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Sample records for self-reported functional status

  1. The Development of a Health Status Measure for Self-Report by People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruddick, Loraine; Oliver, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Background: Health status is an important domain of quality of life of people with intellectual disabilities. This paper describes the development of a self-report health status measure for use with people with intellectual disabilities living in staffed community-based accommodation, and reports preliminary reliability data for the schedule.…

  2. Giving meaning to measure: linking self-reported fatigue and function to performance of everyday activities.

    PubMed

    Mallinson, Trudy; Cella, David; Cashy, John; Holzner, Bernhard

    2006-03-01

    Fatigue, a common symptom of cancer patients, particularly those on active treatment, is generally evaluated using self-report methods, yet it remains unclear how self-reported fatigue scores relate to performance of daily activities. This study examines the relationships among self-reported and performance-based measures of function in patients receiving chemotherapy (CT) to link self-reported fatigue measures to self-report and performance-based measures of function. Self-reported fatigue using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) and self-reported physical function using the physical function 10 subscale of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) (PF-10) were measured in 64 patients within 2 weeks of beginning CT (n=64) and after three cycles of CT (n=48). Motor and cognitive functions were captured using five self-reported and seven observed-performance measures at each time point. Significant correlations between self-reported and observed measures ranged from 0.30 to 0.71. Self-reported fatigue correlated (0.30-0.45) with performance-based function. FACIT-F scores in the range of 30 and below and PF-10 scores in the range of 50 and below were related to an increased difficulty performing everyday activities. Observed measures of physical performance correlate moderately with self-reported fatigue and self-reported physical function. These relationships enable one to begin linking fatigue scores directly to a person's ability to perform everyday activities.

  3. The Prevalence of Self-Reported Health Problems and Haemoglobin Status of Sudanese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moukhyer, M. E.; de Vries, N. K.; Bosma, H.; van Eijk, J. Th. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe self-reported health problems and haemoglobin status among 1200 Sudanese adolescents (53.2% females, 46.8% males). Many adolescents report their general health as excellent and good (84%). A large number, however, report separate physical and psychological complaints. Report of psychological complaints is equal for both…

  4. Associations among Socioeconomic Status, Perceived Neighborhood Control, Perceived Individual Control, and Self-Reported Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Spencer; Daniel, Mark; Bockenholt, Ulf; Gauvin, Lise; Richard, Lucie; Stewart, Steven; Dube, Laurette

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that perceived control and a person's perceptions of their neighborhood environment may mediate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and health. This cross-sectional study assessed whether perceptions of informal social control mediated the association between SES and self-reported health, and if these…

  5. The importance of assessing self-reported HIV status in bio-behavioural surveys.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lisa G; Sabin, Miriam Lewis; Prybylski, Dimitri; Sabin, Keith; McFarland, Willi; Baral, Stefan; Kim, Andrea A; Raymond, H Fisher

    2016-08-01

    In bio-behavioural surveys measuring prevalence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), respondents should be asked the results of their last HIV test. However, many government authorities, nongovernmental organizations, researchers and other civil society stakeholders have stated that respondents involved in such surveys should not be asked to self-report their HIV status. The reasons offered for not asking respondents to report their status are that responses may be inaccurate and that asking about HIV status may violate the respondents' human rights and exacerbate stigma and discrimination. Nevertheless, we contend that, in the antiretroviral therapy era, asking respondents in bio-behavioural surveys to self-report their HIV status is essential for measuring and improving access to - and coverage of - services for the care, treatment and prevention of HIV infection. It is also important for estimating the true size of the unmet needs in addressing the HIV epidemic and for interpreting the behaviours associated with the acquisition and transmission of HIV infection correctly. The data available indicate that most participants in health-related surveys are willing to respond to a question about HIV status - as one of possibly several sensitive questions about sexual and drug use behaviours. Ultimately, normalizing the self-reporting of HIV status could help the global community move from an era of so-called exceptionalism to one of destigmatization - and so improve the epidemic response worldwide.

  6. Development and Validation of a Self-Report Measure of Mentalizing: The Reflective Functioning Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Fonagy, Peter; Luyten, Patrick; Moulton-Perkins, Alesia; Lee, Ya-Wen; Warren, Fiona; Howard, Susan; Ghinai, Rosanna; Fearon, Pasco; Lowyck, Benedicte

    2016-01-01

    Reflective functioning or mentalizing is the capacity to interpret both the self and others in terms of internal mental states such as feelings, wishes, goals, desires, and attitudes. This paper is part of a series of papers outlining the development and psychometric features of a new self-report measure, the Reflective Functioning Questionnaire (RFQ), designed to provide an easy to administer self-report measure of mentalizing. We describe the development and initial validation of the RFQ in three studies. Study 1 focuses on the development of the RFQ, its factor structure and construct validity in a sample of patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Eating Disorder (ED) (n = 108) and normal controls (n = 295). Study 2 aims to replicate these findings in a fresh sample of 129 patients with personality disorder and 281 normal controls. Study 3 addresses the relationship between the RFQ, parental reflective functioning and infant attachment status as assessed with the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) in a sample of 136 community mothers and their infants. In both Study 1 and 2, confirmatory factor analyses yielded two factors assessing Certainty (RFQ_C) and Uncertainty (RFQ_U) about the mental states of self and others. These two factors were relatively distinct, invariant across clinical and non-clinical samples, had satisfactory internal consistency and test–retest stability, and were largely unrelated to demographic features. The scales discriminated between patients and controls, and were significantly and in theoretically predicted ways correlated with measures of empathy, mindfulness and perspective-taking, and with both self-reported and clinician-reported measures of borderline personality features and other indices of maladaptive personality functioning. Furthermore, the RFQ scales were associated with levels of parental reflective functioning, which in turn predicted infant attachment status in the SSP. Overall, this study lends

  7. Test Review: Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function--Self-Report Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Justin M.; D'Amato, Rik Carl

    2006-01-01

    The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Self-Report version (BRIEF-SR) is the first self-report measure of executive functioning for adolescents. With the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act authorization, there is a greater need for appropriate assessment of severely impaired children. Recent studies have…

  8. Social Cognition, Executive Functions and Self-Report of Psychological Distress in Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Ida Unmack; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Gade, Anders; Vogel, Asmus

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Huntington’s disease (HD) is characterized by motor symptoms, psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment in, inter alia, executive functions and social cognition. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subjective feeling of psychological distress using a self-report questionnaire and performances on tests of executive functions and social cognition in a large consecutive cohort of HD patients. Method: 50 manifest HD patients were tested in social cognition and executive functions and each answered a self-report questionnaire about current status of perceived psychological distress (the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R)). Correlation analyses of test performance and SCL-90-R scores were made as well as stepwise linear regression analyses with the SCL-90-R GSI score and test performances as dependent variables. Results: We found that less psychological distress was significantly associated with worse performances on social cognitive tests (mean absolute correlation .34) and that there were no significant correlations between perceived psychological distress and performance on tests of executive functions. The correlations between perceived psychological distress and performance on social cognitive tests remained significant after controlling for age, Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale-99 total motor score and performance on tests of executive functions. Conclusions: Based on previous findings that insight and apathy are closely connected and may be mediated by overlapping neuroanatomical networks involving the prefrontal cortex and frontostriatal circuits, we speculate that apathy/and or impaired insight may offer an explanation for the correlation between self-report of psychological distress and performance on social cognitive tests in this study. PMID:28154786

  9. The Association of Self-reported Sleep, Weight Status and Academic Performance in Fifth Grade Students

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Janise; Plog, Amy; Siegfried, Scott; Hill, James O.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND To improve support and justification for health promotion efforts in schools, it is helpful to understand how students’ health behaviors affect academic performance. METHODS Fifth grade students completed an online school administered health survey with questions regarding their eating behavior, physical activity, academic performance, and sleep patterns. Differences in health behaviors were examined by sex, self-reported weight status, and sufficient (≥ 9 hours) versus insufficient sleep. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between academic performance and the health behaviors. RESULTS One-third of the sample did not get the recommended amount of physical activity and more than half of the students watched TV ≥ 2 hours/day. Self-reported overweight status was related to lower self-reported academic performance, fewer lunch and breakfast occasions, less physical activity, not meeting the recommendations for vegetable and soda consumption as well as hours of TV watching. Sufficient sleep (≥ 9 hours/night) was associated with better grades, meeting the recommended hours of daily TV watching and video game playing, being more physically active and increased breakfast and lunch frequency. Percentage of serving free/reduced lunch, soda consumption, breakfast frequency, amount of physical activity, and TV watching were associated with academic performance. CONCLUSION More positive health behaviors generally were associated with better academic performance. Promoting healthy behaviors in schools might improve not only students’ health academic performance as well. PMID:23331266

  10. Edentulism and other variables associated with self-reported health status in Mexican adults

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine if edentulism, controlling for other known factors, is associated with subjective self-report health status (SRH) in Mexican adults. Material/Methods We examined the SRH of 13 966 individuals 35 years and older, using data from the National Survey of Performance Assessment, a cross-sectional study that is part of the technical collaboration between the Ministry of Health of Mexico and the World Health Organization, which used the survey instrument and sampling strategies developed by WHO for the World Health Survey. Sociodemographic, socioeconomic, medical, and behavioral variables were collected using questionnaires. Self-reported health was our dependent variable. Data on edentulism were available from 20 of the 32 Mexican states. A polynomial logistic regression model adjusted for complex sampling was generated. Results In the SRH, 58.2% reported their health status as very good/good, 33.8% said they had a moderate health status, and 8.0% reported that their health was bad/very bad. The association between edentulism and SRH was modified by age and was significant only for bad/very bad SRH. Higher odds of reporting moderate health or poor/very poor health were found in women, people with lower socio-economic status and with physical disabilities, those who were not physically active, or those who were underweight or obese, those who had any chronic disease, and those who used alcohol. Conclusions The association of edentulism with a self-report of a poor health status (poor/very poor) was higher in young people than in adults. The results suggest socioeconomic inequalities in SRH. Inequality was further confirmed among people who had a general health condition or a disability. PMID:24852266

  11. Self-Reported versus Professionally Assessed Functional Limitations in Community-Dwelling Very Old Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsson, Gunilla; Haak, Maria; Nygren, Carita; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported and professionally assessed functional limitations in community-dwelling very old individuals. In total, 306 single-living adults aged 81-90 years were included in this cross-sectional study. The main outcome measure was the presence and absence of self-reported and…

  12. Parents with Psychosis: A Pilot Study Examining Self-Report Measures Related to Family Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Karen; Byrne, Linda; Barkla, Joanne; McLean, Duncan; Hearle, Jenny; McGrath, John

    2002-01-01

    Examines the utility of various self-report instruments related to family functioning in families where a parent has a psychotic disorder, and explores associations between these instruments and symptoms in the parent. There were significant associations between objective measures of negative symptoms and self-report scores related to problems in…

  13. Relationship between psychiatric status, self-reported outcome measures, and clinical parameters in axial spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Gamze; Kilic, Erkan; Ozgocmen, Salih

    2014-12-01

    This article aims to compare the risks of depression and anxiety in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) and investigate the relationship among self-reported outcome measures, clinical parameters, and physical variables of patients with axSpA. Patients with axSpA were recruited from Erciyes Spondyloarthritis Cohort. The patients met Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society classification criteria for axial SpA and were assessed in a cross-sectional study design for visual analog scale (VAS) pain, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life questionnaire (ASQoL), and Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score-C-reactive protein (ASDAS-CRP). Psychological status was evaluated using the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the associations between psychological variables and clinical parameters after adjusting for confounding variables. Of the 316 patients (142 nr-axSpA, 174 AS), 139 (44%) had high risk for depression (HADS-D score ≥ 7) and 71 (22.5%) for anxiety (HADS-A score ≥ 10). HADS-D and HADS-A scores were similar between patients with AS and nr-axSpA. Patients with high risk for depression and anxiety had higher scores in BASDAI, BASFI, and ASDAS-CRP, and also poorer scores in VAS pain and ASQoL. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the ASDAS-CRP, ASQoL, BASDAI, as well as educational level were factors associated with the risk of depression whereas the ASQoL and educational level were factors associated with the risk of anxiety. Patients with nr-axSpA and AS have similar burden of psychological distress. The quality of life (ASQoL) and educational level were factors associated with the risk of both depression and anxiety whereas disease activity (BASDAI and ASDAS-CRP) was the

  14. Supporting the Spectrum Hypothesis: Self-Reported Temperament in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Catherine A; Usher, Lauren V; Schwartz, Caley B; Mundy, Peter C; Henderson, Heather A

    2016-04-01

    This study tested the spectrum hypothesis, which posits that children and adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) differ quantitatively but not qualitatively from typically developing peers on self-reported temperament. Temperament refers to early-appearing, relatively stable behavioral and emotional tendencies, which relate to maladaptive behaviors across clinical populations. Quantitatively, participants with HFA (N = 104, aged 10-16) self-reported less surgency and more negative affect but did not differ from comparison participants (N = 94, aged 10-16) on effortful control or affiliation. Qualitatively, groups demonstrated comparable reliability of self-reported temperament and associations between temperament and parent-reported behavior problems. These findings support the spectrum hypothesis, highlighting the utility of self-report temperament measures for understanding individual differences in comorbid behavior problems among children and adolescents with HFA.

  15. Self-Reported Health Status in Primary Health Care: The Influence of Immigration and Other Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel Á.; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; del Otero-Sanz, Laura; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen; Chico-Moraleja, Rosa M.; Martín-Madrazo, Carmen; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study are to compare self-reported health status between Spanish-born and Latin American-born Spanish residents, adjusted by length of residence in the host country; and additionally, to analyse sociodemographic and psychosocial variables associated with a better health status. Design This is a cross-sectional population based study of Latin American-born (n = 691) and Spanish-born (n = 903) in 15 urban primary health care centres in Madrid (Spain), carried out between 2007 and 2009. The participants provided information, through an interview, about self-reported health status, socioeconomic characteristics, psychosocial factors and migration conditions. Descriptive and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results The Spanish-born participants reported a better health status than the Latin America-born participants (79.8% versus 69.3%, p<0.001). Different patterns of self-reported health status were observed depending on the length of residence in the host country. The proportion of immigrants with a better health status is greater in those who have been in Spain for less than five years compared to those who have stayed longer. Better health status is significantly associated with being men, under 34 years old, being Spanish-born, having a monthly incomes of over 1000 euros, and having considerable social support and low stress. Conclusions Better self-reported health status is associated with being Spanish-born, men, under 34 years old, having an uppermiddle-socioeconomic status, adequate social support, and low stress. Additionally, length of residence in the host country is seen as a related factor in the self-reported health status of immigrants. PMID:22675564

  16. Self-Reported Sexual Functioning Concerns among Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tambling, Rachel B.; Reckert, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Researchers who have studied sexual functioning concerns do not often focus their research on undergraduate populations, perhaps due to perceptions of universal sexual health among this population. The current study examined prevalence and type of sexual functioning concerns in a sample of 347 male and female undergraduate students. Sexual…

  17. Biomonitoring of tobacco smoke exposure and self-reported smoking status among general population of Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Hoseini, Mohammad; Yunesian, Masud; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar; Parmy, Saeid; Gharibi, Hamed; Faridi, Sasan; Hasanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Rastkari, Noushin; Mirzaei, Nezam; Naddafi, Kazem

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to find a correlation between the self-reported smoking status of the residents of Tehran, Iran, and the urine cotinine as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco smoke. The self-reported data was collected from 222 participants who were living in the urban area of Tehran. The urine samples of participants were collected for cotinine analysis. Urine cotinine was measured by an enzymatic immunoassay technique. Tobacco smoking was reported by 76 (34.23 %) participants as the self-reported data, and the number of males in this report was higher than of females (p < 0.001). By adding the number of the self-reported non-smokers with cotinine levels above the cutoff value of >100 ng/ml to self-reported smokers, the smoking prevalence increased from 34.23 % (95 % CI 28.01-40.88 %) to 36.48 % (95 % CI 30.14-43.19 %). Using the cutoff value, sensitivity and specificity of the self-reported smoking status were respectively 90.12 % (95 % CI 81.46-95.64 %) and 98 % (95 % CI 93.91-99.55 %). The levels of agreement between self-reported tobacco smoking and urinary cotinine concentrations was 95.1 % (k = 0.89, p < 0.001, 95 % CI = 0.81-0.95). Based on the results, self-reported smoking can be a valid marker for assessing the tobacco exposure, and it can be of use in large epidemiological studies.

  18. Baseline Self Reported Functional Health and Vulnerability to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder After Combat Deployment: Prospective US Military Cohort Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Psychiatry 2005;162:1171-8. 5 Butterfield MI, Forneris CA, Feldman ME, Beckham JC. Hostility and functional health status in women veterans with and...Bush KR, Davis TM, Bradley KA . Posttraumatic stress disorder in female veterans: association with self-reported health problems and functional

  19. Self-reported health status of vietnamese and non-Hispanic white older adults in california.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Dara; Tan, Angela L; Hays, Ron D; Mangione, Carol M; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2008-08-01

    Vietnamese Americans are a rapidly growing minority group in the United States, yet little is known about their health status. Chronic medical conditions and self-rated health of older Vietnamese Americans were compared with those of non-Hispanic white adults living in California using the 2001 and 2003 California Health Interview Surveys (CHISs). The CHIS employed a random-digit-dial telephone survey, and its sample is representative of California's noninstitutionalized population. The sample included 359 Vietnamese and 25,177 non-Hispanic white adults aged 55 and older. Vietnamese and non-Hispanic white adults were compared in terms of limitations in activities of daily living, chronic medical conditions (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease, asthma), mental health care, and self-reported health, adjusting for age, sex, and education. Vietnamese were more likely than white participants to report needing help for mental health problems (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.4-3.1) but less likely to have had their medical providers discuss their mental health problems with them (aOR=0.3, 95% CI=0.1-0.5). In addition, Vietnamese participants reported significantly worse health than white adults on five of eight domains of the Medical Outcomes Survery 12-item Short Form survey (P<.006). Clinicians caring for older Vietnamese individuals should be aware of the high risk for mental health needs in this population and should initiate discussions about mental health with their patients. Further research is needed to better understand why older Vietnamese Americans are at higher risk for worse self-reported health than older white adults.

  20. Assessing the Consequences of Using Self-Report Data to Determine the Correlates of HIV Status: Conditional and Marginal Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindskopf, David M.; Strauss, Shiela M.; Falkin, Gregory P.; Deren, Sherry

    2003-01-01

    This article examines whether relationships between individual characteristics and HIV status can be identified when self-report data are used as a proxy for HIV serotest results. The analyses use data obtained from HIV serotests and face-to-face interviews with 7,256 out-of-treatment drug users in ten sites from 1992 to 1998. Relationships…

  1. Supporting the Spectrum Hypothesis: Self-Reported Temperament in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Catherine A.; Usher, Lauren V.; Schwartz, Caley B.; Mundy, Peter C.; Henderson, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the "spectrum hypothesis," which posits that children and adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) differ "quantitatively" but not "qualitatively" from typically developing peers on self-reported temperament. Temperament refers to early-appearing, relatively stable behavioral and emotional…

  2. Adolescent Depression: Relationships of Self-Report to Intellectual and Adaptive Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manikam, Ramasamy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Self-report measures of depression, general psychopathology, and social skills were administered to 100 adolescents ranging from moderate mental retardation to above normal intelligence. Adolescents with mental retardation reported more depression and general psychopathology symptoms. Adaptive behavior functioned as a moderator variable, mediating…

  3. Effects of Age and Ability on Self-Reported Memory Functioning and Knowledge of Memory Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Celinda M.; Cherry, Katie E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of age and ability (as measured by education and verbal ability) on self-reported memory functioning in adulthood. In Study 1, the age and ability groups responded similarly to the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (D. E. Broadbent, P. F. Cooper, P. Fitzgerald, & K. R. Parkes, 1982), but differences emerged when the…

  4. Quadriceps neuromuscular function and self-reported functional ability in knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Berger, M J; McKenzie, C A; Chess, D G; Goela, A; Doherty, T J

    2012-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine 1) the relationships of self-reported function scores in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) to both maximal isometric torque and to isotonic power at a variety of loads, and 2) the degree to which muscle volume (MV) or voluntary activation (VA) are associated with torque and power measures in this population. Isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque and isotonic power [performed at loads corresponding to 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% MVC, and a minimal load ("Zero Load")] were measured in 40 participants with knee OA. Functional ability was measured with the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) function subscale. MV was determined with magnetic resonance imaging, and VA was measured with the interpolated twitch technique. In general, power measured at lower loads (Zero Load and 10-30% MVC, r(2) = 0.21-0.28, P < 0.05) predicted a greater proportion of the variance in function than MVC torque (r(2) = 0.18, P < 0.05), with power measured at Zero Load showing the strongest association (r(2) = 0. 28, P < 0.05). MV was the strongest predictor of MVC torque and power measures in multiple regression models (r(2) = 0.42-0.72). VA explained only 6% of the variance in MVC torque and was not significantly associated with power at any load (P > 0.05). Quadriceps MVC torque and power are associated with self-reported function in knee OA, but muscle power at lower loads is more predictive of function than MVC torque. The variance in MVC torque and power between participants is due predominantly to differences in MV and has little to do with deficits in VA.

  5. Beyond conventional socioeconomic status: examining subjective and objective social status with self-reported health among Asian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Gong, Fang; Xu, Jun; Takeuchi, David T

    2012-08-01

    Despite mounting evidence for a strong and persistent association between socioeconomic status (SES) and health, this relationship is largely unknown among Asian immigrants, a fast growing minority group in the US population. Previous research has typically focused on objective SES (primarily education and income) and ignored self-perceived SES. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) (N = 1,570), we examined the impact of subjective as well as objective SES upon multiple self-reported health outcomes among Asian immigrants. Results indicated that conventional SES indicators by and large were non-significantly related to self-rated physical health, physical discomfort, self-rated mental health, and psychological distress. In contrast, subjective SES relative to people in the United States and people in the community showed strong associations with health outcomes above and beyond conventional SES markers. This study suggested a promising avenue to incorporate subjective SES in health disparities research, especially among immigrants.

  6. Self-reported Physical Activity Predicts Pain Inhibitory and Facilitatory Function

    PubMed Central

    Naugle, Kelly M.; Riley, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests regular physical activity can reduce chronic pain symptoms. Dysfunction of endogenous facilitatory and inhibitory systems has been implicated in multiple chronic pain conditions. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between levels of physical activity and descending pain modulatory function. Purpose This study’s purpose was to determine whether self-reported levels of physical activity in healthy adults predicted 1) pain sensitivity to heat and cold stimuli, 2) pain facilitatory function as tested by temporal summation of pain (TS), and 3) pain inhibitory function as tested by conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and offset analgesia. Methods Forty-eight healthy adults (age range 18–76) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the following pain tests: heat pain thresholds (HPT), heat pain suprathresholds, cold pressor pain (CPP), temporal summation of heat pain, conditioned pain modulation, and offset analgesia. The IPAQ measured levels of walking, moderate, vigorous and total physical activity over the past seven days. Hierarchical linear regressions were conducted to determine the relationship between each pain test and self-reported levels of physical activity, while controlling for age, sex and psychological variables. Results Self-reported total and vigorous physical activity predicted TS and CPM (p’s <.05). Individuals who self-reported more vigorous and total physical activity exhibited reduced temporal summation of pain and greater CPM. The IPAQ measures did not predict any of the other pain measures. Conclusion Thus, these results suggest that healthy older and younger adults who self-report greater levels of vigorous and total physical activity exhibit enhanced descending pain modulatory function. Improved descending pain modulation may be a mechanism through which exercise reduces or prevents chronic pain symptoms. PMID:23899890

  7. Self-reported social functioning and prefrontal hemodynamic responses during a cognitive task in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pu, Shenghong; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Itakura, Masashi; Yamanashi, Takehiko; Sugie, Takuya; Miura, Akehiko; Satake, Takahiro; Iwata, Masaaki; Nagata, Izumi; Kaneko, Koichi

    2015-10-30

    Impaired social functioning is a characteristic of schizophrenia that affects patients' quality of life. The aim of the study was to assess prefrontal hemodynamic responses during a cognitive task and establish its influence on psychiatric symptoms, cognitive function, global functioning, and self-reported social functioning in patients with schizophrenia. Thirty-three patients with schizophrenia and 30 age-and sex-matched healthy controls participated in the study. We measured hemodynamic responses in the prefrontal and superior temporal cortical surface areas with 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during a verbal fluency task (VFT). Self-reported social functioning was assessed using the Social Functioning Scale (SFS). Regional hemodynamic responses were significantly smaller in the prefrontal and temporal regions in subjects with schizophrenia than in the controls, and prefrontal hemodynamic responses during the VFT showed a strong correlation with SFS total scores. These results suggest an association between self-reported social functioning and prefrontal activation in subjects with schizophrenia. The present study provides evidence that NIRS imaging could be helpful in understanding the neural basis of social functioning.

  8. Internal exposure to organochlorine pollutants and cadmium and self-reported health status: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Van Larebeke, Nik; Sioen, Isabelle; Hond, Elly Den; Nelen, Vera; Van de Mieroop, Els; Nawrot, Tim; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Schoeters, Greet; Baeyens, Willy

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, based on the Flemish biomonitoring programs, we describe the associations between internal exposure to organochlorine pollutants and to cadmium (measured in 2004-2005 for adults aged 50-65 years) and self-reported health status obtained through a questionnaire in November 2011. Dioxin-like activity in serum showed a significant positive association with risk of cancer for women. After adjustment for confounders and covariates, the odds ratio for an exposure equal to the 90th percentile was 2.4 times higher than for an exposure equal to the 10th percentile. For both men and women dioxin-like activity and serum hexachlorobenzene (HCB) showed a significant positive association with risk of diabetes and of hypertension. Detailed analysis suggested that an increase in BMI might be part of the mechanism through which HCB contributes to diabetes and hypertension. Serum dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) concentration showed a significant positive association with diabetes and hypertension in men, but not in women. Serum polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 118 showed a significant positive association with diabetes in both men and women, and after adjustment for correlated exposures, also with hypertension in men. Urinary cadmium concentrations showed a significant positive association with hypertension. Urinary cadmium concentrations were (in 2004-2005) significantly higher in persons who felt in less than good health (in 2011) than in persons who felt in very good health. After adjustment for correlated exposures (to HCB, p,p'-DDE and PCB118) marker PCBs showed a significant negative association with diabetes and hypertension. Serum p,p'-DDE showed in men a significant negative association with risk of diseases based on atheromata. Our findings suggest that exposure to pollutants can lead to an important increase in the risk of diseases such as cancer, diabetes and hypertension. Some pollutants may possibly also decrease the risk of some health

  9. Sexual behaviour among people with HIV according to self-reported antiretroviral treatment and viral load status

    PubMed Central

    Lampe, Fiona C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess, among people with HIV, the association of self-reported antiretroviral treatment (ART) and viral load status with condomless sex with an HIV-serodifferent partner (CLS-D). Design: Cross-sectional study of 3258 HIV-diagnosed adults in the United Kingdom, 2011–2012. Methods: CLS-D in the past 3 months and self-reported ART/viral load were ascertained by questionnaire. Clinic-recorded viral load was documented. HIV-transmission risk sex (CLS-D-HIV-risk) was defined as CLS-D together with either not on ART or clinic-recorded viral load more than 50 copies/ml. Results: Of 3178 participants diagnosed more than 3 months ago, 2746 (87.9%) were on ART, of whom self-reported viral load was ‘50 copies/ml/ or less/undetectable’ for 78.4%; ‘more than 50 copies/ml/detectable’ for 8.3%; ‘do not know/missing’ for 13.3%. CLS-D prevalence was 14.9% (326/2189), 6.4% (23/360) and 10.7% (67/629) among men who have sex with men, heterosexual men and women, respectively. Among men who have sex with men, CLS-D prevalence was 18.8% among those not on ART; 15.2% among those on ART with undetectable self-reported viral load; 9.8% among those on ART without undetectable self-reported viral load. Compared with ‘on ART with undetectable self-reported viral load’, prevalence ratios (95% confidence interval) adjusted for demographic/HIV-related factors were: 0.66 (0.45, 0.95) for ‘on ART without undetectable self-reported viral load’, and 1.08 (0.78, 1.49) for ‘not on ART’ (global P = 0.021). Among heterosexual men and women (combined), ART/self-reported viral load was not associated with CLS-D [corresponding adjusted prevalence ratios: 1.14 (0.73, 1.79) for ‘on ART without undetectable self-reported viral load’; 0.88 (0.44, 1.77) for ‘not on ART’, P = 0.77]. CLS-D-HIV-risk prevalence was 3.2% among all participants; 16.1% for ‘not on ART’; 0.6% for ‘on ART with undetectable self-reported viral load; 4.2% for ‘on ART

  10. Reliability and validity of a self-report of hand function in persons with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Poole, Janet L; Cordova, Kenneth J; Brower, Lisa M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability and the concurrent validity of the Duruöz Hand Index (DHI) in persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Forty participants with RA and no other major medical problems completed the DHI, a self-report of hand function, at two points in time to assess test-retest reliability. To determine concurrent validity, participants were also administered three performance-based tests, the Arthritis Hand Function Test (AHFT), the Hand Mobility in Scleroderma Test (HAMIS), and the Keitel Functional Test (KFT), and two self-report questionnaires of functional ability, the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and the Scleroderma Functional Assessment Questionnaire (SFAQ). Test-retest reliability intraclass correlation coefficients for the DHI ranged from 0.83 to 0.90. Scores on the DHI were significantly correlated with scores on the AHFT (r(s)=0.36-0.54), the HAMIS (r(s)=0.39), the HAQ (r(s)=0.78), the HAMIS (r(s)=0.39), and the SFAQ (r(s)=0.85). Scores on the DHI did not correlate with KFT scores. The results from this study show the DHI to be a reliable and valid test for hand function in persons with RA.

  11. Psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale: Self-Report.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Tsuji, Yui; Kanazawa, Junichiro; Sakai, Takanobu; Weiss, Margaret D

    2016-12-24

    The Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale Self-Report has been translated into nine languages and has been widely used in assessing functional impairment of adults with ADHD. This study is a psychometric validation of the WFIRS-S in Japanese. The WFIRS-S-J and other questionnaires were administered to 46 adults with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 104 control adults, and 889 university students. ADHD diagnoses were made using the Japanese semi-structured diagnostic interview for adult ADHD, which is compatible with the DSM-5. All subscales of the WFIRS-S-J had Cronbach's α values of around 0.80. Total scores on the WFIRS-S-J had high test-retest reliability after a 2-week interval. The total score, subscale scores, and 59 of the individual item scores of the 70 items in the WFIRS-S-J were significantly higher in the ADHD group than in the other two groups, although more than half of the items in subdomain G (risk) showed floor effects and did not reach significance. Generally WFIRS-S-J subdomain scores were moderately correlated with scores on the Japanese version of Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales Self-Report subscales. WFIRS-S-J scores were also correlated (albeit more weakly; 0.31 ≤ r ≤ 0.55) with Beck Depression Inventory II total scores. The WFIRS-S-J showed acceptable psychometric properties, although further study is necessary.

  12. Profiles of the forms and functions of self-reported aggression in three adolescent samples.

    PubMed

    Marsee, Monica A; Frick, Paul J; Barry, Christopher T; Kimonis, Eva R; Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Aucoin, Katherine J

    2014-08-01

    In the current study, we addressed several issues related to the forms (physical and relational) and functions (reactive and proactive) of aggression in community (n = 307), voluntary residential (n = 1,917), and involuntarily detained (n = 659) adolescents (ages 11-19 years). Across samples, boys self-reported more physical aggression and girls reported more relational aggression, with the exception of higher levels of both forms of aggression in detained girls. Further, few boys showed high rates of relational aggression without also showing high rates of physical aggression. In contrast, it was not uncommon for girls to show high rates of relational aggression alone, and these girls tended to also have high levels of problem behavior (e.g., delinquency) and mental health problems (e.g., emotional dysregulation and callous-unemotional traits). Finally, for physical aggression in both boys and girls, and for relational aggression in girls, there was a clear pattern of aggressive behavior that emerged from cluster analyses across samples. Two aggression clusters emerged, with one group showing moderately high reactive aggression and a second group showing both high reactive and high proactive aggression (combined group). On measures of severity (e.g., self-reported delinquency and arrests) and etiologically important variables (e.g., emotional regulation and callous-unemotional traits), the reactive aggression group was more severe than a nonaggressive cluster but less severe than the combined aggressive cluster.

  13. Eating at the university canteen. Associations with socioeconomic status and healthier self-reported eating habits in France.

    PubMed

    Guagliardo, Valérie; Lions, Caroline; Darmon, Nicole; Verger, Pierre

    2011-02-01

    French university canteens offer structured meals at a fixed moderate price. We examined whether eating regularly at university canteens was associated with socioeconomic status (SES) or dietary practices. The study data came from a cross-sectional study of a random sample of 1723 students aged 18-24 years, in their first year of university in 2005-2006, enrolled in the universities of southeastern France (response rate=71%). Self-reported dietary practices were collected with a behavioral questionnaire. Adjusted logistic regressions showed that eating regularly at university canteens was less frequent among students with less than € 300 monthly resources and not living with their families (OR=0.68 [95%CI: 0.49-0.94]). It was also positively associated, regardless of SES, with the consumption of at least five servings of fruit/vegetables daily (OR=1.42 [1.05-1.92]) and one serving of meat/fish daily (OR=1.41 [1.13-1.76]) but not with either restricting fatty food (OR=1.04 [0.81-1.33]) or never/rarely adding salt to food (OR=1.06 [0.85-1.32]). Eating regularly at university canteens was less frequent among less well-off students and was positively associated with some healthier self-reported dietary habits. Further research is needed to confirm these results in the overall student population in France and to understand the determinants of university canteen utilization.

  14. Profile of self-reported problems with executive functioning in college and professional football players.

    PubMed

    Seichepine, Daniel R; Stamm, Julie M; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Riley, David O; Baugh, Christine M; Gavett, Brandon E; Tripodis, Yorghos; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine; McKee, Ann C; Cantu, Robert C; Nowinski, Christopher J; Stern, Robert A

    2013-07-15

    Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), such as that experienced by contact-sport athletes, has been associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Executive dysfunction is believed to be among the earliest symptoms of CTE, with these symptoms presenting in the fourth or fifth decade of life. The present study used a well-validated self-report measure to study executive functioning in football players, compared to healthy adults. Sixty-four college and professional football players were administered the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, adult version (BRIEF-A) to evaluate nine areas of executive functioning. Scores on the BRIEF-A were compared to published age-corrected normative scores for healthy adults Relative to healthy adults, the football players indicated significantly more problems overall and on seven of the nine clinical scales, including Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, and Task Monitor. These symptoms were greater in athletes 40 and older, relative to younger players. In sum, football players reported more-frequent problems with executive functioning and these symptoms may develop or worsen in the fifth decade of life. The findings are in accord with a growing body of evidence that participation in football is associated with the development of cognitive changes and dementia as observed in CTE.

  15. Academic procrastination in college students: the role of self-reported executive function.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Laura A; Fogel, Joshua; Nutter-Upham, Katherine E

    2011-03-01

    Procrastination, or the intentional delay of due tasks, is a widespread phenomenon in college settings. Because procrastination can negatively impact learning, achievement, academic self-efficacy, and quality of life, research has sought to understand the factors that produce and maintain this troublesome behavior. Procrastination is increasingly viewed as involving failures in self-regulation and volition, processes commonly regarded as executive functions. The present study was the first to investigate subcomponents of self-reported executive functioning associated with academic procrastination in a demographically diverse sample of college students aged 30 years and below (n = 212). We included each of nine aspects of executive functioning in multiple regression models that also included various demographic and medical/psychiatric characteristics, estimated IQ, depression, anxiety, neuroticism, and conscientiousness. The executive function domains of initiation, plan/organize, inhibit, self-monitor, working memory, task monitor, and organization of materials were significant predictors of academic procrastination in addition to increased age and lower conscientiousness. Results enhance understanding of the neuropsychological correlates of procrastination and may lead to practical suggestions or interventions to reduce its harmful effects on students' academic performance and well-being.

  16. Longitudinal study of associations between perceived health status and self reported diseases in the French Gazel cohort

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, P; Gueguen, A; Schmaus, A; Nakache, J; Goldberg, M

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—Although perceived health status is an indicator widely used in epidemiological studies, its relation to various diseases is not well known. The objective of this study is to examine these relations in detail.
DESIGN—Marginal models used for a longitudinal study of the association between three health scales and 47 diseases among 12 164 men and 44 diseases among 4415 women.
SETTING—French Gazel cohort during the period from 1991 to 1996.
MAIN RESULTS—The general health status scale was significantly associated with 43 diseases among men, and 31 among women. Some of these significantly associated diseases were physical (for example, cancer and cerebrovascular accident) and others, psychological (for example, depression). The mental fatigue scale was more specifically associated with psychological disorders, including sleep problems, depression, and nervous diseases. Moreover, modifications in subjects' assessment of their health from one year to the next were generally associated with modifications in reported diseases.
CONCLUSION—Although the mechanism that relates the presence of a disease to perceived health status remains in question, these results show clearly that there is a close association between these two domains that justifies the use of perceived health as a proxy for self reported diseases.


Keywords: marginal model; health scale; self rated disease PMID:11238577

  17. Physical activity and self-reported health status among adolescents: a cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Galán, I; Boix, R; Medrano, M J; Ramos, P; Rivera, F; Pastor-Barriuso, R; Moreno, C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about the dose–response relationship between physical activity and health benefits among young people. Our objective was to analyse the association between the frequency of undertaking moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and the self-reported health status of the adolescent population. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting All regions of Spain. Participants Students aged 11–18 years participating in the Spanish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey 2006. A total of 375 schools and 21 188 students were selected. Main outcomes The frequency of undertaking MVPA was measured by a questionnaire, with the following four health indicators: self-rated health, health complaints, satisfaction with life and health-related quality of life. Linear and logistic regression models were used to analyse the association, adjusting for potential confounding variables and the modelling of the dose–response relationship. Results As the frequency of MVPA increased, the association with health benefits was stronger. A linear trend (p<0.05) was found for self-rated health and health complaints in males and females and for satisfaction with life among females; for health-related quality of life this relationship was quadratic for both sexes (p<0.05). For self-reported health and health complaints, the effect was found to be of greater magnitude in males than in females and, in all scales, the benefits were observed from the lowest frequencies of MVPA, especially in males. Conclusions A protective effect of MVPA was found in both sexes for the four health indicators studied, and this activity had a gradient effect. Among males, health benefits were detected from very low levels of physical activity and the magnitude of the relationship was greater than that for females. PMID:23676798

  18. New functional handle for use as a self-reporting contrast and delivery agent in nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Robin, Mathew P; Mabire, Anne B; Damborsky, Joanne C; Thom, Elizabeth S; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H; Raymond, Jeffery E; O'Reilly, Rachel K

    2013-06-26

    The synthesis and photophysical characterization of a chromophore-bridged block copolymer system is presented. This system is based on a dithiomaleimide (DTM) functional group as a highly emissive functionality which can readily be incorporated into polymeric scaffolds. A key advantage of this new reporter group is its versatile chemistry, ease of further functionalization, and notably small size, which allows for ready incorporation without affecting or disrupting the self-assembly process critical to the formation of core-shell polymeric contrast and drug delivery agents. We demonstrate the potential of this functionality with a diblock system which has been shown to be appropriate for micellization and, when in the micellar state, does not self-quench. The block copolymer is shown to be significantly more emissive than the lone dye, with a concentration-independent emission and anisotropy profile from 1.5 mM to 0.15 μM. An emission lifetime and anisotropy decay comparison of the block copolymer to its micelle displays that time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) is able to rapidly resolve differences in the supramolecular state of this block-dye-block polymer system. Furthermore, the ability to resolve these differences in the supramolecular state means that the DTM micelles are capable of self-reporting when disassembly occurs, simply by monitoring with FLIM. We demonstrate the great potential for in vitro applications that this system provides by using FLIM to observe micelle disassembly in different vascular components of rat hippocampal tissue. In total this system represents a new class of in-chain emitter which is appropriate for application in quantitative imaging and the tracking of particle degradation/disassembly events in biological environments.

  19. Self-reported driving behaviors as a function of trait anxiety.

    PubMed

    Shahar, Amit

    2009-03-01

    This study examined self-reported driving behaviors in 120 (Israeli) male drivers as a function of trait anxiety (TA). TA was assessed through the TA scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. For the analysis of driving behaviors, the present study used the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and adopted previous distinctions between four classes of behaviors within the DBQ: errors, lapses, ordinary violations and aggressive violations. Regression analyses revealed that level of TA had a significant direct positive effect on all dependent variables, suggesting riskier driving behaviors among high-anxious individuals. Significant logarithmic effects for all measures indicate that these aberrant driving behaviors increase more at increasing LTA-, than at increasing HTA-values. Consistent with the general adverse effects of anxiety on performance effectiveness, the present findings as well, are interpreted in the framework of theories which suggest that worries occupy the capacities of working memory, at the expense of the task to be performed. The positive relation between aggressive violations and TA is sought to reflect low levels of emotional adjustment among high-anxious individuals.

  20. Analytical, Creative, and Practical Intelligence as Predictors of Self-reported Adaptive Functioning: A Case Study in Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigorenko, Elena L.; Sternberg, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    Studied the efficacy of the triarchic theory of intelligence as a basis for predicting adaptive functioning in a rapidly changing society, that of Russia. Results of intelligence measures administered to 452 women and 293 men show that analytical, practical, and creative intelligence all relate in some degree to self-reported everyday adaptive…

  1. Regression-Based Estimates of Observed Functional Status in Centenarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Meghan B.; Miller, L. Stephen; Woodard, John L.; Davey, Adam; Martin, Peter; Burgess, Molly; Poon, Leonard W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: There is lack of consensus on the best method of functional assessment, and there is a paucity of studies on daily functioning in centenarians. We sought to compare associations between performance-based, self-report, and proxy report of functional status in centenarians. We expected the strongest relationships between proxy…

  2. Self-report measures of executive function problems correlate with personality, not performance-based executive function measures, in nonclinical samples.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Researchers and clinicians often measure executive function in patients and normal samples. In addition to cognitive tests that objectively measure executive function, several instruments have been developed that address individuals' everyday experience of executive problems. Such self-report measures of executive problems may have value, but there are questions about the extent to which they tap objectively measurable executive problems or are influenced by variables such as personality. Relationships between self-reported executive problems, personality, and cognitive test performance were assessed in 3 separate, well-powered, methodologically distinct correlational studies using nonclinical samples. These studies used multiple measures of personality and self-reported executive function problems. Across all 3 studies, self-reported executive function problems were found to correlate with neuroticism and with low conscientiousness, with medium to large effect sizes. However self-reported problems did not correlate with performance on Trail Making, Phonemic Fluency, Semantic Fluency, or Digit Span tests tapping executive function. A key implication of these findings is that in nonclinical samples, self-report questionnaires may not be proxies for executive functioning as measured by neuropsychological tests.

  3. Self-reported body weight and height: an assessment tool for identifying children with overweight/obesity status and cardiometabolic risk factors clustering.

    PubMed

    Chan, Noel P T; Choi, Kai C; Nelson, E Anthony S; Sung, Rita Y T; Chan, Juliana C N; Kong, Alice P S

    2013-02-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used for assessing body fat. Self-reported body weight and height derived BMI (SRDBMI) is a simple, low cost and non-invasive assessment tool and it may be a useful self-reported assessment tool to monitor the prevalence of overweight/obesity in community settings and for epidemiological research. We assessed the agreement of BW and BH between assessor measured and child self-reported values and evaluated the diagnostic ability of SRDBMI to identify children with overweight/obesity status and cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) clustering. A cross-sectional study was conducted in school settings using a cluster sampling method. A total of 1,614 children aged 6-18 years were included in the analysis. Children were given a questionnaire to complete at home prior to the anthropometric measurements and blood taking at the schools. There was almost perfect agreement on BW, BH and BMI between self-reported and measured values [intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.93 (95% CI: 0.93-0.94) to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.98-0.99)]. About half of the children reported their BW and BH absolute values within 1 kg and 2 cm of measured values, respectively. The SRDBMI demonstrated good diagnostic ability for identifying children with overweight/obesity status (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values ranged from 0.83 to 0.98) and CMRFs clustering (AUC-ROCs values of BMI between measured and self-reported values were close ranging from 0.85 to 0.89). Self-reported BW and BH demonstrated almost perfect agreement with measured values and could substantially identify children with overweight/obesity status and CMRFs clustering.

  4. Can self-report instruments of shoulder function capture functional differences in older adults with and without a rotator cuff tear?

    PubMed

    Vidt, Meghan E; Santago, Anthony C; Hegedus, Eric J; Marsh, Anthony P; Tuohy, Christopher J; Poehling, Gary G; Freehill, Michael T; Miller, Michael E; Saul, Katherine R

    2016-08-01

    Rotator cuff tears (RCT) are prevalent in older individuals and may compound age-associated functional declines. Our purpose was to determine whether self-report measures of perceived functional ability are valid for older patients with RCT. Twenty five subjects participated (12M/13F; age=63.9±3.0years); 13 with RCT and 12 controls (CON). Participants completed self-report measures of shoulder function (SST, ASES, WORC) and health-related quality of life (SF-36). Isometric joint moment and range of motion (ROM) were measured at the shoulder. Relationships among functional self-reports, and between these measures and joint moment and ROM were assessed; group differences for total and subcategory scores were evaluated. There were significant correlations among self-reports (rs=0.62-0.71, p⩽0.02). For RCT subjects, ASES was associated with all joint moments except adduction (p⩽0.02); SST, ASES, and WORC were associated with abduction and external rotation ROM (p⩽0.04). For RCT subjects, SST and WORC were associated with SF-36 physical function subcategory scores (p⩽0.05). The RCT group scored worse than CON on all functional self-reports (p<0.01) and WORC and ASES subcategories (p<0.01). In conclusion, SST, ASES, and WORC demonstrate utility and discriminant validity for older individuals by distinguishing those with RCT, but this work suggests prioritizing ASES given its stronger association with functional group strength.

  5. Preoperative physical performance predictors of self-reported physical function and quality of life in patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Chul Woong; Kim, Bo Ryun; Han, Eun Young; Kim, Sang Rim

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To determine the preoperative self-reported and performance-based physical function of patients with end-stage knee osteoarthritis who awaited total knee arthroplasty. The preoperative physical performance factors that predicted self-reported physical function and quality of life were also identified. [Subjects and Methods] All adults with end-stage knee osteoarthritis awaiting surgery were enrolled. Before surgery, self-reported disease-specific physical function and self-reported pain were measured using the Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, self-reported quality of life was measured using the EuroQOL five dimensions questionnaire, and physical performance tests were performed, the 6 minute walk test, the timed up-and-go test, instrumental gait analysis, and measurement of isometric knee flexor and extensor strength of the surgical and nonsurgical knees. [Results] In total, 55 adults (49 females; 73.3 ± 6.1 years) were included. This study showed that several preoperative self-reported and physical performance factors were predictive of self-reported physical function and quality of life. [Conclusion] In patients with end-stage knee osteoarthritis, preoperative pain and dynamic balance ability were the most powerful predictors of self-reported physical function. Preoperative pain and exercise tolerance were the most powerful predictors of quality of life. Preoperative rehabilitation strategies that focus on dynamic balance, aerobic, and resistance exercises may improve surgical outcomes. PMID:27942153

  6. Ankle proprioceptive acuity is associated with objective as well as self-report measures of balance, mobility, and physical function.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Nandini; Simonsick, Eleanor; Metter, E Jeffrey; Ko, Seunguk; Ferrucci, Luigi; Studenski, Stephanie

    2016-06-01

    Ankle proprioceptive information is integrated by the central nervous system to generate and modulate muscle contractions for maintaining standing balance. This study evaluated the association of ankle joint proprioception with objective and self-report measures of balance, mobility, and physical function across the adult life span. Seven hundred and ninety participants (age range 24-97 years, 362 women) who completed ankle proprioception assessment between 2010 and 2014 were included in the present study from the population-based cohort of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), USA. Outcome measures included ankle joint proprioception measured as threshold for perception of passive movement (TPPM); single leg stance time; perceived difficulty for standing balance; usual, fastest, and narrow-path gait speed; walking index; short physical performance battery score; and self-reported activity restriction due to fear of falling. Descriptive variables included age, sex, body mass index, education, strength, and cognition. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) in general linear model (GLM) or multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed, as appropriate, to test the hypothesis that balance, mobility, and physical function were significantly different according to TPPM quintiles even after adjusting for relevant covariates. Those with TPPM >2.2° consistently demonstrated poor balance, mobility, and physical function. However, with increase in challenge (single leg stance, fastest walking speed, and SPPB), TPPM >1.4° was associated with significantly worse performance. In conclusion, ankle proprioceptive acuity has an overall graded relationship with objective and self-report measures of balance, mobility, and physical function. However, the cutoff proprioceptive acuity associated with substantial decline or inability to perform could depend on the challenge induced.

  7. Development and Initial Evaluation of a Self-Report Form of the DSM-5 Level of Personality Functioning Scale.

    PubMed

    Morey, Leslie C

    2017-02-27

    The DSM-5 presents an Alternative Model for Personality Disorder (AMPD) recommending the assessment of impairments in core personality functions as well as clinically relevant personality traits. Although a self-report assessment instrument has been provided corresponding to the trait model proposed in the AMPD, no comparable instrument provides a direct assessment of the specific indicators of core personality functions described in that model. The goal of this paper is to provide preliminary reliability and validity data for a measure that directly corresponds to core personality pathology as operationalized in the AMPD. Self-report questions were generated to capture each diagnostic indicator provided in the Level of Personality Functioning Scale, a clinician rating guide provided in the AMPD that describes characteristic impairments in identity, self-direction, empathy, and intimacy at 5 different levels of personality functioning. These questions were administered to a community sample of 306 participants, with the resulting scale examined for internal consistency, unidimensionality, and concurrent validity with 4 other self-report measures of global personality dysfunction. Items representing the 4 subcomponents of personality dysfunction were found to manifest high degrees of internal consistency, and were highly related to each other, supporting the AMPD contention that these core dysfunctions reflect a single dimension of personality dysfunction. Correlations with concurrent validity measures were large, with associations at the global level of dysfunction often exceeding .80. The developed instrument is reprinted in the supplementary materials, with the goal of encouraging additional refinement and development by other investigators as part of the call for additional research on the AMPD. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. A dysphoric's TALE: The relationship between the self-reported functions of autobiographical memory and symptoms of depression.

    PubMed

    Grace, Lydia; Dewhurst, Stephen A; Anderson, Rachel J

    2016-10-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) is believed to serve self, social and directive functions; however, little is known regarding how this triad of functions operates in depression. Using the Thinking About Life Experiences questionnaire [Bluck, S., & Alea, N. (2011). Crafting the TALE: Construction of a measure to assess the functions of autobiographical remembering. Memory, 19, 470-486.; Bluck, S., Alea, N., Habermas, T., & Rubin, D. C. (2005). A TALE of three functions: The self-reported uses of autobiographical memory. Social Cognition, 23, 91-117.], two studies explored the relationship between depressive symptomology and the self-reported frequency and usefulness of AMs for self, social and directive purposes. Study 1 revealed that thinking more frequently but talking less frequently about past life events was significantly associated with higher depression scores. Recalling past events more frequently to maintain self-continuity was also significantly associated with higher depressive symptomology. However, results from Study 2 indicated that higher levels of depression were also significantly associated with less-frequent useful recollections of past life events for self-continuity purposes. Taken together, the findings suggest atypical utilisations of AM to serve self-continuity functions in depression and can be interpreted within the wider context of ruminative thought processes.

  9. Self-Reported Sleep Disturbance among African-American Elderly: The Effects of Depression, Health Status, Exercise, and Social Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Mohsen

    1996-01-01

    Investigates prevalence, correlates, and self-reported difficulties in initiating and maintaining sleep for a sample of 998 black elderly subjects. The majority (68.3%) of the sample had no trouble falling asleep. Over 14.5% of men and 23.6% of women reported sleep latencies exceeding 30 minutes. Almost 13% reported less than 4 hours of sleep a…

  10. The Effects of Depression, Health Status, and Stressful Life-Events on Self-Reported Memory Problems among Aged Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Mohsen; Barbre, Ann R.

    1994-01-01

    Examined prevalence and correlates of self-reported memory problems among 1,250 black elders. Over 48.3% of sample reported poor memory/forgetfulness as very or somewhat serious problem. Subjects with hearing impairments, higher number of stressful life events, higher level of depression, and poorer health were more likely to complain of memory…

  11. Perception makes the difference: the association of actual and perceived weight status with self-reported and parent-reported personal resources and well-being in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Tanja; Eschenbeck, Heike; Krug, Susanne; Schlaud, Martin; Kohlmann, Carl-Walter

    2012-11-01

    The study analyzed associations between actual weight status and weight perceptions with personal resources, physical and psychological health, as well as physical performance among adolescents (N = 5,518; age: 11-17 years). Analyses are based on data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Self-report measures, parental reports, as well as objective test data were considered. Results indicate that weight perceptions, rather than actual weight status, were associated with personal resources, health, and perceived physical performance. Comparing groups, we found that adolescents who felt they had "just the right weight" achieved more favourable results than those who perceived themselves as "too fat", regardless of their actual weight status. However, actual physical performance was predicted better by actual weight status. Furthermore, weight perceptions were found to mediate the link between actual weight status and all the assessed outcomes (personal resources, health, and physical performance). With respect to self-reports, the mediational effect was consistently stronger for girls, whereas the reverse was true regarding physical performance. Parental reports were not moderated by sex. Findings provide further evidence that among overweight adolescents there are subgroups that differ significantly with regard to risks and resources. Implications for practice are discussed.

  12. Associations Between Self-Reported Discrimination and Diurnal Cortisol Rhythms Among Young Adults: The Moderating Role of Racial-Ethnic Minority Status

    PubMed Central

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Hoyt, Lindsay T.; Adam, Emma K.

    2014-01-01

    Discrimination is theorized to set in motion a neuroendocrine response, which includes cortisol secretion from the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Repeated exposure to perceived discrimination is thought to contribute to alterations in diurnal cortisol rhythms and to have implications for health. Discrimination may have particularly strong effects on racial/ethnic minority individuals, based on histories of past exposure and/or greater perceived implications of discriminatory events. Utilizing an ethnically and racially diverse sample of young adults (N = 140; Mage = 22.8 years) and a multiple-day naturalistic cortisol protocol, the present study examined associations between self-reported discrimination and cortisol diurnal rhythms, and whether this relation was moderated by racial/ethnic minority status. Results revealed that self-reported discrimination predicted flatter diurnal cortisol slopes for racial/ethnic minority individuals only. These findings align with theory suggesting that discrimination experiences are important among racial/ethnic minorities. PMID:25262035

  13. Associations between self-reported discrimination and diurnal cortisol rhythms among young adults: The moderating role of racial-ethnic minority status.

    PubMed

    Zeiders, Katharine H; Hoyt, Lindsay T; Adam, Emma K

    2014-12-01

    Discrimination is theorized to set in motion a neuroendocrine response, which includes cortisol secretion from the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Repeated exposure to perceived discrimination is thought to contribute to alterations in diurnal cortisol rhythms and to have implications for health. Discrimination may have particularly strong effects on racial/ethnic minority individuals, based on histories of past exposure and/or greater perceived implications of discriminatory events. Utilizing an ethnically and racially diverse sample of young adults (N=140; Mage=22.8 years) and a multiple-day naturalistic cortisol protocol, the present study examined associations between self-reported discrimination and diurnal cortisol rhythms, and whether this relation was moderated by racial/ethnic minority status. Results revealed that self-reported discrimination predicted flatter diurnal cortisol slopes for racial/ethnic minority individuals only. These findings align with theory suggesting that discrimination experiences are important among racial/ethnic minorities.

  14. Test-retest reliability of pain-related functional brain connectivity compared with pain self-report.

    PubMed

    Letzen, Janelle E; Boissoneault, Jeff; Sevel, Landrew S; Robinson, Michael E

    2016-03-01

    Test-retest reliability, or reproducibility of results over time, is poorly established for functional brain connectivity (fcMRI) during painful stimulation. As reliability informs the validity of research findings, it is imperative to examine, especially given recent emphasis on using functional neuroimaging as a tool for biomarker development. Although proposed pain neural signatures have been derived using complex, multivariate algorithms, even the reliability of less complex fcMRI findings has yet to be reported. This study examined the test-retest reliability for fcMRI of pain-related brain regions, and self-reported pain (through visual analogue scales [VASs]). Thirty-two healthy individuals completed 3 consecutive fMRI runs of a thermal pain task. Functional connectivity analyses were completed on pain-related brain regions. Intraclass correlations were conducted on fcMRI values and VAS scores across the fMRI runs. Intraclass correlations coefficients for fcMRI values varied widely (range = -.174-.766), with fcMRI between right nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex showing the highest reliability (range = .649-.766). Intraclass correlations coefficients for VAS scores ranged from .906 to .947. Overall, self-reported pain was more reliable than fcMRI data. These results highlight that fMRI findings might be less reliable than inherently assumed and have implications for future studies proposing pain markers.

  15. Change in self-reported health status among immigrants in the United States: associations with measures of acculturation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunmin; O'Neill, Allison H; Ihara, Emily S; Chae, David H

    2013-01-01

    Although acculturation may have positive effects for immigrants, including better socioeconomic profiles and increased occupational opportunities, their health profiles deteriorate with longer duration in the U.S. Prior research indicates that increasing acculturation is associated with some poorer health outcomes among immigrants in the U.S. However, most of these studies have used length of stay or English language proficiency as proxies for acculturation, and have mainly examined self-reported "current" health outcomes. This study advances knowledge on associations between acculturation and health among immigrants by explicitly examining self-reported "change" in health since immigration, in relation to acculturation-related variables. We use data from the New Immigrant Survey (NIS; 2003-2004), a cross-sectional study of legal immigrants to the U.S. In addition to testing more conventionally examined proxies of acculturation (length of stay and English proficiency), we also examine English language use and self-reported change in diet. Multivariable logistic regression analyses on 5,982 participants generally supported previous literature indicating a deleterious impact of acculturation, with increasing duration of stay and greater self-reported change in diet being associated with a poorer change in health since moving to the U.S. Although English language proficiency and use were associated with greater odds of reporting a worse change in health when examined individually, they were non-significant in multivariable models including all acculturation measures. Findings from this study suggest that when taking into account multiple measures of acculturation, language may not necessarily indicate unhealthy assimilation and dietary change may be a pathway leading to declines in immigrant health. Increasing duration in the U.S. may also reflect the adoption of unhealthy behaviors, as well as greater exposure to harmful sources of psychosocial stress including

  16. Gross Motor Function Classification System used in adults with cerebral palsy: agreement of self-reported versus professional rating.

    PubMed

    Jahnsen, Reidun; Aamodt, Geir; Rosenbaum, Peter

    2006-09-01

    The present study investigated the reliability of self-reported rating of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels compared with professional rating, and changes in gross motor function over time, in adults with cerebral palsy. Twenty-nine females and 33 males aged between 18 years 5 months and 62 years 11 months (mean age 34y 7mo [SD 10y 6mo]) participated in the study. Participants rated their current gross motor function using the GMFCS and reported their judgement of their gross motor function at age 10 to 12 years. The project leader, a physical therapist, also classified participants' current GMFCS levels and conducted a chart review on all accessible medical records of participants' gross motor function when they were 10 to 12 years old, rating the GMFCS level accordingly. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between self-reported and professional ratings showed excellent agreement (ICC=0.93-0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89-0.97). More than half the participants experienced a stable gross motor function from the age of 10 to 12 years to the present. Those at GMFCS Levels II and III at the age of 10 to 12 years (according to the professional rating) had significant change for the worse in gross motor function over time, with odds ratios of 9.30 (95% CI 1.2-73.0, p=0.03) and 7.00 (95% CI 1.1-43.0, p=0.04) respectively. Interview data on circumstances regarding changes in gross motor function since childhood are also reported. Changes in GMFCS level were mostly associated with physical or social environmental factors.

  17. Self-Reported Sexual Function Measures Administered to Female Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review, 2008–2014

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, Diana D.; Barbera, Lisa; Andersen, Barbara L.; Siston, Amy K.; Jhingran, Anuja; Baron, Shirley R.; Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Coady, Deborah J.; Carter, Jeanne; Flynn, Kathryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Background A systematic review was conducted to identify and characterize self-reported sexual function (SF) measures administered to women with a history of cancer. Methods Using 2009 PRISMA guidelines, we searched electronic bibliographic databases for quantitative studies published January 2008–September 2014 that used a self-reported measure of SF, or a quality of life (QOL) measure that contained at least one item pertaining to SF. Results Of 1,487 articles initially identified, 171 were retained. The studies originated in 36 different countries with 23% from U.S.-based authors. Most studies focused on women treated for breast, gynecologic, or colorectal cancer. About 70% of the articles examined SF as the primary focus; the remaining examined QOL, menopausal symptoms, or compared treatment modalities. We identified 37 measures that assessed at least one domain of SF, eight of which were dedicated SF measures developed with cancer patients. Almost one-third of the studies used EORTC QLQ modules to assess SF, and another third used the Female Sexual Function Inventory. There were few commonalities among studies, though nearly all demonstrated worse SF after cancer treatment or compared to healthy controls. Conclusions QOL measures are better suited to screening while dedicated SF questionnaires provide data for more in depth assessment. This systematic review will assist oncology clinicians and researchers in their selection of measures of SF and encourage integration of this quality of life domain in patient care. PMID:25997102

  18. Reconsultation, self-reported health status and costs following treatment at a musculoskeletal Clinical Assessment and Treatment Service (CATS): a 12-month prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Roddy, Edward; Jordan, Kelvin P; Oppong, Raymond; Chen, Ying; Jowett, Sue; Dawes, Peter; Hider, Samantha L; Packham, Jon; Stevenson, Kay; Zwierska, Irena; Hay, Elaine M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine (1) reconsultation frequency, (2) change in self-reported health status, (3) baseline factors associated with reconsultation and change in health status and (4) associated healthcare costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), following assessment at a musculoskeletal Clinical and Assessment Treatment Service (CATS). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Single musculoskeletal CATS at the primary–secondary care interface. Participants 2166 CATS attenders followed-up by postal questionnaires at 6 and 12 months and review of medical records. Outcome measures Primary outcome was consultation in primary care with the same musculoskeletal problem within 12 months. Secondary outcome measures were consultation at the CATS with the same musculoskeletal problem within 12 months, physical function and pain (Short Form-36), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), time off work, healthcare costs and QALYs. Results Over 12 months, 507 (38%) reconsulted for the same problem in primary care and 345 (26%) at the CATS. Primary care reconsultation in the first 3 months was associated with baseline pain interference (relative risk ratio 5.33; 95% CI 3.23 to 8.80) and spinal pain (1.75; 1.09 to 2.82), and after 3–6 months with baseline assessment by a hospital specialist (2.06; 1.13 to 3.75). Small mean improvements were seen in physical function (1.88; 95% CI 1.44 to 2.32) and body pain (3.86; 3.38 to 4.34) at 6 months. Poor physical function at 6 months was associated with obesity, chronic pain and poor baseline physical function. Mean (SD) 6-month cost and QALYs per patient were £422.40 (660.11) and 0.257 (0.144), respectively. Conclusions While most patients are appropriate for a ‘one-stop shop’ model, those with troublesome, disabling pain and spinal pain commonly reconsult and have ongoing problems. Services should be configured to identify and address such clinical complexity. PMID:27733409

  19. Change in Self-Reported Health Status among Immigrants in the United States: Associations with Measures of Acculturation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sunmin; O’Neill, Allison H.; Ihara, Emily S.; Chae, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Although acculturation may have positive effects for immigrants, including better socioeconomic profiles and increased occupational opportunities, their health profiles deteriorate with longer duration in the U.S. Prior research indicates that increasing acculturation is associated with some poorer health outcomes among immigrants in the U.S. However, most of these studies have used length of stay or English language proficiency as proxies for acculturation, and have mainly examined self-reported “current” health outcomes. This study advances knowledge on associations between acculturation and health among immigrants by explicitly examining self-reported “change” in health since immigration, in relation to acculturation-related variables. We use data from the New Immigrant Survey (NIS; 2003-2004), a cross-sectional study of legal immigrants to the U.S. In addition to testing more conventionally examined proxies of acculturation (length of stay and English proficiency), we also examine English language use and self-reported change in diet. Multivariable logistic regression analyses on 5,982 participants generally supported previous literature indicating a deleterious impact of acculturation, with increasing duration of stay and greater self-reported change in diet being associated with a poorer change in health since moving to the U.S. Although English language proficiency and use were associated with greater odds of reporting a worse change in health when examined individually, they were non-significant in multivariable models including all acculturation measures. Findings from this study suggest that when taking into account multiple measures of acculturation, language may not necessarily indicate unhealthy assimilation and dietary change may be a pathway leading to declines in immigrant health. Increasing duration in the U.S. may also reflect the adoption of unhealthy behaviors, as well as greater exposure to harmful sources of psychosocial stress

  20. The relationship between social support and self-reported health status in immigrants: an adjusted analysis in the Madrid Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Social support is an important factor in the adaptation process of immigrants, helping for their integration in a new environment. The lack of social support may influence on well-being and health status. The aim of this study is to describe the social support of immigrant and native population and study the possible association between immigration and lack social support after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, income, stress and self-reported health status. Methods Cross-sectional population based study of immigrants and national patients without mental disorders of 15 urban primary health centers in the north-eastern area of Madrid. Participants provided information on social support, stress level, perceived health status and socio-economic characteristics. Descriptive and multiple logistic regression were conducted. Results The proportion of the global perception of social support among immigrants and natives was 79.2% and 94.2%, respectively. The lack of global social support adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) of immigrant was 2.72 (95% Confidence Interval = 1.81-4.09), showing a significant association with being male (PR = 2.26), having monthly income below 500 euros (PR = 3.81) and suffering stress (PR = 1.94). For the dimensions of lack of social support the higher association was being an immigrant and suffering stress. Conclusions We conclude that with regardless of the level of monthly income, stress level, self-reported health status, and gender, immigrant status is directly associated with lack social support. The variable most strongly associated with lack social support has been monthly income below 500 euros. PMID:21651759

  1. Relating emotional abilities to social functioning: a comparison of self-report and performance measures of emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Brackett, Marc A; Rivers, Susan E; Shiffman, Sara; Lerner, Nicole; Salovey, Peter

    2006-10-01

    Three studies used J. D. Mayer and P. Salovey's (1997) theory of emotional intelligence (EI) as a framework to examine the role of emotional abilities (assessed with both self-report and performance measures) in social functioning. Self-ratings were assessed in ways that mapped onto the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), a validated performance measure of EI. In Study 1, self-ratings and MSCEIT scores were not strongly correlated. In Study 2, men's MSCEIT scores, but not self-ratings, correlated with perceived social competence after personality measures were held constant. In Study 3, only the MSCEIT predicted real-time social competence, again, just for men. Implications for analyzing how emotional abilities contribute to social behavior are discussed, as is the importance of incorporating gender into theoretical frameworks and study designs.

  2. Structural and functional neural correlates of self-reported attachment in healthy adults: evidence for an amygdalar involvement.

    PubMed

    Rigon, Arianna; Duff, Melissa C; Voss, Michelle W

    2016-12-01

    The concept of attachment in long-term interpersonal relationships has been linked to relationship outcome and social-emotional health. To date, no relationship between the structural properties of the human amygdala and attachment in romantic relationships (measured through self-reported attachment related anxiety and avoidance) has been described. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between amygdala structure as well as amygdala structural and functional connectivity and attachment anxiety and avoidance. To this end, we collected self-report attachment data on a sample of female young adults. We then examined associations between attachment and mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy and resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-FC) of the amygdala and its white matter connections with the prefrontal cortex. We found that lower integrity of the left amygdala was linked with attachment avoidance (e.g., being less comfortable in seeking proximity with others and depending on others) and that greater structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus was positively associated with avoidance. Lastly, we found that stronger rs-FC between the bilateral amygdala and medial prefrontal regions was linked with greater avoidance. Our findings are compatible with and expand previous results reported by studies that have taken a task-related fMRI approach, furthering our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of attachment, and in particular implicating the system formed by amygdala and prefrontal areas in the patterns of behavior that regulate emotional proximity in romantic relationships. These findings have the potential to further our understanding of the affective mechanisms underlying attachment behavior.

  3. Self Reports of Day-to-Day Function in a Small Cohort of People with Prodromal and Early HD

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Janet; Downing, Nancy; Vaccarino, Anthony L; Guttman, Mark; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2011-01-01

    Day-to-day functioning is a component of health-related quality of life and is an important end point for therapies to treat Huntington Disease (HD). Specific areas of day-to-day function changes have not been reported for prodromal or very early stages of HD. An exploratory self-report telephone interview was conducted with sixteen people with prodromal HD or early HD who met criteria designed to capture research participants most near to motor diagnosis. All completed semi-structured interviews on function in nine aspects of day-to-day life. Out of 16, 14 reported changes in at least one area. All day-to-day function areas were endorsed by at least one participant with driving being the most common area endorsed by 11/16. Changes in ability to perform some day-to-day tasks are experienced by people who are close to the time of clinical diagnosis for HD. Functional ability is likely to be an important component of outcome assessments of clinical trials and in ongoing clinical management. PMID:21901173

  4. Assessing physical functioning on pain management programmes: the unique contribution of directly assessed physical performance measures and their relationship to self-reports

    PubMed Central

    Guildford, Beth J; Jacobs, Clair M; Daly-Eichenhardt, Aisling; Scott, Whitney; McCracken, Lance M

    2016-01-01

    Physical functioning is a recommended outcome domain for pain management programmes. It can be assessed by self-report and by direct assessment of performance. Although physical performance measures may provide unique and useful information about patient functioning over and above self-report measures, it is not entirely clear which of the many possible performances to assess. This study investigated a battery of three directly assessed physical performance measures and their relationship to three currently used self-report measures of general health and functioning. The three performance measures were sensitive to treatment; patients performed significantly better on all three measures following completion of the pain management programme. The three performance measures were shown to represent a single underlying dimension, and there was a significant degree of overlap between them. The performance measures were shown to be relevant in explaining variation in the self-report measures, as well as to offer a clinically relevant different dimension of assessment to self-report. Future research could focus on developing performance-based measures that capture quality of movement and that are sensitive to relevant processes of therapeutic change. PMID:28386404

  5. Self-Report Assessment of Executive Functioning in College Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieve, Adam; Webne-Behrman, Lisa; Couillou, Ryan; Sieben-Schneider, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a unique assessment of executive functioning (EF) among postsecondary students with disabilities, with the aim of understanding the extent to which students with different disabilities and in different age groups assess their own difficulties with relevant and educationally-adaptive skills such as planning, initiating, managing…

  6. The Effect of Self-Reported and Performance-Based Functional Impairment on Future Hospital Costs of Community-Dwelling Older Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuben, David B.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Keeler, Emmett; Hayes, Risa P.; Bowman, Lee; Sewall, Ase; Hirsch, Susan H.; Wallace, Robert B.; Guralnik, Jack M.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: We determined the prognostic value of self-reported and performance-based measurement of function, including functional transitions and combining different measurement approaches, on utilization. Design and Methods: Our cohort study used the 6th, 7th, and 10th waves of three sites of the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies…

  7. Self-reported HIV and HCV Screening Rates and Sero-Status among Substance Abuse Treatment Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Diana; Feaster, Daniel J.; Gooden, Lauren; Douaihy, Antoine; Mandler, Raul; Erickson, Sarah J.; Kyle, Tiffany; Haynes, Louise; Schwartz, Robert; Das, Moupali; Metsch, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Substance users are at increased risk for HIV and HCV infection. Still, many substance use treatment programs (SUTP) fail to offer HIV/HCV testing. The present secondary analysis of screening data from a multi-site randomized trial of rapid HIV testing examines self-reported HIV/HCV testing patterns and serostatus of 2,473 SUTP patients in 12 community-based sites that had not previously offered on-site testing. Results indicate that most respondents screened for the randomized trial tested more than a year prior to intake for HIV (52%) and HCV (38%). Prevalence rates were 3.6% and 30% for HIV and HCV, respectively. The majority of participants that were HIV (52.2%) and HCV-positive (40.5%) reported having been diagnosed within the last one to five years. Multivariable logistic regression showed that members of high-risk groups were more likely to have tested. Bundled HIV/HCV testing and linkage to care issues are recommended for expanding testing in community-based SUTP settings. PMID:25952768

  8. Clinical Presentation and Self-Reported Patterns of Pain and Function in Patients with Plantar Heel Pain

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Sandra E.; Dale, Ann Marie; Hayes, Marcie Harris; Johnson, Jeffrey E.; McCormick, Jeremy J.; Racette, Brad A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Plantar heel pain is a common disorder of the foot for which patients seek medical treatment. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between duration of symptoms in plantar fasciitis patients and demographic factors, the intensity and location of pain, extent of previous treatment and self reported pain and function. Methods The charts of patients presenting with plantar heel pain between June 2008 and October 2010 were reviewed retrospectively and 182 patients with a primary diagnosis of plantar fasciitis were identified. Patients with symptoms less than 6 months were identified as acute and patients with symptoms greater than or equal to six months were defined as having chronic symptoms. Comparisons based on duration of symptoms were performed for age, gender, BMI, comorbidities, pain location and intensity, and a functional score measured by the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM). Results The two groups were similar in age, BMI, gender, and comorbidities. Pain severity, as measured by a VAS, was not statistically significant between the two groups (6.6 and 6.2). The acute and chronic groups of patients reported similar levels of function on both the activity of daily living (62 and 65) and sports (47 and 45) subscales of the FAAM. Patients in the chronic group were more likely to have seen more providers and tried more treatment options for this condition. Conclusion As plantar fasciitis symptoms extend beyond 6 months, patients do not experience increasing pain intensity or functional limitation. No specific risk factors have been identified to indicate a risk of developing chronic symptoms. PMID:22995253

  9. Self-Reported Health and Functional Characteristics of Mexican and Mexican American Adults Aged 80 and Over

    PubMed Central

    Downer, Brian; Chen, Nai-Wei; Wong, Rebeca; Markides, Kyriakos S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the health and functional characteristics of Mexican and Mexican American adults aged ≥80. Method Data came from Wave I (2001) and Wave III (2012) of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), and Wave IV (2000–2001) and Wave VII (2010–2011) of the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (HEPESE). Results In 2000–2001, diabetes, arthritis, hypertension, and stroke were higher in the HEPESE than in the MHAS. In the HEPESE, activities of daily living (ADL) difficulties and all health conditions, except heart attack, were greater in 2010–2011 than in 2000–2001. In the MHAS, hypertension and ADL difficulties were greater, and arthritis was lower in 2012 compared with 2001. In 2010–2011, all self-reported health conditions were higher in the HEPESE compared with the 2012 observation of the MHAS. Discussion The observed differences may reflect worse health for Mexican Americans, health care access, reporting bias, and more selective survival to very old age in Mexico. PMID:27590800

  10. Effect of Social Familiarity on Salivary Cortisol and Self-Reports of Social Anxiety and Stress in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A.; Putnam, Susan K.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Nida, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of social familiarity on salivary cortisol and social anxiety/stress for a sample of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. The relationship between self-reported social anxiety/stress and salivary cortisol was also examined. Participants interacted with a familiar peer on one occasion and an…

  11. Differences in Brain Structure and Function in Older Adults with Self-Reported Disabling and Non-Disabling Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Buckalew, Neilly; Haut, Marc W.; Aizenstein, Howard; Morrow, Lisa; Perera, Subashan; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Weiner, Debra K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of this pilot study was to identify structural and functional brain differences in older adults with self-reported disabling chronic low back pain (CLBP) compared with those who reported non-disabling CLBP. Design Cross-sectional. Participants Sixteen cognitively intact older adults, eight with disabling CLBP and eight with non-disabling. Exclusions were psychiatric or neurological disorders, substance abuse, opioid use, or diabetes mellitus. Methods Participants underwent: structural and functional brain MRI; neuropsychological assessment using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, Trail Making Tests A and B; and physical performance assessment using the Short Physical Performance Battery. Results In the disabled group there was significantly lower white matter (WM) integrity (P < 0.05) of the splenium of the corpus callosum. This group also demonstrated activation of the right medial prefrontal cortex at rest whereas the non-disabled demonstrated activation of the left lateral prefrontal cortex. Combined groups analysis revealed a strong positive correlation (rs = 0.80, P < 0.0002) between WM integrity of the left centrum semiovale with gait-speed. Secondary analysis revealed a strong negative correlation between total months of CLBP and WM integrity of the SCC (rs = −0.59, P < 0.02). Conclusions Brain structure and function is different in older adults with disabling CLBP compared to those with non-disabling CLBP. Deficits in brain morphology combining groups are associated with pain duration and poor physical function. Our findings suggest brain structure and function may play a key role in chronic-pain-related-disability and may be important treatment targets. PMID:20609128

  12. Assessing quality of life of self-reported rheumatic patients.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Pedro L; Gonçalves, Sónia P; Ferreira, Lara N; Pereira, Luis N; Antunes, Patrícia; Gouveia, Nélia; Rodrigues, Ana; Canhão, Helena; Branco, Jaime

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with self-reported rheumatic diseases (RD), to classify self-reported rheumatic patients in groups according to their health state and to explore the associations between health status and sociodemographic variables. Data came from the Portuguese Epidemiologic study of the RD. A sample of the Portuguese population aged 18 or more (n = 10,661) stratified by region and locality dimension was interviewed by trained interviewers and answered a standardized questionnaire that included the SF-36v1, the EQ-5D-3L, medical history, identification of potential rheumatic diseases, sociodemographic characteristics, among others. Descriptive statistics and parametric tests were used to compare HRQoL of respondents with and without RD. Comparisons with normative data from the Portuguese population were also carried out. A cluster analysis was used to classify respondents into homogeneous groups. Regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with HRQoL. Respondents with self-reported RD assigned a lower self-perception to their health status. The burden of disease was observed mainly in physical function, role physical and bodily pain. The EQ-5D-3L dimensions show similar results: the intensity of problems is significantly more evident in respondents with self-reported RD. HRQoL of respondents with self-reported RD is related to sociodemographic variables and is significantly lower when compared with the Portuguese population. Four clusters of homogeneous respondents with self-reported RD were formed and characterized according to a number of variables. Factors associated with HRQoL were identified. In conclusion, suffering from a self-reported RD has a significant impact on self-perceived health status and on the quality of life.

  13. Determinants of the variations in self-reported health status among recent and more established immigrants in Canada.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Rajendra Prasad; Rosenberg, Mark Warren

    2014-08-01

    Studies have shown that immigrants are normally in better health on arrival compared to their Canadian-born counterparts. However, the health conditions of new immigrants deteriorate after a few years of their arrival in Canada. This phenomenon is popularly termed the "healthy immigrant effect" (HIE) in the immigrant health literature. Although different hypotheses have been proposed to understand HIE, the causes are subject to ongoing discussion. Unlike previous studies, this study explored the possible causes behind the variations in the health status of recent and more established immigrants comparing 2001 and 2010 Canadian Community Health Surveys (CCHS). Four different hypotheses - namely lifestyle change, barriers to health care services, poor social determinants of health, and work related stress - were tested to understand variations in health status. The study concludes that there is a statistically significant difference in the socioeconomic characteristics and health outcomes of immigrants having less than and more than 10 years of residency in Canada. Logistic regression models show that the health conditions of immigrants are associated with age, sex, ethnic origin, smoking habit, Body Mass Index (BMI), total household income, number of consultations made with a family doctor per year and work related stress.

  14. Musculoskeletal Pain, Self-reported Physical Function, and Quality of Life in the Teen–Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bout-Tabaku, Sharon; Michalsky, Marc P.; Jenkins, Todd M.; Baughcum, Amy; Zeller, Meg H.; Brandt, Mary L.; Courcoulas, Anita; Buncher, Ralph; Helmrath, Michael; Harmon, Carroll M.; Chen, Mike K.; Inge, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Obesity is associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain and is a risk factor for disability and osteoarthritis. OBJECTIVES To describe the prevalence, sites, and intensity of musculoskeletal pain in adolescents with severe obesity; to evaluate associations between musculoskeletal pain and self-reported physical function as well as weight-related quality of life; and to evaluate the association between musculoskeletal pain and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Teen–Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS) is a prospective, observational study that collects standardized data on adolescents undergoing weight loss surgery at 5 US centers. We examined baseline data from this cohort between February 28, 2007, and December 30, 2011. We excluded adolescents with Blount disease and slipped capital femoral epiphyses. A total of 233 participants were included in these analyses. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We assessed musculoskeletal pain and pain intensity of the lower back, hips, knees, and ankles/feet using the visual analog scale, categorizing musculoskeletal pain into lower back pain, lower extremity (hips, knees, and feet/ankles combined) pain, and no pain. We assessed self-reported physical function status with the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index and assessed weight-related quality of life with the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life–Kids measure. We adjusted for sex, race, age at surgery, body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), and clinical depressive symptoms in regression analyses. RESULTS Among the 233 participants, the mean (SD) age at surgery was 17.1 (1.56) years and the median BMI was 50.4. Participants were predominantly female (77%), white (73%), and non-Hispanic (93%). Among the participants, 49% had poor functional status and 76% had musculoskeletal pain. Lower back pain was prevalent (63%), followed by ankle

  15. Effect of September 11th terrorist attacks on the self-reported health status of Department of Defense health care beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Linton, Andrea; Hartzell, Michael C; Peterson, Michael R

    2004-11-01

    This study examined the changes in the self-reported health status of Department of Defense health care beneficiaries associated with the September 11th terrorist attacks. Responses to a single-item, general health measure from pre- and post-September 11 quarterly survey events for the calendar year 2001 were analyzed to compare the unfavorable health response rates before and after the attacks. Increases in rates of unfavorable health status following the terrorist attacks were reported by the total population and 39 of 44 subgroups examined. Statistically significant increases in unfavorable health were reported by active duty personnel and dependents of active duty personnel; beneficiaries under the age of 44 years; beneficiaries affiliated with the Army and Marines; and beneficiaries in the Mid-Atlantic, Mid-West/Central, and Pacific Rim regions. These findings suggest that stress associated with the likelihood of being deployed or having a family member deployed following the terrorist attacks significantly contributed to the increase in unfavorable health response reported on the post-September 11 survey.

  16. Association of psychological, cognitive, and functional variables with self-reported executive functioning in a sample of nondemented community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Erica P; Kapoor, Ashu; Fogel, Joshua; Elbulok-Charcape, Milushka M; Roth, Robert M; Katz, Mindy J; Lipton, Richard B; Rabin, Laura A

    2016-06-09

    Subjective executive functioning (EF) measures provide valuable information about real-world difficulties, although it is unclear what variables actually associate with subjective EF scores. We investigated subjective EF in 245 nondemented, community-dwelling older adults (aged 70 and above) from the Einstein Aging Study. Partial correlational analyses controlling for age were performed between the nine Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A) clinical scales and objective EF tests, self-reported mood and personality, and informant-reported activities of daily living. The significance level was set at p < .006 for all analyses (two-tailed). Most notably, higher worry/oversensitivity, physiological anxiety, and fear of aging were significantly associated with increased EF difficulties on all nine BRIEF-A scales. Additionally, increased EF difficulties on five or more BRIEF-A scales were significantly associated with lower conscientiousness, higher neuroticism, and higher depressive symptom scores. The only objective neuropsychological test that significantly correlated with increased EF difficulties (on four BRIEF-A scales) was a measure of practical judgment. Overall, results indicate that interpretation of subjective EF scores must account for self-report of mood and personality. Moreover, the BRIEF-A only minimally taps objective EF as measured by performance-based measures. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  17. The direct and indirect effects of the negative affectivity trait on self reported physical function among patients with upper extremity conditions.

    PubMed

    Talaei-Khoei, Mojtaba; Mohamadi, Amin; Mellema, Jos J; Tourjee, Stephen M; Ring, David; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2016-12-30

    Negative affectivity is a personality trait that predisposes people to psychological distress and low life satisfaction. Negative affectivity may also affect pain intensity and physical function in patients with musculoskeletal conditions. We explored the association of negative affectivity to pain intensity and self-reported physical function, and tested whether pain intensity mediates the effect of negative affectivity on physical function. In a cross-sectional study, 102 patients with upper extremity musculoskeletal conditions presenting to an orthopedic surgeon completed self-report measures of negative affectivity, pain intensity, and physical function in addition to demographic and injury information. We used the Preacher and Hayes' bootstrapping approach to quantify the indirect effect of negative affectivity on physical function through pain intensity. Negative affectivity correlated with greater pain intensity and lower self-reported physical function significantly. Also, pain intensity mediated the association of negative affectivity with physical function. The indirect effect accounted for one-third of the total effect. To conclude, negative affectivity is associated with decreased engagement in daily life activities both directly, but also indirectly through increased pain intensity. Treatments targeting negative affectivity may be more economical and efficient for alleviation of pain and limitations associated with musculoskeletal illness than those addressing coping strategies or psychological distress.

  18. Participation bias in postal surveys among older adults: the role played by self-reported health, physical functional decline and frailty.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Philipe de Souto

    2012-01-01

    Postal survey is a simple and efficient way to collect information in large study samples. The purpose of this study was to find out differences between older adults who responded to a postal survey on health outcomes and those who did not, and to examine the importance of frailty, physical functional decline and poor self-reported health in determining non-response. We mailed out a questionnaire on general health twice at a year's interval to 1000 individuals ≥60 years, and members of the medical insurance scheme of the French national education system. At Year1, 535 persons responded to the questionnaire (65% women, 70.9 ± 8.4 years). A year later (Year2), we obtained 384 responses (63.3% women, 70.5 ± 7.8 years). Compared to respondents, non-respondents at Year2 were more frequently categorized as frail, reported more often to be in bad health, and had more physical functional declines. Frailty, physical functional decline and poor self-reported health increased the likelihood of not responding to Year2 questionnaire, with poor self-reported health weakening the association of physical functional decline and non-response. Respondents of this postal survey are fitter and healthier than non-respondents. This participation bias precludes the generalization of postal surveys results.

  19. Life after Adolescent and Adult Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Self-Reported Executive, Emotional, and Behavioural Function 2–5 Years after Injury

    PubMed Central

    Finnanger, Torun Gangaune; Olsen, Alexander; Skandsen, Toril; Lydersen, Stian; Vik, Anne; Evensen, Kari Anne I.; Catroppa, Cathy; Håberg, Asta K.; Andersson, Stein; Indredavik, Marit S.

    2015-01-01

    Survivors of moderate-severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) are at risk for long-term cognitive, emotional, and behavioural problems. This prospective cohort study investigated self-reported executive, emotional, and behavioural problems in the late chronic phase of moderate and severe TBI, if demographic characteristics (i.e., age, years of education), injury characteristics (Glasgow Coma Scale score, MRI findings such as traumatic axonal injury (TAI), or duration of posttraumatic amnesia), symptoms of depression, or neuropsychological variables in the first year after injury predicted long-term self-reported function. Self-reported executive, emotional, and behavioural functioning were assessed among individuals with moderate and severe TBI (N = 67, age range 15–65 years at time of injury) 2–5 years after TBI, compared to a healthy matched control group (N = 72). Results revealed significantly more attentional, emotional regulation, and psychological difficulties in the TBI group than controls. Demographic and early clinical variables were associated with poorer cognitive and emotional outcome. Fewer years of education and depressive symptoms predicted greater executive dysfunction. Younger age at injury predicted more aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour. TAI and depressive symptoms predicted Internalizing problems and greater executive dysfunction. In conclusion, age, education, TAI, and depression appear to elevate risk for poor long-term outcome, emphasising the need for long-term follow-up of patients presenting with risk factors. PMID:26549936

  20. Impact of a walking intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness, self-reported physical function, and pain in patients undergoing treatment for solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Kathleen; Wenzel, Jennifer; Shang, JingJing; Thompson, Carol; Stewart, Kerry; Mock, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Background Cancer treatment is associated with decline in measured and self-reported physical function and increased pain. We evaluated the impact of a walking intervention on these outcomes during chemotherapy/radiation. Methods 126 patients with breast, prostate, and other cancers were randomized to a home-based walking intervention (exercise) or usual care (control). Exercise dose during the intervention was assessed using a five-item Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ). Outcome measures were cardiorespiratory fitness, expressed as peak oxygen uptake (VO2) measured during treadmill testing (n=85) or estimated by 12-minute walk (n=27), and self-reported physical function, role limitations, and pain derived from Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) SF-36. Linear regression was used to evaluate pre-to-post intervention change outcomes between groups. Results Mean (SD) age of patients was 60.2 (10.6). Diagnoses included prostate (55.6%) and breast (32.5%) cancer. Treatment included external beam radiation (52.3%) and chemotherapy (34.9%). Exercise patients reported worsening MOS-physical function role limitations by end of cancer treatment (p=.037). Younger age was associated with improved MOS-physical function (p=.048). In all patients, increased exercise dose was associated with decreased MOS-pain (p=.046), regardless of diagnosis. The percent change of peak VO2 between prostate and non-prostate cancer patients when adjusted for baseline peak VO2 and PAQ values was 17.45% (p=0.008), with better peak VO2 maintenance in the prostate group. Conclusion Exercise during cancer treatment improves cardiorespiratory fitness and self-reported physical function in prostate cancer patients and in younger patients, regardless of diagnosis, and may attenuate loss of those capacities in patients undergoing chemotherapy. Exercise also reduces the pain experience. PMID:19637345

  1. The Effectiveness of Manual Therapy Versus Surgery on Self-reported Function, Cervical Range of Motion, and Pinch Grip Force in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cleland, Joshua; Palacios-Ceña, María; Fuensalida-Novo, Stella; Pareja, Juan A; Alonso-Blanco, Cristina

    2017-03-01

    Study Design Randomized parallel-group trial. Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common pain condition that can be managed surgically or conservatively. Objective To compare the effectiveness of manual therapy versus surgery for improving self-reported function, cervical range of motion, and pinch-tip grip force in women with CTS. Methods In this randomized clinical trial, 100 women with CTS were randomly allocated to either a manual therapy (n = 50) or a surgery (n = 50) group. The primary outcome was self-rated hand function, assessed with the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included active cervical range of motion, pinch-tip grip force, and the symptom severity subscale of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. Patients were assessed at baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the last treatment by an assessor unaware of group assignment. Analysis was by intention to treat, with mixed analyses of covariance adjusted for baseline scores. Results At 12 months, 94 women completed the follow-up. Analyses showed statistically significant differences in favor of manual therapy at 1 month for self-reported function (mean change, -0.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.1, -0.5) and pinch-tip grip force on the symptomatic side (thumb-index finger: mean change, 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.9 and thumb-little finger: mean change, 1.0; 95% CI: 0.5, 1.5). Improvements in self-reported function and pinch grip force were similar between the groups at 3, 6, and 12 months. Both groups reported improvements in symptom severity that were not significantly different at all follow-up periods. No significant changes were observed in pinch-tip grip force on the less symptomatic side and in cervical range of motion in either group. Conclusion Manual therapy and surgery had similar effectiveness for improving self-reported function, symptom severity, and pinch-tip grip force on the symptomatic hand in women with CTS. Neither manual therapy nor surgery resulted

  2. Age and Functional Health Status

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    gender such that energy level declined with older age for males, but energy level was lowest for females in the 35-49 age group. The correlations...psychosocial function," Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 185, 1963, pp. 914-919. Health Status 42 Koenig, H., "Depression and dysphoria among

  3. Self-report measures of executive functioning are a determinant of academic performance in first-year students at a university of applied sciences.

    PubMed

    Baars, Maria A E; Nije Bijvank, Marije; Tonnaer, Geertje H; Jolles, Jelle

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies in late adolescents (age 17+) show that brain development may proceed till around the 25th year of age. This implies that study performance in higher education could be dependent upon the stage of brain maturation and neuropsychological development. Individual differences in development of neuropsychological skills may thus have a substantial influence on the outcome of the educational process. This hypothesis was evaluated in a large survey of 1760 first-year students at a University of Applied Sciences, of which 1332 are included in the current analyses. This was because of their fit within the age range we pre-set (17-20 years' old at start of studies). Student characteristics and three behavioral ratings of executive functioning (EF) were evaluated with regard to their influence on academic performance. Self-report measures were used: self-reported attention, planning, and self-control and self-monitoring. Results showed that students with better self-reported EF at the start of the first year of their studies obtained more study credits at the end of that year than students with a lower EF self-rating. The correlation between self-control and self-monitoring on the one hand, and study progress on the other, appeared to differ for male and female students and to be influenced by the level of prior education. The results of this large-scale study could have practical relevance. The profound individual differences between students may at least partly be a consequence of their stage of development as an adolescent. Students who show lower levels of attention control, planning, and self-control/self-monitoring can be expected to have a problem in study planning and study progress monitoring and hence study progress. The findings imply that interventions directed at the training of these (executive) functions should be developed and used in higher education in order to improve academic achievement, learning attitude, and motivation.

  4. Self-Reported Halitosis in relation to Oral Hygiene Practices, Oral Health Status, General Health Problems, and Multifactorial Characteristics among Workers in Ilala and Temeke Municipals, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mumghamba, E. G.

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To assess self-reported halitosis, oral hygiene practices, oral health conditions, general health problems, sociodemographic factors, and behavioural and psychological characteristics among workers in Ilala and Temeke municipals. Materials and Methods. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Four hundred workers were recruited using a self-administered structured questionnaire. Results. Self-reported tooth brushing practice was 100%, tongue cleaning 58.5%, dental flossing 4.3%, gum bleeding on tooth brushing 79.3%, presence of hard deposits on teeth 32%, mobile teeth 15.3%, and self-reported halitosis (SRH) 48.5%. Tea users were 95%, coffee users 75.8%, smokers 21%, and alcohol consumers 47%. The SRH was significantly associated with bleeding gums, hard deposits, and mobile and malaligned teeth. Tongue cleaning and regular change of toothbrush were associated with low prevalence of SRH (P < 0.001). Higher occurrence of SRH was significantly related to low education and smoking. Conclusion. Self-reported halitosis was prevalent among workers and was significantly associated with bleeding gums, hard dental deposits, mobile teeth, and smoking. All participants brushed their teeth and cleaned the tongue regularly but use of dental floss was extremely low. Oral health education and health promotion are recommended. PMID:28280509

  5. Self-Reported Halitosis in relation to Oral Hygiene Practices, Oral Health Status, General Health Problems, and Multifactorial Characteristics among Workers in Ilala and Temeke Municipals, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kayombo, C M; Mumghamba, E G

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To assess self-reported halitosis, oral hygiene practices, oral health conditions, general health problems, sociodemographic factors, and behavioural and psychological characteristics among workers in Ilala and Temeke municipals. Materials and Methods. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Four hundred workers were recruited using a self-administered structured questionnaire. Results. Self-reported tooth brushing practice was 100%, tongue cleaning 58.5%, dental flossing 4.3%, gum bleeding on tooth brushing 79.3%, presence of hard deposits on teeth 32%, mobile teeth 15.3%, and self-reported halitosis (SRH) 48.5%. Tea users were 95%, coffee users 75.8%, smokers 21%, and alcohol consumers 47%. The SRH was significantly associated with bleeding gums, hard deposits, and mobile and malaligned teeth. Tongue cleaning and regular change of toothbrush were associated with low prevalence of SRH (P < 0.001). Higher occurrence of SRH was significantly related to low education and smoking. Conclusion. Self-reported halitosis was prevalent among workers and was significantly associated with bleeding gums, hard dental deposits, mobile teeth, and smoking. All participants brushed their teeth and cleaned the tongue regularly but use of dental floss was extremely low. Oral health education and health promotion are recommended.

  6. Functional assessment of nutrition status.

    PubMed

    Russell, Mary Krystofiak

    2015-04-01

    Functional status assessment has been recommended as a part of a complete nutrition assessment for decades, but the specific components of this assessment have eluded a consensus definition. The recent Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition consensus criteria for identification of malnutrition include functional assessment determined by handgrip dynamometry, with the understanding that this technique is not practical for use in some patient populations. Other techniques for functional assessment include physical performance measures such as timed gait and chair stands, as well as activities of daily living tools such as the Katz Index, Lawton Scale, and Karnofsky Scale Index. Manual muscle testing and computed tomography scan assessment of lean tissue are other tools that show promise in correlating functional and nutrition assessments. Functional assessment parameters may be least well correlated with nutrition status in older individuals. Despite a number of scientific studies of a variety of tools for functional assessment, there is to date no definitive tool for use in all individuals in all settings. Nutrition scientists and clinicians must continue to collaborate with colleagues in physical and occupational therapy, geriatrics, and nursing to refine current functional assessment tools to more effectively correlate with nutrition and malnutrition assessment parameters.

  7. Factors that influence self-reported general health status among different Asian ethnic groups: evidence from the Roadmap to the New Horizon: Linking Asians to Improved Health and Wellness study.

    PubMed

    Maty, Siobhan C; Leung, Holden; Lau, Christine; Kim, Gemma

    2011-06-01

    Little is known about the determinants of self-reported general health status among different Asian ethnic subgroups. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we designed, administered, and analyzed a cross-sectional survey of 705 Asians (292 Chinese, 226 Korean, 187 Vietnamese) in the Portland, Oregon region to describe associations between general health status and several sociodemographic and health-related factors in pooled and ethnic-group-stratified samples. Ethnic variation existed in all covariate distributions, except employment, public-service use, language use, health status, visiting healthcare providers, sleep habits, and use of prayer, meditation, yoga or acupuncture. Acculturation measures were strong predictors of poor/fair health in logistic regression models regardless of ethnicity. Ethnic variation in outcome status existed for all remaining covariates. Most health-related research overlooks the heterogeneity within the Asian population. These findings highlight substantial variability in the associations between self-reported general health status and sociodemographic and health-related measures between Asian ethnic groups.

  8. The Cross-sectional relationship of hemoglobin levels and functional outcomes in women with self-reported osteoarthrits: Results from the Women’s Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Charles B.; Hochberg, Marc C.; Assaf, Annlouise; Cryer, Byron L.; Lu, Bing; Sands, George; Rodriguez, Beatriz; LaCroix, Andrea; Lessin, Lawrence; Limacher, Marian C.; Woods, Nancy Fugate; Connelly, Stephanie; Chen, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Gastrointestinal (GI) blood loss is a recognized complication of the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) in patients with arthritis. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of patient reported outcomes of overall health, physical function, vitality and quality of life (QoL) to hemoglobin (hgb) levels in post menopausal women with self-reported osteoarthritis to determine whether hgb levels as potential markers of chronic blood loss were associated with these functional outcomes. Method Post-menopausal women (N=64,850) with self-reported osteoarthritis (srOA) at baseline in the Women’s Health Initiative study, excluding participants with chronic or hemolytic diseases associated with anemia, had hgb levels measured and completed Short Form Health Surveys (SF-36). General linear models analysis adjusting for potential confounders was performed. Results A non-linear plateauing relationship between hgb levels and functional outcomes was found. Participants with srOA had statistically significantly worse overall health, physical function, and vitality, but not QoL, for each gram of hgb below 14 g/dL, compared to those with hgb 14 g/dL (p<0.001.) Participants with srOA taking NSAIDS had worse functional outcomes for each level of Hgb compared to those not reporting NSAIDS use. Conclusion In cross-sectional analyses of post-menopausal women with srOA, differences in hgb levels are related to differences in functional outcomes of overall health, physical function and vitality at clinically important levels. Prospective studies evaluating whether changes in hgb levels result in changes in functional outcomes in participants with OA are needed to confirm of our findings and before any changes in therapeutics based upon hemoglogin levels are considered in the care of patients with osteoarthritis. PMID:21723591

  9. Relationship between self-reported task persistence and history of quitting smoking, plans for quitting smoking, and current smoking status in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Marc L; Krejci, Jonathan A; Collett, Kerstin; Brandon, Thomas H; Ziedonis, Douglas M; Chen, Kevin

    2007-07-01

    The task persistence construct has previously been measured primarily behaviorally (e.g., with a mirror-tracing task, or breath holding), and only in adults. It has been shown to differentiate between adult smokers and non-smokers and to predict smoking cessation in adult smokers trying to quit. This theory-based analysis is the first to examine task persistence in adolescent smokers and to examine a two-item, internally consistent, self-report measure of task persistence. Results indicate that task persistence is greater among adolescent non-smokers as compared to adolescent current smokers, and those planning to quit smoking as compared to those with no plans to quit. Contrary to hypotheses, task persistence was not found to be related to prior successful attempts to quit smoking. Our results suggest that a brief, self-report measure of task persistence may be a methodologically sound, practical clinical tool for this population.

  10. Self-reported alcohol and drug use six months after brief intervention: do changes in reported use vary by mental-health status?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although brief intervention (BI) for alcohol and other drug problems has been associated with subsequent decreased levels of self-reported substance use, there is little information in the extant literature as to whether individuals with co-occurring hazardous substance use and mental illness would benefit from BI to the same extent as those without mental illness. This is an important question, as mental illness is estimated to co-occur in 37% of individuals with an alcohol use disorder and in more than 50% of individuals with a drug use disorder. The goal of this study was to explore differences in self-reported alcohol and/or drug use in patients with and without mental illness diagnoses six months after receiving BI in a hospital emergency department (ED). Methods This study took advantage of a naturalistic situation where a screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) program had been implemented in nine large EDs in the US state of Washington as part of a national SBIRT initiative. A subset of patients who received BI was interviewed six months later about current alcohol and drug use. Linear regression was used to assess whether change in substance use measures differed among patients with a mental illness diagnosis compared with those without. Data were analyzed for both a statewide (n = 828) and single-hospital (n = 536) sample. Results No significant differences were found between mentally ill and non-mentally ill subgroups in either sample with regard to self-reported hazardous substance use at six-month follow-up. Conclusion These results suggest that BI may not have a differing impact based on the presence of a mental illness diagnosis. Given the high prevalence of mental illness among individuals with alcohol and other drug problems, this finding may have important public health implications. PMID:23186062

  11. Cognitive empathy contributes to poor social functioning in schizophrenia: Evidence from a new self-report measure of cognitive and affective empathy.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Tania M; Horan, William P; Ginger, Emily J; Martinovich, Zoran; Pinkham, Amy E; Smith, Matthew J

    2014-12-30

    Cognitive empathy impairments have been linked to poor social functioning in schizophrenia. However, prior studies primarily used self-reported empathy measures developed decades ago that are not well-aligned with contemporary models of empathy. We evaluated empathy and its relationship to social functioning in schizophrenia using the recently developed Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy (QCAE). Schizophrenia (n=52) and healthy comparison (n=37) subjects completed the QCAE, Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), and measures of neurocognition, symptoms, and social functioning. Between-group differences on the QCAE, and relationships between QCAE and IRI subscales, neurocognition, symptoms, and social functioning were examined. The schizophrenia group reported significantly lower cognitive empathy than comparison subjects, which was driven by low online simulation scores. Cognitive empathy explained significant variance in social functioning after accounting for neurocognition and symptoms. Group differences for affective empathy were variable; the schizophrenia group reported similar proximal responsivity, but elevated emotion contagion relative to comparison subjects. These findings bolster support for the presence and functional significance of impaired cognitive empathy in schizophrenia using a contemporary measure of empathy. Emerging evidence that some aspects of affective empathy may be unimpaired or hyper-responsive in schizophrenia and implications for the assessment and treatment of empathy in schizophrenia are discussed.

  12. Cognitive empathy contributes to poor social functioning in schizophrenia: Evidence from a new self-report measure of cognitive and affective empathy.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Tania M; Horan, William P; Ginger, Emily J; Martinovich, Zoran; Pinkham, Amy E; Smith, Matthew J

    2014-09-04

    Cognitive empathy impairments have been linked to poor social functioning in schizophrenia. However, prior studies primarily used self-reported empathy measures developed decades ago that are not well-aligned with contemporary models of empathy. We evaluated empathy and its relationship to social functioning in schizophrenia using the recently developed Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy (QCAE). Schizophrenia (n=52) and healthy comparison (n=37) subjects completed the QCAE, Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), and measures of neurocognition, symptoms, and social functioning. Between-group differences on the QCAE, and relationships between QCAE and IRI subscales, neurocognition, symptoms, and social functioning were examined. The schizophrenia group reported significantly lower cognitive empathy than comparison subjects, which was driven by low online simulation scores. Cognitive empathy explained significant variance in social functioning after accounting for neurocognition and symptoms. Group differences for affective empathy were variable; the schizophrenia group reported similar proximal responsivity, but elevated emotion contagion relative to comparison subjects. These findings bolster support for the presence and functional significance of impaired cognitive empathy in schizophrenia using a contemporary measure of empathy. Emerging evidence that some aspects of affective empathy may be unimpaired or hyper-responsive in schizophrenia and implications for the assessment and treatment of empathy in schizophrenia are discussed.

  13. Untangling Protégé Self-Reports of Mentoring Functions: Further Meta-Analytic Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Jubilee; Kirkpatrick-Husk, Katie; Kendall, Dana; Longabaugh, James; Patel, Ajal; Scielzo, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we sought to further our understanding of the relations between various types of protégé-reported mentoring functions (psychosocial and career support and role modeling [RM]) by conducting a meta-analysis. We examined the relationships among these functions and investigated their relationships with expected mentorship…

  14. Everyday cognitive functioning in cardiac patients: relationships between self-report, report of a significant other and cognitive test performance.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Peter C; Smith, Geoff; Ernest, Christine S; Murphy, Barbara M; Worcester, Marian U C; Higgins, Rosemary O; Le Grande, Michael R; Goble, Alan J; Andrewes, David; Tatoulis, James

    2010-01-01

    Candidates for cardiac bypass surgery often experience cognitive decline. Such decline is likely to affect their everyday cognitive functioning. The aim of the present study was to compare cardiac patients' ratings of their everyday cognitive functioning against significant others' ratings and selected neuropsychological tests. Sixty-nine patients completed a battery of standardised cognitive tests. Patients and significant others also completed the Everyday Function Questionnaire independently of each other. Patient and significant other ratings of patients' everyday cognitive difficulties were found to be similar. Despite the similarities in ratings of difficulties, some everyday cognitive tasks were attributed to different processes. Patients' and significant others' ratings were most closely associated with the neuropsychological test of visual memory. Tests of the patients' verbal memory and fluency were only related to significant others' ratings. Test scores of attention and planning were largely unrelated to ratings by either patients or their significant others.

  15. Maintaining Instrument Quality while Reducing Items: Application of Rasch Analysis to a Self-Report of Visual Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velozzo, Craig A.; Lai, Jin-Shei; Mallinson, Trudy; Hauselman, Ellyn

    2001-01-01

    Studied how Rasch analysis could be used to reduce the number of items in an instrument while maintaining credible psychometric properties. Applied the approach to the Visual Function-14 developed to measure the need for and outcomes of cataract surgery. Results show how Rasch analysis can be useful in designing modifications of instruments. (SLD)

  16. Emotional Responses to Odors in Children with High-Functioning Autism: Autonomic Arousal, Facial Behavior and Self-Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legisa, Jasna; Messinger, Daniel S.; Kermol, Enzo; Marlier, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Although emotional functioning is impaired in children with autism, it is unclear if this impairment is due to difficulties with facial expression, autonomic responsiveness, or the verbal description of emotional states. To shed light on this issue, we examined responses to pleasant and unpleasant odors in eight children (8-14 years) with…

  17. Development of a Self-Report Physical Function Instrument for Disability Assessment: Item Pool Construction and Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, Christine M.; Jette, Alan M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Brandt, Diane E; Chan, Leighton; Meterko, Mark; Haley, Stephen M.; Rasch, Elizabeth K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To build a comprehensive item pool representing work-relevant physical functioning and to test the factor structure of the item pool. These developmental steps represent initial outcomes of a broader project to develop instruments for the assessment of function within the context of Social Security Administration (SSA) disability programs. Design Comprehensive literature review; gap analysis; item generation with expert panel input; stakeholder interviews; cognitive interviews; cross-sectional survey administration; and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to assess item pool structure. Setting In-person and semi-structured interviews; internet and telephone surveys. Participants A sample of 1,017 SSA claimants, and a normative sample of 999 adults from the US general population. Interventions Not Applicable. Main Outcome Measure Model fit statistics Results The final item pool consisted of 139 items. Within the claimant sample 58.7% were white; 31.8% were black; 46.6% were female; and the mean age was 49.7 years. Initial factor analyses revealed a 4-factor solution which included more items and allowed separate characterization of: 1) Changing and Maintaining Body Position, 2) Whole Body Mobility, 3) Upper Body Function and 4) Upper Extremity Fine Motor. The final 4-factor model included 91 items. Confirmatory factor analyses for the 4-factor models for the claimant and the normative samples demonstrated very good fit. Fit statistics for claimant and normative samples respectively were: Comparative Fit Index = 0.93 and 0.98; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.92 and 0.98; Root Mean Square Error Approximation = 0.05 and 0.04. Conclusions The factor structure of the Physical Function item pool closely resembled the hypothesized content model. The four scales relevant to work activities offer promise for providing reliable information about claimant physical functioning relevant to work disability. PMID:23542402

  18. Age Differences and Longitudinal Change in the Effects of Data Collection Mode on Self-Reports of Psychosocial Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Luong, Gloria; Charles, Susan T.; Rook, Karen S.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Gatz, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated how participant aging may influence mode effects, wherein individuals report less negative and more positive psychosocial functioning with data collection modes that have greater (vs. less) direct contact with interviewers (e.g., in-person interviews vs. telephone interviews). Using two longitudinal datasets, the Later Life Study of Social Exchanges (LLSSE) and Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA), we tested how mode effects may vary with cohort (baseline age differences) and maturational development (longitudinal change). In Study 1, LLSSE participants (65–90 years old) completed in-person and telephone interviews assessing negative and positive aspects of psychosocial functioning across two years. The data collection mode with greater direct contact with interviewers (in-person interviews) was associated with reporting less negative and more positive psychosocial functioning compared to the mode with less direct contact (telephone interviews). These mode effects were more pronounced with older baseline age, but only for the negative psychosocial measures. Mode effects also became stronger over time for reports of negative affect. In Study 2, SATSA participants (38–86 years old) completed mailed questionnaires and questionnaires collected in-person that assessed depressive symptoms and positive affect across 18 years. Consistent with Study 1, participants reported fewer depressive symptoms and more positive affect with greater (vs. less) direct contact with interviewers (questionnaires collected in-person vs. mailed questionnaires). For reports of depressive symptoms, but not positive affect, mode effects were more pronounced with age and time. Together, the results underscore how mode effects may contribute to inconsistent findings in the socioemotional aging literature. PMID:25528065

  19. Association between sensory function and hop performance and self-reported outcomes in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury

    PubMed Central

    Cronström, Anna; Roos, Ewa M; Ageberg, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Background In patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency (ACLD) or reconstruction (ACLR), sensory deficits are commonly assessed as knee kinesthesia using time-consuming laboratory equipment. Portable equipment such as that used for evaluation of vibration sense would be preferable. In contrast to kinesthesia, vibration sense is not well studied in these patients. Objectives 1) To study the association between kinesthesia and vibration sense to investigate if one sensory measurement can replace the other; and 2) to determine the clinical relevance by investigating associations between the sensory measurements and functional performance and patient-reported outcomes in patients with ACLD or ACLR. Methods Twenty patients with ACLD and 33 patients with ACLR were assessed with knee kinesthesia, vibration sense, the one-leg hop test for distance, as well as the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and the Tegner Activity Scale. Results There were no significant correlations between kinesthesia and vibration sense (r= −0.267, p>0.269) or between the sensory measures and hop performance (r= −0.351, p>0.199). In patients with ACLD, worse knee kinesthesia was associated with worse scores on KOOS subscales pain (r= −0.464, p=0.046) and activities of daily living (r= −0.491, p=0.033), and worse vibration sense was associated with worse scores on KOOS subscale quality of life (r= −0.469, p=0.037) and worse knee confidence (item Q3 from subscale quality of life) (rs=0.436, p=0.054). In patients with ACLR, worse vibration sense was associated with worse scores on KOOS subscales pain (r= −0.402, p=0.020) and activities of daily living (r= −0.385, p=0.027). Conclusion Kinesthesia and vibration sense cannot be used interchangeably as measures of sensory function in patients with ACLD or ACLR. Both sensory measurements were weakly related to hop performance. Adequate sensory function appears to have importance for perceived function in

  20. The relationship between perceived promotion of autonomy/dependence and pain-related disability in older adults with chronic pain: the mediating role of self-reported physical functioning.

    PubMed

    Matos, Marta; Bernardes, Sónia F; Goubert, Liesbet

    2016-08-01

    Chronic pain is prevalent among older adults and is usually associated with high levels of functional disability. Social support for the promotion of functional autonomy and dependence has been associated with pain-related disability and self-reported physical functioning. Nevertheless, these relationships need further inquiry. Our aims were to investigate: (1) the relationship between perceived promotion of autonomy/dependence and pain-related disability and (2) the extent to which self-reported physical functioning mediated these relationships. 118 older adults (Mage = 81.0) with musculoskeletal chronic pain completed the Portuguese versions of the revised formal social support for Autonomy and Dependence in Pain Inventory, the pain severity and interference scales of the Brief Pain Inventory, and the physical functioning scale of the Medical Outcomes Study-Short-Form 36 v2. Higher levels of perceived promotion of autonomy were associated with lower pain-related disability; this relationship was partially mediated by self-reported physical functioning (B = -.767, p < .001 decreasing to B' = -.485, p < .01). Higher perceived promotion of dependence was associated with higher pain-related disability; this effect was also partially accounted for by self-reported physical functioning (B = .889, p < .01 decreasing to B' = .597, p < .05). These results highlight the importance of perceived promotion of autonomy and dependence for managing older adults' experience of chronic pain.

  1. Self-reported vaccination in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos; Borda, Miguel German; Arciniegas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of vaccination in older adults within the city of Bogotá and to estimate the association with sociodemographic and health factors. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis from the SABE-Bogotá Study, a cross-sectional population-based study that included a total of 2,000 persons aged 60 years. Weighted percentages for self-reported vaccination [influenza, pneumococcal, tetanus] were determined. The association between vaccination and covariates was evaluate by logistic regression models. Results: A total of 73.0% of respondents received influenza, 57.8% pneumococcal and 47.6% tetanus vaccine. Factors independently associated with vaccination included: 1- age (65-74 years had higher odds of receiving vaccinations, compared to 60-64 years); 2- socioeconomic status (SES) (higher SES had lower odds of having influenza and pneumococcal vaccines, compared to those with lower SES); 3- health insurance (those with contributive or subsidized health insurance had higher odds (between 3 and 5 times higher) of having vaccinations, compared to those with no insurance); 4- older adults with better functional status (greater Lawton scores) had increased odds for all vaccinations; 5- older adults with higher comorbidity had increased odds for influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. Conclusion: Vaccination campaigns should be strengthened to increase vaccination coverage, especially in the group more reticent to vaccination or vulnerable to reach it such as the disabled elder. PMID:27226661

  2. Self-reported strategies in decisions under risk: role of feedback, reasoning abilities, executive functions, short-term-memory, and working memory.

    PubMed

    Schiebener, Johannes; Brand, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    In decisions under objective risk conditions information about the decision options' possible outcomes and the rules for outcomes' occurrence are provided. Thus, deciders can base decision-making strategies on probabilistic laws. In many laboratory decision-making tasks, choosing the option with the highest winning probability in all trials (=maximization strategy) is probabilistically regarded the most rational behavior. However, individuals often behave less optimal, especially in case the individuals have lower cognitive functions or in case no feedback about consequences is provided in the situation. It is still unclear which cognitive functions particularly predispose individuals for using successful strategies and which strategies profit from feedback. We investigated 195 individuals with two decision-making paradigms, the Game of Dice Task (GDT) (with and without feedback), and the Card Guessing Game. Thereafter, participants reported which strategies they had applied. Interaction effects (feedback × strategy), effect sizes, and uncorrected single group comparisons suggest that feedback in the GDT tended to be more beneficial to individuals reporting exploratory strategies (e.g., use intuition). In both tasks, the self-reported use of more principled and more rational strategies was accompanied by better decision-making performance and better performances in reasoning and executive functioning tasks. The strategy groups did not significantly differ in most short-term and working-memory tasks. Thus, particularly individual differences in reasoning and executive functions seem to predispose individuals toward particular decision-making strategies. Feedback seems to be useful for individuals who rather explore the decision-making situation instead of following a certain plan.

  3. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: What Does Self-Report with the OCI-R Tell Us?

    PubMed

    Cadman, Tim; Spain, Debbie; Johnston, Patrick; Russell, Ailsa; Mataix-Cols, David; Craig, Michael; Deeley, Quinton; Robertson, Dene; Murphy, Clodagh; Gillan, Nicola; Wilson, C Ellie; Mendez, Maria; Ecker, Christine; Daly, Eileen; Findon, James; Glaser, Karen; Happé, Francesca; Murphy, Declan

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the symptom profile of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in individuals who have autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It is also unknown whether self-report questionnaires are useful in measuring OCD in ASD. We sought to describe the symptom profiles of adults with ASD, OCD, and ASD + OCD using the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R), and to assess the utility of the OCI-R as a screening measure in a high-functioning adult ASD sample. Individuals with ASD (n = 171), OCD (n = 108), ASD + OCD (n = 54) and control participants (n = 92) completed the OCI-R. Individuals with ASD + OCD reported significantly higher levels of obsessive-compulsive symptoms than those with ASD alone. OCD symptoms were not significantly correlated with core ASD repetitive behaviors as measured on the ADI-R or ADOS-G. The OCI-R showed good psychometric properties and corresponded well with clinician diagnosis of OCD. Receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested cut-offs for OCI-R Total and Checking scores that discriminated well between ASD + versus -OCD, and fairly well between ASD-alone and OCD-alone. OCD manifests separately from ASD and is characterized by a different profile of repetitive thoughts and behaviors. The OCI-R appears to be useful as a screening tool in the ASD adult population.

  4. Visual/verbal-analytic reasoning bias as a function of self-reported autistic-like traits: a study of typically developing individuals solving Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices.

    PubMed

    Fugard, Andrew J B; Stewart, Mary E; Stenning, Keith

    2011-05-01

    People with autism spectrum condition (ASC) perform well on Raven's matrices, a test which loads highly on the general factor in intelligence. However, the mechanisms supporting enhanced performance on the test are poorly understood. Evidence is accumulating that milder variants of the ASC phenotype are present in typically developing individuals, and that those who are further along the autistic-like trait spectrum show similar patterns of abilities and impairments as people with clinically diagnosed ASC. We investigated whether self-reported autistic-like traits in a university student sample, assessed using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ; Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Skinner, et al., 2001), predict performance on Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices. We found that reporting poorer social skills but better attention switching predicted a higher Advanced matrices score overall. DeShon, Chan, and Weissbein (1995) classified Advanced matrices items as requiring a visuospatial, or a verbal-analytic strategy. We hypothesised that higher AQ scores would predict better performance on visuospatial items than on verbal-analytic items. This prediction was confirmed. These results are consistent with the continuum view and can be explained by the enhanced perceptual functioning theory of performance peaks in ASC. The results also confirm a new prediction about Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices performance in people with ASC.

  5. SOCIOECONOMIC INEQUALITIES IN SELF-REPORTED HEALTH AND PHYSICAL FUNCTIONING IN ARGENTINA: FINDINGS FROM THE NATIONAL SURVEY ON QUALITY OF LIFE OF OLDER ADULTS 2012 (ENCaViAM).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez López, Santiago; Colantonio, Sonia E; Celton, Dora E

    2016-11-09

    This study aimed to evaluate educational and income inequalities in self-reported health (SRH), and physical functioning (limitations in Activities of Daily Living (ADL)/Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL)), among 60-year-old and older adults in Argentina. Using cross-sectional data from the Argentinian National Survey on Quality of Life of Older Adults 2012 (Encuesta Nacional sobre Calidad de Vida de Adultos Mayores, ENCaViAM), gender-specific socioeconomic inequalities in SRH and ADL and IADL limitations were studied in relation to educational level and household per capita income. The Relative Index of Inequality (RII) - an index of the relative size of socioeconomic inequalities in health - was used. Socioeconomic inequalities in the studied health indicators were found - except for limitations in ADL among women - favouring socially advantaged groups. The results remained largely significant after full adjustment, suggesting that educational and income inequalities, mainly in SRH and IADL, were robust and somehow independent of age, marital status, physical activity, the use of several medications, depression and the occurrence of falls. The findings add to the existing knowledge on the relative size of the socioeconomic inequalities in subjective health indicators among Argentinian older adults, which are to the detriment of lower socioeconomic groups. The results could be used to inform planning interventions aimed at decreasing socioeconomic inequalities in health, to the benefit of socially disadvantaged adults.

  6. Functional Fitness and Self-Reported Quality of Life of Older Women Diagnosed with Knee Osteoarthrosis: A Cross-Sectional Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcante, Paula Andréa Malveira; Doro, Márcio Roberto; Suzuki, Frank Shiguemitsu; Rica, Roberta Luksevicius; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Pontes Junior, Francisco Luciano; Evangelista, Alexandre Lopes; Figueira Junior, Aylton José; Baker, Julien Steven; Bocalini, Danilo Sales

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Utilizing a cross-sectional case control design, the aim of this study was to evaluate the functional fitness and self-reported quality of life differences in older people diagnosed with knee osteoarthrosis (O) who participated in health promotion groups. Methods. Ninety older women were distributed into two groups: control without O of the knee (C, n = 40) and a group diagnosed with primary and secondary knee O with grade II or higher, with definite osteophytes (OA, n = 50). Functional fitness was evaluated by specific tests, and the time spent in physical activity and quality of life was evaluated by the IPAQ and WHOQOL (distributed in four domains: physical: P, psychological: PS, social: S, and environmental: E) domain questionnaires. Results. No differences were found between ages of groups (C: 66 ± 7; OA: 67 ± 9; years). The values of the chair stand test (rep) in the OA (13 ± 5) group were different when compared to C group (22 ± 5). For the 6-minute walk test (meters), the values obtained for the C (635 ± 142) were higher (P < 0.01) than the OA (297 ± 143) group. The time spent in physical activity (min) was greater (P < 0.001) in the control (220 ± 12) group compared to OA (100 ± 10) group. Higher values (P < 0.001) in all domains were found in the C (P: 69 ± 16, PS: 72 ± 17, S: 67 ± 15, E: 70 ± 15) group compared to OA (P: 48 ± 7, PS: 43 ± 8, S: 53 ± 13, E: 47 ± 14) group. Conclusion. Our data suggests that knee O, in older women, can promote a decline in time spent performing physical activity and functional fitness with decline in quality of life with an increase in sitting time. PMID:26346896

  7. A single institution study on patient's self-reporting appraisal and functional outcomes of the first set of men following radical perineal prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Słupski, Piotr; Wiśniewski, Przemysław

    2012-01-01

    Introduction This study evaluates the functional outcomes and satisfaction of an initial series of 47 patients after radical perineal prostatectomy performed in our department. Material and methods The first set of 47 consecutive patients underwent perineal prostatectomy during 2008 and 2009. Continence, sexual outcomes, and satisfaction of the treatment were evaluated using a self-reporting questionnaire, which was mailed to all patients after 15 to 33 months of follow-up. 26 patients (55.3%) returned a completed form and participated in the study. Additionally, final outcomes were compared to results reported elsewhere. Results Amid respondents, 91.7% were satisfied with the chosen treatment and 8.3% regret the previous decision. 38.5% patients reported any urine leakage, 15.4% drip up to 100 ml a day, and only one patient (3.8%) was totally incontinent. 76.9% men report a decline in prior sexual function. Six patients (23.1%) patients have any degree of spontaneous erections and undertake sexual activity. However, as erectile outcomes are adjusted to nine nerve-sparing cases, 66.7% have spontaneous erections and 55.5% undertake sexual activity, but only 40% of them describe their sexual function as satisfying. Conclusions Our survey demonstrates that, because of short operating time, fast recovery, low postoperative pain score, early patient mobilization and feeding, and a small (8-10 cm) and inconspicuous skin incision, radical perineal prostatectomy fully deserves to be recognized as a low-morbidity procedure. The perineal approach provides a quality of life and patients satisfaction rate comparable to trendy, highly equipped procedures and emerges as an attractive alternative to them. Even novice “perineal surgeons” may achieve favorable results. PMID:24578947

  8. IMPROVEMENTS IN KNEE EXTENSION STRENGTH ARE ASSOCIATED WITH IMPROVEMENTS IN SELF-REPORTED HIP FUNCTION FOLLOWING ARTHROSCOPY FOR FEMOROACETABULAR IMPINGEMENT SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Thomas J.; Amesur, Ajit K.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Di Stasi, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Background Recovery of strength is critical for return to sport, and is a known predictor of functional outcomes in post-surgical orthopedic populations. Muscle weakness is a known impairment in patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) but whether improvements in muscle strength after arthroscopy are associated with improved hip function is unknown. Hypothesis/Purpose To examine the relationships between changes in hip and thigh muscle strength and self-reported function in athletes undergoing arthroscopy for FAIS. Study Design Single cohort descriptive and correlational study Methods Twenty-eight athletes underwent strength testing and completed the Hip Outcome Score Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL) and Sports (HOS-S) subscales prior to and six months after surgery. Isokinetic knee extension and flexion strength were measured using a Biodex dynamometer at 60 °/s and 300 °/s. Isometric hip abduction strength was measured using a custom dynamometer. Changes in strength, limb symmetry, and HOS scores were assessed using paired t-tests. Spearman's rank correlations were used to examine relationships between change in involved limb strength and change in HOS scores. Results Subjects were tested an average of 32 days before and 178 days after surgery. HOS-ADL and HOS-S subscales improved by a mean of 19.0 ± 21.1 and 23.8 ± 31.9, respectively, over time (p < 0.001). Hip abduction strength did not increase over time in either limb (p ≥ 0.27). Involved limb knee flexion and extension strength did not increase significantly over time (p-values: 0.10-0.48) with the exception of knee extension at 300 °/s (p = 0.04). Uninvolved limb knee extension strength at both velocities and knee flexion strength at 60 °/s improved significantly over time (p < 0.012). Increases in knee extension strength (60 °/s) of the involved limb were significantly correlated with improvements on the HOS-ADL (r = 0.431; 0 = 0

  9. Socio-economic status and self-reported tuberculosis: a multilevel analysis in a low-income township in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cramm, Jane M.; Koolman, Xander; Møller, Valerie; Nieboer, Anna P.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the interplay of multiple factors affecting the prevalence of tuberculosis in developing countries. The compositional and contextual factors that affect health and disease patterns must be fully understood to successfully control tuberculosis. Experience with tuberculosis in South Africa was examined at the household level (overcrowding, a leaky roof, social capital, unemployment, income) and at the neighbourhood level (Gini coefficient of inequality, unemployment rate, headcount poverty rate). A hierarchical random-effects model was used to assess household-level and neighbourhood-level effects on self-reported tuberculosis experience. Every tenth household in each of the 20 Rhini neighbourhoods was selected for inclusion in the sample. Eligible respondents were at least 18 years of age and had been residents of Rhini for at least six months of the previous year. A Kish grid was used to select one respondent from each targeted household, to ensure that all eligible persons in the household stood an equal chance of being included in the survey. We included 1,020 households within 20 neighbourhoods of Rhini, a suburb of Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. About one-third of respondents (n=329; 32%) reported that there had been a tuberculosis case within the household. Analyses revealed that overcrowding (P≤0.05) and roof leakage (P≤0.05) contributed significantly to the probability of a household tuberculosis experience experience, whereas higher social capital (P≤0.01) significantly reduced this probability. Overcrowding, roof leakage and the social environment affected tuberculosis prevalence in this economically disadvantaged community. Policy makers should consider the possible benefits of programs that deal with housing and social environments when addressing the spread of tuberculosis in economically poor districts. PMID:28299075

  10. Effects of inpatient physical therapy on the functional status of elderly individuals

    PubMed Central

    Zasadzka, Ewa; Kropińska, Sylwia; Pawlaczyk, Mariola; Krzymińska-Siemaszko, Roma; Lisiński, Przemysław; Wieczorowska-Tobis, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Purpose] The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of inpatient rehabilitation on the functional status of the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 100 patients (>65 years of age) in a rehabilitation ward were enrolled in this study. Age, absence of depression and signs of dementia in screening tests constituted the inclusion criteria. A comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed of all of the subjects twice, at the beginning and end of hospitalization (Assessments I and II, respectively), and included fall risk assessment (Timed Up and Go Test, TUG), evaluation of physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery Test, SPPB), the handgrip strength test, as well as patients’ self-reports of pain intensity, well-being and functional status. [Results] At the end of inpatient rehabilitation, significant improvement was observed in reduction the TUG time, physical function, and handgrip strength, as well as in subjective parameters such as self-reported pain intensity, well-being, and functional status. [Conclusion] Our results show the high efficacy of inpatient rehabilitation as a means of improving functional independence. Hospital rehabilitation should be recommended for elderly people, not only in cases of absolute indications for hospital admission, but also periodically for patients at risk of physical disability. PMID:27065526

  11. Sedentary behavior is associated with disability status and walking performance, but not cognitive function, in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Elizabeth A; Motl, Robert W

    2015-02-01

    Eighty-two persons with multiple sclerosis wore an accelerometer as a measure of sedentary time (min/day) and completed measures of disability status (self-reported Expanded Disability Status Scale), walking performance (timed 25-foot walk and 6-min walk), and cognitive function (symbol digit modalities test). Accelerometry-measured sedentary time was significantly correlated with disability status scores (r = 0.31, p < 0.01), 6-min walk distance (r = -0.40, p < 0.01), and timed 25-foot walk performance (r = 0.35, p < 0.01), but not cognitive function performance (r = -0.12, p = 0.29).

  12. Periodontal status, tooth loss and self-reported periodontal problems effects on oral impacts on daily performances, OIDP, in pregnant women in Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Wandera, Margaret N; Engebretsen, Ingunn M; Rwenyonyi, Charles M; Tumwine, James; Åstrøm, Anne N

    2009-01-01

    Background An important aim of antenatal care is to improve maternal health- and well being of which oral health is an important part. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) during pregnancy, using a locally adapted OIDP inventory, and to document how periodontal status, tooth-loss and reported periodontal problems are related to oral impacts. Methods Pregnant women at about 7 months gestational age who were members of a community based multi-center cluster randomized community trial: PROMISE EBF: Safety and Efficacy of Exclusive Breast feeding in the Era of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa, were recruited in the district of Mbale, Eastern Uganda between January 2006 and June 2008. A total of 877 women (participation rate 877/886, 98%, mean age 25.6, sd 6.4) completed an interview and 713 (participation rate 713/886, 80.6%, mean age 25.5 sd 6.6) were examined clinically with respect to tooth-loss and according to the Community Periodontal Index, CPI. Results Seven of the original 8 OIDP items were translated into the local language. Cronbach's alpha was 0.85 and 0.80 in urban and rural areas, respectively. The prevalence of oral impacts was 25% in the urban and 30% in the rural area. Corresponding estimates for CPI>0 were 63% and 68%. Adjusted ORs for having any oral impact were 1.1 (95% CI 0.7-1.7), 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-3.1), 1.7 (1.1-2.7) and 2.0 (0.9-4.4) if having respectively, CPI>0, at least one tooth lost, tooth loss in molars and tooth loss in molar-and anterior regions. The Adjusted ORs for any oral impact if reporting periodontal problems ranged from 2.7(95% CI 1.8-4.2) (bad breath) through 8.6(95% CI 5.6-12.9) (chewing problem) to 22.3 (95% CI 13.3-35.9) (toothache). Conclusion A substantial proportion of pregnant women experienced oral impacts. The OIDP impacts were most and least substantial regarding functional- and social concerns, respectively. The OIDP varied systematically with tooth loss in the molar region

  13. Ageing and mental health: changes in self-reported health due to physical illness and mental health status with consecutive cross-sectional analyses

    PubMed Central

    Lorem, Geir Fagerjord; Schirmer, Henrik; Wang, Catharina E A; Emaus, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Objectives It is known that self-reported health (SRH) declines with increasing age and that comorbidity increases with age. We wished to examine how age transfers its effect to SRH through comorbid disease and mental illness and whether these processes remained stable from 1994 until 2008. The hypothesis is that ageing and/or the increased age-related burden of pathology explains the declining SRH. Setting The Tromsø Study (TS) is a cohort study using a survey approach with repeated physical examinations. It was conducted in the municipality of Tromsø, Norway, from 1974 to 2008. Participants A total of 21 199 women and 19 229 men participated. Primary and secondary outcome measures SRH is the outcome of interest. We calculated and compared the effect sizes of age, comorbidity and mental health symptoms using multimediator analysis based on OLS regression. Results Ageing had a negative impact on SRH, but the total effect of age decreased from 1994 to 2007. We assessed the direct effect of age and then the proportion of indirect age-related effects through physical illness and mental health symptoms on the total effect. The direct effect of age represented 79.3% of the total effect in 1994 and decreased to 58.8% in 2007. Physical illness emerged as an increasingly important factor and increased its influence from 15.7% to 41.2% of the total effect. Age alone had a protective effect on mental health symptoms and this increased (2.5% to 17.3%), but we found a stronger association between mental health symptoms and physical disease in the later waves of the study (increasing from 3.7% to 14.8%). Conclusions The results suggest that the effect on SRH of mental health symptoms caused by physical illness is an increasing public health problem. Treatment and care for specific medical conditions must therefore focus more strongly on how these conditions affect the patient's mental health and address these concerns accordingly. PMID:28100564

  14. Preliminary Evidence Suggesting Caution in the Use of Psychiatric Self-Report Measures with Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazefsky, C. A.; Kao, J.; Oswald, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the utility of self-report measures to screen for psychiatric comorbidities in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Thirty-eight 10-17 year olds with an ASD and without mental retardation completed: the "Children's Depression Inventory-Short version (CDI-S)", "Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale…

  15. Health-Related Quality of Life and Functional Status Quality Indicators for Older Persons with Multiple Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Dy, Sydney M.; Pfoh, Elizabeth R.; Salive, Marcel E.; Boyd, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To explore central challenges with translating self-reported measurement tools for functional status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) into ambulatory quality indicators for older people with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). DESIGN Review. SETTING Sources including the National Quality Measures Clearinghouse and National Quality Forum were reviewed for existing ambulatory quality indicators relevant to functional status, HRQOL, and people with MCCs. PARTICIPANTS Seven informants with expertise in indicators using functional status and HRQOL. MEASUREMENTS Informant interviews were conducted to explore knowledge about these types of indicators, particularly usability and feasibility. RESULTS Nine important existing indicators were identified in the review. For process, identified indicators addressed whether providers assessed functional status; outcome indicators addressed quality of life. In interviews, informants agreed that indicators using self-reported data were important in this population. Challenges identified included concerns about usability due to inability to discriminate quality of care adequately between organizations and feasibility concerns regarding high data collection burden, with a correspondingly low response rate. Validity was also a concern because evidence is mixed that healthcare interventions can improve HRQOL or functional status for this population. As a possible first step, a structural standard could be systematic collection of these measures in a specific setting. CONCLUSION Although functional status and HRQOL are important outcomes for older people with MCCs, few relevant ambulatory quality indicators exist, and there are concerns with usability, feasibility, and validity. Further research is needed on how best to incorporate these outcomes into quality indicators for people with MCCs. PMID:24320819

  16. Self reported health status, and health service contact, of illicit drug users aged 50 and over: a qualitative interview study in Merseyside, United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Beynon, Caryl M; Roe, Brenda; Duffy, Paul; Pickering, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    Background The populations of industrialised countries are ageing; as this occurs, those who continue to use alcohol and illicit drugs age also. While alcohol use among older people is well documented, use of illicit drugs continues to be perceived as behaviour of young people and is a neglected area of research. This is the first published qualitative research on the experiences of older drug users in the United Kingdom. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Merseyside, in 2008, with drug users aged 50 and over recruited through drug treatment services. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and analysed thematically. Only health status and health service contact are reported here. Results Nine men and one woman were interviewed (age range: 54 to 61 years); all but one had been using drugs continuously or intermittently for at least 30 years. Interviewees exhibited high levels of physical and mental morbidity; hepatitis C was particularly prevalent. Injecting-related damage to arm veins resulted in interviewees switching to riskier injecting practices. Poor mental health was evident and interviewees described their lives as depressing. The death of drug-using friends was a common theme and social isolation was apparent. Interviewees also described a deterioration of memory. Generic healthcare was not always perceived as optimal, while issues relating to drug specific services were similar to those arising among younger cohorts of drug users, for example, complaints about inadequate doses of prescribed medication. Conclusion The concurrent effects of drug use and ageing are not well understood but are thought to exacerbate, or accelerate the onset of, medical conditions which are more prevalent in older age. Here, interviewees had poor physical and mental health but low expectations of health services. Older drug users who are not in contact with services are likely to have greater unmet needs. The number of drug users aged 50 and over is

  17. [Functional status, morbidity, and mortality of centenarians].

    PubMed

    Arai, Yasumichi; Hirose, Nobuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Prevention or postponement of age-related diseases and functional limitation is the key component of successful aging. We studied centenarians, a model for successful aging in terms of functional status and morbidities. Vast majority of centenarians had chronic disease such as hypertension (63.6%) , heart disease (28.8%) , stroke (15.9%) , fragile fracture (46.4%) , and few centenarians were free from any chronic diseases. Male centenarians had better physical function than female counterparts. Stroke and fragile fracture had negative impacts on their functional status, but hypertension was paradoxically associated with better physical function. When we looked at mortality beyond 100 years of age, physical function, but not morbidity profile had significant impact on their mortality. These results raised a notion that age-related frailty or diminution of functional reserve may be the major cause both for physical disability and poor prognosis of centenarians. Previous results from our study suggested that stability of energy homeostasis, in which neuroendocrine system has a key role, may be important to maintain physical function at the extreme old age.

  18. Functional Status, Time to Transplantation, and Survival Benefit of Kidney Transplantation Among Wait-Listed Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Peter P.; Shults, Justine; Bloom, Roy D.; Mussell, Adam; Harhay, Meera N.; Abt, Peter; Levine, Matthew; Johansen, Kirsten L.; Karlawish, Jason T.; Feldman, Harold I.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the context of an aging end-stage renal disease population with multiple comorbidities, transplantation professionals face challenges in evaluating the global health of patients awaiting kidney transplantation. Functional status might be useful for identifying which patients will derive a survival benefit from transplantation versus dialysis. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of wait-listed patients using data on functional status from a national dialysis provider linked to United Network for Organ Sharing registry data. Setting & Participants Adult kidney transplant candidates added to the waiting list between the years 2000 and 2006. Predictor Physical function scale of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Healthy Survey, analyzed as a time-varying covariate. Outcomes Kidney transplantation; Survival benefit of transplantation versus remaining wait-listed. Measurements We used multivariable Cox regression to assess the association between physical function with study outcomes. In survival benefit analyses, transplant status was modeled as a time-varying covariate. Results The cohort comprised 19,242 kidney transplant candidates (median age, 51 years; 36% black race) receiving maintenance dialysis. Candidates in the lowest baseline physical function quartile were more likely to be inactivated (adjusted HR vs. highest quartile, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.21-1.39) and less likely to undergo transplantation (adjusted HR vs. highest quartile, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.61-0.68). After transplantation, worse physical function was associated with shorter 3-year survival (84% vs. 92% for the lowest vs. highest function quartiles). However, compared to dialysis, transplantation was associated with a statistically significant survival benefit by 9 months for patients in every function quartile. Limitations Functional status is self-reported. Conclusions Even patients with low function appear to live longer with kidney transplantation versus dialysis. For waitlisted

  19. Aptamer technology for tracking cells' status & function.

    PubMed

    Wiraja, Christian; Yeo, David; Lio, Daniel; Labanieh, Louai; Lu, Mengrou; Zhao, Weian; Xu, Chenjie

    2014-01-01

    In fields such as cancer biology and regenerative medicine, obtaining information regarding cell bio-distribution, tropism, status, and other cellular functions are highly desired. Understanding cancer behaviors including metastasis is important for developing effective cancer treatments, while assessing the fate of therapeutic cells following implantation is critical to validate the efficacy and efficiency of the therapy. For visualization purposes with medical imaging modalities (e.g. magnetic resonance imaging), cells can be labeled with contrast agents (e.g. iron-oxide nanoparticles), which allows their identification from the surrounding environment. Despite the success of revealing cell biodistribution in vivo, most of the existing agents do not provide information about the status and functions of cells following transplantation. The emergence of aptamers, single-stranded RNA or DNA oligonucleotides of 15 to 60 bases in length, is a promising solution to address this need. When aptamers bind specifically to their cognate molecules, they undergo conformational changes which can be transduced into a change of imaging contrast (e.g. optical, magnetic resonance). Thus by monitoring this signal change, researchers can obtain information about the expression of the target molecules (e.g. mRNA, surface markers, cell metabolites), which offer clues regarding cell status/function in a non-invasive manner. In this review, we summarize recent efforts to utilize aptamers as biosensors for monitoring the status and function of transplanted cells. We focus on cancer cell tracking for cancer study, stem cell tracking for regenerative medicine, and immune cell (e.g. dendritic cells) tracking for immune therapy.

  20. Medication Use and Functional Status Decline in Older Adults: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Peron, Emily P.; Gray, Shelly L.; Hanlon, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To critically review published articles that have examined the relationship between medication use and functional status decline in the elderly. METHODS The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for English-language articles published from January 1986 to December 2010. Search terms included aged, humans, drug utilization, polypharmacy, inappropriate prescribing, anticholinergics, psychotropics, antihypertensives, drug burden index, functional status, function change or decline, activities of daily living, gait, mobility limitation, and disability. A manual search of the reference lists of the identified articles and the authors’ article files, book chapters, and recent reviews was conducted to retrieve additional publications. Only articles that used rigorous observational or interventional designs were included. Cross-sectional studies and case series were excluded from this review. RESULTS Nineteenstudies met the inclusion criteria. Five studies addressed the impact of suboptimal prescribing on function, three of which found an increased risk of worse function in community-dwelling subjects receiving polypharmacy. Three of the four studies that assessed benzodiazepine use and functional status decline found a statistically significant association. One cohort study identified no relationship between antidepressant use and functional status while a randomized trial found that amitriptyline, but not desipramine or paroxetine, impaired certain measures of gait. Two studies found that increasing anticholinergic burden was associated with worse functional status. In a study of hospitalized rehabilitation patients, users of hypnotics/anxiolytics (e.g., phenobarbital, zolpidem) had lower relative Functional Independence Measure motor gains than nonusers. Use of multiple central nervous system (CNS) drugs (using different definitions) was linked to greater declines in self-reported mobility and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) scores in two

  1. Functional Status Assessment of Patients With COPD

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Li, Honghe; Ding, Ning; Wang, Ningning; Wen, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Presently, there is no recommendation on how to assess functional status of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. This study aimed to summarize and systematically evaluate these measures. Studies on measures of COPD patients’ functional status published before the end of January 2015 were included using a search filters in PubMed and Web of Science, screening reference lists of all included studies, and cross-checking against some relevant reviews. After title, abstract, and main text screening, the remaining was appraised using the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) 4-point checklist. All measures from these studies were rated according to best-evidence synthesis and the best-rated measures were selected. A total of 6447 records were found and 102 studies were reviewed, suggesting 44 performance-based measures and 14 patient-reported measures. The majority of the studies focused on internal consistency, reliability, and hypothesis testing, but only 21% of them employed good or excellent methodology. Their common weaknesses include lack of checks for unidimensionality, inadequate sample sizes, no prior hypotheses, and improper methods. On average, patient-reported measures perform better than performance-based measures. The best-rated patient-reported measures are functional performance inventory (FPI), functional performance inventory short form (FPI-SF), living with COPD questionnaire (LCOPD), COPD activity rating scale (CARS), University of Cincinnati dyspnea questionnaire (UCDQ), shortness of breath with daily activities (SOBDA), and short-form pulmonary functional status scale (PFSS-11), and the best-rated performance-based measures are exercise testing: 6-minute walk test (6MWT), endurance treadmill test, and usual 4-meter gait speed (usual 4MGS). Further research is needed to evaluate the reliability and validity of performance-based measures since present studies failed to

  2. Validation of Self-Report on Smoking among University Students in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chung Yul; Shin, Sunmi; Lee, Hyeon Kyeong; Hong, Yoon Mi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To validate the self-reported smoking status of Korean university students. Methods: Subjects included 322 Korean university in Korea, who participated in an annual health screening. Data on smoking were collected through a self-reported questionnaire and urine test. The data were analyzed by the McNemar test. Results: In the…

  3. King's theory of goal attainment: exploring functional status.

    PubMed

    Caceres, Billy A

    2015-04-01

    Imogene King's Theory of Goal Attainment provides a schema for nurses interested in functional status. However, the lack of a uniform definition for functional status has hindered development of a concise understanding of this phenomenon. Functional status is particularly important to nurses who are concerned with the safety and wellbeing of clients. With healthcare's increased focus on client-family-centered care it is important to develop innovative approaches for evaluating functional status that incorporate the client-family perspective. King's focus on mutual decision-making is an underutilized resource that can provide great insight into the study and understanding of functional status.

  4. Decline in Tested and Self-Reported Cognitive Functioning After Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation for Lung Cancer: Pooled Secondary Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Randomized Trials 0212 and 0214

    SciTech Connect

    Gondi, Vinai; Paulus, Rebecca; Bruner, Deborah W.; Meyers, Christina A.; Gore, Elizabeth M.; Wolfson, Aaron; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Sun, Alexander Y.; Choy, Hak; Movsas, Benjamin

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To assess the impact of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on self-reported cognitive functioning (SRCF), a functional scale on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30). Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0214 randomized patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer to PCI or observation; RTOG 0212 randomized patients with limited-disease small cell lung cancer to high- or standard-dose PCI. In both trials, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT)-Recall and -Delayed Recall and SRCF were assessed at baseline (after locoregional therapy but before PCI or observation) and at 6 and 12 months. Patients developing brain relapse before follow-up evaluation were excluded. Decline was defined using the reliable change index method and correlated with receipt of PCI versus observation using logistic regression modeling. Fisher's exact test correlated decline in SRCF with HVLT decline. Results: Of the eligible patients pooled from RTOG 0212 and RTOG 0214, 410 (93%) receiving PCI and 173 (96%) undergoing observation completed baseline HVLT or EORTC QLQ-C30 testing and were included in this analysis. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was associated with a higher risk of decline in SRCF at 6 months (odds ratio 3.60, 95% confidence interval 2.34-6.37, P<.0001) and 12 months (odds ratio 3.44, 95% confidence interval 1.84-6.44, P<.0001). Decline on HVLT-Recall at 6 and 12 months was also associated with PCI (P=.002 and P=.002, respectively) but was not closely correlated with decline in SRCF at the same time points (P=.05 and P=.86, respectively). Conclusions: In lung cancer patients who do not develop brain relapse, PCI is associated with decline in HVLT-tested and self-reported cognitive functioning. Decline in HVLT and decline in SRCF are not closely correlated, suggesting that they may represent distinct elements of the cognitive spectrum.

  5. A method to provide a more efficient and reliable measure of self-report physical work capacity for patients with spinal pain.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Leonard; Mayer, John; Mooney, Vert; Sarkin, Andrew; Dreisinger, Theodore; Verna, Joe; Leggett, Scott

    2008-03-01

    Self-report measures of functional ability are commonly used in occupational rehabilitation to measure the current status of an individual and his or her progress in response to intervention. Most of these measures have been developed using classical test theory that does not provide calibration of the items. Methods of test development that originated in the field of Education have been applied recently to healthcare measures, providing item calibration and allowing proportional evaluation of total scores. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the application of these methods in the revision of an existing self-report measure. The potential value of these methods to improve established measures is demonstrated.

  6. Unexpected Long-term Improvements in Urinary and Erectile Function in a Large Cohort of Men with Self-reported Outcomes Following Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Justin K.; Assel, Melissa; Thong, Alan E.; Sjoberg, Daniel D.; Mulhall, John P.; Sandhu, Jaspreet; Vickers, Andrew J.; Ehdaie, Behfar

    2015-01-01

    Background It is generally assumed that if a man does not regain urinary continence or erectile function within 12 mo of radical prostatectomy (RP), then the chance of subsequent recovery is low. Objective To determine the probability of achieving good urinary function (UF) or erectile function (EF) up to 48 mo postoperatively in men who reported poor UF or EF at 12 mo after RP. Design, setting, and participants We identified 3187 patients who underwent RP from 2007 through 2013 at a tertiary institution and had extended multidisciplinary follow-up with patient-reported UF and EF scores at ≥12 mo. Intervention Open or minimally invasive RP. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Primary outcome was good UF as defined by a urinary score ≥17 (range: 0–21) or good EF as defined by a modified International Index of Erectile Function-6 score ≥22 (range: 1–30). The probability of functional recovery beyond 12 mo was determined by Kaplan-Meier analyses. Results and limitations Among patients incontinent at 12 mo, the probability of achieving good UF at 24, 36, and 48 mo was 30%, 49%, and 59%. In patients experiencing erectile dysfunction at 12 mo, the probability of recovering EF at 24, 36, and 48 mo was 22%, 32%, and 40%. On multivariable analyses, 12-mo functional score and age were associated with recovery, but only score was consistently significant. Conclusions Men with incontinence or erectile dysfunction at 12 mo have higher than anticipated rates of subsequent functional improvement. Probability of recovery is strongly influenced by score at 12 mo. Further research should address the impact of ongoing multidisciplinary follow-up care on our observed rates of recovery. Patient summary Many prostate cancer patients continue to recover urinary and erectile function after 12 mo. The level of functional recovery by 12 mo is associated with long-term recovery and should be discussed by the physician and patient when deciding on rehabilitative

  7. Behavioral approach system activity and self-reported somatic symptoms in fibromyalgia: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Becerra-García, Juan A; Robles Jurado, Manuel J

    2014-01-01

    The first objective was to investigate the behavioural activity in the systems of Gray's theory; these are the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) and Behavioural Approach System (BAS), in fibromyalgia (FM) patients. The second aim was to assess in FM patients whether there is an association between BIS or BAS with self-reported somatic symptoms. Twenty FM patients and 20 healthy controls completed questionnaire measures of BIS and BAS activity (Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire), self-reported somatic symptoms (Somatic Symptoms Scale Revised), positive and negative affect (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) and health status (EuroQoL Visual Analogue Scale). The results showed that FM patients had lower Sensitivity to Reward (SR) scores than controls. The SR score correlated with different somatic symptoms groups. The partial correlation (controlling for other variables measured) showed that the SR score correlated specifically with musculoskeletal symptoms. Furthermore, in regression analysis, SR score significantly predicted musculoskeletal symptoms, after controlling for other variables measured in this study. Our findings suggest that FM patients show BAS hypoactivity. This BAS activity in FM is similar to patients with depression, where a lower BAS functioning has also been found. The BAS activity predicts the musculoskeletal self-reported symptoms in FM better than other measures included in this study. Although this is a preliminary study, it suggests the importance of BAS activity in FM.

  8. Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement Ameliorates the Impact of Pain on Self-Reported Psychological and Physical Function Among Opioid-Using Chronic Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric L.; Thomas, Elizabeth; Howard, Matthew O.

    2014-01-01

    Context Chronic pain impacts one-third of the U.S. population, and its effects are debilitating for individuals and costly to the medical system. Although opioids are commonly prescribed to address chronic pain, they confer risk for misuse and addiction, and may not fully restore life function – particularly with regard to psychosocial factors. Because of the multiplicity of impacts that chronic pain may have on daily functioning, broad-spectrum behavioral interventions are needed. Objectives The purpose of this study was to conduct follow-up analyses from a pilot randomized controlled trial of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE) to assess specific effects of MORE on various biopsychosocial aspects of pain-related impairment. Methods Chronic pain patients (N=115; mean age 48±14 years; 68% female) were randomly assigned to either eight weeks of MORE or to a support group (SG). Domains of pain-related functional interference were measured with the Brief Pain Inventory at pre- and post-treatment, and at a three-month follow-up. Treatment effects were analyzed with multivariate intention-to-treat models. Results MORE participants reported significantly greater reductions in functional interference than SG participants at post-treatment across all domains, including: general activity, mood, walking ability, normal work, relationships, sleep, and enjoyment of life. These effects were largely maintained by the three-month follow-up; however, general activity level and walking ability were no longer significant, indicating differential long-term effects between physiological and psychological functioning. Conclusion Findings demonstrate preliminary efficacy of MORE as a treatment for pain-related functional impairments, and suggest that effects may be more pronounced and durable for aspects of psychological function. PMID:24780180

  9. Self-Reported Emotional and Behavioral Problems, Family Functioning and Parental Bonding among Psychiatric Outpatient Adolescent Offspring of Croatian Male Veterans with Partial PTSD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarajlic Vukovic, Iris; Boricevic Maršanic, Vlatka; Aukst Margetic, Branka; Paradžik, Ljubica; Vidovic, Domagoj; Buljan Flander, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in male veterans has been linked with impaired family relationships and psychopathology in their children. Less is known about symptoms in children of veterans with partial PTSD. Objective: To compare mental health problems, family functioning and parent-child bonding among adolescent offspring of…

  10. Local Information Processing in Adults with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome: The Usefulness of Neuropsychological Tests and Self-Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spek, Annelies A.; Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    2011-01-01

    Local information processing in 42 adults with high functioning autism, 41 adults with Asperger syndrome and 41 neurotypical adults was examined. Contrary to our expectations, the disorder groups did not outperform the neurotypical group in the neuropsychological measures of local information processing. In line with our hypotheses, the…

  11. A Derived Transfer of Simple Discrimination and Self-Reported Arousal Functions in Spider Fearful and Non-Spider-Fearful Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, Sinead; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Forsyth, John P.

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the derived transfer of functions through equivalence relations established using a stimulus pairing observation procedure. In Experiment 1, participants were trained on a simple discrimination (A1+/A2-) and then a stimulus pairing observation procedure was used to establish 4 stimulus pairings (A1-B1, A2-B2, B1-C1,…

  12. Development and Preliminary Psychometric Evaluation of a Brief Self-Report Questionnaire for the Assessment of the DSM-5 level of Personality Functioning Scale: The LPFS Brief Form (LPFS-BF).

    PubMed

    Hutsebaut, Joost; Feenstra, Dine J; Kamphuis, Jan H

    2016-04-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) alternative model for personality disorders (PDs) introduced a new paradigm for the assessment of PDs that includes levels of personality functioning indexing the severity of personality pathology irrespective of diagnosis. In this study, we describe the development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of a newly developed brief self-report questionnaire to assess levels of personality functioning, the Level of Personality Functioning Scale-Brief Form (LPFS-BF; Bender, Morey, & Skodol, 2011). Patients (N = 240) referred to a specialized setting for the assessment and treatment of PDs completed the LPFS-BF, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI; Derogatis, 1975), the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118; Verheul et al., 2008), and were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Personality Disorders (SCID-I; APA, 1994; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1997) and the SCID Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, Williams, & Benjamin, 1996). When constrained to a 2-factor oblique solution, the LPFS-BF yielded a structure that corresponded well to an interpretation of Self- and Interpersonal Functioning scales. The instrument demonstrated fair to satisfactory internal consistency and promising construct validity. The LPFS-BF constitutes a short, user-friendly instrument that provides a quick impression of the severity of personality pathology, specifically oriented to the DSM-5 model. Clearly, more research is needed to test its validity and clinical utility.

  13. Informal Caregiving and Self-Reported Mental and Physical Health: Results From the Gazel Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonnaud, Sophie; Boumendil, Ariane; Andrieu, Sandrine; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Ankri, Joël

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether, and under what conditions, informal caregiving is associated with improved self-reported physical and mental health, most notably in terms of cognitive functioning. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 2008 data from the Gazel Cohort Study, which involved 10 687 men and women aged 54 to 70 years. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between self-reported health and caregiving status and burden. Results. Regular caregivers with the highest burden scores reported significantly worse health status than did noncaregivers for almost all of the physical and mental outcomes evaluated after adjustment for potential confounding factors. In particular, they reported more cognitive complaints (odds ratio [OR] = 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21, 1.73). Conversely, caregivers with the lowest burden scores reported better perceived health status, less physical and mental tiredness, and fewer depressive symptoms (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.37, 0.68) than did noncaregivers; however, they did not report decreases in cognitive difficulties (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.81, 1.18). Conclusions. Our findings support the hypothesis that caregiving can have positive effects on health, provided that caregiving activities themselves are not too heavy a burden. PMID:21493948

  14. Baseline Self-Reported Functional Health and Vulnerability to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder after Combat Deployment: Prospective US Military Cohort Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-26

    biostatistician,1 Timothy S Wells, medical chief epidemiologist,2 Margaret A K Ryan, occupational and preventive medicine physician3 for the Millennium Cohort...behavioural and occupational characteristics related to military service that might be associated with adverse health.20 21 The invited cohort was ran...tary occupation (combat specialist, healthcare specia- list, functional support, and others). As service members exposed to combat are at the highest

  15. Autonomic function, as self-reported on the SCOPA-autonomic questionnaire, is normal in essential tremor but not in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Damian, Anne; Adler, Charles H.; Hentz, Joseph G.; Shill, Holly A.; Caviness, John N.; Sabbagh, Marwan N.; Evidente, Virgilio G.H.; Beach, Thomas G.; Driver-Dunckley, Erika

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare autonomic function of subjects with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET) relative to controls. Background It has been reported that patients with PD have autonomic dysfunction while no literature exists regarding autonomic function in ET. Methods Subjects with PD, ET, and controls had autonomic function measured using the SCOPA-Autonomic questionnaire, with the total and domain scores transformed to a scale of 0–100 points. Results 62 subjects with PD, 84 with ET, and 291 controls were included. Women were more prevalent in control (69%) compared to PD (44%) and ET (44%) groups, and mean age was significantly younger in PD (73 yrs) and older in ET (83) compared to controls (81). The mean SCOPA-Aut Total score in PD was significantly higher than controls, with no difference in ET. No autonomic dysfunction was found in any domain in ET but in PD there were significant abnormalities in gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, and thermoregulatory domains. Individual question data revealed a significantly higher percentage of subjects with dysfunction on 11/23 questions in the PD group but only 1 question (sialorrhea) in the ET group compared with controls. Conclusion Autonomic scores, particularly gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, and thermoregulatory were increased in patients with PD, as assessed by SCOPA-Aut. Patients with ET did not exhibit autonomic dysfunction, with the exception of sialorrhea. PMID:22771283

  16. Are dieting-related cognitive impairments a function of iron status?

    PubMed

    Green, Michael W; Elliman, Nicola A

    2013-01-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the impairments in cognitive function observed in unsupported dieting are related to compromised Fe status. During a non-clinical intervention, overweight participants (age: 18-45 years, BMI: 25-30 kg/m²) either participated in a commercially available weight-loss regimen (n 14), dieted without support (n 17) or acted as a non-dieting control group (n 14) for a period of 8 weeks. Measurements of cognitive function and blood chemistry were taken at a pre-diet baseline, after 1 week and 8 weeks of dieting. After 1 week, unsupported dieters displayed impaired verbal memory, executive function and slower reaction speeds than the other two groups, this difference disappearing by the end of the study. There were no significant group-related changes in blood chemistry over the course of the study, although there were group-related changes in a number of self-reported food-related cognitions. In conclusion, impaired cognition among unsupported dieters is not due to compromised Fe status and is most likely to result from psychological variables.

  17. Major motor-functional determinants associated with poor self-reported health-related quality of life in myasthenia gravis patients.

    PubMed

    Cioncoloni, David; Casali, Stefania; Ginanneschi, Federica; Carone, Marisa; Veronica, Boni; Rossi, Alessandro; Giannini, Fabio

    2016-05-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune neuromuscular disorder in which disabling muscle weakness may affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to investigate which common motor-functional deficits and corresponding severity are most determinant of poor HRQoL in these patients. In 41 patients, the dichotomized first item of the Italian Myasthenia Gravis Questionnaire (IMGQ), categorizing patients who report "good" and "poor" HRQoL, was chosen as dependent-outcome variable. All items composing the myasthenia gravis-specific scale (MG-ADL), i.e. talking, chewing, swallowing, breathing, impairment of ability to brush teeth or comb hair, impairment of ability to rise from chair, double vision, and eyelid droop were acquired as independent variables and dichotomized. Stepwise backward LR multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. In addition, the main characteristics of patients were compared. MG-ADL items "chewing" ≥1, i.e. "fatigue chewing solid food", and "breathing" ≥2, i.e. "shortness of breath at rest" proved to be significant determinants. Higher dose of corticosteroid therapy was significantly (p = 0.027; r s  = -0.35), correlated with poor HRQoL. At diagnosis, a decremental response to repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) from the abductor pollicis brevis was significantly more frequent in patients with poor HRQoL. In conclusion, impaired "chewing" and "breathing" functions indicate the need for careful planning of rehabilitation, re-education and patient management. Moreover, decremental response to RNS at diagnosis may identify patients at risk for poor HRQoL.

  18. Self-Report Measures of Family Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Robert G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes and compares two self-report measures of family competence: the Family Awareness Scales (FAS) (Green and Kolevzon, late 1970s) and the Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI) (Beavers, 1983). Discusses reliability and validity. Their focus on the "insider" (family member) is different from the traditional examination of family…

  19. Examination of Variables That May Affect the Relationship Between Cognition and Functional Status in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mcalister, Courtney; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Lamb, Richard

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to improve understanding of the heterogeneity in the relationship between cognition and functional status in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Demographic, clinical, and methodological moderators were examined. Cognition explained an average of 23% of the variance in functional outcomes. Executive function measures explained the largest amount of variance (37%), whereas global cognitive status and processing speed measures explained the least (20%). Short- and long-delayed memory measures accounted for more variance (35% and 31%) than immediate memory measures (18%), and the relationship between cognition and functional outcomes was stronger when assessed with informant-report (28%) compared with self-report (21%). Demographics, sample characteristics, and type of everyday functioning measures (i.e., questionnaire, performance-based) explained relatively little variance compared with cognition. Executive functioning, particularly measured by Trails B, was a strong predictor of everyday functioning in individuals with MCI. A large proportion of variance remained unexplained by cognition.

  20. The Incremental Validity of Average State Self-Reports Over Global Self-Reports of Personality.

    PubMed

    Finnigan, Katherine M; Vazire, Simine

    2017-03-09

    Personality traits are most often assessed using global self-reports of one's general patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behavior. However, recent theories have challenged the idea that global self-reports are the best way to assess traits. Whole Trait Theory postulates that repeated measures of a person's self-reported personality states (i.e., the average of many state self-reports) can be an alternative and potentially superior way of measuring a person's trait level (Fleeson & Jayawickreme, 2015). Our goal is to examine the validity of average state self-reports of personality for measuring between-person differences in what people are typically like. In order to validate average states as a measure of personality, we examine whether they are incrementally valid in predicting informant reports above and beyond global self-reports. In 2 samples, we find that average state self-reports tend to correlate with informant reports, although this relationship is weaker than the relationship between global self-reports and informant reports. Further, using structural equation modeling, we find that average state self-reports do not significantly predict informant reports independently of global self-reports. Our results suggest that average state self-reports may not contain information about between-person differences in personality traits beyond what is captured by global self-reports, and that average state self-reports may contain more self-bias than is commonly believed. We discuss the implications of these findings for research on daily manifestations of personality and the accuracy of self-reports. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Is there an association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function in older people? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Miles, Lisa M; Mills, Kerry; Clarke, Robert; Dangour, Alan D

    2015-08-28

    Low vitamin B12 status is common in older people; however, its public health significance in terms of neurological manifestations remains unclear. The present systematic review evaluated the association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function and clinically relevant neurological outcomes in adults aged 50+ years. A systematic search of nine bibliographic databases (up to March 2013) identified twelve published articles describing two longitudinal and ten cross-sectional analyses. The included study populations ranged in size (n 28-2287) and mean/median age (range 65-81 years). Studies reported various neurological outcomes: nerve function; clinically measured signs and symptoms of nerve function; self-reported neurological symptoms. Studies were assessed for risk of bias, and results were synthesised qualitatively. Among the general population groups of older people, one longitudinal study reported no association, and four of seven cross-sectional studies reported limited evidence of an association of vitamin B12 status with some, but not all, neurological outcomes. Among groups with clinical and/or biochemical evidence of low vitamin B12 status, one longitudinal study reported an association of vitamin B12 status with some, but not all, neurological outcomes and three cross-sectional analyses reported no association. Overall, there is limited evidence from observational studies to suggest an association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function in older people. The heterogeneity and quality of the evidence base preclude more definitive conclusions, and further high-quality research is needed to better inform understanding of public health significance in terms of neurological function of vitamin B12 status in older people.

  2. Calibration of Self-Reported Oral Health to Clinically Determined Standards

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Honghu; Maida, Carl A.; Spolsky, Vladimir W.; Shen, Jie; Li, Helen; Zhou, Xiaomeng; Marcus, Marvin

    2010-01-01

    Objective Self-report of oral health is an inexpensive approach to assessing an individual’s oral health status, but it is heavily influenced by personal views and usually differs from that of clinically determined oral health status. To assist researchers and clinicians in estimating oral health self-report, we summarize clinically determined oral health measures that can objectively measure oral health and evaluate the discrepancies between self-reported and clinically determined oral health status. We test hypotheses of trends across covariates, thereby creating optimal calibration models and tools that can adjust self-reported oral health to clinically determined standards. Methods Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data, we examined the discrepancy between self-reported and clinically determined oral health. We evaluated the relationship between the degree of this discrepancy and possible factors contributing to this discrepancy, such as patient characteristics and general health condition. We used a regression approach to develop calibration models for self-reported oral health. Results The relationship between self-reported and clinically determined oral health is complex. Generally, there is a discrepancy between the two that can best be calibrated by a model that includes general health condition, number of times a person has received health care, gender, age, education, and income. Conclusion The model we developed can be used to calibrate and adjust self-reported oral health status to that of clinically determined standards and for oral health screening of large populations in federal, state, and local programs, enabling great savings in resources used in dental care. PMID:21054482

  3. Assessing the accuracy of self-reported self-talk

    PubMed Central

    Brinthaupt, Thomas M.; Benson, Scott A.; Kang, Minsoo; Moore, Zaver D.

    2015-01-01

    As with most kinds of inner experience, it is difficult to assess actual self-talk frequency beyond self-reports, given the often hidden and subjective nature of the phenomenon. The Self-Talk Scale (STS; Brinthaupt et al., 2009) is a self-report measure of self-talk frequency that has been shown to possess acceptable reliability and validity. However, no research using the STS has examined the accuracy of respondents’ self-reports. In the present paper, we report a series of studies directly examining the measurement of self-talk frequency and functions using the STS. The studies examine ways to validate self-reported self-talk by (1) comparing STS responses from 6 weeks earlier to recent experiences that might precipitate self-talk, (2) using experience sampling methods to determine whether STS scores are related to recent reports of self-talk over a period of a week, and (3) comparing self-reported STS scores to those provided by a significant other who rated the target on the STS. Results showed that (1) overall self-talk scores, particularly self-critical and self-reinforcing self-talk, were significantly related to reports of context-specific self-talk; (2) high STS scorers reported talking to themselves significantly more often during recent events compared to low STS scorers, and, contrary to expectations, (3) friends reported less agreement than strangers in their self-other self-talk ratings. Implications of the results for the validity of the STS and for measuring self-talk are presented. PMID:25999887

  4. Functional status and survival after kidney transplantation1–12

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Peter P.; Bloom, Roy D.; Shults, Justine; Thomasson, Arwin; Mussell, Adam; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Johansen, Kirsten L.; Abt, Peter; Levine, Matthew; Caplan, Arthur; Feldman, Harold I.; Karlawish, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Background Older patients constitute a growing proportion of U.S. kidney transplant recipients and often have a high burden of comorbidities. A summary measure of health such as functional status might enable transplant professionals to better evaluate and counsel these patients about their prognosis after transplant. Methods We linked UNOS registry data about post-transplant survival with pre-transplant functional status data (physical function [PF] scale of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36) among individuals undergoing kidney transplant from 6/1/2000 – 5/31/2006. We examined the relationship between survival and functional status with multivariable Cox regression, adjusted for age. Using logistic regression models for three-year survival, we also estimated the reduction in deaths in the hypothetical scenario that recipients with poor functional status in this cohort experienced modest improvements in function. Results The cohort comprised 10,875 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with a mean age of 50 years; 14% were ≥65. Differences in three-year mortality between highest and lowest PF groups ranged from 3% among recipients <35 years to 14% among recipients ≥65 years. In multivariable Cox regression, worse PF was associated with higher mortality (HR 1.66 for lowest versus highest PF quartiles; p<0.001). Interactions between PF and age were non-significant. We estimated that 11% fewer deaths would occur if KTRs with the lowest functional status experienced modest improvements in function. Conclusions Across a wide age range, functional status was an independent predictor of post-transplant survival. Functional status assessment may be a useful tool with which to counsel patients about post-transplant outcomes. PMID:24113514

  5. Capturing and classifying functional status information in administrative databases.

    PubMed

    Iezzoni, Lisa I; Greenberg, Marjorie S

    2003-01-01

    The health care delivery system aims to improve the functioning of Americans, but little information exists to judge progress toward meeting this goal. Administrative data generated through running and overseeing health care delivery offer considerable information about diagnoses and procedures in coded formats comparable across settings of care. This article explores the issues raised when considering adding coded information about functional status to administrative databases throughout the health care system. The National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics (NCVHS) identified the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as the only viable code set for consistently reporting functional status.

  6. Examining population stratification via individual ancestry estimates versus self-reported race.

    PubMed

    Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Sellers, Thomas A; Schwartz, Ann G

    2005-06-01

    Population stratification has the potential to affect the results of genetic marker studies. Estimating individual ancestry provides a continuous measure to assess population structure in case-control studies of complex disease, instead of using self-reported racial groups. We estimate individual ancestry using the Federal Bureau of Investigation CODIS Core short tandem repeat set of 13 loci using two different analysis methods in a case-control study of early-onset lung cancer. Individual ancestry proportions were estimated for "European" and "West African" groups using published allele frequencies. The majority of Caucasian, non-Hispanics had >50% European ancestry, whereas the majority of African Americans had <20% European ancestry, regardless of ancestry estimation method, although significant overlap by self-reported race and ancestry also existed. When we further investigated the effect of ancestry and self-reported race on the frequency of a lung cancer risk genotype, we found that the frequency of the GSTM1 null genotype varies by individual European ancestry and case-control status within self-reported race (particularly for African Americans). Genetic risk models showed that adjusting for individual European ancestry provided a better fit to the data compared with the model with no group adjustment or adjustment for self-reported race. This study suggests that significant population substructure differences exist that self-reported race alone does not capture and that individual ancestry may be confounded with disease status and/or a candidate gene risk genotype.

  7. Status of vestibular function after prolonged bedrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgeat, M.; Toupet, M.; Loth, D.; Ingster, I.; Guell, A.; Coll, J.

    6 young, healthy, male volunteers were submitted to one week of head down (-4°) bedrest. This position simulates the cerebral hemodynamic conditions in weightlessness. Measurements of vestibular equilibrium and of oculomotor system function were made before and after the prolonged bedrest. Analysis of the results indicates that vestibular responses, as measured by the maximal speed of the slow phase of the provoked nystagmus (caloric and sinusoidal rotatory stimulations), are decreased after prolonged bedrest. This statistically significant diminution requires confirmation with a greater number of cases. The reflex conflicting or interacting with the cervico-ocular and optokinetic reflexes on the one hand and the foveal vision on the other, is one of several possible explanations for the observed changes.

  8. Physical Activity and Self-Reported Cardiovascular Comorbidities in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Motl, Robert W.; Fernhall, Bo; McAuley, Edward; Cutter, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Background This study examined the possibility of a linear, inverse association between physical activity and the number of self-reported cardiovascular comorbidities in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods The sample included 561 persons with MS who completed demographic, cardiovascular comorbidity, disability status, and physical activity self-report assessments, and then wore an accelerometer for 7 days. The data were analyzed using bivariate correlation and multiple linear regression analyses. Results Bivariate correlation analysis indicated that there were statistically significant, inverse associations between the number of self-reported cardiovascular comorbidities and objectively measured (r = −0.192, p = 0.0001) and self-reported (r = −0.151, p = 0.0001) physical activity. The first multiple linear regression indicated that objectively measured physical activity was significantly associated with the number of self-reported cardiovascular comorbidities (B = −0.003, SE B = 0.001, β = −0.128), even after controlling for confounding variables. The second multiple linear regression indicated that self-reported physical activity, too, was significantly associated with the number of self-reported cardiovascular comorbidities (B = −0.011, SE B = 0.004, β = −0.114), even after controlling for confounding variables. Conclusion Physical activity was associated with the number of self-reported cardiovascular comorbidities, independent of disability status and other possible confounding variables, in persons with MS. PMID:21597305

  9. Genetic variation in the 15q25 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster (CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4) interacts with maternal self-reported smoking status during pregnancy to influence birth weight.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Huikari, Ville; Christie, Jennifer T; Cavadino, Alana; Bakker, Rachel; Brion, Marie-Jo A; Geller, Frank; Paternoster, Lavinia; Myhre, Ronny; Potter, Catherine; Johnson, Paul C D; Ebrahim, Shah; Feenstra, Bjarke; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hofman, Albert; Kaakinen, Marika; Lowe, Lynn P; Magnus, Per; McConnachie, Alex; Melbye, Mads; Ng, Jane W Y; Nohr, Ellen A; Power, Chris; Ring, Susan M; Sebert, Sylvain P; Sengpiel, Verena; Taal, H Rob; Watt, Graham C M; Sattar, Naveed; Relton, Caroline L; Jacobsson, Bo; Frayling, Timothy M; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Murray, Jeffrey C; Lawlor, Debbie A; Pennell, Craig E; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hypponen, Elina; Lowe, William L; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Davey Smith, George; Freathy, Rachel M

    2012-12-15

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight. Common variation at rs1051730 is robustly associated with smoking quantity and was recently shown to influence smoking cessation during pregnancy, but its influence on birth weight is not clear. We aimed to investigate the association between this variant and birth weight of term, singleton offspring in a well-powered meta-analysis. We stratified 26 241 European origin study participants by smoking status (women who smoked during pregnancy versus women who did not smoke during pregnancy) and, in each stratum, analysed the association between maternal rs1051730 genotype and offspring birth weight. There was evidence of interaction between genotype and smoking (P = 0.007). In women who smoked during pregnancy, each additional smoking-related T-allele was associated with a 20 g [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 4-36 g] lower birth weight (P = 0.014). However, in women who did not smoke during pregnancy, the effect size estimate was 5 g per T-allele (95% CI: -4 to 14 g; P = 0.268). To conclude, smoking status during pregnancy modifies the association between maternal rs1051730 genotype and offspring birth weight. This strengthens the evidence that smoking during pregnancy is causally related to lower offspring birth weight and suggests that population interventions that effectively reduce smoking in pregnant women would result in a reduced prevalence of low birth weight.

  10. Self-reported adherence with the use of a device in a clinical trial as validated by electronic monitors: the VIBES study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adherences to treatments that require a behavioral action often rely on self-reported recall, yet it is vital to determine whether real time self reporting of adherence using a simple logbook accurately captures adherence. The purpose of this study was to determine whether real time self-reported adherence is an accurate measurement of device usage during a clinical trial by comparing it to electronic recording. Methods Using data collected from older adult men and women (N=135, mean age 82.3 yrs; range 66 to 98 yrs) participating in a clinical trial evaluating a vibrating platform for the treatment of osteoporosis, daily adherence to platform treatment was monitored using both self-reported written logs and electronically recorded radio-frequency identification card usage, enabling a direct comparison of the two methods over one year. Agreement between methods was also evaluated after stratification by age, gender, time in study, and cognition status. Results The two methods were in high agreement (overall intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.96). The agreement between the two methods did not differ between age groups, sex, time in study and cognitive function. Conclusions Using a log book to report adherence to a daily intervention requiring a behavioral action in older adults is an accurate and simple approach to use in clinical trials, as evidenced by the high degree of concordance with an electronic monitor. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00396994 PMID:23150931

  11. Correction for faking in self-report personality tests.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Lennart

    2015-10-01

    Faking is a common problem in testing with self-report personality tests, especially in high-stakes situations. A possible way to correct for it is statistical control on the basis of social desirability scales. Two such scales were developed and applied in the present paper. It was stressed that the statistical models of faking need to be adapted to different properties of the personality scales, since such scales correlate with faking to different extents. In four empirical studies of self-report personality tests, correction for faking was investigated. One of the studies was experimental, and asked participants to fake or to be honest. In the other studies, job or school applicants were investigated. It was found that the approach to correct for effects of faking in self-report personality tests advocated in the paper removed a large share of the effects, about 90%. It was found in one study that faking varied as a function of degree of how important the consequences of test results could be expected to be, more high-stakes situations being associated with more faking. The latter finding is incompatible with the claim that social desirability scales measure a general personality trait. It is concluded that faking can be measured and that correction for faking, based on such measures, can be expected to remove about 90% of its effects.

  12. Subjective Sleep Measures in Children: Self-Report

    PubMed Central

    Erwin, Andrea M.; Bashore, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) recently published a consensus statement on the recommended number of hours of sleep in infants and children. The AASM expert panel identified seven health categories in children influenced by sleep duration, a component of sleep quality. For optimal health and general function, children require a certain number of hours of sleep each night. Limited data exist to subjectively assess sleep in this population. Practitioners must evaluate overall sleep quality not simply sleep duration. The purpose of this article is to provide a mini-review of the self-report sleep measures used in children. The authors individually completed a review of the literature for this article via an independent review followed by collaborative discussion. The subjective measures included in this mini-review have been used in children, but not all measures have reported psychometrics. Several tools included in this mini-review measure subjective sleep in children but with limited reliabilities or only preliminary psychometrics. Accurate measurement of self-reported sleep in children is critical to identify sleep problems in this population and further detect associated health problems. Ongoing studies are warranted to establish reliable and valid measures of self-reported sleep in children to accurately detect health problems associated with poor sleep quality. This mini-review of the literature is an important first step to identify the most reliable subjective sleep measures in children. PMID:28243584

  13. Rurality and Self-Reported Health in Women with a History of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Rafat; Loxton, Deborah; Khan, Asad

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate differences in self-reported health among Australian women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV) in relation to rurality of residence. Methods Data were drawn from six survey waves of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health 1973–78 birth cohort. Self-reported general and mental health scores derived from the SF-36 scale were compared for women with a history of IPV living in metropolitan, regional and rural areas. Multivariable generalised estimating equations were constructed adjusting for income hardship, number of children, education, social support, age and marital status. Results Women with a history of IPV living in regional and rural areas had no significant differences in self-reported general health scores compared to their metropolitan counterparts. Rural women affected by IPV had slightly better self-reported mental health than equivalent women living in metropolitan or regional areas. The socio-demographic factors with the strongest association with self-reported health were income, education, social support, and number of children. Conclusions Women in regional and rural areas were no more disadvantaged, in terms of self-reported general health or mental health, than IPV affected women living in major cities in Australia. PMID:27622559

  14. Moral disengagement in self-reported and peer-nominated school bullying.

    PubMed

    Obermann, Marie-Louise

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relation between moral disengagement and different self-reported and peer-nominated positions in school bullying. The aims of this study were to (1) investigate moral disengagement among children for whom self-reported and peer-nominated bully status diverged and (2) compare levels of disengagement among self-reported and peer-nominated pure bullies, pure victims, bully-victims, and children not involved in bullying. A sample of 739 Danish sixth grade and seventh grade children (mean age 12.6) was included in the study. Moral disengagement was measured using a Danish version of the Moral Disengagement Scale and bullying was measured using both self-reports and peer nominations. Results revealed that both self-reported and peer-nominated bullying were related to moral disengagement, and that both pure bullies and bully-victims displayed higher moral disengagement than outsiders. Discrepancies between self-reported and peer-nominated bullying involvement indicates that a person's social reputation has a stronger association with moral disengagement than so far expected. Implications are discussed, highlighting the importance of further research and theory development.

  15. APOE genotype influences functional status among elderly without dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, S.M.; Jacobs, D.M.; Stern, Y.

    1995-12-18

    The presence of apolipoprotein-{epsilon}4 (APOE-{epsilon}4) significantly increases the risk of Alzheimer`s disease (AD). The association between APOE-{epsilon}4 status and functional abilities was explored further in a multicultural sample of community-dwelling, nondemented elders. The sample was limited to cognitively-intact, community-dwelling elders, who were free of stroke or other neurologic disability. In 218 elders who met research criteria, the presence of APOE-{epsilon}4 was associated with poorer functional status, apart from the effects of neuropsychological performance, gender, age, and education (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3, 4.9). In 158 subjects without an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele, 50% reported no functional limitation; in the 60 subjects with an {epsilon}4 allele, only 28% reported no functional limitation (P < .01). The relationship was not explained by the distribution of co-morbidities. The association between poorer function and the presence of an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele was evident in each ethnic group. In path analyses, the presence of an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele was associated with decreased functional ability in non-demented elders not simply through an association with poorer cognitive status, but also independently. These results suggest that the APOE-{epsilon}4 genotype is associated with functional deficit in people with normal neuropsychological profiles. 29 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. [Relationship between self-reported ADHD symptoms and WAIS-IV performance].

    PubMed

    Theiling, J; Petermann, F; Daseking, M

    2013-11-01

    This study has examined the relationship between cognitive functions and self-reported symptoms in ADHD adults. Cognitive functions were investigated with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) in N=113 ADHD adults. The severity of self-reported symptoms was based on a screening questionnaire (ADHS-E). Results indicated only weak correlations between self-reported ADHD symptoms and WAIS-IV performance. The ADHS-E scale "Emotion & Affect" accounted for a small but significant variance on most WAIS-IV indices and turned out to be the most important variable to explain performance. The findings suggest that concurrent and discrepant information contribute to a differentiated examination on adult ADHD and that both objective performance diagnostics and self-reports complement each other within the diagnostic process.

  17. Socioeconomic Status and Executive Function: Developmental Trajectories and Mediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackman, Daniel A.; Gallop, Robert; Evans, Gary W.; Farah, Martha J.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) predicts executive function (EF), but fundamental aspects of this relation remain unknown: the developmental course of the SES disparity, its continued sensitivity to SES changes during that course, and the features of childhood experience responsible for the SES-EF relation. Regarding course, early disparities…

  18. Functional Status of Thyroid and Cognitive Functions after Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Bojar, Iwona; Owoc, Alfred; Gujski, Mariusz; Witczak, Mariusz; Gnatowski, Maciej; Walecka, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Background Thyroid activity plays a role in cognition. However, the relation between the functional state of thyroid and neuropsychiatric changes proceeding with age among people without clinical symptoms of thyroid dysfunction is still unknown. The aim of this study was analysis of cognitive function levels in reference to thyroid examination: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxin (TT4), triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPO-AB), and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-AB), TSH receptor antibodies (AB-TSHR) in women after menopause. Material/Methods A group of 383 women was recruited for the study. The inclusion criteria were: minimum two years after the last menstruation and no dementia signs on Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Computerized battery of Central Nervous System Vital Signs (CNS VS) test was used to diagnostic cognitive functions. The blood plasma values were determined: TSH, FT3, FT4, TT3, TT4, TPO-AB, Tg-AB, and AB-TSHR. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and analysis of variance in STATISTICA software. Results In women after menopause, TSH was negatively correlated with NCI results, executive functions, complex attention, and cognitive flexibility. FT4 was positively correlated with results of psychomotor speed. TT3 and TT4 were negatively correlated with results of memory and verbal memory. Furthermore, TT4 was negatively correlated with NCI, executive functions, and cognitive flexibility. TPO-AB was negatively correlated with results of memory, verbal memory, and psychomotor speed. Tg-AB was positively correlated with results of reaction time. AB-TSHR was negatively correlated with NCI results, memory, executive functions, psychomotor speed, complex attention, and cognitive flexibility. Conclusions Our study supports the importance of thyroid functionality in cognitive functioning in a group of women after menopause. The values

  19. The Prevalence of Self-Reported Smoking and Validation with Urinary Cotinine Among Commercial Drivers in Major Parks in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dania, Michelle G.; Irusen, Elvis M.

    2014-01-01

    The validity of self-reported smoking is questionable because smokers are inclined to deny smoking. We aimed to determine the prevalence of self-reported smoking among intra-city commercial drivers in Lagos, and assess its validity based on urinary cotinine assessment. This study was conducted at three major motor parks in Lagos, Nigeria. Information on smoking status and habits was obtained from 500 consecutive male drivers using a structured questionnaire during a face-to-face interview. Eighty-one self-reported smokers and non-smokers were selected by systematic random sampling for urinary cotinine assessment using cotinine strips. The prevalence of self-reported smoking was compared to the prevalence of smoking based on urinary cotinine and the specificity and positive predictive values of self-reported smoking was determined. Prevalence of self-reported current smoking was 32% and 17.9% of non-smokers were passive smokers. Among 81 drivers in whom urinary cotinine assessment was performed, the prevalence of smoking based on self-report was 34 (42%) compared to 41 (50.6%) when based on urinary cotinine, (X2=38.56, P<0.001). The rate of misclassification among self-reported non-smokers as smokers was 21.3% and misclassification rate for self-reported smokers as non-smokers was 8.8%. The sensitivity of self-reported smoking in accurately classifying smoking status was 91.2% and the specificity was 78.7%. The prevalence of self-reported cigarette smoking among commercial drivers in Lagos is high and a significant proportion of self-reported non-smokers are passive smokers. Self-reported smoking status obtained during face-to-face interview appears unreliable in obtaining accurate smoking data in our locality. PMID:28299115

  20. Functional Status in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Silva, Thais Bento; Bahia, Valéria Santoro; Nitrini, Ricardo; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to conduct a systematic review of studies that described the functional profile of patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), published between 2000 and 2013. The bibliographic search was conducted using the terms “frontotemporal dementia” and “frontotemporal lobar degeneration” in combination with “independence,” “functionality,” “basic activities of daily living,” “disability,” and scales that measure functional performance: “Disability Assessment for Dementia-DAD,” “Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ),” “Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS).” To be included in the review, the study had to mention the characterization of the functional status of patients with bvFTD in the objectives of the study, using a previously validated instrument of functional assessment. Fourteen studies met this criterion. The reviewed studies suggested that individuals with bvFTD have greater functional impairment when compared to those with other subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration or Alzheimer's disease. The studies documented a significant association between cognitive impairment and measures of functionality in these patients. The cognitive profile of patients may predict faster functional decline. PMID:24308008

  1. Self-Reported Health among Older Bangladeshis: How Good a Health Indicator Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, M. Omar; Barsky, Arthur J.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the value of self-reported health (SRH) as an indicator of underlying health status in a developing country setting. Design and Methods: Logistic regression methods with adjustments for multistage sampling are used to examine the factors associated with SRH in 2,921 men and women aged 50 and older in rural Bangladesh.…

  2. Predicting habitual walking performance in multiple sclerosis: relevance of capacity and self-report measures.

    PubMed

    Gijbels, Domien; Alders, Geert; Van Hoof, Elke; Charlier, Caroline; Roelants, Machteld; Broekmans, Tom; Eijnde, Bert Op 't; Feys, Peter

    2010-05-01

    The objective was to establish the extent to which physical functioning capacity and self-report measures are able to predict the habitual walking performance in ambulatory persons with multiple sclerosis. Fifty persons with multiple sclerosis (Expanded Disability Status Scale, EDSS, 1.5-6.5) were tested on leg muscle strength as well as walking and balance capacity, and completed self-report indices on perceived physical functioning. Habitual walking performance, that is, the real amount of steps that is performed in the customary living environment, was registered by means of an ambulant accelerometer-based monitor during seven consecutive days. Mild (EDSS 1.5-4.0, n = 29) and moderate (EDSS 4.5-6.5, n = 21) multiple sclerosis subgroups were additionally distinguished as predictor variables and values were hypothesized to differ depending on multiple sclerosis severity and concomitant ambulatory function. Multiple regression analyses yielded a single most significant predictor for each (sub)group with other variables making no independent contribution to the variation in habitual walking performance. For the total study sample, this was the 6-Minute Walking Test (R(2) = 0.458, p < 0.01). In the mild multiple sclerosis subgroup, the 6-Minute Walking Test was again most predictive, yet to a modest degree (R(2) = 0. 187, p = 0.02). In the moderate multiple sclerosis subgroup, the 2-Minute Walking Test explained over half of the variance (R(2) = 0.532, p < 0.01). Habitual walking performance is best reflected by longer walking capacity tests. The extent to which it can be predicted based on clinical testing is larger in a multiple sclerosis patient sample with more severe walking disability. Ambulatory monitoring, however, includes aspects of community ambulation not captured in the clinic, and must be considered as an additional outcome for evaluating interventions in multiple sclerosis.

  3. Psychomotor slowness is associated with self-reported sleep duration among the general population.

    PubMed

    Kronholm, Erkki; Sallinen, Mikael; Era, Pertti; Suutama, Timo; Sulkava, Raimo; Partonen, Timo

    2011-06-01

    Short and long self-reported sleep durations have been found to be associated with several seemingly disparate health risks and impaired functional abilities, including cognitive functioning. The role of long sleep is especially poorly understood in this context. Psychomotor slowness, shown to have analogous associations with cognitive performance and health risks as self-reported long sleep duration, has not been studied together with sleep duration in epidemiological settings. We hypothesized that self-reported habitual sleep duration, especially long sleep, is associated with slow psychomotor reaction time, and that this association is independent of vigilance-related factors. The hypothesis was tested in a sample of 5352 individuals, representing the general adult population. We found a U-shaped association between self-reported sleep duration and psychomotor speed, which prevailed even after controlling for several pertinent confounders. This novel finding can be interpreted to mean that self-reported sleep duration, at least in the case of long sleep, is an indicator of bodily/brain integrity and, taken together with the results of cognitive epidemiology, may provide some new insights into the mechanisms underlying the associations between habitual self-reported sleep duration, health risks and impaired functional abilities.

  4. Concordance between self-reported and physician-reported chronic co-morbidity among disabled older adults.

    PubMed

    Iecovich, Esther; Biderman, Aya

    2013-09-01

    Discordance between self-reports and medical records reflects patient and provider factors that have implications for management and research. This study investigated discordance and socio-demographic factors that explain concordance. A purposive sample of 402 disabled older persons was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The highest concordances were found for diabetes, cardiovascular accident (CVA), and cancer while the lowest were evident for arthritis, and renal and gastrointestinal conditions. Significant explanatory factors included (a) age for explaining concordance in hypertension; (b) ethnicity in explaining concordance in arthritis and cancer; (c) marital status in explaining concordance in thyroid diseases; (d) education in explaining concordance in gastrointestinal conditions; and (e) functional status in explaining concordance in respiratory, gastrointestinal, and thyroid diseases. Co-morbidity increased concordance for all health conditions and decreased concordance for hypertension. Further investigation is needed to examine the reasons for the disparities between the two sources of information.

  5. The Validity of Self-reported Recent Smoking in Head and Neck Cancer Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Alberg, Anthony J.; Worley, Mitchell L.; Tooze, Janet A.; Hatcher, Jeanne L.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Day, Terry A.; Sullivan, Christopher A.; Warren, Graham W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In cancer patients, cigarette smoking causes poorer response to treatment, treatment toxicity, increased risk of recurrence, higher surgical complication rates, and poorer overall survival. As such a significant determinant of patient prognosis, accurate classification of current smoking status is important. Self-reported smoking status may lead to misclassification if patients conceal their true status. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of self-reported tobacco use during the previous 48 hours in head and neck cancer patients on the day of surgery. Study Design Cross-sectional. Setting Two academic medical centers in the southeastern United States. Subjects and Methods On the day of surgery, 108 head and neck cancer patients completed a survey asking about tobacco use during the past 48 hours and had semi-quantitative levels of urinary cotinine measured to biochemically validate self-reported recent smoking. Results Self-reported smoking yielded a sensitivity of 60.9% (95% CI, 45.4%-74.9%) and a specificity of 98.4% (95% CI, 91.3%-100.0%). The sensitivity increased to 76.1% (95% CI, 61.2%-87.4%) when allowing for the possibility that exposure to secondhand smoke or use of nicotine-containing products could have caused a positive cotinine test. Conclusion In this patient population, self-reported recent smoking yielded a high (39%) proportion of false-negatives, and even 24% remained false-negatives after allowing for other sources of nicotine exposure. This magnitude of underreporting combined with the importance of tobacco use to patient prognosis supports the need for routinely biochemically verifying recent tobacco use in self-reported nonsmokers within the clinical setting. PMID:26195573

  6. Predictors of self-reported knee instability among patients with knee osteoarthritis: results of the Amsterdam osteoarthritis cohort.

    PubMed

    van der Esch, Martin; van der Leeden, Marike; Roorda, Leo D; Lems, Willem F; Dekker, Joost

    2016-12-01

    The aims of the study were to (i) determine the prevalence and course of self-reported knee instability at 2-year follow-up and (ii) identify factors predictive of retention of self-reported knee instability among patients with established knee osteoarthritis (OA). Among 201 patients from the Amsterdam Osteoarthritis (AMS-OA) cohort, demographic characteristics, self-reported knee instability, muscle strength, proprioception, pain, and physical function were assessed at baseline and at 2 years. Exercise over the past 2 years was assessed by evaluating the medical files. The course of self-reported knee instability was determined in patients reporting instability at baseline. Baseline predictors of self-reported knee instability were determined by uni- and multivariable logistic regression analyses. At baseline, 123 (61 %) patients reported knee instability, and of these, 85 (64 %) patients reported instability 2 years later, while 38 (29 %) reported no instability 2 years later. Poor proprioception and high pain assessed at baseline predicted retention of self-reported knee instability at 2 years among patients with self-reported instability at baseline. Knee instability is highly prevalent among patients with knee osteoarthritis. In patients with self-reported knee instability, the majority retained instability over 2 years. Poor proprioception and high pain predicted retention of self-reported knee instability over time.

  7. Impression Management and Self-Report among Violent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jeremy F.; Kroner, Daryl G.

    2006-01-01

    Offenders are assumed by many to employ socially desirable responding (SDR) response styles when completing self-report measures. Contrary to expectations, prior research has shown that accounting for SDR in self-report measures of antisocial constructs does not improve the relationship with outcome. Despite this, many self-report measures…

  8. Structure and Correlates of Self-Reported Empathy in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Horan, William P.; Reise, Steven P.; Kern, Robert S.; Lee, Junghee; Penn, David L.; Green, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Research on empathy in schizophrenia has relied on dated self-report scales that do not conform to contemporary social neuroscience models of empathy. The current study evaluated the structure and correlates of the recently-developed Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy (QCAE) in schizophrenia. This measure, whose structure and validity was established in healthy individuals, includes separate scales to assess the two main components of empathy: Cognitive Empathy (assessed by two subscales) and Affective Empathy (assessed by three subscales). Stable outpatients with schizophrenia (n=145) and healthy individuals (n= 45) completed the QCAE, alternative measures of empathy, and assessments of clinical symptoms, neurocognition, and functional outcome. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided consistent support for a two-factor solution in the schizophrenia group, justifying the use of separate cognitive and affective empathy scales in this population. However, one of the three Affective Empathy subscales was not psychometrically sound and was excluded from further analyses. Patients reported significantly lower Cognitive Empathy but higher Affective Empathy than controls. Among patients, the QCAE scales showed significant correlations with an alternative self-report empathy scale, but not with performance on an empathic accuracy task. The QCAE Cognitive Empathy subscales also showed significant, though modest, correlations with negative symptoms and functional outcome. These findings indicate that structure of self-reported empathy is similar in people with schizophrenia and healthy subjects, and can be meaningfully compared between groups. They also contribute to emerging evidence that some aspects of empathy may be intact or hyper-responsive in schizophrenia. PMID:25985922

  9. Structure and correlates of self-reported empathy in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Horan, William P; Reise, Steven P; Kern, Robert S; Lee, Junghee; Penn, David L; Green, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Research on empathy in schizophrenia has relied on dated self-report scales that do not conform to contemporary social neuroscience models of empathy. The current study evaluated the structure and correlates of the recently-developed Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy (QCAE) in schizophrenia. This measure, whose structure and validity was established in healthy individuals, includes separate scales to assess the two main components of empathy: Cognitive Empathy (assessed by two subscales) and Affective Empathy (assessed by three subscales). Stable outpatients with schizophrenia (n = 145) and healthy individuals (n = 45) completed the QCAE, alternative measures of empathy, and assessments of clinical symptoms, neurocognition, and functional outcome. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided consistent support for a two-factor solution in the schizophrenia group, justifying the use of separate cognitive and affective empathy scales in this population. However, one of the three Affective Empathy subscales was not psychometrically sound and was excluded from further analyses. Patients reported significantly lower Cognitive Empathy but higher Affective Empathy than controls. Among patients, the QCAE scales showed significant correlations with an alternative self-report empathy scale, but not with performance on an empathic accuracy task. The QCAE Cognitive Empathy subscales also showed significant, though modest, correlations with negative symptoms and functional outcome. These findings indicate that structure of self-reported empathy is similar in people with schizophrenia and healthy subjects, and can be meaningfully compared between groups. They also contribute to emerging evidence that some aspects of empathy may be intact or hyper-responsive in schizophrenia.

  10. Associations between preoperative functional status and functional outcomes of total joint replacement in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Jamie E.; Ghazinouri, Roya; Alcantara, Luis; Thornhill, Thomas S.; Katz, Jeffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. In developed countries, the functional status scores of patients with poor preoperative scores undergoing total joint replacement (TJR) improve more following TJR than those for patients with better preoperative scores. However, those with better preoperative scores achieve the best postoperative functional outcomes. We determined whether similar associations exist in a developing country. Methods. Dominican patients undergoing total hip or knee replacement completed WOMAC and SF-36 surveys preoperatively and at 12-month follow-up. Patients were stratified into low-, medium- and high-scoring preoperative groups based on their preoperative WOMAC function scores. We examined the associations between the baseline functional status of these groups and two outcomes—improvement in functional status over 12 months and functional status at 12 months—using analysis of variance with multivariable linear regression. Results. Patients who scored the lowest preoperatively made the greatest gains in function and pain relief following their TJRs. However, there were no significant differences in pain or function at 12-month follow-up between patients who scored low and those who scored high on preoperative WOMAC and SF-36 surveys. Conclusion. Patients with poor preoperative functional status had greater improvement but similar 12-month functional outcomes compared with patients who had a higher level of function before surgery. These results suggest that a policy of focusing scarce resources on patients with worse functional status in developing countries may optimize improvement following TJR without threatening functional outcome. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings in other developing countries and to understand why these associations vary between patients in the Dominican Republic and patients from developed countries. PMID:23748412

  11. Distribution and Correlates of Self-Reported Crimes of Trust

    PubMed Central

    Menard, Scott; Morris, Robert G.; Gerber, Jurg; Covey, Herbert C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the distribution and correlates of a special class of property crimes, crimes of trust, using longitudinal and cross sectional self-report data from a national sample. We begin by defining crimes of trust and consider their conceptual relationship to “conventional” property crimes, which we here characterize as crimes of stealth, and to white collar crimes, which are defined in terms of the social status of the perpetrators. Crimes of trust are here defined as property crimes that typically involve deliberate contact with the victim or, where there is more than one victim, with at least one or more victims, in which there is typically more of a focus on concealing the fact that a crime has been committed than on concealing the identity of the perpetrator (as is the case in crimes of stealth), without regard to the socioeconomic status of the perpetrator (thus including but not limited to white collar crimes). The focus here is on crimes of trust committed by individuals (as opposed to corporate crime). We first examine their distribution by sociodemographic characteristics, then examine the correlation of crimes of trust with other types of illegal behavior, using data from the National Youth Survey Family Study, including (1) longitudinal self-report data from a nationally representative panel of individuals who were 11–18 years old in 1976–77 and who were followed through early middle age (ages 36–44) in 2002–2003, plus (2) cross-sectional data on these individuals plus their parents, spouses, and children age 11 and older in 2002–2003 (total age range 11–88). The results suggest that crimes of trust have a different age-crime curve from conventional crimes, and that they are not as strongly correlated with problem substance use, gender, and other socioeconomic indicators as conventional crimes. PMID:22347761

  12. Validity of self reported utilisation of primary health care services in an urban population in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Bellon, J. A.; Lardelli, P.; Luna, J. d.; Delgado, A.

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To assess the validity and factors related with the validity of self reported numbers of visits to a primary health care centre, in comparison with the recorded number.
DESIGN—Cross sectional study.
SETTING—The urban area served by the Zaidín-Sur Primary Health Care Centre (Granada, Spain).
PARTICIPANTS—Two population samples (236 high users and 420 normal users) who were seen at the centre from 1985 to 1991 were interviewed in 1993.
MAIN RESULTS—A net tendency to overreport the actual number of visits was observed. Absolute concordance between self reported and recorded utilisation decreased as time interval lengthened, although this mainly reflected the increase in maximum variability both with time interval length and with the number of recorded visits. Corrected Spearman ρ coefficients obtained between the number of self reported and recorded visits ranged from 0.602 for the two weeks before the interview to 0.678 for the year before. Regression slopes of self reported utilisation upon recorded utilisation did not change between periods. In multiple regression analyses the actual number of visits was the main factor associated with both underreporting and overreporting. Older age was also significantly associated with underreporting. Poor health status and high satisfaction with health care were significantly associated with overreporting.
CONCLUSIONS—There was a substantial degree of inaccuracy in self reported utilisation, with a net tendency to overreport the number of visits. In relative terms, however, accuracy of self reports did not seem to decrease appreciably as the recall time lengthened. To compare the accuracy of different measures, it is important to take into account the maximum variability of each one. Otherwise, contradictory results may be obtained.


Keywords: self reported utilisation; primary health care; validity PMID:10846198

  13. On the reliability of self-reported health: evidence from Albanian data.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, Nicolas; Wolff, François-Charles

    2012-06-01

    This paper investigates the reliability of self-assessed measures of health using panel data collected in Albania by the World Bank in 2002, 2003 and 2004 through the Living Standard Measurement Study project. As the survey includes questions on a self-assessed measure of health and on more objective health problems, both types of information are combined with a view to understanding how respondents change their answers to the self-reported measures over time. Estimates from random effects ordered Probit models show that differences in self-reported subjective health between individuals are much more marked than those over time, suggesting a strong state dependence in subjective health status. The empirical analysis also reveals respondent consistency, from both a subjective and an objective viewpoint. Self-reported health is much more influenced by permanent shocks than by more transitory illness or injury.

  14. Accuracy of Professional Self-Reports: Medical Student Self-Report and the Scoring of Professional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter Lagha, Regina Anne

    2014-01-01

    Self-report is currently used as an indicator of professional practice in a variety of fields, including medicine and education. Important to consider, therefore, is the ability of self-report to accurately capture professional practice. This study investigated how well professionals' self-reports of behavior agreed with an expert observer's…

  15. Evaluating the validity of self-reported smoking in Mexican adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Valladolid-López, María del Carmen; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Thrasher, James F; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to evaluate the validity of the self-reported smoking indicator used in the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Setting 43 middle and high-school classrooms from 26 schools were selected from Mexico City and Cuernavaca, Morelos. Participants A total of 1257 students provided both a questionnaire and a urine sample. Primary and secondary outcome Sensitivity and specificity of self-reported smoking compared to urinary cotinine. Validity indices were evaluated by subgroups of gender, social acceptability of smoking (ie, smoking parents or friends) and smoking frequency. Results Sensitivity and specificity for current smoking were 93.2% and 81.7%, respectively. Validity indices remained stable across gender. Parental smoking status moderated the validity of self-report, which had lower sensitivity in adolescents with non-smoking parents (86.7%) than in adolescents with smoking parents (96.6%). Sensitivity and specificity increased with smoking frequency. Conclusions This first validation study of self-reported current smoking used in the GYTS among Mexican adolescents suggests that self-reported smoking in the past 30 days is a valid and stable indicator of current smoking behaviour. This measure appears suitable for public health research and surveillance. PMID:26453588

  16. Drivers of self-reported heat stress in the Australian labour force.

    PubMed

    Zander, Kerstin K; Moss, Simon A; Garnett, Stephen T

    2017-01-01

    Heat stress causes reductions in well-being and health. As average annual temperatures increase, heat stress is expected to affect more people. While most research on heat stress has explored how exposure to heat affects functioning of the human organism, stress from heat can be manifest long before clinical symptoms are evident, with profound effects on behavior. Here we add to the little research conducted on these subclinical effects of environmental heat using results from an Australian-wide cross-sectional study of nearly 2000 respondents on their self-reported level of heat stress. Slightly less than half (47%) of the respondents perceived themselves as at least sometimes, often or very often stressed by heat during the previous 12 months. Health status and smoking behavior had the expected impact on self-reported perceived heat stress. There were also regional differences with people living in South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales most likely to have reported to have felt heat stressed. People generally worried about climate change, who had been influenced by recent heat waves and who thought there was a relationship between climate change and health were also more likely to have been heat stressed. Surprisingly average maximum temperatures did not significantly explain heat stress but stress was greater among people who perceived the day of the survey as hotter than usual. Currently heat stress indices are largely based on monitoring the environment and physical limitations to people coping with heat. Our results suggest that psychological perceptions of heat need to be considered when predicting how people will be affected by heat under climate change and when developing heat relief and climate change adaptation plans, at work, at home or in public spaces. We further conclude that the perception of temperature and heat stress complements measures that assess heat exposure and heat strain.

  17. Applying Sequential Analytic Methods to Self-Reported Information to Anticipate Care Needs

    PubMed Central

    Bayliss, Elizabeth A.; Powers, J. David; Ellis, Jennifer L.; Barrow, Jennifer C.; Strobel, MaryJo; Beck, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Identifying care needs for newly enrolled or newly insured individuals is important under the Affordable Care Act. Systematically collected patient-reported information can potentially identify subgroups with specific care needs prior to service use. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort investigation of 6,047 individuals who completed a 10-question needs assessment upon initial enrollment in Kaiser Permanente Colorado (KPCO), a not-for-profit integrated delivery system, through the Colorado State Individual Exchange. We used responses from the Brief Health Questionnaire (BHQ), to develop a predictive model for cost for receiving care in the top 25 percent, then applied cluster analytic techniques to identify different high-cost subpopulations. Per-member, per-month cost was measured from 6 to 12 months following BHQ response. Results: BHQ responses significantly predictive of high-cost care included self-reported health status, functional limitations, medication use, presence of 0–4 chronic conditions, self-reported emergency department (ED) use during the prior year, and lack of prior insurance. Age, gender, and deductible-based insurance product were also predictive. The largest possible range of predicted probabilities of being in the top 25 percent of cost was 3.5 percent to 96.4 percent. Within the top cost quartile, examples of potentially actionable clusters of patients included those with high morbidity, prior utilization, depression risk and financial constraints; those with high morbidity, previously uninsured individuals with few financial constraints; and relatively healthy, previously insured individuals with medication needs. Conclusions: Applying sequential predictive modeling and cluster analytic techniques to patient-reported information can identify subgroups of individuals within heterogeneous populations who may benefit from specific interventions to optimize initial care delivery. PMID:27563684

  18. Self-reported psychopathology in polydrug users.

    PubMed

    Sumnall, Harry R; Wagstaff, Graham F; Cole, Jon C

    2004-03-01

    There is a large body of work investigating concurrent associations between polysubstance use and psychopathology, but much of this work has either pre-dated or failed to account for the complex and culturally specific patterns of contemporary drug use. In particular, attendees of dance music events report a greater drug history than their peers and engage in a unique lifestyle. To further investigate the consequences of this type of drug use, 100 subjects who regularly attended dance music events were administered a battery of self-report psychiatric symptom scales. This battery contained the Anxiety Sensitivity Index, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D), the Dissociative Experiences Scale, the Padua Inventory Revised and additional questions about substance use. Our study population included abstainers and drug users with a wide history of use. We demonstrated strong associations between use of many different drugs, suggesting that polydrug use is the norm in this type of population. We found weak, but statistically significant, correlations between use of alcohol (p < 0.05), amphetamine (p < 0.01) and ecstasy (p < 0.01) with self-reported score on the BAI. There were also positive associations between dissociative symptomatology and the use of amphetamine (p < 0.05) and cocaine (p < 0.05). Furthermore, weekly unit intake of alcohol positively correlated with score on the CES-D (p < 0.05). As polydrug use was the norm in this sample, we performed regression analysis to investigate the contribution of multiple drug use on self-report. This showed that weekly use of alcohol, and frequency of use of amyl nitrate and cigarettes were significant predictors of BAI score. However, the majority of subjects reported being unworried by these symptoms, which may represent a lack of self-awareness, or acceptance of them as the subacute effects of substance use. It remains to be determined at what point adverse

  19. [Functional status of patients after lumbar disc herniation surgery].

    PubMed

    Imamović, Maida Zonić; Hodzić, Mirsad; Duraković, Suada Kapidzić; Basić, Nedima Kapidzić; Cickusić, Amela; Imamović, Goran

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether early rehabilitation from the first postoperative day after lumbar disc herniation surgery improved functional status of patients compared to the rehabilitation that started 3 weeks after surgery. Oswestry index was used for functional status assessment before surgery and after rehabilitation in 60 patients divided in 2 groups, i.e., early and control group of rehabilitation strated 3 weeks after surgery, 30 in each. Oswestry index values before surgery and after rehabilitation in the early rehabilitation group were 78.4 +/- 17 and 19.6 +/- 9.9, respectively (p < 0.0001) and in the control group the values were 79 +/- 13 and 37 +/- 14, respectively (p < 0.0001). The difference of Oswestry index before operation and after rehabilitation in the early rehabilitation group was 58.7 +/- 18.9, and in the control group 41.6 +/- 13.2 (p = 0.0001). Onset of rehabilitation from the first post operative day lead to better functional recovery compared to delayed rehabilitation 3 weeks after lumbar disc herniation surgery.

  20. Only Behavioral But Not Self-Report Measures of Speech Perception Correlate with Cognitive Abilities.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Antje; Henshaw, Helen; Ferguson, Melanie A

    2016-01-01

    Good speech perception and communication skills in everyday life are crucial for participation and well-being, and are therefore an overarching aim of auditory rehabilitation. Both behavioral and self-report measures can be used to assess these skills. However, correlations between behavioral and self-report speech perception measures are often low. One possible explanation is that there is a mismatch between the specific situations used in the assessment of these skills in each method, and a more careful matching across situations might improve consistency of results. The role that cognition plays in specific speech situations may also be important for understanding communication, as speech perception tests vary in their cognitive demands. In this study, the role of executive function, working memory (WM) and attention in behavioral and self-report measures of speech perception was investigated. Thirty existing hearing aid users with mild-to-moderate hearing loss aged between 50 and 74 years completed a behavioral test battery with speech perception tests ranging from phoneme discrimination in modulated noise (easy) to words in multi-talker babble (medium) and keyword perception in a carrier sentence against a distractor voice (difficult). In addition, a self-report measure of aided communication, residual disability from the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile, was obtained. Correlations between speech perception tests and self-report measures were higher when specific speech situations across both were matched. Cognition correlated with behavioral speech perception test results but not with self-report. Only the most difficult speech perception test, keyword perception in a carrier sentence with a competing distractor voice, engaged executive functions in addition to WM. In conclusion, any relationship between behavioral and self-report speech perception is not mediated by a shared correlation with cognition.

  1. Only Behavioral But Not Self-Report Measures of Speech Perception Correlate with Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Antje; Henshaw, Helen; Ferguson, Melanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Good speech perception and communication skills in everyday life are crucial for participation and well-being, and are therefore an overarching aim of auditory rehabilitation. Both behavioral and self-report measures can be used to assess these skills. However, correlations between behavioral and self-report speech perception measures are often low. One possible explanation is that there is a mismatch between the specific situations used in the assessment of these skills in each method, and a more careful matching across situations might improve consistency of results. The role that cognition plays in specific speech situations may also be important for understanding communication, as speech perception tests vary in their cognitive demands. In this study, the role of executive function, working memory (WM) and attention in behavioral and self-report measures of speech perception was investigated. Thirty existing hearing aid users with mild-to-moderate hearing loss aged between 50 and 74 years completed a behavioral test battery with speech perception tests ranging from phoneme discrimination in modulated noise (easy) to words in multi-talker babble (medium) and keyword perception in a carrier sentence against a distractor voice (difficult). In addition, a self-report measure of aided communication, residual disability from the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile, was obtained. Correlations between speech perception tests and self-report measures were higher when specific speech situations across both were matched. Cognition correlated with behavioral speech perception test results but not with self-report. Only the most difficult speech perception test, keyword perception in a carrier sentence with a competing distractor voice, engaged executive functions in addition to WM. In conclusion, any relationship between behavioral and self-report speech perception is not mediated by a shared correlation with cognition. PMID:27242564

  2. Physical activity and self-reported symptoms of insomnia, restless legs syndrome, and depression: the comprehensive dialysis study.

    PubMed

    Anand, Shuchi; Johansen, Kirsten L; Grimes, Barbara; Kaysen, George A; Dalrymple, Lorien S; Kutner, Nancy G; Chertow, Glenn M

    2013-01-01

    Symptoms of sleep and mood disturbances are common among patients on dialysis and are associated with significant decrements in survival and health-related quality of life. We used data from the Comprehensive Dialysis Study (CDS) to examine the association of self-reported physical activity with self-reported symptoms of insomnia, restless legs syndrome (RLS), and depression in patients new to dialysis. The CDS collected data on physical activity, functional status, and health-related quality of life from 1678 patients on either peritoneal (n = 169) or hemodialysis (n = 1509). The Human Activity Profile was used to measure self-reported physical activity. Symptoms were elicited in the following manner: insomnia using three questions designed to capture difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep, RLS using three questions based on the National Institutes of Health workshop, and depression using the two-item Patient Health Questionnaire. We obtained data on symptoms of insomnia and depression for 1636, and on symptoms of RLS for 1622 (>98%) patients. Of these, 863 (53%) reported one of three insomnia symptoms as occurring at a persistent frequency. Symptoms of RLS and depression occurred in 477 (29%) and 451 (28%) of patients, respectively. The Adjusted Activity Score of the Human Activity Profile was inversely correlated with all three conditions in models adjusting for demographics, comorbid conditions, and laboratory variables. Sleep and mood disturbances were commonly reported in our large, diverse cohort of patients new to dialysis. Patients who reported lower levels of physical activity were more likely to report symptoms of insomnia, RLS, and depression.

  3. Sleep Quality in Residents of Assisted Living Facilities: Effect on Quality of Life, Functional Status, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jennifer L.; Fiorentino, Lavinia; Jouldjian, Stella; Josephson, Karen R.; Alessi, Cathy A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe sleep patterns in older adults living in assisted living facilities (ALFs) and to explore the relationship between sleep disturbance and quality of life, functional status, and depression over 6 months of follow-up. DESIGN Prospective, observational cohort study. SETTING: Eighteen ALFs in the Los Angeles area. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred twenty-one ALF residents aged 65 and older (mean age 85.3, 86% female, 88% non-Hispanic white). MEASUREMENTS Data were collected at baseline and 3 and 6 months after enrollment. Data collected were demographics, physical and cognitive functioning, depression, quality of life, comorbidities, medications, and subjective (i.e., questionnaires) and objective (i.e., 3 days and nights of wrist actigraphy) measures of sleep. RESULTS Sixty-five percent of participants reported clinically significant sleep disturbance on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and objective wrist actigraphy confirmed poor sleep quality. In regression analyses including sleep variables and other predictors, more self-reported sleep disturbance at baseline was associated with worse health-related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short Form Survey Mental Component Summary score) and worse depressive symptoms five-item Geriatric Depression Scale at follow-up. Worse nighttime sleep (according to actigraphy) at baseline was associated with worse activities of daily living functioning and more depressive symptoms at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS Sleep disturbance is common in older ALF residents, and poor sleep is associated with declining functional status and quality of life and greater depression over 6 months of follow-up. Studies are needed to determine whether improving sleep in ALF residents will result in improvements in these outcomes. Well-established treatments should be adapted for use in ALFs and systematically evaluated in future research. PMID:20722819

  4. High prevalence of self-reported photophobia in adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kooij, J J Sandra; Bijlenga, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Many adult outpatients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report an oversensitivity to light. We explored the link between ADHD and photophobia in an online survey (N = 494). Self-reported photophobia was prevalent in 69% of respondents with, and in 28% of respondents without, ADHD (symptoms). The ADHD (symptoms) group wore sunglasses longer during daytime in all seasons. Photophobia may be related to the functioning of the eyes, which mediate dopamine and melatonin production systems in the eye. In the brain, dopamine and melatonin are involved in both ADHD and circadian rhythm disturbances. Possibly, the regulation of the dopamine and melatonin systems in the eyes and in the brain are related. Despite the study's limitations, the results are encouraging for further study on the pathophysiology of ADHD, eye functioning, and circadian rhythm disturbances.

  5. Self-reported health of residents of the Mississippi Delta.

    PubMed

    2004-11-01

    The rural Lower Mississippi Delta of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi has a large economically and socially disadvantaged population at high risk for health problems. Their health status is poorly understood as they are not well represented in national health surveys. A random-digit-dialing telephone survey was conducted in 2000, with 2,236 respondents representing residents of 36 counties along the Mississippi River. Self-reported chronic conditions, health status, and obesity (derived from weight and height) were compared with the nationally representative Continuing Survey of Food Intake of Individuals. High cholesterol, diabetes, and hypertension were significantly higher than in the national sample. Obesity was strikingly higher in Delta children (27.9% versus 16.2%) of all ages and in Delta adults (33.9% versus 17.3%). Controlling for age, income, and gender, African Americans were at particular risk for obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. A public health crisis appears to exist in the Delta given the high prevalence health problems.

  6. Factors associated with self-reported health: implications for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND: Advocates for environmental justice, local, state, and national public health officials, exposure scientists, need broad-based heath indices to identify vulnerable communities. Longitudinal studies show that perception of current health status predicts subsequent mortality, suggesting that self-reported health (SRH) may be useful in screening-level community assessments. This paper evaluates whether SRH is an appropriate surrogate indicator of health status by evaluating relationships between SRH and sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health care factors as well as serological indicators of nutrition, health risk, and environmental exposures.METHODS: Data were combined from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys for 1372 nonsmoking 20-50 year olds. Ordinal and binary logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals of reporting poorer health based on measures of nutrition, health condition, environmental contaminants, and sociodemographic, health care, and lifestyle factors.RESULTS: Poorer SRH was associated with several serological measures of nutrition, health condition, and biomarkers of toluene, cadmium, lead, and mercury exposure. Race/ethnicity, income, education, access to health care, food security, exercise, poor mental and physical health, prescription drug use, and multiple health outcome measures (e.g., diabetes, thyroid problems, asthma) were also associated with poorer SRH.CONCLUS

  7. Examination of Variables That May Affect the Relationship Between Cognition and Functional Status in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mcalister, Courtney; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Lamb, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to improve understanding of the heterogeneity in the relationship between cognition and functional status in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Demographic, clinical, and methodological moderators were examined. Cognition explained an average of 23% of the variance in functional outcomes. Executive function measures explained the largest amount of variance (37%), whereas global cognitive status and processing speed measures explained the least (20%). Short- and long-delayed memory measures accounted for more variance (35% and 31%) than immediate memory measures (18%), and the relationship between cognition and functional outcomes was stronger when assessed with informant-report (28%) compared with self-report (21%). Demographics, sample characteristics, and type of everyday functioning measures (i.e., questionnaire, performance-based) explained relatively little variance compared with cognition. Executive functioning, particularly measured by Trails B, was a strong predictor of everyday functioning in individuals with MCI. A large proportion of variance remained unexplained by cognition. PMID:26743326

  8. What are the links between maternal social status, hippocampal function, and HPA axis function in children?

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Margaret A; How, Joan; Araujo, Melanie; Schamberg, Michelle A; Nelson, Charles A

    2013-09-01

    The association of parental social status with multiple health and achievement indicators in adulthood has driven researchers to attempt to identify mechanisms by which social experience in childhood could shift developmental trajectories. Some accounts for observed linkages between parental social status in childhood and health have hypothesized that early stress exposure could result in chronic disruptions in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, and that this activation could lead to long-term changes. A robust literature in adult animals has demonstrated that chronic HPA axis activation leads to changes in hippocampal structure and function. In the current study, consistent with studies in animals, we observe an association between both maternal self-rated social status and hippocampal activation in children and between maternal self-rated social status and salivary cortisol in children.

  9. Assessment of Functional Status and Quality of Life in Claudication

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Ryan J.; Casserly, Ivan P.; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Ho, P. Michael; Hiatt, William R.; Nehler, Mark R.; Regensteiner, Judith G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Treadmill walking is commonly used to evaluate walking impairment and efficacy of treatment for intermittent claudication (IC) in clinical and research settings. Although this is an important measure, it does not provide information about how patients perceive the effects of their treatments on more global measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods PubMed/Medline was searched to find publications about the most commonly used questionnaires to assess functional status and/or general and disease-specific HRQOL in patients with PAD who experience IC. Inclusion criteria for questionnaires were based on existence of a body of literature in symptomatic PAD. Results Six general questionnaires and 7 disease-specific questionnaires are included with details about the number of domains covered and how each tool is scored. The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 item questionnaire and Walking Impairment Questionnaire are currently the most used general and disease-specific questionnaires at baseline and following treatment for IC, respectively. Conclusions The use of tools which assess functional status and HRQOL has importance in both the clinical and research areas to assess treatment efficacy from the patient perspective. Therefore, assessing HRQOL in addition to treadmill-measured walking ability provides insight as to effects of treatments on patient outcomes and may help guide therapy. PMID:21334172

  10. Socioeconomic status and functional brain development - associations in early infancy.

    PubMed

    Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Moore, Derek G; Ribeiro, Helena; Axelsson, Emma L; Murphy, Elizabeth; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Johnson, Mark H; Kushnerenko, Elena

    2013-09-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts on both structural and functional brain development in childhood, but how early its effects can be demonstrated is unknown. In this study we measured resting baseline EEG activity in the gamma frequency range in awake 6-9-month-olds from areas of East London with high socioeconomic deprivation. Between-subject comparisons of infants from low- and high-income families revealed significantly lower frontal gamma power in infants from low-income homes. Similar power differences were found when comparing infants according to maternal occupation, with lower occupational status groups yielding lower power. Infant sleep, maternal education, length of gestation, and birth weight, as well as smoke exposure and bilingualism, did not explain these differences. Our results show that the effects of socioeconomic disparities on brain activity can already be detected in early infancy, potentially pointing to very early risk for language and attention difficulties. This is the first study to reveal region-selective differences in functional brain development associated with early infancy in low-income families.

  11. Pharmacy claims data versus patient self-report to measure contraceptive method continuation

    PubMed Central

    Triebwasser, Jourdan E.; Higgins, Stephanie; Secura, Gina M.; Zhao, Qiuhong; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare self-reported 12-month continuation of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), patch, and ring versus continuation by pharmacy claims data. Study Design Women in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project who chose OCPs, the patch, or ring as their initial method were included. Continuation was assessed by periodic telephone survey and by obtaining prescription claims data. Continuation was defined as no gap of more than 30 days. Kaplan-Meier survival functions were used to estimate continuation rates and cumulative unintended pregnancy rates. Kappa statistic assessed the level of agreement between self-report and claims data. Results We analyzed 1,510 women who initiated use by 3 months and provided information on discontinuation. Of OCP users, 59% continued their method at 12 months by self-report versus 38% by pharmacy claims. Patch and ring users had self-reported/pharmacy continuation of 45%/28%, and 57%/37%, respectively. Kappa coefficients and their 95% confidence intervals between the two measurements were 0.46 [0.40–0.52], 0.54 [0.39–0.68], and 0.54 [0.47–0.61] for OCP, patch, and ring, respectively. Among women who self-reported continuation, unintended pregnancy rates were 0.4% in those who continued by pharmacy claims versus 4.9% in those who discontinued according to claims data. Conclusion Contraceptive continuation rates differ by self-report versus pharmacy claims with women overestimating their continuation by self-report. PMID:25858677

  12. Prevalence and correlates of self-reported state of teeth among schoolchildren in Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    David, Jamil; Åstrøm, Anne N; Wang, Nina J

    2006-01-01

    Background Oral health status in India is traditionally evaluated using clinical indices. There is growing interest to know how subjective measures relate to outcomes of oral health. The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence and correlates of self-reported state of teeth in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Kerala, India. Methods Cross-sectional survey data were used. The sample consisted of 838 12-year-old schoolchildren. Data was collected using clinical examination and questionnaire. The clinical oral health status was recorded using Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) and Oral Hygiene Index – Simplified (OHI-S). The questionnaire included questions on sociodemographics, self reports of behaviour, knowledge and oral problems and a single-item measuring self-reported state and satisfaction with appearance of teeth. The Kappa values for test-retest of the questionnaire ranged from 0.55 to 0.97. Results Twenty-three per cent of the schoolchildren reported the state of teeth as bad. Multivariate logistic regression showed significant associations between schoolchildren who reported to have bad teeth and poor school performance (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.5), having bad breath (OR = 2.4), food impaction (OR = 1.7) dental visits (OR = 1.6), being dissatisfied with appearance of teeth (OR = 4.2) and caries experience (OR = 1.7). The explained variance was highest when the variables dental visits, bleeding gums, bad breath, food impaction and satisfaction with appearance were introduced into the model (19%). Conclusion A quarter of 12-year-olds reported having bad teeth. The self-reported bad state of teeth was associated with poor school performance, having bad breath and food impaction, having visited a dentist, being dissatisfied with teeth appearance and having caries experience. Information from self-reports of children might help in planning effective strategies to promote oral health. PMID:16817952

  13. The Role of Psychosocial and Belief Factors in Self-Reported Cigarette Smoking Among University Students in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dubai, Sami; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Alshagga, Mustafa; Hawash, Aamenah; Wajih, Wahid; Kassim, Saba

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore factors associated, specifically belief factors, with self-reported tobacco smoking status. A sample of 300 students was recruited from a private university in Malaysia. Data was collected using a pre-tested self-administrated questionnaire that investigated various factors including socio-demographics, socio-economic status, smoking behavior and beliefs on tobacco smoking. The main tobacco use in this study sample was cigarettes and the estimated prevalence of self-reported cigarette smoking was 10.3%. In bivariate analysis, self-reported cigarette smoking was significantly associated with socio-demographic, behavioral factors and faculty of study (P<0.05). In multivariate modeling, being male and a non-medical student, did not exercise, having a smoker father and brother or sister, suffering from financial difficulties and having the belief that smokers had more friends, all had statistically significant associations (P<0.05) with self-reported cigarette smoking. Social and interpersonal factors were associated with self-reported cigarette smoking status. A comprehensive health model focusing on changing the social norms of parent and sibling tobacco smoking and students’ beliefs, alongside nurturing skills of dealing with stressful situations, warrant implementation. PMID:26973928

  14. Socioeconomic Status and Longitudinal Lung Function of Healthy Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Briseño, David; Fernández-Plata, Rosario; Gochicoa-Rangel, Laura; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis; Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Mendoza-Alvarado, Laura; García-Sancho, Cecilia; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Our aim was to estimate the longitudinal effect of Socioeconomic status (SES) on lung function growth of Mexican children and adolescents. Materials and Methods A cohort of Mexican children in third grade of primary school was followed with spirometry twice a year for 6 years through secondary school. Multilevel mixed-effects lineal models were fitted for the spirometric variables of 2,641 respiratory-healthy Mexican children. Monthly family income (in 2002 U.S. dollars [USD]) and parents’ years completed at school were used as proxies of SES. Results Individuals with higher SES tended to have greater height for age, and smaller sitting height/standing height and crude lung function. For each 1-year increase of parents’ schooling, Forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and Forced vital capacity (FVC) increased 8.5 (0.4%) and 10.6 mL (0.4%), respectively (p <0.05) when models were adjusted for gender. Impact of education on lung function was reduced drastically or abolished on adjusting by anthropometric variables and ozone. Conclusions Higher parental schooling and higher monthly family income were associated with higher lung function in healthy Mexican children, with the majority of the effect likely due to the increase in height-for-age. PMID:26379144

  15. Self-reported problems before and after prosthodontic treatments according to newly created Turkish version of oral health impact profile.

    PubMed

    Baran, Ilgi; Nalcaci, Rana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess patients' socio-demographic factors with their removable prosthesis in general, as well as to assess their problems with the functional limitation, physical pain, psychological discomfort, physical disability, social disability, and handicap investigate impaired oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in patient treated with removable dentures before treatment and at 1 and 12 months after treatment. The first part of the questionnaire was comprised of 20 questions. It was designed in four different sections as: (i) general socio-demographic factors, (ii) general health, (iii) experience and use of dental and denture care, and (iv) anamnestic sign and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A statistical analysis system (SAS) was used for data management and analysis. Patient-reported problems were studied using the item list contained in the Turkish version of the oral health impact profile (OHIP) in a convenience sample of 136 prosthodontic patients before (m(0)), 1 month after (m(1)), and 12 months (m(2)) after treatment were then examined by using two-way ANOVA with repeated measurement. Differences in OHRQoL were present when item-specific prevalence was stratified by time of total scores; gender, residential area, working status, self-reported general health, smoking status, denture type, importance of the convenient dental care, trauma story, self-reported TMD/pain, and self-reported TMD/difficulty opening mouth wide. At baseline, the most prevalent frequently reported problems "difficulties chewing" (49.3%), "digestion worse" (40.4%), "take longer to complete a meal" (36%), "food catching" (30.9%), and "dentures not fitting" (29.4%), and m(2) the most prevalent frequently reported problems were "avoid going out" (25%), "difficulties chewing" (17.6), "sore jaw" (15.5%), and "take longer to complete a meal" (14%). The study confirmed that denture status is by far the strongest predictor of impaired OHRQoL compared

  16. Validity of Self-Reported Running Distance.

    PubMed

    Dideriksen, Mette; Soegaard, Cristina; Nielsen, Rasmus O

    2016-06-01

    It is unclear whether there is a difference between subjective evaluation and objective global positioning systems (GPS) measurement of running distance. The purpose of this study was to investigate if such difference exists. A total of 100 participants (51% men; median age, 41.5; body mass, 78.1 kg ±13.8 SD) completed a run of free choice, then subjectively reported the distance in kilometer (km). This information was subsequently compared with the distance derived from a nondifferential GPS watch using paired t-tests and Bland-Altman's 95% limits of agreement. No significant difference was found between the mean paired differences between subjective evaluations and GPS measurements (1.86%, 95% confidence interval = -1.53%; 5.25%, p = 0.96). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement revealed considerable variation (lower limit = -28% and upper limit = 40%). Such variation exceeds the clinical error range of 10%. In conclusion, the mean running distance (km) is similar between self-reporting and GPS measurements. However, researchers should consider using GPS measurements in favor of subjective reporting of running distance because of considerable variation on an individual level.

  17. Self-reported sleep disturbances in renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor sleep quality (SQ) and daytime sleepiness (DS) are common in renal transplant (RTx) recipients; however, related data are rare. This study describes the prevalence and frequency of self-reported sleep disturbances in RTx recipients. Methods This cross-sectional study included 249 RTx recipients transplanted at three Swiss transplant centers. All had reported poor SQ and / or DS in a previous study. With the Survey of Sleep (SOS) self-report questionnaire, we screened for sleep and health habits, sleep history, main sleep problems and sleep-related disturbances. To determine a basis for preliminary sleep diagnoses according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD), 164 subjects were interviewed (48 in person, 116 via telephone and 85 refused). Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data and to determine the frequencies and prevalences of specific sleep disorders. Results The sample had a mean age of 59.1 ± 11.6 years (60.2% male); mean time since Tx was 11.1 ± 7.0 years. The most frequent sleep problem was difficulty staying asleep (49.4%), followed by problems falling asleep (32.1%). The most prevalent sleep disturbance was the need to urinate (62.9%), and 27% reported reduced daytime functionality. Interview data showed that most suffered from the first ICSD category: insomnias. Conclusion Though often disregarded in RTx recipients, sleep is an essential factor of wellbeing. Our findings show high prevalences and incidences of insomnias, with negative impacts on daytime functionality. This indicates a need for further research on the clinical consequences of sleep disturbances and the benefits of insomnia treatment in RTx recipients. PMID:24112372

  18. Altered structure and function of astrocytes following status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Karen S; Gee, James M; Gibbons, Meredith B; Tvrdik, Petr; White, John A

    2015-08-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a devastating seizure disorder that is often caused by status epilepticus (SE). Temporal lobe epilepsy can be very difficult to control with currently available antiseizure drugs, and there are currently no disease-modifying therapies that can prevent the development of TLE in those patients who are at risk. While the functional changes that occur in neurons following SE and leading to TLE have been well studied, only recently has research attention turned to the role in epileptogenesis of astrocytes, the other major cell type of the brain. Given that epilepsy is a neural circuit disorder, innovative ways to evaluate the contributions that both neurons and astrocytes make to aberrant circuit activity will be critical for the understanding of the emergent network properties that result in seizures. Recently described approaches using genetically encoded calcium-indicating proteins can be used to image dynamic calcium transients, a marker of activity in both neurons and glial cells. It is anticipated that this work will lead to novel insights into the process of epileptogenesis at the network level and may identify disease-modifying therapeutic targets that have been missed because of a largely neurocentric view of seizure generation following SE. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus".

  19. Social status, glucocorticoids, immune function, and health: can animal studies help us understand human socioeconomic-status-related health disparities?

    PubMed

    Cavigelli, Sonia A; Chaudhry, Hashim S

    2012-08-01

    For humans in developed nations, socioeconomic status (SES)--relative income, education and occupational position in a society--is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality rates, with increasing SES predicting longer life span (e.g. Marmot et al., 1991). Mechanisms underlying this relationship have been examined, but the relative role of each mechanism still remains unknown. By understanding the relative role of specific mechanisms that underlie dramatic health disparities between high and low social status individuals we can begin to identify effective, targeted methods to alleviate health disparities. In the current paper, we take advantage of a growing number of animal studies that have quantified biological health-related correlates (glucocorticoid production and immune function) of social status and compare these studies to the current literature on human SES and health to determine if and how animal studies can further our understanding of SES-associated human health disparities. Specifically, we compared social-status related glucocorticoid production and immune function in humans and animals. From the review, we show that our present understanding of the relationships between social status and glucocorticoid production/immune function is still growing, but that there are already identifiable parallels (and non-parallels) between humans and animals. We propose timely areas of future study focused on (1) specific aspects of social status that may influence stress-related physiology, (2) mechanisms underlying long-term influences of social status on physiology and health, and (3) intervention studies to alleviate potentially negative physiological correlates of social status.

  20. Could Patient Self-reported Health Data Complement EHR for Phenotyping?

    PubMed Central

    Fort, Daniel; Wilcox, Adam B.; Weng, Chunhua

    2014-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) have been used as a valuable data source for phenotyping. However, this method suffers from inherent data quality issues like data missingness. As patient self-reported health data are increasingly available, it is useful to know how the two data sources compare with each other for phenotyping. This study addresses this research question. We used self-reported diabetes status for 2,249 patients treated at Columbia University Medical Center and the well-known eMERGE EHR phenotyping algorithm for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) to conduct the experiment. The eMERGE algorithm achieved high specificity (.97) but low sensitivity (.32) among this patient cohort. About 87% of the patients with self-reported diabetes had at least one ICD-9 code, one medication, or one lab result supporting a DM2 diagnosis, implying the remaining 13% may have missing or incorrect self-reports. We discuss the tradeoffs in both data sources and in combining them for phenotyping. PMID:25954446

  1. A systematic review of empirical research on self-reported racism and health.

    PubMed

    Paradies, Yin

    2006-08-01

    This paper reviews 138 empirical quantitative population-based studies of self-reported racism and health. These studies show an association between self-reported racism and ill health for oppressed racial groups after adjustment for a range of confounders. The strongest and most consistent findings are for negative mental health outcomes and health-related behaviours, with weaker associations existing for positive mental health outcomes, self-assessed health status, and physical health outcomes. Most studies in this emerging field have been published in the past 5 years and have been limited by a dearth of cohort studies, a lack of psychometrically validated exposure instruments, poor conceptualization and definition of racism, conflation of racism with stress, and debate about the aetiologically relevant period for self-reported racism. Future research should examine the psychometric validity of racism instruments and include these instruments, along with objectively measured health outcomes, in existing large-scale survey vehicles as well as longitudinal studies and studies involving children. There is also a need to gain a better understanding of the perception, attribution, and reporting of racism, to investigate the pathways via which self-reported racism affects health, the interplay between mental and physical health outcomes, and exposure to intra-racial, internalized, and systemic racism. Ensuring the quality of studies in this field will allow future research to reveal the complex role that racism plays as a determinant of population health.

  2. [Health status of nursing workers in functional retraining and readaptation].

    PubMed

    Cacciari, Pâmella; Haddad, Maria do Carmo Lourenço; Vannuchi, Marli Terezinha Oliveira; Dalmas, José Carlos

    2013-12-01

    Cross-sectional descriptive study aimed to assess the health status of nursing staff retrained due to illness of a public university hospital in northern Paraná, Brazil. Data of 34 workers were collected through the application of the Medical Outcomes Studies 36 items - Short Form (MOS SF-36). The results showed that physical problems were the reason for retraining in 91.2 % of cases. Of the eight domains assessed by the MOS SF -36, the worst scores referred to bodily pain, vitality and general health and the best scores were attributed to aspects of the mental health component. Workers retrained due to physical reason had lower scores in all domains except emotional performance in relation to those with mental problem. The evaluation of the perceived health of these workers showed that retraining due to illness is a strategy developed to enhance the functional capacity of workers, despite their limitations.

  3. Predicting Cognitive Function from Clinical Measures of Physical Function and Health Status in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Kording, Konrad; Salowitz, Nicole; Davis, Jennifer C.; Hsu, Liang; Chan, Alison; Sharma, Devika; Blohm, Gunnar; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Current research suggests that the neuropathology of dementia—including brain changes leading to memory impairment and cognitive decline—is evident years before the onset of this disease. Older adults with cognitive decline have reduced functional independence and quality of life, and are at greater risk for developing dementia. Therefore, identifying biomarkers that can be easily assessed within the clinical setting and predict cognitive decline is important. Early recognition of cognitive decline could promote timely implementation of preventive strategies. Methods We included 89 community-dwelling adults aged 70 years and older in our study, and collected 32 measures of physical function, health status and cognitive function at baseline. We utilized an L1–L2 regularized regression model (elastic net) to identify which of the 32 baseline measures were strongly predictive of cognitive function after one year. We built three linear regression models: 1) based on baseline cognitive function, 2) based on variables consistently selected in every cross-validation loop, and 3) a full model based on all the 32 variables. Each of these models was carefully tested with nested cross-validation. Results Our model with the six variables consistently selected in every cross-validation loop had a mean squared prediction error of 7.47. This number was smaller than that of the full model (115.33) and the model with baseline cognitive function (7.98). Our model explained 47% of the variance in cognitive function after one year. Discussion We built a parsimonious model based on a selected set of six physical function and health status measures strongly predictive of cognitive function after one year. In addition to reducing the complexity of the model without changing the model significantly, our model with the top variables improved the mean prediction error and R-squared. These six physical function and health status measures can be easily implemented in a

  4. Detecting Careless Responses to Self-Reported Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kountur, Ronny

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: The use of self-report questionnaires may lead to biases such as careless responses that distort the research outcomes. Early detection of careless responses in self-report questionnaires may reduce error, but little guidance exists in the literature regarding techniques for detecting such careless or random responses in…

  5. Construct Validity of Self-Reported Metacognitive Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Jean-Louis; Karabenick, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite their significant contributions to research on self-regulated learning, those favoring online and trace approaches have questioned the use of self-report to assess learners' use of learning strategies. An important rejoinder to such criticisms consists of examining the validity of self-report items. The present study was designed to assess…

  6. Improving Accuracy of Sleep Self-Reports through Correspondence Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Peter, Claire C.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.; Massullo, Joel P.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep insufficiency is a major public health concern, yet the accuracy of self-reported sleep measures is often poor. Self-report may be useful when direct measurement of nonverbal behavior is impossible, infeasible, or undesirable, as it may be with sleep measurement. We used feedback and positive reinforcement within a small-n multiple-baseline…

  7. Self-Reported Health of People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujiura, Glenn T.

    2012-01-01

    Self-reported health is an important outcome in the evaluation of health care but is largely ignored in favor of proxy-based reporting for people with an intellectual disability. This study briefly reviews the role of self-report in health assessment of people with intellectual disability and the challenges and recommendations that have emerged…

  8. Validation of Self-Reported Cognitive Problems with Objective ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is a lack of validation of self-reported cognitive problems with objective neuropsychological measures. The validity of four self-reported cognitive items from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was examined with objective clinical neuropsychological test performance in 147 manganese (Mn) exposed residents. These residents were from two Ohio towns exposed to ambient air-Mn from an industrial source with modeled average air-Mn concentrations of 0.54 µg/m3 (range: 0.01-4.58) and were part of a larger study of cognitive, motor, tremor abnormalities and their relationship to Mn exposure.The primarily white (94.6%) participants (aged 30-64) lived in the towns for at least 10 years (range: 10-64) and had 13.9 years of education, on average. In the last 7 days before testing, 94 (64.4%) participants self-reported concentration problems and 105 (71.8%) self-reported memory problems. After adjusting for age and education, participants who self-reported cognitive problems did not perform worse on the objective neuropsychological measures than those who reported not having problems, except on 1 of 17 neuropsychological tests (Stroop Color). Greater levels of depression and female sex predicted having more self-reported cognitive problems. Higher education was associated with fewer self-reported cognitive problems. Measures of Mn in air, blood, hair, and toenails were not associated with subjective cognitive self-reported p

  9. A Self-Report Measure of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Donald

    2005-01-01

    There are multiple approaches to measuring physical activity. Among these are direct observation, electronic monitoring, direct and indirect calorimetry, and self-report instruments. Self-report instruments are the most practical and cost effective option for use with a large group. In a study by Motl, Dishman, Dowda, and Pate (2004), two groups…

  10. Does Participation in an Intervention Affect Responses on Self-Report Questionnaires?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baranowski, Tom; Allen, Diane D.; Masse, Louise C.; Wilson, Mark

    2006-01-01

    There has been some concern that participation in an intervention and exposure to a measurement instrument can change participants' interpretation of the items on a self-report questionnaire thereby distorting subsequent responses and biasing results. Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis using item response modeling can ascertain possible…

  11. Sexuality in Adolescent Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Reported Behaviours and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group…

  12. Visual Field Asymmetries in Attention Vary with Self-Reported Attention Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poynter, William; Ingram, Paul; Minor, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an index of self-reported attention deficits predicts the pattern of visual field asymmetries observed in behavioral measures of attention. Studies of "normal" subjects do not present a consistent pattern of asymmetry in attention functions, with some studies showing better left visual field (LVF)…

  13. Colorectal cancer and self-reported tooth agenesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Germline mutations in APC and AXIN2 are both associated with colon neoplasia as well as anomalous dental development. We tested the hypothesis that congenitally missing teeth may occur more commonly in individuals diagnosed with colorectal cancer than in individuals without this diagnosis. Methods Via a survey conducted on 1636 individuals with colorectal cancer (CRC) and 2788 individuals with no colorectal cancer from the Colon Cancer Family Registry, self-reported information on congenitally missing teeth was collected. The frequency of missing teeth between cases and controls was compared using Pearson’s chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test. Results 4.8% of cases and 5.7% of controls reported having at least one missing tooth (p = 0.20). When we stratified by recruitment site, gender, and mutation status where available, frequency of missing teeth was not statistically significantly different between cases and controls. Conclusions This study did not provide support for there being a general predisposition to missing teeth among a large cohort of CRC patients. The study neither addresses nor excludes the possibility, however, that individuals presenting with notable hypodontia/oligodontia might still have an increased risk for colorectal neoplasia. PMID:24607150

  14. The validity of self-reported physical fitness test scores.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sarah B; Knapik, Joseph J; Sharp, Marilyn A; Darakjy, Salima; Jones, Bruce H

    2007-02-01

    Epidemiological studies often have to rely on a participant's self-reporting of information. The validity of the self-report instrument is an important consideration in any study. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the validity of self-reported Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores. The APFT is administered to all soldiers in the U.S. Army twice a year and consists of the maximum number of push-ups completed in 2 minutes, the maximum number of sit-ups completed in 2 minutes, and a 2-mile run for time. Army mechanics responded to a questionnaire in March and June 2004 asking them to report the exact scores of each event on their most recent APFT. Actual APFT scores were obtained from the soldier's military unit. The mean +/- standard deviation (SD) of actual and self-reported numbers of push-ups was 61 +/- 14 and 65 +/- 13, respectively. The mean +/- SD of actual and self-reported numbers of sit-ups were 66 +/- 10 and 68 +/- 10, respectively. The mean +/- SD of actual and self-reported run times (minutes) were 14.8 +/- 1.4 and 14.6 +/- 1.4, respectively. Correlations between actual and self-reported push-ups, sit-ups, and run were 0.83, 0.71, and 0.85, respectively. On average, soldiers tended to slightly over-report performance on all APFT events and individual self-reported scores could vary widely from actual scores based on Bland-Altman plots. Despite this, the close correlations between the actual and self-reported scores suggest that self-reported values are adequate for most epidemiological military studies involving larger sample sizes.

  15. Analog assessment of frustration tolerance: association with self-reported child abuse risk and physiological reactivity.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Christina M; Russa, Mary Bower; Kircher, John C

    2015-08-01

    Although frustration has long been implicated in promoting aggression, the potential for poor frustration tolerance to function as a risk factor for physical child abuse risk has received minimal attention. Instead, much of the extant literature has examined the role of anger in physical abuse risk, relying on self-reports of the experience or expression of anger, despite the fact that this methodology is often acknowledged as vulnerable to bias. Therefore, the present investigation examined whether a more implicit, analog assessment of frustration tolerance specifically relevant to parenting would reveal an association with various markers of elevated physical child abuse risk in a series of samples that varied with regard to age, parenting status, and abuse risk. An analog task was designed to evoke parenting-relevant frustration: the task involved completing an unsolvable task while listening to a crying baby or a toddler's temper tantrum; time scores were generated to gauge participants' persistence in the task when encountering such frustration. Across these studies, low frustration tolerance was associated with increased physical child abuse potential, greater use of parent-child aggression in discipline encounters, dysfunctional disciplinary style, support for physical discipline use and physical discipline escalation, and increased heart rate. Future research directions that could better inform intervention and prevention programs are discussed, including working to clarify the processes underlying frustration intolerance and potential interactive influences that may exacerbate physical child abuse.

  16. Reliability of Drug Users' Self-Reported HIV Risk Behaviors and Validity of Self-Reported Recent Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Guyer, Seana; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reliability and validity of the Risk Behavior Assessment, a questionnaire evaluating drug use and sexual human immunovirus risk behavior through self-reports, were studied with 218 drug users who also provided urine samples. Overall, self-reports of drug use and sexual behavior were reliable. (SLD)

  17. Prevalence of self-reported nutrition-related health problems in the Lower Mississippi Delta.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J; Lensing, S; Horton, J A; Lovejoy, J; Zaghloul, S; Forrester, I; McGee, B B; Bogle, M L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess demographic and geographic differences in prevalence of self-reported nutrition-related health problems in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. METHODS: The authors analyzed 1991 and 1993 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for adults 18 years or older. RESULTS: Less educated African American women and women of other minority groups who were aged 35 to 64 years reported the highest prevalence of health problems. Geographic differences involved prevalence of hypertension, health status, and insurance status. CONCLUSIONS: Specific demographic subgroups and geographic areas with a high risk of health problems are in particular need of targeted interventions. PMID:10474563

  18. Trends in Ambulatory Self-Report: The Role of Momentary Experience in Psychosomatic Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Tamlin S.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we review the differences between momentary, retrospective, and trait self-report techniques and discuss the unique role that ambulatory reports of momentary experience play in psychosomatic medicine. Following a brief historical review of self-report techniques, we discuss the latest perspective which links ambulatory self-reports to a qualitatively different conscious self – the ‘experiencing self’– which is functionally and neuroanatomically different from the ‘remembering’ and ‘believing’ selves measured through retrospective and trait questionnaires. The experiencing self functions to navigate current environments and is relatively more tied to the salience network and corporeal information from the body that regulates autonomic processes. As evidence, we review research showing that experiences measured through ambulatory assessment have stronger associations with cardiovascular reactivity, cortisol response, immune system function, and threat/reward biomarkers compared to memories or beliefs. By contrast, memories and beliefs play important roles in decision making and long-term planning, but they are less tied to bodily processes and more tied to default/long-term memory networks, which minimizes their sensitivity for certain research questions. We conclude with specific recommendations for using self-report questionnaires in psychosomatic medicine and suggest that intensive ambulatory assessment of experiences may provide greater sensitivity for connecting psychological with biological processes. PMID:22582330

  19. A corpus driven approach applying the "frame semantic" method for modeling functional status terminology.

    PubMed

    Ruggieri, Alexander P; Pakhomov, Serguei V; Chute, Christopher G

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to unearth semantic models that could prove fruitful to functional-status terminology development we applied the "frame semantic" method, derived from the linguistic theory of thematic roles currently exemplified in the Berkeley "FrameNet" Project. Full descriptive sentences with functional-status conceptual meaning were derived from structured content within a corpus of questionnaire assessment instruments commonly used in clinical practice for functional-status assessment. Syntactic components in those sentences were delineated through manual annotation and mark-up. The annotated syntactic constituents were tagged as frame elements according to their semantic role within the context of the derived functional-status expression. Through this process generalizable "semantic frames" were elaborated with recurring "frame elements". The "frame semantic" method as an approach to rendering semantic models for functional-status terminology development and its use as a basis for machine recognition of functional status data in clinical narratives are discussed.

  20. Social disparities in hazardous alcohol use: self-report bias may lead to incorrect estimates

    PubMed Central

    Sassi, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self-report bias in surveys of alcohol consumption is widely documented; however, less is known about the distribution of such bias by socioeconomic status (SES) and about the possible impact on social disparities. This study aims to assess social disparities in hazardous drinking (HD) and to analyze how correcting alcohol consumption data for self-report bias may affect estimates of disparities. Methods: National survey data from 13 countries, Canada, England, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Spain, Switzerland and USA, are used to examine social disparities in HD by SES and education level. Defining HD as drinking above 3 drinks/day for men and 2 for women, social disparities were assessed by calculating country-level concentration indexes. Aggregate consumption data were used to correct survey-based estimates for self-report bias. Results: Survey data show that more-educated women are more likely than less-educated women to engage in HD, while the opposite is observed in men in most countries. Large discrepancies in alcohol consumption between survey-based and aggregate estimates were found. Correcting for self-report bias increased estimates of social disparities in women, and decreased them in men, to the point that gradients were reversed in several countries (from higher rates in low education/SES men to an opposite pattern). Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a likely misestimation of social disparities in HD, in both men and women, due to self-report bias in alcohol consumption surveys. This study contributes to a better knowledge of the social dimensions of HD and to the targeting of alcohol policies. PMID:26585784

  1. Obtaining Self-Report Data from Cognitively Impaired Elders: Methodological Issues and Clinical Implications for Nursing Home Pain Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Susan E.; Burgio, Louis D.; Thorn, Beverly E.; Hardin, J. Michael

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We developed and evaluated an explicit procedure for obtaining self-report pain data from nursing home residents across a broad range of cognitive status, and we evaluated the consistency, stability, and concurrent validity of resident responses. Design and Methods: Using a modification of the Geriatric Pain Measure (GPM-M2), we…

  2. Pre-Adoption Adversity and Self-Reported Behavior Problems in 7 Year-Old International Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon-Oosterwaal, Noemi; Cossette, Louise; Smolla, Nicole; Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Jeliu, Gloria; Belhumeur, Celine; Berthiaume, Claude

    2012-01-01

    To further investigate the long-term impact of pre-adoption adversity on international adoptees, externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using a self-report measure at school-age in addition to mothers' reports. The sample consisted of 95 adopted children and their mothers. Children's health and developmental status were assessed…

  3. Validation of Self-Reported Anthropometrics in Female College Freshmen.

    PubMed

    Leone, Ryan J; Morgan, Amy L; Ludy, Mary-Jon

    Most investigations concerning the validity of self-reported anthropometrics focus on weight, height, and body mass index. This study extends those investigations by exploring the impact of self-reporting bias on the disease risk indicators of waist circumference and body fat percentage. Female college freshmen (n=128) self-reported weight and height, then underwent measurements for weight, height, waist circumference, and body fat percentage. Self-reporting bias was defined as self-reported minus directly-assessed anthropometric value. Despite no differences in self-reported versus directly-assessed weight or height for the total group, students with high waist circumference and excess fat under-reported their weight by 2.3±4.4 lb (p<0.05). Self-reporting bias was negatively correlated with waist circumference (r=-0.362; p<0.001) and body fat percentage (r=-0.317; p<0.001). Although many female college freshmen accurately represent their weight, those with excess fat and waist circumference under-reported their weight. This may lead to missed opportunities for risk identification, prevention, and intervention.

  4. Functional Status of Long-Term Breast Cancer Survivors: Demonstrating Chronicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polinsky, Margaret L.

    1994-01-01

    Surveyed 223 breast cancer survivors 16 months to 32 years from original surgery to assess their current physical, psychological, and social functional status. Although general measures of functioning indicated high physical, psychological, and social functional status, measures specific to breast cancer diagnosis and treatment indicated problems…

  5. Self-reported physical activity and preaccession fitness testing in U.S. Army applicants.

    PubMed

    Gubata, Marlene E; Cowan, David N; Bedno, Sheryl A; Urban, Nadia; Niebuhr, David W

    2011-08-01

    The Assessment of Recruit Motivation and Strength (ARMS) study evaluated a physical fitness screening test for Army applicants before basic training. This report examines applicants' self-reported physical activity as a predictor of objective fitness measured by ARMS. In 2006, the ARMS study administered a fitness test and physical activity survey to Army applicants during their medical evaluation, using multiple logistic regression for comparison. Among both men and women, "qualified" and "exceeds-body-fat" subjects who met American College of Sports Medicine adult physical activity guidelines were more likely to pass the fitness test. Overall, subjects who met physical activity recommendations, watched less television, and played on sports teams had a higher odds of passing the ARMS test after adjustment for age, race, and smoking status. This study demonstrates that self-reported physical activity was associated with physical fitness and may be used to identify those at risk of failing a preaccession fitness test.

  6. Linking vitamin D status, executive functioning and self-perceived mental health in adolescents through multivariate analysis: A randomized double-blind placebo control trial.

    PubMed

    Grung, Bjørn; Sandvik, Asle M; Hjelle, Kay; Dahl, Lisbeth; Frøyland, Livar; Nygård, Irene; Hansen, Anita L

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present randomized double-blind placebo control trial was to investigate if vitamin D supplementation had an effect on vitamin D status, executive functioning and self-perceived mental health in a group of Norwegian adolescents during winter time. Fifty adolescents were randomly assigned into an intervention group (vitamin D pearls) or a control group (placebo pearls). Before (pre-test in December/January) and after (post-test in April/May) the intervention period the participants were exposed to a test procedure, consisting of blood draw, completion of cognitive tests (Tower of Hanoi and Tower of London), and the Youth Self-report version of the Child Behavior Checklist. Multivariate data analysis showed that participants with low vitamin D status scored worse on the Tower of London tests and the more difficult sub-tasks on the Tower of Hanoi tests. They also had a tendency to report higher frequency of externalizing behavior problems and attention deficit. At pre-test, the overall mean vitamin D status measured as 25-hydroxy vitamin D was 42 nmol/L, defining deficiency (Intervention group = 44 nmol/L, Control group = 39 nmol/L). However, vitamin D supplementation caused a significant increase in vitamin D status resulting in a sufficient level in the Intervention group at post-test (mean 62 nmol/L). The results also revealed that the intervention group improved their performance on the most demanding sub-tasks on the ToH. Overall, the study indicates that vitamin D status in adolescents may be important for both executive functioning and mental health.

  7. Disentangling proactive and reactive aggression in children using self-report

    PubMed Central

    Rieffe, Carolien; Broekhof, Evelien; Kouwenberg, Maartje; Faber, Judith; Tsutsui, Makoto M.; Güroğlu, Berna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The distinction between proactive and reactive functions of aggression is one of the most common divisions when investigating aggression among children and adolescents. To date, self-report is the least used measurement, despite existing literature supporting the view that the best informant regarding internal processes and motives are children themselves. The main aim of this study was to examine the construct and concurrent validity of a new self-report questionnaire, which aims to disentangle acts of reactive vs. proactive aggression that are most common within the daily lives of children. We examined the self-report measure among 578 children (313 girls, 265 boys, mean age 11 years, range 9–13 years). Most children (90% boys; 85% girls) reported at least one act of aggression over the last four weeks. Furthermore, the outcomes support the two-factor structure (reactive and proactive aggression) and the questionnaire showed good concurrent and discriminant validity with measures for emotional and social functioning. This study validates the use of the self-report instrument for reactive and proactive aggression and demonstrates that children can successfully distinguish between their own motives for reactive and proactive forms of aggressive behaviours. PMID:27398084

  8. Altered structure and function of astrocytes following status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Karen S.; Gee, James M.; Gibbons, Meredith B.; Tvrdik, Petr; White, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a devastating seizure disorder that is often caused by status epilepticus (SE). Temporal lobe epilepsy can be very difficult to control with currently available antiseizure drugs, and there are currently no disease-modifying therapies that can prevent the development of TLE in those patients who are at risk. While the functional changes that occur in neurons following SE and leading up to TLE have been well studied, only recently has attention turned to the role in epileptogenesis of astrocytes, the other major cell type of the brain. Given that epilepsy is a neural circuit disorder, innovative ways to evaluate the contributions that both neurons and astrocytes make to aberrant circuit activity will be critical for the understanding of the emergent network properties that result in seizures. Recently described approaches using genetically encoded calcium-indicating proteins can be used to image dynamic calcium transients, a marker of activity in both neurons and glial cells. It is anticipated that this work will lead to novel insights into the process of epileptogenesis at the network level and may identify disease-modifying therapeutic targets that have been missed because of a largely neurocentric view of seizure generation following SE. PMID:26219575

  9. Respiratory function and immunological status in paper-recycling workers.

    PubMed

    Zuskin, E; Mustajbegovic, J; Schachter, E N; Kanceljak, B; Kern, J; Macan, J; Ebling, Z

    1998-11-01

    The respiratory function and immunological status of workers employed in the paper recycling industry were studied. The mean age of the 101 studied workers was 41 years, and the mean duration of their exposure was 17 years. A group of 87 unexposed workers of similar age, duration of employment, and smoking history was studied for the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms. Lung function in the paper workers was measured by recording maximum expiratory flow volume (MEFV) curves and recording forced vital capacity (FVC), 1-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and maximum expiratory flow rates at 50% and the last 25% of the FVC (FEF50, FEF25). Immunological studies were performed in all 101 paper workers and in 37 control workers (volunteers). These included skin-prick tests with paper-dust extracts and other nonoccupational allergens, as well as the measurement of total serum immunoglobulin E. Significantly higher prevalences of all chronic respiratory symptoms were found in paper compared with control workers (P < 0.01). The highest prevalences were found for chronic cough (36.6%), chronic phlegm (34.7%), chronic bronchitis (33.7%), sinusitis (31.7%), and dyspnea (18.8%). Occupational asthma was diagnosed in four (4.0%) of the paper workers. A logistic regression analysis performed on chronic respiratory symptoms of paper workers indicated significant effects of smoking and exposure, with the smoking effect being the most important. Multivariate analysis of lung-function parameters indicate significant effects of exposure. For paper workers, the measured FEF50 and FEF25 were significantly decreased, compared with predicted values, suggesting obstructive changes located primarily in smaller airways. Among 101 tested paper workers, 16 (15.8%) had positive skin-prick tests to at least one of the paper extracts; none of the control workers reacted to these extracts. Increased serum IgE levels were found in 21% of the paper workers and in 5% of control workers (P

  10. Chronic Conditions and Self-Reported Health in a Medicare Advantage Plan Population.

    PubMed

    Guerard, Barbara; Omachonu, Vincent; Hernandez, S Robert; Sen, Bisakha

    2017-04-01

    Self-reported changes in physical and mental health by members are an important dimension by which the quality of a Medicare Advantage (MA) plan is rated by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. To better target their interventions, MA plans need a better understanding of what observed characteristics-including clinical health conditions-predict self-reported changes in physical and mental health. This study explored how one MA plan's survey of participants' responses regarding changes in physical and mental health is associated with a set of chronic conditions as well as sociodemographic characteristics. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to examine the influence of 9 chronic conditions and age, sex, race, education, dual eligibility status (Medicare/Medicaid eligible), marital and living status, and assistance with survey completion on changes in patient-reported physical and mental health. Six conditions-dementia (P < 0.001), diabetes (P = 0.003), congestive heart failure (P = 0.002), cerebrovascular disease (P = 0.001), coronary artery disease (CAD) (P < 0.001), and rheumatoid arthritis (P < 0.001)-were associated with self-reported worsening of overall physical health. Four conditions-dementia (P < 0.002), diabetes (P = 0.047), CAD (P = 0.001), and decubitus ulcers (P = 0.033)-were associated with self-reported worsening of overall mental health. Females, married respondents, and those needing assistance with survey completion were more likely to report worsening of their mental health. Enrollees older than age 65 actually were less likely to report worsening of overall mental health. Findings provide insight into which members may be more susceptible to reporting that their physical or mental health is worsening.

  11. Self-Reported Acute and Chronic Voice Disorders in Teachers.

    PubMed

    Rossi-Barbosa, Luiza Augusta Rosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Morais, Renata Martins; de Sousa, Kamilla Ferreira; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to identify factors associated with self-reported acute and chronic voice disorders among municipal elementary school teachers in the city of Montes Claros, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

  12. Can capabilities be self-reported? A think aloud study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Janabi, Hareth; Keeley, Thomas; Mitchell, Paul; Coast, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Direct assessment of capability to function may be useful in healthcare settings, but poses many challenges. This paper reports a first investigation of the feasibility of individuals self-reporting their capabilities and the meaning of the responses. The study was conducted in 2010, using think-aloud interviews with participants in the UK. The findings of the study suggest that the majority of participants were able to comprehend questions about their capabilities, felt able to judge their own capability wellbeing and provided responses in line with this judgement. In a number of cases, for example in relation to ‘autonomy’, participants highlighted that their capability was potentially greater than their functioning. The findings also show varying interpretations of the capability concept, with some participants finding the capability concept unintuitive in relation to specific aspects of life (in particular, ‘attachment’). The findings suggest that guiding individuals in the process of identifying their capabilities may be important in generating consistent responses to capability questions. PMID:23631786

  13. Validation of self-reported periodontal disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Blicher, B; Joshipura, K; Eke, P

    2005-10-01

    Self-report is an efficient and accepted means of assessing many population characteristics, risk factors, and diseases, but has rarely been used for periodontal disease (chronic periodontitis). The availability of valid self-reported measures of periodontal disease would facilitate epidemiologic studies on a much larger scale, allow for integration of new studies of periodontal disease within large ongoing studies, and facilitate lower-cost population surveillance of periodontitis. Several studies have been conducted to validate self-reported measures for periodontal disease, but results have been inconsistent. In this report, we conducted a systematic review of the validation studies. We reviewed the 16 studies that assessed the validity of self-reported periodontal and gingivitis measures against clinical gold standards. Seven of the studies included self-reported measures specific to gingivitis, four included measures only for periodontitis, and five included both gingivitis and periodontal measures. Three of the studies used a self-assessment method where they provided the patient with a detailed manual for performing a self-exam. The remaining 13 studies asked participants to self-report symptoms, presence of periodontal disease itself, or their recollection of a dental health professional diagnosing them or providing treatment for periodontal disease. The review indicates that some measures showed promise, but results varied across populations and self-reported measures. One example of a good measure is, "Has any dentist/hygienist told you that you have deep pockets?", which had a sensitivity of 55%, a specificity of 90%, positive predictive value of 77%, and negative predictive value of 75% against clinical pocket depth. Higher validity could be potentially obtained by the use of combinations of several self-reported questions and other predictors of periodontal disease.

  14. Socioeconomic status and executive function: developmental trajectories and mediation.

    PubMed

    Hackman, Daniel A; Gallop, Robert; Evans, Gary W; Farah, Martha J

    2015-09-01

    Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) predicts executive function (EF), but fundamental aspects of this relation remain unknown: the developmental course of the SES disparity, its continued sensitivity to SES changes during that course, and the features of childhood experience responsible for the SES-EF relation. Regarding course, early disparities would be expected to grow during development if caused by accumulating stressors at a given constant level of SES. Alternatively, they would narrow if schooling partly compensates for the effects of earlier deprivation, allowing lower-SES children to 'catch up'. The potential for later childhood SES change to affect EF is also unknown. Regarding mediating factors, previous analyses produced mixed answers, possibly due to correlation amongst candidate mediators. We address these issues with measures of SES, working memory and planning, along with multiple candidate mediators, from the NICHD Study of Early Childcare (n = 1009). Early family income-to-needs and maternal education predicted planning by first grade, and income-to-needs predicted working memory performance at 54 months. Effects of early SES remained consistent through middle childhood, indicating that the relation between early indicators of SES and EF emerges in childhood and persists without narrowing or widening across early and middle childhood. Changes in family income-to-needs were associated with significant changes in planning and trend-level changes in working memory. Mediation analyses supported the role of early childhood home characteristics in explaining the association between SES and EF, while early childhood maternal sensitivity was specifically implicated in the association between maternal education and planning. Early emerging and persistent SES-related differences in EF, partially explained by characteristics of the home and family environment, are thus a potential source of socioeconomic disparities in achievement and health across

  15. Self-reported post-exertional fatigue in Gulf War veterans: roles of autonomic testing.

    PubMed

    Li, Mian; Xu, Changqing; Yao, Wenguo; Mahan, Clare M; Kang, Han K; Sandbrink, Friedhelm; Zhai, Ping; Karasik, Pamela A

    2014-01-07

    To determine if objective evidence of autonomic dysfunction exists from a group of Gulf War veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue, we evaluated 16 Gulf War ill veterans and 12 Gulf War controls. Participants of the ill group had self- reported, unexplained chronic post-exertional fatigue and the illness symptoms had persisted for years until the current clinical study. The controls had no self-reported post-exertional fatigue either at the time of initial survey nor at the time of the current study. We intended to identify clinical autonomic disorders using autonomic and neurophysiologic testing in the clinical context. We compared the autonomic measures between the 2 groups on cardiovascular function at both baseline and head-up tilt, and sudomotor function. We identified 1 participant with orthostatic hypotension, 1 posture orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, 2 distal small fiber neuropathy, and 1 length dependent distal neuropathy affecting both large and small fiber in the ill group; whereas none of above definable diagnoses was noted in the controls. The ill group had a significantly higher baseline heart rate compared to controls. Compound autonomic scoring scale showed a significant higher score (95% CI of mean: 1.72-2.67) among ill group compared to controls (0.58-1.59). We conclude that objective autonomic testing is necessary for the evaluation of self-reported, unexplained post-exertional fatigue among some Gulf War veterans with multi-symptom illnesses. Our observation that ill veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue had objective autonomic measures that were worse than controls warrants validation in a larger clinical series.

  16. Representation of Functional Status Concepts from Clinical Documents and Social Media Sources by Standard Terminologies.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Jinqiu; Mohanty, April F; Rashmi, V H; Weir, Charlene R; Bray, Bruce E; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Patient-reported functional status is widely recognized as an important patient-centered outcome that adds value to medical care, research, and quality improvement. Functional status outcomes are, however, not routinely or uniformly collected in the medical record, except in certain small patient populations (e.g. geriatrics, nursing home residents). To utilize patient reported functional status for clinical research and practice, we manually collected 2,763 terms from clinical records and social media sites and modeled them on the widely used Short Form-36 Health Survey. We then examined the coverage of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) for these functional status terms through automated mapping. Most terms (85.9%) did not have exact matches in the UMLS. The partial matches were prevalent, however, they typically did not capture the terms' exact semantics. Our study suggests that there is a need to extend existing standard terminologies to incorporate functional status terms used by patients and clinicians.

  17. The Effect of Noise on Relationships Between Speech Intelligibility and Self-Reported Communication Measures in Tracheoesophageal Speakers

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Devon Sawin; Bolt, Susan; Kapsner-Smith, Mara; Sullivan, Jessica R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine how sentence intelligibility relates to self-reported communication in tracheoesophageal speakers when speech intelligibility is measured in quiet and noise. Method Twenty-four tracheoesophageal speakers who were at least 1 year postlaryngectomy provided audio recordings of 5 sentences from the Sentence Intelligibility Test. Speakers also completed self-reported measures of communication—the Voice Handicap Index-10 and the Communicative Participation Item Bank short form. Speech recordings were presented to 2 groups of inexperienced listeners who heard sentences in quiet or noise. Listeners transcribed the sentences to yield speech intelligibility scores. Results Very weak relationships were found between intelligibility in quiet and measures of voice handicap and communicative participation. Slightly stronger, but still weak and nonsignificant, relationships were observed between measures of intelligibility in noise and both self-reported measures. However, 12 speakers who were more than 65% intelligible in noise showed strong and statistically significant relationships with both self-reported measures (R 2 = .76–.79). Conclusions Speech intelligibility in quiet is a weak predictor of self-reported communication measures in tracheoesophageal speakers. Speech intelligibility in noise may be a better metric of self-reported communicative function for speakers who demonstrate higher speech intelligibility in noise. PMID:27379754

  18. Cognitive and self-reported psychological outcomes of blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury in veterans: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Bolzenius, Jacob D; Roskos, P Tyler; Salminen, Lauren E; Paul, Robert H; Bucholz, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of explosives in combat has resulted in a large number of returning veterans suffering from blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and self-reported complications. It remains unclear whether this increase in self-reported difficulties is unique to the blast mechanism or stressful preinjury environment and whether cognitive-functioning deficits correspond with these difficulties in the postacute phase. This study examined the relationship between cognitive performance and self-reported psychological and somatic symptoms of blast-related mTBI compared with civilian mTBI, independent of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Twelve veterans with blast-related mTBI were compared to 18 individuals with civilian mTBI on cognitive tests and self-report questionnaires. Univariate analyses failed to reveal differences on any individual cognitive test. Further, veterans reported more psychological and somatic complaints. These self-reported difficulties were not significantly correlated with neuropsychological performance. Overall, preliminary results suggest that in the postacute phase, subjective complaints related to blast-related mTBI do not covary with objective cognitive performance. Additionally, cognitive outcomes from blast-related mTBI were similar to those of civilian forms of mTBI. Future studies should identify the cognitive and self-reported sequelae of blast-related mTBI independent of comorbid PTSD in a larger sample of veterans.

  19. The social adjustment scale-self-report: psychometric properties for older adults.

    PubMed

    Zweig, Richard A; Turkel, Elihu

    2007-12-01

    To assess the reliability and validity of the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-Report for older adults, 129 community dwelling elderly ranging in age from 63 to 87 years (M=72.3 yr., SD=5.0) were surveyed using a modified version of the scale. The average internal consistency of subscales was satisfactory (mean coefficient alpha=.62). Overall social functioning impairment (total score) was associated with measures of depression (Beck Depression Inventory, r =.58) and global psychiatric symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory, r = .55). Older adults scored higher on Marital role, Family Unit role, and overall social functioning impairment compared to mixed-age adults assessed in previous research, and higher on marital role impairment but similarly on overall social functioning when compared with a mixed-age sample from primary care. The modified Social Adjustment Scale-Self-Report has acceptable psychometric characteristics for research use with older adults, and select subscales may account for findings of age-related differences.

  20. Self-reported histories of disease and vaccination against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella in health care personnel in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kumakura, Shunichi; Onoda, Keiichi; Hirose, Masahiro

    2014-03-01

    Health care personnel are required to be immune against vaccine-preventable diseases, such as measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of self-reported histories of disease and vaccination against measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella in order to determine the immune status of health care personnel. A self-reported questionnaire of history of previous disease and vaccination against these diseases was administered to a total of 910 health care personnel in Shimane university hospital in Japan, whose results were compared with serological evidences. There were numerous subjects who did not remember a history of disease (greater than 33% each) and of vaccination (greater than 58% each). Self-reported history of disease and vaccination had high positive predictive value against either disease for testing positive for antiviral antibodies. However, a considerable number of false-negative subjects could be found; 88.9% of subjects for measles, 89.3% for mumps, 62.2% for rubella and 96.3% for varicella in the population who had neither a self-reported history of disease nor a vaccination against each disease. In addition, regardless of the disease in question, a negative predictive value in self-reported history of disease and vaccination was remarkably low. These results suggest that self-reported history of disease and vaccination was not predictive to determine the accurate immune status of health care personnel against measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella. A seroprevalence survey, followed by an adequate immunization program for susceptible subjects, is crucial to prevent and control infection in hospital settings.

  1. Self-reported racial discrimination and endothelial reactivity to acute stress in women.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Julie A; Tennen, Howard; Finan, Patrick H; Ghuman, Nimrta; Burg, Matthew M

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of self-reported racial discrimination on endothelial responses to acute laboratory mental stress among post-menopausal women. One-hundred thirteen women (n = 94 self-identified as White and n = 19 self-identified as racial/ethnic minority), 43% with type 2 diabetes, reported lifetime experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination. Repeated assessments of flow-mediated dilation were performed at baseline, immediately after 5 min of mental arithmetic and at 20-min recovery. Both White and racial/ethnic minority women reported lifetime discrimination, with rates significantly higher among minorities. Self-reported lifetime discrimination was associated with attenuated flow-mediated dilation at recovery. Confounding variables, including clinical characteristics, mood, personality traits, other life stressors and general distress, did not better account for the effect of racial discrimination. Neither race/ethnicity nor diabetes status moderated the effect. The perceived stressfulness of the mental arithmetic was not associated with the endothelial response. In conclusion, self-reported lifetime discrimination is associated with attenuated endothelial recovery from acute mental stress. Elucidating the effects of discrimination and the biological mechanisms through which it affects the vasculature may suggest interventions to improve health.

  2. Increased systolic blood pressure reactivity to acute stress is related with better self-reported health.

    PubMed

    Wright, Bradley J; O'Brien, Shaun; Hazi, Agnes; Kent, Stephen

    2014-11-13

    The stress reactivity hypothesis posits that the magnitude of cardiovascular reactions to acute stress tasks is related with future blood pressure status, heart hypertrophy, and atherosclerosis. We assessed the stress reactivity hypothesis and aimed to identify which physiological indices (blood pressure, heart-rate, cortisol, salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA)) related to self-reported mental and physical health. We also assessed if physiological reactions elicited by an acute stressor were more related than basal assessments. Participants provided physiological samples, self-reported stress and health-data before and after an assessed 5-7 minute academic oral presentation. In hierarchical regression models, increased systolic and reduced sIgA reactivity was associated with better perceptions of mental health. Reactivity data were more related to self-reported data than basal data. In line with the only 2 studies to assess the reactivity hypothesis with self-perceived health, increased systolic reactivity was best associated with better perceived physical and mental health. The findings suggest that increased SBP reactivity may also be associated with positive health outcomes. Further research is required to determine if increased or decreased sIgA reactivity is most predictive of future morbidity.

  3. Website design: technical, social and medical issues for self-reporting by elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark J; Stables, Rod; Matata, Bashir; Lisboa, Paulo J G; Laws, Andy; Almond, Peter

    2014-06-01

    There is growing interest in the use of the Internet for interacting with patients, both in terms of healthcare information provision and information gathering. In this article, we examine the issues in designing healthcare websites for elderly users. In particular, this article uses a year-long case study of the development of a web-based system for self-reporting of symptoms and quality of life with a view to examine the issues relating to website design for elderly users. The issues identified included the technical, social and medical aspects of website design for elderly users. The web-based system developed was based on the European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions health-status questionnaire, a commonly used tool for patient self-reporting of quality of life, and the more specific coronary revascularisation outcome questionnaire. Currently, self-reporting is generally administered in the form of paper-based questionnaires to be completed in the outpatient clinic or at home. There are a variety of issues relating to elderly users, which imply that websites for elderly patients may involve different design considerations to other types of websites.

  4. Using self-reported data to assess the validity of driving simulation data.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Bryan; D'Ambrosio, Lisa A; Coughlin, Joseph E; Kafrissen, Michael E; Biederman, Joseph

    2006-05-01

    In this article, we use self-reported driving behaviors from a written questionnaire to assess the measurement validity of data derived from a driving simulation. The issue of validity concerns the extent to which measures from the experimental context map onto constructs of interest. Following a description of the experimental methods and setting, an argument for the face validity of the data is advanced. Convergent validity was assessed by regressing behaviors observed in thedriving simulatoron self-reported measures of driving behaviors. Significant relationships were found across six measures: accidents, speeding, velocity, passing, weaving between traffic, and behavior at stop signs. Concurrent validity was evaluated with an analysis of simulator accident involvement and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder status. Discriminant validity was assessed using a multitrait-multimethod matrix of simulator and questionnaire data. We concluded that although the relationship between self-reported behaviors and observed responses in the simulator falls short of perfect correspondence, the data collected from the driving simulator are valid measures of the behaviors of interest.

  5. Identifying crash involvement among older drivers: agreement between self-report and state records.

    PubMed

    McGwin, G; Owsley, C; Ball, K

    1998-11-01

    Older drivers have a high crash rate per vehicle mile of travel. Coupled with the growth of the number of older drivers on the road, this has generated interest in the identification of factors which place older drivers at increased risk. However, much of the existing research on medical and functional risk factors for crash involvement has generally been inconsistent. Methodological differences between studies have been hypothesized as being partly responsible for such inconsistencies. The source of information used to identify crash-involved drivers has been identified as one such difference. This paper reports on the agreement between self-report and state record for identifying crash involved-older drivers. We also sought to determine whether the prevalence of visual and cognitive impairment differs across crash-involved drivers identified by either or both sources. Finally, we assessed whether risk factors for crash involvement differed when crash-involved drivers were identified by either self-report or state records. Results indicated that there was a moderate level of agreement between self-reported and state-recorded crash involvement (kappa = 0.45). However, we did find significant differences between crash-involved drivers identified via state records and/or self-report with respect to demographic (age, race), driving (annual mileage, days per week driven), and vision impairment (acuity, contrast sensitivity, peripheral visual field sensitivity, useful field of view). We also found that the possibility for biased measures of association is real. Useful field of view impairment was associated with both self-reported and state-recorded crash involvement; however, the magnitude of the associations was disparate. Moreover, glaucoma was identified as a significant risk factor when considering state-recorded crashes but not self-reported crashes. While validation of these findings is required, research designed to identify risk factors for crash involvement

  6. Validity of Self-Reported Substance Use In MSM

    PubMed Central

    Fendrich, Michael; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Johnson, Timothy P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To understand the validity of self-reported recent drug use in men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods We obtained a probability sample of Chicago men who have sex with men(MSM; n=216) and administered urine and saliva drug testing following a self-administered interview. Analyses examined participation in drug testing, the agreement between self-reported past month drug use and drug test results, correlates of underreporting, and the relative utility of drug testing vs. self-reports in identifying recent marijuana and cocaine use. For marijuana and cocaine, findings were compared with those obtained from a general population sample of men (n=241). Results Over three quarters of the participants in both samples provided at least one specimen for drug testing. Self reports in both samples showed a high degree of correspondence with drug tests for marijuana, but not for cocaine. Sensitivity for cocaine use reporting was 60% for the MSM sample and 40% for the general population males. Conditional kappa and sensitivity statistics for marijuana, cocaine, MDMA and methamphetamine suggested that self reports among MSMare provided with a high degree of validity. Underreporting was a correlate of social class (education, income and employment) in the general population, but not in the MSM sample. The utility of drug testing was dependent on social class in the general population sample. Conclusions Drug testing is feasible in epidemiological surveys of drug use. Self reports among MSM are at least as valid as those provided by a general population sample of males. In some instances (e. g. , cocaine use), they may actually be of higher quality. Although the findings support the merit of epidemiological studies of MSM drug use that have relied completely on self-report, drug tests may be useful for clarifying club drug ingestion patterns. PMID:18693041

  7. Quantifying alcohol consumption: Self-report, transdermal assessment, and prediction of dependence symptoms☆

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Jeffrey S.; Wills, Thomas A.; Emery, Noah N.; Marks, Russell M.

    2015-01-01

    Research on alcohol use depends heavily on the validity of self-reported drinking. The present paper presents data from 647 days of self-monitoring with a transdermal alcohol sensor by 60 young adults. We utilized a bio chemical measure, transdermal alcohol assessment with the WrisTAS, to examine the convergent validity of three approaches to collecting daily self-report drinking data: experience sampling, daily morning reports of the previous night, and 1-week timeline follow-back (TLFB) assessments. We tested associations between three pharmacokinetic indices (peak concentration, area under the curve (AUC), and time to reach peak concentration) derived from the transdermal alcohol signal and within- and between-person variation in alcohol dependence symptoms. The WrisTAS data corroborated 85.74% of self-reported drinking days based on the experience sampling data. The TLFB assessment and combined experience sampling and morning reports agreed on 87.27% of drinking days. Drinks per drinking day did not vary as a function of wearing or not wearing the sensor; this indicates that participants provided consistent reports of their drinking regardless of biochemical verification. In respect to self-reported alcohol dependence symptoms, the AUC of the WrisTAS alcohol signal was associated with dependence symptoms at both the within- and between-person level. Furthermore, alcohol dependence symptoms at baseline predicted drinking episodes characterized in biochemical data by both higher peak alcohol concentration and faster time to reach peak concentration. The results support the validity of self-report alcohol data, provide empirical data useful for optimal design of daily process sampling, and provide an initial demon stration of the use of transdermal alcohol assessment to characterize drinking dynamics associated with risk for alcohol dependence. PMID:26160523

  8. Assessment of mobility status and risk of mobility disability in older persons.

    PubMed

    Savino, Elisabetta; Volpato, Stefano; Zuliani, Giovanni; Guralnik, Jack M

    2014-01-01

    The ability to remain mobile is an essential aspect of quality of life and is critical for the preservation of independence in old age. One of the cornerstones of comprehensive geriatric assessment is the evaluation of functional and mobility status, because it provides clinicians pivotal information on overall health status, quality of life, needs for formal and informal care, and short and long term prognosis. As a consequence, many assessment tools have been developed and proposed for clinical use, including simple self-report measures assessing basic abilities and more complex and challenging performance-based objective tools. Both self-report and objective measures might be used to investigate specific steps of the age-related disablement process. In general, self-report and performance based instruments should not be used interchangeably, since they provide different and complementary information. Selection of the more appropriate tool strongly depends on clinical setting, patient characteristics, and clinical or research objective.

  9. Self-Reported Cognitive Outcomes in Patients With Brain Metastases Before and After Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Ansa Maer; Scherwath, Angela; Ernst, Gundula; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Bremer, Michael; Steinmann, Diana

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Patients with brain metastases may experience treatment-related cognitive deficits. In this study, we prospectively assessed the self-reported cognitive abilities of patients with brain metastases from any solid primary cancer before and after irradiation of the brain. Methods and Materials: The treatment group (TG) consisted of adult patients (n=50) with brain metastases who received whole or partial irradiation of the brain without having received prior radiation therapy (RT). The control group (CG) consisted of breast cancer patients (n=27) without cranial involvement who were treated with adjuvant RT. Patients were recruited between May 2008 and December 2010. Self-reported cognitive abilities were acquired before RT and 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after irradiation. The information regarding the neurocognitive status was collected by use of the German questionnaires for self-perceived deficits in attention (FEDA) and subjectively experienced everyday memory performance (FEAG). Results: The baseline data showed a high proportion of self-perceived neurocognitive deficits in both groups. A comparison between the TG and the CG regarding the course of self-reported outcomes after RT showed significant between-group differences for the FEDA scales 2 and 3: fatigue and retardation of daily living activities (P=.002) and decrease in motivation (P=.032) with an increase of attention deficits in the TG, but not in the CG. There was a trend towards significance in FEDA scale 1: distractibility and retardation of mental processes (P=.059) between the TG and the CG. The FEAG assessment presented no significant differences. An additional subgroup analysis within the TG was carried out. FEDA scale 3 showed significant differences in the time-related progress between patients with whole-brain RT and those receiving hypofractionated stereotactic RT (P=.025), with less decrease in motivation in the latter group. Conclusion: Self-reported attention declined in

  10. Might ART Adherence Estimates Be Improved by Combining Biomarker and Self-Report Data?

    PubMed Central

    Rhead, Rebecca; Masimirembwa, Collen; Cooke, Graham; Takaruza, Albert; Nyamukapa, Constance; Mutsimhi, Cosmas; Gregson, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Background As we endeavour to examine rates of viral suppression in PLHIV, reliable data on ART adherence are needed to distinguish between the respective contributions of poor adherence and treatment failure on high viral load. Self-reported data are susceptible to response bias and although biomarker data on drug presence and concentration can provide a superior, alternative method of measurement, complications due to drug-drug interactions and genetic variations can cause some inaccuracies. We investigate the feasibility of combining both biomarker and self-report data to produce a potentially more accurate measure of ART adherence. Methods Data were taken from a large general-population survey in the Manicaland province, Zimbabwe, conducted in 2009–2011. HIV-infected adults who had initiated ART (N = 560) provided self-report data on adherence and dried blood spot samples that were analysed for traces of ART medication. A new three-category measure of ART adherence was constructed, based on biomarker data but using self-report data to adjust for cases with abnormally low and high drug concentrations due to possible drug-drug interactions and genetic factors, and was assessed for plausibility using survey data on socio-demographic correlates. Results 94.3% (528/560) and 92.7% (519/560) of the sample reported faithful adherence to their medication and had traces of ART medication, respectively. The combined measure estimated good evidence of ART adherence at 69% and excellent evidence of adherence at 53%. The regression analysis results showed plausible patterns of ART adherence by socio-demographic status with men and younger participants being more likely to adhere poorly to medication, and higher socio-economic status individuals and those living in more urban locations being more likely to adhere well. Conclusion Biomarker and self-reported measures of adherence can be combined in a meaningful way to produce a potentially more accurate measure of ART

  11. Socioeconomic Status and Reduced Kidney Function in the Whitehall II Study: Role of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qaoud, Talal M.; Nitsch, Dorothea; Wells, Jonathan; Witte, Daniel R.; Brunner, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous US-based studies have found that chronic kidney disease (CKD) disproportionately affects those of more adverse social circumstances. Our aim was to show the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and decreased kidney function in a European context and explore the role of obesity and metabolic syndrome. We consider the potential confounding effect of lean muscle mass. Study Design Cross-sectional. Setting & Participants White participants in the follow-up of the Whitehall II cohort: UK-based European population (age, 55-79 years; n = 5,533), of whom 4,066 men (73%) and 1,467 women (27%) with complete data were analyzed. Predictors Self-reported occupational grade/salary range. Outcomes Estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using the CKD-EPI (CKD Epidemiology Collaboration) equation. Measurements Body mass index (BMI), serum lipid levels, blood pressure, Tanita TBF-300 body composition analyzer, impedance-derived lean mass index (LMI). Results Participants in a lower compared with higher occupational grade were at increased odds of having decreased GFR (age- and sex-adjusted OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.12-1.53; P = 0.001). Socioeconomic disparity in LMI was evident in women, but not men. After further adjustment for BMI and components of metabolic syndrome, the odds of decreased GFR in whites with a lower compared with higher occupational grade was attenuated by 23.3% (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.06-1.45; P = 0.008). Adjustment for LMI explained 15% of the association between SES and estimated GFR. Limitations Cross-sectional design, missing data for subset of participants, no urinary data. Conclusions BMI and components of metabolic syndrome may explain up to a quarter of the association between low SES and decreased GFR, suggesting potential modifiable factors. PMID:21719176

  12. The Nomological Network of Self-Reported Distress Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kiselica, Andrew M; Rojas, Elizabeth; Bornovalova, Marina A; Dube, Chad

    2015-12-01

    Distress tolerance (DT), or the ability to withstand psychological distress, is a popular construct in the psychological literature. However, research has not specified the nomological network of DT across self-report measures. The purpose of the current investigation was to understand what personality features, environmental stressors, current affective states, and behaviors contribute to DT in two different samples: college students and those in residential substance use treatment. Correlations revealed that self-reported DT was most strongly associated with trait negative emotionality, state negative affect, impulsivity, and perceived stress. In comparisons across samples, self-harm exhibited a stronger relationship with self-reported DT in the drug treatment than in the student sample, whereas perceived stress had a stronger association in the student sample. Correlations between self-report and behavioral measures of DT were nonsignificant. To understand this lack of associations, associations of outcomes with behavioral measures were assessed. In contrast to self-reported DT, behavioral DT was more closely related to achievement orientation, state negative affect, and state positive affect, but was not significantly related to psychopathology and maladaptive behaviors. It is necessary to continue investigating the construct validity of behavioral DT measures via the use of incremental utility analyses and experimental approaches.

  13. Self-reported ability assessment in rock climbing.

    PubMed

    Draper, Nick; Dickson, Tabitha; Blackwell, Gavin; Fryer, Simon; Priestley, Sefton; Winter, David; Ellis, Greg

    2011-05-01

    Level of ability within rock climbing is generally expressed in terms of a "best ascent", rated using various grading systems within the sport. The most common method of obtaining this information is via self-report. The aim of this study was to examine the validity of self-reported climbing grades. Twenty-nine competitive rock climbers (17 males, 12 females) were first asked to report their current (defined as within the last 12 months) best on-sight lead ascent grade (Aus/NZ). The participants then climbed a specifically designed indoor route, under on-sight conditions (one attempt, no route practice or preview), to obtain an assessed grade. The route increased in difficulty, and was such that the distance achieved by the climber corresponded to a particular grade. The mean (±standard deviation) self-reported and assessed grade was 22.6 ± 3.4 and 22.0 ± 3.0 (Aus/NZ) respectively. Despite slight over- and underestimations in males and females respectively, there was no statistically significant difference between self-reported and assessed on-sight climbing grades. The results of this study suggest that self-reported climbing grades provide a valid and accurate reflection of climbing ability.

  14. Maternal self-efficacy, postpartum depression, and their relationship with functional status in Iranian mothers.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Fahimeh; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan

    2017-02-07

    Readiness to care for family, infant, and self are important during the postpartum period. The objective of this study was to determine the relationships of self-efficacy and postpartum depressive symptoms with functional status in randomly sampled Iranian mothers (n = 437). The study was cross-sectional and conducted in 2015. The mean (SD) of the total functional status score was 2.3 (0.2) out of a possible score of 1-4. The maximum and minimum scores in infant care were 4.0 and 2.2 and, in social and community activity, levels were 3.5 and 1.0, respectively. Significant inverse correlations were observed between postpartum depressive symptoms and total scores for functional status, self-care, and levels of social and community activity. A significant positive relationship was observed between self-efficacy and functional status and all of its subscales. In the multivariate linear regression model, postpartum depressive symptoms, nulliparity, and low income were significantly negatively related with functional status; maternal self-efficacy, having a spouse aged 26-35 years, high school diploma, lower educational level, and the spouse's job (shopkeeper) were significantly positively correlated with functional status. Early diagnosis and treatment of depressive symptoms and promotion of maternal self-efficacy may improve overall functional status of mothers in the postpartum.

  15. Accuracy of Patient Self-Report of Stroke: A Systematic Review from the UK Biobank Stroke Outcomes Group

    PubMed Central

    Woodfield, Rebecca; Sudlow, Cathie L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We performed a systematic review of the accuracy of patient self-report of stroke to inform approaches to ascertaining and confirming stroke cases in large prospective studies. Methods We sought studies comparing patient self-report against a reference standard for stroke. We extracted data on survey method(s), response rates, participant characteristics, the reference standard used, and the positive predictive value (PPV) of self-report. Where possible we also calculated sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), and stroke prevalence. Study-level risk of bias was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Studies tool (QUADAS-2). Results From >1500 identified articles, we included 17 studies. Most asked patients to report a lifetime history of stroke but a few limited recall time to ≤5 years. Some included questions for transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or stroke synonyms. No study was free of risk of bias in the QUADAS-2 assessment, the most frequent causes of bias being incomplete reference standard data, absence of blinding of adjudicators to self-report status, and participant response rates (<80%). PPV of self-report ranged from 22–87% (17 studies), sensitivity from 36–98% (10 studies), specificity from 96–99.6% (10 studies), and NPV from 88.2–99.9% (10 studies). PPV increased with stroke prevalence as expected. Among six studies with available relevant data, if confirmed TIAs were considered to be true rather than false positive strokes, PPV of self-report was >75% in all but one study. It was not possible to assess the influence of recall time or of the question(s) asked on PPV or sensitivity. Conclusions Characteristics of the study population strongly influence self-report accuracy. In population-based studies with low stroke prevalence, a large proportion of self-reported strokes may be false positives. Self-report is therefore unlikely to be helpful for identifying cases without subsequent confirmation, but

  16. Relationship between visual status and functional status and the risk of falls in women. The RAC-OST-POL study

    PubMed Central

    Drozdzowska, Bogna; Czekajło, Aleksandra; Grzeszczak, Władysław; Wiktor, Katarzyna; Majewski, Wojciech; Pluskiewicz, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Falls in elderly women producing fractures are a public health problem that could be largely preventable. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of visual impairment on functional status, falls and fractures in women. Material and methods We examined 623 women aged ≥ 55 years in order to assess the association between visual status and functional status and the risk of falls and fractures. Distance, near visual acuity, and depth perception were examined. Functional status was assessed using the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) tests. The history of falls in the last 12 months and prior osteoporotic fractures were recorded. Results The mean age of participants was 66.01 ±7.76 years. Distance visual acuity was correlated (r = –0.13, p < 0.0001) with an increased number of falls. The most prognostic fall factor was IADL (Z = 3.19, p < 0.05), which showed a significant association with distance acuity (r = 0.27, p < 0.0001). The TUG test time significantly increased with diminishing visual acuity: 10.6 ±3.1 s for good, 12.8 ±6.1 s for moderate and 15.3 ±8.8 s for poor visual acuity (p < 0.0001, ANOVA 24.4). The IADL also differs significantly (p < 0.0001) in subgroups divided according to visual acuity (23.6 ±1.5, 22.6 ±2.9, 21.2 ±4.8 points, respectively). In multivariate logistic regression on probability of falls including IADL, TUG and visual acuity, IADL was found to be an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.025). The data revealed no association of refractive correction, depth perception, or near visual acuity with fall incidence or history of fractures. Conclusions Visual acuity influences functional status and number of falls in women aged over 55 years. PMID:27904513

  17. Impact of natural disasters on the functional and health status of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Tomio, Jun; Sato, Hajime; Mizumura, Hiroko

    2011-08-01

    To examine the effects of natural disasters on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients we conducted a questionnaire survey targeted to 1,477 members of a nationwide RA patient group in Japan who lived in the municipalities affected by natural disasters between 2004 and 2006. Functional statuses measured by the modified Health Assessment Questionnaire and self-rated health statuses before and after the events were retrospectively examined. The associations between the changes in functional and health status and socio-demographics, direct damage, and preparedness status were statistically analyzed. Of the 665 individuals who responded, the data on 192 women RA patients were analyzed. The values at 1 and 6 months post-event were the same, with 14% experiencing deteriorations of functional status, while 22% experienced a worsening of self-rated health status. Those in poorer functional status before the events were more likely to experience deteriorations of functional [odds ratio (OR) 4.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-13.6] and health (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.7) status at both 1 month and 6 months (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.3-12.0, and OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.7, respectively) after the events. Based on these results, we conclude that the functional and health status of women RA patients could worsen due to the consequences of a natural disaster, with a disproportionately large impact upon those with a poorer functional status.

  18. A pilot study examining effects of group-based Cognitive Strategy Training treatment on self-reported cognitive problems, psychiatric symptoms, functioning, and compensatory strategy use in OIF/OEF combat veterans with persistent mild cognitive disorder and history of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Huckans, Marilyn; Pavawalla, Shital; Demadura, Theresa; Kolessar, Michael; Seelye, Adriana; Roost, Noah; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Storzbach, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether group-based Cognitive Strategy Training (CST) for combat veterans with mild cognitive disorder and a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has significant posttreatment effects on self-reported compensatory strategy usage, functioning, and psychiatric symptoms. Participants included 21 veterans returning from conflicts in Iraq or Afghanistan with a diagnosis of Cognitive Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified and a history of combat-related TBI. Participants attended 6- to 8-week structured CST groups designed to provide them training in and practice with a variety of compensatory cognitive strategies, including day planner usage. Of the participants, 16 completed pre- and posttreatment assessment measures. Following CST, participants reported significantly increased use of compensatory cognitive strategies and day planners; an increased perception that these strategies were useful to them; increased life satisfaction; and decreased depressive, memory, and cognitive symptom severity. Group-based CST is a promising intervention for veterans with mild cognitive disorder, and randomized controlled trials are required to further evaluate its efficacy.

  19. Social desirability is associated with some physical activity, psychosocial variables and sedentary behavior but not self-reported physical activity among adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Jago, Russell; Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice C; Cullen, Karen W; Thompson, Debbe I

    2007-06-01

    This study examined whether controlling for social desirability improved the association between self-reported and objectively measured physical activity among adolescent males and the extent that psychosocial variables predict physical activity after controlling for social desirability. Participants (n=447) were 10- to 14-year old Houston Boy Scouts. Participants completed self-reports of physical activity, sedentary behavior, preferences, self-efficacy and social desirability and wore an MTI accelerometer for 3 days. Correlations were conducted among variables. Regression models were performed to examine the relationships between objectively measured (accelerometer) and self-reported physical activity, objectively measured physical activity and psychosocial variables and self-reports of physical activity and psychosocial variables. All models controlled for social desirability. There were weak associations between self-reported and objectively measured physical activity measures that were slightly improved after controlling for social desirability. Psychosocial variables were strongly associated with self-reports of physical activity, but weakly associated with accelerometer physical activity. Social desirability was positively associated with physical activity preferences (r=0.169) and self-efficacy (r=0.118) and negatively associated (r=-0.158) with self-reported sedentary behavior. Differences in the strength of relationships between self-reported and objectively measured physical activity and psychosocial variables were not a function of social desirability.

  20. The distinction of 'psychosomatogenic family types' based on parents' self reported questionnaire information: a cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Ceulemans, Eva; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Desoete, Annemie; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2014-06-01

    The theory of 'psychosomatogenic family types' is often used in treatment of somatizing adolescents. This study investigated the validity of distinguishing 'psychosomatogenic family types' based on parents' self-reported family features. The study included a Flemish general population sample of 12-year olds (n = 1428). We performed cluster analysis on 3 variables concerning parents' self-reported problems in family functioning. The distinguished clusters were examined for differences in marital problems, parental emotional problems, professional help for family members, demographics, and adolescents' somatization. Results showed the existence of 5 family types: 'chaotic family functioning,' 'average amount of family functioning problems,' 'few family functioning problems,' 'high amount of support and communication problems,' and 'high amount of sense of security problems' clusters. Membership of the 'chaotic family functioning' and 'average amount of family functioning problems' cluster was significantly associated with higher levels of somatization, compared with 'few family functioning problems' cluster membership. Among additional variables, only marital and parental emotional problems distinguished somatization relevant from non relevant clusters: parents in 'average amount of family functioning problems' and 'chaotic family functioning' clusters reported higher problems. The data showed that 'apparently perfect' or 'enmeshed' patterns of family functioning may not be assessed by means of parent report as adopted in this study. In addition, not only adolescents from 'extreme' types of family functioning may suffer from somatization. Further, professionals should be careful assuming that families in which parents report average to high amounts of family functioning problems also show different demographic characteristics.

  1. Postpartum Depressive Symptoms Across Time and Place: Structural Invariance of the Self-Reporting Questionnaire Among Women from the International, Multi-Site MAL-ED Study

    PubMed Central

    Pendergast, Laura L.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Rasmussen, Zeba A.; Seidman, Jessica C.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Svensen, Erling; Tofail, Fahmida; Koshy, Beena; Kosek, Margaret; Rasheed, Muneera A.; Roshan, Reeba; Maphula, Angelina; Shrestha, Rita; Murray-Kolb, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) is a screening instrument that has been shown to be an effective measure of depression in postpartum women and is widely used in developing nations. Methods The SRQ was administered to 2,028 mothers from eight nations at two time points: one and six months postpartum. All data were obtained from the Interactions of Malnutrition and Enteric Infections: Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study. The sample included women from MAL-ED sites in Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Peru, South Africa, and Tanzania. This study examined three aspects of validity of SRQ scores including (a) structural validity, (b) cross-cultural invariance, and (c) invariance over time. Results A 16-item, one-factor structure with items reflecting somatic symptoms removed was deemed to be superior to the original structure in this postpartum population. Although differential item functioning (DIF) across sites was evident, the one-factor model was a good fit to the data from seven sites, and the structure was invariant across the one- and six-month time points. Limitations Findings are based on data from self-report scales. No information about the clinical status of the participants was available. Conclusions Overall, findings support the validity of a modified model of the SRQ among postpartum women. Somatic symptoms (e.g., headaches, not sleeping well) may not reflect internalizing problems in a postpartum population. Implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed. PMID:24981251

  2. Surveillance of Middle and High School Mental Health Risk by Student Self-Report Screener

    PubMed Central

    Dever, Bridget V.; Kamphaus, Randy W.; Dowdy, Erin; Raines, Tara C.; DiStefano, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: A 2009 National Academies of Sciences report on child mental health prevention and treatment concluded that screening for mental health risk is an essential component of service delivery. To date, however, there are few practical assessments available or practices in place that measure individual child risk, or risk aggregated at the school or community level. This study examined the utility of a 30-item paper and pencil student self-report screener of behavioral and emotional risk (BER) for surveying community risk among 7 schools. Methods: In 2010, 2,222 students in 3 middle and 4 high schools in a medium-sized school district in Georgia were administered the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Self-Report Child/Adolescent form (BESS Student). The BESS is designed to measure 4 sub-syndromal BER factors for developing mental health disorders: inattention/hyperactivity, internalizing, school problems, and personal adjustment. Analysis of Variance and Chi Square analyses were used to assess the association between adolescent self-reported BER as an indicator of school BER, grade level, child ethnic identification and gender, socioeconomic status, and special education placement status. Results: BESS scores differentiated well between schools for overall BER and special education status, as well as between grade levels, ethnicity, and gender groups. One high school, known by the school administration to have numerous incidents of student behavior problems, had the most deviant 4 BER domain scores of all 7 schools. Girls rated themselves as having a higher prevalence of BER (14%) than boys (12%); middle school students reported fewer difficulties than high school students. Conclusion: Middle and high school students were capable of identifying significant differences in their own BER across schools, suggesting that universal mental health risk screening via student self-report is potentially useful for identifying aggregated community risk in a

  3. Risk Factors for Self-Reported Colon Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Henry S; Tatham, Lilith M; Thun, Michael J; Heath, Clark W

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Investigate risk factors for colon polyp using multivariate analyses. DESIGN In a group responding to a 1992 mail survey, we assessed the association between physician-diagnosed colon polyp and possible risk factors reported primarily 10 years earlier. SETTING Survey respondents within the Cancer Prevention Study II. PARTICIPANTS Respondents, 72,868 men and 81,356 women, who reported no polyp diagnosis when questioned in 1982 at ages 40 to 64 years. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS The characteristics of 7,504 men (10.3%) and 5,111 women (6.3%) reporting a first colon polyp were compared with those of participants who did not report a polyp. After adjustments for age, family history of colorectal cancer, and other potential risk factors, polyp occurrence was associated with 1982 histories of smoking, former smoking, alcohol use of at least two drinks per day (odds ratios [ORs] from 1.5 to 1.1; all p < .005), and a body mass index ≥ 28 kg/m 2(men's OR 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00, 1.13; women's OR 1.08; 95% CI 0.99, 1.17). Polyps were also associated with a diagnosis of gallbladder disease or gallstone at any time and with gallbladder surgery up to 1982 (OR from 2.7 to 1.3; all p < .001). Polyp occurrence was inversely associated with 1982 histories of high exercise level (men's OR 0.83; 95% CI 0.76, 0.91; women's OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.78, 1.03), frequent aspirin use in women (OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.77, 0.95), and high parity in women (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.75, 0.94). Among participants lacking a clinically normal gallbladder, the polyp risks associated with smoking and high body mass index were reduced (p < .04 for interactions). CONCLUSIONS Despite the limitations and potential biases in these self-reported data, the risk factors described here may be useful for identifying persons at modestly increased risk of having a colon polyp. The effect-modifying role of gallbladder status deserves further investigation. PMID:9613885

  4. The Role of Partnership Status on Late-Life Physical Function*

    PubMed Central

    Clouston, Sean; Lawlor, Andrea; Verdery, Ashton

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the socioeconomic pathways linking partnership status to physical functioning, assessed using objective measures of late life physical functioning including peak flow and grip strength. Using Wave 4 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), we ran multilevel models to examine the relationship between partnership status and physical function in late life, adjusting for social-network characteristics, socioeconomic factors, and health behaviours. We found a robust relationship between partnership status and physical function. Incorporating social-network characteristics, socioeconomic factors, and health behaviours showed independent robust relationships with physical function. Co-variates attenuated the impact of cohabitation, separation, and widowhood on physical function; robust effects were found for singlehood and divorce. Sex-segregated analyses suggest that associations between cohabitation, singlehood, divorce, and widowhood were larger for men than for women. Results suggest that social ties are important to improved physical function. PMID:25222477

  5. The role of partnership status on late-life physical function.

    PubMed

    Clouston, Sean A P; Lawlor, Andrea; Verdery, Ashton M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the socioeconomic pathways linking partnership status to physical functioning, assessed using objective measures of late life physical functioning, including peak flow and grip strength. Using Wave 4 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), we ran multilevel models to examine the relationship between partnership status and physical function in late life, adjusting for social-network characteristics, socioeconomic factors, and health behaviours. We found a robust relationship between partnership status and physical function. Incorporating social-network characteristics, socioeconomic factors, and health behaviours showed independent robust relationships with physical function. Co-variates attenuated the impact of cohabitation, separation, and widowhood on physical function; robust effects were found for singlehood and divorce. Sex-segregated analyses suggest that associations between cohabitation, singlehood, divorce, and widowhood were larger for men than for women. Results suggest that social ties are important to improved physical function.

  6. Family effects on self-reported health among Russian wives and husbands.

    PubMed

    Cubbins, L A; Szaflarski, M

    2001-12-01

    Alcohol abuse and a transition to the market economy are often blamed for high mortality and low life expectancy in Russia, but little is known about proximate influences on individual health. This study estimates family influences on the self-reported health of Russian wives and husbands. Predicting gender differences in the determinants of health status, hypotheses are presented for the effects on spouses' self-reported health of five family characteristics: economic status, household division of labor, family decision-making, presence of young children, and housing conditions. Controls are included for age, education, sensitivity, alcohol use, job-related time, and urban-rural location. Data from a 1996 sample of couples (n = 925) from Moscow and two rural regions of Russia are analyzed using logistic regression. The findings provide mixed support for the hypotheses, though they do show the important role of family characteristics on spouses' health. Family economic standing is important to both spouses' self-reported health, though young children in the home is not. Family decision-making does influence spouses' health: when Russian wives are the primary decision makers in the family, their own health suffers, though their husbands' health is better. And support is found for the combined effects of job-related time and household labor but only for wives' health. When wife's household labor is low, the probability of her having poor health increases, the more time she devotes to her job. However, when she does substantially more domestic labor than her husband, her job-related time has the opposite effect, reducing the chances of poor health, the more time she spends on job activities. This study is important both in helping to account for poor health of Russians during the current economic and social transition and in identifying aspects of family life that affect men's and women's health cross-nationally.

  7. Self-reported knee instability and activity limitations in patients with knee osteoarthritis: results of the Amsterdam osteoarthritis cohort.

    PubMed

    van der Esch, Martin; Knoop, Jesper; van der Leeden, Marike; Voorneman, Ramon; Gerritsen, Martijn; Reiding, Dick; Romviel, Suzanne; Knol, Dirk L; Lems, Willem F; Dekker, Joost; Roorda, Leo D

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether self-reported knee instability is associated with activity limitations in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), in addition to knee pain and muscle strength. A cohort of 248 patients diagnosed with knee OA was examined. Self-reported knee instability was defined as the perception of any episode of buckling, shifting, or giving way of the knee in the past 3 months. Knee pain was assessed using a numeric rating scale, and knee extensor and flexor strength were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Activity limitations were measured by using the Western Ontario and McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index physical function questionnaire, the timed Get Up and Go, and the timed stair climbing and three questionnaires evaluating walking, climbing stairs, and rising from a chair. Other potential determinants of activity limitations were also collected, including joint proprioception, joint laxity, age, sex, body mass index (BMI), disease duration, and radiographic disease severity. Regression analyses evaluated the effect of adding self-reported knee instability to knee pain and muscle strength, when examining associations with the activity limitations measures. Self-reported knee instability was common (65 %) in this cohort of patients with knee OA. Analyses revealed that self-reported knee instability is significantly associated with activity limitations, even after controlling for knee pain and muscle strength. Joint proprioception, joint laxity, age, sex, BMI, duration of complaints, and radiographic severity did not confound the associations. In conclusion, self-reported knee instability is associated with activity limitations in patients with knee OA, in addition to knee pain and muscle strength. Clinically, self-reported knee instability should be assessed in addition to knee pain and muscle strength.

  8. The relationship between self-reported attachment styles, interpersonal dysfunction, and borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Choi-Kain, Lois W; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Zanarini, Mary C; Laverdière, Olivier; Gunderson, John G

    2009-11-01

    Clinical theories of borderline personality disorder (BPD) identify attachment insecurity as the basis of its characteristic disturbed interpersonal functioning. The purpose of this study was to compare attachment ratings in rigorously diagnosed BPD, depressed (MDD), and nonborderline comparison groups and their correlations to features of interpersonal disturbance. Subjects self-reported ratings on attachment styles using the relationship questionnaire. BPD subjects reported higher scores on both preoccupied and fearful attachment styles than both MDD and nonborderline comparison groups. A mixed model of preoccupied and fearful attachment was more prevalent in the BPD group and was associated with 3 to 20 times greater risk for diagnosis of BPD. Scores on preoccupied and fearful attachment styles were correlated with features of interpersonal disturbance in BPD. A combination of preoccupied and fearful self-reported attachment styles is more specific to BPD than either style alone or attachment insecurity in general.

  9. Agreement between parent- and self-reports of Algerian adolescents' behavioral and emotional problems.

    PubMed

    Petot, Djaouida; Rescorla, Leslie; Petot, Jean-Michel

    2011-10-01

    The present study examined agreement between scores obtained from self-reports of behavioral and emotional problems obtained from 513 Algerian adolescents on the Youth Self-Report (YSR) with scores obtained from reports provided by their parents on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The correlations between self- and parent-report were larger than those observed in many other cultures (e.g., intraclass correlation coefficient=0.60 and Pearson r=0.65 for Total Problems). On the whole, cross-informant agreement did not vary significantly as a function of problem type, identity of the parental informant, gender and age of the adolescent. Similar to all studied cultures, adolescents on average reported more problems than their parents reported about them, but the discrepancies were smaller than in all previous societies. Mean YSR/CBCL score discrepancies indicated higher YSR scores for several scales, but variability across dyads was large, and many dyads showed the opposite pattern.

  10. Mindfulness in schizophrenia: Associations with self-reported motivation, emotion regulation, dysfunctional attitudes, and negative symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Tabak, Naomi T.; Horan, William P.; Green, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are gaining empirical support as alternative or adjunctive treatments for a variety of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. Emerging evidence now suggests that mindfulness-based treatments may also improve clinical features of schizophrenia, including negative symptoms. However, no research has examined the construct of mindfulness and its correlates in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined self-reported mindfulness in patients (n=35) and controls (n=25) using the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. We examined correlations among mindfulness, negative symptoms, and psychological constructs associated with negative symptoms and adaptive functioning, including motivation, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional attitudes. As hypothesized, patients endorsed lower levels of mindfulness than controls. In patients, mindfulness was unrelated to negative symptoms, but it was associated with more adaptive emotion regulation (greater reappraisal) and beliefs (lower dysfunctional attitudes). Some facets of mindfulness were also associated with self-reported motivation (behavioral activation and inhibition). These patterns of correlations were similar in patients and controls. Findings from this initial study suggest that schizophrenia patients may benefit from mindfulness-based interventions because they (a) have lower self-reported mindfulness than controls and (b) demonstrate strong relationships between mindfulness and psychological constructs related to adaptive functioning. PMID:26232242

  11. Mindfulness in schizophrenia: Associations with self-reported motivation, emotion regulation, dysfunctional attitudes, and negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Naomi T; Horan, William P; Green, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are gaining empirical support as alternative or adjunctive treatments for a variety of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. Emerging evidence now suggests that mindfulness-based treatments may also improve clinical features of schizophrenia, including negative symptoms. However, no research has examined the construct of mindfulness and its correlates in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined self-reported mindfulness in patients (n=35) and controls (n=25) using the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. We examined correlations among mindfulness, negative symptoms, and psychological constructs associated with negative symptoms and adaptive functioning, including motivation, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional attitudes. As hypothesized, patients endorsed lower levels of mindfulness than controls. In patients, mindfulness was unrelated to negative symptoms, but it was associated with more adaptive emotion regulation (greater reappraisal) and beliefs (lower dysfunctional attitudes). Some facets of mindfulness were also associated with self-reported motivation (behavioral activation and inhibition). These patterns of correlations were similar in patients and controls. Findings from this initial study suggest that schizophrenia patients may benefit from mindfulness-based interventions because they (a) have lower self-reported mindfulness than controls and (b) demonstrate strong relationships between mindfulness and psychological constructs related to adaptive functioning.

  12. Self-Reported Ability to Walk, Run, and Lift Objects among Older Canadians

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Lara; Sayre, Eric C.

    2017-01-01

    Aims. The purpose of the study was to develop new self-report instruments to measure the ability to walk, run, and lift objects and describe the distribution of these abilities among older Canadians. Methods. Questions were developed following a focus group. We carried out an online survey among members of the Canadian Association of Retired Persons. The distribution of each ability was described and presented graphically according to age, sex, and number of health conditions. We calculated summary scores for each ability and assessed their reliability and relationships with health status and use of health services. Results. 22% of the subjects reported difficulty walking 100 m, 15% were unable to run 10 m, and 50% had difficulty lifting 10 kg. Men reported higher abilities than women but differences according to age were small. Test-retest reliability ranged from 0.89 for walking to 0.88 for running and 0.81 for lifting. Scores for the three measures correlated with other measures of health status as expected. Conclusions. The study provided new data on self-reported walking, running, and lifting abilities among older Canadians. The new measures are valid, reliable, and easy to interpret. We expect these measures to be useful in clinical and research settings. PMID:28367332

  13. Trajectories of Adverse Childhood Experiences and Self-Reported Health at Age 18

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Richard; Flaherty, Emalee G.; English, Diana J.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Dubowitz, Howard; Kotch, Jonathan B.; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Despite growing evidence of links between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and long-term health outcomes, there has been limited longitudinal investigation of such links in youth. The purpose of these analyses was to describe the patterns of exposure to ACEs over time and their links to youth health. Methods The current analyses used data from LONGSCAN, a prospective study of children at risk for or exposed to child maltreatment, who were followed from age 4 to age 18. The analyses focused on 802 youth with complete data. Cumulative exposure to ACEs between 4 and 16 was used to place participants in 3 trajectory-defined groups: chronic ACEs, early ACEs only, and limited ACEs. Links to self-reported age 18 health were examined using linear mixed models after controlling for earlier health status and demographics. Results The chronic ACEs group had increased self-reported health concerns and use of medical care at 18, but not poorer self-rated health status. The early ACEs only group did not significantly differ from limited ACEs on outcomes. Conclusions In addition to other negative outcomes, chronic ACEs appear to affect physical health in emerging adulthood. Interventions aimed at reducing exposure to ACEs and early mitigation of their effects may have lasting and widespread health benefits. PMID:25441654

  14. The Association between Self-reported Sleep Duration and Body Mass Index among Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ban Hyung; Kang, Seung Gul; Choi, Jae Won; Lee, Yu Jin

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has shown that lack of sleep is related to Body Mass Index (BMI) in adolescence. This study was designed to investigate the association between sleep duration and BMI among Korean adolescents. We conducted a school-based cross-sectional study of 3,785 adolescents (males: 58.2%, females: 41.8%) in middle and high school between the ages of 11 and 18 years (mean age 15.26 ± 1.45). Using a self-reported questionnaire, we obtained information regarding weekday sleep duration, weekend sleep duration, height, weight, time spent at private tutoring institutes, socioeconomic status and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We investigated the association between self-reported sleep duration and BMI. After adjusting for confounding factors including age, gender, time spent at private tutoring institutes, academic performance, economic status and BDI scores, longer sleep duration on both weekdays and weekends was associated with decreased BMI (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively) for both genders. Increased weekend catch-up sleep duration was associated with decreased BMI in females (P = 0.038), but not in males (P = 0.343). The results of the present study indicated that longer sleep duration on weekdays and weekends in adolescents was associated with lower BMI. Longer weekend catch-up sleep may compensate effects of insufficient sleep on BMI for female adolescents.

  15. The Association between Self-reported Sleep Duration and Body Mass Index among Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that lack of sleep is related to Body Mass Index (BMI) in adolescence. This study was designed to investigate the association between sleep duration and BMI among Korean adolescents. We conducted a school-based cross-sectional study of 3,785 adolescents (males: 58.2%, females: 41.8%) in middle and high school between the ages of 11 and 18 years (mean age 15.26 ± 1.45). Using a self-reported questionnaire, we obtained information regarding weekday sleep duration, weekend sleep duration, height, weight, time spent at private tutoring institutes, socioeconomic status and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We investigated the association between self-reported sleep duration and BMI. After adjusting for confounding factors including age, gender, time spent at private tutoring institutes, academic performance, economic status and BDI scores, longer sleep duration on both weekdays and weekends was associated with decreased BMI (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively) for both genders. Increased weekend catch-up sleep duration was associated with decreased BMI in females (P = 0.038), but not in males (P = 0.343). The results of the present study indicated that longer sleep duration on weekdays and weekends in adolescents was associated with lower BMI. Longer weekend catch-up sleep may compensate effects of insufficient sleep on BMI for female adolescents. PMID:27822941

  16. Effects of post-hospital Medicare home health and informal care on patient functional status.

    PubMed Central

    Penrod, J D; Kane, R L; Finch, M D; Kane, R A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of post-hospital Medicare home health and informal care on the functional status of 755 Medicare beneficiaries six weeks after hospital discharge for treatment of stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), congestive heart failure (CHF), hip procedures, and hip fractures. STUDY SETTING/DATA SOURCES: Consecutive patients enrolled in the study between March 1988 and February 1989 prior to discharge from one of 52 hospitals in three cities. Data sources included patient interviews, medical records, and the Medicare Automated Data Retrieval System (MADRS). ANALYSIS: The effect of the two types of care on patients' subsequent functional status was estimated using a selectivity corrected least squares regression of functional status six weeks post-discharge on hours of informal care, Medicare home health expenditures, and patient prior functional and cognitive status. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Patients were interviewed before hospital discharge and six weeks later. The patient's primary caregiver was interviewed by telephone six weeks post-discharge. Patient data included demographic characteristics, illness severity, cognitive status, functional status at discharge and six weeks later, post-discharge expenditures for Medicare home health, and hours of informal care. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: More informal care after discharge was associated with greater patient functional impairment six weeks later. The amount of Medicare home health that patients used had a nonsignificant effect on subsequent functional status. CONCLUSIONS: Post-acute home care may maintain the patient at home and compensate for functional limitations, rather than promote restoration of function. Future studies are needed to examine the effects of specific types of care, services, and providers as well as factors that mediate their effects on patient functional outcomes. PMID:9685120

  17. Cognitive Abilities Relate to Self-Reported Hearing Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zekveld, Adriana A.; George, Erwin L. J.; Houtgast, Tammo; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this explorative study, the authors investigated the relationship between auditory and cognitive abilities and self-reported hearing disability. Method: Thirty-two adults with mild to moderate hearing loss completed the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH; Kramer, Kapteyn, Festen, & Tobi, 1996) and…

  18. Anxiety Self Report (ASR (1,2,3,4,). X

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jane S.

    The Anxiety Self Report (ASR 1,2,3,4) is provided, followed by information about the report. The ASR is discussed as to its development, description, response bias, scoring procedures, reliability, stability, validity, and correlation between the ASR and the Manifest Anxiety Scale. (For related documents, see TM 002 928, 929.) (DB)

  19. Validating a Children's Self-Report Plate Waste Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrestal, Sarah G.; Issel, L. Michele; Kviz, Frederick J.; Chávez, Noel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The National School Lunch Program is well situated to address the vulnerability of lower income children at increased risk for both under and overnutrition. Evidence suggests, however, that a significant amount of food served in the program goes uneaten. One way to monitor this problem is through children's self-reported plate…

  20. Accuracy of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    TONG, VAN T.; ALTHABE, FERNANDO; ALEMÁN, ALICIA; JOHNSON, CAROLYN C.; DIETZ, PATRICIA M.; BERRUETA, MABEL; MORELLO, PAOLA; COLOMAR, MERCEDES; BUEKENS, PIERRE; SOSNOFF, CONNIE S.; FARR, SHERRY L.; MAZZONI, AGUSTINA; CIGANDA, ALVARO; BECÚ, ANA; GONZALEZ, MARIA G. BITTAR; LLAMBI, LAURA; GIBBONS, LUZ; SMITH, RUBEN A.; BELIZÁN, JOSÉ M.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of bias of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy is reported in high-income countries but not elsewhere. We sought to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy using biochemical verification and to compare characteristics of women with and without biochemically confirmed cessation in Argentina and Uruguay. In a cross-sectional study from October 2011 to May 2012, women who attended one of 21 prenatal clinics and delivered at selected hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay, were surveyed about their smoking cessation during pregnancy. We tested saliva collected from women <12 h after delivery for cotinine to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy. Overall, 10.0% (44/441) of women who self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy had biochemical evidence of continued smoking. Women who reported quitting later in pregnancy had a higher percentage of nondisclosure (17.2%) than women who reported quitting when learning of their pregnancy (6.4%). PMID:25350478

  1. A Self-Report Measure of Life Satisfaction in Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heflin, Thomas L.

    This research report had as its main purpose the derivation of a self-report measure of life satisfaction in retirement through the use of a mathematical technique known as factor analysis. Data on questions which have been used to measure moral, life satisfaction, and preretirement attitudes were collected from 123 retired male workers from a…

  2. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults

    PubMed Central

    Lobbezoo, Frank; Ahlberg, Kristiina; Manfredini, Daniele; Hublin, Christer; Sinisalo, Juha; Könönen, Mauno; Savolainen, Aslak

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on irregular shift work, a questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (number of subjects: n=750) and to an equal number of randomly selected employees in the same company with regular eight-hour daytime work. Results: The response rates were 82.3% (56.6 % men) and 34.3 % (46.7 % men), respectively. Among the 874 respondents, those aware of more frequent bruxism reported significantly more severe anxiety (p<0.001). Adjusted by age and gender, frequent bruxers were more than two times more likely to report severe stress (odds ratio 2.5; 95% confidence interval 1.5-4.2) and anxiety (odds ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.3-3.6) than non-or-mild bruxers. Conclusions: Present findings suggest that self-reported bruxism and psychological states such as anxiety or stress may be related in working age subjects. Key words:Bruxism, self-report, anxiety, stress, adult. PMID:22926484

  3. Self-Report and Psychophysiological Responses to Fear Appeals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonana, Juan R.; Gonzalez-Javier, Francisca; Espin-Lopez, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the relationship between self-report and psychophysiological responses to fear appeals and behavioral changes elicited by these. Ninety-two subjects watched one of four messages that varied in level of threat (high vs. low) and efficacy (high vs. low). Concomitantly, psychophysiological measures (heart rate and…

  4. Self-report reliability and symptomatology of habitual caffeine consumption.

    PubMed

    James, J E; Bruce, M S; Lader, M H; Scott, N R

    1989-04-01

    1. A large body of research on the demography of caffeine use and its potential health consequences has been undermined by the absence of empirical data on the reliability of retrospective self-reports of caffeine consumption. 2. The principal aim of the present study was to use standard bioanalytic method to assess the reliability of subjects' self-reported caffeine use. Saliva samples were obtained from 142 first-and second-year medical students and assayed for caffeine and paraxanthine. 3. Self-reported caffeine use was found to be significantly correlated with salivary caffeine (r = 0.31, P less than 0.001) and paraxanthine (r = 0.42, P less than 0.001), thereby providing qualified support for use of questionnaires to estimate patterns of caffeine consumption. 4. A secondary aim of the study was to extend previous research concerning the symptomatology of caffeine use by examining the association between caffeine exposure and a variety of measures of somatic and psychological health. Caffeine consumption was reliably associated with the self-reported occurrence of somatic symptoms, but not psychological well-being.

  5. Overestimation Bias in Self-Reported SAT Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Stull, Andrew T.; Campbell, Julie; Almeroth, Kevin; Bimber, Bruce; Chun, Dorothy; Knight, Allan

    2007-01-01

    The authors analyzed self-reported SAT scores and actual SAT scores for five different samples of college students (N = 650). Students overestimated their actual SAT scores by an average of 25 points (SD = 81, d = 0.31), with 10% under-reporting, 51% reporting accurately, and 39% over-reporting, indicating a systematic bias towards over-reporting.…

  6. Psychiatric Diagnoses of Self-Reported Child Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinwiddie, Stephen H.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.

    1993-01-01

    Subjects who self-reported episodes of abusing a child were compared to those without a history of child battery. It was concluded that self-identified child abusers have increased lifetime rates of antisocial personality disorder, alcoholism, and depression. (DB)

  7. Devaluation by Women of Self-Reported Criticism Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarrey, Michael; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the ability of 269 Canadian male and female undergraduates, with comparable fear of negative evaluation, to give and receive criticism. Using role playing, in vivo, and self-reported criticism behaviors, finds no significant differences across gender. Reports the hypothesis that women would devalue their criticism skills on…

  8. Self-Report Measure of Financial Exploitation of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kendon J.; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W.; Langley, Kate; Wilber, Kathleen H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to improve the measurement of financial exploitation (FE) by testing psychometric properties of the older adult financial exploitation measure (OAFEM), a client self-report instrument. Design and Methods: Rasch item response theory and traditional validation approaches were used. Questionnaires were administered by…

  9. Self-Report Measure of Psychological Abuse of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kendon J.; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W.; Langley, Kate; Anetzberger, Georgia J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested key psychometric properties of the Older Adult Psychological Abuse Measure (OAPAM), one self-report scale of the Older Adult Mistreatment Assessment (OAMA). Design and Methods: Items and theory were developed in a prior concept mapping study. Subsequently, the measures were administered to 226 substantiated clients by 22…

  10. The Reliability of Self-Reported Menarcheal Timing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolak, Linda; Krieg, Dana B.; Hayward, Chris; Shisslak, Catherine M.; Taylor, C. Barr

    2007-01-01

    Self-reports of grade at first menstrual period for 1,967 fourth-grade through ninth-grade girls were used to categorize girls as early maturers. The categories of early maturer and other (on-time or late maturers) were then examined for stability over a 3-year period using McNemar tests and [kappa] coefficients. Although the results showed…

  11. Self-Reported Expression of Embarrassment in Five European Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelmann, Robert J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Self-report data on the physiological/behavioral response associated with embarrassment were collected by questionnaire in Greece, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and West Germany. Blushing/increased temperature and smiling/grinning were reported consistently, with considerable variation, across nations. Understatement and overstatement of…

  12. Obstructive Sleep Apnea is Related to Impaired Cognitive and Functional Status after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Aaronson, Justine A.; van Bennekom, Coen A.M.; Hofman, Winni F.; van Bezeij, Tijs; van den Aardweg, Joost G.; Groet, Erny; Kylstra, Wytske A.; Schmand, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder in stroke patients and is associated with prolonged hospitalization, decreased functional outcome, and recurrent stroke. Research on the effect of OSA on cognitive functioning following stroke is scarce. The primary objective of this study was to compare stroke patients with and without OSA on cognitive and functional status upon admission to inpatient rehabilitation. Design: Case-control study. Setting and Patients: 147 stroke patients admitted to a neurorehabilitation unit. Interventions: N/A. Measurements: All patients underwent sleep examination for diagnosis of OSA. We assessed cognitive status by neuropsychological examination and functional status by two neurological scales and a measure of functional independence. Results: We included 80 stroke patients with OSA and 67 stroke patients without OSA. OSA patients were older and had a higher body mass index than patients without OSA. OSA patients performed worse on tests of attention, executive functioning, visuoperception, psychomotor ability, and intelligence than those without OSA. No differences were found for vigilance, memory, and language. OSA patients had a worse neurological status, lower functional independence scores, and a longer period of hospitalization in the neurorehabilitation unit than the patients without OSA. OSA status was not associated with stroke type or classification. Conclusions: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with a lower cognitive and functional status in patients admitted for stroke rehabilitation. This underlines the importance of OSA as a probable prognostic factor, and calls for well-designed randomized controlled trials to study its treatability. Citation: Aaronson JA, van Bennekom CA, Hofman WF, van Bezeij T, van den Aardweg JG, Groet E, Kylstra WA, Schmand B. Obstructive sleep apnea is related to impaired cognitive and functional status after stroke. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1431–1437. PMID

  13. Differences in the self-reported racism experiences of US-born and foreign-born Black pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Strong, Emily Ficklin; Krieger, Nancy; Gillman, Matthew W; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2009-07-01

    Differential exposure to minority status stressors may help explain differences in United States (US)-born and foreign-born Black women's birth outcomes. We explored self-reports of racism recorded in a survey of 185 US-born and 114 foreign-born Black pregnant women enrolled in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Self-reported prevalence of personal racism and group racism was significantly higher among US-born than foreign-born Black pregnant women, with US-born women having 4.1 and 7.8 times the odds, respectively, of childhood exposure. In multivariate analyses, US-born women's personal and group racism exposure also was more pervasive across the eight life domains we queried. Examined by immigrant subgroups, US-born women were more similar in their self-reports of racism to foreign-born women who moved to the US before age 18 than to women who immigrated after age 18. Moreover, US-born women more closely resembled foreign-born women from the Caribbean than those from Africa. Differential exposure to self-reported racism over the life course may be a critically important factor that distinguishes US-born Black women from their foreign-born counterparts.

  14. Use of functional status measures for payment of medical rehabilitation services.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, D L; Batavia, A I; DeJong, G

    1992-02-01

    In the search for an appropriate payment system for medical rehabilitation hospitals and units, the use of a functional status measure (FSM) has emerged as a recurring theme. Conceptually, functional status measurement is important because the primary goal of medical rehabilitation is to enhance patient function and independence. Studies indicate that functional status and functional gain are among the best predictors of resource utilization at rehabilitation facilities. This article examines conceptually the use of FSMs in payment for medical rehabilitation in two different types of payment systems--as a means of classifying patients for purposes of determining the applicable payment amount (ie, a "classification system"), and as a means of justifying that payment, or continued payment, for services is appropriate (ie, a "justification system"). Several payment models using an FSM are described and analyzed. An agenda for future research is proposed.

  15. Thyroid function and neuropsychological status in older adults.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Srishti; Bloom, Michael S; Yucel, Recai; Seegal, Richard F; Rej, Robert; McCaffrey, Robert J; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2016-10-01

    Overt thyroid dysfunction is recognized as a risk factor for neuropsychological deficits in aging populations, yet evidence for how changes in levels of circulatory thyroid hormones impact specific neuropsychological domains is limited. Here we report cross-sectional associations between serum thyroid hormone concentrations and several neuropsychological function domains among men and women aged 55-74years. We administered neuropsychological tests to assess memory, learning, executive function, measures of attention, visuospatial function, affective state, and motor function. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed adjusting for age, sex, education, and cigarette smoking. Effects were reported as differences in test scores per one interquartile range (IQR) increase in hormone concentration. Higher total thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (fT4) were associated with improved visuospatial function, as measured by Block Design Subtest total scores; associated increments per IQR differences in T4 and fT4 were 15% and 19%, respectively (false discovery rate q-values <0.05). We also detected statistical interactions between age and fT4 for effects in tasks of memory and learning. Concurrent increases in age and fT4 were associated with deficits in memory and learning as measured by California Verbal Learning Test subtests (10% and 16% deficits in t-score and short delay free recall score, respectively). Our findings suggest that changes in thyroid hormones may have important implications for neuropsychological function in aging populations. Further large-scale studies with comprehensive thyroid function and neuropsychological outcome assessments are warranted to confirm these results.

  16. Interpersonal and Affective Dimensions of Psychopathic Traits in Adolescents: Development and Validation of a Self-Report Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Stephen; Hunter, Simon C.; Khan, Umneea; Tan, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We report the development and psychometric evaluations of a self-report instrument designed to screen for psychopathic traits among mainstream community adolescents. Tests of item functioning were initially conducted with 26 adolescents. In a second study the new instrument was administered to 150 high school adolescents, 73 of who had school…

  17. Cognitive Validity of Students' Self-Reports of Classroom Mastery Goal Structure: What Students Are Thinking and Why It Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Karabenick, Stuart A.; Woolley, Michael E.; Bonney, Christina R.; Dever, Bridget V.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive interviews were employed to systematically examine the cognitive validity of self-report survey items extensively used to assess classroom mastery goal structure. In a sample of elementary and middle school students, items were identified that functioned according to their intended meaning and those eliciting less accurate…

  18. Testing the Short and Screener versions of the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-report (SAS-SR).

    PubMed

    Gameroff, Marc J; Wickramaratne, Priya; Weissman, Myrna M

    2012-03-01

    The 54-item Social Adjustment Scale-Self-report (SAS-SR) is a measure of social functioning used in research studies and clinical practice. Two shortened versions were recently developed: the 24-item SAS-SR: Short and the 14-item SAS-SR: Screener. We briefly describe the development of the shortened scales and then assess their reliability and validity in comparison to the full SAS-SR in new analyses from two separate samples of convenience from a family study and from a primary care clinic. Compared to the full SAS-SR, the shortened scales performed well, exhibiting high correlations with full SAS-SR scores (r values between 0.81 and 0.95); significant correlations with health-related quality of life as measured by the Short Form 36 Health Survey; the ability to distinguish subjects with major depression versus other psychiatric disorders versus no mental disorders; and sensitivity to change in clinical status as measured longitudinally with the Symptom Checklist-90 and Global Assessment Scale. The SAS-SR: Short and SAS-SR: Screener retained the areas assessed by the full SAS-SR with fewer items in each area, and appear to be promising replacements for the full scale when a shorter administration time is desired and detailed information on performance in different areas is not required. Further work is needed to test the validity of the shortened measures.

  19. Neuropsychological Performance in Mainland China: The Effect of Urban/Rural Residence and Self-Reported Daily Academic Skill Use

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saurabh; Vaida, Florin; Riggs, Katie; Jin, Hua; Grant, Igor; Cysique, Lucette; Shi, Chuan; Yu, Xin; Wu, Zunyou; Heaton, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    Age, education, and gender are the most common covariates used to define normative standards against which neuropsychological (NP) performance is interpreted, but influences of other demographic factors have begun to be appreciated. In developing nations, urban versus rural residence may differentially affect numerous factors that could influence cognitive test performances, including quality of both formal and informal educational experiences and employment opportunities. Such disparities may necessitate corrections for urban/rural (U/R) status in NP norms. Prior investigations of the U/R effect on NP performance typically have been confounded by differences in educational attainment. We addressed in this by comparing the NP performance of large, Chinese urban (Yunnan Province, n =201) and rural (Anhui Province, n =141) cohorts of healthy adults, while controlling for other demographic differences. Although the groups did not differ in global NP scores, a more complex pattern was observed within specific NP ability domains and tests. Urban participants showed better performance in select measures of processing speed and executive functions, verbal fluency, and verbal learning. Self-reported daily use of academic skills was predictive of many U/R differences. Controlling for academic skill use abrogated most U/R differences but revealed rural advantages in select measures of visual reasoning and motor dexterity. PMID:21083967

  20. Neuropsychological performance in mainland china: the effect of urban/rural residence and self-reported daily academic skill use.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Saurabh; Vaida, Florin; Riggs, Katie; Jin, Hua; Grant, Igor; Cysique, Lucette; Shi, Chuan; Yu, Xin; Wu, Zunyou; Heaton, Robert K

    2011-01-01

    Age, education, and gender are the most common covariates used to define normative standards against which neuropsychological (NP) performance is interpreted, but influences of other demographic factors have begun to be appreciated. In developing nations, urban versus rural residence may differentially affect numerous factors that could influence cognitive test performances, including quality of both formal and informal educational experiences and employment opportunities. Such disparities may necessitate corrections for urban/rural (U/R) status in NP norms. Prior investigations of the U/R effect on NP performance typically have been confounded by differences in educational attainment. We addressed in this by comparing the NP performance of large, Chinese urban (Yunnan Province, n = 201) and rural (Anhui Province, n = 141) cohorts of healthy adults, while controlling for other demographic differences. Although the groups did not differ in global NP scores, a more complex pattern was observed within specific NP ability domains and tests. Urban participants showed better performance in select measures of processing speed and executive functions, verbal fluency, and verbal learning. Self-reported daily use of academic skills was predictive of many U/R differences. Controlling for academic skill use abrogated most U/R differences but revealed rural advantages in select measures of visual reasoning and motor dexterity.

  1. Proliferation status defines functional properties of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lipps, Christoph; Badar, Muhammad; Butueva, Milada; Dubich, Tatyana; Singh, Vivek Vikram; Rau, Sophie; Weber, Axel; Kracht, Michael; Köster, Mario; May, Tobias; Schulz, Thomas F; Hauser, Hansjörg; Wirth, Dagmar

    2017-04-01

    Homeostasis of solid tissue is characterized by a low proliferative activity of differentiated cells while special conditions like tissue damage induce regeneration and proliferation. For some cell types it has been shown that various tissue-specific functions are missing in the proliferating state, raising the possibility that their proliferation is not compatible with a fully differentiated state. While endothelial cells are important players in regenerating tissue as well as in the vascularization of tumors, the impact of proliferation on their features remains elusive. To examine cell features in dependence of proliferation, we established human endothelial cell lines in which proliferation is tightly controlled by a doxycycline-dependent, synthetic regulatory unit. We observed that uptake of macromolecules and establishment of cell-cell contacts was more pronounced in the growth-arrested state. Tube-like structures were formed in vitro in both proliferating and non-proliferating conditions. However, functional vessel formation upon transplantation into immune-compromised mice was restricted to the proliferative state. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) infection resulted in reduced expression of endothelial markers. Upon transplantation of infected cells, drastic differences were observed: proliferation arrested cells acquired a high migratory activity while the proliferating counterparts established a tumor-like phenotype, similar to Kaposi Sarcoma lesions. The study gives evidence that proliferation governs endothelial functions. This suggests that several endothelial functions are differentially expressed during angiogenesis. Moreover, since proliferation defines the functional properties of cells upon infection with KSHV, this process crucially affects the fate of virus-infected cells.

  2. The Association Between Serotonin Transporter Gene Promoter Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), Self-Reported Symptoms, and Dental Mercury Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Heyer, Nicholas J.; Echeverria, Diana; Farin, Federico M.; Woods, James S.

    2008-01-01

    The associations between a polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), dental mercury exposure, and self-reported symptoms were evaluated among 157 male dentists and 84 female dental assistants. Self-reported symptoms and detailed work histories were obtained by computerized questionnaire. Spot urine samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentrations to evaluate recent exposures, whereas a chronic mercury exposure index was created from the work histories. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism status was determined using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay. Scores for current, recent, and chronic self-reported symptom groups were evaluated with respect to recent and chronic mercury exposure and 5-HTTLPR polymorphism status. Multiple regression analysis controlled for age, socioeconomic status, tobacco and alcohol use, self-reported health problems, and medications. Analyses were restricted to Caucasian subjects due to the highly skewed distribution of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. Separate evaluations were conducted for dentists and dental assistants. In contrast to previous reports, no consistent associations were found between either urinary mercury concentration or the chronic index of mercury exposure and any category of symptoms. However, both significant and consistent associations were observed between increased symptoms and the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism involving two copies of the short or “s” allele (full mutation), but not with the polymorphism involving only one copy (heterozygous), demonstrating a gene–dose relationship for symptom reporting. These findings suggest that within this restricted population increased symptoms of depression, anxiety, and memory are associated with the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism among both males and females. PMID:18686203

  3. [Dynamics of functional status of submarine personnel during the pre-deployment period].

    PubMed

    Khankevich, Iu R; Bloshchinskiĭ, I A; Val'skiĭ, A V; Nabokov, N L

    2014-09-01

    Authors came to conclusions that during the pre-deployment period submarine personnel are stressed out. During this period submarine personnel .usually resupply, conduct maintenance and other monitoring-and-checkout measures, which leads to functional stress. Authors came to conclusion that it is necessary to use simple and easy, but at the same time informative methods for early diagnosis of worsen functional health status. One of these methods is evaluation of indicators of cardiovascular system. This method is a base for functional health status prophylaxis.

  4. Assessing the Functional Status of Older Cancer Patients in an Ambulatory Care Visit

    PubMed Central

    Overcash, Janine

    2015-01-01

    Functional status assessment is a useful and essential component of the complete history and physical exam of the older patient diagnosed with cancer. Functional status is the ability to conduct activities that are necessary for independence and more executive activities, such as money management, cooking, and transportation. Assessment of functional status creates a portal into interpreting the health of in older persons. Understanding limitations and physical abilities can help in developing cancer treatment strategies, patient/family teaching needs, and in-home services that enhance patient/family care. This article will review the benefits of functional assessment, instruments that can be used during an ambulatory care visit, and interventions that can address potential limitations. PMID:27417801

  5. Is Violent Radicalisation Associated with Poverty, Migration, Poor Self-Reported Health and Common Mental Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Bhui, Kamaldeep; Warfa, Nasir; Jones, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Background Doctors, lawyers and criminal justice agencies need methods to assess vulnerability to violent radicalization. In synergy, public health interventions aim to prevent the emergence of risk behaviours as well as prevent and treat new illness events. This paper describes a new method of assessing vulnerability to violent radicalization, and then investigates the role of previously reported causes, including poor self-reported health, anxiety and depression, adverse life events, poverty, and migration and socio-political factors. The aim is to identify foci for preventive intervention. Methods A cross-sectional survey of a representative population sample of men and women aged 18–45, of Muslim heritage and recruited by quota sampling by age, gender, working status, in two English cities. The main outcomes include self-reported health, symptoms of anxiety and depression (common mental disorders), and vulnerability to violent radicalization assessed by sympathies for violent protest and terrorist acts. Results 2.4% of people showed some sympathy for violent protest and terrorist acts. Sympathy was more likely to be articulated by the under 20s, those in full time education rather than employment, those born in the UK, those speaking English at home, and high earners (>£75,000 a year). People with poor self-reported health were less likely to show sympathies for violent protest and terrorism. Anxiety and depressive symptoms, adverse life events and socio-political attitudes showed no associations. Conclusions Sympathies for violent protest and terrorism were uncommon among men and women, aged 18–45, of Muslim heritage living in two English cities. Youth, wealth, and being in education rather than employment were risk factors. PMID:24599058

  6. What Are the Links between Maternal Social Status, Hippocampal Function, and HPA Axis Function in Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Margaret A.; How, Joan; Araujo, Melanie; Schamberg, Michelle A.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The association of parental social status with multiple health and achievement indicators in adulthood has driven researchers to attempt to identify mechanisms by which social experience in childhood could shift developmental trajectories. Some accounts for observed linkages between parental social status in childhood and health have hypothesized…

  7. Predicting Functional Status Following Amputation After Lower Extremity Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Suckow, Bjoern D.; Goodney, Philip P.; Cambria, Robert A.; Bertges, Daniel J.; Eldrup-Jorgensen, Jens; Indes, Jeffrey E.; Schanzer, Andres; Stone, David H.; Kraiss, Larry W.; Cronenwett, Jack L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Some patients who undergo lower extremity bypass (LEB) for critical limb ischemia ultimately require amputation. The functional outcome achieved by these patients after amputation is not well known. Therefore, we sought to characterize the functional outcome of patients who undergo amputation after LEB, and to describe the pre- and perioperative factors associated with independent ambulation at home after lower extremity amputation. Methods Within a cohort of 3,198 patients who underwent an LEB between January, 2003 and December, 2008, we studied 436 patients who subsequently received an above-knee (AK), below-knee (BK), or minor (forefoot or toe) ipsilateral or contralateral amputation. Our main outcome measure consisted of a “good functional outcome,” defined as living at home and ambulating independently. We calculated univariate and multivariate associations among patient characteristics and our main outcome measure, as well as overall survival. Results Of the 436 patients who underwent amputation within the first year following LEB, 224 of 436 (51.4%) had a minor amputation, 105 of 436 (24.1%) had a BK amputation, and 107 of 436 (24.5%) had an AK amputation. The majority of AK (75 of 107, 72.8%) and BK amputations (72 of 105, 70.6%) occurred in the setting of bypass graft thrombosis, whereas nearly all minor amputations (200 of 224, 89.7%) occurred with a patent bypass graft. By life-table analysis at 1 year, we found that the proportion of surviving patients with a good functional outcome varied by the presence and extent of amputation (proportion surviving with good functional outcome = 88% no amputation, 81% minor amputation, 55% BK amputation, and 45% AK amputation, p = 0.001). Among those analyzed at long-term follow-up, survival was slightly lower for those who had a minor amputation when compared with those who did not receive an amputation after LEB (81 vs. 88%, p = 0.02). Survival among major amputation patients did not significantly

  8. Parenting, Family Socioeconomic Status, and Child Executive Functioning: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochette, Émilie; Bernier, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Family socioeconomic status (SES) and the quality of maternal behavior are among the few identified predictors of child executive functioning (EF), and they have often been found to have interactive rather than additive effects on other domains of child functioning. The purpose of this study was to explore their interactive effects in the…

  9. Maximizing the Functional Status of Geriatric Patients in an Acute Community Hospital Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meissner, Paul; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Compared patients (N=103) admitted to inpatient geriatric care unit focusing on restoration of functional status to control-unit patients (N=75). Found greater improvement in basic functional capabilities of study-unit than control-unit patients. Found mixed picture when length of stay and total charges of study- and control-unit patients were…

  10. Systematic Review of Self-Report Family Assessment Measures.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Elena; Carr, Alan

    2016-03-01

    A systematic review of self-report family assessment measures was conducted with reference to their psychometric properties, clinical utility and theoretical underpinnings. Eight instruments were reviewed: The McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD); Circumplex Model Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES); Beavers Systems Model Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI); Family Assessment Measure III (FAM III); Family Environment Scale (FES); Family Relations Scale (FRS); and Systemic Therapy Inventory of Change (STIC); and the Systemic Clinical Outcome Routine Evaluation (SCORE). Results indicated that five family assessment measures are suitable for clinical use (FAD, FACES-IV, SFI, FAM III, SCORE), two are not (FES, FRS), and one is a new system currently under-going validation (STIC).

  11. sup 99m Tc renal tubular function agents: Current status

    SciTech Connect

    Eshima, D.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Taylor, A. Jr. )

    1990-01-01

    Orthoiodohippuric (OIH) acid labeled with 131I is a widely used renal radiopharmaceutical agent and has been the standard radiopharmaceutical agent for the measurement of effective renal plasma flow (EPRF). Limitations to the routine clinical use of 131I OIH are related to the suboptimal imaging properties of the 131I radionuclide and its relatively high radiation dose. 123I has been substituted for 131I; however, its high cost and short shelf-life have limited its widespread use. Recent work has centered on the development of a new 99mTc renal tubular function agent, which would use the optimal radionuclidic properties and availability of 99mTc and combine the clinical information provided by OIH. The search for a suitable 99mTc renal tubular function agent has focused on the diamide dithiolate (N2S2), the paraaminohippuric iminodiacetic acid (PAHIDA), and the triamide mercaptide (N3S) donor ligand systems. To date, the most promising 99mTc tubular function agent is the N3S complex: 99mTc mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc MAG3). Studies in animal models in diuresis, dehydration, acid or base imbalance, ischemia, and renal artery stenosis demonstrate that 99mTc MAG3 behaves similarly to 131I OIH. A simple kit formulation is available that yields the 99mTc MAG3 complex in high radiochemical purity. Studies in normal subjects and patients indicate that 99mTc MAG3 is an excellent 99mTc renal tubular agent, but its plasma clearance is only 50% to 60% that of OIH. In an effort to develop an improved 99mTc renal tubular function agent, changes have been made in the core N3S donor ligand system, but to date no agent has been synthesized that is clinically superior to 99mTc MAG3. 61 references.

  12. Proteins: sequence to structure and function--current status.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Sandhya R; Jayaram, B

    2010-11-01

    In an era that has been dominated by Structural Biology for the last 30-40 years, a dramatic change of focus towards sequence analysis has spurred the advent of the genome projects and the resultant diverging sequence/structure deficit. The central challenge of Computational Structural Biology is therefore to rationalize the mass of sequence information into biochemical and biophysical knowledge and to decipher the structural, functional and evolutionary clues encoded in the language of biological sequences. In investigating the meaning of sequences, two distinct analytical themes have emerged: in the first approach, pattern recognition techniques are used to detect similarity between sequences and hence to infer related structures and functions; in the second ab initio prediction methods are used to deduce 3D structure, and ultimately to infer function, directly from the linear sequence. In this article, we attempt to provide a critical assessment of what one may and may not expect from the biological sequences and to identify major issues yet to be resolved. The presentation is organized under several subtitles like protein sequences, pattern recognition techniques, protein tertiary structure prediction, membrane protein bioinformatics, human proteome, protein-protein interactions, metabolic networks, potential drug targets based on simple sequence properties, disordered proteins, the sequence-structure relationship and chemical logic of protein sequences.

  13. Testing for amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) use to ascertain validity of self-reported ATS use among young female sex workers in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess concordance between self-reported amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) use and toxicology results among young female sex workers (FSW) in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods Cross-sectional data from the Young Women’s Health Study-2 (YWHS-2), a prospective study of HIV and ATS use among young (15 to 29 years) FSW in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, was analyzed. The YWHS-2 assessed sociodemographic characteristics, HIV serology, HIV risk, and ATS use by self-report and urine toxicology testing at each quarterly visit, the second of which provided data for this assessment. Outcomes include sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative predictive values (overall and stratified by age), sex-work setting, and HIV status. Results Among 200 women, prevalence of positive toxicology screening for ATS use was 14% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.2, 18.9%) and concurrent prevalence of self-reported ATS was 15.5% (95% CI, 10.4, 20.6%). The sensitivity and specificity of self-reported ATS use compared to positive toxicology test results was 89.3% (25/28), and 96.5% (166/172), respectively. The positive predictive value of self-reported ATS use was 80.6% (25/31); the negative predictive value was 98.2% (166/169). Some differences in concordance between self-report and urine toxicology results were noted in analyses stratified by age group and sex-work setting but not by HIV status. Conclusion Results indicate a high prevalence of ATS use among FSW in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and high concordance between self-reported and toxicology-test confirmed ATS use. PMID:23186171

  14. Self-Reported bruxism and associated factors in Israeli adolescents.

    PubMed

    Emodi Perlman, A; Lobbezoo, F; Zar, A; Friedman Rubin, P; van Selms, M K A; Winocur, E

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about the epidemiological characteristics of sleep and awake bruxism (SB and AB) in adolescents. The aims of the study were: to assess the prevalence rates of self-reported SB and AB in Israeli adolescents; to determine the associations between SB/AB and several demographical, exogenous and psychosocial factors in Israeli adolescents; and to investigate the possible concordance between SB and AB. The study made use of a questionnaire. The study population included 1000 students from different high schools in the centre of Israel. Prevalence of self-reported SB and AB in the Israeli adolescents studied was 9·2% and 19·2%, respectively. No gender difference was found regarding the prevalence of SB and AB. Multiple variable regression analysis revealed that the following predicting variables were related to SB: temporomandibular joint sounds (P = 0·002) and feeling stressed (P = 0·001). The following predicting variables were related to AB: age (P = 0·018), temporomandibular joint sounds (P = 0·002), oro-facial pain (P = 0·006), and feeling stressed (P = 0·002) or sad (P = 0·006). A significant association was found between SB and AB; that is, an individual reporting SB had a higher probability of reporting AB compared with an individual who did not report SB (odds ratio = 5·099). Chewing gum was the most common parafunction reported by adolescents. The results of this study demonstrate that self-reports of AB and SB are common in the Israeli adolescents population studied and are not related to gender. The significant correlation found between SB and AB may be a confounding bias that affects proper diagnosis of bruxism through self-reported questionnaires only.

  15. Self-reported and behavioural impulsivity in anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Phillipou, Andrea; Abel, Larry Allen; Castle, David Jonathan; Gurvich, Caroline; Hughes, Matthew Edward; Rossell, Susan Lee

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine how self-reported and behavioural impulsivity are related in anorexia nervosa (AN). METHODS Twenty-four females with AN and 25 healthy controls (HC) participant in the study. Self-reported impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). The scale yields three second-order factors: Attentional, motor and non-planning. Behavioural impulsivity was investigated with the continuous performance test (CPT), a computer-based task of sustained attention in which numbers are flashed briefly on screen and participants are required to click the mouse when the same number appears consecutively. The rate of commission and omission errors can be used a measure of behavioural imulsivity. RESULTS AN participants self-reported increased attentional [AN: 20.67 (3.64), HC: 13.88 (2.91), P = 0.001] and reduced motor impulsivity [AN: 11.55 (2.28), HC: 14.08 (2.78), P = 0.002]. The rate of omission or commission errors on the CPT did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). BIS-11 and CPT measures did not significantly correlate, but attentional impulsivity was related to negative mood states in AN (depression: r = 0.52, P = 0.010, anxiety: r = 0.55, P = 0.006, stress: r = 0.57, P = 0.004). CONCLUSION The discrepancy between self-reported and behavioural impulsivity are discussed in terms of perfectionism in AN. Furthermore, it is suggested that improving negative mood states may resolve this inconsistency in AN. PMID:27679774

  16. Text mining a self-report back-translation.

    PubMed

    Blanch, Angel; Aluja, Anton

    2016-06-01

    There are several recommendations about the routine to undertake when back translating self-report instruments in cross-cultural research. However, text mining methods have been generally ignored within this field. This work describes a text mining innovative application useful to adapt a personality questionnaire to 12 different languages. The method is divided in 3 different stages, a descriptive analysis of the available back-translated instrument versions, a dissimilarity assessment between the source language instrument and the 12 back-translations, and an item assessment of item meaning equivalence. The suggested method contributes to improve the back-translation process of self-report instruments for cross-cultural research in 2 significant intertwined ways. First, it defines a systematic approach to the back translation issue, allowing for a more orderly and informed evaluation concerning the equivalence of different versions of the same instrument in different languages. Second, it provides more accurate instrument back-translations, which has direct implications for the reliability and validity of the instrument's test scores when used in different cultures/languages. In addition, this procedure can be extended to the back-translation of self-reports measuring psychological constructs in clinical assessment. Future research works could refine the suggested methodology and use additional available text mining tools. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions: Status and prospects*

    DOE PAGES

    Angeles-Martinez, R.; Bacchetta, A.; Balitsky, Ian I.; ...

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we review transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions, their application to topical issues in high-energy physics phenomenology, and their theoretical connections with QCD resummation, evolution and factorization theorems. We illustrate the use of TMDs via examples of multi-scale problems in hadronic collisions. These include transverse momentum qT spectra of Higgs and vector bosons for low qT, and azimuthal correlations in the production of multiple jets associated with heavy bosons at large jet masses. We discuss computational tools for TMDs, and present the application of a new tool, TMDLIB, to parton density fits and parameterizations.

  18. Functional neuroanatomy in panic disorder: Status quo of the research

    PubMed Central

    Sobanski, Thomas; Wagner, Gerd

    2017-01-01

    AIM To provide an overview of the current research in the functional neuroanatomy of panic disorder. METHODS Panic disorder (PD) is a frequent psychiatric disease. Gorman et al (1989; 2000) proposed a comprehensive neuroanatomical model of PD, which suggested that fear- and anxiety-related responses are mediated by a so-called “fear network” which is centered in the amygdala and includes the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray region, locus coeruleus and other brainstem sites. We performed a systematic search by the electronic database PubMed. Thereby, the main focus was laid on recent neurofunctional, neurostructural, and neurochemical studies (from the period between January 2012 and April 2016). Within this frame, special attention was given to the emerging field of imaging genetics. RESULTS We noted that many neuroimaging studies have reinforced the role of the “fear network” regions in the pathophysiology of panic disorder. However, recent functional studies suggest abnormal activation mainly in an extended fear network comprising brainstem, anterior and midcingulate cortex (ACC and MCC), insula, and lateral as well as medial parts of the prefrontal cortex. Interestingly, differences in the amygdala activation were not as consistently reported as one would predict from the hypothesis of Gorman et al (2000). Indeed, amygdala hyperactivation seems to strongly depend on stimuli and experimental paradigms, sample heterogeneity and size, as well as on limitations of neuroimaging techniques. Advanced neurochemical studies have substantiated the major role of serotonergic, noradrenergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of PD. However, alterations of GABAergic function in PD are still a matter of debate and also their specificity remains questionable. A promising new research approach is “imaging genetics”. Imaging genetic studies are designed to evaluate the impact of genetic variations (polymorphisms) on

  19. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Self-Reported Periodontal Disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Weatherspoon, Darien J.; Borrell, Luisa N.; Johnson, Craig W.; Mujahid, Mahasin S.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Adar, Sara D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Racial and ethnic disparities in periodontal disease exist in the United States. This study examined the prevalence of self-reported periodontal disease, and the extent to which racial/ethnic disparities in the reported disease were reduced or eliminated after controlling for various risk factors in a multi-ethnic study population of older adults. Materials and Methods Information from the baseline examination (July 2000–August 2002) of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) was used. Study participants (N=6,256) were age 45–84 years, and identified themselves as either: White, Black, Hispanic, or Chinese. Periodontal disease was assessed by self-report, and demographic, socioeconomic status (SES) indicators, biomedical risk factors, and psychosocial stress factors were used as predictors of self-reported periodontal disease. Results Chinese displayed the highest prevalence of self-reported periodontal disease (39.8%), followed by blacks (32.0%) and whites (26.0%), with Hispanics displaying the lowest prevalence (17.4%). Chinese and black participants had a significantly higher prevalence of disease compared to whites that persisted after adjusting for demographic, SES indicators, biomedical risk factors, and psychosocial stress factors. Hispanics did not differ significantly from whites in their reporting of disease, after such adjustment. Conclusion Racial/ethnic disparities in self-reported periodontal disease persisted after adjusting for all study covariates. This study highlights the need for continued research into the determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in periodontal disease in order to better target interventions aimed at reducing the burden of disease in all segments of our population. PMID:26870845

  20. [Pulmonary function testing in Japan: present status and new developments].

    PubMed

    Tojo, Naoko

    2012-09-01

    In 2004, the Japanese Respiratory Society issued an initial set of recommendations on the standardized measurement of the most frequently used tests for pulmonary function, i.e., tests to assess slow vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. This statement has not been updated, and the prediction equations for pulmonary function testing are not fully established. Thus, the guidelines will need to be periodically updated in accordance with new developments in this rapidly evolving field. Nitric oxide (NO) is now recognized as a biological mediator in animals and humans. The human lung produces NO and exhales it in breath. The fractional nitric oxide (NO) concentration in exhaled breath (FE(NO)) can be quantitatively measured by a simple, safe, and noninvasive procedure as a complementary tool for assessing airway inflammation in airway diseases such as asthma. While the measurement of exhaled NO is standardized for clinical use, FE(NO) measurement is not approved or covered under the public health insurance system in Japan.

  1. SHOX haploinsufficiency and overdosage: impact of gonadal function status

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, T.; Matsuo, N.; Nishimura, G.

    2001-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1997, knowledge about the SHOX gene has rapidly increased. In this review, we summarise clinical features and diagnostic and therapeutic implications in SHOX haploinsufficiency and overdosage. SHOX haploinsufficiency usually results in mesomelic short stature and Turner skeletal features, including Madelung deformity with puberty, in subjects with normal gonadal function. Thus, identification of early or mild signs of Madelung deformity is pivotal for the diagnosis, and gonadal suppression therapy may serve to mitigate the clinical features. By contrast, SHOX overdosage usually leads to long limbs and tall stature resulting from continued growth into the late teens in subjects with gonadal dysgenesis. Thus, the combination of tall stature and poor pubertal development is the key to diagnosis, and oestrogen therapy can help the prevention of unfavourably tall stature as well as the induction of sexual development. These findings, in conjunction with skeletal assessment in Turner syndrome and expression analysis during human embryogenesis, imply that SHOX functions as a repressor for growth plate fusion and skeletal maturation in the distal limbs and, thus, counteracts the skeletal maturing effects of oestrogens.


Keywords: SHOX; oestrogens; clinical features; practical implications PMID:11134233

  2. Self-reported HIV testing practice among physicians treating tuberculosis in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Emerson, C R; Goldberg, H; Vollmer-Conna, U; Post, J J

    2010-05-01

    Not all people with tuberculosis have their HIV status ascertained despite the interaction between these infections. We investigated the self-reported HIV testing practice among physicians treating tuberculosis in Australia and New Zealand and used logistic regression to assess factors associated with a routine offer of HIV testing in cases of tuberculosis. Of 290 subjects, 61% always recommended an HIV test for a 38-year-old married man with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. A lower proportion (40%) always tested a 78-year-old man or a female patient (58%), and more always HIV tested a South African case (85%), a patient with oral candidiasis (87%) or an unmarried male patient (66%). No scenario was associated with a universal offer of HIV testing. Clinician factors such as specialty (odds ratio [OR] 3.09), jurisdiction of practice (OR 4.09) and number of HIV tests requested in the past five years (OR 0.29) predicted the self-reported frequency of always HIV testing tuberculosis patients. At least 48% of respondents reported that epidemiological or clinical factors influenced their decision to offer testing. Strategies to increase HIV testing in cases of tuberculosis need to consider clinician factors.

  3. Stress in crisis managers: evidence from self-report and psychophysiological assessments.

    PubMed

    Janka, A; Adler, C; Fischer, L; Perakakis, P; Guerra, P; Duschek, S

    2015-12-01

    Directing disaster operations represents a major professional challenge. Despite its importance to health and professional performance, research on stress in crisis management remains scarce. The present study aimed to investigate self-reported stress and psychophysiological stress responses in crisis managers. For this purpose, 30 crisis managers were compared with 30 managers from other disciplines, in terms of self-reported stress, health status and psychophysiological reactivity to crisis-related and non-specific visual and acoustic aversive stimuli and cognitive challenge. Crisis managers reported lower stress levels, a more positive strain-recuperation-balance, greater social resources, reduced physical symptoms, as well as more physical exercise and less alcohol consumption. They exhibited diminished electrodermal and heart rate responses to crisis-related and non-specific stressors. The results indicate reduced stress and physical complaints, diminished psychophysiological stress reactivity, and a healthier life-style in crisis managers. Improved stress resistance may limit vulnerability to stress-related performance decline and facilitate preparedness for major incidents.

  4. [Prevalence and Comorbidity of Self-Reported Diagnosis of Burnout Syndrome in the General Population].

    PubMed

    Maske, Ulrike E; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Jacobi, Frank; Hapke, Ulfert

    2015-07-22

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and comorbid mental disorders of self-reported diagnosis of burnout syndrome in the general population of Germany. Methods: In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (DEGS1) self-reported diagnosis of a burnout syndrome made by a physician or psychotherapist was assessed in a standardized interview (N = 7987). For N = 4483 mental disorders were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Weighted lifetime and 12-month prevalences were calculated. Results: Lifetime prevalence of diagnosed burnout syndrome was 4.2 % (women 5.2 %, men 3.3 %), 12-month prevalence was 1.5 % (women 1.9 %, men 1.1 %). Highest prevalences were found in 40 - 59 year olds, in people with middle and high socio-economic status and in women with low and men with high social support. Among the 12-month cases, 70.9 % had at least one DSM-IV disorder. Associations were found for the diagnosis of burnout syndrome with somatoform, affective and anxiety disorders. Conclusion: The diagnosis of burnout syndrome is less frequently given and reported than expected. People with a burnout diagnosis often have a manifest mental disorder.

  5. BTEX air concentrations and self-reported common health problems in gasoline sellers from Cotonou, Benin.

    PubMed

    Tohon, Honesty Gbèdolo; Fayomi, Benjamin; Valcke, Mathieu; Coppieters, Yves; Bouland, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relation between BTEX exposure levels and common self-reported health problems in 140 gasoline sellers in Cotonou, Benin, a questionnaire documenting their socioeconomic status and their health problems was used, whereas 18 of them went through semi-directed qualitative individual interviews and 17 had air samples taken on their workplace for BTEX analysis. Median concentrations for BTEX were significantly lower on official (range of medians: 54-207 μg/m³, n = 9) vs unofficial (148-1449 μg/m³, n = 8) gasoline-selling sites (p < 0.05). Self-reported health problems were less frequently reported in sellers from unofficial vs official selling sites (p < 0.05), because, as suggested by the semi-directed interviews, of their fear of losing their important, but illegal, source of income. Concluding, this study has combined quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches to account for the complex socioeconomic and environmental conditions of the investigated sellers, leading to their, in some cases, preoccupying BTEX exposure.

  6. Parental separation in childhood and self-reported psychological health: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Martin; Rosvall, Maria

    2016-12-30

    The aim of the present study is to investigate associations between parental separation/divorce during childhood, and self-reported psychological health, adjusting for social capital, social support, civil status and economic stress in childhood. A cross-sectional public health survey was conducted in the autumn of 2012 in Scania, southern Sweden, with a postal questionnaire with 28,029 participants aged 18-80. Associations between parental separation/divorce during childhood and self-reported psychological health (GHQ12) were investigated using logistic regressions. A 16.1% proportion of all men 22.4% of all women reported poor psychological health. Among men, 20.4% had experienced parental separation during childhood until age 18 years, the corresponding prevalence among women was 22.3%. Parental separation/divorce in childhood was significantly associated with poor self-rated psychological health among men who had experienced parental separation/divorce at ages 0-4, and among women with this experience at ages 0-4, 10-14 and 15-18. These significant associations remained throughout the multiple analyses. The results support the notion that the experience of parental separation/divorce in childhood may influence psychological health in adulthood, particularly if it is experienced in the age interval 0-4 years.

  7. Consistency of Self-Reported Concussion History in Adolescent Athletes.

    PubMed

    Wojtowicz, Magdalena; Iverson, Grant L; Silverberg, Noah D; Mannix, Rebekah; Zafonte, Ross; Maxwell, Bruce; Berkner, Paul D

    2017-01-15

    Relying on self-reported concussion injury history is common in both clinical care and research. However, young athletes may not provide consistent medical information. To date, little is known about the reliability of self-reported concussion history in high school students. This study examined whether student athletes reported their lifetime history of concussions consistently over time. Self-reported concussion history was examined in 4792 student athletes (ages 13-18) from Maine who completed a preseason health survey on two occasions (median re-test interval = 23.7 months; standard deviation = 7.3; interquartile range = 12.4-24.5). Consistency of self-reported concussion history was determined by differences in the number of concussions reported during the second survey. Inconsistent concussion history was defined primarily by a decrease in the number of lifetime concussions reported at the second testing, compared with at the first testing. The majority of the sample (80.3%) reported no change in the number of concussions between the two baseline assessments. A minority (15.9%; n = 763) reported more concussions during the second assessment. Only 3.8% (n = 181) of student athletes provided inconsistent concussion histories, defined as fewer concussions at the second assessment. Boys provided inconsistent concussion histories a little more frequently, compared with girls (5.3% and 2.0%, respectively; p < 0.001). Similarly, athletes with self-reported attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) provided inconsistent concussion histories somewhat more frequently, compared with those without ADHD (7.8% and 3.5%, respectively; p < 0.001). Of the athletes with inconsistent concussion histories, greater degree of inconsistency was associated with a greater number of concussions initially reported at baseline (rs = 0.54; p < 0.001). Only a small proportion of student athletes provided inconsistent concussion histories. Male

  8. Quantifying Health Status and Function in Marfan Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sandesh S; Venuti, Kristen D; Dietz, Harry C; Sponseller, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Two hundred thirty patients were prospectively enrolled in this study and completed various portions of the Short Form 36 and a study-specific questionnaire (visual analog scale 1 to 10, comprising three separate questionnaires) to evaluate quality of life and function in patients with Marfan syndrome. The greatest health concern was cardiac problems (high in 70% of patients), followed by spine issues and generalized fatigue (both high, in 53%). The most severe reported pain involved the back: 105 patients (46%) rated pain as 6 to 10 on the visual analog scale. Among the 72 patients who responded to work life questions, work hours were reduced because of treatment in 59 (82%) or directly because of Marfan syndrome in 29 (40%). Across all Short Form 36 domains, patients scored significantly lower than United States population norms (p<.05); physical health scores were considerably lower than mental health scores.

  9. Transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions: Status and prospects*

    SciTech Connect

    Angeles-Martinez, R.; Bacchetta, A.; Balitsky, Ian I.; Boer, D.; Boglione, M.; Boussarie, R.; Ceccopieri, F. A.; Cherednikov, I. O.; Connor, P.; Echevarria, M. G.; Ferrera, G.; Grados Luyando, J.; Hautmann, F.; Jung, H.; Kasemets, T.; Kutak, K.; Lansberg, J. P.; Lykasov, G.; Madrigal Martinez, J. D.; Mulders, P. J.; Nocera, E. R.; Petreska, E.; Pisano, C.; Placakyte, R.; Radescu, V.; Radici, M.; Schnell, G.; Signori, A.; Szymanowski, L.; Taheri Monfared, S.; Van der Veken, F. F.; van Haevermaet, H. J.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vladimirov, A. A.; Wallon, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we review transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions, their application to topical issues in high-energy physics phenomenology, and their theoretical connections with QCD resummation, evolution and factorization theorems. We illustrate the use of TMDs via examples of multi-scale problems in hadronic collisions. These include transverse momentum qT spectra of Higgs and vector bosons for low qT, and azimuthal correlations in the production of multiple jets associated with heavy bosons at large jet masses. We discuss computational tools for TMDs, and present the application of a new tool, TMDLIB, to parton density fits and parameterizations.

  10. Cefepime-Induced Non-Convulsive Status Epilepticus in a Patient with Normal Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeon-Mi; Noh, Young; Yang, Ji Won; Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Yeong-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Cefepime-induced encephalopathy including nonconvulsive status epilepticus has been known to develop in the patients with renal impairment. However, we report a 74-year-old woman with normal renal function who developed stuporous mental status during cefepime administration. Electroencephalogram (EEG) revealed 2 Hz rhythmic sharp-and-waves continuously, which suggested nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). After cefepime discontinuation, clinical symptoms recovered gradually and EEG findings showed only background slowing without epileptiform discharges. Cefepime-induced NCSE could be developed even in the patients with normal renal function, when they are elderly. Therefore, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of cefepime-induced NCSE when prescribing cefepime even to the patients with normal renal function. PMID:28101482

  11. Lifestyle Engagement Affects Cognitive Status Differences and Trajectories on Executive Functions in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    de Frias, Cindy M.; Dixon, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    The authors first examined the concurrent moderating role of lifestyle engagement on the relation between cognitive status (cognitively elite, cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and executive functioning (EF) in older adults. Second, the authors examined whether baseline participation in lifestyle activities predicted differential 4.5-year stabilities and transitions in cognitive status. Participants (initial N = 501; 53–90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. EF was represented by a 1-factor structure. Lifestyle activities were measured in multiple domains of engagement (e.g., cognitive, physical, and social). Two-wave status stability groups included sustained normal aging, transitional early impairment, and chronic impairment. Hierarchical regressions showed that baseline participation in social activities moderated cognitive status differences in EF. CI adults with high (but not low) social engagement performed equivalently to CN adults on EF. Longitudinally, logistic regressions showed that engagement in physical activities was a significant predictor of stability of cognitive status. CI adults who were more engaged in physical activities were more likely to improve in their cognitive status over time than their more sedentary peers. Participation in cognitive activities was a significant predictor of maintenance in a higher cognitive status group. Given that lifestyle engagement plays a detectable role in healthy, normal, and impaired neuropsychological aging, further research in activity-related associations and interventions is recommended. PMID:24323561

  12. Systemic Inflammation in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Association with Muscle Function and Nutritional Status

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Guzmán, Oriana del Rocío; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Escobar Cedillo, Rosa Elena

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation described in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) may be related to loss of muscle function or to obesity. It is unknown if circulating proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1, and TNF-α) levels are associated with muscle function. The purpose was to evaluate whether an association exists between systemic inflammation with muscle function and nutritional status in DMD patients. In 66 DMD patients without corticosteroid treatment, the following were evaluated in serum: cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, adiponectin, and creatine kinase (CK). Muscle function was evaluated using Vignos Scale. Patients with better muscle function had the highest concentration of CK, IL-1, and TNF-α compared with less muscle function. No differences in IL-6 and adiponectin concentration were identified among groups with different levels of muscle function. Also, no differences were observed in the concentration of cytokines among groups with different nutritional status levels (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese). However, CRP and leptin were increased in the obese group compared with normal and underweight subjects. Systemic inflammation is increased in patients with better muscle function and decreases in DMD patients with poorer muscle function; nevertheless, systemic inflammation is similar among different levels of nutritional status in DMD patients. PMID:26380303

  13. Systemic Inflammation in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Association with Muscle Function and Nutritional Status.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Guzmán, Oriana Del Rocío; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Escobar Cedillo, Rosa Elena

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation described in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) may be related to loss of muscle function or to obesity. It is unknown if circulating proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1, and TNF-α) levels are associated with muscle function. The purpose was to evaluate whether an association exists between systemic inflammation with muscle function and nutritional status in DMD patients. In 66 DMD patients without corticosteroid treatment, the following were evaluated in serum: cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, adiponectin, and creatine kinase (CK). Muscle function was evaluated using Vignos Scale. Patients with better muscle function had the highest concentration of CK, IL-1, and TNF-α compared with less muscle function. No differences in IL-6 and adiponectin concentration were identified among groups with different levels of muscle function. Also, no differences were observed in the concentration of cytokines among groups with different nutritional status levels (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese). However, CRP and leptin were increased in the obese group compared with normal and underweight subjects. Systemic inflammation is increased in patients with better muscle function and decreases in DMD patients with poorer muscle function; nevertheless, systemic inflammation is similar among different levels of nutritional status in DMD patients.

  14. Assessment of social traits in married couples: Self-reports versus spouse ratings around the interpersonal circumplex.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy W; Williams, Paula G

    2016-06-01

    Personality traits predict the quality of intimate relationships, and as a result can be useful additions to assessments of couple functioning. For traits involving social behavior, the affiliation (i.e., warmth, friendliness vs. hostility, quarrelsomeness) and control (i.e., dominance vs. deference, submissiveness) dimensions of the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) are an alternative to the 5-factor model traits of agreeableness and extraversion, given that they may provide a more specific and relevant description of social behavior in the context of couple functioning. The couple context creates an opportunity to supplement commonly used self-reports with informant ratings. Although substantial correlations between self-reports and partner ratings of personality are well-documented, differences between these assessment modalities in levels of affiliation and control have not been examined previously. The present study of 301 middle-aged and older couples addressed this issue by comparing self-reports and spouse ratings, using parallel forms of a measure of the interpersonal circumplex derived from the NEO (Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness) PI-R (Personality Inventory-Revised). Participants reported lower trait dominance relative to spouses' ratings, and less trait hostility. For dominance, this discrepancy was evident at all levels of marital quality, but for hostility it was particularly apparent among couples reporting low marital quality. The tendency to self-report less dominance relative to ratings by spouses was stronger among women than men. These discrepancies may be important in couple assessment and intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Self-reported coping behavior in health and disease: assessment with a card sort game

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, C. E.; Peng, C. K.; Lester, N.; Daltroy, L. H.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that individuals with a variety of severe chronic illnesses and the healthy elderly exhibit a loss of flexibility in their response to a variety of stressors, compared with healthy adults. A card sort game designed to assess self-reported coping behavior under different stressful life situations was used to compare healthy adults with individuals with multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and the elderly. The healthy adults were found to exhibit more variability than any of the illness groups or the elderly. Healthy function is marked by a complex type of variability.

  16. Mechanisms by which Childhood Personality Traits Influence Adult Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Vogt, Thomas M.; Dubanoski, Joan P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To test a lifespan health-behavior model in which educational attainment and health behaviors (eating habits, smoking, and physical activity) were hypothesized as mechanisms to account for relations between teacher ratings of childhood personality traits and self-reported health status at midlife. Design The model was tested on 1,054 members of the Hawaii Personality and Health cohort, which is a population-based cohort participating in a longitudinal study of personality and health spanning 40 years from childhood to midlife. Outcome Self-reported health status as a latent construct indicated by general health, functional status, and body mass index. Results Childhood Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Intellect/Imagination influenced adult health status indirectly through educational attainment, healthy eating habits, and smoking. Several direct effects of childhood traits on health behaviors and health status were also observed. Conclusion The model extends past associations found between personality traits and health behaviors or health status by identifying a life-course pathway based on the health-behavior model through which early childhood traits influence adult health status. The additional direct effects of personality traits indicate that health-behavior mechanisms may not provide a complete account of relations between personality and health. PMID:17209705

  17. Loss of olfactory function and nutritional status in vital older adults and geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Nicole; de Roon, Margot; van Campen, Jos P C M; Kremer, Stefanie; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the association of olfactory function and nutritional status in vital older adults and geriatric patients. Three hundred forty-five vital (mean age 67.1 years) and 138 geriatric older adults (mean age 80.9 years) were included. Nutritional status was assessed using the mini nutritional assessment-short form. The Sniffin' Sticks was used to measure olfactory function. Eleven percentage of the vital older adults were at risk of malnutrition, whereas 60% of the geriatric participants were malnourished or at risk. Only 2% of the vital older adults were anosmic, compared with 46% of the geriatric participants. Linear regression demonstrated a significant association (P = 0.015) between olfactory function and nutritional status in the geriatric subjects. However, this association became insignificant after adjustment for confounders. Both crude and adjusted analysis in the vital older adults did not show a significant association. The results indicate that, in both groups of elderly, there is no direct relation between olfactory function and nutritional status. We suggest that a decline in olfactory function may still be considered as one of the risk-factors for malnutrition in geriatric patients-once co-occurring with other mental and/or physical problems that are more likely to occur in those patients experience.

  18. Predicting Drug Use at Electronic Music Dance Events: Self-Reports and Biological Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert A.; Miller, Brenda A.; Holder, Harold D.

    2009-01-01

    Most information on the prevalence of drug use comes from self-report surveys. The sensitivity of such information is cause for concern about the accuracy of self-report measures. In this study, self-reported drug use in the last 48 hr is compared to results from biological assays of saliva samples from 371 young adults entering clubs. The…

  19. Self-reported dieting success is associated with cardiac autonomic regulation in current dieters.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian; Lutz, Annika; Vögele, Claus; Kübler, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Restrained eating, eating disorders and obesity have been associated with cardiac autonomic dysregulation. The current study investigated cardiac autonomic regulation in current dieters. Female students (N=50) indicated if they were currently trying to control their weight and completed the Perceived Self-Regulatory Success in Dieting Scale (PSRS). Heart beat intervals were recorded during two 10 min relaxation periods from which parameters of vagal-cardiac control (high frequency power in normalized units, HF n.u.) and sympathovagal balance (ratio of low and high frequency power, LF/HF) were calculated. In current dieters, self-reported dieting success was positively associated with HF and negatively associated with LF/HF. These associations were independent of current body-mass and food deprivation (i.e. hours since the last meal). We conclude that vagal-cardiac control reflects self-regulatory strength, rather than nutritional status, in current dieters.

  20. Assessing personality factors in essential hypertension with a brief self-report instrument.

    PubMed

    Baer, P E; Collins, F H; Bourianoff, G G; Ketchel, M F

    1979-06-01

    A 16-item self-report instrument was designed and cross-validated, comparing essential hypertensives with normotensives. After item selection using two sets of standardization groups, scores obtained from three additional sets of hypertensive and normotensive groups were significantly different. The scores were not significantly related to variables such as age, sex, socioeconomic status, hypochondriasis, social desirability or target organ involvement. The instrument's factorial structure for hypertensives consisted of factors labeled anger arousal, resentment, anxiety, and attention seeking. Hypertensives reported higher levels of hostility and anxiety than normotensives. High and low scoring subgroups on the instrument were examined on the 16 PF, with hypertensive high scorers demonstrating a different profile than low scoring hypertensives. The existence of two psychological types of essential hypertensives was suggested.

  1. Comparison of measured and self-reported anthropometric information among firefighters: implications and applications

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Weaver, Darlene; Hsiao, James; Whitestone, Jennifer; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Whisler, Richard; Ferri, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of self-reported body weight and height compared to measured values among firefighters and identified factors associated with reporting error. A total of 863 male and 88 female firefighters in four US regions participated in the study. The results showed that both men and women underestimated their body weight (−0.4 ± 4.1, −1.1 ± 3.6 kg) and overestimated their height (29 ± 18, 17 ± 16 mm). Women underestimated more than men on weight (p = 0.022) and men overestimated more than women on height (p < 0.001). Reporting errors on weight were increased with overweight status (p < 0.001) and were disproportionate among subgroups. About 27% men and 24% women had reporting errors on weight greater than ± 2.2 kg, and 59% men and 28% women had reporting errors on height greater than 25 mm. PMID:25198061

  2. Mapping self-reports of working memory deficits to executive dysfunction in Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) gene premutation carriers asymptomatic for FXTAS.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Cary S; Cornish, Kim M

    2010-08-01

    Fragile X Syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is caused by the silencing of a single gene on the X chromosome, the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. In recent years, the premutation ("carrier") status has received considerable attention and there is now an emerging consensus that despite intellectual functioning being within the average range premutation males present with subtle executive function impairments that include poor inhibitory control, working memory deficits, and poor planning skills. The ranges of these skills, although not nearly as severe as seen in the full mutation, nonetheless serve to differentiate males with the premutation from males in the unaffected population. In the present study we extend these findings to suggest that behavioral markers, specifically self-report on the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Rating Scales, may serve as a clinically useful indicator or "signature" of the Fragile X Premutation status. We discuss the possibility that this measure provides a means to identify those at greatest risk for developing the newly identified neurodegenerative disorder that affects some premutation males - Fragile X Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS).

  3. Geriatric Syndromes and Functional Status in NSHAP: Rationale, Measurement, and Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kocherginsky, Masha; Schumm, Phillip L.; Engelman, Michal; McClintock, Martha K.; Dale, William; Magett, Elizabeth; Rush, Patricia; Waite, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The geriatric functional measures and syndromes collected 5 years apart in Waves 1 and 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) data set included: difficulty with activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living, the timed up and go, a 3-m timed walk, repeated chair stands, self-reported physical activity, accelerometry-assessed (in)activity, falls, fractures, and frailty. The purpose of this paper was to describe the data collection methods and report preliminary population estimates for each measures. Method. Frequencies, means, or medians were estimated for each measure stratified by age and gender, using the age-eligible samples in Wave 1 (n = 3,005) and Wave 2 (n = 3,196). An adapted phenotypic frailty scale was constructed in the sample common to both waves (n = 2,261). Changes over 5 years were reported for four measures common to both waves. Results. The functional measures worsened with age (p < .001). The syndromes were more prevalent with age except “all fractures” (p value range < .001–.03). Functional measures were worse among females than males except chair stand performance and the accelerometry-assessed (in)activity measures (p value range < .001–.01). The syndromes were more common among females than males except Wave 2 falls and Wave 2 hip fractures (p value range < .001–.03). Changes from Wave 1 to 2 revealed 11.5%–25.2% of individuals reported better health and 21.3%–44.7% reported worse health. Discussion. The NSHAP provides a comprehensive assessment of geriatric health. Our findings are consistent with the literature and support the construct of the study measures. PMID:25360019

  4. Differences in Field Dependence-Independence Cognitive Style as a Function of Socioeconomic Status, Sex, and Cognitive Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forns-Santacana, Maria; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Analyzed field dependence-independence (FDI) cognitive style as function of socioeconomic status, sex, and cognitive competence in seven year olds (n=117). Subjects of upper-middle socioeconomic status achieved significantly higher scores that did subjects of low socioeconomic status on five McCarthy Scales and on FDI variable. Boys scored higher…

  5. Hair testing and self-report of cocaine use.

    PubMed

    Vignali, Claudia; Stramesi, Cristiana; Vecchio, Micol; Groppi, Angelo

    2012-02-10

    Hair analysis is a useful tool in both clinical and forensic fields: it allows information about drugs of abuse (DOA) consumption to be obtained. However, in spite of analytical results, sometimes patients continue to deny using drugs or, on the contrary, insist on describing themselves as severe drug addicts; indeed there are often considerable difficulties in getting truthful statements about the real amount of drugs used. In this study we have tried to compare cocaine concentration in hair samples with self-reported drug intake. We enrolled 113 subjects (61 Africans, 52 Caucasians) who had been recently sent to jail. They were asked to tell about their use of illicit drugs during the last three months and then submitted to hair analysis. Hair segments (3 cm) were analyzed by GC-MS for amphetamines, cocaine and opiates. Useful data was obtained from 82 subjects, separated into two main groups on account of ethnic origin (African or Caucasian) and divided further into daily, weekly and monthly users. The results showed qualitative results and self-reported consumption to be in good agreement, although the correlation between frequency of consumption and concentration in hair revealed sometimes higher concentrations in contrast with the admission of low consumption. There was a definite separation between occasional and daily use (especially in Caucasian people), while concentrations found where weekly use was reported were more variable. Concentrations of cocaine measured in Africans' hair were much higher than in Caucasians'. Even if this study is exclusively based on self-report, it provides some interesting information in order to differentiate the frequency of consumption, and especially underlines the great importance of ethnic bias on hair analysis.

  6. Modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis function by social status in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Jennifer D; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Vijayan, Mathilakath M; Gilmour, Kathleen M

    2012-04-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) form stable dominance hierarchies when confined in pairs. These hierarchies are driven by aggressive competition over limited resources and result in one fish becoming dominant over the other. An important indicator of low social status is sustained elevation of circulating cortisol levels as a result of chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. In the present study it was hypothesized that social status modulates the expression of key proteins involved in the functioning of the HPI axis. Cortisol treatment and fasting were used to assess whether these characteristics seen in subordinate fish also affected HPI axis function. Social status modulated plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, cortisol synthesis, and liver glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. Plasma ACTH levels were lower by approximately 2-fold in subordinate and cortisol-treated fish, consistent with a negative feedback role for cortisol in modulating HPI axis function. Although cortisol-treated fish exhibited differences in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and CRF-binding protein (CRF-BP) mRNA relative abundances in the preoptic area and telencephalon, respectively, no effect of social status on CRF or CRF-BP was detected. Head kidney melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) mRNA relative levels were unaffected by social status, while mRNA relative abundances of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme were elevated in dominant fish. Liver GR2 mRNA and total GR protein levels in subordinate fish were lower than control values by approximately 2-fold. In conclusion, social status modulated the functioning of the HPI axis in rainbow trout. Our results suggest altered cortisol dynamics and reduced target tissue response to this steroid in subordinate fish, while the higher transcript levels for steroid biosynthesis in dominant fish leads us to propose an

  7. Functional status in patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms: Coping styles and their relationship with depression and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Sempértegui, Gabriela A; Karreman, Annemiek; van Hout, Gerbrand Cm; Bekker, Marrie Hj

    2016-03-29

    This study examined how coping styles are related to functional status in patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms and to what extent depression and anxiety account for this relationship. In 90 Dutch adult patients presenting medically unexplained physical symptoms, coping styles, health-related functional status, anxiety, and depression were measured. Multiple regression analyses and mediation analysis showed that coping styles were directly and indirectly related to functional status. In this relationship, depression and anxiety played an important role. The findings highlight the relevance of addressing coping styles, depression, and anxiety when targeting the functional status of patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms in clinical practice.

  8. Socioeconomic Status and Functional Brain Development--Associations in Early Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Moore, Derek G.; Ribeiro, Helena; Axelsson, Emma L.; Murphy, Elizabeth; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Johnson, Mark H.; Kushnerenko, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts on both structural and functional brain development in childhood, but how early its effects can be demonstrated is unknown. In this study we measured resting baseline EEG activity in the gamma frequency range in awake 6-9-month-olds from areas of East London with high socioeconomic deprivation. Between-subject…

  9. Developmental Status and Social-Emotional Functioning of Young Children Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskett, Mary E.; Armstrong, Jenna Montgomery; Tisdale, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The developmental status and social-emotional functioning of young children who are homeless has received inadequate attention in spite of high rates of homelessness among families with young children and the potentially negative impact of homelessness and associated stressors on children's well-being. The aim of this study was to gain…

  10. The Correlates of Tracking Policy: Opportunity Hoarding, Status Competition, or a Technical-Functional Explanation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Sean; Price, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In this analysis, the authors explore the relationship between the social context of high schools and school-to-school variation in tracking policies. The authors consider three explanations for the implementation of highly elaborated tracking systems: opportunity hoarding, status competition, and a technical-functional explanation. Building on…

  11. Metabolic status, gonadotropin secretion, and ovarian function during acute nutrient restriction of beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of acute nutritional restriction on metabolic status, gonadotropin secretion, and ovarian function of heifers was determined in 2 experiments. In Exp. 1, 14-mo-old heifers were fed a diet supplying 1.2 × maintenance energy requirements (1.2M). After 10 d, heifers were fed 1.2M or were res...

  12. Effects of sodium diclofenac on the concentration function in animals with different neurohypophyseal status.

    PubMed

    Lavrinenko, V A; Babina, A V; Shestopalova, L V; Beizel, N F; Ivanova, L N

    2012-04-01

    The characteristics of the osmotic concentration system under conditions of sodium diclofenac treatment were studied in Wistar rats with normally functioning vasopressin gene and homozygotic Brattleboro rats completely lacking endogenous vasopressin. Blockade of prostaglandin synthesis in rats with different neurohypophyseal status stimulated urinary osmolality to a different degree. Different contribution of sodium cations and urea to osmotic concentration was revealed.

  13. Mental Status as a Predictor of Daily Function in Progressive Dementia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Bruce R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Compared Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE) scores and activities of daily living (ADL) scores from 59 patients with progressive dementias. MMSE scores explained approximately one-third of variance in both instrumental and physical ADLs. Findings suggest that cognitive losses and functional impairments are 2 distinct aspects of dementia severity which…

  14. The Status of Functional Categories in Child Second Language Acquisition: Evidence from the Acquisition of CP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haznedar, Belma

    2003-01-01

    Examines the status of the functional categories in child second language (L2) acquisition of English. Results from longitudinally-collected data are reported, presenting counterevidence for recent hypotheses on early L2 acquisition that assume the following: (1) structure building approach according to which the acquisition of functional…

  15. Urinary iodine, thyroid function, and thyroglobulin as biomarkers of iodine status.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Caldwell, Kathleen L

    2016-09-01

    The accurate assessment of population iodine status is necessary to inform public health policies and clinical research on iodine nutrition, particularly the role of iodine adequacy in normal neurodevelopment. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) directly reflects dietary iodine intake and is the most common indicator used worldwide to assess population iodine status. The CDC established the Ensuring the Quality of Iodine Procedures program in 2001 to provide laboratories that measure urinary iodine with an independent assessment of their analytic performance; this program fosters improvement in the assessment of UIC. Clinical laboratory tests of thyroid function (including serum concentrations of the pituitary hormone thyrotropin and the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine) are sometimes used as indicators of iodine status, although such use is often problematic. Even in severely iodine-deficient regions, there is a great deal of intraindividual variation in the ability of the thyroid to adapt. In most settings and in most population subgroups other than newborns, thyroid function tests are not considered sensitive indicators of population iodine status. However, the thyroid-derived protein thyroglobulin is increasingly being used for this purpose. Thyroglobulin can be measured in either serum or dried blood spot (DBS) samples. The use of DBS samples is advantageous in resource-poor regions. Improved methodologies for ascertaining maternal iodine status are needed to facilitate research on developmental correlates of iodine status. Thyroglobulin may prove to be a useful biomarker for both maternal and neonatal iodine status, but validated assay-specific reference ranges are needed for the determination of iodine sufficiency in both pregnant women and neonates, and trimester-specific ranges are possibly needed for pregnant women. UIC is currently a well-validated population biomarker, but individual biomarkers that could be used for research, patient care

  16. Can mindful parenting be observed? Relations between observational ratings of mother-youth interactions and mothers' self-report of mindful parenting.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Larissa G; Coatsworth, J Douglas; Gayles, Jochebed G; Geier, Mary H; Greenberg, Mark T

    2015-04-01

    Research on mindful parenting, an extension of mindfulness to the interpersonal domain of parent-child relationships, has been limited by its reliance on self-report assessment. The current study is the first to examine whether observational indices of parent-youth interactions differentiate between high and low levels of self-reported mindful parenting. The Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scales (IFIRS) were used to code interactions between mothers and their 7th grade youth. Mothers drawn from the top and bottom quartiles (n = 375) of a larger distribution of self-reported interpersonal mindfulness in parenting (N = 804) represented clearly defined high- and low-mindful parenting groups. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to analyze how well 6 composite IFIRS observational rating variables (e.g., parental warmth, consistent discipline) discriminated between high and low self-reports of mindful parenting. DFA results were cross-validated, with statistically significant canonical correlations found for both subsamples (p < .05). Subsequent independent samples t tests revealed that group means were significantly different on all 6 IFIRS composite ratings. Confirmation of the relations between self-report mindful parenting and the observational ratings was also provided through hierarchical regression analyses conducted with a continuous predictor of mindful parenting using the full sample. Thus, the present study provides preliminary evidence for a link between self-reported mindful parenting and observed interactions between parents and youth.

  17. Can Mindful Parenting Be Observed? Relations between Observational Ratings of Mother-Youth Interactions and Mothers’ Self-Report Mindful Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Larissa G.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Gayles, Jochebed G.; Geier, Mary H.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Research on mindful parenting, an extension of mindfulness to the interpersonal domain of parent-child relationships, has been limited by its reliance on self-report assessment. The current study is the first to examine whether observational indices of parent-youth interactions differentiate between high and low levels of self-reported mindful parenting. The Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scales (IFIRS) were used to code interactions between mothers and their 7th grade youth. Mothers drawn from the top and bottom quartiles (n = 375) of a larger distribution of self-reported interpersonal mindfulness in parenting (N = 804) represented clearly defined high and low mindful parenting groups. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to analyze how well six composite IFIRS observational rating variables (e.g., parental warmth, consistent discipline) discriminated between high and low self-reports of mindful parenting. DFA results were cross-validated, with statistically significant canonical correlations found for both subsamples (p < .05). Subsequent independent samples t-tests revealed that group means were significantly different on all six IFIRS composite ratings. Confirmation of the relations between self-report mindful parenting and the observational ratings was also provided through hierarchical regression analyses conducted with a continuous predictor of mindful parenting using the full sample. Thus, the present study provides preliminary evidence for a link between self-reported mindful parenting and observed interactions between parents and youth. PMID:25844494

  18. Self-Reported Health Among Recently Incarcerated Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Wildeman, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined self-reported health among formerly incarcerated mothers. Methods. We used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 4096), a longitudinal survey of mostly unmarried parents in urban areas, to estimate the association between recent incarceration (measured as any incarceration in the past 4 years) and 5 self-reported health conditions (depression, illicit drug use, heavy drinking, fair or poor health, and health limitations), net of covariates including health before incarceration. Results. In adjusted logistic regression models, recently incarcerated mothers, compared with their counterparts, have an increased likelihood of depression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 2.17), heavy drinking (OR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.19, 2.68), fair or poor health (OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.08, 2.06), and health limitations (OR = 1.78; 95% CI = 1.27, 2.50). This association is similar across racial/ethnic subgroups and is larger among mothers who share children with fathers who have not been recently incarcerated. Conclusions. Recently incarcerated mothers struggle with even more health conditions than expected given the disadvantages they experience before incarceration. Furthermore, because incarceration is concentrated among those who are most disadvantaged, incarceration may increase inequalities in population health. PMID:26270294

  19. Self-reports of meaning in life matter.

    PubMed

    Heintzelman, Samantha J; King, Laura A

    2015-09-01

    Replies to the comments made by Friedman (see record 2015-39598-012), Jeffery & Shackelford (see record 2015-39598-013), Brown & Wong (see record 2015-39598-014), Fowers & Lefevor (see record 2015-39598-015), Hill et al. (see record 2015-39598-016) on the current authors' original article, "Life is pretty meaningful," (see record 2014-03265-001). The current authors thank the comment authors for their efforts, and acknowledge their dedication to what is often a difficult and inscrutable construct, meaning in life. One lesson the current authors have learned from these reactions is that a review of self-report responses to items like "My life is purposeful and meaningful" cannot encompass the entirety of the meaning-in-life landscape. In this reply, the current authors reflect on aspects of the commentaries, highlighting what they can garner about meaning in life from the portion of it that is reflected in phenomenological experience and represented in self-reports: These are the data they have. The current authors first consider three methodological concerns that bear on whether these data are informative (at all) and then they consider more conceptual critiques.

  20. Sensitivity of Self-report Mammography Use in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Benjamin M.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Vadaparampil, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent survey evidence indicates a decline in mammography use among older women. The objective of this study was to detect sensitivity variation in self-reported mammography use and pose evidence-based suggestions to increase survey accuracy. Methods Using 1991-2006 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS), 15,357 women, age 65 or older, were selected based on use of mammography services. The women were interviewed in the community setting at random periods after screening and asked, “Have you had a mammogram or breast x-ray since [today's date] one year ago?” Statistical analyses were conducted between March 11 and April 28 of 2008. This study tested whether sensitivity (i.e., probability of an affirmative response) was dependent on length of the recall period and on respondent demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Results Overall, 90.4% of the older women self-reported use; however, sensitivity decreased as the recall period lengthened (90% at 6 months, 80% at 12 months). This time effect was significantly higher among older, economically disadvantaged women. Sensitivity also decreased an additional 13.8% if the event occurred in the previous calendar year, and 3.5% if conducted in a non-English language or by proxy. Conclusion Greatest sensitivity use occurred during the 6-month period after service without straddling calendar years. These findings may aid the tailoring of future surveys for older adults, improving the recall of preventive services. PMID:19840700

  1. A new self-report inventory of dyslexia for students: criterion and construct validity.

    PubMed

    Tamboer, Peter; Vorst, Harrie C M

    2015-02-01

    The validity of a Dutch self-report inventory of dyslexia was ascertained in two samples of students. Six biographical questions, 20 general language statements and 56 specific language statements were based on dyslexia as a multi-dimensional deficit. Dyslexia and non-dyslexia were assessed with two criteria: identification with test results (Sample 1) and classification using biographical information (both samples). Using discriminant analyses, these criteria were predicted with various groups of statements. All together, 11 discriminant functions were used to estimate classification accuracy of the inventory. In Sample 1, 15 statements predicted the test criterion with classification accuracy of 98%, and 18 statements predicted the biographical criterion with classification accuracy of 97%. In Sample 2, 16 statements predicted the biographical criterion with classification accuracy of 94%. Estimations of positive and negative predictive value were 89% and 99%. Items of various discriminant functions were factor analysed to find characteristic difficulties of students with dyslexia, resulting in a five-factor structure in Sample 1 and a four-factor structure in Sample 2. Answer bias was investigated with measures of internal consistency reliability. Less than 20 self-report items are sufficient to accurately classify students with and without dyslexia. This supports the usefulness of self-assessment of dyslexia as a valid alternative to diagnostic test batteries.

  2. Mindful attention reduces neural and self-reported cue-induced craving in smokers

    PubMed Central

    Creswell, John David; Tabibnia, Golnaz; Julson, Erica; Kober, Hedy; Tindle, Hilary A.

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research suggests that mindfulness-based interventions may be beneficial for smoking cessation and the treatment of other addictive disorders. One way that mindfulness may facilitate smoking cessation is through the reduction of craving to smoking cues. The present work considers whether mindful attention can reduce self-reported and neural markers of cue-induced craving in treatment seeking smokers. Forty-seven (n = 47) meditation-naïve treatment-seeking smokers (12-h abstinent from smoking) viewed and made ratings of smoking and neutral images while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were trained and instructed to view these images passively or with mindful attention. Results indicated that mindful attention reduced self-reported craving to smoking images, and reduced neural activity in a craving-related region of subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC). Moreover, a psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed that mindful attention reduced functional connectivity between sgACC and other craving-related regions compared to passively viewing smoking images, suggesting that mindfulness may decouple craving neurocircuitry when viewing smoking cues. These results provide an initial indication that mindful attention may describe a ‘bottom-up’ attention to one’s present moment experience in ways that can help reduce subjective and neural reactivity to smoking cues in smokers. PMID:22114078

  3. A systematic review of self-reported swallowing assessments in progressive neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Keage, Megan; Delatycki, Martin; Corben, Louise; Vogel, Adam

    2015-02-01

    Dysphagia experienced as a consequence of neurodegenerative disease can have severe consequences on a patient's health and well-being. Regular assessment of swallowing function can assist to achieve adequate nutrition and hydration. Here we review subjective swallowing assessments currently available are suitable for use in people with neurodegenerative disease. Measurement properties were reviewed for each tool and coverage of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO ICF) was considered. Assessments were identified following a review of the published literature Instruments were reviewed on the basis of reliability and validity, as well as administrative properties, such an interpretability, acceptability, and feasibility. Tools were also evaluated according to the WHO ICF framework. In total, 19 studies were identified for full-text review from 13,315 abstracts. Nine self-reported dysphagia assessment tools suitable for use in progressive neurological disorders were identified. The Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) yields the strongest combination of reliability (including internal consistency and test-retest reliability) and convergent validity while simultaneously covering all WHO ICF domains. Lengthy administration time was identified as a limitation of the SWAL-QOL. The review highlights a relative lack of well-validated self-report questionnaires in dysphagia for people with progressive neurological disease. Additional validation and evaluation of the clinical utility of the tools currently available is required to further promote an informed selection of available assessments.

  4. Effect of Yoga on Autonomic Functions and Psychological Status During Both Phases of Menstrual Cycle in Young Healthy Females

    PubMed Central

    Kanojia, Sarita; Sharma, Vivek Kumar; Gandhi, Asha; Kapoor, Raj; Kukreja, Ajay; Subramanian, Senthil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Context: Premenstrual stress affects 75% of women of childbearing age and yoga has been found to be beneficial in many psycho-somatic disorders. Aims: To investigate the effect of integrated yoga on autonomic parameters and psychological well-being during both pre and post phases of menstrual cycle in healthy young female subjects. Settings and Design: Present study is a randomized control trial and was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India. Material and Methods: Fifty apparently healthy females in the age group of 18-20 years were randomized into two groups: Group I (n=25) consisted of subjects who practiced yoga 35-40 minutes per day, six times per week for the duration of three menstrual cycles. Training was given by qualified yoga instructor. Group II (n=25) subjects acted as controls. Following parameters were recorded at the beginning and after completion of three menstrual cycles in all the subjects: Height, weight (BW), Resting Heart Rate (HR), Resting Systolic (SBP) and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), parasympathetic reactivity tests including Expiration-Inspiration Ratio (E: I ratio) and 30:15 ratio, sympathetic reactivity tests including BP changes due to Isometric Hand Grip (IHG) exercise, and Cold Pressor Test (CPT). Assessment of psychological status was done by administering DIPAS (Defense Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences) inventories of Anger self report scale, Trait Anxiety, Sense of well-being and Depression scale. Statistical Analysis: Intra-group comparison of physiological parameters was done by using paired ‘t’ test, whereas intra-group comparison of non-parameteric data such as scores of anxiety, depression, anger and sense of well-being was done by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Inter-group comparison of parameters was done by Students ‘t’ test for parametric tests and Mann-Whitney ‘U’ test for non-parameteric tests. Results: There was significantly higher BW, resting

  5. Effects of parental marital status, income, and family functioning on African American adolescent self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Mandara, J; Murray, C B

    2000-09-01

    This study examined the effects of marital status, family income, and family functioning on African American adolescents' self-esteem. One hundred sixteen adolescents participated, 64% of whom were female. Compared with boys with nonmarried parents, boys with married parents had higher overall self-esteem, even when family income and family functioning were controlled. Parental marital status had no effect on girls' self-esteem. Family functioning was a very strong predictor of self-esteem for both sexes. However, family relational factors were more important to girls' self-esteem, whereas structural and growth factors were more important for boys. It was concluded that African American adolescent boys with nonmarried parents are at risk for developing low self-esteem compared with other African American adolescents, but a more controlled and structured environment may buffer the effects of having nonmarried parents.

  6. [Impact of thoracic and abdominopelvic surgery on the functional status in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Landi, Pablo J; Torrejón, Gisell A; Muiños, Roberto; Freue, Roberto D; Semeniuk, Guillermo B

    2013-01-01

    The quality of life of older people is determined by their functional capacity, rather than by the number or type of disease suffered. We analyzed 43 patients over 65 years undergoing major surgery. Longitudinally continued evolution of functional status by analyzing six variables, activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), the get up and walk test, functional reach test of arm, strength of handgrip and walking speed, measured before surgery (baseline measurement) and at 1, 2, 3 and 4 months after discharge. The objectives were to estimate the impact that surgery has on functional status in the elderly, determine how long each of the measurements returned to preoperative values at 4 months follow-up. Recovery curves compared the baseline AIVD, grip strength and hand speed on the fly, between two groups defined by baseline walking speed in slow (< 0.8 m/s) and fast (> 0.8 m/s). The impact of surgery on physical fitness showed a statistically significant decrease in ADL, IADL, and the get up and walk test and walking speed, with variable time recovery beyond convalescence. All return to baseline at 4 months except test walking speed that exceeded the baseline. Functional status can be evaluated quickly and should be included in the preoperative evaluation, since it allows planning strategies to meet the needs and limitations of patients and their families, in the immediate postoperative period.

  7. Agreement Between Self-Report and Medical Record Prevalence of 16 Chronic Conditions in the Alaska EARTH Study.

    PubMed

    Koller, Kathryn R; Wilson, Amy S; Asay, Elvin D; Metzger, Jesse S; Neal, Diane E

    2014-07-01

    The gold standard for health information is the health record. Hospitalization and outpatient diagnoses provide health systems with data on which to project health costs and plan programmatic changes. Although health record information may be reliable and perceived as accurate, it may not include population-specific information and may exclude care provided outside a specific health care facility. Sole reliance on medical record information may lead to underutilization of health care services and inadequate assessment of population health status. In this study, we analyzed agreement, without assuming a gold standard, between self-reported and recorded chronic conditions in an American Indian/Alaska Native cohort. Self-reported health history was collected from 3821 adult participants of the Alaska EARTH study during 2004-2006. Participant medical records were electronically accessed and reviewed. Self-reported chronic conditions were underreported in relation to the medical record and both information sources reported the absence more reliably than the presence of conditions (across conditions, median positive predictive value = 64%, median negative predictive value = 94%). Agreement was affected by age, gender, and education. Differences between participant- and provider-based prevalence of chronic conditions demonstrate why health care administrators and policy makers should not rely exclusively on medical record-based administrative data for a comprehensive evaluation of population health.

  8. Weight Misperception, Self-Reported Physical Fitness, Dieting and Some Psychological Variables as Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Ezquerra-Cabrera, Mercedes; Carbonero-Carreño, Rocío; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 students, 313 females and 342 males, aged 16.22 ± 4.58. Different scales of perceived overweight, self-reported physical fitness and dieting together with the Body Mass Index (BMI) were considered along with instruments such as the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Since some gender differences were found with respect to these adolescent groups, it is necessary to design prevention programs that not only focus on traditional factors such as BMI or body image, but also on elements like weight perception, self-reported fitness and nutritional education. PMID:24232917

  9. Distance threshold for the effect of urban agriculture on elevated self-reported malaria prevalence in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Stoler, Justin; Weeks, John R; Getis, Arthur; Hill, Allan G

    2009-04-01

    Irrigated urban agriculture (UA), which has helped alleviate poverty and increase food security in rapidly urbanizing sub-Saharan Africa, may inadvertently support malaria vectors. Previous studies have not identified a variable distance effect on malaria prevalence from UA. This study examines the relationships between self-reported malaria information for 3,164 women surveyed in Accra, Ghana, in 2003, and both household characteristics and proximity to sites of UA. Malaria self-reports are associated with age, education, overall health, socioeconomic status, and solid waste disposal method. The odds of self-reported malaria are significantly higher for women living within 1 km of UA compared with all women living near an irrigation source, the association disappearing beyond this critical distance. Malaria prevalence is often elevated in communities within 1 km of UA despite more favorable socio-economic characteristics than communities beyond 1 km. Neighborhoods within 1 km of UA should be reconsidered as a priority for malaria-related care.

  10. A Study on Perception and Usage Status on Health Functional Foods in Women according to Menopause Status

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Heesook; Lee, Hae-Hyeog

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to provide a reference base for suggesting proper guidelines for the health of the people by analyzing perception and intake pattern on health functional foods and by identifying needs in pre- and postmenopausal women. Methods We conducted a self-administered survey in women admitted to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at a university hospital between July and August, 2014. The survey questionnaire consisted of 8 items on general characteristics, 4 items on awareness on health functional foods, and 16 items on usage status. Results Of all 133 women with ages ranging between 19 to 67 years, postmenopausal women were 57 accounting for 42.9% of all subjects. Mean age was 55.4 ± 6.2 and menopausal age was 49.6 ± 4.3 in the postmenopause group. Mean age was 38.7 ± 9.0 in the postmenopause group. With respect to components of health functional foods, 76.3% of women answered "important" in the postmenopause group, significantly higher than 49.1% in the postmenopause group (P < 0.01). In regard to price, those who answered "important" accounted for the largest percentage in the premenopausal group at 56.6%, and those who answered "moderately important" accounted for 57.9% in the postmenopausal women. A significant difference was found between the two groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion Development of products reflecting consumer needs can be considered. It is important to foster an environment allowing individuals to choose right health functional foods and further studies are warranted. PMID:27152310

  11. Behavioral Functioning among Mexican-Origin Children: Does Parental Legal Status Matter?*

    PubMed Central

    Landale, Nancy S.; Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Oropesa, R. S.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.

    2015-01-01

    Using data on 2,535 children included in the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey, we investigate how the legal status of immigrant parents shapes their children’s behavioral functioning. Variation in internalizing and externalizing problems among Mexican youth with undocumented mothers, documented or naturalized citizen mothers, and U.S.-born mothers is analyzed using a comparative framework that contrasts their experience with that of other ethnoracial groups. Our findings reinforce the importance of differentiating children of immigrants by parental legal status in studying health and well-being. Children of undocumented Mexican migrants have significantly higher risks of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems than their counterparts with documented or naturalized citizen mothers. Regression results are inconsistent with simple explanations that emphasize group differences in socioeconomic status, maternal mental health, or family routines. PMID:25722124

  12. The impact of the housing crisis on self-reported health in Europe: multilevel longitudinal modelling of 27 EU countries

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron; Loopstra, Rachel; McKee, Martin; Dorling, Danny; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many EU nations experienced a significant housing crisis during the Great Recession of 2008–10. We evaluated the consequences of housing payment problems for people’s self-reported overall health. Methods: We used longitudinal data from the EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions survey covering 27 countries from 2008 to 2010 to follow a baseline sample of persons who did not have housing debt and who were employed (45 457 persons, 136 371 person–years). Multivariate linear regression and multilevel models were used to evaluate the impact of transitions into housing arrears on self-reported health, correcting for the presence of chronic illness, health limitations, and other potential socio-demographic confounders. Results: Persons who transitioned into housing arrears experienced a significant deterioration in self-reported overall health by − 0.03 U (95% CI − 0.01 to − 0.04), even after correcting for chronic illness, disposable income and employment status, and individual fixed effects. This association was independent and similar in magnitude to that for job loss (−0.02, 95% CI: −0.01 to − 0.04). We also found that the impact of housing arrears was significantly worse among renters, corresponding to a mean 0.11 unit additional drop in health as compared with owner-occupiers. These adverse associations were only evident in persons below the 75th percentile of disposable income. Discussion: Our analysis demonstrates that persons who suffer housing arrears experience increased risk of worsening self-reported health, especially among those who rent. Future research is needed to understand the role of alternative housing support systems and available strategies for preventing the health consequences of housing insecurity. PMID:27221606

  13. Self-Reported Sitting Time in New York City Adults, The Physical Activity and Transit Survey, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, Katherine F.; Firestone, Melanie J.; Lee, Karen K.; Eisenhower, Donna L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent studies have demonstrated the negative health consequences associated with extended sitting time, including metabolic disturbances and decreased life expectancy. The objectives of this study were to characterize sitting time in an urban adult population and assess the validity of a 2-question method of self-reported sitting time. Methods The New York City Health Department conducted the 2010–2011 Physical Activity and Transit Survey (N = 3,597); a subset of participants wore accelerometers for 1 week (n = 667). Self-reported sitting time was assessed from 2 questions on time spent sitting (daytime and evening hours). Sedentary time was defined as accelerometer minutes with less than 100 counts on valid days. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate the prevalence of sitting time by demographic characteristics. Validity of sitting time with accelerometer-measured sedentary time was assessed using Spearman’s correlation and Bland-Altman techniques. All data were weighted to be representative of the New York City adult population based on the 2006–2008 American Community Survey. Results Mean daily self-reported sitting time was 423 minutes; mean accelerometer-measured sedentary time was 490 minutes per day (r = 0.32, P < .001). The mean difference was 49 minutes per day (limits of agreement: −441 to 343). Sitting time was higher in respondents at lower poverty and higher education levels and lower in Hispanics and people who were foreign-born. Conclusion Participants of higher socioeconomic status, who are not typically the focus of health disparities–related research, had the highest sitting times; Hispanics had the lowest levels. Sitting time may be accurately assessed by self-report with the 2-question method for population surveillance but may be limited in accurately characterizing individual-level behavior. PMID:26020549

  14. Nutritional status, functional capacity and exercise rehabilitation in end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Mercer, T H; Koufaki, P; Naish, P F

    2004-05-01

    A significant percentage of patients with end-stage renal disease are malnourished and/or muscle wasted. Uremia is associated with decreased protein synthesis and increased protein degradation. Fortunately, nutritional status has been shown to be a modifiable risk factor in the dialysis population. It has long been proposed that exercise could positively alter the protein synthesis-degradation balance. Resistance training had been considered as the only form of exercise likely to induce anabolism in renal failure patients. However, a small, but growing, body of evidence indicates that for some dialysis patients, favourable improvements in muscle atrophy and fibre hypertrophy can be achieved via predominantly aerobic exercise training. Moreover, some studies tentatively suggest that nutritional status, as measured by SGA, can also be modestly improved by modes and patterns of exercise training that have been shown to also increase muscle fibre cross-sectional area and improve functional capacity. Functional capacity tests can augment the information content of basic nutritional status assessments of dialysis patients and as such are recommended for routine inclusion as a feature of all nutritional status assessments.

  15. Does the COPD assessment test reflect functional status in patients with COPD?

    PubMed

    Gulart, Aline Almeida; Munari, Anelise Bauer; Queiroz, Ana Paula Adriano de; Cani, Katerine Cristhine; Matte, Darlan Laurício; Mayer, Anamaria Fleig

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test (CAT) reflects the functional status of patients with COPD. Forty-seven patients underwent anthropometric assessment, spirometry, the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), the Glittre-activity of daily living (ADL) test (TGlittre), the London Chest ADL (LCADL) scale, and the CAT. The total score of the CAT correlated with 6MWT distance, TGlittre time spent, and LCADL%total ( r = -0.56, 0.52, and 0.78, respectively; p < 0.05 for all). There was significant difference in 6MWT distance (490 ± 85.4 m vs. 387 ± 56.8 m), TGlittre time spent (3.67 ± 1.07 min vs. 5.03 ± 1.32 min), and LCADL%total (24.2 ± 3.02% vs. 44.4 ± 13.3%) between the low and high impacts of COPD on health status (respectively, p < 0.05 for all) as well as in the LCADL%total between medium and high impact of COPD on health status (31.3 ± 7.35% vs. 44.4 ± 13.3%; p = 0.001). In conclusion, the CAT reflects the functional status of patients with COPD.

  16. Self-reported patient psychosocial needs in integrated primary health care: A role for social work in interdisciplinary teams.

    PubMed

    Craig, Shelley; Frankford, Rachel; Allan, Kate; Williams, Charmaine; Schwartz, Celia; Yaworski, Andrea; Janz, Gwen; Malek-Saniee, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Despite being identified as significant determinants of health, depression and anxiety continue to be underdiagnosed and undertreated in primary care settings. This study examined the psychosocial health needs of patients at four urban interdisciplinary primary health teams. Quantitative analysis revealed that nearly 80% of patients reported anxiety and/or depression. Self-reported anxiety and depression was correlated with poor social relationships, compromised health status and underdeveloped problem-solving skills. These findings suggest that social workers have a vital role to play within interdisciplinary primary health teams in the amelioration of factors associated with anxiety and depression.

  17. Emerging microfluidic tools for functional cellular immunophenotyping: a new potential paradigm for immune status characterization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiqiang; Huang, Nien-Tsu; Li, Xiang; Yu, Zeta Tak For; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Fu, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    Rapid, accurate, and quantitative characterization of immune status of patients is of utmost importance for disease diagnosis and prognosis, evaluating efficacy of immunotherapeutics and tailoring drug treatments. Immune status of patients is often dynamic and patient-specific, and such complex heterogeneity has made accurate, real-time measurements of patient immune status challenging in the clinical setting. Recent advances in microfluidics have demonstrated promising applications of the technology for immune monitoring with minimum sample requirements and rapid functional immunophenotyping capability. This review will highlight recent developments of microfluidic platforms that can perform rapid and accurate cellular functional assays on patient immune cells. We will also discuss the future potential of integrated microfluidics to perform rapid, accurate, and sensitive cellular functional assays at a single-cell resolution on different types or subpopulations of immune cells, to provide an unprecedented level of information depth on the distribution of immune cell functionalities. We envision that such microfluidic immunophenotyping tools will allow for comprehensive and systems-level immunomonitoring, unlocking the potential to transform experimental clinical immunology into an information-rich science.

  18. Assessment of demographic and clinical characteristics on functional status and disability of patients with stroke

    PubMed Central

    Memis, Derya; Kozanoglu, Erkan; Kelle, Bayram; Goncu, Mustafa K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of demographic and clinical characteristics on mobility, disability, and activities of daily life of patients with stroke. Methods: This cross-sectional clinical study was performed in the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation in Cukurova University Faculty of Medicine in Adana, Turkey, between February 2011 and December 2011. The study included 126 patients with stroke. The Brunnstrom recovery scale (BRS), functional ambulation classification scale (FACS), modified Barthel index (MBI), modified Rankin scale (MRS), and Rivermead mobility index (RMI) were used in the evaluation of the functional status of stroke patients. Correlations between each scale and parameters including age, etiology, and duration of hemiplegia were assessed. Results: The major etiology of stroke was found as ischemic (77%). Hypertension was a major risk factor in both genders (72% for males, 85% for females). Statistically significant differences were found between ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients regarding the RMI, MBI, BRS, and the FACS (p<0.001). Age had a poor negative correlation with the FACS and RMI. Conclusion: It is suggested that age is an important risk factor for the development of stroke, but it has no strong effect on functional status and disability in patients with stroke. The BRS, FACS, MBI, MRS, and RMI scales can be used in stroke patients whether they are under or over 65 years old in order to evaluate functional status and disability. PMID:27744465

  19. The longitudinal and interactive effects of HIV status, stimulant use, and host genotype upon neurocognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Levine, Andrew J; Reynolds, Sandra; Cox, Christopher; Miller, Eric N; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Becker, James T; Martin, Eileen; Sacktor, Ned

    2014-06-01

    Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection and illicit stimulant use can adversely impact neurocognitive functioning, and these effects can be additive. However, significant variability exists such that as-of-yet unidentified exogenous and endogenous factors affect one's risk for neurocognitive impairment. Literature on both HIV and stimulant use indicates that host genetic variants in immunologic and dopamine-related genes are one such factor. In this study, the individual and interactive effects of HIV status, stimulant use, and genotype upon neurocognitive functioning were examined longitudinally over a 10-year period. Nine hundred fifty-two Caucasian HIV+ and HIV- cases from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study were included. All cases had at least two comprehensive neurocognitive evaluations between 1985 and 1995. Pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) data were examined in order to avoid the confounding effect of variable drug regimens. Linear mixed models were used, with neurocognitive domain scores as the outcome variables. No four-way interactions were found, indicating that HIV and stimulant use do not interact over time to affect neurocognitive functioning as a function of genotype. Multiple three-way interactions were found that involved genotype and HIV status. All immunologically related genes found to interact with HIV status affected neurocognitive functioning in the expected direction; however, only C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and CCL3 affected HIV+ individuals specifically. Dopamine-related genetic variants generally affected HIV-negative individuals only. Neurocognitive functioning among HIV+ individuals who also used stimulants was not significantly different from those who did not use stimulants. The findings support the role of immunologically related genetic differences in CCL2 and CCL3 in neurocognitive functioning among HIV+ individuals; however, their impact is minor. Being consistent with findings from another cohort

  20. Behavioral pharmacology and verbal behavior: Diazepam effects on verbal self-reports

    PubMed Central

    Critchfield, Thomas S.

    1993-01-01

    Diazepam (10 mg) was administered to two men performing a delayed matching-to-sample task in which the number of elements in a compound sample stimulus (one of which appeared among 4 comparison stimuli) was manipulated from 1 to 3. After each trial, subjects pressed either a “Yes” or “No” button in response to a computer-presented query about whether the last choice met a point contingency requiring selection of the matching comparison stimulus within a time limit. Diazepam simultaneously produced marginal decreases in matching-to-sample performance and more pronounced decreases in the accuracy of self-reports about the same performance. Diazepam selectively increased false reports of success; false reports of failure were not systematically affected. A signal-detection analysis summarized these patterns as a decrease in self-report discriminability (A') with no systematic change in bias (B'H). These preliminary results converge with those of clinical lore and the results of studies with other benzodiazepine drugs in suggesting that diazepam can produce an “overconfidence” in performance self-evaluation, the mechanisms and parameters of which remain to be identified. The results were inconsistent with those of one previous study of diazepam's effects on performance self-evaluation, but given procedural differences between the two studies, the discrepancy may reflect the functional independence of verbal operant classes in Skinner's (1957) taxonomy. PMID:22477079

  1. Differential relationship of recent self-reported stress and acute anxiety with divided attention performance.

    PubMed

    Petrac, D C; Bedwell, J S; Renk, K; Orem, D M; Sims, V

    2009-07-01

    There have been relatively few studies on the relationship between recent perceived environmental stress and cognitive performance, and the existing studies do not control for state anxiety during the cognitive testing. The current study addressed this need by examining recent self-reported environmental stress and divided attention performance, while controlling for state anxiety. Fifty-four university undergraduates who self-reported a wide range of perceived recent stress (10-item perceived stress scale) completed both single and dual (simultaneous auditory and visual stimuli) continuous performance tests. Partial correlation analysis showed a statistically significant positive correlation between perceived stress and the auditory omission errors from the dual condition, after controlling for state anxiety and auditory omission errors from the single condition (r = 0.41). This suggests that increased environmental stress relates to decreased divided attention performance in auditory vigilance. In contrast, an increase in state anxiety (controlling for perceived stress) was related to a decrease in auditory omission errors from the dual condition (r = - 0.37), which suggests that state anxiety may improve divided attention performance. Results suggest that further examination of the neurobiological consequences of environmental stress on divided attention and other executive functioning tasks is needed.

  2. Diagnostic subgroups of craniomandibular disorders. Part I: Self-report data and clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Lobbezoo-Scholte, A M; De Leeuw, J R; Steenks, M H; Bosman, F; Buchner, R; Olthoff, L W

    1995-01-01

    An overview is given of the most commonly investigated signs and symptoms associated with craniomandibular disorders as detected in a population of patients with craniomandibular disorders and in four defined diagnostic subgroups. The information was collected with a questionnaire and during an extensive clinical examination. Comparison of self-report and clinical data indicated that these two methods reveal different aspects of the patient's complaints and should be interpreted in their own way. The results showed that no statistically significant differences could be found between the four diagnostic subgroups with respect to occlusal factors, trauma, and clinically assessed parafunctional habits. The groups differed considerably with respect to general characteristics, pain variables, signs of craniomandibular disorders, self-reported para-functional habits, psychosocial factors, and general health factors. However, despite the reduction in clinical characteristics of the four subgroups, there was little reduction in the diversity of factors associated with craniomandibular disorders. This implicates that almost all factors associated with craniomandibular disorders may influence the initiation and perpetuation of the different disorders in the individual patient, and therefore, remain of interest in future research.

  3. Self-reported Magic Eye stereogram skill predicts stereoacuity.

    PubMed

    Wilmer, Jeremy B; Backus, Benjamin T

    2008-01-01

    Autostereograms--commonly known as Magic Eye stereograms (MESs)--are two-dimensional images that support stereoscopic depth perception given an appropriate crossing or uncrossing of the eyes. We find that self-reported MES skill is highly predictive of stereoacuity as measured by a standard clinical test (r142 = 0.45, p < 0.0001; TNO test). Indeed, in our sample of 194 individuals, those who report poor MES skill have a five-fold increased risk of stereo impairment. Those who report poor MES skill also require on average five times greater binocular disparity to perceive stereoscopic depth than those who report good MES skill. Reported MES skill thus carries significant information about stereoacuity.

  4. Contributions of Social Desirability to Self-Reported Ageism.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Katie E; Allen, Priscilla D; Denver, Jenny Y; Holland, Kayla R

    2015-09-01

    The authors examined the role of social desirability in 445 participants' responses to self-reported measures of ageism across two studies. In Study 1, college students and community adults completed the Relating to Older People Evaluation (ROPE) and a short form of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (M-C SDS). Study 2 was a conceptual replication that included the Fraboni Scale of Ageism (FSA). Correlation analyses confirmed a small but significant relationship between scores on the positive ageist items and the social desirability scale in both studies. Ageist attitudes were correlated with negative ageist behaviors in Study 2. Implications for current views on ageism and strategies for reducing ageist attitudes and behaviors in everyday life are discussed.

  5. Self-reported load carriage injuries of military soldiers.

    PubMed

    Orr, Robin Marc; Coyle, Julia; Johnston, Venerina; Pope, Rodney

    2016-01-13

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational load carriage constitutes a significant source of injury to military soldiers. An online survey was sent to soldiers serving in specific Australian Army Corps known to experience the greatest occupational exposure to load carriage. Of the 338 respondents, 34% sustained at least one load carriage injury. Fifty-two per cent of those injured during initial training reported sustaining an additional load carriage injury. The majority of injuries (61%) were to the lower limbs with bones and joints the most frequently injured body structures (39%). Endurance marching (continuous marching as part of a physical training session) was the activity accounting for most (38%) injuries. Occupational load carriage is associated with military soldier injuries and, once injured, soldiers are at a high risk of future load carriage injury. The bodily sites and nature of self-reported injuries in this study are akin to those of formally reported injuries and those of other militaries.

  6. Body Awareness: Construct and Self-Report Measures

    PubMed Central

    Mehling, Wolf E.; Gopisetty, Viranjini; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Price, Cynthia J.; Hecht, Frederick M.; Stewart, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Heightened body awareness can be adaptive and maladaptive. Improving body awareness has been suggested as an approach for treating patients with conditions such as chronic pain, obesity and post-traumatic stress disorder. We assessed the psychometric quality of selected self-report measures and examined their items for underlying definitions of the construct. Data sources PubMed, PsychINFO, HaPI, Embase, Digital Dissertations Database. Review methods Abstracts were screened; potentially relevant instruments were obtained and systematically reviewed. Instruments were excluded if they exclusively measured anxiety, covered emotions without related physical sensations, used observer ratings only, or were unobtainable. We restricted our study to the proprioceptive and interoceptive channels of body awareness. The psychometric properties of each scale were rated using a structured evaluation according to the method of McDowell. Following a working definition of the multi-dimensional construct, an inter-disciplinary team systematically examined the items of existing body awareness instruments, identified the dimensions queried and used an iterative qualitative process to refine the dimensions of the construct. Results From 1,825 abstracts, 39 instruments were screened. 12 were included for psychometric evaluation. Only two were rated as high standard for reliability, four for validity. Four domains of body awareness with 11 sub-domains emerged. Neither a single nor a compilation of several instruments covered all dimensions. Key domains that might potentially differentiate adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness were missing in the reviewed instruments. Conclusion Existing self-report instruments do not address important domains of the construct of body awareness, are unable to discern between adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness, or exhibit other psychometric limitations. Restricting the construct to its proprio- and interoceptive

  7. "Impulsivity": relations between self-report and behavior.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Leigh; Kohl, Krista; Morgan, Theresa A; Clark, Lee Anna

    2013-03-01

    The trait of "impulsivity" is difficult to place within a personality framework due to the many potential pathways to impulsive behavior and the lack of consensus regarding the structure of the trait(s). This lack of consensus also hinders systematic investigation into relations between "impulsivity" and its behavioral manifestations. Undergraduates (Sample 1 N = 507) completed a battery of self-report measures, all purporting to assess trait "impulsivity"; a subset (n = 408) and Sample 2 (N = 388) also completed a retrospective questionnaire about specific behaviors they may have engaged in over the past year, and another subset of Sample 1 agreed to complete (n = 208) and actually completed (n = 152) a 2-week prospective measure of impulsive behaviors. Finally, a subset of Sample 1 (n = 321) and Sample 2 completed an omnibus self-report inventory in a follow-up study. Structural equation modeling confirmed a 3-factor structure of what we call impulsigenic traits-traits that are manifested in impulsive behavior. This finding is consistent with previous research and supports the growing consensus that "impulsivity" is a colloquial label attached to a group of distinct traits that have phenotypically similar behavioral manifestations. Each of these impulsigenic traits relates differentially to impulsive behavior and to broad temperamental dimensions. The results also show clear 2-factor structures of both daily and less frequent (yearly/semiyearly) impulsive behaviors. Finally, a unique method of data collection permitted an investigation of relations between the impulsigenic and other personality traits and observed behaviors, demonstrating the predictive utility of personality traits to discrete, in situ behaviors.

  8. Phthalate exposure associated with self-reported diabetes among Mexican women

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Katherine; Hernández-Ramírez, Raúl U.; Burguete-García, Ana; Cebrián, Mariano E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Needham, Larry L.; Claudio, Luz; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2016-01-01

    Background Phthalates are ubiquitous industrial chemicals used as plasticizers in plastics made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to confer flexibility and durability. They are also present in products used for personal-care, industry and in medical devices. Phthalates have been associated with several adverse health effects, and recently it has been proposed that exposure to phthalates, could have an effect on metabolic homeostasis. This exploratory cross-sectional study evaluated the possible association between phthalate exposure and self-reported diabetes among adult Mexican women. Methods As part of an on-going case-control study for breast cancer, only controls were selected, which constituted 221 healthy women matched by age (±5 years) and place of residence with the cases. Women with diabetes were identified by self-report. Urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites were measured by online solid phase extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Results Participants with diabetes had significantly higher concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) pththalate (DEHP) metabolites: mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) but lower levels of monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) a metabolite of benzylbutyl phthalate, compared to participants without diabetes. A marginally significant positive associations with diabetes status were observed over tertiles with MEHHP (ORT3 vs. T1 = 2.66; 95% CI: 0.97–7.33; p for trend = 0.063) and MEOHP (ORT3 vs. T1 = 2.27; 95% CI; 0.90–5.75; P for trend = 0.079) even after adjusting for important confounders. Conclusions The results suggest that levels of some phthalates may play a role in the genesis of diabetes. PMID:21696718

  9. Self-Reported Reproductive Tract Infections and Ultrasound Diagnosed Uterine Fibroids in African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Kristen R.; Cole, Stephen R.; Dittmer, Dirk P.; Schoenbach, Victor J.; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: For decades, it has been hypothesized that reproductive tract infections (RTIs) are risk factors for uterine fibroids. However, only two recent studies have been conducted. We aimed to investigate the relationship between RTIs and fibroids in a large study using ultrasound screening for fibroids. Methods: We used cross-sectional enrollment data from African American women ages 23–34 years with no previous fibroid diagnosis. RTI history was measured by self-report and fibroid status by standardized ultrasound. Secondary fibroid outcomes were size, number, and total volume. Age- and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs). Results: In total, 1,656 women were included; 22% had fibroids. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was associated with a 21% increased odds of fibroids [aOR 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93–1.58]. Chlamydia infection and pelvic inflammatory disease were associated with a 38% (aOR 0.62, 95% CI 0.40–0.97) and a 46% (aOR 0.54, 95% CI 0.25–1.17) reduced odds of having two or more fibroids, respectively. Those with a previous BV diagnosis had a 47% increased odds of having 2 or more fibroids (aOR 1.47, 95% CI 0.98–2.21) and a 41% increased odds of having a larger total fibroid volume (aOR 1.41, 95% CI 0.98–2.04). Conclusions: Our study was the first to explore the relationship between RTIs and fibroid size, number, and total volume. There appeared to be no strong associations between self-reported RTIs and fibroids. Studies using serology, a biochemical measure of past infection, are needed to better investigate associations between RTIs and fibroids. PMID:25901468

  10. Personality is associated with perceived health and functional status in older primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Duberstein, Paul R; Sörensen, Silvia; Lyness, Jeffrey M; King, Deborah A; Conwell, Yeates; Seidlitz, Larry; Caine, Eric D

    2003-03-01

    Using data collected on 265 primary care medical patients 60 years of age and older, the authors examined the personality bases of subjective health (perceived health, functional status) after controlling for observer-rated depression and medical burden. Four hypotheses were tested: High Neuroticism is associated with poorer perceived health, low Extraversion is associated with poorer perceived health, low Openness to Experience is associated with worse functional status, and age moderates the relationships between personality and subjective health. Findings supported the notion that personality is associated with subjective health; moreover, this effect appeared to grow more pronounced with increasing age. This study underscores the conceptual and heuristic value of examining moderators of the links between personality variables and health.

  11. Development of a self-reporting tool to obtain a Combined Index of Severity of Fibromyalgia (ICAF*)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia is a syndrome with heterogeneous symptoms. The evaluation in the clinical setting usually fails to cover the complexity of the syndrome. This study aims to determine how different aspects of fibromyalgia are inter-related when measured by means of a self-reporting tool. The objective is to develop a more complete evaluation model adjusted to the complexity and multi-dimensional nature of the syndrome. Methods Application was made of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Brief Pain Inventory, the Fatigue Assessment Scale, the Health Assessment Questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory, the Arthritis Self-efficacy Scale and the Sleep Quality Scale. An assessment was made, on the basis of clinical interviews, case histories and specific tests, of the patient sociodemographic data, comorbidity, physical exploration and other clinical indexes. An exploratory factor analysis was made, with comparisons of the clinical index scores in extreme groups of patients. Results The ICAF composed of 59 items was obtained, offering four factors that explain 64% of the variance, and referred to as Emotional Factor (33.7%), Physical-Activity (15%), Active Coping (9%) and Passive Coping (6.3%). A t-test between the extreme scores of these factors in the 301 patients revealed statistically significant differences in occupational status, medically unexplained syndromes, number of tender points, the six-minutes walk test, comorbidity and health care costs. Conclusions This study offers a tool allowing more complete and rapid evaluation of patients with fibromyalgia. The test intrinsically evaluates the emotional aspects: anxiety and depression, and their impact upon social aspects. It also evaluates patient functional capacity, fatigue, sleep quality, pain, and the way in which the patient copes with the disease. This is achieved by means of a self

  12. Phthalate exposure associated with self-reported diabetes among Mexican women

    SciTech Connect

    Svensson, Katherine; Hernandez-Ramirez, Raul U.; Burguete-Garcia, Ana; Cebrian, Mariano E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Needham, Larry L.; Claudio, Luz; Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2011-08-15

    Background: Phthalates are ubiquitous industrial chemicals used as plasticizers in plastics made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to confer flexibility and durability. They are also present in products used for personal-care, industry and in medical devices. Phthalates have been associated with several adverse health effects, and recently it has been proposed that exposure to phthalates, could have an effect on metabolic homeostasis. This exploratory cross-sectional study evaluated the possible association between phthalate exposure and self-reported diabetes among adult Mexican women. Methods: As part of an on-going case-control study for breast cancer, only controls were selected, which constituted 221 healthy women matched by age ({+-}5 years) and place of residence with the cases. Women with diabetes were identified by self-report. Urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites were measured by online solid phase extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Participants with diabetes had significantly higher concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) pththalate (DEHP) metabolites: mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) but lower levels of monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) a metabolite of benzylbutyl phthalate, compared to participants without diabetes. A marginally significant positive associations with diabetes status were observed over tertiles with MEHHP (OR{sub T3vs.T1}=2.66; 95% CI: 0.97-7.33; p for trend=0.063) and MEOHP (OR{sub T3vs.T1}=2.27; 95% CI; 0.90-5.75; P for trend=0.079) even after adjusting for important confounders. Conclusions: The results suggest that levels of some phthalates may play a role in the genesis of diabetes. - Highlights: {yields} This study evaluated phthalate exposure and diabetes status among Mexican women. {yields} Urinary phthalates metabolite concentrations were used

  13. Sexuality in adolescent boys with autism spectrum disorder: self-reported behaviours and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-03-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group of 90 boys. Results demonstrated substantial similarity between the groups in terms of sexual behaviours. The only significant difference was that boys with ASD reacted more tolerant towards homosexuality compared to the control group. Results reveal that sexuality is a normative part of adolescent development in high-functioning boys with ASD. Hence, attention should be given to this topic in education and mental health care.

  14. The Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF): Current Status as a Method of Functional Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Tureck, Kimberly; Rieske, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Functional assessment has now entered the mainstream for evaluation and to aid in the treatment of challenging behaviors, while experimental functional analysis was at the forefront of this movement, this particular methodology has proven to be impractical, and thus has limited utility in real world settings. As a result of these factors…

  15. Nutritional status and social behavior in preschool children: the mediating effects of neurocognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    Early malnutritional status has been associated with reduced cognitive ability in childhood. However, there are almost no studies on the effect of malnutrition on positive social behavior, and no tests of possible mediating mechanisms. This study tests the hypothesis that poor nutritional status is associated with impaired social functioning in childhood, and that neurocognitive ability mediates this relationship. We assessed 1553 male and female 3-year-olds from a birth cohort on measures of malnutrition, social behavior and verbal and spatial neurocognitive functions. Children with indicators of malnutrition showed impaired social behavior (p < .0001) as compared with children in the control group with adequate nutritional status. These associations even persisted after controlling for social adversity and parental education. Findings were not moderated by gender or ethnicity, and there was no interaction effect with parental education. A dose-response relationship was observed between degree of malnutrition and degree of social behavior, with increased malnutrition associated with more impaired social behavior. Neurocognitive ability was found to mediate the nutrition-social behavior relationship. The mediation effect of neurocognitive functioning suggests that poor nutrition negatively impacts brain areas that play important roles in developing positive social behavior. Findings suggest that reducing poor nutrition, alternatively promoting good nutrition, may help promote positive social behavior in early childhood during a critical period for social and neurocognitive development, with implications for improving positive health in adulthood.

  16. Assessments of functional status, comorbidities, polypharmacy, nutritional status and sarcopenia in Turkish community-dwelling male elderly.

    PubMed

    Bahat, Gulistan; Tufan, Fatih; Bahat, Zumrut; Aydin, Yucel; Tufan, Asli; Akpinar, Timur Selcuk; Erten, Nilgun; Karan, Mehmet Akif

    2013-06-01

    Functionality, comorbidities, polypharmacy, nutritional status and sarcopenia affect the prognosis of elderly excessively. These parameters are influenced by the population, living settings and age. We aimed to study these parameters in Turkish community-dwelling male elderly. We studied 274 male elderly ≥60 years of age admitted to our Geriatrics outpatient clinics. Mean age was 74.4 ± 7.1 years; 47.4% of the subjects were ≥75 years, 24.1% were ≥80 years. Mean activities-of-daily-living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) scores were 9.4 and 11.1, respectively. Patients with at least one-dependence at ADL-IADL were 22.6%-47.2%, and more than half-dependence at ADL-IADL were 2.8%-17.9%, respectively. Mean number of comorbidities were 2.6. Most common diagnosis was hypertension with 65%; mean number of drugs were 4.5; 55.3% were using ≥4 chronic drugs. Prevalences of malnutrition were 3.7%-6.9%, malnutrition risk were 23.5%-26.7% by the mini nutritional assessment test-long form and short form, respectively. Calf circumference was measured <31 cm in 10.5%. Our findings suggest that Turkish community-dwelling male elderly may have greater prevalences of functional dependence, sarcopenia but lower rates of malnutrition and similar rates of polypharmacy compared with the western developing countries and developed countries. This study emphasized the geographical differences in and/or between the individual countries highlighting the need for studies both country- and world-wide.

  17. Disparities in self-reported diabetes mellitus among Arab, Chaldean, and black Americans in Southeast Michigan.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Hikmet; Fakhouri, Monty; Dallo, Florence; Templin, Thomas; Khoury, Radwan; Fakhouri, Haifa

    2008-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an important public health problem that disproportionately affects minorities. Using a cross sectional, convenience sample, we estimated the prevalence of self-reported diabetes for Whites (n = 212), Arabs (n = 1,303), Chaldeans (n = 828), and Blacks (n = 789) in southeast Michigan. In addition, using a logistic regression model, we estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between ethnicity and diabetes before and after adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic status, health care, chronic conditions, and health behavior variables. The overall age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of diabetes was 7.0%. Estimates were highest for Blacks (8.0%) followed by Arabs and Whites (7.0% for each group) and Chaldeans (6.0%). In the fully adjusted model, the association between ethnicity and diabetes was not statistically significant. Future studies should collect more detailed socioeconomic status, acculturation and health behavior information, which are factors that may affect the relationship between race/ethnicity and diabetes.

  18. Parent- Versus Child-Reported Functional Health Status After the Fontan Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Linda M.; Minich, L. LuAnn; Newburger, Jane W.; Lu, Minmin; Pemberton, Victoria L.; McGrath, Ellen A.; Atz, Andrew M.; Xu, Mingfen; Radojewski, Elizabeth; Servedio, Darlene; McCrindle, Brian W.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to compare perceptions of functional health status between children who had undergone a Fontan procedure and their parents. METHODS Fontan procedure survivors 10 to 18 years of age were included in the study if the child completed the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) and the parent completed the parent form to assess the child’s functional health status. Comparisons were made between raw domain scores for the parent- and child-completed CHQs. RESULTS Between March 2003 and April 2004, 1078 Fontan survivors were screened. Of the 546 eligible and consented patients, 354 were 10 –18 years of age and 328 parent/child pairs completed the CHQs. Parents reported significantly lower scores (worse functioning) for their children than the children reported for themselves in the domains of physical functioning (P < .01), impact on school or activities from emotional and behavioral problems (P < .01), impact on school or activities from physical health issues (P<.01), general behavior (P < .01), mental health (P < .01), self-esteem (P < .01), and general health perceptions (P<.01). No significant differences were noted for the domains of bodily pain, family cohesiveness, or family activities. For the physical functioning domain, factors contributing to lower scores for parent versus child reports included pulmonary artery anomalies and fenestration at the time of the Fontan operation. Lower parent-reported scores also were associated with more noncardiac health problems in the child. CONCLUSIONS Parents’ perceptions of the functional health status of their children after the Fontan procedure were worse than the children’s perceptions. PMID:19841109

  19. IMPACT OF MORNING STIFFNESS, EDUCATION, AND AGE ON THE FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.

    PubMed

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Pallaska, Kelmend; Murtezani, Ardiana; Osmani-Vllasolli, Teuta; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between disability status and duration of morning stiffness in hands with regard to age, level of education, and gender in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Also, the authors wanted to investigate this relationship with regard to the presence of rheumatoid factor, i.e., the serological status. A retrospective study was conducted in 250 patients with the classic form of RA (186 females, s64 males, mean age Xb = 49.96 y ears, range 25-60 years, disease duration 1-27 years, Xb = 6.41) previously diagnosed with RA according to the ACR (American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria). All patients were in Steinbrocker functional classes II and III. The probability level was expressed by p < 0.01 and p < 0.05. The relationship between the variables was measured by point-biserial correlation. The correlation between duration of morning stiffness and functional class was positive but low [(r = 0.10, y = 0.00x + 2.37, p > 0.05) seronegative, (r = 0.12, y = 0.00x + 2.30, p > 0.05) seropositive]. High positive values were obtained for the linear correlation coefficient between duration of the disease and functional class (p < 0.01). Also, high values were obtained regarding the coefficient of correlation between age and functional class [(r = 0.29, p < 0.01) seronegative, (r = 0.47, p < 0.01) seropositive]. Uneducated patients were significantly more represented in functional class III [ 23 (50%) seronegative, 19 (42.2%) seropositive] than in functional class II [16 (20.3%) seronegative, 22 (27.5%) seropositive]. In conclusion, in this study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, increased duration of morning stiffness was associated with functional disability. Functional disability increased with the duration of the disease, depended on age and educational level, and was more pronounced in older age, regardless of RA serological status. With regard to serological status and sex, the differences were non-significant.

  20. Functional Status Predicts Acute Care Readmissions from Inpatient Rehabilitation in the Stroke Population

    PubMed Central

    Slocum, Chloe; Gerrard, Paul; Black-Schaffer, Randie; Goldstein, Richard; Singhal, Aneesh; DiVita, Margaret A.; Ryan, Colleen M.; Mix, Jacqueline; Purohit, Maulik; Niewczyk, Paulette; Kazis, Lewis; Zafonte, Ross; Schneider, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acute care readmission risk is an increasingly recognized problem that has garnered significant attention, yet the reasons for acute care readmission in the inpatient rehabilitation population are complex and likely multifactorial. Information on both medical comorbidities and functional status is routinely collected for stroke patients participating in inpatient rehabilitation. We sought to determine whether functional status is a more robust predictor of acute care readmissions in the inpatient rehabilitation stroke population compared with medical comorbidities using a large, administrative data set. Methods A retrospective analysis of data from the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation from the years 2002 to 2011 was performed examining stroke patients admitted to inpatient rehabilitation facilities. A Basic Model for predicting acute care readmission risk based on age and functional status was compared with models incorporating functional status and medical comorbidities (Basic-Plus) or models including age and medical comorbidities alone (Age-Comorbidity). C-statistics were compared to evaluate model performance. Findings There were a total of 803,124 patients: 88,187 (11%) patients were transferred back to an acute hospital: 22,247 (2.8%) within 3 days, 43,481 (5.4%) within 7 days, and 85,431 (10.6%) within 30 days. The C-statistics for the Basic Model were 0.701, 0.672, and 0.682 at days 3, 7, and 30 respectively. As compared to the Basic Model, the best-performing Basic-Plus model was the Basic+Elixhauser model with C-statistics differences of +0.011, +0.011, and + 0.012, and the best-performing Age-Comorbidity model was the Age+Elixhauser model with C-statistic differences of -0.124, -0.098, and -0.098 at days 3, 7, and 30 respectively. Conclusions Readmission models for the inpatient rehabilitation stroke population based on functional status and age showed better predictive ability than models based on medical comorbidities. PMID

  1. Effect of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Training on Autonomic Functions and its Correlation with the Antioxidant Status.

    PubMed

    Gupt, Anju Madan; Kumar, Mukesh; Sharma, Rajesh Kumar; Misra, Rajesh; Gupt, Anadi

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic exercise is a proven measure to enhance the cardio-respiratory efficiency. This improvement isprimarily due to improvement in autonomic function where in there is increase in the parasympathetic function and decrease in sympathetic function. Exercise also affects many metabolic activities in our body and may be one of the factors which reduce the oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to see the effect of moderate aerobic exercise training on autonomic function and its correlation with antioxidant status. 30 healthy volunteers in the age group of 18-22 years were screened. Autonomic function tests included activity (tone) and reactivity parameters. Antioxidant status was assessed by the level of malondialdehyde in plasma. We observed a significant change in SBP, DBP, LF nu, HF nu, delta value of DBP in CPT and MDA. Our findings are consistent with earlier findings that short duration physical training is known to reduce blood pressure and that there is a relationship between HF (in HRV) and training response Physical exercise also provides a favorable change in the biochemical parameters such as MDA.

  2. Role of Educational Status in Explaining the Association between Body Mass Index and Cognitive Function.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yi-Te; Kao, Tung-Wei; Peng, Tao-Chun; Liaw, Fang-Yih; Yang, Hui-Fang; Sun, Yu-Shan; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2016-02-01

    Preserving physical and cognitive function becomes an important issue as people age. A growing number of studies have found that the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive function changes in different age groups. It is obvious that higher educational status is linked to higher cognitive function in terms of numerous risk factors that influence cognitive function. This study aimed to investigate the interplay between obesity and cognitive function categorized by different educational status.This study included 5021 participants aged 20 to 59 years who completed 3 neurocognitive function tests, including a simple reaction time test (SRTT), a symbol digit substitution test (SDST), and a serial digit learning test (SDLT) as reported in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III database. The associations between neurocognitive function and BMI were analyzed using multivariate linear regression while controlling for confounders.After adjusting for pertinent covariates in mode 3, the β coefficients in the female participants with more than 12 years of education (interpreted as change of 3 neurocognitive function tests for each increment in BMI) comparing obesity groups to those with normal BMI were 16.2 (P < 0.001 for SRTT), 0.14 (P < 0.05 for SDST), and 0.9 (P < 0.05 for SDLT). Male participants with more than 12 years of education and female participants with fewer than 12 years of education demonstrated increased impairment as their BMI increased. However, this association was not significant after adjustments.Obese individuals had worse neurocognitive function than those of normal weight or overweight, especially in women with a high educational level.

  3. Subtle hippocampal deformities in breast cancer survivors with reduced episodic memory and self-reported cognitive concerns.

    PubMed

    Apple, Alexandra C; Ryals, Anthony J; Alpert, Kathryn I; Wagner, Lynne I; Shih, Pei-An; Dokucu, Mehmet; Cella, David; Penedo, Frank J; Voss, Joel L; Wang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Cancer survivors have lingering cognitive problems, however the anatomical basis for these problems has yet to be fully elucidated. Clinical studies as well as animal models of chemotherapy have pinpointed cell and volume loss to the hippocampus, however, few studies have performed shape analysis of the hippocampus on cancer survivors. This study used high-dimensional deformation mapping analysis to test whether localized hippocampal deformation differs in breast cancer survivors who received adjuvant chemotherapy coupled with hormone blockade therapy, and if deformation was related to subjective self-reported concerns and cognitive performance. 3 T MRI images were acquired from 16 pre-menopausal breast cancer survivors and 18 healthy controls without a history of cancer. Breast cancer survivors had undergone chemotherapy within the eighteen months prior to the study, and were receiving estrogen-blockade therapy at the time of the study. Automated high-dimensional deformation mapping was used to compare localized hippocampal deformation differences between groups. Self-reported subjective concerns were assessed using Neuro-QOL Cognitive Function assessment, whereas cognitive performance was evaluated using the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. Relative to healthy controls, cancer survivors showed significantly more inward hippocampal deformation, worse self-reported cognitive functioning, and inferior episodic memory test score. This study is the first of its kind to examine the relationship between hippocampal deformity and cognitive impairment in cancer survivors.

  4. Falls and Wrist Fracture: Relationship to Women's Functional Status after Age 50.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Catherine M; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina P M; Farthing, Jonathan P; Crockett, Katie L; Haver, Charlene R A; Johnston, Geoffrey; Basran, Jenny

    2016-09-01

    Women experience a rapid rise in the incidence of wrist fracture after age 50. Accordingly, this study aimed to (1) determine the internal and environmental fall-related circumstances resulting in a wrist fracture, and (2) examine the relationship of functional status to these circumstances. Women aged 50 to 94 years reported on the nature of the injury (n = 99) and underwent testing for physical activity status, balance, strength, and mobility (n = 72). The majority of falls causing wrist fracture occurred outdoors, during winter months, as a result of a slip or trip while walking. Half of these falls resulted in other injuries including head, neck, and spine injuries. Faster walking speed, lower grip strength, and higher balance confidence were significantly associated with outdoor versus indoor falls and slips and trips versus other causes. This study provides insights into potential screening and preventive measures for fall-related wrist fractures in women.

  5. Psychosocial and metabolic function by smoking status in individuals with binge eating disorder and obesity.

    PubMed

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Barnes, Rachel D; Ivezaj, Valentina; Morgan, Peter; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with binge eating disorder (BED) report smoking to control appetite and weight. Smoking in BED is associated with increased risk for comorbid psychiatric disorders, but its impact on psychosocial functioning and metabolic function has not been evaluated. Participants were 429 treatment-seeking adults (72.4% women; mean age 46.2±11.0years old) with BED comorbid with obesity. Participants were categorized into current smokers (n=66), former smokers (n=145), and never smokers (n=218). Smoking status was unrelated to most historical eating/weight variables and to current eating disorder psychopathology. Smoking status was associated with psychiatric, psychosocial, and metabolic functioning. Compared with never smokers, current smokers were more likely to meet lifetime diagnostic criteria for alcohol (OR=5.51 [95% CI=2.46-12.33]) and substance use disorders (OR=7.05 [95% CI=3.37-14.72]), poorer current physical quality of life, and increased risk for metabolic syndrome (OR=1.80 [95% CI=0.97-3.35]) and related metabolic risks (reduced HDL, elevated total cholesterol). On the other hand, the odds of meeting criteria for lifetime psychiatric comorbidity or metabolic abnormalities were not significantly greater in former smokers, relative to never smokers. Our findings suggest the importance of promoting smoking cessation in treatment-seeking patients with BED and obesity for its potential long-term implications for psychiatric and metabolic functioning.

  6. Depressive Symptoms, Cardiac Disease Severity, and Functional Status in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease (from the Heart and Soul Study).

    PubMed

    Schopfer, David W; Regan, Mathilda; Heidenreich, Paul A; Whooley, Mary A

    2016-11-01

    Patient-reported health status is highly valued as a key measure of health care quality, yet little is known about the extent to which it is determined by subjective perception compared with objective measures of disease severity. We sought to compare the associations of depressive symptoms and objective measures of cardiac disease severity with perceived functional status in patients with stable coronary artery disease. We assessed depressive symptoms, severity of cardiovascular disease, and perceived functional status in a cross-sectional study of 1,023 patients with stable coronary artery disease. We compared the extent to which patient-reported functional status was influenced by depressive symptoms versus objective measures of disease severity. We then evaluated perceived functional status as a predictor of subsequent cardiovascular hospitalizations during 8.8 years of follow-up. Patients with depressive symptoms were more likely to report poor functional status than those without depressive symptoms (44% vs 17%; p <0.001). After adjustment for traditional risk factors and co-morbid conditions, independent predictors of poor functional status were depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR] 2.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.89 to 3.79), poor exercise capacity (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.65 to 3.19), and history of heart failure (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.29). Compared with patients who had class I functional status, those with class II functional status had a 96% greater rate (hazard ratio 1.96, 95% CI 1.15 to 3.34) and those with class III or IV functional status had a 104% greater rate (hazard ratio 2.04, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.73) of hospitalization for HF, adjusted for baseline demographic characteristics, co-morbidities, cardiac disease severity, and depressive symptoms. In conclusion, depressive symptoms and cardiac disease severity were independently associated with patient-reported functional status. This suggests that perceived functional status may be as strongly

  7. A twin study of self-reported criminal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lyons, M J

    1996-01-01

    Twin studies can be used to investigate the contributions of genetic factors, the common or shared environment, and the unique or non-shared environment to individual differences in a measurable characteristic. This paper reports the results of preliminary analyses of self-reported data on arrests and criminal behaviour from the Vietnam Era Veteran Twin Registry. The subjects for the study were 3226 male twin pairs in which both members served in the military during the Vietnam era. There were significant influences from both genetic factors and the common environment on early arrests. Genetic factors, but not the common environment, significantly influenced whether subjects were ever arrested after age 15, whether subjects were arrested more than once after age 15, and later criminal behaviour. The common environment, but not genetic factors, significantly influenced early criminal behaviour. The environment shared by the twins has an important influence on criminality while the twins are in that environment, but the shared environmental influence does not persist after the individual has left that environment. Genes are likely to influence the occurrence of criminal behaviour in a probabalistic manner by contributing to individual dispositions that make a given individual more or less likely to behave in a criminal manner.

  8. Online Self-Reporting of Pencil-and-Paper Homework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trawick, Matthew L.

    2010-02-01

    Physics teachers are most effective when their students are active learners who think and participate in every class. This extends beyond the classroom too: ideally, students would tackle challenging questions and exercises after every class—not just before the exam or the night before the weekly homework is due. Just-in-Time-Teaching2 was developed to encourage this by having students submit daily homework online; their answers can be quickly graded (by hand) and then used as a springboard for class discussions that day. More recently, online homework services have become available that can automate the grading process and provide instantaneous feedback to students. Unfortunately in both of these cases, the range of possible questions is limited to what can be easily answered via computer. But while pencil and paper is still an easier medium for expressing diagrams and equations, daily collection of paper homework is cumbersome and does not allow same-day feedback. This paper describes a hybrid strategy in which students solve what may be "standard" pencil-and-paper homework problems, and then use a simple online form to self-report their degree of success.

  9. Peering into the brain to predict behavior: Peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness links threat-related amygdala activity to future problem drinking.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Johnna R; Knodt, Annchen R; Radtke, Spenser R; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2017-02-01

    Personality traits such as conscientiousness as self-reported by individuals can help predict a range of outcomes, from job performance to longevity. Asking others to rate the personality of their acquaintances often provides even better predictive power than using self-report. Here, we examine whether peer-reported personality can provide a better link between brain function, namely threat-related amygdala activity, and future health-related behavior, namely problem drinking, than self-reported personality. Using data from a sample of 377 young adult university students who were rated on five personality traits by peers, we find that higher threat-related amygdala activity to fearful facial expressions is associated with higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness. Moreover, higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness predicts lower future problem drinking more than one year later, an effect specific to men. Remarkably, relatively higher amygdala activity has an indirect effect on future drinking behavior in men, linked by peer-reported conscientiousness to lower future problem drinking. Our results provide initial evidence that the perceived conscientiousness of an individual by their peers uniquely reflects variability in a core neural mechanism supporting threat responsiveness. These novel patterns further suggest that incorporating peer-reported measures of personality into individual differences research can reveal novel predictive pathways of risk and protection for problem behaviors.

  10. Effect of de-industrialisation on working conditions and self reported health in a sample of manufacturing workers

    PubMed Central

    Ostry, A; Barroetavena, M; Hershler, R; Kelly, S; Demers, P; Teschke, K; Hertzman, D

    2002-01-01

    Design and Setting: This investigation is based on a sample of 3000 sawmill workers employed in 1979 (a year before the beginning de-industrialisation) and interviewed in 1998. The sample was obtained by random selection from an already gathered cohort of approximately 28 000 BC sawmill workers. Change in working conditions from 1979 to 1998 are described. Self reported health status, in 1998, was used as a dependent variable in logistic regression after controlling for confounders. Main results: Downsizing in BC sawmills eliminated 60% of workers between 1979 and 1998. Working conditions in 1998 were better for those who left the sawmill industry and obtained re-employment elsewhere. Workers who remained employed in restructuring sawmills were approximately 50% more likely to report poor health than those re-employed elsewhere. Conclusions: Working conditions and health status were better for workers who, under pressure of de-industrialisation, left the sawmill industry and obtained re-employment outside this sector. PMID:12080157

  11. Independent effects of bilingualism and socioeconomic status on language ability and executive functioning.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-03-01

    One hundred and seventy-five children who were 6-years old were assigned to one of four groups that differed in socioeconomic status (SES; working class or middle class) and language background (monolingual or bilingual). The children completed tests of nonverbal intelligence, language tests assessing receptive vocabulary and attention based on picture naming, and two tests of executive functioning. All children performed equivalently on the basic intelligence tests, but performance on the language and executive functioning tasks was influenced by both SES and bilingualism. Middle-class children outperformed working-class children on all measures, and bilingual children obtained lower scores than monolingual children on language tests but higher scores than monolingual children on the executive functioning tasks. There were no interactions with either group factors or task factors. Thus, each of SES and bilingualism contribute significantly and independently to children's development irrespective of the child's level on the other factor.

  12. Functional imaging for radiotherapy treatment planning: current status and future directions—a review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, radiotherapy (RT) has been subject to a number of technological innovations. Today, RT is extremely flexible, allowing irradiation of tumours with high doses, whilst also sparing normal tissues from doses. To make use of these additional degrees of freedom, integration of functional image information may play a key role (i) for better staging and tumour detection, (ii) for more accurate RT target volume delineation, (iii) to assess functional information about biological characteristics and individual radiation resistance and (iv) to apply personalized dose prescriptions. In this article, we discuss the current status and future directions of different clinically available functional imaging modalities; CT, MRI, positron emission tomography (PET) as well as the hybrid imaging techniques PET/CT and PET/MRI and their potential for individualized RT. PMID:25827209

  13. Water Load Test in Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain: No Relation to Food Intake and Nutritional Status.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Roberto Koity Fujihara; Soares, Ana Cristina Fontenele; Speridião, Patricia da Graça Leite; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2015-09-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluates the relations between the water load test in childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders with food intake and nutritional status. Patients with functional dyspepsia required a lower maximum water intake to produce fullness (n = 11, median = 380 mL) than patients with irritable bowel syndrome (n = 10, median = 695 mL) or functional abdominal pain (n = 10, median = 670 mL) (P < 0.05). Among patients who ingested ≤560 mL (n = 17) or >560 mL (n = 14) in the water load test, there was no relation between the maximum drinking capacity and food intake, body mass index, or height.

  14. Water Load Test In Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain: No Relationship With Food Intake And Nutritional Status.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Roberto Koity Fujihara; Soares, Ana Cristina Fontenele; da Graça Leite Speridião, Patricia; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2015-04-02

    This cross-sectional study evaluate the relationships between the water load test in childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders with food intake and nutritional status. Patients with functional dyspepsia required a lower maximum water intake to produce fullness (n = 11, median = 380 mL) than patients with irritable bowel syndrome (n = 10, median = 695 mL) or functional abdominal pain (n = 10, median = 670 mL) (p < 0.05). Among patients who ingested ≤560 mL (n = 17) or >560 mL (n = 14) in the water load test, there was no relationship between the maximum drinking capacity and food intake, body mass index or height.

  15. Mini-nutritional assessment predicts functional status and quality of life of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Chung; Tsai, Alan C; Chan, Shu-Ching; Wang, Po-Ming; Chung, Na-Na

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the possibility of using the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) to evaluate the quality of life and functional status in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The study recruited 300 outpatients with HCC from a teaching hospital in Central Taiwan to serve as subjects. All subjects were interviewed with a structured questionnaire for rating the nutritional status with the MNA (long-form and short-form), and for evaluating quality of life and functional status with Global Quality of Life (GQL) and Global Functional Status (GFS), respectively, of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 version-3. Cancer staging and liver cirrhosis indicators, blood biochemical indicators, and self-rated health status and mobility were used as reference standards. Results showed that based on the strength of the correlation and association with the reference standards, both the long-form and short-form of the MNA performed better than GQL and GFS in predicting quality of life and functional status of patients with HCC. These results suggest that the MNA is suitable for identifying the risk of deteriorating quality of life or functional status, in addition to identifying the risk of malnutrition, in patients with HCC.

  16. Associations of self-reported and objectively measured sleep disturbances with depression among primary caregivers of children with disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Orta, Olivia R; Barbosa, Clarita; Velez, Juan Carlos; Gelaye, Bizu; Chen, Xiaoli; Stoner, Lee; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the association between sleep and depression using both self-reported (subjective) and actigraphic (objective) sleep traits. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 175 female primary caregivers of children with disabilities receiving care at a rehabilitation center in Punta Arenas, Chile. The eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire was used to ascertain participants’ depression status. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to define subjective, or perceived, sleep quality. Wrist-worn actigraph monitors, worn for seven consecutive nights, were used to characterize objective sleep quality and disturbances. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Linear regression models were fit using continuous sleep parameters as the dependent variables and depression status as the independent variable. Multivariable models were adjusted for body mass index, marital status, smoking status, education level, and children’s disabilities. Results Using an eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire score ≥10, 26.3% of participants presented with depression. Depressed women were more likely to self-report overall poorer (subjective) sleep compared to non-depressed women; however, differences in sleep were not consistently noted using actigraphic (objective) sleep traits. Among the depressed, both sleep duration and total time in bed were significantly underestimated. In multivariable models, depression was negatively associated with sleep duration using both subjective (β=−0.71, standard error [SE] =0.25; P=0.006) and objective sleep (β=−0.42, SE =0.19; P=0.026). Conclusion The association between sleep and depression differed comparing subjective and objective methods of assessment. Research strategies allowing for the integration of both perceived and objective measures of sleep traits are encouraged. PMID:27354835

  17. Satisfaction with hospital rehabilitation: is it related to life satisfaction, functional status, age or education?

    PubMed

    Franchignoni, Franco; Ottonello, Marcella; Benevolo, Emilio; Tesio, Luigi

    2002-05-01

    Satisfaction with care, functional and cognitive status, life satisfaction, anxiety, and sociodemographic variables were correlated in 55 in-patients admitted to a rehabilitation unit after hip or knee surgery. The study aimed at investigating whether, as an index of care quality, patient satisfaction can be considered as a distinct domain or instead is subsidiary to other patient characteristics. Patient satisfaction with rehabilitation care was measured through a questionnaire, SAT-16. The SAT-16 scores were moderately correlated with a short form of the Life Satisfaction Index (LSI-11: rs = 0.41, p = 0.001), but did not correlate with either the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the STAI form X (the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), age or educational level. According to the "discrepancy model", the fair degree of correlation between SAT-16 and LSI-11 could be explained by connecting both expressions of satisfaction with personal background expectations and their perceived degree of fulfilment. The results confirm, also for rehabilitation care, that patient satisfaction should be considered as a valuable specific outcome, independent of most of the patient characteristics investigated (functional and cognitive status, anxiety, age, and education).

  18. Cognitive reserve moderates relation between global cognition and functional status in older adults.

    PubMed

    Duda, Bryant; Puente, Antonio N; Miller, Lloyd Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) is necessary for independent living. Research suggests that community-dwelling older adults are at risk for experiencing subtle decrements in the performance of IADLs. Neuropsychological tests have been used to account for differences in IADL status. Studies of the relationship between cognitive ability and functional status have produced variable results, however, and cognitive ability appears to be only a moderate predictor. Several studies of normal aging have revealed cognitive and functional benefits of higher cognitive reserve (CR) in healthy, nondemented older adults. The purposes of the present study were to: (a) examine the relationship between global cognitive ability and IADL performance among 53 community-dwelling older adults, and (b) determine whether formal education, as a proxy of CR, significantly moderates this relationship. Consistent with previous findings, global cognitive ability accounted for a considerable portion of variance in IADL performance [ΔR(2) = .54; ΔF(2, 53) = 67.96; p < .001]. Additionally, CR modestly but significantly attenuated this relationship [ΔR(2) = .044; ΔF(4, 53) = 5.98; p = .018; total R(2) = .65]. This finding suggests that community-dwelling older adults with lower levels of formal education may be at greater risk for functional decrements associated with age-related cognitive decline.

  19. Association of Urinary Phthalates with Self-Reported Eye Affliction/Retinopathy in Individuals with Diabetes: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    Mamtani, Manju; Curran, Joanne E.; Blangero, John; Kulkarni, Hemant

    2016-01-01

    Background. An epidemiological association between exposure to phthalates and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is known. However, the potential role of environmental phthalates in the complications of T2D is unknown. Methods. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2010, we studied the association of 12 urinary phthalate metabolites with self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy in 1,004 participants with diabetes. Data from retinal imaging was used to validate this outcome. Independence of the phthalates→T2D association was studied by adjusting for age, sex, race, marital status, educational attainment, poverty income ratio, physical activity, glycated hemoglobin levels, total serum cholesterol, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum triglycerides, blood pressure, duration of diabetes, total calorie intake, and obesity. Results. Self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy had 82% accuracy with Cohen's kappa of 0.31 (p < 0.001). Urinary mono-n-octyl phthalate (MOP) was independently associated with the likelihood of self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy in subjects with T2D after accounting for all the confounders. This significance of this association was robust to the potential misclassification in cases and controls of retinopathy. Further, a significant dose-response relationship between MOP and self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy was demonstrable. Conclusions. We show a novel epidemiological link between the environment and diabetic complications in NHANES 2001–2010 participants. PMID:26798652

  20. PROMIS® Pediatric Self Report Scales Distinguish Subgroups of Children Within and Across Six Common Pediatric Chronic Health Conditions

    PubMed Central

    DeWalt, Darren A.; Gross, Heather E.; Gipson, Debbie S.; Selewski, David T.; DeWitt, Esi Morgan; Dampier, Carlton D.; Hinds, Pamela S.; Huang, I-Chan; Thissen, David; Varni, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To conduct a comparative analysis of eight pediatric self-report scales for ages 8-17 years from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) in six pediatric chronic health conditions, using indicators of disease severity. Methods Pediatric patients (N = 1,454) with asthma, cancer, chronic kidney disease, obesity, rheumatic disease, and sickle cell disease completed items from the PROMIS pediatric mobility, upper extremity functioning, depressive symptoms, anxiety, anger, peer relationships, pain interference, and fatigue self-report scales. Comparisons within the six pediatric chronic health conditions were conducted by examining differences in groups based on disease severity using markers of severity that were specific to characteristics of each disease. A comparison was also made across diseases between children who had been recently hospitalized and those who had not. Results In general, there were differences in self-reported health outcomes within each chronic health condition, with patients who had higher disease severity showing worse outcomes. Across health conditions, when children with recent hospitalizations were compared with those who had not been hospitalized in the past six months, we found significant differences in the expected directions for all PROMIS domains, except anger. Conclusions PROMIS measures discriminate between different clinically meaningful subgroups within several chronic illnesses. Further research is needed to determine the responsiveness of the PROMIS pediatric scales to change over time. PMID:25715946

  1. Conversion and validation of the Teen-Addiction Severity Index (T-ASI) for Internet and automated-telephone self-report administration.

    PubMed

    Brodey, Benjamin B; Rosen, Craig S; Winters, Ken C; Brodey, Inger S; Sheetz, Breanne M; Steinfeld, Robert R; Kaminer, Yifrah

    2005-03-01

    This study converted the Teen-Addiction Severity Index (T-ASI) into self-report formats using Internet (Net) and interactive voice response (IVR) automated-telephone technologies. Reliability and convergent validity were assessed among 95 inpatient adolescent participants. Current functioning scores obtained by clinician interview correlated well with self-report Net (mean r=.74, SD=.14) and IVR (mean r=.72, SD=.16). Lifetime history items obtained by clinicians were consistent with self-report Net (mean r=.60, SD=.32; mean kappa=.67, SD=.24) and IVR formats (mean r=.60, SD=.30; mean kappa=.64, SD=.26). Participants rated "ease of use" as being high for both Net and IVR formats. These findings suggest that automated T-ASI administration is a valid and potentially less expensive alternative to clinician-administered T-ASI interviews.

  2. Subjective Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: An Overview of Self-Report Measures Used Across 19 International Research Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, Laura A.; Smart, Colette M.; Crane, Paul K.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Berman, Lorin M.; Boada, Mercè; Buckley, Rachel F.; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Gifford, Katherine A.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Jessen, Frank; Katz, Mindy J.; Lipton, Richard B.; Luck, Tobias; Maruff, Paul; Mielke, Michelle M.; Molinuevo, José Luis; Naeem, Farnia; Perrotin, Audrey; Petersen, Ronald C.; Rami, Lorena; Reisberg, Barry; Rentz, Dorene M.; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Risacher, Shannon L.; Rodriguez, Octavio; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Slavin, Melissa J.; Snitz, Beth E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Tandetnik, Caroline; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Wagner, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Sikkes, Sietske A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Research increasingly suggests that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in older adults, in the absence of objective cognitive dysfunction or depression, may be a harbinger of non-normative cognitive decline and eventual progression to dementia. Little is known, however, about the key features of self-report measures currently used to assess SCD. The Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) Working Group is an international consortium established to develop a conceptual framework and research criteria for SCD (Jessen et al., 2014, Alzheimers Dement 10, 844–852). In the current study we systematically compared cognitive self-report items used by 19 SCD-I Working Group studies, representing 8 countries and 5 languages. We identified 34 self-report measures comprising 640 cognitive self-report items. There was little overlap among measures—approximately 75% of measures were used by only one study. Wide variation existed in response options and item content. Items pertaining to the memory domain predominated, accounting for about 60% of items surveyed, followed by executive function and attention, with 16% and 11% of the items, respectively. Items relating to memory for the names of people and the placement of common objects were represented on the greatest percentage of measures (56% each). Working group members reported that instrument selection decisions were often based on practical considerations beyond the study of SCD specifically, such as availability and brevity of measures. Results document the heterogeneity of approaches across studies to the emerging construct of SCD. We offer preliminary recommendations for instrument selection and future research directions including identifying items and measure formats associated with important clinical outcomes. PMID:26402085

  3. Physical performance tests, self-reported outcomes, and accidental falls before and after total knee arthroplasty: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Swinkels, Annette; Allain, Theresa J

    2013-08-01

    This longitudinal, observational study explored the relationship between physical performance tests, self-reported outcomes, and accidental falling, before and after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Thirty-seven patients were randomly selected from a larger study of falling before and after surgery conducted at a UK National Health Service Orthopaedic Unit. Physical performance tests were the Berg Balance Score (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG), and Hand Grip Strength (HGS). Self-reported outcomes incorporated the Western Ontario and McMaster's Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Activities Balance Confidence Scale (ABC-UK), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and accidental falls. Paired pre- and postoperative data were available on 22 patients. A total of 22.7% patients fell before and after TKA. Postoperative improvement in BBS and TUG was found in 41% and 50% of patients, respectively, HGS did not change. BBS showed a consistent moderate-to-strong association with other physical tests both before and after surgery; TUG (rs -0.76; rs -0.90), maximal HGS (r 0.49; r 0.48), and self-report measures; ABC-UK (r 0.52; r 0.74), WOMAC stiffness (r -0.53; r -0.48), and WOMAC function (r -0.56; r -0.45). Although self-report questionnaires are an efficient, cost-effective approach to outcome assessment in TKA, there is a growing case for inclusion of physical performance tests. The Berg Balance Score may be a useful addition to outcome assessment in patients with TKA.

  4. Poor Self-Reported Sleep Quality Predicts Mortality within One Year of Inpatient Post-Acute Rehabilitation among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jennifer L.; Fiorentino, Lavinia; Jouldjian, Stella; Mitchell, Michael; Josephson, Karen R.; Alessi, Cathy A.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objective: To evaluate the association between self-reported sleep quality among older adults during inpatient post-acute rehabilitation and one-year survival. Design: Prospective, observational cohort study. Setting: Two inpatient post-acute rehabilitation sites (one community and one Veterans Administration). Participants: Older patients (aged ≥ 65 years, n = 245) admitted for inpatient post-acute rehabilitation. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Within one year of post-acute rehabilitation, 57 participants (23%) were deceased. Cox proportional hazards models showed that worse Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) total scores during the post-acute care stay were associated with increased mortality risk when controlling for amount of rehabilitation therapy received, comorbidities, and cognitive functioning (Hazard ratio [95% CI] = 1.11 [1.02-1.20]). Actigraphically estimated sleep was unrelated to mortality risk. Conclusions: Poorer self-reported sleep quality, but not objectively estimated sleep parameters, during post-acute rehabilitation was associated with shorter survival among older adults. This suggests self-reported poor sleep may be an important and potentially modifiable risk factor for negative outcomes in these vulnerable older adults. Studies of interventions to improve sleep quality during inpatient rehabilitation should therefore be undertaken, and the long-term health benefits of improved sleep should be explored. Citation: Martin JL; Fiorentino L; Jouldjian S; Mitchell M; Josephson KR; Alessi CA. Poor self-reported sleep quality predicts mortality within one year of inpatient post-acute rehabilitation among older adults. SLEEP 2011;34(12):1715-1721. PMID:22131610

  5. Rural-urban differences in psychiatric status and functioning among clients with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Dottl, S L; Greenley, J R

    1997-08-01

    Studies of clients with severe mental illness (SMI) typically focus on individuals in larger urban areas. Less is known about clients in rural and smaller urban areas. Here we compare the psychiatric status, home and community activities of daily living, and social and vocational functioning of 1600 adult clients with SMI from 18 small-city and rural Wisconsin counties. Rural clients are less likely to have a diagnosis of schizophrenia or organic brain syndrome; have higher levels of general pathology, including more belligerent, bizarre, nervous, and depressive behaviors; and engage in fewer vocational activities than urban clients.

  6. Methods for monitoring the functional status of the circadian system in dietary surveys studies: application criteria and interpretation of results.

    PubMed

    Garaulet, Marta; Madrid, Juan Antonio

    2015-02-26

    To evaluate the circadian system status of the subject may be of special interest in nutrition. Particularly for those studies related to the assessment of diseases related to malnutrition, as it is the case of most of the degenerative diseases such as obesity, cancer, or cardiovascular diseases. For this purpose, one of the approaches consists to measure a) the external synchronizers of the internal clock, such as light intensity, and changes from fasting to eating and from resting to activity. Indeed, "chronodisruptors" have been defined as "exogenous and endogenous exposures or effectors which are chronobiologically active and can thus disrupt the timing and order. Another approach to assess the circadian system health is to measure the b) outputs of the internal clock (circadian marker rhythms). Among such outputs, the rhythm of body temperature, motor activity, melatonin, cortisol and clock gene expression are the most commonly used. From the genetic perspective, we are now able to measure failures in the internal clock, in order to assess c) the genetics of the molecular clock. Indeed, new nutrigenetics techniques are giving us the opportunity to measure the association between different genetic variants of our clock genes and several illnesses such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes or cancer. In addition to these techniques, self-reported questionnaires based in the morning-evening preferences have been developed as complementary procedures to assess human chronotypes.

  7. Pubertal Timing, Sexual Behaviour and Self-Reported Depression in Middle Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Kosunen, Elisa; Rimpela, Matti

    2003-01-01

    Study analyzed associations between pubertal timing, sexual activity, and self-reported depression in sample of girls and boys aged 14-16. Among girls, self-reported depression was associated with early puberty and intimate sexual relationship. Among boys, depression was associated with every early and late puberty and experience of intercourse.…

  8. Self-Reported Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Report the distribution of scores from the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and estimate the prevalence of self-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as compared to clinical diagnoses. Participants: Participants were 1,080 college students, divided into 3 groups: (1) no ADHD diagnosis (n = 972), (2)…

  9. Usefulness of Self-Report Instruments in Assessing Men Accused of Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfritz, Laura E.; Stanford, Matthew S.; Conklin, Sarah M.; Greve, Kevin W.; Villemarette-Pittman, Nicole R.; Houston, Rebecca J.

    2006-01-01

    Clinical assessment of domestic violence has traditionally relied on self-report methods of data collection, using structured interviews and lengthy questionnaires such as the MMPI-2. However, in certain situations such as court-ordered domestic violence evaluations, information obtained through self-report methods may be tainted because of…

  10. Reliability and Validity of a New Physical Activity Self-Report Measure for Younger Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belton, Sarahjane; Mac Donncha, Ciaran

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the test-retest reliability and validity of a new Youth Physical Activity Self-Report measure. Heart rate and direct observation were employed as criterion measures with a sample of 79 children (aged 7-9 years). Spearman's rho correlation between self reported activity intensity and heart rate was 0.87 for…

  11. Self-Reported Learning Gains: A Theory and Test of College Student Survey Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have asserted that self-reported learning gains (SRLG) are valid measures of learning, because gains in specific content areas vary across academic disciplines as theoretically predicted. In contrast, other studies find no relationship between actual and self-reported gains in learning, calling into question the validity of SRLG. I…

  12. Family Influences on Self-Reported Delinquency among High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peiser, Nadine C.; Heaven, Patrick C. L.

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes the effect of certain family processes on adolescents' self-reported delinquency and investigates whether self-esteem and locus of control mediate these effects. Results indicate that parental discipline style predicts self-reported delinquency. Also, a link between positive family relations and high self-esteem among males emerged. (RJM)

  13. The 20-item prosopagnosia index (PI20): a self-report instrument for identifying developmental prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Punit; Gaule, Anne; Sowden, Sophie; Bird, Geoffrey; Cook, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Self-report plays a key role in the identification of developmental prosopagnosia (DP), providing complementary evidence to computer-based tests of face recognition ability, aiding interpretation of scores. However, the lack of standardized self-report instruments has contributed to heterogeneous reporting standards for self-report evidence in DP research. The lack of standardization prevents comparison across samples and limits investigation of the relationship between objective tests of face processing and self-report measures. To address these issues, this paper introduces the PI20; a 20-item self-report measure for quantifying prosopagnosic traits. The new instrument successfully distinguishes suspected prosopagnosics from typically developed adults. Strong correlations were also observed between PI20 scores and performance on objective tests of familiar and unfamiliar face recognition ability, confirming that people have the necessary insight into their own face recognition ability required by a self-report instrument. Importantly, PI20 scores did not correlate with recognition of non-face objects, indicating that the instrument measures face recognition, and not a general perceptual impairment. These results suggest that the PI20 can play a valuable role in identifying DP. A freely available self-report instrument will permit more effective description of self-report diagnostic evidence, thereby facilitating greater comparison of prosopagnosic samples, and more reliable classification. PMID:26543567

  14. 77 FR 46010 - Self Reporting of Out-of-State Convictions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... 49 CFR Parts 383 [Docket No. FMCSA-2012-0172] RIN 2126-AB43 Self Reporting of Out-of-State..., please enclose a stamped, self-addressed postcard or envelope. FMCSA will consider all comments and... accurate and secure than driver self- reporting. National Environmental Policy Act and Clean Air Act...

  15. The Relationship Between Cognitive Career Maturity and Self-Reported Career Maturity of High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbrook, Bert W.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigated relationship between scores on measures of cognitive career maturity and self-reported career maturity in high school sophomores (N=391) and juniors (N=283). Results suggest that there is no relationship between measured career maturity competencies and self-reported career maturity competencies of high school students. (Author/NB)

  16. Collegiate Swimmers: Sex Differences in Self-Reports and Indices of Physiological Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gackenbach, Jayne

    1982-01-01

    Psychological and physiological stress indices were taken from collegiate swimmers of both sexes. Later a scale of self-reported masculinity and femininity was administered. Males had higher systolic blood pressure but lower self-reported anxiety and hostility with the stress of competition. Differences in relative masculinity/femininity allow…

  17. Agreement between Parent- and Self-Reports of Algerian Adolescents' Behavioral and Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petot, Djaouida; Rescorla, Leslie; Petot, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined agreement between scores obtained from self-reports of behavioral and emotional problems obtained from 513 Algerian adolescents on the Youth Self-Report (YSR) with scores obtained from reports provided by their parents on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The correlations between self- and parent-report were larger…

  18. The 20-item prosopagnosia index (PI20): a self-report instrument for identifying developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Shah, Punit; Gaule, Anne; Sowden, Sophie; Bird, Geoffrey; Cook, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Self-report plays a key role in the identification of developmental prosopagnosia (DP), providing complementary evidence to computer-based tests of face recognition ability, aiding interpretation of scores. However, the lack of standardized self-report instruments has contributed to heterogeneous reporting standards for self-report evidence in DP research. The lack of standardization prevents comparison across samples and limits investigation of the relationship between objective tests of face processing and self-report measures. To address these issues, this paper introduces the PI20; a 20-item self-report measure for quantifying prosopagnosic traits. The new instrument successfully distinguishes suspected prosopagnosics from typically developed adults. Strong correlations were also observed between PI20 scores and performance on objective tests of familiar and unfamiliar face recognition ability, confirming that people have the necessary insight into their own face recognition ability required by a self-report instrument. Importantly, PI20 scores did not correlate with recognition of non-face objects, indicating that the instrument measures face recognition, and not a general perceptual impairment. These results suggest that the PI20 can play a valuable role in identifying DP. A freely available self-report instrument will permit more effective description of self-report diagnostic evidence, thereby facilitating greater comparison of prosopagnosic samples, and more reliable classification.

  19. Correction Equations to Adjust Self-Reported Height and Weight for Obesity Estimates among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to generate correction equations for self-reported height and weight quartiles and to test the accuracy of the body mass index (BMI) classification based on corrected self-reported height and weight among 739 male and 434 female college students. The BMIqc (from height and weight quartile-specific, corrected…

  20. Comparison of Self-Reported and Measured Height and Weight in Eighth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Susan L.; Whetstone, Lauren M.; Cummings, Doyle M.; Owen, Lynda J.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationships between self-reported and measured height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of eighth-grade students. The study population consisted of eighth-grade students in eastern North Carolina who completed a cross-sectional survey, self-reported their height and weight, and had their…

  1. Validation of Self-Reported Cognitive Problems with Objective Neuropsychological Performance in Manganese-Exposed Residents

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a lack of validation of self-reported cognitive problems with objective neuropsychological measures. The validity of four self-reported cognitive items from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was examined with objective clinical ...

  2. Relationship between Self-Report and Log Data Estimates of Information System Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deane, Frank P.; Podd, John; Henderson, Ron D.

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of self-report estimates of frequency and duration of computer use versus computer log data focuses on a study that compared self-report estimates and six months of electronic log data for health care workers using a new Community Services Information System. Correlations between the two types of data are reported. (Author/LRW)

  3. Self-Report of ADHD Symptoms in College Students and Repetition Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marczinski, Cecile A.

    2005-01-01

    The research in this article focuses on the relation between self-report of attention deficit disorder (ADD) symptoms and performance on a two-alternative forced-choice task that measures repetition effects. The ADD/Hyperactive Adolescent Self-Report Scale--Short Form is administered to college students after they completed the repetition effects…

  4. Congruence of Self-Reported Medications with Pharmacy Prescription Records in Low-Income Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caskie, Grace I. L.; Willis, Sherry L.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the congruence of self-reported medications with computerized pharmacy records. Design and Methods: Pharmacy records and self-reported medications were obtained for 294 members of a state pharmaceutical assistance program who also participated in ACTIVE, a clinical trial on cognitive training in nondemented elderly…

  5. Validating the Factor Structure of the Self-Report Psychopathy Scale in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmut, Mehmet K.; Menictas, Con; Stevenson, Richard J.; Homewood, Judi

    2011-01-01

    Currently, there is no standard self-report measure of psychopathy in community-dwelling samples that parallels the most commonly used measure of psychopathy in forensic and clinical samples, the Psychopathy Checklist. A promising instrument is the Self-Report Psychopathy scale (SRP), which was derived from the original version the Psychopathy…

  6. Inconsistent Self-Report of Delinquency by Adolescents and Young Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Babinski, Dara E.; Biswas, Aparajita

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the ability of adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD to reliably self-report delinquency history. Data were examined from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a follow-up study of children diagnosed with ADHD between 1987 and 1996. Self-report of lifetime delinquency history was…

  7. Evolution of Self-Reporting Methods for Identifying Discrete Emotions in Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Stephen M.; Hudson, Peter; Bellocchi, Alberto; Henderson, Senka; King, Donna; Tobin, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Emotion researchers have grappled with challenging methodological issues in capturing emotions of participants in naturalistic settings such as school or university classrooms. Self-reporting methods have been used frequently, yet these methods are inadequate when used alone. We argue that the self-reporting methods of emotion diaries and…

  8. Gender Differences in Self-Reported Symptomatology and Working Memory in College Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kercood, Suneeta; Lineweaver, Tara T.; Kugler, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in self-reported symptomatology and working memory (visuospatial and auditory) in college students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Forty-seven college students with ADHD and 44 non-affected control participants completed two self-report questionnaires and six tests…

  9. Eating behaviors, nutritional status, and menstrual function in elite female adolescent volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Beals, Katherine A

    2002-09-01

    Nutritional status, eating behaviors and menstrual function was examined in 23 nationally ranked female adolescent volleyball players using a health/weight/ dieting/menstrual history questionnaire, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), and the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). Nutrient and energy intakes (El) and energy expenditure (EE) were determined by 3-d weighed food records and activity logs. Iron (Fe), vitamins C, B12, and Folate status were assessed using serum and whole blood. Mean El (2248 +/- 414 kcal/d) was less than EE (2815 +/- 306 kcal/d). Mean carbohydrate (5.4 +/-1.0g/kg/d) and protein (1.1+/-0.3g/kg/d) intakes were below recommended levels for highly active women. Mean intakes for folate, Fe, Ca, Mg, and Zn were less than the respective RDAs/DRIs and almost 50% of the athletes were consuming less than the RDAs/DRIs for the B-complex vitamins and vitamin C. Three athletes presented with Fe deficiency anemia (Hb <12 mg/dL), while marginal vitamin B12 status (<200 pg/ml) and vitamin C status (<28 mmol/L) were found in 1 and 4 athletes, respectively. Approximately 1/2 of the athletes reported actively "dieting". Mean BSQ and EDI subscales scores were within the normal ranges; yet, elevated scores on these scales were reported by 26% and 35% of athletes, respectively. Past or present amenorrhea was reported by 17% of the athletes and 13% and 48%, reported past or present oligomenorrhea and "irregular" menstrual cycles, respectively. These results indicate that elite adolescent volleyball players are at risk for menstrual dysfunction and have energy and nutrient intakes that place them at risk for nutritional deficiencies and compromised performance.

  10. Relationship between Self-Reported Dietary Nutrient Intake and Self-Reported Sleep Duration among Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Komada, Yoko; Narisawa, Hajime; Ueda, Fumitaka; Saito, Hitomi; Sakaguchi, Hiroyuki; Mitarai, Makoto; Suzuki, Rina; Tamura, Norihisa; Inoue, Shigeru; Inoue, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have reported that short sleep duration is a risk factor for obesity and metabolic disease. Moreover, both sleep duration and sleep timing might independently be associated with dietary nutrient intake. In this study, we investigated the associations between self-reported sleep duration and dietary nutrient intake, with and without adjustments for variations in sleep timing (i.e., the midpoint of sleep). We conducted a questionnaire survey, comprising a validated brief self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ) and the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) among 1902 healthy Japanese adults and found that the dietary intakes of several nutrients correlated with sleep duration among men regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep. Particularly, (1) small but significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and the percentage of energy from protein, regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep; (2) energy-adjusted intakes of sodium, vitamin D, and vitamin B12 also significantly correlated with sleep duration; and (3) intakes of bread, pulses, and fish and shellfish correlated with sleep duration. In contrast, no significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and dietary intakes among women. This study revealed that after controlling for the midpoint of sleep, sleep duration correlated significantly with the dietary intake of specific nutrients and foods in a population of Japanese men. PMID:28208812

  11. LABORATORY MEASURES OF EXERCISE CAPACITY AND VENTRICULAR CHARACTERISTICS AND FUNCTION ARE WEAKLY ASSOCIATED WITH FUNCTIONAL HEALTH STATUS AFTER FONTAN

    PubMed Central

    McCrindle, Brian W.; Zak, Victor; Sleeper, Lynn A.; Paridon, Stephen M.; Colan, Steven D.; Geva, Tal; Mahony, Lynn; Li, Jennifer S.; Breitbart, Roger E.; Margossian, Renee; Williams, Richard V.; Gersony, Welton M.; Atz, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Patients after Fontan are at risk for suboptimal functional health status, and associations with laboratory measures are important for planning interventions and outcome measures for clinical trials. Methods and Results Parents completed the generic Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) for 511 Fontan Cross-Sectional Study patients aged 6–18 years (61% male). Associations of CHQ Physical and Psychosocial Functioning Summary Scores (FSS) with standardized measurements from prospective exercise testing, echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and measurement of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were determined by regression analyses. For exercise variables for maximal effort patients only, the final model showed higher Physical FSS was associated only with higher maximum work rate, accounting for 9% of variation in Physical FSS. For echocardiography, lower Tei index (particularly for patients with extracardiac lateral tunnel connections), lower indexed end-systolic volume, and the absence of atrioventricular valve regurgitation for patients having Fontan at age <2 years were associated with higher Physical FSS, accounting for 14% of variation in Physical FSS. For MRI, lower mass to end-diastolic volume ratio, and mid-quartiles of indexed end-systolic volume (non-linear) were associated with higher Physical FSS, accounting for 11% of variation. Lower BNP was significantly but weakly associated with higher Physical FSS (1% of variation). Significant associations for Psychosocial FSS with laboratory measures were fewer and weaker than for Physical FSS. Conclusions In relatively healthy Fontan patients, laboratory measures account for a small proportion of the variation in functional health status and, therefore, may not be optimal surrogate endpoints for trials of therapeutic interventions. PMID:20026781

  12. Effects of chronic job insecurity and change in job security on self reported health, minor psychiatric morbidity, physiological measures, and health related behaviours in British civil servants: the Whitehall II study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrie, J; Shipley, M; Stansfeld, S; Marmot, M

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: To determine the effect of chronic job insecurity and changes in job security on self reported health, minor psychiatric morbidity, physiological measures, and health related behaviours. Design: Self reported health, minor psychiatric morbidity, physiological measures, and health related behaviours were determined in 931 women and 2429 men who responded to a question on job insecurity in 1995/96 and again in 1997/99. Self reported health status, clinical screening measures, and health related behaviours for participants whose job security had changed or who remained insecure were compared with those whose jobs had remained secure. Setting: Prospective cohort study, Whitehall II, all participants were white collar office workers in the British Civil Service on entry to the study. Main results: Self reported morbidity was higher among participants who lost job security. Among those who gained job security residual negative effects, particularly in the psychological sphere were observed. Those exposed to chronic job insecurity had the highest self reported morbidity. Changes in the physiological measures were limited to an increase in blood pressure among women who lost job security and a decrease in body mass index among women reporting chronic job insecurity. There were no significant differences between any of the groups for alcohol over the recommended limits or smoking. Conclusion: Loss of job security has adverse effects on self reported health and minor psychiatric morbidity, which are not completely reversed by removal of the threat and which tend to increase with chronic exposure to the stressor. PMID:12011203

  13. Are Informant Reports of Personality More Internally Consistent Than Self Reports of Personality?

    PubMed

    Balsis, Steve; Cooper, Luke D; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2015-08-01

    The present study examined whether informant-reported personality was more or less internally consistent than self-reported personality in an epidemiological community sample (n = 1,449). Results indicated that across the 5 NEO (Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness) personality factors and the 10 personality disorder trait dimensions, informant reports tended to be more internally consistent than self reports, as indicated by equal or higher Cronbach's alpha scores and higher average interitem correlations. In addition, the informant reports collectively outperformed the self reports for predicting responses on a global measure of health, indicating that the informant reports are not only more reliable than self reports, but they can also be useful in predicting an external criterion. Collectively these findings indicate that informant reports tend to have greater internal consistency than self reports.

  14. Smoking behavior among casino employees: self-report validation using plasma cotinine.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, H J; Eber, G B; Hall, M N; Vander Bilt, J

    2000-01-01

    The veracity of behavioral self-reports is often challenged, particularly when the motivation to avoid stigma and win social approval holds potential to introduce bias into the data collected. This study employed plasma cotinine tests to validate the self-reports of tobacco use collected from 3,841 casino employees as part of a comprehensive health survey. Rates of discordance were calculated by comparing employee self-reports with results from plasma colinine tests. This study provides evidence that casino employees can provide valid self-report data. Further, discordance rates of self-reported tobacco use vary according to operational definitions of tobacco use. These findings highlight the methodological importance of recognizing the inherent heterogeneity of smoking behavior.

  15. Thyroid function status and its impact on clinical outcome in patients admitted to critical care

    PubMed Central

    Qari, Faiza A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze alterations in thyroid function and the correlation between results of thyroid function test and mortality in medical and surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients. It also aimed to evaluate the effect of thyroid dysfunction in ICU patients and their need for mechanical ventilation (MV). Methods: A single-center, prospective, observational study was conducted on patients admitted to medical and surgical ICU between 2013-2014.. Clinical and paraclinical findings (free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone) were documented for all patients. Regression analysis and chi-square were used for death and MV outcome variables. Results: We included 502 patients. Of these, 340 (67.7%) were admitted to the medical ICU. Results of thyroid function tests were normal in 320 (64%) and 162 (32.3%) medical and surgical ICU patients, respectively. Euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS) was documented in 86 patients (17%). Mortality was twice higher among surgical ICU patients with ESS compared to those with normal thyroid function (p=0.085), which is not statistically significant. Based on thyroid function status, no differences in the risk to be mechanically ventilated was found between medical or surgical ICU patients. Conclusion: There is a significant association between ESS and mortality in ICU patients. Future studies should determine whether abnormal thyroid function increases the risk for MV in ICU patients. PMID:26430429

  16. Quantifying Cardiometabolic Risk Using Modifiable Non–Self-Reported Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Miguel; Li, Yi; Pencina, Michael J.; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensitive general cardiometabolic risk assessment tools of modifiable risk factors would be helpful and practical in a range of primary prevention interventions or for preventive health maintenance. Purpose To develop and validate a cumulative general cardiometabolic risk score that focuses on non–self-reported modifiable risk factors such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and BMI so as to be sensitive to small changes across a span of major modifiable risk factors, which may not individually cross clinical cut off points for risk categories. Methods We prospectively followed 2,359 cardiovascular disease (CVD)-free subjects from the Framingham offspring cohort over a 14–year follow-up. Baseline (fifth offspring examination cycle) included HbA1c and cholesterol measurements. Gender–specific Cox proportional hazards models were considered to evaluate the effects of non–self-reported modifiable risk factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, high–density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, BMI, and HbA1c) on general CVD risk. We constructed 10–year general cardiometabolic risk score functions and evaluated its predictive performance in 2012–2013. Results HbA1c was significantly related to general CVD risk. The proposed cardiometabolic general CVD risk model showed good predictive performance as determined by cross-validated discrimination (male C-index=0.703, 95% CI=0.668, 0.734; female C-index=0.762, 95% CI=0.726, 0.801) and calibration (lack-of-fit χ2=9.05 [p=0.338] and 12.54 [p=0.128] for men and women, respectively). Conclusions This study presents a risk factor algorithm that provides a convenient and informative way to quantify cardiometabolic risk based on modifiable risk factors that can motivate an individual’s commitment to prevention and intervention. PMID:24951039

  17. Predicting distress-induced eating with self-reports: mission impossible or a piece of cake?

    PubMed

    van Strien, Tatjana

    2010-07-01

    Comments on the original article, "Assessing yourself as an emotional eater: Mission impossible?" by C. Evers, D. T. D. de Ridder, and M. A. Adriaanse (see record 2009-20990-009). Results of a functional MRI study (Bohon, Stice, & Spoor, 2009) contradict the assertion that it is "impossible" to self-assess emotional eating because the self-report emotional eating scale of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ-em) predicted important individual differences in reward response during negative moods. Evers et al advance their argument in the context of results of four experiments where self-reported "emotional eaters" (DEBQ-em) did not eat more food during emotional encounters as compared to control conditions or "no emotional eaters." However, the core characteristic of emotional eaters is not that they eat so much during distress (though binge eaters may do), but that they do not show the typical stress response of eating less (the typical stress response being loss of appetite because of physiological effects that mimic satiety) (Gold & Chrousos, 2002). Accordingly, the moderator effect of emotional eating during distress would be that. "No emotional eaters" eat less and "emotional eaters" eat the same or more compared to control conditions. Close inspection of the results of Evers et al reveals that their "no emotional eaters" did not show the typical stress response of eating less. This opens the possibility that the null findings of Evers et al may be simply explained by misclassification of "no emotional eaters" versus "emotional eaters" because of their use of median splits (a procedure notorious for possible misclassification of subjects into distinct groups). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Self reported pain severity among multiethnic older Singaporeans: does adjusting for reporting heterogeneity matter?

    PubMed

    Chan, Angelique; Malhotra, Chetna; Do, Young Kyung; Malhotra, Rahul; Ostbye, Truls

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to test and correct for systematic differences in reporting of pain severity among older adults by age, gender, ethnic group and socio-economic status using anchoring vignettes. Data from a national survey of community-dwelling older Singaporeans (aged 60 years and over) conducted in 2009 was used. Respondents were asked to rate the severity of their own pain as well as that of others described in the vignettes on a five-point scale ranging from none to extreme. An ordered probit model was used to estimate the coefficients of the independent variables (age, gender, ethnic group, education, housing type) on self-reported pain. Reporting heterogeneity in pain severity was then corrected using a Hierarchical Ordered Probit model. The results showed that before correcting for reporting heterogeneity, women, those older, and those of Malay ethnicity reported greater severity of pain, while there was no association of reported pain severity with housing type and education. However, after correcting for reporting heterogeneity, while women and those older were found to have an even greater severity of pain than what they had reported, Malays were found to have a lower severity of pain than what they had reported. We conclude that there are systematic differences in reporting pain severity by age, gender and ethnic group. We propose that pain management may be improved if medical professionals take into account reporting heterogeneity for pain severity among various population sub-groups in Singapore.

  19. Psychometric Validation Study of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale - Self-Reported Version for Brazilian Portuguese

    PubMed Central

    Forni dos Santos, Larissa; Loureiro, Sonia Regina; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Osório, Flávia de Lima

    2013-01-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is prevalent and rarely diagnosed due to the difficulty in recognizing its symptoms as belonging to a disorder. Therefore, the evaluation/screening scales are of great importance for its detection, with the most used being the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Thus, this study proposed to evaluate the psychometric properties of internal consistency and convergent validity, as well as the confirmatory factorial analysis and reliability of the self-reported version of the LSAS (LSAS-SR), translated into Brazilian Portuguese, in a sample of the general population (N = 413) and in a SAD clinical sample (N = 252). The convergent validity with specific scales for the evaluation of SAD and a general anxiety scale presented correlations ranging from 0.21 to 0.84. The confirmatory factorial analysis did not replicate the previously indicated findings of the literature, with the difficulty being in obtaining a consensus factorial structure common to the diverse cultures in which the instrument was studied. The LSAS-SR presented excellent internal consistency (α = 0.90–0.96) and test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient = 0.81; Pearson’s = 0.82). The present findings support those of international studies that attest to the excellent psychometric properties of the LSAS-SR, endorsing its status as the gold standard. PMID:23922961

  20. Self-reported Vitamin Supplementation in Early Pregnancy and Risk of Miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    Olshan, Andrew F.; Herring, Amy H.; Savitz, David A.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Hartmann, Katherine E.

    2009-01-01

    Miscarriage is a common and poorly understood adverse pregnancy outcome. In this study, the authors sought to evaluate the relation between self-reported use of prenatal vitamins in early pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage. Between 2000 and 2008, 4,752 US women were prospectively enrolled in Right From the Start. Information about vitamin use was obtained from a first-trimester interview. Discrete-time hazard models were used, candidate confounders were assessed, and the following variables were included in the model: study site, maternal age, gravidity, marital status, education, race/ethnicity, smoking, and use of progesterone in early pregnancy. Approximately 95% of participants reported use of vitamins during early pregnancy. A total of 524 women had a miscarriage. In the final adjusted model, any use of vitamins during pregnancy was associated with decreased odds of miscarriage (odds ratio = 0.43, 95% confidence interval: 0.30, 0.60) in comparison with no exposure. These results should be viewed in the context of a potentially preventive biologic mechanism mitigated by possible confounding by healthy behaviors and practices that are also associated with vitamin supplement use during pregnancy. PMID:19372214

  1. [Association between tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Martins, Aline Blaya; Dalberto, Charlene da Silveira; Hugo, Fernando Neves

    2015-12-01

    The presence of tooth root remains is a common clinical finding among elderly patients and may reflect a need for treatment. The scope of this study sought to explore the association between the presence of tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly. Secondary data from two sanitary districts of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, were analyzed. A conceptual theoretical model was used in the analysis to assess factors related to self-perceived oral health: gender, age, education, marital status, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, demand for oral health care, participation in community groups, family economic self-sufficiency, oral health service accessed, number of teeth and the presence of tooth root remains. The statistical data were analyzed using Chi-square and Poisson Regression tests (95% CI analysis; α 5%). The sample consisted of 849 elderly individuals with a mean age of 69.7 years (± 7.2); 14.5% of the elderly had tooth root remains and 60.7% reported good self-perceived oral health. According to the hierarchical analysis, the absence of tooth root remains was associated with good oral health perception. The qualification and expansion of health care provided should be considered in order to allow planning actions to ensure the maintenance of good oral health for the elderly.

  2. Self-reported health and gender: The role of social norms.

    PubMed

    Caroli, Eve; Weber-Baghdiguian, Lexane

    2016-03-01

    The role of social norms in accounting for the different attitudes of men and women with respect to health is still an open issue. In this research, we investigate the role of social norms associated with specific gender environments in the workplace in accounting for differences in health-reporting behaviours across men and women. Using the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey, we build a database containing 30,124 observations. We first replicate the standard result that women report worse health than men, whatever the health outcome we consider. We then proxy social norms by the gender structure of the workplace environment and study how the latter affects self-reported health for men and women separately. Our findings indicate that individuals in workplaces where women are a majority tend to report worse health than individuals employed in male-dominated work environments, be they men or women. These results are robust to controlling for a large array of working condition indicators, which allows us to rule out that the poorer health status reported by individuals working in female-dominated environments could be due to worse job quality. This evidence suggests that social norms associated with specific gender environments play an important role in explaining differences in health-reporting behaviours across gender, at least in the workplace.

  3. Self-reported combat stress indicators among troops deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Mark S; Sanders, John W; Jones, James J; Webb, Schuyler C

    2008-01-01

    Evident mental health needs among combat veterans after their return from combat have been described, whereas available data describing the mental health status of military personnel during deployment are few. Data were collected from personnel systematically selected from current combat regions participating in a rest and recuperation program in Doha, Qatar. Overall, 40620 troops completed a clinic screening form between October 2003 and January 2005. Rates of self-reported depression among troops in Afghanistan were lower than those of Iraq (32.3 vs 69.7 per 10000, P < .0001). Feelings of depression and self-harm were inversely correlated with rank (4-level ordinal grouping) (beta(Coef) = -.21, P = .0006; beta(Coef) = -0.49, P < .00001, respectively). Distinct temporal trends found in reported combat stress and monthly mortality rates were noted. These data support previous reports of higher mental health problems among troops in Iraq as compared with troops in Afghanistan and lower health care-seeking behavior overall. In an effort to remove barriers to care and minimize combat stress effects, it is critical to recognize mental health needs and initiate services during combat deployments.

  4. Age-related differences in white matter integrity and cognitive function are related to APOE status

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Lee; Walther, Katrin; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Lue, Lih-Fen; Walker, Douglas G.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    While an extensive literature is now available on age-related differences in white matter integrity measured by diffusion MRI, relatively little is known about the relationships between diffusion and cognitive functions in older adults. Even less is known about whether these relationships are influenced by the apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele, despite growing evidence that ε4 increases cognitive impairment in older adults. The purpose of the present study was to examine these relationships in a group of community-dwelling cognitively normal older adults. Data were obtained from a sample of 126 individuals (ages 52–92) that included 32 ε4 heterozygotes, 6 ε4 homozygotes, and 88 non-carriers. Two measures of diffusion, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA), were obtained from six brain regions – frontal white matter, lateral parietal white matter, the centrum semiovale, the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, and the temporal stem white matter – and were used to predict composite scores of cognitive function in two domains, executive function and memory function. Results indicated that ADC and FA differed with increasing age in all six brain regions, and these differences were significantly greater for ε4 carriers compared to noncarriers. Importantly, after controlling for age, diffusion measures predicted cognitive function in a region-specific way that was also influenced by ε4 status. Regardless of APOE status, frontal ADC and FA independently predicted executive function scores for all participants, while temporal lobe ADC additionally predicted executive function for ε4 carriers, but not noncarriers. Memory scores were predicted by temporal lobe ADC but not frontal diffusion for all participants, and this relationship was significantly stronger in ε4 carriers compared to noncarriers. Taken together, age and temporal lobe ADC accounted for a striking 53% of the variance in memory scores within the ε4 carrier

  5. Iodine status and thyroid function among Spanish schoolchildren aged 6-7 years: the Tirokid study.

    PubMed

    Vila, L; Donnay, S; Arena, J; Arrizabalaga, J J; Pineda, J; Garcia-Fuentes, E; García-Rey, C; Marín, J L; Serra-Prat, M; Velasco, I; López-Guzmán, A; Luengo, L M; Villar, A; Muñoz, Z; Bandrés, O; Guerrero, E; Muñoz, J A; Moll, G; Vich, F; Menéndez, E; Riestra, M; Torres, Y; Beato-Víbora, P; Aguirre, M; Santiago, P; Aranda, J; Gutiérrez-Repiso, C

    2016-05-01

    I deficiency is still a worldwide public health problem, with children being especially vulnerable. No nationwide study had been conducted to assess the I status of Spanish children, and thus an observational, multicentre and cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to assess the I status and thyroid function in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years. The median urinary I (UI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in whole blood were used to assess the I status and thyroid function, respectively. A FFQ was used to determine the consumption of I-rich foods. A total of 1981 schoolchildren (52 % male) were included. The median UI was 173 μg/l, and 17·9 % of children showed UI<100 μg/l. The median UI was higher in males (180·8 v. 153·6 μg/l; P<0·001). Iodised salt (IS) intake at home was 69·8 %. IS consumption and intakes of ≥2 glasses of milk or 1 cup of yogurt/d were associated with significantly higher median UI. Median TSH was 0·90 mU/l and was higher in females (0·98 v. 0·83; P<0·001). In total, 0·5 % of children had known hypothyroidism (derived from the questionnaire) and 7·6 % had TSH levels above reference values. Median TSH was higher in schoolchildren with family history of hypothyroidism. I intake was adequate in Spanish schoolchildren. However, no correlation was found between TSH and median UI in any geographical area. The prevalence of TSH above reference values was high and its association with thyroid autoimmunity should be determined. Further assessment of thyroid autoimmunity in Spanish schoolchildren is desirable.

  6. Fatigue and fluid hydration status in multiple sclerosis: A hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Cincotta, Molly C; Engelhard, Matthew M; Stankey, Makela; Goldman, Myla D

    2016-01-01

    Background Fatigue is a prevalent and functionally disabling symptom for individuals living with multiple sclerosis (MS) which is poorly understood and multifactorial in etiology. Bladder dysfunction is another common MS symptom which limits social engagement and quality of life. To manage bladder issues, individuals with MS tend to limit their fluid intake, which may contribute to a low-hydration (LoH) state and fatigue. Objective To evaluate the relationship between patient-reported MS fatigue, bladder dysfunction, and hydration status. Methods We performed a prospective cross-sectional study in 50 women with MS. Participants submitted a random urine sample and completed several fatigue-related surveys. Using a urine specific gravity (USG) threshold of 1.015, we classified MS subjects into two groups: high-hydration (HiH) and LoH states. Results LoH status was more common in MS subjects with bladder dysfunction. Statistically significant differences in self-reported Fatigue Performance Scale were observed between HiH and LoH subjects (p = 0.022). USG was significantly correlated with fatigue as measured by the MS Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) score (r = 0.328, p = 0.020). Conclusion Hydration status correlates with self-reported fatigue, with lower fatigue scores found in those with HiH status (USG < 1.015). PMID:27542703

  7. Validation of the Malay Version of the Inventory of Functional Status after Childbirth Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Norhayati Mohd; Aziz, Aniza Abd.; Mostapa, Mohd Rosmizaki; Awang, Zainudin

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study was designed to examine the psychometric properties of Malay version of the Inventory of Functional Status after Childbirth (IFSAC). Design. A cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods. A total of 108 postpartum mothers attending Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia, were involved. Construct validity and internal consistency were performed after the translation, content validity, and face validity process. The data were analyzed using Analysis of Moment Structure version 18 and Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences version 20. Results. The final model consists of four constructs, namely, infant care, personal care, household activities, and social and community activities, with 18 items demonstrating acceptable factor loadings, domain to domain correlation, and best fit (Chi-squared/degree of freedom = 1.678; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.923; comparative fit index = 0.936; and root mean square error of approximation = 0.080). Composite reliability and average variance extracted of the domains ranged from 0.659 to 0.921 and from 0.499 to 0.628, respectively. Conclusion. The study suggested that the four-factor model with 18 items of the Malay version of IFSAC was acceptable to be used to measure functional status after childbirth because it is valid, reliable, and simple. PMID:25667932

  8. Voluntary leadership roles in religious groups and rates of change in functional status during older adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hayward, R David; Krause, Neal

    2014-06-01

    Linear growth curve modeling was used to compare rates of change in functional status between three groups of older adults: Individuals holding voluntary lay leadership positions in a church, regular church attenders who were not leaders, and those not regularly attending church. Functional status was tracked longitudinally over a 4-year period in a national sample of 1,152 Black and White older adults whose religious backgrounds were either Christian or unaffiliated. Leaders had significantly slower trajectories of increase in both the number of physical impairments and the severity of those impairments. Although regular church attenders who were not leaders had lower mean levels of impairment on both measures, compared with those not regularly attending church, the two groups of non-leaders did not differ from one another in their rates of impairment increase. Leadership roles may contribute to longer maintenance of physical ability in late life, and opportunities for voluntary leadership may help account for some of the health benefits of religious participation.

  9. Prevalence, Correlates, and Description of Self-Reported Diabetes in Brazilian Capitals – Results from a Telephone Survey

    PubMed Central

    Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; de Moura, Lenildo; Vigo, Álvaro; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of self-reported diabetes in Brazilian adults and to describe its population correlates as well as the clinical characteristics of the reported cases. Methods We analyzed basic and supplementary data of 54.144 subjects participating in VIGITEL 2011 (Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases), a telephone survey based on a probabilistic sample of subjects ≥18 years old residing in Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District. Estimates reported are weighted so as to represent the surveyed population. Results The prevalence of self-reported diabetes was 6.3% (95% CI 5.9–6.7), increasing markedly with age and nutritional status, and decreasing with level of education. Prevalence was higher among those self-declaring their race/color as black. Most cases (90%) reported the diagnosis being made at 35 years or older. The vast majority (99.8%) of self-reported cases informed having previously performed at least one glucose test, and 76% of those not reporting diabetes also informed having previously performed glucose testing. Most cases (92.6%) reported following some form of diabetes treatment, 79% taking medication. Conclusion The estimated prevalence of known diabetes found, 6.3%, is consistent with estimates given by international summaries. The additional data collected in VIGITEL 2011 regarding previous glucose testing and current treatment support the use of telephone-based information to monitor the prevalence of known diabetes in Brazilian capitals. PMID:25255096

  10. No Association Between Time of Onset of Hearing Loss (Childhood Versus Adulthood) and Self-Reported Hearing Handicap in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tambs, Kristian; Engdahl, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the association between time of onset of hearing loss (childhood vs. adulthood) and self-reported hearing handicap in adults. Methods This is a population-based cohort study of 2,024 adults (mean = 48 years) with hearing loss (binaural pure-tone average 0.5–4 kHz ≥ 20 dB HL) who completed a hearing handicap questionnaire. In childhood, the same persons (N = 2,024) underwent audiometry in a school investigation (at ages 7, 10, and 13 years), in which 129 were diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss (binaural pure-tone average 0.5–4 kHz ≥ 20 dB HL), whereas 1,895 had normal hearing thresholds. Results Hearing handicap was measured in adulthood as the sum-score of various speech perception and social impairment items (15 items). The sum-score increased with adult hearing threshold level (p < .001). After adjustment for adult hearing threshold level, hearing aid use, adult age, sex, and socioeconomic status, there was no significant difference in hearing handicap sum-score between the group with childhood-onset hearing loss (n = 129) and the group with adult-onset hearing loss (n = 1,895; p = .882). Conclusion Self-reported hearing handicap in adults increased with hearing threshold level. After adjustment for adult hearing threshold level, this cohort study revealed no significant association between time of onset of hearing loss (childhood vs. adulthood) and self-reported hearing handicap. PMID:26649831

  11. [Comments on influence of different functional status of the body on clinical effects of acupuncture therapy].

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng-Jie; Zeng, Fang; Yang, Jie; Ren, Yu-Lan; Liang, Fan-Rang

    2013-10-01

    Functional status is an important factor affecting clinical therapeutic effect of acupuncture therapy. Authors of the present article make an analysis on the related descriptions of ancient classical books about the patient's body constitution, age, duration of disease, type of disease or clinical conditions, psychological state, etc. which determine the functional state of patients. Moreover, the authors also make some comments on the results of modern clinical trials and experimental studies. However, till now, the results of many related modern studies were lower in reliability due to unreliable methodology. Fewer clinical trials involve the patient's psychological state, and constitution from the viewpoint of Chinese medicine. Correspondingly, the related experimental studies are fewer. The authors suggest that in the coming days clinical trials should be greatly improved in quality and the mutual interference among the influential factors should be excluded. At the same time, experimental studies on the related biochemical mechanisms should be strengthened.

  12. Functional network changes in hippocampal CA1 after status epilepticus predict spatial memory deficits in rats.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Anna L; Mahoney, J Matthew; Richard, Gregory R; Holmes, Gregory L; Lenck-Santini, Pierre-Pascal; Scott, Rod C

    2012-08-15

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a common neurological emergency, which has been associated with subsequent cognitive impairments. Neuronal death in hippocampal CA1 is thought to be an important mechanism of these impairments. However, it is also possible that functional interactions between surviving neurons are important. In this study we recorded in vivo single-unit activity in the CA1 hippocampal region of rats while they performed a spatial memory task. From these data we constructed functional networks describing pyramidal cell interactions. To build the networks, we used maximum entropy algorithms previously applied only to in vitro data. We show that several months following SE pyramidal neurons display excessive neuronal synchrony and less neuronal reactivation during rest compared with those in healthy controls. Both effects predict rat performance in a spatial memory task. These results provide a physiological mechanism for SE-induced cog