of depression, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, an interview measure that emphasizes somatic…

  11. Using the Academic Skills Inventory to Assess the Biology Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Kyle; Hurney, Carol A.; Wigtil, Clifton J.; Sundre, Donna L.

    2009-01-01

    The Academic Skills Inventory (Kruger and Zechmeister, 2001) was developed at Loyola University of Chicago and originally designed for use with psychology majors. It was later extended for use in a variety of academic programs. The Academic Skills Inventory (ASI) assesses student self-reports of behaviors in 10 skill areas: (1) written and oral…

  12. Development of the Academic Stereotype Threat Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pseekos, A. Chantelle; Dahlen, Eric R.; Levy, Jacob J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe the development and preliminary validation of the Academic Stereotype Threat Inventory, a self-report measurement of math-related stereotype threat among women. A preliminary version of the instrument was administered to 308 undergraduate women. Principal component analysis yielded a 3-factor solution. Convergent and…

  13. Self-reported dietary fructose intolerance in irritable bowel syndrome: Proposed diagnostic criteria

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Leif Kyrre; Fagerli, Erik; Myhre, Arnt-Otto; Florholmen, Jon; Goll, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the criteria for self-reported dietary fructose intolerance (DFI) and to evaluate subjective global assessment (SGA) as outcome measure. METHODS: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients were randomized in an open study design with a 2 wk run-in on a habitual IBS diet, followed by 12 wk with/without additional fructose-reduced diet (FRD). Daily registrations of stool frequency and consistency, and symptoms on a visual analog scale (VAS) were performed during the first 4 wk. SGA was used for weekly registrations during the whole study period. Provocation with high-fructose diet was done at the end of the registration period. Fructose breath tests (FBTs) were performed. A total of 182 subjects performed the study according to the protocol (88 FRD, 94 controls). RESULTS: We propose a new clinically feasible diagnostic standard for self-reported fructose intolerance. The instrument is based on VAS registrations of symptom relief on FRD combined with symptom aggravation upon provocation with fructose-rich diet. Using these criteria 43 of 77 patients (56%) in the present cohort of IBS patients had self-reported DFI. To improve the concept for clinical evaluation, we translated the SGA scale instrument to Norwegian and validated it in the context of the IBS diet regimen. The validation procedures showed a sensitivity, specificity and κ value for SGA detecting the self-reported DFI group by FRD response within the IBS patients of 0.79, 0.75 and 0.53, respectively. Addition of the provocation test yielded values of 0.84, 0.76 and 0.61, respectively. The corresponding validation results for FBT were 0.57, 0.34 and -0.13, respectively. CONCLUSION: FRD improves symptoms in a subgroup of IBS patients. A diet trial followed by a provocation test evaluated by SGA can identify most responders to FRD. PMID:25987795

  14. Pre-adoption adversity and self-reported behavior problems in 7 year-old international adoptees.

    PubMed

    Gagnon-Oosterwaal, Noémi; Cossette, Louise; Smolla, Nicole; Pomerleau, Andrée; Malcuit, Gérard; Chicoine, Jean-François; Jéliu, Gloria; Belhumeur, Céline; Berthiaume, Claude

    2012-08-01

    To further investigate the long-term impact of pre-adoption adversity on international adoptees, externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using a self-report measure at school-age in addition to mothers' reports. The sample consisted of 95 adopted children and their mothers. Children's health and developmental status were assessed soon after arrival in their adoptive family. At age 7, the Dominic Interactive, a self-report measure, was used to evaluate externalizing and internalizing symptoms while mothers completed the CBCL. Children's self-reports were compared to their non-adopted peers'. Adopted children reported more symptoms of specific phobia than their peers. A significant correlation was found between mothers' and children's reports but only for externalizing symptoms. Self-reported symptoms were related to indices of nutritional and psychosocial deprivation at arrival, such as low height/age and weight/height ratios. Our results emphasize the importance of considering international adoptees' perception of their psychological adjustment and the long-term impact of early risk factors.

  15. Impulsivity: Self-Report and Performance Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairns, E.; Harbison, J. I.

    1975-01-01

    The present study assessed the relationship between impulsivity as measured by the Matching Familiar Figures test (MFF) and by the impulsivity (IMP) factor derived from the Junior Eysenck Personality Inventory (JEPI) items identified by S. N. Bennet in 1973. (Author/RK)

  16. Association between mild traumatic brain injury and mental health problems and self-reported cognitive dysfunction in Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans.

    PubMed

    Seal, Karen H; Bertenthal, Daniel; Samuelson, Kristin; Maguen, Shira; Kumar, Sant; Vasterling, Jennifer J

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs traumatic brain injury (TBI) screening program is intended to detect and expedite treatment for TBI and postconcussive symptoms. Between April 14, 2007, and May 31, 2012, of 66,089 Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans who screened positive on first-level TBI screening and later completed comprehensive TBI evaluation that includes the Neurobehavioral Symptoms Inventory, 72% reported moderate to very severe cognitive impairment (problems with attention, concentration, memory, etc.) that interfered with daily activities. This included 42% who were found not to have sustained combat-related mild TBI (mTBI). In contrast, 70.0% received a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis and 45.8% received a depression diagnosis. Compared with Veterans without mTBI, PTSD, or depression diagnoses, the lowest risk for self-reported cognitive impairment was in Veterans with confirmed mTBI only; a greater risk was found in those with PTSD diagnoses, with the greatest risk in Veterans with PTSD, depression, and confirmed mTBI, suggesting only a weakly additive effect of mTBI. These findings suggest that Veterans with multiple mental health comorbidities, not just those with TBI, report moderate to very severe cognitive impairment. Mental health treatment for conditions such as PTSD and depression (with or without TBI) may result in improvements in cognitive functioning and/or include assessment and support for Veterans experiencing cognitive problems.

  17. Knowing right from wrong, but just not always feeling it: relations among callous-unemotional traits, psychopathological symptoms, and cognitive and affective morality judgments in 8- to 12-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Feilhauer, Johanna; Cima, Maaike; Benjamins, Caroline; Muris, Peter

    2013-12-01

    The present research expands our understanding of cognitive and affective morality by exploring associations with callous-unemotional (CU) traits and externalizing symptoms. Participants were 46 8- to 12-year-old boys from the community who completed the Affective Morality Index, the Youth Self-Report, and the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits. A pattern of results was found indicating that in particular the combination of high CU traits and high externalizing symptoms was associated with lack of affective morality, and an increased perceived likelihood of recommitting antisocial acts (recidivism). The implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  18. Should Unexplained Painful Physical Symptoms be Considered within the Spectrum of Depressive Symptoms?

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jihyung; Novick, Diego; Montgomery, William; Aguado, Jaume; Dueñas, Héctor; Peng, Xiaomei; Haro, Josep Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether painful physical symptoms (PPS) can be considered within the spectrum of depressive symptoms. Methods: Data for this post-hoc analysis were taken from a 6-month observational study mostly conducted in East Asia, Mexico, and the Middle East of 1,549 depressed patients without sexual dysfunction at baseline. Both explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) were performed on the combined items of the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report and the Somatic Symptom Inventory (seven pain-related items only). An additional second-order CFA was also conducted to examine an association between retained factors and the overall “depressive symptoms” factor. In addition, Spearman’s correlation was used to assess levels of correlation between retained factors and depression severity as well as quality of life. Results: Both EFA and CFA suggested and validated a four-factor solution, which included a pain factor. The other three factors identified were a mood/cognitive factor, a sleep disturbance factor, and an appetite/weight disturbance factor. All four factors were significantly associated with the overall factor of depression. They were also highly correlated to depression severity and quality of life (p<0.001 for all). The levels of correlations with the pain factor were generally greater than those with the appetite/weight factor and similar to those with the sleep factor. Conclusion: It may be reasonable to consider PPS within a broad spectrum of depressive symptoms. At least, they should be routinely assessed in patients with depression. Further research is warranted to validate these preliminary findings. PMID:25870649

  19. Depressive symptoms in people with and without alcohol abuse: factor structure and measurement invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) across groups.

    PubMed

    Skule, Cecilie; Ulleberg, Pål; Dallavara Lending, Hilde; Berge, Torkil; Egeland, Jens; Brennen, Tim; Landrø, Nils Inge

    2014-01-01

    This study explored differences in the factor structure of depressive symptoms in patients with and without alcohol abuse, and differences in the severity of depressive symptoms between the two groups. In a sample of 358 patients without alcohol problems and 167 patients with comorbid alcohol problems, confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the same factor structures, Beck et al.'s two-factor Somatic Affective-Cognitive (SA-C) model, and Buckley et al.'s three-factor Cognitive-Affective- Somatic (C-A-S) model, demonstrated the best fit to the data in both groups. The SA-C model was preferred due to its more parsimonious nature. Evidence for strict measurement invariance across the two groups for the SA-C model was found. MIMIC (multiple-indicator-multiple-cause) modeling showed that the level of depressive symptoms was found to be highest on both factors in the group with comorbid alcohol problems. The magnitude of the differences in latent mean scores suggested a moderate difference in the level of depressive symptoms between the two groups. It is argued that patients with comorbid depression and alcohol abuse should be offered parallel and adequate treatment for both conditions. PMID:24533075

  20. Inventory Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Known as MRO for Maintenance, Repair and Operating supplies, Tropicana Products, Inc.'s automated inventory management system is an adaptation of the Shuttle Inventory Management System (SIMS) developed by NASA to assure adequate supply of every item used in support of the Space Shuttle. The Tropicana version monitors inventory control, purchasing receiving and departmental costs for eight major areas of the company's operation.

  1. Validating a Self-Report Screen for ADHD in Early Adulthood Using Childhood Parent and Teacher Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlie, E. B.; Lazare, Kim; Beitchman, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This article evaluates the diagnostic utility of a self-report screening tool for adults based on "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.; "DSM-IV") ADHD criteria. Method: Children with speech/language (S/L) impairment and typically developing controls had ADHD symptoms rated by parents and teachers at ages 5…

  2. Structure and validity of people in my life: A self-report measure of attachment in late childhood

    PubMed Central

    Ridenour, T. A.; Cook, E. T.

    2007-01-01

    No self-report measure of attachment is well validated for middle-childhood. This study examined the validity and factor structure of the People in My Life (PIML) measure in 320 urban, fifth and sixth graders. Validity analyses consisted of correlational analyses between PIML subscales and the Child Behavior Checklist, Delinquency Rating Scale for Self and Others, Heath Resources Inventory, and Reynolds Child Depression Scale. Validity correlations were consistent with a-priori hypotheses. Confirmatory factor analyses consisted of comparison of model fit indices between seven models. Two models fit the data well and both models were consistent with the traditionally used PIML scoring protocol. Moreover, both models were consistent with the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA), on which the PIML is modeled, as well as the theoretical underpinnings of attachment in childhood. The PIML and IPPA provide instruments for obtaining a continuous self-report measure of attachment from middle-childhood through adulthood. PMID:17476310

  3. Alcohol Misuse among College Athletes: Self-Medication for Psychiatric Symptoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, B. E.; Miller, M. N.; Verhegge, R.; Linville, H. H.; Pumariega, A. J.

    2002-01-01

    Surveys a collegiate athlete population for alcohol abuse as well as self-reported depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric symptoms. Significant correlations were found between reported alcohol abuse and self-reported symptoms of depression and general psychiatric symptoms. Findings suggest a possible link between psychopathology and serious…

  4. Self-reported psychopathic traits in sexually offending juveniles compared with generally offending juveniles and general population youth.

    PubMed

    Boonmann, Cyril; Jansen, Lucres M C; 't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A; Vahl, Pauline; Hillege, Sanne L; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to gain a better insight into the relationship between sexually aggressive behaviour and psychopathy in youths; juveniles who sexually offended (JSOs) were compared with generally offending youths and a general population group. Seventy-one JSOs, 416 detained general offenders, and 331 males from the general population were assessed by means of the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI), a self-report instrument. Sexually and generally offending juveniles had significantly lower levels of self-reported psychopathic traits than youths from the general population. Juvenile sexual offenders and generally offending juveniles did not differ in self-reported psychopathic traits. Furthermore, no differences in self-reported psychopathic traits were found between subgroups of JSOs (i.e., child molesters, solo offenders, and group offenders). The finding that self-reported psychopathic traits are less prevalent in offending juveniles than in general population youths raises questions about the usefulness of the YPI when comparing psychopathic traits between clinical samples and general-population samples.

  5. Self-reported vaccination in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos; Borda, Miguel German; Arciniegas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of vaccination in older adults within the city of Bogotá and to estimate the association with sociodemographic and health factors. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis from the SABE-Bogotá Study, a cross-sectional population-based study that included a total of 2,000 persons aged 60 years. Weighted percentages for self-reported vaccination [influenza, pneumococcal, tetanus] were determined. The association between vaccination and covariates was evaluate by logistic regression models. Results: A total of 73.0% of respondents received influenza, 57.8% pneumococcal and 47.6% tetanus vaccine. Factors independently associated with vaccination included: 1- age (65-74 years had higher odds of receiving vaccinations, compared to 60-64 years); 2- socioeconomic status (SES) (higher SES had lower odds of having influenza and pneumococcal vaccines, compared to those with lower SES); 3- health insurance (those with contributive or subsidized health insurance had higher odds (between 3 and 5 times higher) of having vaccinations, compared to those with no insurance); 4- older adults with better functional status (greater Lawton scores) had increased odds for all vaccinations; 5- older adults with higher comorbidity had increased odds for influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. Conclusion: Vaccination campaigns should be strengthened to increase vaccination coverage, especially in the group more reticent to vaccination or vulnerable to reach it such as the disabled elder. PMID:27226661

  6. Self-report may underestimate trauma intrusions.

    PubMed

    Takarangi, Melanie K T; Strange, Deryn; Lindsay, D Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Research examining maladaptive responses to trauma routinely relies on spontaneous self-report to index intrusive thoughts, which assumes people accurately recognize and report their intrusive thoughts. However, "mind-wandering" research reveals people are not always meta-aware of their thought content: they often fail to notice shifts in their attention. In two experiments, we exposed subjects to trauma films, then instructed them to report intrusive thoughts during an unrelated reading task. Intermittently, we asked whether they were thinking about the trauma. As expected, subjects often spontaneously reported intrusive thoughts. However, they were also "caught" engaging in unreported trauma-oriented thoughts. The presence and frequency of intermittent probes did not influence self-caught intrusions. Both self-caught and probe-caught intrusions were related to an existing tendency toward intrusive cognition, film-related distress, and thought suppression attempts. Our data suggest people may lack meta-awareness of trauma-related thoughts, which has implications for theory, research and treatment relating to trauma-related psychopathology. PMID:24993526

  7. “Let’s Talk about OA Pain”: A Qualitative Analysis of the Perceptions of People Suffering from OA. Towards the Development of a Specific Pain OA-Related Questionnaire, the Osteoarthritis Symptom Inventory Scale (OASIS)

    PubMed Central

    Cedraschi, Christine; Delézay, Sylvie; Marty, Marc; Berenbaum, Francis; Bouhassira, Didier; Henrotin, Yves; Laroche, Françoise; Perrot, Serge

    2013-01-01

    questionnaire on osteoarthritis pain quality for osteoarthritis pain phenotyping: the OsteoArthritis Symptom Inventory Scale (OASIS). PMID:24244589

  8. [Self-reported Anxiety and Regulation Strategies in Primary School-age Children].

    PubMed

    Otto, Yvonne; Kolmorgen, Katja; Andreas, Anna; Köppe, Claudia; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette M

    2015-01-01

    We examined the self-reported anxiety in different situations (social anxiety, cognitive fears, fears of injury) and the use of regulation strategies (problem orientation, problem avoidance and seeking social support) in a sample of N=175 primary school children (mean age 8 years 4 months). At time of recruitment we oversampled for children with internalizing symptoms. In addition, mothers rated the overall anxiety of their children. According to their mothers 14.3% of the children showed anxiety symptoms in an abnormal range which is comparable to prevalence rates of children from population samples. 19.4% of the children described themselves as being anxious in an abnormal range. The correlations between different measures of children's self-reported anxieties were low to moderate. We found no significant correlations between mothers' and children's reports. The higher children's self-reported overall and cognitive anxiety, the more frequently they reported seeking social support in frightening situations. Girls reported more frequently pm cognitive fears than boys. Regarding regulation strategies we found that boys reported more problem orientation than girls whereas girls reported more social support seeking than boys. The results are discussed and practical implications are outlined. PMID:26032032

  9. Development of a self-report measure of social functioning for forensic inpatients.

    PubMed

    Willmot, Phil; McMurran, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing interest in the measurement of social functioning in people with personality disorder, there are currently no social functioning measures specifically for forensic or other inpatients with a diagnosis of personality disorder. This paper describes the development and validation of the Hospital Social Functioning Questionnaire (HSFQ), a self-report measure of social functioning for forensic inpatients. A sample of fifty four male inpatients in a forensic personality disorder treatment unit completed the HSFQ and a range of measures indicative of social functioning, namely self-report measures of psychological wellbeing and symptoms, recorded incidents of self-harm and aggression. Clinicians' ratings of global functioning, and clinically assessed personality disorder severity were also collected. The HSFQ showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability, good concurrent validity with self-report measures of personality pathology, other symptoms and psychological wellbeing, but only a moderate correlation with clinician-rated global functioning and with frequency of self-harm and aggressive behavior. These results suggest that the HSFQ is a more focused measure of social functioning than the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), which conflates social functioning with self harm and aggressive behavior. The HSFQ is a potentially useful assessment of social functioning in secure and other inpatient settings. PMID:25660210

  10. [Self-reported Anxiety and Regulation Strategies in Primary School-age Children].

    PubMed

    Otto, Yvonne; Kolmorgen, Katja; Andreas, Anna; Köppe, Claudia; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette M

    2015-01-01

    We examined the self-reported anxiety in different situations (social anxiety, cognitive fears, fears of injury) and the use of regulation strategies (problem orientation, problem avoidance and seeking social support) in a sample of N=175 primary school children (mean age 8 years 4 months). At time of recruitment we oversampled for children with internalizing symptoms. In addition, mothers rated the overall anxiety of their children. According to their mothers 14.3% of the children showed anxiety symptoms in an abnormal range which is comparable to prevalence rates of children from population samples. 19.4% of the children described themselves as being anxious in an abnormal range. The correlations between different measures of children's self-reported anxieties were low to moderate. We found no significant correlations between mothers' and children's reports. The higher children's self-reported overall and cognitive anxiety, the more frequently they reported seeking social support in frightening situations. Girls reported more frequently pm cognitive fears than boys. Regarding regulation strategies we found that boys reported more problem orientation than girls whereas girls reported more social support seeking than boys. The results are discussed and practical implications are outlined.

  11. Comorbid anxiety and depression in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and selfreported symptoms of ADHD, anxiety, and depression among parents of school-aged children with and without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    XIA, Weiping; SHEN, Lixiao; ZHANG, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children that can extend into adulthood and that is often associated with a variety of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Aim Assess the comorbidity of ADHD with anxiety disorders and depressive disorders in school-aged children, and the relationship of the severity of ADHD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in children who have ADHD with the severity of the corresponding symptoms in their parents. Methods A two-stage screening process identified children 7-10 years of age with and without ADHD treated at the Xin Hua Hospital in Shanghai. ADHD and other DSM-IV diagnoses were determined by a senior clinician using the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (K-SADS-PL). One parent for each enrolled child completed three self-report scales: the ADHD Adult Self Report Scale (ASRS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In total 135 children with ADHD and 65 control group children without ADHD were enrolled; parents for 94 of the children with ADHD and 63 of the children without ADHD completed the parental assessment scales. Results Among the 135 children with ADHD, 27% had a comorbid anxiety disorder, 18% had a comorbid depressive disorder, and another 15% had both comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders. Parents of children with ADHD self-reported more severe ADHD inattention symptoms than parents of children without ADHD and were more likely to meet criteria for adult ADHD. Mothers (but not fathers) of children with ADHD had significantly more severe trait anxiety and depressive symptoms than mothers of children without ADHD. Among children with ADHD, the severity of ADHD symptoms was not significantly correlated with the severity of ADHD symptoms in parents, but depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in the children were significantly correlated with the corresponding symptoms in the parents

  12. A Self-Report Measure of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Donald

    2005-01-01

    There are multiple approaches to measuring physical activity. Among these are direct observation, electronic monitoring, direct and indirect calorimetry, and self-report instruments. Self-report instruments are the most practical and cost effective option for use with a large group. In a study by Motl, Dishman, Dowda, and Pate (2004), two groups…

  13. Improving Accuracy of Sleep Self-Reports through Correspondence Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Peter, Claire C.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.; Massullo, Joel P.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep insufficiency is a major public health concern, yet the accuracy of self-reported sleep measures is often poor. Self-report may be useful when direct measurement of nonverbal behavior is impossible, infeasible, or undesirable, as it may be with sleep measurement. We used feedback and positive reinforcement within a small-n multiple-baseline…

  14. Construct Validity of Self-Reported Metacognitive Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Jean-Louis; Karabenick, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite their significant contributions to research on self-regulated learning, those favoring online and trace approaches have questioned the use of self-report to assess learners' use of learning strategies. An important rejoinder to such criticisms consists of examining the validity of self-report items. The present study was designed to assess…

  15. Is Healthier Nutrition Behaviour Associated with Better Self-Reported Health and Less Health Complaints? Evidence from Turku, Finland.

    PubMed

    El Ansari, Walid; Suominen, Sakari; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-10-14

    We examined nutrition behaviour, self-reported health and 20 health complaints of undergraduates in Finland. Students at the University of Turku in Finland participated in a cross-sectional online survey (N = 1189). For nutrition behaviour, we computed two composite food intake pattern scores (sweets, cakes and snacks; and fruits and vegetables), a dietary guideline adherence index and the subjective importance of healthy eating. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association of students' nutrition behaviour with three levels of self-reported health, controlling for many potential confounders (age, sex, living with partner, economic situation, moderate physical activity, Faculty and BMI). Factor analysis of the 20 health complaints revealed three components (psychological, pains/aches and circulatory/breathing symptoms). Multiple linear regression tested the association of students' eating habits with the three components of health complaints, controlling for the same confounders. Fruits and raw and cooked vegetable consumption, dietary guideline adherence index and subjective importance of healthy eating were highest among students with excellent/very good self-reported health, exhibiting a decreasing trend for those individuals with poor/fair self-reported health. High levels of psychological symptoms were associated with decreased consumption of fruits and vegetables, less dietary guideline adherence and less subjective importance of healthy eating. Pain/aches symptoms were associated with a higher consumption of sweets, cookies and snacks and a lower adherence to dietary guidelines. More healthy nutrition behaviour was consistently associated with better self-reported health and less health complaints. Of the four nutrition behaviour indicators we employed, the dietary guideline adherence index was the best indicator and exhibited the most consistent associations with self-reported health and health complaints.

  16. Self-report and startle-based measures of emotional reactions to body image cues as predictors of Drive for Thinness and Body Dissatisfaction in female college students.

    PubMed

    Spresser, Carrie D; Keune, Kristen M; Filion, Diane L; Lundgren, Jennifer D

    2012-03-01

    The purpose was to compare self-report and psychophysiological assessment techniques in the measurement of emotional response to body image cues. Female college students (n=53; % Caucasian=53.6; M body mass index=26.1 kg/m²) completed the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-3) and viewed photos of themselves both unaltered and morphed to simulate weight gain. Response to the photos was assessed by self-report and the affect modulated startle paradigm. EDI-3 Drive for Thinness (DT) and Body Dissatisfaction (BD) scale scores were correlated with startled amplitude for the largest simulated weight gain photo. Startle eye blink amplitude predicted more variance in DT and BD subscales than self-reported response to the image. The affect modulated startle paradigm may provide unique information in the assessment of eating disorder symptomatology that cannot be captured via self-report techniques, and has potential to inform evaluation of treatment outcomes of eating and body image disorders.

  17. The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS): utility in college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sarah; Woltering, Steven; Mawjee, Karizma; Tannock, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Background. The number of students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) enrolled in colleges and universities has increased markedly over the past few decades, giving rise to questions about how best to document symptoms and impairment in the post-secondary setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the utility and psychometric properties of a widely-used rating scale for adults with ADHD, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-V1.1), in a sample of post-secondary students with ADHD. Methods. A total of 135 college students (mean age = 24, 42% males) with ADHD were recruited from Student Disability Services in post-secondary institutions. We compared informant responses on the ASRS administered via different modalities. First, students' self-report was ascertained using the ASRS Screener administered via telephone interview, in which they were asked to provide real-life examples of behavior for each of the six items. Next, students self-reported symptoms on the 18-item paper version of the ASRS Symptom Checklist administered about 1-2 weeks later, and a collateral report using an online version of the 18-item ASRS Symptom Checklist. Students also completed self-report measures of everyday cognitive failure (CFQ) and executive functioning (BDEFS). Results. Results revealed moderate to good congruency between the 18-item ASRS-Self and ASRS-Collateral reports (correlation = .47), and between student self-report on the 6-item telephone-based and paper versions of the ASRS, with the paper version administered two weeks later (correlation = .66). The full ASRS self-report was related to impairment, such as in executive functioning (correlation = .63) and everyday cognitive failure (correlation = .74). Executive functioning was the only significant predictor of ASRS total scores. Discussion. Current findings suggest that the ASRS provides an easy-to-use, reliable, and cost-effective approach for gathering information about current symptoms of

  18. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and five-factor model traits in a clinical sample: a structural equation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Knouse, Laura E; Traeger, Lara; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Safren, Steven A

    2013-10-01

    Relationships among attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and adult personality traits have not been examined in larger clinically diagnosed samples. We collected multisource ADHD symptom and self-report NEO Five-Factor Inventory (Costa and McCrae [Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc, 1992) data from 117 adults with ADHD and tested symptom-trait associations using structural equation modeling. The final model fit the data. Inattention was positively associated with neuroticism and negatively associated with conscientiousness. On the basis of ADHD expression in adulthood, hyperactivity and impulsivity were estimated as separate constructs and showed differential relationships to extraversion and agreeableness. A significant positive relationship between hyperactivity and conscientiousness arose in the context of other pathways. ADHD symptoms are reliably associated with personality traits, suggesting a complex interplay across development that warrants prospective study into adulthood.

  19. Associations between mindfulness and implicit cognition and self-reported affect.

    PubMed

    Waters, Andrew J; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Cinciripini, Paul; Li, Yisheng; Marcus, Marianne T; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Wetter, David W

    2009-01-01

    Theory suggests that mindful individuals exhibit enhanced attentional processing (e.g., attentional control) and that they maintain a detached perspective to problematic stimuli. For smokers, smoking and affective stimuli are problematic stimuli when they try to quit. In this cross-sectional study, smokers (n = 158) completed 3 modified Stroop tasks (to assess attentional control), 3 Implicit Association Tests (IATs; to assess detached perspective), and a battery of self-report assessments. Degree of mindfulness was negatively associated (P < .05) with self-reported negative affect, perceived stress, and depressive symptom severity, and positively associated (P < .05) with positive affect. Degree of mindfulness was not associated with the ability to disengage attention from smoking or affective stimuli. On the depression IAT, more mindful participants exhibited a more negative IAT effect, suggesting that they may have developed a detached perspective to depression-related stimuli. Theoretical and clinical implications of the data are discussed.

  20. Associations Between Mindfulness and Implicit Cognition and Self-Reported Affect

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Andrew J.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Cinciripini, Paul; Li, Yisheng; Marcus, Marianne T.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Wetter, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Theory suggests that mindful individuals exhibit enhanced attentional processing (e.g., attentional control) and that they maintain a detached perspective to problematic stimuli. For smokers, smoking and affective stimuli are problematic stimuli when they try to quit. In this cross-sectional study, smokers (n = 158) completed 3 modified Stroop tasks (to assess attentional control), 3 Implicit Association Tests (IATs; to assess detached perspective), and a battery of self-report assessments. Degree of mindfulness was negatively associated (P < .05) with self-reported negative affect, perceived stress, and depressive symptom severity, and positively associated (P < .05) with positive affect. Degree of mindfulness was not associated with the ability to disengage attention from smoking or affective stimuli. On the depression IAT, more mindful participants exhibited a more negative IAT effect, suggesting that they may have developed a detached perspective to depression-related stimuli. Theoretical and clinical implications of the data are discussed. PMID:19904668

  1. The WHO Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale: Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hae; Lee, Eun-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Objective A self-report scale of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the World Health Organization (WHO) Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) was developed and demonstrated good psychometric properties. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the psychometric properties of the ASRS in Korean samples. Methods The ASRS includes 18 questions regarding the frequency of recent DSM-IV Criterion A symptoms of adult ADHD. We examined the factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent validity of the ASRS in Korean samples. Results The ASRS demonstrated good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Correlations between the ASRS and other adult ADHD measures were high, providing evidence of convergent validity. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis indicated that a two-factor solution provided the best fit. Conclusion It is expected that this scale would be helpful in clinical settings and research in Korea. PMID:23482673

  2. Student Self-Regulated Learning in an Urban High School: Predictive Validity and Relations between Teacher Ratings and Student Self-Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Timothy J.; Callan, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of a teacher rating scale called the Self-Regulation Strategy Inventory-Teacher Rating Scale (SRSI-TRS) and its level of convergence with several student self-report measures of self-regulated learning (SRL). Eighty-seven high school students enrolled in one of four sections of a mathematics course in an…

  3. Preliminary Evidence Suggesting Caution in the Use of Psychiatric Self-Report Measures with Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazefsky, C. A.; Kao, J.; Oswald, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the utility of self-report measures to screen for psychiatric comorbidities in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Thirty-eight 10-17 year olds with an ASD and without mental retardation completed: the "Children's Depression Inventory-Short version (CDI-S)", "Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS)", "Conners-Wells…

  4. Vascular Endothelial Function & Self-Reported Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Behl, Muskaan; Bliwise, Donald; Veledar, Emir; Cunningham, Lynn; Vazquez, Jennifer; Brigham, Kenneth; Quyyumi, Arshed

    2013-01-01

    Background We investigated the relationship between self-reported sleep characteristics and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in a community-based population. Prior studies document that sleep apnea may be related to endothelial dysfunction but disagree whether subjective reports of sleep may also reflect such associations. Methods In 684 subjects (32% male) between 37 and 60 years enrolled in the Emory-Georgia Tech Predictive Health Institute study, we measured reported sleep characteristics using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) along with cardiovascular risk factors. Endothelial function was assessed using brachial artery FMD. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to adjust for various cardiovascular risk factors including age, race, gender, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and body mass index. Results Lower brachial artery FMD values were correlated with higher ESS scores (p = 0.0275), even after adjustment for risk factors (p = 0.03). Total PSQI score was unrelated to brachial artery FMD. However, lower sleep quality (PSQI component 1) was associated with lower brachial artery FMD (multivariate p = 0.038), and participants who coughed or snored during sleep also had lower brachial artery FMD (6.24±3.42%) compared to those who did not (6.92±4.30%) (p = 0.056). This difference remained significant after adjustment for risk factors (p = 0.03). Conclusion In a community-based population, our analysis indicates a significant association between sleepiness and snoring assessed by questionnaires and endothelial function. Simple subjective reports about individuals’ sleep may be highly revealing indicators of endothelial function impairment and thus important indicators of cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:23842206

  5. Pain Assessment in Elderly with Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Malara, Alba; De Biase, Giuseppe Andrea; Bettarini, Francesco; Ceravolo, Francesco; Di Cello, Serena; Garo, Michele; Praino, Francesco; Settembrini, Vincenzo; Sgrò, Giovanni; Spadea, Fausto; Rispoli, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pain is under-detected and undertreated in people with dementia. The present study investigates the prevalence of pain in people with dementia hospitalized in nursing homes that are members of National Association of Third Age Residences (ANASTE) Calabria, and evaluates the association among pain, mood, and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Objective: The aim of this study is to define the prevalence of pain in people with dementia in long term care facilities using scales of self-reporting and observational tools and, particularly, to study the relationship between pain and BPSD. Methods: A prospective observational study was carried out on 233 patients. Pain assessment was performed using self-reporting tools such as the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) for patients with slight cognitive impairment or no cognitive impairment and observational tools such as Pain Assessment In Advanced Dementia Scale (PAINAD) for patients with moderate or severe cognitive impairment. Mood was evaluated through the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) while behavioral problems were assessed through the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Results: Only 42.5% of patients evaluated by NRS provided a reliable answer; of these, 20.4% reported no pain. The percentage of pain evaluated by PAINAD was 51.8% . Analysis of data showed a statistically significant correlation between diagnosis of pain and depressive symptoms, assessed with CSDD (p = 0.0113), as well as by single items of NPI, such as anxiety (p = 0.0362) and irritability (p = 0.0034), and F1 profile (Aggression) of CMAI (p = 0.01). Conclusion: This study confirms that self-report alone is not sufficient to assess pain in elderly people with dementia; the observational tool is a necessary and suitable way of assessing pain in patients with cognitive impairment. If not adequately treated, chronic pain can cause depression

  6. The Structured Trauma-Related Experiences and Symptoms Screener (STRESS): Development and Preliminary Psychometrics.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Damion J; Felton, Julia W; Reid-Quiñones, Kathryn

    2015-08-01

    The Structured Trauma-Related Experiences and Symptoms Screener (STRESS) is a self-report instrument for youth of age 7-18 that inventories 25 adverse childhood experiences and potentially traumatic events and assesses symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder using the revised criteria published in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). The STRESS can be administered by computer such that questions are read aloud and automatic scoring and feedback are provided. Data were collected on a sample of 229 children and adolescents of age 7-17 undergoing a forensic child abuse and neglect evaluation. The purpose of the current study was to examine preliminary psychometric characteristics of the computer-administered STRESS as well as its underlying factor structure in relation to the four-factor DSM-5 model. Results provide initial support for the use of the STRESS in assessing adverse and potentially traumatic experiences and traumatic stress in children and adolescents.

  7. Trajectories of Physical Activity Predict the Onset of Depressive Symptoms but Not Their Progression: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Rosenström, Tom; Hintsa, Taina; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Lipsanen, Jari; Hintsanen, Mirka; Hakulinen, Christian; Pahkala, Katja; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T.

    2016-01-01

    This prospective, community-based study examined trajectories of physical activity from childhood to adulthood and whether these trajectories contributed to depressive symptoms in adulthood to a greater degree than adulthood physical activity. Participants (n = 3596) were from the ongoing Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study which started in 1980. Depressive symptoms were measured with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) in 2012, and physical activity was assessed from 1980 to 2011 with self-reports. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, childhood negative emotionality, socioeconomic factors, previous depressive symptoms, social support, body mass index, and smoking status (1980–2007). Highly, moderately, and lightly physically active trajectory groups were identified. Highly active participants reported lower levels of depressive symptoms compared to lightly active ones (p < 0.001) and compared to moderately active ones (p = 0.001). Moderately active participants had less symptoms than lightly active ones (p < 0.001). High levels of adulthood physical activity associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms (p < 0.001). The findings did not withstand adjustment for previous depressive symptoms (p > 0.05). Lifelong physical activity trajectories or adulthood physical activity was not associated with the progression of depressive symptoms in adulthood. Thus, physical activity history does not contribute to the progression of the depressive symptoms to a greater degree than adulthood physical activity. PMID:27795983

  8. Direct and Indirect Effects of Five Factor Personality and Gender on Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Perceived Stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Song E; Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Kwon, Min-Jung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate associations among five factor personality traits, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms and to examine the roles of personality and perceived stress in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. The participants (N = 3,950) were part of a cohort study for health screening and examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Personality was measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Perceived stress level was evaluated with a self-reported stress questionnaire developed for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A higher degree of neuroticism and lower degrees of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly associated with greater perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Neuroticism and extraversion had significant direct and indirect effects (via stress as a mediator) on depressive symptoms in both genders. Agreeableness and conscientiousness had indirect effects on depression symptoms in both genders. Multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediational roles of each personality factor and perceived stress in the link between gender and depressive symptoms. Four of the personality factors (except openness) were significant mediators, along with stress, on the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that the links between personality factors and depressive symptoms are mediated by perceived stress. As such, personality is an important factor to consider when examining the link between gender and depression. PMID:27120051

  9. Direct and Indirect Effects of Five Factor Personality and Gender on Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Perceived Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Song E.; Cho, Juhee; Kwon, Min-Jung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate associations among five factor personality traits, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms and to examine the roles of personality and perceived stress in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. The participants (N = 3,950) were part of a cohort study for health screening and examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Personality was measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Perceived stress level was evaluated with a self-reported stress questionnaire developed for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A higher degree of neuroticism and lower degrees of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly associated with greater perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Neuroticism and extraversion had significant direct and indirect effects (via stress as a mediator) on depressive symptoms in both genders. Agreeableness and conscientiousness had indirect effects on depression symptoms in both genders. Multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediational roles of each personality factor and perceived stress in the link between gender and depressive symptoms. Four of the personality factors (except openness) were significant mediators, along with stress, on the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that the links between personality factors and depressive symptoms are mediated by perceived stress. As such, personality is an important factor to consider when examining the link between gender and depression. PMID:27120051

  10. Adolescent coping profiles differentiate reports of depression and anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Herres, Joanna

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify groups of adolescents based on their reported use of different coping strategies and compare levels of depression and anxiety symptoms across the groups. Tenth and eleventh grade public school students (N=982; 51% girls; 66% Caucasian; M age=16.04, SD=0.73) completed a battery of self-report measures that assessed their use of different coping strategies, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. Latent profile analysis (LPA) classified the participants into four distinct groups based on their responses on subscales of the COPE inventory (Carver et al., 1989). Groups differed in amount of coping with participants in each group showing relative preference for engaging in certain strategies over others. Disengaged copers reported the lowest amounts of coping with a preference for avoidance strategies. Independent copers reported moderate levels of coping with relatively less use of support-seeking. Social support-seeking copers and active copers reported the highest levels of coping with a particular preference for support-seeking strategies. The independent copers reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms compared to the three other groups. The Social Support Seeking and Active Coping Groups reported the highest levels of anxiety. Although distinct coping profiles were observed, findings showed that adolescents between the ages of 14 and 16 engage in multiple coping strategies and are more likely to vary in their amount of coping than in their use of specific strategies.

  11. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning.

    PubMed

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Sieh, Dominik Sebstian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship between these symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning remains largely unclear. This study examined relations between self-report of parental depressive symptoms and adolescent functioning in 86 two-parent families including a parent with a chronic medical condition, 94 families with healthy single parents, and 69 families with 2 healthy parents (comparison group). Parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Adolescents filled in the Youth Self-Report measuring problem behavior, and other instruments measuring psychosocial outcomes (stress, grade point average, school problems, and self-esteem). Multilevel analyses were used to examine the effects of family type, parental depressive symptoms, adolescents' gender and age, and interaction effects on adolescent functioning. The results indicated that adolescents with chronically ill and single parents had a lower grade point average (p<.01) than the comparison group. Adolescents of single parents reported more internalizing problems (p<.01) and externalizing problems (p<.05) than children from the other family types. Parental depressive symptoms were strongly related to child report of stress (p<.001). Adolescents of depressed chronically ill parents were particularly vulnerable to internalizing problems (interaction effect, p<.05). Older children and girls, and especially older girls, displayed more internalizing problems and stress. It can be concluded that growing up with a chronically ill parent in a family with 2 parents may have less impact on adolescent problem behavior than growing up in a single parent family. Health practitioners are encouraged to be attentive to the unique and combined influence of

  12. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning.

    PubMed

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Sieh, Dominik Sebstian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship between these symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning remains largely unclear. This study examined relations between self-report of parental depressive symptoms and adolescent functioning in 86 two-parent families including a parent with a chronic medical condition, 94 families with healthy single parents, and 69 families with 2 healthy parents (comparison group). Parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Adolescents filled in the Youth Self-Report measuring problem behavior, and other instruments measuring psychosocial outcomes (stress, grade point average, school problems, and self-esteem). Multilevel analyses were used to examine the effects of family type, parental depressive symptoms, adolescents' gender and age, and interaction effects on adolescent functioning. The results indicated that adolescents with chronically ill and single parents had a lower grade point average (p<.01) than the comparison group. Adolescents of single parents reported more internalizing problems (p<.01) and externalizing problems (p<.05) than children from the other family types. Parental depressive symptoms were strongly related to child report of stress (p<.001). Adolescents of depressed chronically ill parents were particularly vulnerable to internalizing problems (interaction effect, p<.05). Older children and girls, and especially older girls, displayed more internalizing problems and stress. It can be concluded that growing up with a chronically ill parent in a family with 2 parents may have less impact on adolescent problem behavior than growing up in a single parent family. Health practitioners are encouraged to be attentive to the unique and combined influence of

  13. Validation of Self-Reported Anthropometrics in Female College Freshmen

    PubMed Central

    LEONE, RYAN J.; MORGAN, AMY L.; LUDY, MARY-JON

    2016-01-01

    Most investigations concerning the validity of self-reported anthropometrics focus on weight, height, and body mass index. This study extends those investigations by exploring the impact of self-reporting bias on the disease risk indicators of waist circumference and body fat percentage. Female college freshmen (n=128) self-reported weight and height, then underwent measurements for weight, height, waist circumference, and body fat percentage. Self-reporting bias was defined as self-reported minus directly-assessed anthropometric value. Despite no differences in self-reported versus directly-assessed weight or height for the total group, students with high waist circumference and excess fat under-reported their weight by 2.3±4.4 lb (p<0.05). Self-reporting bias was negatively correlated with waist circumference (r=−0.362; p<0.001) and body fat percentage (r=−0.317; p<0.001). Although many female college freshmen accurately represent their weight, those with excess fat and waist circumference under-reported their weight. This may lead to missed opportunities for risk identification, prevention, and intervention. PMID:27293506

  14. Role of Health Literacy in Self-Reported Musculoskeletal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Catherine L.; Appleton, Sarah L.; Black, Julie; Hoon, Elizabeth; Rudd, Rima E.; Adams, Robert J.; Gill, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    Self-report of musculoskeletal conditions is often used to estimate population prevalence and to determine disease burden and influence policy. However, self-report of certain musculoskeletal conditions is frequently inaccurate, suggesting inadequate communication to the patient of their diagnosis. The aim of this study is to determine the association between functional health literacy (FHL) and self-reported musculoskeletal conditions in a representative population survey. FHL was measured using Newest Vital Sign in 2824 randomly selected adults. Participants also self-reported medically diagnosed arthritis, gout, and osteoporosis. Multiple logistic regression was adjusted for age and sex. The prevalence of self-reported arthritis, gout, and osteoporosis was 25.2%, 4.9%, and 5.6%, respectively. The prevalence of those at risk for inadequate FHL was 24.0% and high likelihood of inadequate FHL was 21.0%. However, over 50% of respondents with arthritis or gout had at risk/inadequate FHL, increasing to 70% of those self-reporting osteoporosis. After adjustment for age and sex, respondents in the arthritis subgroup of “don't know” and self-reported osteoporosis were significantly more likely to have inadequate FHL than the general population. This study indicates a substantial burden of low health literacy amongst people with musculoskeletal disease. This has implications for provider-patient communication, individual healthcare, population estimates of musculoskeletal disease, and impact of public health messages. PMID:26357571

  15. Shortening the Xerostomia Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, William Murray; van der Putten, Gert-Jan; de Baat, Cees; Ikebe, Kazunori; Matsuda, Ken-ichi; Enoki, Kaori; Hopcraft, Matthew; Ling, Guo Y

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine the validity and properties of the Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version in samples from Australia, The Netherlands, Japan and New Zealand. Study design Six cross-sectional samples of older people from The Netherlands (N = 50), Australia (N = 637 and N = 245), Japan (N = 401) and New Zealand (N = 167 and N = 86). Data were analysed using the Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version. Results Almost all data-sets revealed a single extracted factor which explained about half of the variance, with Cronbach’s alpha values of at least 0.70. When mean scale scores were plotted against a “gold standard” xerostomia question, statistically significant gradients were observed, with the highest score seen in those who always had dry mouth, and the lowest in those who never had it. Conclusion The Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version is valid for measuring xerostomia symptoms in clinical and epidemiological research. PMID:21684773

  16. Self-Reported Hearing Difficulties Among Adults With Normal Audiograms: The Beaver Dam Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Kelly L.; Pinto, Alex; Fischer, Mary E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Levy, Sarah; Tweed, Ted S.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Clinicians encounter patients who report experiencing hearing difficulty (HD) even when audiometric thresholds fall within normal limits. When there is no evidence of audiometric hearing loss, it generates debate over possible biomedical and psychosocial etiologies. It is possible that self-reported HDs relate to variables within and/or outside the scope of audiology. The purpose of this study is to identify how often, on a population basis, people with normal audiometric thresholds self-report HD and to identify factors associated with such HDs. Design This was a cross-sectional investigation of participants in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. HD was defined as a self-reported HD on a four-item scale despite having pure-tone audiometric thresholds within normal limits (<20 dB HL0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 kHz bilaterally, at each frequency). Distortion product otoacoustic emissions and word-recognition performance in quiet and with competing messages were also analyzed. In addition to hearing assessments, relevant factors such as sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, medical history, health-related quality of life, and symptoms of neurological disorders were also examined as possible risk factors. The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression was used to probe symptoms associated with depression, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 mental score was used to quantify psychological stress and social and role disability due to emotional problems. The Visual Function Questionnaire-25 and contrast sensitivity test were used to query vision difficulties. Results Of the 2783 participants, 686 participants had normal audiometric thresholds. An additional grouping variable was created based on the available scores of HD (four self-report questions), which reduced the total dataset to n = 682 (age range, 21–67 years). The percentage of individuals with normal audiometric thresholds who self-reported HD was 12.0% (82 of 682). The

  17. Clinically Determined and Self-Reported Dental Caries Status During and After Pregnancy Among Low-Income Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, Jane A.; Gansky, Stuart A.; Santo, William; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This analysis assessed, during and one-year after pregnancy: 1) the prevalence of and relationship between self-reported and clinically determined dental caries and oral health status, and whether self-reports are a potential proxy for professional determination; 2) factors associated with high levels of professionally determined or self-reported oral disease. Methods Data are from a randomized clinical trial of 301 pregnant, low-income Hispanic women at the California-Mexico border to compare two interventions to prevent early childhood caries. Interviews and dental examinations were conducted at enrollment (second trimester) and one-year post-partum (PP). Results During pregnancy and PP, 93% had untreated caries and most had gingival inflammation. Sensitivity and specificity of self-reported measures compared to dentists’ determinations were modest (ranging from 45–80% for sensitivity and 41–77% for specificity at both time points); positive predictive values for women reporting current tooth decay or fair/poor oral health were high (>94%), but negative predictive values were low (<23%). In a bivariate GEE model, factors associated with fair/poor self-reported oral health during and after pregnancy included self-reported dental symptoms (current tooth decay, bleeding gums without brushing), dental behaviors (not flossing) and number of decayed tooth surfaces. In a logistic regression model, the only significant factor PP associated with less extensive untreated disease was if women ever had their teeth cleaned professionally (OR=0.44). Conclusions There is a great need for dental treatment in this underserved population both during pregnancy and PP. Women may not be able to accurately recognize or act on their treatment needs. At baseline and PP, few demographic or behavioral factors were associated with either self-reported or clinically-determined oral disease (e.g., being less educated or acculturated and not flossing) in the bivariate

  18. Self-report of gastrointestinal side effects after bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Marcus, Marsha D.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Cheng, Yu; Levine, Michele D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Data on gastrointestinal (GI) side effects of bariatric surgery are limited due to incomplete reporting, cross sectional samples, and non-standardized assessments. Objective To report on GI side effects over the first 6 months following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Setting Academic Medical Center, United States. Methods One hundred forty-four patients completed a standardized clinical interview 6 months after operation, including questions on the occurrence and frequency of episodes of dumping syndrome, vomiting, and plugging for each of the past 6 months; monthly rates were stable, so results were averaged over the entire period. Although data were collected as part of a randomized controlled trial, randomization group and the interaction of group by surgical procedure were not related to GI side effects. Thus, results are reported by procedure only (RYGB; n = 87, LAGB; n= 56). Results RYGB patients had a higher preoperative Body Mass Index (BMI) than LAGB patients (46.8 ± 6.8 vs. 43.5 ± 4.8 kg/m2, respectively, p = 0.001), were more likely to report dumping (45.7% vs. 4.7%, p < 0.0001) and were less likely to report plugging (45.7% vs. 79.1%, p = 0.0005). Vomiting did not differ significantly by procedure (68.6% vs. 65.1%, p = 0.7). Most patients experienced each GI side effect less than once per week. Conclusions Although self-reported GI side effects were common over the first 6 months after operation, the frequency of episodes was relatively low. Longer-term follow-up is needed to determine whether symptoms worsen or improve over time. PMID:25443069

  19. Satisfaction with Life of Schizophrenia Outpatients and Their Caregivers: Differences between Patients with and without Self-Reported Sleep Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, Pedro; Cañas, Fernando; Bobes, Julio; Bernardo Fernandez, Ivan; Guzman, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia often present sleep complaints, but its relationship with general satisfaction with life (SWL) and burden for caregivers has been understudied. We aimed to assess the differences in SWL between patients with and without self-reported sleep disturbances and that of their caregivers. In a noninterventional study, 811 schizophrenia adult outpatients were screened for their subjective perception of having (or not) sleep disturbances and evaluated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Patients self-reporting sleep disturbances were significantly more symptomatic (P < 0.001), presented significantly worse family support (P = 0.0236), and self-reported worse SWL in all domains. Caregivers of patients with schizophrenia self-reporting sleep disturbances also reported worse SWL in all domains, as compared to caregivers of patients without subjective sleep disturbances. Patient and caregivers' SWL was significantly correlated to patients' quality of sleep (P < 0.0001 for all domains). Patient' and caregivers' SWL was negatively affected by patients' poor quality of sleep. We found that patients self-reporting sleep disturbances showed greater symptom severity, worse quality of sleep, worse SWL, and less caregiver support. SWL was also worse for caregivers of patients with schizophrenia reporting sleep disturbances. PMID:24288609

  20. Self-reported physical and mental health of Australian carers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Rafat; Dillon, Gina; Ryan, Peta

    2016-01-01

    Objective To report on self-reported physical and mental health of informal carers in rural regions of New South Wales, Australia. Methods A cross-sectional community-based sample (n=222) of carers completed a questionnaire incorporating self-reported measures of health from validated international instruments including Medical Outcomes Study Scale (SF-36), the Centre for Epidemiology-Depression (CES-D) and Kessler-10 (K-10) Psychological Distress Scales, along with information on participant demographics and other key caregiving characteristics such as health condition of care recipient. Results Rural carers’ self-reported health was poor as evident on the SF-36 Physical and Mental Health component scores as well as each individual domain of the SF-36. Results from the CES-D and K-10 scores indicated very high rates of depressive symptoms and psychological distress. Over 70% of carers within the current study had CES-D scores indicative of depressive symptoms. Scores on the K-10 indicate almost half the carers were experiencing high levels of psychological distress, which is over 4 times the rate reported in the general Australian population. Conclusions and implications Results from this study were compared to Australian population normative data and were found to be significantly below Australian age-matched population norms for SF-36, CES-D and K-10. These findings illustrate the poor health profile of informal carers relative to the general Australian population, especially in terms of depressive symptoms and psychological distress. This highlights the need for additional support for rural carers in order to ease the accumulated mental and physical health burdens of this group. PMID:27625059

  1. Website design: technical, social and medical issues for self-reporting by elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark J; Stables, Rod; Matata, Bashir; Lisboa, Paulo J G; Laws, Andy; Almond, Peter

    2014-06-01

    There is growing interest in the use of the Internet for interacting with patients, both in terms of healthcare information provision and information gathering. In this article, we examine the issues in designing healthcare websites for elderly users. In particular, this article uses a year-long case study of the development of a web-based system for self-reporting of symptoms and quality of life with a view to examine the issues relating to website design for elderly users. The issues identified included the technical, social and medical aspects of website design for elderly users. The web-based system developed was based on the European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions health-status questionnaire, a commonly used tool for patient self-reporting of quality of life, and the more specific coronary revascularisation outcome questionnaire. Currently, self-reporting is generally administered in the form of paper-based questionnaires to be completed in the outpatient clinic or at home. There are a variety of issues relating to elderly users, which imply that websites for elderly patients may involve different design considerations to other types of websites.

  2. Validation of Self-Reported Measures in Health Disparities Research.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Bertha; Goodman, Melody

    2012-10-12

    Validation of self-reported measures can be achieved effectively and accurately when data collection involves objective measures that can be clinically validated. On the other hand, validation of self-reported social constructs, often used in health disparities research is a much harder task to achieve, particularly when the outcome is hard to quantify (e.g. racism, discrimination and segregation experience). We discuss validation and the challenges faced, when using current approaches in health disparities research.

  3. Prognostic Significance of Depressive Symptoms on Weight Loss and Psychosocial Outcomes Following Gastric Bypass Surgery: A Prospective 24-month Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    White, Marney A.; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Levine, Michele D.; Masheb, Robin M.; Marcus, Marsha D.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined the prognostic significance of depressive symptoms in bariatric surgery patients over 24 months of follow-ups. Method Three hundred fifty-seven patients completed a battery of assessments before and at 6, 12, and 24 months following gastric bypass surgery. In addition to weight loss and depressive symptoms, the assessments targeted eating disorder psychopathology and quality of life. Results Clinically significant depressive symptoms, defined as a score of 15 or greater on the Beck Depression Inventory, characterized 45% of patients prior to surgery, and 12% at 6-month follow-up, 13% at 12-month follow-up, and 18% at 24-month follow-up. Preoperative depressive symptoms did not predict postoperative weight outcomes. In contrast, post-surgery depressive symptoms were predictive of weight loss outcomes. Higher post-surgery depressive symptoms at each time point predicted a greater degree of concurrent and subsequent eating disorder psychopathology and lower quality of life. Conclusions The frequency of elevated depressive symptoms decreases substantially following gastric bypass surgery but increases gradually over 24-months. Postoperative depressive symptoms are significantly associated with poorer weight outcomes at 6-months and 12-months following surgery but does not predict longer-term weight outcomes at 24-months. Post-operative depressive symptoms prospectively predict greater eating disorder psychopathology and poorer quality of life through 24-months. Elevated depressive symptoms, readily assessed by self-report, may signal a need for clinical attention after surgery. PMID:25720515

  4. Self-reported measures for surveillance of periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Eke, P I; Dye, B A; Wei, L; Slade, G D; Thornton-Evans, G O; Beck, J D; Taylor, G W; Borgnakke, W S; Page, R C; Genco, R J

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of self-reported measures in predicting periodontitis in a representative US adult population, based on 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. Self-reported gum health and treatment history, loose teeth, bone loss around teeth, tooth not looking right, and use of dental floss and mouthwash were obtained during in-home interviews and validated against full-mouth clinically assessed periodontitis in 3,743 US adults 30 years and older. All self-reported measures (> 95% item response rates) were associated with periodontitis, and bivariate correlations between responses to these questions were weak, indicating low redundancy. In multivariable logistic regression modeling, the combined effects of demographic measures and responses to 5 self-reported questions in predicting periodontitis of mild or greater severity were 85% sensitive and 58% specific and produced an 'area under the receiver operator characteristic curve' (AUROCC) of 0.81. Four questions were 95% sensitive and 30% specific, with an AUROCC of 0.82 in predicting prevalence of clinical attachment loss ≥ 3 mm at one or more sites. In conclusion, self-reported measures performed well in predicting periodontitis in US adults. Where preferred clinically based surveillance is unattainable, locally adapted variations of these self-reported measures may be a promising alternative for surveillance of periodontitis.

  5. Association between Self-Reported Bruxism and Sleeping Patterns among Dental Students in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Shokry, Shereen M; El Wakeel, Eman E; Al-Maflehi, Nassr; RasRas, Zaheera; Fataftah, Nida; Abdul Kareem, Enam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify sleeping patterns among dental students and their association with self-reported bruxism in Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy (RCsDP). Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed including 549 students (67 men and 482 women). A structured questionnaire was adopted from The PSQI (The Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index) used for data collection. It included questions which are categorized into sleeping habits, sleep-related symptoms, and additional questions concerning bruxism. This questionnaire was randomly distributed among all college preclinical and postclinical students. Sleep bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. The data were analyzed using Chi-square tests through SPSS software for Windows. Results. Statistical analyses revealed significant correlations between self-reported bruxism and sleeping habits including sleep initiation (χ (2) = 22.6, p = 0.000), continuous sleep until morning (χ (2) = 19.2, p = 0.001), nighttime sleep duration (χ (2) = 20.2, p = 0.000), and length of daytime naps (χ (2) = 28.35, p = 0.000). There was an association between self-reported bruxism and sleeping-related symptoms including awakening early in the morning before the usual time without a cause (χ (2) = 16.52, p = 0.000) and increased nightmares (χ (2) = 13.7, p = 0.001). Conclusions. Poor sleeping pattern was an important factor among dental students, who reported sleep bruxism.

  6. Association between Self-Reported Bruxism and Sleeping Patterns among Dental Students in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Shokry, Shereen M.; El Wakeel, Eman E.; Al-Maflehi, Nassr; RasRas, Zaheera; Fataftah, Nida; Abdul Kareem, Enam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify sleeping patterns among dental students and their association with self-reported bruxism in Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy (RCsDP). Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed including 549 students (67 men and 482 women). A structured questionnaire was adopted from The PSQI (The Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index) used for data collection. It included questions which are categorized into sleeping habits, sleep-related symptoms, and additional questions concerning bruxism. This questionnaire was randomly distributed among all college preclinical and postclinical students. Sleep bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. The data were analyzed using Chi-square tests through SPSS software for Windows. Results. Statistical analyses revealed significant correlations between self-reported bruxism and sleeping habits including sleep initiation (χ2 = 22.6, p = 0.000), continuous sleep until morning (χ2 = 19.2, p = 0.001), nighttime sleep duration (χ2 = 20.2, p = 0.000), and length of daytime naps (χ2 = 28.35, p = 0.000). There was an association between self-reported bruxism and sleeping-related symptoms including awakening early in the morning before the usual time without a cause (χ2 = 16.52, p = 0.000) and increased nightmares (χ2 = 13.7, p = 0.001). Conclusions. Poor sleeping pattern was an important factor among dental students, who reported sleep bruxism. PMID:27034672

  7. Assessment of social traits in married couples: Self-reports versus spouse ratings around the interpersonal circumplex.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy W; Williams, Paula G

    2016-06-01

    Personality traits predict the quality of intimate relationships, and as a result can be useful additions to assessments of couple functioning. For traits involving social behavior, the affiliation (i.e., warmth, friendliness vs. hostility, quarrelsomeness) and control (i.e., dominance vs. deference, submissiveness) dimensions of the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) are an alternative to the 5-factor model traits of agreeableness and extraversion, given that they may provide a more specific and relevant description of social behavior in the context of couple functioning. The couple context creates an opportunity to supplement commonly used self-reports with informant ratings. Although substantial correlations between self-reports and partner ratings of personality are well-documented, differences between these assessment modalities in levels of affiliation and control have not been examined previously. The present study of 301 middle-aged and older couples addressed this issue by comparing self-reports and spouse ratings, using parallel forms of a measure of the interpersonal circumplex derived from the NEO (Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness) PI-R (Personality Inventory-Revised). Participants reported lower trait dominance relative to spouses' ratings, and less trait hostility. For dominance, this discrepancy was evident at all levels of marital quality, but for hostility it was particularly apparent among couples reporting low marital quality. The tendency to self-report less dominance relative to ratings by spouses was stronger among women than men. These discrepancies may be important in couple assessment and intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26372262

  8. Assessment of social traits in married couples: Self-reports versus spouse ratings around the interpersonal circumplex.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy W; Williams, Paula G

    2016-06-01

    Personality traits predict the quality of intimate relationships, and as a result can be useful additions to assessments of couple functioning. For traits involving social behavior, the affiliation (i.e., warmth, friendliness vs. hostility, quarrelsomeness) and control (i.e., dominance vs. deference, submissiveness) dimensions of the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) are an alternative to the 5-factor model traits of agreeableness and extraversion, given that they may provide a more specific and relevant description of social behavior in the context of couple functioning. The couple context creates an opportunity to supplement commonly used self-reports with informant ratings. Although substantial correlations between self-reports and partner ratings of personality are well-documented, differences between these assessment modalities in levels of affiliation and control have not been examined previously. The present study of 301 middle-aged and older couples addressed this issue by comparing self-reports and spouse ratings, using parallel forms of a measure of the interpersonal circumplex derived from the NEO (Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness) PI-R (Personality Inventory-Revised). Participants reported lower trait dominance relative to spouses' ratings, and less trait hostility. For dominance, this discrepancy was evident at all levels of marital quality, but for hostility it was particularly apparent among couples reporting low marital quality. The tendency to self-report less dominance relative to ratings by spouses was stronger among women than men. These discrepancies may be important in couple assessment and intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Attachment, personality, and psychopathology among adult inpatients: self-reported romantic attachment style versus Adult Attachment Interview states of mind.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Shelley A; Paulson, Adrienne; Tunnell, Ellen; Sahl, Gayla; Atkison, Heather; Ross, Colin A

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined self-reported romantic attachment style and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) states of mind regarding early attachment relationships, personality dimensions, and psychopathology in a psychiatric sample of trauma survivors. Inpatients (N = 80) admitted to a hospital trauma treatment program were administered the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, AAI, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III, Dissociative Experiences Scale, and Dissociative Disorder Interview Schedule. Self-report and AAI attachment classifications were not related, and different results emerged for the two measures. Self-reported romantic attachment style was significantly associated with personality dimensions, with fearful adults showing the most maladaptive personality profiles. Findings suggested that self-report dimensions of self and other independently contribute to different forms of psychological dysfunction. AAI unresolved trauma was uniquely associated with dissociation and posttraumatic stress disorder, whereas unresolved trauma and unresolved loss jointly contributed to schizotypal and borderline personality disorder scores. The differences in findings between the two measures are discussed with a view toward the developmental and clinical implications. PMID:17241494

  10. Self-reported indications for antidepressant use in a population-based cohort of middle-aged and elderly.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Nikkie; Noordam, Raymond; Hofman, Albert; Tiemeier, Henning; Stricker, Bruno H; Visser, Loes E

    2016-10-01

    Background Population-based studies investigating indications for antidepressant prescribing mostly rely on diagnoses from general practitioners. However, diagnostic codes might be incomplete and drugs may be prescribed 'off-label' for indications not investigated in clinical trials. Objective We aimed to study indications for antidepressant use based on self-report. Also, we studied the presence of depressive symptoms associated with the self-reported indications. Setting Our study population of antidepressant users was selected based on interview data between 1997 and 2013 from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study cohort (age >45 years). Method Antidepressant use, self-reported indication for use, and presence of depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) were based on interview. Self-reported indications were categorized by the researchers into officially approved, clinically-accepted and commonly mentioned off-label indications. Main outcome measures A score of 16 and higher on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale was considered as indicator for clinically-relevant depressive symptoms. Results The majority of 914 antidepressant users reported 'depression' (52.4 %) as indication for treatment. Furthermore, anxiety, stress and sleep disorders were reported in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and other antidepressant users (ranging from 5.9 to 13.3 %). The indication 'pain' was commonly mentioned by tricyclic antidepressant users (19.0 %). Indications were statistically significantly associated with higher depressive symptom scores when compared to non-users (n = 10,979). Conclusions Depression was the main indication for antidepressant treatment. However, our findings suggest that antidepressants are also used for off-label indications, subthreshold disorders and complex situations, which were all associated with clinically-relevant depressive symptoms in the middle-aged and elderly

  11. Self-Reported Difficulty in Climbing Up or Down Stairs in Nondisabled Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Verghese, Joe; Wang, Cuiling; Xue, Xiaonan; Holtzer, Roee

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine clinical and functional correlates of self-reported difficulty in climbing up or climbing down stairs in older adults. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Community sample. Participants Older adults (N=310; mean age, 79.7y; 62% women), without disability or dementia. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Clinical and functional status as well as activity limitations (able to perform activities of daily living [ADLs] with some difficulty). Results Of the 310 subjects, 140 reported difficulties in climbing up and 83 in climbing down stairs (59 both). Self-reported difficulty in climbing up stairs was associated with hypertension, arthritis, and depressive symptoms. Difficulty in climbing up stairs was also associated with poor balance and grip strength as well as neurologic gait abnormalities. Subjects with difficulty climbing down stairs had more falls. Both activities were associated with leg claudication, fear of falling, non-neurologic gait abnormalities, and slow gait. Examined individually, self-reported difficulty climbing down stairs captured a wider spectrum of ADL limitations than climbing up stairs. However, combined difficulty in both phases of stair climbing had a stronger association with activity limitations (vs no difficulty; odds ratio, 6.58; 95% confidence interval, 3.35–12.91) than difficulty in any one phase alone. Conclusions Self-reported difficulty in climbing up and down stairs revealed commonalities as well as differences in related clinical correlates. Difficulty in both climbing up and down stairs should be separately assessed to better capture clinical and functional status in older adults. PMID:18164338

  12. Outstanding Symptoms of Poststroke Depression during the Acute Phase of Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Nakase, Taizen; Tobisawa, Maiko; Sasaki, Masahiro; Suzuki, Akifumi

    2016-01-01

    Poststroke depression (PSD) is a critical complication which might lead to unfavorable outcomes. However, most cases of PSD in the acute phase, during the 2 or 3 weeks following a stroke, are neglected because of the variable comorbid conditions. In this study, aimed at revealing the outstanding symptoms of PSD during the acute phase, consecutive patients with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) or brain infarction (BI) were asked to fill out a depression questionnaire (Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report: QIDS-SR) at 1 week and 1 month following stroke onset. Patients with disturbed consciousness or aphasia were excluded from this study. Forty-nine ICH patients and 222 BI patients completed the QIDS-SR at 1 week and 27 of ICH and 62 of BI at 1 month. The PSD rate was 67% and 46% at 1 week in ICH and BI, respectively. Although sleep disturbance was the most frequent symptom of PSD, psychomotor agitation and appetite disturbance were the most distinguishing symptoms in ICH at 1 week and fatigue at 1 month. On the other hand, most of the depressive symptoms addressed in QIDS-SR were observed in PSD of BI patients both at 1 week and 1 month. In conclusion, while sleep disturbance was a frequent but non-specific symptom, appetite disturbance and fatigue might be critical symptoms to suggest PSD during the acute phase of stroke. PMID:27706193

  13. Course of Depressive Symptoms and Treatment in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS-2) Study

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, James E.; King, Wendy C.; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Devlin, Michael J.; Flum, David; Garcia, Luis; Pender, John R.; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Khandelwal, Saurabh; Marcus, Marsha D.; Schrope, Beth; Strain, Gladys; Wolfe, Bruce; Yanovski, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine changes in depressive symptoms and treatment in the first three years following bariatric surgery. Design and Methods The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 is an observational cohort study of adults (n=2,458) who underwent a bariatric surgical procedure at one of ten US hospitals between 2006–9. This study includes 2,148 participants who completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at baseline and ≥ one follow-up visit in years 1–3. Results At baseline, 40.4% self-reported treatment for depression. At least mild depressive symptoms (BDI score≥10) were reported by 28.3%; moderate (BDI score 19–29) and severe (BDI score ≥30) symptoms were uncommon (4.2% and 0.5%, respectively). Mild-to-severe depressive symptoms independently increased the odds (OR=1.75; p=.03) of a major adverse event within 30 days of surgery. Compared with baseline, symptom severity was significantly lower at all follow-up time points (e.g., mild-to-severe symptomatology was 8.9%, 6 months; 8.4%, 1yr; 12.2%, 2yrs; 15.6%, 3yrs; ps<.001), but increased between 1 and 3 years postoperatively (p<.01). Change in depressive symptoms was significantly related to change in body mass index (r=.42; p<0001). Conclusion Bariatric surgery has a positive impact on depressive features. However, data suggest some deterioration in improvement after the first postoperative year. PMID:24634371

  14. Assessing quality of life of self-reported rheumatic patients.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Pedro L; Gonçalves, Sónia P; Ferreira, Lara N; Pereira, Luis N; Antunes, Patrícia; Gouveia, Nélia; Rodrigues, Ana; Canhão, Helena; Branco, Jaime

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with self-reported rheumatic diseases (RD), to classify self-reported rheumatic patients in groups according to their health state and to explore the associations between health status and sociodemographic variables. Data came from the Portuguese Epidemiologic study of the RD. A sample of the Portuguese population aged 18 or more (n = 10,661) stratified by region and locality dimension was interviewed by trained interviewers and answered a standardized questionnaire that included the SF-36v1, the EQ-5D-3L, medical history, identification of potential rheumatic diseases, sociodemographic characteristics, among others. Descriptive statistics and parametric tests were used to compare HRQoL of respondents with and without RD. Comparisons with normative data from the Portuguese population were also carried out. A cluster analysis was used to classify respondents into homogeneous groups. Regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with HRQoL. Respondents with self-reported RD assigned a lower self-perception to their health status. The burden of disease was observed mainly in physical function, role physical and bodily pain. The EQ-5D-3L dimensions show similar results: the intensity of problems is significantly more evident in respondents with self-reported RD. HRQoL of respondents with self-reported RD is related to sociodemographic variables and is significantly lower when compared with the Portuguese population. Four clusters of homogeneous respondents with self-reported RD were formed and characterized according to a number of variables. Factors associated with HRQoL were identified. In conclusion, suffering from a self-reported RD has a significant impact on self-perceived health status and on the quality of life. PMID:27378230

  15. Assessing quality of life of self-reported rheumatic patients.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Pedro L; Gonçalves, Sónia P; Ferreira, Lara N; Pereira, Luis N; Antunes, Patrícia; Gouveia, Nélia; Rodrigues, Ana; Canhão, Helena; Branco, Jaime

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with self-reported rheumatic diseases (RD), to classify self-reported rheumatic patients in groups according to their health state and to explore the associations between health status and sociodemographic variables. Data came from the Portuguese Epidemiologic study of the RD. A sample of the Portuguese population aged 18 or more (n = 10,661) stratified by region and locality dimension was interviewed by trained interviewers and answered a standardized questionnaire that included the SF-36v1, the EQ-5D-3L, medical history, identification of potential rheumatic diseases, sociodemographic characteristics, among others. Descriptive statistics and parametric tests were used to compare HRQoL of respondents with and without RD. Comparisons with normative data from the Portuguese population were also carried out. A cluster analysis was used to classify respondents into homogeneous groups. Regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with HRQoL. Respondents with self-reported RD assigned a lower self-perception to their health status. The burden of disease was observed mainly in physical function, role physical and bodily pain. The EQ-5D-3L dimensions show similar results: the intensity of problems is significantly more evident in respondents with self-reported RD. HRQoL of respondents with self-reported RD is related to sociodemographic variables and is significantly lower when compared with the Portuguese population. Four clusters of homogeneous respondents with self-reported RD were formed and characterized according to a number of variables. Factors associated with HRQoL were identified. In conclusion, suffering from a self-reported RD has a significant impact on self-perceived health status and on the quality of life.

  16. Self-reported urge urinary incontinence (UUI) among older Mexican-American men: risk factors and psycho-social consequences.

    PubMed

    Gerst, K; Ray, L A; Samper-Ternent, R; Espino, D V; Markides, K S

    2011-12-01

    Extant literature on Urge Urinary Incontinence (UUI) focuses on women and non-Hispanic Whites and little is known about ethnic minority men. We analyzed 700 Mexican-American men aged 75 and older from the fifth Wave (2004/5) of the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly. Logistic regression analyses examined risk factors for self-reported UUI and the impact of UUI on mental health and social support. Twenty-nine percent reported having difficulty holding their urine until they could get to a toilet. Men with more co-morbid conditions and men with prostate problems were more likely to report UUI symptoms. Men with UUI were less likely to report having a confidant and had a higher risk of high depressive symptoms. This study is the first to examine risk factors for and consequences of self-reported UUI among older Mexican-American men using a large community-based survey. PMID:20811953

  17. Nomothetic and Idiographic Symptom Change Trajectories in Acute-Phase Cognitive Therapy for Recurrent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Clark, Lee Anna; Thase, Michael E.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We tested nomothetic and idiographic convergence and change in three symptom measures during acute-phase cognitive therapy (CT) for depression and compared outcomes among patients showing different change patterns. Method Outpatients (N = 362; 69% women; 85% white; age mean = 43 years) with DSM-IV recurrent major depressive disorder completed the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Hamilton, 1960), Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, Ward, Mendelson, Mock, & Erbaugh 1961), and Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology—Self-Report (Rush, Gullion, Basco, Jarrett, & Trivedi, 1996) on 14 occasions, and pre-/post-CT measures of social-interpersonal functioning and negative cognitive content. Results The three symptom measures marked the same severity and change constructs, and we offer improved formulas for inter-measure score conversions via their common factor. Pre-post CT symptom reductions were large (ds 1.71-1.92), and nomothetic symptom curves were log-linear (larger improvements earlier and smaller improvements later in CT). Nonetheless, only 30% of individual patients showed clear log-linear changes, whereas other patients showed linear (e.g., steady decreases; 20%), one-step (e.g., a quick drop; 16%), and unclassified (34%) patterns. Log-linear, linear, and one-step patients were generally similar to one another and superior to unclassified patients post-CT in symptom levels, response and stable remission rates, social-interpersonal functioning, and cognitive content (median d = 0.69). Conclusions Reaching a low-symptom “destination” at the end of CT via any coherent “path” is more important in the short-term than which path patients take. We discuss implications for theories of change, clinical monitoring of individuals’ progress in CT, and the need to investigate long-term outcomes of patients with differing symptom change patterns. PMID:23627652

  18. Impact of Burnout on Self-Reported Patient Care Among Emergency Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Dave W.; Dresden, Scott; McCloskey, Colin; Branzetti, Jeremy; Gisondi, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Burnout is a syndrome of depersonalization, emotional exhaustion and sense of low personal accomplishment. Emergency physicians (EPs) experience the highest levels of burnout among all physicians. Burnout is associated with greater rates of self-reported suboptimal care among surgeons and internists. The association between burnout and suboptimal care among EPs is unknown. The objective of the study was to evaluate burnout rates among attending and resident EPs and examine their relationship with self-reported patient care practices. Methods In this cross-sectional study burnout was measured at two university-based emergency medicine residency programs with the Maslach Burnout Inventory. We also measured depression, quality of life (QOL) and career satisfaction using validated questionnaires. Six items assessed suboptimal care and the frequency with which they were performed. Results We included 77 out of 155 (49.7%) responses. The EP burnout rate was 57.1%, with no difference between attending and resident physicians. Residents were more likely to screen positive for depression (47.8% vs 18.5%, p=0.012) and report lower QOL scores (6.7 vs 7.4 out of 10, p=0.036) than attendings. Attendings and residents reported similar rates of career satisfaction (85.2% vs 87.0%, p=0.744). Burnout was associated with a positive screen for depression (38.6% vs 12.1%, p=0.011) and lower career satisfaction (77.3% vs 97.0%, p=0.02). EPs with high burnout were significantly more likely to report performing all six acts of suboptimal care. Conclusion A majority of EPs demonstrated high burnout. EP burnout was significantly associated with higher frequencies of self-reported suboptimal care. Future efforts to determine if provider burnout is associated with negative changes in actual patient care are necessary. PMID:26759643

  19. Characteristics of Insomniacs with Self-Reported Morning and Evening Chronotypes

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Jason C.; Huang, Jennifer S.; Kuo, Tracy F.; Manber, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study examines the relevance of self-reported morning and evening chronotypes in treatment-seeking insomniacs presenting to a tertiary sleep clinic setting. Design: Using a cross-sectional design, patients were categorized as morning, intermediate, and evening chronotypes based upon scores on the Morningness-Eveningness Composite Scale (MECS). Group comparisons were made on self-report measures of nocturnal sleep, sleep period variability, and waking correlates and consequences of insomnia. Setting: Sleep disorders clinic Patients: The sample consisted of 312 patients who presented to a group cognitive-behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) at the sleep clinic. Measurements and Results: Participants completed the MECS, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep Scale (DBAS), and one week of sleep diary prior to treatment. Even after adjusting for total wake time as an index of insomnia severity, differences between the three chronotypes were present on several measures. Compared to the morning and intermediate types, evening types reported more total sleep time, more time in bed, greater variability in the time out of bed, and higher levels of distress on the DBAS and BDI. Conclusions: These results indicate that insomniacs presenting to a sleep specialist who endorse an evening chronotype report sleep/wake irregularities and waking distress greater than expected in association with the level of insomnia severity. These factors may serve to perpetuate the insomnia disorder and might be particularly important to consider when treating this subgroup of insomniacs. Citations: Ong J; Huang J; Kuo T et al. Characteristics of insomniacs with self-reported morning and evening chronotypes. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(3):289–294 PMID:17561599

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Beck Depression Inventories When Used with an Elderly Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Arleen J.; Kligman, Evan

    The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is a self-reported inventory tapping current feelings only. A short form was published in 1972 consisting of 13 items from the original BDI, called the BDI-SF. In 1978 the original version was modified to eliminate double negative statements and alternative ways of asking the same question and then referred to…

  1. The Assessment of Burnout: A Review of Three Inventories Useful for Research and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Nancy M.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews three self-report inventories designed to respond to syndrome of burnout in helping professionals: Maslach Burnout Inventory, Staff Burnout Scale for Health Professionals; and Tedium Scale. Describes each instrument, its development, and related research. Provides recommendations for future research. Discusses suggestions for use of the…

  2. The Mathematics Value Inventory for General Education Students: Development and Initial Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luttrell, Vickie R.; Callen, Bruce W.; Allen, Charles S.; Wood, Mark D.; Deeds, Donald G.; Richard, David C. S.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a self-report inventory that measures individual differences in the perceived value of mathematical literacy for general education students. The Mathematics Value Inventory (MVI) is grounded in the Eccles et al. model of achievement-related choices and surveys students' beliefs in four areas: interest, general…

  3. Contrast effects and sex influence maternal and self-report dimensional measures of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Ebejer, J L; Medland, S E; van der Werf, J; J Wright, M; Henders, A K; Gillespie, N A; Hickie, I B; Martin, N G; Duffy, D L

    2015-01-01

    The heritability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is higher for children than adults. This may be due to increasing importance of environment in symptom variation, measurement inaccuracy when two raters report behavior of a twin-pair, a contrast effect resulting from parental comparison of siblings and/or dimensionality of measures. We examine rater contrast and sex effects in ADHD subtypes using a dimensional scale and compare the aetiology of self, versus maternal-report. Data were collected using the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD and Normal Behaviour Scale (SWAN): maternal-report for 3,223 twins and siblings (mean age 21.2, SD = 6.3) and self-report for 1,617 twins and siblings (mean age 25.5, SD = 3.2). Contrast effects and magnitude of genetic and environmental contributions to variance of ADHD phenotypes (inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, combined behaviours) were examined using structural equation modeling. Contrast effects were evident for maternal-report hyperactivity-impulsivity (b = -0.04) and self-report inattention (-0.09) and combined ADHD (-0.08). Dominant genetic effects were shared by raters for inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity and combined ADHD. Broad-sense heritability was equal across sex for maternal-report inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity and combined ADHD (0.72, 0.83, 0.80). Heritability for corresponding subtypes in self-reported data were best represented by sex (0.46, 0.30, 0.39 for males; 0.69, 0.41, 0.65 for females). Heritability difference between maternal and self-report ADHD was due to greater variance of male specific environment in self-report data. Self-reported ADHD differed across sex by magnitude of specific environment and genetic effects.

  4. The Nomological Network of Self-Reported Distress Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kiselica, Andrew M; Rojas, Elizabeth; Bornovalova, Marina A; Dube, Chad

    2015-12-01

    Distress tolerance (DT), or the ability to withstand psychological distress, is a popular construct in the psychological literature. However, research has not specified the nomological network of DT across self-report measures. The purpose of the current investigation was to understand what personality features, environmental stressors, current affective states, and behaviors contribute to DT in two different samples: college students and those in residential substance use treatment. Correlations revealed that self-reported DT was most strongly associated with trait negative emotionality, state negative affect, impulsivity, and perceived stress. In comparisons across samples, self-harm exhibited a stronger relationship with self-reported DT in the drug treatment than in the student sample, whereas perceived stress had a stronger association in the student sample. Correlations between self-report and behavioral measures of DT were nonsignificant. To understand this lack of associations, associations of outcomes with behavioral measures were assessed. In contrast to self-reported DT, behavioral DT was more closely related to achievement orientation, state negative affect, and state positive affect, but was not significantly related to psychopathology and maladaptive behaviors. It is necessary to continue investigating the construct validity of behavioral DT measures via the use of incremental utility analyses and experimental approaches.

  5. Accuracy of self-reported reason for colorectal cancer testing

    PubMed Central

    Eberth, Jan M.; Vernon, Sally W.; White, Arica; Abotchie, Peter N.; Coan, Sharon P.

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of accuracy of self-reported reason for colorectal cancer (CRC) testing has been limited. We examined the accuracy and correlates of self-reported reason (screening or diagnosis) for having a sigmoidoscopy (SIG) or colonoscopy (COL). Patients who had received at least one SIG or COL within the past five years were recruited from a large multispecialty clinic in Houston, TX, between 2005 and 2007. We calculated concordance, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity between self-reported reason and the medical record (gold standard). Logistic regression was performed to identify correlates of accurate self-report. Self-reported reason for testing was more accurate when the SIG or COL was done for screening, rather than diagnosis. In multivariable analysis for SIG, age was positively associated with accurately reporting reason for testing while having two or more CRC tests during the study period (compared with only one test) was negatively associated with accuracy. In multivariable analysis, none of the correlates was statistically associated with COL although a similar pattern was observed for number of tests. Determining the best way to identify those who have been tested for diagnosis, rather than screening, is an important next step. PMID:20056638

  6. Altered self-report of empathic responding in patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Cusi, Andrée; Macqueen, Glenda M; McKinnon, Margaret C

    2010-07-30

    Despite evidence of impairments in social cognition in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), systematic investigations of empathic responding in this population have not been conducted. The objectives of the current study were to investigate empathic responding in patients with BD in varying states of illness and to determine whether course of illness variables and symptom severity predicted responding. Twenty well-characterized patients with BD and 20 matched healthy control subjects completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and the Social Adjustment Scale Self-Report (SAS-SR), self-report measures of cognitive and emotional empathy and of psychosocial functioning, respectively. Patients with BD reported significantly reduced levels of cognitive empathy ('Perspective Taking') and higher levels of personal distress in response to others' negative experiences than did controls. Altered affective empathic abilities correlated significantly with reduced psychosocial functioning in family, social and occupational domains and with increased symptom severity. This study provides preliminary evidence of alterations in empathic responding in patients with BD. Alterations in the ability to adopt the perspective of others may contribute to the difficulties in social communication inherent in this patient population. Additional studies, involving larger samples, are required to determine the contribution of social cognitive performance to impaired social functioning in BD. PMID:20483472

  7. Underreporting of bestiality among juvenile sex offenders: polygraph versus self-report.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Allison M; Cooper-Lehki, Christi; Keelan, Colleen M; Fremouw, William J

    2014-03-01

    Juvenile sex offenders (JSO) are a specific subset of delinquent adolescents that are receiving more attention because of the crimes they commit and the issues surrounding how to successfully treat their deviant behaviors. Given JSO are such predominant treatment concerns in society, it is essential to identify and target key risk factors. One sexual behavior, bestiality, may be of particular importance to address in treatment. In a meta-analysis conducted by Seto and Lalumiere, a 14% rate of bestiality among JSO was reported. This current study examined the differences in JSO (n = 32) who admitted bestiality based upon a self-report measure, the Multiphasic Sexual Inventory-II (MSI-II), compared to information elicited by polygraphs. The results indicated extensive underreporting of bestiality behaviors between these two sources of information (MSI-II = 37.5%; polygraph = 81.25%). These findings are important given the reliance treatment programs place on information elicited from self-report tools. PMID:24502368

  8. Underreporting of bestiality among juvenile sex offenders: polygraph versus self-report.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Allison M; Cooper-Lehki, Christi; Keelan, Colleen M; Fremouw, William J

    2014-03-01

    Juvenile sex offenders (JSO) are a specific subset of delinquent adolescents that are receiving more attention because of the crimes they commit and the issues surrounding how to successfully treat their deviant behaviors. Given JSO are such predominant treatment concerns in society, it is essential to identify and target key risk factors. One sexual behavior, bestiality, may be of particular importance to address in treatment. In a meta-analysis conducted by Seto and Lalumiere, a 14% rate of bestiality among JSO was reported. This current study examined the differences in JSO (n = 32) who admitted bestiality based upon a self-report measure, the Multiphasic Sexual Inventory-II (MSI-II), compared to information elicited by polygraphs. The results indicated extensive underreporting of bestiality behaviors between these two sources of information (MSI-II = 37.5%; polygraph = 81.25%). These findings are important given the reliance treatment programs place on information elicited from self-report tools.

  9. Self-reported oral health behavior and attitudes of dental and technology students in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Pacauskiene, Ingrida M; Smailiene, Dalia; Siudikienė, Jolanta; Savanevskyte, Julija; Nedzelskiene, Irena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess self-reported oral health habits, attitudes, lifestyle between the sample groups of preclinical and clinical dental and technology students in Lithuania using the Hiroshima University Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI), and to evaluate the impact of education on their behavior and self-reported oral health. A sample of 183 dental and 75 technology students at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Medical Academy, Faculty of Odontology, and Kaunas University of Technology completed the Lithuanian version the HU-DBI questionnaire with 11 additional items. The data were analyzed using the "SPSS 19.0 for Windows" software package. The mean HU-DBI score of clinical final-year dentistry students was significantly higher (p=0.001) than the score of the preclinical group (6.81 (1.2) and 5.96 (1.5), respectively). The mean scores of both groups of dental students were significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of the technology group (5.37 (1.8)). Oral health behaviors and knowledge were superior in dental students. Dental education had a significant positive impact on the oral health and behavior improvement. The attitudes of the Lithuanian dental students should be further improved by initiating a comprehensive program that would emphasize the importance of oral hygiene before the clinical program starts.

  10. An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment.

    PubMed

    Fraley, R C; Waller, N G; Brennan, K A

    2000-02-01

    Self-report measures of adult attachment are typically scored in ways (e.g., averaging or summing items) that can lead to erroneous inferences about important theoretical issues, such as the degree of continuity in attachment security and the differential stability of insecure attachment patterns. To determine whether existing attachment scales suffer from scaling problems, the authors conducted an item response theory (IRT) analysis of 4 commonly used self-report inventories: Experiences in Close Relationships scales (K. A. Brennan, C. L. Clark, & P. R. Shaver, 1998), Adult Attachment Scales (N. L. Collins & S. J. Read, 1990), Relationship Styles Questionnaire (D. W. Griffin & K. Bartholomew, 1994) and J. Simpson's (1990) attachment scales. Data from 1,085 individuals were analyzed using F. Samejima's (1969) graded response model. The authors' findings indicate that commonly used attachment scales can be improved in a number of important ways. Accordingly, the authors show how IRT techniques can be used to develop new attachment scales with desirable psychometric properties.

  11. Evaluation of Parental Attitudes and Behavior Inventory. Terminal Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krug, Ronald S.

    An investigation was conducted to determine whether the Parental Attitude and Behavior Inventory (PABI) Form III, a lengthy self-report instrument (577 items each for both parents) for assessing parents' attitudes and behavior toward their children and each other, could be shortened to a more feasible length. This terminal report summarizes the…

  12. The Relational Humor Inventory: Functions of Humor in Close Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKoning, E.; Weiss, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    This study describes the development of a self-report measure of functional humor in relationships. People were asked to report on their own and their partner's use of humor in the marriage. The Relational Humor Inventory proved to be a useful instrument for tapping important positive and negative relationship behaviors. (Contains 30 references, 4…

  13. Development and Initial Validation of the Iowa Sleep Disturbances Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffel, Erin; Watson, David

    2010-01-01

    The Iowa Sleep Disturbances Inventory (ISDI) is a new measure of self-reported sleep difficulties, which was designed to help facilitate research on the overlap of sleep disturbances and psychopathology. This instrument was developed in two large student samples using principal factor analyses; the psychometric properties of the scales were then…

  14. SCREENING FOR SYMPTOMS OF POSTPARTUM TRAUMATIC STRESS IN A SAMPLE OF MOTHERS WITH PRETERM INFANTS

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Richard J.; Lilo, Emily; Benitz, William; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Ball, M. Bethany; Proud, Melinda; Vierhaus, Nancy S.; Huntsberry, Audrey; Mitchell, Kelley; Adams, Marian M.; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective There are no established screening criteria to help identify mothers of premature infants who at risk for symptoms of emotional distress. The current study, using data obtained from recruitment and screening in preparation for a randomized controlled trial, aimed to identify potential risk factors associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress in a sample of mothers with premature infants hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit. Method 135 mothers of preterm infants born at 26-34 weeks of gestation completed three self-report measures, the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition and the Beck Anxiety Inventory to determine their eligibility for inclusion in a treatment intervention study based on clinical cut-off scores for each measure. Results Maternal sociodemographic measures, including race, ethnicity and age, maternal pregnancy history and measures of infant medical severity were not helpful in differentiating mothers who screened positive on one or more of the measures from those who screened negative. Conclusions Programs to screen parents of premature infants for the presence of symptoms of posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depression will need to adopt universal screening rather than profiling of potential high risk parents based on their sociodemographic characteristics or measures of their infant’s medical severity. PMID:24597585

  15. Screening for symptoms of postpartum traumatic stress in a sample of mothers with preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Richard J; Lilo, Emily A; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Ball, M Bethany; Proud, Melinda S; Vierhaus, Nancy S; Huntsberry, Audrey; Mitchell, Kelley; Adams, Marian M; Horwitz, Sarah M

    2014-03-01

    There are no established screening criteria to help identify mothers of premature infants who are at risk for symptoms of emotional distress. The current study, using data obtained from recruitment and screening in preparation for a randomized controlled trial, aimed to identify potential risk factors associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress in a sample of mothers with premature infants hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit. One hundred, thirty-five mothers of preterm infants born at 26-34 weeks of gestation completed three self-report measures: the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory (2nd ed.), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory to determine their eligibility for inclusion in a treatment intervention study based on clinical cut-off scores for each measure. Maternal sociodemographic measures, including race, ethnicity, age, maternal pregnancy history, and measures of infant medical severity were not helpful in differentiating mothers who screened positive on one or more of the measures from those who screened negative. Programs to screen parents of premature infants for the presence of symptoms of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depression will need to adopt universal screening rather than profiling of potential high risk parents based on their sociodemographic characteristics or measures of their infant's medical severity.

  16. Childhood trauma and neighborhood-level crime interact in predicting adult posttraumatic stress and major depression symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Sarah R; Quinn, James W; Richards, Catherine A; Pothen, John; Rundle, Andrew; Galea, Sandro; Ressler, Kerry J; Koenen, Karestan C; Bradley, Bekh

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has identified several individual-level factors that modify the risk of childhood trauma on adult psychiatric symptoms, including symptoms of major depression (MD) and posttraumatic stress (PTS). Neighborhood-level factors also influence the impact of individual-level exposures on adult psychopathology. However, no prior studies to our knowledge have explored cross-level interactions between childhood trauma and neighborhood-level factors on MD and PTS symptoms. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore cross-level interactions between a neighborhood-level factor - neighborhood-level crime - and childhood trauma on MD and PTS symptoms. Participants in this study (N=3192) were recruited from a large public hospital, and completed self-report inventories of childhood trauma and MD and PTS symptoms. Participant addresses were mapped onto 2010 census tracts, and data on crime within each tract were collected. Multilevel models found a significant cross-level interaction between childhood trauma and neighborhood crime on MD symptoms, such that the influence of high levels of childhood trauma on MD symptoms was enhanced for participants living in high-crime neighborhoods. Supplementary analyses found variation in the strength of cross-level interaction terms by types of childhood trauma and crime, with the strongest associations including emotional neglect paired with personal and property crime. The results provide preliminary support for interventions that help childhood trauma survivors find housing in less vulnerable neighborhoods and build skills to cope with neighborhood crime.

  17. Accuracy of self-reports of mental health care utilization and calculated costs compared to hospital records.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Sven; Deister, Arno; Birker, Thomas; Hierholzer, Cornelia; Weigelt, Ina; Zeichner, Dirk; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Roick, Christiane; König, Hans-Helmut

    2011-01-30

    Assessments of service utilization is often based on self-reports. Concerns regarding the accuracy of self-reports are raised especially in mental health care. The purpose of this study was to analyze the accuracy of self-reports and calculated costs of mental health services. In a prospective cohort study in Germany, self-reports regarding psychiatric inpatient and day-care use collected by telephone interviews based on the Client Socio-Demographic and Service Receipt Inventory (CSSRI) as well as calculated costs were compared to computerized hospital records. The sample consisted of patients with mental and behavioral disorders resulting from alcohol (ICD-10 F10, n=84), schizophrenia, schizophrenic and delusional disturbances (F2, n=122) and affective disorders (F3, n=124). Agreement was assessed using the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), mean difference (95% confidence intervals (CI)) and the 95% limits of agreement. Predictors for disagreement were derived. Overall agreement of mean total costs was excellent (CCC=0.8432). Costs calculated based on self-reports were higher than costs calculated based on hospital records (15 EUR (95% CI -434 to 405)). Overall agreement of total costs for F2 patients was CCC=0.8651, for F3 CCC=0.7850 and for F10 CCC=0.6180. Depending on type of service, measure of service utilization and costs agreement ranged from excellent to poor and varied substantially between individuals. The number of admissions documented in hospital records was significantly associated with disagreement. Telephone interviews can be an accurate data collection method for calculating mean total costs in mental health care. In the future more standardization is needed.

  18. Acupressure on Self-Reported Sleep Quality During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Neri, Isabella; Bruno, Raffaele; Dante, Giulia; Facchinetti, Fabio

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of acupression at the H7 point on sleep quality during pregnancy. After oral consent had been obtained, the midwife invited the women claiming to have poor sleep quality and anxiety symptoms to complete the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-1. Then, the same midwife, previously trained by an expert acupuncturist (I.N.), advised the women to put on the wrist overnight compression H7 Insomnia Control half an hour before going to bed and to take it off upon awakening, for 10 consecutive days and thereafter every odd day (active group). Women refusing to wear the device for low compliance toward acupression were considered as the control group. After 2 weeks, a second questionnaire evaluation was completed. In the active, but not in the control, group, a significant improvement of sleep quality was observed after H7 device application. The study suggests that H7 acupression applied for 2 weeks improves sleep quality in pregnant women. This preliminary result should serve to stimulate further studies on the long-term effects of acupression. PMID:26896071

  19. Depressive symptoms among patients receiving varenicline and bupropion for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Hong, Arthur S; Elrashidi, Muhamad Y; Schroeder, Darrell R; Ebbert, Jon O

    2015-05-01

    While the combination therapy of varenicline and sustained release bupropion (bupropion SR) for cigarette smoking cessation can increase smoking abstinence rates, it has also been associated with increases in self-reported depressive symptoms. We conducted an analysis of the Beck Depression Inventory, second edition (BDI-II), data completed by 505 patients from a large randomized clinical trial, evaluating the efficacy of 12 weeks of combination therapy (varenicline+bupropion SR) compared to varenicline alone. At medication treatment week 2 (1 week after target quit date [TQD]), increased depressive symptoms were observed in patients receiving combination therapy (effect estimate=0.61, 95% CI [0.03, 1.19], P=.039) and those with a history of depression (effect estimate=0.82, 95% CI [0.07, 1.57], P=.033). For treatment weeks 2 to 4, smokers with a history of depression on combination therapy had a greater decline in depressive symptoms compared to those on varenicline alone (effect estimate=-1.99, 95% CI [-3.99, 0.00], P=.050). After treatment week 4, no significant effects of treatment or depression history on BDI-II scores were observed. A history of depression did not moderate the efficacy of combination therapy for smoking abstinence. Our study suggests that for combination therapy with varenicline and bupropion SR, an increase in depressive symptoms over the first 2 weeks may be observed; however, the effects on depressive symptoms do not last beyond 4 weeks. We conclude that among smokers without active moderate or severe depression, the decision to use this combination treatment approach should not be based upon a self-reported history of depression.

  20. Signal-detection properties of verbal self-reports.

    PubMed

    Critchfield, T S

    1993-11-01

    The bias (B'H) and discriminability (A') of college students' self-reports about choices made in a delayed identity matching-to-sample task were studied as a function of characteristics of the response about which they reported. Each matching-to-sample trial consisted of two, three, or four simultaneously presented sample stimuli, a 1-s retention interval, and two, three, or four comparison stimuli. One sample stimulus was always reproduced among the comparisons, and choice of the matching comparison in less than 800 ms produced points worth chances in a drawing for money. After each choice, subjects pressed either a "yes" or a "no" button to answer a computer-generated query about whether the choice met the point contingency. The number of sample and comparison stimuli was manipulated across experimental conditions. Rates of successful matching-to-sample choices were negatively correlated with the number of matching-to-sample stimuli, regardless of whether samples or comparisons were manipulated. As in previous studies, subjects exhibited a pronounced bias for reporting successful responses. Self-report bias tended to become less pronounced as matching-to-sample success became less frequent, an outcome consistent with signal-frequency effects in psychophysical research. The bias was also resistant to change, suggesting influences other than signal frequency that remain to be identified. Self-report discriminability tended to decrease with the number of sample stimuli and increase with the number of comparison stimuli, an effect not attributable to differential effects of the two manipulations on matching-to-sample performance. Overall, bias and discriminability indices revealed effects that were not evident in self-report accuracy scores. The results indicate that analyses based on signal-detection theory can improve the description of correspondence between self-reports and their referents and thus contribute to the identification of environmental sources of

  1. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    PubMed

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  2. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    PubMed

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  3. Sex Differences and Self-Reported Attention Problems During Baseline Concussion Testing.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Brian L; Iverson, Grant L; Atkins, Joseph E; Zafonte, Ross; Berkner, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Amateur athletic programs often use computerized cognitive testing as part of their concussion management programs. There is evidence that athletes with preexisting attention problems will have worse cognitive performance and more symptoms at baseline testing. The purpose of this study was to examine whether attention problems affect assessments differently for male and female athletes. Participants were drawn from a database that included 6,840 adolescents from Maine who completed Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) at baseline (primary outcome measure). The final sample included 249 boys and 100 girls with self-reported attention problems. Each participant was individually matched for sex, age, number of past concussions, and sport to a control participant (249 boys, 100 girls). Boys with attention problems had worse reaction time than boys without attention problems. Girls with attention problems had worse visual-motor speed than girls without attention problems. Boys with attention problems reported more total symptoms, including more cognitive-sensory and sleep-arousal symptoms, compared with boys without attention problems. Girls with attention problems reported more cognitive-sensory, sleep-arousal, and affective symptoms than girls without attention problems. When considering the assessment, management, and outcome from concussions in adolescent athletes, it is important to consider both sex and preinjury attention problems regarding cognitive test results and symptom reporting. PMID:25923339

  4. Depressive Symptoms in African-American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Michael K.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms in an African American female college student sample (n=78) using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI2) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). MMPI-2 was a more conservative scale than BDI in identifying depressive symptom levels. Discusses stress inoculation methods to assist…

  5. Influence of gag reflex on dental attendance, dental anxiety, self-reported temporomandibular disorders and prosthetic restorations.

    PubMed

    Akarslan, Z Z; Yıldırım Biçer, A Z

    2013-12-01

    To assess the influence of gag reflex severity, assessed according to the short form of the patient part of Gagging Problem Assessment Questionnaire (GPA-pa SF), on the dental attendance, dental anxiety, self-reported temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms and presence of prosthetic restorations among patients requiring prosthodontic treatment in Turkey. A total of 505 patients (305 women; mean age: 46·35 years, SD: 28·2 years) undergoing dental examination were administered a questionnaire containing questions regarding their age, gender, education level, dental attendance, TMD symptoms (limitation in jaw opening, muscle pain, pain/sounds in the temporomandibular jaw), the Turkish version of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) and the GPA-pa SF. Subsequently, any prosthetic restoration was recorded by a dentist. Descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance (anova) and the chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Differences were found between GPA-pa SF scores 0, 1 and 2 for education level (P = 0·001), MDAS scores (P = 0·003), self-reported TMD (P = 0·000) and prosthesis wear (P = 0·000), but not for attendance patterns (P = 0·826). Patients with gag reflex had lower education levels, higher levels of dental anxiety, more self-reported TMD symptoms and fewer fixed or removable prosthetic restorations than patients without gag reflex. Gag reflex has impacts on dental anxiety, self-reported TMD and prosthetic restorations, but not on dental attendance patterns, according to the results of the GPA-pa SF. PMID:24118087

  6. Ten-year stability of self-reported schizotypal personality features in patients with psychosis and their healthy siblings.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Izco, Lucía; Sánchez-Torres, Ana M; Lorente-Omeñaca, Ruth; Fañanás, Lourdes; Rosa, Araceli; Salvatore, Paola; Peralta, Victor; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2015-06-30

    Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) symptoms or features are common in patients with psychosis and their healthy relatives. However, the long-term stability of these SPD features and therefore their constituting enduring traits underlying vulnerability to psychosis remain to be clarified. Thirty-two patients with psychotic disorders and 29 of their healthy siblings were included from the long-term follow-up study of 89 nuclear families. Participants were clinically assessed by means of a semi-structured diagnostic interview, whereas the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B) was applied for the self-assessment of SPD symptoms. The assessments were carried out upon admission to the study and at follow-up, about 10 years later. The patients had higher scores than their siblings on the SPQ-B both at baseline and follow-up. In addition, self-reported SPD symptoms remained stable over time in total scores and in all the SPQ-B subscores, except for the SPQ-B Disorganization subscale. Self-reported SPD symptoms were stable over the long term among patients with psychotic disorders and their healthy siblings. This finding provides new support for including the SPD construct as a trait measure for studies addressing both vulnerability to psychosis in first-degree relatives of patients with psychosis and long-term persistence of symptoms in patients suffering from psychosis.

  7. Relationships of impulsiveness and depressive symptoms in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Topolewska-Wochowska, Aleksandra; Serafin, Piotr; Sadowska-Mazuryk, Joanna; Pupek-Pyzioł, Julia; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms as well as high levels of impulsivity are subjects of special interest in alcohol dependence, as these factors are considered to influence the course of this disorder. However, until now mutual relationships between impulsivity and depression have not been investigated thoroughly in alcohol-dependent patients. Methods By means of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and stop-signal task, levels of impulsivity among 304 alcohol-dependent patients were measured. The stop-signal task was used as a manipulation-free method of estimating the level of behavioral impulsiveness, and the BIS-11 is a self report measure of global as well as cognitive impulsivity. Patients were also asked to complete the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hopelessness Scale (BHS). The results were analyzed in order to examine relationships between impulsiveness and depressive symptoms. Results Statistical analyses revealed significant associations between impulsiveness and severity of depressive symptoms. Individuals with higher scores on the BDI were more impulsive on the BIS-11, whereas patients with higher scores on the BHS were more impulsive on both the stop-signal task and BIS-11. The strongest correlations were found with the attention impulsivity subscale of BIS-11. Adjusting for other variables, a linear regression analysis revealed that cognitive impulsivity was the strongest predictor of depression severity. Limitations The main limitation of the study is a not fully representative sample, with exclusion of patients with active mood disorders Conclusions The results indicate a strong association between depressive symptoms and impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients, and suggest an important distinction between hopelessness and other depressive symptoms. PMID:22030134

  8. Overestimation Bias in Self-Reported SAT Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Stull, Andrew T.; Campbell, Julie; Almeroth, Kevin; Bimber, Bruce; Chun, Dorothy; Knight, Allan

    2007-01-01

    The authors analyzed self-reported SAT scores and actual SAT scores for five different samples of college students (N = 650). Students overestimated their actual SAT scores by an average of 25 points (SD = 81, d = 0.31), with 10% under-reporting, 51% reporting accurately, and 39% over-reporting, indicating a systematic bias towards over-reporting.…

  9. A Self-Report Measure of Life Satisfaction in Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heflin, Thomas L.

    This research report had as its main purpose the derivation of a self-report measure of life satisfaction in retirement through the use of a mathematical technique known as factor analysis. Data on questions which have been used to measure moral, life satisfaction, and preretirement attitudes were collected from 123 retired male workers from a…

  10. Self-Report Measure of Psychological Abuse of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kendon J.; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W.; Langley, Kate; Anetzberger, Georgia J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested key psychometric properties of the Older Adult Psychological Abuse Measure (OAPAM), one self-report scale of the Older Adult Mistreatment Assessment (OAMA). Design and Methods: Items and theory were developed in a prior concept mapping study. Subsequently, the measures were administered to 226 substantiated clients by 22…

  11. Accuracy of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tong, Van T; Althabe, Fernando; Alemán, Alicia; Johnson, Carolyn C; Dietz, Patricia M; Berrueta, Mabel; Morello, Paola; Colomar, Mercedes; Buekens, Pierre; Sosnoff, Connie S; Farr, Sherry L; Mazzoni, Agustina; Ciganda, Alvaro; Becú, Ana; Bittar Gonzalez, Maria G; Llambi, Laura; Gibbons, Luz; Smith, Ruben A; Belizán, José M

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of bias of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy is reported in high-income countries but not elsewhere. We sought to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy using biochemical verification and to compare characteristics of women with and without biochemically confirmed cessation in Argentina and Uruguay. In a cross-sectional study from October 2011 to May 2012, women who attended one of 21 prenatal clinics and delivered at selected hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay, were surveyed about their smoking cessation during pregnancy. We tested saliva collected from women <12 h after delivery for cotinine to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy. Overall, 10.0% (44/441) of women who self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy had biochemical evidence of continued smoking. Women who reported quitting later in pregnancy had a higher percentage of nondisclosure (17.2%) than women who reported quitting when learning of their pregnancy (6.4%).

  12. Self-Report Measure of Financial Exploitation of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kendon J.; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W.; Langley, Kate; Wilber, Kathleen H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to improve the measurement of financial exploitation (FE) by testing psychometric properties of the older adult financial exploitation measure (OAFEM), a client self-report instrument. Design and Methods: Rasch item response theory and traditional validation approaches were used. Questionnaires were administered by…

  13. Validating a Children's Self-Report Plate Waste Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrestal, Sarah G.; Issel, L. Michele; Kviz, Frederick J.; Chávez, Noel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The National School Lunch Program is well situated to address the vulnerability of lower income children at increased risk for both under and overnutrition. Evidence suggests, however, that a significant amount of food served in the program goes uneaten. One way to monitor this problem is through children's self-reported plate…

  14. Am I dyslexic? Parental self-report of literacy difficulties.

    PubMed

    Leavett, Ruth; Nash, Hannah M; Snowling, Margaret J

    2014-11-01

    In the absence of criteria for the diagnosis of dyslexia, considerable weight is given to self-report, in particular in studies of children at family risk of dyslexia. The present paper uses secondary data from a previous study to compare parents who self-report as dyslexic and those who do not, in relation to objectively determined levels of ability. In general, adults are more likely to self-report as 'dyslexic' if they have poorer reading and spelling skills and also if there is a discrepancy between IQ and measured literacy. However, parents of higher social status who have mild literacy difficulties are more likely to self-report as dyslexic than parents who have weaker literacy skills but are less socially advantaged. Together the findings suggest that the judgement as to whether or not a parent considers themselves 'dyslexic' is made relative to others in the same social sphere. Those who are socially disadvantaged may, in turn, be less likely to seek support for their children. PMID:25185509

  15. Readability of Self-Report Measures of Depression and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Behar, Evelyn

    2009-01-01

    As the demand for accountability in service provision settings increases, the need for valid methods for assessing clinical outcomes is of particular importance. Self-report measures of functioning are particularly useful in the assessment of psychological functioning, but a vital factor in their validity and transportability is the reading level…

  16. Self-Report and Psychophysiological Responses to Fear Appeals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonana, Juan R.; Gonzalez-Javier, Francisca; Espin-Lopez, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the relationship between self-report and psychophysiological responses to fear appeals and behavioral changes elicited by these. Ninety-two subjects watched one of four messages that varied in level of threat (high vs. low) and efficacy (high vs. low). Concomitantly, psychophysiological measures (heart rate and…

  17. Accuracy of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    TONG, VAN T.; ALTHABE, FERNANDO; ALEMÁN, ALICIA; JOHNSON, CAROLYN C.; DIETZ, PATRICIA M.; BERRUETA, MABEL; MORELLO, PAOLA; COLOMAR, MERCEDES; BUEKENS, PIERRE; SOSNOFF, CONNIE S.; FARR, SHERRY L.; MAZZONI, AGUSTINA; CIGANDA, ALVARO; BECÚ, ANA; GONZALEZ, MARIA G. BITTAR; LLAMBI, LAURA; GIBBONS, LUZ; SMITH, RUBEN A.; BELIZÁN, JOSÉ M.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of bias of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy is reported in high-income countries but not elsewhere. We sought to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy using biochemical verification and to compare characteristics of women with and without biochemically confirmed cessation in Argentina and Uruguay. In a cross-sectional study from October 2011 to May 2012, women who attended one of 21 prenatal clinics and delivered at selected hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay, were surveyed about their smoking cessation during pregnancy. We tested saliva collected from women <12 h after delivery for cotinine to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy. Overall, 10.0% (44/441) of women who self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy had biochemical evidence of continued smoking. Women who reported quitting later in pregnancy had a higher percentage of nondisclosure (17.2%) than women who reported quitting when learning of their pregnancy (6.4%). PMID:25350478

  18. The Accuracy of Self-Reported High School Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Steven M.; Moore, James C.

    1970-01-01

    In a study to investigate accuracy of self-reported grades, length of time between testing and high school graduation was apparently the reason for a significant loss in accuracy in recalling grade reports of highschool graduates and college applicants who had been out of school for more than one year. (IR)

  19. Consensually defined facets of personality as prospective predictors of change in depression symptoms.

    PubMed

    Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Watson, David

    2014-08-01

    Depression has robust associations with personality, showing a strong relation with neuroticism and more moderate associations with extraversion and conscientiousness. In addition, each Big Five domain can be decomposed into narrower facets. However, we currently lack consensus as to the contents of Big Five facets, with idiosyncrasies across instruments; moreover, few studies have examined associations with depression. In the current study, community participants completed six omnibus personality inventories; self-reported depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and 5 years later. Exploratory factor analyses suggested three to five facets in each domain, and these facets served as prospective predictors of depression in hierarchical regressions, after accounting for baseline and trait depression. In these analyses, high anger (from neuroticism), low positive emotionality (extraversion), low conventionality (conscientiousness), and low culture (openness to experiences) were significant prospective predictors of depression. Results are discussed in regard to personality structure and assessment, as well as personality-psychopathology associations.

  20. Eating disorder symptoms and parenting styles.

    PubMed

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings demonstrate that eating disorder symptoms in non-clinical individuals are related to less adaptive parenting styles. These findings have potential implications for clinicians working with mothers with eating disorders.

  1. Child maltreatment and psychological symptoms in a Portuguese adult community sample: the harmful effects of emotional abuse.

    PubMed

    Dias, Aida; Sales, Luísa; Hessen, David J; Kleber, Rolf J

    2015-07-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with poor long-term health outcomes. However, knowledge about CM prevalence and related consequences is scarce among adults in South European countries. We examined the self-reported prevalence of five different forms of CM in a community sample of 1,200 Portuguese adults; we compared the results with similar samples from three other countries, using the same instrument. We also explored the relationship between CM and psychological symptoms. Cross-sectional data using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form and the Brief Symptom Inventory were analyzed. Moderate or severe CM exposure was self-reported by 14.7% of the sample, and 67% was exposed to more than one form of CM. Emotional neglect was the most endorsed experience, with women reporting greater emotional abuse and men reporting larger physical abuse. Physical and sexual abuse was less self-reported by Portuguese than by American or German subjects. CM exposure predicted 12.8% of the psychological distress. Emotional abuse was the strongest predictor for psychological symptoms, namely for paranoid ideation, depression, and interpersonal sensitivity. Emotional abuse overlapped with the exposure to all other CM forms, and interacted with physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict psychological distress. Low exposure to emotional abuse was directly associated with the effects of physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict adult psychological distress. Verbal abuse experiences were frequently reported and had the highest correlations with adult psychological distress. Our results underline the potential hurtful effects of child emotional abuse among Portuguese adults in the community. They also highlight the need to improve prevention and intervention actions to reduce exposure and consequences of CM, particularly emotional abuse. PMID:25270111

  2. Self-report outcome in new hearing-aid users: Longitudinal trends and relationships between subjective measures of benefit and satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Vestergaard, Martin D.

    2008-01-01

    This study focussed on self-report outcome in new hearing-aid users. The objectives of the experiment were changes in self-report outcome over time, and relationships between different subjective measures of benefit and satisfaction. Four outcome inventories and a questionnaire on auditory lifestyle were administered to 25 hearing-aid users repeatedly after hearing-aid fitting, and assessments took place one week, four weeks, and 13 weeks after hearing-aid provision. The results showed that, for first-time users who used their hearing aids more than four hours per day, self-reported outcome increased over 13 weeks in some scales, although there was no change in amplification during this time. Furthermore, it was found that, for data collected immediately post-fitting, some subscales were much less face valid than for data collected later. This result indicates that the way in which hearing-aid users assess outcome changes over time. The practical consequence of the results is that early self-report outcome assessment may be misleading for some self-report outcome schemes. PMID:16938796

  3. Self-reported halitosis and associated demographic and behavioral factors.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Fernanda Carpes; Kauer, Bruno; Wagner, Tassiane Panta; Daudt, Luciana Dondonis; Haas, Alex Nogueira

    2016-01-01

    Halitosis is still poorly studied in young adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of self-reported halitosis and associate it with demographic and behavioral factors in young adult dental students. This cross-sectional study was designed as a census of students enrolled in three initial and three final semesters of a dental course in a Brazilian public university. Of 284 eligible students, 257 (90.5%) completed a self-administered questionnaire. Self-reported halitosis was the primary study outcome, and was assessed with the question "do you feel you have bad breath?". Data on age, gender, frequency of tooth brushing and interproximal cleaning, tongue cleaning, mouth rinse use and dry mouth were collected using the questionnaire, and were considered independent variables. Of the students surveyed, 26.5% reported as never, 51.7% as rarely, 21.4% as sometimes, and 0.4% as always feeling they had halitosis. Morning halitosis was reported by 90.6% of those who reported halitosis. In the final multiple model, last semester students had a 55% lower chance of reporting halitosis, compared with students from the first semesters [odds ratio (OR) 0.46; 95%CI 0.24-0.89]. Women had a 2.57fold higher chance of reporting halitosis (OR = 2.57; 95%CI 1.12-5.93). Dry mouth increased the chance of self-reported halitosis 3.95-fold, compared with absence of dry mouth (OR = 3.95; 95%CI 2.03-7.68). It can be concluded that self-reports of halitosis were low among dental students, but may represent an important complaint. Gender, dry mouth and level of college education of the dentist were factors significantly associated with self-reported halitosis. PMID:27556677

  4. Relationship between self-reported sleep bruxism and pain in patients with temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Blanco Aguilera, A; Gonzalez Lopez, L; Blanco Aguilera, E; De la Hoz Aizpurua, J L; Rodriguez Torronteras, A; Segura Saint-Gerons, R; Blanco Hungría, A

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between self-reported sleep bruxism and the age, gender, clinical subtypes of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), pain intensity and grade of chronic pain in patients previously diagnosed with TMD. Thousand two-hundred and twenty patients of the Andalusian Health Service were examined using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) questionnaire. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were those included in the RDC/TMD criteria. The bruxism diagnosis was drawn from the question, 'Have you been told, or do you notice that you grind your teeth or clench your jaw while sleeping at night?' in the anamnestic portion of the questionnaire. A bivariate analysis was conducted, comparing the presence of perceived parafunctional activity with age (over age 60 and under age 60), gender, different subtypes of TMD, pain intensity, grade of chronic pain and presence of self-perceived locked joints. The overall prevalence of self-reported sleep bruxism (SB) was 54.51%. A statistically significant association was found between the presence of SB and patients under age 60, women, greater pain intensity, greater pain interference with activities of daily living, and the axis-I groups affected by both muscular and articular pathology. There is a statistically significant association between self-reported sleep bruxism and women under age 60 who have painful symptoms of TMD. There is also a positive association between this parafunctional habit and the presence of chronic pain. However, more studies that cover larger samples and differentiate between sleep bruxism and awake bruxism are needed.

  5. SELF-REPORTS OF ILLEGAL ACTIVITY, SCL-90-R PERSONALITY SCALES, AND URINE TESTS IN METHADONE PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Cernovsky, Zack; Sadek, Gamal; Chiu, Simon

    2015-12-01

    In routine work, medical staff usually has to rely on the patient's self-reports of criminal activity and of recent involvement in fights. This study examines how these self-reports of crime correlate with the patients' routine urine tests and personality measures. Pearson correlations of these self-reports by 55 methadone patients (M age = 34.1 yr., SD = 9.1; 35 men, 20 women) were calculated to their urine screening tests (those for opiates, benzodiazepines, and cocaine) and to personality scores on the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Patients who reported being involved in recent illegal activities to obtain drugs had significantly higher scores on the SCL-90-R scale assessing obsessive-compulsive symptoms (r = .28) and had more frequent positive urine tests for cocaine (r = .35). Those who reported having engaged in fights within the last 12 mo. had higher scores on SCL-90-R measures of somatic complaints (r = .32), anxiety (r = .31), and depression (r = .29), and of overall psychopathology (r = .29), and they also had more often positive urine tests for cocaine (r = .28) than other patients. Studies on larger samples are needed to help clinicians to predict criminal or hostile behavior during methadone treatment. PMID:26595299

  6. Weight Misperception, Self-Reported Physical Fitness, Dieting and Some Psychological Variables as Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Ezquerra-Cabrera, Mercedes; Carbonero-Carreño, Rocío; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 students, 313 females and 342 males, aged 16.22 ± 4.58. Different scales of perceived overweight, self-reported physical fitness and dieting together with the Body Mass Index (BMI) were considered along with instruments such as the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Since some gender differences were found with respect to these adolescent groups, it is necessary to design prevention programs that not only focus on traditional factors such as BMI or body image, but also on elements like weight perception, self-reported fitness and nutritional education. PMID:24232917

  7. Weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, dieting and some psychological variables as risk factors for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Ezquerra-Cabrera, Mercedes; Carbonero-Carreño, Rocío; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada

    2013-11-13

    The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 students, 313 females and 342 males, aged 16.22 ± 4.58. Different scales of perceived overweight, self-reported physical fitness and dieting together with the Body Mass Index (BMI) were considered along with instruments such as the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Since some gender differences were found with respect to these adolescent groups, it is necessary to design prevention programs that not only focus on traditional factors such as BMI or body image, but also on elements like weight perception, self-reported fitness and nutritional education.

  8. Weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, dieting and some psychological variables as risk factors for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Ezquerra-Cabrera, Mercedes; Carbonero-Carreño, Rocío; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada

    2013-11-01

    The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 students, 313 females and 342 males, aged 16.22 ± 4.58. Different scales of perceived overweight, self-reported physical fitness and dieting together with the Body Mass Index (BMI) were considered along with instruments such as the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Since some gender differences were found with respect to these adolescent groups, it is necessary to design prevention programs that not only focus on traditional factors such as BMI or body image, but also on elements like weight perception, self-reported fitness and nutritional education. PMID:24232917

  9. Self-reported sexual desire in homosexual men and women predicts preferences for sexually dimorphic facial cues.

    PubMed

    Welling, Lisa L M; Singh, Kevin; Puts, David A; Jones, Benedict C; Burriss, Robert P

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies investigating the relationship between self-reported sexual desire and attraction to same- and opposite-sex individuals have found that homosexual men's sexual desire is positively correlated with their self-reported attraction to own-sex individuals only, while homosexual women's sexual desire is positively correlated with their self-reported attraction to both men and women. These data have been interpreted as evidence that sexual desire strengthens men's pre-existing (i.e., dominant) sexual behaviors and strengthens women's sexual behaviors in general. Here we show that homosexual men's (n = 106) scores on the Sexual Desire Inventory-2 (SDI-2) were positively correlated with their preferences for exaggerated sex-typical shape cues in own-sex, but not opposite-sex, faces. Contrary to the hypothesis that sexual desire strengthens women's preferences for sexual dimorphism generally, homosexual women's (n = 83) SDI-2 scores were positively correlated with their preferences for exaggerated sex-typical shape cues in opposite-sex faces only. Together with previous research in heterosexual subjects, our findings support the proposal that sexual desire increases the incidence of existing sexual behaviors in homosexual and heterosexual men, and increases the incidence of sexual responses more generally in heterosexual women, although not necessarily in homosexual women.

  10. Reliability and validity of the valued activity inventory for adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Hegel, Mark T; Hull, Jay G; Li, Zhongze; Balan, Stefan; Bartels, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Valued Activity Inventory for Adults With Cancer (VAI-AC), a self-report instrument that measures activity limitations. Participants included 50 older adults undergoing chemotherapy who completed the VAI-AC and measures of physical and mental function, symptom intensity, and mood 3 days before and the day of chemotherapy. Test-retest reliability was assessed by determining the average number of items for which the importance of an activity was rated consistently and by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the first and second VAI-AC scores. Convergent validity was assessed by correlating the VAI-AC scores with the other measures. Participants consistently rated the importance of 90% of the items. The 72-hour test-retest reliability ICC was 0.67. Participants with fewer activity limitations indicated better physical function (r = 0.58, p < .001), better mental function (r = 0.55, p < .001), lower symptom intensity (r = -0.57, p < .001), and fewer depressive symptoms (r = -0.68, p < .001). The VAI-AC demonstrated evidence of test-retest reliability and convergent validity in this convenience sample of older adults undergoing chemotherapy for cancer.

  11. Association and moderation of self-reported hypotension with traffic noise exposure: a neglected relationship.

    PubMed

    Lercher, Peter; Widmann, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    In a short-term experimental study about one-third of subjects exposed to noise shows both increases and decreases in blood pressure. While the association of noise with hypertension is established it is not yet known whether hypotension is associated with noise in field studies. In a cross-sectional study the association of self-reported hypotension and low blood pressure readings with traffic noise was examined in adults (age 25-65, N = 1989, participation = 62%). Noise exposure was based on both, short and long-term day/night recordings and standard noise mapping. Questionnaire data on socio-demographics, housing, life-style, noise and weather sensitivity, health status, mental and physical symptoms were available to adjust for potential confounding and testing for moderation. Non-linear multiple regression was applied to estimate the association between the two outcomes and overall noise exposure. We did not observe a stable relation between noise and low blood pressure readings since the number of subjects based on the recommended cut-off points (5 th percentile or 110 (100)/60 mmHg) was too small. However, self-reported hypotension was non-linearly associated with noise exposure ( P = 0.044) in the presence of a strong sex × age effect modification ( P < 0.0001). Another significant moderation by noise were observed with reported symptoms of exhaustion ( P = 0.03). Weather sensitivity showed a significant interaction with noise sensitivity ( P = 0.02) and also a non-linear interaction with age ( P = 0.02). The results remained stable after adjustment for variables known to be associated with constitutional hypotension. The exposure-effect curve ascends around sound levels of 55 dBA. The results suggest a novel moderated association of noise with self-reported hypotension, predominantly in weather sensitive women with symptoms of exhaustion. Further and larger studies are needed to replicate the potential moderating effect of noise on persons with

  12. Correlation between self-reported and clinically based diagnoses of bruxism in temporomandibular disorders patients.

    PubMed

    Paesani, D A; Lobbezoo, F; Gelos, C; Guarda-Nardini, L; Ahlberg, J; Manfredini, D

    2013-11-01

    The present investigation was performed in a population of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD), and it was designed to assess the correlation between self-reported questionnaire-based bruxism diagnosis and a diagnosis based on history taking plus clinical examination. One-hundred-fifty-nine patients with TMD underwent an assessment including a questionnaire investigating five bruxism-related items (i.e. sleep grinding, sleep grinding referral by bed partner, sleep clenching, awake clenching, awake grinding) and an interview (i.e. oral history taking with specific focus on bruxism habits) plus a clinical examination to evaluate bruxism signs and symptoms. The correlation between findings of the questionnaire, viz., patients' report, and findings of the interview/oral history taking plus clinical examination, viz., clinicians' diagnosis, was assessed by means of φ coefficient. The highest correlations were achieved for the sleep grinding referral item (φ = 0·932) and for the awake clenching item (φ = 0·811), whilst lower correlation values were found for the other items (φ values ranging from 0·363 to 0·641). The percentage of disagreement between the two diagnostic approaches ranged between 1·8% and 18·2%. Within the limits of the present investigation, it can be suggested that a strong positive correlation between a self-reported and a clinically based approach to bruxism diagnosis can be achieved as for awake clenching, whilst lower levels of correlation were detected for sleep-time activities.

  13. Impulsivity in Multiplayer Online Battle Arena Gamers: Preliminary Results on Experimental and Self-Report Measures.

    PubMed

    Nuyens, Filip; Deleuze, Jory; Maurage, Pierre; Griffiths, Mark D; Kuss, Daria J; Billieux, Joël

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have become the most popular type of video games played worldwide, superseding the playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games and First-Person Shooter games. However, empirical studies focusing on the use and abuse of MOBA games are still very limited, particularly regarding impulsivity, which is an indicator of addictive states but has not yet been explored in MOBA games. In this context, the objective of the present study is to explore the associations between impulsivity and symptoms of addictive use of MOBA games in a sample of highly involved League of Legends (LoL, currently the most popular MOBA game) gamers. Methods Thirty-six LoL gamers were recruited and completed both experimental (Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm) and self-reported impulsivity assessments (s-UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), in addition to an assessment of problematic video game use (Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire). Results Results showed links between impulsivity-related constructs and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Findings indicated that impaired ability to postpone rewards in an experimental laboratory task was strongly related to problematic patterns of MOBA game involvement. Although less consistent, several associations were also found between self-reported impulsivity traits and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Conclusions Despite these results are preliminary and based upon a small (self-selected) sample, the present study highlights potential psychological factors related to the addictive use of MOBA games. PMID:27156376

  14. Impulsivity in Multiplayer Online Battle Arena Gamers: Preliminary Results on Experimental and Self-Report Measures.

    PubMed

    Nuyens, Filip; Deleuze, Jory; Maurage, Pierre; Griffiths, Mark D; Kuss, Daria J; Billieux, Joël

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have become the most popular type of video games played worldwide, superseding the playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games and First-Person Shooter games. However, empirical studies focusing on the use and abuse of MOBA games are still very limited, particularly regarding impulsivity, which is an indicator of addictive states but has not yet been explored in MOBA games. In this context, the objective of the present study is to explore the associations between impulsivity and symptoms of addictive use of MOBA games in a sample of highly involved League of Legends (LoL, currently the most popular MOBA game) gamers. Methods Thirty-six LoL gamers were recruited and completed both experimental (Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm) and self-reported impulsivity assessments (s-UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), in addition to an assessment of problematic video game use (Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire). Results Results showed links between impulsivity-related constructs and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Findings indicated that impaired ability to postpone rewards in an experimental laboratory task was strongly related to problematic patterns of MOBA game involvement. Although less consistent, several associations were also found between self-reported impulsivity traits and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Conclusions Despite these results are preliminary and based upon a small (self-selected) sample, the present study highlights potential psychological factors related to the addictive use of MOBA games.

  15. Stress in crisis managers: evidence from self-report and psychophysiological assessments.

    PubMed

    Janka, A; Adler, C; Fischer, L; Perakakis, P; Guerra, P; Duschek, S

    2015-12-01

    Directing disaster operations represents a major professional challenge. Despite its importance to health and professional performance, research on stress in crisis management remains scarce. The present study aimed to investigate self-reported stress and psychophysiological stress responses in crisis managers. For this purpose, 30 crisis managers were compared with 30 managers from other disciplines, in terms of self-reported stress, health status and psychophysiological reactivity to crisis-related and non-specific visual and acoustic aversive stimuli and cognitive challenge. Crisis managers reported lower stress levels, a more positive strain-recuperation-balance, greater social resources, reduced physical symptoms, as well as more physical exercise and less alcohol consumption. They exhibited diminished electrodermal and heart rate responses to crisis-related and non-specific stressors. The results indicate reduced stress and physical complaints, diminished psychophysiological stress reactivity, and a healthier life-style in crisis managers. Improved stress resistance may limit vulnerability to stress-related performance decline and facilitate preparedness for major incidents.

  16. Web-based acceptance and commitment therapy for depressive symptoms with minimal support: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lappalainen, Päivi; Langrial, Sitwat; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Tolvanen, Asko; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2015-11-01

    Low-intensity interventions for people suffering from depressive symptoms are highly desirable. The aim of the present study was to investigate the outcomes of a web-based acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)-based intervention without face-to-face contact for people suffering from depressive symptoms. Participants (N = 39) with depressive symptoms were randomly assigned to an Internet-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy (iACT) intervention or a waiting list control condition (WLC). Participants were evaluated with standardized self-reporting measures (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI-II], Symptom Checklist-90 [SCL-90], Acceptance and Action Questionnaire [AAQ-2], Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire [FFMQ], Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire [ATQ], and White Bear Suppression Inventory [WBSI]) at pre- and post-measurement. Long-term effects in the iACT group were examined using a 12-month follow-up. The iACT program comprised home assignments, online feedback given by master's-level students of psychology over a 7-week intervention period, and automated email-based reminders. Significant effects were observed in favor of the iACT group on depression symptomatology (between effect sizes [ESs] at post-treatment, iACT/WLC, g = .83), psychological and physiological symptoms (g = .60), psychological flexibility (g = .67), mindfulness skills (g = .53), and frequency of automatic thoughts (g = .57) as well as thought suppression (g = .53). The treatment effects in the iACT group were maintained over the 12-month follow-up period (within-iACT ES: BDI-II, g = 1.33; SCL-90, g = 1.04; ATQF/B [Frequency/Believability], FFMQ, WBSI, AAQ-II, g = .74-1.08). The iACT participants stated that they would be happy to recommend the same intervention to others with depressive symptoms. We conclude that an ACT-based guided Internet-delivered treatment with minimal contact can be effective for people with depressive symptoms.

  17. Self-reported social skills impairment explains elevated autistic traits in individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Tonge, Natasha A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Fernandez, Katya C; Lim, Michelle H

    2016-03-01

    Screening for autism in individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) is complicated by symptom overlap between GSAD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined the prevalence of self-reported autistic traits within a sample of participants with a diagnosis of GSAD (n=37) compared to individuals without a GSAD diagnosis (NOSAD; n=26). Of the GSAD sample participants, 70.84% self-reported autistic traits above a cut-off of 65 on the Autism Quotient-Short (AQ-S) and reported significantly more autistic traits on 3 of 5 AQ-S subscales compared to the NOSAD group. Diagnosis uniquely predicted variation in the social skills subscale above and beyond the other subscales and other predictors. Furthermore, variation in the social skills subscale largely explained group differences on the other subscales. Our results suggest caution in utilizing measures like the AQ-S with clinical populations characterized by social difficulties such as individuals with a GSAD diagnosis.

  18. Psychological Factors That Influence Self-Reported Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jerry C.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Explored the relationship among the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), the Beck Depression Inventory, and the pain dimensions from the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Instruments were administered to 30 male VA patients with histories of pain for longer than three months. No statistically significant correlations were found between…

  19. Sexual Compulsivity Scale, Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory, and Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory: Translation, Adaptation, and Validation for Use in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scanavino, Marco de T; Ventuneac, Ana; Rendina, H Jonathon; Abdo, Carmita H N; Tavares, Hermano; Amaral, Maria L S do; Messina, Bruna; Reis, Sirlene C dos; Martins, João P L B; Gordon, Marina C; Vieira, Julie C; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological, behavioral, and clinical data on sexual compulsivity in Brazil are very limited. This study sought to adapt and validate the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), the 22-item version of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI-22), and the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory (HDSI) for use in Brazil. A total of 153 participants underwent psychiatric assessment and completed self-reported measures. The adaptation process of the instruments from English to Portuguese followed the guidelines of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. The reliability and validity of the HDSI criteria were evaluated and the construct validity of all measures was examined. For the SCS and HDSI, factor analysis revealed one factor for each measure. For the CSBI-22, four factors were retained although we only calculated the scores of two factors (control and violence). All scores had good internal consistency (alpha >.75), presented high temporal stability (>.76), discriminated between patients and controls, and presented strong (ρ > .81) correlations with the Sexual Addiction Screening Test (except for the violence domain = .40) and moderate correlations with the Impulsive Sensation Seeking domain of the Zuckerman Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ρ between .43 and .55). The sensitivity of the HDSI was 71.93 % and the specificity was 100 %. All measures showed very good psychometric properties. The SCS, the HDSI, and the control domain of the CSBI-22 seemed to measure theoretically similar constructs, as they were highly correlated (ρ > .85). The findings support the conceptualization of hypersexuality as a cluster of problematic symptoms that are highly consistent across a variety of measures.

  20. Neuropsychological performance, impulsivity, ADHD symptoms, and novelty seeking in compulsive buying disorder

    PubMed Central

    Black, Donald Wayne; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Bayless, John David; Allen, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We examined the neuropsychological performance of people with compulsive buying disorder (CBD) and control subjects, along with trait impulsivity, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and selected personality characteristics. Subjects received a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, depression and ADHD symptom assessment, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and a version of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Persons with CBD (n=26) and controls (n=32) were comparable in terms of age, sex, and years of education. Subjects with CBD had a mean age of 36.3 years (S.D.=15.7) and an age at onset of 19.7 years (S.D.=7.0). Compulsive buyers had more lifetime mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. People with Compulsive buying performed significantly better on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Picture Completion task, a test of visual perception; otherwise, there were no consistent differences in neuropsychological measures. They also had elevated levels of self-reported depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. In conclusion, compulsive buyers have greater lifetime psychiatric comorbidity than controls, and higher levels of self-rated depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. The present study does not support the notion that there is a pattern of neuropsychological deficits associated with CBD. PMID:22766012

  1. Anxiety control and metacognitive beliefs mediate the relationship between inflated responsibility and obsessive compulsive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sassaroli, Sandra; Centorame, Francesco; Caselli, Gabriele; Favaretto, Ettore; Fiore, Francesca; Gallucci, Marcello; Sarracino, Diego; Ruggiero, Giovanni M; Spada, Marcantonio M; Rapee, Ronald M

    2015-08-30

    Research has indicated that beliefs about inflated responsibility, beliefs about perceived control over anxiety-related events and reactions (anxiety control) and metacognitive beliefs about the need to control thoughts are associated with obsessive compulsive symptoms. In the current study we tested a mediation model of the interactions between these variables in predicting obsessive compulsive symptoms. Thirty-seven individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder and 31 controls completed the following self-report instruments: the Responsibility Attitude Scale, the Anxiety Control Scale, the Beliefs about Need to Control Thoughts sub-scale of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30, and the Padua Inventory. Mann-Whitney U tests revealed that participants in the clinical group scored significantly higher than those in the non-clinical group on all variables. In the mediation model we found that the relationship between beliefs about inflated responsibility and obsessive compulsive symptoms was fully mediated by anxiety control and beliefs about the need to control thoughts. These findings provide support for the significant role played by beliefs about control in predicting the severity of obsessive compulsive symptoms.

  2. How can Continuous Performance Test help to assess inattention when mood and ADHD symptoms coexist?

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Cintia; Nazar, Bruno P; Pinna, Camilla M S; Rabelo, Beatriz; Serra-Pinheiro, Maria Antonia; Sergeant, Joseph; Mattos, Paulo

    2016-09-30

    Depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are prevalent, and often comorbid, disorders, with varying severity levels among patients. Inattention is a symptom present in both disorders, which often makes their differential diagnosis difficult in clinical practice (depression only versus comorbidity). This study aimed to investigate the influence of depressive symptoms on attention performance using one of the most common tasks in clinical practice, the continuous performance test (CPT). Ninety-three college students (60 men, 33 women) with a mean age of 24 years old were investigated with self-reports and semi-structured interviews for ADHD; the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used for depression ratings. Attention measures were derived from the CPT. There was no correlation between depression and ADHD symptoms; in addition, depression was not correlated with any of the CPT scores; ADHD symptomatology was the only predictor of changes in those CPT variables (commission and omission errors and d prime). ADHD-associated impairment on the CPT was not augmented by the presence of depressive symptoms, making neuropsychological results on this test helpful for the differential diagnosis. When attention deficits are observed in individuals with mild or moderate depression, they are most likely not attributed to depression.

  3. How can Continuous Performance Test help to assess inattention when mood and ADHD symptoms coexist?

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Cintia; Nazar, Bruno P; Pinna, Camilla M S; Rabelo, Beatriz; Serra-Pinheiro, Maria Antonia; Sergeant, Joseph; Mattos, Paulo

    2016-09-30

    Depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are prevalent, and often comorbid, disorders, with varying severity levels among patients. Inattention is a symptom present in both disorders, which often makes their differential diagnosis difficult in clinical practice (depression only versus comorbidity). This study aimed to investigate the influence of depressive symptoms on attention performance using one of the most common tasks in clinical practice, the continuous performance test (CPT). Ninety-three college students (60 men, 33 women) with a mean age of 24 years old were investigated with self-reports and semi-structured interviews for ADHD; the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used for depression ratings. Attention measures were derived from the CPT. There was no correlation between depression and ADHD symptoms; in addition, depression was not correlated with any of the CPT scores; ADHD symptomatology was the only predictor of changes in those CPT variables (commission and omission errors and d prime). ADHD-associated impairment on the CPT was not augmented by the presence of depressive symptoms, making neuropsychological results on this test helpful for the differential diagnosis. When attention deficits are observed in individuals with mild or moderate depression, they are most likely not attributed to depression. PMID:27434202

  4. Self-Report Versus Ultrasound Measurement of Uterine Fibroid Status

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Donna Day; Olshan, Andrew F.; Herring, Amy H.; Schroeder, Jane C.; Nylander-French, Leena A.; Hartmann, Katherine E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Much of the epidemiologic research on risk factors for fibroids, the leading indication for hysterectomy, relies on self-reported outcome. Self-report is subject to misclassification because many women with fibroids are undiagnosed. The purpose of this analysis was to quantify the extent of misclassification and identify associated factors. Methods Self-reported fibroid status was compared to ultrasound screening from 2046 women in Right From The Start (RFTS) and 869 women in the Uterine Fibroid Study (UFS). Log-binomial regression was used to estimate sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) and examine differences by ethnicity, age, education, body mass index, parity, and miscarriage history. Results Overall sensitivity was ≤0.50. Sensitivity was higher in blacks than whites (RFTS: 0.34 vs. 0.23; UFS: 0.58 vs. 0.32) and increased with age. Parous women had higher sensitivity than nulliparae, especially in RFTS whites (Se ratio=2.90; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.51, 5.60). Specificity was 0.98 in RFTS and 0.86 in UFS. Modest ethnic differences were seen in UFS (Sp ratio, black vs. white=0.90; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.99). Parity was inversely associated with specificity, especially among UFS black women (Sp ratio=0.84; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.97). Among women who reported a previous diagnosis, a shorter time interval between diagnosis and ultrasound was associated with increased agreement between the two measures. Conclusions Misclassification of fibroid status can differ by factors of etiologic interest. These findings are useful for assessing (and correcting) bias in studies using self-reported clinical diagnosis as the outcome measure. PMID:22044079

  5. Monitoring athletes through self-report: factors influencing implementation.

    PubMed

    Saw, Anna E; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2015-03-01

    Monitoring athletic preparation facilitates the evaluation and adjustment of practices to optimize performance outcomes. Self-report measures such as questionnaires and diaries are suggested to be a simple and cost-effective approach to monitoring an athlete's response to training, however their efficacy is dependent on how they are implemented and used. This study sought to identify the perceived factors influencing the implementation of athlete self-report measures (ASRM) in elite sport settings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with athletes, coaches and sports science and medicine staff at a national sporting institute (n = 30). Interviewees represented 20 different sports programs and had varying experience with ASRM. Purported factors influencing the implementation of ASRM related to the measure itself (e.g., accessibility, timing of completion), and the social environment (e.g., buy-in, reinforcement). Social environmental factors included individual, inter-personal and organizational levels which is consistent with a social ecological framework. An adaptation of this framework was combined with the factors associated with the measure to illustrate the inter-relations and influence upon compliance, data accuracy and athletic outcomes. To improve implementation of ASRM and ultimately athletic outcomes, a multi-factorial and multi-level approach is needed. Key pointsEffective implementation of a self-report measure for monitoring athletes requires a multi-factorial and multi-level approach which addresses the particular measure used and the surrounding social environment.A well-designed self-report measure should obtain quality data with minimal burden on athletes and staff.A supportive social environment involves buy-in and coordination of all parties, at both an individual and organization level.

  6. Self-reported and behavioural impulsivity in anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Phillipou, Andrea; Abel, Larry Allen; Castle, David Jonathan; Gurvich, Caroline; Hughes, Matthew Edward; Rossell, Susan Lee

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine how self-reported and behavioural impulsivity are related in anorexia nervosa (AN). METHODS Twenty-four females with AN and 25 healthy controls (HC) participant in the study. Self-reported impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). The scale yields three second-order factors: Attentional, motor and non-planning. Behavioural impulsivity was investigated with the continuous performance test (CPT), a computer-based task of sustained attention in which numbers are flashed briefly on screen and participants are required to click the mouse when the same number appears consecutively. The rate of commission and omission errors can be used a measure of behavioural imulsivity. RESULTS AN participants self-reported increased attentional [AN: 20.67 (3.64), HC: 13.88 (2.91), P = 0.001] and reduced motor impulsivity [AN: 11.55 (2.28), HC: 14.08 (2.78), P = 0.002]. The rate of omission or commission errors on the CPT did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). BIS-11 and CPT measures did not significantly correlate, but attentional impulsivity was related to negative mood states in AN (depression: r = 0.52, P = 0.010, anxiety: r = 0.55, P = 0.006, stress: r = 0.57, P = 0.004). CONCLUSION The discrepancy between self-reported and behavioural impulsivity are discussed in terms of perfectionism in AN. Furthermore, it is suggested that improving negative mood states may resolve this inconsistency in AN. PMID:27679774

  7. Monitoring Athletes Through Self-Report: Factors Influencing Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Saw, Anna E.; Main, Luana C.; Gastin, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring athletic preparation facilitates the evaluation and adjustment of practices to optimize performance outcomes. Self-report measures such as questionnaires and diaries are suggested to be a simple and cost-effective approach to monitoring an athlete’s response to training, however their efficacy is dependent on how they are implemented and used. This study sought to identify the perceived factors influencing the implementation of athlete self-report measures (ASRM) in elite sport settings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with athletes, coaches and sports science and medicine staff at a national sporting institute (n = 30). Interviewees represented 20 different sports programs and had varying experience with ASRM. Purported factors influencing the implementation of ASRM related to the measure itself (e.g., accessibility, timing of completion), and the social environment (e.g., buy-in, reinforcement). Social environmental factors included individual, inter-personal and organizational levels which is consistent with a social ecological framework. An adaptation of this framework was combined with the factors associated with the measure to illustrate the inter-relations and influence upon compliance, data accuracy and athletic outcomes. To improve implementation of ASRM and ultimately athletic outcomes, a multi-factorial and multi-level approach is needed. Key points Effective implementation of a self-report measure for monitoring athletes requires a multi-factorial and multi-level approach which addresses the particular measure used and the surrounding social environment. A well-designed self-report measure should obtain quality data with minimal burden on athletes and staff. A supportive social environment involves buy-in and coordination of all parties, at both an individual and organization level. PMID:25729301

  8. Self-reported and behavioural impulsivity in anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Phillipou, Andrea; Abel, Larry Allen; Castle, David Jonathan; Gurvich, Caroline; Hughes, Matthew Edward; Rossell, Susan Lee

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine how self-reported and behavioural impulsivity are related in anorexia nervosa (AN). METHODS Twenty-four females with AN and 25 healthy controls (HC) participant in the study. Self-reported impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). The scale yields three second-order factors: Attentional, motor and non-planning. Behavioural impulsivity was investigated with the continuous performance test (CPT), a computer-based task of sustained attention in which numbers are flashed briefly on screen and participants are required to click the mouse when the same number appears consecutively. The rate of commission and omission errors can be used a measure of behavioural imulsivity. RESULTS AN participants self-reported increased attentional [AN: 20.67 (3.64), HC: 13.88 (2.91), P = 0.001] and reduced motor impulsivity [AN: 11.55 (2.28), HC: 14.08 (2.78), P = 0.002]. The rate of omission or commission errors on the CPT did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). BIS-11 and CPT measures did not significantly correlate, but attentional impulsivity was related to negative mood states in AN (depression: r = 0.52, P = 0.010, anxiety: r = 0.55, P = 0.006, stress: r = 0.57, P = 0.004). CONCLUSION The discrepancy between self-reported and behavioural impulsivity are discussed in terms of perfectionism in AN. Furthermore, it is suggested that improving negative mood states may resolve this inconsistency in AN.

  9. Initial Severity Effects on Residual Symptoms in Response and Remission: A STAR*D Study During and After Failed Citalopram Treatment.

    PubMed

    Madhoo, Manisha; Levine, Stephen Z

    2015-08-01

    The effects of initial severity on the time to and course of residual symptoms based on response or remission periods, and during and after failed response to citalopram in major depressive disorder are unknown. STAR*D data during and after failed citalopram treatment were reanalyzed to examine the effect of initial severity on the time to and course of residual symptoms using the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (QIDS-SR). During and after failed citalopram treatment, Cox regression and Generalized Estimating Equation models were computed to examine mild and moderate residual symptoms during (1) response based on at least a 50% QIDS-SR reduction, as well as (2) remission based on a QIDS-SR score below 6. Generally, initial severity significantly (P < 0.05) increased the time to and course of residual symptoms at the time of response and remission. The course of select mild and moderate residual symptoms was significantly (P < 0.05) more likely to persist in the presence of initial severity during response than remission (eg, energy) across treatment levels. It is concluded that initial severity is a predictor of the time to and course of residual symptoms. The presence of residual symptoms is more likely during response than remission, thereby directing their definition as a treatment target. PMID:26066336

  10. Stroud, K. C., & Reynolds, C. R. (2006). "School Motivation and Learning Strategies Inventory" (SMALSI). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeary, Joan

    2007-01-01

    The School Motivation and Learning Strategies Inventory (SMALSI) is a diagnostic tool that helps educators identify and measure strategies that are actively used by students for learning. It is a self-report inventory for use with students 8 through 12 years of age (SMALSI-Child Form) and also with older students aged 13 to 18 years (SMALSI-Teen…

  11. Citrus Inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Florida's Charlotte County Property Appraiser is using an aerial color infrared mapping system for inventorying citrus trees for valuation purposes. The ACIR system has significantly reduced the time and manpower required for appraisal. Aerial photographs are taken and interpreted by a video system which makes it possible to detect changes from previous years. Potential problems can be identified. KSC's TU Office has awarded a contract to the Citrus Research and Education Center to adapt a prototype system which would automatically count trees and report totals.

  12. Black tea improves attention and self-reported alertness.

    PubMed

    De Bruin, E A; Rowson, M J; Van Buren, L; Rycroft, J A; Owen, G N

    2011-04-01

    Tea has previously been demonstrated to better help sustain alertness throughout the day in open-label studies. We investigated whether tea improves attention and self-reported alertness in two double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover studies. Participants received black tea (made from commercially available tea bags) in one condition and placebo tea (hot water with food colours and flavours) similar in taste and appearance to real tea in the other condition. Attention was measured objectively with attention tests (the switch task and the intersensory-attention test) and subjectively with a self-report questionnaire (Bond-Lader visual analogue scales). In both studies, black tea significantly enhanced accuracy on the switch task (study 1 p<.002, study 2 p=.007) and self-reported alertness on the Bond-Lader questionnaire (study 1 p<.001, study 2 p=.021). The first study also demonstrated better auditory (p<.001) and visual (p=.030) intersensory attention after black tea compared to placebo. Simulation of theanine and caffeine plasma time-concentration curves indicated higher levels in the first study compared to the second, which supports the finding that tea effects on attention were strongest in the first study. Being the second most widely consumed beverage in the world after water, tea is a relevant contributor to our daily cognitive functioning.

  13. Correction for faking in self-report personality tests.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Lennart

    2015-10-01

    Faking is a common problem in testing with self-report personality tests, especially in high-stakes situations. A possible way to correct for it is statistical control on the basis of social desirability scales. Two such scales were developed and applied in the present paper. It was stressed that the statistical models of faking need to be adapted to different properties of the personality scales, since such scales correlate with faking to different extents. In four empirical studies of self-report personality tests, correction for faking was investigated. One of the studies was experimental, and asked participants to fake or to be honest. In the other studies, job or school applicants were investigated. It was found that the approach to correct for effects of faking in self-report personality tests advocated in the paper removed a large share of the effects, about 90%. It was found in one study that faking varied as a function of degree of how important the consequences of test results could be expected to be, more high-stakes situations being associated with more faking. The latter finding is incompatible with the claim that social desirability scales measure a general personality trait. It is concluded that faking can be measured and that correction for faking, based on such measures, can be expected to remove about 90% of its effects. PMID:26043667

  14. Text mining a self-report back-translation.

    PubMed

    Blanch, Angel; Aluja, Anton

    2016-06-01

    There are several recommendations about the routine to undertake when back translating self-report instruments in cross-cultural research. However, text mining methods have been generally ignored within this field. This work describes a text mining innovative application useful to adapt a personality questionnaire to 12 different languages. The method is divided in 3 different stages, a descriptive analysis of the available back-translated instrument versions, a dissimilarity assessment between the source language instrument and the 12 back-translations, and an item assessment of item meaning equivalence. The suggested method contributes to improve the back-translation process of self-report instruments for cross-cultural research in 2 significant intertwined ways. First, it defines a systematic approach to the back translation issue, allowing for a more orderly and informed evaluation concerning the equivalence of different versions of the same instrument in different languages. Second, it provides more accurate instrument back-translations, which has direct implications for the reliability and validity of the instrument's test scores when used in different cultures/languages. In addition, this procedure can be extended to the back-translation of self-reports measuring psychological constructs in clinical assessment. Future research works could refine the suggested methodology and use additional available text mining tools. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. A Chinese translation of the inventory of interpersonal problems-short circumplex.

    PubMed

    Wu, Leila Z; Roche, Michael J; Dowgwillo, Emily A; Wang, Shuo; Pincus, Aaron L

    2015-01-01

    The Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Short Circumplex (IIP-SC) is a self-report measure of subjective distress linked to behavioral excesses and inhibitions in social relationships. The IIP-SC exhibits circumplex structure reflecting the underlying dimensions of dominance-submissiveness and warmth-coldness. We translated the IIP-SC into Mandarin Chinese using rigorous translation and back-translation methods with independent native speakers. University students in the People's Republic of China (N = 401) completed the translated IIP-SC and the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI-2), an omnibus measure of indigenous personality trait dimensions and symptoms of psychopathology. The circumplex structure of the Chinese IIP-SC was confirmed using principal components analysis, a randomization test for hypothesized order relations, and confirmatory circumplex analysis. The validity of the Chinese IIP-SC was evaluated by examining its associations with the CPAI-2 scales. Validity evidence for Chinese translation of the IIP-SC extends its use for clinical assessment to native Chinese speakers, although ongoing work to improve its reliability is needed.

  16. A test of the construct validity of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Gentile, Brittany; Campbell, W Keith

    2013-01-01

    The Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI) is a new self-report measure that was developed to assess traits associated with grandiose and vulnerable narcissism from a Five-factor model (FFM) perspective. In a sample of undergraduates (N = 283), the relations among the FFNI scales, grandiose and vulnerable dimensions, and an array of relevant criteria were examined including self- and informant reports of the Big Five domains, measures of the Dark Triad, ratings of the interpersonal circumplex, externalizing and internalizing behaviors and symptoms, and romantic and attachment styles. The FFNI grandiose and vulnerable dimensions demonstrated good convergent and criterion validity. The FFNI grandiose and vulnerable dimensions manifested converging (e.g., disagreeableness, low love/communion, psychopathy, Machiavellianism, Ludus/Manic love styles) and diverging (e.g., neuroticism, extraversion, dominance, externalizing, internalizing, attachment anxiety) relations in a manner largely consistent with predictions. The FFNI joins the Pathological Narcissism Inventory as a measure that can simultaneously assess both grandiose and vulnerable dimensions of narcissism. PMID:23186210

  17. Validity of hearing impairment calculation methods for prediction of self-reported hearing handicap.

    PubMed

    John, Andrew B; Kreisman, Brian M; Pallett, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Worker's compensation for hearing loss caused by occupational noise exposure is calculated by varying methods, from state to state within the United States (US), with many employing arithmetic formulas based on the pure-tone audiogram, to quantify hearing loss. Several assumptions unsupported or weakly supported by empirical data underlie these formulas. The present study evaluated the ability of various arithmetic hearing impairment calculations to predict a self-reported hearing handicap in a sample of presenting with sensorineural hearing loss. 204 adults (127 male, 77 female) ranging in age from 18 to 94 served as participants. The sample was selected to exclude patients who had been referred for hearing testing for a medicolegal examination or a hearing conservation appointment. A hearing handicap was measured by the Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults/for the Elderly (HHIA/E). The covariance analysis of linear structural equations was used to assess the relative strength of correlation with the HHIA/E score among the six formulas and various forms of pure-tone average. The results revealed that all the hearing impairment calculations examined were significantly, but weakly, correlated with the self-reported hearing impairment scores. No significant differences among the predictive abilities of the impairment calculations were evident; however, the average binaural impairment assigned differed significantly among the six calculations examined. Individuals who demonstrated 0% impairment had significantly lower (i.e., better) HHIA/E scores compared to those with non-zero impairment for each formula. These results supported the idea that audiometric data provided an insufficient explanation for real-world hearing difficulties. PMID:22387708

  18. Self-Reported Acute Health Effects and Exposure to Companion Animals.

    PubMed

    Krueger, W S; Hilborn, E D; Dufour, A P; Sams, E A; Wade, T J

    2016-06-01

    To understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms [e.g. gastrointestinal (GI), respiratory, dermatological], it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar animals can result in a variety of health symptoms related to infection, irritation and allergy; however, few studies have examined this association in a large-scale cohort setting. Cross-sectional data collected from 50 507 participants in the United States enrolled from 2003 to 2009 were used to examine associations between animal contact and acute health symptoms during a 10-12 day period. Fixed-effects multivariable logistic regression estimated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confident intervals (CI) for associations between animal exposures and outcomes of GI illness, respiratory illness and skin/eye symptoms. Two-thirds of the study population (63.2%) reported direct contact with animals, of which 7.7% had contact with at least one unfamiliar animal. Participants exposed to unfamiliar animals had significantly higher odds of self-reporting all three acute health symptoms, when compared to non-animal-exposed participants (GI: AOR = 1.4, CI = 1.2-1.7; respiratory: AOR = 1.5, CI = 1.2-1.8; and skin/eye: AOR = 1.9, CI = 1.6-2.3), as well as when compared to participants who only had contact with familiar animals. Specific contact with dogs, cats or pet birds was also significantly associated with at least one acute health symptom; AORs ranged from 1.1 to 1.5, when compared to participants not exposed to each animal. These results indicate that contact with animals, especially unfamiliar animals, was significantly associated with GI, respiratory and skin/eye symptoms. Such associations could be attributable to zoonotic infections and allergic reactions. Etiological models for acute health symptoms should consider contact with companion animals, particularly exposure to unfamiliar animals

  19. Poor symptom and performance validity in regularly referred Hospital outpatients: Link with standard clinical measures, and role of incentives.

    PubMed

    Dandachi-FitzGerald, Brechje; van Twillert, Björn; van de Sande, Peter; van Os, Yindee; Ponds, Rudolf W H M

    2016-05-30

    We investigated the frequency of symptom validity test (SVT) failure and its clinical correlates in a large, heterogeneous sample of hospital outpatients referred for psychological assessment for clinical purposes. We studied patients (N=469), who were regularly referred for assessment to the psychology departments of five hospitals. Background characteristics, including information about incentives, were obtained with a checklist completed by the clinician. As a measure of over-reporting, the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology (SIMS) was administered to all patients. The Amsterdam Short-Term Memory test (ASTM), a cognitive underperformance measure, was only administered to patients who were referred for a neuropsychological assessment. Symptom over-reporting occurred in a minority of patients, ranging from 12% to 19% in the main diagnostic patient groups. Patients with morbid obesity had a low rate of over-reporting (1%). The SIMS was positively associated with levels of self-reported psychological symptoms. Cognitive underperformance occurred in 29.3% of the neuropsychological assessments. The ASTM was negatively associated with memory test performance. We found no association between SVT failure and financial incentives. Our results support the recommendation to routinely evaluate symptom validity in clinical assessments of hospital patients. The dynamics behind invalid symptom reporting need to be further elucidated. PMID:27137961

  20. College students with depressive symptoms with and without fatigue: Differences in functioning, suicidality, anxiety, and depressive severity

    PubMed Central

    Nyer, Maren; Mischoulon, David; Alpert, Jonathan E.; Holt, Daphne J.; Brill, Charlotte D.; Yeung, Albert; Pedrelli, Paola; Baer, Lee; Dording, Christina; Huz, Ilana; Fisher, Lauren; Fava, Maurizio; Farabaugh, Amy

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND We examined whether fatigue was associated with greater symptomatic burden and functional impairment in college students with depressive symptoms. METHODS Using data from the self-report Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), we stratified a group of 287 students endorsing significant symptoms of depression (BDI score ≥13) into 3 levels: no fatigue, mild fatigue, or moderate/severe fatigue. We then compared the 3 levels of fatigue across a battery of psychiatric and functional outcome measures. RESULTS Approximately 87% of students endorsed at least mild fatigue. Students with moderate/severe fatigue had significantly greater depressive symptom severity compared with those with mild or no fatigue and scored higher on a suicide risk measure than those with mild fatigue. Students with severe fatigue evidenced greater frequency and intensity of anxiety than those with mild or no fatigue. Reported cognitive and functional impairment increased significantly as fatigue worsened. CONCLUSIONS Depressed college students with symptoms of fatigue demonstrated functional impairment and symptomatic burden that worsened with increasing levels of fatigue. Assessing and treating symptoms of fatigue appears warranted within this population. PMID:25954936

  1. Sweet taste threshold for sucrose inversely correlates with depression symptoms in female college students in the luteal phase.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Masanori; Matsumoto, Sayaka; Endo, Junko; Sakamoto, Reiko; Wada, Maki

    2015-03-15

    Influences of depression symptoms on the sweet taste threshold were investigated in healthy college students (30 males and 40 females). Depression symptoms were scored by SDS (Self-Rating Depression Scale), and anxiety levels by STAI (State- and Trait-Anxiety Inventory). Recognition thresholds for sucrose were determined. In female students, the menstrual phase on the day of the experiment was self-reported. Depression symptoms, anxiety levels, and the recognition threshold for sucrose were not different among the 3 groups, i.e. males, females in the follicular phase, and females in the luteal phase. Depression symptoms were positively correlated with state and trait anxiety in all groups. The sweet taste threshold was inversely correlated with depression symptoms (r=-0.472, p=0.031) and trait anxiety (r=-0.506, p=0.019) in females in the luteal phase. In males as well as females in the follicular phase, however, no correlation between sweet taste threshold and depression was found. The results show that the recognition threshold for sucrose reduces with increased depression in females with a higher anxiety trait, but only in the luteal phase. It is hypothesized that brain regions, which spatially overlap and are responsible for both aversive emotions and gustatory processing, are susceptible to periodic changes in gonadal hormones due to the menstrual cycle. PMID:25576640

  2. Psychometric properties of the social phobia and anxiety inventory-child version in a Swedish clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Cederlund, Rio; Ost, Lars-Göran

    2013-06-01

    The social phobia and anxiety inventory for children (SPAI-C) is a 26 item, empirically derived self-report instrument developed for assessing social phobic fears in children. Evidence for satisfactory psychometric properties of the SPAI-C has been found in multiple community studies. Since its development, however, no study has presented an extensive psychometric evaluation of SPAI-C in a sample of carefully diagnosed children with social phobia. The present study sought to replicate and expand previous studies by administrating the SPAI-C to a sample of 59 children that fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for social phobia, and 49 children with no social phobia diagnosis. An exploratory factor analysis resulted in a three factor solution reflecting: (1) fear of social interactions, (2) fear of public performance situations, and (3) physical and cognitive symptoms connected with social phobia. These factors appear to parallel domains of social phobia also evident in adults. The SPAI-C total scale and each factor was found to possess good internal consistency, good test-retest reliability and was generally strongly correlated with both self-report and clinician measures of anxiety and fears. The discriminative properties of the total scale were satisfactory.

  3. Physical Symptoms and Psychological Distress among Inhalant Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, George W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Among 110 Mexican-American adolescents with varying drug use histories, self-reported physical health problems were not related to inhalant use history, but blood analyses indicated a relationship between extensive inhalant use and liver problems. Psychological distress symptoms were related to inhalant use and physical symptoms. Contains 23…

  4. Factors Influencing Agreement between Self-Reports and Biological Measures of Smoking among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolcini, M. Margaret; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reviews 28 studies comparing adolescent self-report of smoking with biological indicators. Identifies four factors limiting agreement: biases in self-report due to limitations of biological measures; limitations of self-report measures; social desirability; and analytic and statistical issues. Concludes that, with optimal measurement, self-report…

  5. Predicting Drug Use at Electronic Music Dance Events: Self-Reports and Biological Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert A.; Miller, Brenda A.; Holder, Harold D.

    2009-01-01

    Most information on the prevalence of drug use comes from self-report surveys. The sensitivity of such information is cause for concern about the accuracy of self-report measures. In this study, self-reported drug use in the last 48 hr is compared to results from biological assays of saliva samples from 371 young adults entering clubs. The…

  6. Self-Reported Inattention in Early Adolescence in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Laura L.; Connolly, Jennifer; Toplak, Maggie E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Inattention is typically associated with ADHD, but less research has been done to examine the correlates of self-reported inattention in youth in a community sample. Method: Associations among self-reported inattention, parent-reported inattention, and self-reported psychopathology in children aged 10 to 11 years are examined.…

  7. Development and Preliminary Psychometric Evaluation of a Brief Self-Report Questionnaire for the Assessment of the DSM-5 level of Personality Functioning Scale: The LPFS Brief Form (LPFS-BF).

    PubMed

    Hutsebaut, Joost; Feenstra, Dine J; Kamphuis, Jan H

    2016-04-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) alternative model for personality disorders (PDs) introduced a new paradigm for the assessment of PDs that includes levels of personality functioning indexing the severity of personality pathology irrespective of diagnosis. In this study, we describe the development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of a newly developed brief self-report questionnaire to assess levels of personality functioning, the Level of Personality Functioning Scale-Brief Form (LPFS-BF; Bender, Morey, & Skodol, 2011). Patients (N = 240) referred to a specialized setting for the assessment and treatment of PDs completed the LPFS-BF, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI; Derogatis, 1975), the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118; Verheul et al., 2008), and were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Personality Disorders (SCID-I; APA, 1994; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1997) and the SCID Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, Williams, & Benjamin, 1996). When constrained to a 2-factor oblique solution, the LPFS-BF yielded a structure that corresponded well to an interpretation of Self- and Interpersonal Functioning scales. The instrument demonstrated fair to satisfactory internal consistency and promising construct validity. The LPFS-BF constitutes a short, user-friendly instrument that provides a quick impression of the severity of personality pathology, specifically oriented to the DSM-5 model. Clearly, more research is needed to test its validity and clinical utility.

  8. PROMIS® Pediatric Self Report Scales Distinguish Subgroups of Children Within and Across Six Common Pediatric Chronic Health Conditions

    PubMed Central

    DeWalt, Darren A.; Gross, Heather E.; Gipson, Debbie S.; Selewski, David T.; DeWitt, Esi Morgan; Dampier, Carlton D.; Hinds, Pamela S.; Huang, I-Chan; Thissen, David; Varni, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To conduct a comparative analysis of eight pediatric self-report scales for ages 8-17 years from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) in six pediatric chronic health conditions, using indicators of disease severity. Methods Pediatric patients (N = 1,454) with asthma, cancer, chronic kidney disease, obesity, rheumatic disease, and sickle cell disease completed items from the PROMIS pediatric mobility, upper extremity functioning, depressive symptoms, anxiety, anger, peer relationships, pain interference, and fatigue self-report scales. Comparisons within the six pediatric chronic health conditions were conducted by examining differences in groups based on disease severity using markers of severity that were specific to characteristics of each disease. A comparison was also made across diseases between children who had been recently hospitalized and those who had not. Results In general, there were differences in self-reported health outcomes within each chronic health condition, with patients who had higher disease severity showing worse outcomes. Across health conditions, when children with recent hospitalizations were compared with those who had not been hospitalized in the past six months, we found significant differences in the expected directions for all PROMIS domains, except anger. Conclusions PROMIS measures discriminate between different clinically meaningful subgroups within several chronic illnesses. Further research is needed to determine the responsiveness of the PROMIS pediatric scales to change over time. PMID:25715946

  9. Interdiction of a blood donation containing varicella-zoster virus by donor self-report of chickenpox.

    PubMed

    Chan, H M H; Ho, P L; Chan, K H; Lin, C K; Lee, C K

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, risk of transfusion-transmitted infection has been substantially minimized by stringent donor eligibility screening and infectious disease testing. However, we report an interdiction of a blood donation containing varicella-zoster virus (VZV) by donor self-reporting of chickenpox. The donor developed varicella infection shortly after blood donation despite vaccination. Varicella-zoster virus DNA was detected in her fresh-frozen plasma before the blood components were issued for clinical transfusion. The report indicates the importance of donors' education and awareness of their obligation to report any symptoms developed shortly after blood donation in order to further secure blood safety.

  10. Challenges in Evaluating Relationships Between Quantitative Data (Carbon Dioxide) and Qualitative Data (Self-Reported Visual Changes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendez, C. M.; Foy, M.; Mason, S.; Wear, M. L.; Meyers, V.; Law, J.; Alexander, D.; Van Baalen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the nuances in clinical data is critical in developing a successful data analysis plan. Carbon dioxide (CO2) data are collected on board the International Space Station (ISS) in a continuous stream. Clinical data on ISS are primarily collected via conversations between individual crewmembers and NASA Flight Surgeons during weekly Private Medical Conferences (PMC). Law, et.al, 20141 demonstrated a statistically significant association between weekly average CO2 levels on ISS and self-reported headaches over the reporting period from March 14, 2001 to May 31, 2012. The purpose of this analysis is to describe the evaluation of a possible association between visual changes and CO2 levels on ISS and to discuss challenges in developing an appropriate analysis plan. METHODS & PRELIMINARY RESULTS: A first analysis was conducted following the same study design as the published work on CO2 and self-reported headaches1; substituting self-reported changes in visual acuity in place of self-reported headaches. The analysis demonstrated no statistically significant association between visual impairment characterized by vision symptoms self-reported during PMCs and ISS average CO2 levels over ISS missions. Closer review of the PMC records showed that vision outcomes are not well-documented in terms of clinical severity, timing of onset, or timing of resolution, perhaps due to the incipient nature of vision changes. Vision has been monitored in ISS crewmembers, pre- and post-flight, using standard optometry evaluations. In-flight visual assessments were limited early in the ISS program, primarily consisting of self-perceived changes reported by crewmembers. Recently, on-orbit capabilities have greatly improved. Vision data ranges from self-reported post-flight changes in visual acuity, pre- to postflight changes identified during fundoscopic examination, and in-flight progression measured by advanced on-orbit clinical imaging capabilities at predetermined testing

  11. Generating physical symptoms from visual cues: An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jane; Zoukas, Serafim

    2009-12-01

    This experimental study explored whether the physical symptoms of cold, pain and itchiness could be generated by visual cues, whether they varied in the ease with which they could be generated and whether they were related to negative affect. Participants were randomly allocated by group to watch one of three videos relating to cold (e.g. ice, snow, wind), pain (e.g. sporting injuries, tattoos) or itchiness (e.g. head lice, scratching). They then rated their self-reported symptoms of cold, pain and itchiness as well as their negative affect (depression and anxiety). The researcher recorded their observed behaviour relating to these symptoms. The results showed that the interventions were successful and that all three symptoms could be generated by the visual cues in terms of both self-report and observed behaviour. In addition, the pain video generated higher levels of anxiety and depression than the other two videos. Further, the degree of itchiness was related to the degree of anxiety. This symptom onset process also showed variability between symptoms with self-reported cold symptoms being greater than either pain or itchy symptoms. The results show that physical symptoms can be generated by visual cues indicating that psychological factors are not only involved in symptom perception but also in symptom onset. PMID:20183542

  12. Scientists’ Perceptions of Organizational Justice and Self-Reported Misbehaviors

    PubMed Central

    Martinson, Brian C.; Anderson, Melissa S.; Crain, A. Lauren; De Vries, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    policymakers concerned about maintaining the integrity of science have recently expanded their attention from a focus on misbehaving individuals to characteristics of the environments in which scientists work. Little empirical evidence exists about the role of organizational justice in promoting or hindering scientific integrity. Our findings indicate that when scientists believe they are being treated unfairly they are more likely to behave in ways that compromise the integrity of science. Perceived violations of distributive and procedural justice were positively associated with self-reports of misbehavior among scientists. PMID:16810337

  13. Self-Reported Experiences of Discrimination and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Tené T.; Williams, David R.; Tamene, Mahader; Clark, Cheryl R.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have long speculated that exposure to discrimination may increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk but compared to other psychosocial risk factors, large-scale epidemiologic and community based studies examining associations between reports of discrimination and CVD risk have only emerged fairly recently. This review summarizes findings from studies of self-reported experiences of discrimination and CVD risk published between 2011–2013. We document the innovative advances in recent work, the notable heterogeneity in these studies, and the considerable need for additional work with objective clinical endpoints other than blood pressure. Implications for the study of racial disparities in CVD and clinical practice are also discussed. PMID:24729825

  14. Zygosity assessment by self-report; research reports; human interest.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2011-02-01

    The research implications and personal perspectives associated with twins' and families' self-reports of zygosity are reviewed. This is followed by summaries of recent research reports including a possible first case of the freemartin effect in humans, twin-singleton comparisons of mental health in Japanese students and mechanisms associated with ART-induced monozygotic twinning. A look at twin stories in the media includes the extraordinary revival of an infant male twin, the career decision of a pair of MZ twin basketball players and the loss of a five-year-old triplet.

  15. An investigation of outcome expectancies as a predictor of treatment response for combat veterans with PTSD: Comparison of clinician, self-report, and biological measures

    PubMed Central

    Price, Matthew; Maples, Jessica L.; Jovanovic, Tanja; Norrholm, Seth D.; Heekin, Mary; Rothbaum, Barbara O.

    2015-01-01

    Background Outcome expectancy, or the degree to which a client believes that therapy will result in improvement, is related to improved treatment outcomes for multiple disorders. There is a paucity of research investigating this relation in regards to PTSD. Additionally, the bulk of the research on outcome expectancy and treatment outcomes has relied mostly on self-report outcome measures. Methods The relation between outcome expectancy on self-report measures, clinician-rated measures, and two biological indices (fear potentiated startle and cortisol reactivity) of PTSD symptoms was explored. The sample included combat veterans (N= 116) treated with virtual reality exposure therapy for PTSD. Results Results supported a negative association between outcome expectancy and both self-report and clinician-rated symptoms at the conclusion of treatment, but outcome expectancy was related to the magnitude of change during treatment for self-report measures only. Outcome expectancy was unrelated to biological measures of treatment response. Conclusions These findings suggest that outcome expectancy may be related to patient and clinician perceptions of outcomes but not biological indices of outcome for PTSD. PMID:25703611

  16. Moderators of the effect of peer victimization during fifth grade on subsequent symptoms of (anxious) depression: the roles of engagement in bullying and baseline symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Christopher C; Shahar, Golan

    2014-12-01

    Two hypothesized moderators of the effect of peer victimization during fifth grade on subsequent symptoms of (anxious) depression in sixth grade were examined: engagement in bullying and baseline fifth grade symptoms of (anxious) depression. Analyses were conducted on longitudinal data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Interview data from 1,081 fifth grade participants assessed peer victimization and engagement in bullying classmates during the school year. Self-reported symptoms of depression were measured in fifth and sixth grade with the Child Depression Inventory Short form. Additionally, maternal reports of child anxious depression were measured with the Child Behavior Checklist. Engagement in bullying and concurrent depression symptoms moderated the effect of peer victimization in fifth grade on child-reported symptoms of depression in sixth grade. The adverse effect of peer victimization was stronger for children with high levels of concurrent depression symptoms or engagement in bullying. Concurrent symptomatology also moderated the effects of peer victimization on mother-reported child anxious depression 1 year later.

  17. An exploration of psychopathy in self-report measures among juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Morrell, Laura M; Burton, David L

    2014-05-01

    Researchers have indicated that adult psychopathy often originates in childhood or adolescence. It has also been established that psychopathic traits are linked to disruptive behavior, criminality, and violence. As knowledge about psychopathy and its manifestations in juvenile sex offender populations remains limited, several instruments have been developed in an effort to measure the construct. In this study, we assessed how the relationship of diverse scales of psychopathy related to characteristics of sexual aggression, and determined which scales were most correlated to sexual and nonsexual delinquency. We utilized four measures of juvenile psychopathy: the Modified Childhood Psychopathy Scale (mCPS; Lynam, 1997), the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001; Frick, O'Brien, Wootton, & McBurnett, 1994), the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI; Millon & Davis, 1993; using two derived psychopathy scales), and the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional (ICU) Traits (Frick, 2003), in a sample of 191 incarcerated adolescent sex offenders located in juvenile detention facilities across a Midwestern state. We found that of the four instruments and seven subscales, only the APSD Narcissism and Impulsivity Scale was significantly correlated to a characteristic of sexual crime (i.e., number of victims, level of crime severity). No subscales were found to predict sexual crime at a significant level. However, several scales were correlated to the total delinquency score as measured by the Self-Reported Delinquency Measure. In a series of multiple regressions, the MACI Factor 2 and ICU total score were determined as the best fit to total nonsexual delinquency. Implications are offered.

  18. Questionnaire assessment of airway disease symptoms in equine barn personnel

    PubMed Central

    Svatek, Jessica; Maranda, Louise; Christiani, David; Ghio, Andrew; Nadeau, Jenifer; Hoffman, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Background People working in cattle, swine and poultry barns have a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms and decreased lung function. There is scant evidence regarding the respiratory health of humans working in horse barns, although it is well documented that stabled horses have a high prevalence of airway disease. Aims To determine whether people spending time in horse barns have a higher prevalence of self-reported respiratory symptoms than non-exposed controls. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted from May 2005 to January 2006 to investigate the prevalence of self-reported respiratory symptoms in 82 barn-exposed subjects and 74 control subjects. Logistic regression and the chi-square test were used to analyse the data. Results There was a significantly higher prevalence of self-reported respiratory symptoms in the barn-exposed group (50%) versus the control group (15%). Exposure to horse barns, smoking and family history of asthma or allergies was independent risk factors for respiratory symptoms. High exposure to the horse barn yielded a higher odds ratio for self-reported respiratory symptoms (8.9). Conclusions Exposure to the equine barn is a risk factor for respiratory symptoms. Investigation of organic dust exposures, lung function and horse dander allergies in the barn-exposed group will be necessary to determine how best to protect the health of this group. PMID:19223434

  19. Self-reported assessment of disability and performance-based assessment of disability are influenced by different patient characteristics in acute low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Chiffelle, Lara A.; O’Connell, Neil Edward; McAuley, James Henry; DeSouza, Lorraine Hilary

    2009-01-01

    For an individual, the functional consequences of an episode of low back pain is a key measure of their clinical status. Self-reported disability measures are commonly used to capture this component of the back pain experience. In non-acute low back pain there is some uncertainty of the validity of this approach. It appears that self-reported assessment of disability and direct measurements of functional status are only moderately related. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated this relationship in a sample of 94 acute low back pain patients. Both self-reported disability and a performance-based assessment of disability were assessed, along with extensive profiling of patient characteristics. Scale consistency of the performance-based assessment was investigated using Cronbach’s alpha, the relationship between self-reported and performance-based assessment of disability was investigated using Pearson’s correlation. The relationship between clinical profile and each of the disability measures were examined using Pearson’s correlations and multivariate linear regression. Our results demonstrate that the battery of tests used are internally reliable (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86). We found only moderate correlations between the two disability measures (r = 0.471, p < 0.001). Self-reported disability was significantly correlated with symptom distribution, medication use, physical well-being, pain intensity, depression, somatic distress and anxiety. The only significant correlations with the performance-based measure were symptom distribution, physical well-being and pain intensity. In the multivariate analyses no psychological measure made a significant unique contribution to the prediction of the performance-based measure, whereas depression made a unique contribution to the prediction of the self-reported measure. Our results suggest that self-reported and performance-based assessments of disability are influenced by different patient characteristics

  20. Trends in Self-reported Spontaneous Abortions: 1970–2000

    PubMed Central

    Nuevo-Chiquero, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how the miscarriage rate has changed over the past few decades in the United States. Data from Cycles IV to VI of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) were used to examine trends from 1970 to 2000. After accounting for abortion availability and the characteristics of pregnant women, the rate of reported miscarriages increased by about 1.0% per year. This upward trend is strongest in the first seven weeks and absent after 12 weeks of pregnancy. African American and Hispanic women report lower rates of early miscarriage than do whites. The probability of reporting a miscarriage rises by about 5% per year of completed schooling. The upward trend, especially in early miscarriages, suggests awareness of pregnancy rather than prenatal care to be a key factor in explaining the evolution of self-reported miscarriages. Any beneficial effects of prenatal care on early miscarriage are obscured by this factor. Differences in adoption of early-awareness technology, such as home pregnancy tests, should be taken into account when analyzing results from self-reports or clinical trials relying on awareness of pregnancy in its early weeks. PMID:22718315

  1. Priming Effects of Self-Reported Drinking and Religiosity

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Foster, Dawn W.

    2013-01-01

    Research has revealed negative associations between religiosity and alcohol consumption. Given these associations, the aim of the current research was to evaluate whether the order of assessing each construct might affect subsequent reports of the other. The present research provided an experimental evaluation of response biases of self-reported religiosity and alcohol consumption based on order of assessment. Participants (N = 301 undergraduate students) completed an online survey. Based on random assignment, religiosity was assessed either before or after questions regarding recent alcohol consumption. Social desirability bias was also measured. Results revealed a priming effect such that participants who answered questions about their religiosity prior to their alcohol consumption reported fewer drinks on their peak drinking occasions, drinking less on typical occasions, and drinking less frequently, even when controlling for social desirability and for the significant negative associations between their own religiosity and drinking. In contrast, assessment order was not significantly associated with religiosity. Results indicate priming religion results in reporting lower, but potentially more accurate, levels of health risk behaviors and that these effects are not simply the result of socially desirable responding. Results are interpreted utilizing several social–cognitive theories and suggest that retrospective self-reports of drinking may be more malleable than self-descriptions of religiosity. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:23528191

  2. Trends in self-reported spontaneous abortions: 1970-2000.

    PubMed

    Lang, Kevin; Nuevo-Chiquero, Ana

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about how the miscarriage rate has changed over the past few decades in the United States. Data from Cycles IV to VI of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) were used to examine trends from 1970 to 2000. After accounting for abortion availability and the characteristics of pregnant women, the rate of reported miscarriages increased by about 1.0% per year. This upward trend is strongest in the first seven weeks and absent after 12 weeks of pregnancy. African American and Hispanic women report lower rates of early miscarriage than do whites. The probability of reporting a miscarriage rises by about 5% per year of completed schooling. The upward trend, especially in early miscarriages, suggests awareness of pregnancy rather than prenatal care to be a key factor in explaining the evolution of self-reported miscarriages. Any beneficial effects of prenatal care on early miscarriage are obscured by this factor. Differences in adoption of early-awareness technology, such as home pregnancy tests, should be taken into account when analyzing results from self-reports or clinical trials relying on awareness of pregnancy in its early weeks. PMID:22718315

  3. Identifying high-functioning dyslexics: is self-report of early reading problems enough?

    PubMed

    Deacon, S Hélène; Cook, Kathryn; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-07-01

    We used a questionnaire to identify university students with self-reported difficulties in reading acquisition during elementary school (self-report; n=31). The performance of the self-report group on standardized measures of word and non-word reading and fluency, passage comprehension and reading rate, and phonological awareness was compared to that of two other groups of university students: one with a recent diagnosis (diagnosed; n=20) and one with no self-reported reading acquisition problems (comparison group; n=33). The comparison group outperformed both groups with a history of reading difficulties (self-report and diagnosed) on almost all measures. The self-report and diagnosed groups performed similarly on most tasks, with the exception of untimed reading comprehension (better performance for diagnosed) and reading rate (better performance for self-report). The two recruitment methods likely sample from the same underlying population but identify individuals with different adaptive strategies.

  4. Prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: Iranian experience.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, Zahra; Shakiba, Mansoor; Narouie, Behzad; Mladkova, Nikol; Ghasemi-Rad, Mohammad; Khosravi, Alireza

    2012-05-01

    Psychiatric disorders including depression represent clinical manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Recognition of depression in SLE patients is of utmost importance since it is treatable and can be of fatal consequences if unrecognized. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms in SLE patients in terms of age, gender, disease duration and severity, and duration of steroid treatment in SLE patients. Eighty-five SLE patients (77 women, 8 men) with verified SLE diagnosis completed Beck's depression inventory, a self-reported measure of depression. Clinical data on disease and treatment were obtained from patient files. In total, 60% of patients achieved scores indicating depression. The most common depressive symptoms in participants were fatigue and weakness (88.2%), irritability (82.3%), sadness (77.6%), and somatic preoccupation (76.4%), while the least common symptoms were weight loss (34.1%), low level of energy (28.2%), and suicide ideation (10.5%). There was a significant difference between the disease activity and the severity of depression (P = 0.0001). Our findings show higher prevalence of depression in our sample in comparison with previous studies, suggesting that the prevalence of depression varies across different populations. Severity of depression increases with more severe disease course.

  5. Mass transit ridership and self-reported hearing health in an urban population.

    PubMed

    Gershon, Robyn R M; Sherman, Martin F; Magda, Lori A; Riley, Halley E; McAlexander, Tara P; Neitzel, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Information on prevalence and risk factors associated with self-reported hearing health among mass transit riders is extremely limited, even though evidence suggests mass transit may be a source of excessive exposure to noise. Data on mass transit ridership were collected from 756 study participants using a self-administered questionnaire. Hearing health was measured using two symptom items (tinnitus and temporary audiometric threshold shift), two subjective measures (self-rated hearing and hearing ability), and two medical-related questions (hearing testing and physician-diagnosed hearing loss). In logistic regression analyses that controlled for possible confounders, including demographic variables, occupational noise exposure, nonoccupational noise exposure (including MP3 player use) and use of hearing protection, frequent and lengthy mass transit (all forms) ridership (1,100 min or more per week vs. 350 min or less per week) was the strongest predictor of temporary threshold shift symptoms. Noise abatement strategies, such as engineering controls, and the promotion of hearing protection use should be encouraged to reduce the risk of adverse impacts on the hearing health of mass transit users. PMID:22711170

  6. Mass transit ridership and self-reported hearing health in an urban population.

    PubMed

    Gershon, Robyn R M; Sherman, Martin F; Magda, Lori A; Riley, Halley E; McAlexander, Tara P; Neitzel, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Information on prevalence and risk factors associated with self-reported hearing health among mass transit riders is extremely limited, even though evidence suggests mass transit may be a source of excessive exposure to noise. Data on mass transit ridership were collected from 756 study participants using a self-administered questionnaire. Hearing health was measured using two symptom items (tinnitus and temporary audiometric threshold shift), two subjective measures (self-rated hearing and hearing ability), and two medical-related questions (hearing testing and physician-diagnosed hearing loss). In logistic regression analyses that controlled for possible confounders, including demographic variables, occupational noise exposure, nonoccupational noise exposure (including MP3 player use) and use of hearing protection, frequent and lengthy mass transit (all forms) ridership (1,100 min or more per week vs. 350 min or less per week) was the strongest predictor of temporary threshold shift symptoms. Noise abatement strategies, such as engineering controls, and the promotion of hearing protection use should be encouraged to reduce the risk of adverse impacts on the hearing health of mass transit users.

  7. A population-based investigation into the self-reported reasons for sleep problems.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, David; Dregan, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Typologies of sleep problems have usually relied on identifying underlying causes or symptom clusters. In this study the value of using the patient's own reasons for sleep disturbance are explored. Using secondary data analysis of a nationally representative psychiatric survey the patterning of the various reasons respondents provided for self-reported sleep problems were examined. Over two thirds (69.3%) of respondents could identify a specific reason for their sleep problem with worry (37.9%) and illness (20.1%) representing the most commonly reported reasons. And while women reported more sleep problems for almost every reason compared with men, the patterning of reasons by age showed marked variability. Sleep problem symptoms such as difficulty getting to sleep or waking early also showed variability by different reasons as did the association with major correlates such as worry, depression, anxiety and poor health. While prevalence surveys of 'insomnia' or 'poor sleep' often assume the identification of an underlying homogeneous construct there may be grounds for recognising the existence of different sleep problem types particularly in the context of the patient's perceived reason for the problem.

  8. Multidimensional self reports as a measure of characteristics in people with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Davies, H; Liao, P-C; Campbell, I C; Tchanturia, K

    2009-01-01

    This study used multidimensional self report assessments to measure perfectionism, impulsivity and obsessive compulsive characteristics in females with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and in matched healthy controls (HC). The Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS), Barrett Impulsivity Scale (BIS) and Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R) scale were completed by 107 participants (AN=30, BN=26, HC=51), in parallel with clinical measures. Results show that people with AN have the highest scores on the dimensions of the FMPS as well as on the overall score; the AN and BN groups have the highest scores on the dimensions and on the overall score of the OCI-R; on the BIS, the AN and BN groups have the highest scores on the attention subscale, but there are no group differences on the overall BIS scores. In relation to the FMPS, the global score, and the subscales 'concern over mistakes' and 'doubts about actions' are all highly correlated with both eating pathology (Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, EDE-Q) and low global functioning (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV, SCID). The subscale 'obsessing' on the OCI-R shows a strong correlation with eating pathology. The overall score and also the subscales of the BIS do not show strong correlations with eating pathology or poor global functioning. In conclusion, therapies should seek to address these specific areas which are highly correlated with eating disorder pathology. PMID:19934641

  9. Ventricular Ectopy: Impact of Self-reported Stress following Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Patrick J.; Blumenthal, James A.; Babyak, Michael A.; Georgiades, Anastasia; Sherwood, Andrew; Sketch, Michael H.; Watkins, Lana L.

    2007-01-01

    Background Although psychological stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ventricular arrhythmias, the relationship between self-reported stress and ventricular ectopy has not been evaluated under naturalistic conditions in acute post-MI patients, a group at elevated risk for arrhythmias. Methods Diary-reported stress was measured during 24-hour Holter monitoring in 80 patients (52 men, 28 women) approximately 12 weeks following MI. In addition, state and trait anxiety were measured using the Spielberger State and Trait anxiety inventory (STAI), administered at the beginning of the 24-hour holter monitoring session. The relationship between diary reported stress, anxiety, and ventricular ectopy was evaluated. Results Mean diary-reported stress (β= .29, p = .01) was associated with total ventricular ectopy. State anxiety was also associated with 24-hour ectopy (β= .24, p = .04); however, trait anxiety was not significantly associated with ectopy. Temporal analyses of the relationship between stress and ectopy showed that diary-reported stress was associated with an increase in the number of VPBs occurring in the following hour (B = 0.74, p < .0001). Conclusions These findings extend existing evidence linking psychological factors to ventricular arrhythmias by demonstrating that psychological stress predicts increased arrhythmic activity during routine daily activities in post-MI patients. PMID:17174651

  10. Relationship between anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and conduct disorder symptoms in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Bilgiç, Ayhan; Türkoğlu, Serhat; Ozcan, Ozlem; Tufan, Ali Evren; Yılmaz, Savaş; Yüksel, Tuğba

    2013-09-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often comorbid with anxiety disorders and previous studies observed that anxiety could have an impact on the clinical course of ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavioral disorders (conduct disorders and oppositional-defiant disorders). Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a different concept from anxiety per se and it is believed to represent the constitutionally based sensitivity of individuals to anxiety and anxiety symptoms. We aimed to assess the associations between anxiety, AS and symptoms of disruptive behavioral disorders (DBD) in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample consisted of 274 treatment naive children with ADHD aged 8-17 years. The severity of ADHD symptoms and comorbid DBD were assessed via parent rated Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Behavioral Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S), Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS), and Conners' Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS). AS and severity of anxiety symptoms of children were evaluated by self-report inventories. The association between anxiety, AS, and DBD was evaluated using structural equation modeling. Analyses revealed that AS social subscale scores negatively predicted symptoms of conduct disorder (CD) reported in T-DSM-IV-S. On the other hand, CD symptoms positively predicted severity of anxiety. No direct relationships were detected between anxiety, AS and oppositional-defiant behavior scores in any scales. These results may suggest a protective effect of AS social area on the development of conduct disorder in the presence of a diagnosis of ADHD, while the presence of symptoms of CD may be a vulnerability factor for the development of anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  11. The Association of Daily Physical Symptoms with Future Health

    PubMed Central

    Leger, Kate A.; Charles, Susan T.; Ayanian, John Z.; Almeida, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Daily physical symptoms play a critical role in health and illness experiences. Despite their daily prevalence, the ability of these symptoms to predict future health status is debated. Objective The current study examined whether physical symptom reports predict future health outcomes independent of trait measures of emotion. Methods Participants (N = 1189) who completed both Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) Surveys I and II as well as the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE) reported their daily physical symptoms at baseline and number of reported chronic conditions and functional disability nearly 10 years later. Results Physical symptoms at baseline significantly predicted the occurrence of chronic conditions and functional impairment at long-term follow-up, even after adjusting for self-reported affect, self-reported health, and previous health status. Conclusion Findings suggest that daily physical symptoms are unique indicators of future health status. PMID:26364011

  12. Associations between chronotype, sleep quality, suicidality, and depressive symptoms in patients with major depression and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Selvi, Yavuz; Aydin, Adem; Boysan, Murat; Atli, Abdullah; Agargun, Mehmed Yucel; Besiroglu, Lutfullah

    2010-10-01

    Research interest concerning associations between sleep characteristics and suicidality in psychopathology has been growing. However, possible linkages of suicidality to sleep characteristics in terms of sleep quality and chronotypes among depressive patients have not been well documented. In the current study, the authors investigated the possible effects of sleep quality and chronotype on the severity of depressive symptoms and suicide risk in patients with depressive disorder and healthy controls. The study was conducted on 80 patients clinically diagnosed with major depression and 80 healthy subjects who were demographically matched with the patient group. All participants completed a questionnaire package containing self-report measures, including the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), and Suicide Ideation Scale (SIS), and subjects were interviewed with the suicidality section of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Results are as follows: (a) logistic regression analyses revealed that poor sleep quality and depression symptom severity significantly predicted onset of major depression; (b) morningness-type circadian rhythm may play as a significant relief factor after onset of major depression; (c) sleep variables of chronotype and sleep quality did not significantly predict suicide ideation after controlling for depressive symptoms in the major depression group; and (d) suicide ideation and poor sleep quality were antecedents of depression symptom severity in patients with major depression, and in healthy controls. Findings are discussed under the theoretical assumptions concerning possible relations between chronotype, sleep quality, depression, and suicidality. PMID:20969525

  13. Longitudinal Study of Depressive Symptoms and Progression of Insulin Resistance in Youth at Risk for Adult Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Shomaker, Lauren B.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Stern, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Rachel; Zocca, Jaclyn M.; Field, Sara E.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Hubbard, Van S.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine whether having childhood depressive symptoms is a risk factor that prospectively predicts impairment in glucose homeostasis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A non–treatment-seeking sample of 115 children (aged 5–13 years), oversampled for being at risk for adult obesity, was assessed at baseline and again ~6 years later. Children self-reported depressive symptoms using the Children’s Depression Inventory at baseline. Insulin resistance was assessed at baseline and follow-up with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). RESULTS Children’s depressive symptoms were a significant predictor of follow-up HOMA-IR, fasting insulin, and fasting glucose in models accounting for baseline HOMA-IR, insulin, or glucose values; sex; race; baseline age; baseline BMI; change in BMI at follow-up; family history of type 2 diabetes; and time in the study (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS In this study, depressive symptomatology at baseline predicted the progression of insulin resistance during child and adolescent development independent of changes in BMI. Research is needed to determine whether early intervention to decrease elevated depressive symptoms in youth ameliorates later development of insulin resistance and lessens the risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID:21911779

  14. Longitudinal study of depressive symptoms and progression of insulin resistance in youth at risk for adult obesity.

    PubMed

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Stern, Elizabeth A; Miller, Rachel; Zocca, Jaclyn M; Field, Sara E; Yanovski, Susan Z; Hubbard, Van S; Yanovski, Jack A

    2011-11-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine whether having childhood depressive symptoms is a risk factor that prospectively predicts impairment in glucose homeostasis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A non-treatment-seeking sample of 115 children (aged 5-13 years), oversampled for being at risk for adult obesity, was assessed at baseline and again ~6 years later. Children self-reported depressive symptoms using the Children's Depression Inventory at baseline. Insulin resistance was assessed at baseline and follow-up with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). RESULTS Children's depressive symptoms were a significant predictor of follow-up HOMA-IR, fasting insulin, and fasting glucose in models accounting for baseline HOMA-IR, insulin, or glucose values; sex; race; baseline age; baseline BMI; change in BMI at follow-up; family history of type 2 diabetes; and time in the study (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS In this study, depressive symptomatology at baseline predicted the progression of insulin resistance during child and adolescent development independent of changes in BMI. Research is needed to determine whether early intervention to decrease elevated depressive symptoms in youth ameliorates later development of insulin resistance and lessens the risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID:21911779

  15. Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (IDS): Preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Wu, Daxing; Yin, Huifang; Xu, Shujing; Carmody, Thomas; Morris, David W

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to provide psychometric properties of the validity and reliability of the 30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology as both a self-report (IDS-SR(30)) and as a clinician rating scale (IDS-C(30)) in a group of Chinese depressed outpatients. The Chinese version of IDS-C(30), IDS-SR(30), HRSD(17), BDI(13), SDS and ATQ were completed for 64 Chinese outpatients with major depressive disorder. The Cronbach's alphas for IDS-C(30) and IDS-SR(30) were 0.799 and 0.805, respectively. The coefficients test-retest reliability for the IDS-C(30) was 0.824 and for the IDSR-SR(30) was 0.718. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the IDS-C(30) and IDS-SR(30), and the other symptom measures (HRSD(17), BDI(13), and SDS) were high (from 0.738 to 0.882). The intra-class correlation coefficient showed the strength of agreement between the IDS-C(30) and IDS-SR(30), and the other symptom measures was found to be adequate (0.634-0.780). The Kappa coefficients of the severity of IDS-C(30) to HRSD(17), IDS-SR(30) were 0.50 and 0.40, respectively. This pilot study finding showed reasonable validity and reliability for the Chinese version of IDS(30) with highly acceptable psychometric properties. The inventory is suitable for assessing the severity of Chinese depressed patients, but this needs to be confirmed using a larger sample. Further studies should be done to demonstrate sensitivity of the scales to change of depression.

  16. Identifying dissociative identity disorder: a self-report and projective study.

    PubMed

    Scroppo, J C; Drob, S L; Weinberger, J L; Eagle, P

    1998-05-01

    This study compared 21 female adult psychiatric patients diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder (DID) with 21 female adult nondissociative psychiatric patients to determine whether DID patients exhibit a distinguishing set of clinical features, and perceptual, attentional, and cognitive processes. Participants were assessed with the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule to assess diagnostic status. Group scores on the Dissociative Experiences Scale, Tellegen Absorption Scale, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Rorschach test were compared. DID participants reported earlier and more severe childhood trauma, more dissociative symptoms, and a greater propensity for altered states of consciousness. The DID participants also exhibited increased projective and imaginative activity, a diminished ability to integrate mental contents, a complex and driven cognitive style, and a highly unconventional view of reality.

  17. Self-reported sleep duration is associated with reduced glomerular filtration rate among adults with hypertension: a population-based study from rural northeast China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaofan; Yu, Shasha; Li, Zhao; Guo, Liang; Zheng, Liqiang; Yang, Hongmei; Zou, Lu; Hu, Wenyu; Zhou, Ying; Zhu, Luoning; Zhang, Yonghong; Sun, Yingxian

    2015-06-01

    Short sleep duration has been found recently to be a predictor of proteinuria. However, population-based investigations addressing the association between self-reported sleep duration and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) among hypertensive patients are lacking. We therefore sought to investigate the extent to which self-reported sleep duration might be associated with reduced GFR in a large hypertensive population in rural northeast China. A total of 5555 hypertensive participants, aged ≥35 years, in rural areas of Liaoning Province, China, were screened between January 2012 and August 2013, using a stratified, cluster multi-stage sampling scheme. Anthropometric measurements, self-reported sleep duration, blood biochemical indexes and other health-related variables were collected by medically trained personnel. Reduced GFR was defined as the estimated GFR (eGFR) < 60 mL min(-1) 1.73 m(2). On average, participants slept for 6.9 ± 1.6 h per night. Mean self-reported sleep duration decreased with eGFR (P < 0.001). For both genders, a lower prevalence of reduced GFR was observed among participants who slept ≤6 h per night in total. In the multivariable regression model, after adjustments for age, gender, ethnicity, lifestyle factors, clinical correlates, depressive symptoms and general quality of life, participants who slept for 6 h or less per night were associated with a higher risk of reduced GFR [odds ratio (OR: 1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-2.73] compared with the reference group (self-reported sleep duration >7 and ≤8 h day(-1) ). We concluded that short self-reported sleep duration (≤6 h per night) was related significantly to an increased risk of reduced GFR in a hypertensive population. This novel risk factor should be taken into consideration during daily management of hypertension to prevent chronic kidney disease.

  18. Genetic moderation of child maltreatment effects on depression and internalizing symptoms by 5-HTTLPR, BDNF, NET, and CRHR1 genes in African-American children

    PubMed Central

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic moderation of the effects of child maltreatment on depression and internalizing symptoms was investigated in a sample of low-income maltreated and nonmaltreated African-American children (N = 1,096). Lifetime child maltreatment experiences were independently coded from Child Protective Services records and maternal report. Child depression and internalizing problems were assessed in the context of a summer research camp by self-report (Children’s Depression Inventory, CDI) and adult counselor-report (Teacher Report Form, TRF). DNA was obtained from buccal cell or saliva samples and genotyped for polymorphisms of the following genes: 5-HTTLPR, BDNF, NET, and CRHR1. ANCOVAs with age and gender as covariates were conducted, with maltreatment status and respective polymorphism as main effects and their GxE interactions. Maltreatment consistently was associated with higher CDI and TRF symptoms. Results for child self-report symptoms indicated a GxE interaction for BDNF and maltreatment. Additionally, BDNF and tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR interacted with child maltreatment in a GxGxE interaction. Analyses for counselor-report of child anxiety/depression symptoms on the TRF indicated moderation of child maltreatment effects by tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR. These effects were elaborated based on variation in developmental timing of maltreatment experiences. NET was found to further moderate the GxE interaction of 5-HTTLPR and maltreatment status revealing a GxGxE interaction. This GxGxE was extended by consideration of variation in maltreatment subtype experiences. Finally, GxGxE effects were observed for the co-action of BDNF and the CRHR1 haplotype. The findings illustrate the variable influence of specific genotypes in GxE interactions based on variation in maltreatment experiences and the importance of a multi-genic approach for understanding influences on depression and internalizing symptoms among African-American children. PMID:25422957

  19. Construct Validity of Three Self-Report Measures of Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleenor, John W.; Taylor, Sylvester

    1994-01-01

    Relations were examined among the CPI Creativity Scale (CPI-CT), the MBTI Creativity Index (MBTI-CI), and the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI; a style measure of behavioral preference) for samples of 431 to 12,115 managers. KAI scores were related to CPI-CT and MBTI-CI creativity levels. (SLD)

  20. Symptoms of ADHD and Academic Concerns in College Students with and without ADHD Diagnoses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Lawrence J.; Lovett, Benjamin J.; Codding, Robin S.; Gordon, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Previous research has found ADHD symptoms to be common in the general population but has not compared endorsement of symptoms between ADHD and non-ADHD groups. This study examines self-reported ADHD symptoms and academic complaints in college students. Method: Students without (n = 496) and with ADHD (n = 38) completed a questionnaire…

  1. Psychological Symptoms and Drug Use Severity among Israeli Adolescents Presenting for Outpatient Drug Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, G.M.; Izzard, M.C.; Kedar, T.; Hutlzer, A.; Mell, H.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the rates of externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and the relation between psychological symptoms and drug use severity, among 117 Israeli adolescents presenting for outpatient drug abuse treatment. Psychological symptoms were assessed via both adolescent self-report and parent report. Drug use was…

  2. Translation and Adaptation of Five English Language Self-Report Health Measures to South Indian Kannada Language

    PubMed Central

    Thammaiah, Spoorthi; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Easwar, Vijayalakshmi; Krishna, Rajalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to translate and adapt five English self-report health measures to a South Indian language Kannada. Currently, no systematically developed questionnaires assessing hearing rehabilitation outcomes are available for clinical or research use in Kannada. The questionnaires included for translation and adaptation were the hearing handicap questionnaire, the international outcome inventory - hearing aids, the self-assessment of communication, the participation scale, and the assessment of quality of life – 4 dimensions. The questionnaires were translated and adapted using the American Association of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) guidelines. The five stages followed in the study included: i) forward translation; ii) common translation synthesis; iii) backward translation; iv) expert committee review; v) pre-final testing. In this paper, in addition to a description of the process, we also highlight practical issues faced while adopting the procedure with an aim to help readers better understand the intricacies involved in such processes. This can be helpful to researchers and clinicians who are keen to adapt standard self-report questionnaires from other languages to their native language. PMID:27588165

  3. Translation and Adaptation of Five English Language Self-Report Health Measures to South Indian Kannada Language.

    PubMed

    Thammaiah, Spoorthi; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Easwar, Vijayalakshmi; Krishna, Rajalakshmi

    2016-04-20

    The objective of this study was to translate and adapt five English self-report health measures to a South Indian language Kannada. Currently, no systematically developed questionnaires assessing hearing rehabilitation outcomes are available for clinical or research use in Kannada. The questionnaires included for translation and adaptation were the hearing handicap questionnaire, the international outcome inventory - hearing aids, the self-assessment of communication, the participation scale, and the assessment of quality of life - 4 dimensions. The questionnaires were translated and adapted using the American Association of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) guidelines. The five stages followed in the study included: i) forward translation; ii) common translation synthesis; iii) backward translation; iv) expert committee review; v) pre-final testing. In this paper, in addition to a description of the process, we also highlight practical issues faced while adopting the procedure with an aim to help readers better understand the intricacies involved in such processes. This can be helpful to researchers and clinicians who are keen to adapt standard self-report questionnaires from other languages to their native language. PMID:27588165

  4. Self-reported emotional intelligence, burnout and engagement among staff in services for people with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Durán, Auxiliadora; Extremera, Natalio; Rey, Lourdes

    2004-10-01

    This study examined the relationship among dimensions of self-reported Emotional Intelligence, Engagement and Burnout, using the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale in a sample of Spanish professionals who work at institutions for people with intellectual disabilities. The results showed that Emotional Clarity was significantly associated with Personal Accomplishment (r=.25) and Dedication (r=.25). Further, Repair to moods was significantly correlated with all Engagement dimensions (.20 Vigor, .30 Dedication, .36 Absorption) and with Personal Accomplishment (.31). These findings extend previous research with college students in which Clarity and Repair to moods subscales were relevant predictors of well-being indexes and interpersonal functioning and suggest that the Trait Meta-Mood Scale subscales also show significant relationships with emotional functioning and work-related variables in a professional sample.

  5. Self-reported Magic Eye stereogram skill predicts stereoacuity.

    PubMed

    Wilmer, Jeremy B; Backus, Benjamin T

    2008-01-01

    Autostereograms--commonly known as Magic Eye stereograms (MESs)--are two-dimensional images that support stereoscopic depth perception given an appropriate crossing or uncrossing of the eyes. We find that self-reported MES skill is highly predictive of stereoacuity as measured by a standard clinical test (r142 = 0.45, p < 0.0001; TNO test). Indeed, in our sample of 194 individuals, those who report poor MES skill have a five-fold increased risk of stereo impairment. Those who report poor MES skill also require on average five times greater binocular disparity to perceive stereoscopic depth than those who report good MES skill. Reported MES skill thus carries significant information about stereoacuity.

  6. Self-report distortions of puffing topography in daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Pulcu, Erdem

    2016-08-01

    Under-reporting tobacco consumption is common, although there is lack of evidence whether under-reporting is associated with health risk perception. In this study, smoking topography from 110 smokers was recorded over 24 hours, aiming to capture a representative average of smoking behaviour. Participants significantly under-reported the duration of secondary exposure, and there was a significant interaction between self-report distortion type and risk perception. Analysis showed that smokers under-reporting puff number declared perceiving significantly less susceptibility to acquiring airway diseases, which is correlating significantly with the level of under-reporting. The present findings may suggest that under-reporting smoking behaviour has psychological functions beyond achieving social desirability.

  7. Long-term ambient air pollution exposure and self-reported morbidity in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Lazarevic, Nina; Dobson, Annette J; Barnett, Adrian G; Knibbs, Luke D

    2015-01-01

    Objective We sought to assess the effect of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on the prevalence of self-reported health outcomes in Australian women. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting and participants The geocoded residential addresses of 26 991 women across 3 age cohorts in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health between 2006 and 2011 were linked to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure estimates from a land-use regression model. Annual average NO2 concentrations and residential proximity to roads were used as proxies of exposure to ambient air pollution. Outcome measures Self-reported disease presence for diabetes mellitus, heart disease, hypertension, stroke, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and self-reported symptoms of allergies, breathing difficulties, chest pain and palpitations. Methods Disease prevalence was modelled by population-averaged Poisson regression models estimated by generalised estimating equations. Associations between symptoms and ambient air pollution were modelled by multilevel mixed logistic regression. Spatial clustering was accounted for at the postcode level. Results No associations were observed between any of the outcome and exposure variables considered at the 1% significance level after adjusting for known risk factors and confounders. Conclusions Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution was not associated with self-reported disease prevalence in Australian women. The observed results may have been due to exposure and outcome misclassification, lack of power to detect weak associations or an actual absence of associations with self-reported outcomes at the relatively low annual average air pollution exposure levels across Australia. PMID:26503387

  8. Life after Adolescent and Adult Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Self-Reported Executive, Emotional, and Behavioural Function 2-5 Years after Injury.

    PubMed

    Finnanger, Torun Gangaune; Olsen, Alexander; Skandsen, Toril; Lydersen, Stian; Vik, Anne; Evensen, Kari Anne I; Catroppa, Cathy; Håberg, Asta K; Andersson, Stein; Indredavik, Marit S

    2015-01-01

    Survivors of moderate-severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) are at risk for long-term cognitive, emotional, and behavioural problems. This prospective cohort study investigated self-reported executive, emotional, and behavioural problems in the late chronic phase of moderate and severe TBI, if demographic characteristics (i.e., age, years of education), injury characteristics (Glasgow Coma Scale score, MRI findings such as traumatic axonal injury (TAI), or duration of posttraumatic amnesia), symptoms of depression, or neuropsychological variables in the first year after injury predicted long-term self-reported function. Self-reported executive, emotional, and behavioural functioning were assessed among individuals with moderate and severe TBI (N = 67, age range 15-65 years at time of injury) 2-5 years after TBI, compared to a healthy matched control group (N = 72). Results revealed significantly more attentional, emotional regulation, and psychological difficulties in the TBI group than controls. Demographic and early clinical variables were associated with poorer cognitive and emotional outcome. Fewer years of education and depressive symptoms predicted greater executive dysfunction. Younger age at injury predicted more aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour. TAI and depressive symptoms predicted Internalizing problems and greater executive dysfunction. In conclusion, age, education, TAI, and depression appear to elevate risk for poor long-term outcome, emphasising the need for long-term follow-up of patients presenting with risk factors. PMID:26549936

  9. Life after Adolescent and Adult Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Self-Reported Executive, Emotional, and Behavioural Function 2–5 Years after Injury

    PubMed Central

    Finnanger, Torun Gangaune; Olsen, Alexander; Skandsen, Toril; Lydersen, Stian; Vik, Anne; Evensen, Kari Anne I.; Catroppa, Cathy; Håberg, Asta K.; Andersson, Stein; Indredavik, Marit S.

    2015-01-01

    Survivors of moderate-severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) are at risk for long-term cognitive, emotional, and behavioural problems. This prospective cohort study investigated self-reported executive, emotional, and behavioural problems in the late chronic phase of moderate and severe TBI, if demographic characteristics (i.e., age, years of education), injury characteristics (Glasgow Coma Scale score, MRI findings such as traumatic axonal injury (TAI), or duration of posttraumatic amnesia), symptoms of depression, or neuropsychological variables in the first year after injury predicted long-term self-reported function. Self-reported executive, emotional, and behavioural functioning were assessed among individuals with moderate and severe TBI (N = 67, age range 15–65 years at time of injury) 2–5 years after TBI, compared to a healthy matched control group (N = 72). Results revealed significantly more attentional, emotional regulation, and psychological difficulties in the TBI group than controls. Demographic and early clinical variables were associated with poorer cognitive and emotional outcome. Fewer years of education and depressive symptoms predicted greater executive dysfunction. Younger age at injury predicted more aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour. TAI and depressive symptoms predicted Internalizing problems and greater executive dysfunction. In conclusion, age, education, TAI, and depression appear to elevate risk for poor long-term outcome, emphasising the need for long-term follow-up of patients presenting with risk factors. PMID:26549936

  10. Distribution and Correlates of Self-Reported Crimes of Trust

    PubMed Central

    Menard, Scott; Morris, Robert G.; Gerber, Jurg; Covey, Herbert C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the distribution and correlates of a special class of property crimes, crimes of trust, using longitudinal and cross sectional self-report data from a national sample. We begin by defining crimes of trust and consider their conceptual relationship to “conventional” property crimes, which we here characterize as crimes of stealth, and to white collar crimes, which are defined in terms of the social status of the perpetrators. Crimes of trust are here defined as property crimes that typically involve deliberate contact with the victim or, where there is more than one victim, with at least one or more victims, in which there is typically more of a focus on concealing the fact that a crime has been committed than on concealing the identity of the perpetrator (as is the case in crimes of stealth), without regard to the socioeconomic status of the perpetrator (thus including but not limited to white collar crimes). The focus here is on crimes of trust committed by individuals (as opposed to corporate crime). We first examine their distribution by sociodemographic characteristics, then examine the correlation of crimes of trust with other types of illegal behavior, using data from the National Youth Survey Family Study, including (1) longitudinal self-report data from a nationally representative panel of individuals who were 11–18 years old in 1976–77 and who were followed through early middle age (ages 36–44) in 2002–2003, plus (2) cross-sectional data on these individuals plus their parents, spouses, and children age 11 and older in 2002–2003 (total age range 11–88). The results suggest that crimes of trust have a different age-crime curve from conventional crimes, and that they are not as strongly correlated with problem substance use, gender, and other socioeconomic indicators as conventional crimes. PMID:22347761

  11. Distribution and Correlates of Self-Reported Crimes of Trust.

    PubMed

    Menard, Scott; Morris, Robert G; Gerber, Jurg; Covey, Herbert C

    2011-11-01

    This study examines the distribution and correlates of a special class of property crimes, crimes of trust, using longitudinal and cross sectional self-report data from a national sample. We begin by defining crimes of trust and consider their conceptual relationship to "conventional" property crimes, which we here characterize as crimes of stealth, and to white collar crimes, which are defined in terms of the social status of the perpetrators. Crimes of trust are here defined as property crimes that typically involve deliberate contact with the victim or, where there is more than one victim, with at least one or more victims, in which there is typically more of a focus on concealing the fact that a crime has been committed than on concealing the identity of the perpetrator (as is the case in crimes of stealth), without regard to the socioeconomic status of the perpetrator (thus including but not limited to white collar crimes). The focus here is on crimes of trust committed by individuals (as opposed to corporate crime). We first examine their distribution by sociodemographic characteristics, then examine the correlation of crimes of trust with other types of illegal behavior, using data from the National Youth Survey Family Study, including (1) longitudinal self-report data from a nationally representative panel of individuals who were 11-18 years old in 1976-77 and who were followed through early middle age (ages 36-44) in 2002-2003, plus (2) cross-sectional data on these individuals plus their parents, spouses, and children age 11 and older in 2002-2003 (total age range 11-88). The results suggest that crimes of trust have a different age-crime curve from conventional crimes, and that they are not as strongly correlated with problem substance use, gender, and other socioeconomic indicators as conventional crimes.

  12. Self-reported sleep disturbances in renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor sleep quality (SQ) and daytime sleepiness (DS) are common in renal transplant (RTx) recipients; however, related data are rare. This study describes the prevalence and frequency of self-reported sleep disturbances in RTx recipients. Methods This cross-sectional study included 249 RTx recipients transplanted at three Swiss transplant centers. All had reported poor SQ and / or DS in a previous study. With the Survey of Sleep (SOS) self-report questionnaire, we screened for sleep and health habits, sleep history, main sleep problems and sleep-related disturbances. To determine a basis for preliminary sleep diagnoses according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD), 164 subjects were interviewed (48 in person, 116 via telephone and 85 refused). Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data and to determine the frequencies and prevalences of specific sleep disorders. Results The sample had a mean age of 59.1 ± 11.6 years (60.2% male); mean time since Tx was 11.1 ± 7.0 years. The most frequent sleep problem was difficulty staying asleep (49.4%), followed by problems falling asleep (32.1%). The most prevalent sleep disturbance was the need to urinate (62.9%), and 27% reported reduced daytime functionality. Interview data showed that most suffered from the first ICSD category: insomnias. Conclusion Though often disregarded in RTx recipients, sleep is an essential factor of wellbeing. Our findings show high prevalences and incidences of insomnias, with negative impacts on daytime functionality. This indicates a need for further research on the clinical consequences of sleep disturbances and the benefits of insomnia treatment in RTx recipients. PMID:24112372

  13. Body Awareness: Construct and Self-Report Measures

    PubMed Central

    Mehling, Wolf E.; Gopisetty, Viranjini; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Price, Cynthia J.; Hecht, Frederick M.; Stewart, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Heightened body awareness can be adaptive and maladaptive. Improving body awareness has been suggested as an approach for treating patients with conditions such as chronic pain, obesity and post-traumatic stress disorder. We assessed the psychometric quality of selected self-report measures and examined their items for underlying definitions of the construct. Data sources PubMed, PsychINFO, HaPI, Embase, Digital Dissertations Database. Review methods Abstracts were screened; potentially relevant instruments were obtained and systematically reviewed. Instruments were excluded if they exclusively measured anxiety, covered emotions without related physical sensations, used observer ratings only, or were unobtainable. We restricted our study to the proprioceptive and interoceptive channels of body awareness. The psychometric properties of each scale were rated using a structured evaluation according to the method of McDowell. Following a working definition of the multi-dimensional construct, an inter-disciplinary team systematically examined the items of existing body awareness instruments, identified the dimensions queried and used an iterative qualitative process to refine the dimensions of the construct. Results From 1,825 abstracts, 39 instruments were screened. 12 were included for psychometric evaluation. Only two were rated as high standard for reliability, four for validity. Four domains of body awareness with 11 sub-domains emerged. Neither a single nor a compilation of several instruments covered all dimensions. Key domains that might potentially differentiate adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness were missing in the reviewed instruments. Conclusion Existing self-report instruments do not address important domains of the construct of body awareness, are unable to discern between adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness, or exhibit other psychometric limitations. Restricting the construct to its proprio- and interoceptive

  14. GP frequent attendance in Liverpool and Granada: the impact of depressive symptoms.

    PubMed Central

    Dowrick, C F; Bellón, J A; Gómez, M J

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Frequent attendance in general practice increases workload and affects doctor-patient relationships. It is a complex phenomenon, but patients' psychological problems appear to be important. AIM: To assess whether frequent attendance is more likely to be associated with depressive symptoms than with physical health problems. METHOD: The study was carried out in two general practices: one in Liverpool and one in Granada. Subjects comprised 127 frequent attenders (FAs) plus 175 matched controls, stratified by age and sex. Measures included demographic factors, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), self-reported health, and current health problems classified by ICHPPC-2 criteria. RESULTS: Seventy-five (59%) FAs had a BDI score > or = 13, compared with 9 (5%) controls (odds ratio [OR] = 26.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 12.4 to 56.8, P < 0.001). A total of 136 (78%) controls reported their health to be good or excellent, compared with 40 (31%) FAs (OR = 7.6, 95% CI = 4.5 to 12.7, P < 0.001). Respiratory problems were present in 50 (39%) FAs and 47 (27%) controls (chi 2 = 6.992, P < 0.03). Depression rates were similar in Liverpool and Granada, although Liverpool subjects were less likely to report good health. On logistic regression, BDI status was the major predictor of frequent attendance (OR = 17.18, 95% CI = 7.54 to 39.01). Self-reported ill health (OR = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.40 to 5.10) and respiratory problems (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.11 to 4.37) were also associated with frequent attendance. CONCLUSION: Depressive symptoms were the major predictor of frequent attendance in this study. Clinical and research activity should therefore concentrate on the identification and management of psychological problems among FAs in general practice. PMID:10897531

  15. Depression and anxiety symptoms of mothers of preterm infants are decreased at 4 months corrected age with Family Nurture Intervention in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Welch, Martha G; Halperin, Meeka S; Austin, Judy; Stark, Raymond I; Hofer, Myron A; Hane, Amie A; Myers, Michael M

    2016-02-01

    Preterm delivery can precipitate maternal psychological morbidities. Family Nurture Intervention (FNI) was designed to minimize these by facilitating the emotional connection between mother and infant, beginning early in the infant's neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay. We examined depression and anxiety symptoms of mothers of preterm infants at 4 months infant corrected age (CA). One hundred fifteen mothers who delivered between 26 and 34 weeks gestational age were randomized to receive standard care (SC) or standard care plus FNI. Mothers' self-reported depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: CES-D) and state anxiety (Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: STAI) symptoms were assessed at enrollment, near to term age, and 4 months (CA). At 4 months CA, mean CES-D and STAI scores were significantly lower in FNI mothers compared to SC mothers. Effectiveness of FNI can only be evaluated as an integrated intervention strategy as it was not possible to control all aspects of FNI activities. Although there was considerable loss to follow-up, analyses suggest that resulting biases could have masked rather than inflated the measured effect size for depressive symptoms. FNI may be a feasible and practicable way to diminish the impact of premature delivery on maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms.

  16. Relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom severity with severity of alcohol-related problems in a sample of inpatients with alcohol use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Muge; Evren, Cuneyt; Umut, Gokhan; Evren, Bilge

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been shown to be related to a higher risk of developing psychiatric problems such as depressive disorders, substance use disorder, and impulsivity. Adults who have comorbid ADHD and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are at greater risk of negative outcomes. Thus, it is important to evaluate the relationship of ADHD symptoms and the severity of alcohol-related problems among patients with AUD. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ADHD symptoms on severity of alcohol-related problems, while controlling the effects of depression and impulsivity in a sample of inpatients with AUD. Patients and methods Participants (n=190) were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Short Form Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Results Severity of the scale scores was positively correlated with each other. Although severity of depression and impulsivity (particularly non-planning impulsivity) predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems in a linear regression model, when severity of ADHD symptoms was included in the analysis, the inattentive subscale score, in particular, predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems together with non-planning impulsivity, whereas depression was no longer a predictor. Conclusion These findings suggest that, together with non-planning impulsivity, symptoms of ADHD (particularly inattentive factor) are an important factor that predict alcohol-related problems, while controlling the severity of depressive symptoms among inpatients with AUD. PMID:27462159

  17. Reliability and Validity of Scores from the Inventory of Drug Use Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillaspy, J. Arthur, Jr.; Campbell, Todd C.

    2006-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Inventory of Drug Use Consequences (InDUC; W. M. Miller, J. S. Tonigan, & R. Longabaugh, 1995), a self-report assessment of negative consequences associated with alcohol and other drug use, were investigated. The InDUC demonstrated sound psychometric characteristics and can be a valuable clinical tool for chemical…

  18. The Academic Success Inventory for College Students: Scale Development and Practical Implications for Use with Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevatt, Frances; Li, Huijun; Welles, Theresa; Festa-Dreher, Desaree; Yelland, Sherry; Lee, Jiyoon

    2011-01-01

    The Academic Success Inventory for College Students (ASICS) is a newly-developed, self-report instrument designed to evaluate academic success in college students. The 50-item instrument has 10 factors that measure general academic skills, career decidedness, internal and external motivation, anxiety, concentration, socializing, personal…

  19. Effect of the Range of Response Options on Answers to Biographical Inventory Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirnan, Jean Powell; Edler, Erin; Carpenter, Allison

    2007-01-01

    The range of response options has been shown to influence the answers given in self-report instruments that measure behaviors ranging from television viewing to sexual partners. The current research extends this line of inquiry to 36 quantitative items extracted from a biographical inventory used in personnel selection. A total of 92…

  20. Rasch Modeling of the Self-Deception Scale of the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervellione, Kelly L.; Lee, Young-Sun; Bonanno, George A.

    2009-01-01

    Self-deception has become a construct of great interest in individual differences research because it has been associated with levels of resilience and mental health. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) is a self-report measure used for quantifying self-deception. In this study we used Rasch modeling to examine the properties of…

  1. Development of the Motivators of and Barriers to Health-Smart Behaviors Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Carolyn M.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Hou, Wei; Kaye, Lillian B.; Nolan, Sarah E. M.; Grandoit, Delphia J.; Gonzales, Lucia; Smith, Mary B.; Desmond, Frederic F.

    2011-01-01

    The Motivators of and Barriers to Health-Smart Behaviors Inventory (MB-HSBI) was developed for use in identifying self-reported motivators of and barriers to the following health-promoting behaviors (called "health-smart behaviors") that should occur daily to help promote health and overcome illnesses/diseases: eating a healthy breakfast, eating…

  2. The Youth Form of the Motivators of and Barriers to Health-Smart Behaviors Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Carolyn M.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Desmond, Frederic F.; Hou, Wei; Kaye, Lillian B.; Smith, Tasia M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop a youth form of the Motivators of and Barriers to Health-Smart Behaviors Inventory (MB-HSBI--Youth) for use in identifying self-reported motivators of and barriers to the following health-promoting behaviors (called "health-smart" behaviors): eating a healthy breakfast, eating healthy foods and snacks, drinking healthy…

  3. The Teenage Inventory of Social Skills: Reliability and Validity of the Spanish Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingles, Candido J.; Hidalgo, Maria D.; Mendez, F. Xavier; Inderbitzen, Heidi, M.

    2003-01-01

    Peer relationships play a critical role in the development of social skills and personal feelings essential for personal growth. The Teenage Inventory of Social Skills is a self-report designed exclusively to reflect behaviors functionally related to peer acceptance in adolescence. The aim of the present work was to determine the reliability and…

  4. The Strengths Assessment Inventory: Reliability of a New Measure of Psychosocial Strengths for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazeau, James N.; Teatero, Missy L.; Rawana, Edward P.; Brownlee, Keith; Blanchette, Loretta R.

    2012-01-01

    A new measure, the Strengths Assessment Inventory-Youth self-report (SAI-Y), was recently developed to assess the strengths of children and adolescents between the ages of 10 and 18 years. The SAI-Y differs from similar measures in that it provides a comprehensive assessment of strengths that are intrinsic to the individual as well as strengths…

  5. Multiple Approaches to the Validation of the Scores from the Study Anxiety Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, George Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The Study Anxiety Inventory (SAI), consisting of the factors of worry and emotionality, was developed to measure college students' self-reported levels of anxiety while studying for an exam. Data from 2002 undergraduate students from four colleges (Arts and Sciences, Engineering, Business, and Education) at a southeastern state university were…

  6. The Validation of a New Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Scale: The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foa, Edna B.; Kozak, Michael J.; Salkovskis, Paul M.; Coles, Meredith E.; Amir, Nader

    1998-01-01

    The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (OCI), a new self-report measure for determining the diagnosis and severity of obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD), was validated with 141 patients with OCD, 58 with social phobia, 44 with posttraumatic stress disorder, and 194 nonpatients. The OCI exhibited satisfactory reliability and validity with all four…

  7. The Psychometric Properties of The Religious Status Inventory--"Being Ethical" Subscale among Northern Irish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullan, Mary; Lewis, Christopher Alan

    2007-01-01

    There are few self-report measures of morality. The Religious Status Inventory--"Being Ethical" subscale represents one approach. However, at present there is limited information on the psychometric properties of either the original 20-item version (RSInv-20) or the shortened embedded 10-item version (RSInv-S10). The aim of the present study was…

  8. Concurrent Validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory with Offender and Community Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malterer, Melanie B.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Neumann, Craig S.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) is a frequently used and well-validated measure of psychopathy but is relatively time-intensive and expensive to administer. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) is a self-report measure that provides a less time-intensive and less expensive method for identifying psychopathic individuals. Using…

  9. The Latent Structure of Multiphasic Sex Inventory-Assessed Pedophilic Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackaronis, Julia E.; Strassberg, Donald S.; Marcus, David K.

    2011-01-01

    The Multiphasic Sex Inventory (MSI; Nichols & Molinder, 1984) is a self-report measure frequently used in the assessment of sex offenders. Scores on the MSI are often used to assess levels of pedophilic interest. However, the question of whether men with pedophilia represent a unique group distinguished by their sexual interests, or whether they…

  10. Measuring Foster Parent Potential: Casey Foster Parent Inventory-Applicant Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orme, John G.; Cuddeback, Gary S.; Buehler, Cheryl; Cox, Mary Ellen; Le Prohn, Nicole S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The Casey Foster Applicant Inventory-Applicant Version (CFAI-A) is a new standardized self-report measure designed to assess the potential to foster parent successfully. The CFAI-A is described, and results concerning its psychometric properties are presented. Method: Data from a sample of 304 foster mothers from 35 states are analyzed.…

  11. Measuring Personal Growth Attributed to a Semester of College Life Using the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Walter P., Jr.; Lopez-Baez, Sandra I.

    2011-01-01

    In this descriptive exploratory study, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI; Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996) was used to measure levels of personal growth attributed by college students (N = 117) to a semester of university life in retrospective self-reports. Results reflect attributions of substantial total growth in the range reported in the…

  12. Initial symptom burden predicts duration of symptoms after concussion★

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, William P.; O’Brien, Michael J.; Geminiani, Ellen; Mannix, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine which variables predict prolonged (>28 days) duration of symptoms after a concussion. Design We conducted a prospective cohort study of adult (>18yo) patients cared for in a specialty concussion clinic. Methods Symptoms were assessed using the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) developed at the 3rd International Conference on Concussion in Sports. Possible predictors including age, sex, loss of consciousness, amnesia, history of prior concussion, prior treatment for headaches, history of migraines, and family history of concussions, were measured by self-report. We recorded a PCSS score at each clinical visit and defined time to symptom resolution as the number of days between the date of injury and date of last symptoms. Results Of 64 adult patients included in the study, 53.3% were male; 20.3% reported experiencing a loss of consciousness at the time of injury while 23.4% reported amnesia. Patients ranged in age from 18 to 27 years (mean 21 ± 2 years). Most concussions (92.2%) occurred during sports. The mean initial PCSS score for those suffering symptoms for longer than 28 days was significantly higher than those who symptoms resolved within 28 days (42.5 vs. 19.2, p < 0.01). Of all potential predictor variables, only the initial PCSS score was independently associated with the odds of symptoms lasting longer than 28 days (aOR 1.037; 95% CI 1.011, 1.063). Conclusions Among adult patients with concussions, those with a higher symptom burden after injury have an increased odds of suffering from prolonged symptoms. Other potential predictor variables are not associated with the risk of prolonged recovery. PMID:26718812

  13. Convergent and Discriminant Construct Validity of the Internalizing Symptoms Scale for Children with the BASC-SRP-C

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, Kenneth W.; Blade, Richard L.; Lund, Jacqueline; Kempf, Kari K. G.

    2003-01-01

    This brief report details a study of the construct validity of the Internalizing Symptoms Scale for Children (ISSC) in comparison with the Child Self-Report Form of the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC). Using self-reports of 121 students ages 8-12 from general education classes, who were administered both measures, correlational…

  14. Anthrax: Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... hands Inhalation anthrax symptoms can include: Fever and chills Chest Discomfort Shortness of breath Confusion or dizziness ... aches Gastrointestinal anthrax symptoms can include: Fever and chills Swelling of neck or neck glands Sore throat ...

  15. Corneal Mechanical Thresholds Negatively Associate With Dry Eye and Ocular Pain Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Spierer, Oriel; Felix, Elizabeth R.; McClellan, Allison L.; Parel, Jean Marie; Gonzalez, Alex; Feuer, William J.; Sarantopoulos, Constantine D.; Levitt, Roy C.; Ehrmann, Klaus; Galor, Anat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine associations between corneal mechanical thresholds and metrics of dry eye. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of individuals seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic. The evaluation consisted of questionnaires regarding dry eye symptoms and ocular pain, corneal mechanical detection and pain thresholds, and a comprehensive ocular surface examination. The main outcome measures were correlations between corneal thresholds and signs and symptoms of dry eye and ocular pain. Results A total of 129 subjects participated in the study (mean age 64 ± 10 years). Mechanical detection and pain thresholds on the cornea correlated with age (Spearman's ρ = 0.26, 0.23, respectively; both P < 0.05), implying decreased corneal sensitivity with age. Dry eye symptom severity scores and Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (modified for the eye) scores negatively correlated with corneal detection and pain thresholds (range, r = −0.13 to −0.27, P < 0.05 for values between −0.18 and −0.27), suggesting increased corneal sensitivity in those with more severe ocular complaints. Ocular signs, on the other hand, correlated poorly and nonsignificantly with mechanical detection and pain thresholds on the cornea. A multivariable linear regression model found that both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) score (β = 0.21, SE = 0.03) and corneal pain threshold (β = −0.03, SE = 0.01) were significantly associated with self-reported evoked eye pain (pain to wind, light, temperature) and explained approximately 32% of measurement variability (R = 0.57). Conclusions Mechanical detection and pain thresholds measured on the cornea are correlated with dry eye symptoms and ocular pain. This suggests hypersensitivity within the corneal somatosensory pathways in patients with greater dry eye and ocular pain complaints. PMID:26886896

  16. Infant-directed speech produced by fathers with symptoms of depression: effects on infant associative learning in a conditioned-attention paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Peter S; Sliter, Jessica K; Burgess, Aaron P

    2007-12-01

    Infant-directed (ID) speech produced by fathers who varied in their number of self-reported symptoms of depressed was analyzed for differences its ability to promote infant voice-face associative learning. Infants of fathers with elevated scores on the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) showed significantly poorer learning than did infants of fathers with non-elevated BDI-II scores when their fathers' ID speech served as a conditioned stimulus for a face reinforcer in a conditioned-attention paradigm. Fathers with elevated BDI-II scores produced ID speech with marginally significantly lower F0 variability than fathers with non-elevated BDI-II scores. However, F0-related cues were uncorrelated with infant learning. Overall, fathers' ID speech contained significantly less F0 modulation than did mothers' ID speech. These findings show that paternal depression, like maternal depression, adversely affects infant learning in a conditioned-attention paradigm. PMID:17604106

  17. The relationship between perceived promotion of autonomy/dependence and pain-related disability in older adults with chronic pain: the mediating role of self-reported physical functioning.

    PubMed

    Matos, Marta; Bernardes, Sónia F; Goubert, Liesbet

    2016-08-01

    Chronic pain is prevalent among older adults and is usually associated with high levels of functional disability. Social support for the promotion of functional autonomy and dependence has been associated with pain-related disability and self-reported physical functioning. Nevertheless, these relationships need further inquiry. Our aims were to investigate: (1) the relationship between perceived promotion of autonomy/dependence and pain-related disability and (2) the extent to which self-reported physical functioning mediated these relationships. 118 older adults (Mage = 81.0) with musculoskeletal chronic pain completed the Portuguese versions of the revised formal social support for Autonomy and Dependence in Pain Inventory, the pain severity and interference scales of the Brief Pain Inventory, and the physical functioning scale of the Medical Outcomes Study-Short-Form 36 v2. Higher levels of perceived promotion of autonomy were associated with lower pain-related disability; this relationship was partially mediated by self-reported physical functioning (B = -.767, p < .001 decreasing to B' = -.485, p < .01). Higher perceived promotion of dependence was associated with higher pain-related disability; this effect was also partially accounted for by self-reported physical functioning (B = .889, p < .01 decreasing to B' = .597, p < .05). These results highlight the importance of perceived promotion of autonomy and dependence for managing older adults' experience of chronic pain. PMID:26922802

  18. Modeling Associations between Principals’ Reported Indoor Environmental Quality and Students’ Self-Reported Respiratory Health Outcomes Using GLMM and ZIP Models

    PubMed Central

    Toyinbo, Oluyemi; Matilainen, Markus; Turunen, Mari; Putus, Tuula; Shaughnessy, Richard; Haverinen-Shaughnessy, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this paper was to examine associations between school building characteristics, indoor environmental quality (IEQ), and health responses using questionnaire data from both school principals and students. Methods: From 334 randomly sampled schools, 4248 sixth grade students from 297 schools participated in a questionnaire. From these schools, 134 principals returned questionnaires concerning 51 IEQ related questions of their school. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) were used to study the associations between IEQ indicators and existence of self-reported upper respiratory symptoms, while hierarchical Zero Inflated Poisson (ZIP)—models were used to model the number of symptoms. Results: Significant associations were established between existence of upper respiratory symptoms and unsatisfactory classroom temperature during the heating season (ORs 1.45 for too hot and cold, and 1.27 for too cold as compared to satisfactory temperature) and dampness or moisture damage during the year 2006–2007 (OR: 1.80 as compared to no moisture damage), respectively. The number of upper respiratory symptoms was significantly associated with inadequate ventilation and dampness or moisture damage. A higher number of missed school days due to respiratory infections were reported in schools with inadequate ventilation (RR: 1.16). Conclusions: The school level IEQ indicator variables described in this paper could explain a relatively large part of the school level variation observed in the self-reported upper respiratory symptoms and missed school days due to respiratory infections among students. PMID:27043595

  19. Etiological and Clinical Features of Childhood Psychotic Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Polanczyk, Guilherme; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise; Cannon, Mary; Ambler, Antony; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Houts, Renate; Odgers, Candice L.; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Context It has been reported that childhood psychotic symptoms are common in the general population and may signal neurodevelopmental processes that lead to schizophrenia. However, it is not clear whether these symptoms are associated with the same extensive risk factors established for adult schizophrenia. Objective To examine the construct validity of children’s self-reported psychotic symptoms by testing whether these symptoms share the risk factors and clinical features of adult schizophrenia. Design Prospective, longitudinal cohort study of a nationally representative birth cohort in Great Britain. Participants A total of 2232 twelve-year-old children followed up since age 5 years (retention, 96%). Main Outcome Measure Children’s self-reported hallucinations and delusions. Results Children’s psychotic symptoms are familial and heritable and are associated with social risk factors (eg, urbanicity); cognitive impairments at age 5; home-rearing risk factors (eg, maternal expressed emotion); behavioral, emotional, and educational problems at age 5; and comorbid conditions, including self-harm. Conclusions The results provide a comprehensive picture of the construct validity of children’s self-reported psychotic symptoms. For researchers, the findings indicate that children who have psychotic symptoms can be recruited for neuroscience research to determine the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. For clinicians, the findings indicate that psychotic symptoms in childhood are often a marker of an impaired developmental process and should be actively assessed. PMID:20368509

  20. Naturalistically-Observed Conflict and Youth Asthma Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Erin T.; Kane, Heidi S.; Saleh, Daniel J.; Naar-King, Sylvie; Poowuttikul, Pavadee; Secord, Elizabeth; Pierantoni, Wayne; Simon, Valerie; Slatcher, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the links between naturalistically-observed conflict, self-reported caregiver-youth conflict, and youth asthma symptoms. Method Fifty-four youth with asthma (aged 10-17) wore the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) for a 4-day period to assess interpersonal conflict and caregiver-youth conflict as they occur in daily life. Conflict also was assessed with baseline self-report questionnaires and daily diaries completed by the youth participants and their caregiver. Asthma symptoms were assessed via daily diaries and baseline self-reports and wheezing as coded from the EAR. Results EAR-observed measures of conflict were strongly associated with self-reported asthma symptoms (both baseline and daily diaries) and wheezing coded from the EAR. Further, when entered together in regression analyses, youth daily reports of negative caregiver-youth interactions and EAR-observed conflict uniquely predicted asthma symptoms; only EAR-observed conflict was associated with EAR-observed wheezing. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the potential impact of daily conflict on youth asthma symptoms and the importance of assessing conflict as it occurs in everyday life. More broadly, they point to the importance of formulating a clear picture of family interactions outside of the lab, which is essential for understanding how family relationships “get under the skin” to affect youth health. PMID:25222090

  1. Patient and provider priorities for self-reported domains of HIV clinical care

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Todd; Crane, Heidi M.; Crane, Paul K.; Merlin, Jessica; Gibbons, Laura E.; Rao, Deepa; Batey, D. Scott; Dant, Lydia; Páez, Edgar; Church, Anna; Patrick, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    We sought to understand how HIV-infected patients, their providers, and HIV care researchers prioritize self-reported domains of clinical care. Participants rank-ordered two lists of domains. A modified Delphi process was used for providers and researchers. Approximately 25% of patients were interviewed to discuss rationale for rank order choices. List 1 included anger, anxiety, depression, fatigue, physical function, pain, and sleep disturbance. List 2 included alcohol abuse, cognitive function, HIV stigma, HIV and treatment symptoms, medication adherence, positive affect, sexual risk behavior, sexual function, social roles, spirituality/meaning of life, and substance abuse. Seventy-four providers, 80 HIV care researchers and 66 patients participated. Patients ranked context-based domains, such as HIV stigma, more highly than providers, while health behaviors, such as drug or alcohol use, ranked lower. Patients described a need to address wider-context challenges such as HIV stigma in order to positively impact health behaviors. Divergent patient and provider priorities highlights the importance of incorporating views from all stakeholders and suggests the need for a care approach that more effectively addresses contextual barriers to adverse health behaviors. PMID:26304263

  2. Patient and provider priorities for self-reported domains of HIV clinical care.

    PubMed

    Fredericksen, Rob J; Edwards, Todd C; Merlin, Jessica S; Gibbons, Laura E; Rao, Deepa; Batey, D Scott; Dant, Lydia; Páez, Edgar; Church, Anna; Crane, Paul K; Crane, Heidi M; Patrick, Donald L

    2015-01-01

    We sought to understand how HIV-infected patients, their providers, and HIV care researchers prioritize self-reported domains of clinical care. Participants rank-ordered two lists of domains. A modified Delphi process was used for providers and researchers. Approximately 25% of patients were interviewed to discuss rationale for rank order choices. List 1 included anger, anxiety, depression, fatigue, physical function, pain, and sleep disturbance. List 2 included alcohol abuse, cognitive function, HIV stigma, HIV and treatment symptoms, medication adherence, positive affect, sexual risk behavior, sexual function, social roles, spirituality/meaning of life, and substance abuse. Seventy-four providers, 80 HIV care researchers, and 66 patients participated. Patients ranked context-based domains, such as HIV stigma, more highly than providers, while health behaviors, such as drug or alcohol use, ranked lower. Patients described a need to address wider-context challenges such as HIV stigma in order to positively impact health behaviors. Divergent patient and provider priorities highlight the importance of incorporating views from all stakeholders and suggests the need for a care approach that more effectively addresses contextual barriers to adverse health behaviors. PMID:26304263

  3. Self-reported hearing loss among workers potentially exposed to industrial noise-United States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-15

    Noise-induced loss of hearing has been recognized as an occupational health problem since the 18th century. Occupational deafness is an irreversible, sensorineural condition that results from damage to the nerve cells of the inner ear. Recent estimates from surveys indicate that between 7.4 and 10.2 million people work at sites where the level of noise presents an increased risk of hearing loss (85 decibels (dBA) or higher). During the period of 1978-1987, an estimated $835 million was paid in workers' compensation claims for occupationally induced hearing impairment. To assess the prevalence of hearing-loss symptoms among adult workers in the United States, investigators from the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recently analyzed data collected during the 1971 and 1977 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). For this study, the prevalence of self-reported hearing loss was obtained for all persons over 17 years of age who were in the labor force at the time of interview. Data from the 1972-1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey (NOHS) were used to classify worksites by noise level. NOHS was conducted by NIOSH from 1972 to 1974 on a probability sample of approximately 5000 workplaces across the United States. The survey provides information on potential exposures of workers to chemical and physical agents. These data identified industries and occupations in which employees are exposed to continuous noise.

  4. Tai chi training reduces self-report of inattention in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Converse, Alexander K; Ahlers, Elizabeth O; Travers, Brittany G; Davidson, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    It is important to identify effective non-pharmacological alternatives to stimulant medications that reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study of healthy young adults, we measured the effects of training in tai chi, which involves mindful attention to the body during movement. Using a non-randomized, controlled, parallel design, students in a 15-week introductory tai chi course (n = 28) and control participants (n = 44) were tested for ADHD indicators and cognitive function at three points over the course of the 15-weeks. The tai chi students' self-report of attention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, improved compared to controls. At baseline, inattention correlated positively with reaction time variability in an affective go/no-go task across all participants, and improvements in attention correlated with reductions in reaction time variability across the tai chi students. Affective bias changed in the tai chi students, as reaction times to positive- and negative-valenced words equalized over time. These results converge to suggest that tai chi training may help improve attention in healthy young adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate tai chi as therapy for individuals with ADHD.

  5. Tai chi training reduces self-report of inattention in healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Converse, Alexander K.; Ahlers, Elizabeth O.; Travers, Brittany G.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    It is important to identify effective non-pharmacological alternatives to stimulant medications that reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study of healthy young adults, we measured the effects of training in tai chi, which involves mindful attention to the body during movement. Using a non-randomized, controlled, parallel design, students in a 15-week introductory tai chi course (n = 28) and control participants (n = 44) were tested for ADHD indicators and cognitive function at three points over the course of the 15-weeks. The tai chi students’ self-report of attention, but not hyperactivity–impulsivity, improved compared to controls. At baseline, inattention correlated positively with reaction time variability in an affective go/no-go task across all participants, and improvements in attention correlated with reductions in reaction time variability across the tai chi students. Affective bias changed in the tai chi students, as reaction times to positive- and negative-valenced words equalized over time. These results converge to suggest that tai chi training may help improve attention in healthy young adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate tai chi as therapy for individuals with ADHD. PMID:24478679

  6. Assessment of self-reported negative affect in the NIH Toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Pilkonis, Paul A.; Choi, Seung W.; Salsman, John; Butt, Zeeshan; Moore, Tara L.; Lawrence, Suzanne M.; Zill, Nicholas; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Kelly, Morgen A. R.; Knox, Sarah S.; Cella, David

    2012-01-01

    We report on the selection of self-report measures for inclusion in the NIH Toolbox that are suitable for assessing the full range of negative affect including sadness, fear, and anger. The Toolbox is intended to serve as a “core battery” of assessment tools for cognition, sensation, motor function, and emotional health that will help to overcome the lack of consistency in measures used across epidemiological, observational, and intervention studies. A secondary goal of the NIH Toolbox is the identification of measures that are flexible, efficient, and precise, an agenda best fulfilled by the use of item banks calibrated with models from item response theory (IRT) and suitable for adaptive testing. Results from a sample of 1,763 respondents supported use of the adult and pediatric item banks for emotional distress from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) as a starting point for capturing the full range of negative affect in healthy individuals. Content coverage for the adult Toolbox was also enhanced by the development of a scale for somatic arousal using items from the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ) and scales for hostility and physical aggression using items from the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ). PMID:23083918

  7. Psychometric Validation Study of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale - Self-Reported Version for Brazilian Portuguese

    PubMed Central

    Forni dos Santos, Larissa; Loureiro, Sonia Regina; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Osório, Flávia de Lima

    2013-01-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is prevalent and rarely diagnosed due to the difficulty in recognizing its symptoms as belonging to a disorder. Therefore, the evaluation/screening scales are of great importance for its detection, with the most used being the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Thus, this study proposed to evaluate the psychometric properties of internal consistency and convergent validity, as well as the confirmatory factorial analysis and reliability of the self-reported version of the LSAS (LSAS-SR), translated into Brazilian Portuguese, in a sample of the general population (N = 413) and in a SAD clinical sample (N = 252). The convergent validity with specific scales for the evaluation of SAD and a general anxiety scale presented correlations ranging from 0.21 to 0.84. The confirmatory factorial analysis did not replicate the previously indicated findings of the literature, with the difficulty being in obtaining a consensus factorial structure common to the diverse cultures in which the instrument was studied. The LSAS-SR presented excellent internal consistency (α = 0.90–0.96) and test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient = 0.81; Pearson’s = 0.82). The present findings support those of international studies that attest to the excellent psychometric properties of the LSAS-SR, endorsing its status as the gold standard. PMID:23922961

  8. Self-Reported Fatigue and Associated Factors Six Years after Stroke.

    PubMed

    Elf, Marie; Eriksson, Gunilla; Johansson, Sverker; von Koch, Lena; Ytterberg, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have found that fatigue is one of the most commonly reported symptoms after stroke and the most difficult to cope with. The present study aimed to investigate the presence and severity of self-reported fatigue six years after stroke onset and associated factors. The cohort "Life After Stroke Phase I" (n = 349 persons) was invited at six years to report fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale 7-item version), perceived impact of stroke and global recovery after stroke (Stroke Impact Scale), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Checklist) and participation in everyday social activities (Frenchay Activities Index). At six years 37% of the 102 participants in this cross-sectional study reported fatigue. The results showed that in nearly all SIS domains the odds for post-stroke fatigue were higher in persons with a higher perceived impact. Furthermore, the odds for post-stroke fatigue were higher in those who had experienced a moderate/severe stroke and had signs of depression and anxiety. Fatigue is still present in one-third of persons as long as six years after stroke onset and is perceived to hinder many aspects of functioning in everyday life. There is an urgent need to develop and evaluate interventions to reduce fatigue. PMID:27575043

  9. Validity of a Protocol for Adult Self-Report of Dyslexia and Related Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Snowling, Margaret; Dawes, Piers; Nash, Hannah; Hulme, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Background There is an increased prevalence of reading and related difficulties in children of dyslexic parents. In order to understand the causes of these difficulties, it is important to quantify the risk factors passed from parents to their offspring. Method 417 adults completed a protocol comprising a 15-item questionnaire rating reading and related skills and a scale assessing ADHD symptoms; 344 completed reading, nonword reading and spelling tests. Results A confirmatory factor analysis with four factors (Reading, Word Finding, Attention and Hyperactivity) provided a reasonable fit to the data. The Reading Factor showed robust correlations with measured literacy skills. Adults who reported as dyslexic, or rated their reading difficulties as more severe, gained lower scores on objective measures of literacy skills. Although the sensitivity of the new scale was acceptable, it tended to miss some cases of low literacy. Conclusions Self-report scales of reading and of attention difficulties are useful for identifying adults with reading and attention difficulties which may confer risks on their children of related problems. It is important for research following children at family risk of dyslexia to be aware of these effects. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22271419

  10. Self-Reported Fatigue and Associated Factors Six Years after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Gunilla; Johansson, Sverker; von Koch, Lena; Ytterberg, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have found that fatigue is one of the most commonly reported symptoms after stroke and the most difficult to cope with. The present study aimed to investigate the presence and severity of self-reported fatigue six years after stroke onset and associated factors. The cohort “Life After Stroke Phase I” (n = 349 persons) was invited at six years to report fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale 7-item version), perceived impact of stroke and global recovery after stroke (Stroke Impact Scale), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Checklist) and participation in everyday social activities (Frenchay Activities Index). At six years 37% of the 102 participants in this cross-sectional study reported fatigue. The results showed that in nearly all SIS domains the odds for post-stroke fatigue were higher in persons with a higher perceived impact. Furthermore, the odds for post-stroke fatigue were higher in those who had experienced a moderate/severe stroke and had signs of depression and anxiety. Fatigue is still present in one-third of persons as long as six years after stroke onset and is perceived to hinder many aspects of functioning in everyday life. There is an urgent need to develop and evaluate interventions to reduce fatigue. PMID:27575043

  11. Are self-reports of health and morbidities in developing countries misleading? Evidence from India.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, S V; Subramanyam, Malavika A; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Self-reported measures of poor health and morbidities from developing countries tend to be viewed with considerable skepticism. Examination of the social gradient in self-reported health and morbidity measures provides a useful test of the validity of self-reports of poor health and morbidities. The prevailing view, in part influenced by Amartya Sen, is that socially disadvantaged individuals will fail to perceive and report the presence of illness or health-deficits because an individual's assessment of their health is directly contingent on their social experience. In this study, we tested whether the association between self-reported poor health/morbidities and socioeconomic status (SES) in India follows the expected direction or not. Cross-sectional logistic regression analyses were carried out on a nationally representative population-based sample from the 1998 to 1999 Indian National Family Health Survey (INFHS); and 1995-1996 and 2004 Indian National Sample Survey (INSS). Four binary outcomes were analyzed: any self-reported morbidity; self-reported sickness in the last 15 days; self-reported sickness in the past year; and poor self-rated health. In separate adjusted models, individuals with no education reported higher levels of any self-reported, self-reported sickness in the last 15 days, self-reported sickness in the last year, and poor self-rated health compared to those with most education. Contrary to the prevailing thesis, we find that the use of self-rated ill-health has face validity as assessed via its relationship to SES. A less dismissive and pessimistic view of health data obtained through self-reports seems warranted.

  12. Nano-in-Micro Self-Reporting Hydrogel Constructs.

    PubMed

    Tirella, Annalisa; La Marca, Margherita; Brace, Leigh-Anne; Mattei, Giorgio; Aylott, Jonathan W; Ahluwalia, Arti

    2015-08-01

    Highly reproducible Nano-in-Micro constructs are fabricated to provide a well-defined and self-reporting biomimetic environment for hepatocytes. Based on a protein/hydrogel formulation with controlled shape, size and composition, the constructs enable efficient nutrient exchange and provide an adhesive 3D framework to cells. Co-encapsulation of hepatocytes and ratiometric optical nanosensors with pH sensitivity in the physiological range allows continuous monitoring of the microenvironment. The lobule-sized microbeads are fabricated using an automated droplet generator, Sphyga (Spherical Hydrogel Generator) combining alginate, collagen, decellularized hepatic tissue, pH-nanosensors and hepatocytes. The pH inside the Nano-in-Micro constructs is monitored during culture, while assaying media for hepatic function and vitality markers. Although the local pH changes by several units during bead fabrication, when encapsulated cells are most likely to undergo stress, it is stable and buffered by cell culture media thereafter. Albumin secretion and urea production are significantly higher in the microbeads compared with controls, indicating that the encapsulated Nano-in-Micro environment is conducive to enhanced hepatic function.

  13. Role of a self-report measure in athlete preparation.

    PubMed

    Saw, Anna E; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2015-03-01

    Athlete self-report measures (ASRM) are a common and cost-effective method of athlete monitoring. It is purported that ASRM be used to detect athletes at risk of overtraining, injury, or illness, allowing intervention through training modification. However, it is not known whether ASRM are actually being used for or are achieving these objectives in the applied sport setting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to better understand how ASRM are being used in elite sports and their role in athletic preparation. Semistructured interviews were conducted one-on-one with athletes, coaches, and sports science and medicine staff (n = 30) at a national sporting institute. Interview recordings were transcribed and analyzed for emergent themes. Twelve day-to-day and 7 longer-term practices were identified which contributed to a 4-step process of ASRM use (record data, review data, contextualize, and act). In addition to the purported uses, ASRM facilitated information disclosure and communication among athletes and staff and between staff, and improved the understanding and management of athlete preparation. These roles of ASRM are best achieved through engagement of athletes, coaches, and support staff in the systematic cyclic process. PMID:25226334

  14. Online Self-Reporting of Pencil-and-Paper Homework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trawick, Matthew L.

    2010-02-01

    Physics teachers are most effective when their students are active learners who think and participate in every class. This extends beyond the classroom too: ideally, students would tackle challenging questions and exercises after every class—not just before the exam or the night before the weekly homework is due. Just-in-Time-Teaching2 was developed to encourage this by having students submit daily homework online; their answers can be quickly graded (by hand) and then used as a springboard for class discussions that day. More recently, online homework services have become available that can automate the grading process and provide instantaneous feedback to students. Unfortunately in both of these cases, the range of possible questions is limited to what can be easily answered via computer. But while pencil and paper is still an easier medium for expressing diagrams and equations, daily collection of paper homework is cumbersome and does not allow same-day feedback. This paper describes a hybrid strategy in which students solve what may be "standard" pencil-and-paper homework problems, and then use a simple online form to self-report their degree of success.

  15. Role of a self-report measure in athlete preparation.

    PubMed

    Saw, Anna E; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2015-03-01

    Athlete self-report measures (ASRM) are a common and cost-effective method of athlete monitoring. It is purported that ASRM be used to detect athletes at risk of overtraining, injury, or illness, allowing intervention through training modification. However, it is not known whether ASRM are actually being used for or are achieving these objectives in the applied sport setting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to better understand how ASRM are being used in elite sports and their role in athletic preparation. Semistructured interviews were conducted one-on-one with athletes, coaches, and sports science and medicine staff (n = 30) at a national sporting institute. Interview recordings were transcribed and analyzed for emergent themes. Twelve day-to-day and 7 longer-term practices were identified which contributed to a 4-step process of ASRM use (record data, review data, contextualize, and act). In addition to the purported uses, ASRM facilitated information disclosure and communication among athletes and staff and between staff, and improved the understanding and management of athlete preparation. These roles of ASRM are best achieved through engagement of athletes, coaches, and support staff in the systematic cyclic process.

  16. Leadership: validation of a self-report scale.

    PubMed

    Dussault, Marc; Frenette, Eric; Fernet, Claude

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to propose and test the factor structure of a new self-report questionnaire on leadership. A sample of 373 school principals in the Province of Quebec, Canada completed the initial 46-item version of the questionnaire. In order to obtain a questionnaire of minimal length, a four-step procedure was retained. First, items analysis was performed using Classical Test Theory. Second, Rasch analysis was used to identify non-fitting or overlapping items. Third, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using structural equation modelling was performed on the 21 remaining items to verify the factor structure of the scale. Results show that the model with a single third-order dimension (leadership), two second-order dimensions (transactional and transformational leadership), and one first-order dimension (laissez-faire leadership) provides a good fit to the data. Finally, invariance of factor structure was assessed with a second sample of 222 vice-principals in the Province of Quebec, Canada. This model is in agreement with the theoretical model developed by Bass (1985), upon which the questionnaire is based.

  17. Self-reported sexually transmitted infections among female university students

    PubMed Central

    Tiblom Ehrsson, Ylva; Stenhammar, Christina; Rosenblad, Andreas; Åkerud, Helena; Larsson, Margareta; Tydén, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate the occurrence of self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and associated factors among female university students requesting contraceptive counselling. Material and methods Cross-sectional study. Female university students (n = 353) completed a waiting-room questionnaire in connection with contraceptive counselling at a Student Health Centre in Uppsala, Sweden. Results Ninety-three (26.3%) female students had experienced an STI. The three most frequently reported STIs were chlamydia trachomatis, condyloma, and genital herpes. The experience of an STI was significantly associated with the total number of sexual partners (OR 1.060, 95% CI 1.030–1.091, P < 0.001), being heterosexual (OR 4.640, 95% CI 1.321–16.290, P = 0.017), having experienced an abortion (OR 2.744, 95% CI 1.112–6.771, P = 0.028), not being HPV-vaccinated (OR 2.696, 95% CI 1.473–4.935, P = 0.001), and having had intercourse on first night without using a condom (OR 2.375, 95% CI 1.182–4.771, P = 0.015). Conclusions Contraceptive counselling should also include information about primary and secondary prevention of STI, such as the importance of correct use of a condom and STI testing, to prevent a further spread of STIs. PMID:26489857

  18. Sequence-specific, self-reporting hairpin inversion probes.

    PubMed

    Browne, Kenneth A

    2005-02-16

    Sequence-specific probes for detecting target nucleic acids are the cornerstone of the genomics revolution (e.g., microarrays) and of molecular diagnostics. Molecular beacons are self-reporting, nucleic acid probes whose structure includes complementary terminal arm sequences and a loop that is complementary to a target sequence; fluorescence detection is by changes in proximity of fluorophore and quencher pairs attached on opposite arms. However, molecular beacon design is not as simple as attaching arbitrary arm sequences onto previously designed linear probes. The stem arms can also interact with flanking target sequences, changing the hybridization specificity; constantly adapting the arms to avoid such interactions, if not desired, increases design complexity. Herein, I report the use of inversion linkages in probe backbones leading to stem arms of sequence polarity opposite to that of the target-binding region, thereby eliminating potential hybridization of the arms with the target. Using two microbial sequence categories, thermal denaturation and target titration analyses demonstrate that these new hairpin inversion probes retain closed-state stability comparable to that of molecular beacons, contain easily designed arm sequences that do not interact with targets, and, therefore, can be used universally with optimized linear probe sequences.

  19. NARSTO EMISSION INVENTORY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments emphasized that emission inventories are critical to the success of air quality management programs and that emissions inventories in Canada, Mexico, and the United States need improvement to meet expectations for quality, timel...

  20. Self-reported side-effects associated with use of dietary supplements in an armed forces population.

    PubMed

    Austin, Krista G; Farina, Emily K; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 60-70% of Armed Forces personnel consume a dietary supplement (DS) at least once a week and there have been numerous reports of severe adverse events among DS users. This study assessed patterns of DS use and self-reported side-effects among 4400 Armed Forces personnel using a paper-and-pencil survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between patterns of DS use and self-reported side-effects. Sixty-nine percent of personnel surveyed reported using a DS. Seven percent of DS users reported experiencing abnormal heart beats, 6% tremors, 5% stomach pain, 3% dizziness, and 3% numbness/tingling and they believed these symptoms were associated with the use of DS. After adjustment for use of other DS classes, total supplement use, and demographic characteristics, protein supplement users were more likely than non-users to report numbness/tingling; combination product users were more likely to report experiencing abnormal heart beats, stomach pain, dizziness, tremors, and numbness/tingling; and users of purported steroid analogues were more likely to report dizziness. Use of more than one DS per week was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting side-effects. Respondents with a higher body mass index were more likely to report side-effects. Further research is necessary to determine whether self-reported side-effects associated with multiple DS use and some DS classes impact the long-term health or performance of service members. Surveillance of military populations using surveys like this one may provide a method for detecting adverse health events of DS before they are apparent in the civilian population. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Self-Reported Prevalence of Gluten-Related Disorders and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in Colombian Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco; Granda-Restrepo, Diana María; Arámburo-Gálvez, Jesús Gilberto; Franco-Aguilar, Alejandro; Magaña-Ordorica, Dalia; Vergara-Jiménez, Marcela de Jesús; Ontiveros, Noé

    2016-01-01

    Background. Celiac disease seems to be rare in Colombians, but there are currently no data about the prevalence rates of symptomatic adverse reactions to gluten or adherence to gluten-free diet (GFD) in this population. Aim. to evaluate the self-reported prevalence rates of adverse reactions to gluten, adherence to GFD, and gluten-related disorders at population level in Colombia. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a population from Northwest Colombia. Results. The estimated prevalence rates were (95% CI) 7.9% (6.5-9.6) and 5.3% (4.1-6.7) for adverse and recurrent adverse reactions to wheat/gluten, respectively, adherence to GFD 5.9% (4.7-7.4), wheat allergy 0.74% (0.3-1.4), and nonceliac gluten sensitivity 4.5% (3.5-5.8). There were no self-reported cases of celiac disease. Prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders was 0.41% (0.17-0.96). Most respondents reported adherence to GFD without a physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders (97.2%). The proportion of gluten avoiders was 17.2% (15.2-19.5). Most of them did not report recurrent adverse reactions to wheat/gluten (87.0%). Conclusions. Nonceliac gluten sensitivity is rarely formally diagnosed in Colombia, but this population has the highest prevalence rate of adherence to GFD reported to date. Consequently, most respondents were avoiding wheat- and/or gluten-based products for reasons other than health-related symptoms.

  2. Self-Reported Prevalence of Gluten-Related Disorders and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in Colombian Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Aguilar, Alejandro; Magaña-Ordorica, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    Background. Celiac disease seems to be rare in Colombians, but there are currently no data about the prevalence rates of symptomatic adverse reactions to gluten or adherence to gluten-free diet (GFD) in this population. Aim. to evaluate the self-reported prevalence rates of adverse reactions to gluten, adherence to GFD, and gluten-related disorders at population level in Colombia. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a population from Northwest Colombia. Results. The estimated prevalence rates were (95% CI) 7.9% (6.5–9.6) and 5.3% (4.1–6.7) for adverse and recurrent adverse reactions to wheat/gluten, respectively, adherence to GFD 5.9% (4.7–7.4), wheat allergy 0.74% (0.3–1.4), and nonceliac gluten sensitivity 4.5% (3.5–5.8). There were no self-reported cases of celiac disease. Prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders was 0.41% (0.17–0.96). Most respondents reported adherence to GFD without a physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders (97.2%). The proportion of gluten avoiders was 17.2% (15.2–19.5). Most of them did not report recurrent adverse reactions to wheat/gluten (87.0%). Conclusions. Nonceliac gluten sensitivity is rarely formally diagnosed in Colombia, but this population has the highest prevalence rate of adherence to GFD reported to date. Consequently, most respondents were avoiding wheat- and/or gluten-based products for reasons other than health-related symptoms. PMID:27648068

  3. Self-Reported Prevalence of Gluten-Related Disorders and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in Colombian Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco; Granda-Restrepo, Diana María; Arámburo-Gálvez, Jesús Gilberto; Franco-Aguilar, Alejandro; Magaña-Ordorica, Dalia; Vergara-Jiménez, Marcela de Jesús; Ontiveros, Noé

    2016-01-01

    Background. Celiac disease seems to be rare in Colombians, but there are currently no data about the prevalence rates of symptomatic adverse reactions to gluten or adherence to gluten-free diet (GFD) in this population. Aim. to evaluate the self-reported prevalence rates of adverse reactions to gluten, adherence to GFD, and gluten-related disorders at population level in Colombia. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a population from Northwest Colombia. Results. The estimated prevalence rates were (95% CI) 7.9% (6.5-9.6) and 5.3% (4.1-6.7) for adverse and recurrent adverse reactions to wheat/gluten, respectively, adherence to GFD 5.9% (4.7-7.4), wheat allergy 0.74% (0.3-1.4), and nonceliac gluten sensitivity 4.5% (3.5-5.8). There were no self-reported cases of celiac disease. Prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders was 0.41% (0.17-0.96). Most respondents reported adherence to GFD without a physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders (97.2%). The proportion of gluten avoiders was 17.2% (15.2-19.5). Most of them did not report recurrent adverse reactions to wheat/gluten (87.0%). Conclusions. Nonceliac gluten sensitivity is rarely formally diagnosed in Colombia, but this population has the highest prevalence rate of adherence to GFD reported to date. Consequently, most respondents were avoiding wheat- and/or gluten-based products for reasons other than health-related symptoms. PMID:27648068

  4. Self-Reported Prevalence of Gluten-Related Disorders and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in Colombian Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Aguilar, Alejandro; Magaña-Ordorica, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    Background. Celiac disease seems to be rare in Colombians, but there are currently no data about the prevalence rates of symptomatic adverse reactions to gluten or adherence to gluten-free diet (GFD) in this population. Aim. to evaluate the self-reported prevalence rates of adverse reactions to gluten, adherence to GFD, and gluten-related disorders at population level in Colombia. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a population from Northwest Colombia. Results. The estimated prevalence rates were (95% CI) 7.9% (6.5–9.6) and 5.3% (4.1–6.7) for adverse and recurrent adverse reactions to wheat/gluten, respectively, adherence to GFD 5.9% (4.7–7.4), wheat allergy 0.74% (0.3–1.4), and nonceliac gluten sensitivity 4.5% (3.5–5.8). There were no self-reported cases of celiac disease. Prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders was 0.41% (0.17–0.96). Most respondents reported adherence to GFD without a physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders (97.2%). The proportion of gluten avoiders was 17.2% (15.2–19.5). Most of them did not report recurrent adverse reactions to wheat/gluten (87.0%). Conclusions. Nonceliac gluten sensitivity is rarely formally diagnosed in Colombia, but this population has the highest prevalence rate of adherence to GFD reported to date. Consequently, most respondents were avoiding wheat- and/or gluten-based products for reasons other than health-related symptoms.

  5. Bullying in adolescence: psychiatric problems in victims and bullies as measured by the Youth Self Report (YSR) and the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS).

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Tord; Broberg, Anders G; Arvidsson, Tomas; Gillberg, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Adolescents in junior high school (n = 237), completed a questionnaire on bullying as it relates to victim and to perpetrator status, suicidality and biographical data. Psychological symptoms were assessed by the Youth Self Report (YSR) and the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) supplemented by school health officers blind assessments. Bullying was common: bully only (18%), victim only (10%) and victim and bully (9%). Bullies had mainly externalizing symptoms (delinquency and aggression) and those of the victim and bully group both externalizing and internalizing symptoms as well as high levels of suicidality. Adolescents in the bully only group were more likely to be boys and to have attention problems. Moreover, a substantial proportion of the adolescents in the victim only group were judged by school health officer to have psychiatric symptoms and to function socially less well. PMID:16757465

  6. Perceptual abnormalities related to sensory gating deficit are core symptoms in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Lopez, Régis; Vaillant, Florence; Richieri, Raphaëlle; El-Kaim, Alexandre; Bioulac, Stéphanie; Philip, Pierre; Boyer, Laurent; Lancon, Christophe

    2015-12-15

    This study investigated and compared perceptual abnormalities related to sensory gating deficit in adult patients with Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (A-ADHD) and adult patients with schizophrenia. Subjects were evaluated with the Sensory Gating Inventory (SGI). We compared SGI scores between patients with A-ADHD, patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects. We also assessed the relationship between SGI scores and clinical symptoms, and evaluated the ability of the SGI to detect perceptual abnormalities in A-ADHD. Seventy adult patients with ADHD reported higher SGI scores than the 70 healthy subjects and the 70 patients with schizophrenia. The inattention factor of the ASRS correlated significantly with the overall SGI score. The ROC AUC for the overall SGI score in the A-ADHD group (versus the healthy group) illustrated good performance. The findings suggest that i) perceptual abnormalities are core symptoms of adult patients with ADHD and ii) the attention of patients with A-ADHD may be involuntarily drowned by many irrelevant environmental stimuli leading to their impaired attention on relevant stimuli. They also confirm that the SGI could be a useful self-report instrument to diagnose the clinical features of A-ADHD. PMID:26416589

  7. The Structured Trauma-Related Experiences and Symptoms Screener (STRESS): Development and Preliminary Psychometrics.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Damion J; Felton, Julia W; Reid-Quiñones, Kathryn

    2015-08-01

    The Structured Trauma-Related Experiences and Symptoms Screener (STRESS) is a self-report instrument for youth of age 7-18 that inventories 25 adverse childhood experiences and potentially traumatic events and assesses symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder using the revised criteria published in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). The STRESS can be administered by computer such that questions are read aloud and automatic scoring and feedback are provided. Data were collected on a sample of 229 children and adolescents of age 7-17 undergoing a forensic child abuse and neglect evaluation. The purpose of the current study was to examine preliminary psychometric characteristics of the computer-administered STRESS as well as its underlying factor structure in relation to the four-factor DSM-5 model. Results provide initial support for the use of the STRESS in assessing adverse and potentially traumatic experiences and traumatic stress in children and adolescents. PMID:26092442

  8. Sleep deprivation disrupts prepulse inhibition and induces psychosis-like symptoms in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Petrovsky, Nadine; Ettinger, Ulrich; Hill, Antje; Frenzel, Leonie; Meyhöfer, Inga; Wagner, Michael; Backhaus, Jutta; Kumari, Veena

    2014-07-01

    Translational biomarkers, such as prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response, are playing an increasingly important role in the development of antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia and related conditions. However, attempts to reliably induce a PPI deficit by psychotomimetic drugs have not been successful, leaving an unmet need for a cross-species psychosis model sensitive to this widely studied surrogate treatment target. Sleep deprivation (SD) might be such a model as it has previously been shown to induce PPI deficits in rats, which could be selectively prevented with antipsychotic but not anxiolytic or antidepressant compounds. Here, in a first proof-of-concept study we tested whether SD induces a deficit in PPI and an increase in psychosis-like symptoms in healthy humans. In two counterbalanced sessions, acoustic PPI and self-reported psychosis-like symptoms (Psychotomimetic States Inventory) were measured in 24 healthy human volunteers after a normal night's sleep and after a night of total SD. SD decreased PPI (p = 0.001) without affecting the magnitude or habituation of the startle response (all p > 0.13). SD also induced perceptual distortions, cognitive disorganization, and anhedonia (all p < 0.02). Thus, extending previous rodent work, we conclude that SD, in combination with the PPI biomarker, might be a promising translational surrogate model for psychosis as this method represents a possibility to partially and reversibly mimic the pathogenesis of psychotic states.

  9. An exploratory pilot investigation of neurosteroids and self-reported pain in female Iraq/Afghanistan-era Veterans.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Jennifer C; Kilts, Jason D; Strauss, Jennifer L; Szabo, Steven T; Dunn, Charlotte E; Wagner, H Ryan; Hamer, Robert M; Shampine, Lawrence J; Zanga, Joseph R; Marx, Christine E

    2016-01-01

    Female Veterans are the most rapidly growing segment of new users of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), and a significant proportion of female Veterans receiving treatment from VHA primary care providers report persistent pain symptoms. Currently, available data characterizing the neurobiological underpinnings of pain disorders are limited. Preclinical data suggest that neurosteroids may be involved in the modulation of pain symptoms, potentially via actions at gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) are neurosteroids that modulate inhibitory GABA receptors and excitatory NMDA receptors, producing complex neuronal effects. Emerging evidence from male Iraq/Afghanistan-era Veterans suggests that reductions in neurosteroid levels are associated with increased pain symptoms and that neurosteroids may be promising biomarker candidates. The current exploratory study thus examined associations between self-reported pain symptoms in 403 female Iraq/Afghanistan-era Veterans and serum DHEAS and DHEA levels. Serum DHEAS levels were inversely correlated with low back pain in female Veterans (Spearman r = -0.103; p = 0.04). Nonparametric analyses indicate that female Veterans reporting moderate/extreme low back pain demonstrated significantly lower DHEAS levels than those reporting no/little low back pain (|Z| = 2.60; p = 0.009). These preliminary findings support a role for DHEAS in pain physiology of low back pain and the rationale for neurosteroid therapeutics in pain analgesia. PMID:27533747

  10. Self-reported narcissism and perceived parental permissiveness and authoritarianism.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, A; Watson, P J; Biderman, M D; Reeves, A L

    1996-06-01

    The hypothesis that inadequate parenting promotes the development of pathological narcissism was tested in a sample of 370 undergraduate students. They responded to the O'Brien (1987) Multiphasic Narcissism Inventory (OMNI) and to measures of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness. Perceived parental permissiveness and authoritarianism served as independent predictors of greater narcissistic tendencies. The students who scored high on the OMNI were also less likely to evaluate both of their parents as having been especially strong in their use of the adjustment-promoting authoritative style. Theoretical efforts to link narcissism with inadequate parenting therefore may have merit and may deserve additional research attention. PMID:8656207

  11. Ethnic variation in whether dissociation mediates the relation between traumatic life events and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Anglin, Deidre M; Polanco-Roman, Lillian; Lui, Florence

    2015-01-01

    The present study sought to determine whether dissociative experiences mediated the relationship between traumatic life events and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms in a non-treatment-seeking sample of racial and ethnic minority young adults. Participants (n = 549) completed a self-report inventory for psychosis risk (i.e., the Prodromal Questionnaire; R. L. Loewy, C. E. Bearden, J. K. Johnson, A. Raine, & T. D. Cannon, 2005), from which a total number of attenuated positive psychotic symptoms was assessed. Participants also completed a checklist of potentially traumatic life events and a traumatic dissociation scale. Hierarchical linear regression models and bootstrapping results indicated that dissociation mediated the relationship between traumatic life events and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms. Stratified analyses of Black, Asian, and Hispanic subgroups revealed that full mediation was only evident in the Black subgroup of young adults. Partial mediation was found among the Hispanic group, and no mediation occurred in the Asian subgroup. For the latter, traumatic life events were not significantly associated with dissociative experiences. A dissociative response style may be particularly relevant to trauma-exposed Black young adults exhibiting subclinical psychotic experiences and less so for Asian young adults. Trauma-induced dissociative experiences should be assessed further in clinical high-risk studies, especially among Black traumatized youth.

  12. Associations Between Personality Traits and Adherence to Antidepressants Assessed Through Self-Report, Electronic Monitoring, and Pharmacy Dispensing Data: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Hans; Amin, Darya F H; Taxis, Katja; Heerdink, Eibert R; Egberts, Antoine C G; Gardarsdottir, Helga

    2016-10-01

    Treatment with antidepressants is often compromised by substantial nonadherence. To understand nonadherence, specific medication-related behaviors and beliefs have been studied, but less is known about broader and temporally stable personality "traits." Furthermore, adherence has often been assessed by a single method. Hence, we investigated associations between the Big Five personality traits and adherence assessed by self-report, electronic drug use monitoring, and dispensing data. Using the Big Five Inventory, we assessed the personality traits "openness," "conscientiousness," "extraversion," "agreeableness," and "neuroticism" of patients treated with antidepressants who were invited through community pharmacies. Self-reported adherence was assessed with the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (score >24), electronic monitoring with medication event monitoring system (MEMS) devices (therapy days missed ≤ 10% and < 4 consecutive days missed), and dispensing data (medication possession ratio ≥ 80%). One hundred four women and 33 men participated (mean age, 51; standard deviation, 14). Paroxetine was most frequently prescribed (N = 53, 38%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that of the personality traits, the third and fourth quartiles of "conscientiousness" were associated with better self-reported adherence (odds ratio, 3.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-9.86 and odds ratio, 2.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-8.08; P ≤ 0.05). No relationships were found between personality traits and adherence assessed through electronic drug use monitoring or dispensing data. We therefore conclude that adherence to antidepressant therapy seems to be largely unrelated to personality traits. PMID:27454894

  13. Premenstrual symptoms and smoking-related expectancies.

    PubMed

    Pang, Raina D; Bello, Mariel S; Stone, Matthew D; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Huh, Jimi; Monterosso, John; Haselton, Martie G; Fales, Melissa R; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-06-01

    Given that prior research implicates smoking abstinence in increased premenstrual symptoms, tobacco withdrawal, and smoking behaviors, it is possible that women with more severe premenstrual symptoms have stronger expectancies about the effects of smoking and abstaining from smoking on mood and withdrawal. However, such relations have not been previously explored. This study examined relations between premenstrual symptoms experienced in the last month and expectancies that abstaining from smoking results in withdrawal (i.e., smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies), that smoking is pleasurable (i.e., positive reinforcement smoking expectancies), and smoking relieves negative mood (i.e., negative reinforcement smoking expectancies). In a cross-sectional design, 97 non-treatment seeking women daily smokers completed self-report measures of smoking reinforcement expectancies, smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, premenstrual symptoms, mood symptoms, and nicotine dependence. Affect premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased negative reinforcement smoking expectancies, but not over and above covariates. Affect and pain premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased positive reinforcement smoking expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Affect, pain, and water retention premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Findings from this study suggest that addressing concerns about withdrawal and alternatives to smoking may be particularly important in women who experience more severe premenstrual symptoms, especially affect-related changes. PMID:26869196

  14. Premenstrual symptoms and smoking-related expectancies.

    PubMed

    Pang, Raina D; Bello, Mariel S; Stone, Matthew D; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Huh, Jimi; Monterosso, John; Haselton, Martie G; Fales, Melissa R; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-06-01

    Given that prior research implicates smoking abstinence in increased premenstrual symptoms, tobacco withdrawal, and smoking behaviors, it is possible that women with more severe premenstrual symptoms have stronger expectancies about the effects of smoking and abstaining from smoking on mood and withdrawal. However, such relations have not been previously explored. This study examined relations between premenstrual symptoms experienced in the last month and expectancies that abstaining from smoking results in withdrawal (i.e., smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies), that smoking is pleasurable (i.e., positive reinforcement smoking expectancies), and smoking relieves negative mood (i.e., negative reinforcement smoking expectancies). In a cross-sectional design, 97 non-treatment seeking women daily smokers completed self-report measures of smoking reinforcement expectancies, smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, premenstrual symptoms, mood symptoms, and nicotine dependence. Affect premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased negative reinforcement smoking expectancies, but not over and above covariates. Affect and pain premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased positive reinforcement smoking expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Affect, pain, and water retention premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Findings from this study suggest that addressing concerns about withdrawal and alternatives to smoking may be particularly important in women who experience more severe premenstrual symptoms, especially affect-related changes.

  15. Accuracy of Self-Reported SAT and ACT Test Scores: Implications for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, James S.; Gonyea, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Because it is often impractical or impossible to obtain school transcripts or records on subjects, many researchers rely on college students to accurately self-report their academic record as part of their data collection procedures. The purpose of this study is to investigate the validity and reliability of student self-reported academic…

  16. Collegiate Swimmers: Sex Differences in Self-Reports and Indices of Physiological Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gackenbach, Jayne

    1982-01-01

    Psychological and physiological stress indices were taken from collegiate swimmers of both sexes. Later a scale of self-reported masculinity and femininity was administered. Males had higher systolic blood pressure but lower self-reported anxiety and hostility with the stress of competition. Differences in relative masculinity/femininity allow…

  17. Reliability and Validity of a New Physical Activity Self-Report Measure for Younger Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belton, Sarahjane; Mac Donncha, Ciaran

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the test-retest reliability and validity of a new Youth Physical Activity Self-Report measure. Heart rate and direct observation were employed as criterion measures with a sample of 79 children (aged 7-9 years). Spearman's rho correlation between self reported activity intensity and heart rate was 0.87 for…

  18. Evolution of Self-Reporting Methods for Identifying Discrete Emotions in Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Stephen M.; Hudson, Peter; Bellocchi, Alberto; Henderson, Senka; King, Donna; Tobin, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Emotion researchers have grappled with challenging methodological issues in capturing emotions of participants in naturalistic settings such as school or university classrooms. Self-reporting methods have been used frequently, yet these methods are inadequate when used alone. We argue that the self-reporting methods of emotion diaries and…

  19. Gender Differences in Self-Reported Symptomatology and Working Memory in College Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kercood, Suneeta; Lineweaver, Tara T.; Kugler, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in self-reported symptomatology and working memory (visuospatial and auditory) in college students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Forty-seven college students with ADHD and 44 non-affected control participants completed two self-report questionnaires and six tests…

  20. Investigating the Comparability of a Self-Report Measure of Childhood Bullying across Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konishi, Chiaki; Hymel, Shelley; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Li, Zhen; Taki, Mitsuru; Slee, Phillip; Pepler, Debra; Sim, Hee-og; Craig, Wendy; Swearer, Susan; Kwak, Keumjoo

    2009-01-01

    Responding to international concerns regarding childhood bullying and a need to identify a common bullying measure, this study examines the comparability of children's self-reports of bullying across five countries. The Pacific-Rim Bullying Measure, a self-report measure of students' experiences with six different types of bullying behaviour and…