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Sample records for self-reported functional status

  1. Vertical Ground Reaction Forces are Associated with Pain and Self-Reported Functional Status in Recreational Athletes with Patellofemoral Pain.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Silva, Danilo; Briani, Ronaldo; Pazzinatto, Marcella; Ferrari, Deisi; Aragão, Fernando; de Azevedo, Fábio

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with patellofemoral pain (PFP) use different motor strategies during unipodal support in stair climbing activities, which may be assessed by vertical ground reaction force parameters. Thus, the aims of this study were to investigate possible differences in first peak, valley, second peak, and loading rate between recreational female athletes with PFP and pain-free athletes during stair climbing in order to determine the association and prediction capability between these parameters, pain level, and functional status in females with PFP. Thirty-one recreational female athletes with PFP and 31 pain-free recreational female athletes were evaluated with three-dimensional kinetics while performing stair climbing to obtain vertical ground reaction force parameters. A visual analog scale was used to evaluate the usual knee pain. The anterior knee pain scale was used to evaluate knee functional score. First peak and loading rate were associated with pain (r = .46, P = .008; r = .56, P = .001, respectively) and functional limitation (r = .31, P = .049; r = -.36, P = .032, respectively). Forced entry regression revealed the first peak was a significant predictor of pain (36.5%) and functional limitation (28.7%). Our findings suggest that rehabilitation strategies aimed at correcting altered vertical ground reaction force may improve usual knee pain level and self-reported knee function in females with PFP. PMID:26286949

  2. Comparison of African American and Afro-Caribbean Older Adults' Self-Reported Health Status, Function, and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Florence; Tappen, Ruth M.; Williams, Christine L.; Rosselli, Monica

    2009-01-01

    African American and Afro-Caribbean elders differ in regard to ethnic group membership, place of birth, and years of residence in the United States. In this study, the authors compare self-rated health status, function, and reports of substance use in these two groups. Fifty low-income African American and fifty low-income Afro-Caribbean adults…

  3. Vascular Endothelial Function & Self-Reported Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Behl, Muskaan; Bliwise, Donald; Veledar, Emir; Cunningham, Lynn; Vazquez, Jennifer; Brigham, Kenneth; Quyyumi, Arshed

    2013-01-01

    Background We investigated the relationship between self-reported sleep characteristics and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in a community-based population. Prior studies document that sleep apnea may be related to endothelial dysfunction but disagree whether subjective reports of sleep may also reflect such associations. Methods In 684 subjects (32% male) between 37 and 60 years enrolled in the Emory-Georgia Tech Predictive Health Institute study, we measured reported sleep characteristics using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) along with cardiovascular risk factors. Endothelial function was assessed using brachial artery FMD. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to adjust for various cardiovascular risk factors including age, race, gender, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and body mass index. Results Lower brachial artery FMD values were correlated with higher ESS scores (p = 0.0275), even after adjustment for risk factors (p = 0.03). Total PSQI score was unrelated to brachial artery FMD. However, lower sleep quality (PSQI component 1) was associated with lower brachial artery FMD (multivariate p = 0.038), and participants who coughed or snored during sleep also had lower brachial artery FMD (6.24±3.42%) compared to those who did not (6.92±4.30%) (p = 0.056). This difference remained significant after adjustment for risk factors (p = 0.03). Conclusion In a community-based population, our analysis indicates a significant association between sleepiness and snoring assessed by questionnaires and endothelial function. Simple subjective reports about individuals’ sleep may be highly revealing indicators of endothelial function impairment and thus important indicators of cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:23842206

  4. Self-Report Versus Ultrasound Measurement of Uterine Fibroid Status

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Donna Day; Olshan, Andrew F.; Herring, Amy H.; Schroeder, Jane C.; Nylander-French, Leena A.; Hartmann, Katherine E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Much of the epidemiologic research on risk factors for fibroids, the leading indication for hysterectomy, relies on self-reported outcome. Self-report is subject to misclassification because many women with fibroids are undiagnosed. The purpose of this analysis was to quantify the extent of misclassification and identify associated factors. Methods Self-reported fibroid status was compared to ultrasound screening from 2046 women in Right From The Start (RFTS) and 869 women in the Uterine Fibroid Study (UFS). Log-binomial regression was used to estimate sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) and examine differences by ethnicity, age, education, body mass index, parity, and miscarriage history. Results Overall sensitivity was ≤0.50. Sensitivity was higher in blacks than whites (RFTS: 0.34 vs. 0.23; UFS: 0.58 vs. 0.32) and increased with age. Parous women had higher sensitivity than nulliparae, especially in RFTS whites (Se ratio=2.90; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.51, 5.60). Specificity was 0.98 in RFTS and 0.86 in UFS. Modest ethnic differences were seen in UFS (Sp ratio, black vs. white=0.90; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.99). Parity was inversely associated with specificity, especially among UFS black women (Sp ratio=0.84; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.97). Among women who reported a previous diagnosis, a shorter time interval between diagnosis and ultrasound was associated with increased agreement between the two measures. Conclusions Misclassification of fibroid status can differ by factors of etiologic interest. These findings are useful for assessing (and correcting) bias in studies using self-reported clinical diagnosis as the outcome measure. PMID:22044079

  5. Delivery method and self-reported postpartum general health status among primiparous women.

    PubMed

    Lydon-Rochelle, M T; Holt, V L; Martin, D P

    2001-07-01

    Despite nearly four million deliveries in the United States each year, minimal information exists on unintended health consequences following childbirth, particularly in relation to delivery method. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between method of delivery and the general health status, sexual, bowel and urinary functioning of primiparous women as measured at 7 weeks postpartum. Data from the Statewide Obstetrical Review of Quality System (StORQS) Survey of Maternity Care in Washington State were analysed. Participants included all primiparous women with a delivery of a singleton infant discharged alive between August and December 1991 from 10 non-federal short-stay hospitals who responded to the StORQS Survey of Maternity Care (n = 971). The main outcome measures included the modified Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey and self-reported sexual, bowel and urinary functioning. At 7 weeks postpartum, women who had caesarean or assisted vaginal deliveries reported significantly lower postpartum general health status scores than women with unassisted vaginal delivery. Additionally, women with assisted vaginal delivery reported significantly worse sexual, bowel and urinary functioning. Our results suggest that more careful attention to the postpartum general health and sexual functioning of women with caesarean and assisted vaginal delivery may be merited.

  6. Adolescent weight status and self-reported school performance in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Do, Young Kyung; Finkelstein, Eric Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of 142 783 middle school (13-15 years old) and high school (16-18 years old) students in South Korea, this study examined whether (1) overweight and obesity are more likely to be associated with lower self-reported school performance; (2) overweight and obese students are more likely to enrol in a vocational high school as opposed to a general high school; (3) the association between obesity and poorer self-reported school performance is mediated through body image stress and health status. We found that excess weight was negatively associated with self-reported school performance among middle and general high school students, and that obese students had a higher probability of being enrolled in a vocational over a general high school. We did not find strong evidence on the mediating role of body image stress and health status.

  7. Accuracy of self-reported tobacco use status among hematopoietic SCT patients.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, S L; Bronars, C A; Patten, C A; Brockman, T; Hughes, C; Decker, P A; Cerhan, J R; Hogan, W; Dispenzieri, A; Ansell, S; Ebbert, J; Gastineau, D

    2014-07-01

    Tobacco use is a risk factor for adverse outcomes among hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) patients. Accurate identification of tobacco use offers a vital opportunity to treat this risk factor. The current study compared self-reported tobacco use status with serum cotinine levels among HSCT patients at the time of pre-transplant evaluation. A total of 444 participants completed both assessments; 44 participants (9.9%) were classified as tobacco users with serum cotinine concentrations >2 ng/mL vs 29 with self-reporting. Sensitivity and specificity of self-reporting were 65.9% and 100%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 100% and 96.4%, respectively. Comparing tobacco use documented in the medical record with cotinine, sensitivity and specificity were 51.2% and 99.2%, respectively. Factors associated with tobacco use were male gender, single relationship status, less education and younger age. In summary, utilization of serum cotinine assays increased detection of tobacco use cases >50% over self-reporting. Results are discussed in the context of translation to care, including clinical and ethical implications, and current tobacco use treatment guidelines. When cotinine assays are not available, self-reporting of any tobacco use in the year before HSCT should trigger brief advice and cessation or relapse prevention counseling.

  8. Associations among Socioeconomic Status, Perceived Neighborhood Control, Perceived Individual Control, and Self-Reported Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Spencer; Daniel, Mark; Bockenholt, Ulf; Gauvin, Lise; Richard, Lucie; Stewart, Steven; Dube, Laurette

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that perceived control and a person's perceptions of their neighborhood environment may mediate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and health. This cross-sectional study assessed whether perceptions of informal social control mediated the association between SES and self-reported health, and if these…

  9. The Prevalence of Self-Reported Health Problems and Haemoglobin Status of Sudanese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moukhyer, M. E.; de Vries, N. K.; Bosma, H.; van Eijk, J. Th. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe self-reported health problems and haemoglobin status among 1200 Sudanese adolescents (53.2% females, 46.8% males). Many adolescents report their general health as excellent and good (84%). A large number, however, report separate physical and psychological complaints. Report of psychological complaints is equal for both…

  10. Development and Validation of a Self-Report Measure of Mentalizing: The Reflective Functioning Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Fonagy, Peter; Luyten, Patrick; Moulton-Perkins, Alesia; Lee, Ya-Wen; Warren, Fiona; Howard, Susan; Ghinai, Rosanna; Fearon, Pasco; Lowyck, Benedicte

    2016-01-01

    Reflective functioning or mentalizing is the capacity to interpret both the self and others in terms of internal mental states such as feelings, wishes, goals, desires, and attitudes. This paper is part of a series of papers outlining the development and psychometric features of a new self-report measure, the Reflective Functioning Questionnaire (RFQ), designed to provide an easy to administer self-report measure of mentalizing. We describe the development and initial validation of the RFQ in three studies. Study 1 focuses on the development of the RFQ, its factor structure and construct validity in a sample of patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Eating Disorder (ED) (n = 108) and normal controls (n = 295). Study 2 aims to replicate these findings in a fresh sample of 129 patients with personality disorder and 281 normal controls. Study 3 addresses the relationship between the RFQ, parental reflective functioning and infant attachment status as assessed with the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) in a sample of 136 community mothers and their infants. In both Study 1 and 2, confirmatory factor analyses yielded two factors assessing Certainty (RFQ_C) and Uncertainty (RFQ_U) about the mental states of self and others. These two factors were relatively distinct, invariant across clinical and non-clinical samples, had satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest stability, and were largely unrelated to demographic features. The scales discriminated between patients and controls, and were significantly and in theoretically predicted ways correlated with measures of empathy, mindfulness and perspective-taking, and with both self-reported and clinician-reported measures of borderline personality features and other indices of maladaptive personality functioning. Furthermore, the RFQ scales were associated with levels of parental reflective functioning, which in turn predicted infant attachment status in the SSP. Overall, this study lends preliminary

  11. Development and Validation of a Self-Report Measure of Mentalizing: The Reflective Functioning Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Fonagy, Peter; Luyten, Patrick; Moulton-Perkins, Alesia; Lee, Ya-Wen; Warren, Fiona; Howard, Susan; Ghinai, Rosanna; Fearon, Pasco; Lowyck, Benedicte

    2016-01-01

    Reflective functioning or mentalizing is the capacity to interpret both the self and others in terms of internal mental states such as feelings, wishes, goals, desires, and attitudes. This paper is part of a series of papers outlining the development and psychometric features of a new self-report measure, the Reflective Functioning Questionnaire (RFQ), designed to provide an easy to administer self-report measure of mentalizing. We describe the development and initial validation of the RFQ in three studies. Study 1 focuses on the development of the RFQ, its factor structure and construct validity in a sample of patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Eating Disorder (ED) (n = 108) and normal controls (n = 295). Study 2 aims to replicate these findings in a fresh sample of 129 patients with personality disorder and 281 normal controls. Study 3 addresses the relationship between the RFQ, parental reflective functioning and infant attachment status as assessed with the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) in a sample of 136 community mothers and their infants. In both Study 1 and 2, confirmatory factor analyses yielded two factors assessing Certainty (RFQ_C) and Uncertainty (RFQ_U) about the mental states of self and others. These two factors were relatively distinct, invariant across clinical and non-clinical samples, had satisfactory internal consistency and test–retest stability, and were largely unrelated to demographic features. The scales discriminated between patients and controls, and were significantly and in theoretically predicted ways correlated with measures of empathy, mindfulness and perspective-taking, and with both self-reported and clinician-reported measures of borderline personality features and other indices of maladaptive personality functioning. Furthermore, the RFQ scales were associated with levels of parental reflective functioning, which in turn predicted infant attachment status in the SSP. Overall, this study lends

  12. The importance of assessing self-reported HIV status in bio-behavioural surveys.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lisa G; Sabin, Miriam Lewis; Prybylski, Dimitri; Sabin, Keith; McFarland, Willi; Baral, Stefan; Kim, Andrea A; Raymond, H Fisher

    2016-08-01

    In bio-behavioural surveys measuring prevalence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), respondents should be asked the results of their last HIV test. However, many government authorities, nongovernmental organizations, researchers and other civil society stakeholders have stated that respondents involved in such surveys should not be asked to self-report their HIV status. The reasons offered for not asking respondents to report their status are that responses may be inaccurate and that asking about HIV status may violate the respondents' human rights and exacerbate stigma and discrimination. Nevertheless, we contend that, in the antiretroviral therapy era, asking respondents in bio-behavioural surveys to self-report their HIV status is essential for measuring and improving access to - and coverage of - services for the care, treatment and prevention of HIV infection. It is also important for estimating the true size of the unmet needs in addressing the HIV epidemic and for interpreting the behaviours associated with the acquisition and transmission of HIV infection correctly. The data available indicate that most participants in health-related surveys are willing to respond to a question about HIV status - as one of possibly several sensitive questions about sexual and drug use behaviours. Ultimately, normalizing the self-reporting of HIV status could help the global community move from an era of so-called exceptionalism to one of destigmatization - and so improve the epidemic response worldwide.

  13. The importance of assessing self-reported HIV status in bio-behavioural surveys.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lisa G; Sabin, Miriam Lewis; Prybylski, Dimitri; Sabin, Keith; McFarland, Willi; Baral, Stefan; Kim, Andrea A; Raymond, H Fisher

    2016-08-01

    In bio-behavioural surveys measuring prevalence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), respondents should be asked the results of their last HIV test. However, many government authorities, nongovernmental organizations, researchers and other civil society stakeholders have stated that respondents involved in such surveys should not be asked to self-report their HIV status. The reasons offered for not asking respondents to report their status are that responses may be inaccurate and that asking about HIV status may violate the respondents' human rights and exacerbate stigma and discrimination. Nevertheless, we contend that, in the antiretroviral therapy era, asking respondents in bio-behavioural surveys to self-report their HIV status is essential for measuring and improving access to - and coverage of - services for the care, treatment and prevention of HIV infection. It is also important for estimating the true size of the unmet needs in addressing the HIV epidemic and for interpreting the behaviours associated with the acquisition and transmission of HIV infection correctly. The data available indicate that most participants in health-related surveys are willing to respond to a question about HIV status - as one of possibly several sensitive questions about sexual and drug use behaviours. Ultimately, normalizing the self-reporting of HIV status could help the global community move from an era of so-called exceptionalism to one of destigmatization - and so improve the epidemic response worldwide. PMID:27516638

  14. How reliable are self-reports of HIV status disclosure? Evidence from couples in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, Amy A.; Wong, Lauren H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The majority of research on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disclosure utilizes the perspective from a single individual, which cannot be substantiated in the absence of supporting data such as from a primary partner. Objectives The objectives of this study were to evaluate: (1) the extent to which self-reported HIV disclosure was confirmed by a primary partner; (2) individual and relationship-level predictors of self-reported versus confirmed disclosure; and (3) whether confirmed disclosure was a stronger predictor of correctly assessing a partner's HIV status compared to self-reported disclosure. Methods As part of an 8-wave longitudinal study from 2009-2011 in southern Malawi, 366 individuals (183 couples) were interviewed about their primary relationship (wave 3), individually tested for HIV (wave 4), and then asked whether they disclosed to their primary partner (wave 5). Results While 93% of respondents reported that they disclosed, only 64% of respondents had confirmed reports from their partner. Having communicated with partner about HIV was positively associated with self-reported disclosure; this association remained significant but became more precise in the models for confirmed disclosure. Confirmed disclosure, but not self-report, was a significant predictor of correctly assessing a partner's HIV status. Being male, having lower perceived partner infidelity, having higher relationship unity, and testing HIV-negative were positively and significantly associated with correct assessment. Dyadic data from two partners provide an improved measure of disclosure as compared to a single individual's self-report and could be used to identify behavioral and biomedical opportunities to prevent HIV transmission within couples. PMID:26379084

  15. Test Review: Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function--Self-Report Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Justin M.; D'Amato, Rik Carl

    2006-01-01

    The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Self-Report version (BRIEF-SR) is the first self-report measure of executive functioning for adolescents. With the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act authorization, there is a greater need for appropriate assessment of severely impaired children. Recent studies have…

  16. Edentulism and other variables associated with self-reported health status in Mexican adults

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine if edentulism, controlling for other known factors, is associated with subjective self-report health status (SRH) in Mexican adults. Material/Methods We examined the SRH of 13 966 individuals 35 years and older, using data from the National Survey of Performance Assessment, a cross-sectional study that is part of the technical collaboration between the Ministry of Health of Mexico and the World Health Organization, which used the survey instrument and sampling strategies developed by WHO for the World Health Survey. Sociodemographic, socioeconomic, medical, and behavioral variables were collected using questionnaires. Self-reported health was our dependent variable. Data on edentulism were available from 20 of the 32 Mexican states. A polynomial logistic regression model adjusted for complex sampling was generated. Results In the SRH, 58.2% reported their health status as very good/good, 33.8% said they had a moderate health status, and 8.0% reported that their health was bad/very bad. The association between edentulism and SRH was modified by age and was significant only for bad/very bad SRH. Higher odds of reporting moderate health or poor/very poor health were found in women, people with lower socio-economic status and with physical disabilities, those who were not physically active, or those who were underweight or obese, those who had any chronic disease, and those who used alcohol. Conclusions The association of edentulism with a self-report of a poor health status (poor/very poor) was higher in young people than in adults. The results suggest socioeconomic inequalities in SRH. Inequality was further confirmed among people who had a general health condition or a disability. PMID:24852266

  17. Validity of self-reported pneumococcal vaccination status in the elderly in Spain.

    PubMed

    Bayas, José-María; Izquierdo, Conchita; Ruiz, Laura; Sintes, Xavier; Sousa, Dolores; Celorrio, José-Miguel; Varona, Wenceslao; Carratalà, Jordi; Nebot, Manel; Batalla, Joan; Sugrañes, Silvia; Manzur, Adriana; Terren, Angel; García, Carmen; Clemente, Esperanza; Rivera, Susana; Justo, Isabel; Arévalo, Ana; Salleras, Lluís; Domínguez, Angela

    2009-07-23

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of information reported by the elderly on 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV) vaccination status. A cross-sectional, observational study was carried out in patients aged >or=65 years admitted to five Spanish hospitals. Data on 23vPPV vaccination history were obtained through interview of the patient or close relative and review of written medical information. The validity of the patient self-report was compared to the written medical information by calculation of the sensitivity, specificity, concordance, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). A total of 2484 patients were initially included of whom 1814 patients (73%) responded about their vaccination status. The global sensitivity of the patient self-report was 0.74 and the specificity 0.95. The PPV was 0.92, the NPV 0.84 and the concordance 87. Vaccination cards and centralized vaccination registries in primary health care centres and hospitals should be potentiated in order to ensure that neither more nor less vaccinations are administered than are necessary.

  18. Correlation between urinary nicotine, cotinine and self-reported smoking status among educated young adults.

    PubMed

    Man, Che Nin; Fathelrahman, Ahmed Ibrahim; Harn, Gam Lay; Lajis, Razak; Samin, Ahmad Shalihin Mohd; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Bayanuddin, Nurulain Abdullah

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate, differentiate and validate the self-reported smoking status of educated young adults with urinary biomarkers (i.e. nicotine and cotinine). Freshmen students were recruited on voluntary basis. They filled-up self-administered questionnaire and their urine samples were collected for analysis. The urinary nicotine (UN) and cotinine (UC) were measured by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers were found to be both significantly correlated and different in their UN and UC levels. UC level of 25ng/ml was the optimal cut-off to differentiate smokers from non-smokers. Using this cut-off value, the prevalence of smoking among the students was found to be higher (15.4%) than the self-reported data (14.3%). UC is useful in validating individual recent smoking history and the cut-off could serve as a marker for assessing the clinical impact of smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on human health.

  19. Self-Reported Health Status in Primary Health Care: The Influence of Immigration and Other Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel Á.; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; del Otero-Sanz, Laura; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen; Chico-Moraleja, Rosa M.; Martín-Madrazo, Carmen; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study are to compare self-reported health status between Spanish-born and Latin American-born Spanish residents, adjusted by length of residence in the host country; and additionally, to analyse sociodemographic and psychosocial variables associated with a better health status. Design This is a cross-sectional population based study of Latin American-born (n = 691) and Spanish-born (n = 903) in 15 urban primary health care centres in Madrid (Spain), carried out between 2007 and 2009. The participants provided information, through an interview, about self-reported health status, socioeconomic characteristics, psychosocial factors and migration conditions. Descriptive and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results The Spanish-born participants reported a better health status than the Latin America-born participants (79.8% versus 69.3%, p<0.001). Different patterns of self-reported health status were observed depending on the length of residence in the host country. The proportion of immigrants with a better health status is greater in those who have been in Spain for less than five years compared to those who have stayed longer. Better health status is significantly associated with being men, under 34 years old, being Spanish-born, having a monthly incomes of over 1000 euros, and having considerable social support and low stress. Conclusions Better self-reported health status is associated with being Spanish-born, men, under 34 years old, having an uppermiddle-socioeconomic status, adequate social support, and low stress. Additionally, length of residence in the host country is seen as a related factor in the self-reported health status of immigrants. PMID:22675564

  20. Self-Reported Sexual Functioning Concerns among Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tambling, Rachel B.; Reckert, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Researchers who have studied sexual functioning concerns do not often focus their research on undergraduate populations, perhaps due to perceptions of universal sexual health among this population. The current study examined prevalence and type of sexual functioning concerns in a sample of 347 male and female undergraduate students. Sexual…

  1. Self-reported health status of vietnamese and non-Hispanic white older adults in california.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Dara; Tan, Angela L; Hays, Ron D; Mangione, Carol M; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2008-08-01

    Vietnamese Americans are a rapidly growing minority group in the United States, yet little is known about their health status. Chronic medical conditions and self-rated health of older Vietnamese Americans were compared with those of non-Hispanic white adults living in California using the 2001 and 2003 California Health Interview Surveys (CHISs). The CHIS employed a random-digit-dial telephone survey, and its sample is representative of California's noninstitutionalized population. The sample included 359 Vietnamese and 25,177 non-Hispanic white adults aged 55 and older. Vietnamese and non-Hispanic white adults were compared in terms of limitations in activities of daily living, chronic medical conditions (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease, asthma), mental health care, and self-reported health, adjusting for age, sex, and education. Vietnamese were more likely than white participants to report needing help for mental health problems (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.4-3.1) but less likely to have had their medical providers discuss their mental health problems with them (aOR=0.3, 95% CI=0.1-0.5). In addition, Vietnamese participants reported significantly worse health than white adults on five of eight domains of the Medical Outcomes Survery 12-item Short Form survey (P<.006). Clinicians caring for older Vietnamese individuals should be aware of the high risk for mental health needs in this population and should initiate discussions about mental health with their patients. Further research is needed to better understand why older Vietnamese Americans are at higher risk for worse self-reported health than older white adults.

  2. Beyond Depression: Predictors of Self-reported Cognitive Function in Adults Living with MS

    PubMed Central

    Beier, Meghan; Amtmann, Dagmar; Ehde, Dawn M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between self-reported cognition and demographic/psychosocial variables in individuals with a self-reported diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Design Secondary longitudinal analysis of mailed self-report surveys over a period of 2 years. Setting Community. Participants 407 community-dwelling individuals from the Pacific Northwest with a self-reported diagnosis of MS. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Subjective general cognitive concerns and subjective executive difficulties as measured by the Neuro-QOL Applied Cognition–Executive Function–Short Form (SF) and the Applied Cognition–General Concerns–SF. Results Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses were used to identify statistically significant longitudinal predictors of perceived cognitive difficulties 2 years later. Fatigue and anxiety were statistically significant predictors of general cognitive concerns. Fatigue and perceived stress were statistically significant predictors of perceived executive difficulties. Fatigue was the strongest predictor in both models. Conclusions In MS, perceived cognitive impairment is frequently linked to depression without consideration of other possible contributors. This study suggests that in people with MS, fatigue is a stronger predictor of self-reported cognitive function two years later than depression PMID:26192051

  3. Adolescent Depression: Relationships of Self-Report to Intellectual and Adaptive Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manikam, Ramasamy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Self-report measures of depression, general psychopathology, and social skills were administered to 100 adolescents ranging from moderate mental retardation to above normal intelligence. Adolescents with mental retardation reported more depression and general psychopathology symptoms. Adaptive behavior functioned as a moderator variable, mediating…

  4. Supporting the Spectrum Hypothesis: Self-Reported Temperament in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Catherine A.; Usher, Lauren V.; Schwartz, Caley B.; Mundy, Peter C.; Henderson, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the "spectrum hypothesis," which posits that children and adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) differ "quantitatively" but not "qualitatively" from typically developing peers on self-reported temperament. Temperament refers to early-appearing, relatively stable behavioral and emotional…

  5. Effects of Age and Ability on Self-Reported Memory Functioning and Knowledge of Memory Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Celinda M.; Cherry, Katie E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of age and ability (as measured by education and verbal ability) on self-reported memory functioning in adulthood. In Study 1, the age and ability groups responded similarly to the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (D. E. Broadbent, P. F. Cooper, P. Fitzgerald, & K. R. Parkes, 1982), but differences emerged when the…

  6. Development of a self-report measure of social functioning for forensic inpatients.

    PubMed

    Willmot, Phil; McMurran, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing interest in the measurement of social functioning in people with personality disorder, there are currently no social functioning measures specifically for forensic or other inpatients with a diagnosis of personality disorder. This paper describes the development and validation of the Hospital Social Functioning Questionnaire (HSFQ), a self-report measure of social functioning for forensic inpatients. A sample of fifty four male inpatients in a forensic personality disorder treatment unit completed the HSFQ and a range of measures indicative of social functioning, namely self-report measures of psychological wellbeing and symptoms, recorded incidents of self-harm and aggression. Clinicians' ratings of global functioning, and clinically assessed personality disorder severity were also collected. The HSFQ showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability, good concurrent validity with self-report measures of personality pathology, other symptoms and psychological wellbeing, but only a moderate correlation with clinician-rated global functioning and with frequency of self-harm and aggressive behavior. These results suggest that the HSFQ is a more focused measure of social functioning than the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), which conflates social functioning with self harm and aggressive behavior. The HSFQ is a potentially useful assessment of social functioning in secure and other inpatient settings. PMID:25660210

  7. Clinically Determined and Self-Reported Dental Caries Status During and After Pregnancy Among Low-Income Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, Jane A.; Gansky, Stuart A.; Santo, William; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This analysis assessed, during and one-year after pregnancy: 1) the prevalence of and relationship between self-reported and clinically determined dental caries and oral health status, and whether self-reports are a potential proxy for professional determination; 2) factors associated with high levels of professionally determined or self-reported oral disease. Methods Data are from a randomized clinical trial of 301 pregnant, low-income Hispanic women at the California-Mexico border to compare two interventions to prevent early childhood caries. Interviews and dental examinations were conducted at enrollment (second trimester) and one-year post-partum (PP). Results During pregnancy and PP, 93% had untreated caries and most had gingival inflammation. Sensitivity and specificity of self-reported measures compared to dentists’ determinations were modest (ranging from 45–80% for sensitivity and 41–77% for specificity at both time points); positive predictive values for women reporting current tooth decay or fair/poor oral health were high (>94%), but negative predictive values were low (<23%). In a bivariate GEE model, factors associated with fair/poor self-reported oral health during and after pregnancy included self-reported dental symptoms (current tooth decay, bleeding gums without brushing), dental behaviors (not flossing) and number of decayed tooth surfaces. In a logistic regression model, the only significant factor PP associated with less extensive untreated disease was if women ever had their teeth cleaned professionally (OR=0.44). Conclusions There is a great need for dental treatment in this underserved population both during pregnancy and PP. Women may not be able to accurately recognize or act on their treatment needs. At baseline and PP, few demographic or behavioral factors were associated with either self-reported or clinically-determined oral disease (e.g., being less educated or acculturated and not flossing) in the bivariate

  8. Sexual behaviour among people with HIV according to self-reported antiretroviral treatment and viral load status

    PubMed Central

    Lampe, Fiona C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess, among people with HIV, the association of self-reported antiretroviral treatment (ART) and viral load status with condomless sex with an HIV-serodifferent partner (CLS-D). Design: Cross-sectional study of 3258 HIV-diagnosed adults in the United Kingdom, 2011–2012. Methods: CLS-D in the past 3 months and self-reported ART/viral load were ascertained by questionnaire. Clinic-recorded viral load was documented. HIV-transmission risk sex (CLS-D-HIV-risk) was defined as CLS-D together with either not on ART or clinic-recorded viral load more than 50 copies/ml. Results: Of 3178 participants diagnosed more than 3 months ago, 2746 (87.9%) were on ART, of whom self-reported viral load was ‘50 copies/ml/ or less/undetectable’ for 78.4%; ‘more than 50 copies/ml/detectable’ for 8.3%; ‘do not know/missing’ for 13.3%. CLS-D prevalence was 14.9% (326/2189), 6.4% (23/360) and 10.7% (67/629) among men who have sex with men, heterosexual men and women, respectively. Among men who have sex with men, CLS-D prevalence was 18.8% among those not on ART; 15.2% among those on ART with undetectable self-reported viral load; 9.8% among those on ART without undetectable self-reported viral load. Compared with ‘on ART with undetectable self-reported viral load’, prevalence ratios (95% confidence interval) adjusted for demographic/HIV-related factors were: 0.66 (0.45, 0.95) for ‘on ART without undetectable self-reported viral load’, and 1.08 (0.78, 1.49) for ‘not on ART’ (global P = 0.021). Among heterosexual men and women (combined), ART/self-reported viral load was not associated with CLS-D [corresponding adjusted prevalence ratios: 1.14 (0.73, 1.79) for ‘on ART without undetectable self-reported viral load’; 0.88 (0.44, 1.77) for ‘not on ART’, P = 0.77]. CLS-D-HIV-risk prevalence was 3.2% among all participants; 16.1% for ‘not on ART’; 0.6% for ‘on ART with undetectable self-reported viral load; 4.2% for ‘on ART

  9. Sequential combination of self-report, breath carbon monoxide, and saliva cotinine to assess smoking status.

    PubMed

    Javors, M A; Hatch, J P; Lamb, R J

    2011-01-15

    The purpose of this analysis was to develop an algorithm for the cost effective and accurate assessment of smoking during the previous few days by combining self-report, breath carbon monoxide (BCO), and saliva cotinine (sCOT). These measurements are convenient, quantitative, and do not require invasive procedures. The data used to devise the algorithm were gathered during a treatment trial of participants seeking to stop smoking. Self-report of smoking was determined using a written questionnaire, BCO was measured with a handheld breathalyzer, and sCOT was quantified using a high sensitivity ELISA. Participants were 130 males and 97 females between the ages of 19 and 67 years who reported smoking at least 15 cigarettes a day and had a BCO level ≥ 15 ppm. Self-reports and BCO levels were collected at each of 6 visits (V0-V5) and sCOT levels were determined at V0 and V5. Based on the data collected, we recommend that the sequential determination of self-reported smoking, BCO level, and sCOT level be employed to assess smoking during the previous few days to minimize the higher cost and longer turnaround time associated with the sCOT test while maximizing accuracy. PMID:20822867

  10. Enhanced response inhibition during intensive meditation training predicts improvements in self-reported adaptive socioemotional functioning.

    PubMed

    Sahdra, Baljinder K; MacLean, Katherine A; Ferrer, Emilio; Shaver, Phillip R; Rosenberg, Erika L; Jacobs, Tonya L; Zanesco, Anthony P; King, Brandon G; Aichele, Stephen R; Bridwell, David A; Mangun, George R; Lavy, Shiri; Wallace, B Alan; Saron, Clifford D

    2011-04-01

    We examined the impact of training-induced improvements in self-regulation, operationalized in terms of response inhibition, on longitudinal changes in self-reported adaptive socioemotional functioning. Data were collected from participants undergoing 3 months of intensive meditation training in an isolated retreat setting (Retreat 1) and a wait-list control group that later underwent identical training (Retreat 2). A 32-min response inhibition task (RIT) was designed to assess sustained self-regulatory control. Adaptive functioning (AF) was operationalized as a single latent factor underlying self-report measures of anxious and avoidant attachment, mindfulness, ego resilience, empathy, the five major personality traits (extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience), difficulties in emotion regulation, depression, anxiety, and psychological well-being. Participants in Retreat 1 improved in RIT performance and AF over time whereas the controls did not. The control participants later also improved on both dimensions during their own retreat (Retreat 2). These improved levels of RIT performance and AF were sustained in follow-up assessments conducted approximately 5 months after the training. Longitudinal dynamic models with combined data from both retreats showed that improvement in RIT performance during training influenced the change in AF over time, which is consistent with a key claim in the Buddhist literature that enhanced capacity for self-regulation is an important precursor of changes in emotional well-being. PMID:21500899

  11. Identifying high-functioning dyslexics: is self-report of early reading problems enough?

    PubMed

    Deacon, S Hélène; Cook, Kathryn; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-07-01

    We used a questionnaire to identify university students with self-reported difficulties in reading acquisition during elementary school (self-report; n=31). The performance of the self-report group on standardized measures of word and non-word reading and fluency, passage comprehension and reading rate, and phonological awareness was compared to that of two other groups of university students: one with a recent diagnosis (diagnosed; n=20) and one with no self-reported reading acquisition problems (comparison group; n=33). The comparison group outperformed both groups with a history of reading difficulties (self-report and diagnosed) on almost all measures. The self-report and diagnosed groups performed similarly on most tasks, with the exception of untimed reading comprehension (better performance for diagnosed) and reading rate (better performance for self-report). The two recruitment methods likely sample from the same underlying population but identify individuals with different adaptive strategies.

  12. Profiles of the forms and functions of self-reported aggression in three adolescent samples.

    PubMed

    Marsee, Monica A; Frick, Paul J; Barry, Christopher T; Kimonis, Eva R; Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Aucoin, Katherine J

    2014-08-01

    In the current study, we addressed several issues related to the forms (physical and relational) and functions (reactive and proactive) of aggression in community (n = 307), voluntary residential (n = 1,917), and involuntarily detained (n = 659) adolescents (ages 11-19 years). Across samples, boys self-reported more physical aggression and girls reported more relational aggression, with the exception of higher levels of both forms of aggression in detained girls. Further, few boys showed high rates of relational aggression without also showing high rates of physical aggression. In contrast, it was not uncommon for girls to show high rates of relational aggression alone, and these girls tended to also have high levels of problem behavior (e.g., delinquency) and mental health problems (e.g., emotional dysregulation and callous-unemotional traits). Finally, for physical aggression in both boys and girls, and for relational aggression in girls, there was a clear pattern of aggressive behavior that emerged from cluster analyses across samples. Two aggression clusters emerged, with one group showing moderately high reactive aggression and a second group showing both high reactive and high proactive aggression (combined group). On measures of severity (e.g., self-reported delinquency and arrests) and etiologically important variables (e.g., emotional regulation and callous-unemotional traits), the reactive aggression group was more severe than a nonaggressive cluster but less severe than the combined aggressive cluster. PMID:25047293

  13. Profiles of the forms and functions of self-reported aggression in three adolescent samples.

    PubMed

    Marsee, Monica A; Frick, Paul J; Barry, Christopher T; Kimonis, Eva R; Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Aucoin, Katherine J

    2014-08-01

    In the current study, we addressed several issues related to the forms (physical and relational) and functions (reactive and proactive) of aggression in community (n = 307), voluntary residential (n = 1,917), and involuntarily detained (n = 659) adolescents (ages 11-19 years). Across samples, boys self-reported more physical aggression and girls reported more relational aggression, with the exception of higher levels of both forms of aggression in detained girls. Further, few boys showed high rates of relational aggression without also showing high rates of physical aggression. In contrast, it was not uncommon for girls to show high rates of relational aggression alone, and these girls tended to also have high levels of problem behavior (e.g., delinquency) and mental health problems (e.g., emotional dysregulation and callous-unemotional traits). Finally, for physical aggression in both boys and girls, and for relational aggression in girls, there was a clear pattern of aggressive behavior that emerged from cluster analyses across samples. Two aggression clusters emerged, with one group showing moderately high reactive aggression and a second group showing both high reactive and high proactive aggression (combined group). On measures of severity (e.g., self-reported delinquency and arrests) and etiologically important variables (e.g., emotional regulation and callous-unemotional traits), the reactive aggression group was more severe than a nonaggressive cluster but less severe than the combined aggressive cluster.

  14. Self-reported oral cancer screening by smoking status in Maryland: trends over time

    PubMed Central

    Viswanath, Archana; Kerns, Timothy J.; Sorkin, John D.; Dwyer, Diane M.; Groves, Carmela; Steinberger, Eileen K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The study aims to examine whether a higher proportion of current and former smokers reported having an oral cancer screening (OCS) exam in the past year compared with never smokers in Maryland between 2002 and 2008. Methods Secondary analysis of the Maryland Cancer Surveys (conducted in 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2008), population-based, random-digit-dial surveys on cancer screening among adults age 40 years and older. Of 20,197 individuals who responded to the surveys, 19,054 answered questions on OCS and smoking. Results are weighted to the Maryland population. Results Self-reported OCS in the past year increased from 33 percent in 2002 to 40 percent in 2008. Screening among never and former smokers increased from about 35 percent to 42 percent and from 35 percent to 43 percent, respectively; screening among current smokers remained between 23 percent and 25 percent. In the adjusted analysis, current smokers had decreased odds of screening compared with never smokers; no significant difference was observed between former and never smokers. When the variable dental visit in the last year was included in the adjusted analysis, it became the strongest predictor of OCS. Conclusions Between 2002 and 2008, self-reported OCS in the last year increased among former and never smokers, but remained unchanged for current smokers. A visit to a dental professional attenuated the difference in OCS between current and never smokers. Dental visit in the last year was the strongest predictor of OCS. PMID:23521183

  15. Measuring the bias, precision, accuracy, and validity of self-reported height and weight in assessing overweight and obesity status among adolescents using a surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence regarding bias, precision, and accuracy in adolescent self-reported height and weight across demographic subpopulations is lacking. The bias, precision, and accuracy of adolescent self-reported height and weight across subpopulations were examined using a large, diverse and representative sample of adolescents. A second objective was to develop correction equations for self-reported height and weight to provide more accurate estimates of body mass index (BMI) and weight status. Methods A total of 24,221 students from 8th and 11th grade in Texas participated in the School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) surveillance system in years 2000–2002 and 2004–2005. To assess bias, the differences between the self-reported and objective measures, for height and weight were estimated. To assess precision and accuracy, the Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient was used. BMI was estimated for self-reported and objective measures. The prevalence of students’ weight status was estimated using self-reported and objective measures; absolute (bias) and relative error (relative bias) were assessed subsequently. Correction equations for sex and race/ethnicity subpopulations were developed to estimate objective measures of height, weight and BMI from self-reported measures using weighted linear regression. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values of weight status classification using self-reported measures and correction equations are assessed by sex and grade. Results Students in 8th- and 11th-grade overestimated their height from 0.68cm (White girls) to 2.02 cm (African-American boys), and underestimated their weight from 0.4 kg (Hispanic girls) to 0.98 kg (African-American girls). The differences in self-reported versus objectively-measured height and weight resulted in underestimation of BMI ranging from -0.23 kg/m2 (White boys) to -0.7 kg/m2 (African-American girls). The sensitivity of self-reported measures to classify weight

  16. Eating at the university canteen. Associations with socioeconomic status and healthier self-reported eating habits in France.

    PubMed

    Guagliardo, Valérie; Lions, Caroline; Darmon, Nicole; Verger, Pierre

    2011-02-01

    French university canteens offer structured meals at a fixed moderate price. We examined whether eating regularly at university canteens was associated with socioeconomic status (SES) or dietary practices. The study data came from a cross-sectional study of a random sample of 1723 students aged 18-24 years, in their first year of university in 2005-2006, enrolled in the universities of southeastern France (response rate=71%). Self-reported dietary practices were collected with a behavioral questionnaire. Adjusted logistic regressions showed that eating regularly at university canteens was less frequent among students with less than € 300 monthly resources and not living with their families (OR=0.68 [95%CI: 0.49-0.94]). It was also positively associated, regardless of SES, with the consumption of at least five servings of fruit/vegetables daily (OR=1.42 [1.05-1.92]) and one serving of meat/fish daily (OR=1.41 [1.13-1.76]) but not with either restricting fatty food (OR=1.04 [0.81-1.33]) or never/rarely adding salt to food (OR=1.06 [0.85-1.32]). Eating regularly at university canteens was less frequent among less well-off students and was positively associated with some healthier self-reported dietary habits. Further research is needed to confirm these results in the overall student population in France and to understand the determinants of university canteen utilization. PMID:21094667

  17. Assessing Medicare Part D Claim Completeness Using Medication Self-reports: The Role of Veteran Status and Generic Drug Discount Programs

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lei; Stearns, Sally C.; Thudium, Emily M.; Alburikan, Khalid A.; Rodgers, Jo Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Medicare Part D claims are commonly used for research, but missing claims could compromise their validity. This study assessed two possible causes of missing claims: veteran status and Generic Drug Discount Programs (GDDP). Methods We merged medication self-reports from telephone interviews in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) with Part D claims for six medications (three were commonly in GDDP in 2009). Merged records (4,468) were available for 2,905 ARIC participants enrolled in Part D. Multinomial logit regression provided estimates of the association of concordance (self-report & Part D, self-report only, or Part D only) with veteran and GDDP status, controlling for participant socio-demographics. Results Sample participants were 74±5 years of age, 68% white and 63% female; 19% were male veterans. Compared to females, male veterans were 11% (95% CI: 7%–16%) less likely to have matched medications in self-report & Part D and 11% (95% CI: 7%–16%) more likely to have self-report only. Records for GDDP versus non-GDDP medications were 4% (95% CI: 1%–7%) more likely to be in self-report & Part D and 3% (95% CI: 1%–5%) less likely to be in Part D only, with no difference in self-report only. Conclusions Part D claims were more likely to be missing for veterans, but claims for medications commonly available through GDDP were more likely to match with self-reports. While researchers should be aware of the possibility of missing claims, GDDP status was associated with a higher rather than lower likelihood of claims being complete in 2009. PMID:25793271

  18. Academic procrastination in college students: the role of self-reported executive function.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Laura A; Fogel, Joshua; Nutter-Upham, Katherine E

    2011-03-01

    Procrastination, or the intentional delay of due tasks, is a widespread phenomenon in college settings. Because procrastination can negatively impact learning, achievement, academic self-efficacy, and quality of life, research has sought to understand the factors that produce and maintain this troublesome behavior. Procrastination is increasingly viewed as involving failures in self-regulation and volition, processes commonly regarded as executive functions. The present study was the first to investigate subcomponents of self-reported executive functioning associated with academic procrastination in a demographically diverse sample of college students aged 30 years and below (n = 212). We included each of nine aspects of executive functioning in multiple regression models that also included various demographic and medical/psychiatric characteristics, estimated IQ, depression, anxiety, neuroticism, and conscientiousness. The executive function domains of initiation, plan/organize, inhibit, self-monitor, working memory, task monitor, and organization of materials were significant predictors of academic procrastination in addition to increased age and lower conscientiousness. Results enhance understanding of the neuropsychological correlates of procrastination and may lead to practical suggestions or interventions to reduce its harmful effects on students' academic performance and well-being.

  19. Regression-Based Estimates of Observed Functional Status in Centenarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Meghan B.; Miller, L. Stephen; Woodard, John L.; Davey, Adam; Martin, Peter; Burgess, Molly; Poon, Leonard W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: There is lack of consensus on the best method of functional assessment, and there is a paucity of studies on daily functioning in centenarians. We sought to compare associations between performance-based, self-report, and proxy report of functional status in centenarians. We expected the strongest relationships between proxy…

  20. Executive functions after orbital or lateral prefrontal lesions: Neuropsychological profiles and self-reported executive functions in everyday living

    PubMed Central

    LØVSTAD, M.; FUNDERUD, I.; ENDESTAD, T.; DUE-TØNNESSEN, P.; MELING, T. R.; LINDGREN, M.; KNIGHT, R. T.; SOLBAKK, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined the effects of chronic focal lesions to the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) or orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) on neuropsychological test performance and self-reported executive functioning in everyday living. Methods Fourteen adults with OFC lesions were compared to 10 patients with LPFC injuries and 21 healthy controls. Neuropsychological tests with emphasis on measures of cognitive executive function were administered along with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF-A) and a psychiatric screening instrument. Results The LPFC group differed from healthy controls on neuropsychological tests of sustained mental effort, response inhibition, working memory and mental switching, while the BRIEF-A provided more clinically important information on deficits in everyday life in the OFC group compared to the LPFC group. Correlations between neuropsychological test results and BRIEF-A were weak, while the BRIEF-A correlated strongly with emotional distress. Conclusions It was demonstrated that LPFC damage is particularly prone to cause cognitive executive deficit, while OFC injury is more strongly associated with self-reported dysexecutive symptoms in everyday living. The study illustrates the challenge of identifying executive deficit in individual patients and the lack of strong anatomical specificity of the currently employed methods. There is a need for an integrative methodological approach where standard testing batteries are supplemented with neuropsychiatric and frontal-specific rating scales. PMID:22731818

  1. Analytical, Creative, and Practical Intelligence as Predictors of Self-reported Adaptive Functioning: A Case Study in Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigorenko, Elena L.; Sternberg, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    Studied the efficacy of the triarchic theory of intelligence as a basis for predicting adaptive functioning in a rapidly changing society, that of Russia. Results of intelligence measures administered to 452 women and 293 men show that analytical, practical, and creative intelligence all relate in some degree to self-reported everyday adaptive…

  2. Physical activity and self-reported health status among adolescents: a cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Galán, I; Boix, R; Medrano, M J; Ramos, P; Rivera, F; Pastor-Barriuso, R; Moreno, C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about the dose–response relationship between physical activity and health benefits among young people. Our objective was to analyse the association between the frequency of undertaking moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and the self-reported health status of the adolescent population. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting All regions of Spain. Participants Students aged 11–18 years participating in the Spanish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey 2006. A total of 375 schools and 21 188 students were selected. Main outcomes The frequency of undertaking MVPA was measured by a questionnaire, with the following four health indicators: self-rated health, health complaints, satisfaction with life and health-related quality of life. Linear and logistic regression models were used to analyse the association, adjusting for potential confounding variables and the modelling of the dose–response relationship. Results As the frequency of MVPA increased, the association with health benefits was stronger. A linear trend (p<0.05) was found for self-rated health and health complaints in males and females and for satisfaction with life among females; for health-related quality of life this relationship was quadratic for both sexes (p<0.05). For self-reported health and health complaints, the effect was found to be of greater magnitude in males than in females and, in all scales, the benefits were observed from the lowest frequencies of MVPA, especially in males. Conclusions A protective effect of MVPA was found in both sexes for the four health indicators studied, and this activity had a gradient effect. Among males, health benefits were detected from very low levels of physical activity and the magnitude of the relationship was greater than that for females. PMID:23676798

  3. The Self-Reported Oral Health Status and Dental Attendance of Smokers and Non-Smokers in England

    PubMed Central

    Csikar, Julia; Kang, Jing; Wyborn, Ceri; Dyer, Tom A.; Marshman, Zoe; Godson, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Smoking has been identified as the second greatest risk factor for global death and disability and has impacts on the oral cavity from aesthetic changes to fatal diseases such as oral cancer. The paper presents a secondary analysis of the National Adult Dental Health Survey (2009). The analysis used descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and logistic regression models to report the self-reported oral health status and dental attendance of smokers and non-smokers in England. Of the 9,657 participants, 21% reported they were currently smoking. When compared with smokers; non-smokers were more likely to report ‘good oral health’ (75% versus 57% respectively, p<0.05). Smokers were twice as likely to attend the dentist symptomatically (OR = 2.27, CI = 2.02–2.55) compared with non-smoker regardless the deprivation status. Smokers were more likely to attend symptomatically in the most deprived quintiles (OR = 1.99, CI = 1.57–2.52) and perceive they had poorer oral health (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.42–2.20). The present research is consistent with earlier sub-national research and should be considered when planning early diagnosis and management strategies for smoking-related conditions, considering the potential impact dental teams might have on smoking rates. PMID:26863107

  4. Neurobehavioral Performance Impairment in Insomnia: Relationships with Self-Reported Sleep and Daytime Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Shekleton, Julia A.; Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Miller, Belinda; Epstein, Lawrence J.; Kirsch, Douglas; Brogna, Lauren A.; Burke, Liza M.; Bremer, Erin; Murray, Jade M.; Gehrman, Philip; Lockley, Steven W.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.

    2014-01-01

    . Neurobehavioral performance impairment in insomnia: relationships with self-reported sleep and daytime functioning. SLEEP 2014;37(1):107-116. PMID:24470700

  5. Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Time in Bed as Predictors of Physical Function Decline: Results from the InCHIANTI Study

    PubMed Central

    Stenholm, Sari; Kronholm, Erkki; Bandinelli, Stefania; Guralnik, Jack M.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To characterize elderly persons into sleep/rest groups based on their self-reported habitual total sleeping time (TST) and habitual time in bed (TIB) and to examine the prospective association between sleep/rest behavior on physical function decline. Design: Population-based InCHIANTI study with 6 years follow-up (Tuscany, Italy). Setting: Community. Participants: Men and women aged ≥ 65 years (n = 751). Measurements and Results: At baseline, participants were categorized into 5 sleep/rest behavior groups according to their self-reported TST and TIB, computed from bedtime and wake-up time. Physical function was assessed at baseline and at 3- and 6-year follow-ups as walking speed, the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and self-reported mobility disability (ability to walk 400 m or climb one flight of stairs). Both long (≥ 9 h) TST and long TIB predicted accelerated decline in objectively measured physical performance and greater incidence in subjectively assessed mobility disability, but short (≤ 6 h) TST did not. After combining TST and TIB, long sleepers (TST and TIB ≥ 9 h) experienced the greatest decline in physical performance and had the highest risk for incident mobility disability in comparison to mid-range sleepers with 7-8 h TST and TIB. Subjective short sleepers reporting short (≤ 6 h) TST but long (≥ 9 h) TIB showed a greater decline in SPPB score and had a higher risk of incident mobility disability than true short sleepers with short (≤ 6 h) TST and TIB ≤ 8 hours. Conclusions: Extended time in bed as well as long total sleeping time is associated with greater physical function decline than mid-range or short sleep. TIB offers important additive information to the self-reported sleep duration when evaluating the consequences of sleep duration on health and functional status. Citation: Stenholm S; Kronholm K; Bandinelli S; Guralnik JM; Ferrucci. Self-reported sleep duration and time in bed as predictors of

  6. Gender, ethnicity and graduate status, and junior doctors’ self-reported preparedness for clinical practice: national questionnaire surveys

    PubMed Central

    Svirko, Elena; Lambert, Trevor; Goldacre, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Medical schools need to ensure that graduates feel well prepared for their first medical job. Our objective was to report on differences in junior doctors’ self-reported preparedness for work according to gender, ethnicity and graduate status. Design Postal and electronic questionnaires. Setting UK. Participants Medical graduates of 2008 and 2009, from all UK medical schools, one year after graduation. Main outcome measures The main outcome measure was the doctors’ level of agreement with the statement that ‘My experience at medical school prepared me well for the jobs I have undertaken so far’, to which respondents were asked to reply on a scale from ‘strongly agree’ to ‘strongly disagree’. Results Women were slightly less likely than men to agree that they felt well prepared for work (50% of women agreed or strongly agreed vs. 54% of men), independently of medical school, ethnicity, graduate entry status and intercalated degree status, although they were no more likely than men to regard lack of preparedness as having been a problem for them. Adjusting for the other subgroup differences, non-white respondents were less likely to report feeling well prepared than white (44% vs. 54%), and were more likely to indicate that lack of preparedness was a problem (30% non-white vs. 24% white). There were also some gender and ethnic differences in preparedness for specific areas of work. Conclusions The identified gender and ethnic differences need to be further explored to determine whether they are due to differences in self-confidence or in actual preparedness. PMID:24108533

  7. Cascading of molecular logic gates for advanced functions: a self-reporting, activatable photosensitizer.

    PubMed

    Erbas-Cakmak, Sundus; Akkaya, Engin U

    2013-10-18

    Logical progress: Independent molecular logic gates have been designed and characterized. Then, the individual molecular logic gates were coerced to work together within a micelle. Information relay between the two logic gates was achieved through the intermediacy of singlet oxygen. Working together, these concatenated logic gates result in a self-reporting and activatable photosensitizer. GSH=glutathione. PMID:24030974

  8. A short self-report measure of problems with executive function suitable for administration via the Internet.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Tom; Heffernan, Thomas M; Parrott, Andrew C; Ling, Jonathan; Rodgers, Jacqui; Scholey, Andrew B

    2010-08-01

    This article describes a short self-report measure of problems with executive function designed for use in Internet-mediated research. In Study 1, participants completed the online measure (Webexec) using a browser but under laboratory conditions. They also completed a paper self-report measure of executive problems (the Dysexecutive Questionnaire; DEX) and three objective tasks involving executive function: reverse digit span, semantic fluency (unconstrained), and semantic fluency (constrained). Webexec scores correlated positively with the DEX and negatively with the three executive tasks. Further evidence of construct validity came from Study 2, in which Webexec scores correlated positively with both use of cannabis and prospective memory problems reported in an online drug questionnaire. Webexec thus appears suitable for online research with normal populations.

  9. Comparison between objective measures of smoking and self-reported smoking status in patients with asthma or COPD: are our patients telling us the truth?*

    PubMed Central

    Stelmach, Rafael; Fernandes, Frederico Leon Arrabal; Carvalho-Pinto, Regina Maria; Athanazio, Rodrigo Abensur; Rached, Samia Zahi; Prado, Gustavo Faibischew; Cukier, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Smoking prevalence is frequently estimated on the basis of self-reported smoking status. That can lead to an underestimation of smoking rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference between self-reported smoking status and that determined through the use of objective measures of smoking at a pulmonary outpatient clinic. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 144 individuals: 51 asthma patients, 53 COPD patients, 20 current smokers, and 20 never-smokers. Smoking status was determined on the basis of self-reports obtained in interviews, as well as through tests of exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) and urinary cotinine. RESULTS: All of the asthma patients and COPD patients declared they were not current smokers. In the COPD and asthma patients, the median urinary cotinine concentration was 167 ng/mL (range, 2-5,348 ng/mL) and 47 ng/mL (range, 5-2,735 ng/mL), respectively (p < 0.0001), whereas the median eCO level was 8 ppm (range, 0-31 ppm) and 5 ppm (range, 2-45 ppm), respectively (p < 0.05). In 40 (38%) of the patients with asthma or COPD (n = 104), there was disagreement between the self-reported smoking status and that determined on the basis of the urinary cotinine concentration, a concentration > 200 ng/mL being considered indicative of current smoking. In 48 (46%) of those 104 patients, the self-reported non-smoking status was refuted by an eCO level > 6 ppm, which is also considered indicative of current smoking. In 30 (29%) of the patients with asthma or COPD, the urinary cotinine concentration and the eCO level both belied the patient claims of not being current smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that high proportions of smoking pulmonary patients with lung disease falsely declare themselves to be nonsmokers. The accurate classification of smoking status is pivotal to the treatment of lung diseases. Objective measures of smoking could be helpful in improving clinical management and counseling. PMID:25972966

  10. Ankle proprioceptive acuity is associated with objective as well as self-report measures of balance, mobility, and physical function.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Nandini; Simonsick, Eleanor; Metter, E Jeffrey; Ko, Seunguk; Ferrucci, Luigi; Studenski, Stephanie

    2016-06-01

    Ankle proprioceptive information is integrated by the central nervous system to generate and modulate muscle contractions for maintaining standing balance. This study evaluated the association of ankle joint proprioception with objective and self-report measures of balance, mobility, and physical function across the adult life span. Seven hundred and ninety participants (age range 24-97 years, 362 women) who completed ankle proprioception assessment between 2010 and 2014 were included in the present study from the population-based cohort of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), USA. Outcome measures included ankle joint proprioception measured as threshold for perception of passive movement (TPPM); single leg stance time; perceived difficulty for standing balance; usual, fastest, and narrow-path gait speed; walking index; short physical performance battery score; and self-reported activity restriction due to fear of falling. Descriptive variables included age, sex, body mass index, education, strength, and cognition. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) in general linear model (GLM) or multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed, as appropriate, to test the hypothesis that balance, mobility, and physical function were significantly different according to TPPM quintiles even after adjusting for relevant covariates. Those with TPPM >2.2° consistently demonstrated poor balance, mobility, and physical function. However, with increase in challenge (single leg stance, fastest walking speed, and SPPB), TPPM >1.4° was associated with significantly worse performance. In conclusion, ankle proprioceptive acuity has an overall graded relationship with objective and self-report measures of balance, mobility, and physical function. However, the cutoff proprioceptive acuity associated with substantial decline or inability to perform could depend on the challenge induced.

  11. Ankle proprioceptive acuity is associated with objective as well as self-report measures of balance, mobility, and physical function.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Nandini; Simonsick, Eleanor; Metter, E Jeffrey; Ko, Seunguk; Ferrucci, Luigi; Studenski, Stephanie

    2016-06-01

    Ankle proprioceptive information is integrated by the central nervous system to generate and modulate muscle contractions for maintaining standing balance. This study evaluated the association of ankle joint proprioception with objective and self-report measures of balance, mobility, and physical function across the adult life span. Seven hundred and ninety participants (age range 24-97 years, 362 women) who completed ankle proprioception assessment between 2010 and 2014 were included in the present study from the population-based cohort of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), USA. Outcome measures included ankle joint proprioception measured as threshold for perception of passive movement (TPPM); single leg stance time; perceived difficulty for standing balance; usual, fastest, and narrow-path gait speed; walking index; short physical performance battery score; and self-reported activity restriction due to fear of falling. Descriptive variables included age, sex, body mass index, education, strength, and cognition. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) in general linear model (GLM) or multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed, as appropriate, to test the hypothesis that balance, mobility, and physical function were significantly different according to TPPM quintiles even after adjusting for relevant covariates. Those with TPPM >2.2° consistently demonstrated poor balance, mobility, and physical function. However, with increase in challenge (single leg stance, fastest walking speed, and SPPB), TPPM >1.4° was associated with significantly worse performance. In conclusion, ankle proprioceptive acuity has an overall graded relationship with objective and self-report measures of balance, mobility, and physical function. However, the cutoff proprioceptive acuity associated with substantial decline or inability to perform could depend on the challenge induced. PMID:27146830

  12. A dysphoric's TALE: The relationship between the self-reported functions of autobiographical memory and symptoms of depression.

    PubMed

    Grace, Lydia; Dewhurst, Stephen A; Anderson, Rachel J

    2016-10-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) is believed to serve self, social and directive functions; however, little is known regarding how this triad of functions operates in depression. Using the Thinking About Life Experiences questionnaire [Bluck, S., & Alea, N. (2011). Crafting the TALE: Construction of a measure to assess the functions of autobiographical remembering. Memory, 19, 470-486.; Bluck, S., Alea, N., Habermas, T., & Rubin, D. C. (2005). A TALE of three functions: The self-reported uses of autobiographical memory. Social Cognition, 23, 91-117.], two studies explored the relationship between depressive symptomology and the self-reported frequency and usefulness of AMs for self, social and directive purposes. Study 1 revealed that thinking more frequently but talking less frequently about past life events was significantly associated with higher depression scores. Recalling past events more frequently to maintain self-continuity was also significantly associated with higher depressive symptomology. However, results from Study 2 indicated that higher levels of depression were also significantly associated with less-frequent useful recollections of past life events for self-continuity purposes. Taken together, the findings suggest atypical utilisations of AM to serve self-continuity functions in depression and can be interpreted within the wider context of ruminative thought processes.

  13. A dysphoric's TALE: The relationship between the self-reported functions of autobiographical memory and symptoms of depression.

    PubMed

    Grace, Lydia; Dewhurst, Stephen A; Anderson, Rachel J

    2016-10-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) is believed to serve self, social and directive functions; however, little is known regarding how this triad of functions operates in depression. Using the Thinking About Life Experiences questionnaire [Bluck, S., & Alea, N. (2011). Crafting the TALE: Construction of a measure to assess the functions of autobiographical remembering. Memory, 19, 470-486.; Bluck, S., Alea, N., Habermas, T., & Rubin, D. C. (2005). A TALE of three functions: The self-reported uses of autobiographical memory. Social Cognition, 23, 91-117.], two studies explored the relationship between depressive symptomology and the self-reported frequency and usefulness of AMs for self, social and directive purposes. Study 1 revealed that thinking more frequently but talking less frequently about past life events was significantly associated with higher depression scores. Recalling past events more frequently to maintain self-continuity was also significantly associated with higher depressive symptomology. However, results from Study 2 indicated that higher levels of depression were also significantly associated with less-frequent useful recollections of past life events for self-continuity purposes. Taken together, the findings suggest atypical utilisations of AM to serve self-continuity functions in depression and can be interpreted within the wider context of ruminative thought processes. PMID:26371517

  14. Self-Reported Sleep Disturbance among African-American Elderly: The Effects of Depression, Health Status, Exercise, and Social Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Mohsen

    1996-01-01

    Investigates prevalence, correlates, and self-reported difficulties in initiating and maintaining sleep for a sample of 998 black elderly subjects. The majority (68.3%) of the sample had no trouble falling asleep. Over 14.5% of men and 23.6% of women reported sleep latencies exceeding 30 minutes. Almost 13% reported less than 4 hours of sleep a…

  15. Perception makes the difference: the association of actual and perceived weight status with self-reported and parent-reported personal resources and well-being in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Tanja; Eschenbeck, Heike; Krug, Susanne; Schlaud, Martin; Kohlmann, Carl-Walter

    2012-11-01

    The study analyzed associations between actual weight status and weight perceptions with personal resources, physical and psychological health, as well as physical performance among adolescents (N = 5,518; age: 11-17 years). Analyses are based on data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Self-report measures, parental reports, as well as objective test data were considered. Results indicate that weight perceptions, rather than actual weight status, were associated with personal resources, health, and perceived physical performance. Comparing groups, we found that adolescents who felt they had "just the right weight" achieved more favourable results than those who perceived themselves as "too fat", regardless of their actual weight status. However, actual physical performance was predicted better by actual weight status. Furthermore, weight perceptions were found to mediate the link between actual weight status and all the assessed outcomes (personal resources, health, and physical performance). With respect to self-reports, the mediational effect was consistently stronger for girls, whereas the reverse was true regarding physical performance. Parental reports were not moderated by sex. Findings provide further evidence that among overweight adolescents there are subgroups that differ significantly with regard to risks and resources. Implications for practice are discussed.

  16. Sexually transmitted infection testing practices among 'money boys' and general men who have sex with men in Shanghai, China: objective versus self-reported status.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lavinia; Nehl, Eric J; Tran, Alvin; He, Na; Zheng, Tony; Wong, Frank Y

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). This study describes the prevalence of STI testing, associated factors and the validity of STI self-reporting among Chinese MSM. Findings indicated a high prevalence of STIs and low testing rates among MSM in Shanghai. Monthly income was significantly associated with STI testing (odds ratio: 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18 to 0.76). Depression was significantly associated with STI testing for general MSM (odds ratio: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.17). Syphilis self-reported status had the highest validity (k=0.33, χ(2)=3.76, 95% CI: -0.003 to 0.65). Efforts are needed to ensure that STI testing services are accessible to MSM in China. Future HIV and STI interventions should be tailored to the needs of different subsets of MSM.

  17. Self-Reported Sexual Function Measures Administered to Female Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review, 2008–2014

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, Diana D.; Barbera, Lisa; Andersen, Barbara L.; Siston, Amy K.; Jhingran, Anuja; Baron, Shirley R.; Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Coady, Deborah J.; Carter, Jeanne; Flynn, Kathryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Background A systematic review was conducted to identify and characterize self-reported sexual function (SF) measures administered to women with a history of cancer. Methods Using 2009 PRISMA guidelines, we searched electronic bibliographic databases for quantitative studies published January 2008–September 2014 that used a self-reported measure of SF, or a quality of life (QOL) measure that contained at least one item pertaining to SF. Results Of 1,487 articles initially identified, 171 were retained. The studies originated in 36 different countries with 23% from U.S.-based authors. Most studies focused on women treated for breast, gynecologic, or colorectal cancer. About 70% of the articles examined SF as the primary focus; the remaining examined QOL, menopausal symptoms, or compared treatment modalities. We identified 37 measures that assessed at least one domain of SF, eight of which were dedicated SF measures developed with cancer patients. Almost one-third of the studies used EORTC QLQ modules to assess SF, and another third used the Female Sexual Function Inventory. There were few commonalities among studies, though nearly all demonstrated worse SF after cancer treatment or compared to healthy controls. Conclusions QOL measures are better suited to screening while dedicated SF questionnaires provide data for more in depth assessment. This systematic review will assist oncology clinicians and researchers in their selection of measures of SF and encourage integration of this quality of life domain in patient care. PMID:25997102

  18. Change in self-reported health status among immigrants in the United States: associations with measures of acculturation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunmin; O'Neill, Allison H; Ihara, Emily S; Chae, David H

    2013-01-01

    Although acculturation may have positive effects for immigrants, including better socioeconomic profiles and increased occupational opportunities, their health profiles deteriorate with longer duration in the U.S. Prior research indicates that increasing acculturation is associated with some poorer health outcomes among immigrants in the U.S. However, most of these studies have used length of stay or English language proficiency as proxies for acculturation, and have mainly examined self-reported "current" health outcomes. This study advances knowledge on associations between acculturation and health among immigrants by explicitly examining self-reported "change" in health since immigration, in relation to acculturation-related variables. We use data from the New Immigrant Survey (NIS; 2003-2004), a cross-sectional study of legal immigrants to the U.S. In addition to testing more conventionally examined proxies of acculturation (length of stay and English proficiency), we also examine English language use and self-reported change in diet. Multivariable logistic regression analyses on 5,982 participants generally supported previous literature indicating a deleterious impact of acculturation, with increasing duration of stay and greater self-reported change in diet being associated with a poorer change in health since moving to the U.S. Although English language proficiency and use were associated with greater odds of reporting a worse change in health when examined individually, they were non-significant in multivariable models including all acculturation measures. Findings from this study suggest that when taking into account multiple measures of acculturation, language may not necessarily indicate unhealthy assimilation and dietary change may be a pathway leading to declines in immigrant health. Increasing duration in the U.S. may also reflect the adoption of unhealthy behaviors, as well as greater exposure to harmful sources of psychosocial stress including

  19. Self-reported health status, body mass index, and healthy lifestyle behaviors: differences between Baby Boomer and Generation X employees at a southeastern university.

    PubMed

    Carter, Melondie R; Kelly, Rebecca K

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess differences in self-reported health status, body mass index (BMI), and healthy lifestyle behaviors between Baby Boomer and Generation X faculty and staff at a southeastern university. Data were drawn from employee health risk assessment and BMI measures. A total of 730 Baby Boomer and 765 Generation X employees enrolled in a university health promotion and screening program were included in the study. Ordered logistic regressions were calculated separately for BMI, perceived health status, and three healthy lifestyle behaviors. After covariates such as job role, gender, race, education, and income were controlled, Baby Boomers were more likely than Generation X employees to report better health status and dietary habits. Baby Boomers were also more likely to engage in weekly aerobic physical activity (p < .001) yet were also at greater risk of being overweight and obese. The results highlight the need to consider generational differences when developing health promotion programs.

  20. The relationship between social support and self-reported health status in immigrants: an adjusted analysis in the Madrid Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Social support is an important factor in the adaptation process of immigrants, helping for their integration in a new environment. The lack of social support may influence on well-being and health status. The aim of this study is to describe the social support of immigrant and native population and study the possible association between immigration and lack social support after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, income, stress and self-reported health status. Methods Cross-sectional population based study of immigrants and national patients without mental disorders of 15 urban primary health centers in the north-eastern area of Madrid. Participants provided information on social support, stress level, perceived health status and socio-economic characteristics. Descriptive and multiple logistic regression were conducted. Results The proportion of the global perception of social support among immigrants and natives was 79.2% and 94.2%, respectively. The lack of global social support adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) of immigrant was 2.72 (95% Confidence Interval = 1.81-4.09), showing a significant association with being male (PR = 2.26), having monthly income below 500 euros (PR = 3.81) and suffering stress (PR = 1.94). For the dimensions of lack of social support the higher association was being an immigrant and suffering stress. Conclusions We conclude that with regardless of the level of monthly income, stress level, self-reported health status, and gender, immigrant status is directly associated with lack social support. The variable most strongly associated with lack social support has been monthly income below 500 euros. PMID:21651759

  1. Self Reports of Day-to-Day Function in a Small Cohort of People with Prodromal and Early HD

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Janet; Downing, Nancy; Vaccarino, Anthony L; Guttman, Mark; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2011-01-01

    Day-to-day functioning is a component of health-related quality of life and is an important end point for therapies to treat Huntington Disease (HD). Specific areas of day-to-day function changes have not been reported for prodromal or very early stages of HD. An exploratory self-report telephone interview was conducted with sixteen people with prodromal HD or early HD who met criteria designed to capture research participants most near to motor diagnosis. All completed semi-structured interviews on function in nine aspects of day-to-day life. Out of 16, 14 reported changes in at least one area. All day-to-day function areas were endorsed by at least one participant with driving being the most common area endorsed by 11/16. Changes in ability to perform some day-to-day tasks are experienced by people who are close to the time of clinical diagnosis for HD. Functional ability is likely to be an important component of outcome assessments of clinical trials and in ongoing clinical management. PMID:21901173

  2. Self-Report Assessment of Executive Functioning in College Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieve, Adam; Webne-Behrman, Lisa; Couillou, Ryan; Sieben-Schneider, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a unique assessment of executive functioning (EF) among postsecondary students with disabilities, with the aim of understanding the extent to which students with different disabilities and in different age groups assess their own difficulties with relevant and educationally-adaptive skills such as planning, initiating, managing…

  3. The Effect of Self-Reported and Performance-Based Functional Impairment on Future Hospital Costs of Community-Dwelling Older Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuben, David B.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Keeler, Emmett; Hayes, Risa P.; Bowman, Lee; Sewall, Ase; Hirsch, Susan H.; Wallace, Robert B.; Guralnik, Jack M.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: We determined the prognostic value of self-reported and performance-based measurement of function, including functional transitions and combining different measurement approaches, on utilization. Design and Methods: Our cohort study used the 6th, 7th, and 10th waves of three sites of the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies…

  4. Household food insecurity is associated with self-reported pregravid weight status, gestational weight gain and pregnancy complications

    PubMed Central

    Laraia, Barbara A.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gundersen, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Background Household food insecurity is positively associated with weight among women. The association between household food insecurity and pregnancy related weight gain and complications is not well understood. Objective To identify if an independent association exists between household food insecurity and pregnancy related complications. Design Data from the Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition prospective cohort study were used to assess household food insecurity retrospectively using the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 18-item Core Food Security Module (CFSM) among 810 pregnant women with incomes ≤ 400% of the income/poverty ratio, recruited between January 2001 and June 2005 and followed through pregnancy. Main outcome measures Self-reported pregravid body mass index, gestational weight gain, second trimester anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Statistical analyses performed: Multivariate linear, multinomial logistic and logistic regression analyses. Results Among 810 pregnant women, 76% were from fully food secure, 14% were from marginally food secure, and 10% were from food insecure households. In adjusted models, living in a food insecure household was significantly associated with severe pregravid obesity [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.97, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.44, 6.14], higher gestational weight gain [adjusted β coefficient 1.87, 95% CI 0.13, 3.62] and with a higher adequacy of weight gain ratio [adjusted β 0.27, CI 0.07, 0.50]. Marginal food security was significantly associated with gestational diabetes mellitus [AOR 2.76, 95% CI 1.00, 7.66]. Conclusions This study highlights the possibility that living in a food insecure household during pregnancy may increase risk of greater weight gain and pregnancy complications. PMID:20430130

  5. Assessing the Forms and Functions of Aggression Using Self-Report: Factor Structure and Invariance of the Peer Conflict Scale in Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsee, Monica A.; Barry, Christopher T.; Childs, Kristina K.; Frick, Paul J.; Kimonis, Eva R.; Munoz, Luna C.; Aucoin, Katherine J.; Fassnacht, Gregory M.; Kunimatsu, Melissa M.; Lau, Katherine S. L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the structure of a self-report measure of the forms and functions of aggression in 855 adolescents (582 boys, 266 girls) aged 12 to 19 years recruited from high school, detained, and residential settings. The Peer Conflict Scale (PCS) is a 40-item measure that was developed to improve upon existing measures and provide an…

  6. Effect of Social Familiarity on Salivary Cortisol and Self-Reports of Social Anxiety and Stress in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A.; Putnam, Susan K.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Nida, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of social familiarity on salivary cortisol and social anxiety/stress for a sample of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. The relationship between self-reported social anxiety/stress and salivary cortisol was also examined. Participants interacted with a familiar peer on one occasion and an…

  7. Self-Reported Health and Functional Characteristics of Mexican and Mexican American Adults Aged 80 and Over

    PubMed Central

    Downer, Brian; Chen, Nai-Wei; Wong, Rebeca; Markides, Kyriakos S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the health and functional characteristics of Mexican and Mexican American adults aged ≥80. Method Data came from Wave I (2001) and Wave III (2012) of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), and Wave IV (2000–2001) and Wave VII (2010–2011) of the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (HEPESE). Results In 2000–2001, diabetes, arthritis, hypertension, and stroke were higher in the HEPESE than in the MHAS. In the HEPESE, activities of daily living (ADL) difficulties and all health conditions, except heart attack, were greater in 2010–2011 than in 2000–2001. In the MHAS, hypertension and ADL difficulties were greater, and arthritis was lower in 2012 compared with 2001. In 2010–2011, all self-reported health conditions were higher in the HEPESE compared with the 2012 observation of the MHAS. Discussion The observed differences may reflect worse health for Mexican Americans, health care access, reporting bias, and more selective survival to very old age in Mexico. PMID:27590800

  8. Assessing quality of life of self-reported rheumatic patients.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Pedro L; Gonçalves, Sónia P; Ferreira, Lara N; Pereira, Luis N; Antunes, Patrícia; Gouveia, Nélia; Rodrigues, Ana; Canhão, Helena; Branco, Jaime

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with self-reported rheumatic diseases (RD), to classify self-reported rheumatic patients in groups according to their health state and to explore the associations between health status and sociodemographic variables. Data came from the Portuguese Epidemiologic study of the RD. A sample of the Portuguese population aged 18 or more (n = 10,661) stratified by region and locality dimension was interviewed by trained interviewers and answered a standardized questionnaire that included the SF-36v1, the EQ-5D-3L, medical history, identification of potential rheumatic diseases, sociodemographic characteristics, among others. Descriptive statistics and parametric tests were used to compare HRQoL of respondents with and without RD. Comparisons with normative data from the Portuguese population were also carried out. A cluster analysis was used to classify respondents into homogeneous groups. Regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with HRQoL. Respondents with self-reported RD assigned a lower self-perception to their health status. The burden of disease was observed mainly in physical function, role physical and bodily pain. The EQ-5D-3L dimensions show similar results: the intensity of problems is significantly more evident in respondents with self-reported RD. HRQoL of respondents with self-reported RD is related to sociodemographic variables and is significantly lower when compared with the Portuguese population. Four clusters of homogeneous respondents with self-reported RD were formed and characterized according to a number of variables. Factors associated with HRQoL were identified. In conclusion, suffering from a self-reported RD has a significant impact on self-perceived health status and on the quality of life. PMID:27378230

  9. Assessing quality of life of self-reported rheumatic patients.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Pedro L; Gonçalves, Sónia P; Ferreira, Lara N; Pereira, Luis N; Antunes, Patrícia; Gouveia, Nélia; Rodrigues, Ana; Canhão, Helena; Branco, Jaime

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with self-reported rheumatic diseases (RD), to classify self-reported rheumatic patients in groups according to their health state and to explore the associations between health status and sociodemographic variables. Data came from the Portuguese Epidemiologic study of the RD. A sample of the Portuguese population aged 18 or more (n = 10,661) stratified by region and locality dimension was interviewed by trained interviewers and answered a standardized questionnaire that included the SF-36v1, the EQ-5D-3L, medical history, identification of potential rheumatic diseases, sociodemographic characteristics, among others. Descriptive statistics and parametric tests were used to compare HRQoL of respondents with and without RD. Comparisons with normative data from the Portuguese population were also carried out. A cluster analysis was used to classify respondents into homogeneous groups. Regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with HRQoL. Respondents with self-reported RD assigned a lower self-perception to their health status. The burden of disease was observed mainly in physical function, role physical and bodily pain. The EQ-5D-3L dimensions show similar results: the intensity of problems is significantly more evident in respondents with self-reported RD. HRQoL of respondents with self-reported RD is related to sociodemographic variables and is significantly lower when compared with the Portuguese population. Four clusters of homogeneous respondents with self-reported RD were formed and characterized according to a number of variables. Factors associated with HRQoL were identified. In conclusion, suffering from a self-reported RD has a significant impact on self-perceived health status and on the quality of life.

  10. Musculoskeletal Pain, Self-reported Physical Function, and Quality of Life in the Teen–Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bout-Tabaku, Sharon; Michalsky, Marc P.; Jenkins, Todd M.; Baughcum, Amy; Zeller, Meg H.; Brandt, Mary L.; Courcoulas, Anita; Buncher, Ralph; Helmrath, Michael; Harmon, Carroll M.; Chen, Mike K.; Inge, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Obesity is associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain and is a risk factor for disability and osteoarthritis. OBJECTIVES To describe the prevalence, sites, and intensity of musculoskeletal pain in adolescents with severe obesity; to evaluate associations between musculoskeletal pain and self-reported physical function as well as weight-related quality of life; and to evaluate the association between musculoskeletal pain and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Teen–Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS) is a prospective, observational study that collects standardized data on adolescents undergoing weight loss surgery at 5 US centers. We examined baseline data from this cohort between February 28, 2007, and December 30, 2011. We excluded adolescents with Blount disease and slipped capital femoral epiphyses. A total of 233 participants were included in these analyses. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We assessed musculoskeletal pain and pain intensity of the lower back, hips, knees, and ankles/feet using the visual analog scale, categorizing musculoskeletal pain into lower back pain, lower extremity (hips, knees, and feet/ankles combined) pain, and no pain. We assessed self-reported physical function status with the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index and assessed weight-related quality of life with the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life–Kids measure. We adjusted for sex, race, age at surgery, body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), and clinical depressive symptoms in regression analyses. RESULTS Among the 233 participants, the mean (SD) age at surgery was 17.1 (1.56) years and the median BMI was 50.4. Participants were predominantly female (77%), white (73%), and non-Hispanic (93%). Among the participants, 49% had poor functional status and 76% had musculoskeletal pain. Lower back pain was prevalent (63%), followed by ankle

  11. Self-reported previous knee injury and low knee function increase knee injury risk in adolescent female football.

    PubMed

    Clausen, M B; Tang, L; Zebis, M K; Krustrup, P; Hölmich, P; Wedderkopp, N; Andersen, L L; Christensen, K B; Møller, M; Thorborg, K

    2016-08-01

    Knee injuries are common in adolescent female football. Self-reported previous knee injury and low Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are proposed to predict future knee injuries, but evidence regarding this in adolescent female football is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale score as risk factors for future knee injuries in adolescent female football. A sample of 326 adolescent female football players, aged 15-18, without knee injury at baseline, were included. Data on self-reported previous knee injury and KOOS questionnaires were collected at baseline. Time-loss knee injuries and football exposures were reported weekly by answers to standardized text-message questions, followed by injury telephone interviews. A priori, self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale scores (< 80 points) were chosen as independent variables in the risk factor analyses. The study showed that self-reported previous knee injury significantly increased the risk of time-loss knee injury [relative risk (RR): 3.65, 95% confidence (CI) 1.73-7.68; P < 0.001]. Risk of time-loss knee injury was also significantly increased in players with low KOOS subscale scores (< 80 points) in Activities of Daily Living (RR: 5.0), Sport/Recreational (RR: 2.2) and Quality of Life (RR: 3.0) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, self-reported previous knee injury and low scores in three KOOS subscales significantly increase the risk of future time-loss knee injury in adolescent female football. PMID:26179111

  12. Independent associations of childhood and current socioeconomic status with risk of self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis in a family-medicine cohort of North-Carolinians

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Associations of socioeconomic status (SES) with the prevalence of various forms of arthritis are well documented. Increasing evidence suggests that SES during childhood is a lasting determinant of health, but its association with the onset of arthritis remains unclear. Methods Cross-sectional data on 1276 participants originated from 22 family practices in North-Carolina, USA. We created 4-level (high, medium, low, lowest) current SES and childhood SES summary scores based on parental and participant education, occupation and homeownership. We investigated associations of individual SES characteristics, summary scores and SES trajectories (e.g. high/low) with self-reported arthritis in logistic regression models progressively adjusted for race and gender, age, then BMI, and clustered by family practice. Results We found evidence for independent associations of both childhood and current SES with the reporting of arthritis across our models. In covariate-adjusted models simultaneously including current and childhood SES, compared with high SES participants in the lowest childhood SES category (OR = 1.39 [95% CI = 1.04, 1.85]) and those in the low (OR = 1.66 [95% CI = 1.14, 2.42]) and lowest (OR = 2.08 [95% CI = 1.16, 3.74]) categories of current SES had significantly greater odds of having self-reported arthritis. Conclusions Current SES and childhood SES are both associated with the odds of reporting arthritis within this primary-care population, although the possibly superseding influence of existing circumstances must be noted. BMI was a likely mechanism in the association of childhood SES with arthritis onset, and research is needed to elucidate further pathways linking the socioeconomic environment across life-stages and the development of rheumatic diseases. PMID:24256740

  13. Determinants of the variations in self-reported health status among recent and more established immigrants in Canada.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Rajendra Prasad; Rosenberg, Mark Warren

    2014-08-01

    Studies have shown that immigrants are normally in better health on arrival compared to their Canadian-born counterparts. However, the health conditions of new immigrants deteriorate after a few years of their arrival in Canada. This phenomenon is popularly termed the "healthy immigrant effect" (HIE) in the immigrant health literature. Although different hypotheses have been proposed to understand HIE, the causes are subject to ongoing discussion. Unlike previous studies, this study explored the possible causes behind the variations in the health status of recent and more established immigrants comparing 2001 and 2010 Canadian Community Health Surveys (CCHS). Four different hypotheses - namely lifestyle change, barriers to health care services, poor social determinants of health, and work related stress - were tested to understand variations in health status. The study concludes that there is a statistically significant difference in the socioeconomic characteristics and health outcomes of immigrants having less than and more than 10 years of residency in Canada. Logistic regression models show that the health conditions of immigrants are associated with age, sex, ethnic origin, smoking habit, Body Mass Index (BMI), total household income, number of consultations made with a family doctor per year and work related stress.

  14. Self-reported lifetime asthma and nativity status in U.S. children and adolescents: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sharon P; Borrell, Luisa N; Shapiro, Alan

    2010-05-01

    Nativity status seems to have a protective effect on asthma. However, there is little information in the literature on the effect of nativity status on asthma for non-Hispanic Black and White children and adolescents. This study investigates the association between nativity status and self-reported asthma in U.S. children and adolescents under 21 years of age after controlling for selected characteristics including education and income. Logistic regression was conducted using SUDAAN to estimate odds ratios from data of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. The prevalence of asthma for U.S. children and adolescents is 14.5%, with U.S.-born exhibiting a higher prevalence (15.1%) than foreign-born (7.3%, p<.0001). In the fully-adjusted analysis, foreign-born children and adolescents were almost twice less likely than U.S.-born counterparts to report asthma. This association differs by race/ethnicity, with the lowest odds being observed in Whites (OR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.10-0.86), followed by Mexican Americans (OR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.25-0.56) and Blacks (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.29-0.94). Moreover, this association varies by education: Foreign-born children of survey respondents who had at least a high school education were more than twice less likely than their U.S.-born counterparts to have asthma. The findings of this study underscore the importance of inquiring about nativity status when studying asthma among U.S. children and adolescents.

  15. Self-reported lifetime asthma and nativity status in U.S. children and adolescents: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sharon P; Borrell, Luisa N; Shapiro, Alan

    2010-05-01

    Nativity status seems to have a protective effect on asthma. However, there is little information in the literature on the effect of nativity status on asthma for non-Hispanic Black and White children and adolescents. This study investigates the association between nativity status and self-reported asthma in U.S. children and adolescents under 21 years of age after controlling for selected characteristics including education and income. Logistic regression was conducted using SUDAAN to estimate odds ratios from data of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. The prevalence of asthma for U.S. children and adolescents is 14.5%, with U.S.-born exhibiting a higher prevalence (15.1%) than foreign-born (7.3%, p<.0001). In the fully-adjusted analysis, foreign-born children and adolescents were almost twice less likely than U.S.-born counterparts to report asthma. This association differs by race/ethnicity, with the lowest odds being observed in Whites (OR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.10-0.86), followed by Mexican Americans (OR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.25-0.56) and Blacks (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.29-0.94). Moreover, this association varies by education: Foreign-born children of survey respondents who had at least a high school education were more than twice less likely than their U.S.-born counterparts to have asthma. The findings of this study underscore the importance of inquiring about nativity status when studying asthma among U.S. children and adolescents. PMID:20453381

  16. Self-assessment of functional status in schizophrenia☆

    PubMed Central

    Bowie, Christopher R.; Twamley, Elizabeth W.; Anderson, Hannah; Halpern, Brooke; Patterson, Thomas L.; Harvey, Philip D.

    2013-01-01

    With new treatments targeting features of schizophrenia associated with functional disability, there is a need to evaluate the validity of ratings of everyday outcomes. It is unknown whether patients can validly self-report on aspects of their functional status, which would be a potentially economical method for obtaining outcome data. In this study, 67 older schizophrenia outpatients provided self-ratings of everyday real-world functioning using the specific levels of functioning scale (SLOF). They were also administered assessments of neuropsychological performance, performance-based measures of functional capacity and social skills, clinical symptoms, and quality of life. Case managers, unaware of other ratings, also generated SLOF ratings. Based on discrepancy scores, participants were categorized as accurate raters (n = 24), underestimators (n = 16), or overestimators (n = 27) of their functional status as compared to case managers’ ratings. Patients’ self-rated functional status was correlated with their subjective quality of life, but remarkably unassociated with case manager ratings of functional status or their own performance on functional capacity or social skills measures. Case manager ratings, however, were highly correlated with performance on functional capacity and social skills measures. Patients who underestimated their real world performance had better cognitive skills and greater self-rated depression than those who overestimated. Accurate raters demonstrated greater social skills than both overestimators and underestimators, while overestimators were most cognitively and functionally impaired. Accurate ratings of everyday outcomes in schizophrenia may require systematic observation of real world outcomes or performance-based measures, as self-reports were inconsistent with objective information. PMID:17014866

  17. Socioeconomic status and self-reported health among middle-aged Japanese men: results from a nationwide longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiyuki; Smith, Derek R

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine potential associations between socioeconomic factors and self-rated health among a national sample of Japanese men aged 50–59 years between 2005 and 2010, including the 2008 global financial crisis. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Randomly selected 2515 census areas from a total of 1.8 million census areas in Japan. Participants This study utilised data from a national, longitudinal survey conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Starting in 2005, 16 738 Japanese men aged 50–59 years were recruited and sent a questionnaire each year. We analysed data for the 6-year period (2005–2010) from participants who had worked for over 20 years in the same industry (n=9727). Main outcome measures We focused on worsening self-rated health status by occupation, education and employment contract. Results Working in the manufacturing industry was associated with worsening self-rated health scores when compared to those working in management (HR=1.19; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.37). A relationship between education level and worsening self-rated health was also identified as follows: junior high school (HR=1.49; 95% CI 1.31 to 1.69), high school (HR=1.29; 95% CI 1.17 to 1.42), and vocational college (HR=1.25; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.46), when compared with those holding university-level qualifications. Precarious employment (HR=1.17; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.37) was also associated with worsening self-rated health status in the current study. Conclusions This study suggests that working in manufacturing for more than 20 years and having lower education levels may have a significant impact on the self-rated health of middle-aged Japanese men. This may reflect a progressive decline in Japanese working conditions following the global financial crisis and/or the impact of lower socioeconomic status. PMID:26109119

  18. Discrepancy between Self-Reported and Urine-Cotinine Verified Smoking Status among Korean Male Adults: Analysis of Health Check-Up Data from a Single Private Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngju; Choi, Yoon-Jung; Oh, Seung-Won; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Kwon, Hyuktae; Um, Yoo-Jin; Ahn, Sang Hyun; Kim, Hyun Joo

    2016-01-01

    Background Enquiry into smoking status and recommendations for smoking cessation is an essential preventive service. However, there are few studies comparing self-reported (SR) and cotinine-verified (CV) smoking statuses, using medical check-up data. The rates of discrepancy and under-reporting are unknown. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study using health examination data from Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul National University Hospital in 2013. We analyzed SR and CV smoking statuses and discrepancies between the two in relation to sociodemographic variables. We also attempted to ascertain the factors associated with a discrepant smoking status among current smokers. Results In the sample of 3,477 men, CV smoking rate was 11.1% higher than the SR rate. About 1 in 3 participants either omitted the smoking questionnaire or gave a false reply. The ratio of CV to SR smoking rates was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38–1.61). After adjusting for confounding factors, older adults (≥60 years) showed an increased adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for discrepancy between SR and CV when compared to those in their twenties and thirties (aOR, 5.43; 95% CI, 2.69–10.96). Educational levels of high school graduation or lower (aOR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.36–4.01), repeated health check-ups (aOR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.03–2.06), and low cotinine levels of <500 ng/mL (aOR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.33–3.09), were also associated with discordance between SR and CV smoking status. Conclusion Omissions and false responses impede the accurate assessment of smoking status in health check-up participants. In order to improve accuracy, it is suggested that researcher pay attention to participants with greater discrepancy between SR and CV smoking status, and formulate interventions to improve response rates. PMID:27274388

  19. Children's Sleep and Cognitive Functioning: Race and Socioeconomic Status as Moderators of Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keller, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Race and socioeconomic status (SES) moderated the link between children's sleep and cognitive functioning. One hundred and sixty-six 8- to 9-year-old African and European American children varying in SES participated. Sleep measures were actigraphy, sleep diaries, and self-report; cognitive measures were from the Woodcock-Johnson III and reaction…

  20. Cardiovascular Disease is Associated with COPD Severity and Reduced Functional Status and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Black-Shinn, Jennifer L.; Kinney, Gregory L.; Wise, Anastasia L.; Regan, Elizabeth A.; Make, Barry; Krantz, Mori J.; Barr, R. Graham; Murphy, James R.; Lynch, David; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James D.; Hokanson, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is a major risk factor for both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). More individuals with COPD die from CVD than respiratory causes and the risk of developing CVD appears to be independent of smoking burden. Although CVD is a common comorbid condition within COPD, the nature of its relationships to COPD affection status and severity, and functional status is not well understood. Methods The first 2,500 members of the COPDGene cohort were evaluated. Subjects were current and former smokers with a minimum 10 pack year history of cigarette smoking. COPD was defined by spirometry as an FEV1/FVC < lower limit of normal (LLN) with further identification of severity by FEV1 percent of predicted (GOLD stages 2, 3, and 4) for the main analysis. The presence of physician-diagnosed self-reported CVD was determined from a medical history questionnaire administered by a trained staff member. Results A total of 384 (15%) had pre-existing CVD. Self-reported CVD was independently related to COPD (Odds Ratio=1.61, 95% CI=1.18–2.20, p=0.01) after adjustment for covariates with CHF having the greatest association with COPD. Within subjects with COPD, pre-existing self-reported CVD placed subjects at greater risk of hospitalization due to exacerbation, higher BODE index, and greater St. George’s questionnaire score. The presence of self-reported CVD was associated with a shorter six-minute walk distance in those with COPD (p<0.05). Conclusions Self-reported CVD was independently related to COPD with presence of both self-reported CVD and COPD associated with a markedly reduced functional status and reduced quality of life. Identification of CVD in those with COPD is an important consideration in determining functional status. PMID:24831864

  1. Single-legged hop tests as predictors of self-reported knee function in non-operatively treated individuals with ACL injury

    PubMed Central

    Grindem, Hege; Logerstedt, David; Eitzen, Ingrid; Moksnes, Håvard; Axe, Michael J.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Engebretsen, Lars; Risberg, May Arna

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found significant predictors for functional outcome after ACL reconstruction, however, studies examining predictors for functional outcome in non-operatively treated individuals are lacking. Hypothesis Single-legged hop tests predict self-reported knee function (IKDC2000) in non-operatively treated ACL-injured individuals 1 year after baseline testing. Study Design Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods Ninety-one non-operatively treated subjects with an ACL injury were tested using 4 one-legged hop tests on average 74 ± 30 days after injury in a prospective cohort study. Eighty-one subjects (89 %) completed the IKDC2000 1 year later. Subjects with an IKDC2000 score equal to or higher than the age- and gender-specific 15th percentile score from previously published data on an uninjured population were classified as having self-reported function within normal ranges. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of self-reported knee function. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) from Receiver Operating Characteristic curves was used as a measure of discriminative accuracy. Optimal limb symmetry index (LSI) cutoff for the best single-legged hop test was defined as the LSI with the highest product of sensitivity and specificity. Results Single hop for distance symmetry indexes predicted self-reported knee function at the 1-year follow-up (p=0.036). Combinations of any 2 hop tests (AUC=0.64–0.71) did not give a higher discriminative accuracy than the single hop alone (AUC=0.71). A cutoff of 88 % (LSI) for the single hop revealed a sensitivity of 71.4 % and a specificity of 71.7 %. Conclusion The single hop for distance (LSI) significantly predicted self-reported knee function after 1 year in non-operatively treated ACL-injured subjects. Combinations of 2 single-legged hop tests did not lead to higher discriminative accuracy than the single hop alone. PMID:21828364

  2. Life after Adolescent and Adult Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Self-Reported Executive, Emotional, and Behavioural Function 2-5 Years after Injury.

    PubMed

    Finnanger, Torun Gangaune; Olsen, Alexander; Skandsen, Toril; Lydersen, Stian; Vik, Anne; Evensen, Kari Anne I; Catroppa, Cathy; Håberg, Asta K; Andersson, Stein; Indredavik, Marit S

    2015-01-01

    Survivors of moderate-severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) are at risk for long-term cognitive, emotional, and behavioural problems. This prospective cohort study investigated self-reported executive, emotional, and behavioural problems in the late chronic phase of moderate and severe TBI, if demographic characteristics (i.e., age, years of education), injury characteristics (Glasgow Coma Scale score, MRI findings such as traumatic axonal injury (TAI), or duration of posttraumatic amnesia), symptoms of depression, or neuropsychological variables in the first year after injury predicted long-term self-reported function. Self-reported executive, emotional, and behavioural functioning were assessed among individuals with moderate and severe TBI (N = 67, age range 15-65 years at time of injury) 2-5 years after TBI, compared to a healthy matched control group (N = 72). Results revealed significantly more attentional, emotional regulation, and psychological difficulties in the TBI group than controls. Demographic and early clinical variables were associated with poorer cognitive and emotional outcome. Fewer years of education and depressive symptoms predicted greater executive dysfunction. Younger age at injury predicted more aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour. TAI and depressive symptoms predicted Internalizing problems and greater executive dysfunction. In conclusion, age, education, TAI, and depression appear to elevate risk for poor long-term outcome, emphasising the need for long-term follow-up of patients presenting with risk factors. PMID:26549936

  3. Life after Adolescent and Adult Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Self-Reported Executive, Emotional, and Behavioural Function 2–5 Years after Injury

    PubMed Central

    Finnanger, Torun Gangaune; Olsen, Alexander; Skandsen, Toril; Lydersen, Stian; Vik, Anne; Evensen, Kari Anne I.; Catroppa, Cathy; Håberg, Asta K.; Andersson, Stein; Indredavik, Marit S.

    2015-01-01

    Survivors of moderate-severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) are at risk for long-term cognitive, emotional, and behavioural problems. This prospective cohort study investigated self-reported executive, emotional, and behavioural problems in the late chronic phase of moderate and severe TBI, if demographic characteristics (i.e., age, years of education), injury characteristics (Glasgow Coma Scale score, MRI findings such as traumatic axonal injury (TAI), or duration of posttraumatic amnesia), symptoms of depression, or neuropsychological variables in the first year after injury predicted long-term self-reported function. Self-reported executive, emotional, and behavioural functioning were assessed among individuals with moderate and severe TBI (N = 67, age range 15–65 years at time of injury) 2–5 years after TBI, compared to a healthy matched control group (N = 72). Results revealed significantly more attentional, emotional regulation, and psychological difficulties in the TBI group than controls. Demographic and early clinical variables were associated with poorer cognitive and emotional outcome. Fewer years of education and depressive symptoms predicted greater executive dysfunction. Younger age at injury predicted more aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour. TAI and depressive symptoms predicted Internalizing problems and greater executive dysfunction. In conclusion, age, education, TAI, and depression appear to elevate risk for poor long-term outcome, emphasising the need for long-term follow-up of patients presenting with risk factors. PMID:26549936

  4. High HIV Prevalence Among Low-Income, Black Women in New York City with Self-Reported HIV Negative and Unknown Status

    PubMed Central

    Neaigus, Alan; Jenness, Samuel M.; Hagan, Holly; Wendel, Travis; Gelpí-Acosta, Camila

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Black women are disproportionally affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study investigates factors associated with newly identified HIV infection among previously self-reported HIV negative or unknown status black women living in high risk areas (HRAs) of New York City (NYC). Methods Heterosexuals residing in or socially connected to NYC HRAs were recruited using respondent driven sampling for participation in the United States Centers for Disease Control-sponsored National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System in 2010. Eligible individuals were interviewed and offered an HIV test. The analysis reported here focused on black women with valid HIV results who did not report being HIV positive, and examined factors related to HIV infection in this group. Results Of 153 black women who did not report being HIV positive at enrollment, 15 (9.8%) tested HIV positive. Age ≥40 years, ever injected drugs, and in the last 12 months had unprotected vaginal sex, exchange sex, last sex partner used crack, non-injection crack use, and non-injection heroin use were significantly associated with HIV infection (p<0.05). Only ever injected drugs (prevalence ratio: 5.1; 95% confidence interval: 2.0, 12.9) was retained in the final model. Conclusions Black women who had reported being either HIV negative or unaware of their serostatus had high HIV prevalence. Efforts to identify and treat HIV positive black women in HRAs should target those with a history of injection drug use. Frequent testing for HIV should be promoted in HRAs. PMID:23931126

  5. Functional assessment of nutrition status.

    PubMed

    Russell, Mary Krystofiak

    2015-04-01

    Functional status assessment has been recommended as a part of a complete nutrition assessment for decades, but the specific components of this assessment have eluded a consensus definition. The recent Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition consensus criteria for identification of malnutrition include functional assessment determined by handgrip dynamometry, with the understanding that this technique is not practical for use in some patient populations. Other techniques for functional assessment include physical performance measures such as timed gait and chair stands, as well as activities of daily living tools such as the Katz Index, Lawton Scale, and Karnofsky Scale Index. Manual muscle testing and computed tomography scan assessment of lean tissue are other tools that show promise in correlating functional and nutrition assessments. Functional assessment parameters may be least well correlated with nutrition status in older individuals. Despite a number of scientific studies of a variety of tools for functional assessment, there is to date no definitive tool for use in all individuals in all settings. Nutrition scientists and clinicians must continue to collaborate with colleagues in physical and occupational therapy, geriatrics, and nursing to refine current functional assessment tools to more effectively correlate with nutrition and malnutrition assessment parameters.

  6. Self-report measures of executive functioning are a determinant of academic performance in first-year students at a university of applied sciences

    PubMed Central

    Baars, Maria A. E.; Nije Bijvank, Marije; Tonnaer, Geertje H.; Jolles, Jelle

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies in late adolescents (age 17+) show that brain development may proceed till around the 25th year of age. This implies that study performance in higher education could be dependent upon the stage of brain maturation and neuropsychological development. Individual differences in development of neuropsychological skills may thus have a substantial influence on the outcome of the educational process. This hypothesis was evaluated in a large survey of 1760 first-year students at a University of Applied Sciences, of which 1332 are included in the current analyses. This was because of their fit within the age range we pre-set (17–20 years' old at start of studies). Student characteristics and three behavioral ratings of executive functioning (EF) were evaluated with regard to their influence on academic performance. Self-report measures were used: self-reported attention, planning, and self-control and self-monitoring. Results showed that students with better self-reported EF at the start of the first year of their studies obtained more study credits at the end of that year than students with a lower EF self-rating. The correlation between self-control and self-monitoring on the one hand, and study progress on the other, appeared to differ for male and female students and to be influenced by the level of prior education. The results of this large-scale study could have practical relevance. The profound individual differences between students may at least partly be a consequence of their stage of development as an adolescent. Students who show lower levels of attention control, planning, and self-control/self-monitoring can be expected to have a problem in study planning and study progress monitoring and hence study progress. The findings imply that interventions directed at the training of these (executive) functions should be developed and used in higher education in order to improve academic achievement, learning attitude, and motivation. PMID:26300823

  7. Association of CRP and IL-6 with lung function in a middle-aged population initially free from self-reported respiratory problems: the Whitehall II study

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno, David; Delclos, George L.; Ferrie, Jane E.; De Vogli, Roberto; Elovainio, Marko; Marmot, Michael G.; Kivimäki, Mika

    2011-01-01

    To assess whether two inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and change in their concentrations over 12 years, are associated with lung function (FVC and FEV1) 12 years after baseline. Data are from over 1,500 participants free from self-reported respiratory problems in a large-scale prospective cohort study of white-collar male and female civil servants. CRP and IL-6 measured at baseline (1991–1993) and follow-up (2002–2004) and FVC and FEV1, measured at follow-up. Results adjusted for sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, health behaviours, biological factors, chronic conditions and medications, and corrected for short-term variability in CRP and IL-6 concentrations. Higher baseline levels of CRP and IL-6 were strongly associated with lower FVC and FEV1, independent of potential confounders. A 10% increase serum CRP from baseline to follow-up was associated with lower values of FVC and FEV1 at follow-up, 4.7 and 3.0 ml, respectively. The corresponding values for a 10% increase in IL-6 were 12.6 ml for FVC and 7.3 ml for FEV1. Systemic low-grade inflammation is associated with only slightly poorer pulmonary function in a population free from self-reported respiratory problems 12 years earlier. These data provide evidence linking inflammation to adverse outcomes beyond cardiovascular disease. Interventions targeting inflammation may prevent lung function impairment. PMID:21293970

  8. Variance Function Regression in Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort Models: Applications to the Study of Self-Reported Health

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hui; Yang, Yang; Land, Kenneth C.

    2012-01-01

    Two long-standing research problems of interest to sociologists are sources of variations in social inequalities and differential contributions of the temporal dimensions of age, time period, and cohort to variations in social phenomena. Recently, scholars have introduced a model called Variance Function Regression for the study of the former problem, and a model called Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort regression has been developed for the study of the latter. This article presents an integration of these two models as a means to study the evolution of social inequalities along distinct temporal dimensions. We apply the integrated model to survey data on subjective health status. We find substantial age, period, and cohort effects, as well as gender differences, not only for the conditional mean of self-rated health (i.e., between-group disparities), but also for the variance in this mean (i.e., within-group disparities)—and it is detection of age, period, and cohort variations in the latter disparities that application of the integrated model permits. Net of effects of age and individual-level covariates, in recent decades, cohort differences in conditional means of self-rated health have been less important than period differences that cut across all cohorts. By contrast, cohort differences of variances in these conditional means have dominated period differences. In particular, post-baby boom birth cohorts show significant and increasing levels of within-group disparities. These findings illustrate how the integrated model provides a powerful framework through which to identify and study the evolution of variations in social inequalities across age, period, and cohort temporal dimensions. Accordingly, this model should be broadly applicable to the study of social inequality in many different substantive contexts. PMID:22904570

  9. Cognitive empathy contributes to poor social functioning in schizophrenia: Evidence from a new self-report measure of cognitive and affective empathy.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Tania M; Horan, William P; Ginger, Emily J; Martinovich, Zoran; Pinkham, Amy E; Smith, Matthew J

    2014-12-30

    Cognitive empathy impairments have been linked to poor social functioning in schizophrenia. However, prior studies primarily used self-reported empathy measures developed decades ago that are not well-aligned with contemporary models of empathy. We evaluated empathy and its relationship to social functioning in schizophrenia using the recently developed Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy (QCAE). Schizophrenia (n=52) and healthy comparison (n=37) subjects completed the QCAE, Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), and measures of neurocognition, symptoms, and social functioning. Between-group differences on the QCAE, and relationships between QCAE and IRI subscales, neurocognition, symptoms, and social functioning were examined. The schizophrenia group reported significantly lower cognitive empathy than comparison subjects, which was driven by low online simulation scores. Cognitive empathy explained significant variance in social functioning after accounting for neurocognition and symptoms. Group differences for affective empathy were variable; the schizophrenia group reported similar proximal responsivity, but elevated emotion contagion relative to comparison subjects. These findings bolster support for the presence and functional significance of impaired cognitive empathy in schizophrenia using a contemporary measure of empathy. Emerging evidence that some aspects of affective empathy may be unimpaired or hyper-responsive in schizophrenia and implications for the assessment and treatment of empathy in schizophrenia are discussed. PMID:25632418

  10. Cognitive empathy contributes to poor social functioning in schizophrenia: Evidence from a new self-report measure of cognitive and affective empathy.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Tania M; Horan, William P; Ginger, Emily J; Martinovich, Zoran; Pinkham, Amy E; Smith, Matthew J

    2014-12-30

    Cognitive empathy impairments have been linked to poor social functioning in schizophrenia. However, prior studies primarily used self-reported empathy measures developed decades ago that are not well-aligned with contemporary models of empathy. We evaluated empathy and its relationship to social functioning in schizophrenia using the recently developed Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy (QCAE). Schizophrenia (n=52) and healthy comparison (n=37) subjects completed the QCAE, Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), and measures of neurocognition, symptoms, and social functioning. Between-group differences on the QCAE, and relationships between QCAE and IRI subscales, neurocognition, symptoms, and social functioning were examined. The schizophrenia group reported significantly lower cognitive empathy than comparison subjects, which was driven by low online simulation scores. Cognitive empathy explained significant variance in social functioning after accounting for neurocognition and symptoms. Group differences for affective empathy were variable; the schizophrenia group reported similar proximal responsivity, but elevated emotion contagion relative to comparison subjects. These findings bolster support for the presence and functional significance of impaired cognitive empathy in schizophrenia using a contemporary measure of empathy. Emerging evidence that some aspects of affective empathy may be unimpaired or hyper-responsive in schizophrenia and implications for the assessment and treatment of empathy in schizophrenia are discussed.

  11. Untangling Protégé Self-Reports of Mentoring Functions: Further Meta-Analytic Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Jubilee; Kirkpatrick-Husk, Katie; Kendall, Dana; Longabaugh, James; Patel, Ajal; Scielzo, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we sought to further our understanding of the relations between various types of protégé-reported mentoring functions (psychosocial and career support and role modeling [RM]) by conducting a meta-analysis. We examined the relationships among these functions and investigated their relationships with expected mentorship…

  12. The Response Shift Bias in Self-Report Tests: A Function of an Expectation of Change or a Shift in Internal Scaling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riedel, Sharon; And Others

    Self-report, pre/post testing is a frequently employed measure of therapeutic change. To investigate whether expectation of change might be an alternative explanation to the scale shift explanation of response shift bias in a self-report measure, a two-session assertiveness training intervention for college women was evaluated under manipulated…

  13. Self-reported quality of life and clinician-rated functioning in mood and anxiety disorders: relationships and neuropsychological correlates.

    PubMed

    Caldirola, Daniela; Grassi, Massimiliano; Riva, Alice; Daccò, Silvia; De Berardis, Domenico; Dal Santo, Barbara; Perna, Giampaolo

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate 1) the relationship between subjective perception of quality of life (QoL) and clinician-rated levels of psychosocial functioning and 2) the relationship of these indicators with neuropsychological performances, in a sample of 117 subjects with mood and anxiety disorders hospitalized for a 4-week psychiatric rehabilitation program. At the beginning of the hospitalization, QoL and clinician-rated functioning were respectively measured by the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-Brief Form (WHOQOL-BREF) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale, and subjects were administered a neuropsychological battery evaluating verbal and visual memory, working memory, attention, visual-constructive ability, language fluency and comprehension. We did not find any association between WHOQOL-BREF and GAF scores and between cognitive impairment and lower QoL or clinician-rated functioning. Our results suggest that 1) the individuals' condition encompasses different dimensions that are not fully captured by using only clinician-rated or self-administered evaluations; 2) the GAF scale seems unable to indicate the cognitive impairments of our subjects and the WHOQOL-BREF does not appear to be influenced by these deficits. Overall, our findings suggest the need of simultaneously use of multiple assessment tools, including objective evaluations of functioning and different measures of QoL, in order to obtain a more complete clinical picture of the patients. This may allow to identify more specific targets of therapeutic interventions and more reliable measures of outcome.

  14. Maintaining Instrument Quality while Reducing Items: Application of Rasch Analysis to a Self-Report of Visual Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velozzo, Craig A.; Lai, Jin-Shei; Mallinson, Trudy; Hauselman, Ellyn

    2001-01-01

    Studied how Rasch analysis could be used to reduce the number of items in an instrument while maintaining credible psychometric properties. Applied the approach to the Visual Function-14 developed to measure the need for and outcomes of cataract surgery. Results show how Rasch analysis can be useful in designing modifications of instruments. (SLD)

  15. Emotional Responses to Odors in Children with High-Functioning Autism: Autonomic Arousal, Facial Behavior and Self-Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legisa, Jasna; Messinger, Daniel S.; Kermol, Enzo; Marlier, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Although emotional functioning is impaired in children with autism, it is unclear if this impairment is due to difficulties with facial expression, autonomic responsiveness, or the verbal description of emotional states. To shed light on this issue, we examined responses to pleasant and unpleasant odors in eight children (8-14 years) with…

  16. Development of a Self-Report Physical Function Instrument for Disability Assessment: Item Pool Construction and Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, Christine M.; Jette, Alan M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Brandt, Diane E; Chan, Leighton; Meterko, Mark; Haley, Stephen M.; Rasch, Elizabeth K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To build a comprehensive item pool representing work-relevant physical functioning and to test the factor structure of the item pool. These developmental steps represent initial outcomes of a broader project to develop instruments for the assessment of function within the context of Social Security Administration (SSA) disability programs. Design Comprehensive literature review; gap analysis; item generation with expert panel input; stakeholder interviews; cognitive interviews; cross-sectional survey administration; and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to assess item pool structure. Setting In-person and semi-structured interviews; internet and telephone surveys. Participants A sample of 1,017 SSA claimants, and a normative sample of 999 adults from the US general population. Interventions Not Applicable. Main Outcome Measure Model fit statistics Results The final item pool consisted of 139 items. Within the claimant sample 58.7% were white; 31.8% were black; 46.6% were female; and the mean age was 49.7 years. Initial factor analyses revealed a 4-factor solution which included more items and allowed separate characterization of: 1) Changing and Maintaining Body Position, 2) Whole Body Mobility, 3) Upper Body Function and 4) Upper Extremity Fine Motor. The final 4-factor model included 91 items. Confirmatory factor analyses for the 4-factor models for the claimant and the normative samples demonstrated very good fit. Fit statistics for claimant and normative samples respectively were: Comparative Fit Index = 0.93 and 0.98; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.92 and 0.98; Root Mean Square Error Approximation = 0.05 and 0.04. Conclusions The factor structure of the Physical Function item pool closely resembled the hypothesized content model. The four scales relevant to work activities offer promise for providing reliable information about claimant physical functioning relevant to work disability. PMID:23542402

  17. Effects of public health nursing participation in selected academic courses on self-reported functions and competencies: a collaborative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lundy, K S; Bender, K W; Powell, C

    1993-03-01

    A profile of the education levels of practicing public health nurses (PHNs) in Mississippi in 1988 indicated that 71% of those nurses were prepared in associate degree or diploma programs. Since these programs typically do not provide formal academic courses in community health nursing, nurses currently enter the workplace with insufficient preparation for this increasingly complex role. A collaborative pilot study between the agency and a state-supported school of nursing evaluated the impact of participating in selected components of an academic community health nursing program on the self-reported competencies and functions of beginning PHNs. Twelve PHNs who were employed during six months in the geographic area contiguous to the school were selected to attend 10 classroom sessions on basic topics applicable to the generic PHN role in a southern state. A control group of 12 PHNs hired during the same period of time was also selected. Both groups completed an instrument on functions and competencies before and after the course. A significant difference was seen in certain functions and competencies between attenders and nonattenders.

  18. The relationship between perceived promotion of autonomy/dependence and pain-related disability in older adults with chronic pain: the mediating role of self-reported physical functioning.

    PubMed

    Matos, Marta; Bernardes, Sónia F; Goubert, Liesbet

    2016-08-01

    Chronic pain is prevalent among older adults and is usually associated with high levels of functional disability. Social support for the promotion of functional autonomy and dependence has been associated with pain-related disability and self-reported physical functioning. Nevertheless, these relationships need further inquiry. Our aims were to investigate: (1) the relationship between perceived promotion of autonomy/dependence and pain-related disability and (2) the extent to which self-reported physical functioning mediated these relationships. 118 older adults (Mage = 81.0) with musculoskeletal chronic pain completed the Portuguese versions of the revised formal social support for Autonomy and Dependence in Pain Inventory, the pain severity and interference scales of the Brief Pain Inventory, and the physical functioning scale of the Medical Outcomes Study-Short-Form 36 v2. Higher levels of perceived promotion of autonomy were associated with lower pain-related disability; this relationship was partially mediated by self-reported physical functioning (B = -.767, p < .001 decreasing to B' = -.485, p < .01). Higher perceived promotion of dependence was associated with higher pain-related disability; this effect was also partially accounted for by self-reported physical functioning (B = .889, p < .01 decreasing to B' = .597, p < .05). These results highlight the importance of perceived promotion of autonomy and dependence for managing older adults' experience of chronic pain. PMID:26922802

  19. Self-reported vaccination in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos; Borda, Miguel German; Arciniegas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of vaccination in older adults within the city of Bogotá and to estimate the association with sociodemographic and health factors. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis from the SABE-Bogotá Study, a cross-sectional population-based study that included a total of 2,000 persons aged 60 years. Weighted percentages for self-reported vaccination [influenza, pneumococcal, tetanus] were determined. The association between vaccination and covariates was evaluate by logistic regression models. Results: A total of 73.0% of respondents received influenza, 57.8% pneumococcal and 47.6% tetanus vaccine. Factors independently associated with vaccination included: 1- age (65-74 years had higher odds of receiving vaccinations, compared to 60-64 years); 2- socioeconomic status (SES) (higher SES had lower odds of having influenza and pneumococcal vaccines, compared to those with lower SES); 3- health insurance (those with contributive or subsidized health insurance had higher odds (between 3 and 5 times higher) of having vaccinations, compared to those with no insurance); 4- older adults with better functional status (greater Lawton scores) had increased odds for all vaccinations; 5- older adults with higher comorbidity had increased odds for influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. Conclusion: Vaccination campaigns should be strengthened to increase vaccination coverage, especially in the group more reticent to vaccination or vulnerable to reach it such as the disabled elder. PMID:27226661

  20. Self-reported strategies in decisions under risk: role of feedback, reasoning abilities, executive functions, short-term-memory, and working memory.

    PubMed

    Schiebener, Johannes; Brand, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    In decisions under objective risk conditions information about the decision options' possible outcomes and the rules for outcomes' occurrence are provided. Thus, deciders can base decision-making strategies on probabilistic laws. In many laboratory decision-making tasks, choosing the option with the highest winning probability in all trials (=maximization strategy) is probabilistically regarded the most rational behavior. However, individuals often behave less optimal, especially in case the individuals have lower cognitive functions or in case no feedback about consequences is provided in the situation. It is still unclear which cognitive functions particularly predispose individuals for using successful strategies and which strategies profit from feedback. We investigated 195 individuals with two decision-making paradigms, the Game of Dice Task (GDT) (with and without feedback), and the Card Guessing Game. Thereafter, participants reported which strategies they had applied. Interaction effects (feedback × strategy), effect sizes, and uncorrected single group comparisons suggest that feedback in the GDT tended to be more beneficial to individuals reporting exploratory strategies (e.g., use intuition). In both tasks, the self-reported use of more principled and more rational strategies was accompanied by better decision-making performance and better performances in reasoning and executive functioning tasks. The strategy groups did not significantly differ in most short-term and working-memory tasks. Thus, particularly individual differences in reasoning and executive functions seem to predispose individuals toward particular decision-making strategies. Feedback seems to be useful for individuals who rather explore the decision-making situation instead of following a certain plan. PMID:26289475

  1. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: What Does Self-Report with the OCI-R Tell Us?

    PubMed

    Cadman, Tim; Spain, Debbie; Johnston, Patrick; Russell, Ailsa; Mataix-Cols, David; Craig, Michael; Deeley, Quinton; Robertson, Dene; Murphy, Clodagh; Gillan, Nicola; Wilson, C Ellie; Mendez, Maria; Ecker, Christine; Daly, Eileen; Findon, James; Glaser, Karen; Happé, Francesca; Murphy, Declan

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the symptom profile of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in individuals who have autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It is also unknown whether self-report questionnaires are useful in measuring OCD in ASD. We sought to describe the symptom profiles of adults with ASD, OCD, and ASD + OCD using the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R), and to assess the utility of the OCI-R as a screening measure in a high-functioning adult ASD sample. Individuals with ASD (n = 171), OCD (n = 108), ASD + OCD (n = 54) and control participants (n = 92) completed the OCI-R. Individuals with ASD + OCD reported significantly higher levels of obsessive-compulsive symptoms than those with ASD alone. OCD symptoms were not significantly correlated with core ASD repetitive behaviors as measured on the ADI-R or ADOS-G. The OCI-R showed good psychometric properties and corresponded well with clinician diagnosis of OCD. Receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested cut-offs for OCI-R Total and Checking scores that discriminated well between ASD + versus -OCD, and fairly well between ASD-alone and OCD-alone. OCD manifests separately from ASD and is characterized by a different profile of repetitive thoughts and behaviors. The OCI-R appears to be useful as a screening tool in the ASD adult population.

  2. Visual/verbal-analytic reasoning bias as a function of self-reported autistic-like traits: a study of typically developing individuals solving Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices.

    PubMed

    Fugard, Andrew J B; Stewart, Mary E; Stenning, Keith

    2011-05-01

    People with autism spectrum condition (ASC) perform well on Raven's matrices, a test which loads highly on the general factor in intelligence. However, the mechanisms supporting enhanced performance on the test are poorly understood. Evidence is accumulating that milder variants of the ASC phenotype are present in typically developing individuals, and that those who are further along the autistic-like trait spectrum show similar patterns of abilities and impairments as people with clinically diagnosed ASC. We investigated whether self-reported autistic-like traits in a university student sample, assessed using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ; Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Skinner, et al., 2001), predict performance on Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices. We found that reporting poorer social skills but better attention switching predicted a higher Advanced matrices score overall. DeShon, Chan, and Weissbein (1995) classified Advanced matrices items as requiring a visuospatial, or a verbal-analytic strategy. We hypothesised that higher AQ scores would predict better performance on visuospatial items than on verbal-analytic items. This prediction was confirmed. These results are consistent with the continuum view and can be explained by the enhanced perceptual functioning theory of performance peaks in ASC. The results also confirm a new prediction about Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices performance in people with ASC. PMID:21325371

  3. Health-Related Quality of Life and Functional Status Quality Indicators for Older Persons with Multiple Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Dy, Sydney M.; Pfoh, Elizabeth R.; Salive, Marcel E.; Boyd, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To explore central challenges with translating self-reported measurement tools for functional status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) into ambulatory quality indicators for older people with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). DESIGN Review. SETTING Sources including the National Quality Measures Clearinghouse and National Quality Forum were reviewed for existing ambulatory quality indicators relevant to functional status, HRQOL, and people with MCCs. PARTICIPANTS Seven informants with expertise in indicators using functional status and HRQOL. MEASUREMENTS Informant interviews were conducted to explore knowledge about these types of indicators, particularly usability and feasibility. RESULTS Nine important existing indicators were identified in the review. For process, identified indicators addressed whether providers assessed functional status; outcome indicators addressed quality of life. In interviews, informants agreed that indicators using self-reported data were important in this population. Challenges identified included concerns about usability due to inability to discriminate quality of care adequately between organizations and feasibility concerns regarding high data collection burden, with a correspondingly low response rate. Validity was also a concern because evidence is mixed that healthcare interventions can improve HRQOL or functional status for this population. As a possible first step, a structural standard could be systematic collection of these measures in a specific setting. CONCLUSION Although functional status and HRQOL are important outcomes for older people with MCCs, few relevant ambulatory quality indicators exist, and there are concerns with usability, feasibility, and validity. Further research is needed on how best to incorporate these outcomes into quality indicators for people with MCCs. PMID:24320819

  4. Preliminary Evidence Suggesting Caution in the Use of Psychiatric Self-Report Measures with Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazefsky, C. A.; Kao, J.; Oswald, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the utility of self-report measures to screen for psychiatric comorbidities in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Thirty-eight 10-17 year olds with an ASD and without mental retardation completed: the "Children's Depression Inventory-Short version (CDI-S)", "Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS)", "Conners-Wells…

  5. Self-reported Exhaustion is Associated with Small Life Space in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Doi, Takehiko; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Uemura, Kazuki; Ando, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Takao

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] Older adults experience exhaustion-induced health problems, such as poor physical function and low physical activity levels. The associations between self-reported exhaustion and physical function and activity are not clear in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-reported exhaustion and physical function and activity in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. [Subjects] A total of 356 older adults with mild cognitive impairment (mean age = 71.6 ± 0.3 years, 50.8% women) were included in this study. [Methods] Self-reported exhaustion was identified by one item from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures index. Gait speed, gait endurance, and life space were also assessed. [Results] Sixty-two participants reported having exhaustion, giving a 17.4% prevalence of self-reported exhaustion among these individuals. Logistic regression analysis showed that the Life-Space Assessment score was the only parameter significantly independently associated with exhaustion status (adjusted odds ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.95-0.99). [Conclusion] These results suggest that self-reported exhaustion is associated with life space. Future research is needed to identify ways for older people with MCI to improve their exhaustion status.

  6. Self-reported Exhaustion is Associated with Small Life Space in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Doi, Takehiko; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Uemura, Kazuki; Ando, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Takao

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Older adults experience exhaustion-induced health problems, such as poor physical function and low physical activity levels. The associations between self-reported exhaustion and physical function and activity are not clear in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-reported exhaustion and physical function and activity in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. [Subjects] A total of 356 older adults with mild cognitive impairment (mean age = 71.6 ± 0.3 years, 50.8% women) were included in this study. [Methods] Self-reported exhaustion was identified by one item from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures index. Gait speed, gait endurance, and life space were also assessed. [Results] Sixty-two participants reported having exhaustion, giving a 17.4% prevalence of self-reported exhaustion among these individuals. Logistic regression analysis showed that the Life-Space Assessment score was the only parameter significantly independently associated with exhaustion status (adjusted odds ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.95–0.99). [Conclusion] These results suggest that self-reported exhaustion is associated with life space. Future research is needed to identify ways for older people with MCI to improve their exhaustion status. PMID:25540512

  7. Self reported health status, and health service contact, of illicit drug users aged 50 and over: a qualitative interview study in Merseyside, United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Beynon, Caryl M; Roe, Brenda; Duffy, Paul; Pickering, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    Background The populations of industrialised countries are ageing; as this occurs, those who continue to use alcohol and illicit drugs age also. While alcohol use among older people is well documented, use of illicit drugs continues to be perceived as behaviour of young people and is a neglected area of research. This is the first published qualitative research on the experiences of older drug users in the United Kingdom. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Merseyside, in 2008, with drug users aged 50 and over recruited through drug treatment services. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and analysed thematically. Only health status and health service contact are reported here. Results Nine men and one woman were interviewed (age range: 54 to 61 years); all but one had been using drugs continuously or intermittently for at least 30 years. Interviewees exhibited high levels of physical and mental morbidity; hepatitis C was particularly prevalent. Injecting-related damage to arm veins resulted in interviewees switching to riskier injecting practices. Poor mental health was evident and interviewees described their lives as depressing. The death of drug-using friends was a common theme and social isolation was apparent. Interviewees also described a deterioration of memory. Generic healthcare was not always perceived as optimal, while issues relating to drug specific services were similar to those arising among younger cohorts of drug users, for example, complaints about inadequate doses of prescribed medication. Conclusion The concurrent effects of drug use and ageing are not well understood but are thought to exacerbate, or accelerate the onset of, medical conditions which are more prevalent in older age. Here, interviewees had poor physical and mental health but low expectations of health services. Older drug users who are not in contact with services are likely to have greater unmet needs. The number of drug users aged 50 and over is

  8. Self-reported nonrestorative sleep in fibromyalgia – relationship to impairments of body functions, personal function factors, and quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Liedberg, Gunilla M; Björk, Mathilda; Börsbo, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was: 1) to determine variables that might characterize good or bad sleep; and 2) to describe the relationship between sleep, impairment of body functions, personal function factors, and quality of life based on quality of sleep in women with fibromyalgia (FM). Methods This cross-sectional descriptive study included 224 consecutive patients diagnosed at a specialist center. These patients were mailed a questionnaire concerning sleep, body functions, personal factors, and health-related quality of life. In total, 145 completed questionnaires were collected. Results Using sleep variables (sleep quality, waking up unrefreshed, and tiredness when getting up), we identified two subgroups – the good sleep subgroup and the bad sleep subgroup – of women with FM. These subgroups exhibited significantly different characteristics concerning pain intensity, psychological variables (depressed mood, anxiety, catastrophizing, and self-efficacy), impairments of body functions, and generic and health-related quality of life. The good sleep subgroup reported a significantly better situation, including higher employment/study rate. The bad sleep subgroup reported a greater use of sleep medication. Five variables determined inclusion into either a good sleep or a bad sleep subgroup: pain in the evening, self-efficacy, anxiety, and according to the Short Form health survey role emotional and physical functioning. Conclusion This study found that it was possible to identify two subgroups of women with FM based on quality of sleep variables. The two subgroups differed significantly with respect to pain, psychological factors, impairments of body functions, and perceived quality of life, where the subgroup with bad sleep had a worse situation. PMID:26300656

  9. [Functional status, morbidity, and mortality of centenarians].

    PubMed

    Arai, Yasumichi; Hirose, Nobuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Prevention or postponement of age-related diseases and functional limitation is the key component of successful aging. We studied centenarians, a model for successful aging in terms of functional status and morbidities. Vast majority of centenarians had chronic disease such as hypertension (63.6%) , heart disease (28.8%) , stroke (15.9%) , fragile fracture (46.4%) , and few centenarians were free from any chronic diseases. Male centenarians had better physical function than female counterparts. Stroke and fragile fracture had negative impacts on their functional status, but hypertension was paradoxically associated with better physical function. When we looked at mortality beyond 100 years of age, physical function, but not morbidity profile had significant impact on their mortality. These results raised a notion that age-related frailty or diminution of functional reserve may be the major cause both for physical disability and poor prognosis of centenarians. Previous results from our study suggested that stability of energy homeostasis, in which neuroendocrine system has a key role, may be important to maintain physical function at the extreme old age.

  10. Functional Status Assessment of Patients With COPD

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Li, Honghe; Ding, Ning; Wang, Ningning; Wen, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Presently, there is no recommendation on how to assess functional status of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. This study aimed to summarize and systematically evaluate these measures. Studies on measures of COPD patients’ functional status published before the end of January 2015 were included using a search filters in PubMed and Web of Science, screening reference lists of all included studies, and cross-checking against some relevant reviews. After title, abstract, and main text screening, the remaining was appraised using the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) 4-point checklist. All measures from these studies were rated according to best-evidence synthesis and the best-rated measures were selected. A total of 6447 records were found and 102 studies were reviewed, suggesting 44 performance-based measures and 14 patient-reported measures. The majority of the studies focused on internal consistency, reliability, and hypothesis testing, but only 21% of them employed good or excellent methodology. Their common weaknesses include lack of checks for unidimensionality, inadequate sample sizes, no prior hypotheses, and improper methods. On average, patient-reported measures perform better than performance-based measures. The best-rated patient-reported measures are functional performance inventory (FPI), functional performance inventory short form (FPI-SF), living with COPD questionnaire (LCOPD), COPD activity rating scale (CARS), University of Cincinnati dyspnea questionnaire (UCDQ), shortness of breath with daily activities (SOBDA), and short-form pulmonary functional status scale (PFSS-11), and the best-rated performance-based measures are exercise testing: 6-minute walk test (6MWT), endurance treadmill test, and usual 4-meter gait speed (usual 4MGS). Further research is needed to evaluate the reliability and validity of performance-based measures since present studies failed to

  11. Role of Health Literacy in Self-Reported Musculoskeletal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Catherine L.; Appleton, Sarah L.; Black, Julie; Hoon, Elizabeth; Rudd, Rima E.; Adams, Robert J.; Gill, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    Self-report of musculoskeletal conditions is often used to estimate population prevalence and to determine disease burden and influence policy. However, self-report of certain musculoskeletal conditions is frequently inaccurate, suggesting inadequate communication to the patient of their diagnosis. The aim of this study is to determine the association between functional health literacy (FHL) and self-reported musculoskeletal conditions in a representative population survey. FHL was measured using Newest Vital Sign in 2824 randomly selected adults. Participants also self-reported medically diagnosed arthritis, gout, and osteoporosis. Multiple logistic regression was adjusted for age and sex. The prevalence of self-reported arthritis, gout, and osteoporosis was 25.2%, 4.9%, and 5.6%, respectively. The prevalence of those at risk for inadequate FHL was 24.0% and high likelihood of inadequate FHL was 21.0%. However, over 50% of respondents with arthritis or gout had at risk/inadequate FHL, increasing to 70% of those self-reporting osteoporosis. After adjustment for age and sex, respondents in the arthritis subgroup of “don't know” and self-reported osteoporosis were significantly more likely to have inadequate FHL than the general population. This study indicates a substantial burden of low health literacy amongst people with musculoskeletal disease. This has implications for provider-patient communication, individual healthcare, population estimates of musculoskeletal disease, and impact of public health messages. PMID:26357571

  12. Self-Reported Difficulty in Climbing Up or Down Stairs in Nondisabled Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Verghese, Joe; Wang, Cuiling; Xue, Xiaonan; Holtzer, Roee

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine clinical and functional correlates of self-reported difficulty in climbing up or climbing down stairs in older adults. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Community sample. Participants Older adults (N=310; mean age, 79.7y; 62% women), without disability or dementia. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Clinical and functional status as well as activity limitations (able to perform activities of daily living [ADLs] with some difficulty). Results Of the 310 subjects, 140 reported difficulties in climbing up and 83 in climbing down stairs (59 both). Self-reported difficulty in climbing up stairs was associated with hypertension, arthritis, and depressive symptoms. Difficulty in climbing up stairs was also associated with poor balance and grip strength as well as neurologic gait abnormalities. Subjects with difficulty climbing down stairs had more falls. Both activities were associated with leg claudication, fear of falling, non-neurologic gait abnormalities, and slow gait. Examined individually, self-reported difficulty climbing down stairs captured a wider spectrum of ADL limitations than climbing up stairs. However, combined difficulty in both phases of stair climbing had a stronger association with activity limitations (vs no difficulty; odds ratio, 6.58; 95% confidence interval, 3.35–12.91) than difficulty in any one phase alone. Conclusions Self-reported difficulty in climbing up and down stairs revealed commonalities as well as differences in related clinical correlates. Difficulty in both climbing up and down stairs should be separately assessed to better capture clinical and functional status in older adults. PMID:18164338

  13. King's theory of goal attainment: exploring functional status.

    PubMed

    Caceres, Billy A

    2015-04-01

    Imogene King's Theory of Goal Attainment provides a schema for nurses interested in functional status. However, the lack of a uniform definition for functional status has hindered development of a concise understanding of this phenomenon. Functional status is particularly important to nurses who are concerned with the safety and wellbeing of clients. With healthcare's increased focus on client-family-centered care it is important to develop innovative approaches for evaluating functional status that incorporate the client-family perspective. King's focus on mutual decision-making is an underutilized resource that can provide great insight into the study and understanding of functional status. PMID:25805388

  14. Validation of Self-Report on Smoking among University Students in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chung Yul; Shin, Sunmi; Lee, Hyeon Kyeong; Hong, Yoon Mi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To validate the self-reported smoking status of Korean university students. Methods: Subjects included 322 Korean university in Korea, who participated in an annual health screening. Data on smoking were collected through a self-reported questionnaire and urine test. The data were analyzed by the McNemar test. Results: In the…

  15. Decline in Tested and Self-Reported Cognitive Functioning After Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation for Lung Cancer: Pooled Secondary Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Randomized Trials 0212 and 0214

    SciTech Connect

    Gondi, Vinai; Paulus, Rebecca; Bruner, Deborah W.; Meyers, Christina A.; Gore, Elizabeth M.; Wolfson, Aaron; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Sun, Alexander Y.; Choy, Hak; Movsas, Benjamin

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To assess the impact of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on self-reported cognitive functioning (SRCF), a functional scale on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30). Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0214 randomized patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer to PCI or observation; RTOG 0212 randomized patients with limited-disease small cell lung cancer to high- or standard-dose PCI. In both trials, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT)-Recall and -Delayed Recall and SRCF were assessed at baseline (after locoregional therapy but before PCI or observation) and at 6 and 12 months. Patients developing brain relapse before follow-up evaluation were excluded. Decline was defined using the reliable change index method and correlated with receipt of PCI versus observation using logistic regression modeling. Fisher's exact test correlated decline in SRCF with HVLT decline. Results: Of the eligible patients pooled from RTOG 0212 and RTOG 0214, 410 (93%) receiving PCI and 173 (96%) undergoing observation completed baseline HVLT or EORTC QLQ-C30 testing and were included in this analysis. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was associated with a higher risk of decline in SRCF at 6 months (odds ratio 3.60, 95% confidence interval 2.34-6.37, P<.0001) and 12 months (odds ratio 3.44, 95% confidence interval 1.84-6.44, P<.0001). Decline on HVLT-Recall at 6 and 12 months was also associated with PCI (P=.002 and P=.002, respectively) but was not closely correlated with decline in SRCF at the same time points (P=.05 and P=.86, respectively). Conclusions: In lung cancer patients who do not develop brain relapse, PCI is associated with decline in HVLT-tested and self-reported cognitive functioning. Decline in HVLT and decline in SRCF are not closely correlated, suggesting that they may represent distinct elements of the cognitive spectrum.

  16. Readability of Self-Report Measures of Depression and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Behar, Evelyn

    2009-01-01

    As the demand for accountability in service provision settings increases, the need for valid methods for assessing clinical outcomes is of particular importance. Self-report measures of functioning are particularly useful in the assessment of psychological functioning, but a vital factor in their validity and transportability is the reading level…

  17. Behavioral approach system activity and self-reported somatic symptoms in fibromyalgia: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Becerra-García, Juan A; Robles Jurado, Manuel J

    2014-01-01

    The first objective was to investigate the behavioural activity in the systems of Gray's theory; these are the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) and Behavioural Approach System (BAS), in fibromyalgia (FM) patients. The second aim was to assess in FM patients whether there is an association between BIS or BAS with self-reported somatic symptoms. Twenty FM patients and 20 healthy controls completed questionnaire measures of BIS and BAS activity (Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire), self-reported somatic symptoms (Somatic Symptoms Scale Revised), positive and negative affect (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) and health status (EuroQoL Visual Analogue Scale). The results showed that FM patients had lower Sensitivity to Reward (SR) scores than controls. The SR score correlated with different somatic symptoms groups. The partial correlation (controlling for other variables measured) showed that the SR score correlated specifically with musculoskeletal symptoms. Furthermore, in regression analysis, SR score significantly predicted musculoskeletal symptoms, after controlling for other variables measured in this study. Our findings suggest that FM patients show BAS hypoactivity. This BAS activity in FM is similar to patients with depression, where a lower BAS functioning has also been found. The BAS activity predicts the musculoskeletal self-reported symptoms in FM better than other measures included in this study. Although this is a preliminary study, it suggests the importance of BAS activity in FM.

  18. Behavioral approach system activity and self-reported somatic symptoms in fibromyalgia: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Becerra-García, Juan A; Robles Jurado, Manuel J

    2014-01-01

    The first objective was to investigate the behavioural activity in the systems of Gray's theory; these are the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) and Behavioural Approach System (BAS), in fibromyalgia (FM) patients. The second aim was to assess in FM patients whether there is an association between BIS or BAS with self-reported somatic symptoms. Twenty FM patients and 20 healthy controls completed questionnaire measures of BIS and BAS activity (Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire), self-reported somatic symptoms (Somatic Symptoms Scale Revised), positive and negative affect (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) and health status (EuroQoL Visual Analogue Scale). The results showed that FM patients had lower Sensitivity to Reward (SR) scores than controls. The SR score correlated with different somatic symptoms groups. The partial correlation (controlling for other variables measured) showed that the SR score correlated specifically with musculoskeletal symptoms. Furthermore, in regression analysis, SR score significantly predicted musculoskeletal symptoms, after controlling for other variables measured in this study. Our findings suggest that FM patients show BAS hypoactivity. This BAS activity in FM is similar to patients with depression, where a lower BAS functioning has also been found. The BAS activity predicts the musculoskeletal self-reported symptoms in FM better than other measures included in this study. Although this is a preliminary study, it suggests the importance of BAS activity in FM. PMID:24472271

  19. Agreement between informant and self-reported personality in depressed older adults: what are the roles of medical illness and cognitive function?

    PubMed

    Hoerger, Michael; Chapman, Benjamin; Ma, Yan; Tu, Xin; Useda, J David; Hirsch, Jameson; Duberstein, Paul

    2011-12-01

    In a sample of 77 dyads, involving depressed patients at least 50 years of age and their family or friends (informants), patient illness burden and cognitive decline were associated with self-informant rating discrepancies for facets of Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) Openness and Extraversion. Informant judgments about Neuroticism and Conscientiousness were not associated with illness burden or cognitive function, underscoring the potential utility of risk-detection strategies that rely on informant-report in these two domains. Findings suggest the need for research on how patient illness severity and cognitive function affect how friends and family use or misuse information when making judgments about older depressed patients.

  20. Development and Preliminary Psychometric Evaluation of a Brief Self-Report Questionnaire for the Assessment of the DSM-5 level of Personality Functioning Scale: The LPFS Brief Form (LPFS-BF).

    PubMed

    Hutsebaut, Joost; Feenstra, Dine J; Kamphuis, Jan H

    2016-04-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) alternative model for personality disorders (PDs) introduced a new paradigm for the assessment of PDs that includes levels of personality functioning indexing the severity of personality pathology irrespective of diagnosis. In this study, we describe the development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of a newly developed brief self-report questionnaire to assess levels of personality functioning, the Level of Personality Functioning Scale-Brief Form (LPFS-BF; Bender, Morey, & Skodol, 2011). Patients (N = 240) referred to a specialized setting for the assessment and treatment of PDs completed the LPFS-BF, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI; Derogatis, 1975), the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118; Verheul et al., 2008), and were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Personality Disorders (SCID-I; APA, 1994; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1997) and the SCID Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, Williams, & Benjamin, 1996). When constrained to a 2-factor oblique solution, the LPFS-BF yielded a structure that corresponded well to an interpretation of Self- and Interpersonal Functioning scales. The instrument demonstrated fair to satisfactory internal consistency and promising construct validity. The LPFS-BF constitutes a short, user-friendly instrument that provides a quick impression of the severity of personality pathology, specifically oriented to the DSM-5 model. Clearly, more research is needed to test its validity and clinical utility.

  1. A Derived Transfer of Simple Discrimination and Self-Reported Arousal Functions in Spider Fearful and Non-Spider-Fearful Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, Sinead; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Forsyth, John P.

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the derived transfer of functions through equivalence relations established using a stimulus pairing observation procedure. In Experiment 1, participants were trained on a simple discrimination (A1+/A2-) and then a stimulus pairing observation procedure was used to establish 4 stimulus pairings (A1-B1, A2-B2, B1-C1,…

  2. Self-Reported Emotional and Behavioral Problems, Family Functioning and Parental Bonding among Psychiatric Outpatient Adolescent Offspring of Croatian Male Veterans with Partial PTSD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarajlic Vukovic, Iris; Boricevic Maršanic, Vlatka; Aukst Margetic, Branka; Paradžik, Ljubica; Vidovic, Domagoj; Buljan Flander, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in male veterans has been linked with impaired family relationships and psychopathology in their children. Less is known about symptoms in children of veterans with partial PTSD. Objective: To compare mental health problems, family functioning and parent-child bonding among adolescent offspring of…

  3. PRE- AND POST-OPERATIVE SELF-REPORTED FUNCTION AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN WOMEN WITH AND WITHOUT GENERALIZED JOINT LAXITY UNDERGOING HIP ARTHROSCOPY FOR FEMOROACETABULAR IMPINGEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Pontiff, Mattie; Ithurburn, Matthew P.; Ellis, Thomas; Cenkus, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Generalized joint laxity is more prevalent in women than men and may lead to poorer post-operative outcomes in select orthopedic populations. There are no studies examining peri-operative function in patients with generalized joint laxity (GJL) and femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in perceived function and quality of life as measured by the Hip Outcome Score ADL subscale (HOS-ADL), International Hip Outcomes Tool (iHOT-33) and the Short Form 12-Item Health Survey (SF-12) in women with and without GJL prior to and six months after undergoing hip arthroscopy for FAI. Study Design Cohort Study Methods Peri-operative data were collected from women with FAI from November 2011-September 2014. Lax subjects were women with laxity scores ≥4/9 on the Beighton and Horan Joint Mobility Index; Nonlax subjects were women with laxity scores <4/9. Functional outcomes were evaluated using the HOS-ADL, iHOT-33, PCS-12, and the MCS-12 pre-operatively and at 6 months post-operatively. Change scores (post-score – pre-score) were calculated for each outcome measure and compared between groups, along with pre-operative and post-operative means, using Mann-Whitney U tests. Results 166 women met the inclusion criteria: Nonlax (n = 131), Lax (n = 35). There were no statistically significant differences between groups in pre-operative functional outcomes (all p > .05). Additionally, there were no statistically significant differences between groups in post-operative means or change scores, respectively, for HOS-ADL (p = .696, .358), iHOT-33 (p = .550, .705), PCS-12 (p = .713, .191), and MCS-12 (p = .751, .082). Laxity score was not associated with any post-operative functional outcome score or change score (all p > .05). Conclusion Women with and without generalized joint laxity do not appear to report differences in hip function in the 6-month peri-operative period before and after hip

  4. Combining polymers with the functionality of proteins: new concepts for atom transfer radical polymerization, nanoreactors and damage self-reporting materials.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Nico; Lörcher, Samuel; Makyła, Katarzyna; Pollarda, Jonas; Renggli, Kasper; Spulber, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    Proteins are macromolecules with a great diversity of functions. By combining these biomolecules with polymers, exciting opportunities for new concepts in polymer sciences arise. This highlight exemplifies the aforementioned with current research results of our group. We review our discovery that the proteins horseradish peroxidase and hemoglobin possess ATRPase activity, i.e. they catalyze atom transfer radical polymerizations. Moreover, a permeabilization method for polymersomes is presented, where the photo-reaction of an α-hydroxyalkylphenone with block copolymer vesicles yields enzyme-containing nanoreactors. A further intriguing possibility to obtain functional nanoreactors is to enclose a polymerization catalyst into the thermosome, a protein cage from the family of chaperonins. Last but not least, fluorescent proteins are discussed as mechanoresponsive molecular sensors that report microdamages within fiber-reinforced composite materials.

  5. Perinatal HIV Status and Executive Function During School-Age and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Ezeamama, Amara E.; Kizza, Florence N.; Zalwango, Sarah K.; Nkwata, Allan K.; Zhang, Ming; Rivera, Mariana L.; Sekandi, Juliet N.; Kakaire, Robert; Kiwanuka, Noah; Whalen, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine whether perinatal HIV infection (PHIV), HIV-exposed uninfected (PHEU) versus HIV-unexposed (PHU) status predicted long-term executive function (EF) deficit in school-aged Ugandan children. Perinatal HIV status was determined by 18 months via DNA polymerase chain reaction test and confirmed at cognitive assessment between 6 and 18 years using HIV rapid-diagnostic test. Primary outcome is child EF measured using behavior-rating inventory of executive function questionnaire across 8 subscales summed to derive the global executive composite (GEC). EF was proxy-reported by caregivers and self-reported by children 11 years or older. Descriptive analyses by perinatal HIV status included derivation of mean, standard deviations (SD), number, and percent (%) of children with EF deficits warranting clinical vigilance. Raw scores were internally standardized by age and sex adjustment. EF scores warranting clinical vigilance were defined as ≥ mean + 1.5∗SD. t Tests for mean score differences by perinatal HIV status and linear-regression models were implemented in SAS version 9.4 to derive HIV status-related EF deficits (β) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Proxy-reported and self-reported EF were assessed in 166 and 82 children, respectively. GEC deficit was highest for PHIV (mean = 121.9, SD = 29.9), intermediate for PHEU (mean = 107.5, SD = 26.8), and lowest for PHU (mean = 103.4, SD = 20.7; P-trend < 0.01). GEC deficit levels warranting clinical vigilance occurred in 9 (15.8%), 5 (9.3%) and 0 (0%) PHIV, PHEU, and PHU children, respectively (P-trend = 0.01). Nineteen percent (n = 32) children had deficits requiring clinical vigilance in ≥2 proxy-reported EF subscales. Of these, multisubscale deficits occurred in 35.1%, 13.0%, and 9.3% of PHIV, PHEU, and PHU respectively (P-trend = 0.001). Multivariable analyses find significantly higher GEC deficits for PHIV compared with PHU

  6. Trait Routinization, Functional and Cognitive Status in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisberg, Anna; Zysberg, Leehu; Young, Heather M.; Schepp, Karen G.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the associations between trait routinization and functional and cognitive as well as demographic indicators. A sample of American older adults living independently in a retirement community (n = 80) were assessed regarding their functional status, cognitive status, and preference for routine. Robust associations between…

  7. Pain as a Barrier to Human Performance: A Focus on Function for Self-Reporting Pain With the Defense Veterans Pain Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Buckenmaier, Chester C; Galloway, Kevin T; Polomano, Rosemary C; Deuster, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    The intense physical demands and dangerous operational environments common to Special Operations Forces (SOF) result in a variety of painful conditions, including musculoskeletal pain, headaches, and acute and chronic pain from combat injuries. Pain is a wellaccepted barrier to human performance. The Pain Management Task Force and the development of the Defense Veterans Pain Rating Scale (DVPRS) are discussed to provide a framework for changing the culture of pain management away from intensity of pain to interference with function and performance. The emergence of complementary and integrative pain management (CIM) practices is briefly reviewed as viable alternatives to the traditional reliance on opioids and other prescription medications. The SOF community can be the change agent for the DVPRS and CIM approaches to pain management, which will in the end serve to accelerate recovery and return SOF operators to duty faster and with an enhanced ability to perform with less pain. PMID:27450608

  8. Am I dyslexic? Parental self-report of literacy difficulties.

    PubMed

    Leavett, Ruth; Nash, Hannah M; Snowling, Margaret J

    2014-11-01

    In the absence of criteria for the diagnosis of dyslexia, considerable weight is given to self-report, in particular in studies of children at family risk of dyslexia. The present paper uses secondary data from a previous study to compare parents who self-report as dyslexic and those who do not, in relation to objectively determined levels of ability. In general, adults are more likely to self-report as 'dyslexic' if they have poorer reading and spelling skills and also if there is a discrepancy between IQ and measured literacy. However, parents of higher social status who have mild literacy difficulties are more likely to self-report as dyslexic than parents who have weaker literacy skills but are less socially advantaged. Together the findings suggest that the judgement as to whether or not a parent considers themselves 'dyslexic' is made relative to others in the same social sphere. Those who are socially disadvantaged may, in turn, be less likely to seek support for their children. PMID:25185509

  9. On the Use of Self-Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hample, Dale

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the case against and for verbal self-reports, then attempts a balanced assessment. Also critiques recent argumentation studies. (Examples of self-reports include disclosures under psychoanalysis, thinking aloud protocols of undergraduates reading a message, oral choices made in perceptual judgment tasks, marks on a Likert scale.) (PD)

  10. Self-Report Measures of Family Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Robert G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes and compares two self-report measures of family competence: the Family Awareness Scales (FAS) (Green and Kolevzon, late 1970s) and the Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI) (Beavers, 1983). Discusses reliability and validity. Their focus on the "insider" (family member) is different from the traditional examination of family competence from…

  11. Self-reported assessment of disability and performance-based assessment of disability are influenced by different patient characteristics in acute low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Chiffelle, Lara A.; O’Connell, Neil Edward; McAuley, James Henry; DeSouza, Lorraine Hilary

    2009-01-01

    For an individual, the functional consequences of an episode of low back pain is a key measure of their clinical status. Self-reported disability measures are commonly used to capture this component of the back pain experience. In non-acute low back pain there is some uncertainty of the validity of this approach. It appears that self-reported assessment of disability and direct measurements of functional status are only moderately related. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated this relationship in a sample of 94 acute low back pain patients. Both self-reported disability and a performance-based assessment of disability were assessed, along with extensive profiling of patient characteristics. Scale consistency of the performance-based assessment was investigated using Cronbach’s alpha, the relationship between self-reported and performance-based assessment of disability was investigated using Pearson’s correlation. The relationship between clinical profile and each of the disability measures were examined using Pearson’s correlations and multivariate linear regression. Our results demonstrate that the battery of tests used are internally reliable (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86). We found only moderate correlations between the two disability measures (r = 0.471, p < 0.001). Self-reported disability was significantly correlated with symptom distribution, medication use, physical well-being, pain intensity, depression, somatic distress and anxiety. The only significant correlations with the performance-based measure were symptom distribution, physical well-being and pain intensity. In the multivariate analyses no psychological measure made a significant unique contribution to the prediction of the performance-based measure, whereas depression made a unique contribution to the prediction of the self-reported measure. Our results suggest that self-reported and performance-based assessments of disability are influenced by different patient characteristics

  12. Signal-detection properties of verbal self-reports.

    PubMed

    Critchfield, T S

    1993-11-01

    The bias (B'H) and discriminability (A') of college students' self-reports about choices made in a delayed identity matching-to-sample task were studied as a function of characteristics of the response about which they reported. Each matching-to-sample trial consisted of two, three, or four simultaneously presented sample stimuli, a 1-s retention interval, and two, three, or four comparison stimuli. One sample stimulus was always reproduced among the comparisons, and choice of the matching comparison in less than 800 ms produced points worth chances in a drawing for money. After each choice, subjects pressed either a "yes" or a "no" button to answer a computer-generated query about whether the choice met the point contingency. The number of sample and comparison stimuli was manipulated across experimental conditions. Rates of successful matching-to-sample choices were negatively correlated with the number of matching-to-sample stimuli, regardless of whether samples or comparisons were manipulated. As in previous studies, subjects exhibited a pronounced bias for reporting successful responses. Self-report bias tended to become less pronounced as matching-to-sample success became less frequent, an outcome consistent with signal-frequency effects in psychophysical research. The bias was also resistant to change, suggesting influences other than signal frequency that remain to be identified. Self-report discriminability tended to decrease with the number of sample stimuli and increase with the number of comparison stimuli, an effect not attributable to differential effects of the two manipulations on matching-to-sample performance. Overall, bias and discriminability indices revealed effects that were not evident in self-report accuracy scores. The results indicate that analyses based on signal-detection theory can improve the description of correspondence between self-reports and their referents and thus contribute to the identification of environmental sources of

  13. Self-reported rates of interpersonal conflict vary as a function of questionnaire format: why age-related trends in disagreement (and other events) may not be what they seem.

    PubMed

    Dirghangi, Shrija; Laursen, Brett; Puder, Justin; Bjorklund, David F; DeLay, Dawn

    2014-10-01

    Two studies examine whether self-reports of interpersonal conflict differ as a function of how the question is asked. In Study 1, 56 U.S. college students (M = 20.7 years) completed different versions of a questionnaire, four times, at one week intervals. Participants reported more conflicts with the aid of memory prompts than without, an effect that was especially strong when questions focused on events from the previous day. In Study 2, 123 middle-school students (M = 11.08 years) and 128 primary school students (M = 8.2 years) from the same region completed one of two questionnaires describing conflict during the previous day. Children reported more conflicts with memory prompts than without. The effect was twice as strong for younger children than older children. The findings suggest that increases in reports of conflict across the transition into adolescence may be due to improvements in the ability to recall and recount events in the absence of memory cues.

  14. Are self-reports of health and morbidities in developing countries misleading? Evidence from India.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, S V; Subramanyam, Malavika A; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Self-reported measures of poor health and morbidities from developing countries tend to be viewed with considerable skepticism. Examination of the social gradient in self-reported health and morbidity measures provides a useful test of the validity of self-reports of poor health and morbidities. The prevailing view, in part influenced by Amartya Sen, is that socially disadvantaged individuals will fail to perceive and report the presence of illness or health-deficits because an individual's assessment of their health is directly contingent on their social experience. In this study, we tested whether the association between self-reported poor health/morbidities and socioeconomic status (SES) in India follows the expected direction or not. Cross-sectional logistic regression analyses were carried out on a nationally representative population-based sample from the 1998 to 1999 Indian National Family Health Survey (INFHS); and 1995-1996 and 2004 Indian National Sample Survey (INSS). Four binary outcomes were analyzed: any self-reported morbidity; self-reported sickness in the last 15 days; self-reported sickness in the past year; and poor self-rated health. In separate adjusted models, individuals with no education reported higher levels of any self-reported, self-reported sickness in the last 15 days, self-reported sickness in the last year, and poor self-rated health compared to those with most education. Contrary to the prevailing thesis, we find that the use of self-rated ill-health has face validity as assessed via its relationship to SES. A less dismissive and pessimistic view of health data obtained through self-reports seems warranted.

  15. Significance of functional status data for payment and quality.

    PubMed

    Clauser, Steven B; Bierman, Arlene S

    2003-01-01

    To date, the Medicare Program has used functional status information (FSI) in patient assessment tools, performance assessment, payment mechanisms, and--most recently--in quality measures to inform consumer choice. This article explores the rationale for the collection of functional status data to promote innovative models of care and examines issues related to data collection for quality improvement, performance measurement, and payment. In this issue of the Health Care Financing Review, articles focus on collection and classification of functional status for payment and quality purposes. PMID:12894631

  16. Vitamin E status and immune function.

    PubMed

    Beharka, A; Redican, S; Leka, L; Meydani, S N

    1997-01-01

    Evidence from animal and human studies indicates that vitamin E plays an important role in the maintenance of the immune system. Even a marginal vitamin E deficiency impairs the immune response, while supplementation with higher than recommended dietary levels of vitamin E enhances humoral and cell-mediated immunity. The current RDA level of vitamin E prevents clinical deficiency syndrome but in some situations, especially in older subjects or in a disease state, fails to maintain optimal host defense. The immunological parameters reviewed are all sensitive to changes in the availability of vitamin E and, therefore, may reflect the vitamin E status of a given individual more accurately than conventional methods.

  17. Effects of Husband's and Wife's Social Status on Psychological Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenbach, Carrie

    1985-01-01

    Using a national sample of 249 employed couples, effects of own and spouse's education, occupational status, and income are assessed on three dimensions of psychological functioning: ideational flexibility, self-directedness of orientation, and distress. Results for each dimension of psychological functioning are given. (Author/BL)

  18. Functional Status Outcomes in Mothers with and without Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Posmontier, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare functional status between women with and without postpartum depression (PPD). Methods A two-group cross-sectional design compared functional status between 23 women with and 23 women without PPD. Participants were 6 to 26 weeks postpartum, and from obstetric practices in the Northeastern United States. Structured clinical interviews were used to establish diagnoses of PPD. Participants were matched on type of delivery, weeks postpartum, and parity. Participants compared current functioning to pre-pregnancy functioning utilizing the Inventory of Functional Status After Childbirth. The Postpartum Depression Screening Scale was used to measure PPD severity. Hierarchical multiple and logistic regression models were used to analyze data. Results Controlling for infant gender, number of nighttime infant awakenings, and income, PPD predicted lower personal (P<0.001), household (P<0.05), and social functioning (P<0.001), but no difference in infant care. Women with PPD were 12 times less likely to achieve pre-pregnancy functional levels. Conclusions Interventions are needed to address household, social, and personal functioning in women with PPD. Clinicians may find functional assessment is a useful adjunct and a less threatening way to screen and monitor treatment for PPD. PMID:18586183

  19. Comparing children’s self-report instruments for health-related quality of life using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth (ICF-CY)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Children with chronic conditions often experience a long treatment which can be complex and negatively impacts the child's well-being. In planning treatment and interventions for children with chronic conditions, it is important to measure health-related quality of life (HrQoL). HrQoL instruments are considered to be a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) and should be used in routine practice. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the content dimensions of HrQoL instruments for children's self-reports using the framework of ICF-CY. Method: The sample consist of six instruments for health-related quality of life for children 5 to 18 years of age, which was used in the Swedish national quality registries for children and adolescents with chronic conditions. The following instruments were included: CHQ-CF, DCGM-37, EQ-5D-Y, KIDSCREEN-52, Kid-KINDL and PedsQL 4.0. The framework of the ICF-CY was used as the basis for the comparison. Results: There were 290 meaningful concepts identified and linked to 88 categories in the classification ICF-CY with 29 categories of the component body functions, 48 categories of the component activities and participation and 11 categories of the component environmental factors. No concept were linked to the component body structures. The comparison revealed that the items in the HrQoL instruments corresponded primarily with the domains of activities and less with environmental factors. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results confirm that ICF-CY provide a good framework for content comparisons that evaluate similarities and differences to ICF-CY categories. The results of this study revealed the need for greater consensus of content across different HrQoL instruments. To obtain a detailed description of children's HrQoL, DCGM-37 and KIDSCREEN-52 may be appropriate instruments to use that can increase the understanding of young patients’ needs. PMID:23642162

  20. APOE genotype influences functional status among elderly without dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, S.M.; Jacobs, D.M.; Stern, Y.

    1995-12-18

    The presence of apolipoprotein-{epsilon}4 (APOE-{epsilon}4) significantly increases the risk of Alzheimer`s disease (AD). The association between APOE-{epsilon}4 status and functional abilities was explored further in a multicultural sample of community-dwelling, nondemented elders. The sample was limited to cognitively-intact, community-dwelling elders, who were free of stroke or other neurologic disability. In 218 elders who met research criteria, the presence of APOE-{epsilon}4 was associated with poorer functional status, apart from the effects of neuropsychological performance, gender, age, and education (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3, 4.9). In 158 subjects without an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele, 50% reported no functional limitation; in the 60 subjects with an {epsilon}4 allele, only 28% reported no functional limitation (P < .01). The relationship was not explained by the distribution of co-morbidities. The association between poorer function and the presence of an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele was evident in each ethnic group. In path analyses, the presence of an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele was associated with decreased functional ability in non-demented elders not simply through an association with poorer cognitive status, but also independently. These results suggest that the APOE-{epsilon}4 genotype is associated with functional deficit in people with normal neuropsychological profiles. 29 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  1. Socioeconomic Status and Executive Function: Developmental Trajectories and Mediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackman, Daniel A.; Gallop, Robert; Evans, Gary W.; Farah, Martha J.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) predicts executive function (EF), but fundamental aspects of this relation remain unknown: the developmental course of the SES disparity, its continued sensitivity to SES changes during that course, and the features of childhood experience responsible for the SES-EF relation. Regarding course, early disparities…

  2. Functional Status in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Silva, Thais Bento; Bahia, Valéria Santoro; Nitrini, Ricardo; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to conduct a systematic review of studies that described the functional profile of patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), published between 2000 and 2013. The bibliographic search was conducted using the terms “frontotemporal dementia” and “frontotemporal lobar degeneration” in combination with “independence,” “functionality,” “basic activities of daily living,” “disability,” and scales that measure functional performance: “Disability Assessment for Dementia-DAD,” “Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ),” “Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS).” To be included in the review, the study had to mention the characterization of the functional status of patients with bvFTD in the objectives of the study, using a previously validated instrument of functional assessment. Fourteen studies met this criterion. The reviewed studies suggested that individuals with bvFTD have greater functional impairment when compared to those with other subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration or Alzheimer's disease. The studies documented a significant association between cognitive impairment and measures of functionality in these patients. The cognitive profile of patients may predict faster functional decline. PMID:24308008

  3. Black tea improves attention and self-reported alertness.

    PubMed

    De Bruin, E A; Rowson, M J; Van Buren, L; Rycroft, J A; Owen, G N

    2011-04-01

    Tea has previously been demonstrated to better help sustain alertness throughout the day in open-label studies. We investigated whether tea improves attention and self-reported alertness in two double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover studies. Participants received black tea (made from commercially available tea bags) in one condition and placebo tea (hot water with food colours and flavours) similar in taste and appearance to real tea in the other condition. Attention was measured objectively with attention tests (the switch task and the intersensory-attention test) and subjectively with a self-report questionnaire (Bond-Lader visual analogue scales). In both studies, black tea significantly enhanced accuracy on the switch task (study 1 p<.002, study 2 p=.007) and self-reported alertness on the Bond-Lader questionnaire (study 1 p<.001, study 2 p=.021). The first study also demonstrated better auditory (p<.001) and visual (p=.030) intersensory attention after black tea compared to placebo. Simulation of theanine and caffeine plasma time-concentration curves indicated higher levels in the first study compared to the second, which supports the finding that tea effects on attention were strongest in the first study. Being the second most widely consumed beverage in the world after water, tea is a relevant contributor to our daily cognitive functioning.

  4. Correction for faking in self-report personality tests.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Lennart

    2015-10-01

    Faking is a common problem in testing with self-report personality tests, especially in high-stakes situations. A possible way to correct for it is statistical control on the basis of social desirability scales. Two such scales were developed and applied in the present paper. It was stressed that the statistical models of faking need to be adapted to different properties of the personality scales, since such scales correlate with faking to different extents. In four empirical studies of self-report personality tests, correction for faking was investigated. One of the studies was experimental, and asked participants to fake or to be honest. In the other studies, job or school applicants were investigated. It was found that the approach to correct for effects of faking in self-report personality tests advocated in the paper removed a large share of the effects, about 90%. It was found in one study that faking varied as a function of degree of how important the consequences of test results could be expected to be, more high-stakes situations being associated with more faking. The latter finding is incompatible with the claim that social desirability scales measure a general personality trait. It is concluded that faking can be measured and that correction for faking, based on such measures, can be expected to remove about 90% of its effects. PMID:26043667

  5. Moral disengagement in self-reported and peer-nominated school bullying.

    PubMed

    Obermann, Marie-Louise

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relation between moral disengagement and different self-reported and peer-nominated positions in school bullying. The aims of this study were to (1) investigate moral disengagement among children for whom self-reported and peer-nominated bully status diverged and (2) compare levels of disengagement among self-reported and peer-nominated pure bullies, pure victims, bully-victims, and children not involved in bullying. A sample of 739 Danish sixth grade and seventh grade children (mean age 12.6) was included in the study. Moral disengagement was measured using a Danish version of the Moral Disengagement Scale and bullying was measured using both self-reports and peer nominations. Results revealed that both self-reported and peer-nominated bullying were related to moral disengagement, and that both pure bullies and bully-victims displayed higher moral disengagement than outsiders. Discrepancies between self-reported and peer-nominated bullying involvement indicates that a person's social reputation has a stronger association with moral disengagement than so far expected. Implications are discussed, highlighting the importance of further research and theory development.

  6. Rurality and Self-Reported Health in Women with a History of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Rafat; Loxton, Deborah; Khan, Asad

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate differences in self-reported health among Australian women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV) in relation to rurality of residence. Methods Data were drawn from six survey waves of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health 1973–78 birth cohort. Self-reported general and mental health scores derived from the SF-36 scale were compared for women with a history of IPV living in metropolitan, regional and rural areas. Multivariable generalised estimating equations were constructed adjusting for income hardship, number of children, education, social support, age and marital status. Results Women with a history of IPV living in regional and rural areas had no significant differences in self-reported general health scores compared to their metropolitan counterparts. Rural women affected by IPV had slightly better self-reported mental health than equivalent women living in metropolitan or regional areas. The socio-demographic factors with the strongest association with self-reported health were income, education, social support, and number of children. Conclusions Women in regional and rural areas were no more disadvantaged, in terms of self-reported general health or mental health, than IPV affected women living in major cities in Australia. PMID:27622559

  7. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Cognitive Function in Women

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Margolis, Karen L.; Slaughter, Mary E.; Jewell, Adria; Bird, Chloe E.; Eibner, Christine; Denburg, Natalie L.; Ockene, Judith; Messina, Catherine R.; Espeland, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) is associated with cognitive functioning in older US women and whether this relationship is explained by associations between NSES and vascular, health behavior, and psychosocial factors. Methods. We assessed women aged 65 to 81 years (n = 7479) who were free of dementia and took part in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. Linear mixed models examined the cross-sectional association between an NSES index and cognitive functioning scores. A base model adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, marital status, and hysterectomy. Three groups of potential confounders were examined in separate models: vascular, health behavior, and psychosocial factors. Results. Living in a neighborhood with a 1-unit higher NSES value was associated with a level of cognitive functioning that was 0.022 standard deviations higher (P = .02). The association was attenuated but still marginally significant (P < .1) after adjustment for confounders and, according to interaction tests, stronger among younger and non-White women. Conclusions. The socioeconomic status of a woman's neighborhood may influence her cognitive functioning. This relationship is only partially explained by vascular, health behavior, or psychosocial factors. Future research is needed on the longitudinal relationships between NSES, cognitive impairment, and cognitive decline. PMID:21778482

  8. Associations between preoperative functional status and functional outcomes of total joint replacement in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Jamie E.; Ghazinouri, Roya; Alcantara, Luis; Thornhill, Thomas S.; Katz, Jeffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. In developed countries, the functional status scores of patients with poor preoperative scores undergoing total joint replacement (TJR) improve more following TJR than those for patients with better preoperative scores. However, those with better preoperative scores achieve the best postoperative functional outcomes. We determined whether similar associations exist in a developing country. Methods. Dominican patients undergoing total hip or knee replacement completed WOMAC and SF-36 surveys preoperatively and at 12-month follow-up. Patients were stratified into low-, medium- and high-scoring preoperative groups based on their preoperative WOMAC function scores. We examined the associations between the baseline functional status of these groups and two outcomes—improvement in functional status over 12 months and functional status at 12 months—using analysis of variance with multivariable linear regression. Results. Patients who scored the lowest preoperatively made the greatest gains in function and pain relief following their TJRs. However, there were no significant differences in pain or function at 12-month follow-up between patients who scored low and those who scored high on preoperative WOMAC and SF-36 surveys. Conclusion. Patients with poor preoperative functional status had greater improvement but similar 12-month functional outcomes compared with patients who had a higher level of function before surgery. These results suggest that a policy of focusing scarce resources on patients with worse functional status in developing countries may optimize improvement following TJR without threatening functional outcome. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings in other developing countries and to understand why these associations vary between patients in the Dominican Republic and patients from developed countries. PMID:23748412

  9. Educational attainment and transitions in functional status among older Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Z; Liu, X; Hermalin, A; Chuang, Y L

    1998-08-01

    Despite considerable research examining the influence of socioeconomic status on health, few studies have considered this relationship as it pertains to older adults in non-Western societies. We attempt to ascertain the influence of education on changes in physical functioning in a rapidly developing country. Data come from the 1989 Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan and a follow-up interview in 1993 (N = 4,049, age = 60+). Individuals are conceptualized to be in a state of functional independence or functional limitation at the time of origin, based on their ability to perform three physical functioning tasks. The outcome at the follow-up interview is categorized as functionally independent, limited, or dead, allowing for six probabilities, one from each state of origin to each outcome. These are calculated using a multinomial logit model, controlling for other factors often thought to be associated with health transitions. High levels of educational attainment result in a decreased incidence of functional limitation for those originating in a state of independence. Contrary to expectations, however, education has little influence on those who originate functionally limited. Thus, higher education plays a substantial role in primary prevention of morbidity, delaying the onset of disability, but other factors are more important once limitations begin. We speculate on the reasons behind these findings, including that the results may be culturally dependent.

  10. Functional Status and Health Information in Canada: Proposals and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Bickenbach, Jerome E.

    2003-01-01

    The primary obstacle to evidence-based health care quality assessment in Canada is reliable data on health encounters and episodes of care. The recent Federal/Provincial Health Accord will enhance health data collection, including standardized functional status information (FSI) for administrative records. Canadian health policy developers also agree that FSI is needed to bridge data gaps since alterations in functional status create the continuity that links all episodes of care and health service utilization. Given Canada's universal, single-payer, health financing structure, the prospects for coherent and systemwide data collection are good. This article describes the Canadian health care from the perspective of health information, and surveys proposals in electronic health technology development, the obstacles that need to be faced, and the prospects of doing so. PMID:12894637

  11. Self-reports and spouse ratings of neuroticism: perspectives on emotional adjustment in couples.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy W; Williams, Paula G

    2015-04-01

    Evidence of reciprocal associations between individual emotional adjustment and the quality of intimate relationships has led to the growing use of interventions that combine a focus on couple issues with a focus on individual emotional functioning. In these approaches, spouse ratings of emotional functioning can provide an important second method of assessment, beyond the much more commonly used self-reports. Although an extensive literature demonstrates substantial convergent correlations between self-reported and spouse-rated emotional adjustment, levels of adjustment evident across these 2 assessment methods are much less commonly compared, especially among couples reporting higher levels of marital distress. Well-documented limitations of both self-reports and spouse ratings suggest that differences--which would not necessarily be evident in correlations between methods--might be common and substantial, perhaps raising complications in couple assessments and intervention. The present study compared self-reports and spouse ratings of neuroticism and its specific components using the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised in a sample of 301 middle-aged and older couples. For overall neuroticism and the specific facets of anxiety, angry hostility, and vulnerability, self-reported levels of negative emotionality were consistently lower than the parallel ratings by spouses, most notably among couples reporting low levels of marital adjustment. Hence, substantial underestimates of negative emotionality obtained through self-reports as compared to ratings by spouses (or overestimates as obtained through spouse ratings) may be common and could complicate couple assessment and intervention. PMID:25844498

  12. Validation of self-reported height and weight in fifth-grade Korean children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bora; Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Yoon, Jihyun

    2013-08-01

    Height and weight are important indicators to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI); measuring height and weight directly is the most exact method to get this information. However, it is ineffective in terms of cost and time on large population samples. The aim of our study was to investigate the validity of self-reported height and weight data compared to our measured data in Korean children to predict obese status. Four hundred twenty-two fifth-grade (mean age 10.5 ± 0.5 years) children who had self-reported and measured height and weight data were final subjects for this study. Overweight/obese was defined as a BMI of or above the 85th percentile of the gender-specific BMI for age in the 2007 Korean National Growth Charts or a BMI of 25 or higher (underweight : < 5th, normal : ≥ 5th to < 85th, overweight : ≥ 85th to < 95th). The differences between self-reported and measured data were tested using paired t-test. Differences based on overweight/obese status were tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear trends. Pearson's correlation and Cohen's kappa were tested to examine agreements between the self-reported and measured data. Although measured and self-reported height, weight and BMI were significantly different and children tended to overreport their height and underreport their weight, the correlation between the two methods of height, weight and BMI were high (r = 0.956, 0.969, 0.932, respectively; all P < 0.001), and both genders reported their overweight/non-overweight status accurately (Cohen's kappa = 0.792, P < 0.001). Although there were differences between the self-reported and our measured methods, the self-reported weight and height was valid enough to classify overweight/obesity status correctly, especially in non-overweight/obese children. Due to bigger underestimation of weight and overestimation of height in obese children, however, we need to be aware that the self-reported anthropometric data were less accurate in overweight

  13. Social relations and self-reported health: a prospective analysis of the French Gazel cohort.

    PubMed

    Melchior, Maria; Berkman, Lisa F; Niedhammer, Isabelle; Chea, Maline; Goldberg, Marcel

    2003-04-01

    Social networks and social support are strongly associated with health, yet the pathways between social relations and health are not well understood. In one of the very few studies on this issue conducted in France, we used data from the French GAZEL cohort of employees of the national gas and electricity company, to (1) explore the relationship between the structure and function of the social environment upon self-reported health and (2) test the hypothesis that social relations directly affect health. In a prospective analysis over a 12-month follow-up period, we found that a lack of social support and dissatisfaction with social relations are predictive of poor health status, while weak social networks are not. Thus, functional aspects of social relations are better predictors of poor health than the structure of social interactions. Low social support was an independent risk factor for poor health in men and women: for men the effect was strongest among individuals who held a high occupational status, for women among those in high and low occupational groups. This study suggests that in France social relations exert an independent effect on health, modified by gender and socio-economic factors. Our results indicate that both clinicians in their practice and researchers may do well to focus increased attention on the health impact of social support.

  14. Structure and Correlates of Self-Reported Empathy in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Horan, William P.; Reise, Steven P.; Kern, Robert S.; Lee, Junghee; Penn, David L.; Green, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Research on empathy in schizophrenia has relied on dated self-report scales that do not conform to contemporary social neuroscience models of empathy. The current study evaluated the structure and correlates of the recently-developed Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy (QCAE) in schizophrenia. This measure, whose structure and validity was established in healthy individuals, includes separate scales to assess the two main components of empathy: Cognitive Empathy (assessed by two subscales) and Affective Empathy (assessed by three subscales). Stable outpatients with schizophrenia (n=145) and healthy individuals (n= 45) completed the QCAE, alternative measures of empathy, and assessments of clinical symptoms, neurocognition, and functional outcome. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided consistent support for a two-factor solution in the schizophrenia group, justifying the use of separate cognitive and affective empathy scales in this population. However, one of the three Affective Empathy subscales was not psychometrically sound and was excluded from further analyses. Patients reported significantly lower Cognitive Empathy but higher Affective Empathy than controls. Among patients, the QCAE scales showed significant correlations with an alternative self-report empathy scale, but not with performance on an empathic accuracy task. The QCAE Cognitive Empathy subscales also showed significant, though modest, correlations with negative symptoms and functional outcome. These findings indicate that structure of self-reported empathy is similar in people with schizophrenia and healthy subjects, and can be meaningfully compared between groups. They also contribute to emerging evidence that some aspects of empathy may be intact or hyper-responsive in schizophrenia. PMID:25985922

  15. Structure and correlates of self-reported empathy in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Horan, William P; Reise, Steven P; Kern, Robert S; Lee, Junghee; Penn, David L; Green, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Research on empathy in schizophrenia has relied on dated self-report scales that do not conform to contemporary social neuroscience models of empathy. The current study evaluated the structure and correlates of the recently-developed Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy (QCAE) in schizophrenia. This measure, whose structure and validity was established in healthy individuals, includes separate scales to assess the two main components of empathy: Cognitive Empathy (assessed by two subscales) and Affective Empathy (assessed by three subscales). Stable outpatients with schizophrenia (n = 145) and healthy individuals (n = 45) completed the QCAE, alternative measures of empathy, and assessments of clinical symptoms, neurocognition, and functional outcome. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided consistent support for a two-factor solution in the schizophrenia group, justifying the use of separate cognitive and affective empathy scales in this population. However, one of the three Affective Empathy subscales was not psychometrically sound and was excluded from further analyses. Patients reported significantly lower Cognitive Empathy but higher Affective Empathy than controls. Among patients, the QCAE scales showed significant correlations with an alternative self-report empathy scale, but not with performance on an empathic accuracy task. The QCAE Cognitive Empathy subscales also showed significant, though modest, correlations with negative symptoms and functional outcome. These findings indicate that structure of self-reported empathy is similar in people with schizophrenia and healthy subjects, and can be meaningfully compared between groups. They also contribute to emerging evidence that some aspects of empathy may be intact or hyper-responsive in schizophrenia. PMID:25985922

  16. Structure and correlates of self-reported empathy in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Horan, William P; Reise, Steven P; Kern, Robert S; Lee, Junghee; Penn, David L; Green, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Research on empathy in schizophrenia has relied on dated self-report scales that do not conform to contemporary social neuroscience models of empathy. The current study evaluated the structure and correlates of the recently-developed Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy (QCAE) in schizophrenia. This measure, whose structure and validity was established in healthy individuals, includes separate scales to assess the two main components of empathy: Cognitive Empathy (assessed by two subscales) and Affective Empathy (assessed by three subscales). Stable outpatients with schizophrenia (n = 145) and healthy individuals (n = 45) completed the QCAE, alternative measures of empathy, and assessments of clinical symptoms, neurocognition, and functional outcome. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided consistent support for a two-factor solution in the schizophrenia group, justifying the use of separate cognitive and affective empathy scales in this population. However, one of the three Affective Empathy subscales was not psychometrically sound and was excluded from further analyses. Patients reported significantly lower Cognitive Empathy but higher Affective Empathy than controls. Among patients, the QCAE scales showed significant correlations with an alternative self-report empathy scale, but not with performance on an empathic accuracy task. The QCAE Cognitive Empathy subscales also showed significant, though modest, correlations with negative symptoms and functional outcome. These findings indicate that structure of self-reported empathy is similar in people with schizophrenia and healthy subjects, and can be meaningfully compared between groups. They also contribute to emerging evidence that some aspects of empathy may be intact or hyper-responsive in schizophrenia.

  17. Impression Management and Self-Report among Violent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jeremy F.; Kroner, Daryl G.

    2006-01-01

    Offenders are assumed by many to employ socially desirable responding (SDR) response styles when completing self-report measures. Contrary to expectations, prior research has shown that accounting for SDR in self-report measures of antisocial constructs does not improve the relationship with outcome. Despite this, many self-report measures…

  18. Oxidant-antioxidant status and pulmonary function in welding workers.

    PubMed

    Fidan, Fatma; Unlü, Mehmet; Köken, Tülay; Tetik, Levent; Akgün, Sema; Demirel, Reha; Serteser, Mustafa

    2005-07-01

    Welding is a process during which fumes, gases, electromagnetic radiation and noise are emitted as by-products. Metal oxide particles are particularly hazardous components of welding fumes. Welding has been found to be associated with respiratory symptoms and our objective in the present study was to study the effects of welding on pulmonary function and serum oxidant-antioxidant status. Fifty-one welding workers and 31 control subjects were recruited. Face to face interviews were conducted using the respiratory illness questionnaire adapted from the American Thoracic Society with the addition of demographic characteristics, work history and working conditions. Additionally physical examinations and spirometric measurements were performed at workplaces. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls, protein sulfhydryls (SH) and erythrocyte reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were measured to evaluate oxidant-antioxidant status in 34 welding workers and in 20 control subjects. No statistically significant differences were observed in age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), smoking status and annual working durations between welding workers and controls. Coughing, sputting and wheezing were significantly higher in welding workers (p<0.05). When adjusted for age, BMI and smoking status in logistic regression, welding work showed a significant risk for chronic bronchitis (OR: 4.78, 95%CI: 1.30-17.54). Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1))/forced vital capacity (FVC) and four parameters of forced expiratory flow (FEF: FEF(25), FEF(50), FEF(75), FEF(25-75)) levels measured in the welding workers were significantly lower than those in the control group (p<0.05). Serum TBARS and protein carbonyl levels were higher in welding workers than those in controls (p<0.001, p<0.05, respectively). On the other hand, total protein SH groups and GSH levels were significantly lower in welders than those in controls (p<0.05, p<0.001, respectively

  19. Distribution and Correlates of Self-Reported Crimes of Trust

    PubMed Central

    Menard, Scott; Morris, Robert G.; Gerber, Jurg; Covey, Herbert C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the distribution and correlates of a special class of property crimes, crimes of trust, using longitudinal and cross sectional self-report data from a national sample. We begin by defining crimes of trust and consider their conceptual relationship to “conventional” property crimes, which we here characterize as crimes of stealth, and to white collar crimes, which are defined in terms of the social status of the perpetrators. Crimes of trust are here defined as property crimes that typically involve deliberate contact with the victim or, where there is more than one victim, with at least one or more victims, in which there is typically more of a focus on concealing the fact that a crime has been committed than on concealing the identity of the perpetrator (as is the case in crimes of stealth), without regard to the socioeconomic status of the perpetrator (thus including but not limited to white collar crimes). The focus here is on crimes of trust committed by individuals (as opposed to corporate crime). We first examine their distribution by sociodemographic characteristics, then examine the correlation of crimes of trust with other types of illegal behavior, using data from the National Youth Survey Family Study, including (1) longitudinal self-report data from a nationally representative panel of individuals who were 11–18 years old in 1976–77 and who were followed through early middle age (ages 36–44) in 2002–2003, plus (2) cross-sectional data on these individuals plus their parents, spouses, and children age 11 and older in 2002–2003 (total age range 11–88). The results suggest that crimes of trust have a different age-crime curve from conventional crimes, and that they are not as strongly correlated with problem substance use, gender, and other socioeconomic indicators as conventional crimes. PMID:22347761

  20. Distribution and Correlates of Self-Reported Crimes of Trust.

    PubMed

    Menard, Scott; Morris, Robert G; Gerber, Jurg; Covey, Herbert C

    2011-11-01

    This study examines the distribution and correlates of a special class of property crimes, crimes of trust, using longitudinal and cross sectional self-report data from a national sample. We begin by defining crimes of trust and consider their conceptual relationship to "conventional" property crimes, which we here characterize as crimes of stealth, and to white collar crimes, which are defined in terms of the social status of the perpetrators. Crimes of trust are here defined as property crimes that typically involve deliberate contact with the victim or, where there is more than one victim, with at least one or more victims, in which there is typically more of a focus on concealing the fact that a crime has been committed than on concealing the identity of the perpetrator (as is the case in crimes of stealth), without regard to the socioeconomic status of the perpetrator (thus including but not limited to white collar crimes). The focus here is on crimes of trust committed by individuals (as opposed to corporate crime). We first examine their distribution by sociodemographic characteristics, then examine the correlation of crimes of trust with other types of illegal behavior, using data from the National Youth Survey Family Study, including (1) longitudinal self-report data from a nationally representative panel of individuals who were 11-18 years old in 1976-77 and who were followed through early middle age (ages 36-44) in 2002-2003, plus (2) cross-sectional data on these individuals plus their parents, spouses, and children age 11 and older in 2002-2003 (total age range 11-88). The results suggest that crimes of trust have a different age-crime curve from conventional crimes, and that they are not as strongly correlated with problem substance use, gender, and other socioeconomic indicators as conventional crimes.

  1. Accuracy of Professional Self-Reports: Medical Student Self-Report and the Scoring of Professional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter Lagha, Regina Anne

    2014-01-01

    Self-report is currently used as an indicator of professional practice in a variety of fields, including medicine and education. Important to consider, therefore, is the ability of self-report to accurately capture professional practice. This study investigated how well professionals' self-reports of behavior agreed with an expert observer's…

  2. Evaluating the validity of self-reported smoking in Mexican adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Valladolid-López, María del Carmen; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Thrasher, James F; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to evaluate the validity of the self-reported smoking indicator used in the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Setting 43 middle and high-school classrooms from 26 schools were selected from Mexico City and Cuernavaca, Morelos. Participants A total of 1257 students provided both a questionnaire and a urine sample. Primary and secondary outcome Sensitivity and specificity of self-reported smoking compared to urinary cotinine. Validity indices were evaluated by subgroups of gender, social acceptability of smoking (ie, smoking parents or friends) and smoking frequency. Results Sensitivity and specificity for current smoking were 93.2% and 81.7%, respectively. Validity indices remained stable across gender. Parental smoking status moderated the validity of self-report, which had lower sensitivity in adolescents with non-smoking parents (86.7%) than in adolescents with smoking parents (96.6%). Sensitivity and specificity increased with smoking frequency. Conclusions This first validation study of self-reported current smoking used in the GYTS among Mexican adolescents suggests that self-reported smoking in the past 30 days is a valid and stable indicator of current smoking behaviour. This measure appears suitable for public health research and surveillance. PMID:26453588

  3. [Self-reported health status among students in Scandinavia].

    PubMed

    Due, P; Holstein, B E; Marklund, U

    1991-01-01

    The article reports data from the WHO cross-national study on health behaviour in schoolchildren. A sample of 11,774 children aged 11, 13 and 15 years in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden answered a questionnaire on social situation, health, health behaviour and lifestyle. Self assessed health is reported excellent among approximately two thirds of the Swedish children, half the Danish children, one third of the Finnish children and one fifth of the Norwegian children. In Denmark, Norway and Sweden self-assessed health is better among boys than girls. The most frequent symptom reported by the children is feeling low. Approximately half the children have experienced this condition at least once during the last week. Difficulties in getting to sleep, head ache, and feeling nervous are symptoms experienced by approximately one third of the children at least once a week. Smaller proportions of the children have experienced stomach-ache, back pain, bad temper and feeling dizzy. There are minor variations between countries and between age groups, but in almost all age groups in all countries more girls than boys report these symptoms. Approximately every fourth pupil have used medication against headache, stomach-ache and coughs during the last month. More girls than boys have used these medications, less pupils in Denmark than in the other countries. Very small proportions have used medication against nervousness and difficulties to getting to sleep.

  4. Validity of Self-Reported Running Distance.

    PubMed

    Dideriksen, Mette; Soegaard, Cristina; Nielsen, Rasmus O

    2016-06-01

    Dideriksen, M, Soegaard, C, and Nielsen, RO. Validity of self-reported running distance. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1592-1596, 2016-It is unclear whether there is a difference between subjective evaluation and objective global positioning systems (GPS) measurement of running distance. The purpose of this study was to investigate if such difference exists. A total of 100 participants (51% men; median age, 41.5; body mass, 78.1 kg ±13.8 SD) completed a run of free choice, then subjectively reported the distance in kilometer (km). This information was subsequently compared with the distance derived from a nondifferential GPS watch using paired t-tests and Bland-Altman's 95% limits of agreement. No significant difference was found between the mean paired differences between subjective evaluations and GPS measurements (1.86%, 95% confidence interval = -1.53%; 5.25%, p = 0.96). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement revealed considerable variation (lower limit = -28% and upper limit = 40%). Such variation exceeds the clinical error range of 10%. In conclusion, the mean running distance (km) is similar between self-reporting and GPS measurements. However, researchers should consider using GPS measurements in favor of subjective reporting of running distance because of considerable variation on an individual level. PMID:26479023

  5. Applying Sequential Analytic Methods to Self-Reported Information to Anticipate Care Needs

    PubMed Central

    Bayliss, Elizabeth A.; Powers, J. David; Ellis, Jennifer L.; Barrow, Jennifer C.; Strobel, MaryJo; Beck, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Identifying care needs for newly enrolled or newly insured individuals is important under the Affordable Care Act. Systematically collected patient-reported information can potentially identify subgroups with specific care needs prior to service use. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort investigation of 6,047 individuals who completed a 10-question needs assessment upon initial enrollment in Kaiser Permanente Colorado (KPCO), a not-for-profit integrated delivery system, through the Colorado State Individual Exchange. We used responses from the Brief Health Questionnaire (BHQ), to develop a predictive model for cost for receiving care in the top 25 percent, then applied cluster analytic techniques to identify different high-cost subpopulations. Per-member, per-month cost was measured from 6 to 12 months following BHQ response. Results: BHQ responses significantly predictive of high-cost care included self-reported health status, functional limitations, medication use, presence of 0–4 chronic conditions, self-reported emergency department (ED) use during the prior year, and lack of prior insurance. Age, gender, and deductible-based insurance product were also predictive. The largest possible range of predicted probabilities of being in the top 25 percent of cost was 3.5 percent to 96.4 percent. Within the top cost quartile, examples of potentially actionable clusters of patients included those with high morbidity, prior utilization, depression risk and financial constraints; those with high morbidity, previously uninsured individuals with few financial constraints; and relatively healthy, previously insured individuals with medication needs. Conclusions: Applying sequential predictive modeling and cluster analytic techniques to patient-reported information can identify subgroups of individuals within heterogeneous populations who may benefit from specific interventions to optimize initial care delivery. PMID:27563684

  6. What are the Links Between Maternal Social Status, Hippocampal Function, and HPA Axis Function in Children?

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Margaret A.; How, Joan; Araujo, Melanie; Schamberg, Michelle A.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The association of parental social status with multiple health and achievement indicators in adulthood has driven researchers to attempt to identify mechanisms by which social experience in childhood could shift developmental trajectories. Some accounts for observed linkages between parental social status in childhood and health have hypothesized that early stress exposure could result in chronic disruptions in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, and that this activation could lead to long term changes. A robust literature in adult animals has demonstrated that chronic HPA axis activation leads to changes in hippocampal structure and function. In the current study, consistent with studies in animals, we observe an association between both maternal self-rated social status and hippocampal activation in children and between maternal self-rated social status and salivary cortisol in children. PMID:24033572

  7. Predictors of functional status in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, L; van Schaardenburg, D; van der Horst-Bru..., I E; Bezemer, P; Dijkmans, B

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To find disease parameters that can predict the functional capacity of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at the first visit to the rheumatologist and one year after entry.
METHODS—Patients referred to the outpatients clinic between 1995 and 1996, with a symptom duration of less than three years and fulfilling the American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for RA within one year after entry were included. Assessments of the duration of morning stiffness, the Disease Activity Score (DAS: a composite score based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), number of painful and swollen joints and patient global assessment), pain (Visual Analogue Scale), the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale (AIMS) and the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) were performed every three months. Possible predictors of the HAQ at entry and after one year were analysed by logistic regression.
RESULTS—133 patients were included in the study. The median duration of complaints was three months (range 0-35) and the median HAQ score at entry was 1.12 (range 0-3). There was no correlation between duration of complaints and the HAQ at entry (r = 0.01). An HAQ score under the 50th percentile at entry could be predicted correctly for 74% of the patients by entry DAS and C reactive protein concentration, and at one year could be predicted correctly for 73% of the patients by entry HAQ and pain score.
CONCLUSION—Disease activity is strongly correlated with a lower functional capacity at entry, whereas disease duration is not. The functional status at entry is a good predictor for functional status at one year. Severity rather than duration of arthritis prompts referral in this cohort.

 PMID:10700432

  8. Rhetorical Status: A Study of Its Origins, Functions, and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Cal M.; Miller, Eugene F.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the characteristics of rhetorical status, compares it to ethos and source credibility, and discusses social status and rhetorical status. Shows how rhetorical status enters into everyday communication by examining a protracted set of interactions between two sisters and a small-town mayor over disputed water bills. (SR)

  9. Physical Activity and Self-reported Symptoms of Insomnia, Restless Legs Syndrome and Depression: the Comprehensive Dialysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Shuchi; Johansen, Kirsten L.; Grimes, Barbara; Kaysen, George A.; Dalrymple, Lorien S.; Kutner, Nancy G.; Chertow, Glenn M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Symptoms of sleep and mood disturbances are common among patients on dialysis and are associated with significant decrements in survival and health-related quality of life. We used data from the Comprehensive Dialysis Study (CDS) to examine the association of self-reported physical activity with self-reported symptoms of insomnia, restless legs syndrome (RLS) and depression in patients new to dialysis. Methods The CDS collected data on physical activity, functional status, and health-related quality of life from 1678 patients on either peritoneal (n=169) or hemodialysis (n=1509). The Human Activity Profile was used to measure self-reported physical activity. Symptoms were elicited in the following manner: insomnia using three questions designed to capture difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep, RLS using three questions based on the National Institutes of Health workshop, and depression using the 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Results We obtained data on symptoms of insomnia and depression for 1636, and on symptoms of RLS for 1622 (>98%) patients. Of these, 863 (53%) reported one of three insomnia symptoms as occurring at a persistent frequency. Symptoms of RLS and depression occurred in 477 (29%) and 451 (28%) of patients, respectively. The Adjusted Activity Score of the Human Activity Profile was inversely correlated with all three conditions in models adjusting for demographics, comorbid conditions, and laboratory variables. Conclusion Sleep and mood disturbances were commonly reported in our large, diverse cohort of patients new to dialysis. Patients who reported lower levels of physical activity were more likely to report symptoms of insomnia, RLS and depression. PMID:22812496

  10. Only Behavioral But Not Self-Report Measures of Speech Perception Correlate with Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Antje; Henshaw, Helen; Ferguson, Melanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Good speech perception and communication skills in everyday life are crucial for participation and well-being, and are therefore an overarching aim of auditory rehabilitation. Both behavioral and self-report measures can be used to assess these skills. However, correlations between behavioral and self-report speech perception measures are often low. One possible explanation is that there is a mismatch between the specific situations used in the assessment of these skills in each method, and a more careful matching across situations might improve consistency of results. The role that cognition plays in specific speech situations may also be important for understanding communication, as speech perception tests vary in their cognitive demands. In this study, the role of executive function, working memory (WM) and attention in behavioral and self-report measures of speech perception was investigated. Thirty existing hearing aid users with mild-to-moderate hearing loss aged between 50 and 74 years completed a behavioral test battery with speech perception tests ranging from phoneme discrimination in modulated noise (easy) to words in multi-talker babble (medium) and keyword perception in a carrier sentence against a distractor voice (difficult). In addition, a self-report measure of aided communication, residual disability from the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile, was obtained. Correlations between speech perception tests and self-report measures were higher when specific speech situations across both were matched. Cognition correlated with behavioral speech perception test results but not with self-report. Only the most difficult speech perception test, keyword perception in a carrier sentence with a competing distractor voice, engaged executive functions in addition to WM. In conclusion, any relationship between behavioral and self-report speech perception is not mediated by a shared correlation with cognition. PMID:27242564

  11. Oral mucosal status and major salivary gland function

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, A.; Fox, P.C.; Ship, J.A.; Atkinson, J.C.; Macynski, A.A.; Baum, B.J. )

    1990-07-01

    Normal salivary function is considered to be critical for the maintenance of healthy oral mucosa. However, few studies have examined mucosal changes in patients with objectively documented salivary gland performance. In the present report, the mucosal status of 298 subjects being evaluated in a dry mouth clinic was assessed. A complete oral examination was performed and unstimulated and stimulated salivary samples were collected separately from the parotid and submandibular/sublingual glands. Data were analyzed according to diagnosis and salivary output after the assignment of an oral mucosal rating to each subject. In general, the mucosal surfaces were well preserved and infections were not seen. Patients evaluated for Sjoegren's syndrome and radiation-induced xerostomia had the lowest salivary gland performance but displayed a mucosal status similar to denture-wearing healthy subjects or patients with normal salivary flow who had idiopathic xerostomia. However, those patients with a total lack of salivary flow rarely had normal-appearing oral mucosa. These results confirm a role for saliva in oral mucosal preservation and also suggest that other factors may act to maintain oral mucosal integrity.

  12. Two method measurement for adolescent obesity epidemiology: Reducing the bias in self report of height and weight

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Keith M.; Longacre, Meghan R.; Dalton, Madeline A.; Langeloh, Gail; Peterson, Karen E.; Titus, Linda J.; Beach, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite validation studies demonstrating substantial bias, epidemiologic studies typically use self-reported height and weight as primary measures of body mass index due to feasibility and resource limitations. Purpose To demonstrate a method for calculating accurate and precise estimates that use body mass index when objectively measuring height and weight in a full sample is not feasible. Methods As part of a longitudinal study of adolescent health, 1,840 adolescents (aged 12–18) self-reported their height and weight during telephone surveys. Height and weight was measured for 407 of these adolescents. Sex specific, age-adjusted obesity status was calculated from self-reported and from measured height and weight. Prevalence and predictors of obesity were estimated using 1) self-reported data, 2) measured data, and 3) multiple imputation (of measured data). Results Among adolescents with self-reported and measured data, the obesity prevalence was lower when using self-report compared to actual measurements (p < 0.001). The obesity prevalence from multiple imputation (20%) was much closer to estimates based solely on measured data (20%) compared to estimates based solely on self-reported data (12%), indicating improved accuracy. In multivariate models, estimates of predictors of obesity were more accurate and approximately as precise (similar confidence intervals) as estimates based solely on self-reported data. Conclusions The two-method measurement design offers researchers a technique to reduce the bias typically inherent in self-reported height and weight without needing to collect measurements on the full sample. This technique enhances the ability to detect real, statistically significant differences, while minimizing the need for additional resources. PMID:23684216

  13. Pharmacy claims data versus patient self-report to measure contraceptive method continuation

    PubMed Central

    Triebwasser, Jourdan E.; Higgins, Stephanie; Secura, Gina M.; Zhao, Qiuhong; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare self-reported 12-month continuation of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), patch, and ring versus continuation by pharmacy claims data. Study Design Women in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project who chose OCPs, the patch, or ring as their initial method were included. Continuation was assessed by periodic telephone survey and by obtaining prescription claims data. Continuation was defined as no gap of more than 30 days. Kaplan-Meier survival functions were used to estimate continuation rates and cumulative unintended pregnancy rates. Kappa statistic assessed the level of agreement between self-report and claims data. Results We analyzed 1,510 women who initiated use by 3 months and provided information on discontinuation. Of OCP users, 59% continued their method at 12 months by self-report versus 38% by pharmacy claims. Patch and ring users had self-reported/pharmacy continuation of 45%/28%, and 57%/37%, respectively. Kappa coefficients and their 95% confidence intervals between the two measurements were 0.46 [0.40–0.52], 0.54 [0.39–0.68], and 0.54 [0.47–0.61] for OCP, patch, and ring, respectively. Among women who self-reported continuation, unintended pregnancy rates were 0.4% in those who continued by pharmacy claims versus 4.9% in those who discontinued according to claims data. Conclusion Contraceptive continuation rates differ by self-report versus pharmacy claims with women overestimating their continuation by self-report. PMID:25858677

  14. Emotional and Sexual Correlates of Child Sexual Abuse as a Function of Self-Definition Status.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Bédard, Maryline Germain; Charest, Émilie; Briere, John; Sabourin, Stéphane

    2016-08-01

    Among individuals defined as having been sexually abused based on legal criteria, some will self-report having been abused and some will not. Yet, the empirical correlates of self-definition status are not well studied. Different definitions of abuse may lead to varying prevalence rates and contradictory findings regarding psychological outcomes. The present study examined whether, among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, identifying oneself as having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with more severe abuse, negative emotional reactions toward the abuse, and current sexual reactions. A convenience sample of 1,021 French-speaking Canadians completed self-report questionnaires online. The prevalence of legally defined CSA was 21.3% in women and 19.6% in men, as compared to 7.1% in women and 3.8% in men for self-defined CSA. Among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, those who identified themselves as CSA survivors had been abused more frequently, were more likely to report a male aggressor, and more often described abuse by a parental figure than those who did not self-identify as abused. Further, self-defined CSA was associated with more negative postabuse reactions and sexual avoidance, whereas those not identifying as sexually abused were more likely to report sexual compulsion.

  15. Emotional and Sexual Correlates of Child Sexual Abuse as a Function of Self-Definition Status.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Bédard, Maryline Germain; Charest, Émilie; Briere, John; Sabourin, Stéphane

    2016-08-01

    Among individuals defined as having been sexually abused based on legal criteria, some will self-report having been abused and some will not. Yet, the empirical correlates of self-definition status are not well studied. Different definitions of abuse may lead to varying prevalence rates and contradictory findings regarding psychological outcomes. The present study examined whether, among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, identifying oneself as having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with more severe abuse, negative emotional reactions toward the abuse, and current sexual reactions. A convenience sample of 1,021 French-speaking Canadians completed self-report questionnaires online. The prevalence of legally defined CSA was 21.3% in women and 19.6% in men, as compared to 7.1% in women and 3.8% in men for self-defined CSA. Among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, those who identified themselves as CSA survivors had been abused more frequently, were more likely to report a male aggressor, and more often described abuse by a parental figure than those who did not self-identify as abused. Further, self-defined CSA was associated with more negative postabuse reactions and sexual avoidance, whereas those not identifying as sexually abused were more likely to report sexual compulsion. PMID:27364540

  16. The Role of Psychosocial and Belief Factors in Self-Reported Cigarette Smoking Among University Students in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Dubai, Sami; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Alshagga, Mustafa; Hawash, Aamenah; Wajih, Wahid; Kassim, Saba

    2014-01-13

    This study aimed to explore factors associated, specifically belief factors, with self-reported tobacco smoking status. A sample of 300 students was recruited from a private university in Malaysia. Data was collected using a pre-tested self-administrated questionnaire that investigated various factors including socio-demographics, socio-economic status, smoking behavior and beliefs on tobacco smoking. The main tobacco use in this study sample was cigarettes and the estimated prevalence of self-reported cigarette smoking was 10.3%. In bivariate analysis, self-reported cigarette smoking was significantly associated with socio-demographic, behavioral factors and faculty of study (P<0.05). In multivariate modeling, being male and a non-medical student, did not exercise, having a smoker father and brother or sister, suffering from financial difficulties and having the belief that smokers had more friends, all had statistically significant associations (P<0.05) with self-reported cigarette smoking. Social and interpersonal factors were associated with self-reported cigarette smoking status. A comprehensive health model focusing on changing the social norms of parent and sibling tobacco smoking and students' beliefs, alongside nurturing skills of dealing with stressful situations, warrant implementation. PMID:26973928

  17. The Role of Psychosocial and Belief Factors in Self-Reported Cigarette Smoking Among University Students in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Dubai, Sami; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Alshagga, Mustafa; Hawash, Aamenah; Wajih, Wahid; Kassim, Saba

    2014-01-13

    This study aimed to explore factors associated, specifically belief factors, with self-reported tobacco smoking status. A sample of 300 students was recruited from a private university in Malaysia. Data was collected using a pre-tested self-administrated questionnaire that investigated various factors including socio-demographics, socio-economic status, smoking behavior and beliefs on tobacco smoking. The main tobacco use in this study sample was cigarettes and the estimated prevalence of self-reported cigarette smoking was 10.3%. In bivariate analysis, self-reported cigarette smoking was significantly associated with socio-demographic, behavioral factors and faculty of study (P<0.05). In multivariate modeling, being male and a non-medical student, did not exercise, having a smoker father and brother or sister, suffering from financial difficulties and having the belief that smokers had more friends, all had statistically significant associations (P<0.05) with self-reported cigarette smoking. Social and interpersonal factors were associated with self-reported cigarette smoking status. A comprehensive health model focusing on changing the social norms of parent and sibling tobacco smoking and students' beliefs, alongside nurturing skills of dealing with stressful situations, warrant implementation.

  18. Self-report distortions of puffing topography in daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Pulcu, Erdem

    2016-08-01

    Under-reporting tobacco consumption is common, although there is lack of evidence whether under-reporting is associated with health risk perception. In this study, smoking topography from 110 smokers was recorded over 24 hours, aiming to capture a representative average of smoking behaviour. Participants significantly under-reported the duration of secondary exposure, and there was a significant interaction between self-report distortion type and risk perception. Analysis showed that smokers under-reporting puff number declared perceiving significantly less susceptibility to acquiring airway diseases, which is correlating significantly with the level of under-reporting. The present findings may suggest that under-reporting smoking behaviour has psychological functions beyond achieving social desirability.

  19. Vitamin K status and cognitive function in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Presse, Nancy; Belleville, Sylvie; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Greenwood, Carol E; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Morais, Jose A; Payette, Hélène; Shatenstein, Bryna; Ferland, Guylaine

    2013-12-01

    Evidence is accumulating that vitamin K could have a role in cognition, especially in aging. Using data from the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging (NuAge), a cross-sectional analysis was conducted to examine the associations between vitamin K status, measured as serum phylloquinone concentrations, and performance in verbal and non-verbal episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of processing. The sample included 320 men and women aged 70 to 85 years who were free of cognitive impairment. After adjustment for covariates, higher serum phylloquinone concentration (log-transformed) was associated with better verbal episodic memory performances (F = 2.43, p = 0.048); specifically with the scores (Z-transformed) on the second (β = 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.13-0.82), third (β = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.06-0.75), and 20-minute delayed (β = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.12-0.82) free recall trials of the RL/RI-16 Free and Cued Recall Task. No associations were found with non-verbal episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of processing. Our study adds evidence to the possible role of vitamin K in cognition during aging, specifically in the consolidation of the memory trace. PMID:23850343

  20. Self-reported sleep disturbances in renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor sleep quality (SQ) and daytime sleepiness (DS) are common in renal transplant (RTx) recipients; however, related data are rare. This study describes the prevalence and frequency of self-reported sleep disturbances in RTx recipients. Methods This cross-sectional study included 249 RTx recipients transplanted at three Swiss transplant centers. All had reported poor SQ and / or DS in a previous study. With the Survey of Sleep (SOS) self-report questionnaire, we screened for sleep and health habits, sleep history, main sleep problems and sleep-related disturbances. To determine a basis for preliminary sleep diagnoses according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD), 164 subjects were interviewed (48 in person, 116 via telephone and 85 refused). Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data and to determine the frequencies and prevalences of specific sleep disorders. Results The sample had a mean age of 59.1 ± 11.6 years (60.2% male); mean time since Tx was 11.1 ± 7.0 years. The most frequent sleep problem was difficulty staying asleep (49.4%), followed by problems falling asleep (32.1%). The most prevalent sleep disturbance was the need to urinate (62.9%), and 27% reported reduced daytime functionality. Interview data showed that most suffered from the first ICSD category: insomnias. Conclusion Though often disregarded in RTx recipients, sleep is an essential factor of wellbeing. Our findings show high prevalences and incidences of insomnias, with negative impacts on daytime functionality. This indicates a need for further research on the clinical consequences of sleep disturbances and the benefits of insomnia treatment in RTx recipients. PMID:24112372

  1. Self-report may underestimate trauma intrusions.

    PubMed

    Takarangi, Melanie K T; Strange, Deryn; Lindsay, D Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Research examining maladaptive responses to trauma routinely relies on spontaneous self-report to index intrusive thoughts, which assumes people accurately recognize and report their intrusive thoughts. However, "mind-wandering" research reveals people are not always meta-aware of their thought content: they often fail to notice shifts in their attention. In two experiments, we exposed subjects to trauma films, then instructed them to report intrusive thoughts during an unrelated reading task. Intermittently, we asked whether they were thinking about the trauma. As expected, subjects often spontaneously reported intrusive thoughts. However, they were also "caught" engaging in unreported trauma-oriented thoughts. The presence and frequency of intermittent probes did not influence self-caught intrusions. Both self-caught and probe-caught intrusions were related to an existing tendency toward intrusive cognition, film-related distress, and thought suppression attempts. Our data suggest people may lack meta-awareness of trauma-related thoughts, which has implications for theory, research and treatment relating to trauma-related psychopathology. PMID:24993526

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for self-reported violence of Osaka and Seattle male youths.

    PubMed

    Bui, Laura; Farrington, David P; Ueda, Mitsuaki; Hill, Karl G

    2014-12-01

    Traditionally, Japan has been regarded as a country with low crime. Comparative research has given insights into the extent of similarities and differences in crime between America and Japan. The importance of these studies is the examination of whether Western-established criminological knowledge is applicable to non-Western societies like Japan. Unfortunately, comparative self-report studies involving Japan and investigating youth offending are scarce. The current study investigates risk factors and self-reports of violence from Osaka and Seattle male youths. The findings reveal that Japanese male youths self-report a higher prevalence of violence than Seattle male youths. Risk factors for violence, issues of comparability, and prevalence versus strength of relationships of risk factors are examined. It is concluded that the higher prevalence of violence in Osaka is primarily a function of the higher prevalence of troubled peers and risk taking. The findings call for replication of this type of comparative research.

  3. A systematic review of empirical research on self-reported racism and health.

    PubMed

    Paradies, Yin

    2006-08-01

    This paper reviews 138 empirical quantitative population-based studies of self-reported racism and health. These studies show an association between self-reported racism and ill health for oppressed racial groups after adjustment for a range of confounders. The strongest and most consistent findings are for negative mental health outcomes and health-related behaviours, with weaker associations existing for positive mental health outcomes, self-assessed health status, and physical health outcomes. Most studies in this emerging field have been published in the past 5 years and have been limited by a dearth of cohort studies, a lack of psychometrically validated exposure instruments, poor conceptualization and definition of racism, conflation of racism with stress, and debate about the aetiologically relevant period for self-reported racism. Future research should examine the psychometric validity of racism instruments and include these instruments, along with objectively measured health outcomes, in existing large-scale survey vehicles as well as longitudinal studies and studies involving children. There is also a need to gain a better understanding of the perception, attribution, and reporting of racism, to investigate the pathways via which self-reported racism affects health, the interplay between mental and physical health outcomes, and exposure to intra-racial, internalized, and systemic racism. Ensuring the quality of studies in this field will allow future research to reveal the complex role that racism plays as a determinant of population health.

  4. Functional Status of Long-Term Breast Cancer Survivors: Demonstrating Chronicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polinsky, Margaret L.

    1994-01-01

    Surveyed 223 breast cancer survivors 16 months to 32 years from original surgery to assess their current physical, psychological, and social functional status. Although general measures of functioning indicated high physical, psychological, and social functional status, measures specific to breast cancer diagnosis and treatment indicated problems…

  5. A Self-Report Measure of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Donald

    2005-01-01

    There are multiple approaches to measuring physical activity. Among these are direct observation, electronic monitoring, direct and indirect calorimetry, and self-report instruments. Self-report instruments are the most practical and cost effective option for use with a large group. In a study by Motl, Dishman, Dowda, and Pate (2004), two groups…

  6. Improving Accuracy of Sleep Self-Reports through Correspondence Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Peter, Claire C.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.; Massullo, Joel P.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep insufficiency is a major public health concern, yet the accuracy of self-reported sleep measures is often poor. Self-report may be useful when direct measurement of nonverbal behavior is impossible, infeasible, or undesirable, as it may be with sleep measurement. We used feedback and positive reinforcement within a small-n multiple-baseline…

  7. Construct Validity of Self-Reported Metacognitive Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Jean-Louis; Karabenick, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite their significant contributions to research on self-regulated learning, those favoring online and trace approaches have questioned the use of self-report to assess learners' use of learning strategies. An important rejoinder to such criticisms consists of examining the validity of self-report items. The present study was designed to assess…

  8. Visual Field Asymmetries in Attention Vary with Self-Reported Attention Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poynter, William; Ingram, Paul; Minor, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an index of self-reported attention deficits predicts the pattern of visual field asymmetries observed in behavioral measures of attention. Studies of "normal" subjects do not present a consistent pattern of asymmetry in attention functions, with some studies showing better left visual field (LVF)…

  9. Does Participation in an Intervention Affect Responses on Self-Report Questionnaires?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baranowski, Tom; Allen, Diane D.; Masse, Louise C.; Wilson, Mark

    2006-01-01

    There has been some concern that participation in an intervention and exposure to a measurement instrument can change participants' interpretation of the items on a self-report questionnaire thereby distorting subsequent responses and biasing results. Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis using item response modeling can ascertain possible…

  10. Sexuality in Adolescent Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Reported Behaviours and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group…

  11. Analog assessment of frustration tolerance: association with self-reported child abuse risk and physiological reactivity.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Christina M; Russa, Mary Bower; Kircher, John C

    2015-08-01

    Although frustration has long been implicated in promoting aggression, the potential for poor frustration tolerance to function as a risk factor for physical child abuse risk has received minimal attention. Instead, much of the extant literature has examined the role of anger in physical abuse risk, relying on self-reports of the experience or expression of anger, despite the fact that this methodology is often acknowledged as vulnerable to bias. Therefore, the present investigation examined whether a more implicit, analog assessment of frustration tolerance specifically relevant to parenting would reveal an association with various markers of elevated physical child abuse risk in a series of samples that varied with regard to age, parenting status, and abuse risk. An analog task was designed to evoke parenting-relevant frustration: the task involved completing an unsolvable task while listening to a crying baby or a toddler's temper tantrum; time scores were generated to gauge participants' persistence in the task when encountering such frustration. Across these studies, low frustration tolerance was associated with increased physical child abuse potential, greater use of parent-child aggression in discipline encounters, dysfunctional disciplinary style, support for physical discipline use and physical discipline escalation, and increased heart rate. Future research directions that could better inform intervention and prevention programs are discussed, including working to clarify the processes underlying frustration intolerance and potential interactive influences that may exacerbate physical child abuse.

  12. The association between self-reported anxiety symptoms and suicidality.

    PubMed

    Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Woolley, Stephen B; Goethe, John W

    2009-02-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed the association between self-reported anxiety symptoms and self-reported suicidality among a mixed diagnostic sample of psychiatric outpatients. Data were obtained from chart review of 2,778 outpatients who completed a routine diagnostic clinical interview and a standardized self-report of psychiatric symptoms on admission. Bivariate analyses indicated that those with >or= moderate anxiety symptoms were over three times as likely to report >or= moderate difficulty with suicidality. Self-reported anxiety symptoms were associated with a 2-fold increased likelihood of reporting suicidality after controlling for confounding (demographics, depressive symptoms, and diagnoses). These data are consistent with a growing literature demonstrating an association between anxiety symptoms and suicidality, and suggest that this association is not accounted for by coexisting mood symptoms or diagnoses. A single item, self-report may be a useful screening tool for symptoms that are pertinent to assessment of suicide risk.

  13. Nutrient intake, nutritional status, and cognitive function with aging.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Katherine L

    2016-03-01

    With the demographic aging of populations worldwide, diseases associated with aging are becoming more prevalent and costly to individuals, families, and healthcare systems. Among aging-related impairments, a decline in cognitive function is of particular concern, as it erodes memory and processing abilities and eventually leads to the need for institutionalized care. Accumulating evidence suggests that nutritional status is a key factor in the loss of cognitive abilities with aging. This is of tremendous importance, as dietary intake is a modifiable risk factor that can be improved to help reduce the burden of cognitive impairment. With respect to nutrients, there is evidence to support the critical role of several B vitamins in particular, but also of vitamin D, antioxidant vitamins (including vitamin E), and omega-3 fatty acids, which are preferentially taken up by brain tissue. On the other hand, high intakes of nutrients that contribute to hypertension, atherosclerosis, and poor glycemic control may have negative effects on cognition through these conditions. Collectively, the evidence suggests that considerable slowing and reduction of cognitive decline may be achieved by following a healthy dietary pattern, which limits intake of added sugars, while maximizing intakes of fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds.

  14. Trends in Ambulatory Self-Report: The Role of Momentary Experience in Psychosomatic Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Tamlin S.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we review the differences between momentary, retrospective, and trait self-report techniques and discuss the unique role that ambulatory reports of momentary experience play in psychosomatic medicine. Following a brief historical review of self-report techniques, we discuss the latest perspective which links ambulatory self-reports to a qualitatively different conscious self – the ‘experiencing self’– which is functionally and neuroanatomically different from the ‘remembering’ and ‘believing’ selves measured through retrospective and trait questionnaires. The experiencing self functions to navigate current environments and is relatively more tied to the salience network and corporeal information from the body that regulates autonomic processes. As evidence, we review research showing that experiences measured through ambulatory assessment have stronger associations with cardiovascular reactivity, cortisol response, immune system function, and threat/reward biomarkers compared to memories or beliefs. By contrast, memories and beliefs play important roles in decision making and long-term planning, but they are less tied to bodily processes and more tied to default/long-term memory networks, which minimizes their sensitivity for certain research questions. We conclude with specific recommendations for using self-report questionnaires in psychosomatic medicine and suggest that intensive ambulatory assessment of experiences may provide greater sensitivity for connecting psychological with biological processes. PMID:22582330

  15. Obtaining Self-Report Data from Cognitively Impaired Elders: Methodological Issues and Clinical Implications for Nursing Home Pain Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Susan E.; Burgio, Louis D.; Thorn, Beverly E.; Hardin, J. Michael

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We developed and evaluated an explicit procedure for obtaining self-report pain data from nursing home residents across a broad range of cognitive status, and we evaluated the consistency, stability, and concurrent validity of resident responses. Design and Methods: Using a modification of the Geriatric Pain Measure (GPM-M2), we…

  16. Social status, glucocorticoids, immune function, and health: can animal studies help us understand human socioeconomic-status-related health disparities?

    PubMed

    Cavigelli, Sonia A; Chaudhry, Hashim S

    2012-08-01

    For humans in developed nations, socioeconomic status (SES)--relative income, education and occupational position in a society--is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality rates, with increasing SES predicting longer life span (e.g. Marmot et al., 1991). Mechanisms underlying this relationship have been examined, but the relative role of each mechanism still remains unknown. By understanding the relative role of specific mechanisms that underlie dramatic health disparities between high and low social status individuals we can begin to identify effective, targeted methods to alleviate health disparities. In the current paper, we take advantage of a growing number of animal studies that have quantified biological health-related correlates (glucocorticoid production and immune function) of social status and compare these studies to the current literature on human SES and health to determine if and how animal studies can further our understanding of SES-associated human health disparities. Specifically, we compared social-status related glucocorticoid production and immune function in humans and animals. From the review, we show that our present understanding of the relationships between social status and glucocorticoid production/immune function is still growing, but that there are already identifiable parallels (and non-parallels) between humans and animals. We propose timely areas of future study focused on (1) specific aspects of social status that may influence stress-related physiology, (2) mechanisms underlying long-term influences of social status on physiology and health, and (3) intervention studies to alleviate potentially negative physiological correlates of social status. PMID:22841799

  17. Validation of Self-Reported Anthropometrics in Female College Freshmen

    PubMed Central

    LEONE, RYAN J.; MORGAN, AMY L.; LUDY, MARY-JON

    2016-01-01

    Most investigations concerning the validity of self-reported anthropometrics focus on weight, height, and body mass index. This study extends those investigations by exploring the impact of self-reporting bias on the disease risk indicators of waist circumference and body fat percentage. Female college freshmen (n=128) self-reported weight and height, then underwent measurements for weight, height, waist circumference, and body fat percentage. Self-reporting bias was defined as self-reported minus directly-assessed anthropometric value. Despite no differences in self-reported versus directly-assessed weight or height for the total group, students with high waist circumference and excess fat under-reported their weight by 2.3±4.4 lb (p<0.05). Self-reporting bias was negatively correlated with waist circumference (r=−0.362; p<0.001) and body fat percentage (r=−0.317; p<0.001). Although many female college freshmen accurately represent their weight, those with excess fat and waist circumference under-reported their weight. This may lead to missed opportunities for risk identification, prevention, and intervention. PMID:27293506

  18. Religion, Spirituality, and Health Status in Geriatric Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Daaleman, Timothy P.; Perera, Subashan; Studenski, Stephanie A.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Religion and spirituality remain important social and psychological factors in the lives of older adults, and there is continued interest in examining the effects of religion and spirituality on health status. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of religion and spirituality with self-reported health status in a community-dwelling geriatric population. METHODS We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 277 geriatric outpatients participating in a cohort study in the Kansas City area. Patients underwent a home assessment of multiple health status and functional indicators by trained research assistants. A previously validated 5-item measure of religiosity and 12-item spirituality instrument were embedded during the final data collection. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the relationship between each factor and self-reported health status. RESULTS In univariate analyses, physical functioning (P <.01), quality of life (P <.01), race (P <.01), depression (P <.01), age (P = .01), and spirituality (P <.01) were all associated with self-reported health status, but religiosity was not (P = .12). In a model adjusted for all covariates, however, spirituality remained independently associated with self-appraised good health (P = .01). CONCLUSIONS Geriatric outpatients who report greater spirituality, but not greater religiosity, are more likely to appraise their health as good. Spirituality may be an important explanatory factor of subjective health status in older adults. PMID:15053283

  19. Disentangling proactive and reactive aggression in children using self-report

    PubMed Central

    Rieffe, Carolien; Broekhof, Evelien; Kouwenberg, Maartje; Faber, Judith; Tsutsui, Makoto M.; Güroğlu, Berna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The distinction between proactive and reactive functions of aggression is one of the most common divisions when investigating aggression among children and adolescents. To date, self-report is the least used measurement, despite existing literature supporting the view that the best informant regarding internal processes and motives are children themselves. The main aim of this study was to examine the construct and concurrent validity of a new self-report questionnaire, which aims to disentangle acts of reactive vs. proactive aggression that are most common within the daily lives of children. We examined the self-report measure among 578 children (313 girls, 265 boys, mean age 11 years, range 9–13 years). Most children (90% boys; 85% girls) reported at least one act of aggression over the last four weeks. Furthermore, the outcomes support the two-factor structure (reactive and proactive aggression) and the questionnaire showed good concurrent and discriminant validity with measures for emotional and social functioning. This study validates the use of the self-report instrument for reactive and proactive aggression and demonstrates that children can successfully distinguish between their own motives for reactive and proactive forms of aggressive behaviours. PMID:27398084

  20. Beyond proximity: the importance of green space useability to self-reported health.

    PubMed

    Carter, May; Horwitz, Pierre

    2014-09-01

    Access to parks and green spaces within residential neighbourhoods has been shown to be an important pathway to generating better physical and mental health for individuals and communities. Early research in this area often failed to identify specific attributes that contributed to reported health outcomes, with more recent research focused on exploring relationships between health outcomes and aspects of access and design. A mixed methods research project conducted in Perth, Western Australia examined the role that neighbourhood green space played in influencing residents' self-reported health status, and this paper identifies significant relationships found between perceptions of green space quality and self-reported health. It focuses on the factors that were found to be most positively associated with better health outcomes: proximity, retention, useability and visitation of neighbourhood green space.

  1. Representation of Functional Status Concepts from Clinical Documents and Social Media Sources by Standard Terminologies.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Jinqiu; Mohanty, April F; Rashmi, V H; Weir, Charlene R; Bray, Bruce E; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Patient-reported functional status is widely recognized as an important patient-centered outcome that adds value to medical care, research, and quality improvement. Functional status outcomes are, however, not routinely or uniformly collected in the medical record, except in certain small patient populations (e.g. geriatrics, nursing home residents). To utilize patient reported functional status for clinical research and practice, we manually collected 2,763 terms from clinical records and social media sites and modeled them on the widely used Short Form-36 Health Survey. We then examined the coverage of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) for these functional status terms through automated mapping. Most terms (85.9%) did not have exact matches in the UMLS. The partial matches were prevalent, however, they typically did not capture the terms' exact semantics. Our study suggests that there is a need to extend existing standard terminologies to incorporate functional status terms used by patients and clinicians.

  2. Representation of Functional Status Concepts from Clinical Documents and Social Media Sources by Standard Terminologies

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Jinqiu; Mohanty, April F.; Rashmi, V.H.; Weir, Charlene R.; Bray, Bruce E.; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Patient-reported functional status is widely recognized as an important patient-centered outcome that adds value to medical care, research, and quality improvement. Functional status outcomes are, however, not routinely or uniformly collected in the medical record, except in certain small patient populations (e.g. geriatrics, nursing home residents). To utilize patient reported functional status for clinical research and practice, we manually collected 2,763 terms from clinical records and social media sites and modeled them on the widely used Short Form-36 Health Survey. We then examined the coverage of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) for these functional status terms through automated mapping. Most terms (85.9%) did not have exact matches in the UMLS. The partial matches were prevalent, however, they typically did not capture the terms’ exact semantics. Our study suggests that there is a need to extend existing standard terminologies to incorporate functional status terms used by patients and clinicians. PMID:26958215

  3. A case–control study of self-reported health, quality-of-life and general functioning among recent immigrants and age- and sex-matched Swedish-born controls

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblad, Andreas; Wiklund, Tony; Bennström, Halina; Leppert, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To examine whether new immigrants had inferior quality-of-life, well-being and general functioning compared with Swedish age- and sex-matched controls. Methods: A prospective case–control study was designed including immigrants from non-European countries, 18–65 years of age, with recent Permanent Permits to Stay (PPS) in Sweden, and age- and sex-matched Swedish-born (SB) persons from the general population in Västmanland County, Sweden. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), the brief version of the World Health Organization Quality-of-Life (WHOQOL-BREF) Scale and the General Activity Functioning Assessment Scale (GAF) from DSM-IV were posted (SB), or applied in personal interviews (PPS) with interpreters. Differences between the PPS and SB groups were measured using McNemar’s test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test conducted separately for observations at baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up. Results: There were 93 pairs (mean age 36 years). Persons from Somalia (67%) and Iraq (27%) dominated the PPS group. The differences between the groups were statistically significant for all time points for the Psychological health and Social relationship domains of WHOQOL-BREF, and for the baseline and 6-month follow-up time points of GHQ-12 where the PPS-group had a higher degree of well-being, health and quality-of-life than the SB. This tendency applied for both sexes in the immigrant group. Conclusions: These new immigrants did not have inferior physical or psychological health, quality-of-life, well-being or social functioning compared with their age- and sex-matched Swedish born pairs during a 1-year follow-up. Thus, there is reason to advocate immigrants’ fast integration into society. PMID:25249583

  4. Nano-in-Micro Self-Reporting Hydrogel Constructs.

    PubMed

    Tirella, Annalisa; La Marca, Margherita; Brace, Leigh-Anne; Mattei, Giorgio; Aylott, Jonathan W; Ahluwalia, Arti

    2015-08-01

    Highly reproducible Nano-in-Micro constructs are fabricated to provide a well-defined and self-reporting biomimetic environment for hepatocytes. Based on a protein/hydrogel formulation with controlled shape, size and composition, the constructs enable efficient nutrient exchange and provide an adhesive 3D framework to cells. Co-encapsulation of hepatocytes and ratiometric optical nanosensors with pH sensitivity in the physiological range allows continuous monitoring of the microenvironment. The lobule-sized microbeads are fabricated using an automated droplet generator, Sphyga (Spherical Hydrogel Generator) combining alginate, collagen, decellularized hepatic tissue, pH-nanosensors and hepatocytes. The pH inside the Nano-in-Micro constructs is monitored during culture, while assaying media for hepatic function and vitality markers. Although the local pH changes by several units during bead fabrication, when encapsulated cells are most likely to undergo stress, it is stable and buffered by cell culture media thereafter. Albumin secretion and urea production are significantly higher in the microbeads compared with controls, indicating that the encapsulated Nano-in-Micro environment is conducive to enhanced hepatic function.

  5. Performance-based versus self-reported outcomes using the HOOS following total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Dayton, Michael R.; Judd, Dana L.; Hogan, Craig A.; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between patients’ self-reported and performance-based function after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Design Twenty-three patients (age 61.4 ± 8.3 years) undergoing primary THA for hip osteoarthritis participated. Self-reported function and recovery was measured using The Hip Dysfunction and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) ADL and Pain subscales. Performance-based functional measures included Timed Up and Go Test (TUG), Stair Climbing Test (SCT), and the 6 Minute Walk Test (6MW). Outcome measures were assessed pre- and post-operatively at one and six months. Results One month after THA, performance-based function declined compared to baseline as follows: TUG: −22.1 ± 25.4%; SCT: −58.5 ± 63.6%; and 6MWT: −22.6 ± 31.7%. In contrast, self-reported function on the HOOS ADL significantly improved one month after THA compared to baseline: 40.8 ± 33.3%. One to six months after THA, there were significant improvements in TUG, SCT and 6MWT which paralleled improvements on the HOOS subscales, although changes were not significantly correlated. Conclusion The disparity between changes in HOOS scores and functional performance post-operatively suggests that patients may overestimate their functional capacity early after THA, likely in response to pain improvements over the same time period. Therefore, outcomes assessment after THA should include both self-report and performance-based functional measures. PMID:26259051

  6. Validation of self-reported periodontal disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Blicher, B; Joshipura, K; Eke, P

    2005-10-01

    Self-report is an efficient and accepted means of assessing many population characteristics, risk factors, and diseases, but has rarely been used for periodontal disease (chronic periodontitis). The availability of valid self-reported measures of periodontal disease would facilitate epidemiologic studies on a much larger scale, allow for integration of new studies of periodontal disease within large ongoing studies, and facilitate lower-cost population surveillance of periodontitis. Several studies have been conducted to validate self-reported measures for periodontal disease, but results have been inconsistent. In this report, we conducted a systematic review of the validation studies. We reviewed the 16 studies that assessed the validity of self-reported periodontal and gingivitis measures against clinical gold standards. Seven of the studies included self-reported measures specific to gingivitis, four included measures only for periodontitis, and five included both gingivitis and periodontal measures. Three of the studies used a self-assessment method where they provided the patient with a detailed manual for performing a self-exam. The remaining 13 studies asked participants to self-report symptoms, presence of periodontal disease itself, or their recollection of a dental health professional diagnosing them or providing treatment for periodontal disease. The review indicates that some measures showed promise, but results varied across populations and self-reported measures. One example of a good measure is, "Has any dentist/hygienist told you that you have deep pockets?", which had a sensitivity of 55%, a specificity of 90%, positive predictive value of 77%, and negative predictive value of 75% against clinical pocket depth. Higher validity could be potentially obtained by the use of combinations of several self-reported questions and other predictors of periodontal disease. PMID:16183785

  7. Validation of Self-Reported Measures in Health Disparities Research.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Bertha; Goodman, Melody

    2012-10-12

    Validation of self-reported measures can be achieved effectively and accurately when data collection involves objective measures that can be clinically validated. On the other hand, validation of self-reported social constructs, often used in health disparities research is a much harder task to achieve, particularly when the outcome is hard to quantify (e.g. racism, discrimination and segregation experience). We discuss validation and the challenges faced, when using current approaches in health disparities research.

  8. Individual differences in self-reported difficulty sleeping across the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Van Reen, Eliza; Kiesner, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    The effect of menstrual cycle phase on sleep has been studied for decades; however, individual differences in the associations between sleep and menstrual phase have not been well studied. In addition, the associations between changes in sleep and other physiological and psychological factors that vary as a function of menstrual phase have not been thoroughly assessed. This study explored individual differences in daily self-reports of difficulty sleeping across the menstrual cycle, as well as associations between daily changes in difficulty sleeping and psychological/vegetative and somatic symptoms. Participants (n = 213 females, mean age = 21.29 ± 4.01 years) completed daily online questionnaires assessing` sleep, psychological and physical symptoms for two menstrual cycles. Two patterns of menstrual cycle-related self-reported difficulty sleeping emerged in addition to women who showed no cyclical change in self-reported difficulty sleeping: a perimenstrual increase and a mid-cycle increase. All psychological/vegetative symptoms and some of the somatic symptoms showed significant associations with self-reported difficulty sleeping. These findings highlight the importance of examining individual differences in sleep across the menstrual cycle and the significant contribution of a wide range of menstrual cycle-related psychological/vegetative and somatic symptoms.

  9. Children’s self-report of pain intensity: What we know, where we are headed

    PubMed Central

    von Baeyer, Carl L

    2009-01-01

    The present paper provides a short, practical introduction to children’s self-report measures of pain intensity, followed by an overview of principles and issues. Details on individual self-report scales were previously reported in a landmark systematic review in 2006 and will not be repeated here. Broader measurement issues discussed here include interpretation of pain scores over time, across individuals and in relation to contextual factors; special considerations affecting children younger than six years of age; social communicative functions of pain reports; cognitive developmental factors in understanding pain scales and their anchors; screening for the ability to use self-report scales and training for children who do not have this skill; level of measurement (interval versus ordinal); estimating clinically significant change for groups and individuals; and measurement of aspects of pain other than intensity. Also highlighted are areas in which there has been progress and a lack of progress since the last time this topic was featured at the International Forum on Pediatric Pain in 1996. The present article closes with an outline of key areas for further research on children’s self-report of pain and a brief summary of recommendations for clinicians. PMID:19262915

  10. Genomic Ancestry, Self-Reported “Color” and Quantitative Measures of Skin Pigmentation in Brazilian Admixed Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Tailce K. M.; Fonseca, Rômulo M. C.; de França, Nanci M.; Parra, Esteban J.; Pereira, Rinaldo W.

    2011-01-01

    A current concern in genetic epidemiology studies in admixed populations is that population stratification can lead to spurious results. The Brazilian census classifies individuals according to self-reported “color”, but several studies have demonstrated that stratifying according to “color” is not a useful strategy to control for population structure, due to the dissociation between self-reported “color” and genomic ancestry. We report the results of a study in a group of Brazilian siblings in which we measured skin pigmentation using a reflectometer, and estimated genomic ancestry using 21 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs). Self-reported “color”, according to the Brazilian census, was also available for each participant. This made it possible to evaluate the relationship between self-reported “color” and skin pigmentation, self-reported “color” and genomic ancestry, and skin pigmentation and genomic ancestry. We observed that, although there were significant differences between the three “color” groups in genomic ancestry and skin pigmentation, there was considerable dispersion within each group and substantial overlap between groups. We also saw that there was no good agreement between the “color” categories reported by each member of the sibling pair: 30 out of 86 sibling pairs reported different “color”, and in some cases, the sibling reporting the darker “color” category had lighter skin pigmentation. Socioeconomic status was significantly associated with self-reported “color” and genomic ancestry in this sample. This and other studies show that subjective classifications based on self-reported “color”, such as the one that is used in the Brazilian census, are inadequate to describe the population structure present in recently admixed populations. Finally, we observed that one of the AIMs included in the panel (rs1426654), which is located in the known pigmentation gene SLC24A5, was strongly associated with

  11. The relationship between self-report and biomarkers of stress in low-income, reproductive age women

    PubMed Central

    Borders, Ann E.B; Grobman, William A.; Amsden, Laura B.; McDade, Thomas W.; Sharp, Lisa K.; Holl, Jane L.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if there is an association between self-reported and biologic measures of stress in low-income, reproductive age women. STUDY DESIGN Between 1999 and 2005, randomly selected reproductive age women from the 1998 welfare rolls in Chicago were interviewed yearly to assess psychosocial, socioeconomic, and health characteristics. The association of two stress sensitive biomarkers (Epstein-Barr virus antibody titer (EBV) and C-reactive protein (CRP) level) with self-reported stress was assessed. RESULTS Of the 206 women interviewed, 205 (99%) agreed to provide a blood sample. There was no difference in mean EBV or CRP levels based on age, race, parity, employment, marital status, or education. Women who reported a higher degree of perceived stress or reported experiences of discrimination had significantly higher levels of EBV (p < .05). CONCLUSION Measures of self-reported psychosocial stress are associated with elevated levels EBV antibody in a low-income population of reproductive age women. PMID:20870203

  12. Self-reported measures for surveillance of periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Eke, P I; Dye, B A; Wei, L; Slade, G D; Thornton-Evans, G O; Beck, J D; Taylor, G W; Borgnakke, W S; Page, R C; Genco, R J

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of self-reported measures in predicting periodontitis in a representative US adult population, based on 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. Self-reported gum health and treatment history, loose teeth, bone loss around teeth, tooth not looking right, and use of dental floss and mouthwash were obtained during in-home interviews and validated against full-mouth clinically assessed periodontitis in 3,743 US adults 30 years and older. All self-reported measures (> 95% item response rates) were associated with periodontitis, and bivariate correlations between responses to these questions were weak, indicating low redundancy. In multivariable logistic regression modeling, the combined effects of demographic measures and responses to 5 self-reported questions in predicting periodontitis of mild or greater severity were 85% sensitive and 58% specific and produced an 'area under the receiver operator characteristic curve' (AUROCC) of 0.81. Four questions were 95% sensitive and 30% specific, with an AUROCC of 0.82 in predicting prevalence of clinical attachment loss ≥ 3 mm at one or more sites. In conclusion, self-reported measures performed well in predicting periodontitis in US adults. Where preferred clinically based surveillance is unattainable, locally adapted variations of these self-reported measures may be a promising alternative for surveillance of periodontitis.

  13. Cognitive and self-reported psychological outcomes of blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury in veterans: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Bolzenius, Jacob D; Roskos, P Tyler; Salminen, Lauren E; Paul, Robert H; Bucholz, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of explosives in combat has resulted in a large number of returning veterans suffering from blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and self-reported complications. It remains unclear whether this increase in self-reported difficulties is unique to the blast mechanism or stressful preinjury environment and whether cognitive-functioning deficits correspond with these difficulties in the postacute phase. This study examined the relationship between cognitive performance and self-reported psychological and somatic symptoms of blast-related mTBI compared with civilian mTBI, independent of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Twelve veterans with blast-related mTBI were compared to 18 individuals with civilian mTBI on cognitive tests and self-report questionnaires. Univariate analyses failed to reveal differences on any individual cognitive test. Further, veterans reported more psychological and somatic complaints. These self-reported difficulties were not significantly correlated with neuropsychological performance. Overall, preliminary results suggest that in the postacute phase, subjective complaints related to blast-related mTBI do not covary with objective cognitive performance. Additionally, cognitive outcomes from blast-related mTBI were similar to those of civilian forms of mTBI. Future studies should identify the cognitive and self-reported sequelae of blast-related mTBI independent of comorbid PTSD in a larger sample of veterans.

  14. Poor agreement between self-reported diagnosis and bone mineral density results in the identification of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Amanda L; Williams, Lana J; Brennan, Sharon L; Kotowicz, Mark A; Pasco, Julie A

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health concern, estimated to affect millions worldwide. Bone mineral density (BMD) assessment is not practical for many large-scale epidemiological studies resulting in the reliance of self-report methods to ascertain diagnostic information. The aim of the study was to assess the validity of self-reported diagnosis of osteoporosis in a population-based study. This study examined data collected from 906 men and 843 women participating in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Osteoporosis was self-reported and compared against results of BMD scans of the hip and spine. Validity was examined by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and kappa statistic. Osteoporosis was self-reported by 118 (6.7%) participants and identified using BMD results for 64 (3.7%) participants. Specificity and negative predictive value were good (95.1% and 96.0%, respectively), whereas sensitivity and positive predictive value were poor (35.9% and 31.4%, respectively). The overall level of agreement (kappa) was 0.29. The results changed only slightly when we included participants with osteopenia and adult fracture as osteoporotic. Reliance on self-report methods to ascertain osteoporosis status is not recommended. PMID:24912958

  15. Self-reported histories of disease and vaccination against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella in health care personnel in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kumakura, Shunichi; Onoda, Keiichi; Hirose, Masahiro

    2014-03-01

    Health care personnel are required to be immune against vaccine-preventable diseases, such as measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of self-reported histories of disease and vaccination against measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella in order to determine the immune status of health care personnel. A self-reported questionnaire of history of previous disease and vaccination against these diseases was administered to a total of 910 health care personnel in Shimane university hospital in Japan, whose results were compared with serological evidences. There were numerous subjects who did not remember a history of disease (greater than 33% each) and of vaccination (greater than 58% each). Self-reported history of disease and vaccination had high positive predictive value against either disease for testing positive for antiviral antibodies. However, a considerable number of false-negative subjects could be found; 88.9% of subjects for measles, 89.3% for mumps, 62.2% for rubella and 96.3% for varicella in the population who had neither a self-reported history of disease nor a vaccination against each disease. In addition, regardless of the disease in question, a negative predictive value in self-reported history of disease and vaccination was remarkably low. These results suggest that self-reported history of disease and vaccination was not predictive to determine the accurate immune status of health care personnel against measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella. A seroprevalence survey, followed by an adequate immunization program for susceptible subjects, is crucial to prevent and control infection in hospital settings. PMID:24462433

  16. Ethnicity, self reported psychiatric illness, and intake of psychotropic drugs in five ethnic groups in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Bayard-Burfield, L; Sundquist, J; Johansson, S

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—This study hypothesises that the presumed increased risk of self reported longstanding psychiatric illness and intake of psychotropic drugs among Iranian, Chilean, Turkish, and Kurdish adults, when these groups are compared with Polish adults, can be explained by living alone, poor acculturation, unemployment, and low sense of coherence.
DESIGN—Data from a national sample of immigrants/refugees, who were between the ages of 20-44 years old, upon their arrival in Sweden between 1980 and 1989. Unconditional logistic regression was used in the statistical modelling.
SETTING—Sweden.
PARTICIPANTS—1059 female and 921 male migrants from Iran, Chile, Turkey, Kurdistan and Poland and a random sample of 3001 Swedes, all between the ages of 27-60 years, were interviewed in 1996 by Statistics Sweden.
MAIN RESULTS—Compared with Swedes, all immigrants had an increased risk of self reported longstanding psychiatric illness and for intake of psychotropic drugs, with results for the Kurds being non-significant. Compared with Poles, Iranian and Chilean migrants had an increased risk of psychiatric illness, when seen in relation to a model in which adjustment was made for sex and age. The difference became non-significant for Chileans when marital status was taken into account. After including civil status and knowledge of the Swedish language, the increased risks for intake of psychotropic drugs for Chileans and Iranians disappeared. Living alone, poor knowledge of the Swedish language, non-employment, and low sense of coherence were strong risk factors for self reported longstanding psychiatric illness and for intake of psychotropic drugs. Iranian, Chilean, Turkish and Kurdish immigrants more frequently reported living in segregated neighbourhoods and having a greater desire to leave Sweden than their Polish counterparts.
CONCLUSION—Evidence substantiates a strong association between ethnicity and self reported longstanding psychiatric

  17. Impact of natural disasters on the functional and health status of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Tomio, Jun; Sato, Hajime; Mizumura, Hiroko

    2011-08-01

    To examine the effects of natural disasters on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients we conducted a questionnaire survey targeted to 1,477 members of a nationwide RA patient group in Japan who lived in the municipalities affected by natural disasters between 2004 and 2006. Functional statuses measured by the modified Health Assessment Questionnaire and self-rated health statuses before and after the events were retrospectively examined. The associations between the changes in functional and health status and socio-demographics, direct damage, and preparedness status were statistically analyzed. Of the 665 individuals who responded, the data on 192 women RA patients were analyzed. The values at 1 and 6 months post-event were the same, with 14% experiencing deteriorations of functional status, while 22% experienced a worsening of self-rated health status. Those in poorer functional status before the events were more likely to experience deteriorations of functional [odds ratio (OR) 4.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-13.6] and health (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.7) status at both 1 month and 6 months (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.3-12.0, and OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.7, respectively) after the events. Based on these results, we conclude that the functional and health status of women RA patients could worsen due to the consequences of a natural disaster, with a disproportionately large impact upon those with a poorer functional status.

  18. Substance Use in HIV-infected Women during Pregnancy: Self-report versus Meconium Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Read, Jennifer S.; Brogly, Susan; Rich, Kenneth; Lester, Barry; Spector, Stephen A.; Yogev, Ram; Seage, George

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated prenatal substance use in a cohort of 480 HIV-infected women and their uninfected children. Substance use was reported by 29%; the most common substances reported were tobacco (18%), alcohol (10%), and marijuana (7.2%). Fewer than 4% of women reported cocaine or opiate use. Substance use was more common in the first trimester (25%) than the second (17%) and third (15%) (trend p-value < 0.01), and was associated with race/ethnicity, education, birthplace, age and marital status. For 264 mother/infant pairs with meconium results, sensitivity of self-report was 86% for tobacco, 80% for marijuana and 67% for cocaine. Higher discordance between self-report and urine/blood toxicology was observed for cocaine, marijuana and opiates in a non-random subset of mothers/infants with these tests. Findings suggest reasonably complete self-reporting of substance use as confirmed by meconium analysis. Illicit substance use was low and substantially less than that reported in earlier studies of HIV-infected women, but alcohol and tobacco exposure was prevalent. PMID:20532607

  19. Website design: technical, social and medical issues for self-reporting by elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark J; Stables, Rod; Matata, Bashir; Lisboa, Paulo J G; Laws, Andy; Almond, Peter

    2014-06-01

    There is growing interest in the use of the Internet for interacting with patients, both in terms of healthcare information provision and information gathering. In this article, we examine the issues in designing healthcare websites for elderly users. In particular, this article uses a year-long case study of the development of a web-based system for self-reporting of symptoms and quality of life with a view to examine the issues relating to website design for elderly users. The issues identified included the technical, social and medical aspects of website design for elderly users. The web-based system developed was based on the European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions health-status questionnaire, a commonly used tool for patient self-reporting of quality of life, and the more specific coronary revascularisation outcome questionnaire. Currently, self-reporting is generally administered in the form of paper-based questionnaires to be completed in the outpatient clinic or at home. There are a variety of issues relating to elderly users, which imply that websites for elderly patients may involve different design considerations to other types of websites.

  20. Increased systolic blood pressure reactivity to acute stress is related with better self-reported health

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Bradley J.; O'Brien, Shaun; Hazi, Agnes; Kent, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The stress reactivity hypothesis posits that the magnitude of cardiovascular reactions to acute stress tasks is related with future blood pressure status, heart hypertrophy, and atherosclerosis. We assessed the stress reactivity hypothesis and aimed to identify which physiological indices (blood pressure, heart-rate, cortisol, salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA)) related to self-reported mental and physical health. We also assessed if physiological reactions elicited by an acute stressor were more related than basal assessments. Participants provided physiological samples, self-reported stress and health-data before and after an assessed 5–7 minute academic oral presentation. In hierarchical regression models, increased systolic and reduced sIgA reactivity was associated with better perceptions of mental health. Reactivity data were more related to self-reported data than basal data. In line with the only 2 studies to assess the reactivity hypothesis with self-perceived health, increased systolic reactivity was best associated with better perceived physical and mental health. The findings suggest that increased SBP reactivity may also be associated with positive health outcomes. Further research is required to determine if increased or decreased sIgA reactivity is most predictive of future morbidity. PMID:25391460

  1. Self-reported racial discrimination and endothelial reactivity to acute stress in women.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Julie A; Tennen, Howard; Finan, Patrick H; Ghuman, Nimrta; Burg, Matthew M

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of self-reported racial discrimination on endothelial responses to acute laboratory mental stress among post-menopausal women. One-hundred thirteen women (n = 94 self-identified as White and n = 19 self-identified as racial/ethnic minority), 43% with type 2 diabetes, reported lifetime experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination. Repeated assessments of flow-mediated dilation were performed at baseline, immediately after 5 min of mental arithmetic and at 20-min recovery. Both White and racial/ethnic minority women reported lifetime discrimination, with rates significantly higher among minorities. Self-reported lifetime discrimination was associated with attenuated flow-mediated dilation at recovery. Confounding variables, including clinical characteristics, mood, personality traits, other life stressors and general distress, did not better account for the effect of racial discrimination. Neither race/ethnicity nor diabetes status moderated the effect. The perceived stressfulness of the mental arithmetic was not associated with the endothelial response. In conclusion, self-reported lifetime discrimination is associated with attenuated endothelial recovery from acute mental stress. Elucidating the effects of discrimination and the biological mechanisms through which it affects the vasculature may suggest interventions to improve health.

  2. Age and Socioeconomic Gradients of Health of Indian Adults: An Assessment of Self-Reported and Biological Measures of Health.

    PubMed

    Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Uttamacharya; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes overall socioeconomic gradients and the age patterns of socioeconomic gradients of health of Indian adults for multiple health indicators encompassing the multiple aspects of health. Cross-sectional data on 11,230 Indians aged 18 years and older from the WHO-SAGE India Wave 1, 2007 were analyzed. Multivariate logit models were estimated to examine effects of socioeconomic status (education and household wealth) and age on four health domains: self-rated health, self-reported functioning, chronic diseases, and biological health measures. Results show that socioeconomic status (SES) was negatively associated with prevalence of each health measure but with considerable heterogeneity across age groups. Results for hypertension and COPD were inconclusive. SES effects are significant while adjusting for background characteristics and health risk factors. The age patterns of SES gradient of health depict divergence with age, however, no conclusive age pattern emerged for biological markers. Overall, results in this paper dispelled the conclusion of negative SES-health association found in some previous Indian studies and reinforced the hypothesis of positive association of SES with health for Indian adults. Higher prevalence of negative health outcomes and SES disparities of health outcomes among older age-groups highlight need for inclusive and focused health care interventions for older adults across socioeconomic spectrum. PMID:26895999

  3. Age and Socioeconomic Gradients of Health of Indian Adults: An Assessment of Self-Reported and Biological Measures of Health.

    PubMed

    Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Uttamacharya; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes overall socioeconomic gradients and the age patterns of socioeconomic gradients of health of Indian adults for multiple health indicators encompassing the multiple aspects of health. Cross-sectional data on 11,230 Indians aged 18 years and older from the WHO-SAGE India Wave 1, 2007 were analyzed. Multivariate logit models were estimated to examine effects of socioeconomic status (education and household wealth) and age on four health domains: self-rated health, self-reported functioning, chronic diseases, and biological health measures. Results show that socioeconomic status (SES) was negatively associated with prevalence of each health measure but with considerable heterogeneity across age groups. Results for hypertension and COPD were inconclusive. SES effects are significant while adjusting for background characteristics and health risk factors. The age patterns of SES gradient of health depict divergence with age, however, no conclusive age pattern emerged for biological markers. Overall, results in this paper dispelled the conclusion of negative SES-health association found in some previous Indian studies and reinforced the hypothesis of positive association of SES with health for Indian adults. Higher prevalence of negative health outcomes and SES disparities of health outcomes among older age-groups highlight need for inclusive and focused health care interventions for older adults across socioeconomic spectrum.

  4. Accuracy of Self-reported Breast Cancer Among Women Undergoing Mammography

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Linn; Geller, Berta M.; Yankaskas, Bonnie C.; Bowles, Erin J. A.; Karliner, Leah S.; Taplin, Stephen H.; Miglioretti, Diana L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This study estimated the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported breast cancer and their associations with patient factors and pathologic findings using data from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium. Methods We included 24,631 women with and 463,804 women without a prior diagnosis of breast cancer who completed a questionnaire (including breast cancer history) at participating U.S. mammography facilities between 1996 and 2006. We determined “true” cancer status using cancer registries and pathology databases. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine associations with patient factors and pathologic findings. Results Sensitivity of self-reported breast cancer was higher for women with invasive cancer (96.9%) than for those with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (90.2%). Specificity was high overall (99.7%) but much lower for women with a history of lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) (65.0%). In multivariable models, women reporting older ages, a nonwhite race/ethnicity, or less education had lower sensitivities and specificities. Sensitivity was reduced when there was evidence of prior DCIS, especially when this diagnosis had been made more than 2 years before questionnaire completion. Women reporting a family history of breast cancer had higher sensitivity. Evidence of prior LCIS was associated with lower specificity. Conclusion The accuracy of self-reported breast cancer depends on the respondent’s characteristics and prior diagnoses. Accuracy is lower among nonwhite women and women reporting less education. There appears to be uncertainty surrounding breast findings such as DCIS and LCIS. These results have important implications for research relying on self-report and for patient communication and care. PMID:19301119

  5. Self-Reported Cognitive Outcomes in Patients With Brain Metastases Before and After Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Ansa Maer; Scherwath, Angela; Ernst, Gundula; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Bremer, Michael; Steinmann, Diana

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Patients with brain metastases may experience treatment-related cognitive deficits. In this study, we prospectively assessed the self-reported cognitive abilities of patients with brain metastases from any solid primary cancer before and after irradiation of the brain. Methods and Materials: The treatment group (TG) consisted of adult patients (n=50) with brain metastases who received whole or partial irradiation of the brain without having received prior radiation therapy (RT). The control group (CG) consisted of breast cancer patients (n=27) without cranial involvement who were treated with adjuvant RT. Patients were recruited between May 2008 and December 2010. Self-reported cognitive abilities were acquired before RT and 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after irradiation. The information regarding the neurocognitive status was collected by use of the German questionnaires for self-perceived deficits in attention (FEDA) and subjectively experienced everyday memory performance (FEAG). Results: The baseline data showed a high proportion of self-perceived neurocognitive deficits in both groups. A comparison between the TG and the CG regarding the course of self-reported outcomes after RT showed significant between-group differences for the FEDA scales 2 and 3: fatigue and retardation of daily living activities (P=.002) and decrease in motivation (P=.032) with an increase of attention deficits in the TG, but not in the CG. There was a trend towards significance in FEDA scale 1: distractibility and retardation of mental processes (P=.059) between the TG and the CG. The FEAG assessment presented no significant differences. An additional subgroup analysis within the TG was carried out. FEDA scale 3 showed significant differences in the time-related progress between patients with whole-brain RT and those receiving hypofractionated stereotactic RT (P=.025), with less decrease in motivation in the latter group. Conclusion: Self-reported attention declined in

  6. Functional Behavior Assessment in Schools: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Campbell, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Functional behavior assessment is becoming a commonly used practice in school settings. Accompanying this growth has been an increase in research on functional behavior assessment. We reviewed the extant literature on documenting indirect and direct methods of functional behavior assessment in school settings. To discern best practice guidelines…

  7. Delay discounting and self-reported impulsivity in adolescent smokers and nonsmokers living in rural Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Russell; Harris, Millie; Slone, Stacey A; Shelton, Brent J; Reynolds, Brady

    2015-09-01

    Background and Objectives This study evaluated whether impulsivity (delay discounting and BIS-11-A) is associated with adolescent smoking status in a region with strong environmental risk factors for smoking. Methods Forty-two adolescent smokers and nonsmokers from rural Appalachia completed discounting and self-reported impulsivity assessments. Results The BIS-11-A, but not the measure of discounting, was associated with smoking status; however, neither assessment predicted smoking status once parent/best-friend smoking variables were statistically accounted for. Discussion and Conclusions In regions with strong environmental risk factors for smoking, delay discounting may play a more limited role in risk of initiation. Scientific Significance Helps to better define impulsivity as risk factors for smoking in relation to familial and broader cultural variables.

  8. Days of heroin use predict poor self-reported health in hospitalized heroin users.

    PubMed

    Meshesha, Lidia Z; Tsui, Judith I; Liebschutz, Jane M; Crooks, Denise; Anderson, Bradley J; Herman, Debra S; Stein, Michael D

    2013-12-01

    This study examined associations between substance use behaviors and self-reported health among hospitalized heroin users. Of the 112 participants, 53 (47%) reported good or better health. In multivariable logistic regression models, each day of heroin use in the last month was associated with an 8% lower odds of reporting health as good or better (OR=.92; 95% CI 0.87, 0.97, p<.05). Cocaine, cannabis, cigarettes, alcohol use, unintentional overdose, nor injection drug use was associated with health status. PMID:24045030

  9. The Nomological Network of Self-Reported Distress Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kiselica, Andrew M; Rojas, Elizabeth; Bornovalova, Marina A; Dube, Chad

    2015-12-01

    Distress tolerance (DT), or the ability to withstand psychological distress, is a popular construct in the psychological literature. However, research has not specified the nomological network of DT across self-report measures. The purpose of the current investigation was to understand what personality features, environmental stressors, current affective states, and behaviors contribute to DT in two different samples: college students and those in residential substance use treatment. Correlations revealed that self-reported DT was most strongly associated with trait negative emotionality, state negative affect, impulsivity, and perceived stress. In comparisons across samples, self-harm exhibited a stronger relationship with self-reported DT in the drug treatment than in the student sample, whereas perceived stress had a stronger association in the student sample. Correlations between self-report and behavioral measures of DT were nonsignificant. To understand this lack of associations, associations of outcomes with behavioral measures were assessed. In contrast to self-reported DT, behavioral DT was more closely related to achievement orientation, state negative affect, and state positive affect, but was not significantly related to psychopathology and maladaptive behaviors. It is necessary to continue investigating the construct validity of behavioral DT measures via the use of incremental utility analyses and experimental approaches.

  10. Accuracy of self-reported reason for colorectal cancer testing

    PubMed Central

    Eberth, Jan M.; Vernon, Sally W.; White, Arica; Abotchie, Peter N.; Coan, Sharon P.

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of accuracy of self-reported reason for colorectal cancer (CRC) testing has been limited. We examined the accuracy and correlates of self-reported reason (screening or diagnosis) for having a sigmoidoscopy (SIG) or colonoscopy (COL). Patients who had received at least one SIG or COL within the past five years were recruited from a large multispecialty clinic in Houston, TX, between 2005 and 2007. We calculated concordance, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity between self-reported reason and the medical record (gold standard). Logistic regression was performed to identify correlates of accurate self-report. Self-reported reason for testing was more accurate when the SIG or COL was done for screening, rather than diagnosis. In multivariable analysis for SIG, age was positively associated with accurately reporting reason for testing while having two or more CRC tests during the study period (compared with only one test) was negatively associated with accuracy. In multivariable analysis, none of the correlates was statistically associated with COL although a similar pattern was observed for number of tests. Determining the best way to identify those who have been tested for diagnosis, rather than screening, is an important next step. PMID:20056638

  11. Personality, psychological stress, and self-reported influenza symptomatology

    PubMed Central

    Smolderen, Kim GE; Vingerhoets, Ad JJM; Croon, Marcel A; Denollet, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Background Psychological stress and negative mood have been related to increased vulnerability to influenza-like illness (ILI). This prospective study re-evaluated the predictive value of perceived stress for self-reported ILI. We additionally explored the role of the negative affectivity and social inhibition traits. Methods In this study, 5,404 respondents from the general population were assessed in terms of perceived stress, personality, and control variables (vaccination, vitamin use, exercise, etc.). ILI were registered weekly using self-report measures during a follow-up period of four weeks. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis on ILI was performed to test the predictive power of stress and personality. In this model, negative affectivity (OR = 1.05, p = 0.009), social inhibition (OR = 0.97, p = 0.011), and perceived stress (OR = 1.03, p = 0.048) predicted ILI reporting. Having a history of asthma (OR = 2.33, p = < 0.0001) was also associated with ILI reporting. Older age was associated with less self-reported ILI (OR = 0.98, P = 0.017). Conclusion Elderly and socially inhibited persons tend to report less ILI as compared to their younger and less socially inhibited counterparts. In contrast, asthma, trait negative affectivity, and perceived stress were associated with higher self-report of ILI. Our results demonstrate the importance of including trait markers in future studies examining the relation between stress and self-report symptom measures. PMID:18036207

  12. Use of Regional Data to Validate and Recalibrate Self-reported Hypertension: Highlighting Differences in Immigrant Groups in New York City.

    PubMed

    Yi, Stella S; Johns, Michael; Lim, Sungwoo

    2016-02-01

    Self-reported hypertension has not been validated in specific Hispanic subgroups (Puerto Ricans, Dominicans) and in Asian Americans. The objectives were to assess validity of self-reported hypertension in Hispanic and Asian American adults, and to recalibrate self-reported hypertension with measured values. Data were from the New York City Community Health Survey 2005-2008 and the Heart Follow-Up Study (HFUS) 2010 (included measured hypertension). Sensitivity and specificity were calculated in the HFUS data; recalibration was conducted using a previously described method by Mentz et al. Sensitivity was similar in Puerto Ricans and Dominicans versus whites. The differences in hypertension prevalence after recalibration were largest in Hispanics. No substantial differences occurred among Asian Americans. Factors such as low health literacy or insurance status are potential explanations for bias in self-reported hypertension among Hispanic subgroups. Surveillance systems may consider recalibration, potentially in areas with a high percentage of Hispanics or uninsured.

  13. A comparison of self-report and caregiver assessment of depression, apathy, and irritability in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Anjan; Anderson, Karen E; Moskowitz, Carol B; Hauser, Willard A; Marder, Karen S

    2005-01-01

    The natural history of psychiatric syndromes associated with Huntington's disease (HD) remains unclear, and longitudinal studies of symptoms such as depression, apathy, and irritability are required to better understand the progression and role of these syndromes and their effect on disability. Self-administered scales such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) may be useful to document changes in symptoms over time, but the validity of self-report may be questionable with the inevitable progression of cognitive deficits. An alternative to the patient's self-report would be assessments by the caregiver. The authors assessed interrater agreement between patient self-assessment and caregiver assessment of patients status for the presence of depressed mood using the BDI and apathy and irritability using an apathy and irritability scale. Agreement between these scales across strata of cognitive status was also examined. Interrater agreement varied from moderate to good for the BDI, depending on patient cognitive status. Agreement for the apathy scores was low for patients with poor cognition and fair in patients with better cognition. Irritability scale agreement was fair at best and was the worst in patients with the most intact cognition. Caregiver assessment of patients' moods and apathy may be an acceptable alternative to patient self-report as patients' cognitive status worsens.

  14. Phenotypic Variability in Resting-State Functional Connectivity: Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Evan M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We reviewed the extant literature with the goal of assessing the extent to which resting-state functional connectivity is associated with phenotypic variability in healthy and disordered populations. A large corpus of work has accumulated to date (125 studies), supporting the association between intrinsic functional connectivity and individual differences in a wide range of domains—not only in cognitive, perceptual, motoric, and linguistic performance, but also in behavioral traits (e.g., impulsiveness, risky decision making, personality, and empathy) and states (e.g., anxiety and psychiatric symptoms) that are distinguished by cognitive and affective functioning, and in neurological conditions with cognitive and motor sequelae. Further, intrinsic functional connectivity is sensitive to remote (e.g., early-life stress) and enduring (e.g., duration of symptoms) life experience, and it exhibits plasticity in response to recent experience (e.g., learning and adaptation) and pharmacological treatment. The most pervasive associations were observed with the default network; associations were also widespread between the cingulo-opercular network and both cognitive and affective behaviors, while the frontoparietal network was associated primarily with cognitive functions. Associations of somatomotor, frontotemporal, auditory, and amygdala networks were relatively restricted to the behaviors linked to their respective putative functions. Surprisingly, visual network associations went beyond visual function to include a variety of behavioral traits distinguished by affective function. Together, the reviewed evidence sets the stage for testing causal hypothesis about the functional role of intrinsic connectivity and augments its potential as a biomarker for healthy and disordered brain function. PMID:23294010

  15. Phenotypic variability in resting-state functional connectivity: current status.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Chandan J; Gordon, Evan M

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed the extant literature with the goal of assessing the extent to which resting-state functional connectivity is associated with phenotypic variability in healthy and disordered populations. A large corpus of work has accumulated to date (125 studies), supporting the association between intrinsic functional connectivity and individual differences in a wide range of domains-not only in cognitive, perceptual, motoric, and linguistic performance, but also in behavioral traits (e.g., impulsiveness, risky decision making, personality, and empathy) and states (e.g., anxiety and psychiatric symptoms) that are distinguished by cognitive and affective functioning, and in neurological conditions with cognitive and motor sequelae. Further, intrinsic functional connectivity is sensitive to remote (e.g., early-life stress) and enduring (e.g., duration of symptoms) life experience, and it exhibits plasticity in response to recent experience (e.g., learning and adaptation) and pharmacological treatment. The most pervasive associations were observed with the default network; associations were also widespread between the cingulo-opercular network and both cognitive and affective behaviors, while the frontoparietal network was associated primarily with cognitive functions. Associations of somatomotor, frontotemporal, auditory, and amygdala networks were relatively restricted to the behaviors linked to their respective putative functions. Surprisingly, visual network associations went beyond visual function to include a variety of behavioral traits distinguished by affective function. Together, the reviewed evidence sets the stage for testing causal hypothesis about the functional role of intrinsic connectivity and augments its potential as a biomarker for healthy and disordered brain function. PMID:23294010

  16. Obstructive Sleep Apnea is Related to Impaired Cognitive and Functional Status after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Aaronson, Justine A.; van Bennekom, Coen A.M.; Hofman, Winni F.; van Bezeij, Tijs; van den Aardweg, Joost G.; Groet, Erny; Kylstra, Wytske A.; Schmand, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder in stroke patients and is associated with prolonged hospitalization, decreased functional outcome, and recurrent stroke. Research on the effect of OSA on cognitive functioning following stroke is scarce. The primary objective of this study was to compare stroke patients with and without OSA on cognitive and functional status upon admission to inpatient rehabilitation. Design: Case-control study. Setting and Patients: 147 stroke patients admitted to a neurorehabilitation unit. Interventions: N/A. Measurements: All patients underwent sleep examination for diagnosis of OSA. We assessed cognitive status by neuropsychological examination and functional status by two neurological scales and a measure of functional independence. Results: We included 80 stroke patients with OSA and 67 stroke patients without OSA. OSA patients were older and had a higher body mass index than patients without OSA. OSA patients performed worse on tests of attention, executive functioning, visuoperception, psychomotor ability, and intelligence than those without OSA. No differences were found for vigilance, memory, and language. OSA patients had a worse neurological status, lower functional independence scores, and a longer period of hospitalization in the neurorehabilitation unit than the patients without OSA. OSA status was not associated with stroke type or classification. Conclusions: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with a lower cognitive and functional status in patients admitted for stroke rehabilitation. This underlines the importance of OSA as a probable prognostic factor, and calls for well-designed randomized controlled trials to study its treatability. Citation: Aaronson JA, van Bennekom CA, Hofman WF, van Bezeij T, van den Aardweg JG, Groet E, Kylstra WA, Schmand B. Obstructive sleep apnea is related to impaired cognitive and functional status after stroke. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1431–1437. PMID

  17. Postpartum Depressive Symptoms Across Time and Place: Structural Invariance of the Self-Reporting Questionnaire Among Women from the International, Multi-Site MAL-ED Study

    PubMed Central

    Pendergast, Laura L.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Rasmussen, Zeba A.; Seidman, Jessica C.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Svensen, Erling; Tofail, Fahmida; Koshy, Beena; Kosek, Margaret; Rasheed, Muneera A.; Roshan, Reeba; Maphula, Angelina; Shrestha, Rita; Murray-Kolb, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) is a screening instrument that has been shown to be an effective measure of depression in postpartum women and is widely used in developing nations. Methods The SRQ was administered to 2,028 mothers from eight nations at two time points: one and six months postpartum. All data were obtained from the Interactions of Malnutrition and Enteric Infections: Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study. The sample included women from MAL-ED sites in Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Peru, South Africa, and Tanzania. This study examined three aspects of validity of SRQ scores including (a) structural validity, (b) cross-cultural invariance, and (c) invariance over time. Results A 16-item, one-factor structure with items reflecting somatic symptoms removed was deemed to be superior to the original structure in this postpartum population. Although differential item functioning (DIF) across sites was evident, the one-factor model was a good fit to the data from seven sites, and the structure was invariant across the one- and six-month time points. Limitations Findings are based on data from self-report scales. No information about the clinical status of the participants was available. Conclusions Overall, findings support the validity of a modified model of the SRQ among postpartum women. Somatic symptoms (e.g., headaches, not sleeping well) may not reflect internalizing problems in a postpartum population. Implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed. PMID:24981251

  18. Current status of function-preserving surgery for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Takuro; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Takiguchi, Shuji; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in diagnostic techniques have allowed the diagnosis of gastric cancer (GC) at an early stage. Due to the low incidence of lymph node metastasis and favorable prognosis in early GC, function-preserving surgery which improves postoperative quality of life may be possible. Pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) is one such function-preserving procedure, which is expected to offer advantages with regards to dumping syndrome, bile reflux gastritis, and the frequency of flatus, although PPG may induce delayed gastric emptying. Proximal gastrectomy (PG) is another function-preserving procedure, which is thought to be advantageous in terms of decreased duodenogastric reflux and good food reservoir function in the remnant stomach, although the incidence of heartburn or gastric fullness associated with this procedure is high. However, these disadvantages may be overcome by the reconstruction method used. The other important problem after PG is remnant GC, which was reported to occur in approximately 5% of patients. Therefore, the reconstruction technique used with PG should facilitate postoperative endoscopic examinations for early detection and treatment of remnant gastric carcinoma. Oncologic safety seems to be assured in both procedures, if the preoperative diagnosis is accurate. Patient selection should be carefully considered. Although many retrospective studies have demonstrated the utility of function-preserving surgery, no consensus on whether to adopt function-preserving surgery as the standard of care has been reached. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are necessary to evaluate survival and postoperative quality of life associated with function-preserving surgery. PMID:25516640

  19. Validity of Self-Report Measures of Defense Mechanisms

    PubMed

    Mehlman; Slane

    1994-06-01

    The Life Style Index (LSI), the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ), the Defense Mechanisms Inventory (DMI), and the FIRO Coping Operations Preferences Enquiry (FIRO) were administered to 187 undergraduates in order to determine convergent and discriminant validity of self-report measures of defense mechanisms. A correlational analysis of the four scales resulted in low correlations among subscales measuring similar defense mechanisms. A factor analysis produced factors based on particular scales rather than identical or similar constructs. Results suggest that self-report measures may not be an effective method for assessing various ego defense strategies.

  20. Quality issues of self-report of hypertension: analysis of a population representative sample of older adults in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Alan Chung-Hong; Chang, Tsui-Lan

    2012-01-01

    The study was to evaluate the quality of self-report of hypertension and examine the factors associated with under- and over-reporting of hypertension in older Taiwanese. Data for this analysis were from the Social Environment and Biomarkers Study in Taiwan 2000, which involved a national sample of 1021 Taiwanese over 54 years of age. We performed binary classification tests to compare the prevalence rates of self-reported vs. clinically measured hypertension according to World Health Organization (WHO) (blood pressure ≥ 160/95 mm Hg or on hypertension medication) and JNC-6 (140/90 mm Hg or on hypertension medication) definitions. Logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the potential factors associated with under- or over-reporting of blood pressure status. Results showed the test characteristics of self-reports were: sensitivity 73%, specificity 93%, and kappa = 0.68 (p < 0.001) based on the WHO definition; and sensitivity 51%, specificity 95% and kappa = 0.43 (p < 0.001) based on the JNC-6 definition. Old age was associated with over-reporting whereas having no health checkup during the past 12 months was associated with under-reporting. The relatively low agreement between self-reports and clinically measured hypertension (JNC-6 definition) was mainly due to the lack of a well-defined hypertension practice guideline and the failure of clinicians to clearly inform patients of their diagnoses. The consistency of hypertension practice guidelines and the effectiveness of informing the patients of their diagnoses are two main factors impacting the quality of self-report of hypertension in elderly Taiwanese. Better self-reports of health data can improve the efficiency of public health surveillance efforts.

  1. Use of functional status measures for payment of medical rehabilitation services.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, D L; Batavia, A I; DeJong, G

    1992-02-01

    In the search for an appropriate payment system for medical rehabilitation hospitals and units, the use of a functional status measure (FSM) has emerged as a recurring theme. Conceptually, functional status measurement is important because the primary goal of medical rehabilitation is to enhance patient function and independence. Studies indicate that functional status and functional gain are among the best predictors of resource utilization at rehabilitation facilities. This article examines conceptually the use of FSMs in payment for medical rehabilitation in two different types of payment systems--as a means of classifying patients for purposes of determining the applicable payment amount (ie, a "classification system"), and as a means of justifying that payment, or continued payment, for services is appropriate (ie, a "justification system"). Several payment models using an FSM are described and analyzed. An agenda for future research is proposed.

  2. Self-Reported Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke and Positive Urinary Cotinine in Pregnant Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Paek, Yu Jin; Kang, Jeong Bae; Lee, Do-Hoon; Seong, Moon-Woo; Seo, Hong Gwan; Cho, Jung Jin; Song, Hong Ji; Park, Kyung Hee; Kim, Chan Ho; Ko, Jeong Ah

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the association between self-reported exposure status to second-hand smoke and urinary cotinine level in pregnant nonsmokers. Materials and Methods We recruited pregnant nonsmokers from the prenatal care clinics of a university hospital and two community health centers, and their urinary cotinine concentrations were measured. Results Among a total of 412 pregnant nonsmokers, the proportions of self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke and positive urinary cotinine level were 60.4% and 3.4%, respectively. Among those, 4.8% of the participants who reported exposure to second-hand smoke had cotinine levels of 40 ng/mL (the kappa value = 0.029, p = 0.049). Among those who reported living with smokers (n = 170), "smoking currently permitted in the whole house" (vs. not permitted at home) was associated with positive urinary cotinine in the univariable analysis. Furthermore, this variable showed a significant association with positive urinary cotinine in the stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis [Odds ratio (OR), 15.6; 95% Confidence interval (CI) = 2.1-115.4]. Conclusion In the current study, the association between self-reported exposure status to second-hand smoke and positive urinary cotinine in pregnant nonsmokers was poor. "Smoking currently permitted in the whole house" was a significant factor of positive urinary cotinine in pregnant nonsmokers. Furthermore, we suggest that a complete smoking ban at home should be considered to avoid potential adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes due to second-hand smoke. PMID:19568595

  3. Agreement between parent- and self-reports of Algerian adolescents' behavioral and emotional problems.

    PubMed

    Petot, Djaouida; Rescorla, Leslie; Petot, Jean-Michel

    2011-10-01

    The present study examined agreement between scores obtained from self-reports of behavioral and emotional problems obtained from 513 Algerian adolescents on the Youth Self-Report (YSR) with scores obtained from reports provided by their parents on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The correlations between self- and parent-report were larger than those observed in many other cultures (e.g., intraclass correlation coefficient=0.60 and Pearson r=0.65 for Total Problems). On the whole, cross-informant agreement did not vary significantly as a function of problem type, identity of the parental informant, gender and age of the adolescent. Similar to all studied cultures, adolescents on average reported more problems than their parents reported about them, but the discrepancies were smaller than in all previous societies. Mean YSR/CBCL score discrepancies indicated higher YSR scores for several scales, but variability across dyads was large, and many dyads showed the opposite pattern.

  4. Mindfulness in schizophrenia: Associations with self-reported motivation, emotion regulation, dysfunctional attitudes, and negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Naomi T; Horan, William P; Green, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are gaining empirical support as alternative or adjunctive treatments for a variety of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. Emerging evidence now suggests that mindfulness-based treatments may also improve clinical features of schizophrenia, including negative symptoms. However, no research has examined the construct of mindfulness and its correlates in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined self-reported mindfulness in patients (n=35) and controls (n=25) using the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. We examined correlations among mindfulness, negative symptoms, and psychological constructs associated with negative symptoms and adaptive functioning, including motivation, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional attitudes. As hypothesized, patients endorsed lower levels of mindfulness than controls. In patients, mindfulness was unrelated to negative symptoms, but it was associated with more adaptive emotion regulation (greater reappraisal) and beliefs (lower dysfunctional attitudes). Some facets of mindfulness were also associated with self-reported motivation (behavioral activation and inhibition). These patterns of correlations were similar in patients and controls. Findings from this initial study suggest that schizophrenia patients may benefit from mindfulness-based interventions because they (a) have lower self-reported mindfulness than controls and (b) demonstrate strong relationships between mindfulness and psychological constructs related to adaptive functioning. PMID:26232242

  5. Mindfulness in schizophrenia: Associations with self-reported motivation, emotion regulation, dysfunctional attitudes, and negative symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Tabak, Naomi T.; Horan, William P.; Green, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are gaining empirical support as alternative or adjunctive treatments for a variety of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. Emerging evidence now suggests that mindfulness-based treatments may also improve clinical features of schizophrenia, including negative symptoms. However, no research has examined the construct of mindfulness and its correlates in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined self-reported mindfulness in patients (n=35) and controls (n=25) using the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. We examined correlations among mindfulness, negative symptoms, and psychological constructs associated with negative symptoms and adaptive functioning, including motivation, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional attitudes. As hypothesized, patients endorsed lower levels of mindfulness than controls. In patients, mindfulness was unrelated to negative symptoms, but it was associated with more adaptive emotion regulation (greater reappraisal) and beliefs (lower dysfunctional attitudes). Some facets of mindfulness were also associated with self-reported motivation (behavioral activation and inhibition). These patterns of correlations were similar in patients and controls. Findings from this initial study suggest that schizophrenia patients may benefit from mindfulness-based interventions because they (a) have lower self-reported mindfulness than controls and (b) demonstrate strong relationships between mindfulness and psychological constructs related to adaptive functioning. PMID:26232242

  6. Mindfulness in schizophrenia: Associations with self-reported motivation, emotion regulation, dysfunctional attitudes, and negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Naomi T; Horan, William P; Green, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are gaining empirical support as alternative or adjunctive treatments for a variety of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. Emerging evidence now suggests that mindfulness-based treatments may also improve clinical features of schizophrenia, including negative symptoms. However, no research has examined the construct of mindfulness and its correlates in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined self-reported mindfulness in patients (n=35) and controls (n=25) using the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. We examined correlations among mindfulness, negative symptoms, and psychological constructs associated with negative symptoms and adaptive functioning, including motivation, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional attitudes. As hypothesized, patients endorsed lower levels of mindfulness than controls. In patients, mindfulness was unrelated to negative symptoms, but it was associated with more adaptive emotion regulation (greater reappraisal) and beliefs (lower dysfunctional attitudes). Some facets of mindfulness were also associated with self-reported motivation (behavioral activation and inhibition). These patterns of correlations were similar in patients and controls. Findings from this initial study suggest that schizophrenia patients may benefit from mindfulness-based interventions because they (a) have lower self-reported mindfulness than controls and (b) demonstrate strong relationships between mindfulness and psychological constructs related to adaptive functioning.

  7. Bullying in adolescence: psychiatric problems in victims and bullies as measured by the Youth Self Report (YSR) and the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS).

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Tord; Broberg, Anders G; Arvidsson, Tomas; Gillberg, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Adolescents in junior high school (n = 237), completed a questionnaire on bullying as it relates to victim and to perpetrator status, suicidality and biographical data. Psychological symptoms were assessed by the Youth Self Report (YSR) and the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) supplemented by school health officers blind assessments. Bullying was common: bully only (18%), victim only (10%) and victim and bully (9%). Bullies had mainly externalizing symptoms (delinquency and aggression) and those of the victim and bully group both externalizing and internalizing symptoms as well as high levels of suicidality. Adolescents in the bully only group were more likely to be boys and to have attention problems. Moreover, a substantial proportion of the adolescents in the victim only group were judged by school health officer to have psychiatric symptoms and to function socially less well. PMID:16757465

  8. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Kidney Injury: Present Status

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hai Ying; Chen, Tian Wu; Zhang, Xiao Ming

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of hospitalization that is characterized by a sudden loss of renal excretory function and associated with the subsequent development of chronic kidney disease, poor prognosis, and increased mortality. Although the pathophysiology of renal functional impairment in the setting of AKI remains poorly understood, previous studies have identified changes in renal hemodynamics, perfusion, and oxygenation as key factors in the development and progression of AKI. The early assessment of these changes remains a challenge. Many established approaches are not applicable to humans because of their invasiveness. Functional renal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging offers an alternative assessment tool that could be used to evaluate renal morphology and function noninvasively and simultaneously. Thus, the purpose of this review is to illustrate the principle, application, and role of the techniques of functional renal MR imaging, including blood oxygen level-dependent imaging, arterial spin labeling, and diffusion-weighted MR imaging, in the management of AKI. The use of gadolinium in MR imaging may exacerbate renal impairment and cause nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Therefore, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging will not be discussed in this paper. PMID:26925411

  9. Self-Reported Hearing Difficulties Among Adults With Normal Audiograms: The Beaver Dam Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Kelly L.; Pinto, Alex; Fischer, Mary E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Levy, Sarah; Tweed, Ted S.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Clinicians encounter patients who report experiencing hearing difficulty (HD) even when audiometric thresholds fall within normal limits. When there is no evidence of audiometric hearing loss, it generates debate over possible biomedical and psychosocial etiologies. It is possible that self-reported HDs relate to variables within and/or outside the scope of audiology. The purpose of this study is to identify how often, on a population basis, people with normal audiometric thresholds self-report HD and to identify factors associated with such HDs. Design This was a cross-sectional investigation of participants in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. HD was defined as a self-reported HD on a four-item scale despite having pure-tone audiometric thresholds within normal limits (<20 dB HL0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 kHz bilaterally, at each frequency). Distortion product otoacoustic emissions and word-recognition performance in quiet and with competing messages were also analyzed. In addition to hearing assessments, relevant factors such as sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, medical history, health-related quality of life, and symptoms of neurological disorders were also examined as possible risk factors. The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression was used to probe symptoms associated with depression, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 mental score was used to quantify psychological stress and social and role disability due to emotional problems. The Visual Function Questionnaire-25 and contrast sensitivity test were used to query vision difficulties. Results Of the 2783 participants, 686 participants had normal audiometric thresholds. An additional grouping variable was created based on the available scores of HD (four self-report questions), which reduced the total dataset to n = 682 (age range, 21–67 years). The percentage of individuals with normal audiometric thresholds who self-reported HD was 12.0% (82 of 682). The

  10. What Are the Links between Maternal Social Status, Hippocampal Function, and HPA Axis Function in Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Margaret A.; How, Joan; Araujo, Melanie; Schamberg, Michelle A.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The association of parental social status with multiple health and achievement indicators in adulthood has driven researchers to attempt to identify mechanisms by which social experience in childhood could shift developmental trajectories. Some accounts for observed linkages between parental social status in childhood and health have hypothesized…

  11. Overestimation Bias in Self-Reported SAT Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Stull, Andrew T.; Campbell, Julie; Almeroth, Kevin; Bimber, Bruce; Chun, Dorothy; Knight, Allan

    2007-01-01

    The authors analyzed self-reported SAT scores and actual SAT scores for five different samples of college students (N = 650). Students overestimated their actual SAT scores by an average of 25 points (SD = 81, d = 0.31), with 10% under-reporting, 51% reporting accurately, and 39% over-reporting, indicating a systematic bias towards over-reporting.…

  12. A Self-Report Measure of Life Satisfaction in Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heflin, Thomas L.

    This research report had as its main purpose the derivation of a self-report measure of life satisfaction in retirement through the use of a mathematical technique known as factor analysis. Data on questions which have been used to measure moral, life satisfaction, and preretirement attitudes were collected from 123 retired male workers from a…

  13. Self-Report Measure of Psychological Abuse of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kendon J.; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W.; Langley, Kate; Anetzberger, Georgia J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested key psychometric properties of the Older Adult Psychological Abuse Measure (OAPAM), one self-report scale of the Older Adult Mistreatment Assessment (OAMA). Design and Methods: Items and theory were developed in a prior concept mapping study. Subsequently, the measures were administered to 226 substantiated clients by 22…

  14. Accuracy of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tong, Van T; Althabe, Fernando; Alemán, Alicia; Johnson, Carolyn C; Dietz, Patricia M; Berrueta, Mabel; Morello, Paola; Colomar, Mercedes; Buekens, Pierre; Sosnoff, Connie S; Farr, Sherry L; Mazzoni, Agustina; Ciganda, Alvaro; Becú, Ana; Bittar Gonzalez, Maria G; Llambi, Laura; Gibbons, Luz; Smith, Ruben A; Belizán, José M

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of bias of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy is reported in high-income countries but not elsewhere. We sought to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy using biochemical verification and to compare characteristics of women with and without biochemically confirmed cessation in Argentina and Uruguay. In a cross-sectional study from October 2011 to May 2012, women who attended one of 21 prenatal clinics and delivered at selected hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay, were surveyed about their smoking cessation during pregnancy. We tested saliva collected from women <12 h after delivery for cotinine to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy. Overall, 10.0% (44/441) of women who self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy had biochemical evidence of continued smoking. Women who reported quitting later in pregnancy had a higher percentage of nondisclosure (17.2%) than women who reported quitting when learning of their pregnancy (6.4%).

  15. Self-Report Measure of Financial Exploitation of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kendon J.; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W.; Langley, Kate; Wilber, Kathleen H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to improve the measurement of financial exploitation (FE) by testing psychometric properties of the older adult financial exploitation measure (OAFEM), a client self-report instrument. Design and Methods: Rasch item response theory and traditional validation approaches were used. Questionnaires were administered by…

  16. Validating a Children's Self-Report Plate Waste Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrestal, Sarah G.; Issel, L. Michele; Kviz, Frederick J.; Chávez, Noel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The National School Lunch Program is well situated to address the vulnerability of lower income children at increased risk for both under and overnutrition. Evidence suggests, however, that a significant amount of food served in the program goes uneaten. One way to monitor this problem is through children's self-reported plate…

  17. Self-report reliability and symptomatology of habitual caffeine consumption.

    PubMed Central

    James, J E; Bruce, M S; Lader, M H; Scott, N R

    1989-01-01

    1. A large body of research on the demography of caffeine use and its potential health consequences has been undermined by the absence of empirical data on the reliability of retrospective self-reports of caffeine consumption. 2. The principal aim of the present study was to use standard bioanalytic method to assess the reliability of subjects' self-reported caffeine use. Saliva samples were obtained from 142 first-and second-year medical students and assayed for caffeine and paraxanthine. 3. Self-reported caffeine use was found to be significantly correlated with salivary caffeine (r = 0.31, P less than 0.001) and paraxanthine (r = 0.42, P less than 0.001), thereby providing qualified support for use of questionnaires to estimate patterns of caffeine consumption. 4. A secondary aim of the study was to extend previous research concerning the symptomatology of caffeine use by examining the association between caffeine exposure and a variety of measures of somatic and psychological health. Caffeine consumption was reliably associated with the self-reported occurrence of somatic symptoms, but not psychological well-being. PMID:2719904

  18. Cognitive Abilities Relate to Self-Reported Hearing Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zekveld, Adriana A.; George, Erwin L. J.; Houtgast, Tammo; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this explorative study, the authors investigated the relationship between auditory and cognitive abilities and self-reported hearing disability. Method: Thirty-two adults with mild to moderate hearing loss completed the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH; Kramer, Kapteyn, Festen, & Tobi, 1996) and…

  19. Self-Report and Psychophysiological Responses to Fear Appeals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonana, Juan R.; Gonzalez-Javier, Francisca; Espin-Lopez, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the relationship between self-report and psychophysiological responses to fear appeals and behavioral changes elicited by these. Ninety-two subjects watched one of four messages that varied in level of threat (high vs. low) and efficacy (high vs. low). Concomitantly, psychophysiological measures (heart rate and…

  20. Accuracy of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    TONG, VAN T.; ALTHABE, FERNANDO; ALEMÁN, ALICIA; JOHNSON, CAROLYN C.; DIETZ, PATRICIA M.; BERRUETA, MABEL; MORELLO, PAOLA; COLOMAR, MERCEDES; BUEKENS, PIERRE; SOSNOFF, CONNIE S.; FARR, SHERRY L.; MAZZONI, AGUSTINA; CIGANDA, ALVARO; BECÚ, ANA; GONZALEZ, MARIA G. BITTAR; LLAMBI, LAURA; GIBBONS, LUZ; SMITH, RUBEN A.; BELIZÁN, JOSÉ M.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of bias of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy is reported in high-income countries but not elsewhere. We sought to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy using biochemical verification and to compare characteristics of women with and without biochemically confirmed cessation in Argentina and Uruguay. In a cross-sectional study from October 2011 to May 2012, women who attended one of 21 prenatal clinics and delivered at selected hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay, were surveyed about their smoking cessation during pregnancy. We tested saliva collected from women <12 h after delivery for cotinine to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy. Overall, 10.0% (44/441) of women who self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy had biochemical evidence of continued smoking. Women who reported quitting later in pregnancy had a higher percentage of nondisclosure (17.2%) than women who reported quitting when learning of their pregnancy (6.4%). PMID:25350478

  1. Prevalence of Self-Reported Depressive Symptoms in Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenbach, Victor J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    To investigate significance and measurement of depressive symptoms in young adolescents, 624 students were asked to complete the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) during home interviews. The presence of persistent symptoms varied by both race and sex. Results support the feasibility of using a self-report symptom scale to…

  2. The Self-Report Family Inventory: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Selig, James P.; Trahan, Don P., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers explored the factor structure of the Self-Report Family Inventory with a sample of heterosexual parents who have a son or daughter who self-identifies as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Results suggest that a two-factor solution is appropriate. Research and clinical implications are offered. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  3. The Accuracy of Self-Reported High School Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Steven M.; Moore, James C.

    1970-01-01

    In a study to investigate accuracy of self-reported grades, length of time between testing and high school graduation was apparently the reason for a significant loss in accuracy in recalling grade reports of highschool graduates and college applicants who had been out of school for more than one year. (IR)

  4. Exploring Neural Correlates of Different Dimensions in Drug Craving Self-Reports among Heroin Dependents

    PubMed Central

    Hassani-Abharian, Peyman; Ganjgahi, Habib; Tabatabaei-Jafari, Hosein; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali; Mokri, Azarakhsh; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Drug craving could be described as a motivational state which drives drug dependents towards drug seeking and use. Different types of self-reports such as craving feeling, desire and intention, wanting and need, imagery of use, and negative affect have been attributed to this motivational state. By using subjective self-reports for different correlates of drug craving along with functional neuroimaging with cue exposure paradigm, we investigated the brain regions that could correspond to different dimensions of subjective reports for heroin craving. Methods: A total of 25 crystalline-heroin smokers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), while viewing heroin-related and neutral cues presented in a block-design task. During trial intervals, subjects verbally reported their subjective feeling of cue induced craving (CIC). After fMRI procedure, participants reported the intensity of their “need for drug use” and “drug use imagination” on a 0–100 visual analog scale (VAS). Afterwards, they completed positive and negative affect scale (PANAS) and desire for drug questionnaire (DDQ) with 3 components of “desire and intention to drug use,” “negative reinforcement,” and “loss of control.” Results: The study showed significant correlation between “subjective feeling of craving” and activation of the left and right anterior cingulate cortex, as well as right medial frontal gyrus. Furthermore, the “desire and intention to drug use” was correlated with activation of the left precentral gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus, and left middle frontal gyrus. Subjects also exhibited significant correlation between the “need for drug use” and activation of the right inferior temporal gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Correlation between subjective report of “heroin use imagination” and activation of the cerebellar vermis was also observed. Another significant correlation was between

  5. Perceptions of Intrapsychic and Extrapsychic Functioning as Bases of Adolescent Ego Identity Statuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Dennis R.; And Others

    Ranging between 15 to 20 years of age, 178 subjects participated in a study designed to assess whether adolescents' perceptions of intrapsychic and extrapsychic functioning could be used to discriminate between pure identity statuses. Intrapsychic functioning was conceptualized to include degree of self-conscious reasoning and quality of the…

  6. Effect of Circulation Parameters on Functional Status of HepaRG Spheroids Cultured in Microbioreactor.

    PubMed

    Semenova, O V; Petrov, V A; Gerasimenko, T N; Aleksandrova, A V; Burmistrova, O A; Khutornenko, A A; Osipyants, A I; Poloznikov, A A; Sakharov, D A

    2016-07-01

    We studied the relationship between microcirculation parameters and functional status of HepaRG cells in spheroids and chose an optimal regimen within the physiologically permissible limits of mechanical impact for the cells that maintains the expression of functional genes of the liver. PMID:27496037

  7. Parenting, Family Socioeconomic Status, and Child Executive Functioning: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochette, Émilie; Bernier, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Family socioeconomic status (SES) and the quality of maternal behavior are among the few identified predictors of child executive functioning (EF), and they have often been found to have interactive rather than additive effects on other domains of child functioning. The purpose of this study was to explore their interactive effects in the…

  8. S-sulfocysteine synthase function in sensing chloroplast redox status

    PubMed Central

    Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C.

    2013-01-01

    The minor chloroplastic O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase isoform encoded by the CS26 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana has been described as an S-sulfocysteine synthase enzyme that plays an important role in chloroplast function. This enzyme is located in the thylakoid lumen, and its S-sulfocysteine activity is essential for the proper photosynthetic performance of the chloroplast under long-day growth conditions. Based on the present knowledge of this enzyme, we suggest that S-sulfocysteine synthase functions as a protein sensor to detect the accumulation of thiosulfate as a result of the inadequate detoxification of reactive oxygen species generated under conditions of excess light to produce the S-sulfocysteine molecule that triggers protection mechanisms of the photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:23333972

  9. S-sulfocysteine synthase function in sensing chloroplast redox status.

    PubMed

    Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C

    2013-03-01

    The minor chloroplastic O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase isoform encoded by the CS26 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana has been described as an S-sulfocysteine synthase enzyme that plays an important role in chloroplast function. This enzyme is located in the thylakoid lumen, and its S-sulfocysteine activity is essential for the proper photosynthetic performance of the chloroplast under long-day growth conditions. Based on the present knowledge of this enzyme, we suggest that S-sulfocysteine synthase functions as a protein sensor to detect the accumulation of thiosulfate as a result of the inadequate detoxification of reactive oxygen species generated under conditions of excess light to produce the S-sulfocysteine molecule that triggers protection mechanisms of the photosynthetic apparatus.

  10. Current Status of Functional Imaging in Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Guido K.W.; Kaye, Walter H.

    2013-01-01

    Eating Disorders are complex psychiatric problems that involve biologic and psychological factors. Brain imaging studies provide insights how functionally connected brain networks may contribute to disturbed eating behavior, resulting in food refusal and altered body weight, but also body preoccupations and heightened anxiety. In this article we review the current state of brain imaging in eating disorders, and how such techniques may help identify pathways that could be important in the treatment of those often detrimental disorders. PMID:22532388

  11. Self-reported halitosis and associated demographic and behavioral factors.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Fernanda Carpes; Kauer, Bruno; Wagner, Tassiane Panta; Daudt, Luciana Dondonis; Haas, Alex Nogueira

    2016-01-01

    Halitosis is still poorly studied in young adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of self-reported halitosis and associate it with demographic and behavioral factors in young adult dental students. This cross-sectional study was designed as a census of students enrolled in three initial and three final semesters of a dental course in a Brazilian public university. Of 284 eligible students, 257 (90.5%) completed a self-administered questionnaire. Self-reported halitosis was the primary study outcome, and was assessed with the question "do you feel you have bad breath?". Data on age, gender, frequency of tooth brushing and interproximal cleaning, tongue cleaning, mouth rinse use and dry mouth were collected using the questionnaire, and were considered independent variables. Of the students surveyed, 26.5% reported as never, 51.7% as rarely, 21.4% as sometimes, and 0.4% as always feeling they had halitosis. Morning halitosis was reported by 90.6% of those who reported halitosis. In the final multiple model, last semester students had a 55% lower chance of reporting halitosis, compared with students from the first semesters [odds ratio (OR) 0.46; 95%CI 0.24-0.89]. Women had a 2.57fold higher chance of reporting halitosis (OR = 2.57; 95%CI 1.12-5.93). Dry mouth increased the chance of self-reported halitosis 3.95-fold, compared with absence of dry mouth (OR = 3.95; 95%CI 2.03-7.68). It can be concluded that self-reports of halitosis were low among dental students, but may represent an important complaint. Gender, dry mouth and level of college education of the dentist were factors significantly associated with self-reported halitosis. PMID:27556677

  12. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition profiles and their relationship to self-reported outcome following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Harman-Smith, Yasmin E; Mathias, Jane L; Bowden, Stephen C; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Bigler, Erin D

    2013-01-01

    Neuropsychological assessments of outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are often unrelated to self-reported problems after TBI. The current study cluster-analyzed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) subtest scores from mild, moderate, and severe TBI (n=220) and orthopedic injury control (n=95) groups, to determine whether specific cognitive profiles are related to people's perceived outcomes after TBI. A two-stage cluster analysis produced 4- and 6-cluster solutions, with the 6-cluster solution better capturing subtle variations in cognitive functioning. The 6 clusters differed in the levels and profiles of cognitive performance, self-reported recovery, and education and injury severity. The findings suggest that subtle cognitive impairments after TBI should be interpreted in conjunction with patient's self-reported problems.

  13. Differences in the self-reported racism experiences of US-born and foreign-born Black pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Strong, Emily Ficklin; Krieger, Nancy; Gillman, Matthew W; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2009-07-01

    Differential exposure to minority status stressors may help explain differences in United States (US)-born and foreign-born Black women's birth outcomes. We explored self-reports of racism recorded in a survey of 185 US-born and 114 foreign-born Black pregnant women enrolled in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Self-reported prevalence of personal racism and group racism was significantly higher among US-born than foreign-born Black pregnant women, with US-born women having 4.1 and 7.8 times the odds, respectively, of childhood exposure. In multivariate analyses, US-born women's personal and group racism exposure also was more pervasive across the eight life domains we queried. Examined by immigrant subgroups, US-born women were more similar in their self-reports of racism to foreign-born women who moved to the US before age 18 than to women who immigrated after age 18. Moreover, US-born women more closely resembled foreign-born women from the Caribbean than those from Africa. Differential exposure to self-reported racism over the life course may be a critically important factor that distinguishes US-born Black women from their foreign-born counterparts.

  14. Pre-adoption adversity and self-reported behavior problems in 7 year-old international adoptees.

    PubMed

    Gagnon-Oosterwaal, Noémi; Cossette, Louise; Smolla, Nicole; Pomerleau, Andrée; Malcuit, Gérard; Chicoine, Jean-François; Jéliu, Gloria; Belhumeur, Céline; Berthiaume, Claude

    2012-08-01

    To further investigate the long-term impact of pre-adoption adversity on international adoptees, externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using a self-report measure at school-age in addition to mothers' reports. The sample consisted of 95 adopted children and their mothers. Children's health and developmental status were assessed soon after arrival in their adoptive family. At age 7, the Dominic Interactive, a self-report measure, was used to evaluate externalizing and internalizing symptoms while mothers completed the CBCL. Children's self-reports were compared to their non-adopted peers'. Adopted children reported more symptoms of specific phobia than their peers. A significant correlation was found between mothers' and children's reports but only for externalizing symptoms. Self-reported symptoms were related to indices of nutritional and psychosocial deprivation at arrival, such as low height/age and weight/height ratios. Our results emphasize the importance of considering international adoptees' perception of their psychological adjustment and the long-term impact of early risk factors.

  15. Functional Status of Elderly Adults Before and After Interventions for Critical Limb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Todd R.; Petroski, Gregory F.; Kruse, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The impact of interventions for Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI) on functional status in the elderly remains unclear. Open and endovascular procedures were evaluated. Methods Medicare inpatient claims were linked with nursing home assessment data to identify elective admissions for lower extremity procedures for CLI. A functional impairment score (0-28; higher scores indicating greater impairment) based on residents' need for assistance with self-care activities, walking, and locomotion was calculated before and after interventions. Hierarchical modeling determined the effect of the surgery on residents' function, controlling for comorbidity, cognition, and pre-hospital function. Results 352 and 350 patients underwent open and endovascular procedures, respectively (rest pain: 84; ulceration: 351; and gangrene: 267). Hospitalization was associated with a significant worsening in function following both procedures. Disease severity was associated with the amount of initial decline but not with the rate of recovery (p>.35). Residents who received open surgery improved more quickly following hospital discharge (p=.011). Conclusions In the frail elderly, open and endovascular procedures for CLI were associated with similar initial declines in functional status, suggesting that compared with open procedures, less invasive endovascular procedures were not associated with maintaining baseline function. In this select population, endovascular procedures for CLI were not associated with improved functional status over time compared to open. Six months post-hospital, patients who received traditional open bypass had significantly better functional status than those who received endovascular procedures for all CLI diagnoses. Further analysis is required to assist stakeholders in performing procedures most likely to preserve functional status in the frail elderly and nursing home population. PMID:24139567

  16. Transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions: Status and prospects*

    DOE PAGES

    Angeles-Martinez, R.; Bacchetta, A.; Balitsky, Ian I.; Boer, D.; Boglione, M.; Boussarie, R.; Ceccopieri, F. A.; Cherednikov, I. O.; Connor, P.; Echevarria, M. G.; et al

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we review transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions, their application to topical issues in high-energy physics phenomenology, and their theoretical connections with QCD resummation, evolution and factorization theorems. We illustrate the use of TMDs via examples of multi-scale problems in hadronic collisions. These include transverse momentum qT spectra of Higgs and vector bosons for low qT, and azimuthal correlations in the production of multiple jets associated with heavy bosons at large jet masses. We discuss computational tools for TMDs, and present the application of a new tool, TMDLIB, to parton density fits and parameterizations.

  17. Clinical implications of altered thyroid status in male testicular function.

    PubMed

    Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Wagner, Márcia Santos; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2009-11-01

    Thyroid hormones are involved in the development and maintenance of virtually all tissues. Although for many years the testis was thought to be a thyroid-hormone unresponsive organ, studies of the last decades have demonstrated that thyroid dysfunction is associated not only with abnormalities in morphology and function of testes, but also with decreased fertility and alterations of sexual activity in men. Nowadays, the participation of triiodothyronine (T3) in the control of Sertoli and Leydig cell proliferation, testicular maturation, and steroidogenesis is widely accepted, as well as the presence of thyroid hormone transporters and receptors in testicular cells throughout the development process and in adulthood. But even with data suggesting that T3 may act directly on these cells to bring about its effects, there is still controversy regarding the impact of thyroid diseases on human spermatogenesis and fertility, which can be in part due to the lack of well-controlled clinical studies. The current review aims at presenting an updated picture of recent clinical data about the role of thyroid hormones in male gonadal function. PMID:20126850

  18. SHOX haploinsufficiency and overdosage: impact of gonadal function status

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, T.; Matsuo, N.; Nishimura, G.

    2001-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1997, knowledge about the SHOX gene has rapidly increased. In this review, we summarise clinical features and diagnostic and therapeutic implications in SHOX haploinsufficiency and overdosage. SHOX haploinsufficiency usually results in mesomelic short stature and Turner skeletal features, including Madelung deformity with puberty, in subjects with normal gonadal function. Thus, identification of early or mild signs of Madelung deformity is pivotal for the diagnosis, and gonadal suppression therapy may serve to mitigate the clinical features. By contrast, SHOX overdosage usually leads to long limbs and tall stature resulting from continued growth into the late teens in subjects with gonadal dysgenesis. Thus, the combination of tall stature and poor pubertal development is the key to diagnosis, and oestrogen therapy can help the prevention of unfavourably tall stature as well as the induction of sexual development. These findings, in conjunction with skeletal assessment in Turner syndrome and expression analysis during human embryogenesis, imply that SHOX functions as a repressor for growth plate fusion and skeletal maturation in the distal limbs and, thus, counteracts the skeletal maturing effects of oestrogens.


Keywords: SHOX; oestrogens; clinical features; practical implications PMID:11134233

  19. Alternative methods of nutritional status assessment in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jorga, Jagoda; Marinković, Jelena; Kentrić, Brana; Hetherington, Marion

    2007-06-01

    The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the validity of the silhouette rating scale and reported values of height and weight in assessing weight status in a group of adolescents. 245 adolescents, students of the Belgrade elementary school, aged 11-14 (12.33 +/- 0.50), were involved. Weight status was assessed by anthropometry, self-reported height and weight and by figure rating scale. From the results obtained significant differences emerged as a function of weight status. The majority of normal weight adolescents were accurate in reporting their body size. The percentage of under-reporters was significantly higher in the overweight/obese group than in the normal weight group (chi2 = 9.741, p = 0.003). The correlation between BMI, both measured and self-reported, and perceived body size was positive and highly significant (p < 0.001). Self-reported weight and height appears acceptable for estimating weight status in normal weight adolescents, but not in those who are overweight or obese. This study also demonstrated that adolescents can estimate with some accuracy their body size using figure ratings scales.

  20. Status of point spread function determination for Keck adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragland, S.; Jolissaint, L.; Wizinowich, P.; Neyman, C.

    2014-07-01

    There is great interest in the adaptive optics (AO) science community to overcome the limitations imposed by incomplete knowledge of the point spread function (PSF). To address this limitation a program has been initiated at the W. M. Keck Observatory (WMKO) to demonstrate PSF determination for observations obtained with Keck AO science instruments. This paper aims to give a broad view of the progress achieved in this area. The concept and the implementation are briefly described. The results from on-sky on-axis NGS AO measurements using the NIRC2 science instrument are presented. On-sky performance of the technique is illustrated by comparing the reconstructed PSFs to NIRC2 PSFs. Accuracy of the reconstructed PSFs in terms of Strehl ratio and FWHM are discussed. Science cases for the first phase of science verification have been identified. More technical details of the program are presented elsewhere in the conference.

  1. Transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions: Status and prospects*

    SciTech Connect

    Angeles-Martinez, R.; Bacchetta, A.; Balitsky, Ian I.; Boer, D.; Boglione, M.; Boussarie, R.; Ceccopieri, F. A.; Cherednikov, I. O.; Connor, P.; Echevarria, M. G.; Ferrera, G.; Grados Luyando, J.; Hautmann, F.; Jung, H.; Kasemets, T.; Kutak, K.; Lansberg, J. P.; Lykasov, G.; Madrigal Martinez, J. D.; Mulders, P. J.; Nocera, E. R.; Petreska, E.; Pisano, C.; Placakyte, R.; Radescu, V.; Radici, M.; Schnell, G.; Signori, A.; Szymanowski, L.; Taheri Monfared, S.; Van der Veken, F. F.; van Haevermaet, H. J.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vladimirov, A. A.; Wallon, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we review transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions, their application to topical issues in high-energy physics phenomenology, and their theoretical connections with QCD resummation, evolution and factorization theorems. We illustrate the use of TMDs via examples of multi-scale problems in hadronic collisions. These include transverse momentum qT spectra of Higgs and vector bosons for low qT, and azimuthal correlations in the production of multiple jets associated with heavy bosons at large jet masses. We discuss computational tools for TMDs, and present the application of a new tool, TMDLIB, to parton density fits and parameterizations.

  2. Quantifying Health Status and Function in Marfan Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sandesh S; Venuti, Kristen D; Dietz, Harry C; Sponseller, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Two hundred thirty patients were prospectively enrolled in this study and completed various portions of the Short Form 36 and a study-specific questionnaire (visual analog scale 1 to 10, comprising three separate questionnaires) to evaluate quality of life and function in patients with Marfan syndrome. The greatest health concern was cardiac problems (high in 70% of patients), followed by spine issues and generalized fatigue (both high, in 53%). The most severe reported pain involved the back: 105 patients (46%) rated pain as 6 to 10 on the visual analog scale. Among the 72 patients who responded to work life questions, work hours were reduced because of treatment in 59 (82%) or directly because of Marfan syndrome in 29 (40%). Across all Short Form 36 domains, patients scored significantly lower than United States population norms (p<.05); physical health scores were considerably lower than mental health scores. PMID:27082886

  3. Photon Strength Functions below GDER Maximum: Present Status and Outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Krticka, Milan

    2009-01-28

    Existing experimental data on {gamma} decay of energy levels in medium-weight and heavy nuclei at excitation energies well above the pairing gap indicate that the role of nuclear structure effects is small and that this decay is largely governed by the extreme statistical model. Specifically, in line with the validity of Brink hypothesis and the paradigm of photon strength, the average properties of the {gamma} decay can be described by a set of photon strength functions (PSFs) for individual multipolarities and by the level density function. PSFs are directly related to the photoabsorption cross sections {sigma}{sub {gamma}}{sub abs}. It is well known that in the case of E1 radiation this cross section is dominated by the giant dipole electric resonance. However the size of {sigma}{sub {gamma}}{sub abs.} and its {gamma}-ray energy dependence at energies below the neutron threshold are known rather poorly. In the case of higher multipolarities (M1, E2,...) the present knowledge about their roles is much worse. Available information on E1 and M1 PSFs obtained from various kinds of experiments in the {gamma}-ray energy region of interest will be discussed within the widely used models. It will be shown that none of them seems to be able to describe PSFs reasonably for a broad range of nuclei. Emphasis will be also laid on the properties of the scissors mode and other possible resonance-like structures in PSFs at energies below about 10 MeV. Perspectives of further studies of PSFs will be outlined.

  4. Cognitive Validity of Students' Self-Reports of Classroom Mastery Goal Structure: What Students Are Thinking and Why It Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Karabenick, Stuart A.; Woolley, Michael E.; Bonney, Christina R.; Dever, Bridget V.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive interviews were employed to systematically examine the cognitive validity of self-report survey items extensively used to assess classroom mastery goal structure. In a sample of elementary and middle school students, items were identified that functioned according to their intended meaning and those eliciting less accurate…

  5. A Rasch Rating Scale Modeling of the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Scale in a Sample of International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Do-Hong; Wang, Chuang; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (SSREI) scale in a sample of international students studying in the U.S. universities using Rasch analysis. The results indicated that the original five-category rating structure may not function effectively for the international student sample. The…

  6. Interpersonal and Affective Dimensions of Psychopathic Traits in Adolescents: Development and Validation of a Self-Report Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Stephen; Hunter, Simon C.; Khan, Umneea; Tan, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We report the development and psychometric evaluations of a self-report instrument designed to screen for psychopathic traits among mainstream community adolescents. Tests of item functioning were initially conducted with 26 adolescents. In a second study the new instrument was administered to 150 high school adolescents, 73 of who had school…

  7. Testing the Short and Screener versions of the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-report (SAS-SR).

    PubMed

    Gameroff, Marc J; Wickramaratne, Priya; Weissman, Myrna M

    2012-03-01

    The 54-item Social Adjustment Scale-Self-report (SAS-SR) is a measure of social functioning used in research studies and clinical practice. Two shortened versions were recently developed: the 24-item SAS-SR: Short and the 14-item SAS-SR: Screener. We briefly describe the development of the shortened scales and then assess their reliability and validity in comparison to the full SAS-SR in new analyses from two separate samples of convenience from a family study and from a primary care clinic. Compared to the full SAS-SR, the shortened scales performed well, exhibiting high correlations with full SAS-SR scores (r values between 0.81 and 0.95); significant correlations with health-related quality of life as measured by the Short Form 36 Health Survey; the ability to distinguish subjects with major depression versus other psychiatric disorders versus no mental disorders; and sensitivity to change in clinical status as measured longitudinally with the Symptom Checklist-90 and Global Assessment Scale. The SAS-SR: Short and SAS-SR: Screener retained the areas assessed by the full SAS-SR with fewer items in each area, and appear to be promising replacements for the full scale when a shorter administration time is desired and detailed information on performance in different areas is not required. Further work is needed to test the validity of the shortened measures.

  8. Systemic Inflammation in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Association with Muscle Function and Nutritional Status

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Guzmán, Oriana del Rocío; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Escobar Cedillo, Rosa Elena

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation described in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) may be related to loss of muscle function or to obesity. It is unknown if circulating proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1, and TNF-α) levels are associated with muscle function. The purpose was to evaluate whether an association exists between systemic inflammation with muscle function and nutritional status in DMD patients. In 66 DMD patients without corticosteroid treatment, the following were evaluated in serum: cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, adiponectin, and creatine kinase (CK). Muscle function was evaluated using Vignos Scale. Patients with better muscle function had the highest concentration of CK, IL-1, and TNF-α compared with less muscle function. No differences in IL-6 and adiponectin concentration were identified among groups with different levels of muscle function. Also, no differences were observed in the concentration of cytokines among groups with different nutritional status levels (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese). However, CRP and leptin were increased in the obese group compared with normal and underweight subjects. Systemic inflammation is increased in patients with better muscle function and decreases in DMD patients with poorer muscle function; nevertheless, systemic inflammation is similar among different levels of nutritional status in DMD patients. PMID:26380303

  9. Correlates of functional status among OEF/OIF veterans with a history of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ettenhofer, Mark L; Melrose, Rebecca J; Delawalla, Zainab; Castellon, Steven A; Okonek, Anna

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to identify factors related to functional status within a clinical sample of Veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Medical chart review was conducted for a consecutive group of OEF/OIF Veterans who were referred for neuropsychological evaluation within a Veterans Affairs Medical Center Polytrauma Program related to history of TBI (n = 57). Level of involvement in occupational and academic activity, presence or absence of housing insecurity, and clinician ratings of overall functioning served as indicators of functional status. Reduced functional status was most strongly related to poorer cognitive function, particularly motor function, processing speed, and executive function. Lower levels of functioning were also related to increased severity of postconcussive symptoms, lower levels of education, and ongoing medication treatment for sleep or psychiatric symptoms. Comprehensive evaluation of cognitive, affective, and behavioral functioning among OEF/OIF Veterans with a history of TBI is likely to provide valuable information to inform rehabilitation strategies and identify potential warning signs for poor postdeployment reintegration. Increased awareness of these factors may aid clinicians in identifying patients at risk for poor outcomes and in more effectively targeting symptoms for intervention.

  10. Lifestyle engagement affects cognitive status differences and trajectories on executive functions in older adults.

    PubMed

    de Frias, Cindy M; Dixon, Roger A

    2014-02-01

    The authors first examined the concurrent moderating role of lifestyle engagement on the relation between cognitive status (cognitively elite, cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and executive functioning (EF) in older adults. Second, the authors examined whether baseline participation in lifestyle activities predicted differential 4.5-year stabilities and transitions in cognitive status. Participants (initial N = 501; 53-90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. EF was represented by a 1-factor structure. Lifestyle activities were measured in multiple domains of engagement (e.g., cognitive, physical, and social). Two-wave status stability groups included sustained normal aging, transitional early impairment, and chronic impairment. Hierarchical regressions showed that baseline participation in social activities moderated cognitive status differences in EF. CI adults with high (but not low) social engagement performed equivalently to CN adults on EF. Longitudinally, logistic regressions showed that engagement in physical activities was a significant predictor of stability of cognitive status. CI adults who were more engaged in physical activities were more likely to improve in their cognitive status over time than their more sedentary peers. Participation in cognitive activities was a significant predictor of maintenance in a higher cognitive status group. Given that lifestyle engagement plays a detectable role in healthy, normal, and impaired neuropsychological aging, further research in activity-related associations and interventions is recommended. PMID:24323561

  11. Social Support and Self-Reported Stress Levels in a Predominantly African American Sample of Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Williams, Edith Marie; Zhang, Jiajia; Anderson, Judith; Bruner, Larisa; Tumiel-Berhalter, Laurene

    2015-01-01

    Lupus patients should avoid stress because physical or emotional stress can affect overall physical health. It has been suggested that social support has a positive influence on health status, but there is a lack of information in the literature on the association between the two among lupus patients. The current study investigated the association between social support and self-reported stress and coping status among African American women with lupus using data collected from two linked cross-sectional surveys. No social support differences in groups of high and low stress/coping were revealed; a duplicate study with a larger sample size is required. PMID:26442156

  12. Quality of life and functional status among homeless men attending a day shelter in Louisville, Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Steiner, R P; Looney, S W; Hall, L R; Wright, K M

    1995-05-01

    The homeless present important social and medical problems in most parts of the United States, including urban areas of Kentucky. While some studies have examined the health status of the homeless, very little is known about their quality of life or functional status. In the present study, 188 homeless men attending St. John's Day Shelter in Louisville completed an interviewer-assisted instrument that assessed self-perceived quality of life using the Perceived Quality of Life (PQOL) scale and self-perceived functional status using the Dartmouth COOP charts. The instrument also included questions on demographics and health risk behaviors of the homeless men. The results show that the typical homeless male attending St. John's is an unmarried, white, middle-aged high school graduate who is unemployed. In terms of quality of life, these men indicate general satisfaction with their physical and cognitive abilities, but significantly lower satisfaction with the social aspects of their lives. With regard to functional status, the homeless men report that they function best in terms of physical fitness and ability to perform daily activities. They report lower assessments of overall health, feelings, quality of life, and social support. These results suggest that poor social role functioning among homeless men is a major contributor to their poor quality of life. Thus, improving their health and quality of life may require an emphasis on social services in addition to routine medical care.

  13. Loss of olfactory function and nutritional status in vital older adults and geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Nicole; de Roon, Margot; van Campen, Jos P C M; Kremer, Stefanie; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the association of olfactory function and nutritional status in vital older adults and geriatric patients. Three hundred forty-five vital (mean age 67.1 years) and 138 geriatric older adults (mean age 80.9 years) were included. Nutritional status was assessed using the mini nutritional assessment-short form. The Sniffin' Sticks was used to measure olfactory function. Eleven percentage of the vital older adults were at risk of malnutrition, whereas 60% of the geriatric participants were malnourished or at risk. Only 2% of the vital older adults were anosmic, compared with 46% of the geriatric participants. Linear regression demonstrated a significant association (P = 0.015) between olfactory function and nutritional status in the geriatric subjects. However, this association became insignificant after adjustment for confounders. Both crude and adjusted analysis in the vital older adults did not show a significant association. The results indicate that, in both groups of elderly, there is no direct relation between olfactory function and nutritional status. We suggest that a decline in olfactory function may still be considered as one of the risk-factors for malnutrition in geriatric patients-once co-occurring with other mental and/or physical problems that are more likely to occur in those patients experience.

  14. Self-Reported Health Behavior and Attitudes of Youths 12-17 Years, United States. Data from the National Health Survey, Series 11, Number 147.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, James V.

    This report is a description of self-reported health behavior and attitudes of American youths based on questionnaire responses of a national probability sample of noninstitutionalized youths, 12 through 17 years of age. Topics include behavior and attitudes relating to general health status, cigarette smoking, physical appearance, personal…

  15. Faster self-reported speed of eating is related to higher body mass index in a nationwide survey of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Leong, Sook Ling; Madden, Clara; Gray, Andrew; Waters, Debra; Horwath, Caroline

    2011-08-01

    This study is the first nationwide population survey to explore the association between speed of eating and degree of obesity. The objective was to cross-sectionally examine the relationship between self-reported speed of eating and body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)) in a nationally representative sample of New Zealand women. In May 2009, a sample of 2,500 New Zealand women aged 40 to 50 years was randomly selected from the nationwide electoral rolls. A 66% participation rate was achieved. Potential participants were mailed a self-administered questionnaire containing questions on self-reported speed of eating, demographics, health conditions, menopause status, physical activity, height, and weight. Univariate models were used to examine the associations between demographic, health and behavioral variables, and BMI, while a multivariate model was developed to investigate the relationship between self-reported speed of eating and BMI. After adjusting for age, smoking status, menopause status, thyroid condition, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and physical activity, BMI statistically significantly increased by 2.8% (95% confidence interval: 1.5% to 4.1%; P<0.001) for each category increase in self-reported speed of eating. Although the direction of causality requires confirmation in longitudinal and randomized intervention studies, the results suggest that faster eating is associated with higher BMI in middle-aged women.

  16. Monitoring athletes through self-report: factors influencing implementation.

    PubMed

    Saw, Anna E; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2015-03-01

    Monitoring athletic preparation facilitates the evaluation and adjustment of practices to optimize performance outcomes. Self-report measures such as questionnaires and diaries are suggested to be a simple and cost-effective approach to monitoring an athlete's response to training, however their efficacy is dependent on how they are implemented and used. This study sought to identify the perceived factors influencing the implementation of athlete self-report measures (ASRM) in elite sport settings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with athletes, coaches and sports science and medicine staff at a national sporting institute (n = 30). Interviewees represented 20 different sports programs and had varying experience with ASRM. Purported factors influencing the implementation of ASRM related to the measure itself (e.g., accessibility, timing of completion), and the social environment (e.g., buy-in, reinforcement). Social environmental factors included individual, inter-personal and organizational levels which is consistent with a social ecological framework. An adaptation of this framework was combined with the factors associated with the measure to illustrate the inter-relations and influence upon compliance, data accuracy and athletic outcomes. To improve implementation of ASRM and ultimately athletic outcomes, a multi-factorial and multi-level approach is needed. Key pointsEffective implementation of a self-report measure for monitoring athletes requires a multi-factorial and multi-level approach which addresses the particular measure used and the surrounding social environment.A well-designed self-report measure should obtain quality data with minimal burden on athletes and staff.A supportive social environment involves buy-in and coordination of all parties, at both an individual and organization level.

  17. Self-reported and behavioural impulsivity in anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Phillipou, Andrea; Abel, Larry Allen; Castle, David Jonathan; Gurvich, Caroline; Hughes, Matthew Edward; Rossell, Susan Lee

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine how self-reported and behavioural impulsivity are related in anorexia nervosa (AN). METHODS Twenty-four females with AN and 25 healthy controls (HC) participant in the study. Self-reported impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). The scale yields three second-order factors: Attentional, motor and non-planning. Behavioural impulsivity was investigated with the continuous performance test (CPT), a computer-based task of sustained attention in which numbers are flashed briefly on screen and participants are required to click the mouse when the same number appears consecutively. The rate of commission and omission errors can be used a measure of behavioural imulsivity. RESULTS AN participants self-reported increased attentional [AN: 20.67 (3.64), HC: 13.88 (2.91), P = 0.001] and reduced motor impulsivity [AN: 11.55 (2.28), HC: 14.08 (2.78), P = 0.002]. The rate of omission or commission errors on the CPT did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). BIS-11 and CPT measures did not significantly correlate, but attentional impulsivity was related to negative mood states in AN (depression: r = 0.52, P = 0.010, anxiety: r = 0.55, P = 0.006, stress: r = 0.57, P = 0.004). CONCLUSION The discrepancy between self-reported and behavioural impulsivity are discussed in terms of perfectionism in AN. Furthermore, it is suggested that improving negative mood states may resolve this inconsistency in AN. PMID:27679774

  18. Monitoring Athletes Through Self-Report: Factors Influencing Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Saw, Anna E.; Main, Luana C.; Gastin, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring athletic preparation facilitates the evaluation and adjustment of practices to optimize performance outcomes. Self-report measures such as questionnaires and diaries are suggested to be a simple and cost-effective approach to monitoring an athlete’s response to training, however their efficacy is dependent on how they are implemented and used. This study sought to identify the perceived factors influencing the implementation of athlete self-report measures (ASRM) in elite sport settings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with athletes, coaches and sports science and medicine staff at a national sporting institute (n = 30). Interviewees represented 20 different sports programs and had varying experience with ASRM. Purported factors influencing the implementation of ASRM related to the measure itself (e.g., accessibility, timing of completion), and the social environment (e.g., buy-in, reinforcement). Social environmental factors included individual, inter-personal and organizational levels which is consistent with a social ecological framework. An adaptation of this framework was combined with the factors associated with the measure to illustrate the inter-relations and influence upon compliance, data accuracy and athletic outcomes. To improve implementation of ASRM and ultimately athletic outcomes, a multi-factorial and multi-level approach is needed. Key points Effective implementation of a self-report measure for monitoring athletes requires a multi-factorial and multi-level approach which addresses the particular measure used and the surrounding social environment. A well-designed self-report measure should obtain quality data with minimal burden on athletes and staff. A supportive social environment involves buy-in and coordination of all parties, at both an individual and organization level. PMID:25729301

  19. Self-reported and behavioural impulsivity in anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Phillipou, Andrea; Abel, Larry Allen; Castle, David Jonathan; Gurvich, Caroline; Hughes, Matthew Edward; Rossell, Susan Lee

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine how self-reported and behavioural impulsivity are related in anorexia nervosa (AN). METHODS Twenty-four females with AN and 25 healthy controls (HC) participant in the study. Self-reported impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). The scale yields three second-order factors: Attentional, motor and non-planning. Behavioural impulsivity was investigated with the continuous performance test (CPT), a computer-based task of sustained attention in which numbers are flashed briefly on screen and participants are required to click the mouse when the same number appears consecutively. The rate of commission and omission errors can be used a measure of behavioural imulsivity. RESULTS AN participants self-reported increased attentional [AN: 20.67 (3.64), HC: 13.88 (2.91), P = 0.001] and reduced motor impulsivity [AN: 11.55 (2.28), HC: 14.08 (2.78), P = 0.002]. The rate of omission or commission errors on the CPT did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). BIS-11 and CPT measures did not significantly correlate, but attentional impulsivity was related to negative mood states in AN (depression: r = 0.52, P = 0.010, anxiety: r = 0.55, P = 0.006, stress: r = 0.57, P = 0.004). CONCLUSION The discrepancy between self-reported and behavioural impulsivity are discussed in terms of perfectionism in AN. Furthermore, it is suggested that improving negative mood states may resolve this inconsistency in AN.

  20. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Self-Reported Periodontal Disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Weatherspoon, Darien J.; Borrell, Luisa N.; Johnson, Craig W.; Mujahid, Mahasin S.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Adar, Sara D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Racial and ethnic disparities in periodontal disease exist in the United States. This study examined the prevalence of self-reported periodontal disease, and the extent to which racial/ethnic disparities in the reported disease were reduced or eliminated after controlling for various risk factors in a multi-ethnic study population of older adults. Materials and Methods Information from the baseline examination (July 2000–August 2002) of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) was used. Study participants (N=6,256) were age 45–84 years, and identified themselves as either: White, Black, Hispanic, or Chinese. Periodontal disease was assessed by self-report, and demographic, socioeconomic status (SES) indicators, biomedical risk factors, and psychosocial stress factors were used as predictors of self-reported periodontal disease. Results Chinese displayed the highest prevalence of self-reported periodontal disease (39.8%), followed by blacks (32.0%) and whites (26.0%), with Hispanics displaying the lowest prevalence (17.4%). Chinese and black participants had a significantly higher prevalence of disease compared to whites that persisted after adjusting for demographic, SES indicators, biomedical risk factors, and psychosocial stress factors. Hispanics did not differ significantly from whites in their reporting of disease, after such adjustment. Conclusion Racial/ethnic disparities in self-reported periodontal disease persisted after adjusting for all study covariates. This study highlights the need for continued research into the determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in periodontal disease in order to better target interventions aimed at reducing the burden of disease in all segments of our population. PMID:26870845

  1. Skeletal muscle contractility, self-reported pain and tissue sensitivity in females with neck/shoulder pain and upper Trapezius myofascial trigger points– a randomized intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In relation to Myofascial Triggerpoints (MFTrPs) of the upper Trapezius, this study explored muscle contractility characteristics, the occurrence of post-intervention muscle soreness and the effect of dry needling on muscle contractile characteristics and clinical outcomes. Methods Seventy-seven female office workers (25-46yrs) with and without neck/shoulder pain were observed with respect to self-reported pain (NRS-101), pressure-pain threshold (PPT), maximum voluntary contraction (Fmax) and rate of force development (RFD) at baseline (pre-intervention), immediately post-intervention and 48 hours post-intervention. Symptomatic and asymptomatic participant groups were each randomized into two treatment sub-groups (superficial (SDN) and deep dry needling (DDN)) after baseline testing. At 48 hours post-intervention participants were asked whether delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and/or post-needling soreness had developed. Results Muscle contractile characteristics did not differ between groups at baseline. Forty-six individuals developed muscle soreness (39 from mechanical testing and seven from needling). No inter-group differences were observed post-intervention for Fmax or RFD for the four sub-groups. Over the observation period, symptomatic participants reported less pain from both SDN (p= 0.003) and DDN (p=0.011). However, PPT levels were reduced for all participants (p=0.029). Those reporting DOMS experienced significant decreases in PPT, irrespective of symptom state or intervention (p=0.001). Conclusions In selected female neck/shoulder pain sufferers, maximum voluntary contraction and rapid force generation of the upper Trapezius was not influenced by clinically relevant self-reported pain or the presence of diagnostically relevant MFTrPs. Dry needling, deep or superficial, did not affect measured functional outcomes over the 48-hour observation period. DOMS affected participants uniformly irrespective of pain, MFTrP status or intervention

  2. Text mining a self-report back-translation.

    PubMed

    Blanch, Angel; Aluja, Anton

    2016-06-01

    There are several recommendations about the routine to undertake when back translating self-report instruments in cross-cultural research. However, text mining methods have been generally ignored within this field. This work describes a text mining innovative application useful to adapt a personality questionnaire to 12 different languages. The method is divided in 3 different stages, a descriptive analysis of the available back-translated instrument versions, a dissimilarity assessment between the source language instrument and the 12 back-translations, and an item assessment of item meaning equivalence. The suggested method contributes to improve the back-translation process of self-report instruments for cross-cultural research in 2 significant intertwined ways. First, it defines a systematic approach to the back translation issue, allowing for a more orderly and informed evaluation concerning the equivalence of different versions of the same instrument in different languages. Second, it provides more accurate instrument back-translations, which has direct implications for the reliability and validity of the instrument's test scores when used in different cultures/languages. In addition, this procedure can be extended to the back-translation of self-reports measuring psychological constructs in clinical assessment. Future research works could refine the suggested methodology and use additional available text mining tools. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. The Effect of Lifetime Cumulative Adversity and Depressive Symptoms on Functional Status

    PubMed Central

    Litwin, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The study aimed to examine whether lifetime cumulative adversity (LCA) and depressive symptoms moderate time-related trajectories of functional status. Method. A total of 15,073 older adults (mean age = 63.91 at Wave 1) who participated in the first four waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe reported on exposure to negative life events, depressive symptoms and three measures of functional status—difficulty in performing daily and instrumental activities, and functional limitation. Results. Growth–curve models showed that time-related increase in disability and functional limitation was steeper among those exposed to higher levels of lifetime adversity. Moreover, a three-way interaction between time, lifetime adversity, and depressive symptoms emerged across measures of functional status, so that when exposure to lifetime adversity was accompanied by high level of depressive symptoms, the time-related increase in disability and functional limitation was the steepest. Discussion. LCA is associated with a hastening of the disablement process, especially under conditions of high distress. Although the overall modest effects imply that resilience to lifetime adversity is widespread among older adults, prevention and intervention programs should consider that distressed older adults previously exposed to high levels of lifetime adversity are at risk for more rapid impairment in functional status. PMID:24898028

  4. Modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis function by social status in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Jennifer D; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Vijayan, Mathilakath M; Gilmour, Kathleen M

    2012-04-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) form stable dominance hierarchies when confined in pairs. These hierarchies are driven by aggressive competition over limited resources and result in one fish becoming dominant over the other. An important indicator of low social status is sustained elevation of circulating cortisol levels as a result of chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. In the present study it was hypothesized that social status modulates the expression of key proteins involved in the functioning of the HPI axis. Cortisol treatment and fasting were used to assess whether these characteristics seen in subordinate fish also affected HPI axis function. Social status modulated plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, cortisol synthesis, and liver glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. Plasma ACTH levels were lower by approximately 2-fold in subordinate and cortisol-treated fish, consistent with a negative feedback role for cortisol in modulating HPI axis function. Although cortisol-treated fish exhibited differences in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and CRF-binding protein (CRF-BP) mRNA relative abundances in the preoptic area and telencephalon, respectively, no effect of social status on CRF or CRF-BP was detected. Head kidney melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) mRNA relative levels were unaffected by social status, while mRNA relative abundances of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme were elevated in dominant fish. Liver GR2 mRNA and total GR protein levels in subordinate fish were lower than control values by approximately 2-fold. In conclusion, social status modulated the functioning of the HPI axis in rainbow trout. Our results suggest altered cortisol dynamics and reduced target tissue response to this steroid in subordinate fish, while the higher transcript levels for steroid biosynthesis in dominant fish leads us to propose an

  5. BTEX air concentrations and self-reported common health problems in gasoline sellers from Cotonou, Benin.

    PubMed

    Tohon, Honesty Gbèdolo; Fayomi, Benjamin; Valcke, Mathieu; Coppieters, Yves; Bouland, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relation between BTEX exposure levels and common self-reported health problems in 140 gasoline sellers in Cotonou, Benin, a questionnaire documenting their socioeconomic status and their health problems was used, whereas 18 of them went through semi-directed qualitative individual interviews and 17 had air samples taken on their workplace for BTEX analysis. Median concentrations for BTEX were significantly lower on official (range of medians: 54-207 μg/m³, n = 9) vs unofficial (148-1449 μg/m³, n = 8) gasoline-selling sites (p < 0.05). Self-reported health problems were less frequently reported in sellers from unofficial vs official selling sites (p < 0.05), because, as suggested by the semi-directed interviews, of their fear of losing their important, but illegal, source of income. Concluding, this study has combined quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches to account for the complex socioeconomic and environmental conditions of the investigated sellers, leading to their, in some cases, preoccupying BTEX exposure.

  6. Work hours and self-reported hypertension among working people in California.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haiou; Schnall, Peter L; Jauregui, Maritza; Su, Ta-Chen; Baker, Dean

    2006-10-01

    Among the risk factors for hypertension, stress, especially work stress, has drawn increasing attention. Another potential work-related risk factor for hypertension identified in the past few years is work hours. This article presents an analysis of work hours and self-reported hypertension among the working population in the state of California. The data set used for this study comes from the Public Use File of the 2001 California Health Interview Survey. The logistic regression analysis shows a positive association between hours worked per week and likelihood of having self-reported hypertension. Compared with those working between 11 and 39 hours per week, individuals working 40 hours per week were 14% (95% CI: 1.01 to 1.28) more likely to report hypertension, those who worked between 41 and 50 hours per week were 17% (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.33) more likely to report hypertension, and those who worked >or=51 hours per week were 29% (95% CI: 1.10 to 1.52) more likely to report hypertension after controlling for various potentially confounding variables, including demographic and biological risk factors and socioeconomic status. This analysis provides evidence of a positive association between work hours and hypertension in the California working population.

  7. Stress in crisis managers: evidence from self-report and psychophysiological assessments.

    PubMed

    Janka, A; Adler, C; Fischer, L; Perakakis, P; Guerra, P; Duschek, S

    2015-12-01

    Directing disaster operations represents a major professional challenge. Despite its importance to health and professional performance, research on stress in crisis management remains scarce. The present study aimed to investigate self-reported stress and psychophysiological stress responses in crisis managers. For this purpose, 30 crisis managers were compared with 30 managers from other disciplines, in terms of self-reported stress, health status and psychophysiological reactivity to crisis-related and non-specific visual and acoustic aversive stimuli and cognitive challenge. Crisis managers reported lower stress levels, a more positive strain-recuperation-balance, greater social resources, reduced physical symptoms, as well as more physical exercise and less alcohol consumption. They exhibited diminished electrodermal and heart rate responses to crisis-related and non-specific stressors. The results indicate reduced stress and physical complaints, diminished psychophysiological stress reactivity, and a healthier life-style in crisis managers. Improved stress resistance may limit vulnerability to stress-related performance decline and facilitate preparedness for major incidents.

  8. Self-Reported Changes in Sun-Protection Behaviors at Different Latitudes in Australia.

    PubMed

    Djaja, Ngadiman; Janda, Monika; Lucas, Robyn M; Harrison, Simone L; van der Mei, Ingrid; Ebeling, Peter R; Neale, Rachel E; Whiteman, David C; Nowak, Madeleine; Kimlin, Michael G

    2016-05-01

    Sun exposure is the most important source of vitamin D, but is also a risk factor for skin cancer. This study investigated attitudes toward vitamin D, and changes in sun-exposure behavior due to concern about adequate vitamin D. Participants (n = 1002) were recruited from four regions of Australia and completed self- and interviewer-administered surveys. Chi-square tests were used to assess associations between participants' latitude of residence, vitamin D-related attitudes and changes in sun-exposure behaviors during the last summer. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to model the association between attitudes and behaviors. Overall, people who worried about their vitamin D status were more likely to have altered sun protection and spent more time in the sun people not concerned about vitamin D. Concern about vitamin D was also more common with increasing latitude. Use of novel item response theory analysis highlighted the potential impact of self-reported behavior change on skin cancer predisposition due concern to vitamin. This cross-sectional study shows that the strongest determinants of self-reported sun-protection behavior changes due to concerns about vitamin D were attitudes and location, with people at higher latitudes worrying more. PMID:26914695

  9. Seven-day recall and other physical activity self-reports in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sallis, J F; Buono, M J; Roby, J J; Micale, F G; Nelson, J A

    1993-01-01

    There is need to develop low cost, practical, and accurate measures of physical activity in children and adolescents, and self-report is a promising methodology for children that is applicable for large studies. The purpose of the present study was to assess the reliability and validity of several self-reports of physical activity. Subjects were 36 fifth-, 36 eighth-, and 30 eleventh-grade male and female students. The test-retest reliabilities were r = 0.77 for the 7-d recall interview, r = 0.81 for the Godin-Shephard self-administered survey, and r = 0.93 for a simple activity rating. For the former two measures, reliability improved with age but was significant at all ages, and for the last measure there were no age effects. Memory skills and obesity status were not related to the reliability of recall, but males were more reliable reporters than females. Validity of the 7-d recall was determined by comparing heart rate monitoring records with recalls of very hard activities on the same day. A correlation of 0.53 (P < 0.001) for the total group supported the validity of the reports. Validity improved with age, but validity coefficients were significant in all age groups. These data indicate that physical activity recalls of children as young as the fifth grade are of adequate reliability and validity to use in research on physical activity in children.

  10. Differences in Field Dependence-Independence Cognitive Style as a Function of Socioeconomic Status, Sex, and Cognitive Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forns-Santacana, Maria; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Analyzed field dependence-independence (FDI) cognitive style as function of socioeconomic status, sex, and cognitive competence in seven year olds (n=117). Subjects of upper-middle socioeconomic status achieved significantly higher scores that did subjects of low socioeconomic status on five McCarthy Scales and on FDI variable. Boys scored higher…

  11. Reduction in lung functions in type-2 diabetes in Indian population: correlation with glycemic status.

    PubMed

    Dharwadkar, Anand R; Dharwadkar, Asha A; Banu, Gouher; Bagali, Shrilaxmi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate pulmonary functions in patients with Type-2 diabetes mellitus and to determine their correlation with glycemic status of diabetes in Indian population. Forty Type-2 diabetic patients, aged 30-60 years, with diabetic duration of 1-20 years, were included in the study. FVC, FEV1, & FEV1% are recorded by Benedict's Roth spirometer. PEFR and MEP were recorded by Wright's Peak flow meter & Modified Black's apparatus. Glycemic status of subjects was determined by FBS & PPBS by Glucose oxidase & peroxidase methods. And results were analyzed by calculating Mean +/- SD, using Student's t test, and Pearson correlation. All the respiratory parameters are reduced in Type-2 diabetic patients compared to control of which FEV1, FEV1%, & MEP show very highly significant reduction (P=0.000). Lung functions are negatively correlated with glycemic status & duration of diabetes. (r = -0.390, & -0.342) Reduction in dynamic lung functions and its negative correlation to glycemic status might be due to respiratory muscle weakness as indicated by highly significant reduction in MEP. Hence strict glycemic control and breathing exercises to strengthen the respiratory muscles may improve lung function in diabetics. PMID:22319899

  12. The Correlates of Tracking Policy: Opportunity Hoarding, Status Competition, or a Technical-Functional Explanation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Sean; Price, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In this analysis, the authors explore the relationship between the social context of high schools and school-to-school variation in tracking policies. The authors consider three explanations for the implementation of highly elaborated tracking systems: opportunity hoarding, status competition, and a technical-functional explanation. Building on…

  13. Metabolic status, gonadotropin secretion, and ovarian function during acute nutrient restriction of beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of acute nutritional restriction on metabolic status, gonadotropin secretion, and ovarian function of heifers was determined in 2 experiments. In Exp. 1, 14-mo-old heifers were fed a diet supplying 1.2 × maintenance energy requirements (1.2M). After 10 d, heifers were fed 1.2M or were res...

  14. Age, time, and cohort effects on functional status and self-rated health in elderly men.

    PubMed Central

    Hoeymans, N; Feskens, E J; van den Bos, G A; Kromhout, D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated age-related changes in functional status and self-rated health in elderly men, taking into account changes over time and differences between birth cohorts. METHODS: The Zutphen Elderly Study is a longitudinal study of men born in the Netherlands between 1900 and 1920. Functional status and self-rated health were measured in 513 men in 1990, in 381 men in 1993, and in 340 men in 1995. Age, time, and cohort effects were analyzed in a mixed longitudinal model. RESULTS: Longitudinal analyses showed that during 5 years of follow-up, the proportion of men without disabilities decreased from 53% to 39%, whereas the percentage who rated themselves as healthy decreased from 50% to 35%. Cross-sectional analyses confirmed changes in functional status, suggesting an age effect. Time-series analyses confirmed changes in self-rated health, suggesting a time effect. No birth-cohort effects were found. CONCLUSIONS: Functional status deteriorates with age, whereas self-rated health is not related to age in men aged 70 years and older. The observed 5-year decline in self-rated health seemed to be due to a secular trend. PMID:9357342

  15. Socioeconomic Status and Functional Brain Development--Associations in Early Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Moore, Derek G.; Ribeiro, Helena; Axelsson, Emma L.; Murphy, Elizabeth; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Johnson, Mark H.; Kushnerenko, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts on both structural and functional brain development in childhood, but how early its effects can be demonstrated is unknown. In this study we measured resting baseline EEG activity in the gamma frequency range in awake 6-9-month-olds from areas of East London with high socioeconomic deprivation. Between-subject…

  16. Developmental Status and Social-Emotional Functioning of Young Children Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskett, Mary E.; Armstrong, Jenna Montgomery; Tisdale, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The developmental status and social-emotional functioning of young children who are homeless has received inadequate attention in spite of high rates of homelessness among families with young children and the potentially negative impact of homelessness and associated stressors on children's well-being. The aim of this study was to gain…

  17. The Revised Direct Assessment of Functional Status for Independent Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougall, Graham J.; Becker, Heather; Vaughan, Phillip W.; Acee, Taylor W.; Delville, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The original version of the Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS), a measure of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), was found to have a ceiling effect in older adults living independently in the community. This suggested that the tasks measured, although relevant, do not require full use of this population's…

  18. The Status of Functional Categories in Child Second Language Acquisition: Evidence from the Acquisition of CP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haznedar, Belma

    2003-01-01

    Examines the status of the functional categories in child second language (L2) acquisition of English. Results from longitudinally-collected data are reported, presenting counterevidence for recent hypotheses on early L2 acquisition that assume the following: (1) structure building approach according to which the acquisition of functional…

  19. Mechanisms by which Childhood Personality Traits Influence Adult Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Vogt, Thomas M.; Dubanoski, Joan P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To test a lifespan health-behavior model in which educational attainment and health behaviors (eating habits, smoking, and physical activity) were hypothesized as mechanisms to account for relations between teacher ratings of childhood personality traits and self-reported health status at midlife. Design The model was tested on 1,054 members of the Hawaii Personality and Health cohort, which is a population-based cohort participating in a longitudinal study of personality and health spanning 40 years from childhood to midlife. Outcome Self-reported health status as a latent construct indicated by general health, functional status, and body mass index. Results Childhood Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Intellect/Imagination influenced adult health status indirectly through educational attainment, healthy eating habits, and smoking. Several direct effects of childhood traits on health behaviors and health status were also observed. Conclusion The model extends past associations found between personality traits and health behaviors or health status by identifying a life-course pathway based on the health-behavior model through which early childhood traits influence adult health status. The additional direct effects of personality traits indicate that health-behavior mechanisms may not provide a complete account of relations between personality and health. PMID:17209705

  20. Assessment of social traits in married couples: Self-reports versus spouse ratings around the interpersonal circumplex.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy W; Williams, Paula G

    2016-06-01

    Personality traits predict the quality of intimate relationships, and as a result can be useful additions to assessments of couple functioning. For traits involving social behavior, the affiliation (i.e., warmth, friendliness vs. hostility, quarrelsomeness) and control (i.e., dominance vs. deference, submissiveness) dimensions of the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) are an alternative to the 5-factor model traits of agreeableness and extraversion, given that they may provide a more specific and relevant description of social behavior in the context of couple functioning. The couple context creates an opportunity to supplement commonly used self-reports with informant ratings. Although substantial correlations between self-reports and partner ratings of personality are well-documented, differences between these assessment modalities in levels of affiliation and control have not been examined previously. The present study of 301 middle-aged and older couples addressed this issue by comparing self-reports and spouse ratings, using parallel forms of a measure of the interpersonal circumplex derived from the NEO (Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness) PI-R (Personality Inventory-Revised). Participants reported lower trait dominance relative to spouses' ratings, and less trait hostility. For dominance, this discrepancy was evident at all levels of marital quality, but for hostility it was particularly apparent among couples reporting low marital quality. The tendency to self-report less dominance relative to ratings by spouses was stronger among women than men. These discrepancies may be important in couple assessment and intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26372262

  1. Assessment of social traits in married couples: Self-reports versus spouse ratings around the interpersonal circumplex.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy W; Williams, Paula G

    2016-06-01

    Personality traits predict the quality of intimate relationships, and as a result can be useful additions to assessments of couple functioning. For traits involving social behavior, the affiliation (i.e., warmth, friendliness vs. hostility, quarrelsomeness) and control (i.e., dominance vs. deference, submissiveness) dimensions of the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) are an alternative to the 5-factor model traits of agreeableness and extraversion, given that they may provide a more specific and relevant description of social behavior in the context of couple functioning. The couple context creates an opportunity to supplement commonly used self-reports with informant ratings. Although substantial correlations between self-reports and partner ratings of personality are well-documented, differences between these assessment modalities in levels of affiliation and control have not been examined previously. The present study of 301 middle-aged and older couples addressed this issue by comparing self-reports and spouse ratings, using parallel forms of a measure of the interpersonal circumplex derived from the NEO (Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness) PI-R (Personality Inventory-Revised). Participants reported lower trait dominance relative to spouses' ratings, and less trait hostility. For dominance, this discrepancy was evident at all levels of marital quality, but for hostility it was particularly apparent among couples reporting low marital quality. The tendency to self-report less dominance relative to ratings by spouses was stronger among women than men. These discrepancies may be important in couple assessment and intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Assessment of Social Traits in Married Couples: Self-Reports versus Spouse Ratings around the Interpersonal Circumplex

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Timothy W.; Williams, Paula G.

    2015-01-01

    Personality traits predict the quality of intimate relationships, and as a result can be useful additions to assessments of couple functioning. For traits involving social behavior, the affiliation (i.e., warmth, friendliness vs. hostility, quarrelsomeness) and control (i.e., dominance vs. deference, submissiveness) dimensions of the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) are an alternative to the five-factor model traits of agreeableness and extraversion, given that they may provide a more specific and relevant description of social behavior in the context of couple functioning. The couple context creates an opportunity to supplement commonly used self-reports with informant ratings. Although substantial correlations between self-reports and partner ratings of personality are well-documented, differences between these assessment modalities in levels of affiliation and control have not been examined previously. The present study of 301 middle-aged and older couples addressed this issue by comparing self-reports and spouse ratings, using parallel forms of a measure of the interpersonal circumplex derived from the NEO PI-R. Participants reported lower trait dominance relative to spouses’ ratings, and less trait hostility. For dominance, this discrepancy was evident at all levels of marital quality, but for hostility it was particularly apparent among couples reporting low marital quality. The tendency to self-report less dominance relative to ratings by spouses was stronger among women than men. These discrepancies may be important in couple assessment and intervention. PMID:26372262

  3. Extending a medical language processing system to the functional status domain.

    PubMed

    Bales, Michael; Kukafka, Rita; Burkhardt, Ann; Friedman, Carol

    2005-01-01

    The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) provides a common framework for describing functional status information (FSI) in health records. Given the expense of manual coding, we are investigating the use of natural language processing (NLP) for automated FSI coding. We used an existing NLP system that was originally designed to encode clinical information. The system's lexicon and coding table were modified and preprocessing and postprocessing programs were created, allowing for automated assignment of selected ICF codes.

  4. Urinary iodine, thyroid function, and thyroglobulin as biomarkers of iodine status.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Caldwell, Kathleen L

    2016-09-01

    The accurate assessment of population iodine status is necessary to inform public health policies and clinical research on iodine nutrition, particularly the role of iodine adequacy in normal neurodevelopment. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) directly reflects dietary iodine intake and is the most common indicator used worldwide to assess population iodine status. The CDC established the Ensuring the Quality of Iodine Procedures program in 2001 to provide laboratories that measure urinary iodine with an independent assessment of their analytic performance; this program fosters improvement in the assessment of UIC. Clinical laboratory tests of thyroid function (including serum concentrations of the pituitary hormone thyrotropin and the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine) are sometimes used as indicators of iodine status, although such use is often problematic. Even in severely iodine-deficient regions, there is a great deal of intraindividual variation in the ability of the thyroid to adapt. In most settings and in most population subgroups other than newborns, thyroid function tests are not considered sensitive indicators of population iodine status. However, the thyroid-derived protein thyroglobulin is increasingly being used for this purpose. Thyroglobulin can be measured in either serum or dried blood spot (DBS) samples. The use of DBS samples is advantageous in resource-poor regions. Improved methodologies for ascertaining maternal iodine status are needed to facilitate research on developmental correlates of iodine status. Thyroglobulin may prove to be a useful biomarker for both maternal and neonatal iodine status, but validated assay-specific reference ranges are needed for the determination of iodine sufficiency in both pregnant women and neonates, and trimester-specific ranges are possibly needed for pregnant women. UIC is currently a well-validated population biomarker, but individual biomarkers that could be used for research, patient care

  5. Self-reported coping behavior in health and disease: assessment with a card sort game

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, C. E.; Peng, C. K.; Lester, N.; Daltroy, L. H.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that individuals with a variety of severe chronic illnesses and the healthy elderly exhibit a loss of flexibility in their response to a variety of stressors, compared with healthy adults. A card sort game designed to assess self-reported coping behavior under different stressful life situations was used to compare healthy adults with individuals with multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and the elderly. The healthy adults were found to exhibit more variability than any of the illness groups or the elderly. Healthy function is marked by a complex type of variability.

  6. Monitoring of Functioning Status in Subjects With Chronic Stroke in South Korea Using WHODAS II

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Su-Yeon; Hong, Sang-Eun; Kim, Ee-Jin; Kim, Chang-Hwan; Joa, Kyung-Lim

    2016-01-01

    Objective To follow up the long-term functioning in a community through assessing personal background and status based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) after a stroke, by using a Korean version of World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale II (K-WHODAS II). Methods We surveyed 146 patients diagnosed at the first-onset of acute stroke and discharged after Inha University Hospital, and 101 patients answered the K-WHODAS II survey. We analyzed the relationship of six functioning domains of K-WHODAS II with K-MMSE (Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination) and K-MBI (Korean version of Modified Barthel Index) at admission and discharge, and personal background. All subjects were divided into five groups, according to the disease durations, to assess the functional changes and the differences of K-MMSE and K-MBI at the admission and discharge. Results K-MBI and K-MMSE at admission and discharge showed no significant differences in all five groups, respectively (p>0.05), reflecting no baseline disparity for long-term follow-up. All subjects showed positive gains of K-MBI and K-MMSE at discharge (p<0.05). The six functioning domains and total scores of K-WHODAS II had decreasing trends until 3 years after the stroke onset, but rose thereafter. Higher scores of K-MBI and K-MMSE, younger age, women, working status, higher educational level, and living with a partner were correlated with lower scores of K-WHODAS II (p<0.05). Conclusion The long-term functioning after stroke was affected not only by cognitive and motor status in hospital, but also by certain kinds of personal background. K-WHODAS II may be used to monitor functioning status in a community and to assess personal backgrounds in subjects with chronic stroke. PMID:26949677

  7. The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS): utility in college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sarah; Woltering, Steven; Mawjee, Karizma; Tannock, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Background. The number of students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) enrolled in colleges and universities has increased markedly over the past few decades, giving rise to questions about how best to document symptoms and impairment in the post-secondary setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the utility and psychometric properties of a widely-used rating scale for adults with ADHD, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-V1.1), in a sample of post-secondary students with ADHD. Methods. A total of 135 college students (mean age = 24, 42% males) with ADHD were recruited from Student Disability Services in post-secondary institutions. We compared informant responses on the ASRS administered via different modalities. First, students' self-report was ascertained using the ASRS Screener administered via telephone interview, in which they were asked to provide real-life examples of behavior for each of the six items. Next, students self-reported symptoms on the 18-item paper version of the ASRS Symptom Checklist administered about 1-2 weeks later, and a collateral report using an online version of the 18-item ASRS Symptom Checklist. Students also completed self-report measures of everyday cognitive failure (CFQ) and executive functioning (BDEFS). Results. Results revealed moderate to good congruency between the 18-item ASRS-Self and ASRS-Collateral reports (correlation = .47), and between student self-report on the 6-item telephone-based and paper versions of the ASRS, with the paper version administered two weeks later (correlation = .66). The full ASRS self-report was related to impairment, such as in executive functioning (correlation = .63) and everyday cognitive failure (correlation = .74). Executive functioning was the only significant predictor of ASRS total scores. Discussion. Current findings suggest that the ASRS provides an easy-to-use, reliable, and cost-effective approach for gathering information about current symptoms of

  8. Factors Influencing Agreement between Self-Reports and Biological Measures of Smoking among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolcini, M. Margaret; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reviews 28 studies comparing adolescent self-report of smoking with biological indicators. Identifies four factors limiting agreement: biases in self-report due to limitations of biological measures; limitations of self-report measures; social desirability; and analytic and statistical issues. Concludes that, with optimal measurement, self-report…

  9. Predicting Drug Use at Electronic Music Dance Events: Self-Reports and Biological Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert A.; Miller, Brenda A.; Holder, Harold D.

    2009-01-01

    Most information on the prevalence of drug use comes from self-report surveys. The sensitivity of such information is cause for concern about the accuracy of self-report measures. In this study, self-reported drug use in the last 48 hr is compared to results from biological assays of saliva samples from 371 young adults entering clubs. The…

  10. Self-Reported Inattention in Early Adolescence in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Laura L.; Connolly, Jennifer; Toplak, Maggie E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Inattention is typically associated with ADHD, but less research has been done to examine the correlates of self-reported inattention in youth in a community sample. Method: Associations among self-reported inattention, parent-reported inattention, and self-reported psychopathology in children aged 10 to 11 years are examined.…

  11. Comparison of measured and self-reported anthropometric information among firefighters: implications and applications

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Weaver, Darlene; Hsiao, James; Whitestone, Jennifer; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Whisler, Richard; Ferri, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of self-reported body weight and height compared to measured values among firefighters and identified factors associated with reporting error. A total of 863 male and 88 female firefighters in four US regions participated in the study. The results showed that both men and women underestimated their body weight (−0.4 ± 4.1, −1.1 ± 3.6 kg) and overestimated their height (29 ± 18, 17 ± 16 mm). Women underestimated more than men on weight (p = 0.022) and men overestimated more than women on height (p < 0.001). Reporting errors on weight were increased with overweight status (p < 0.001) and were disproportionate among subgroups. About 27% men and 24% women had reporting errors on weight greater than ± 2.2 kg, and 59% men and 28% women had reporting errors on height greater than 25 mm. PMID:25198061

  12. Altered self-report of empathic responding in patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Cusi, Andrée; Macqueen, Glenda M; McKinnon, Margaret C

    2010-07-30

    Despite evidence of impairments in social cognition in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), systematic investigations of empathic responding in this population have not been conducted. The objectives of the current study were to investigate empathic responding in patients with BD in varying states of illness and to determine whether course of illness variables and symptom severity predicted responding. Twenty well-characterized patients with BD and 20 matched healthy control subjects completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and the Social Adjustment Scale Self-Report (SAS-SR), self-report measures of cognitive and emotional empathy and of psychosocial functioning, respectively. Patients with BD reported significantly reduced levels of cognitive empathy ('Perspective Taking') and higher levels of personal distress in response to others' negative experiences than did controls. Altered affective empathic abilities correlated significantly with reduced psychosocial functioning in family, social and occupational domains and with increased symptom severity. This study provides preliminary evidence of alterations in empathic responding in patients with BD. Alterations in the ability to adopt the perspective of others may contribute to the difficulties in social communication inherent in this patient population. Additional studies, involving larger samples, are required to determine the contribution of social cognitive performance to impaired social functioning in BD. PMID:20483472

  13. Behavioral Functioning among Mexican-Origin Children: Does Parental Legal Status Matter?*

    PubMed Central

    Landale, Nancy S.; Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Oropesa, R. S.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.

    2015-01-01

    Using data on 2,535 children included in the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey, we investigate how the legal status of immigrant parents shapes their children’s behavioral functioning. Variation in internalizing and externalizing problems among Mexican youth with undocumented mothers, documented or naturalized citizen mothers, and U.S.-born mothers is analyzed using a comparative framework that contrasts their experience with that of other ethnoracial groups. Our findings reinforce the importance of differentiating children of immigrants by parental legal status in studying health and well-being. Children of undocumented Mexican migrants have significantly higher risks of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems than their counterparts with documented or naturalized citizen mothers. Regression results are inconsistent with simple explanations that emphasize group differences in socioeconomic status, maternal mental health, or family routines. PMID:25722124

  14. A Study on Perception and Usage Status on Health Functional Foods in Women according to Menopause Status

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Heesook; Lee, Hae-Hyeog

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to provide a reference base for suggesting proper guidelines for the health of the people by analyzing perception and intake pattern on health functional foods and by identifying needs in pre- and postmenopausal women. Methods We conducted a self-administered survey in women admitted to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at a university hospital between July and August, 2014. The survey questionnaire consisted of 8 items on general characteristics, 4 items on awareness on health functional foods, and 16 items on usage status. Results Of all 133 women with ages ranging between 19 to 67 years, postmenopausal women were 57 accounting for 42.9% of all subjects. Mean age was 55.4 ± 6.2 and menopausal age was 49.6 ± 4.3 in the postmenopause group. Mean age was 38.7 ± 9.0 in the postmenopause group. With respect to components of health functional foods, 76.3% of women answered "important" in the postmenopause group, significantly higher than 49.1% in the postmenopause group (P < 0.01). In regard to price, those who answered "important" accounted for the largest percentage in the premenopausal group at 56.6%, and those who answered "moderately important" accounted for 57.9% in the postmenopausal women. A significant difference was found between the two groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion Development of products reflecting consumer needs can be considered. It is important to foster an environment allowing individuals to choose right health functional foods and further studies are warranted. PMID:27152310

  15. Perinatal HIV Status and Executive Function During School-Age and Adolescence: A Comparative Study of Long-Term Cognitive Capacity Among Children From a High HIV Prevalence Setting.

    PubMed

    Ezeamama, Amara E; Kizza, Florence N; Zalwango, Sarah K; Nkwata, Allan K; Zhang, Ming; Rivera, Mariana L; Sekandi, Juliet N; Kakaire, Robert; Kiwanuka, Noah; Whalen, Christopher C

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether perinatal HIV infection (PHIV), HIV-exposed uninfected (PHEU) versus HIV-unexposed (PHU) status predicted long-term executive function (EF) deficit in school-aged Ugandan children.Perinatal HIV status was determined by 18 months via DNA polymerase chain reaction test and confirmed at cognitive assessment between 6 and 18 years using HIV rapid-diagnostic test. Primary outcome is child EF measured using behavior-rating inventory of executive function questionnaire across 8 subscales summed to derive the global executive composite (GEC). EF was proxy-reported by caregivers and self-reported by children 11 years or older. Descriptive analyses by perinatal HIV status included derivation of mean, standard deviations (SD), number, and percent (%) of children with EF deficits warranting clinical vigilance. Raw scores were internally standardized by age and sex adjustment. EF scores warranting clinical vigilance were defined as ≥ mean + 1.5SD. t Tests for mean score differences by perinatal HIV status and linear-regression models were implemented in SAS version 9.4 to derive HIV status-related EF deficits (β) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Proxy-reported and self-reported EF were assessed in 166 and 82 children, respectively. GEC deficit was highest for PHIV (mean = 121.9, SD = 29.9), intermediate for PHEU (mean = 107.5, SD = 26.8), and lowest for PHU (mean = 103.4, SD = 20.7; P-trend < 0.01). GEC deficit levels warranting clinical vigilance occurred in 9 (15.8%), 5 (9.3%) and 0 (0%) PHIV, PHEU, and PHU children, respectively (P-trend = 0.01). Nineteen percent (n = 32) children had deficits requiring clinical vigilance in ≥2 proxy-reported EF subscales. Of these, multisubscale deficits occurred in 35.1%, 13.0%, and 9.3% of PHIV, PHEU, and PHU respectively (P-trend = 0.001). Multivariable analyses find significantly higher GEC deficits for PHIV compared with PHU and PHEU

  16. Scientists’ Perceptions of Organizational Justice and Self-Reported Misbehaviors

    PubMed Central

    Martinson, Brian C.; Anderson, Melissa S.; Crain, A. Lauren; De Vries, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    policymakers concerned about maintaining the integrity of science have recently expanded their attention from a focus on misbehaving individuals to characteristics of the environments in which scientists work. Little empirical evidence exists about the role of organizational justice in promoting or hindering scientific integrity. Our findings indicate that when scientists believe they are being treated unfairly they are more likely to behave in ways that compromise the integrity of science. Perceived violations of distributive and procedural justice were positively associated with self-reports of misbehavior among scientists. PMID:16810337

  17. Self-Reported Experiences of Discrimination and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Tené T.; Williams, David R.; Tamene, Mahader; Clark, Cheryl R.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have long speculated that exposure to discrimination may increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk but compared to other psychosocial risk factors, large-scale epidemiologic and community based studies examining associations between reports of discrimination and CVD risk have only emerged fairly recently. This review summarizes findings from studies of self-reported experiences of discrimination and CVD risk published between 2011–2013. We document the innovative advances in recent work, the notable heterogeneity in these studies, and the considerable need for additional work with objective clinical endpoints other than blood pressure. Implications for the study of racial disparities in CVD and clinical practice are also discussed. PMID:24729825

  18. Zygosity assessment by self-report; research reports; human interest.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2011-02-01

    The research implications and personal perspectives associated with twins' and families' self-reports of zygosity are reviewed. This is followed by summaries of recent research reports including a possible first case of the freemartin effect in humans, twin-singleton comparisons of mental health in Japanese students and mechanisms associated with ART-induced monozygotic twinning. A look at twin stories in the media includes the extraordinary revival of an infant male twin, the career decision of a pair of MZ twin basketball players and the loss of a five-year-old triplet.

  19. The longitudinal and interactive effects of HIV status, stimulant use, and host genotype upon neurocognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Levine, Andrew J; Reynolds, Sandra; Cox, Christopher; Miller, Eric N; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Becker, James T; Martin, Eileen; Sacktor, Ned

    2014-06-01

    Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection and illicit stimulant use can adversely impact neurocognitive functioning, and these effects can be additive. However, significant variability exists such that as-of-yet unidentified exogenous and endogenous factors affect one's risk for neurocognitive impairment. Literature on both HIV and stimulant use indicates that host genetic variants in immunologic and dopamine-related genes are one such factor. In this study, the individual and interactive effects of HIV status, stimulant use, and genotype upon neurocognitive functioning were examined longitudinally over a 10-year period. Nine hundred fifty-two Caucasian HIV+ and HIV- cases from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study were included. All cases had at least two comprehensive neurocognitive evaluations between 1985 and 1995. Pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) data were examined in order to avoid the confounding effect of variable drug regimens. Linear mixed models were used, with neurocognitive domain scores as the outcome variables. No four-way interactions were found, indicating that HIV and stimulant use do not interact over time to affect neurocognitive functioning as a function of genotype. Multiple three-way interactions were found that involved genotype and HIV status. All immunologically related genes found to interact with HIV status affected neurocognitive functioning in the expected direction; however, only C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and CCL3 affected HIV+ individuals specifically. Dopamine-related genetic variants generally affected HIV-negative individuals only. Neurocognitive functioning among HIV+ individuals who also used stimulants was not significantly different from those who did not use stimulants. The findings support the role of immunologically related genetic differences in CCL2 and CCL3 in neurocognitive functioning among HIV+ individuals; however, their impact is minor. Being consistent with findings from another cohort

  20. The Impact of Maternal Vitamin D Status on Offspring Brain Development and Function: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pet, Milou A; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M

    2016-07-01

    Various studies have examined associations between maternal vitamin D (VD) deficiency and offspring health, including offspring brain health. The purpose of this review was to summarize current evidence concerning the impact of maternal VD deficiency on brain development and function in offspring. A systematic search was conducted within Medline (on Ovid) for studies published through 7 May 2015. Animal and human studies that examined associations between maternal VD status or developmental VD deficiency and offspring brain development and function were included. A total of 26 animal studies and 10 human studies met the inclusion criteria. Several animal studies confirmed the hypothesis that low prenatal VD status may affect brain morphology and physiology as well as behavioral outcomes. In humans, subtle cognitive and psychological impairments in offspring of VD-deficient mothers were observed. However, data obtained from animal and human studies provide inconclusive evidence, and results seem to depend on strain or race and age of offspring. To conclude, prenatal VD status is thought to play an important role in brain development, cognitive function, and psychological function. However, results are inconclusive; validation of these findings and investigation of underlying mechanisms are required. Thus, more investigation is needed before recommending supplementation of VD during pregnancy to promote brain health of offspring. PMID:27422502

  1. The Impact of Maternal Vitamin D Status on Offspring Brain Development and Function: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pet, Milou A; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M

    2016-07-01

    Various studies have examined associations between maternal vitamin D (VD) deficiency and offspring health, including offspring brain health. The purpose of this review was to summarize current evidence concerning the impact of maternal VD deficiency on brain development and function in offspring. A systematic search was conducted within Medline (on Ovid) for studies published through 7 May 2015. Animal and human studies that examined associations between maternal VD status or developmental VD deficiency and offspring brain development and function were included. A total of 26 animal studies and 10 human studies met the inclusion criteria. Several animal studies confirmed the hypothesis that low prenatal VD status may affect brain morphology and physiology as well as behavioral outcomes. In humans, subtle cognitive and psychological impairments in offspring of VD-deficient mothers were observed. However, data obtained from animal and human studies provide inconclusive evidence, and results seem to depend on strain or race and age of offspring. To conclude, prenatal VD status is thought to play an important role in brain development, cognitive function, and psychological function. However, results are inconclusive; validation of these findings and investigation of underlying mechanisms are required. Thus, more investigation is needed before recommending supplementation of VD during pregnancy to promote brain health of offspring.

  2. Health, vocational, and functional status in spinal cord injured athletes and nonathletes.

    PubMed

    Curtis, K A; McClanahan, S; Hall, K M; Dillon, D; Brown, K F

    1986-12-01

    The relationship of sports involvement to medical complications, functional independence, and vocational status was studied in 67 individuals from 2 to 24 years after spinal cord injury (SCI). Sports participation ranged from none to 30 (means 7.6) hours/wk. No significant correlation was found between time spent in sports participation and number of medical complications, rehospitalizations, functional status, or employment. Subsequently, subgroups of SCI wheelchair basketball players (n = 19) and SCI nonathletes (n = 19) were compared in medical, functional, and vocational status. The athlete group showed significantly more average time per week of sports participation (p less than 0.03), as expected. Fewer physician visits (p less than 0.01) occurred in the athlete group. Trends toward fewer medical complications and fewer rehospitalizations were seen in the athletic group, but this did not reach statistical significance. Sports participation was not associated with increased risk of medical complications and did not limit available time for vocational pursuits. The positive benefits of sports involvement on the community reintegration process and the acquisition of functional skills for the newly disabled warrant further study. The long-term impact of sports involvement on prevention of cardiovascular disease, obesity, and other associated risks of a sedentary existence demands attention in our aging SCI population.

  3. Nutritional status, functional capacity and exercise rehabilitation in end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Mercer, T H; Koufaki, P; Naish, P F

    2004-05-01

    A significant percentage of patients with end-stage renal disease are malnourished and/or muscle wasted. Uremia is associated with decreased protein synthesis and increased protein degradation. Fortunately, nutritional status has been shown to be a modifiable risk factor in the dialysis population. It has long been proposed that exercise could positively alter the protein synthesis-degradation balance. Resistance training had been considered as the only form of exercise likely to induce anabolism in renal failure patients. However, a small, but growing, body of evidence indicates that for some dialysis patients, favourable improvements in muscle atrophy and fibre hypertrophy can be achieved via predominantly aerobic exercise training. Moreover, some studies tentatively suggest that nutritional status, as measured by SGA, can also be modestly improved by modes and patterns of exercise training that have been shown to also increase muscle fibre cross-sectional area and improve functional capacity. Functional capacity tests can augment the information content of basic nutritional status assessments of dialysis patients and as such are recommended for routine inclusion as a feature of all nutritional status assessments.

  4. Can mindful parenting be observed? Relations between observational ratings of mother-youth interactions and mothers' self-report of mindful parenting.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Larissa G; Coatsworth, J Douglas; Gayles, Jochebed G; Geier, Mary H; Greenberg, Mark T

    2015-04-01

    Research on mindful parenting, an extension of mindfulness to the interpersonal domain of parent-child relationships, has been limited by its reliance on self-report assessment. The current study is the first to examine whether observational indices of parent-youth interactions differentiate between high and low levels of self-reported mindful parenting. The Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scales (IFIRS) were used to code interactions between mothers and their 7th grade youth. Mothers drawn from the top and bottom quartiles (n = 375) of a larger distribution of self-reported interpersonal mindfulness in parenting (N = 804) represented clearly defined high- and low-mindful parenting groups. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to analyze how well 6 composite IFIRS observational rating variables (e.g., parental warmth, consistent discipline) discriminated between high and low self-reports of mindful parenting. DFA results were cross-validated, with statistically significant canonical correlations found for both subsamples (p < .05). Subsequent independent samples t tests revealed that group means were significantly different on all 6 IFIRS composite ratings. Confirmation of the relations between self-report mindful parenting and the observational ratings was also provided through hierarchical regression analyses conducted with a continuous predictor of mindful parenting using the full sample. Thus, the present study provides preliminary evidence for a link between self-reported mindful parenting and observed interactions between parents and youth.

  5. Can Mindful Parenting Be Observed? Relations between Observational Ratings of Mother-Youth Interactions and Mothers’ Self-Report Mindful Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Larissa G.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Gayles, Jochebed G.; Geier, Mary H.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Research on mindful parenting, an extension of mindfulness to the interpersonal domain of parent-child relationships, has been limited by its reliance on self-report assessment. The current study is the first to examine whether observational indices of parent-youth interactions differentiate between high and low levels of self-reported mindful parenting. The Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scales (IFIRS) were used to code interactions between mothers and their 7th grade youth. Mothers drawn from the top and bottom quartiles (n = 375) of a larger distribution of self-reported interpersonal mindfulness in parenting (N = 804) represented clearly defined high and low mindful parenting groups. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to analyze how well six composite IFIRS observational rating variables (e.g., parental warmth, consistent discipline) discriminated between high and low self-reports of mindful parenting. DFA results were cross-validated, with statistically significant canonical correlations found for both subsamples (p < .05). Subsequent independent samples t-tests revealed that group means were significantly different on all six IFIRS composite ratings. Confirmation of the relations between self-report mindful parenting and the observational ratings was also provided through hierarchical regression analyses conducted with a continuous predictor of mindful parenting using the full sample. Thus, the present study provides preliminary evidence for a link between self-reported mindful parenting and observed interactions between parents and youth. PMID:25844494

  6. Psychosocial risk factors, job characteristics and self-reported health in the Paris Military Hospital Group (PMHG): a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Verret, Catherine; Trichereau, Julie; Rondier, Jean-Philippe; Viance, Patrice; Migliani, René

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the associations between psychosocial risk factors and self-reported health, taking into account other occupational risk factors. Design Cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire. Setting The three military hospitals in Paris, France. Participants Surveys were distributed to 3173 employees (1807 military and 1336 civilian), a total of 1728 employees completed surveys. Missing data prohibited the use of 26 surveys. Primary and secondary outcome measures The authors used Karasek's model in order to identify psychosocial factors (psychological demands, decisional latitude, social support) in the workplace. The health indicator studied was self-reported health. Adjustments were made for covariates: age, gender, civil or military status, work injury, ergonomic score, physical and chemical exposures, and occupational profile. Occupational profile was defined by professional category, department, work schedule, supervisor status and service-related length in the hospital. Results Job strain (defined as high psychological demands and low decisional latitude) (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5 to 2.8, p<0.001) and iso-strain (job strain with low social support) were significantly associated with moderate or poor self-reported health. Among covariates, occupational profile (p<0.001) and an unsatisfactory ergonomic score (adjusted OR 2.3 95% CI 1.6 to 3.2, p<0.001) were also significantly associated with moderate or poor self-reported health. Conclusions The results support findings linking moderate or poor self-reported health to psychosocial risk factors. The results of this study suggest that workplace interventions that aim to reduce exposure to psychological demands as well as to increase decisional latitude and social support could help improve self-reported health. PMID:22855624

  7. The Relation between Self-Reported Empathy and Motor Identification with Imagined Agents

    PubMed Central

    Marzoli, Daniele; Palumbo, Rocco; Di Domenico, Alberto; Penolazzi, Barbara; Garganese, Patrizia; Tommasi, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Background In a previous study, we found that when required to imagine another person performing an action, participants reported a higher correspondence between their own handedness and the hand used by the imagined person when the agent was seen from the back compared to when the agent was seen from the front. This result was explained as evidence of a greater involvement of motor areas in the back-view perspective, possibly indicating a greater proneness to put oneself in the agent's shoes in such a condition. In turn, the proneness to put oneself in another's shoes could also be considered as a cue of greater identification with the other, that is a form of empathy. If this is the case, the proportion of lateral matches vs mismatches should be different for subjects with high and low self-reported empathy. In the present study, we aimed at testing this hypothesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants were required to imagine a person performing a single manual action in a back view and to indicate the hand used by the imagined person during movement execution. Consistent with our hypothesis, the proportion of matching between the handedness of participants and the handedness of agents imagined was higher for participants scoring high in a self-report measure of empathy. Importantly, this relationship was specific for females. Conclusions/Significance At least for females, our data seem to corroborate the idea of a link between self-reported empathy and motor identification with imagined agents. This sex-specific result is consistent with neuroimaging studies indicating a stronger involvement of action representations during emotional and empathic processing in females than in males. In sum, our findings underline the possibility of employing behavioral research as a test-bed for theories deriving from functional studies suggesting a link between empathic processing and the activation of motor-related areas. PMID:21298089

  8. A new self-report inventory of dyslexia for students: criterion and construct validity.

    PubMed

    Tamboer, Peter; Vorst, Harrie C M

    2015-02-01

    The validity of a Dutch self-report inventory of dyslexia was ascertained in two samples of students. Six biographical questions, 20 general language statements and 56 specific language statements were based on dyslexia as a multi-dimensional deficit. Dyslexia and non-dyslexia were assessed with two criteria: identification with test results (Sample 1) and classification using biographical information (both samples). Using discriminant analyses, these criteria were predicted with various groups of statements. All together, 11 discriminant functions were used to estimate classification accuracy of the inventory. In Sample 1, 15 statements predicted the test criterion with classification accuracy of 98%, and 18 statements predicted the biographical criterion with classification accuracy of 97%. In Sample 2, 16 statements predicted the biographical criterion with classification accuracy of 94%. Estimations of positive and negative predictive value were 89% and 99%. Items of various discriminant functions were factor analysed to find characteristic difficulties of students with dyslexia, resulting in a five-factor structure in Sample 1 and a four-factor structure in Sample 2. Answer bias was investigated with measures of internal consistency reliability. Less than 20 self-report items are sufficient to accurately classify students with and without dyslexia. This supports the usefulness of self-assessment of dyslexia as a valid alternative to diagnostic test batteries.

  9. A Nanoparticle-based Sensor Platform for Cell Tracking and Status/Function Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, David; Wiraja, Christian; Chuah, Yon Jin; Gao, Yu; Xu, Chenjie

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles are increasingly popular choices for labeling and tracking cells in biomedical applications such as cell therapy. However, all current types of nanoparticles fail to provide real-time, noninvasive monitoring of cell status and functions while often generating false positive signals. Herein, a nanosensor platform to track the real-time expression of specific biomarkers that correlate with cell status and functions is reported. Nanosensors are synthesized by encapsulating various sensor molecules within biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles. Upon intracellular entry, nanosensors reside within the cell cytoplasm, serving as a depot to continuously release sensor molecules for up to 30 days. In the absence of the target biomarkers, the released sensor molecules remain ‘Off’. When the biomarker(s) is expressed, a detectable signal is generated (On). As a proof-of-concept, three nanosensor formulations were synthesized to monitor cell viability, secretion of nitric oxide, and β-actin mRNA expression. PMID:26440504

  10. A Nanoparticle-based Sensor Platform for Cell Tracking and Status/Function Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, David; Wiraja, Christian; Chuah, Yon Jin; Gao, Yu; Xu, Chenjie

    2015-10-01

    Nanoparticles are increasingly popular choices for labeling and tracking cells in biomedical applications such as cell therapy. However, all current types of nanoparticles fail to provide real-time, noninvasive monitoring of cell status and functions while often generating false positive signals. Herein, a nanosensor platform to track the real-time expression of specific biomarkers that correlate with cell status and functions is reported. Nanosensors are synthesized by encapsulating various sensor molecules within biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles. Upon intracellular entry, nanosensors reside within the cell cytoplasm, serving as a depot to continuously release sensor molecules for up to 30 days. In the absence of the target biomarkers, the released sensor molecules remain ‘Off’. When the biomarker(s) is expressed, a detectable signal is generated (On). As a proof-of-concept, three nanosensor formulations were synthesized to monitor cell viability, secretion of nitric oxide, and β-actin mRNA expression.

  11. Functional status outcome measures in home health care patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Scharpf, Tanya Pollack; Madigan, Elizabeth A

    2010-10-01

    Elderly, chronically ill patients' ability to stay at home is dependent on their capacity to perform activities of daily living (ADLs). The Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) defines ADLs and can be evaluated in various ways. The purpose of this research was to evaluate these approaches and make recommendations for use in research. Several different approaches to the evaluation of functional status were done using ADLs (ambulation, bathing, dressing lower body, dressing upper body, feeding, grooming, toileting, and transferring) scored individually and as indices. Each approach has advantages and disadvantages depending on the research question being asked. The ADL change index score provided the most comprehensive analysis of functional status change although the categorical scores are useful for simple approaches.

  12. Functional status outcome measures in home health care patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Scharpf, Tanya Pollack; Madigan, Elizabeth A

    2010-10-01

    Elderly, chronically ill patients' ability to stay at home is dependent on their capacity to perform activities of daily living (ADLs). The Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) defines ADLs and can be evaluated in various ways. The purpose of this research was to evaluate these approaches and make recommendations for use in research. Several different approaches to the evaluation of functional status were done using ADLs (ambulation, bathing, dressing lower body, dressing upper body, feeding, grooming, toileting, and transferring) scored individually and as indices. Each approach has advantages and disadvantages depending on the research question being asked. The ADL change index score provided the most comprehensive analysis of functional status change although the categorical scores are useful for simple approaches. PMID:21153996

  13. Self-reported sleep duration and cognitive performance in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lo, June C; Groeger, John A; Cheng, Grand H; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Chee, Michael W L

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is important for optimal cognitive functioning across the lifespan. Among older adults (≥55 years), self-reported short and long sleep durations have been repeatedly, albeit inconsistently, reported to elevate the risk for poor cognitive function. This meta-analytic review quantitatively summarizes the risk for poorer cognitive function among short and long sleepers in older adults. Eligible publications were searched online and manually. A total of 35 independent samples (N = 97,264) from 11 cross-sectional and seven prospective cohort studies were included. Pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived using random-effects models. Self-reported short and long sleep increased the odds for poor cognitive function by 1.40 (CI = 1.27-1.56) and 1.58 times (CI = 1.43-1.74), respectively. Effect sizes varied across studies and may have been moderated by both study type (cross-sectional and prospective) and cognitive domain assessed. For cross-sectional studies, extreme sleep durations were significantly associated with poorer multiple-domain performance, executive functions, verbal memory, and working memory capacity. Prospective cohort studies revealed the significant long-term impact of short and long sleep on multiple-domain performance only. These findings establish self-reported extreme sleep duration as a risk factor for cognitive aging. PMID:26847980

  14. The Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF): Current Status as a Method of Functional Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Tureck, Kimberly; Rieske, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Functional assessment has now entered the mainstream for evaluation and to aid in the treatment of challenging behaviors, while experimental functional analysis was at the forefront of this movement, this particular methodology has proven to be impractical, and thus has limited utility in real world settings. As a result of these factors…

  15. Trends in Self-reported Spontaneous Abortions: 1970–2000

    PubMed Central

    Nuevo-Chiquero, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how the miscarriage rate has changed over the past few decades in the United States. Data from Cycles IV to VI of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) were used to examine trends from 1970 to 2000. After accounting for abortion availability and the characteristics of pregnant women, the rate of reported miscarriages increased by about 1.0% per year. This upward trend is strongest in the first seven weeks and absent after 12 weeks of pregnancy. African American and Hispanic women report lower rates of early miscarriage than do whites. The probability of reporting a miscarriage rises by about 5% per year of completed schooling. The upward trend, especially in early miscarriages, suggests awareness of pregnancy rather than prenatal care to be a key factor in explaining the evolution of self-reported miscarriages. Any beneficial effects of prenatal care on early miscarriage are obscured by this factor. Differences in adoption of early-awareness technology, such as home pregnancy tests, should be taken into account when analyzing results from self-reports or clinical trials relying on awareness of pregnancy in its early weeks. PMID:22718315

  16. Priming Effects of Self-Reported Drinking and Religiosity

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Foster, Dawn W.

    2013-01-01

    Research has revealed negative associations between religiosity and alcohol consumption. Given these associations, the aim of the current research was to evaluate whether the order of assessing each construct might affect subsequent reports of the other. The present research provided an experimental evaluation of response biases of self-reported religiosity and alcohol consumption based on order of assessment. Participants (N = 301 undergraduate students) completed an online survey. Based on random assignment, religiosity was assessed either before or after questions regarding recent alcohol consumption. Social desirability bias was also measured. Results revealed a priming effect such that participants who answered questions about their religiosity prior to their alcohol consumption reported fewer drinks on their peak drinking occasions, drinking less on typical occasions, and drinking less frequently, even when controlling for social desirability and for the significant negative associations between their own religiosity and drinking. In contrast, assessment order was not significantly associated with religiosity. Results indicate priming religion results in reporting lower, but potentially more accurate, levels of health risk behaviors and that these effects are not simply the result of socially desirable responding. Results are interpreted utilizing several social–cognitive theories and suggest that retrospective self-reports of drinking may be more malleable than self-descriptions of religiosity. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:23528191

  17. Trends in self-reported spontaneous abortions: 1970-2000.

    PubMed

    Lang, Kevin; Nuevo-Chiquero, Ana

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about how the miscarriage rate has changed over the past few decades in the United States. Data from Cycles IV to VI of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) were used to examine trends from 1970 to 2000. After accounting for abortion availability and the characteristics of pregnant women, the rate of reported miscarriages increased by about 1.0% per year. This upward trend is strongest in the first seven weeks and absent after 12 weeks of pregnancy. African American and Hispanic women report lower rates of early miscarriage than do whites. The probability of reporting a miscarriage rises by about 5% per year of completed schooling. The upward trend, especially in early miscarriages, suggests awareness of pregnancy rather than prenatal care to be a key factor in explaining the evolution of self-reported miscarriages. Any beneficial effects of prenatal care on early miscarriage are obscured by this factor. Differences in adoption of early-awareness technology, such as home pregnancy tests, should be taken into account when analyzing results from self-reports or clinical trials relying on awareness of pregnancy in its early weeks. PMID:22718315

  18. Weight Misperception, Self-Reported Physical Fitness, Dieting and Some Psychological Variables as Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Ezquerra-Cabrera, Mercedes; Carbonero-Carreño, Rocío; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 students, 313 females and 342 males, aged 16.22 ± 4.58. Different scales of perceived overweight, self-reported physical fitness and dieting together with the Body Mass Index (BMI) were considered along with instruments such as the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Since some gender differences were found with respect to these adolescent groups, it is necessary to design prevention programs that not only focus on traditional factors such as BMI or body image, but also on elements like weight perception, self-reported fitness and nutritional education. PMID:24232917

  19. Weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, dieting and some psychological variables as risk factors for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Ezquerra-Cabrera, Mercedes; Carbonero-Carreño, Rocío; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada

    2013-11-13

    The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 students, 313 females and 342 males, aged 16.22 ± 4.58. Different scales of perceived overweight, self-reported physical fitness and dieting together with the Body Mass Index (BMI) were considered along with instruments such as the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Since some gender differences were found with respect to these adolescent groups, it is necessary to design prevention programs that not only focus on traditional factors such as BMI or body image, but also on elements like weight perception, self-reported fitness and nutritional education.

  20. Agreement Between Self-Report and Medical Record Prevalence of 16 Chronic Conditions in the Alaska EARTH Study.

    PubMed

    Koller, Kathryn R; Wilson, Amy S; Asay, Elvin D; Metzger, Jesse S; Neal, Diane E

    2014-07-01

    The gold standard for health information is the health record. Hospitalization and outpatient diagnoses provide health systems with data on which to project health costs and plan programmatic changes. Although health record information may be reliable and perceived as accurate, it may not include population-specific information and may exclude care provided outside a specific health care facility. Sole reliance on medical record information may lead to underutilization of health care services and inadequate assessment of population health status. In this study, we analyzed agreement, without assuming a gold standard, between self-reported and recorded chronic conditions in an American Indian/Alaska Native cohort. Self-reported health history was collected from 3821 adult participants of the Alaska EARTH study during 2004-2006. Participant medical records were electronically accessed and reviewed. Self-reported chronic conditions were underreported in relation to the medical record and both information sources reported the absence more reliably than the presence of conditions (across conditions, median positive predictive value = 64%, median negative predictive value = 94%). Agreement was affected by age, gender, and education. Differences between participant- and provider-based prevalence of chronic conditions demonstrate why health care administrators and policy makers should not rely exclusively on medical record-based administrative data for a comprehensive evaluation of population health.

  1. Distance threshold for the effect of urban agriculture on elevated self-reported malaria prevalence in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Stoler, Justin; Weeks, John R; Getis, Arthur; Hill, Allan G

    2009-04-01

    Irrigated urban agriculture (UA), which has helped alleviate poverty and increase food security in rapidly urbanizing sub-Saharan Africa, may inadvertently support malaria vectors. Previous studies have not identified a variable distance effect on malaria prevalence from UA. This study examines the relationships between self-reported malaria information for 3,164 women surveyed in Accra, Ghana, in 2003, and both household characteristics and proximity to sites of UA. Malaria self-reports are associated with age, education, overall health, socioeconomic status, and solid waste disposal method. The odds of self-reported malaria are significantly higher for women living within 1 km of UA compared with all women living near an irrigation source, the association disappearing beyond this critical distance. Malaria prevalence is often elevated in communities within 1 km of UA despite more favorable socio-economic characteristics than communities beyond 1 km. Neighborhoods within 1 km of UA should be reconsidered as a priority for malaria-related care.

  2. Weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, dieting and some psychological variables as risk factors for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Ezquerra-Cabrera, Mercedes; Carbonero-Carreño, Rocío; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada

    2013-11-01

    The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 students, 313 females and 342 males, aged 16.22 ± 4.58. Different scales of perceived overweight, self-reported physical fitness and dieting together with the Body Mass Index (BMI) were considered along with instruments such as the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Since some gender differences were found with respect to these adolescent groups, it is necessary to design prevention programs that not only focus on traditional factors such as BMI or body image, but also on elements like weight perception, self-reported fitness and nutritional education. PMID:24232917

  3. Agreement Between Self-Report and Medical Record Prevalence of 16 Chronic Conditions in the Alaska EARTH Study.

    PubMed

    Koller, Kathryn R; Wilson, Amy S; Asay, Elvin D; Metzger, Jesse S; Neal, Diane E

    2014-07-01

    The gold standard for health information is the health record. Hospitalization and outpatient diagnoses provide health systems with data on which to project health costs and plan programmatic changes. Although health record information may be reliable and perceived as accurate, it may not include population-specific information and may exclude care provided outside a specific health care facility. Sole reliance on medical record information may lead to underutilization of health care services and inadequate assessment of population health status. In this study, we analyzed agreement, without assuming a gold standard, between self-reported and recorded chronic conditions in an American Indian/Alaska Native cohort. Self-reported health history was collected from 3821 adult participants of the Alaska EARTH study during 2004-2006. Participant medical records were electronically accessed and reviewed. Self-reported chronic conditions were underreported in relation to the medical record and both information sources reported the absence more reliably than the presence of conditions (across conditions, median positive predictive value = 64%, median negative predictive value = 94%). Agreement was affected by age, gender, and education. Differences between participant- and provider-based prevalence of chronic conditions demonstrate why health care administrators and policy makers should not rely exclusively on medical record-based administrative data for a comprehensive evaluation of population health. PMID:24399443

  4. Symptoms and functional health status of individuals with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS).

    PubMed

    Berglund, B; Nordström, G

    2001-10-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is an inherited connective tissue disorder that can have a substantial impact on daily life. The aims of this study were to describe the symptoms reported in a group of individuals with EDS and to investigate the impact on functional health status by means of the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP). Seventy-seven individuals, members of the Swedish EDS Association, completed 2 mailed questionnaires. The most frequent symptoms were related to activity, e.g., joint problems (75%), to pain (71%), and to skin/tissue (52%). Pain was reported by 37 individuals (48%) as their most severe symptom. The SIP results showed an overall mean score of 13.0 (females 13.9, males 5.6), compared with a Swedish reference group with a SIP score 1.3. Women with EDS reported a better functional health status than females with rheumatoid arthritis (overall SIP score 13.9 versus 21.4). In comparison with women with fibromyalgia, the EDS females rated their functional health status as worse on the physical dimension (p <0.05) and the subscale home management (p <0.05), and as better on the subscale work (p <0.05). Impact of EDS on the individual's daily life needs to be acknowledged, assessed, and evaluated in healthcare. PMID:17039161

  5. Parent- Versus Child-Reported Functional Health Status After the Fontan Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Linda M.; Minich, L. LuAnn; Newburger, Jane W.; Lu, Minmin; Pemberton, Victoria L.; McGrath, Ellen A.; Atz, Andrew M.; Xu, Mingfen; Radojewski, Elizabeth; Servedio, Darlene; McCrindle, Brian W.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to compare perceptions of functional health status between children who had undergone a Fontan procedure and their parents. METHODS Fontan procedure survivors 10 to 18 years of age were included in the study if the child completed the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) and the parent completed the parent form to assess the child’s functional health status. Comparisons were made between raw domain scores for the parent- and child-completed CHQs. RESULTS Between March 2003 and April 2004, 1078 Fontan survivors were screened. Of the 546 eligible and consented patients, 354 were 10 –18 years of age and 328 parent/child pairs completed the CHQs. Parents reported significantly lower scores (worse functioning) for their children than the children reported for themselves in the domains of physical functioning (P < .01), impact on school or activities from emotional and behavioral problems (P < .01), impact on school or activities from physical health issues (P<.01), general behavior (P < .01), mental health (P < .01), self-esteem (P < .01), and general health perceptions (P<.01). No significant differences were noted for the domains of bodily pain, family cohesiveness, or family activities. For the physical functioning domain, factors contributing to lower scores for parent versus child reports included pulmonary artery anomalies and fenestration at the time of the Fontan operation. Lower parent-reported scores also were associated with more noncardiac health problems in the child. CONCLUSIONS Parents’ perceptions of the functional health status of their children after the Fontan procedure were worse than the children’s perceptions. PMID:19841109

  6. The Relationship Between Sleep Disturbance and Functional Status in Mild Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinil; Kim, Yuntae; Yang, Kwang Ik; Kim, Doh-eui

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the sleep state of mild stroke patients and relationship between sleep disturbance and functional status. Methods A total of 80 acute stroke patients were enrolled in this study. The criteria for inclusion in the study was as following: 1) first stroke, 2) cognitive function preserved enough to perform the test (Mini Mental State Examination ≥24), 3) good functional levels (Modified Rankin Scale ≤3), 4) upper extremity motor function preserved enough to perform occupational tests (hand strength test, Purdue pegboard test, 9-hole peg test, and Medical Research Council score ≥3), and 5) less than 2 weeks between the stroke and the assessment. Quality of sleep was assessed by using Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS). Activities of daily living was assessed by using the Modified Barthel Index (MBI) and depressed mood was assessed by using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Gross and fine motor function of the upper extremity was assessed by using hand strength test (Jamar dynamometer), Purdue pegboard test, and the 9-hole peg test. Results The results of the occupational assessment were fine in the good sleepers. The PSQI, ESS, and ISI were correlated with some of the assessment tools (BDI, MBI, Purdue pegboard, 9-hole peg, and hand strength). Conclusion In conclusion, this study emphasizes that sleep disturbance can affect the functional status in mild acute stroke patients. Therefore, clinicians must consider sleep status in stroke patients and need to work to control it. PMID:26361590

  7. Sexual Functioning Morbidity Among Cancer Survivors: Current Status and Future Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    ANDERSEN, BARBARA L.

    2009-01-01

    The current article reviews available data and considers methodologic issues for future research in which sexual functioning among adult cancer patients is an endpoint variable. Circumstances that may cause sexual disruption for any cancer patient are suggested, including mood disturbance, changed health status, somatization, and reprioritization of life concerns. Data on the incidence and magnitude of sexual functioning morbidity following the diagnosis and treatment of cancer at major organ sites, including breast, genital, colon, rectum, and bladder, are reviewed. Finally, strategies for continuing descriptive study of the sexual problems of cancer patients are suggested. Such data are necessary to eventually target preventive or therapeutic resources to patients in greatest need. PMID:3978569

  8. Do Early-Life Conditions Predict Functional Health Status in Adulthood? The Case of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng; Soldo, Beth J; Elo, Irma T

    2010-01-01

    Relatively few researchers have investigated early antecedents of adult functional limitations in developing countries. In this study, we assessed associations between childhood conditions and adult lower-body functional limitations (LBFL) as well as the potential mediating role of adult socioeconomic status, smoking, body mass index, and chronic diseases or symptoms. Based on data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) of individuals born prior to 1951 and contacted in 2001 and 2003, we found that childhood nutritional deprivation, serious health problems, and family background predict adult LBFL in Mexico. Adjustment for the potential mediators in adulthood attenuates these associations only to a modest degree. PMID:21074924

  9. IMPACT OF MORNING STIFFNESS, EDUCATION, AND AGE ON THE FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.

    PubMed

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Pallaska, Kelmend; Murtezani, Ardiana; Osmani-Vllasolli, Teuta; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between disability status and duration of morning stiffness in hands with regard to age, level of education, and gender in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Also, the authors wanted to investigate this relationship with regard to the presence of rheumatoid factor, i.e., the serological status. A retrospective study was conducted in 250 patients with the classic form of RA (186 females, s64 males, mean age Xb = 49.96 y ears, range 25-60 years, disease duration 1-27 years, Xb = 6.41) previously diagnosed with RA according to the ACR (American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria). All patients were in Steinbrocker functional classes II and III. The probability level was expressed by p < 0.01 and p < 0.05. The relationship between the variables was measured by point-biserial correlation. The correlation between duration of morning stiffness and functional class was positive but low [(r = 0.10, y = 0.00x + 2.37, p > 0.05) seronegative, (r = 0.12, y = 0.00x + 2.30, p > 0.05) seropositive]. High positive values were obtained for the linear correlation coefficient between duration of the disease and functional class (p < 0.01). Also, high values were obtained regarding the coefficient of correlation between age and functional class [(r = 0.29, p < 0.01) seronegative, (r = 0.47, p < 0.01) seropositive]. Uneducated patients were significantly more represented in functional class III [ 23 (50%) seronegative, 19 (42.2%) seropositive] than in functional class II [16 (20.3%) seronegative, 22 (27.5%) seropositive]. In conclusion, in this study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, increased duration of morning stiffness was associated with functional disability. Functional disability increased with the duration of the disease, depended on age and educational level, and was more pronounced in older age, regardless of RA serological status. With regard to serological status and sex, the differences were non

  10. IMPACT OF MORNING STIFFNESS, EDUCATION, AND AGE ON THE FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.

    PubMed

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Pallaska, Kelmend; Murtezani, Ardiana; Osmani-Vllasolli, Teuta; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between disability status and duration of morning stiffness in hands with regard to age, level of education, and gender in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Also, the authors wanted to investigate this relationship with regard to the presence of rheumatoid factor, i.e., the serological status. A retrospective study was conducted in 250 patients with the classic form of RA (186 females, s64 males, mean age Xb = 49.96 y ears, range 25-60 years, disease duration 1-27 years, Xb = 6.41) previously diagnosed with RA according to the ACR (American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria). All patients were in Steinbrocker functional classes II and III. The probability level was expressed by p < 0.01 and p < 0.05. The relationship between the variables was measured by point-biserial correlation. The correlation between duration of morning stiffness and functional class was positive but low [(r = 0.10, y = 0.00x + 2.37, p > 0.05) seronegative, (r = 0.12, y = 0.00x + 2.30, p > 0.05) seropositive]. High positive values were obtained for the linear correlation coefficient between duration of the disease and functional class (p < 0.01). Also, high values were obtained regarding the coefficient of correlation between age and functional class [(r = 0.29, p < 0.01) seronegative, (r = 0.47, p < 0.01) seropositive]. Uneducated patients were significantly more represented in functional class III [ 23 (50%) seronegative, 19 (42.2%) seropositive] than in functional class II [16 (20.3%) seronegative, 22 (27.5%) seropositive]. In conclusion, in this study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, increased duration of morning stiffness was associated with functional disability. Functional disability increased with the duration of the disease, depended on age and educational level, and was more pronounced in older age, regardless of RA serological status. With regard to serological status and sex, the differences were non-significant.

  11. Self-Reported Sitting Time in New York City Adults, The Physical Activity and Transit Survey, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, Katherine F.; Firestone, Melanie J.; Lee, Karen K.; Eisenhower, Donna L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent studies have demonstrated the negative health consequences associated with extended sitting time, including metabolic disturbances and decreased life expectancy. The objectives of this study were to characterize sitting time in an urban adult population and assess the validity of a 2-question method of self-reported sitting time. Methods The New York City Health Department conducted the 2010–2011 Physical Activity and Transit Survey (N = 3,597); a subset of participants wore accelerometers for 1 week (n = 667). Self-reported sitting time was assessed from 2 questions on time spent sitting (daytime and evening hours). Sedentary time was defined as accelerometer minutes with less than 100 counts on valid days. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate the prevalence of sitting time by demographic characteristics. Validity of sitting time with accelerometer-measured sedentary time was assessed using Spearman’s correlation and Bland-Altman techniques. All data were weighted to be representative of the New York City adult population based on the 2006–2008 American Community Survey. Results Mean daily self-reported sitting time was 423 minutes; mean accelerometer-measured sedentary time was 490 minutes per day (r = 0.32, P < .001). The mean difference was 49 minutes per day (limits of agreement: −441 to 343). Sitting time was higher in respondents at lower poverty and higher education levels and lower in Hispanics and people who were foreign-born. Conclusion Participants of higher socioeconomic status, who are not typically the focus of health disparities–related research, had the highest sitting times; Hispanics had the lowest levels. Sitting time may be accurately assessed by self-report with the 2-question method for population surveillance but may be limited in accurately characterizing individual-level behavior. PMID:26020549

  12. The impact of the housing crisis on self-reported health in Europe: multilevel longitudinal modelling of 27 EU countries

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron; Loopstra, Rachel; McKee, Martin; Dorling, Danny; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many EU nations experienced a significant housing crisis during the Great Recession of 2008–10. We evaluated the consequences of housing payment problems for people’s self-reported overall health. Methods: We used longitudinal data from the EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions survey covering 27 countries from 2008 to 2010 to follow a baseline sample of persons who did not have housing debt and who were employed (45 457 persons, 136 371 person–years). Multivariate linear regression and multilevel models were used to evaluate the impact of transitions into housing arrears on self-reported health, correcting for the presence of chronic illness, health limitations, and other potential socio-demographic confounders. Results: Persons who transitioned into housing arrears experienced a significant deterioration in self-reported overall health by − 0.03 U (95% CI − 0.01 to − 0.04), even after correcting for chronic illness, disposable income and employment status, and individual fixed effects. This association was independent and similar in magnitude to that for job loss (−0.02, 95% CI: −0.01 to − 0.04). We also found that the impact of housing arrears was significantly worse among renters, corresponding to a mean 0.11 unit additional drop in health as compared with owner-occupiers. These adverse associations were only evident in persons below the 75th percentile of disposable income. Discussion: Our analysis demonstrates that persons who suffer housing arrears experience increased risk of worsening self-reported health, especially among those who rent. Future research is needed to understand the role of alternative housing support systems and available strategies for preventing the health consequences of housing insecurity. PMID:27221606

  13. Role of Educational Status in Explaining the Association between Body Mass Index and Cognitive Function.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yi-Te; Kao, Tung-Wei; Peng, Tao-Chun; Liaw, Fang-Yih; Yang, Hui-Fang; Sun, Yu-Shan; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2016-02-01

    Preserving physical and cognitive function becomes an important issue as people age. A growing number of studies have found that the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive function changes in different age groups. It is obvious that higher educational status is linked to higher cognitive function in terms of numerous risk factors that influence cognitive function. This study aimed to investigate the interplay between obesity and cognitive function categorized by different educational status.This study included 5021 participants aged 20 to 59 years who completed 3 neurocognitive function tests, including a simple reaction time test (SRTT), a symbol digit substitution test (SDST), and a serial digit learning test (SDLT) as reported in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III database. The associations between neurocognitive function and BMI were analyzed using multivariate linear regression while controlling for confounders.After adjusting for pertinent covariates in mode 3, the β coefficients in the female participants with more than 12 years of education (interpreted as change of 3 neurocognitive function tests for each increment in BMI) comparing obesity groups to those with normal BMI were 16.2 (P < 0.001 for SRTT), 0.14 (P < 0.05 for SDST), and 0.9 (P < 0.05 for SDLT). Male participants with more than 12 years of education and female participants with fewer than 12 years of education demonstrated increased impairment as their BMI increased. However, this association was not significant after adjustments.Obese individuals had worse neurocognitive function than those of normal weight or overweight, especially in women with a high educational level.

  14. Differences in menstrual bleeding characteristics, functional status, and attitudes toward menstruation in three groups of women.

    PubMed

    Geller, S E; Harlow, S D; Bernstein, S J

    1999-05-01

    This report examines differences in bleeding characteristics, functional status, and attitudes toward menstruation among three groups of women: (1) women who complain of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), (2) women who have similar menstrual patterns as those complaining of AUB but who do not perceive themselves to have abnormal bleeding, and (3) women without evidence of prolonged or excessive bleeding. Women who complain of AUB and women with heavy bleeding but not complaining of AUB, although similar on two important menstrual symptoms (very heavy bleeding or episodes of unusually heavy bleeding) differ on a number of other menstrual characteristics, including the frequency of short cycles, the probability of having an abnormally long period, and reporting of unusually heavy bleeding lasting longer than 1 day. Whether women reported concerns with menstruation or not, the majority of women in this analysis had fairly negative attitudes toward menstruation. However, this negativity toward menstruation did not translate into women wanting a hysterectomy, even for those with heavy bleeding. The major difference among the three groups of women was the strong negative effect of AUB on functional status. A majority of women complaining of AUB reported that the bleeding interfered significantly with their daily routine, making them unable to function at work and at home. These results suggest that although the main complaint of women with AUB is very heavy bleeding, a number of other specific menstrual characteristics differentiate women with AUB from other women with very heavy bleeding who do not perceive the bleeding to be problematic. The complaint of AUB appears to be related to how significantly bleeding affects daily functioning. Therefore, an important factor to assess when considering treatment of AUB is the extent to which bleeding symptoms significantly affect functional status.

  15. Behavioral pharmacology and verbal behavior: Diazepam effects on verbal self-reports

    PubMed Central

    Critchfield, Thomas S.

    1993-01-01

    Diazepam (10 mg) was administered to two men performing a delayed matching-to-sample task in which the number of elements in a compound sample stimulus (one of which appeared among 4 comparison stimuli) was manipulated from 1 to 3. After each trial, subjects pressed either a “Yes” or “No” button in response to a computer-presented query about whether the last choice met a point contingency requiring selection of the matching comparison stimulus within a time limit. Diazepam simultaneously produced marginal decreases in matching-to-sample performance and more pronounced decreases in the accuracy of self-reports about the same performance. Diazepam selectively increased false reports of success; false reports of failure were not systematically affected. A signal-detection analysis summarized these patterns as a decrease in self-report discriminability (A') with no systematic change in bias (B'H). These preliminary results converge with those of clinical lore and the results of studies with other benzodiazepine drugs in suggesting that diazepam can produce an “overconfidence” in performance self-evaluation, the mechanisms and parameters of which remain to be identified. The results were inconsistent with those of one previous study of diazepam's effects on performance self-evaluation, but given procedural differences between the two studies, the discrepancy may reflect the functional independence of verbal operant classes in Skinner's (1957) taxonomy. PMID:22477079

  16. Association and moderation of self-reported hypotension with traffic noise exposure: a neglected relationship.

    PubMed

    Lercher, Peter; Widmann, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    In a short-term experimental study about one-third of subjects exposed to noise shows both increases and decreases in blood pressure. While the association of noise with hypertension is established it is not yet known whether hypotension is associated with noise in field studies. In a cross-sectional study the association of self-reported hypotension and low blood pressure readings with traffic noise was examined in adults (age 25-65, N = 1989, participation = 62%). Noise exposure was based on both, short and long-term day/night recordings and standard noise mapping. Questionnaire data on socio-demographics, housing, life-style, noise and weather sensitivity, health status, mental and physical symptoms were available to adjust for potential confounding and testing for moderation. Non-linear multiple regression was applied to estimate the association between the two outcomes and overall noise exposure. We did not observe a stable relation between noise and low blood pressure readings since the number of subjects based on the recommended cut-off points (5 th percentile or 110 (100)/60 mmHg) was too small. However, self-reported hypotension was non-linearly associated with noise exposure ( P = 0.044) in the presence of a strong sex × age effect modification ( P < 0.0001). Another significant moderation by noise were observed with reported symptoms of exhaustion ( P = 0.03). Weather sensitivity showed a significant interaction with noise sensitivity ( P = 0.02) and also a non-linear interaction with age ( P = 0.02). The results remained stable after adjustment for variables known to be associated with constitutional hypotension. The exposure-effect curve ascends around sound levels of 55 dBA. The results suggest a novel moderated association of noise with self-reported hypotension, predominantly in weather sensitive women with symptoms of exhaustion. Further and larger studies are needed to replicate the potential moderating effect of noise on persons with

  17. Association of Renal Function and Menopausal Status with Bone Mineral Density in Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Yueh-Hsuan; Chen, Jen-Hau; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Lee, Yue-Yuan; Tsao, Chwen-Keng; Chen, Yen-Ching

    2015-01-01

    The association between mild renal dysfunction and bone mineral density (BMD) has not been fully explored. It is also unclear how menopausal status and the use of Chinese herb affect this association. This is a cross-sectional study that included a total of 1,419 women aged 40 to 55 years old who were recruited from the MJ Health Management Institution in Taiwan between 2009 and 2010. Spinal BMD was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Renal function was assessed using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and creatinine clearance rate (CCr). The multivariable logistic regression and general linear models were employed to assess the association between renal function and BMD. Stratification analyses were performed by menopausal status and use of Chinese herbs. Low CCr levels were significantly associated with low BMD [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15–1.90]. This association was observed in premenopausal women (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.07–1.92) and in women not taking Chinese herbs (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.14–1.94). CCr is a better predictor for low BMD in middle-aged women. Menopausal status and the use of Chinese herbs also affected this association. PMID:26459876

  18. Development of a self-reporting tool to obtain a Combined Index of Severity of Fibromyalgia (ICAF*)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia is a syndrome with heterogeneous symptoms. The evaluation in the clinical setting usually fails to cover the complexity of the syndrome. This study aims to determine how different aspects of fibromyalgia are inter-related when measured by means of a self-reporting tool. The objective is to develop a more complete evaluation model adjusted to the complexity and multi-dimensional nature of the syndrome. Methods Application was made of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Brief Pain Inventory, the Fatigue Assessment Scale, the Health Assessment Questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory, the Arthritis Self-efficacy Scale and the Sleep Quality Scale. An assessment was made, on the basis of clinical interviews, case histories and specific tests, of the patient sociodemographic data, comorbidity, physical exploration and other clinical indexes. An exploratory factor analysis was made, with comparisons of the clinical index scores in extreme groups of patients. Results The ICAF composed of 59 items was obtained, offering four factors that explain 64% of the variance, and referred to as Emotional Factor (33.7%), Physical-Activity (15%), Active Coping (9%) and Passive Coping (6.3%). A t-test between the extreme scores of these factors in the 301 patients revealed statistically significant differences in occupational status, medically unexplained syndromes, number of tender points, the six-minutes walk test, comorbidity and health care costs. Conclusions This study offers a tool allowing more complete and rapid evaluation of patients with fibromyalgia. The test intrinsically evaluates the emotional aspects: anxiety and depression, and their impact upon social aspects. It also evaluates patient functional capacity, fatigue, sleep quality, pain, and the way in which the patient copes with the disease. This is achieved by means of a self

  19. Self-Reported Reproductive Tract Infections and Ultrasound Diagnosed Uterine Fibroids in African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Kristen R.; Cole, Stephen R.; Dittmer, Dirk P.; Schoenbach, Victor J.; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: For decades, it has been hypothesized that reproductive tract infections (RTIs) are risk factors for uterine fibroids. However, only two recent studies have been conducted. We aimed to investigate the relationship between RTIs and fibroids in a large study using ultrasound screening for fibroids. Methods: We used cross-sectional enrollment data from African American women ages 23–34 years with no previous fibroid diagnosis. RTI history was measured by self-report and fibroid status by standardized ultrasound. Secondary fibroid outcomes were size, number, and total volume. Age- and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs). Results: In total, 1,656 women were included; 22% had fibroids. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was associated with a 21% increased odds of fibroids [aOR 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93–1.58]. Chlamydia infection and pelvic inflammatory disease were associated with a 38% (aOR 0.62, 95% CI 0.40–0.97) and a 46% (aOR 0.54, 95% CI 0.25–1.17) reduced odds of having two or more fibroids, respectively. Those with a previous BV diagnosis had a 47% increased odds of having 2 or more fibroids (aOR 1.47, 95% CI 0.98–2.21) and a 41% increased odds of having a larger total fibroid volume (aOR 1.41, 95% CI 0.98–2.04). Conclusions: Our study was the first to explore the relationship between RTIs and fibroid size, number, and total volume. There appeared to be no strong associations between self-reported RTIs and fibroids. Studies using serology, a biochemical measure of past infection, are needed to better investigate associations between RTIs and fibroids. PMID:25901468

  20. Self-reported Magic Eye stereogram skill predicts stereoacuity.

    PubMed

    Wilmer, Jeremy B; Backus, Benjamin T

    2008-01-01

    Autostereograms--commonly known as Magic Eye stereograms (MESs)--are two-dimensional images that support stereoscopic depth perception given an appropriate crossing or uncrossing of the eyes. We find that self-reported MES skill is highly predictive of stereoacuity as measured by a standard clinical test (r142 = 0.45, p < 0.0001; TNO test). Indeed, in our sample of 194 individuals, those who report poor MES skill have a five-fold increased risk of stereo impairment. Those who report poor MES skill also require on average five times greater binocular disparity to perceive stereoscopic depth than those who report good MES skill. Reported MES skill thus carries significant information about stereoacuity.

  1. Body Awareness: Construct and Self-Report Measures

    PubMed Central

    Mehling, Wolf E.; Gopisetty, Viranjini; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Price, Cynthia J.; Hecht, Frederick M.; Stewart, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Heightened body awareness can be adaptive and maladaptive. Improving body awareness has been suggested as an approach for treating patients with conditions such as chronic pain, obesity and post-traumatic stress disorder. We assessed the psychometric quality of selected self-report measures and examined their items for underlying definitions of the construct. Data sources PubMed, PsychINFO, HaPI, Embase, Digital Dissertations Database. Review methods Abstracts were screened; potentially relevant instruments were obtained and systematically reviewed. Instruments were excluded if they exclusively measured anxiety, covered emotions without related physical sensations, used observer ratings only, or were unobtainable. We restricted our study to the proprioceptive and interoceptive channels of body awareness. The psychometric properties of each scale were rated using a structured evaluation according to the method of McDowell. Following a working definition of the multi-dimensional construct, an inter-disciplinary team systematically examined the items of existing body awareness instruments, identified the dimensions queried and used an iterative qualitative process to refine the dimensions of the construct. Results From 1,825 abstracts, 39 instruments were screened. 12 were included for psychometric evaluation. Only two were rated as high standard for reliability, four for validity. Four domains of body awareness with 11 sub-domains emerged. Neither a single nor a compilation of several instruments covered all dimensions. Key domains that might potentially differentiate adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness were missing in the reviewed instruments. Conclusion Existing self-report instruments do not address important domains of the construct of body awareness, are unable to discern between adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness, or exhibit other psychometric limitations. Restricting the construct to its proprio- and interoceptive

  2. Psychosocial and metabolic function by smoking status in individuals with binge eating disorder and obesity.

    PubMed

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Barnes, Rachel D; Ivezaj, Valentina; Morgan, Peter; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with binge eating disorder (BED) report smoking to control appetite and weight. Smoking in BED is associated with increased risk for comorbid psychiatric disorders, but its impact on psychosocial functioning and metabolic function has not been evaluated. Participants were 429 treatment-seeking adults (72.4% women; mean age 46.2±11.0years old) with BED comorbid with obesity. Participants were categorized into current smokers (n=66), former smokers (n=145), and never smokers (n=218). Smoking status was unrelated to most historical eating/weight variables and to current eating disorder psychopathology. Smoking status was associated with psychiatric, psychosocial, and metabolic functioning. Compared with never smokers, current smokers were more likely to meet lifetime diagnostic criteria for alcohol (OR=5.51 [95% CI=2.46-12.33]) and substance use disorders (OR=7.05 [95% CI=3.37-14.72]), poorer current physical quality of life, and increased risk for metabolic syndrome (OR=1.80 [95% CI=0.97-3.35]) and related metabolic risks (reduced HDL, elevated total cholesterol). On the other hand, the odds of meeting criteria for lifetime psychiatric comorbidity or metabolic abnormalities were not significantly greater in former smokers, relative to never smokers. Our findings suggest the importance of promoting smoking cessation in treatment-seeking patients with BED and obesity for its potential long-term implications for psychiatric and metabolic functioning.

  3. Systematic biases in functional status assessment of elderly adults: effects of different data sources.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, L Z; Schairer, C; Wieland, G D; Kane, R

    1984-11-01

    Measuring functional status using specific instruments is an important part of geriatric assessment. These instruments, however, often rely on data sources different from those with which they were originally validated. To study possible biasing effects of different data sources on functional status scores, we examined scores for two widely used instruments (the Lawton Personal Self-Maintenance Scale, PSMS, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, IADL, Scale) on a group of hospitalized elderly (n = 61) using three different data sources (the patients themselves, the patients' nurses, and significant others). Analysis showed that PSMS scores derived from patients were significantly higher than scores derived from significant others (p less than .025) and that patient-derived IADL scores were significantly higher than both nurse-derived scores (p less than .001) and significant-other-derived scores (p less than .001). We also compared scores for a group of nursing home patients (n = 68) on the Katz Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Scale, using data obtained from patients and their nurses. Again, the patient-derived scores were significantly higher than those from nurses (p less than .001). We conclude that data sources for determining patient functional ability are not interchangeable and that patients may overstate their functional abilities, whereas significant others may understate them, relative to judgments of skilled nursing personnel. PMID:6436360

  4. Relationships between health status, depression and cognitive functions of institutionalized male veterans.

    PubMed

    Chung, Pei-Jung; Chiou, Chii-Jun; Chou, Fan-Hao

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among health state, depression, and cognitive functions of institutionalized male veterans. A cross-sectional and correlation research design with a cluster sampling was conducted. A total of 223 veterans who were above 65 years old, with no psychiatric disorders and no organic brain lesions were recruited from two veterans' institutions in Southern Taiwan. The researcher interviewed them one-on-one using structural questionnaires, including demographic data, health status, Taiwan Geriatric Depression Scale (TGDS) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The results of this study were as follows: (1) Veterans who were able to read, were married, had good dietary habits, avoided over-oiled and high-fat food to keep healthy, took exercise at least 30 min each time, and had static leisure activities had significant differences in cognitive functions. (2) Cognitive functions were significantly negatively correlated with age and depression, whereas positively correlated with education level, the number of children and perceived health status. (3) Depression, literacy, education level and age were the four predictors of cognitive functions, accounting for 29% of the variance. The findings of this study provide a reference to caregivers and health care professionals for home care, clinical practice and cohort study in the future.

  5. Phthalate exposure associated with self-reported diabetes among Mexican women

    SciTech Connect

    Svensson, Katherine; Hernandez-Ramirez, Raul U.; Burguete-Garcia, Ana; Cebrian, Mariano E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Needham, Larry L.; Claudio, Luz; Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2011-08-15

    Background: Phthalates are ubiquitous industrial chemicals used as plasticizers in plastics made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to confer flexibility and durability. They are also present in products used for personal-care, industry and in medical devices. Phthalates have been associated with several adverse health effects, and recently it has been proposed that exposure to phthalates, could have an effect on metabolic homeostasis. This exploratory cross-sectional study evaluated the possible association between phthalate exposure and self-reported diabetes among adult Mexican women. Methods: As part of an on-going case-control study for breast cancer, only controls were selected, which constituted 221 healthy women matched by age ({+-}5 years) and place of residence with the cases. Women with diabetes were identified by self-report. Urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites were measured by online solid phase extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Participants with diabetes had significantly higher concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) pththalate (DEHP) metabolites: mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) but lower levels of monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) a metabolite of benzylbutyl phthalate, compared to participants without diabetes. A marginally significant positive associations with diabetes status were observed over tertiles with MEHHP (OR{sub T3vs.T1}=2.66; 95% CI: 0.97-7.33; p for trend=0.063) and MEOHP (OR{sub T3vs.T1}=2.27; 95% CI; 0.90-5.75; P for trend=0.079) even after adjusting for important confounders. Conclusions: The results suggest that levels of some phthalates may play a role in the genesis of diabetes. - Highlights: {yields} This study evaluated phthalate exposure and diabetes status among Mexican women. {yields} Urinary phthalates metabolite concentrations were used

  6. Water Load Test in Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain: No Relation to Food Intake and Nutritional Status.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Roberto Koity Fujihara; Soares, Ana Cristina Fontenele; Speridião, Patricia da Graça Leite; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2015-09-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluates the relations between the water load test in childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders with food intake and nutritional status. Patients with functional dyspepsia required a lower maximum water intake to produce fullness (n = 11, median = 380 mL) than patients with irritable bowel syndrome (n = 10, median = 695 mL) or functional abdominal pain (n = 10, median = 670 mL) (P < 0.05). Among patients who ingested ≤560 mL (n = 17) or >560 mL (n = 14) in the water load test, there was no relation between the maximum drinking capacity and food intake, body mass index, or height. PMID:26317680

  7. Independent effects of bilingualism and socioeconomic status on language ability and executive functioning.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-03-01

    One hundred and seventy-five children who were 6-years old were assigned to one of four groups that differed in socioeconomic status (SES; working class or middle class) and language background (monolingual or bilingual). The children completed tests of nonverbal intelligence, language tests assessing receptive vocabulary and attention based on picture naming, and two tests of executive functioning. All children performed equivalently on the basic intelligence tests, but performance on the language and executive functioning tasks was influenced by both SES and bilingualism. Middle-class children outperformed working-class children on all measures, and bilingual children obtained lower scores than monolingual children on language tests but higher scores than monolingual children on the executive functioning tasks. There were no interactions with either group factors or task factors. Thus, each of SES and bilingualism contribute significantly and independently to children's development irrespective of the child's level on the other factor.

  8. Neutrophil function and energy status in Holstein cows with uterine health disorders.

    PubMed

    Hammon, D S; Evjen, I M; Dhiman, T R; Goff, J P; Walters, J L

    2006-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the associations between peripheral blood neutrophil (PMN) function, energy status, and uterine health in periparturient dairy cows. Data were collected from 83 multiparous Holstein cows. Blood samples for PMN function determination were collected weekly from 1 week prior to calving (week -1) through 4 weeks after calving and again at 8 weeks after calving. Energy metabolites were measured and dry matter intake (DMI) was determined from weeks -2 to 5 to evaluate energy status of cows during the periparturient period. All cows were examined for uterine health disorders. Blood PMN killing ability was evaluated by determining myeloperoxidase activity and cytochrome c reduction activity in isolated blood PMN's. For cows that were diagnosed with puerperal metritis and subclinical (SC) endometritis and puerperal metritis, blood PMN functions were significantly (P<0.05) impaired during the periparturient period, compared to cows with normal uterine health. Cows with subclinical endometritis and puerperal metritis or SC endometritis also had significantly (P<0.01) higher NEFA and significantly (P<0.001) lower DMI during the periparturient period, and significantly (P<0.05) higher BHBA during early lactation, compared to cows with normal uterine health. Neutrophil function was also significantly (P<0.01) impaired in cows with peripartum negative energy balance, which was characterized by elevated blood levels of NEFA and decreased DMI. Decreased PMN function and energy balance were associated with uterine health disorders and the decreases in PMN function and energy balance occurred prior to parturition and prior to the detection of these uterine disorders.

  9. Population Distributions of Thymic Function in Adults: Variation by Sociodemographic Characteristics and Health Status.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Lydia; Ferrando-Martínez, Sara; Leal, Manuel; Zhou, Xuan; Sempowski, Gregory D; Wildman, Derek E; Uddin, Monica; Aiello, Allison E

    2016-01-01

    The thymus is critical for mounting an effective immune response and maintaining health. However, epidemiologic studies characterizing thymic function in the population setting are lacking. Using data from 263 adults in the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study, we examined thymic function as measured by the number of signal joint T-cell receptor excision circles (sjTREC) and assessed associations with established indicators of physiological health. Overall, increasing age and male gender were significantly associated with reduced thymic function. Adjusting for covariates, individuals with elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (β: -0.50 [95% CI: -0.82, -0.18] for moderate elevation, β: -0.29 [95% CI: -0.59, 0.00] for high elevation) and interleukin-6 (β: -0.60 [95% CI: -0.92, -0.28] for moderate elevation, β: -0.43 [95% CI: -0.77, -0.08] for severe elevation) also had lower thymic function. Compared to individuals with a BMI < 25, individuals who were overweight (β: 0.36 [95% CI: 0.07, 0.64]) or obese (β: 0.27 [95% CI: -0.03, 0.56]) had higher thymic function. Differences by self-rated health were not statistically significant. Our findings underscore demographic- and health-related gradients in thymic function among adult residents of Detroit, suggesting thymic function may be an important biomarker of health status in adults at the population level. PMID:27337555

  10. COOP-WONCA charts: a suitable functional status screening instrument in acute low back pain?

    PubMed Central

    Andres, E; Temme, M; Raderschatt, B; Szecsenyi, J; Sandholzer, H; Kochen, M M

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Functional status is considered an important measure of health status in primary care. The COOP-WONCA charts, which comprise six single-item scales, have mainly been used to determine functional ability in chronically ill patients. AIM: A study was carried out to determine whether the charts are able to measure the degree of functional impairment associated with acute illness and the improvement in functional ability accompanying the process of recovery. METHOD: A total of 95 patients presenting with acute low back pain were recruited from 15 single-handed general practices in northern Germany. At presentation and at two-week follow up, these patients completed self-administered questionnaires which included the COOP-WONCA charts. The charts ask patients to use the timescale of the past two weeks when rating their condition. Baseline and follow-up measurements of the charts were compared and correlations of chart scores with patients' measurements of pain intensity on a visual analogue scale, general practitioners' ratings of impairment and patients' measurements of recovery were analysed. RESULTS: Only the chart measuring change in health revealed a deterioration in functional ability associated with the onset of pain and an improvement in functional status at follow up. Two of the other charts indicated a deterioration at follow up. Only the chart measuring change in health was correlated with ratings of pain and impairment at baseline. At follow up, strong correlations were found between general practitioners' assessments of impairment, patients' ratings of pain and patients' ratings of recovery for all scales except for those measuring social activities and daily activities. The patients interpreted the instructions for using the COOP-WONCA charts differently; some included the period of acute back pain while others did not. CONCLUSION: Of the six charts only the change in health chart proved to be a suitable scale for measuring short-term changes

  11. Transitions in functional status and active life expectancy among older people in Japan.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Liang, J; Muramatsu, N; Sugisawa, H

    1995-11-01

    This study analyzes the patterns and determinants of the transitions in functional status among elderly Japanese persons. Data for this research came from a two-wave national probability sample survey of persons aged 60 and over conducted between 1987 and 1990 in Japan. The study focuses on the transitions from two states of origin, "not disable" and "disabled," to three states of destination, "not disabled," "disabled," and "dead." Through multinomial logit analyses, the effects of sociodemographic factors, social relationships, health, and health behavior on transitions in functional status were examined. To assess the impact of panel attrition, the risk of nonresponse was analyzed in conjunction with health transition within the same framework. Finally, an increment-decrement active life table for Japanese elderly people was derived on the basis of the multivariate analyses. According to the life table, a Japanese older person at age 60 is expected to spend about 18.7 years (81%) in functional independence and about 4.4 years (19%) in disability throughout his or her remaining lifetime. PMID:7583817

  12. [The functional status of the brain in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Berezovchuk, L V

    2008-07-01

    We performed electroencephalography to 11 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm in order to investigate the functional status of the brain. The relative potency (RP) of the main rhythms (alpha, beta, teta and delta) was increased, as well as the beta/alpha activation ratio. The increase of low-frequency rhythms (delta and teta) indicates the brain cortex hypoxia. The high-frequency reactivity of the brain (alpha- and beta-rhythms) was decreased in such patients, which was probably due to the decreased sensitivity of the receptor zone of the upper respiratory tract.

  13. Methods for monitoring the functional status of the circadian system in dietary surveys studies: application criteria and interpretation of results.

    PubMed

    Garaulet, Marta; Madrid, Juan Antonio

    2015-02-26

    To evaluate the circadian system status of the subject may be of special interest in nutrition. Particularly for those studies related to the assessment of diseases related to malnutrition, as it is the case of most of the degenerative diseases such as obesity, cancer, or cardiovascular diseases. For this purpose, one of the approaches consists to measure a) the external synchronizers of the internal clock, such as light intensity, and changes from fasting to eating and from resting to activity. Indeed, "chronodisruptors" have been defined as "exogenous and endogenous exposures or effectors which are chronobiologically active and can thus disrupt the timing and order. Another approach to assess the circadian system health is to measure the b) outputs of the internal clock (circadian marker rhythms). Among such outputs, the rhythm of body temperature, motor activity, melatonin, cortisol and clock gene expression are the most commonly used. From the genetic perspective, we are now able to measure failures in the internal clock, in order to assess c) the genetics of the molecular clock. Indeed, new nutrigenetics techniques are giving us the opportunity to measure the association between different genetic variants of our clock genes and several illnesses such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes or cancer. In addition to these techniques, self-reported questionnaires based in the morning-evening preferences have been developed as complementary procedures to assess human chronotypes.

  14. APOE polymorphism, socioeconomic status and cognitive function in mid-life--the Whitehall II longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing Hua; Brunner, Eric; Kumari, Meena; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Hawe, Emma; Talmud, Philippa; Marmot, Mickael; Humphries, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the common apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) variants with cognitive function and cognitive decline in adult mid-life, and explore the possibility that APOE genotype mediates the link between socioeconomic status (SES) and cognitive function. Methods Data on cognitive function, as measured by five cognitive tests, together with APOE genotype were obtained in an occupational cohort (the Whitehall II study) of 6,004 participants aged 44–69 years (1997–1999). Cognitive change was examined in 2,717 participants who had cognitive function measured at baseline (1991–1993). Results SES based on civil service employment grade was strongly related to cognitive function. There was no association between APOE genotype and employment grade. In women, participants with APOE-ε4 had a lower memory score (p<0.05) but the result was sensitive to data from a small number of individuals. A marginal cross-sectional difference in the semantic fluency score was found (p=0.07) and there was a relative decline at follow-up (p<0.001, net change =−1.19, 95%CI = 1.90 ~ −0.49) in those with APOE-ε4 genotypes. Conclusions APOE-ε4 has little influence on cognitive decline in mid-life while SES is a strong determinant, although APOE genotype may emerge as an important factor in cognitive function in later life. PMID:16021346

  15. Parental socioeconomic status and child intellectual functioning in a Norwegian sample.

    PubMed

    Eilertsen, Thomas; Thorsen, Anders Lillevik; Holm, Silje Elisabeth Hasmo; Bøe, Tormod; Sørensen, Lin; Lundervold, Astri J

    2016-10-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood has been linked to cognitive function and future academic and occupational success in studies from several countries. However, previous Nordic studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the strength of this link. We therefore investigated the association between SES and cognitive functioning in a sample of 255 Norwegian children, including 151 typically developing children and 104 children with a psychiatric diagnosis. The third edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) to assess cognitive function was used. SES was defined from maternal and paternal education and family income of typically developing children and of a subsample of children with a psychiatric diagnosis. Multiple adjusted regression analyses were used to investigate the relation between SES and cognitive functioning. The analyses showed that SES explained a significant part of the variance of the full-scale WISC-III score and two WISC-III indices (Verbal Comprehension and Freedom from Distractibility). Overall, the strength of the relations was weaker than expected from reports from other non-Nordic countries. Parental education was the only significant individual predictor, suggesting that income was of minor importance as a predictor of cognitive functioning. Further studies should investigate how diverse political and socioeconomic contexts influence the relation between SES and cognitive functioning. PMID:27589048

  16. Iodine status and thyroid function among Spanish schoolchildren aged 6-7 years: the Tirokid study.

    PubMed

    Vila, L; Donnay, S; Arena, J; Arrizabalaga, J J; Pineda, J; Garcia-Fuentes, E; García-Rey, C; Marín, J L; Serra-Prat, M; Velasco, I; López-Guzmán, A; Luengo, L M; Villar, A; Muñoz, Z; Bandrés, O; Guerrero, E; Muñoz, J A; Moll, G; Vich, F; Menéndez, E; Riestra, M; Torres, Y; Beato-Víbora, P; Aguirre, M; Santiago, P; Aranda, J; Gutiérrez-Repiso, C

    2016-05-01

    I deficiency is still a worldwide public health problem, with children being especially vulnerable. No nationwide study had been conducted to assess the I status of Spanish children, and thus an observational, multicentre and cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to assess the I status and thyroid function in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years. The median urinary I (UI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in whole blood were used to assess the I status and thyroid function, respectively. A FFQ was used to determine the consumption of I-rich foods. A total of 1981 schoolchildren (52 % male) were included. The median UI was 173 μg/l, and 17·9 % of children showed UI<100 μg/l. The median UI was higher in males (180·8 v. 153·6 μg/l; P<0·001). Iodised salt (IS) intake at home was 69·8 %. IS consumption and intakes of ≥2 glasses of milk or 1 cup of yogurt/d were associated with significantly higher median UI. Median TSH was 0·90 mU/l and was higher in females (0·98 v. 0·83; P<0·001). In total, 0·5 % of children had known hypothyroidism (derived from the questionnaire) and 7·6 % had TSH levels above reference values. Median TSH was higher in schoolchildren with family history of hypothyroidism. I intake was adequate in Spanish schoolchildren. However, no correlation was found between TSH and median UI in any geographical area. The prevalence of TSH above reference values was high and its association with thyroid autoimmunity should be determined. Further assessment of thyroid autoimmunity in Spanish schoolchildren is desirable. PMID:26961225

  17. Vitamin A status regulates glucocorticoid availability in Wistar rats: consequences on cognitive functions and hippocampal neurogenesis?

    PubMed Central

    Bonhomme, Damien; Minni, Amandine M.; Alfos, Serge; Roux, Pascale; Richard, Emmanuel; Higueret, Paul; Moisan, Marie-Pierre; Pallet, Véronique; Touyarot, Katia

    2014-01-01

    A disruption of the vitamin A signaling pathway has been involved in age-related memory decline and hippocampal plasticity alterations. Using vitamin A deficiency (VAD), a nutritional model leading to a hyposignaling of the retinoid pathway, we have recently demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA), the active metabolite of vitamin A, is efficient to reverse VAD-induced spatial memory deficits and adult hippocampal neurogenesis alterations. Besides, excess of glucocorticoids (GCs) occurring with aging is known to strongly inhibit hippocampal plasticity and functions and few studies report on the counteracting effects of RA signaling pathway on GCs action. Here, we have addressed whether the modulation of brain GCs availability could be one of the biological mechanisms involved in the effects of vitamin A status on hippocampal plasticity and functions. Thus, we have studied the effects of a vitamin A-free diet for 14 weeks and a 4-week vitamin A supplementation on plasma and hippocampal corticosterone (CORT) levels in Wistar rats. We have also investigated corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) binding capacity and 11beta-Hydrosteroid Dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) activity, both important modulators of CORT availability at the peripheral and hippocampal levels respectively. Interestingly, we show that the vitamin A status regulates levels of free plasma CORT and hippocampal CORT levels, by acting through a regulation of CBG binding capacity and 11β-HSD1 activity. Moreover, our results suggest that increased CORT levels in VAD rats could have some deleterious consequences on spatial memory, anxiety-like behavior and adult hippocampal neurogenesis whereas these effects could be corrected by a vitamin A supplementation. Thus, the modulation of GCs availability by vitamin A status is an important biological mechanism that should be taken into account in order to prevent age-related cognitive decline and hippocampal plasticity alterations. PMID:24550796

  18. Validation of the Malay Version of the Inventory of Functional Status after Childbirth Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Norhayati Mohd; Aziz, Aniza Abd.; Mostapa, Mohd Rosmizaki; Awang, Zainudin

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study was designed to examine the psychometric properties of Malay version of the Inventory of Functional Status after Childbirth (IFSAC). Design. A cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods. A total of 108 postpartum mothers attending Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia, were involved. Construct validity and internal consistency were performed after the translation, content validity, and face validity process. The data were analyzed using Analysis of Moment Structure version 18 and Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences version 20. Results. The final model consists of four constructs, namely, infant care, personal care, household activities, and social and community activities, with 18 items demonstrating acceptable factor loadings, domain to domain correlation, and best fit (Chi-squared/degree of freedom = 1.678; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.923; comparative fit index = 0.936; and root mean square error of approximation = 0.080). Composite reliability and average variance extracted of the domains ranged from 0.659 to 0.921 and from 0.499 to 0.628, respectively. Conclusion. The study suggested that the four-factor model with 18 items of the Malay version of IFSAC was acceptable to be used to measure functional status after childbirth because it is valid, reliable, and simple. PMID:25667932

  19. Implantable and ingestible medical devices with wireless telemetry functionalities: a review of current status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kiourti, Asimina; Psathas, Konstantinos A; Nikita, Konstantina S

    2014-01-01

    Wireless medical telemetry permits the measurement of physiological signals at a distance through wireless technologies. One of the latest applications is in the field of implantable and ingestible medical devices (IIMDs) with integrated antennas for wireless radiofrequency (RF) communication (telemetry) with exterior monitoring/control equipment. Implantable medical devices (MDs) perform an expanding variety of diagnostic and therapeutic functions, while ingestible MDs receive significant attention in gastrointestinal endoscopy. Design of such wireless IIMD telemetry systems is highly intriguing and deals with issues related to: operation frequency selection, electronics and powering, antenna design and performance, and modeling of the wireless channel. In this paper, we attempt to comparatively review the current status and challenges of IIMDs with wireless telemetry functionalities. Full solutions of commercial IIMDs are also recorded. The objective is to provide a comprehensive reference for scientists and developers in the field, while indicating directions for future research.

  20. Functional network changes in hippocampal CA1 after status epilepticus predict spatial memory deficits in rats.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Anna L; Mahoney, J Matthew; Richard, Gregory R; Holmes, Gregory L; Lenck-Santini, Pierre-Pascal; Scott, Rod C

    2012-08-15

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a common neurological emergency, which has been associated with subsequent cognitive impairments. Neuronal death in hippocampal CA1 is thought to be an important mechanism of these impairments. However, it is also possible that functional interactions between surviving neurons are important. In this study we recorded in vivo single-unit activity in the CA1 hippocampal region of rats while they performed a spatial memory task. From these data we constructed functional networks describing pyramidal cell interactions. To build the networks, we used maximum entropy algorithms previously applied only to in vitro data. We show that several months following SE pyramidal neurons display excessive neuronal synchrony and less neuronal reactivation during rest compared with those in healthy controls. Both effects predict rat performance in a spatial memory task. These results provide a physiological mechanism for SE-induced cognitive impairment and highlight the importance of the systems-level perspective in investigating spatial cognition.

  1. Obesity and diabetes as accelerators of functional decline: can lifestyle interventions maintain functional status in high risk older adults?

    PubMed

    Anton, Stephen D; Karabetian, Christy; Naugle, Kelly; Buford, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    Obesity and diabetes are known risk factors for the development of physical disability among older adults. With the number of seniors with these conditions rising worldwide, the prevention and treatment of physical disability in these persons have become a major public health challenge. Sarcopenia, the progressive loss of muscle mass and strength, has been identified as a common pathway associated with the initial onset and progression of physical disability among older adults. A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic dysregulation associated with obesity and diabetes accelerates the progression of sarcopenia, and subsequently functional decline in older adults. The focus of this brief review is on the contributions of obesity and diabetes in accelerating sarcopenia and functional decline among older adults. We also briefly discuss the underexplored interaction between obesity and diabetes that may further accelerate sarcopenia and place obese older adults with diabetes at particularly high risk of disability. Finally, we review findings from studies that have specifically tested the efficacy of lifestyle-based interventions in maintaining the functional status of older persons with obesity and/or diabetes.

  2. Role of a self-report measure in athlete preparation.

    PubMed

    Saw, Anna E; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2015-03-01

    Athlete self-report measures (ASRM) are a common and cost-effective method of athlete monitoring. It is purported that ASRM be used to detect athletes at risk of overtraining, injury, or illness, allowing intervention through training modification. However, it is not known whether ASRM are actually being used for or are achieving these objectives in the applied sport setting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to better understand how ASRM are being used in elite sports and their role in athletic preparation. Semistructured interviews were conducted one-on-one with athletes, coaches, and sports science and medicine staff (n = 30) at a national sporting institute. Interview recordings were transcribed and analyzed for emergent themes. Twelve day-to-day and 7 longer-term practices were identified which contributed to a 4-step process of ASRM use (record data, review data, contextualize, and act). In addition to the purported uses, ASRM facilitated information disclosure and communication among athletes and staff and between staff, and improved the understanding and management of athlete preparation. These roles of ASRM are best achieved through engagement of athletes, coaches, and support staff in the systematic cyclic process. PMID:25226334

  3. Online Self-Reporting of Pencil-and-Paper Homework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trawick, Matthew L.

    2010-02-01

    Physics teachers are most effective when their students are active learners who think and participate in every class. This extends beyond the classroom too: ideally, students would tackle challenging questions and exercises after every class—not just before the exam or the night before the weekly homework is due. Just-in-Time-Teaching2 was developed to encourage this by having students submit daily homework online; their answers can be quickly graded (by hand) and then used as a springboard for class discussions that day. More recently, online homework services have become available that can automate the grading process and provide instantaneous feedback to students. Unfortunately in both of these cases, the range of possible questions is limited to what can be easily answered via computer. But while pencil and paper is still an easier medium for expressing diagrams and equations, daily collection of paper homework is cumbersome and does not allow same-day feedback. This paper describes a hybrid strategy in which students solve what may be "standard" pencil-and-paper homework problems, and then use a simple online form to self-report their degree of success.

  4. Role of a self-report measure in athlete preparation.

    PubMed

    Saw, Anna E; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2015-03-01

    Athlete self-report measures (ASRM) are a common and cost-effective method of athlete monitoring. It is purported that ASRM be used to detect athletes at risk of overtraining, injury, or illness, allowing intervention through training modification. However, it is not known whether ASRM are actually being used for or are achieving these objectives in the applied sport setting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to better understand how ASRM are being used in elite sports and their role in athletic preparation. Semistructured interviews were conducted one-on-one with athletes, coaches, and sports science and medicine staff (n = 30) at a national sporting institute. Interview recordings were transcribed and analyzed for emergent themes. Twelve day-to-day and 7 longer-term practices were identified which contributed to a 4-step process of ASRM use (record data, review data, contextualize, and act). In addition to the purported uses, ASRM facilitated information disclosure and communication among athletes and staff and between staff, and improved the understanding and management of athlete preparation. These roles of ASRM are best achieved through engagement of athletes, coaches, and support staff in the systematic cyclic process.

  5. Leadership: validation of a self-report scale.

    PubMed

    Dussault, Marc; Frenette, Eric; Fernet, Claude

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to propose and test the factor structure of a new self-report questionnaire on leadership. A sample of 373 school principals in the Province of Quebec, Canada completed the initial 46-item version of the questionnaire. In order to obtain a questionnaire of minimal length, a four-step procedure was retained. First, items analysis was performed using Classical Test Theory. Second, Rasch analysis was used to identify non-fitting or overlapping items. Third, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using structural equation modelling was performed on the 21 remaining items to verify the factor structure of the scale. Results show that the model with a single third-order dimension (leadership), two second-order dimensions (transactional and transformational leadership), and one first-order dimension (laissez-faire leadership) provides a good fit to the data. Finally, invariance of factor structure was assessed with a second sample of 222 vice-principals in the Province of Quebec, Canada. This model is in agreement with the theoretical model developed by Bass (1985), upon which the questionnaire is based.

  6. Self-reported sexually transmitted infections among female university students

    PubMed Central

    Tiblom Ehrsson, Ylva; Stenhammar, Christina; Rosenblad, Andreas; Åkerud, Helena; Larsson, Margareta; Tydén, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate the occurrence of self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and associated factors among female university students requesting contraceptive counselling. Material and methods Cross-sectional study. Female university students (n = 353) completed a waiting-room questionnaire in connection with contraceptive counselling at a Student Health Centre in Uppsala, Sweden. Results Ninety-three (26.3%) female students had experienced an STI. The three most frequently reported STIs were chlamydia trachomatis, condyloma, and genital herpes. The experience of an STI was significantly associated with the total number of sexual partners (OR 1.060, 95% CI 1.030–1.091, P < 0.001), being heterosexual (OR 4.640, 95% CI 1.321–16.290, P = 0.017), having experienced an abortion (OR 2.744, 95% CI 1.112–6.771, P = 0.028), not being HPV-vaccinated (OR 2.696, 95% CI 1.473–4.935, P = 0.001), and having had intercourse on first night without using a condom (OR 2.375, 95% CI 1.182–4.771, P = 0.015). Conclusions Contraceptive counselling should also include information about primary and secondary prevention of STI, such as the importance of correct use of a condom and STI testing, to prevent a further spread of STIs. PMID:26489857

  7. Sequence-specific, self-reporting hairpin inversion probes.

    PubMed

    Browne, Kenneth A

    2005-02-16

    Sequence-specific probes for detecting target nucleic acids are the cornerstone of the genomics revolution (e.g., microarrays) and of molecular diagnostics. Molecular beacons are self-reporting, nucleic acid probes whose structure includes complementary terminal arm sequences and a loop that is complementary to a target sequence; fluorescence detection is by changes in proximity of fluorophore and quencher pairs attached on opposite arms. However, molecular beacon design is not as simple as attaching arbitrary arm sequences onto previously designed linear probes. The stem arms can also interact with flanking target sequences, changing the hybridization specificity; constantly adapting the arms to avoid such interactions, if not desired, increases design complexity. Herein, I report the use of inversion linkages in probe backbones leading to stem arms of sequence polarity opposite to that of the target-binding region, thereby eliminating potential hybridization of the arms with the target. Using two microbial sequence categories, thermal denaturation and target titration analyses demonstrate that these new hairpin inversion probes retain closed-state stability comparable to that of molecular beacons, contain easily designed arm sequences that do not interact with targets, and, therefore, can be used universally with optimized linear probe sequences.

  8. Prevalence of self-reported depressive symptoms in young adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Schoenbach, V J; Kaplan, B H; Wagner, E H; Grimson, R C; Miller, F T

    1983-01-01

    To investigate the significance and measurement of depressive symptoms in young adolescents, 624 junior high school students were asked to complete the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) during home interviews. In 384 usable symptom scales, item-scale correlations (most were above .50), inter-item correlations, coefficient alpha (.85), and patterns of reported symptoms were reasonable. Persistent symptoms were reported more often by Blacks, especially Black males. Prevalence of persistent symptoms in Whites was quite close to reported figures for adults, ranging from 1 per cent to 15 per cent in adolescent males and 2 per cent to 13 per cent in adolescent females. Adolescents reported persistent vegetative symptoms less often and psychosocial symptoms more often. Reports of symptoms without regard to duration were much more frequent in the adolescents, ranging from 18 per cent to 76 per cent in White males, 34 per cent to 76 per cent in White and Black females, and 41 per cent to 85 per cent in Black males. The results support the feasibility of using a self-report symptom scale to measure depressive symptoms in young adolescents. Transient symptoms reported by adolescents probably reflect their stage of development, but persistent symptoms are likely to have social psychiatric importance. PMID:6625033

  9. Comprehensive smoke alarm coverage in lower economic status homes: alarm presence, functionality, and placement.

    PubMed

    Sidman, Elanor A; Grossman, David C; Mueller, Beth A

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to estimate smoke alarm coverage and adherence with national guidelines in low- to mid-value owner-occupied residences, and to identify resident demographic, behavioral, and building characteristics and other fire and burn safety practices associated with smoke alarm utilization. Baseline visits were conducted with 779 households in King County, Washington, for a randomized trial of smoke alarm functionality. Presence, functionality, features, and location of pre-existing smoke alarms were ascertained by staff observation and testing. Household and building descriptors were collected using questionnaires. Households were classified by presence of smoke alarms, functional alarms, and functional and properly mounted alarms placed in hallways and on each floor but not in recommended avoidance locations. Smoke alarms were present in 89%, and functional units in 78%, of households. Only 6-38% met all assessed functionality and placement recommendations. Homes frequently lacked alarms in any bedrooms or on each floor. Building age, but not renovation status, was associated with all dimensions of smoke alarm coverage; post-1980 constructions were 1.7 times more likely to comply with placement recommendations than were pre-1941 homes (95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Respondent education and race/ethnicity, children <5 years, residency duration, number of floors, wood stoves and fireplaces, number of smoke alarms, recency of smoke alarm testing, carbon monoxide monitors, and fire ladders displayed varying relationships with alarm presence, functionality, and placement. Strategies for maintaining smoke alarms in functional condition and improving compliance with placement recommendations are necessary to achieve universal coverage, and will benefit the majority of households. PMID:21107891

  10. Association of Urinary Phthalates with Self-Reported Eye Affliction/Retinopathy in Individuals with Diabetes: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    Mamtani, Manju; Curran, Joanne E.; Blangero, John; Kulkarni, Hemant

    2016-01-01

    Background. An epidemiological association between exposure to phthalates and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is known. However, the potential role of environmental phthalates in the complications of T2D is unknown. Methods. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2010, we studied the association of 12 urinary phthalate metabolites with self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy in 1,004 participants with diabetes. Data from retinal imaging was used to validate this outcome. Independence of the phthalates→T2D association was studied by adjusting for age, sex, race, marital status, educational attainment, poverty income ratio, physical activity, glycated hemoglobin levels, total serum cholesterol, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum triglycerides, blood pressure, duration of diabetes, total calorie intake, and obesity. Results. Self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy had 82% accuracy with Cohen's kappa of 0.31 (p < 0.001). Urinary mono-n-octyl phthalate (MOP) was independently associated with the likelihood of self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy in subjects with T2D after accounting for all the confounders. This significance of this association was robust to the potential misclassification in cases and controls of retinopathy. Further, a significant dose-response relationship between MOP and self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy was demonstrable. Conclusions. We show a novel epidemiological link between the environment and diabetic complications in NHANES 2001–2010 participants. PMID:26798652

  11. Association of Urinary Phthalates with Self-Reported Eye Affliction/Retinopathy in Individuals with Diabetes: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Mamtani, Manju; Curran, Joanne E; Blangero, John; Kulkarni, Hemant

    2016-01-01

    Background. An epidemiological association between exposure to phthalates and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is known. However, the potential role of environmental phthalates in the complications of T2D is unknown. Methods. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2010, we studied the association of 12 urinary phthalate metabolites with self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy in 1,004 participants with diabetes. Data from retinal imaging was used to validate this outcome. Independence of the phthalates→T2D association was studied by adjusting for age, sex, race, marital status, educational attainment, poverty income ratio, physical activity, glycated hemoglobin levels, total serum cholesterol, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum triglycerides, blood pressure, duration of diabetes, total calorie intake, and obesity. Results. Self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy had 82% accuracy with Cohen's kappa of 0.31 (p < 0.001). Urinary mono-n-octyl phthalate (MOP) was independently associated with the likelihood of self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy in subjects with T2D after accounting for all the confounders. This significance of this association was robust to the potential misclassification in cases and controls of retinopathy. Further, a significant dose-response relationship between MOP and self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy was demonstrable. Conclusions. We show a novel epidemiological link between the environment and diabetic complications in NHANES 2001-2010 participants.

  12. Associations of self-reported and objectively measured sleep disturbances with depression among primary caregivers of children with disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Orta, Olivia R; Barbosa, Clarita; Velez, Juan Carlos; Gelaye, Bizu; Chen, Xiaoli; Stoner, Lee; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the association between sleep and depression using both self-reported (subjective) and actigraphic (objective) sleep traits. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 175 female primary caregivers of children with disabilities receiving care at a rehabilitation center in Punta Arenas, Chile. The eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire was used to ascertain participants’ depression status. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to define subjective, or perceived, sleep quality. Wrist-worn actigraph monitors, worn for seven consecutive nights, were used to characterize objective sleep quality and disturbances. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Linear regression models were fit using continuous sleep parameters as the dependent variables and depression status as the independent variable. Multivariable models were adjusted for body mass index, marital status, smoking status, education level, and children’s disabilities. Results Using an eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire score ≥10, 26.3% of participants presented with depression. Depressed women were more likely to self-report overall poorer (subjective) sleep compared to non-depressed women; however, differences in sleep were not consistently noted using actigraphic (objective) sleep traits. Among the depressed, both sleep duration and total time in bed were significantly underestimated. In multivariable models, depression was negatively associated with sleep duration using both subjective (β=−0.71, standard error [SE] =0.25; P=0.006) and objective sleep (β=−0.42, SE =0.19; P=0.026). Conclusion The association between sleep and depression differed comparing subjective and objective methods of assessment. Research strategies allowing for the integration of both perceived and objective measures of sleep traits are encouraged. PMID:27354835

  13. PROMIS® Pediatric Self Report Scales Distinguish Subgroups of Children Within and Across Six Common Pediatric Chronic Health Conditions

    PubMed Central

    DeWalt, Darren A.; Gross, Heather E.; Gipson, Debbie S.; Selewski, David T.; DeWitt, Esi Morgan; Dampier, Carlton D.; Hinds, Pamela S.; Huang, I-Chan; Thissen, David; Varni, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To conduct a comparative analysis of eight pediatric self-report scales for ages 8-17 years from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) in six pediatric chronic health conditions, using indicators of disease severity. Methods Pediatric patients (N = 1,454) with asthma, cancer, chronic kidney disease, obesity, rheumatic disease, and sickle cell disease completed items from the PROMIS pediatric mobility, upper extremity functioning, depressive symptoms, anxiety, anger, peer relationships, pain interference, and fatigue self-report scales. Comparisons within the six pediatric chronic health conditions were conducted by examining differences in groups based on disease severity using markers of severity that were specific to characteristics of each disease. A comparison was also made across diseases between children who had been recently hospitalized and those who had not. Results In general, there were differences in self-reported health outcomes within each chronic health condition, with patients who had higher disease severity showing worse outcomes. Across health conditions, when children with recent hospitalizations were compared with those who had not been hospitalized in the past six months, we found significant differences in the expected directions for all PROMIS domains, except anger. Conclusions PROMIS measures discriminate between different clinically meaningful subgroups within several chronic illnesses. Further research is needed to determine the responsiveness of the PROMIS pediatric scales to change over time. PMID:25715946

  14. Subjective Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: An Overview of Self-Report Measures Used Across 19 International Research Studies.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Laura A; Smart, Colette M; Crane, Paul K; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Berman, Lorin M; Boada, Mercé; Buckley, Rachel F; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Ellis, Kathryn A; Gifford, Katherine A; Jefferson, Angela L; Jessen, Frank; Katz, Mindy J; Lipton, Richard B; Luck, Tobias; Maruff, Paul; Mielke, Michelle M; Molinuevo, José Luis; Naeem, Farnia; Perrotin, Audrey; Petersen, Ronald C; Rami, Lorena; Reisberg, Barry; Rentz, Dorene M; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Risacher, Shannon L; Rodriguez, Octavio; Sachdev, Perminder S; Saykin, Andrew J; Slavin, Melissa J; Snitz, Beth E; Sperling, Reisa A; Tandetnik, Caroline; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Wagner, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Sikkes, Sietske A M

    2015-09-24

    Research increasingly suggests that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in older adults, in the absence of objective cognitive dysfunction or depression, may be a harbinger of non-normative cognitive decline and eventual progression to dementia. Little is known, however, about the key features of self-report measures currently used to assess SCD. The Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) Working Group is an international consortium established to develop a conceptual framework and research criteria for SCD (Jessen et al., 2014, Alzheimers Dement 10, 844-852). In the current study we systematically compared cognitive self-report items used by 19 SCD-I Working Group studies, representing 8 countries and 5 languages. We identified 34 self-report measures comprising 640 cognitive self-report items. There was little overlap among measures- approximately 75% of measures were used by only one study. Wide variation existed in response options and item content. Items pertaining to the memory domain predominated, accounting for about 60% of items surveyed, followed by executive function and attention, with 16% and 11% of the items, respectively. Items relating to memory for the names of people and the placement of common objects were represented on the greatest percentage of measures (56% each). Working group members reported that instrument selection decisions were often based on practical considerations beyond the study of SCD specifically, such as availability and brevity of measures. Results document the heterogeneity of approaches across studies to the emerging construct of SCD. We offer preliminary recommendations for instrument selection and future research directions including identifying items and measure formats associated with important clinical outcomes.

  15. Subjective Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: An Overview of Self-Report Measures Used Across 19 International Research Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, Laura A.; Smart, Colette M.; Crane, Paul K.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Berman, Lorin M.; Boada, Mercè; Buckley, Rachel F.; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Gifford, Katherine A.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Jessen, Frank; Katz, Mindy J.; Lipton, Richard B.; Luck, Tobias; Maruff, Paul; Mielke, Michelle M.; Molinuevo, José Luis; Naeem, Farnia; Perrotin, Audrey; Petersen, Ronald C.; Rami, Lorena; Reisberg, Barry; Rentz, Dorene M.; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Risacher, Shannon L.; Rodriguez, Octavio; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Slavin, Melissa J.; Snitz, Beth E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Tandetnik, Caroline; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Wagner, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Sikkes, Sietske A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Research increasingly suggests that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in older adults, in the absence of objective cognitive dysfunction or depression, may be a harbinger of non-normative cognitive decline and eventual progression to dementia. Little is known, however, about the key features of self-report measures currently used to assess SCD. The Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) Working Group is an international consortium established to develop a conceptual framework and research criteria for SCD (Jessen et al., 2014, Alzheimers Dement 10, 844–852). In the current study we systematically compared cognitive self-report items used by 19 SCD-I Working Group studies, representing 8 countries and 5 languages. We identified 34 self-report measures comprising 640 cognitive self-report items. There was little overlap among measures—approximately 75% of measures were used by only one study. Wide variation existed in response options and item content. Items pertaining to the memory domain predominated, accounting for about 60% of items surveyed, followed by executive function and attention, with 16% and 11% of the items, respectively. Items relating to memory for the names of people and the placement of common objects were represented on the greatest percentage of measures (56% each). Working group members reported that instrument selection decisions were often based on practical considerations beyond the study of SCD specifically, such as availability and brevity of measures. Results document the heterogeneity of approaches across studies to the emerging construct of SCD. We offer preliminary recommendations for instrument selection and future research directions including identifying items and measure formats associated with important clinical outcomes. PMID:26402085

  16. The Effects and Functions of Speaker Status in CALL-Oriented Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buendgens-Kosten, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Do you know how to change your relationship status on Facebook? What about your language status? In most web 2.0 contexts, music preference or relationship status are more important than information about one's linguistic repertoire. In language learning communities and affinity spaces (Gee, 2004), however, language status is forefronted. This…

  17. Accuracy of Self-Reported SAT and ACT Test Scores: Implications for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, James S.; Gonyea, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Because it is often impractical or impossible to obtain school transcripts or records on subjects, many researchers rely on college students to accurately self-report their academic record as part of their data collection procedures. The purpose of this study is to investigate the validity and reliability of student self-reported academic…

  18. Collegiate Swimmers: Sex Differences in Self-Reports and Indices of Physiological Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gackenbach, Jayne

    1982-01-01

    Psychological and physiological stress indices were taken from collegiate swimmers of both sexes. Later a scale of self-reported masculinity and femininity was administered. Males had higher systolic blood pressure but lower self-reported anxiety and hostility with the stress of competition. Differences in relative masculinity/femininity allow…

  19. Reliability and Validity of a New Physical Activity Self-Report Measure for Younger Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belton, Sarahjane; Mac Donncha, Ciaran

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the test-retest reliability and validity of a new Youth Physical Activity Self-Report measure. Heart rate and direct observation were employed as criterion measures with a sample of 79 children (aged 7-9 years). Spearman's rho correlation between self reported activity intensity and heart rate was 0.87 for…

  20. Evolution of Self-Reporting Methods for Identifying Discrete Emotions in Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Stephen M.; Hudson, Peter; Bellocchi, Alberto; Henderson, Senka; King, Donna; Tobin, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Emotion researchers have grappled with challenging methodological issues in capturing emotions of participants in naturalistic settings such as school or university classrooms. Self-reporting methods have been used frequently, yet these methods are inadequate when used alone. We argue that the self-reporting methods of emotion diaries and…

  1. Gender Differences in Self-Reported Symptomatology and Working Memory in College Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kercood, Suneeta; Lineweaver, Tara T.; Kugler, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in self-reported symptomatology and working memory (visuospatial and auditory) in college students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Forty-seven college students with ADHD and 44 non-affected control participants completed two self-report questionnaires and six tests…

  2. Investigating the Comparability of a Self-Report Measure of Childhood Bullying across Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konishi, Chiaki; Hymel, Shelley; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Li, Zhen; Taki, Mitsuru; Slee, Phillip; Pepler, Debra; Sim, Hee-og; Craig, Wendy; Swearer, Susan; Kwak, Keumjoo

    2009-01-01

    Responding to international concerns regarding childhood bullying and a need to identify a common bullying measure, this study examines the comparability of children's self-reports of bullying across five countries. The Pacific-Rim Bullying Measure, a self-report measure of students' experiences with six different types of bullying behaviour and…

  3. Family Influences on Self-Reported Delinquency among High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peiser, Nadine C.; Heaven, Patrick C. L.

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes the effect of certain family processes on adolescents' self-reported delinquency and investigates whether self-esteem and locus of control mediate these effects. Results indicate that parental discipline style predicts self-reported delinquency. Also, a link between positive family relations and high self-esteem among males emerged. (RJM)

  4. The 20-item prosopagnosia index (PI20): a self-report instrument for identifying developmental prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Punit; Gaule, Anne; Sowden, Sophie; Bird, Geoffrey; Cook, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Self-report plays a key role in the identification of developmental prosopagnosia (DP), providing complementary evidence to computer-based tests of face recognition ability, aiding interpretation of scores. However, the lack of standardized self-report instruments has contributed to heterogeneous reporting standards for self-report evidence in DP research. The lack of standardization prevents comparison across samples and limits investigation of the relationship between objective tests of face processing and self-report measures. To address these issues, this paper introduces the PI20; a 20-item self-report measure for quantifying prosopagnosic traits. The new instrument successfully distinguishes suspected prosopagnosics from typically developed adults. Strong correlations were also observed between PI20 scores and performance on objective tests of familiar and unfamiliar face recognition ability, confirming that people have the necessary insight into their own face recognition ability required by a self-report instrument. Importantly, PI20 scores did not correlate with recognition of non-face objects, indicating that the instrument measures face recognition, and not a general perceptual impairment. These results suggest that the PI20 can play a valuable role in identifying DP. A freely available self-report instrument will permit more effective description of self-report diagnostic evidence, thereby facilitating greater comparison of prosopagnosic samples, and more reliable classification. PMID:26543567

  5. Pubertal Timing, Sexual Behaviour and Self-Reported Depression in Middle Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Kosunen, Elisa; Rimpela, Matti

    2003-01-01

    Study analyzed associations between pubertal timing, sexual activity, and self-reported depression in sample of girls and boys aged 14-16. Among girls, self-reported depression was associated with early puberty and intimate sexual relationship. Among boys, depression was associated with every early and late puberty and experience of intercourse.…

  6. Self-Report Measures of Parent-Adolescent Attachment and Separation-Individuation: A Selective Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Gover, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews and critiques three self-report measures of parent-adolescent attachment (Parental Bonding Instrument, Parental Attachment Questionnaire, Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment) and three self-report measures of parent-adolescent separation-individuation (Psychological Separation Inventory, Personal Authority in the Family System…

  7. Congruence of Self-Reported Medications with Pharmacy Prescription Records in Low-Income Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caskie, Grace I. L.; Willis, Sherry L.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the congruence of self-reported medications with computerized pharmacy records. Design and Methods: Pharmacy records and self-reported medications were obtained for 294 members of a state pharmaceutical assistance program who also participated in ACTIVE, a clinical trial on cognitive training in nondemented elderly…

  8. Validity and Reliability of Self Report Measures of Physical Activity: An Information-Processing Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baranowski, Tom

    1988-01-01

    Self-report measures of physical activity have attractive features for epidemiologists and behavior change specialists. An information processing model is proposed to understand the encoding, storage, and retrieval processes, and to identify necessary skills for accurate self-reporting identified at each step in the process. (JD)

  9. Understanding and Improving the Validity of Self-Report of Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsbach, Sarah K.; Prinz, Ronald J.

    2006-01-01

    Although researchers using parental self-report data have questioned its validity (Holden, 2001) and called for more work in this area (Krevans & Gibbs, 1996; Locke & Prinz, 2002), methodological concerns regarding self-report about parenting practices have not been addressed adequately. The susceptibility of parental report to systematic…

  10. Self-reports of Psychological Distress in Connection with Various Degrees of Visual Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Jon S.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between degree of visual impairment and the self-reports of psychological distress by 167 Icelanders (ages 18-69) and 100 between the ages of 70-97, who were blind or had low vision. The study found that self-reports of psychological distress and perceptions of unhappiness varied significantly with the degree…

  11. Language Attitudes and Self-Reports of French-English Language Usage in Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourhis, Richard Y.

    1983-01-01

    Explores the impact of Quebec language planning in favor of French on self-reports of language use in cross-cultural encounters between Francophones and Anglophones in Montreal. Results indicate that discrepancies exist between respondents' self-reports of language use and their reported experience and that motivational and normative factors…

  12. Development and Validation of the Cultural Competence of Program Evaluators (CCPE) Self-Report Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunaway, Krystall E.; Morrow, Jennifer A.; Porter, Bryan E.

    2012-01-01

    No self-report measure of cultural competence currently exists in program evaluation. Adapting items from cultural competence measures in fields such as counseling and nursing, the researchers developed the Cultural Competence of Program Evaluators (CCPE) self-report scale. The goals of this study were to validate the CCPE and to assess…

  13. Self-Reported Learning Gains: A Theory and Test of College Student Survey Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have asserted that self-reported learning gains (SRLG) are valid measures of learning, because gains in specific content areas vary across academic disciplines as theoretically predicted. In contrast, other studies find no relationship between actual and self-reported gains in learning, calling into question the validity of SRLG. I…

  14. Validating the Factor Structure of the Self-Report Psychopathy Scale in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmut, Mehmet K.; Menictas, Con; Stevenson, Richard J.; Homewood, Judi

    2011-01-01

    Currently, there is no standard self-report measure of psychopathy in community-dwelling samples that parallels the most commonly used measure of psychopathy in forensic and clinical samples, the Psychopathy Checklist. A promising instrument is the Self-Report Psychopathy scale (SRP), which was derived from the original version the Psychopathy…

  15. The Relationship Between Cognitive Career Maturity and Self-Reported Career Maturity of High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbrook, Bert W.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigated relationship between scores on measures of cognitive career maturity and self-reported career maturity in high school sophomores (N=391) and juniors (N=283). Results suggest that there is no relationship between measured career maturity competencies and self-reported career maturity competencies of high school students. (Author/NB)

  16. Comparison of Self-Reported and Measured Height and Weight in Eighth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Susan L.; Whetstone, Lauren M.; Cummings, Doyle M.; Owen, Lynda J.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationships between self-reported and measured height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of eighth-grade students. The study population consisted of eighth-grade students in eastern North Carolina who completed a cross-sectional survey, self-reported their height and weight, and had their…

  17. Correction Equations to Adjust Self-Reported Height and Weight for Obesity Estimates among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to generate correction equations for self-reported height and weight quartiles and to test the accuracy of the body mass index (BMI) classification based on corrected self-reported height and weight among 739 male and 434 female college students. The BMIqc (from height and weight quartile-specific, corrected…

  18. Validation of Self-Reported Cognitive Problems with Objective Neuropsychological Performance in Manganese-Exposed Residents

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a lack of validation of self-reported cognitive problems with objective neuropsychological measures. The validity of four self-reported cognitive items from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was examined with objective clinical ...

  19. Self-Reported Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Report the distribution of scores from the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and estimate the prevalence of self-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as compared to clinical diagnoses. Participants: Participants were 1,080 college students, divided into 3 groups: (1) no ADHD diagnosis (n = 972), (2)…

  20. Congruence of Self-Reported Medications With Pharmacy Prescription Records In Low-Income Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Caskie, Grace I. L.; Willis, Sherry L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the congruence of self-reported medications with computerized pharmacy records. Design and Methods Pharmacy records and self-reported medications were obtained for 294 members of a state pharmaceutical assistance program who also participated in ACTIVE, a clinical trial on cognitive training in nondemented elderly persons. The average age of the sample participants was 74.5 years (range = 65–91); 87.8% were females. Results Congruence between self-report and pharmacy data was generally high. Self-reports omitted drug classes in the pharmacy records less often than the pharmacy records did not include self-reported drug classes. The percentage of individuals with perfect agreement between self-reports and pharmacy records varied from 49% for major drug classes to 81 % for specific cardiovascular and central nervous system drugs. Within a drug class, agreement tended to be higher for individuals without a prescription in that class. Poorer health was consistently related to poorer self-report of medications. Implications Self-reported medications are most likely to be congruent with pharmacy records for drugs prescribed for more serious conditions, for more specific classes of drugs, and for healthier individuals. PMID:15075414

  1. Family Functioning: Associations with Weight Status, Eating Behaviors, and Physical Activity in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Loth, Katie A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper examines the relationship between family functioning (e.g. communication, closeness, problem solving, behavioral control) and adolescent weight status and relevant eating and physical activity behaviors. Methods Data are from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), a population-based study that assessed eating and activity among socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse youth (n = 2,793). Adolescents (46.8% boys, 53.2% girls) completed anthropometric assessments and surveys at school in 2009–2010. Multiple linear regression was used to test the relationship between family functioning and adolescent weight, dietary intake, family meal patterns, and physical activity. Additional regression models were fit to test for interactions by race/ethnicity. Results For adolescent girls, higher family functioning was associated with lower body mass index z-score and percent overweight, less sedentary behavior, higher intake of fruits and vegetables, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. For adolescent boys, higher family functioning was associated with more physical activity, less sedentary behavior, less fast food consumption, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. There was one significant interaction by race/ethnicity for family meals; the association between higher family functioning and more frequent family meals was stronger for non-white boys compared to white boys. Overall, strengths of associations tended to be small with effect sizes ranging from - 0.07 to 0.31 for statistically significant associations. Conclusions Findings suggest that family functioning may be protective for adolescent weight and weight-related health behaviors across all race/ethnicities, although assumptions regarding family functioning in the homes of overweight children should be avoided given small effect sizes. PMID:23299010

  2. Impact of enteral nutrition on postoperative immune function and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Hou, M X; Wu, X L; Bao, L D; Dong, P D

    2015-06-10

    We studied the effects of enteral nutrition (EN) support initiated 1 week before surgery on postoperative nutritional status, immune function, and inflammatory response in gastric cancer patients. A total of 200 gastric cancer patients were randomly divided into two groups: EN starting 1 week before surgery (study group) and EN starting early after surgery (control group). The two groups received EN support, following different therapeutic schedules, until the 9th day after operation. In the patients, body weight, skinfold thickness, upper-arm circumference, white blood cell count, albumin, prealbumin, C-reactive protein, peripheral immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, and IgM), T lymphocyte subsets, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured 10 days before and after surgery and on the first day after surgery. There was no statistically significant difference in the results of recovery time of passage of gas by anus, abdominal distension, stomachache, blood glucose, hepatic and renal functions, and electrolytes between the two groups of patients (P > 0. 05). Adverse reactions occurred to both groups at 1 and 2 days after operation. Such conditions was improved after the intravenous drip rate was adjusted. The albumin and prealbumin levels of the patients in both groups decreased at 1 day after operation (P < 0. 05). The levels rose when the research was finished (P < 0. 05). The prealbumin level of the study group was higher than that of the control group at 10 days after operation (P < 0. 05). The IgG level of the study group was higher than that of the control group at 10 days after operation (P < 0. 05). The two groups of inflammatory reaction indicators of the study group were lower than those of the control group at 10 days after operation (P < 0. 05). This study indicates that appropriate preoperative EN support for gastric cancer patients can improve their postoperative nutritional status and immune function, can reduce inflammatory response, and is

  3. Classification of debtor credit status and determination amount of credit risk by using linier discriminant function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aidi, Muhammad Nur; Sari, Resty Indah

    2012-05-01

    A decision of credit that given by bank or another creditur must have a risk and it called credit risk. Credit risk is an investor's risk of loss arising from a borrower who does not make payments as promised. The substantial of credit risk can lead to losses for the banks and the debtor. To minimize this problem need a further study to identify a potential new customer before the decision given. Identification of debtor can using various approaches analysis, one of them is by using discriminant analysis. Discriminant analysis in this study are used to classify whether belonging to the debtor's good credit or bad credit. The result of this study are two discriminant functions that can identify new debtor. Before step built the discriminant function, selection of explanatory variables should be done. Purpose of selection independent variable is to choose the variable that can discriminate the group maximally. Selection variables in this study using different test, for categoric variable selection of variable using proportion chi-square test, and stepwise discriminant for numeric variable. The result of this study are two discriminant functions that can identify new debtor. The selected variables that can discriminating two groups of debtor maximally are status of existing checking account, credit history, credit amount, installment rate in percentage of disposable income, sex, age in year, other installment plans, and number of people being liable to provide maintenance. This classification produce a classification accuracy rate is good enough, that is equal to 74,70%. Debtor classification using discriminant analysis has risk level that is small enough, and it ranged beetwen 14,992% and 17,608%. Based on that credit risk rate, using discriminant analysis on the classification of credit status can be used effectively.

  4. Individualized Immunosuppressive Protocol of Liver Transplant Recipient Should be Made Based on Splenic Function Status

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ji-Yong; Du, Guo-Sheng; Xiao, Li; Chen, Wen; Suo, Long-Long; Gao, Yu; Feng, Li-Kui; Shi, Bing-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lymphocyte subsets play important roles in rejection in liver transplant recipients, and the effect of splenic function on these roles remains unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility to adjust immunosuppressive agents based on splenic function status through detecting the lymphocyte subsets in liver transplant recipients. Methods: The lymphocyte subsets of 49 liver transplant recipients were assessed in the 309th Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army between June 2014 and August 2015. The patients were divided into splenectomy group (n = 9), normal splenic function group (n = 24), and hypersplenism group (n = 16). The percentages and counts of CD4+ T, CD8+ T, natural killer (NK) cell, B-cell, regulatory B-cell (Breg), and regulatory T-cell (Treg) were detected by flow cytometer. In addition, the immunosuppressive agents, histories of rejection and infection, and postoperative time of the patients were compared among the three groups. Results: There was no significant difference of clinical characteristics among the three groups. The percentage of CD19+CD24+CD38+ Breg was significantly higher in hypersplenism group than normal splenic function group and splenectomy group (3.29 ± 0.97% vs. 2.12 ± 1.08% and 1.90 ± 0.99%, P = 0.001). The same result was found in CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg percentage (0.97 ± 0.39% vs. 0.54 ± 0.31% and 0.56 ± 0.28%, P = 0.001). The counts of CD8+ T-cell, CD4+ T-cell, and NK cell were significantly lower in hypersplenism group than normal splenic function group (254.25 ± 149.08 vs. 476.96 ± 225.52, P = 0.002; 301.69 ± 154.39 vs. 532.50 ± 194.42, P = 0.000; and 88.56 ± 63.15 vs. 188.33 ± 134.51, P = 0.048). Moreover, the counts of CD4+ T-cell and NK cell were significantly lower in hypersplenism group than splenectomy group (301.69 ± 154.39 vs. 491.89 ± 132.31, P = 0.033; and 88.56 ± 63.15 vs. 226.00 ± 168.85, P = 0.032). Conclusion: Splenic function status might affect the immunity of

  5. Cognitive Pretesting and the Developmental Validity of Child Self-Report Instruments: Theory and Applications.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Michael E; Bowen, Gary L; Bowen, Natasha K

    2004-05-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the context of the importance of valid self-report measures to research and evidence-based practice in social work, an argument-based approach to validity is presented and the concept of developmental validity introduced. Cognitive development theories are applied to the self-report process of children and cognitive pretesting is reviewed as a methodology to advance the validity of self-report instruments for children. An application of cognitive pretesting is presented in the development of the Elementary School Success Profile. METHOD: Two phases of cognitive pretesting were completed to gather data about how children read, interpret and answer self-report items. RESULTS: Cognitive pretesting procedures identified validity problems with numerous items leading to modifications. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive pretesting framed by an argument-based approach to validity holds significant potential to improve the developmental validity of child self-report instruments.

  6. Cognitive Pretesting and the Developmental Validity of Child Self-Report Instruments: Theory and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, Michael E.; Bowen, Gary L.; Bowen, Natasha K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective In the context of the importance of valid self-report measures to research and evidence-based practice in social work, an argument-based approach to validity is presented and the concept of developmental validity introduced. Cognitive development theories are applied to the self-report process of children and cognitive pretesting is reviewed as a methodology to advance the validity of self-report instruments for children. An application of cognitive pretesting is presented in the development of the Elementary School Success Profile. Method Two phases of cognitive pretesting were completed to gather data about how children read, interpret and answer self-report items. Results Cognitive pretesting procedures identified validity problems with numerous items leading to modifications. Conclusions Cognitive pretesting framed by an argument-based approach to validity holds significant potential to improve the developmental validity of child self-report instruments. PMID:21709820

  7. Economic Theory and Self-Reported Measures of Presenteeism in Musculoskeletal Disease.

    PubMed

    Jones, Cheryl; Payne, Katherine; Gannon, Brenda; Verstappen, Suzanne

    2016-08-01

    This study had two objectives: to describe the historical development of self-reported presenteeism instruments that can be used to identify and measure presenteeism as a result of musculoskeletal disease (MSD) and to identify if, and how many of these, presenteeism instruments are underpinned by economic theory. Systematic search methods were applied to identify self-report instruments used to quantify presenteeism caused by MSD. A total of 24 self-reported presenteeism instruments were identified; 24 were designed for use in general health, and 1 was specifically designed for use in rheumatoid arthritis. One generic self-reported presenteeism instrument was explicitly reported to be underpinned by economic theory. Overtime, self-reported presenteeism instruments have become more differentiated and complex by incorporating many different contextual factors that may impact levels of presenteeism. Researchers are encouraged to further develop presenteeism instruments that are underpinned by relevant economic theory and informed by robust empirical research. PMID:27402110

  8. Are Informant Reports of Personality More Internally Consistent Than Self Reports of Personality?

    PubMed

    Balsis, Steve; Cooper, Luke D; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2015-08-01

    The present study examined whether informant-reported personality was more or less internally consistent than self-reported personality in an epidemiological community sample (n = 1,449). Results indicated that across the 5 NEO (Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness) personality factors and the 10 personality disorder trait dimensions, informant reports tended to be more internally consistent than self reports, as indicated by equal or higher Cronbach's alpha scores and higher average interitem correlations. In addition, the informant reports collectively outperformed the self reports for predicting responses on a global measure of health, indicating that the informant reports are not only more reliable than self reports, but they can also be useful in predicting an external criterion. Collectively these findings indicate that informant reports tend to have greater internal consistency than self reports.

  9. Determinants of functional status among survivors of severe sepsis and septic shock: One-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Al Khalaf, Mustafa S.; Al Ehnidi, Fatimah H.; Al-Dorzi, Hasan M.; Tamim, Hani M.; Abd-Aziz, Noorizan; Tangiisuran, Balamurugan; Hassan, Yahaya; Arabi, Yaseen M.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Sepsis is a leading cause of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions worldwide and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Limited data exist regarding the outcomes and functional status among survivors of severe sepsis and septic shock. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the functional status among survivors of severe sepsis and septic shock a year after hospital discharge. METHODS: Adult patients admitted between April 2007 and March 2010 to the medical-surgical ICU of a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia, were included in this study. The ICU database was investigated for patients with a diagnosis of severe sepsis or septic shock. Survival status was determined based on hospital discharge. Patients who required re-admission, stayed in ICU for less than 24 hours, had incomplete data were all excluded. Survivors were interviewed through phone calls to determine their functional status one-year post-hospital discharge using Karnofsky performance status scale. RESULTS: A total of 209 patients met the eligibility criteria. We found that 38 (18.1%) patients had severe disability before admission, whereas 109 (52.2%) patients were with severe disability or died one-year post-hospital discharge. Only one-third of the survivors had good functional status one-year post-discharge (no/mild disability). After adjustment of baseline variables, age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.04] and pre-sepsis functional status of severe disability (aOR = 50.9, 95% CI = 6.82-379.3) were found to be independent predictors of functional status of severe disability one-year post-hospital discharge among survivors. CONCLUSIONS: We found that only one-third of the survivors of severe sepsis and septic shock had good functional status one-year post-discharge (no/mild disability). Age and pre-sepsis severe disability were the factors that highly predicted the level of functional status one-year post-hospital discharge. PMID:25829965

  10. Nutritional status in peritoneal dialysis: studies in body composition, lipoprotein metabolism and peritoneal function.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ann-Cathrine

    2002-01-01

    concentration of triglycerides and triglyceride-rich complex lipoproteins. There are indications that dialytic variables may influence this development. When peritoneal function was assessed by the Peritoneal Dialysis Capacity test at start of dialysis, it was observed that peritoneal function reflected patient characteristics and co-morbidity. Patients with systemic disease had enhanced diffusion capacity compared to patients with primary renal disorders. Furthermore, in patients with more severe co-morbidity. peritoneal protein losses were increased. Finally, elderly patients had ultrafiltration conditions that were different from those of younger patients. Peritoneal function remained essentially stable during medium-long term follow up. Body composition features in dialysis patients are similar to those seen in severe disease in general. Thus, it is difficult to separate the effects of malnutrition from the effects of the underlying disease. Specific standards for nutritional status adapted for patients with renal failure are required.

  11. A 5.5 year prospective study of self-reported musculoskeletal pain and of fibromyalgia in a female population: significance and natural history.

    PubMed

    Forseth, K O; Førre, O; Gran, J T

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the significance and outcome of self-reported pain and fibromyalgia (FM) in a female population, 214 women with initially self-reported pain were interviewed and examined in 1990 and 1995. In 1990 the sample was categorised into four pain status groups: 46 individuals (21%) with nonchronic (recurrent) pain, 69 (32%) with chronic regional pain 42 (20%) with chronic multifocal pain and 57 with chronic widespread pain (CWP). The last group comprised 39 (18%) women with FM, fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria. The frequency of tender points, associated symptoms called historical variables and individuals with low education increased statistically significantly with increasing pain status. In 1995, 48 women had non-chronic pain (23%), 46 (21%) chronic regional pain, 39 (18%) chronic multifocal pain and 81 (38%) CWP; of these, 71 (33%) had FM. Eleven of the 39 women initially with FM no longer fulfilled the criteria. The risk of developing CWP among the 157 individuals with initially a lower pain status was statistically higher in women with chronic multifocal pain than in women with less pain extension. Self-reported pain constitutes a continuum of pain severity and thus of clinical and social significance. The overall outcome was poor with an increase of individuals with CWP and FM. The prognosis of chronic multifocal pain, CWP and FM was especially poor. About half of the women with non-chronic pain or chronic regional pain did not deteriorate. However, because the process of developing FM started with localised pain in most cases, self-reported pain of any severity confers a risk for developing FM. Identifying possible risk factors for FM are at present under study and will be presented separately in another report.

  12. Self-reported medical problems among dental patients in Western Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Ashish; Panat, Sunil R; Talukder, S

    2011-12-01

    Assessing the medical history of patients before any treatment is an essential aspect of the dentist's responsibility; however, many dental practitioners assume that their patients are systemically healthy so their medical history is often overlooked. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of self-reported medical conditions among a sample of dental school patients at the Institute of Dental Sciences, Bareilly (Uttar Pradesh), India. Detailed medical histories were taken from 3,786 new dental patients in an outpatient setting. The demographic data, medical status, and use of medications from the charts were analyzed. Thirty-eight percent of the total patients had a positive finding in their medical history for at least one systemic condition. The most commonly reported systemic condition was hypertension (15.2 percent) followed by diabetes (11.4 percent), and 26 percent of the patients were taking at least one medication daily. The results of this study reflect the medical complexity of the increasingly aging population. PMID:22184604

  13. Self-Reported Adolescent Behavioral Adjustment: Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Min, Meeyoung O.; Minnes, Sonia; Yoon, Susan; Short, Elizabeth J.; Singer, Lynn T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the direct effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on adolescent internalizing, externalizing and attention problems, controlling for confounding drug and environmental factors. Method At 12 and 15 years of age, 371 adolescents (189 PCE, 182 non-cocaine exposed (NCE)), primarily African-American and of low socioeconomic status, participating in a longitudinal, prospective study from birth were assessed for behavioral adjustment using the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Results Longitudinal mixed model analyses indicated that PCE was associated with greater externalizing behavioral problems at ages 12 and 15 and more attention problems at age 15, after controlling for confounders. PCE effects were not found for internalizing behaviors. PCE adolescents in adoptive/foster care reported more externalizing and attention problems than PCE adolescents in biological mother/relative care at age 12 or NCE adolescents at both ages. No PCE by gender interaction was found. Prenatal marijuana exposure, home environment, parental attachment and monitoring, family conflict, and violence exposure were also significant predictors of adolescent behavioral adjustment. Conclusions Prenatal cocaine exposure is a risk factor for poor behavioral adjustment in adolescence. PMID:24581794

  14. [Association between tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Martins, Aline Blaya; Dalberto, Charlene da Silveira; Hugo, Fernando Neves

    2015-12-01

    The presence of tooth root remains is a common clinical finding among elderly patients and may reflect a need for treatment. The scope of this study sought to explore the association between the presence of tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly. Secondary data from two sanitary districts of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, were analyzed. A conceptual theoretical model was used in the analysis to assess factors related to self-perceived oral health: gender, age, education, marital status, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, demand for oral health care, participation in community groups, family economic self-sufficiency, oral health service accessed, number of teeth and the presence of tooth root remains. The statistical data were analyzed using Chi-square and Poisson Regression tests (95% CI analysis; α 5%). The sample consisted of 849 elderly individuals with a mean age of 69.7 years (± 7.2); 14.5% of the elderly had tooth root remains and 60.7% reported good self-perceived oral health. According to the hierarchical analysis, the absence of tooth root remains was associated with good oral health perception. The qualification and expansion of health care provided should be considered in order to allow planning actions to ensure the maintenance of good oral health for the elderly. PMID:26691792

  15. Psychometric Validation Study of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale - Self-Reported Version for Brazilian Portuguese

    PubMed Central

    Forni dos Santos, Larissa; Loureiro, Sonia Regina; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Osório, Flávia de Lima

    2013-01-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is prevalent and rarely diagnosed due to the difficulty in recognizing its symptoms as belonging to a disorder. Therefore, the evaluation/screening scales are of great importance for its detection, with the most used being the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Thus, this study proposed to evaluate the psychometric properties of internal consistency and convergent validity, as well as the confirmatory factorial analysis and reliability of the self-reported version of the LSAS (LSAS-SR), translated into Brazilian Portuguese, in a sample of the general population (N = 413) and in a SAD clinical sample (N = 252). The convergent validity with specific scales for the evaluation of SAD and a general anxiety scale presented correlations ranging from 0.21 to 0.84. The confirmatory factorial analysis did not replicate the previously indicated findings of the literature, with the difficulty being in obtaining a consensus factorial structure common to the diverse cultures in which the instrument was studied. The LSAS-SR presented excellent internal consistency (α = 0.90–0.96) and test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient = 0.81; Pearson’s = 0.82). The present findings support those of international studies that attest to the excellent psychometric properties of the LSAS-SR, endorsing its status as the gold standard. PMID:23922961

  16. [Association between tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Martins, Aline Blaya; Dalberto, Charlene da Silveira; Hugo, Fernando Neves

    2015-12-01

    The presence of tooth root remains is a common clinical finding among elderly patients and may reflect a need for treatment. The scope of this study sought to explore the association between the presence of tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly. Secondary data from two sanitary districts of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, were analyzed. A conceptual theoretical model was used in the analysis to assess factors related to self-perceived oral health: gender, age, education, marital status, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, demand for oral health care, participation in community groups, family economic self-sufficiency, oral health service accessed, number of teeth and the presence of tooth root remains. The statistical data were analyzed using Chi-square and Poisson Regression tests (95% CI analysis; α 5%). The sample consisted of 849 elderly individuals with a mean age of 69.7 years (± 7.2); 14.5% of the elderly had tooth root remains and 60.7% reported good self-perceived oral health. According to the hierarchical analysis, the absence of tooth root remains was associated with good oral health perception. The qualification and expansion of health care provided should be considered in order to allow planning actions to ensure the maintenance of good oral health for the elderly.

  17. Can self-reported dieting and dietary restraint identify underreporters of energy intake in dietary surveys?

    PubMed

    Rennie, Kirsten L; Siervo, Mario; Jebb, Susan A

    2006-10-01

    Underreporting is endemic in most dietary studies and ways to reliably identify individuals who may underreport energy intake are needed. Whether questions on self-reported dieting and dietary restraint, in addition to weight status, would identify individuals who may underreport energy intakes was examined in a United Kingdom representative survey. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from the 7-day dietary record of 668 men and 826 women. Reported physical activity was used to assign each subject's activity level and to calculate estimated energy requirements from published equations. Underreporting was calculated as estimated energy requirements minus energy intake with adjustment for daily variation. The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire assessed dietary restraint. Underreporting was higher in men and women reporting current dieting than nondieters (P<0.001) and higher in high-restrained (P<0.001) than low-restrained. When stratified by body mass index category, in men these associations were only significant in the overweight (P<0.001). Dieting was associated with greater underreporting in both lean (P<0.01) and overweight women (P<0.001). Underreporting was higher in lean high-restrained women than low-restrained (P=0.02), but similar in overweight women regardless of restraint score. Questions to assess dietary restraint and current dieting may be useful tools to identify and evaluate underreporting at an individual level in dietary surveys.

  18. Self-reported health and gender: The role of social norms.

    PubMed

    Caroli, Eve; Weber-Baghdiguian, Lexane

    2016-03-01

    The role of social norms in accounting for the different attitudes of men and women with respect to health is still an open issue. In this research, we investigate the role of social norms associated with specific gender environments in the workplace in accounting for differences in health-reporting behaviours across men and women. Using the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey, we build a database containing 30,124 observations. We first replicate the standard result that women report worse health than men, whatever the health outcome we consider. We then proxy social norms by the gender structure of the workplace environment and study how the latter affects self-reported health for men and women separately. Our findings indicate that individuals in workplaces where women are a majority tend to report worse health than individuals employed in male-dominated work environments, be they men or women. These results are robust to controlling for a large array of working condition indicators, which allows us to rule out that the poorer health status reported by individuals working in female-dominated environments could be due to worse job quality. This evidence suggests that social norms associated with specific gender environments play an important role in explaining differences in health-reporting behaviours across gender, at least in the workplace. PMID:26921837

  19. Interactions between nutrition and immune function: using inflammation biomarkers to interpret micronutrient status.

    PubMed

    Thurnham, David I

    2014-02-01

    The immune response promotes a complex series of reactions by the host in an effort to prevent ongoing tissue damage, isolate and destroy the infective organism and activate the repair processes that are necessary for restoring normal function. The homoeostatic process is known as inflammation and the early set of reactions that are induced are known as the acute phase response (APR). The APR has marked effects on the circulation, metabolism in the liver and the plasma concentration of many nutrients. The changes in nutrient concentrations follow a cyclic pattern; occurring before any clinical evidence of disease, being at their most pronounced during the disease and remaining in convalescence when all evidence of disease or trauma has disappeared. Therefore, where susceptibility to disease is high as in people who are HIV+ but still apparently healthy, obtaining an accurate measurement of nutritional status may not be possible. Accurate measurements of status are important for national statistics to plan for the proper utilisation of government resources and they are especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of nutritional interventions. Many acute phase proteins (APP) are synthesised during inflammation and they are used to monitor the progress of disease and recovery but, individually, none of their lifecycles compare well with those of the nutritional biomarkers. Nevertheless, recognising the presence of inflammation can help interpret data and, using two APP, this review paper will illustrate the methods we have developed to assist interpretation of plasma retinol, ferritin and zinc concentrations in apparently healthy, HIV+, Kenyan adults.

  20. Influence of maternal nutritional status on vascular function in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Poston, Lucilla

    2011-05-01

    Suboptimal maternal nutritional status has been implicated in the development of cardiovascular risk in the child. Initially inferred from studies of low-birthweight children, investigations in cohorts of women subjected to famine provide direct evidence for an independent influence of the mother's diet on the cardiovascular health of her child. Animal studies from rodents and sheep have shown associations between maternal undernutrition and raised blood pressure, as well as abnormalities in resistance artery function, particularly in endothelium-dependent responses. Early life exposure to the influences of maternal over nutritional states, e.g. obesity and excessive gestational weight gain, has also been associated with markers of cardiovascular risk in man, and animal models have shown raised blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction in offspring of diet-induced obese dams. Increased sympathetic tone is commonly associated with hypertension in animal models of both under nutritional and over nutritional states. This and several other similarities may indicate commonality of mechanism and could reflect supranormal nutritional status in postnatal life in both conditions.

  1. Does “difficult patient” status contribute to functional demedicalization? The case of borderline personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sulzer, Sandra H.

    2015-01-01

    A diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) often signals the quintessential “difficult patient” status to clinicians, with at least one scholar arguing the condition itself was created to name and group difficult patients. While patients who are deemed difficult are often dispreferred for care, does this have an impact on their overall status as medicalized patients who have successfully achieved a sick role? This study relies on (n=22) in-depth interviews with mental health clinicians in the United States from 2012 to evaluate how they describe patients with BPD, how the diagnosis of BPD affects the treatment clinicians are willing to provide, and the implications for patients. My findings suggest patients with BPD are routinely labeled “difficult,” and subsequently routed out of care through a variety of direct and indirect means. This process creates a functional form of demedicalization where the actual diagnosis of BPD remains de jure medicalized, but the treatment component of medicalization is harder to secure for patients. PMID:26298091

  2. Self-report of gastrointestinal side effects after bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Marcus, Marsha D.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Cheng, Yu; Levine, Michele D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Data on gastrointestinal (GI) side effects of bariatric surgery are limited due to incomplete reporting, cross sectional samples, and non-standardized assessments. Objective To report on GI side effects over the first 6 months following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Setting Academic Medical Center, United States. Methods One hundred forty-four patients completed a standardized clinical interview 6 months after operation, including questions on the occurrence and frequency of episodes of dumping syndrome, vomiting, and plugging for each of the past 6 months; monthly rates were stable, so results were averaged over the entire period. Although data were collected as part of a randomized controlled trial, randomization group and the interaction of group by surgical procedure were not related to GI side effects. Thus, results are reported by procedure only (RYGB; n = 87, LAGB; n= 56). Results RYGB patients had a higher preoperative Body Mass Index (BMI) than LAGB patients (46.8 ± 6.8 vs. 43.5 ± 4.8 kg/m2, respectively, p = 0.001), were more likely to report dumping (45.7% vs. 4.7%, p < 0.0001) and were less likely to report plugging (45.7% vs. 79.1%, p = 0.0005). Vomiting did not differ significantly by procedure (68.6% vs. 65.1%, p = 0.7). Most patients experienced each GI side effect less than once per week. Conclusions Although self-reported GI side effects were common over the first 6 months after operation, the frequency of episodes was relatively low. Longer-term follow-up is needed to determine whether symptoms worsen or improve over time. PMID:25443069

  3. Self-reported sleep in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Kenneth Mark; Lederman, Leah; Lindner, Helen Dawn

    2008-09-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess sleep disturbances in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to compare these with a working sample and a treatment-seeking sample reporting insomnia. The primary sample was 172 people with SLE. This sample represented 32% of all members of two lupus support association. Two comparison samples were used: 223 adults who expressed interest in taking part in a psychological treatment for sleep problems and 456 Australian adults who were working at a large organization. All individuals completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI; 6). Data derived from the PSQI included total sleep time, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, sleep efficiency, as well as the global and seven component scores. The SLE sample reported significantly worse sleep on all parameters than the working sample, but significantly better sleep than the sample of those seeking treatment for sleep disorders, except for sleep onset latency. The percentages scoring >5 on the PSQI global score was 80.5% for SLE, 91.5% for those seeking treatment for sleep disorders, and 28.5% for the working sample. PSQI component scores for the SLE group more closely resembled those of the treatment-seeking group. Self-reported sleep in this sample of people with SLE was significantly better on most parameters than that of a group seeking treatment for sleep disorders. However, the values obtained tended to be worse than previous reports and indicated less than optimal sleep. However, the low response rate of the sample was of concern and may indicate that the sample was biased. The present results suggest that sleep disturbance is common in those with SLE and deserves more attention in a more representative sample.

  4. Assessment of the lung function status of the goldsmiths working in an unorganized sector of India

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Subhashis; Roy, Biswajit; Moitra, Subhabrata

    2013-01-01

    Context: Exposure to various types of fumes and gases are very common in Jewelery industries. No Report is available regarding the effects of those fumes and gases on the respiratory functions of the goldsmiths. Due to lack of proper monitoring of the workplace environments in these unorganized sectors, workers get very much affected by the occupational exposures to those irritants. Aims: The present study aimed to investigate whether the occupational exposures to fumes and gases might alter the lung functions of the goldsmiths. Materials and Methods: A total of 118 goldsmiths and 66 unexposed control subjects were taken randomly for the study. The goldsmiths were further classified in 3 groups according to duration (year) of exposures in the work environment, ETA1 (less than 5 years), ETA2 (more than 5 years but less than 10 years), and ETA3 (more than 10 years). Peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory flow rates of different intervals (FEF25%, FEF50%, FEF75%, FEF25-75%) were measured using computerized Spirometer (Maestros Mediline, India). The statistical analyses were carried out using Minitab software version 3. Results: Lung functions of the goldsmiths significantly (P < 0.01) decreased from that of the control group. Inter-group comparison also showed the deteriorations of lung functions was associated with exposure time, and more exposed workers had significantly less (P < 0.01) efficiencies of lung functions. Conclusions: Workplace fumes and gases were responsible for deterioration of the lung function status of the goldsmiths. PMID:23661914

  5. A Structural Analysis of Executive Functions and Socioeconomic Status in School-Age Children: Cognitive Factors as Effect Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aran-Filippetti, Vanessa; Richaud de Minzi, Maria Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is a well-known predictor of cognitive achievement and executive functioning, although the underlying cognitive mediating processes remain unclear. The authors analyze the association between different socioeconomic indicators and the executive functions (EF) of schoolchildren and the possible cognitive mediating factors…

  6. Predicting Acceptance and Popularity in Early Adolescence as a Function of Hearing Status, Gender, and Educational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations of communicative skills, social behavior, and personality with acceptance and popularity as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting. Participants were 87 deaf and 672 hearing early adolescents of 52 6th grade classrooms in mainstream and special education. Acceptance varied as a function of…

  7. Prevalence, Correlates, and Description of Self-Reported Diabetes in Brazilian Capitals – Results from a Telephone Survey

    PubMed Central

    Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; de Moura, Lenildo; Vigo, Álvaro; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of self-reported diabetes in Brazilian adults and to describe its population correlates as well as the clinical characteristics of the reported cases. Methods We analyzed basic and supplementary data of 54.144 subjects participating in VIGITEL 2011 (Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases), a telephone survey based on a probabilistic sample of subjects ≥18 years old residing in Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District. Estimates reported are weighted so as to represent the surveyed population. Results The prevalence of self-reported diabetes was 6.3% (95% CI 5.9–6.7), increasing markedly with age and nutritional status, and decreasing with level of education. Prevalence was higher among those self-declaring their race/color as black. Most cases (90%) reported the diagnosis being made at 35 years or older. The vast majority (99.8%) of self-reported cases informed having previously performed at least one glucose test, and 76% of those not reporting diabetes also informed having previously performed glucose testing. Most cases (92.6%) reported following some form of diabetes treatment, 79% taking medication. Conclusion The estimated prevalence of known diabetes found, 6.3%, is consistent with estimates given by international summaries. The additional data collected in VIGITEL 2011 regarding previous glucose testing and current treatment support the use of telephone-based information to monitor the prevalence of known diabetes in Brazilian capitals. PMID:25255096

  8. Growth, Nutritional Status, and Pulmonary Function in Children with Chronic Recurrent Bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Umławska, Wioleta; Lipowicz, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Bronchitis is a common health problem in children. Frequent bronchitis in infancy increases the risk of developing chronic respiratory diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the level of growth and the nutritional status in children and youths with special regard to the level of body fatness assessed by measuring skin-fold thickness. Relationships between somatic development, pulmonary function and the course of the disease were also explored. The study was carried out using anthropometric and spirometric measurements and also information on the severity and course of the disease in 141 children with chronic or recurrent bronchitis. All of the subjects were patients of the Pulmonary Medicine and Allergology Center in Karpacz, Poland. The mean body height did not differ significantly between the children examined and their healthy peers. However, the infection-prone children had excessive body fatness and muscle mass deficiency. The increased level of subcutaneous adipose tissue occurred especially in children with short duration of the disease, i.e. a maximum of 1 year. The functional lung parameters were generally normal. The presence of atopic diseases such as allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis did not impair the course of the children's somatic development. Also, long-term disease or the presence of additional allergic diseases did not impair lung function in the examined children. Taking appropriate preventive measures is recommended to achieve and maintain normal body weight in children who receive therapy due to bronchitis.

  9. The Child Concentration Inventory (CCI): Initial validation of a child self-report measure of sluggish cognitive tempo.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M; Joyce, Ann Marie

    2015-09-01

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is characterized by excessive daydreaming, mental confusion, slowness, and low motivation. Several teacher- and parent-report measures of SCT have recently been developed but a child self-report measure of SCT does not yet exist despite clear links between SCT and internalizing psychopathology (for which self-report is often desired). This study examined the initial reliability and validity of the Child Concentration Inventory (CCI), a child self-report measure of SCT symptoms, in a school-based sample of 124 children (ages 8-13; 55% female). Children completed the CCI and measures of academic/social functioning, emotion regulation, and self-esteem. Teachers completed measures of psychopathology symptoms (including SCT) and academic/social functioning. Although exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) supported a 3-factor model of the CCI (consisting of slow, sleepy, and daydreamer scales closely resembling the factor structure of the parent-report version of this measure), bifactor modeling and omega reliability indices indicated that the CCI is best conceptualized as unidimensional. CCI scores were significantly correlated with teacher-rated SCT and were statistically distinct from teacher-rated ADHD and child-rated anxiety/depression. After controlling for sex, grade, and other psychopathology symptoms, the CCI total score was significantly associated with poorer child-reported academic/social functioning and self-worth in addition to increased loneliness and emotion dysregulation. Child ratings on the CCI were moderately to strongly correlated with poorer teacher-rated academic/social functioning but these associations were reduced to nonsignificance after controlling for demographics and other psychopathology symptoms. Findings provide preliminary support for the CCI, and future directions include replication with adolescents and clinical samples in order to further examine the CCI's factor structure, reliability, validity

  10. Profile and correlates of functional status in elderly patients presenting at a primary care clinic in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adebusoye, Lawrence A.; Ogunbode, Adetola M.; Akinyemi, Joshua O.; Adebayo, Ayodeji M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Assessing the functional status of elderly patients is central in measuring their health outcome. Little is known about the functional status of elderly patients attending our primary care clinic in Nigeria. Objective To assess the correlates of functional status in elderly patients presenting at the General Outpatient Clinic of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Method A cross-sectional study of 360 randomly selected patients aged 60 years and above was undertaken to assess their functional status by scoring their basic activities of daily living (BADL) using the Modified Bathel Index. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain the socio-demographic data, anthropometric measurements and morbidities of each patient. Results The mean age was 69.1 ± 6.6 years with a female-to-male ratio of 1.9: 1. The prevalence of overall functional disability (defined as when assistance was sought in the performance of at least one of the components of BADL) was 88.3%. The highest prevalence of functional disability was experienced in the area of personal hygiene and grooming (95.3%) and transferring from bed to chair (95.3%). Overall functional disability significantly increased with increasing age (χ2 for trend=14.004, p < 0.0001), living in a polygamous family unit (p = 0.025), and lack of formal education (p = 0.020). Conclusion Functional disability was high amongst the elderly in this setting. Age, education, and living in a polygamous type of family unit had significant influence on the functional status. High premium should, therefore, be placed on considering these factors in reducing functional disability in the elderly. PMID:26245617

  11. Effect of C282Y Genotype on Self-Reported Musculoskeletal Complications in Hereditary Hemochromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Simão, Márcio; Cancela, Leonor; Ottaviani, Sébastien; Cohen-Solal, Martine; Richette, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Objective Arthropathy that mimics osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis (OP) is considered a complication of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH). We have limited data comparing OA and OP prevalence among HH patients with different hemochromatosis type 1 (HFE) genotypes. We investigated the prevalence of OA and OP in patients with HH by C282Y homozygosity and compound heterozygosity (C282Y/H63D) genotype. Methods A total of 306 patients with HH completed a questionnaire. Clinical and demographic characteristics and presence of OA, OP and related complications were compared by genotype, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), current smoking and menopausal status. Results In total, 266 of the 306 patients (87%) were homozygous for C282Y, and 40 (13%) were compound heterozygous. The 2 groups did not differ by median age [60 (interquartile range [IQR] 53 to 68) vs. 61 (55 to 67) years, P=0.8], sex (female: 48.8% vs. 37.5%, P=0.18) or current smoking habits (12.4% vs. 10%, P=0.3). As compared with compound heterozygous patients, C282Y homozygous patients had higher median serum ferritin concentration at diagnosis [1090 (IQR 610 to 2210) vs. 603 (362 to 950) µg/L, P<0.001], higher median transferrin saturation [80% (IQR 66 to 91%) vs. 63% (55 to 72%), P<0.001]) and lower median BMI [24.8 (22.1 to 26.9) vs. 26.2 (23.5 to 30.3) kg/m2, P<0.003]. The overall prevalence of self-reported OA was significantly higher with C282Y homozygosity than compound heterozygosity (53.4% vs. 32.5%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.4 [95% confidence interval 1.2–5.0]), as was self-reported OP (25.6% vs. 7.5%; aOR 3.5 [1.1–12.1]). Conclusion Patients with C282Y homozygosity may be at increased risk of musculoskeletal complications of HH. PMID:25822977

  12. Are self-reports valid for schizophrenia patients with poor insight? Relationship of unawareness of illness to psychological self-report instruments.

    PubMed

    Bell, Morris; Fiszdon, Joanna; Richardson, Randall; Lysaker, Paul; Bryson, Gary

    2007-05-30

    This investigation aimed to determine whether impaired insight influences the validity of self-report test scores in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. 274 outpatients enrolled in work rehabilitation completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory (BORRTI), and NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Self-report scores were compared to clinician's ratings on comparable personality and symptom dimensions on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Work Behavior Inventory (WBI), and the Quality of Life Scale (QLS). The influence of insight was determined using the Scale for Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD). In the first analysis, clinician SUMD ratings of patient insight were associated with self-report accuracy. In a second analysis, patients were categorized into good and poor insight groups based on SUMD ratings and compared on self-report and clinician report variables. Results suggest that poor insight patients accurately report less Neuroticism and Agreeableness, and more Psychoticism than good insight patients, but individuals with poor insight wish to present themselves as more extraverted than they actually are, and they are likely to be more certain of their perceptions than they should be. It appears that self-report measures may be valid for most personality and symptom domains.

  13. Self-Reported Mood, General Health, Wellbeing and Employment Status in Adults with Suspected DCD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Amanda; Williams, Natalie; Thomas, Marie; Hill, Elisabeth L.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) affects around 2-6% of the population and is diagnosed on the basis of poor motor coordination in the absence of other neurological disorders. Its psychosocial impact has been delineated in childhood but until recently there has been little understanding of the implications of the disorder beyond this.…

  14. The Adolescent Outcome of Hyperactive Girls: Self-Report of Psychosocial Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan; Heptinstall, Ellen; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Chadwick, Oliver; Taylor, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to clarify the developmental risk associated with hyperactive behaviour in girls in a longitudinal epidemiological design. Methods: This was investigated in a follow-up study of girls who were identified by parent and teacher ratings in a large community survey of 6- and 7-year-olds as showing pervasive…

  15. Self-Reported Efficacy of Cannabis and Other Complementary Medicine Modalities by Parkinson's Disease Patients in Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Finseth, Taylor Andrew; Hedeman, Jessica Louise; Brown, Robert Preston; Johnson, Kristina I.; Binder, Matthew Sean; Kluger, Benzi M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used by Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We sought to provide information on CAM use and efficacy in PD patients in the Denver metro area with particular attention to cannabis use given its recent change in legal status. Methods. Self-administered surveys on CAM use and efficacy were completed by PD patients identified in clinics and support groups across the Denver metro area between 2012 and 2013. Results. 207 patients (age 69 ± 11; 60% male) completed the survey. Responses to individual CAM therapy items showed that 85% of respondents used at least one form of CAM. The most frequently reported CAMs were vitamins (66%), prayer (59%), massage (45%), and relaxation (32%). Self-reported improvement related to the use of CAM was highest for massage, art therapy, music therapy, and cannabis. While only 4.3% of our survey responders reported use of cannabis, it ranked among the most effective CAM therapies. Conclusions. Overall, our cross-sectional study was notable for a high rate of CAM utilization amongst PD patients and high rates of self-reported efficacy across most CAM modalities. Cannabis was rarely used in our population but users reported high efficacy, mainly for nonmotor symptoms. PMID:25821504

  16. Modulatory effects of curcumin on redox status, mitochondrial function, and caspace-3 expression during atrazin-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Keshk, Walaa A; Soliman, Nema A; Abo El-Noor, Mona M; Wahdan, Amira A; Shareef, Mohamed M

    2014-08-01

    Atrazin is currently the most widely used herbicide in agriculture with lots of adverse effects on human health. Curcumin is a polyphenol known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. In the present study, the protective effect of curcumin on atrazin-intoxicated rats is evaluated. Toxicity was induced by oral administration of atrazine (400 mg/kg/day) for 3 weeks. Curcumin at a dose of 400 mg/kg/day was given simultaneously by oral route. Redox status, mitochondrial function, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) level by immunoassay, and caspace-3 expression by immunohistochemistry were evaluated. Curcumin showed significant cardiac protection with improvement of redox status, mitochondrial function, 8-OHdG level, caspase-3 immunoreactivity, and cardiac muscle degeneration. From this current study, it can be concluded that administration of curcumin improved atrazine-induced cardiotoxicity through its modulatory effect on redox status, mitochondrial function, and caspase-3 expression. PMID:24863870

  17. Determinants of physical activity in obese children assessed by accelerometer and self-report.

    PubMed

    Epstein, L H; Paluch, R A; Coleman, K J; Vito, D; Anderson, K

    1996-09-01

    Previous research has shown that predictors of activity in adults depend upon the method of measurement. This study is designed to assess the predictors of activity in a sample of 59 obese children. Activity was measured using self-reported and TriTrac accelerometer METs. Self-report and TriTrac accelerometer measures were moderately correlated, r = 0.46, with the self-reported activity (2.3 METs) significantly greater than TriTrac (1.6 METs). Hierarchical regression analysis examined the influence of socioeconomic level, body composition, fitness, hedonics of child and adult activity behaviors, and decisional balance on self-reported and accelerometer-measured activity, controlling for child and parent psychopathology. Child and parent psychological symptoms accounted for 8.3% and 3.4% of the variance in accelerometer and self-reported METs, respectively. The model for accelerometer-measured activity showed socioeconomic level and parent self-report of activity accounted for 14.8% of the incremental variance in child activity. The model for self-report of child activity found that child fitness accounted for 23.5% of the incremental variance in child activity. These results suggest that the predictors of activity level are different based upon the method of measurement, consistent with research in adults.

  18. Burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Aguiar Prieto, Pablo; Finley, Rita L; Muchaal, P K; Guerin, Michele T; Isaacs, Sandy; Domínguez, Arnaldo Castro; Coutín Marie, Gisele; Perez, Enrique

    2009-06-01

    Acute gastrointestinal illness is an important public-health issue worldwide. Burden-of-illness studies have not previously been conducted in Cuba. The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude, distribution, and burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in Cuba. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was conducted in three sentinel sites during June-July 2005 (rainy season) and during November 2005-January 2006 (dry season). Households were randomly selected from a list maintained by the medical offices in each site. One individual per household was selected to complete a questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. The case definition was three or more bouts of loose stools in a 24-hour period within the last 30 days. In total, 97.3% of 6,576 interviews were completed. The overall prevalence of acute gastrointestinal illness was 10.6%. The risk of acute gastrointestinal illness was higher during the rainy season (odds ratio [OR]=3.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.18-4.66) in children (OR=3.12, 95% CI 2.24-4.36) and teens (OR=2.27, 95% CI 1.51-3.41) compared to people aged 25-54 years, in males (OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.47), and in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.61). Of 680 cases, 17.1-38.1% visited a physician, depending on sentinel site. Of the cases who visited a physician, 33.3-53.9% were requested to submit a stool sample, and of those, 72.7-100.0% complied. Of the cases who sought medical care, 16.7-61.5% and 0-31.6% were treated with antidiarrhoeals and antibiotics respectively. Acute gastrointestinal illness represented a substantial burden of health compared to developed countries. Targeting the identified risk factors when allocating resources for education, food safety, and infrastructure might lower the morbidity associated with acute gastrointestinal illness.

  19. Transgender Transitioning and Change of Self-Reported Sexual Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Höhne, Nina; Stalla, Günter K.; Sievers, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sexual orientation is usually considered to be determined in early life and stable in the course of adulthood. In contrast, some transgender individuals report a change in sexual orientation. A common reason for this phenomenon is not known. Methods We included 115 transsexual persons (70 male-to-female “MtF” and 45 female-to-male “FtM”) patients from our endocrine outpatient clinic, who completed a questionnaire, retrospectively evaluating the history of their gender transition phase. The questionnaire focused on sexual orientation and recalled time points of changes in sexual orientation in the context of transition. Participants were further asked to provide a personal concept for a potential change in sexual orientation. Results In total, 32.9% (n =  23) MtF reported a change in sexual orientation in contrast to 22.2% (n =  10) FtM transsexual persons (p =  0.132). Out of these patients, 39.1% (MtF) and 60% (FtM) reported a change in sexual orientation before having undergone any sex reassignment surgery. FtM that had initially been sexually oriented towards males ( = androphilic), were significantly more likely to report on a change in sexual orientation than gynephilic, analloerotic or bisexual FtM (p  =  0.012). Similarly, gynephilic MtF reported a change in sexual orientation more frequently than androphilic, analloerotic or bisexual MtF transsexual persons (p  =  0.05). Conclusion In line with earlier reports, we reveal that a change in self-reported sexual orientation is frequent and does not solely occur in the context of particular transition events. Transsexual persons that are attracted by individuals of the opposite biological sex are more likely to change sexual orientation. Qualitative reports suggest that the individual's biography, autogynephilic and autoandrophilic sexual arousal, confusion before and after transitioning, social and self-acceptance, as well as concept of sexual orientation itself may

  20. Plasma Linoleic Acid Partially Mediates the Association of Bipolar Disorder on Self-Reported Mental Health Scales

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Simon J.; Assari, Shervin; Harrington, Gloria J.; Chang, Ya-Wen; Burant, Charles F.; McInnis, Melvin G.

    2015-01-01

    We have shown that bipolar individuals have reduced quality diets, including lower intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We have also reported reduced plasma levels of the n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid (LA), and the n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in bipolar subjects. In the current analysis we hypothesized that LA and EPA plasma levels would mediate lower self-reported mental health and life functioning scores in bipolar subjects. In a cross-sectional study, we collected a 7-day diet record in bipolar (n=56) and control subjects (n=46) followed by a fasted blood draw. We used structured equation modeling path analysis to test for mediating effects of dietary intake and plasma levels of LA and EPA on self-reported mental health questionnaire scores, including the Life Functioning Questionnaire (LFQ), the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9), and the Short Form Health Survey (SF12), extracting the mental health component summary score (SF12-MH). We adjusted for age, gender, psychiatric medication use, body mass index (BMI), and total caloric intake as covariates with bipolar disorder as the primary predictor. We found a significant path association from bipolar disorder to lower plasma LA levels (p=0.03) and significant paths from plasma LA to PHQ9 (p=0.05), LFQ (p=0.01) and SF12-MH (p=0.05) scores, such that lower plasma LA predicted worse outcomes. We found no significant paths from plasma EPA levels to any of the outcome measures. These findings suggest that plasma LA levels partially mediate the effect of bipolar disorder on self-reported measures of mental health and life functioning. PMID:26228402

  1. Addressing Current Criticism Regarding the Value of Self-Report Dietary Data.

    PubMed

    Subar, Amy F; Freedman, Laurence S; Tooze, Janet A; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Boushey, Carol; Neuhouser, Marian L; Thompson, Frances E; Potischman, Nancy; Guenther, Patricia M; Tarasuk, Valerie; Reedy, Jill; Krebs-Smith, Susan M

    2015-12-01

    Recent reports have asserted that, because of energy underreporting, dietary self-report data suffer from measurement error so great that findings that rely on them are of no value. This commentary considers the amassed evidence that shows that self-report dietary intake data can successfully be used to inform dietary guidance and public health policy. Topics discussed include what is known and what can be done about the measurement error inherent in data collected by using self-report dietary assessment instruments and the extent and magnitude of underreporting energy compared with other nutrients and food groups. Also discussed is the overall impact of energy underreporting on dietary surveillance and nutritional epidemiology. In conclusion, 7 specific recommendations for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting self-report dietary data are provided: (1) continue to collect self-report dietary intake data because they contain valuable, rich, and critical information about foods and beverages consumed by populations that can be used to inform nutrition policy and assess diet-disease associations; (2) do not use self-reported energy intake as a measure of true energy intake; (3) do use self-reported energy intake for energy adjustment of other self-reported dietary constituents to improve risk estimation in studies of diet-health associations; (4) acknowledge the limitations of self-report dietary data and analyze and interpret them appropriately; (5) design studies and conduct analyses that allow adjustment for measurement error; (6) design new epidemiologic studies to collect dietary data from both short-term (recalls or food records) and long-term (food-frequency questionnaires) instruments on the entire study population to allow for maximizing the strengths of each instrument; and (7) continue to develop, evaluate, and further expand methods of dietary assessment, including dietary biomarkers and methods using new technologies. PMID:26468491

  2. Addressing Current Criticism Regarding the Value of Self-Report Dietary Data.

    PubMed

    Subar, Amy F; Freedman, Laurence S; Tooze, Janet A; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Boushey, Carol; Neuhouser, Marian L; Thompson, Frances E; Potischman, Nancy; Guenther, Patricia M; Tarasuk, Valerie; Reedy, Jill; Krebs-Smith, Susan M

    2015-12-01

    Recent reports have asserted that, because of energy underreporting, dietary self-report data suffer from measurement error so great that findings that rely on them are of no value. This commentary considers the amassed evidence that shows that self-report dietary intake data can successfully be used to inform dietary guidance and public health policy. Topics discussed include what is known and what can be done about the measurement error inherent in data collected by using self-report dietary assessment instruments and the extent and magnitude of underreporting energy compared with other nutrients and food groups. Also discussed is the overall impact of energy underreporting on dietary surveillance and nutritional epidemiology. In conclusion, 7 specific recommendations for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting self-report dietary data are provided: (1) continue to collect self-report dietary intake data because they contain valuable, rich, and critical information about foods and beverages consumed by populations that can be used to inform nutrition policy and assess diet-disease associations; (2) do not use self-reported energy intake as a measure of true energy intake; (3) do use self-reported energy intake for energy adjustment of other self-reported dietary constituents to improve risk estimation in studies of diet-health associations; (4) acknowledge the limitations of self-report dietary data and analyze and interpret them appropriately; (5) design studies and conduct analyses that allow adjustment for measurement error; (6) design new epidemiologic studies to collect dietary data from both short-term (recalls or food records) and long-term (food-frequency questionnaires) instruments on the entire study population to allow for maximizing the strengths of each instrument; and (7) continue to develop, evaluate, and further expand methods of dietary assessment, including dietary biomarkers and methods using new technologies.

  3. The hyporheic zone and its functions: revision and research status in Neotropical regions.

    PubMed

    Mugnai, R; Messana, G; Di Lorenzo, T

    2015-08-01

    The hyporheic zone (HZ), as the connecting ecotone between surface- and groundwater, is functionally part of both fluvial and groundwater ecosystems. Its hydrological, chemical, biological and metabolic features are specific of this zone, not belonging truly neither to surface- nor to groundwater. Exchanges of water, nutrients, and organic matter occur in response to variations in discharge and bed topography and porosity. Dynamic gradients exist at all scales and vary temporally. Across all scales, the functional significance of the HZ relates to its activity and connection with the surface stream. The HZ is a relatively rich environment and almost all invertebrate groups have colonized this habitat. This fauna, so-called hyporheos, is composed of species typical from interstitial environment, and also of benthic epigean and phreatic species. The hyporheic microbiocenose consists in bacteria, archaea, protozoa and fungi. The HZ provides several ecosystem services, playing a pivotal role in mediating exchange processes, including both matter and energy, between surface and subterranean ecosystems, functioning as regulator of water flow, benthic invertebrates refuge and place of storage, source and transformation of organic matter. The hyporheic zone is one of the most threatened aquatic environments, being strongly influenced by human activities, and the least protected by legislation worldwide. Its maintenance and conservation is compelling in order to preserve the ecological interconnectivity among the three spatial dimensions of the aquatic environment. Although several researchers addressed the importance of the hyporheic zone early, and most contemporary stream ecosystem models explicitly include it, very little is known about the HZ of Neotropical regions. From a biological standpoint, hyporheos fauna in Neotropical regions are still largely underestimated. This review focuses on a brief presentation of the hyporheic zone and its functions and significance as

  4. The hyporheic zone and its functions: revision and research status in Neotropical regions.

    PubMed

    Mugnai, R; Messana, G; Di Lorenzo, T

    2015-08-01

    The hyporheic zone (HZ), as the connecting ecotone between surface- and groundwater, is functionally part of both fluvial and groundwater ecosystems. Its hydrological, chemical, biological and metabolic features are specific of this zone, not belonging truly neither to surface- nor to groundwater. Exchanges of water, nutrients, and organic matter occur in response to variations in discharge and bed topography and porosity. Dynamic gradients exist at all scales and vary temporally. Across all scales, the functional significance of the HZ relates to its activity and connection with the surface stream. The HZ is a relatively rich environment and almost all invertebrate groups have colonized this habitat. This fauna, so-called hyporheos, is composed of species typical from interstitial environment, and also of benthic epigean and phreatic species. The hyporheic microbiocenose consists in bacteria, archaea, protozoa and fungi. The HZ provides several ecosystem services, playing a pivotal role in mediating exchange processes, including both matter and energy, between surface and subterranean ecosystems, functioning as regulator of water flow, benthic invertebrates refuge and place of storage, source and transformation of organic matter. The hyporheic zone is one of the most threatened aquatic environments, being strongly influenced by human activities, and the least protected by legislation worldwide. Its maintenance and conservation is compelling in order to preserve the ecological interconnectivity among the three spatial dimensions of the aquatic environment. Although several researchers addressed the importance of the hyporheic zone early, and most contemporary stream ecosystem models explicitly include it, very little is known about the HZ of Neotropical regions. From a biological standpoint, hyporheos fauna in Neotropical regions are still largely underestimated. This review focuses on a brief presentation of the hyporheic zone and its functions and significance as

  5. Patient and provider priorities for self-reported domains of HIV clinical care

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Todd; Crane, Heidi M.; Crane, Paul K.; Merlin, Jessica; Gibbons, Laura E.; Rao, Deepa; Batey, D. Scott; Dant, Lydia; Páez, Edgar; Church, Anna; Patrick, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    We sought to understand how HIV-infected patients, their providers, and HIV care researchers prioritize self-reported domains of clinical care. Participants rank-ordered two lists of domains. A modified Delphi process was used for providers and researchers. Approximately 25% of patients were interviewed to discuss rationale for rank order choices. List 1 included anger, anxiety, depression, fatigue, physical function, pain, and sleep disturbance. List 2 included alcohol abuse, cognitive function, HIV stigma, HIV and treatment symptoms, medication adherence, positive affect, sexual risk behavior, sexual function, social roles, spirituality/meaning of life, and substance abuse. Seventy-four providers, 80 HIV care researchers and 66 patients participated. Patients ranked context-based domains, such as HIV stigma, more highly than providers, while health behaviors, such as drug or alcohol use, ranked lower. Patients described a need to address wider-context challenges such as HIV stigma in order to positively impact health behaviors. Divergent patient and provider priorities highlights the importance of incorporating views from all stakeholders and suggests the need for a care approach that more effectively addresses contextual barriers to adverse health behaviors. PMID:26304263

  6. Patient and provider priorities for self-reported domains of HIV clinical care.

    PubMed

    Fredericksen, Rob J; Edwards, Todd C; Merlin, Jessica S; Gibbons, Laura E; Rao, Deepa; Batey, D Scott; Dant, Lydia; Páez, Edgar; Church, Anna; Crane, Paul K; Crane, Heidi M; Patrick, Donald L

    2015-01-01

    We sought to understand how HIV-infected patients, their providers, and HIV care researchers prioritize self-reported domains of clinical care. Participants rank-ordered two lists of domains. A modified Delphi process was used for providers and researchers. Approximately 25% of patients were interviewed to discuss rationale for rank order choices. List 1 included anger, anxiety, depression, fatigue, physical function, pain, and sleep disturbance. List 2 included alcohol abuse, cognitive function, HIV stigma, HIV and treatment symptoms, medication adherence, positive affect, sexual risk behavior, sexual function, social roles, spirituality/meaning of life, and substance abuse. Seventy-four providers, 80 HIV care researchers, and 66 patients participated. Patients ranked context-based domains, such as HIV stigma, more highly than providers, while health behaviors, such as drug or alcohol use, ranked lower. Patients described a need to address wider-context challenges such as HIV stigma in order to positively impact health behaviors. Divergent patient and provider priorities highlight the importance of incorporating views from all stakeholders and suggests the need for a care approach that more effectively addresses contextual barriers to adverse health behaviors. PMID:26304263

  7. Self-reported history of vaccination and disease and immunity against hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus, diphtheria and varicella among Spanish military recruits.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Alejandro; Desviat, Pilar Vallejo; Jaqueti, Jeronimo; Santos, Juana; de Miguel, Angel Gil; Garcia, Rodrigo Jiménez

    2010-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the immune status against hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus, diphtheria and varicella in military recruits and the validity of self-reporting of their disease and vaccination history. A total of 226 participants were studied (mean age, 20.2 years; SD 1.7). 10.4% presented antibodies to hepatitis A, 78.3% to hepatitis B, 94.2% to tetanus, 77.4% to diphtheria and 81.9% to varicella. The relationship between self-reporting of vaccination history and seroprotection showed a high Positive Predictive Value for tetanus (98.8%) and a high Negative Predictive Value for hepatitis A (91%). Hepatitis A vaccination and serology testing for varicella and Hepatitis B on joining the Spanish armed forces are recommended.

  8. Guided imagery in people with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial of effects on pain, functional status and self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Verkaik, Renate; Busch, Martine; Koeneman, Trees; van den Berg, Rianny; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Francke, Anneke L

    2014-05-01

    Studies on the effects of guided imagery in patients with fibromyalgia show varying results. This randomized controlled trial (n = 65) aims to give more insight into the effects on pain, functional status, and self-efficacy. Daily pain was assessed with a pain diary using a Visual Analogue Scale. Functional status and self-efficacy were measured at pretest, posttest, and follow-up using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and the Chronic Pain Self-Efficacy Scale. No effects of guided imagery could be established. Explanations for the diverging results between studies might be found in the content of the exercises, length of the intervention period, and background of participants. PMID:23520350

  9. Association between statin use at admission to inpatient rehabilitation and functional status at discharge among older patients.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Alessandro; Girard, Timothy D; Shintani, Ayumi; Turco, Renato; Guerini, Fabio; Torpilliesi, Tiziana; Gentile, Simona; Trabucchi, Marco; Bellelli, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    The effect of statins on functional status in older patients is unclear. Statins might carry a deleterious effect on muscle function leading to myopathy and therefore affecting functional recovery. We evaluated the relationship between statin exposure at in-hospital rehabilitation admission and functional outcome at discharge. This was a retrospective cohort study of older patients 70 years and older consecutively admitted to an in-hospital rehabilitation after an acute hospitalization. Statin exposure was measured at the time of rehabilitation admission. Functional status was defined with the Barthel Index (BI) score at the time of discharge. A multi-variable linear regression model was used to evaluate the association between statin exposure and functional status at discharge adjusting for potential confounders through a propensity score for statin exposure. A total of 2435 patients were included. The cohort had a mean age of 81.1 years. Of these 9% (n=220) were on statins at the time of admission. In the multi-variable analysis, the use of statins at the time of admission was independently associated with an improved functional status at discharge (point estimate 5.2; 95% confidence interval 1.5-8.9; p<0.01) after adjusting for relevant confounders. Patients who were receiving statins at the time of admission had a BI score 5 points higher compared to those who were not receiving statins. The use of statins was overall safe in a group of co-morbid older patients undergoing rehabilitation training after an acute hospitalization. Additionally, a possible benefit was found given the positive association between statin use and higher functional status at discharge.

  10. Reference sequence (RefSeq) database at NCBI: current status, taxonomic expansion, and functional annotation

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary, Nuala A.; Wright, Mathew W.; Brister, J. Rodney; Ciufo, Stacy; Haddad, Diana; McVeigh, Rich; Rajput, Bhanu; Robbertse, Barbara; Smith-White, Brian; Ako-Adjei, Danso; Astashyn, Alexander; Badretdin, Azat; Bao, Yiming; Blinkova, Olga; Brover, Vyacheslav; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Choi, Jinna; Cox, Eric; Ermolaeva, Olga; Farrell, Catherine M.; Goldfarb, Tamara; Gupta, Tripti; Haft, Daniel; Hatcher, Eneida; Hlavina, Wratko; Joardar, Vinita S.; Kodali, Vamsi K.; Li, Wenjun; Maglott, Donna; Masterson, Patrick; McGarvey, Kelly M.; Murphy, Michael R.; O'Neill, Kathleen; Pujar, Shashikant; Rangwala, Sanjida H.; Rausch, Daniel; Riddick, Lillian D.; Schoch, Conrad; Shkeda, Andrei; Storz, Susan S.; Sun, Hanzhen; Thibaud-Nissen, Francoise; Tolstoy, Igor; Tully, Raymond E.; Vatsan, Anjana R.; Wallin, Craig; Webb, David; Wu, Wendy; Landrum, Melissa J.; Kimchi, Avi; Tatusova, Tatiana; DiCuccio, Michael; Kitts, Paul; Murphy, Terence D.; Pruitt, Kim D.

    2016-01-01

    The RefSeq project at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) maintains and curates a publicly available database of annotated genomic, transcript, and protein sequence records (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/refseq/). The RefSeq project leverages the data submitted to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC) against a combination of computation, manual curation, and collaboration to produce a standard set of stable, non-redundant reference sequences. The RefSeq project augments these reference sequences with current knowledge including publications, functional features and informative nomenclature. The database currently represents sequences from more than 55 000 organisms (>4800 viruses, >40 000 prokaryotes and >10 000 eukaryotes; RefSeq release 71), ranging from a single record to complete genomes. This paper summarizes the current status of the viral, prokaryotic, and eukaryotic branches of the RefSeq project, reports on improvements to data access and details efforts to further expand the taxonomic representation of the collection. We also highlight diverse functional curation initiatives that support multiple uses of RefSeq data including taxonomic validation, genome annotation, comparative genomics, and clinical testing. We summarize our approach to utilizing available RNA-Seq and other data types in our manual curation process for vertebrate, plant, and other species, and describe a new direction for prokaryotic genomes and protein name management. PMID:26553804

  11. Health, functioning and disability in older adults – current status and future implications

    PubMed Central

    Chatterji, Somnath; Byles, Julie; Cutler, David; Seeman, Teresa; Verdes, Emese

    2016-01-01

    Summary Aging is a dynamic process with trends in health status of older adults varying over time due to a range of factors. We examined reported trends in morbidity and mortality among older adults over the past two decades in order to determine patterns of ageing across the world. We found some evidence for compression of morbidity, i.e., less amount of time spent in worse health, when: a) studies were of a good quality based on evaluation criteria scores; b) a disability- or impairment-related measure of morbidity was used; c) studies were longitudinal or; d) studies were conducted in the United States and some other high income countries. Many studies reported evidence to the contrary, i.e., for an expansion of morbidity but with different methods these are not directly comparable. Expansion of morbidity was more common when trends in chronic disease prevalence were studied. Our secondary analysis of data from longitudinal ageing surveys present a similar picture. However, there are considerable variations across countries in patterns of limitations in functioning and within countries over time with no discernible explanations. Data from low income countries is very sparse and efforts to collect information on the health of older adults in less-developed regions of the world is urgently required. Studies focussing on refining measurement with a core set of domains of functioning and studying the impacts of these evolving patterns on the health care system and their economic implications are needed. PMID:25468158

  12. Self-Reported Hindering Health Complaints of Community-Dwelling Older Persons: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    van Blijswijk, Sophie C. E.; Chan, On Ying A.; van Houwelingen, Anne H.; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; den Elzen, Wendy P. J.; Blom, Jeanet W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Proactive care for community-dwelling older persons targeting self-reported hindering health complaints might prevent a decline in function. We investigated the spectrum of self-reported hindering complaints of community-dwelling older persons, the association with functional outcomes, and help-seeking behavior for these complaints. Methods Within the ISCOPE trial, participants (aged ≥75 years) received the ISCOPE screening questionnaire, including the open-ended question “At the moment, which health complaints limit you the most in your day-to-day life?”. After coding the answers with the ICPC-1-NL, we examined the prevalence and the association between the number and type of complaints and functional outcomes (Groningen Activities Restriction Scale, quality of life measured on Cantril’s Ladder, Mini-Mental State Examination, Geriatric Depression Scale-15, and De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale). Electronic patient registers were searched for the most reported complaints. Results 7285 participants (median age: 81.0 years [IQR 77.8–85.3], 38.6% males) reported 13,524 hindering complaints (median 1, range 0–18); 32.7% reported no complaints. Participants mostly reported problems with walking/standing (22.1%), pain (20.8%) or weakness/tiredness (8.5%). These complaints were mentioned in the electronic patient registers in 28.3%, 91.3% and 55.5%, respectively. Higher numbers of hindering complaints were related to poorer scores on the number of domains with problems, Cantril’s Ladder for quality of life, Groningen Activities Restriction Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, and De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale. Self-reported weakness, problems with walking/standing, visual limitations, cognitive problems, dyspnea and back complaints were associated with poorer scores on the number of domains with problems, Groningen Activities Restriction Scale, MMSE or Geriatric Depression Scale. Conclusion One third of the participants reported no hindering

  13. A multisite validity study of self-reported anesthesia outcomes.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter; Pekmezaris, Renee; Lesser, Martin L; Nouryan, Christian N; Rosinia, Frank; Pratt, Kathy; LaVopa, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a multisite anesthesia voluntary adverse event reporting process. A data validation methodology was used through medical chart review on live records at 3 facilities (N = 600). The per-item aggregated error rate among all 42 data items was 0.3%: 0.1% for quality indicators, 1.3% for demographic/status variables, and 1.7% for administrative items. The per-patient error rate among all 42 data items was 6.3%: 3.0% for quality indicators, 1.7% for demographic/status variables, and 3.0% for administrative items. Trends such as better accuracy for more serious events continue, but observed error rates were lower than those found in previous surveys-an indication that, while further study is needed, nonpunitive voluntary reporting may reduce errors in anesthesia care. PMID:22326979

  14. Health Status and Health Dynamics in an Empirical Model of Expected Longevity*

    PubMed Central

    Benítez-Silva, Hugo; Ni, Huan

    2010-01-01

    Expected longevity is an important factor influencing older individuals’ decisions such as consumption, savings, purchase of life insurance and annuities, claiming of Social Security benefits, and labor supply. It has also been shown to be a good predictor of actual longevity, which in turn is highly correlated with health status. A relatively new literature on health investments under uncertainty, which builds upon the seminal work by Grossman (1972), has directly linked longevity with characteristics, behaviors, and decisions by utility maximizing agents. Our empirical model can be understood within that theoretical framework as estimating a production function of longevity. Using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, we directly incorporate health dynamics in explaining the variation in expected longevities, and compare two alternative measures of health dynamics: the self-reported health change, and the computed health change based on self-reports of health status. In 38% of the reports in our sample, computed health changes are inconsistent with the direct report on health changes over time. And another 15% of the sample can suffer from information losses if computed chang