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Sample records for self-reported functional status

  1. Refining the categorization of physical functional status: the added value of combining self-reported and performance-based measures.

    PubMed

    Reuben, David B; Seeman, Teresa E; Keeler, Emmett; Hayes, Risa P; Bowman, Lee; Sewall, Ase; Hirsch, Susan H; Wallace, Robert B; Guralnik, Jack M

    2004-10-01

    When considered individually, self-reported functional status and performance-based functional status predict functional status decline and mortality. However, what additional prognostic information is gained by combining these approaches remains unknown. The authors used three waves of three sites (5138 participants) of the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly to determine the prognostic value of individual and combined approaches. Baseline self-reported (mobility and activities of daily living [ADL] items) and performance-based (Physical Performance Score) functional status information was classified into three and four hierarchical categories, respectively. Based on self-reported information alone, at 1 year, 73% participants had not changed, 15% declined, 6% improved, and 6% died. At 4 years, 53% had not changed, 24% declined, 2% improved, and 22% died. Based on performance-based assessment alone, at 4 years, 33% of the sample remained stable, 37% declined, 6% improved, and 24% died. In the top two self-reported categories, functioning on the performance-based assessment varied widely. Among those who were independent in all self-reported functioning, approximately 40% scored in each of the top two performance-based categories. Among persons in the top two self-reported categories, poorer performance was associated with progressively higher 1-year and 4-year mortality rates. Among persons with impaired mobility and at least 1 ADL dependency, the mortality rate was high and was not influenced by performance-based score. Combining self-reported and performance-based measurements can refine prognostic information, particularly among older persons with high self-reported functioning. However, if ADL dependency is present, performance-based measures do not add prognostic value regarding mortality.

  2. Functional limitations as potential mediators of the effects of self-reported vision status on fall risk of older adults.

    PubMed

    Steinman, Bernard A; Allen, Susan M; Chen, Jie; Pynoos, Jon

    2015-02-01

    To test whether limitations in mobility and large-muscle functioning mediate self-reported vision status to increase fall risk among respondents age 65 and above. This study used two waves from the Health and Retirement Study. We conducted binary logistic and negative binomial regression analyses to test indirect paths leading from self-reported vision status to falls, via indices of mobility and large-muscle functioning. Limited evidence was found for a mediating effect among women; however, large-muscle groups were implicated as partially mediating risk factors for falls among men with fair self-reported vision status. Implications of these findings are discussed including the need for prioritizing improved muscle strength of older men and women with poor vision as a preventive measure against falls. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Nutritional status and self-reported and performance-based evaluation of physical function of elderly persons in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ferdous, Tamanna; Cederholm, Tommy; Razzaque, Abdur; Wahlin, Ake; Nahar Kabir, Zarina

    2009-07-01

    To investigate the impact of nutritional status on self-reported as well as performance-based indicators of physical function in a rural elderly population in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh, included 457 randomly selected community-living elderly persons aged 60 years or more (60-92 years; 69 +/- 7 years). Mobility, activities of daily living (ADL), performance tests, handgrip strength, the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and a structured questionnaire were used to assess physical function, nutritional status, socioeconomic status and health status, respectively. Descriptive and linear hierarchical regression analyses were applied. Seven per cent of the participants reported limitations in mobility, and 8% reported limitations in ADL. However, more than half of the participants had difficulties in performing one or more items in the performance tests. According to the MNA, 26% of the participants were undernourished and 62% were at risk of malnutrition. More undernourished participants than well-nourished participants reported limited mobility, impaired ADL and difficulties in the performance tests. A corresponding reduction in grip strength was observed in the undernourished group. Accordingly, higher MNA scores, indicating better nutritional status, were significantly associated with higher mobility index, higher ADL index, higher performance tests index, and higher scores in handgrip strength. These associations remained after adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic and health status differences. Good nutritional status is important for the physical function of elderly people, even after controlling for possible confounders. Performance tests indicated a higher degree of functional impairment than that observed by self-reported estimation.

  4. Comparison of African American and Afro-Caribbean Older Adults' Self-Reported Health Status, Function, and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Florence; Tappen, Ruth M.; Williams, Christine L.; Rosselli, Monica

    2009-01-01

    African American and Afro-Caribbean elders differ in regard to ethnic group membership, place of birth, and years of residence in the United States. In this study, the authors compare self-rated health status, function, and reports of substance use in these two groups. Fifty low-income African American and fifty low-income Afro-Caribbean adults…

  5. Self-reported functional status as predictor of observed functional capacity in subjects with early osteoarthritis of the hip and knee: a diagnostic study in the CHECK cohort.

    PubMed

    Bieleman, H J; Reneman, M F; van Ittersum, M W; van der Schans, C P; Groothoff, J W; Oosterveld, F G J

    2009-12-01

    Patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) may experience functional limitations in work settings. In the Cohort Hip and Cohort Knee study (CHECK) physical function was both self-reported and measured performance-based, using Functional Capacity Evaluation (FCE). Relations between self-reported scores on SF-36 and WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Arthritis Index, function scales) and FCE performance were studied, and their diagnostic value for clinicians in predicting observed physical work limitations was assessed. Ninety-two subjects scored physical function on SF-36 (scale 0-100, 100 indicating the best health level) and WOMAC (scale 0-68, 68 indicates maximum restriction) and performed the FCE. Correlations were calculated between all scores. Cross-tables were constructed using both questionnaires as diagnostic tests to identify work limitations. Subjects lifting <22.5 kg on the FCE-test 'lifting-low' were labeled as having physical work limitations. Diagnostic aspects at different cut-off scores for both questionnaires were analysed. Statistically significant correlations (Spearman's rho 0.34-0.49) were found between questionnaire scores and lifting and carrying tests. Results of a diagnostic cross-table with cut-off point <60 on SF-36 'physical functioning' were: sensitivity 0.34, specificity 0.97 and positive predictive value (PV+) 0.95. Cut-off point > or =21 on WOMAC 'function' resulted in sensitivity 0.51, specificity 0.88 and PV+ 0.88. Low self-reported function scores on SF-36 and WOMAC diagnosed subjects with limitations on the FCE. However, high scores did not guarantee performance without physical work limitations. These results are specific to the tested persons with early OA, in populations with a different prevalence of limitations, different diagnostic values will be found. FCE may be indicated to help clinicians to assess actual work capacity.

  6. Relationship between self-reported depression and self-reported visual function in Latinos.

    PubMed

    Paz, Sylvia H; Globe, Denise R; Wu, Joanne; Azen, Stanley P; Varma, Rohit

    2003-07-01

    To validate and assess the relationship between self-reported depression as measured by a single item on the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 12 (SF-12) and self-reported visual function. The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study is population-based and designed to assess the prevalence of visual impairment, ocular disease, and visual functioning in Latinos. Both the 25-item National Eye Institute-Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) (self-reported visual function) and the SF-12 (health-related quality of life) were administered. A single item from the SF-12 was used to measure self-reported depression and validated against the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression measure of depression. Covariate-adjusted NEI VFQ-25 subscale scores were contrasted across the 6 response choices of the SF-12, as well as across 3 combined response categories of the SF-12 using analysis of covariance. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses assessed the contribution of self-reported depression in explaining self-reported visual function. The sensitivity and specificity of the SF-12 single item with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression measure was 0.96 and 0.50, respectively. Using the 3 combined response categories of the SF-12 single item, it was found that (1) all covariate-adjusted subscales of the NEI VFQ-25 were statistically significantly different across the self-reported depression categories (P<.001) and (2) covariate-adjusted self-reported depression was a significant predictor of self-reported visual function (P<.001). A single SF-12 item may be used as a measure of self-reported depression. In addition, self-reported depression is an important covariate to consider when assessing self-reported visual function in Latinos.

  7. Self-reported upper extremity health status correlates with depression.

    PubMed

    Ring, David; Kadzielski, John; Fabian, Lauren; Zurakowski, David; Malhotra, Leah R; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2006-09-01

    The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire is the most widely used upper extremity-specific health-status measure. The DASH score often demonstrates greater variability than would be expected on the basis of objective pathology. This variability may be related to psychosocial factors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the correlation between the DASH score and psychological factors for specific diagnoses with relatively limited variation in objective pathology. Two hundred and thirty-five patients with a single, common, discrete hand problem known to have limited variations in objective pathology completed the DASH questionnaire, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) to assess neuroticism, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale to quantify depressive symptoms, and the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS). Forty-five patients had carpal tunnel syndrome, forty-four had de Quervain tenosynovitis, forty-eight had lateral elbow pain, and seventy-one had a single trigger finger. In addition, twenty-seven patients were evaluated six weeks after a nonoperatively treated fracture of the distal part of the radius. Relationships between psychosocial factors and the DASH score were determined. A significant positive correlation between the DASH score and depression was noted for all diagnoses (r = 0.38 to 0.52; p < 0.01 for all). The DASH score also correlated with pain anxiety for four of the five diagnoses (carpal tunnel syndrome, r = 0.40; de Quervain tendinitis, r = 0.46; lateral elbow pain, r = 0.42; and trigger finger, r = 0.24) (p < 0.05 for all). The DASH score was not correlated with neuroticism for any diagnosis. There was a highly significant effect of depression (as measured with the CES-D score) on the DASH score for all diagnoses. Both the CES-D score (F = 62.68, p < 0.0001) and gender (F = 11.36, p < 0.001) were independent predictors of the DASH score. Self-reported upper extremity

  8. Determinants of Self-Reported Health Status in a Population-Based Sample of Persons with Radiographic Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Reichmann, William M.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Kessler, Courtenay L.; Jordan, Joanne M.; Losina, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Objective Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is highly prevalent and disabling. Patients with radiographic knee OA may experience pain and functional impairment, which can diminish their health status. Our objective was to determine factors associated with self-reported health status in a national population-based sample with radiographic knee OA. Methods Our sample included all NHANES III participants who underwent a knee radiograph and were found to have radiographic OA (defined as Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade two or higher). Self-reported health status was determined by asking the participant to rate their overall health as excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor. Self-reported health status was analyzed as an ordinal variable using cumulative logit regression, a dichotomous variable (excellent/very good/good vs. fair/poor) using logistic regression, and as a continuous variable after transformation using linear regression. Results Forty-two percent (N=1,021) of NHANES III participants with a knee radiograph were included in this analysis. The multivariable analyses were performed on 1,009 (99%) of the eligible participants with complete data. We found that non-white race, lower income, more comorbidities, and greater functional limitation were associated with worse self-reported health status in all three multivariable analyses. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that quantifies the role of clinical, radiographic and socio-economic factors associated with self-reported health status in a population-based sample of patients with knee OA. Self-reported health status in patients with knee OA is associated with functional status and comorbidity. PMID:19644892

  9. Gender differences in the relationship between housing, socioeconomic status, and self-reported health status.

    PubMed

    Dunn, James R; Walker, Jennifer D; Graham, Jennifer; Weiss, Christina B

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates gender differences in housing, socioeconomic status, and self-reported health status. The analysis focuses on the social and economic dimensions of housing, such as demand, control, material aspects (affordability, type of dwelling) and meaningful aspects (pride in dwelling, home as a refuge) of everyday life in the domestic environment. A random sample, cross-sectional telephone survey was administered in the city of Vancouver, Canada in June 1999 (n = 650). Survey items included measures of material and meaningful dimensions of housing, housing satisfaction, and standard measures of socioeconomic status and social support. The main outcome measure was self-reported health (excellent/very good/good vs. fair/poor). A three-stage analysis provides an overall picture of the sample characteristics for male and female respondents, detects significant relations between individual and housing characteristics and self-rated health status, and investigates male-female differences in the factors associated with fair/poor self-rated health. In multivariate analyses, a small number of socioeconomic dimensions of housing were associated with self-rated health status for women. For men, only one attribute of housing was associated with self-rated health: crowding was positively related to poor health, contradicting expectations and the findings for women. The self-reported strain of housework was unrelated to self-rated health for men, but strongly related to poor health for women. For men and women, satisfaction with social activities increased the likelihood of reporting better health. Future research should focus on the health effects of gendered differences in domestic and paid work, and on home and family roles and the interaction among gender, household crowding, and health.

  10. The Development of a Health Status Measure for Self-Report by People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruddick, Loraine; Oliver, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Background: Health status is an important domain of quality of life of people with intellectual disabilities. This paper describes the development of a self-report health status measure for use with people with intellectual disabilities living in staffed community-based accommodation, and reports preliminary reliability data for the schedule.…

  11. Giving meaning to measure: linking self-reported fatigue and function to performance of everyday activities.

    PubMed

    Mallinson, Trudy; Cella, David; Cashy, John; Holzner, Bernhard

    2006-03-01

    Fatigue, a common symptom of cancer patients, particularly those on active treatment, is generally evaluated using self-report methods, yet it remains unclear how self-reported fatigue scores relate to performance of daily activities. This study examines the relationships among self-reported and performance-based measures of function in patients receiving chemotherapy (CT) to link self-reported fatigue measures to self-report and performance-based measures of function. Self-reported fatigue using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) and self-reported physical function using the physical function 10 subscale of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) (PF-10) were measured in 64 patients within 2 weeks of beginning CT (n=64) and after three cycles of CT (n=48). Motor and cognitive functions were captured using five self-reported and seven observed-performance measures at each time point. Significant correlations between self-reported and observed measures ranged from 0.30 to 0.71. Self-reported fatigue correlated (0.30-0.45) with performance-based function. FACIT-F scores in the range of 30 and below and PF-10 scores in the range of 50 and below were related to an increased difficulty performing everyday activities. Observed measures of physical performance correlate moderately with self-reported fatigue and self-reported physical function. These relationships enable one to begin linking fatigue scores directly to a person's ability to perform everyday activities.

  12. The effect of self-reported and performance-based functional impairment on future hospital costs of community-dwelling older persons.

    PubMed

    Reuben, David B; Seeman, Teresa E; Keeler, Emmett; Hayes, Risa P; Bowman, Lee; Sewall, Ase; Hirsch, Susan H; Wallace, Robert B; Guralnik, Jack M

    2004-06-01

    We determined the prognostic value of self-reported and performance-based measurement of function, including functional transitions and combining different measurement approaches, on utilization. Our cohort study used the 6th, 7th, and 10th waves of three sites of the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly, linked to 1- and 4-year Medicare Part A hospital costs. We examined mean hospital expenditures based on (a) 1- and 4-year transitions in self-reported functional status; (b) 4-year transitions in performance-based functional status; (c) combined baseline self-reported and performance-based functional status; and (d) poorest self-reported and performance-based functional status during a 4-year period. Even modest declines in self-reported or performance-based functional status were associated with increased expenditures. When baseline self-reported and performance-based assessments were combined, mean 1- and 4-year adjusted costs were higher with progressively worse performance-based scores, even among those who were independent in self-reported function. When the poorest 4-year self-reported and performance-based functions were examined, self-reported functioning was the most important determinant of hospital costs, but within each self-reported functional level, poorer performance-based function was associated with progressively higher costs. The costs associated with even modest functional decline are high. Combining self-reported and performance-based measurements can provide more precise estimates of future hospital costs. Copyright 2004 The Gerontological Society of America

  13. Associations between self-reported dental status and diet.

    PubMed

    Daly, R M; Elsner, R J F; Allen, P F; Burke, F M

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a battery of dental, nutritional and psychological health survey measures and to use this survey instrument to explore links between age, tooth loss and dietary risk. The survey was undertaken in a dental school and hospital. Forty-nine consecutive patients (age range 25-74 years) participated in this pilot study and completed the health survey instrument. A quarter of the patients reported changing dietary habits due to dental problems, 56% reported difficulty in chewing as a result of problems with their teeth or dentures, and 36% reported having to interrupt meals due to dental difficulties. Tooth number was associated with MNA scores (0.35, P=0.03, Pearson's correlation coefficient) and reported number of foods eaten (0.33, P=0.04, Pearson's correlation coefficient) from the questionnaire checklist. Lower MNA scores were associated with age (F=6.54; d.f.=1, 46; P<0.01) indicating that older adults were more at risk of poor nutritional status. Overall health was not rated as an important factor influencing food choice, and only 14% of the sample felt that they had nutritional problems. Poor diet and impaired food choice was associated with declining numbers of teeth and increasing age. Older adults may require dietary advice to increase awareness of the importance of a healthy diet.

  14. Accuracy of self-reported premorbid functioning in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Brill, N; Reichenberg, A; Rabinowitz, J; Harary, E; Lubin, G; Davidson, M; Weiser, M

    2007-12-01

    Information on premorbid functioning is often based on patients recalling their past. Premorbid functioning is relevant as it is associated with treatment response and other outcomes. The extent to which memory impairments of persons with schizophrenia may bias such reporting has not been investigated. The purpose of the current study was to assess the extent to which persons with schizophrenia might exhibit biased reporting relative to controls. Seventy males with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 51 males with no psychiatric symptoms participated in the study. Contemporaneous and retrospective reports from a behavioral functioning assessment conducted as part of the Israeli Draft Board were compared. This assessment routinely administered to all 17 years old males in the country assesses social functioning, individual autonomy, organizational ability, physical activity and functioning in structured environments. We compared the groups on the Draft Board behavioral measures at age 17 and at re-assessment. We also examined the relationship between symptom severity, neuropsychological performance and differences between age 17 and current behavioral assessment scores. In a repeated measures MANCOVA of the five measures there was no overall significant difference in accuracy of reporting between persons with schizophrenia and those without. Both groups showed a slight tendency to glorify their past. Consistency of reporting was not significantly correlated with neuropsychological performance or levels of psychotic symptoms. We found that when reporting on personal and social functioning during teen age years persons with schizophrenia report with the same level of consistency as persons without schizophrenia. This suggests that self-report of premorbid functioning of persons with schizophrenia can be trusted as being reasonably accurate.

  15. Associations among Socioeconomic Status, Perceived Neighborhood Control, Perceived Individual Control, and Self-Reported Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Spencer; Daniel, Mark; Bockenholt, Ulf; Gauvin, Lise; Richard, Lucie; Stewart, Steven; Dube, Laurette

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that perceived control and a person's perceptions of their neighborhood environment may mediate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and health. This cross-sectional study assessed whether perceptions of informal social control mediated the association between SES and self-reported health, and if these…

  16. The Prevalence of Self-Reported Health Problems and Haemoglobin Status of Sudanese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moukhyer, M. E.; de Vries, N. K.; Bosma, H.; van Eijk, J. Th. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe self-reported health problems and haemoglobin status among 1200 Sudanese adolescents (53.2% females, 46.8% males). Many adolescents report their general health as excellent and good (84%). A large number, however, report separate physical and psychological complaints. Report of psychological complaints is equal for both…

  17. Associations among Socioeconomic Status, Perceived Neighborhood Control, Perceived Individual Control, and Self-Reported Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Spencer; Daniel, Mark; Bockenholt, Ulf; Gauvin, Lise; Richard, Lucie; Stewart, Steven; Dube, Laurette

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that perceived control and a person's perceptions of their neighborhood environment may mediate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and health. This cross-sectional study assessed whether perceptions of informal social control mediated the association between SES and self-reported health, and if these…

  18. The Prevalence of Self-Reported Health Problems and Haemoglobin Status of Sudanese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moukhyer, M. E.; de Vries, N. K.; Bosma, H.; van Eijk, J. Th. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe self-reported health problems and haemoglobin status among 1200 Sudanese adolescents (53.2% females, 46.8% males). Many adolescents report their general health as excellent and good (84%). A large number, however, report separate physical and psychological complaints. Report of psychological complaints is equal for both…

  19. Validation of students' self-reported cigarette smoking status with plasma cotinine levels.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C L; Eng, A; Botvin, G J; Hill, P; Wynder, E L

    1979-01-01

    Plasma cotinine levels were measured in 137 students (ages 14 to 17 years), as an independent validation of self-reported cigarette smoking status. Ninety-five per cent of the students who reported daily cigarette smoking had detectable cotinine levels. In contract, only 2 per cent of students who reported that they never smoke cigarettes had detectable levels of plasma cotinine. Results suggest that adolescents can report accurately on their smoking status if sufficient assurance of confidentiality is stressed. PMID:507259

  20. The accuracy of self-reported smoking: a systematic review of the relationship between self-reported and cotinine-assessed smoking status.

    PubMed

    Connor Gorber, Sarah; Schofield-Hurwitz, Sean; Hardt, Jill; Levasseur, Geneviève; Tremblay, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of premature mortality and preventable morbidity. Surveillance is most often based on self-reported data, but studies have shown that self-reports tend to underestimate smoking status. This study systematically reviewed the literature to measure the concordance between self-reported smoking status and smoking status determined through measures of cotinine in biological fluids. Four electronic databases were searched to identify observational and experimental studies on adult populations over the age of 18 years. Searching identified 67 studies that met the eligibility criteria and examined the relationship between self-reported smoking and smoking confirmed by cotinine measurement. Overall, the data show trends of underestimation when smoking prevalence is based on self-report and varying sensitivity levels for self-reported estimates depending on the population studied and the medium in which the biological sample is measured. Sensitivity values were consistently higher when cotinine was measured in saliva instead of urine or blood. Meta-analysis was not appropriate because of the substantial heterogeneity among the cutpoints used to define smokers and the poor reporting on outcomes of interest. Further research in this field would benefit from the standardization of cutpoints to define current smokers and the implementation of standard reporting guidelines to enhance comparability across studies. Accurate estimation of smoking status is important as data from population studies such as those included in this review are used to generate regional and national estimates of smoking status and in turn are used to allocate resources and set health priorities.

  1. The importance of assessing self-reported HIV status in bio-behavioural surveys.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lisa G; Sabin, Miriam Lewis; Prybylski, Dimitri; Sabin, Keith; McFarland, Willi; Baral, Stefan; Kim, Andrea A; Raymond, H Fisher

    2016-08-01

    In bio-behavioural surveys measuring prevalence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), respondents should be asked the results of their last HIV test. However, many government authorities, nongovernmental organizations, researchers and other civil society stakeholders have stated that respondents involved in such surveys should not be asked to self-report their HIV status. The reasons offered for not asking respondents to report their status are that responses may be inaccurate and that asking about HIV status may violate the respondents' human rights and exacerbate stigma and discrimination. Nevertheless, we contend that, in the antiretroviral therapy era, asking respondents in bio-behavioural surveys to self-report their HIV status is essential for measuring and improving access to - and coverage of - services for the care, treatment and prevention of HIV infection. It is also important for estimating the true size of the unmet needs in addressing the HIV epidemic and for interpreting the behaviours associated with the acquisition and transmission of HIV infection correctly. The data available indicate that most participants in health-related surveys are willing to respond to a question about HIV status - as one of possibly several sensitive questions about sexual and drug use behaviours. Ultimately, normalizing the self-reporting of HIV status could help the global community move from an era of so-called exceptionalism to one of destigmatization - and so improve the epidemic response worldwide.

  2. Development and Validation of a Self-Report Measure of Mentalizing: The Reflective Functioning Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Fonagy, Peter; Luyten, Patrick; Moulton-Perkins, Alesia; Lee, Ya-Wen; Warren, Fiona; Howard, Susan; Ghinai, Rosanna; Fearon, Pasco; Lowyck, Benedicte

    2016-01-01

    Reflective functioning or mentalizing is the capacity to interpret both the self and others in terms of internal mental states such as feelings, wishes, goals, desires, and attitudes. This paper is part of a series of papers outlining the development and psychometric features of a new self-report measure, the Reflective Functioning Questionnaire (RFQ), designed to provide an easy to administer self-report measure of mentalizing. We describe the development and initial validation of the RFQ in three studies. Study 1 focuses on the development of the RFQ, its factor structure and construct validity in a sample of patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Eating Disorder (ED) (n = 108) and normal controls (n = 295). Study 2 aims to replicate these findings in a fresh sample of 129 patients with personality disorder and 281 normal controls. Study 3 addresses the relationship between the RFQ, parental reflective functioning and infant attachment status as assessed with the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) in a sample of 136 community mothers and their infants. In both Study 1 and 2, confirmatory factor analyses yielded two factors assessing Certainty (RFQ_C) and Uncertainty (RFQ_U) about the mental states of self and others. These two factors were relatively distinct, invariant across clinical and non-clinical samples, had satisfactory internal consistency and test–retest stability, and were largely unrelated to demographic features. The scales discriminated between patients and controls, and were significantly and in theoretically predicted ways correlated with measures of empathy, mindfulness and perspective-taking, and with both self-reported and clinician-reported measures of borderline personality features and other indices of maladaptive personality functioning. Furthermore, the RFQ scales were associated with levels of parental reflective functioning, which in turn predicted infant attachment status in the SSP. Overall, this study lends

  3. How reliable are self-reports of HIV status disclosure? Evidence from couples in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, Amy A.; Wong, Lauren H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The majority of research on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disclosure utilizes the perspective from a single individual, which cannot be substantiated in the absence of supporting data such as from a primary partner. Objectives The objectives of this study were to evaluate: (1) the extent to which self-reported HIV disclosure was confirmed by a primary partner; (2) individual and relationship-level predictors of self-reported versus confirmed disclosure; and (3) whether confirmed disclosure was a stronger predictor of correctly assessing a partner's HIV status compared to self-reported disclosure. Methods As part of an 8-wave longitudinal study from 2009-2011 in southern Malawi, 366 individuals (183 couples) were interviewed about their primary relationship (wave 3), individually tested for HIV (wave 4), and then asked whether they disclosed to their primary partner (wave 5). Results While 93% of respondents reported that they disclosed, only 64% of respondents had confirmed reports from their partner. Having communicated with partner about HIV was positively associated with self-reported disclosure; this association remained significant but became more precise in the models for confirmed disclosure. Confirmed disclosure, but not self-report, was a significant predictor of correctly assessing a partner's HIV status. Being male, having lower perceived partner infidelity, having higher relationship unity, and testing HIV-negative were positively and significantly associated with correct assessment. Dyadic data from two partners provide an improved measure of disclosure as compared to a single individual's self-report and could be used to identify behavioral and biomedical opportunities to prevent HIV transmission within couples. PMID:26379084

  4. Self-reported memory problems in multiple sclerosis: influence of psychiatric status and normative dissociative experiences.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Jared M; Bruce, Amanda S; Hancock, Laura; Lynch, Sharon

    2010-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients' self-reported cognitive difficulties do not typically correlate well with objective neuropsychological assessment. The relationship between self-reported memory, dissociation, emotional problems, and objective cognitive functioning was examined in 79 MS patients. Increased self-reported memory problems were significantly associated with higher levels of normative dissociation. Self-reported memory problems were also associated with more reports of depression, anxiety, and neuroticism. Consistent with expectations, self-reported memory was not significantly associated with performance on any of the neuropsychological variables. The present study then evaluated a theoretical causal model with normative dissociation mediating the relationship between emotional problems and perceived cognitive problems. Increased depression, anxiety, and neuroticism were all significantly correlated with more dissociative cognitive failures, which, in turn, were strongly associated with perceived memory problems. Findings have significant theoretical implications for understanding the relationship between perceived and objective cognitive difficulties. Findings are also clinically relevant and suggest that dissociative experiences should be evaluated when MS patients report memory problems.

  5. Test Review: Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function--Self-Report Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Justin M.; D'Amato, Rik Carl

    2006-01-01

    The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Self-Report version (BRIEF-SR) is the first self-report measure of executive functioning for adolescents. With the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act authorization, there is a greater need for appropriate assessment of severely impaired children. Recent studies have…

  6. Social Cognition, Executive Functions and Self-Report of Psychological Distress in Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Ida Unmack; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Gade, Anders; Vogel, Asmus

    2016-12-28

    Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by motor symptoms, psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment in, inter alia, executive functions and social cognition. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subjective feeling of psychological distress using a self-report questionnaire and performances on tests of executive functions and social cognition in a large consecutive cohort of HD patients. 50 manifest HD patients were tested in social cognition and executive functions and each answered a self-report questionnaire about current status of perceived psychological distress (the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R)). Correlation analyses of test performance and SCL-90-R scores were made as well as stepwise linear regression analyses with the SCL-90-R GSI score and test performances as dependent variables. We found that less psychological distress was significantly associated with worse performances on social cognitive tests (mean absolute correlation .34) and that there were no significant correlations between perceived psychological distress and performance on tests of executive functions. The correlations between perceived psychological distress and performance on social cognitive tests remained significant after controlling for age, Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale-99 total motor score and performance on tests of executive functions. Based on previous findings that insight and apathy are closely connected and may be mediated by overlapping neuroanatomical networks involving the prefrontal cortex and frontostriatal circuits, we speculate that apathy/and or impaired insight may offer an explanation for the correlation between self-report of psychological distress and performance on social cognitive tests in this study.

  7. Social Cognition, Executive Functions and Self-Report of Psychological Distress in Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Ida Unmack; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Gade, Anders; Vogel, Asmus

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Huntington’s disease (HD) is characterized by motor symptoms, psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment in, inter alia, executive functions and social cognition. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subjective feeling of psychological distress using a self-report questionnaire and performances on tests of executive functions and social cognition in a large consecutive cohort of HD patients. Method: 50 manifest HD patients were tested in social cognition and executive functions and each answered a self-report questionnaire about current status of perceived psychological distress (the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R)). Correlation analyses of test performance and SCL-90-R scores were made as well as stepwise linear regression analyses with the SCL-90-R GSI score and test performances as dependent variables. Results: We found that less psychological distress was significantly associated with worse performances on social cognitive tests (mean absolute correlation .34) and that there were no significant correlations between perceived psychological distress and performance on tests of executive functions. The correlations between perceived psychological distress and performance on social cognitive tests remained significant after controlling for age, Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale-99 total motor score and performance on tests of executive functions. Conclusions: Based on previous findings that insight and apathy are closely connected and may be mediated by overlapping neuroanatomical networks involving the prefrontal cortex and frontostriatal circuits, we speculate that apathy/and or impaired insight may offer an explanation for the correlation between self-report of psychological distress and performance on social cognitive tests in this study. PMID:28154786

  8. The Association of Self-reported Sleep, Weight Status and Academic Performance in Fifth Grade Students

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Janise; Plog, Amy; Siegfried, Scott; Hill, James O.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND To improve support and justification for health promotion efforts in schools, it is helpful to understand how students’ health behaviors affect academic performance. METHODS Fifth grade students completed an online school administered health survey with questions regarding their eating behavior, physical activity, academic performance, and sleep patterns. Differences in health behaviors were examined by sex, self-reported weight status, and sufficient (≥ 9 hours) versus insufficient sleep. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between academic performance and the health behaviors. RESULTS One-third of the sample did not get the recommended amount of physical activity and more than half of the students watched TV ≥ 2 hours/day. Self-reported overweight status was related to lower self-reported academic performance, fewer lunch and breakfast occasions, less physical activity, not meeting the recommendations for vegetable and soda consumption as well as hours of TV watching. Sufficient sleep (≥ 9 hours/night) was associated with better grades, meeting the recommended hours of daily TV watching and video game playing, being more physically active and increased breakfast and lunch frequency. Percentage of serving free/reduced lunch, soda consumption, breakfast frequency, amount of physical activity, and TV watching were associated with academic performance. CONCLUSION More positive health behaviors generally were associated with better academic performance. Promoting healthy behaviors in schools might improve not only students’ health academic performance as well. PMID:23331266

  9. Edentulism and other variables associated with self-reported health status in Mexican adults.

    PubMed

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2014-05-23

    To determine if edentulism, controlling for other known factors, is associated with subjective self-report health status (SRH) in Mexican adults. We examined the SRH of 13 966 individuals 35 years and older, using data from the National Survey of Performance Assessment, a cross-sectional study that is part of the technical collaboration between the Ministry of Health of Mexico and the World Health Organization, which used the survey instrument and sampling strategies developed by WHO for the World Health Survey. Sociodemographic, socioeconomic, medical, and behavioral variables were collected using questionnaires. Self-reported health was our dependent variable. Data on edentulism were available from 20 of the 32 Mexican states. A polynomial logistic regression model adjusted for complex sampling was generated. In the SRH, 58.2% reported their health status as very good/good, 33.8% said they had a moderate health status, and 8.0% reported that their health was bad/very bad. The association between edentulism and SRH was modified by age and was significant only for bad/very bad SRH. Higher odds of reporting moderate health or poor/very poor health were found in women, people with lower socio-economic status and with physical disabilities, those who were not physically active, or those who were underweight or obese, those who had any chronic disease, and those who used alcohol. The association of edentulism with a self-report of a poor health status (poor/very poor) was higher in young people than in adults. The results suggest socioeconomic inequalities in SRH. Inequality was further confirmed among people who had a general health condition or a disability. Dentists and health care professionals need to recognize the effect of edentulism on quality of life among elders people.

  10. Edentulism and other variables associated with self-reported health status in Mexican adults

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine if edentulism, controlling for other known factors, is associated with subjective self-report health status (SRH) in Mexican adults. Material/Methods We examined the SRH of 13 966 individuals 35 years and older, using data from the National Survey of Performance Assessment, a cross-sectional study that is part of the technical collaboration between the Ministry of Health of Mexico and the World Health Organization, which used the survey instrument and sampling strategies developed by WHO for the World Health Survey. Sociodemographic, socioeconomic, medical, and behavioral variables were collected using questionnaires. Self-reported health was our dependent variable. Data on edentulism were available from 20 of the 32 Mexican states. A polynomial logistic regression model adjusted for complex sampling was generated. Results In the SRH, 58.2% reported their health status as very good/good, 33.8% said they had a moderate health status, and 8.0% reported that their health was bad/very bad. The association between edentulism and SRH was modified by age and was significant only for bad/very bad SRH. Higher odds of reporting moderate health or poor/very poor health were found in women, people with lower socio-economic status and with physical disabilities, those who were not physically active, or those who were underweight or obese, those who had any chronic disease, and those who used alcohol. Conclusions The association of edentulism with a self-report of a poor health status (poor/very poor) was higher in young people than in adults. The results suggest socioeconomic inequalities in SRH. Inequality was further confirmed among people who had a general health condition or a disability. PMID:24852266

  11. Parents with Psychosis: A Pilot Study Examining Self-Report Measures Related to Family Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Karen; Byrne, Linda; Barkla, Joanne; McLean, Duncan; Hearle, Jenny; McGrath, John

    2002-01-01

    Examines the utility of various self-report instruments related to family functioning in families where a parent has a psychotic disorder, and explores associations between these instruments and symptoms in the parent. There were significant associations between objective measures of negative symptoms and self-report scores related to problems in…

  12. Self-Reported versus Professionally Assessed Functional Limitations in Community-Dwelling Very Old Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsson, Gunilla; Haak, Maria; Nygren, Carita; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported and professionally assessed functional limitations in community-dwelling very old individuals. In total, 306 single-living adults aged 81-90 years were included in this cross-sectional study. The main outcome measure was the presence and absence of self-reported and…

  13. When group members admit to being conformist: the role of relative intragroup status in conformity self-reports.

    PubMed

    Jetten, Jolanda; Hornsey, Matthew J; Adarves-Yorno, Inmaculada

    2006-02-01

    Five studies examined the hypothesis that people will strategically portray the self as being more group influenced the more junior they feel within the group. Among social psychologists (Study 1), ratings of self-conformity by group members were greater when the status of the participant was low than when it was high. These effects were replicated in Studies 2, 3, and 4 in which relative intragroup status was manipulated. In Study 3, the authors found junior group members described themselves as more conformist than senior members when they were addressing an ingroup audience, but when they were addressing an outgroup audience the effect disappeared. Furthermore, junior members (but not senior members) rated themselves as more conformist when they were led to believe their responses were public than when responses were private (Study 5). The discussion focuses on the strategic processes underlying low-status group members' self-reports of group influence and the functional role of conformity in groups.

  14. Predicting cost of care using self-reported health status data.

    PubMed

    Boscardin, Christy K; Gonzales, Ralph; Bradley, Kent L; Raven, Maria C

    2015-09-23

    We examined whether self-reported employee health status data can improve the performance of administrative data-based models for predicting future high health costs, and develop a predictive model for predicting new high cost individuals. This retrospective cohort study used data from 8,917 Safeway employees self-insured by Safeway during 2008 and 2009. We created models using step-wise multivariable logistic regression starting with health services use data, then socio-demographic data, and finally adding the self-reported health status data to the model. Adding self-reported health data to the baseline model that included only administrative data (health services use and demographic variables; c-statistic = 0.63) increased the model" predictive power (c-statistic = 0.70). Risk factors associated with being a new high cost individual in 2009 were: 1) had one or more ED visits in 2008 (adjusted OR: 1.87, 95 % CI: 1.52, 2.30), 2) had one or more hospitalizations in 2008 (adjusted OR: 1.95, 95 % CI: 1.38, 2.77), 3) being female (adjusted OR: 1.34, 95 % CI: 1.16, 1.55), 4) increasing age (compared with age 18-35, adjusted OR for 36-49 years: 1.28; 95 % CI: 1.03, 1.60; adjusted OR for 50-64 years: 1.92, 95 % CI: 1.55, 2.39; adjusted OR for 65+ years: 3.75, 95 % CI: 2.67, 2.23), 5) the presence of self-reported depression (adjusted OR: 1.53, 95 % CI: 1.29, 1.81), 6) chronic pain (adjusted OR: 2.22, 95 % CI: 1.81, 2.72), 7) diabetes (adjusted OR: 1.73, 95 % CI: 1.35, 2.23), 8) high blood pressure (adjusted OR: 1.42, 95 % CI: 1.21, 1.67), and 9) above average BMI (adjusted OR: 1.20, 95 % CI: 1.04, 1.38). The comparison of the models between the full sample and the sample without theprevious high cost members indicated significant differences in the predictors. This has importantimplications for models using only the health service use (administrative data) given that the past high costis significantly correlated with future high cost and often drive the

  15. Self-reported health status of students in-processing into military medical advanced individual training.

    PubMed

    Rice, Valerie J Berg; Mays, Mary Z; Gable, Clayton

    2009-01-01

    It is important to be aware of the health and injury status of students in military training settings in order to adequately plan for their progression through required physical training and provision of health care to meet their needs. This paper describes the self-reported health status of students arriving in two medical training Battalions at Ft. Sam Houston. The results revealed that 43% of arriving soldiers had musculoskeletal symptoms and 35% had symptoms that interfered with their ability to accomplish the normal daily activities required as students. The most common sites of symptoms were knee (17 and 18%), foot/toe (16 and 13%), ankle (9 and 10%), and lower leg (9 and 12%) for the 232nd and 187th Medical Battalions respectively. Risk factors for those with musculoskeletal injury (MSI) symptoms that interfere with their abilities to do their jobs include gender, past history of injury, and self-reported stress and fitness levels. Other risk factors for medical specialties other than combat medic include being older (over 24 yrs of age), active duty status, being overweight, and use of smokeless tobacco. This information can help identify soldiers considered at risk of incurring a MSI during AIT. With this knowledge, physical training can be designed to help soldiers achieve fitness without additional injury and health care facilities can be designed to provide appropriate staffing of the health care professionals needed for evaluation and treatment.

  16. Self-reported versus professionally assessed functional limitations in community-dwelling very old individuals.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Gunilla; Haak, Maria; Nygren, Carita; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported and professionally assessed functional limitations in community-dwelling very old individuals. In total, 306 single-living adults aged 81-90 years were included in this cross-sectional study. The main outcome measure was the presence and absence of self-reported and professionally assessed functional limitations. A significant correlation was found between the total number of self-reported and professionally assessed functional limitations in the total sample (intraclass correlation=0.65) as well as in subgroups with respect to sex, age, and depression. When item-wise differences in the two assessments were assessed, the results showed significant differences for nine of the 15 functional limitations. In general, the participants reported more functional limitations as present than the professional did. In conclusion, research on self-reported and professionally assessed functional limitations contributes toward the understanding of how different modes of data collection influence the results. In this study, functional limitations were examined on a broad basis, including physical as well as cognitive and perceptual limitations. Once the assessments of self-reporting have been refined, we will have a more nuanced picture of functional limitations, incorporating self-report as well as professional assessments.

  17. Catechol O-Methyltransferase (COMT) VAL158MET Functional Polymorphism, Dental Mercury Exposure, and Self-Reported Symptoms and Mood

    PubMed Central

    Heyer, Nicholas J.; Echeverria, Diana; Martin, Michael D.; Farin, Federico M.; Woods, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Associations were evaluated between a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (Val158Met) in the gene encoding the catecholamine catabolic enzyme catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT), dental mercury exposure, and self-reported symptoms and mood among 183 male dentists and 213 female dental assistants. Self-reported symptoms, mood, and detailed work histories were obtained by computerized questionnaire. Spot urine samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentrations to evaluate recent exposures, whereas a chronic mercury exposure index for all subjects was created from the work histories. COMT polymorphism status was determined using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay. Scores for current, recent, and chronic self-reported symptom groups and six self-reported mood factors were evaluated with respect to recent and chronic mercury exposure and COMT polymorphism status. Multiple regression analysis controlled for age, socioeconomic status, tobacco and alcohol use, self-reported health problems, and medications. Separate evaluations were conducted for dentists and dental assistants. No consistent patterns of association between either urinary mercury concentration or the chronic index of mercury exposure and any category of symptoms were observed. However, consistent and significant associations were found between increased symptoms and the COMT polymorphism involving the double allelic substitution (full mutation) compared to subjects with no substitutions. Associations with mood were limited to polymorphism status among female dental assistants, and were observed for four of six mood factors and overall mood score. These findings extend evidence of genetic factors potentially affecting human susceptibility to the toxic effects of mercury and other environmental chemicals. PMID:19296409

  18. Relationship between psychiatric status, self-reported outcome measures, and clinical parameters in axial spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Gamze; Kilic, Erkan; Ozgocmen, Salih

    2014-12-01

    This article aims to compare the risks of depression and anxiety in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) and investigate the relationship among self-reported outcome measures, clinical parameters, and physical variables of patients with axSpA. Patients with axSpA were recruited from Erciyes Spondyloarthritis Cohort. The patients met Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society classification criteria for axial SpA and were assessed in a cross-sectional study design for visual analog scale (VAS) pain, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life questionnaire (ASQoL), and Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score-C-reactive protein (ASDAS-CRP). Psychological status was evaluated using the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the associations between psychological variables and clinical parameters after adjusting for confounding variables. Of the 316 patients (142 nr-axSpA, 174 AS), 139 (44%) had high risk for depression (HADS-D score ≥ 7) and 71 (22.5%) for anxiety (HADS-A score ≥ 10). HADS-D and HADS-A scores were similar between patients with AS and nr-axSpA. Patients with high risk for depression and anxiety had higher scores in BASDAI, BASFI, and ASDAS-CRP, and also poorer scores in VAS pain and ASQoL. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the ASDAS-CRP, ASQoL, BASDAI, as well as educational level were factors associated with the risk of depression whereas the ASQoL and educational level were factors associated with the risk of anxiety. Patients with nr-axSpA and AS have similar burden of psychological distress. The quality of life (ASQoL) and educational level were factors associated with the risk of both depression and anxiety whereas disease activity (BASDAI and ASDAS-CRP) was the

  19. Self-Reported Sleep Correlates with Prefrontal-Amygdala Functional Connectivity and Emotional Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Killgore, William D. S.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Prior research suggests that sleep deprivation is associated with declines in some aspects of emotional intelligence and increased severity on indices of psychological disturbance. Sleep deprivation is also associated with reduced prefrontal-amygdala functional connectivity, potentially reflecting impaired top-down modulation of emotion. It remains unknown whether this modified connectivity may be observed in relation to more typical levels of sleep curtailment. We examined whether self-reported sleep duration the night before an assessment would be associated with these effects. Design: Participants documented their hours of sleep from the previous night, completed the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), and Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Setting: Outpatient neuroimaging center at a private psychiatric hospital. Participants: Sixty-five healthy adults (33 men, 32 women), ranging in age from 18-45 y. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Greater self-reported sleep the preceding night was associated with higher scores on all scales of the EQ-i but not the MSCEIT, and with lower symptom severity scores on half of the psychopathology scales of the PAI. Longer sleep was also associated with stronger negative functional connectivity between the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Moreover, greater negative connectivity between these regions was associated with higher EQ-i and lower symptom severity on the PAI. Conclusions: Self-reported sleep duration from the preceding night was negatively correlated with prefrontal-amygdala connectivity and the severity of subjective psychological distress, while positively correlated with higher perceived emotional intelligence. More sleep was associated with higher emotional and psychological strength. Citation: Killgore WDS. Self-reported

  20. Self-reported difficulties with everyday function, cognitive symptoms and cognitive function in people with HIV.

    PubMed

    Laverick, Rosanna; Haddow, Lewis; Daskalopoulou, Marina; Lampe, Fiona; Gilson, Richard; Speakman, Andrew; Antinori, Andrea; Bruun, Tina; Vassilenko, Anna; Collins, Simon; Rodger, Alison

    2017-06-07

    We determined factors associated with self-reported decline in activities of daily living (ADLs) and symptoms of cognitive impairment in HIV positive (HIV+) adults in five European clinics. HIV+ adults underwent computerized and pen-and-paper neuropsychological tests and questionnaires of cognitive symptoms and ADLs. We considered cognitive function in five domains, psychosocial factors and clinical parameters as potentially associated with symptoms. Separate regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with decline in ADL (defined as self-reported decline affecting ≥2 ADLs and attributed to cognitive difficulties) and self-reported frequency of symptoms of cognitive impairment. We also estimated the diagnostic accuracy of both questionnaires as tests for cognitive impairment. 448 patients completed the assessments (mean age 45.8 years, 84% male, 87% white, median CD4 count 550 cells/mm, median time since HIV diagnosis 9.9 years, 81% virologically suppressed [HIV-1 plasma RNA <50 copies/mL]). Ninety-six (21.4%) reported decline in ADLs and attributed this to cognitive difficulties. Self-reported decline in ADLs and increased symptoms of cognitive impairment were both associated with worse performance on some cognitive tests. There were also strong associations with financial difficulties, depressive and anxiety symptoms, unemployment, and longer time since HIV diagnosis. Both questionnaires performed poorly as diagnostic tests for cognitive impairment. Patients' own assessments of everyday function and symptoms were associated with objectively-measured cognitive function. However, there were strong associations with other psychosocial issues including mood and anxiety disorders and socioeconomic hardship. This should be considered when assessing HIV-associated cognitive impairment in clinical care or research studies.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CCBY

  1. Self-Reported Decline in Everyday Function, Cognitive Symptoms, and Cognitive Function in People With HIV.

    PubMed

    Laverick, Rosanna; Haddow, Lewis; Daskalopoulou, Marina; Lampe, Fiona; Gilson, Richard; Speakman, Andrew; Antinori, Andrea; Bruun, Tina; Vassilenko, Anna; Collins, Simon; Rodger, Alison

    2017-11-01

    We determined factors associated with self-reported decline in activities of daily living (ADLs) and symptoms of cognitive impairment in HIV positive adults in 5 European clinics. HIV+ adults underwent computerized and pen-and-paper neuropsychological tests and questionnaires of cognitive symptoms and ADLs. We considered cognitive function in 5 domains, psychosocial factors, and clinical parameters as potentially associated with symptoms. Separate regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with a decline in ADL (defined as self-reported decline affecting ≥2 ADLs and attributed to cognitive difficulties) and self-reported frequency of symptoms of cognitive impairment. We also estimated the diagnostic accuracy of both questionnaires as tests for cognitive impairment. Four hundred forty-eight patients completed the assessments [mean age 45.8 years, 84% male, 87% white, median CD4 count 550 cells/mm, median time since HIV diagnosis 9.9 years, 81% virologically suppressed (HIV-1 plasma RNA <50 copies/mL)]. Ninety-six (21.4%) reported decline in ADLs and attributed this to cognitive difficulties. Self-reported decline in ADLs and increased symptoms of cognitive impairment were both associated with worse performance on some cognitive tests. There were also strong associations with financial difficulties, depressive and anxiety symptoms, unemployment, and longer time since HIV diagnosis. Both questionnaires performed poorly as diagnostic tests for cognitive impairment. Patients' own assessments of everyday function and symptoms were associated with objectively measured cognitive function. However, there were strong associations with other psychosocial issues including mood and anxiety disorders and socioeconomic hardship. This should be considered when assessing HIV-associated cognitive impairment in clinical care or research studies.

  2. Self-reported physical and mental health status and quality of life in adolescents: a latent variable mediation model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We examined adolescents' differentiation of their self-reported physical and mental health status, the relative importance of these variables and five important life domains (satisfaction with family, friends, living environment, school and self) with respect to adolescents' global quality of life (QOL), and the extent to which the five life domains mediate the relationships between self-reported physical and mental health status and global QOL. Methods The data were obtained via a cross-sectional health survey of 8,225 adolescents in 49 schools in British Columbia, Canada. Structural equation modeling was applied to test the implied latent variable mediation model. The Pratt index (d) was used to evaluate variable importance. Results Relative to one another, self-reported mental health status was found to be more strongly associated with depressive symptoms, and self-reported physical health status more strongly associated with physical activity. Self-reported physical and mental health status and the five life domains explained 76% of the variance in global QOL. Relatively poorer mental health and physical health were significantly associated with lower satisfaction in each of the life domains. Global QOL was predominantly explained by three of the variables: mental health status (d = 30%), satisfaction with self (d = 42%), and satisfaction with family (d = 20%). Satisfaction with self and family were the predominant mediators of mental health and global QOL (45% total mediation), and of physical health and global QOL (68% total mediation). Conclusions This study provides support for the validity and relevance of differentiating self-reported physical and mental health status in adolescent health surveys. Self-reported mental health status and, to a lesser extent, self-reported physical health status were associated with significant differences in the adolescents' satisfaction with their family, friends, living environment, school experiences, self

  3. Supporting the Spectrum Hypothesis: Self-Reported Temperament in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Catherine A; Usher, Lauren V; Schwartz, Caley B; Mundy, Peter C; Henderson, Heather A

    2016-04-01

    This study tested the spectrum hypothesis, which posits that children and adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) differ quantitatively but not qualitatively from typically developing peers on self-reported temperament. Temperament refers to early-appearing, relatively stable behavioral and emotional tendencies, which relate to maladaptive behaviors across clinical populations. Quantitatively, participants with HFA (N = 104, aged 10-16) self-reported less surgency and more negative affect but did not differ from comparison participants (N = 94, aged 10-16) on effortful control or affiliation. Qualitatively, groups demonstrated comparable reliability of self-reported temperament and associations between temperament and parent-reported behavior problems. These findings support the spectrum hypothesis, highlighting the utility of self-report temperament measures for understanding individual differences in comorbid behavior problems among children and adolescents with HFA.

  4. Supporting the Spectrum Hypothesis: Self-Reported Temperament in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Catherine A.; Usher, Lauren V.; Schwartz, Caley B.; Mundy, Peter C.; Henderson, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the spectrum hypothesis, which posits that children and adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) differ quantitatively but not qualitatively from typically developing peers on self-reported temperament. Temperament refers to early-appearing, relatively stable behavioral and emotional tendencies, which relate to maladaptive behaviors across clinical populations. Quantitatively, participants with HFA (N=104, aged 10–16) self-reported less Surgency and more Negative Affect but did not differ from comparison participants (N=94, aged 10–16) on Effortful Control or Affiliation. Qualitatively, groups demonstrated comparable reliability of self-reported temperament and associations between temperament and parent-reported behavior problems. These findings support the spectrum hypothesis, highlighting the utility of self-report temperament measures for understanding individual differences in comorbid behavior problems among children and adolescents with HFA. PMID:26589536

  5. Self-Reported Sexual Functioning Concerns among Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tambling, Rachel B.; Reckert, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Researchers who have studied sexual functioning concerns do not often focus their research on undergraduate populations, perhaps due to perceptions of universal sexual health among this population. The current study examined prevalence and type of sexual functioning concerns in a sample of 347 male and female undergraduate students. Sexual…

  6. Self-Reported Sexual Functioning Concerns among Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tambling, Rachel B.; Reckert, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Researchers who have studied sexual functioning concerns do not often focus their research on undergraduate populations, perhaps due to perceptions of universal sexual health among this population. The current study examined prevalence and type of sexual functioning concerns in a sample of 347 male and female undergraduate students. Sexual…

  7. Self-Reported Health Status in Primary Health Care: The Influence of Immigration and Other Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel Á.; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; del Otero-Sanz, Laura; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen; Chico-Moraleja, Rosa M.; Martín-Madrazo, Carmen; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study are to compare self-reported health status between Spanish-born and Latin American-born Spanish residents, adjusted by length of residence in the host country; and additionally, to analyse sociodemographic and psychosocial variables associated with a better health status. Design This is a cross-sectional population based study of Latin American-born (n = 691) and Spanish-born (n = 903) in 15 urban primary health care centres in Madrid (Spain), carried out between 2007 and 2009. The participants provided information, through an interview, about self-reported health status, socioeconomic characteristics, psychosocial factors and migration conditions. Descriptive and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results The Spanish-born participants reported a better health status than the Latin America-born participants (79.8% versus 69.3%, p<0.001). Different patterns of self-reported health status were observed depending on the length of residence in the host country. The proportion of immigrants with a better health status is greater in those who have been in Spain for less than five years compared to those who have stayed longer. Better health status is significantly associated with being men, under 34 years old, being Spanish-born, having a monthly incomes of over 1000 euros, and having considerable social support and low stress. Conclusions Better self-reported health status is associated with being Spanish-born, men, under 34 years old, having an uppermiddle-socioeconomic status, adequate social support, and low stress. Additionally, length of residence in the host country is seen as a related factor in the self-reported health status of immigrants. PMID:22675564

  8. Self-reported health status in primary health care: the influence of immigration and other associated factors.

    PubMed

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel Á; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; del Otero-Sanz, Laura; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen; Chico-Moraleja, Rosa M; Martín-Madrazo, Carmen; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study are to compare self-reported health status between Spanish-born and Latin American-born Spanish residents, adjusted by length of residence in the host country; and additionally, to analyse sociodemographic and psychosocial variables associated with a better health status. This is a cross-sectional population based study of Latin American-born (n = 691) and Spanish-born (n = 903) in 15 urban primary health care centres in Madrid (Spain), carried out between 2007 and 2009. The participants provided information, through an interview, about self-reported health status, socioeconomic characteristics, psychosocial factors and migration conditions. Descriptive and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. The Spanish-born participants reported a better health status than the Latin America-born participants (79.8% versus 69.3%, p<0.001). Different patterns of self-reported health status were observed depending on the length of residence in the host country. The proportion of immigrants with a better health status is greater in those who have been in Spain for less than five years compared to those who have stayed longer. Better health status is significantly associated with being men, under 34 years old, being Spanish-born, having a monthly incomes of over 1000 euros, and having considerable social support and low stress. Better self-reported health status is associated with being Spanish-born, men, under 34 years old, having an uppermiddle-socioeconomic status, adequate social support, and low stress. Additionally, length of residence in the host country is seen as a related factor in the self-reported health status of immigrants.

  9. Cognitive Correlates of Functional Performance in Older Adults: Comparison of Self-Report, Direct Observation, and Performance-Based Measures

    PubMed Central

    Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Parsey, Carolyn; Cook, Diane J.

    2013-01-01

    Neuropsychologists are often asked to answer questions about the effects of cognitive deficits on everyday functioning. This study examined the relationship between and the cognitive correlates of self-report, performance-based, and direct observation measures commonly used as proxy measures for everyday functioning. Participants were 88 community-dwelling, cognitively healthy older adults (age 50–86 years). Participants completed standardized neuropsychological tests and questionnaires, and performed eight activities of daily living (e.g., water plants, fill a medication dispenser) while under direct observation in a campus apartment. All proxy measures of everyday function were sensitive to the effects of healthy cognitive aging. After controlling for age, cognitive predictors explained a unique amount of the variance for only the performance-based behavioral simulation measure (i.e., Revised Observed Tasks of Daily Living). The self-report instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and the performance-based everyday problem-solving test (i.e., EPT) did not correlate with each other; however, both were unique predictors of the direct observation measure. These findings suggest that neuropsychologists must be cautious in making predictions about the quality of everyday activity completion in cognitively healthy older adults from specific cognitive functions. The findings further suggest that a self-report of IADLs and the performance-based EPT may be useful measures for assessing everyday functional status in cognitively healthy older adults. PMID:21729400

  10. Cognitive Longitudinal Predictors of Older Adults’ Self-Reported IADL Function

    PubMed Central

    Yam, Anna; Marsiske, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine basic and everyday cognitive predictors of older adults’ self-reported instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Methods Basic and everyday cognitive predictors of self-reported IADL were examined in a sample of healthy, community-dwelling older adults (n = 698) assessed over five years of measurement. Results Multilevel longitudinal analyses revealed linear and quadratic change trends for self-reported IADL function, with steeper declines at higher ages. Within-person, when participants exhibited lower cognitive performance, they also reported more IADL impairment. Everyday cognition remained a significant unique predictor of self-reported IADL after controlling for attrition, re-sampling effects, temporal gradients, and baseline levels and changes in demographic, sensory, functional, and basic cognitive measures. Discussion By itself, everyday cognition appears to be an important predictor of self-reported IADL, and maintains a unique predictive contribution after many covariates are controlled. Future research should consider the inclusion of everyday cognitive measures in functional assessment batteries. PMID:24385635

  11. Biomonitoring of tobacco smoke exposure and self-reported smoking status among general population of Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Hoseini, Mohammad; Yunesian, Masud; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar; Parmy, Saeid; Gharibi, Hamed; Faridi, Sasan; Hasanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Rastkari, Noushin; Mirzaei, Nezam; Naddafi, Kazem

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to find a correlation between the self-reported smoking status of the residents of Tehran, Iran, and the urine cotinine as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco smoke. The self-reported data was collected from 222 participants who were living in the urban area of Tehran. The urine samples of participants were collected for cotinine analysis. Urine cotinine was measured by an enzymatic immunoassay technique. Tobacco smoking was reported by 76 (34.23 %) participants as the self-reported data, and the number of males in this report was higher than of females (p < 0.001). By adding the number of the self-reported non-smokers with cotinine levels above the cutoff value of >100 ng/ml to self-reported smokers, the smoking prevalence increased from 34.23 % (95 % CI 28.01-40.88 %) to 36.48 % (95 % CI 30.14-43.19 %). Using the cutoff value, sensitivity and specificity of the self-reported smoking status were respectively 90.12 % (95 % CI 81.46-95.64 %) and 98 % (95 % CI 93.91-99.55 %). The levels of agreement between self-reported tobacco smoking and urinary cotinine concentrations was 95.1 % (k = 0.89, p < 0.001, 95 % CI = 0.81-0.95). Based on the results, self-reported smoking can be a valid marker for assessing the tobacco exposure, and it can be of use in large epidemiological studies.

  12. Self-reported sleep correlates with prefrontal-amygdala functional connectivity and emotional functioning.

    PubMed

    Killgore, William D S

    2013-11-01

    Prior research suggests that sleep deprivation is associated with declines in some aspects of emotional intelligence and increased severity on indices of psychological disturbance. Sleep deprivation is also associated with reduced prefrontal-amygdala functional connectivity, potentially reflecting impaired top-down modulation of emotion. It remains unknown whether this modified connectivity may be observed in relation to more typical levels of sleep curtailment. We examined whether self-reported sleep duration the night before an assessment would be associated with these effects. Participants documented their hours of sleep from the previous night, completed the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), and Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Outpatient neuroimaging center at a private psychiatric hospital. Sixty-five healthy adults (33 men, 32 women), ranging in age from 18-45 y. N/A. Greater self-reported sleep the preceding night was associated with higher scores on all scales of the EQ-i but not the MSCEIT, and with lower symptom severity scores on half of the psychopathology scales of the PAI. Longer sleep was also associated with stronger negative functional connectivity between the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Moreover, greater negative connectivity between these regions was associated with higher EQ-i and lower symptom severity on the PAI. Self-reported sleep duration from the preceding night was negatively correlated with prefrontal-amygdala connectivity and the severity of subjective psychological distress, while positively correlated with higher perceived emotional intelligence. More sleep was associated with higher emotional and psychological strength.

  13. Self-reported health status of vietnamese and non-Hispanic white older adults in california.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Dara; Tan, Angela L; Hays, Ron D; Mangione, Carol M; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2008-08-01

    Vietnamese Americans are a rapidly growing minority group in the United States, yet little is known about their health status. Chronic medical conditions and self-rated health of older Vietnamese Americans were compared with those of non-Hispanic white adults living in California using the 2001 and 2003 California Health Interview Surveys (CHISs). The CHIS employed a random-digit-dial telephone survey, and its sample is representative of California's noninstitutionalized population. The sample included 359 Vietnamese and 25,177 non-Hispanic white adults aged 55 and older. Vietnamese and non-Hispanic white adults were compared in terms of limitations in activities of daily living, chronic medical conditions (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease, asthma), mental health care, and self-reported health, adjusting for age, sex, and education. Vietnamese were more likely than white participants to report needing help for mental health problems (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.4-3.1) but less likely to have had their medical providers discuss their mental health problems with them (aOR=0.3, 95% CI=0.1-0.5). In addition, Vietnamese participants reported significantly worse health than white adults on five of eight domains of the Medical Outcomes Survery 12-item Short Form survey (P<.006). Clinicians caring for older Vietnamese individuals should be aware of the high risk for mental health needs in this population and should initiate discussions about mental health with their patients. Further research is needed to better understand why older Vietnamese Americans are at higher risk for worse self-reported health than older white adults.

  14. Beyond depression: Predictors of self-reported cognitive function in adults living with MS.

    PubMed

    Beier, Meghan; Amtmann, Dagmar; Ehde, Dawn M

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the association between self-reported cognition and demographic/psychosocial variables in individuals with a self-reported diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Secondary longitudinal analysis of mailed self-report surveys over a period of 2 years. Community. 407 community-dwelling individuals from the Pacific Northwest with a self-reported diagnosis of MS. Subjective general cognitive concerns and subjective executive difficulties as measured by the Neuro-QOL Applied Cognition-Executive Function-Short Form (SF) and the Applied Cognition-General Concerns-SF. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses were used to identify statistically significant longitudinal predictors of perceived cognitive difficulties 2 years later. Fatigue and anxiety were statistically significant predictors of general cognitive concerns. Fatigue and perceived stress were statistically significant predictors of perceived executive difficulties. Fatigue was the strongest predictor in both models. In MS, perceived cognitive impairment is frequently linked to depression without consideration of other possible contributors. This study suggests that in people with MS, fatigue is a stronger predictor of self-reported cognitive function 2 years later than depression. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Factors related to self-reported health status in low income midlife women.

    PubMed

    Barry Hultquist, Teresa; Laux Kaiser, Katherine; Rajaram, Shireen

    2015-01-01

    Transition throughout midlife can affect women's perception of their health status. Multiple factors are potentially related to self-reported health status (SRHS), but it was not clear what factors are related to SRHS for midlife women, especially those with low income. This study examined factors related to SRHS in low income midlife women over time. A multi-step linear regression of longitudinal Medicaid Managed Care (MMC) data (n = 310) from July 2000 through November 2006 was used. Participants completed SRHS at initial (baseline) enrollment into MMC (T1), with a second assessment completed 11 to 23 months later for those retaining MMC eligibility (T2). Results indicated that disability and number of medical conditions were the factors most related to SRHS. SRHS scores differed significantly between non-disabled and disabled women. For disabled women, SRHS improved significantly between T1 and T2 (p < .001), but not for non-disabled women. Those with lower SRHS scores used community agencies more often. Further studies of SRHS and health-related factors are needed as SRHS is frequently an indicator of population health. Greater evidenced-based knowledge of SRHS in midlife women will inform preventive interventions for this population.

  16. Baseline Self Reported Functional Health and Vulnerability to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder After Combat Deployment: Prospective US Military Cohort Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Psychiatry 2005;162:1171-8. 5 Butterfield MI, Forneris CA, Feldman ME, Beckham JC. Hostility and functional health status in women veterans with and...Bush KR, Davis TM, Bradley KA . Posttraumatic stress disorder in female veterans: association with self-reported health problems and functional

  17. Association between Sleep Duration and Self-Reported Health Status: Findings from the Bhutan's Gross National Happiness Study.

    PubMed

    Sithey, Gyambo; Wen, Li Ming; Kelly, Patrick; Li, Mu

    2017-01-15

    Short and long sleep durations have been found to be associated with chronic conditions like diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. However, most studies were conducted in developed countries and the results were inconsistent. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between sleep duration and self-reported health status in a developing country setting. We conducted secondary data analysis of the 2010 Gross National Happiness study of Bhutan, which was a nationwide cross sectional study with representative samples from rural and urban areas. The study included 6476 participants aged 15-98 y. The main outcome variable of interest was self-reported health status. Sleep duration was categorized as ≤ 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, 9 h, 10 h, and ≥ 11 h. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to investigate the association between sleep duration and self-reported health status. The mean sleep duration was 8.5 (± 1.65) h. Only 9% of the respondents slept for 7 h; 6% were short sleepers (≤ 6 h) and 84% were long sleepers (21%, 8 h; 28%, 9 h; 22%, 10 h; 13%, ≥ 11 h). We found that both short (≤ 6 h) and long sleep duration (≥ 11 h) were independently associated with poor self-reported health status. This study found that people with shorter and longer sleep durations were more likely to report poorer health status.

  18. Cognition, functional capacity, and self-reported disability in women with posttraumatic stress disorder: examining the convergence of performance-based measures and self-reports.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Joanna L; Dunlop, Boadie W; Iosifescu, Dan V; Mathew, Sanjay J; Kelley, Mary E; Harvey, Philip D

    2014-10-01

    Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience cognitive impairments and disability in everyday activities. In other neuropsychiatric disorders, impairments in cognition and functional capacity (i.e., the ability to perform everyday tasks) are associated with impairments in real-world functioning, independent of symptom severity. To date, no studies of functional capacity have been conducted in PTSD. Seventy-three women with moderate to severe PTSD underwent assessment with measures of cognition (MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery: MCCB), functional capacity (UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief: UPSA-B), PTSD (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale and PTSD Symptom Scale-Self-report (PSS-SR)), and depression (Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale). Patients also reported their subjective level of disability (Sheehan Disability Scale). Over-reporting of symptom severity was assessed using six validity items embedded within the PSS-SR. Results indicated that on average PTSD patients manifested mild impairments on the functional capacity measure, performing about 1/3 standard deviation below healthy norms, and similar performance on the MCCB. Both clinician-rated and self-rated PTSD symptom severity correlated with self-reported disability but not with functional capacity. Self-reported disability did not correlate with functional capacity or cognition. Greater self-reported disability, depression, and PTSD symptoms all correlated with higher scores on the PSS-SR validity scale. The divergence between objective and subjective measures of disability suggests that individuals' distress, as indexed by symptom validity measures, may be impacting self-reports of disability. Future studies of disability should incorporate objective measures in order to obtain a broad perspective on functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quadriceps neuromuscular function and self-reported functional ability in knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Berger, M J; McKenzie, C A; Chess, D G; Goela, A; Doherty, T J

    2012-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine 1) the relationships of self-reported function scores in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) to both maximal isometric torque and to isotonic power at a variety of loads, and 2) the degree to which muscle volume (MV) or voluntary activation (VA) are associated with torque and power measures in this population. Isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque and isotonic power [performed at loads corresponding to 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% MVC, and a minimal load ("Zero Load")] were measured in 40 participants with knee OA. Functional ability was measured with the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) function subscale. MV was determined with magnetic resonance imaging, and VA was measured with the interpolated twitch technique. In general, power measured at lower loads (Zero Load and 10-30% MVC, r(2) = 0.21-0.28, P < 0.05) predicted a greater proportion of the variance in function than MVC torque (r(2) = 0.18, P < 0.05), with power measured at Zero Load showing the strongest association (r(2) = 0. 28, P < 0.05). MV was the strongest predictor of MVC torque and power measures in multiple regression models (r(2) = 0.42-0.72). VA explained only 6% of the variance in MVC torque and was not significantly associated with power at any load (P > 0.05). Quadriceps MVC torque and power are associated with self-reported function in knee OA, but muscle power at lower loads is more predictive of function than MVC torque. The variance in MVC torque and power between participants is due predominantly to differences in MV and has little to do with deficits in VA.

  20. Effects of Age and Ability on Self-Reported Memory Functioning and Knowledge of Memory Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Celinda M.; Cherry, Katie E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of age and ability (as measured by education and verbal ability) on self-reported memory functioning in adulthood. In Study 1, the age and ability groups responded similarly to the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (D. E. Broadbent, P. F. Cooper, P. Fitzgerald, & K. R. Parkes, 1982), but differences emerged when the…

  1. Effects of Age and Ability on Self-Reported Memory Functioning and Knowledge of Memory Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Celinda M.; Cherry, Katie E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of age and ability (as measured by education and verbal ability) on self-reported memory functioning in adulthood. In Study 1, the age and ability groups responded similarly to the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (D. E. Broadbent, P. F. Cooper, P. Fitzgerald, & K. R. Parkes, 1982), but differences emerged when the…

  2. Are self-report measures of adaptive functioning appropriate for those high in psychopathic traits?

    PubMed

    Young-Lundquist, Bethany A; Boccaccini, Marcus T; Simpler, Amber

    2012-01-01

    There is ongoing debate about the methods that evaluators should use to assess the adaptive functioning of an individual in an Atkins claim, including the appropriateness of using self-report measures and extent to which adaptive functioning measures are valid for persons with a history of violent offending. This study examined whether offenders' self-report adaptive functioning scores tended to decrease as their level of psychopathic traits increased. Eighty-five male felony probationers completed the self-report version of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System - II (ABAS-II: Harrison & Oakland, 2003), the Psychopathic Personality Inventory - Revised (PPI-R: Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005), and a brief intelligence screening measure. ABAS-II composite scores were negatively correlated with PPI-R Self-Centered Impulsivity and Coldheartedness scores, but positively correlated with Fearless Dominance scores. These relationships appeared to be due, in part, to over-reporting symptoms of impairment across measures, suggesting that scores on self-report adaptive functioning measures may be especially susceptible to feigning. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Supporting the Spectrum Hypothesis: Self-Reported Temperament in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Catherine A.; Usher, Lauren V.; Schwartz, Caley B.; Mundy, Peter C.; Henderson, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the "spectrum hypothesis," which posits that children and adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) differ "quantitatively" but not "qualitatively" from typically developing peers on self-reported temperament. Temperament refers to early-appearing, relatively stable behavioral and emotional…

  4. Supporting the Spectrum Hypothesis: Self-Reported Temperament in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Catherine A.; Usher, Lauren V.; Schwartz, Caley B.; Mundy, Peter C.; Henderson, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the "spectrum hypothesis," which posits that children and adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) differ "quantitatively" but not "qualitatively" from typically developing peers on self-reported temperament. Temperament refers to early-appearing, relatively stable behavioral and emotional…

  5. Adolescent Depression: Relationships of Self-Report to Intellectual and Adaptive Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manikam, Ramasamy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Self-report measures of depression, general psychopathology, and social skills were administered to 100 adolescents ranging from moderate mental retardation to above normal intelligence. Adolescents with mental retardation reported more depression and general psychopathology symptoms. Adaptive behavior functioned as a moderator variable, mediating…

  6. Assessing the Consequences of Using Self-Report Data to Determine the Correlates of HIV Status: Conditional and Marginal Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindskopf, David M.; Strauss, Shiela M.; Falkin, Gregory P.; Deren, Sherry

    2003-01-01

    This article examines whether relationships between individual characteristics and HIV status can be identified when self-report data are used as a proxy for HIV serotest results. The analyses use data obtained from HIV serotests and face-to-face interviews with 7,256 out-of-treatment drug users in ten sites from 1992 to 1998. Relationships…

  7. Nutritional and pubertal status influences accuracy of self-reported weight and height in adolescents: the HELENA Study.

    PubMed

    Béghin, Laurent; Huybrechts, Inge; Ortega, Franscico B; Coopman, Stéphanie; Manios, Yannis; Wijnhoven, Trudy M A; Duhamel, Alain; Ciarapica, Donatella; Gilbert, Chantal C; Kafatos, Anthony; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A; Gottrand, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess factors that have an effect on the accuracy of self-reported weight and height in adolescents. Weight and height of 3,865 European adolescents aged 12.5 to 17.5 years were self-reported via specific questionnaire. Then real weight and height were measured using accurate equipment and standardized protocols. Differences (D) between self-reported and measured weight and height were calculated, and factors that could have influenced the accuracy of self-reported weight and height were assessed. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, Student's t test and multivariate regression. Adolescents underestimated their weight (D = -0.81 kg; n = 2,968) and overestimated their height (D = +0.74 cm; n = 3,308). Obese girls underestimated their weight (D = -4.70 kg) and overestimated their height (D = +0.22 cm) to a greater extent (p < 0.05) than obese boys (D = -3.13 kg and +0.14 cm for weight and height, respectively). Underestimation of weight (D = -1.25 kg) and overestimation of height (D = +0.15 cm) were only significant for girls who had finished puberty (Tanner stage 5). Socioeconomic status, nutritional knowledge, physical fitness, physical activity level, food choice and preference, and healthy eating behaviour had no significant influence on the accuracy of self-reported weight and height. Our data confirms that self-reports of weight and height made by adolescents are inaccurate and demonstrate that inaccuracy is strongly influenced by nutritional status, pubertal status and gender. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Beyond conventional socioeconomic status: examining subjective and objective social status with self-reported health among Asian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Gong, Fang; Xu, Jun; Takeuchi, David T

    2012-08-01

    Despite mounting evidence for a strong and persistent association between socioeconomic status (SES) and health, this relationship is largely unknown among Asian immigrants, a fast growing minority group in the US population. Previous research has typically focused on objective SES (primarily education and income) and ignored self-perceived SES. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) (N = 1,570), we examined the impact of subjective as well as objective SES upon multiple self-reported health outcomes among Asian immigrants. Results indicated that conventional SES indicators by and large were non-significantly related to self-rated physical health, physical discomfort, self-rated mental health, and psychological distress. In contrast, subjective SES relative to people in the United States and people in the community showed strong associations with health outcomes above and beyond conventional SES markers. This study suggested a promising avenue to incorporate subjective SES in health disparities research, especially among immigrants.

  9. Cancer survivors with self-reported late effects: their health status, care needs and service utilisation.

    PubMed

    Treanor, Charlene; Santin, Olinda; Mills, Moyra; Donnelly, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Cancer survivors (CSs) are at risk of developing late effects (LEs) associated with the disease and its treatment. This paper compares the health status, care needs and use of health services by CSs with LEs and CSs without LEs. Cancer survivors (n = 613) were identified via the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry and invited to participate in a postal survey that was administered by their general practitioner. The survey assessed self-reported LEs, health status, health service use and unmet care needs. A total of 289 (47%) CSs responded to the survey, and 93% of respondents completed a LEs scale. Forty-one per cent (111/269) of CSs reported LEs. Survivors without LEs and survivors with LEs were comparable in terms of age and gender. The LEs group reported a significantly greater number of co-morbidities, lower physical health and mental health scores, greater overall health service use and more unmet needs. Unadjusted logistic regression analysis found that cancer site, time since diagnosis and treatment were significantly associated with reporting of LEs. CSs who received combination therapies compared with CSs who received single treatments were over two and a half times more likely to report LEs (OR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.32-5.25) after controlling for all other variables. The CS population with LEs comprises a particularly vulnerable group of survivors who have multiple health care problems and needs and who require tailored care plans that take account of LEs and their impact on health-related quality of life. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Self-Reported Adolescent Health Status of Extremely Low Birth Weight Children Born 1992–1995

    PubMed Central

    Schluchter, Mark; Forrest, Christopher B.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Drotar, Dennis; Holmbeck, Grayson; Youngstrom, Eric; Margevicius, Seunghee; Andreias, Laura

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the self-reported health of extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1 kg) adolescents with that of normal birth weight (NBW) controls and the children’s assessments of their general health at ages 8 versus 14 years. METHODS: One hundred sixty-eight ELBW children and 115 NBW controls of similar gender and sociodemographic status completed the Child Health and Illness Profile–Adolescent Edition at age 14 years. It includes 6 domains: Satisfaction, Comfort, Resilience, Risk Avoidance, Achievement, and Disorders. At age 8 years, the children had completed the Child Health and Illness Profile–Child Edition. Results were compared between ELBW and NBW subjects adjusting for gender and sociodemographic status. RESULTS: ELBW adolescents rated their health similar to that of NBW adolescents in the domains of Satisfaction, Comfort, Resilience, Achievement and Disorders but reported more Risk Avoidance (effect size [ES] 0.6, P < .001). In the subdomain of Resilience, they also noted less physical activity (ES −0.58, P < .001), and in the subdomain of Disorders, more long-term surgical (ES −0.49) and psychosocial disorders (ES −0.49; both P < .01). Both ELBW and NBW children reported a decrease in general health between ages 8 and 14 years, which did not differ significantly between groups. CONCLUSIONS: ELBW adolescents report similar health and well-being compared with NBW controls but greater risk avoidance. Both ELBW and NBW children rate their general health to be poorer at age 14 than at age 8 years, possibly due to age-related developmental changes. PMID:22665412

  11. Self-reported Physical Activity Predicts Pain Inhibitory and Facilitatory Function

    PubMed Central

    Naugle, Kelly M.; Riley, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests regular physical activity can reduce chronic pain symptoms. Dysfunction of endogenous facilitatory and inhibitory systems has been implicated in multiple chronic pain conditions. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between levels of physical activity and descending pain modulatory function. Purpose This study’s purpose was to determine whether self-reported levels of physical activity in healthy adults predicted 1) pain sensitivity to heat and cold stimuli, 2) pain facilitatory function as tested by temporal summation of pain (TS), and 3) pain inhibitory function as tested by conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and offset analgesia. Methods Forty-eight healthy adults (age range 18–76) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the following pain tests: heat pain thresholds (HPT), heat pain suprathresholds, cold pressor pain (CPP), temporal summation of heat pain, conditioned pain modulation, and offset analgesia. The IPAQ measured levels of walking, moderate, vigorous and total physical activity over the past seven days. Hierarchical linear regressions were conducted to determine the relationship between each pain test and self-reported levels of physical activity, while controlling for age, sex and psychological variables. Results Self-reported total and vigorous physical activity predicted TS and CPM (p’s <.05). Individuals who self-reported more vigorous and total physical activity exhibited reduced temporal summation of pain and greater CPM. The IPAQ measures did not predict any of the other pain measures. Conclusion Thus, these results suggest that healthy older and younger adults who self-report greater levels of vigorous and total physical activity exhibit enhanced descending pain modulatory function. Improved descending pain modulation may be a mechanism through which exercise reduces or prevents chronic pain symptoms. PMID:23899890

  12. Self-reported social functioning and prefrontal hemodynamic responses during a cognitive task in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pu, Shenghong; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Itakura, Masashi; Yamanashi, Takehiko; Sugie, Takuya; Miura, Akehiko; Satake, Takahiro; Iwata, Masaaki; Nagata, Izumi; Kaneko, Koichi

    2015-10-30

    Impaired social functioning is a characteristic of schizophrenia that affects patients' quality of life. The aim of the study was to assess prefrontal hemodynamic responses during a cognitive task and establish its influence on psychiatric symptoms, cognitive function, global functioning, and self-reported social functioning in patients with schizophrenia. Thirty-three patients with schizophrenia and 30 age-and sex-matched healthy controls participated in the study. We measured hemodynamic responses in the prefrontal and superior temporal cortical surface areas with 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during a verbal fluency task (VFT). Self-reported social functioning was assessed using the Social Functioning Scale (SFS). Regional hemodynamic responses were significantly smaller in the prefrontal and temporal regions in subjects with schizophrenia than in the controls, and prefrontal hemodynamic responses during the VFT showed a strong correlation with SFS total scores. These results suggest an association between self-reported social functioning and prefrontal activation in subjects with schizophrenia. The present study provides evidence that NIRS imaging could be helpful in understanding the neural basis of social functioning.

  13. Self-reported walking ability predicts functional mobility performance in frail older adults.

    PubMed

    Alexander, N B; Guire, K E; Thelen, D G; Ashton-Miller, J A; Schultz, A B; Grunawalt, J C; Giordani, B

    2000-11-01

    To determine how self-reported physical function relates to performance in each of three mobility domains: walking, stance maintenance, and rising from chairs. Cross-sectional analysis of older adults. University-based laboratory and community-based congregate housing facilities. Two hundred twenty-one older adults (mean age, 79.9 years; range, 60-102 years) without clinical evidence of dementia (mean Folstein Mini-Mental State score, 28; range, 24-30). We compared the responses of these older adults on a questionnaire battery used by the Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (EPESE) project, to performance on mobility tasks of graded difficulty. Responses to the EPESE battery included: (1) whether assistance was required to perform seven Katz activities of daily living (ADL) items, specifically with walking and transferring; (2) three Rosow-Breslau items, including the ability to walk up stairs and walk a half mile; and (3) five Nagi items, including difficulty stooping, reaching, and lifting objects. The performance measures included the ability to perform, and time taken to perform, tasks in three summary score domains: (1) walking ("Walking," seven tasks, including walking with an assistive device, turning, stair climbing, tandem walking); (2) stance maintenance ("Stance," six tasks, including unipedal, bipedal, tandem, and maximum lean); and (3) chair rise ("Chair Rise," six tasks, including rising from a variety of seat heights with and without the use of hands for assistance). A total score combines scores in each Walking, Stance, and Chair Rise domain. We also analyzed how cognitive/ behavioral factors such as depression and self-efficacy related to the residuals from the self-report and performance-based ANOVA models. Rosow-Breslau items have the strongest relationship with the three performance domains, Walking, Stance, and Chair Rise (eta-squared ranging from 0.21 to 0.44). These three performance domains are as strongly

  14. Cardiovascular risk factors have larger impact on endothelial function in self-reported healthy women than men in the HUNT3 Fitness study.

    PubMed

    Skaug, Eli-Anne; Madssen, Erik; Aspenes, Stian Thoresen; Wisløff, Ulrik; Ellingsen, Øyvind

    2014-01-01

    Several studies suggest that cardiovascular risk factors comprising the metabolic syndrome have larger effects on the development of cardiovascular disease in women than in men. A recent study in self-reported healthy subjects demonstrated a marked gender difference in endothelial dysfunction that may be an important precursor of manifest cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the association between endothelial function and cardiovascular risk factors is different in self-reported healthy women compared to self-reported healthy men. Associations between endothelial function (flow mediated dilation, FMD, of the brachial artery measured by ultrasound), anthropometric variables, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), blood pressure, serum lipids, blood glucose and a questionnaire on general health and lifestyle including smoking status were studied by logistic and linear regression in 2 528 women and 2 211 men aged 20-89 years, free from self-reported cardiovascular disease. In women with hyperglycemia, endothelial dysfunction (FMD ≤0%) occurred twice as frequently as in male counterparts. The presence of the metabolic syndrome, high blood pressure and low VO2peak increased the prevalence of endothelial dysfunction more in women than in men. Endothelial dysfunction is more strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors in self-reported healthy women than in self-reported healthy men. This finding could explain why the metabolic syndrome, and especially hyperglycemia, is associated with higher cardiovascular risk and a worse prognosis in women.

  15. Is nutritional status associated with self-reported sleep quality in the HEMO study cohort?

    PubMed

    Burrowes, Jerrilynn D; Russell, Gregory B; Unruh, Mark; Rocco, Michael V

    2012-09-01

    To explore the relationship between sleep quality and common measures of nutritional status in the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study cohort. To investigate sleep quality scores based on longitudinal changes in measures of nutritional status, adjusting for case mix, lifestyle, and comorbidity factors. Secondary analysis of the HEMO Study data. A 7-year, prospective, multicenter, randomized clinical trial in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Eighteen hundred forty-six patients aged between 18 and 80 years were randomized; 1,803 (97.7%) completed the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Long Form (KDQOL-LF) at baseline. Mean age was 58 years, 44% were male, 64% were Black, 37% had diabetes, and 32% had hypertension; mean duration of dialysis was 3.8 years. The univariate and multivariate relationships of measures of nutritional status (i.e., serum albumin, serum creatinine, postdialysis weight, body mass index, dietary protein and energy intake, and assessment of appetite) and sleep quality assessed using the sleep subscale from the KDQOL-LF. In univariate analysis, sleep quality score decreased significantly in a linear fashion as appetite rating decreased from very good to very poor on both dialysis days (63.6 ± 21.8 to 43.6 ± 22.9, P < .0001) and nondialysis days (63.2 ± 21.6 to 40.7 ± 25.7, P < .0001), with higher scores reflecting better sleep quality. In multivariable analysis, serum creatinine was the only laboratory variable that was significantly associated with sleep quality score (β = 0.49, P = .0004). Poorer appetite on both dialysis days (β = -1.5, P < .0001) and nondialysis days (β = -1.7, P < .0001) was associated with poor sleep quality. Self-reported sleep quality was associated with appetite and serum creatinine. A simple questionnaire to assess sleep disorders in dialysis patients should be administered routinely to detect those patients at risk of sleep complaints. However, further studies are needed to determine whether improving sleep quality, directly

  16. Is self-reported physical functioning associated with incident cardiometabolic abnormalities or the metabolic syndrome?

    PubMed

    Ylitalo, Kelly R; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; McClure, Candace; El Khoudary, Samar R; Jackson, Elizabeth A; Sternfeld, Barbara; Harlow, Siobán D

    2016-05-01

    Physical functioning may be an important pre-clinical marker of chronic disease, used as a tool to identify patients at risk for future cardiometabolic abnormalities. This study evaluated if self-reported physical functioning was associated with the development of cardiometabolic abnormalities or their clustering (metabolic syndrome) over time. Participants (n = 2,254) from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation who reported physical functioning on the Short Form health survey and had a metabolic syndrome assessment (elevated fasting glucose, blood pressure, triglycerides and waist circumference; reduced HDL cholesterol) in 2000 were included. Discrete survival analysis was used to assess the 10-year risk of developing metabolic syndrome or a syndrome component through 2010. At baseline, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.0%. Women with substantial limitations (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.29) in physical functioning were significantly more likely to develop the metabolic syndrome compared with women reporting no limitations. Self-reported physical functioning was significantly associated with incident hypertension and increased waist circumference. Simple screening tools for cardiometabolic risk in clinical settings are needed. Self-reported physical functioning assessments are simple tools that may allow healthcare providers to more accurately predict the course of chronic conditions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Relationships between self-reported and performance-based measures of functional capacity in individuals with chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Polese, Janaine Cunha; Servio, Thaianne C; Chaves, Gabriela SS; Britto, Raquel R; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between self-reported and valid performance-based measures of functional capacity in individuals with chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Self-reported measures of functional capacity of 31 individuals with chronic stroke were assessed by the Duke Activity Status Index scores, whereas performance-based measures were assessed by the distance covered (in meters) and oxygen consumption (relative oxygen consumption, in ml·kg−1·min−1) during the six-minute walking test. [Results] The subjects had a mean age of 58.6±13 years and a mean time since the onset of stroke of 28.3±15.1 months. They had a mean Duke Activity Status Index of 27.3±14.4, mean distance covered of 325.2±140.2 m, and mean relative oxygen consumption of 9.6±2.3 ml·kg−1·min−1. Significant, positive, and moderate to good correlation coefficients were found between the Duke Activity Status Index scores and the distance covered during the six-minute walking test (r=0.68). Significant, positive, and fair associations were also found between the Duke Activity Status Index scores and relative oxygen consumption values obtained during the six-minute walking test (r=0.45). [Conclusion] The findings of the present study support the clinical use of the Duke Activity Status Index as a tool to assist in clinical evaluations of functional capacity of individuals with chronic stroke. PMID:27190454

  18. Internal exposure to organochlorine pollutants and cadmium and self-reported health status: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Van Larebeke, Nik; Sioen, Isabelle; Hond, Elly Den; Nelen, Vera; Van de Mieroop, Els; Nawrot, Tim; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Schoeters, Greet; Baeyens, Willy

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, based on the Flemish biomonitoring programs, we describe the associations between internal exposure to organochlorine pollutants and to cadmium (measured in 2004-2005 for adults aged 50-65 years) and self-reported health status obtained through a questionnaire in November 2011. Dioxin-like activity in serum showed a significant positive association with risk of cancer for women. After adjustment for confounders and covariates, the odds ratio for an exposure equal to the 90th percentile was 2.4 times higher than for an exposure equal to the 10th percentile. For both men and women dioxin-like activity and serum hexachlorobenzene (HCB) showed a significant positive association with risk of diabetes and of hypertension. Detailed analysis suggested that an increase in BMI might be part of the mechanism through which HCB contributes to diabetes and hypertension. Serum dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) concentration showed a significant positive association with diabetes and hypertension in men, but not in women. Serum polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 118 showed a significant positive association with diabetes in both men and women, and after adjustment for correlated exposures, also with hypertension in men. Urinary cadmium concentrations showed a significant positive association with hypertension. Urinary cadmium concentrations were (in 2004-2005) significantly higher in persons who felt in less than good health (in 2011) than in persons who felt in very good health. After adjustment for correlated exposures (to HCB, p,p'-DDE and PCB118) marker PCBs showed a significant negative association with diabetes and hypertension. Serum p,p'-DDE showed in men a significant negative association with risk of diseases based on atheromata. Our findings suggest that exposure to pollutants can lead to an important increase in the risk of diseases such as cancer, diabetes and hypertension. Some pollutants may possibly also decrease the risk of some health

  19. Self-reported visual functioning and quality of life in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, Usha; Stevenson, Michael

    2005-06-01

    To review the current literature on the impact of age-related macular degeneration on self-reported visual functioning, quality of life, and independent living. The quantitative relationships between visual acuity, an objective clinical measure of vision, and self-reported visual functioning have been explored and described within prospective longitudinal clinical trials. When age-related macular degeneration is bilateral, the severe and irreversible loss of central vision experienced by affected persons has been shown to result in despondency, inability to care for self or others, and a state of disutility, which is equivalent to that experienced in coronary heart disease and stroke. Quality-of-life indicators and self-reported visual functioning have gained acceptance as key outcome measure in studies designed to test therapeutic interventions and rehabilitation strategies in age-related macular degeneration. Vision loss from age-related macular degeneration engenders a profound sense of loss and the resultant handicap has been likened to that of the most severe medical conditions.

  20. Measured versus self-reported physical function in adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Smith, Webb A; Li, Zhenghong; Loftin, Mark; Carlyle, Brent E; Hudson, Melissa M; Robison, Leslie L; Ness, Kirsten K

    2014-02-01

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) experience late effects that interfere with physical function. Limitations in physical function can affect CCS abilities to actively participate in daily activities. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the concordance between self-reported physical performance and clinically evaluated physical performance among adult CCS. CCS 18 yr or older and 10 yr or older from diagnosis who are participants in the St. Jude Lifetime cohort study responded to the physical function section of the Medical Outcome Survey Short Form (SF-36). Measured physical performance was evaluated using the Physical Performance Test and the 6-Minute Walk Test. Individuals (N = 1778, 50.8% female) with a median time since diagnosis of 24.9 yr (range = 10.9-48.2) and a median age of 32.4 yr (range = 19.1-48.2) completed testing. Limitations in physical performance were self-reported by 14.1% of participants. The accuracy of self-report physical performance was 0.87 when the SF-36 was compared with the 6-Minute Walk Test or the Physical Performance Test. Reporting inaccuracies most often involved reporting a physical performance limitation. Poor accuracy was associated with previous diagnosis of a bone or CNS tumor, lymphoma, older age, and large body size. These results suggest that self-report, using the physical performance subscale of the SF-36, correctly identifies CCS who do not have physical performance limitations. In contrast, this same measure is less able to identify individuals who have performance limitations.

  1. Measured versus Self-reported Physical Function in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Webb A; Li, Zhenghong; Loftin, Mark; Carlyle, Brent E.; Hudson, Melissa M; Robison, Leslie L; Ness, Kirsten K

    2014-01-01

    Introduction/Purpose Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) experience late effects that interfere with physical function. Limitations in physical function can impact CCS abilities to actively participate in daily activities. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the concordance between self-reported physical performance and clinically evaluated physical performance among adult CCS. Methods CCS 18+ years of age and 10+ years from diagnosis who are participants in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort study responded to the physical function section of the Medical Outcome Survey Short Form (SF36). Measured physical performance was evaluated with the physical performance test (PPT), and the six minute walk test (6MW). Results 1778 individuals (50.8% female) with a median time since diagnosis of 24.9 years (range 10.9-48.2) and a median age of 32.4 years (range 19.1-48.2) completed testing. Limitations in physical performance were self-reported by 14.1% of participants. The accuracy of self-report physical performance was 0.87 when the SF-36 was compared to the 6MW or PPT. Reporting inaccuracies most often involved reporting a physical performance limitation. Poor accuracy was associated with previous diagnosis of a bone or central nervous system tumor, lymphoma, older age, and large body size. Conclusion These results suggest that self-report, using the physical performance sub-scale of the SF-36 correctly identifies CCS who do not have physical performance limitations. In contrast, this same measure is less able to identify individuals who have performance limitations. PMID:23899895

  2. Self-reported health status in coronary heart disease patients: a comparison with the general population.

    PubMed

    De Smedt, Delphine; Clays, Els; Annemans, Lieven; Pardaens, Sofie; Kotseva, Kornelia; De Bacquer, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    The aim of our study was to compare Euroqol-5D (EQ-5D) outcomes in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients with those from the general population. We aimed to identify those dimensions which were mostly impaired. EQ-5D results (both the dimensions and the EQ-5D visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS)) from a European sample (11 countries) of coronary patients were compared with published age- and gender-specific normative data. EQ-5D outcomes differed across countries and gender. Overall, the age-adjusted EQ-VAS scores were significantly lower in coronary patients compared with the general population, both in males (mean difference (MD)= -5.24(-7.59 to -2.88)) and in females (MD= -8.32 (-11.69 to -4.95)). Coronary patients had a significantly higher risk to report moderate or severe problems related to anxiety/depression (odds ratio (OR) male=1.84 (1.14-2.95); OR female=3.20 (2.32-4.40)). Furthermore, female coronary patients reported more problems on the mobility (OR=2.00 (1.38-2.90)), usual activity (OR= 2.54 (1.81-3.57)) and pain/discomfort dimension (OR=1.73 (1.23-2.43)) whereas in males, a borderline significant OR was found on the mobility (OR=1.43 (0.97-2.11)) and usual activity dimension (OR=1.44 (0.94-2.20)). The difference between the general population and the CHD patients attenuated as age increased. CHD has a negative influence on patient's self-reported health status, both the EQ-VAS as well as the EQ-5D dimensions (with the exception of self-care in both genders and pain/discomfort in males) were impaired. The relative impairment was the greatest in female patients and the differences in the proportion of reported problems diminished with increasing age. The EQ-5D instrument is appropriate in capturing problems related to anxiety/depression, pain/discomfort, mobility and usual activities. Within clinical practice, particular attention should be given to females and younger CHD patients. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  3. Sexual behaviour among people with HIV according to self-reported antiretroviral treatment and viral load status

    PubMed Central

    Lampe, Fiona C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess, among people with HIV, the association of self-reported antiretroviral treatment (ART) and viral load status with condomless sex with an HIV-serodifferent partner (CLS-D). Design: Cross-sectional study of 3258 HIV-diagnosed adults in the United Kingdom, 2011–2012. Methods: CLS-D in the past 3 months and self-reported ART/viral load were ascertained by questionnaire. Clinic-recorded viral load was documented. HIV-transmission risk sex (CLS-D-HIV-risk) was defined as CLS-D together with either not on ART or clinic-recorded viral load more than 50 copies/ml. Results: Of 3178 participants diagnosed more than 3 months ago, 2746 (87.9%) were on ART, of whom self-reported viral load was ‘50 copies/ml/ or less/undetectable’ for 78.4%; ‘more than 50 copies/ml/detectable’ for 8.3%; ‘do not know/missing’ for 13.3%. CLS-D prevalence was 14.9% (326/2189), 6.4% (23/360) and 10.7% (67/629) among men who have sex with men, heterosexual men and women, respectively. Among men who have sex with men, CLS-D prevalence was 18.8% among those not on ART; 15.2% among those on ART with undetectable self-reported viral load; 9.8% among those on ART without undetectable self-reported viral load. Compared with ‘on ART with undetectable self-reported viral load’, prevalence ratios (95% confidence interval) adjusted for demographic/HIV-related factors were: 0.66 (0.45, 0.95) for ‘on ART without undetectable self-reported viral load’, and 1.08 (0.78, 1.49) for ‘not on ART’ (global P = 0.021). Among heterosexual men and women (combined), ART/self-reported viral load was not associated with CLS-D [corresponding adjusted prevalence ratios: 1.14 (0.73, 1.79) for ‘on ART without undetectable self-reported viral load’; 0.88 (0.44, 1.77) for ‘not on ART’, P = 0.77]. CLS-D-HIV-risk prevalence was 3.2% among all participants; 16.1% for ‘not on ART’; 0.6% for ‘on ART with undetectable self-reported viral load; 4.2% for ‘on ART

  4. Self-reported comorbidities and visual function in a population-based study: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Globe, Denise R; Varma, Rohit; Torres, Mina; Wu, Joanne; Klein, Ronald; Azen, Stanley P

    2005-06-01

    To assess the association of self-reported systemic and ocular comorbid disease and visual function in Latino subjects. National Eye Institute 25-item Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) and eye examination data were obtained from 5380 participants in the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study, a population-based prevalence study of eye disease in Latino subjects 40 years and older. We developed and contrasted 5 comorbidity measures. One-way analysis of variance was used to assess the association between comorbidity and visual impairment and self-reported visual function. Regression analyses determined the association of sociodemographic variables, clinical variables, and the best measure of comorbidity with the NEI-VFQ-25 composite score. The main outcome measure was self-reported visual function as assessed by the NEI-VFQ-25 composite score. On average, visual function subscale scores were lowest for those participants with the most systemic comorbid conditions (P<.05). This was more evident in participants with moderate or severe visual impairment compared with those with mild or no visual impairment (P<.05). Self-reported systemic comorbidities were associated with self-reported visual function. This association was greater at more severe levels of visual impairment. Of the 5 comorbidity measures assessed, the measure that summed the number of self-reported systemic comorbidities correlated most with self-reported visual function.

  5. Clinically determined and self-reported dental status during and after pregnancy among low-income Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Jane A; Finlayson, Tracy L; Gansky, Stuart A; Santo, William; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    This analysis assessed, during and 1 year after pregnancy: a) the prevalence of and relationship between self-reported and clinically determined dental caries and oral health status, and whether self-reports are a potential proxy for professional determination; and b) factors associated with high levels of professionally determined or self-reported oral disease. Data are from a randomized clinical trial of 301 pregnant, low-income Hispanic women at the California-Mexico border to compare two interventions to prevent early childhood caries. Interviews and dental examinations were conducted at enrollment (second trimester) and 1-year postpartum (PP). During pregnancy and PP, 93 percent had untreated caries and most had gingival inflammation. Sensitivity and specificity of self-reported measures compared to dentists' determinations were modest (ranging from 45-80 percent for sensitivity and 41-77 percent for specificity at both time points); positive predictive values for women reporting current tooth decay or fair/poor oral health were high (>94 percent), but negative predictive values were low (<23 percent). In a bivariate GEE model, factors associated with fair/poor self-reported oral health during and after pregnancy included self-reported dental symptoms (current tooth decay, bleeding gums without brushing), dental behaviors (not flossing) and number of decayed tooth surfaces. In a logistic regression model, the only significant factor PP associated with less extensive untreated disease was if women ever had their teeth cleaned professionally (OR = 0.44). There is a great need for dental treatment in this underserved population both during pregnancy and PP. Women may not be able to accurately recognize or act on their treatment needs. At baseline and PP, few demographic or behavioral factors were associated with either self-reported or clinically determined oral disease (e.g., being less educated or acculturated and not flossing) in the bivariate analyses

  6. Reliability and validity of a self-report of hand function in persons with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Poole, Janet L; Cordova, Kenneth J; Brower, Lisa M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability and the concurrent validity of the Duruöz Hand Index (DHI) in persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Forty participants with RA and no other major medical problems completed the DHI, a self-report of hand function, at two points in time to assess test-retest reliability. To determine concurrent validity, participants were also administered three performance-based tests, the Arthritis Hand Function Test (AHFT), the Hand Mobility in Scleroderma Test (HAMIS), and the Keitel Functional Test (KFT), and two self-report questionnaires of functional ability, the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and the Scleroderma Functional Assessment Questionnaire (SFAQ). Test-retest reliability intraclass correlation coefficients for the DHI ranged from 0.83 to 0.90. Scores on the DHI were significantly correlated with scores on the AHFT (r(s)=0.36-0.54), the HAMIS (r(s)=0.39), the HAQ (r(s)=0.78), the HAMIS (r(s)=0.39), and the SFAQ (r(s)=0.85). Scores on the DHI did not correlate with KFT scores. The results from this study show the DHI to be a reliable and valid test for hand function in persons with RA.

  7. Identifying High-Functioning Dyslexics: Is Self-Report of Early Reading Problems Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, S. Helene; Cook, Kathryn; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-01-01

    We used a questionnaire to identify university students with self-reported difficulties in reading acquisition during elementary school (self-report; n = 31). The performance of the self-report group on standardized measures of word and non-word reading and fluency, passage comprehension and reading rate, and phonological awareness was compared to…

  8. [Self-reported weight and height for determining nutritional status of adults and elderly: validity and implications for data analysis].

    PubMed

    Del Duca, Giovâni Firpo; González-Chica, David Alejandro; Santos, Janaína Vieira dos; Knuth, Alan Goularte; Camargo, Maria Beatriz Junqueira de; Araújo, Cora Luíza

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity of self-reported weight and height for determining nutritional status and the implications of their use for analyzing associations with health outcomes. A population-based cross-sectional study in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 2007 (n = 2,986) drew a sub-sample of 276 individuals aged ≥ 20 years. Mean self-reported weight was similar to measured weight; height was overestimated in men (1.4 cm) and women (2.5 cm); real body mass index (BMI) was underestimated by about 1 kg/m(2). Even with small mean differences, data variability was great. The results were influenced by gender, age, and schooling. The use of self-reported measures underestimated prevalence of overweight and obesity, and unpredictable errors were found in the analysis of association with health outcomes (underestimation, overestimation, and reversal of real effect measures). Correction equations reduced the mean differences but did not resolve variability of the differences, classification errors, or biases in the associations.

  9. A multicentre longitudinal observational study of changes in self reported health status in people with Parkinson's disease left untreated at diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Grosset, D; Taurah, L; Burn, D J; MacMahon, D; Forbes, A; Turner, K; Bowron, A; Walker, R; Findley, L; Foster, O; Patel, K; Clough, C; Castleton, B; Smith, S; Carey, G; Murphy, T; Hill, J; Brechany, U; McGee, P; Reading, S; Brand, G; Kelly, L; Breen, K; Ford, S; Baker, M; Williams, A; Hearne, J; Qizilbash, N; Chaudhuri, K Ray

    2007-05-01

    The issue of when to start treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD) remains controversial. Some favour treatment at diagnosis while others opt for a "wait and watch" policy. The effect of the latter policy on the self reported health status of people with PD is unknown. To record self reported health status through longitudinal use of a validated PD specific questionnaire (PDQ-39) in untreated PD patients in multiple centres in the UK. To compare patients who were left untreated with those who were offered treatment during follow-up. A multicentre, prospective, "real life" observational audit based study addressing patient reported outcomes in relation to self reported health status and other sociodemographic details. 198 untreated PD were assessed over a mean period of 18 months. During two follow-up assessments, the self reported health status scores in all eight domains of the PDQ-39 and the overall PDQ-39 summary index worsened significantly (p<0.01) in patients left untreated. In a comparative group in whom treatment was initiated at or soon after diagnosis, there was a trend towards improvement in self reported health status scores after treatment was started. This study addresses for the first time self reported health status, an indicator of health related quality of life, in untreated PD. The findings may strengthen the call for re-evaluation of the policy to delay treatment in newly diagnosed patients with PD.

  10. A multicentre longitudinal observational study of changes in self reported health status in people with Parkinson's disease left untreated at diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Grosset, D; Taurah, L; Burn, D J; MacMahon, D; Forbes, A; Turner, K; Bowron, A; Walker, R; Findley, L; Foster, O; Patel, K; Clough, C; Castleton, B; Smith, S; Carey, G; Murphy, T; Hill, J; Brechany, U; McGee, P; Reading, S; Brand, G; Kelly, L; Breen, K; Ford, S; Baker, M; Williams, A; Hearne, J; Qizilbash, N; Chaudhuri, K Ray

    2007-01-01

    Background The issue of when to start treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD) remains controversial. Some favour treatment at diagnosis while others opt for a “wait and watch” policy. The effect of the latter policy on the self reported health status of people with PD is unknown. Aims To record self reported health status through longitudinal use of a validated PD specific questionnaire (PDQ‐39) in untreated PD patients in multiple centres in the UK. To compare patients who were left untreated with those who were offered treatment during follow‐up. Methods A multicentre, prospective, “real life” observational audit based study addressing patient reported outcomes in relation to self reported health status and other sociodemographic details. Results 198 untreated PD were assessed over a mean period of 18 months. During two follow‐up assessments, the self reported health status scores in all eight domains of the PDQ‐39 and the overall PDQ‐39 summary index worsened significantly (p<0.01) in patients left untreated. In a comparative group in whom treatment was initiated at or soon after diagnosis, there was a trend towards improvement in self reported health status scores after treatment was started. Conclusions This study addresses for the first time self reported health status, an indicator of health related quality of life, in untreated PD. The findings may strengthen the call for re‐evaluation of the policy to delay treatment in newly diagnosed patients with PD. PMID:17098846

  11. Profiles of the forms and functions of self-reported aggression in three adolescent samples.

    PubMed

    Marsee, Monica A; Frick, Paul J; Barry, Christopher T; Kimonis, Eva R; Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Aucoin, Katherine J

    2014-08-01

    In the current study, we addressed several issues related to the forms (physical and relational) and functions (reactive and proactive) of aggression in community (n = 307), voluntary residential (n = 1,917), and involuntarily detained (n = 659) adolescents (ages 11-19 years). Across samples, boys self-reported more physical aggression and girls reported more relational aggression, with the exception of higher levels of both forms of aggression in detained girls. Further, few boys showed high rates of relational aggression without also showing high rates of physical aggression. In contrast, it was not uncommon for girls to show high rates of relational aggression alone, and these girls tended to also have high levels of problem behavior (e.g., delinquency) and mental health problems (e.g., emotional dysregulation and callous-unemotional traits). Finally, for physical aggression in both boys and girls, and for relational aggression in girls, there was a clear pattern of aggressive behavior that emerged from cluster analyses across samples. Two aggression clusters emerged, with one group showing moderately high reactive aggression and a second group showing both high reactive and high proactive aggression (combined group). On measures of severity (e.g., self-reported delinquency and arrests) and etiologically important variables (e.g., emotional regulation and callous-unemotional traits), the reactive aggression group was more severe than a nonaggressive cluster but less severe than the combined aggressive cluster.

  12. Diagnosing symptomatic HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders: Self-report versus performance-based assessment of everyday functioning

    PubMed Central

    Blackstone, K.; Moore, D. J.; Heaton, R. K.; Franklin, D. R.; Woods, S. P.; Clifford, D. B.; Collier, A. C.; Marra, C. M.; Gelman, B. B.; McArthur, J. C.; Morgello, S.; Simpson, D. M.; Rivera-Mindt, M.; Deutsch, R.; Ellis, R. J.; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Grant, I.

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) include both “asymptomatic” and “symptomatic” neurocognitive impairment. Asymptomatic diagnoses indicate HAND without demonstrable functional impairment. The present study compares three approaches to assess functional decline: 1) self-report measures only (SR); 2) performance-based measures only (PB); and 3) combining SR and PB measures (SR+PB). Methods We assessed 674 HIV-infected research volunteers with a comprehensive neurocognitive battery; 233 met criteria for a HAND diagnosis by having at least mild neurocognitive impairment. Functional decline was measured via SR and PB measures. HAND diagnoses in these 233 cognitively impaired individuals were determined according to published criteria, which allow for both SR and PB methods in establishing functional decline. Results The dual-method diagnosed the most symptomatic (53%; 124/233) HAND conditions, compared to either singular method, which were only 59% concordant. Participants classified as functionally-impaired via PB were more likely to be unemployed, more immunosuppressed, and had more hepatitis-C co-infection, whereas those classified via singular SR were more depressed. Conclusions Multimodal methods of assessing everyday functioning facilitate detection of symptomatic HAND. PB-based classification was associated with objective functional status (i.e., employment) and important disease-related factors, whereas the typical SR singular classifications may be biased by depressed mood. PMID:22114912

  13. Relationship of cotinine-verified and self-reported smoking status with metabolic syndrome in 116,094 Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Jin; Han, Ji Min; Kang, Jung Gyu; Rhee, Eun Jung; Kim, Bum Soo; Kang, Jin Ho

    No study has reported the relationship between cotinine-verified and self-reported smoking status with metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between urinary cotinine-verified and self-reported smoking status with MetS and determine the effects of unobserved smokers on MetS in Korean adults. A total of 116,094 individuals (66,875 men and 49,219 women) with mean age of 36.7 ± 6.8 years included in Kangbuk Samsung Health Study and Kangbuk Samsung Cohort Study between 2011 and 2013 who had urinary cotinine measurements were enrolled. Cotinine-verified current smoking was defined as urinary cotinine level of above 50 ng/mL. Unobserved smoking was defined as urinary cotinine level of above 50 ng/mL in self-reported never smokers. The overall prevalence rates of cotinine-verified current smokers and MetS were 22.9% and 10.5%, respectively. The misclassification rate to cotinine-verified current smokers among self-reported never smokers was 1.7%. A multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for variables with univariate relationship (model 1) showed that cotinine-verified current smokers significantly increased the odds ratio for MetS compared with cotinine-verified never smokers (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.30 [1.23, 1.37]). Log-transformed cotinine levels were also associated with MetS (1.04 [1.03, 1.05]). However, the association was not significant in the previously mentioned model including the traditional 5 components of MetS (model 2). Unobserved smokers significantly increased the ORs for MetS in both model 1 (1.43 [1.23, 1.67]) and model 2 (1.57 [1.06, 2.33]). This study shows that unobserved smoking and cotinine-verified current smoking are associated with MetS but urinary cotinine could be 1 conditional factor that interacts with traditional MetS components. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between physical performance and self-reported function in healthy individuals across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Jennifer N; McKay, Marnee J; Hiller, Claire E; Moloney, Niamh; Nightingale, Elizabeth J; Burns, Joshua

    2017-08-01

    Functional outcome measures in clinical trials of musculoskeletal conditions need to be meaningful to individuals. To investigate the relationship between physical performance and self/proxy-reported function in 1000 healthy children and adults. Cross-sectional observational study (1000 Norms Project). One thousand males and females aged 3-101 years, healthy by self-report and without major physical disability, were recruited. Twelve performance-based tests were analysed: vertical and long jump, two hand dexterity tests, four balance tests, stepping reaction time, 30-second chair stand, timed up-and-down stairs, and six-minute walk. Self/proxy-reported function was assessed using the Infant-Toddler Quality of Life questionnaire, Child Health Questionnaire, Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL)-6D Adolescent, AQoL-8D, International Physical Activity Questionnaire and work ability question. Bivariate and multivariate correlational analyses were constructed for infants (3-4y), children (5-10y), adolescents (11-17y), adults (18-59y) and older adults (60+). Socio-demographic characteristics were similar to the Australian population. Among infants/children, greater jump and sit-to-stand performance correlated with higher proxy-reported function (p < 0.05). There were no significant relationships observed for adolescents (p > 0.05). Greater jump, dexterity, balance, reaction time, sit-to-stand, stair-climbing and six-minute walk performance correlated with higher self-reported function in adults (r = -0.097 to.231; p < 0.05) and older adults (r = -0.135 to 0.625; p < 0.05). Multivariate regression modelling revealed a collection of independent performance measures explaining up to 46% of the variance in self/proxy-reported function. Many performance-based tests were significantly associated with self/proxy-reported function. We have identified a set of physical measures which could form the basis of age-appropriate functional scales for clinical trials of

  15. Evaluation of decompression safety in an occupational diving group using self reported diving exposure and health status

    PubMed Central

    Doolette, D; Gorman, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: Many occupational diving groups have substantially different diving patterns to those for which decompression schedules are validated. Aims: To evaluate tuna farm occupational diving practice against existing decompression models and describe a method for collecting and modelling self reported field decompression data. Methods: Machine readable objective depth/time profiles were obtained from depth/time recorders worn by tuna farm occupational divers. Divers' health status was measured at the end of each working day using a self administered health survey that produces an interval diver health score (DHS) with possible values ranging from 0 to 30. Depth/time profiles were analysed according to existing decompression models. The contribution of diving exposure and between diver variability to DHS was evaluated using linear regression. Results: The mean risk of decompression sickness was calculated as 0.005 (SD 0.003, n = 383). The mean DHS following diving was 3 (SD 2, n = 383) and following non-diving activities was 1 (SD 1, n = 41). After accounting for between diver variability in intercept, DHS was found to increase one unit for every 1% increase in the risk of decompression sickness. Conclusions: A method has been established for the collection and analysis of self reported objective decompression data from occupational diving groups that can potentially be used as the basis for development of purpose designed occupational diving decompression schedules. PMID:12771393

  16. Eating at the university canteen. Associations with socioeconomic status and healthier self-reported eating habits in France.

    PubMed

    Guagliardo, Valérie; Lions, Caroline; Darmon, Nicole; Verger, Pierre

    2011-02-01

    French university canteens offer structured meals at a fixed moderate price. We examined whether eating regularly at university canteens was associated with socioeconomic status (SES) or dietary practices. The study data came from a cross-sectional study of a random sample of 1723 students aged 18-24 years, in their first year of university in 2005-2006, enrolled in the universities of southeastern France (response rate=71%). Self-reported dietary practices were collected with a behavioral questionnaire. Adjusted logistic regressions showed that eating regularly at university canteens was less frequent among students with less than € 300 monthly resources and not living with their families (OR=0.68 [95%CI: 0.49-0.94]). It was also positively associated, regardless of SES, with the consumption of at least five servings of fruit/vegetables daily (OR=1.42 [1.05-1.92]) and one serving of meat/fish daily (OR=1.41 [1.13-1.76]) but not with either restricting fatty food (OR=1.04 [0.81-1.33]) or never/rarely adding salt to food (OR=1.06 [0.85-1.32]). Eating regularly at university canteens was less frequent among less well-off students and was positively associated with some healthier self-reported dietary habits. Further research is needed to confirm these results in the overall student population in France and to understand the determinants of university canteen utilization.

  17. Socioeconomic status, social capital and self-reported unmet health care needs: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lindstrӧm, Christine; Rosvall, Maria; Lindstrӧm, Martin

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and self-reported unmet health care needs, taking economic stress, generalized trust in other people and trust in the health care system into account. The 2012 public health survey in Scania was conducted using a postal questionnaire and included 28,029 participants aged 18-80 years. The study was cross-sectional. Associations between SES and unmet health care needs were investigated, adjusting for economic stress and trust in logistic regressions. SES was significantly associated with unmet health care needs. The SES categories of unemployed, on long-term sick leave and unskilled manual workers reported particularly high levels of unmet health care needs. SES differences in unmet needs were attenuated when economic stress and the two dimensions of trust and self-rated health were introduced in multiple analyses. The working population gave a lack of time as the reason for unmet health care needs, whereas those on sick leave or unemployed reported a lack of money. SES differences in self-reported unmet health care needs were observed and these associations were attenuated when economic stress during the past year, generalized trust in other people, trust in the health care system and self-rated health were introduced into the multiple models.

  18. Mediterranean diet adherence and self-reported psychological functioning in an Australian sample.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Georgina E; Bryan, Janet; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Murphy, Karen J

    2013-11-01

    Given the reported health benefits of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and delay in cognitive decline, we aimed to determine the level of adherence to a MedDiet using an 11-point scale and examine relationships with cognitive function and psychological well-being. Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on data from 1183 Australian adults, aged 40-65. Food frequency questionnaires were used to calculate mean intakes of foods included in a MedDiet and foods typically consumed in an Australian diet. Outcome measures included self-reported cognitive failures, memory, anxiety, stress, self-esteem, general health and physical function. The majority of Australians (71.7%) had a medium adherence to a MedDiet pattern. Overall MedDiet adherence was not related to cognitive function. However, intakes of plant foods associated with a MedDiet were positively associated with physical function and general health, and negatively associated with trait anxiety, depression and perceived stress. A substantial proportion of the diet in this Australian sample came from foods not typically consumed in a MedDiet. This is a major limitation when attempting to compare MedDiet adherence in different populations. Global standardisation of serving sizes and food groups are required for adequate comparison. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Profile of Self-Reported Problems with Executive Functioning in College and Professional Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Seichepine, Daniel R.; Stamm, Julie M.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Riley, David O.; Baugh, Christine M.; Gavett, Brandon E.; Tripodis, Yorghos; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine; McKee, Ann C.; Cantu, Robert C.; Nowinski, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), such as that experienced by contact-sport athletes, has been associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Executive dysfunction is believed to be among the earliest symptoms of CTE, with these symptoms presenting in the fourth or fifth decade of life. The present study used a well-validated self-report measure to study executive functioning in football players, compared to healthy adults. Sixty-four college and professional football players were administered the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, adult version (BRIEF-A) to evaluate nine areas of executive functioning. Scores on the BRIEF-A were compared to published age-corrected normative scores for healthy adults Relative to healthy adults, the football players indicated significantly more problems overall and on seven of the nine clinical scales, including Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, and Task Monitor. These symptoms were greater in athletes 40 and older, relative to younger players. In sum, football players reported more-frequent problems with executive functioning and these symptoms may develop or worsen in the fifth decade of life. The findings are in accord with a growing body of evidence that participation in football is associated with the development of cognitive changes and dementia as observed in CTE. PMID:23421745

  20. Academic procrastination in college students: the role of self-reported executive function.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Laura A; Fogel, Joshua; Nutter-Upham, Katherine E

    2011-03-01

    Procrastination, or the intentional delay of due tasks, is a widespread phenomenon in college settings. Because procrastination can negatively impact learning, achievement, academic self-efficacy, and quality of life, research has sought to understand the factors that produce and maintain this troublesome behavior. Procrastination is increasingly viewed as involving failures in self-regulation and volition, processes commonly regarded as executive functions. The present study was the first to investigate subcomponents of self-reported executive functioning associated with academic procrastination in a demographically diverse sample of college students aged 30 years and below (n = 212). We included each of nine aspects of executive functioning in multiple regression models that also included various demographic and medical/psychiatric characteristics, estimated IQ, depression, anxiety, neuroticism, and conscientiousness. The executive function domains of initiation, plan/organize, inhibit, self-monitor, working memory, task monitor, and organization of materials were significant predictors of academic procrastination in addition to increased age and lower conscientiousness. Results enhance understanding of the neuropsychological correlates of procrastination and may lead to practical suggestions or interventions to reduce its harmful effects on students' academic performance and well-being.

  1. Profile of self-reported problems with executive functioning in college and professional football players.

    PubMed

    Seichepine, Daniel R; Stamm, Julie M; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Riley, David O; Baugh, Christine M; Gavett, Brandon E; Tripodis, Yorghos; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine; McKee, Ann C; Cantu, Robert C; Nowinski, Christopher J; Stern, Robert A

    2013-07-15

    Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), such as that experienced by contact-sport athletes, has been associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Executive dysfunction is believed to be among the earliest symptoms of CTE, with these symptoms presenting in the fourth or fifth decade of life. The present study used a well-validated self-report measure to study executive functioning in football players, compared to healthy adults. Sixty-four college and professional football players were administered the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, adult version (BRIEF-A) to evaluate nine areas of executive functioning. Scores on the BRIEF-A were compared to published age-corrected normative scores for healthy adults Relative to healthy adults, the football players indicated significantly more problems overall and on seven of the nine clinical scales, including Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, and Task Monitor. These symptoms were greater in athletes 40 and older, relative to younger players. In sum, football players reported more-frequent problems with executive functioning and these symptoms may develop or worsen in the fifth decade of life. The findings are in accord with a growing body of evidence that participation in football is associated with the development of cognitive changes and dementia as observed in CTE.

  2. Factors associated with poor self-reported health status after aortic valve replacement with or without concomitant bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Oterhals, Kjersti; Hanssen, Tove Aminda; Haaverstad, Rune; Nordrehaug, Jan Erik; Eide, Geir Egil; Norekvål, Tone M

    2015-08-01

    Improving patients' health status is a central goal for cardiac surgery. Knowledge remains sparse on how combined CABG or other factors influence long-term, self-reported health status after aortic valve replacement (AVR). The aims of this study were (i) to identify significant factors influencing self-reported health status of patients assessed up to 13 years after AVR; and (ii) to compare their health with the age- and gender-matched general population. A survey questionnaire was sent to 1191 patients who had undergone AVR with or without concomitant CABG between 2000 and 2012. Physical and mental sum scores of Short Form 12 were used as dependent variables and 34 independent variables including the Minnesota living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) were evaluated by hierarchical linear regression. A comparison was made with the Norwegian general population. Clinical data were obtained from the local cardiac surgery database. In all, 912 patients (77%) responded (mean age: 73 years; 63% men). Of these, 59% had an isolated AVR. The mean assessment interval since surgery was 6 years. Several factors significantly predicted worse physical health: low education level (b: -2.8, P = 0.005), higher preoperative EuroSCORE (b: -0.88, P = 0.007), high NYHA class (b: -4.5, P < 0.001), depression (b: -5.62, P = 0.012), worse MLHFQ physical scores (b: -0.70, P < 0.001), arthritis (b: -5.13, P = 0.003), osteoporosis (b: -6.96, P = 0.010) and cancer (b: -4.48, P = 0.047) accounting for 60% of the variation (P < 0.001). Living alone (b: -3.60, P < 0.001), anxiety (b: -12.99, P < 0.001), depression (b: -6.82, P < 0.001) and worse MLHFQ emotional score (b: -0.50, P < 0.001) predicted poor mental health status, and explained 58% of the variation among AVR patients (P < 0.001). Both genders had poorer physical and mental health than their age-matched general population peers, particularly those in older age groups. AVR patients, regardless of gender, had worse physical and

  3. Assessing Medicare Part D claim completeness using medication self-reports: the role of veteran status and Generic Drug Discount Programs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Stearns, Sally C; Thudium, Emily M; Alburikan, Khalid A; Rodgers, Jo E

    2015-05-01

    Medicare Part D claims are commonly used for research, but missing claims could compromise their validity. This study assessed 2 possible causes of missing claims: veteran status and Generic Drug Discount Programs (GDDP). We merged medication self-reports from telephone interviews in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study with Part D claims for 6 medications (3 were commonly in GDDP in 2009). Merged records (4468) were available for 2905 ARIC participants enrolled in Part D. Multinomial logit regression provided estimates of the association of concordance (self-report and Part D, self-report only, or Part D only) with veteran and GDDP status, controlling for participant sociodemographics. Sample participants were 74±5 years of age, 68% white and 63% female; 19% were male veterans. Compared with females, male veterans were 11% [95% confidence interval (CI), 7%-16%] less likely to have matched medications in self-report and Part D and 11% (95% CI, 7%-16%) more likely to have self-report only. Records for GDDP versus non-GDDP medications were 4% (95% CI, 1%-7%) more likely to be in self-report and Part D and 3% (95% CI, 1%-5%) less likely to be in Part D only, with no difference in self-report only. Part D claims were more likely to be missing for veterans, but claims for medications commonly available through GDDP were more likely to match with self-reports. Although researchers should be aware of the possibility of missing claims, GDDP status was associated with a higher rather than lower likelihood of claims being complete in 2009.

  4. Longitudinal study of associations between perceived health status and self reported diseases in the French Gazel cohort

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, P; Gueguen, A; Schmaus, A; Nakache, J; Goldberg, M

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—Although perceived health status is an indicator widely used in epidemiological studies, its relation to various diseases is not well known. The objective of this study is to examine these relations in detail.
DESIGN—Marginal models used for a longitudinal study of the association between three health scales and 47 diseases among 12 164 men and 44 diseases among 4415 women.
SETTING—French Gazel cohort during the period from 1991 to 1996.
MAIN RESULTS—The general health status scale was significantly associated with 43 diseases among men, and 31 among women. Some of these significantly associated diseases were physical (for example, cancer and cerebrovascular accident) and others, psychological (for example, depression). The mental fatigue scale was more specifically associated with psychological disorders, including sleep problems, depression, and nervous diseases. Moreover, modifications in subjects' assessment of their health from one year to the next were generally associated with modifications in reported diseases.
CONCLUSION—Although the mechanism that relates the presence of a disease to perceived health status remains in question, these results show clearly that there is a close association between these two domains that justifies the use of perceived health as a proxy for self reported diseases.


Keywords: marginal model; health scale; self rated disease PMID:11238577

  5. Correction of moderate myopia is associated with improvement in self-reported visual functioning among Mexican school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Esteso, Paul; Castanon, Aaron; Toledo, Silvia; Rito, Marco A Pereyra; Ervin, Anne; Wojciechowski, Robert; Congdon, Nathan G

    2007-11-01

    To quantify the impact on self-reported visual functioning of spectacle provision for school-aged children in Oaxaca, Mexico. The Refractive Status Vision Profile (RSVP), a previously validated tool to measure the impact of refractive correction on visual functioning, was adapted for use in rural children and administered at baseline and 4 weeks (27.3 +/- 4.4 days) after the provision of free spectacles. Visual acuity with and without correction, age, sex, and spherical equivalent refraction were recorded at the time of follow-up. Among 88 children (mean age, 12 years; 55.7% girls), the median presenting acuity (uncorrected or with original spectacles), tested 4 weeks after the provision of free spectacles, was 6/9 (range, 6/6-6/120). Significant improvements in the following subscales of the RSVP were seen for the group as a whole after the provision of free spectacles: function, 11.2 points (P = 0.0001); symptoms, 14.3 points (P < 0.0001); total score, 10.3 points (P = 0.0001). After stratification by presenting vision in the better-seeing eye, children with 6/6 acuity (n = 22) did not have significant improvement in any subscale; those with acuity of 6/7.5 to 6/9 (n = 34) improved only on function (P = 0.02), symptoms (P = 0.005), and total score (P = 0.003); and those with acuity of 6/12 or worse improved on total score (P < 0.0001) and all subscales. Subjects (n = 31) with uncorrected myopia of -1.25 D or more had a mean improvement in total score of 15.9 points (P < 0.0001), whereas those with uncorrected myopia between -0.50 and -1.00 D inclusive (n = 53) had a mean improvement of 8 points (P = 0.01). Provision of spectacles to children in this setting had a significant impact on self-reported function, even at modest levels of baseline visual disability. The correlation between presenting vision/refraction and improvement and the failure of children 6/6 at baseline to improve offer evidence for a real effect.

  6. The Effects of Pilates Training on Balance Control and Self-Reported Health Status in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Gabizon, Hadas; Press, Yan; Volkov, Ilia; Melzer, Itshak

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of a group-based Pilates training program on balance control and health status in healthy older adults. A single-blind, randomized, controlled trial. General community. A total of 88 community-dwelling older adults (age 71.15 ± 4.30 years), without evidence of functional balance impairment, were recruited and allocated at random to a Pilates intervention group (n = 44) or a control group (n = 44). The Pilates intervention group received 36 training sessions over three months (3 sessions a week), while the control group did not receive any intervention. Standing upright postural stability, performance-based measures of balance, and self-reported health status was assessed in both groups at baseline and at the end of the intervention period. Compared with the control group, the Pilates intervention did not improve postural stability, baseline functional measures of balance, or health status. The results suggest that because Pilates training is not task specific, it does not improve balance control or balance function in independent older adults.

  7. New functional handle for use as a self-reporting contrast and delivery agent in nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Robin, Mathew P; Mabire, Anne B; Damborsky, Joanne C; Thom, Elizabeth S; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H; Raymond, Jeffery E; O'Reilly, Rachel K

    2013-06-26

    The synthesis and photophysical characterization of a chromophore-bridged block copolymer system is presented. This system is based on a dithiomaleimide (DTM) functional group as a highly emissive functionality which can readily be incorporated into polymeric scaffolds. A key advantage of this new reporter group is its versatile chemistry, ease of further functionalization, and notably small size, which allows for ready incorporation without affecting or disrupting the self-assembly process critical to the formation of core-shell polymeric contrast and drug delivery agents. We demonstrate the potential of this functionality with a diblock system which has been shown to be appropriate for micellization and, when in the micellar state, does not self-quench. The block copolymer is shown to be significantly more emissive than the lone dye, with a concentration-independent emission and anisotropy profile from 1.5 mM to 0.15 μM. An emission lifetime and anisotropy decay comparison of the block copolymer to its micelle displays that time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) is able to rapidly resolve differences in the supramolecular state of this block-dye-block polymer system. Furthermore, the ability to resolve these differences in the supramolecular state means that the DTM micelles are capable of self-reporting when disassembly occurs, simply by monitoring with FLIM. We demonstrate the great potential for in vitro applications that this system provides by using FLIM to observe micelle disassembly in different vascular components of rat hippocampal tissue. In total this system represents a new class of in-chain emitter which is appropriate for application in quantitative imaging and the tracking of particle degradation/disassembly events in biological environments.

  8. Self-reported driving behaviors as a function of trait anxiety.

    PubMed

    Shahar, Amit

    2009-03-01

    This study examined self-reported driving behaviors in 120 (Israeli) male drivers as a function of trait anxiety (TA). TA was assessed through the TA scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. For the analysis of driving behaviors, the present study used the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and adopted previous distinctions between four classes of behaviors within the DBQ: errors, lapses, ordinary violations and aggressive violations. Regression analyses revealed that level of TA had a significant direct positive effect on all dependent variables, suggesting riskier driving behaviors among high-anxious individuals. Significant logarithmic effects for all measures indicate that these aberrant driving behaviors increase more at increasing LTA-, than at increasing HTA-values. Consistent with the general adverse effects of anxiety on performance effectiveness, the present findings as well, are interpreted in the framework of theories which suggest that worries occupy the capacities of working memory, at the expense of the task to be performed. The positive relation between aggressive violations and TA is sought to reflect low levels of emotional adjustment among high-anxious individuals.

  9. Physical activity and self-reported health status among adolescents: a cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Galán, I; Boix, R; Medrano, M J; Ramos, P; Rivera, F; Pastor-Barriuso, R; Moreno, C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about the dose–response relationship between physical activity and health benefits among young people. Our objective was to analyse the association between the frequency of undertaking moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and the self-reported health status of the adolescent population. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting All regions of Spain. Participants Students aged 11–18 years participating in the Spanish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey 2006. A total of 375 schools and 21 188 students were selected. Main outcomes The frequency of undertaking MVPA was measured by a questionnaire, with the following four health indicators: self-rated health, health complaints, satisfaction with life and health-related quality of life. Linear and logistic regression models were used to analyse the association, adjusting for potential confounding variables and the modelling of the dose–response relationship. Results As the frequency of MVPA increased, the association with health benefits was stronger. A linear trend (p<0.05) was found for self-rated health and health complaints in males and females and for satisfaction with life among females; for health-related quality of life this relationship was quadratic for both sexes (p<0.05). For self-reported health and health complaints, the effect was found to be of greater magnitude in males than in females and, in all scales, the benefits were observed from the lowest frequencies of MVPA, especially in males. Conclusions A protective effect of MVPA was found in both sexes for the four health indicators studied, and this activity had a gradient effect. Among males, health benefits were detected from very low levels of physical activity and the magnitude of the relationship was greater than that for females. PMID:23676798

  10. Self-reported sleep duration and time in bed as predictors of physical function decline: results from the InCHIANTI study.

    PubMed

    Stenholm, Sari; Kronholm, Erkki; Bandinelli, Stefania; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-11-01

    To characterize elderly persons into sleep/rest groups based on their self-reported habitual total sleeping time (TST) and habitual time in bed (TIB) and to examine the prospective association between sleep/rest behavior on physical function decline. Population-based InCHIANTI study with 6 years follow-up (Tuscany, Italy). Community. Men and women aged ≥ 65 years (n = 751). At baseline, participants were categorized into 5 sleep/rest behavior groups according to their self-reported TST and TIB, computed from bedtime and wake-up time. Physical function was assessed at baseline and at 3- and 6-year follow-ups as walking speed, the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and self-reported mobility disability (ability to walk 400 m or climb one flight of stairs). Both long (≥ 9 h) TST and long TIB predicted accelerated decline in objectively measured physical performance and greater incidence in subjectively assessed mobility disability, but short (≤ 6 h) TST did not. After combining TST and TIB, long sleepers (TST and TIB ≥ 9 h) experienced the greatest decline in physical performance and had the highest risk for incident mobility disability in comparison to mid-range sleepers with 7-8 h TST and TIB. Subjective short sleepers reporting short (≤ 6 h) TST but long (≥ 9 h) TIB showed a greater decline in SPPB score and had a higher risk of incident mobility disability than true short sleepers with short (≤ 6 h) TST and TIB ≤ 8 hours. Extended time in bed as well as long total sleeping time is associated with greater physical function decline than mid-range or short sleep. TIB offers important additive information to the self-reported sleep duration when evaluating the consequences of sleep duration on health and functional status.

  11. Analytical, Creative, and Practical Intelligence as Predictors of Self-reported Adaptive Functioning: A Case Study in Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigorenko, Elena L.; Sternberg, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    Studied the efficacy of the triarchic theory of intelligence as a basis for predicting adaptive functioning in a rapidly changing society, that of Russia. Results of intelligence measures administered to 452 women and 293 men show that analytical, practical, and creative intelligence all relate in some degree to self-reported everyday adaptive…

  12. Factors related to agreement between self-reported and conventional Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores.

    PubMed

    Cheng, E M; Hays, R D; Myers, L W; Ellison, G W; Beckstrand, M; Vickrey, B G

    2001-12-01

    Although the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) remains a widely used scale for evaluating impairments in people with multiple sclerosis (MS), EDSS assessments are infeasible in certain situations. A self-administered version of the EDSS would be potentially useful if it yielded similar results as the conventional physician-based version. We developed a self-administered patient questionnaire to obtain ratings of neurologic impairments, and developed algorithms to estimate EDSS scores. We mailed the questionnaires to all new consecutive patients scheduled to be seen at an MS clinic. Questionnaires were completed prior to the visit and traditional EDSS ratings were made by one of two neurologists at the visit. One hundred and forty-six pairs of patient questionnaires and physician EDSS assessments were obtained. Kappa values for agreement between the physician's EDSS scores and the questionnaire-derived scores were 0.13 (for exact agreement), 0.39 (+/-0.5 EDSS steps), and 0.56 (+/-1.0 EDSS steps). A scatterplot showed that agreement was best at EDSS scores <3.0 and >5.0. Better agreement was obtained when patients had a higher level of education, and when the physician was more certain of the diagnosis of MS. While the self-assessed EDSS scores do not agree highly enough to take the place of conventional EDSS scores, they may be sufficient for MS trial screening or for assessing outcomes across broad categories of disability.

  13. Self-Reported Employment Status and Social Participation After Successful Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Sandesh; Singh, Jagmeet; Sandal, Shaifali; Liebman, Scott E; Demme, Richard A

    2016-03-01

    Kidney transplantation (KTX) is considered the treatment of choice for most individuals with end-stage kidney disease. The purpose of this study was to assess the employment status and social participation after successful KTX. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study. Eligible participants were patients who received a transplant ≥1 year ago and who were previously on hemodialysis (HD) for ≥1 year. Two hundred individuals participated in this study. A significant number (93.5%) of patients reported they were working prior to HD versus 35% while on HD. Only 14% reported receiving disability benefits prior to HD versus 75% receiving disability while on HD. Comparing transplant recipients with pre-HD patients, 35.5% versus 93.5% reported working, and 74.5% versus 14% reported receiving disability benefits, respectively. After transplant, patients were more likely to join recreational clubs, travel frequently, and participate in recreational/religious activities and social events than when they were on HD. Posttransplant, these individuals are more likely to participate in social and leisure activities, but the majority did not resume employment and continued to receive disability payments. Future studies could explore barriers to employment in patients who underwent successful transplantation and the causes and factors as to why these individuals continue to receive disability benefits. © 2016, NATCO.

  14. Neurobehavioral Performance Impairment in Insomnia: Relationships with Self-Reported Sleep and Daytime Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Shekleton, Julia A.; Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Miller, Belinda; Epstein, Lawrence J.; Kirsch, Douglas; Brogna, Lauren A.; Burke, Liza M.; Bremer, Erin; Murray, Jade M.; Gehrman, Philip; Lockley, Steven W.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.

    2014-01-01

    . Neurobehavioral performance impairment in insomnia: relationships with self-reported sleep and daytime functioning. SLEEP 2014;37(1):107-116. PMID:24470700

  15. A cross-sectional study of equol producer status and self-reported vasomotor symptoms.

    PubMed

    Newton, Katherine M; Reed, Susan D; Uchiyama, Shigeto; Qu, Conghui; Ueno, Tomomi; Iwashita, Soh; Gunderson, Gabrielle; Fuller, Sharon; Lampe, Johanna W

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate the associations of vasomotor symptom (VMS) frequency, bother, and severity with equol producer status and dietary daidzein intake. This is an observational study. This study included women aged 45 to 55 years, in postmenopause or in the menopausal transition, who had soy food intake of three or more servings per week. Exclusion criteria included severe concurrent disease, pregnancy or planned pregnancy, and current use of oral or transdermal hormones or selective estrogen receptor modulators. After screening, 375 participants completed a 3-day VMS diary and a 24-hour urine collection. Women with a urine daidzein or genistein concentration of 100 ng/mL or higher were included. We evaluated the association of VMS--dichotomized as lower than or equal to versus higher than the mean number of VMS per day (<2.33, ≥ 2.33)--with quartiles of daidzein intake. Overall, 129 (35%) of 365 women were equol producers. The mean (SD) urinary equol excretion was 0.67 (1.57) mg/day (50th percentile, 0 mg/d; 95th percentile, 4.12 mg/d). Among equol producers, the mean (SD) urinary equol excretion was 1.91 (2.15) mg/day (50th percentile, 1.09 mg/d; 95th percentile, 6.27 mg/d). Among equol producers, compared with those in the lowest quartile of dietary daidzein intake (mean, 4.9 mg/d), those in the highest quartile (mean, 28.5 mg/d) were 76% less likely to have VMS higher than the mean number of VMS (odds ratio, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.07-0.83; trend test across all daidzein levels, P = 0.06). Among equol nonproducers, there were no associations between daidzein intake and VMS frequency. There were no differences in VMS bother or severity among equol producers or nonproducers by dietary daidzein level. Among equol producers, higher equol availability attributable to higher soy consumption contributes to decreased VMS.

  16. Self-reported incident type 2 diabetes in the Ibadan study of ageing: relationship with urban residence and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Williams O; Gureje, Oye

    2013-01-01

    There is no incident study of diabetes among elderly Nigerians and it is unclear what factors may constitute risks for the condition in this society undergoing rapid social changes. This study explores the link between urban residence and socioeconomic status, and incident diabetes among community-dwelling elderly Nigerians. A cohort of 2,149 persons, aged 65 years and above, were recruited through a clustered multistage sampling in eight contiguous predominantly Yoruba-speaking states in south-western and north-central regions of Nigeria. Follow-up evaluation was conducted approximately 39 months after the baseline assessments. Face-to-face assessments obtained self-report of chronic medical conditions, including diabetes, using a standardized checklist as well as information on social factors, including residence. Incident diabetes was determined among persons who were free of the problem at baseline (n = 1,330). At follow-up, 38 subjects had developed diabetes giving an incidence rate of 8.87% [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.45-12.19] per 1,000 person-years. A stepwise relationship was found between incident diabetes and urbanicity as well as increasing economic status. The highest incidence of diabetes (13.57%; 95% CI: 8.75-21.03 per 1,000 person-years) occurred among subjects residing in urban areas, representing an adjusted relative risk of 4.25 (95% CI: 1.81-9.94) compared to those residing in rural areas. Also, compared with persons in the lowest economic group, those in the highest group had about a 3-fold elevated risk of having incident diabetes. Urban residence and increasing socioeconomic status are risk factors for new onset diabetes among elderly Nigerians. These social factors may be proxies for lifestyles that increase the likelihood of developing the disorder. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Self-report measures of executive function problems correlate with personality, not performance-based executive function measures, in nonclinical samples.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Researchers and clinicians often measure executive function in patients and normal samples. In addition to cognitive tests that objectively measure executive function, several instruments have been developed that address individuals' everyday experience of executive problems. Such self-report measures of executive problems may have value, but there are questions about the extent to which they tap objectively measurable executive problems or are influenced by variables such as personality. Relationships between self-reported executive problems, personality, and cognitive test performance were assessed in 3 separate, well-powered, methodologically distinct correlational studies using nonclinical samples. These studies used multiple measures of personality and self-reported executive function problems. Across all 3 studies, self-reported executive function problems were found to correlate with neuroticism and with low conscientiousness, with medium to large effect sizes. However self-reported problems did not correlate with performance on Trail Making, Phonemic Fluency, Semantic Fluency, or Digit Span tests tapping executive function. A key implication of these findings is that in nonclinical samples, self-report questionnaires may not be proxies for executive functioning as measured by neuropsychological tests.

  18. Regression-Based Estimates of Observed Functional Status in Centenarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Meghan B.; Miller, L. Stephen; Woodard, John L.; Davey, Adam; Martin, Peter; Burgess, Molly; Poon, Leonard W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: There is lack of consensus on the best method of functional assessment, and there is a paucity of studies on daily functioning in centenarians. We sought to compare associations between performance-based, self-report, and proxy report of functional status in centenarians. We expected the strongest relationships between proxy…

  19. Regression-Based Estimates of Observed Functional Status in Centenarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Meghan B.; Miller, L. Stephen; Woodard, John L.; Davey, Adam; Martin, Peter; Burgess, Molly; Poon, Leonard W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: There is lack of consensus on the best method of functional assessment, and there is a paucity of studies on daily functioning in centenarians. We sought to compare associations between performance-based, self-report, and proxy report of functional status in centenarians. We expected the strongest relationships between proxy…

  20. Self-reported body weight and height: an assessment tool for identifying children with overweight/obesity status and cardiometabolic risk factors clustering.

    PubMed

    Chan, Noel P T; Choi, Kai C; Nelson, E Anthony S; Sung, Rita Y T; Chan, Juliana C N; Kong, Alice P S

    2013-02-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used for assessing body fat. Self-reported body weight and height derived BMI (SRDBMI) is a simple, low cost and non-invasive assessment tool and it may be a useful self-reported assessment tool to monitor the prevalence of overweight/obesity in community settings and for epidemiological research. We assessed the agreement of BW and BH between assessor measured and child self-reported values and evaluated the diagnostic ability of SRDBMI to identify children with overweight/obesity status and cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) clustering. A cross-sectional study was conducted in school settings using a cluster sampling method. A total of 1,614 children aged 6-18 years were included in the analysis. Children were given a questionnaire to complete at home prior to the anthropometric measurements and blood taking at the schools. There was almost perfect agreement on BW, BH and BMI between self-reported and measured values [intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.93 (95% CI: 0.93-0.94) to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.98-0.99)]. About half of the children reported their BW and BH absolute values within 1 kg and 2 cm of measured values, respectively. The SRDBMI demonstrated good diagnostic ability for identifying children with overweight/obesity status (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values ranged from 0.83 to 0.98) and CMRFs clustering (AUC-ROCs values of BMI between measured and self-reported values were close ranging from 0.85 to 0.89). Self-reported BW and BH demonstrated almost perfect agreement with measured values and could substantially identify children with overweight/obesity status and CMRFs clustering.

  1. Present status and self-reported diseases of the Korean atomic bomb survivors: a mail questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Ju, Young-Su; Kim, Jung-Bum; Kim, Jin-Kook

    2005-01-01

    Many Koreans were forced to move to Japan while Korea was occupied by Japan. Consequently, when the atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki an estimated 40,000 Koreans died and 30,000 survived. In 2004, 2,235 Koreans were registered as A-bomb survivors in South Korea. A mail questionnaire survey to evaluate the present status and self-reported diseases of the Korean survivors was conducted. In total, 1,256 questionnaires were returned and analysed. The most frequent chronic diseases reported by Korean survivors were hypertension (40.1 per cent), peptic ulcer disease (25.7 per cent), anaemia (23.3 per cent) and cataracts (23.1 per cent). The most frequent malignant diseases were stomach cancer (1.9 per cent), colon cancer (0.5 per cent) and leukaemia/multiple myeloma (0.4 per cent). This study suggests that further investigations are needed into the health concerns of the survivors and into health protection measures.

  2. Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Time in Bed as Predictors of Physical Function Decline: Results from the InCHIANTI Study

    PubMed Central

    Stenholm, Sari; Kronholm, Erkki; Bandinelli, Stefania; Guralnik, Jack M.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To characterize elderly persons into sleep/rest groups based on their self-reported habitual total sleeping time (TST) and habitual time in bed (TIB) and to examine the prospective association between sleep/rest behavior on physical function decline. Design: Population-based InCHIANTI study with 6 years follow-up (Tuscany, Italy). Setting: Community. Participants: Men and women aged ≥ 65 years (n = 751). Measurements and Results: At baseline, participants were categorized into 5 sleep/rest behavior groups according to their self-reported TST and TIB, computed from bedtime and wake-up time. Physical function was assessed at baseline and at 3- and 6-year follow-ups as walking speed, the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and self-reported mobility disability (ability to walk 400 m or climb one flight of stairs). Both long (≥ 9 h) TST and long TIB predicted accelerated decline in objectively measured physical performance and greater incidence in subjectively assessed mobility disability, but short (≤ 6 h) TST did not. After combining TST and TIB, long sleepers (TST and TIB ≥ 9 h) experienced the greatest decline in physical performance and had the highest risk for incident mobility disability in comparison to mid-range sleepers with 7-8 h TST and TIB. Subjective short sleepers reporting short (≤ 6 h) TST but long (≥ 9 h) TIB showed a greater decline in SPPB score and had a higher risk of incident mobility disability than true short sleepers with short (≤ 6 h) TST and TIB ≤ 8 hours. Conclusions: Extended time in bed as well as long total sleeping time is associated with greater physical function decline than mid-range or short sleep. TIB offers important additive information to the self-reported sleep duration when evaluating the consequences of sleep duration on health and functional status. Citation: Stenholm S; Kronholm K; Bandinelli S; Guralnik JM; Ferrucci. Self-reported sleep duration and time in bed as predictors of

  3. Self-reported unemployment status and recession: An analysis on the Italian population with and without mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Starace, Fabrizio; Mungai, Francesco; Sarti, Elena; Addabbo, Tindara

    2017-01-01

    During economic recession people with mental health problems have higher risk of losing their job. This paper analyses the issue by considering the Italian rates of unemployment amongst individuals with and without mental health problems in 2005 and 2013, that is prior and during the economic crisis. We used data from the National surveys on "Health conditions and use of health services" carried out by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) for the years 2005 and 2013. The surveys collected information on the health status and socioeconomic conditions of the Italian population. Self-reported unemployment status was analysed amongst individuals with and without reported mental health problems. In addition, descriptive statistics were performed in order to detect possible differences in the risk of unemployment within different regional contexts characterised by different socio-economic conditions. The recession determined increased disparities in unemployment rates between people with and without mental health problems. Regardless to the presence of mental health problems, young people were more likely to be unemployed. Among people who reported mental health problems, males were more likely to be unemployed than females. People with low education level were more likely to be unemployed, particularly during the recession and in presence of mental health problems. Changes in unemployment rates due to the crisis showed different patterns across different regions of the Country. These analyses confirm that in periods of economic crisis people with mental health problems are at risk of experiencing exclusion from labour market. In addition, the impact is even worse within the group with low education and younger age. These findings emphasise the importance of specific interventions aimed at promoting labour market participation and reintegration for people with mental health problems.

  4. Self-reported unemployment status and recession: An analysis on the Italian population with and without mental health problems

    PubMed Central

    Starace, Fabrizio; Mungai, Francesco; Sarti, Elena; Addabbo, Tindara

    2017-01-01

    Purpose During economic recession people with mental health problems have higher risk of losing their job. This paper analyses the issue by considering the Italian rates of unemployment amongst individuals with and without mental health problems in 2005 and 2013, that is prior and during the economic crisis. Methods We used data from the National surveys on “Health conditions and use of health services” carried out by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) for the years 2005 and 2013. The surveys collected information on the health status and socioeconomic conditions of the Italian population. Self-reported unemployment status was analysed amongst individuals with and without reported mental health problems. In addition, descriptive statistics were performed in order to detect possible differences in the risk of unemployment within different regional contexts characterised by different socio-economic conditions. Results The recession determined increased disparities in unemployment rates between people with and without mental health problems. Regardless to the presence of mental health problems, young people were more likely to be unemployed. Among people who reported mental health problems, males were more likely to be unemployed than females. People with low education level were more likely to be unemployed, particularly during the recession and in presence of mental health problems. Changes in unemployment rates due to the crisis showed different patterns across different regions of the Country. Conclusions These analyses confirm that in periods of economic crisis people with mental health problems are at risk of experiencing exclusion from labour market. In addition, the impact is even worse within the group with low education and younger age. These findings emphasise the importance of specific interventions aimed at promoting labour market participation and reintegration for people with mental health problems. PMID:28376098

  5. Investigating the relationship between self-reported oral health status, oral health-related behaviours and self-consciousness in Romania.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, Alexandria L; Kawamura, Makoto; Dogaru, Beatrice; Dogaru, Cristian

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether self-consciousness, self-reported oral health status and oral-health-related behaviours were associated. The present study sample consisted of 253 first year medical students in Romania. The questionnaire included information about socio-demographic factors, behavioural variables, self-reported oral health status and three self-consciousness subscales (Private Self-Consciousness, Public Self-Consciousness, and Social Anxiety). Significant differences were found in Public Self-Consciousness and Social Anxiety according to several variables: anxiety, stress, depression and current non-treated caries. There were significant differences in Social Anxiety for the variables of gender, smoking, perceived dental health, self-reported gum bleeding and reason for dental visit (p < 0.05). A significant difference was found in Public Self-Consciousness for the reason for dental visits (p < 0.05). Total Self-Consciousness is correlated with anxiety, stress, depression, current non-treated caries, gingival bleeding and reason for dental visit. Oral health behaviours such as tooth brushing, flossing, mouth washing and last dental visit were not influenced by each of the self-consciousness subscales. The results suggest that self-consciousness might be a psychosocial risk marker that influences self-reported oral health status.

  6. Periodontal status and its association with self-reported hypertension in non-medical staff in a university teaching hospital in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Umeizudike, K A; Ayanbadejo, P O; Onajole, A T; Umeizudike, T I; Alade, G O

    2016-03-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests a relationship between periodontal disease and non-communicable systemic diseases with rising prevalence in developing countries, Nigeria inclusive. To determine the periodontal status and its association with self-reported hypertension among non-medical staff in a university teaching hospital in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted among non-medical staff using self-administered questionnaires and periodontal clinical examination between July and August 2013. Multivariate analysis was explored to determine the independent variables associated with self-reported hypertension. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. A total of 276 subjects were enrolled into the study. Shallow pockets (CPI code 3) constituted the predominant periodontal disease (46.7%), calculus (CPI code 2) 46%, bleeding gingiva (CPI code 1) in 3.3% and deep pockets ≥ 6mm (CPI code 4) in 2.2%. Self-reported hypertension was the most prevalent self-reported medical condition (18.1%) and found to be associated with periodontitis, increasing age, lower education, and a positive family history of hypertension. Periodontal disease was highly prevalent in this study. Self-reported hypertension was associated with periodontitis, older age, lower education and a positive family history. Periodic periodontal examination and regular blood pressure assessment for non-medical staff is recommended.

  7. Single-legged Hop Tests as Predictors of Self-reported Knee Function After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Logerstedt, David; Grindem, Hege; Lynch, Andrew; Eitzen, Ingrid; Engebretsen, Lars; Risberg, May Arna; Axe, Michael J.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Background Single-legged hop tests are commonly used functional performance measures that can capture limb asymmetries in patients after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Hop tests hold potential as predictive factors of self-reported knee function in individuals after ACL reconstruction. Hypothesis Single-legged hop tests conducted preoperatively would not and 6 months after ACL reconstruction would predict self-reported knee function (International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC] 2000) 1 year after ACL reconstruction. Study Design Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods One hundred twenty patients who were treated with ACL reconstruction performed 4 single-legged hop tests preoperatively and 6 months after ACL reconstruction. Self-reported knee function within normal ranges was defined as IKDC 2000 scores greater than or equal to the age- and sex-specific normative 15th percentile score 1 year after surgery. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of self-reported knee function within normal ranges. The area under the curve (AUC) from receiver operating characteristic curves was used as a measure of discriminative accuracy. Results Eighty-five patients completed single-legged hop tests 6 months after surgery and the 1-year follow-up with 68 patients classified as having self-reported knee function within normal ranges 1 year after reconstruction. The crossover hop and 6-m timed hop limb symmetry index (LSI) 6 months after ACL reconstruction were the strongest individual predictors of self-reported knee function (odds ratio, 1.09 and 1.10) and the only 2 tests in which the confidence intervals of the discriminatory accuracy (AUC) were above 0.5 (AUC = 0.68). Patients with knee function below normal ranges were over 5 times more likely of having a 6-m timed hop LSI lower than the 88% cutoff than those with knee function within normal ranges. Patients with knee function within normal ranges were 4 times

  8. Impact of skeletal divergence on oral health-related quality of life and self-reported jaw function

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, William Murray; Merriman, Tony Raymond; Rongo, Roberto; Farella, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the differences in oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and self-reported jaw function between patients with hyperdivergent and normodivergent facial types. Methods Eighty patients with a distinctively hyperdivergent facial type (mandibular plane angle greater than 2 standard deviations, or 42°) and 80 controls were individually matched according to age, sex, ethnicity, and treatment stage. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires such as the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) and Jaw Functional Limitation Scale (JFLS-8). Results The mean age of the patients was 17.2 ± 4.6 years (range, 12–9 years), with most (65.0%) being female and of New Zealand European origin (91.3%). Individuals with hyperdivergent facial types had higher overall and social domain scores on the OHIP-14 (p < 0.05) than did the ones with normodivergent facial types. However, the intergroup differences in JFLS-8 scores were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions Jaw function appears to be similar in individuals with hyperdivergent and normodivergent facial morphologies. However, those with hyperdivergent facial types are more likely to self-report poorer OHRQoL than are those with normal faces, especially in relation to social aspects. PMID:28523245

  9. Validation of self-reported comorbidity status of breast cancer patients with medical records: the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC).

    PubMed

    Vigen, Cheryl; Kwan, Marilyn L; John, Esther M; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Keegan, Theresa H M; Lu, Yani; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Monroe, Kristine R; Kurian, Allison W; Cheng, Iona; Caan, Bette J; Lee, Valerie S; Roh, Janise M; Bernstein, Leslie; Sposto, Richard; Wu, Anna H

    2016-03-01

    To compare information from self-report and electronic medical records for four common comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, myocardial infarction, and other heart diseases). We pooled data from two multiethnic studies (one case-control and one survivor cohort) enrolling 1,936 women diagnosed with breast cancer, who were members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Concordance varied by comorbidity; kappa values ranged from 0.50 for other heart diseases to 0.87 for diabetes. Sensitivities for comorbidities from self-report versus medical record were similar for racial/ethnic minorities and non-Hispanic Whites, and did not vary by age, neighborhood socioeconomic status, or education. Women with a longer history of comorbidity or who took medications for the comorbidity were more likely to report the condition. Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were not consistently affected by source of comorbidity information; the hazard ratio was lower for diabetes, but higher for the other comorbidities when medical record versus self-report was used. Model fit was better when the medical record versus self-reported data were used. Comorbidities are increasingly recognized to influence the survival of patients with breast or other cancers. Potential effects of misclassification of comorbidity status should be considered in the interpretation of research results.

  10. Preoperative physical performance predictors of self-reported physical function and quality of life in patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Chul Woong; Kim, Bo Ryun; Han, Eun Young; Kim, Sang Rim

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] To determine the preoperative self-reported and performance-based physical function of patients with end-stage knee osteoarthritis who awaited total knee arthroplasty. The preoperative physical performance factors that predicted self-reported physical function and quality of life were also identified. [Subjects and Methods] All adults with end-stage knee osteoarthritis awaiting surgery were enrolled. Before surgery, self-reported disease-specific physical function and self-reported pain were measured using the Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, self-reported quality of life was measured using the EuroQOL five dimensions questionnaire, and physical performance tests were performed, the 6 minute walk test, the timed up-and-go test, instrumental gait analysis, and measurement of isometric knee flexor and extensor strength of the surgical and nonsurgical knees. [Results] In total, 55 adults (49 females; 73.3 ± 6.1 years) were included. This study showed that several preoperative self-reported and physical performance factors were predictive of self-reported physical function and quality of life. [Conclusion] In patients with end-stage knee osteoarthritis, preoperative pain and dynamic balance ability were the most powerful predictors of self-reported physical function. Preoperative pain and exercise tolerance were the most powerful predictors of quality of life. Preoperative rehabilitation strategies that focus on dynamic balance, aerobic, and resistance exercises may improve surgical outcomes.

  11. Preoperative physical performance predictors of self-reported physical function and quality of life in patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Chul Woong; Kim, Bo Ryun; Han, Eun Young; Kim, Sang Rim

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To determine the preoperative self-reported and performance-based physical function of patients with end-stage knee osteoarthritis who awaited total knee arthroplasty. The preoperative physical performance factors that predicted self-reported physical function and quality of life were also identified. [Subjects and Methods] All adults with end-stage knee osteoarthritis awaiting surgery were enrolled. Before surgery, self-reported disease-specific physical function and self-reported pain were measured using the Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, self-reported quality of life was measured using the EuroQOL five dimensions questionnaire, and physical performance tests were performed, the 6 minute walk test, the timed up-and-go test, instrumental gait analysis, and measurement of isometric knee flexor and extensor strength of the surgical and nonsurgical knees. [Results] In total, 55 adults (49 females; 73.3 ± 6.1 years) were included. This study showed that several preoperative self-reported and physical performance factors were predictive of self-reported physical function and quality of life. [Conclusion] In patients with end-stage knee osteoarthritis, preoperative pain and dynamic balance ability were the most powerful predictors of self-reported physical function. Preoperative pain and exercise tolerance were the most powerful predictors of quality of life. Preoperative rehabilitation strategies that focus on dynamic balance, aerobic, and resistance exercises may improve surgical outcomes. PMID:27942153

  12. Performance-based measures of physical function as mortality predictors: Incremental value beyond self-reports

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Noreen; Glei, Dana A.; Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Weinstein, Maxine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although previous studies have indicated that performance assessments strongly predict future survival, few have evaluated the incremental value in the presence of controls for self-reported activity and mobility limitations. OBJECTIVE We assess and compare the added value of four tests – walking speed, chair stands, grip strength, and peak expiratory flow (PEF) – for predicting all-cause mortality. METHODS Using population-based samples of older adults in Costa Rica (n = 2290, aged 60+) and Taiwan (n = 1219, aged 53+), we estimate proportional hazards models of mortality for an approximate five-year period. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves are used to assess the prognostic value of each performance assessment. RESULTS Self-reported measures of physical limitations contribute substantial gains in mortality prediction, whereas performance-based assessments yield modest incremental gains. PEF provides the greatest added value, followed by grip strength. Our results suggest that including more than two performance assessments may provide little improvement in mortality prediction. CONCLUSIONS PEF and grip strength are often simpler to administer in home interview settings, impose less of a burden on some respondents, and, in the presence of self-reported limitations, appear to be better predictors of mortality than do walking speed or chair stands. COMMENTS Being unable to perform the test is often a strong predictor of mortality, but these indicators are not well-defined. Exclusion rates vary by the specific task and are likely to depend on the underlying demographic, health, social and cultural characteristics of the sample. PMID:25866473

  13. Self-reported and clinically determined oral health status predictors for quality of life in dentate older migrant adults.

    PubMed

    Mariño, R; Schofield, M; Wright, C; Calache, H; Minichiello, V

    2008-02-01

    This paper reports the impact of oral health on the quality of life (QOL) of Southern European, dentate older adults, living independently in Melbourne, Australia. Participants were recruited through ethnic social clubs and interviewed about oral health, general health, socio-demographics, and QOL using the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 12 (SF-12). The SF-12's physical and mental health component summary scores (PCS and MCS, respectively) were computed. The Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) assessed the specific impact of oral health on QOL. Participants were also given a clinical oral examination. A total of 603 eligible older adults volunteered; 308 were from Greek background and 295 were from Italian background. Mean age was 67.7 years (SD 6.2), with 63.7% being female. The PCS score had a mean value of 45.8 (SD 11.8), and MCS had a mean of 47.8 (SD 5.7). PCS was associated with, periodontal status, chronic health condition, self-perceived oral health needs, self-assessed oral health status, oral health impact score and the interaction between gender and level of education [F(11 552) = 10.57; P < 0.0001]. These independent variables accounted for 16% of the variance in PCS. The multivariate model predicting MCS had only one significant variable (self-reported gingival bleeding), explaining 1.5% of the variance. The OHIP-14 ranged from 0 to 48 with a mean score of 5.6 (SD 9.3). The model predicting OHIP-14 contained four significant variables: perceived oral health treatment needs, number of missing natural teeth, reports of having to sip liquid to help swallow food, and gender [F(4576) = 33.39; P < 0.0001], and explained 18% of the variance. The results demonstrated a negative association between oral health indicators and both the oral health-related QOL and the physical component of the SF-12. The present findings support a growing recognition of the importance of oral health as a mediator of QOL. However, the self-selected sample and modest predictive

  14. Socioeconomic Status and Self-Reported Chronic Diseases Among Argentina's Adult Population: Results Based on Multivariate Probability Models

    PubMed Central

    Viego, Valentina; Temporelli, Karina

    2017-01-01

    Background Hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia are the most frequent and diagnosed chronic diseases in Argentina. They contribute largely to the burden of chronic disease and they are strongly influenced by a small number of risk factors. These risk factors are all modifiable at the population and individual level and offer major prospects for their prevention. We are interested in socioeconomic determinants of prevalence of those 3 specific diseases. Design and methods We estimate 3-equation probit model, combined with 3 separate probit estimations and a probit-based Heckman correction considering possible sample selection bias. Estimations were carried out using secondary self-reported data coming from the 2013 Risk Factor National Survey. Results We find a negative association between socioeconomic status and prevalence of hypertension, cholesterolemia and diabetes; main increases concentrate in the transition from low to high SES in hypertension and diabetes. In cholesterol, the major effect takes place when individual crosses from low to middle SES and then vanishes. Anyway, in Argentina SES exhibit and independent effect on chronic diseases apart from those based on habits and body weight. Conclusions Public strategies to prevent chronic diseases must be specially targeted at women, poorest households and the least educated individuals in order to achieve efficacy. Also, as the probability of having a condition related to excessive blood pressure, high levels of cholesterol or glucose in the blood do not increase proportionally with age, so public campaigns promoting healthy diets, physical activity and medical checkups should be focused on young individuals to facilitate prophylaxis. Significance for public health Latin American countries are going through an epidemiological transition where infectious illnesses are being superseded by chronic diseases which, in turn, are related to lifestyles and socioeconomic factors. Specificities in the

  15. Trajectories of self-reported cognitive function in postmenopausal women during adjuvant systemic therapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Merriman, John D; Sereika, Susan M; Brufsky, Adam M; McAuliffe, Priscilla F; McGuire, Kandace P; Myers, Jamie S; Phillips, Mary L; Ryan, Christopher M; Gentry, Amanda L; Jones, Lindsay D; Bender, Catherine M

    2017-01-01

    In a sample of 368 postmenopausal women, we (1) determined within-cohort and between-cohort relationships between adjuvant systemic therapy for breast cancer and self-reported cognitive function during the first 18 months of therapy and (2) evaluated the influence of co-occurring symptoms, neuropsychological function, and other covariates on relationships. We evaluated self-reported cognitive function, using the Patient Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory (PAOFI), and potential covariates (e.g., co-occurring symptom scores and neuropsychological function z-scores) in 158 women receiving aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy alone, 104 women receiving chemotherapy followed by AI therapy, and 106 non-cancer controls. Patients were assessed before systemic therapy and then every 6 months, for a total of four assessments over 18 months. Controls were assessed at matched time points. Mixed-effects modeling was used to determine longitudinal relationships. Controlling for covariates, patients enrolled before chemotherapy reported poorer global cognitive function (p < 0.001), memory (p < 0.001), language and communication (p < 0.001), and sensorimotor function (p = 0.002) after chemotherapy. These patients reported poorer higher-level cognitive and intellectual functions from before chemotherapy to 12 months after initiation of AI therapy (p < 0.001). Higher levels of depressive symptoms (p < 0.001), anxiety (p < 0.001), and fatigue (p = 0.040) at enrollment were predictors of poorer cognitive function over time. PAOFI total score was a predictor of executive function (p = 0.048) and visual working memory (p = 0.005) z-scores, controlling for covariates. Findings provide further evidence of poorer self-reported cognitive function after chemotherapy and of relationships between co-occurring symptoms and cognitive changes. AI therapy alone does not have an impact on self-reported cognitive function. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley

  16. Self-reported daily walking time in COPD: relationship with relevant clinical and functional characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ramon, Maria A; Esquinas, Cristina; Barrecheguren, Miriam; Pleguezuelos, Eulogio; Molina, Jesús; Quintano, José A; Roman-Rodríguez, Miguel; Naberan, Karlos; Llor, Carl; Roncero, Carlos; Miravitlles, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying physical activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is important as physical inactivity is related to poor health outcomes. This study analyzed the relationship between patients' self-reported daily walking time and relevant characteristics related to COPD severity. Pooled analysis was performed on data from four observational studies on which daily walking time was gathered from a personal interview. Patients were classified as physically inactive if walking time was <30 min/day. Walking times were described and compared according to several markers of disease severity. The mean daily walking time of 5,969 patients was 66 (standard deviation [SD] 47) min/day; 893 (15%) patients were inactive. A linear dose-response relationship was observed between walking time and the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea score, admissions, COPD assessment test (CAT), body mass index, airway obstruction, dyspnea, exacerbation (BODEx) index, and Charlson index (P<0.001). Daily walking times were lower in patients classified as Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) B and D (P<0.001). Often, inactive patients had mMRC or Charlson index >3, post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in the first second <30% predicted, at least one hospitalization for COPD, classified as GOLD B or D, BODEx >4, and CAT score >30. Lower self-reported walking times are related to worse markers of disease severity in COPD.

  17. Ankle proprioceptive acuity is associated with objective as well as self-report measures of balance, mobility, and physical function.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Nandini; Simonsick, Eleanor; Metter, E Jeffrey; Ko, Seunguk; Ferrucci, Luigi; Studenski, Stephanie

    2016-06-01

    Ankle proprioceptive information is integrated by the central nervous system to generate and modulate muscle contractions for maintaining standing balance. This study evaluated the association of ankle joint proprioception with objective and self-report measures of balance, mobility, and physical function across the adult life span. Seven hundred and ninety participants (age range 24-97 years, 362 women) who completed ankle proprioception assessment between 2010 and 2014 were included in the present study from the population-based cohort of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), USA. Outcome measures included ankle joint proprioception measured as threshold for perception of passive movement (TPPM); single leg stance time; perceived difficulty for standing balance; usual, fastest, and narrow-path gait speed; walking index; short physical performance battery score; and self-reported activity restriction due to fear of falling. Descriptive variables included age, sex, body mass index, education, strength, and cognition. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) in general linear model (GLM) or multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed, as appropriate, to test the hypothesis that balance, mobility, and physical function were significantly different according to TPPM quintiles even after adjusting for relevant covariates. Those with TPPM >2.2° consistently demonstrated poor balance, mobility, and physical function. However, with increase in challenge (single leg stance, fastest walking speed, and SPPB), TPPM >1.4° was associated with significantly worse performance. In conclusion, ankle proprioceptive acuity has an overall graded relationship with objective and self-report measures of balance, mobility, and physical function. However, the cutoff proprioceptive acuity associated with substantial decline or inability to perform could depend on the challenge induced.

  18. Development and Initial Evaluation of a Self-Report Form of the DSM-5 Level of Personality Functioning Scale.

    PubMed

    Morey, Leslie C

    2017-02-27

    The DSM-5 presents an Alternative Model for Personality Disorder (AMPD) recommending the assessment of impairments in core personality functions as well as clinically relevant personality traits. Although a self-report assessment instrument has been provided corresponding to the trait model proposed in the AMPD, no comparable instrument provides a direct assessment of the specific indicators of core personality functions described in that model. The goal of this paper is to provide preliminary reliability and validity data for a measure that directly corresponds to core personality pathology as operationalized in the AMPD. Self-report questions were generated to capture each diagnostic indicator provided in the Level of Personality Functioning Scale, a clinician rating guide provided in the AMPD that describes characteristic impairments in identity, self-direction, empathy, and intimacy at 5 different levels of personality functioning. These questions were administered to a community sample of 306 participants, with the resulting scale examined for internal consistency, unidimensionality, and concurrent validity with 4 other self-report measures of global personality dysfunction. Items representing the 4 subcomponents of personality dysfunction were found to manifest high degrees of internal consistency, and were highly related to each other, supporting the AMPD contention that these core dysfunctions reflect a single dimension of personality dysfunction. Correlations with concurrent validity measures were large, with associations at the global level of dysfunction often exceeding .80. The developed instrument is reprinted in the supplementary materials, with the goal of encouraging additional refinement and development by other investigators as part of the call for additional research on the AMPD. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. An explorative cross-sectional study examining self-reported health and nutritional status of disadvantaged people using food banks in Germany.

    PubMed

    Depa, Julia; Hilzendegen, Carolin; Tinnemann, Peter; Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette

    2015-11-24

    Even in high-income countries some population groups depend on food banks to support their food intake. We aimed to explore and compare health and nutritional status of food bank clients (Tafel e.V.) in different cities in Germany. In a cross-sectional study, self-reported health and nutritional status of food bank clients living in three cities (Berlin - capital, Ludwigsburg- affluent city, Fulda - small town) which differ in size, available income and poverty rate, were assessed and compared to survey variables of the low socioeconomic status population of national surveys (DEGS and GEDA). Across cities, food bank clients (N = 276, response rate of 21.5 %) did not differ in main socio-demographic characteristics (age, nationality, education, professional qualification, household income). Smoking, having at least one chronic illness, estimating their own health status as moderate to poor and low consumption of fruits and vegetables were common characteristics. Comparing selected variables with the low socioeconomic status population of DEGS and GEDA, differences were found for a higher prevalence of diabetes among food bank clients and a worse self-reported health status. Considerably lower fruit consumption and lower hypertension prevalence among female and lower overweight rates among male food bank clients were found. Although people using food banks vary in socio-demographic background, no differences for main demographics across the cities were found. In addition, the study suggests that for some health- and nutrition-related variables, national surveys in Germany might underestimate socioeconomic differences.

  20. Self-Reported Sleep Disturbance among African-American Elderly: The Effects of Depression, Health Status, Exercise, and Social Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Mohsen

    1996-01-01

    Investigates prevalence, correlates, and self-reported difficulties in initiating and maintaining sleep for a sample of 998 black elderly subjects. The majority (68.3%) of the sample had no trouble falling asleep. Over 14.5% of men and 23.6% of women reported sleep latencies exceeding 30 minutes. Almost 13% reported less than 4 hours of sleep a…

  1. The Effects of Depression, Health Status, and Stressful Life-Events on Self-Reported Memory Problems among Aged Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Mohsen; Barbre, Ann R.

    1994-01-01

    Examined prevalence and correlates of self-reported memory problems among 1,250 black elders. Over 48.3% of sample reported poor memory/forgetfulness as very or somewhat serious problem. Subjects with hearing impairments, higher number of stressful life events, higher level of depression, and poorer health were more likely to complain of memory…

  2. Self-Reported Sleep Disturbance among African-American Elderly: The Effects of Depression, Health Status, Exercise, and Social Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Mohsen

    1996-01-01

    Investigates prevalence, correlates, and self-reported difficulties in initiating and maintaining sleep for a sample of 998 black elderly subjects. The majority (68.3%) of the sample had no trouble falling asleep. Over 14.5% of men and 23.6% of women reported sleep latencies exceeding 30 minutes. Almost 13% reported less than 4 hours of sleep a…

  3. A dysphoric's TALE: The relationship between the self-reported functions of autobiographical memory and symptoms of depression.

    PubMed

    Grace, Lydia; Dewhurst, Stephen A; Anderson, Rachel J

    2016-10-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) is believed to serve self, social and directive functions; however, little is known regarding how this triad of functions operates in depression. Using the Thinking About Life Experiences questionnaire [Bluck, S., & Alea, N. (2011). Crafting the TALE: Construction of a measure to assess the functions of autobiographical remembering. Memory, 19, 470-486.; Bluck, S., Alea, N., Habermas, T., & Rubin, D. C. (2005). A TALE of three functions: The self-reported uses of autobiographical memory. Social Cognition, 23, 91-117.], two studies explored the relationship between depressive symptomology and the self-reported frequency and usefulness of AMs for self, social and directive purposes. Study 1 revealed that thinking more frequently but talking less frequently about past life events was significantly associated with higher depression scores. Recalling past events more frequently to maintain self-continuity was also significantly associated with higher depressive symptomology. However, results from Study 2 indicated that higher levels of depression were also significantly associated with less-frequent useful recollections of past life events for self-continuity purposes. Taken together, the findings suggest atypical utilisations of AM to serve self-continuity functions in depression and can be interpreted within the wider context of ruminative thought processes.

  4. Self-Reported Graphic Personal and Social Performance Scale (SRG-PSP) for measuring functionality in patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Mei Bai, Ya; Li, Cheng-Ta; Chen, Mu-Hong; Kuang Yang, Yen

    2017-06-01

    The self-reported graphic version of the Personal and Social Performance Scale (SRG-PSP) is the first graphic, self-reported rating scale that assesses functioning, and its reliability and validity have been documented in patients with schizophrenia. This study investigated the validity of SRG-PSP in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Patients with BD were recruited from psychiatric outpatient clinics, and assessed with the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI)-Bipolar and CGI-Depression, the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), the Global assessment of function (GAF), and the PSP. All participants completed the self-rating questionnaires: the SRG-PSP, the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Sheehan disability Scale (SDS). In total, 114 patients with BD were enrolled. The criterion-related validities between the SRG-PSP and the PSP were all significantly correlated with their counterparts. The global score of the SRG-PSP was significantly correlated with the scores of the YMRS, MADRS, PANSS, CGI-Depression, GAF, SF-36, and SDS. Three SRG-PSP domains (socially useful activities, personal and social relationships, and self-care) were negatively correlated with the scores of the MADRS, PANSS, CGI-depression, and SDS; and were positively correlated with the GAF, SF-36 scores. The disturbing and aggressive behavior domain was positively correlated with the scores of the YMRS, MADRS, PANSS, CGI-Bipolar, CGI-Depression, and SDS; and was negatively correlated with the GAF, SF-36 scores (all p<0.01). The SRG-PSP is a validated self-reported scale for assessing functionality in patients with BD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Relationships between self-reported ankle function and modulation of Hoffmann reflex in patients with chronic ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Min; Hart, Joseph M; Saliba, Susan A; Hertel, Jay

    2016-01-01

    To examine relationships between self-reported ankle function and Hoffmann (H) reflex modulation during changes in body positions in patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Observational. Laboratory. Thirty-one young adults with CAI (19 males, 12 females) participated. There were two subscales of Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) to quantify self-reported ankle function during activities of daily living (ADL) and sports activities. Maximum H-reflexes (H-max) and motor waves (M-max) from soleus and fibularis longus were recorded while participants lied prone and stood in bipedal and unipedal stances. For each muscle, percent change scores in Hmax:Mmax ratios were calculated between each pair of positions: prone-to-bipedal, bipedal-to-unipedal, and prone-to-unipedal, and used as a measure of H-reflex modulation. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between FAAM and H-reflex modulation measures. There were significant correlations between: (1) FAAM-ADL and soleus prone-to-unipedal modulation (r = 0.384, p = 0.04), (2) FAAM-Sport and soleus prone-to-unipedal modulation (r = 0.505, p = 0.005), (3) FAAM-Sport and fibular bipedal-to-unipedal modulation (r = 0.377, p = 0.05), and (4) FAAM-Sport and fibular prone-to-unipedal modulation (r = 0.396, p = 0.04). CAI patients presented moderate, positive relationships between self-reported ankle function and H-reflex modulation during changes in body positions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Perception makes the difference: the association of actual and perceived weight status with self-reported and parent-reported personal resources and well-being in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Tanja; Eschenbeck, Heike; Krug, Susanne; Schlaud, Martin; Kohlmann, Carl-Walter

    2012-11-01

    The study analyzed associations between actual weight status and weight perceptions with personal resources, physical and psychological health, as well as physical performance among adolescents (N = 5,518; age: 11-17 years). Analyses are based on data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Self-report measures, parental reports, as well as objective test data were considered. Results indicate that weight perceptions, rather than actual weight status, were associated with personal resources, health, and perceived physical performance. Comparing groups, we found that adolescents who felt they had "just the right weight" achieved more favourable results than those who perceived themselves as "too fat", regardless of their actual weight status. However, actual physical performance was predicted better by actual weight status. Furthermore, weight perceptions were found to mediate the link between actual weight status and all the assessed outcomes (personal resources, health, and physical performance). With respect to self-reports, the mediational effect was consistently stronger for girls, whereas the reverse was true regarding physical performance. Parental reports were not moderated by sex. Findings provide further evidence that among overweight adolescents there are subgroups that differ significantly with regard to risks and resources. Implications for practice are discussed.

  7. Effects of Impairment-Based Exercise on Performance of Specific Self-Reported Functional Tasks in Individuals With Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Paulo E.P.; Piva, Sara R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding how impairment-based exercises may improve performance of specific functional tasks in people with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the probability that participation in an impairment-based exercise program or the same impairment-based program supplemented with agility and perturbation training will improve patient-reported function on specific functional tasks. Design This study was a secondary analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial. Setting The study was conducted in the outpatient physical therapy clinic of a large, university-based health center. Participants One hundred eighty-three people with knee OA (122 women, 61 men) participated. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to either a group that received agility and perturbation training with standard exercise therapy or a group that received only the standard exercise. Measurements Specific functional items were taken from the physical function subscale of the Western Ontario and McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index, the Lower Extremity Function Scale, and the Activities of Daily Living Scale of the Knee Outcome Survey. Results The probability of self-reported improvement in a variety of specific functional tasks was low following participation in either of the exercise programs. When only participants with moderate to severe difficulty performing specific functional tasks were considered in the analysis, the probability of success improved but was still limited. Limitations The results are generalizable only to self-reported assessment of performance of specific functional tasks. Conclusions Impairment-based exercise may not be enough to make substantial improvement in performance of specific functional tasks. Task-specific exercise approaches need to be explored for people with knee OA. PMID:22003157

  8. Test-retest reliability of pain-related functional brain connectivity compared with pain self-report.

    PubMed

    Letzen, Janelle E; Boissoneault, Jeff; Sevel, Landrew S; Robinson, Michael E

    2016-03-01

    Test-retest reliability, or reproducibility of results over time, is poorly established for functional brain connectivity (fcMRI) during painful stimulation. As reliability informs the validity of research findings, it is imperative to examine, especially given recent emphasis on using functional neuroimaging as a tool for biomarker development. Although proposed pain neural signatures have been derived using complex, multivariate algorithms, even the reliability of less complex fcMRI findings has yet to be reported. This study examined the test-retest reliability for fcMRI of pain-related brain regions, and self-reported pain (through visual analogue scales [VASs]). Thirty-two healthy individuals completed 3 consecutive fMRI runs of a thermal pain task. Functional connectivity analyses were completed on pain-related brain regions. Intraclass correlations were conducted on fcMRI values and VAS scores across the fMRI runs. Intraclass correlations coefficients for fcMRI values varied widely (range = -.174-.766), with fcMRI between right nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex showing the highest reliability (range = .649-.766). Intraclass correlations coefficients for VAS scores ranged from .906 to .947. Overall, self-reported pain was more reliable than fcMRI data. These results highlight that fMRI findings might be less reliable than inherently assumed and have implications for future studies proposing pain markers.

  9. Test-retest reliability of pain-related functional brain connectivity compared to pain self-report

    PubMed Central

    Letzen, Janelle E.; Boissoneault, Jeff; Sevel, Landrew S.; Robinson, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Test-retest reliability, or reproducibility of results over time, is poorly established for functional brain connectivity (fcMRI) during painful stimulation. As reliability informs the validity of research findings, it is imperative to examine, especially given recent emphasis on using functional neuroimaging as a tool for biomarker development. Although proposed pain neural signatures have been derived using complex, multivariate algorithms, even the reliability of less complex fcMRI findings has yet to be reported. The present study examined the test-retest reliability for fcMRI of pain-related brain regions, as well as self-reported pain [via visual analogue scales (VASs)]. Thirty-two healthy individuals completed three consecutive fMRI runs of a thermal pain task. Functional connectivity analyses were completed on pain-related brain regions. Intraclass correlations (ICC) were conducted on fcMRI values and VAS scores across the fMRI runs. ICC coefficients for fcMRI values varied widely (range = −.174–.766), with fcMRI between right nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex showing the highest reliability (range = .649–.766). ICC coefficients for VAS scores ranged from .906–.947. Overall, self-reported pain was more reliable than fcMRI data. These results highlight that fMRI findings might be less reliable than inherently assumed, and have implications for future studies proposing pain markers. PMID:26371795

  10. Sexually transmitted infection testing practices among 'money boys' and general men who have sex with men in Shanghai, China: objective versus self-reported status.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lavinia; Nehl, Eric J; Tran, Alvin; He, Na; Zheng, Tony; Wong, Frank Y

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). This study describes the prevalence of STI testing, associated factors and the validity of STI self-reporting among Chinese MSM. Findings indicated a high prevalence of STIs and low testing rates among MSM in Shanghai. Monthly income was significantly associated with STI testing (odds ratio: 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18 to 0.76). Depression was significantly associated with STI testing for general MSM (odds ratio: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.17). Syphilis self-reported status had the highest validity (k=0.33, χ(2)=3.76, 95% CI: -0.003 to 0.65). Efforts are needed to ensure that STI testing services are accessible to MSM in China. Future HIV and STI interventions should be tailored to the needs of different subsets of MSM.

  11. Associations Between Self-Reported Discrimination and Diurnal Cortisol Rhythms Among Young Adults: The Moderating Role of Racial-Ethnic Minority Status

    PubMed Central

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Hoyt, Lindsay T.; Adam, Emma K.

    2014-01-01

    Discrimination is theorized to set in motion a neuroendocrine response, which includes cortisol secretion from the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Repeated exposure to perceived discrimination is thought to contribute to alterations in diurnal cortisol rhythms and to have implications for health. Discrimination may have particularly strong effects on racial/ethnic minority individuals, based on histories of past exposure and/or greater perceived implications of discriminatory events. Utilizing an ethnically and racially diverse sample of young adults (N = 140; Mage = 22.8 years) and a multiple-day naturalistic cortisol protocol, the present study examined associations between self-reported discrimination and cortisol diurnal rhythms, and whether this relation was moderated by racial/ethnic minority status. Results revealed that self-reported discrimination predicted flatter diurnal cortisol slopes for racial/ethnic minority individuals only. These findings align with theory suggesting that discrimination experiences are important among racial/ethnic minorities. PMID:25262035

  12. Ethnicity, self-reported health, discrimination and socio-economic status: a study of Sami and non-Sami Norwegian populations.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Melhus, Marita; Lund, Eiliv

    2010-04-01

    Investigate the association between ethnicity, social factors and self-reported health conditions of Sami and non-Sami Norwegian populations. Cross-sectional questionnaire. SAMINOR is a population-based study of health and living conditions that was conducted in 24 municipalities in northern Norway during 2003 and 2004. The present study included 12,265 individuals aged between 36 and 79, whose ethnicity was categorized as Sami (33.1%), Kven (7.8%) and Norwegian majority population (59.1%). Sami respondents reported inferior health conditions in comparison to the Norwegian majority population. The most unsatisfactory conditions were reported by Sami females living outside the defined Sami area (with greater integration and assimilation) (p<0.05). Females typically reported less favourable health conditions than did males. Health inequalities varied by age and were more apparent in persons aged in their mid-50s or above. Across ethnic groups, respondents with the highest education and household income were healthier than others. Furthermore, those reporting to have been frequently discriminated against were more likely to report poorer health than those who did not; the odds ratios (95% CI) was found to be 2.88 (1.92-4.32) for women and 1.61 (1.08-2.42) for men. When discrimination was included in the logistical model, the increased risk of poor self-reported health decreased to non-significance for Sami respondents. The estimated risk decreased further when the socio-economic status was taken into account. The findings of this study suggest that self-reported ethnic discrimination combined with low socio-economic status contributes to inequalities in self-reported health when Sami and Norwegian majority population are compared.

  13. Change in self-reported health status among immigrants in the United States: associations with measures of acculturation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunmin; O'Neill, Allison H; Ihara, Emily S; Chae, David H

    2013-01-01

    Although acculturation may have positive effects for immigrants, including better socioeconomic profiles and increased occupational opportunities, their health profiles deteriorate with longer duration in the U.S. Prior research indicates that increasing acculturation is associated with some poorer health outcomes among immigrants in the U.S. However, most of these studies have used length of stay or English language proficiency as proxies for acculturation, and have mainly examined self-reported "current" health outcomes. This study advances knowledge on associations between acculturation and health among immigrants by explicitly examining self-reported "change" in health since immigration, in relation to acculturation-related variables. We use data from the New Immigrant Survey (NIS; 2003-2004), a cross-sectional study of legal immigrants to the U.S. In addition to testing more conventionally examined proxies of acculturation (length of stay and English proficiency), we also examine English language use and self-reported change in diet. Multivariable logistic regression analyses on 5,982 participants generally supported previous literature indicating a deleterious impact of acculturation, with increasing duration of stay and greater self-reported change in diet being associated with a poorer change in health since moving to the U.S. Although English language proficiency and use were associated with greater odds of reporting a worse change in health when examined individually, they were non-significant in multivariable models including all acculturation measures. Findings from this study suggest that when taking into account multiple measures of acculturation, language may not necessarily indicate unhealthy assimilation and dietary change may be a pathway leading to declines in immigrant health. Increasing duration in the U.S. may also reflect the adoption of unhealthy behaviors, as well as greater exposure to harmful sources of psychosocial stress including

  14. Gross Motor Function Classification System used in adults with cerebral palsy: agreement of self-reported versus professional rating.

    PubMed

    Jahnsen, Reidun; Aamodt, Geir; Rosenbaum, Peter

    2006-09-01

    The present study investigated the reliability of self-reported rating of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels compared with professional rating, and changes in gross motor function over time, in adults with cerebral palsy. Twenty-nine females and 33 males aged between 18 years 5 months and 62 years 11 months (mean age 34y 7mo [SD 10y 6mo]) participated in the study. Participants rated their current gross motor function using the GMFCS and reported their judgement of their gross motor function at age 10 to 12 years. The project leader, a physical therapist, also classified participants' current GMFCS levels and conducted a chart review on all accessible medical records of participants' gross motor function when they were 10 to 12 years old, rating the GMFCS level accordingly. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between self-reported and professional ratings showed excellent agreement (ICC=0.93-0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89-0.97). More than half the participants experienced a stable gross motor function from the age of 10 to 12 years to the present. Those at GMFCS Levels II and III at the age of 10 to 12 years (according to the professional rating) had significant change for the worse in gross motor function over time, with odds ratios of 9.30 (95% CI 1.2-73.0, p=0.03) and 7.00 (95% CI 1.1-43.0, p=0.04) respectively. Interview data on circumstances regarding changes in gross motor function since childhood are also reported. Changes in GMFCS level were mostly associated with physical or social environmental factors.

  15. Self-Reported Sexual Function Measures Administered to Female Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review, 2008–2014

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, Diana D.; Barbera, Lisa; Andersen, Barbara L.; Siston, Amy K.; Jhingran, Anuja; Baron, Shirley R.; Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Coady, Deborah J.; Carter, Jeanne; Flynn, Kathryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Background A systematic review was conducted to identify and characterize self-reported sexual function (SF) measures administered to women with a history of cancer. Methods Using 2009 PRISMA guidelines, we searched electronic bibliographic databases for quantitative studies published January 2008–September 2014 that used a self-reported measure of SF, or a quality of life (QOL) measure that contained at least one item pertaining to SF. Results Of 1,487 articles initially identified, 171 were retained. The studies originated in 36 different countries with 23% from U.S.-based authors. Most studies focused on women treated for breast, gynecologic, or colorectal cancer. About 70% of the articles examined SF as the primary focus; the remaining examined QOL, menopausal symptoms, or compared treatment modalities. We identified 37 measures that assessed at least one domain of SF, eight of which were dedicated SF measures developed with cancer patients. Almost one-third of the studies used EORTC QLQ modules to assess SF, and another third used the Female Sexual Function Inventory. There were few commonalities among studies, though nearly all demonstrated worse SF after cancer treatment or compared to healthy controls. Conclusions QOL measures are better suited to screening while dedicated SF questionnaires provide data for more in depth assessment. This systematic review will assist oncology clinicians and researchers in their selection of measures of SF and encourage integration of this quality of life domain in patient care. PMID:25997102

  16. Reconsultation, self-reported health status and costs following treatment at a musculoskeletal Clinical Assessment and Treatment Service (CATS): a 12-month prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Roddy, Edward; Jordan, Kelvin P; Oppong, Raymond; Chen, Ying; Jowett, Sue; Dawes, Peter; Hider, Samantha L; Packham, Jon; Stevenson, Kay; Zwierska, Irena; Hay, Elaine M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine (1) reconsultation frequency, (2) change in self-reported health status, (3) baseline factors associated with reconsultation and change in health status and (4) associated healthcare costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), following assessment at a musculoskeletal Clinical and Assessment Treatment Service (CATS). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Single musculoskeletal CATS at the primary–secondary care interface. Participants 2166 CATS attenders followed-up by postal questionnaires at 6 and 12 months and review of medical records. Outcome measures Primary outcome was consultation in primary care with the same musculoskeletal problem within 12 months. Secondary outcome measures were consultation at the CATS with the same musculoskeletal problem within 12 months, physical function and pain (Short Form-36), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), time off work, healthcare costs and QALYs. Results Over 12 months, 507 (38%) reconsulted for the same problem in primary care and 345 (26%) at the CATS. Primary care reconsultation in the first 3 months was associated with baseline pain interference (relative risk ratio 5.33; 95% CI 3.23 to 8.80) and spinal pain (1.75; 1.09 to 2.82), and after 3–6 months with baseline assessment by a hospital specialist (2.06; 1.13 to 3.75). Small mean improvements were seen in physical function (1.88; 95% CI 1.44 to 2.32) and body pain (3.86; 3.38 to 4.34) at 6 months. Poor physical function at 6 months was associated with obesity, chronic pain and poor baseline physical function. Mean (SD) 6-month cost and QALYs per patient were £422.40 (660.11) and 0.257 (0.144), respectively. Conclusions While most patients are appropriate for a ‘one-stop shop’ model, those with troublesome, disabling pain and spinal pain commonly reconsult and have ongoing problems. Services should be configured to identify and address such clinical complexity. PMID:27733409

  17. The impact of visual impairment on self-reported visual functioning in Latinos: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Globe, Denise R; Wu, Joanne; Azen, Stanley P; Varma, Rohit

    2004-06-01

    To assess the association between presenting binocular visual acuity (VA) and self-reported visual function as measured by the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25). A population-based, prevalence study of eye disease in Latinos 40 years and older residing in La Puente, California (Los Angeles Latino Eye Study [LALES]). Six thousand three hundred fifty-seven Latinos 40 years and older from 6 census tracts in La Puente. All participants completed a standardized interview, including the NEI-VFQ-25 to measure visual functioning, and a detailed eye examination. Two definitions of visual impairment were used: (1) presenting binocular distance VA of 20/40 or worse and (2) presenting binocular distance VA worse than 20/40. Analysis of variance was used to determine any systematic differences in mean NEI-VFQ-25 scores by visual impairment. Regression analyses were completed (1) to determine the association of age, gender, number of systemic comorbidities, depression, and VA with self-reported visual function and (2) to estimate a visual impairment-related difference for each subscale based on differences in VA. The NEI-VFQ-25 scores in persons with visual impairment. Of the 5287 LALES participants with complete NEI-VFQ-25 data, 6.3% (including 20/40) and 4.2% (excluding 20/40) were visually impaired. In the visually impaired participants, the NEI-VFQ-25 subscale scores ranged from 46.2 (General Health) to 93.8 (Color Vision). In the regression model, only VA, depression, and number of comorbidities were significantly associated with all subscale scores (R(2) ranged from 0.09 for Ocular Pain to 0.33 for the composite score). For 9 of 11 subscales, a 5-point change was equivalent to a 1- or 2-line difference in VA. Relationships were similar regardless of the definition of visual impairment. In this population-based study of Latinos, the NEI-VFQ-25 was sensitive to differences in VA. A 5-point difference on the NEI-VFQ-25 seems to be a

  18. Effects of line dancing on physical function and perceived limitation in older adults with self-reported mobility limitations.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Crystal G; Hackney, Madeleine E

    2017-02-25

    Older adults with mobility limitations are at greater risk for aging-related declines in physical function. Line dancing is a popular form of exercise that can be modified, and is thus feasible for older adults with mobility limitations. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of 8 weeks of line dancing on balance, muscle strength, lower extremity function, endurance, gait speed, and perceived mobility limitations. An experimental design randomly assigned older adults to either an 8-week line dancing or usual care group. The convenience sample consisted of 23 participants with mobility limitations (age range: 65-93 years). The intervention used simple routines from novice line dance classes. At baseline and at 8 weeks, balance, knee muscle strength, lower extremity function, endurance, gait speed, and mobility limitations were measured. ANCOVA tests were conducted on each dependent variable to assess the effects of the intervention over time. Results found significant positive differences for the intervention group in lower extremity function (p < 0.01); endurance (p < 0.01); gait speed (p < 0.001); and self-reported mobility limitations (p < 0.05). Eight weeks of line dancing significantly improved physical function and reduced self-reported mobility limitations in these individuals. Line dancing could be recommended by clinicians as a potential adjunct therapy that addresses mobility limitations. Implications for Rehabilitation Line dancing may be an alternative exercise for older adults who need modifications due to mobility limitations. Line dancing incorporates cognitive and motor control. Line dancing can be performed alone or in a group setting. Dancing improves balance which can reduce risk of falls.

  19. Change in Self-Reported Health Status among Immigrants in the United States: Associations with Measures of Acculturation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sunmin; O’Neill, Allison H.; Ihara, Emily S.; Chae, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Although acculturation may have positive effects for immigrants, including better socioeconomic profiles and increased occupational opportunities, their health profiles deteriorate with longer duration in the U.S. Prior research indicates that increasing acculturation is associated with some poorer health outcomes among immigrants in the U.S. However, most of these studies have used length of stay or English language proficiency as proxies for acculturation, and have mainly examined self-reported “current” health outcomes. This study advances knowledge on associations between acculturation and health among immigrants by explicitly examining self-reported “change” in health since immigration, in relation to acculturation-related variables. We use data from the New Immigrant Survey (NIS; 2003-2004), a cross-sectional study of legal immigrants to the U.S. In addition to testing more conventionally examined proxies of acculturation (length of stay and English proficiency), we also examine English language use and self-reported change in diet. Multivariable logistic regression analyses on 5,982 participants generally supported previous literature indicating a deleterious impact of acculturation, with increasing duration of stay and greater self-reported change in diet being associated with a poorer change in health since moving to the U.S. Although English language proficiency and use were associated with greater odds of reporting a worse change in health when examined individually, they were non-significant in multivariable models including all acculturation measures. Findings from this study suggest that when taking into account multiple measures of acculturation, language may not necessarily indicate unhealthy assimilation and dietary change may be a pathway leading to declines in immigrant health. Increasing duration in the U.S. may also reflect the adoption of unhealthy behaviors, as well as greater exposure to harmful sources of psychosocial stress

  20. Emotional Responses to Odors in Children with High-Functioning Autism: Autonomic Arousal, Facial Behavior and Self-Report

    PubMed Central

    Messinger, Daniel S.; Kermol, Enzo; Marlier, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Although emotional functioning is impaired in children with autism, it is unclear if this impairment is due to difficulties with facial expression, autonomic responsiveness, or the verbal description of emotional states. To shed light on this issue, we examined responses to pleasant and unpleasant odors in eight children (8–14 years) with high-functioning autism and 8 age-matched typically developing controls. Despite subtle differences in the facial actions of the children with autism, children in both groups had similar facial and autonomic emotional responses to the odors. However, children with autism were less likely than controls to report an emotional reaction to the odors that matched their facial expression, suggesting difficulties in the self report of emotional states. PMID:22918860

  1. Relating emotional abilities to social functioning: a comparison of self-report and performance measures of emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Brackett, Marc A; Rivers, Susan E; Shiffman, Sara; Lerner, Nicole; Salovey, Peter

    2006-10-01

    Three studies used J. D. Mayer and P. Salovey's (1997) theory of emotional intelligence (EI) as a framework to examine the role of emotional abilities (assessed with both self-report and performance measures) in social functioning. Self-ratings were assessed in ways that mapped onto the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), a validated performance measure of EI. In Study 1, self-ratings and MSCEIT scores were not strongly correlated. In Study 2, men's MSCEIT scores, but not self-ratings, correlated with perceived social competence after personality measures were held constant. In Study 3, only the MSCEIT predicted real-time social competence, again, just for men. Implications for analyzing how emotional abilities contribute to social behavior are discussed, as is the importance of incorporating gender into theoretical frameworks and study designs.

  2. Structural and functional neural correlates of self-reported attachment in healthy adults: evidence for an amygdalar involvement.

    PubMed

    Rigon, Arianna; Duff, Melissa C; Voss, Michelle W

    2016-12-01

    The concept of attachment in long-term interpersonal relationships has been linked to relationship outcome and social-emotional health. To date, no relationship between the structural properties of the human amygdala and attachment in romantic relationships (measured through self-reported attachment related anxiety and avoidance) has been described. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between amygdala structure as well as amygdala structural and functional connectivity and attachment anxiety and avoidance. To this end, we collected self-report attachment data on a sample of female young adults. We then examined associations between attachment and mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy and resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-FC) of the amygdala and its white matter connections with the prefrontal cortex. We found that lower integrity of the left amygdala was linked with attachment avoidance (e.g., being less comfortable in seeking proximity with others and depending on others) and that greater structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus was positively associated with avoidance. Lastly, we found that stronger rs-FC between the bilateral amygdala and medial prefrontal regions was linked with greater avoidance. Our findings are compatible with and expand previous results reported by studies that have taken a task-related fMRI approach, furthering our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of attachment, and in particular implicating the system formed by amygdala and prefrontal areas in the patterns of behavior that regulate emotional proximity in romantic relationships. These findings have the potential to further our understanding of the affective mechanisms underlying attachment behavior.

  3. The relationship between social support and self-reported health status in immigrants: an adjusted analysis in the Madrid Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Social support is an important factor in the adaptation process of immigrants, helping for their integration in a new environment. The lack of social support may influence on well-being and health status. The aim of this study is to describe the social support of immigrant and native population and study the possible association between immigration and lack social support after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, income, stress and self-reported health status. Methods Cross-sectional population based study of immigrants and national patients without mental disorders of 15 urban primary health centers in the north-eastern area of Madrid. Participants provided information on social support, stress level, perceived health status and socio-economic characteristics. Descriptive and multiple logistic regression were conducted. Results The proportion of the global perception of social support among immigrants and natives was 79.2% and 94.2%, respectively. The lack of global social support adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) of immigrant was 2.72 (95% Confidence Interval = 1.81-4.09), showing a significant association with being male (PR = 2.26), having monthly income below 500 euros (PR = 3.81) and suffering stress (PR = 1.94). For the dimensions of lack of social support the higher association was being an immigrant and suffering stress. Conclusions We conclude that with regardless of the level of monthly income, stress level, self-reported health status, and gender, immigrant status is directly associated with lack social support. The variable most strongly associated with lack social support has been monthly income below 500 euros. PMID:21651759

  4. Self-reported global function among adult survivors of childhood lower-extremity bone tumors

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Rajaram; Mogil, Rona; Neglia, Joesph P.; Robison, Leslie L.; Ness, Kirsten K.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Adult survivors of childhood lower-extremity bone tumors may experience physical and psychosocial late effects that impact physical performance, global function and quality of life. The identification of survivors at greatest risk for poor outcomes will inform potential intervention targets. Methods Study participants were selected from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS), a multi-institutional study of childhood cancer survivors. Adult survivors (n=629) of either childhood onset osteosarcoma or Ewing’s sarcoma, with a primary tumor location in the lower-extremity were identified and contacted via mail to complete an additional questionnaire. Participants completed the Reintegration into Normal Living Index (RNL) to evaluate global function (maximum score of 22), daily function (maximum score of 16) and self perception (maximum score of 6). Results Survivors reported high levels of global function with an adjusted mean overall RNL index score of 20.6 (SE 0.14), mean daily function score of 15.0 (SD 0.10) and mean self perception score of 5.6 (SE 0.05). While female gender and increasing age were associated with lower RNL scores, the magnitude of difference is of questionable clinical significance. Global function was only moderately correlated with physical performance (r=0.56) and QOL (r=0.59). Discussion Based upon the RNL index, the vast majority of long-term survivors of childhood lower extremity bone tumors adapt well to their environment. Implications for cancer survivors While some long-term survivor of lower-extremity bone tumors may report measurable limitations in physical performance and quality of life, the majority do not report moderate or severe difficulties with social integration. PMID:19030995

  5. Self Reports of Day-to-Day Function in a Small Cohort of People with Prodromal and Early HD

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Janet; Downing, Nancy; Vaccarino, Anthony L; Guttman, Mark; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2011-01-01

    Day-to-day functioning is a component of health-related quality of life and is an important end point for therapies to treat Huntington Disease (HD). Specific areas of day-to-day function changes have not been reported for prodromal or very early stages of HD. An exploratory self-report telephone interview was conducted with sixteen people with prodromal HD or early HD who met criteria designed to capture research participants most near to motor diagnosis. All completed semi-structured interviews on function in nine aspects of day-to-day life. Out of 16, 14 reported changes in at least one area. All day-to-day function areas were endorsed by at least one participant with driving being the most common area endorsed by 11/16. Changes in ability to perform some day-to-day tasks are experienced by people who are close to the time of clinical diagnosis for HD. Functional ability is likely to be an important component of outcome assessments of clinical trials and in ongoing clinical management. PMID:21901173

  6. Self-Report Assessment of Executive Functioning in College Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieve, Adam; Webne-Behrman, Lisa; Couillou, Ryan; Sieben-Schneider, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a unique assessment of executive functioning (EF) among postsecondary students with disabilities, with the aim of understanding the extent to which students with different disabilities and in different age groups assess their own difficulties with relevant and educationally-adaptive skills such as planning, initiating, managing…

  7. Measures of Functional Status in Community-Dwelling Elders

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Scott E.; Reuben, David

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate two performance-based measures of functional status and assess their correlation with self-report measures. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS Of the 363 community-dwelling elders enrolled in a trial of comprehensive geriatric assessment who participated, all had at least one of four target conditions (urinary incontinence, depression, impaired functional status, or history of falling). MEASUREMENTS Two performance-based measures, National Institute on Aging (NIA) Battery, and Physical Performance Test (PPT), and three self-report functional status measures, basic and intermediate activities of daily living and the Short-Form-36 (SF–36) physical functioning subscale, were used. Measures of restricted activity days, patient satisfaction and perceived efficacy were also used. MAIN RESULTS All measures were internally consistent. There was a high correlation between the NIA and PPT (κ = 0.71), while correlations between the performance-based and self-report measures ranged from 0.37 to 0.50. When patients with values above the median on the two performance-based measures were compared with those below, there were significant differences (p≤ .0001) for age, number of medications, and the physical function, pain, general health, and physical role function SF-36 subscales. CONCLUSIONS Performance-based measures correlated highly with each other and moderately with questionnaire-based measures. Performance-based measures also had construct validity and did not suffer from floor or ceiling effects. PMID:9844079

  8. Self-report of family functioning and risk for psychotic disorders in male adolescents with behavioural disturbances.

    PubMed

    Weiser, M; Reichenberg, A; Werbeloff, N; Kravitz, E; Halperin, D; Lubin, G; Shmushkevitch, M; Yoffe, R; Addington, J; Davidson, M

    2008-03-01

    Previous studies indicate that a poor family environment might affect vulnerability for the later manifestation of psychotic illness. The current study aims to examine family functioning prior to the onset of psychosis. Subjects were 42,948, 17-year old males with behavioural disturbances who were asked about the functioning of their family by the Israeli Draft Board. Data on later psychiatric hospitalizations were obtained from a National Psychiatric Hospitalization Registry. Poorer self-reported family functioning was associated with greater risk for later hospitalization for psychosis [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.05-1.27], with a trend in the same direction for schizophrenia (adjusted HR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.98-1.24). In male adolescents with behavioural disturbances, perceived poorer family functioning is associated with increased risk for non-affective psychotic disorders and schizophrenia. These data do not enable us to determine if perceived familial dysfunction increases vulnerability for psychosis, if premorbid behavioural abnormalities disrupt family life, or neither.

  9. Impaired renal function is associated with worse self-reported outcomes after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Neri, Luca; Dukes, Jonathan; Brennan, Daniel C; Salvalaggio, Paulo R; Seelam, Susmitha; Desiraju, Srividya; Schnitzler, Mark

    2011-12-01

    We sought to determine the association between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and graft function in renal transplant recipients. We enrolled 577 kidney transplant recipients aged 18-74 years (response rate 87%). Recipients with multiple or multi-organ transplantation, creatine kinase >200 U/L, acute renal failure or cellular rejection (n = 64), and without creatinine assessments in 3 months pre-enrollment (n = 127) were excluded. The questionnaire included Euro QOL 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), Health Utility Index III (HUI-III), Kidney Disease Quality of Life-36 (KDQOL36) which include a generic section (RAND SF-12). Data on medical conditions, therapy regimens, and biochemistry results were extracted from clinical charts. We used general linear models adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical characteristics to assess the association between HRQOL and severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Patients with more advanced CKD were more likely to be African-American, covered by public insurance, more likely to have shorter time after transplantation, higher phosphorus and lower hemoglobin, serum albumin, and calcium levels. All HRQOL scales were inversely associated with CKD severity. All associations were robust to adjustment for possible confounders. Several health-related quality of life dimensions may be affected by poor renal function after transplantation.

  10. Assessing physical functioning on pain management programmes: the unique contribution of directly assessed physical performance measures and their relationship to self-reports

    PubMed Central

    Guildford, Beth J; Jacobs, Clair M; Daly-Eichenhardt, Aisling; Scott, Whitney; McCracken, Lance M

    2016-01-01

    Physical functioning is a recommended outcome domain for pain management programmes. It can be assessed by self-report and by direct assessment of performance. Although physical performance measures may provide unique and useful information about patient functioning over and above self-report measures, it is not entirely clear which of the many possible performances to assess. This study investigated a battery of three directly assessed physical performance measures and their relationship to three currently used self-report measures of general health and functioning. The three performance measures were sensitive to treatment; patients performed significantly better on all three measures following completion of the pain management programme. The three performance measures were shown to represent a single underlying dimension, and there was a significant degree of overlap between them. The performance measures were shown to be relevant in explaining variation in the self-report measures, as well as to offer a clinically relevant different dimension of assessment to self-report. Future research could focus on developing performance-based measures that capture quality of movement and that are sensitive to relevant processes of therapeutic change. PMID:28386404

  11. Assessing physical functioning on pain management programmes: the unique contribution of directly assessed physical performance measures and their relationship to self-reports.

    PubMed

    Guildford, Beth J; Jacobs, Clair M; Daly-Eichenhardt, Aisling; Scott, Whitney; McCracken, Lance M

    2017-02-01

    Physical functioning is a recommended outcome domain for pain management programmes. It can be assessed by self-report and by direct assessment of performance. Although physical performance measures may provide unique and useful information about patient functioning over and above self-report measures, it is not entirely clear which of the many possible performances to assess. This study investigated a battery of three directly assessed physical performance measures and their relationship to three currently used self-report measures of general health and functioning. The three performance measures were sensitive to treatment; patients performed significantly better on all three measures following completion of the pain management programme. The three performance measures were shown to represent a single underlying dimension, and there was a significant degree of overlap between them. The performance measures were shown to be relevant in explaining variation in the self-report measures, as well as to offer a clinically relevant different dimension of assessment to self-report. Future research could focus on developing performance-based measures that capture quality of movement and that are sensitive to relevant processes of therapeutic change.

  12. Self-reported HIV and HCV Screening Rates and Sero-Status among Substance Abuse Treatment Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Diana; Feaster, Daniel J.; Gooden, Lauren; Douaihy, Antoine; Mandler, Raul; Erickson, Sarah J.; Kyle, Tiffany; Haynes, Louise; Schwartz, Robert; Das, Moupali; Metsch, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Substance users are at increased risk for HIV and HCV infection. Still, many substance use treatment programs (SUTP) fail to offer HIV/HCV testing. The present secondary analysis of screening data from a multi-site randomized trial of rapid HIV testing examines self-reported HIV/HCV testing patterns and serostatus of 2,473 SUTP patients in 12 community-based sites that had not previously offered on-site testing. Results indicate that most respondents screened for the randomized trial tested more than a year prior to intake for HIV (52%) and HCV (38%). Prevalence rates were 3.6% and 30% for HIV and HCV, respectively. The majority of participants that were HIV (52.2%) and HCV-positive (40.5%) reported having been diagnosed within the last one to five years. Multivariable logistic regression showed that members of high-risk groups were more likely to have tested. Bundled HIV/HCV testing and linkage to care issues are recommended for expanding testing in community-based SUTP settings. PMID:25952768

  13. Neurobehavioral performance impairment in insomnia: relationships with self-reported sleep and daytime functioning.

    PubMed

    Shekleton, Julia A; Flynn-Evans, Erin E; Miller, Belinda; Epstein, Lawrence J; Kirsch, Douglas; Brogna, Lauren A; Burke, Liza M; Bremer, Erin; Murray, Jade M; Gehrman, Philip; Lockley, Steven W; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of insomnia, daytime consequences of the disorder are poorly characterized. This study aimed to identify neurobehavioral impairments associated with insomnia, and to investigate relationships between these impairments and subjective ratings of sleep and daytime dysfunction. Cross-sectional, multicenter study. Three sleep laboratories in the USA and Australia. Seventy-six individuals who met the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for Primary Insomnia, Psychophysiological Insomnia, Paradoxical Insomnia, and/or Idiopathic Childhood Insomnia (44F, 35.8 ± 12.0 years [mean ± SD]) and 20 healthy controls (14F, 34.8 ± 12.1 years). N/A. Participants completed a 7-day sleep-wake diary, questionnaires assessing daytime dysfunction, and a neurobehavioral test battery every 60-180 minutes during an afternoon/evening sleep laboratory visit. Included were tasks assessing sustained and switching attention, working memory, subjective sleepiness, and effort. Switching attention and working memory were significantly worse in insomnia patients than controls, while no differences were found for simple or complex sustained attention tasks. Poorer sustained attention in the control, but not the insomnia group, was significantly associated with increased subjective sleepiness. In insomnia patients, poorer sustained attention performance was associated with reduced health-related quality of life and increased insomnia severity. We found that insomnia patients exhibit deficits in higher level neurobehavioral functioning, but not in basic attention. The findings indicate that neurobehavioral deficits in insomnia are due to neurobiological alterations, rather than sleepiness resulting from chronic sleep deficiency.

  14. Functional Neuroimaging Predictors of Self-Reported Psychotic Symptoms in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bourque, Josiane; Spechler, Philip A; Potvin, Stéphane; Whelan, Robert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Quinlan, Erin Burke; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; McEwen, Sarah C; Nees, Frauke; Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N; Vetter, Nora C; Walter, Henrik; Schumann, Gunter; Garavan, Hugh; Conrod, Patricia J

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the neural correlates of psychotic-like experiences in youths during tasks involving inhibitory control, reward anticipation, and emotion processing. A secondary aim was to test whether these neurofunctional correlates of risk were predictive of psychotic symptoms 2 years later. Functional imaging responses to three paradigms-the stop-signal, monetary incentive delay, and faces tasks-were collected in youths at age 14, as part of the IMAGEN study. At baseline, youths from London and Dublin sites were assessed on psychotic-like experiences, and those reporting significant experiences were compared with matched control subjects. Significant brain activity differences between the groups were used to predict, with cross-validation, the presence of psychotic symptoms in the context of mood fluctuation at age 16, assessed in the full sample. These prediction analyses were conducted with the London-Dublin subsample (N=246) and the full sample (N=1,196). Relative to control subjects, youths reporting psychotic-like experiences showed increased hippocampus/amygdala activity during processing of neutral faces and reduced dorsolateral prefrontal activity during failed inhibition. The most prominent regional difference for classifying 16-year-olds with mood fluctuation and psychotic symptoms relative to the control groups (those with mood fluctuations but no psychotic symptoms and those with no mood symptoms) was hyperactivation of the hippocampus/amygdala, when controlling for baseline psychotic-like experiences and cannabis use. The results stress the importance of the limbic network's increased response to neutral facial stimuli as a marker of the extended psychosis phenotype. These findings might help to guide early intervention strategies for at-risk youths.

  15. Socioeconomic factors and self-reported health outcomes in African Americans with rheumatoid arthritis from the Southeastern United States: the contribution of childhood socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Baldassari, Antoine R; Cleveland, Rebecca J; Luong, My-Linh N; Jonas, Beth L; Conn, Doyt L; Moreland, Larry W; Bridges, S Louis; Callahan, Leigh F

    2016-01-12

    There is abundant evidence that low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with worse health outcomes among people with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA); however, the influence of socioeconomic disadvantage in early life has yet to be studied within that population. Data originated from the cross-sectional arm of the Consortium Evaluation of African-Americans with Rheumatoid Arthritis (CLEAR II), which recruited African-Americans with RA from six sites in the Southeastern United States. We used linear regression models to evaluate associations of parental homeownership status and educational level at participant time of birth with participant-reported fatigue (Visual Analog scale, cm), pain (Visual Analog scale, cm), disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire) and helplessness (Rheumatology Attitudes Index), independently of participant homeownership status and educational level. Models included random effects to account for intra-site correlations, and were adjusted for variables identified using backward selection, from: age, disease-duration, sex, medication use, body-mass index, smoking history. Our sample included 516 CLEAR II participants with full data on demographics and covariates. 89% of participants were women, the mean age was 54.7 years and mean disease duration was 10.8 years. In age adjusted models, parental non-homeownership was associated with greater fatigue (β = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.36-1.14), disability (β = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.04-0.19) and helplessness (β = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.03-0.21), independently of participant homeownership and education; parental education had a further small influence on self-reported fatigue (β = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.15-0.24). Parental homeownership, and to a small extent parental education, had modest but meaningful relationships with self-reported health among CLEAR II participants.

  16. The Effect of Self-Reported and Performance-Based Functional Impairment on Future Hospital Costs of Community-Dwelling Older Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuben, David B.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Keeler, Emmett; Hayes, Risa P.; Bowman, Lee; Sewall, Ase; Hirsch, Susan H.; Wallace, Robert B.; Guralnik, Jack M.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: We determined the prognostic value of self-reported and performance-based measurement of function, including functional transitions and combining different measurement approaches, on utilization. Design and Methods: Our cohort study used the 6th, 7th, and 10th waves of three sites of the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies…

  17. The Effect of Self-Reported and Performance-Based Functional Impairment on Future Hospital Costs of Community-Dwelling Older Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuben, David B.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Keeler, Emmett; Hayes, Risa P.; Bowman, Lee; Sewall, Ase; Hirsch, Susan H.; Wallace, Robert B.; Guralnik, Jack M.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: We determined the prognostic value of self-reported and performance-based measurement of function, including functional transitions and combining different measurement approaches, on utilization. Design and Methods: Our cohort study used the 6th, 7th, and 10th waves of three sites of the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies…

  18. Investigating the relationship among self-reported oral health status, oral health-related behaviors, and self-consciousness in Romanian dental patients.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, A L; Kawamura, M; Zetu, L; Teslaru, S

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether self-consciousness, self-reported oral health status, and oral health-related behaviors were associated in a Romanian population. A cross-sectional study design was used. Data were collected between January and March 2008. The sample consisted of 180 Romanian adults (mean age: 35.8 years; 72.6% women; 57% married) who were a random population drawn consecutively from the registry file of a private dental practice in the Iasi area. The questionnaire included information about demographic, psychologic, self-reported oral health, and oral health-related behavior items. The self-consciousness (SC) scale with three subscales (public SC, private SC, and social anxiety) was applied. Significant differences were found on the public SC scale in relation to denture/removable false teeth and on the total SC scale in relation to periodontal problems. When oral health behaviors were analyzed, private SC was associated with oral health behaviors (flossing, use of mouthrinse, and dental visit frequency). There was no association between toothbrushing frequency and the self-consciousness subscales. The moderating effects of self-consciousness should be considered when evaluating risk-reduction interventions and tailoring intervention efforts to oral health promotion.

  19. Household food insecurity is associated with self-reported pregravid weight status, gestational weight gain and pregnancy complications

    PubMed Central

    Laraia, Barbara A.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gundersen, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Background Household food insecurity is positively associated with weight among women. The association between household food insecurity and pregnancy related weight gain and complications is not well understood. Objective To identify if an independent association exists between household food insecurity and pregnancy related complications. Design Data from the Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition prospective cohort study were used to assess household food insecurity retrospectively using the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 18-item Core Food Security Module (CFSM) among 810 pregnant women with incomes ≤ 400% of the income/poverty ratio, recruited between January 2001 and June 2005 and followed through pregnancy. Main outcome measures Self-reported pregravid body mass index, gestational weight gain, second trimester anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Statistical analyses performed: Multivariate linear, multinomial logistic and logistic regression analyses. Results Among 810 pregnant women, 76% were from fully food secure, 14% were from marginally food secure, and 10% were from food insecure households. In adjusted models, living in a food insecure household was significantly associated with severe pregravid obesity [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.97, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.44, 6.14], higher gestational weight gain [adjusted β coefficient 1.87, 95% CI 0.13, 3.62] and with a higher adequacy of weight gain ratio [adjusted β 0.27, CI 0.07, 0.50]. Marginal food security was significantly associated with gestational diabetes mellitus [AOR 2.76, 95% CI 1.00, 7.66]. Conclusions This study highlights the possibility that living in a food insecure household during pregnancy may increase risk of greater weight gain and pregnancy complications. PMID:20430130

  20. Mental health and posttraumatic stress symptoms 2 years after severe multiple trauma: self-reported disability and psychosocial functioning.

    PubMed

    Soberg, Helene L; Bautz-Holter, Erik; Roise, Olav; Finset, Arnstein

    2010-03-01

    To describe mental health and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) for patients with severe multiple trauma at 2 years postinjury. Further, objectives were to examine relationships between PTSS and factors related to the person, injury, and postinjury physical and psychosocial functioning from the time of return home to 2 years after injury. The final aim was to identify predictors of PTSS and mental health at 2 years. Prospective cohort study with a 2-year follow-up. Hospital and community setting. Patients (N=99) age 18 to 67 years with multiple trauma and a New Injury Severity Score (NISS) greater than 15 treated at a regional trauma referral center. Mean age +/- SD was 35.3+/-14.2 years; 83% were men. Mean NISS +/- SD was 34.9+/-12.7. Not applicable. Postinjury psychologic distress associated with depression on the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey Mental Health scale and PTSS on the Post-Traumatic Symptom Scale 10 (PTSS-10) at 2 years post injury. Self-reported physical, mental, and cognitive functioning at the return home and 1 and 2 years, and coping strategies. Mean PTSS-10 score +/- SD at 2 years was 25.6+/-12.2. Twenty percent had a PTSS-High score, indicating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Twenty-seven percent had Mental Health scores indicating depression. Predictors of PTSS were sex (female), younger age, avoidant coping, pain, mental health, and cognitive functioning on the return home, which explained 70% of the variance in PTSS-10 score. Twenty percent had a PTSS-High score indicating PTSD at 2 years postinjury. The personal factors sex (female), younger age, and avoidant coping and the functional factors pain, mental health, and cognitive functioning predicted PTSS at 2 years. Copyright 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical Presentation and Self-Reported Patterns of Pain and Function in Patients with Plantar Heel Pain

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Sandra E.; Dale, Ann Marie; Hayes, Marcie Harris; Johnson, Jeffrey E.; McCormick, Jeremy J.; Racette, Brad A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Plantar heel pain is a common disorder of the foot for which patients seek medical treatment. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between duration of symptoms in plantar fasciitis patients and demographic factors, the intensity and location of pain, extent of previous treatment and self reported pain and function. Methods The charts of patients presenting with plantar heel pain between June 2008 and October 2010 were reviewed retrospectively and 182 patients with a primary diagnosis of plantar fasciitis were identified. Patients with symptoms less than 6 months were identified as acute and patients with symptoms greater than or equal to six months were defined as having chronic symptoms. Comparisons based on duration of symptoms were performed for age, gender, BMI, comorbidities, pain location and intensity, and a functional score measured by the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM). Results The two groups were similar in age, BMI, gender, and comorbidities. Pain severity, as measured by a VAS, was not statistically significant between the two groups (6.6 and 6.2). The acute and chronic groups of patients reported similar levels of function on both the activity of daily living (62 and 65) and sports (47 and 45) subscales of the FAAM. Patients in the chronic group were more likely to have seen more providers and tried more treatment options for this condition. Conclusion As plantar fasciitis symptoms extend beyond 6 months, patients do not experience increasing pain intensity or functional limitation. No specific risk factors have been identified to indicate a risk of developing chronic symptoms. PMID:22995253

  2. Association of exposure to violence and potential traumatic events with self-reported physical and mental health status in the Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Vinck, Patrick; Pham, Phuong N

    2010-08-04

    For decades, the Central African Republic (CAR) has experienced violence, economic stagnation, and institutional failure. The latest wave of violence erupted in 2001 and continues to this day in some areas. Yet there has been little attention to the conflict and even less research to document and quantify the conflict's human cost. To study levels of violence in CAR, including mortality levels, and the association between exposure to violence and traumatic events with self-reported physical and mental health status. Multistage stratified cluster random survey of 1879 adults 18 years or older in selected households conducted in 5 administrative units of CAR (3 in the south, which has been free from recent violence, and 2 in the north, in which violence continues) between October and December 2009. Mortality, morbidity, exposure to potential traumatic events, sense of insecurity, and meeting of symptom criteria for depression and anxiety using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 with a cut-off score of 1.75. The crude mortality rate (CMR) was 4.9 deaths (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.6-5.1) per 1000 population per month and self-reported CMR due to violence was 0.8 deaths (95% CI, 0.6-1.0) per 1000 population per month. Thirty-five percent reported their physical health status as being good or very good while 29% described it as bad or very bad. Respondents in northern prefectures reported higher rates of mortality, exposure to trauma, and insecurity and lower levels of physical health and access to health services compared with those in the south. The estimated prevalences of symptoms of depression and anxiety were 55.3% (95% CI, 51.6%-59.0%) and 52.5% (95% CI, 48.1%-56.8%), respectively. Exposure to violence and self-reported physical health were statistically associated with mental health outcomes (P < .001). Anxiety symptom scores were higher for respondents in the northern prefectures than those in the south (t = 2.54, P = .01). A high proportion of adult

  3. Self-Reported Health and Functional Characteristics of Mexican and Mexican American Adults Aged 80 and Over

    PubMed Central

    Downer, Brian; Chen, Nai-Wei; Wong, Rebeca; Markides, Kyriakos S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the health and functional characteristics of Mexican and Mexican American adults aged ≥80. Method Data came from Wave I (2001) and Wave III (2012) of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), and Wave IV (2000–2001) and Wave VII (2010–2011) of the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (HEPESE). Results In 2000–2001, diabetes, arthritis, hypertension, and stroke were higher in the HEPESE than in the MHAS. In the HEPESE, activities of daily living (ADL) difficulties and all health conditions, except heart attack, were greater in 2010–2011 than in 2000–2001. In the MHAS, hypertension and ADL difficulties were greater, and arthritis was lower in 2012 compared with 2001. In 2010–2011, all self-reported health conditions were higher in the HEPESE compared with the 2012 observation of the MHAS. Discussion The observed differences may reflect worse health for Mexican Americans, health care access, reporting bias, and more selective survival to very old age in Mexico. PMID:27590800

  4. Is the self-reported private health insurance status in the National Health Survey representative of private health insurance coverage in Australia?

    PubMed

    Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Brown, Laurie; Thurecht, Linc; Lymer, Sharyn

    2010-12-01

    This study determines whether the distribution of self-reported private health insurance (PHI) status in the 2004/05 National Health Survey (NHS) is representative of PHI coverage in Australia. Weighted estimates from the NHS 2004/05 are compared with PHI status reported for 2004/05 by the Private Health Insurance Administration Council (PHIAC, the independent regulator of the private health insurance industry). PHI status was imputed to children in the NHS based on PHI status of the adult in the household. The two data sources were deemed to be different if the PHIAC results were not within the 95% CI range for the NHS estimate. PHI status reported in the NHS and PHIAC are generally comparable except for some categories such as hospital cover of males aged 5-9 years and females aged 85 years and older where the NHS estimates are below PHIAC numbers; and males aged 25-29, 35-39, and 50-54 years where the NHS estimates are higher. The findings suggest that while the NHS 2004/05 estimates may accurately represent coverage in Australia particularly when examined at an aggregated level, there is some variation in the NHS estimates when examined by sex and age group. Researchers need to be aware of the potential for sampling and reporting bias to contribute to some misrepresentation of PHI status when using the NHS to generalise to the Australian population. Exploring corrective measures will ensure that the NHS continues to be a valuable data resource for health researchers in Australia. © 2010 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.

  5. Health status profiles in community-dwelling elderly using self-reported health indicators: a latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Ng, Charis W L; Luo, Nan; Heng, Bee Hoon

    2014-12-01

    Latent class analysis (LCA), a statistical method for identifying latent classes within a population using multiple indicators, has been used to study the heterogeneity of health among the elderly. We aim to identify health status profiles of older adults using LCA and examine the socio-demographic characteristics associated with each profile. A community health survey of residents ≥60 years was conducted in Marine Parade, Singapore. We performed LCA on seven health indicators (number of chronic conditions, activities of daily living (ADL) dependency, pain, depression, cognition, social isolation, and frequency of socialising) to identify distinct classes of health status profiles. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to examine the socio-demographic characteristics associated with each profile. Of the 2,444 elderly interviewed, we identified two health status profiles: "Health at risk" (n = 465, 19.0 %), and "Relatively healthy" (n = 1,979, 81.0 %). The "Health at risk" profile was characterised by high probabilities of 3+ chronic conditions (λ = 0.63), at least one basic/instrumental ADL dependency (λ = 0.56), moderate/extreme pain (λ = 0.55), cognitive impairment (λ = 0.29), depressive symptoms (λ = 0.29), social isolation (λ = 0.27), and infrequent socialisation (λ = 0.61). Individuals who were older (65-74, 75-84, and 85+ years), females, of non-Chinese ethnicity (Indian, Malay, and Others), had primary and lower education, and were unemployed/not employed were more likely to be "Health at risk". Using LCA, we identified two distinct health status profiles which accounted for the heterogeneity of the elderly population. Selected socio-demographic characteristics were associated with different profiles and provide implications for the structuring of future public health interventions targeting the older population.

  6. Effect of Social Familiarity on Salivary Cortisol and Self-Reports of Social Anxiety and Stress in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A.; Putnam, Susan K.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Nida, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of social familiarity on salivary cortisol and social anxiety/stress for a sample of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. The relationship between self-reported social anxiety/stress and salivary cortisol was also examined. Participants interacted with a familiar peer on one occasion and an…

  7. Effect of Social Familiarity on Salivary Cortisol and Self-Reports of Social Anxiety and Stress in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A.; Putnam, Susan K.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Nida, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of social familiarity on salivary cortisol and social anxiety/stress for a sample of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. The relationship between self-reported social anxiety/stress and salivary cortisol was also examined. Participants interacted with a familiar peer on one occasion and an…

  8. Differences in Brain Structure and Function in Older Adults with Self-Reported Disabling and Non-Disabling Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Buckalew, Neilly; Haut, Marc W.; Aizenstein, Howard; Morrow, Lisa; Perera, Subashan; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Weiner, Debra K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of this pilot study was to identify structural and functional brain differences in older adults with self-reported disabling chronic low back pain (CLBP) compared with those who reported non-disabling CLBP. Design Cross-sectional. Participants Sixteen cognitively intact older adults, eight with disabling CLBP and eight with non-disabling. Exclusions were psychiatric or neurological disorders, substance abuse, opioid use, or diabetes mellitus. Methods Participants underwent: structural and functional brain MRI; neuropsychological assessment using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, Trail Making Tests A and B; and physical performance assessment using the Short Physical Performance Battery. Results In the disabled group there was significantly lower white matter (WM) integrity (P < 0.05) of the splenium of the corpus callosum. This group also demonstrated activation of the right medial prefrontal cortex at rest whereas the non-disabled demonstrated activation of the left lateral prefrontal cortex. Combined groups analysis revealed a strong positive correlation (rs = 0.80, P < 0.0002) between WM integrity of the left centrum semiovale with gait-speed. Secondary analysis revealed a strong negative correlation between total months of CLBP and WM integrity of the SCC (rs = −0.59, P < 0.02). Conclusions Brain structure and function is different in older adults with disabling CLBP compared to those with non-disabling CLBP. Deficits in brain morphology combining groups are associated with pain duration and poor physical function. Our findings suggest brain structure and function may play a key role in chronic-pain-related-disability and may be important treatment targets. PMID:20609128

  9. Association of Performance-Based and Self-Reported Function-Based Definitions of Frailty with Mortality among Patients Receiving Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Kirsten L; Dalrymple, Lorien S; Glidden, David; Delgado, Cynthia; Kaysen, George A; Grimes, Barbara; Chertow, Glenn M

    2016-04-07

    Frailty is common among patients on dialysis and increases vulnerability to dependency and death. We examined the predictive ability of frailty on the basis of physical performance and self-reported function in participants of a US Renal Data System special study that enrolled a convenience sample of 771 prevalent patients on hemodialysis from 14 facilities in the Atlanta and northern California areas from 2009 to 2011. Performance-based frailty was assessed using direct measures of grip strength (weakness) and gait speed along with weight loss, exhaustion, and low physical activity; poor self-reported function was substituted for weakness and slow gait speed in the self-reported function-based definition. For both definitions, patients meeting three or more criteria were considered frail. The mean age of 762 patients included in analyses was 57.1±14.2 years old; 240 patients (31%) met the physical performance-based definition of frailty, and 396 (52%) met the self-reported function-based definition. There were 106 deaths during 1.7 (interquartile range, 1.4-2.4) years of follow-up. After adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics, the hazard ratio (HR) for mortality for the performance-based definition (2.16; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.41 to 3.29) was slightly higher than that of the self-reported function-based definition (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.24 to 3.00). Patients who met the self-report-based definition but not the physical performance definition of frailty (n=192) were not at statistically significantly higher risk of mortality than those who were not frail by either definition (n=330; HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 0.81 to 2.45), but those who met both definitions of frailty (n=204) were at significantly higher risk (HR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.51 to 4.01). Frailty, defined using either direct tests of physical performance or self-reported physical function, was associated with higher mortality among patients receiving hemodialysis. Future studies are needed

  10. Determinants of the variations in self-reported health status among recent and more established immigrants in Canada.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Rajendra Prasad; Rosenberg, Mark Warren

    2014-08-01

    Studies have shown that immigrants are normally in better health on arrival compared to their Canadian-born counterparts. However, the health conditions of new immigrants deteriorate after a few years of their arrival in Canada. This phenomenon is popularly termed the "healthy immigrant effect" (HIE) in the immigrant health literature. Although different hypotheses have been proposed to understand HIE, the causes are subject to ongoing discussion. Unlike previous studies, this study explored the possible causes behind the variations in the health status of recent and more established immigrants comparing 2001 and 2010 Canadian Community Health Surveys (CCHS). Four different hypotheses - namely lifestyle change, barriers to health care services, poor social determinants of health, and work related stress - were tested to understand variations in health status. The study concludes that there is a statistically significant difference in the socioeconomic characteristics and health outcomes of immigrants having less than and more than 10 years of residency in Canada. Logistic regression models show that the health conditions of immigrants are associated with age, sex, ethnic origin, smoking habit, Body Mass Index (BMI), total household income, number of consultations made with a family doctor per year and work related stress.

  11. Self-reported balance status is not a reliable indicator of balance performance in adolescents at one-month post-concussion.

    PubMed

    Rochefort, Coralie; Walters-Stewart, Coren; Aglipay, Mary; Barrowman, Nick; Zemek, Roger; Sveistrup, Heidi

    2017-11-01

    To determine if self-reported balance symptoms can be used as a proxy for measures of the center of pressure (COP) to identify balance deficits in a group of concussed adolescents. Case-control. Thirteen adolescents 1-month post-concussion who reported ongoing balance problems (Balance+), 20 adolescent 1-month post-concussion who reported no balance problems (Balance-), and 30 non-injured adolescents (control) completed a series of balance tests. Participants completed two 2-min trials standing on a Nintendo Wii Balance Board™ during which the COP under their feet was recorded: i) double-leg stance, eyes open; ii) double-leg stance, eyes closed. Participants also completed a dual-task condition combining a double-leg stance and a Stroop Colour-word test. Participants in both the Balance+ and Balance- group swayed over a larger ellipse area compared to the control group while completing the Eyes Closed (Balance+, p=0.002; Balance-, p=0.002) and Dual-Task (Balance+, p=0.001; Balance-, p=0.004) conditions and performed the Dual-Task condition with faster medio-lateral velocity (Balance+, p=0.003; Balance-, p=0.009). The participants in the Balance- group also swayed over a larger ellipse area compared to the control group while completing the Eyes Open condition (p=0.005). No significant differences were identified between the Balance+ and Balance- groups. At 1-month post-concussion, adolescents demonstrated balance deficits compared to non-injured adolescents regardless of whether they reported balance problems. These results suggest that self-reported balance status might not be an accurate reflection of balance performance following a concussion in adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Independent associations of childhood and current socioeconomic status with risk of self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis in a family-medicine cohort of North-Carolinians

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Associations of socioeconomic status (SES) with the prevalence of various forms of arthritis are well documented. Increasing evidence suggests that SES during childhood is a lasting determinant of health, but its association with the onset of arthritis remains unclear. Methods Cross-sectional data on 1276 participants originated from 22 family practices in North-Carolina, USA. We created 4-level (high, medium, low, lowest) current SES and childhood SES summary scores based on parental and participant education, occupation and homeownership. We investigated associations of individual SES characteristics, summary scores and SES trajectories (e.g. high/low) with self-reported arthritis in logistic regression models progressively adjusted for race and gender, age, then BMI, and clustered by family practice. Results We found evidence for independent associations of both childhood and current SES with the reporting of arthritis across our models. In covariate-adjusted models simultaneously including current and childhood SES, compared with high SES participants in the lowest childhood SES category (OR = 1.39 [95% CI = 1.04, 1.85]) and those in the low (OR = 1.66 [95% CI = 1.14, 2.42]) and lowest (OR = 2.08 [95% CI = 1.16, 3.74]) categories of current SES had significantly greater odds of having self-reported arthritis. Conclusions Current SES and childhood SES are both associated with the odds of reporting arthritis within this primary-care population, although the possibly superseding influence of existing circumstances must be noted. BMI was a likely mechanism in the association of childhood SES with arthritis onset, and research is needed to elucidate further pathways linking the socioeconomic environment across life-stages and the development of rheumatic diseases. PMID:24256740

  13. Relationship between self-reported weight change, educational status, and health-related quality of life in patients with diabetes in Luxembourg.

    PubMed

    Tchicaya, Anastase; Lorentz, Nathalie; Demarest, Stefaan; Beissel, Jean; Wagner, Daniel R

    2015-09-18

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between self-reported weight change, socio-economic status, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with diabetes, 5 years after they underwent coronary angiography. Between 2013 and 2014, 1873 of 4391 patients (319 with diabetes) who underwent coronary angiography between 2008 and 2009 participated in a follow-up study. Three out of four domains of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF (physical health, psychological health and social relationships) were surveyed during the follow-up period. To assess the relationship between weight change and HRQOL, generalized linear models were constructed for every dimension of the WHOQOL-BREF, with educational level as a predictor and sex, age, marital status, smoking status, hypertension, cholesterol, ischemic heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, and stable angina pectoris as covariates. The mean age of the patients was 70 years and almost three-quarters of the patients (72.7 %) were men. During the 12 months preceding the follow-up survey, 22.6 % of the patients reported weight loss, 20 % reported weight gain, and 57.4 % reported no weight change. There were significant differences in the HRQOL scores between patients who reported weight loss and those who reported either weight gain or unchanged weight. The most affected domains were physical and psychological health, with higher scores for patients who reported weight loss (54.7 and 67.2, respectively) than those who reported weight gain (46.3 and 58.5, respectively). The generalized linear model confirmed higher HRQOL scores among patients who reported weight loss and revealed an association between the HRQOL score and education level. Weight change and education level were associated with HRQOL in patients with diabetes. Self-reported weight loss and no weight change were positively associated with HRQOL in patients with diabetes, while weight gain was negatively

  14. Musculoskeletal Pain, Self-reported Physical Function, and Quality of Life in the Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS) Cohort.

    PubMed

    Bout-Tabaku, Sharon; Michalsky, Marc P; Jenkins, Todd M; Baughcum, Amy; Zeller, Meg H; Brandt, Mary L; Courcoulas, Anita; Buncher, Ralph; Helmrath, Michael; Harmon, Carroll M; Chen, Mike K; Inge, Thomas H

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain and is a risk factor for disability and osteoarthritis. To describe the prevalence, sites, and intensity of musculoskeletal pain in adolescents with severe obesity; to evaluate associations between musculoskeletal pain and self-reported physical function as well as weight-related quality of life; and to evaluate the association between musculoskeletal pain and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level. Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS) is a prospective, observational study that collects standardized data on adolescents undergoing weight loss surgery at 5 US centers. We examined baseline data from this cohort between February 28, 2007, and December 30, 2011. We excluded adolescents with Blount disease and slipped capital femoral epiphyses. A total of 233 participants were included in these analyses. We assessed musculoskeletal pain and pain intensity of the lower back, hips, knees, and ankles/feet using the visual analog scale, categorizing musculoskeletal pain into lower back pain, lower extremity (hips, knees, and feet/ankles combined) pain, and no pain. We assessed self-reported physical function status with the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index and assessed weight-related quality of life with the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Kids measure. We adjusted for sex, race, age at surgery, body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), and clinical depressive symptoms in regression analyses. Among the 233 participants, the mean (SD) age at surgery was 17.1 (1.56) years and the median BMI was 50.4. Participants were predominantly female (77%), white (73%), and non-Hispanic (93%). Among the participants, 49% had poor functional status and 76% had musculoskeletal pain. Lower back pain was prevalent (63%), followed by ankle/foot (53%), knee (49%), and hip (31%) pain; 26% had pain at all 4 sites. In adjusted analyses

  15. Musculoskeletal Pain, Self-reported Physical Function, and Quality of Life in the Teen–Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bout-Tabaku, Sharon; Michalsky, Marc P.; Jenkins, Todd M.; Baughcum, Amy; Zeller, Meg H.; Brandt, Mary L.; Courcoulas, Anita; Buncher, Ralph; Helmrath, Michael; Harmon, Carroll M.; Chen, Mike K.; Inge, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Obesity is associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain and is a risk factor for disability and osteoarthritis. OBJECTIVES To describe the prevalence, sites, and intensity of musculoskeletal pain in adolescents with severe obesity; to evaluate associations between musculoskeletal pain and self-reported physical function as well as weight-related quality of life; and to evaluate the association between musculoskeletal pain and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Teen–Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS) is a prospective, observational study that collects standardized data on adolescents undergoing weight loss surgery at 5 US centers. We examined baseline data from this cohort between February 28, 2007, and December 30, 2011. We excluded adolescents with Blount disease and slipped capital femoral epiphyses. A total of 233 participants were included in these analyses. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We assessed musculoskeletal pain and pain intensity of the lower back, hips, knees, and ankles/feet using the visual analog scale, categorizing musculoskeletal pain into lower back pain, lower extremity (hips, knees, and feet/ankles combined) pain, and no pain. We assessed self-reported physical function status with the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index and assessed weight-related quality of life with the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life–Kids measure. We adjusted for sex, race, age at surgery, body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), and clinical depressive symptoms in regression analyses. RESULTS Among the 233 participants, the mean (SD) age at surgery was 17.1 (1.56) years and the median BMI was 50.4. Participants were predominantly female (77%), white (73%), and non-Hispanic (93%). Among the participants, 49% had poor functional status and 76% had musculoskeletal pain. Lower back pain was prevalent (63%), followed by ankle

  16. Self-reported lifetime asthma and nativity status in U.S. children and adolescents: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sharon P; Borrell, Luisa N; Shapiro, Alan

    2010-05-01

    Nativity status seems to have a protective effect on asthma. However, there is little information in the literature on the effect of nativity status on asthma for non-Hispanic Black and White children and adolescents. This study investigates the association between nativity status and self-reported asthma in U.S. children and adolescents under 21 years of age after controlling for selected characteristics including education and income. Logistic regression was conducted using SUDAAN to estimate odds ratios from data of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. The prevalence of asthma for U.S. children and adolescents is 14.5%, with U.S.-born exhibiting a higher prevalence (15.1%) than foreign-born (7.3%, p<.0001). In the fully-adjusted analysis, foreign-born children and adolescents were almost twice less likely than U.S.-born counterparts to report asthma. This association differs by race/ethnicity, with the lowest odds being observed in Whites (OR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.10-0.86), followed by Mexican Americans (OR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.25-0.56) and Blacks (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.29-0.94). Moreover, this association varies by education: Foreign-born children of survey respondents who had at least a high school education were more than twice less likely than their U.S.-born counterparts to have asthma. The findings of this study underscore the importance of inquiring about nativity status when studying asthma among U.S. children and adolescents.

  17. Effect of September 11th terrorist attacks on the self-reported health status of Department of Defense health care beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Linton, Andrea; Hartzell, Michael C; Peterson, Michael R

    2004-11-01

    This study examined the changes in the self-reported health status of Department of Defense health care beneficiaries associated with the September 11th terrorist attacks. Responses to a single-item, general health measure from pre- and post-September 11 quarterly survey events for the calendar year 2001 were analyzed to compare the unfavorable health response rates before and after the attacks. Increases in rates of unfavorable health status following the terrorist attacks were reported by the total population and 39 of 44 subgroups examined. Statistically significant increases in unfavorable health were reported by active duty personnel and dependents of active duty personnel; beneficiaries under the age of 44 years; beneficiaries affiliated with the Army and Marines; and beneficiaries in the Mid-Atlantic, Mid-West/Central, and Pacific Rim regions. These findings suggest that stress associated with the likelihood of being deployed or having a family member deployed following the terrorist attacks significantly contributed to the increase in unfavorable health response reported on the post-September 11 survey.

  18. Assessing quality of life of self-reported rheumatic patients.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Pedro L; Gonçalves, Sónia P; Ferreira, Lara N; Pereira, Luis N; Antunes, Patrícia; Gouveia, Nélia; Rodrigues, Ana; Canhão, Helena; Branco, Jaime

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with self-reported rheumatic diseases (RD), to classify self-reported rheumatic patients in groups according to their health state and to explore the associations between health status and sociodemographic variables. Data came from the Portuguese Epidemiologic study of the RD. A sample of the Portuguese population aged 18 or more (n = 10,661) stratified by region and locality dimension was interviewed by trained interviewers and answered a standardized questionnaire that included the SF-36v1, the EQ-5D-3L, medical history, identification of potential rheumatic diseases, sociodemographic characteristics, among others. Descriptive statistics and parametric tests were used to compare HRQoL of respondents with and without RD. Comparisons with normative data from the Portuguese population were also carried out. A cluster analysis was used to classify respondents into homogeneous groups. Regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with HRQoL. Respondents with self-reported RD assigned a lower self-perception to their health status. The burden of disease was observed mainly in physical function, role physical and bodily pain. The EQ-5D-3L dimensions show similar results: the intensity of problems is significantly more evident in respondents with self-reported RD. HRQoL of respondents with self-reported RD is related to sociodemographic variables and is significantly lower when compared with the Portuguese population. Four clusters of homogeneous respondents with self-reported RD were formed and characterized according to a number of variables. Factors associated with HRQoL were identified. In conclusion, suffering from a self-reported RD has a significant impact on self-perceived health status and on the quality of life.

  19. Association of psychological, cognitive, and functional variables with self-reported executive functioning in a sample of nondemented community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Erica P; Kapoor, Ashu; Fogel, Joshua; Elbulok-Charcape, Milushka M; Roth, Robert M; Katz, Mindy J; Lipton, Richard B; Rabin, Laura A

    2016-06-09

    Subjective executive functioning (EF) measures provide valuable information about real-world difficulties, although it is unclear what variables actually associate with subjective EF scores. We investigated subjective EF in 245 nondemented, community-dwelling older adults (aged 70 and above) from the Einstein Aging Study. Partial correlational analyses controlling for age were performed between the nine Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A) clinical scales and objective EF tests, self-reported mood and personality, and informant-reported activities of daily living. The significance level was set at p < .006 for all analyses (two-tailed). Most notably, higher worry/oversensitivity, physiological anxiety, and fear of aging were significantly associated with increased EF difficulties on all nine BRIEF-A scales. Additionally, increased EF difficulties on five or more BRIEF-A scales were significantly associated with lower conscientiousness, higher neuroticism, and higher depressive symptom scores. The only objective neuropsychological test that significantly correlated with increased EF difficulties (on four BRIEF-A scales) was a measure of practical judgment. Overall, results indicate that interpretation of subjective EF scores must account for self-report of mood and personality. Moreover, the BRIEF-A only minimally taps objective EF as measured by performance-based measures. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  20. The direct and indirect effects of the negative affectivity trait on self reported physical function among patients with upper extremity conditions.

    PubMed

    Talaei-Khoei, Mojtaba; Mohamadi, Amin; Mellema, Jos J; Tourjee, Stephen M; Ring, David; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2016-12-30

    Negative affectivity is a personality trait that predisposes people to psychological distress and low life satisfaction. Negative affectivity may also affect pain intensity and physical function in patients with musculoskeletal conditions. We explored the association of negative affectivity to pain intensity and self-reported physical function, and tested whether pain intensity mediates the effect of negative affectivity on physical function. In a cross-sectional study, 102 patients with upper extremity musculoskeletal conditions presenting to an orthopedic surgeon completed self-report measures of negative affectivity, pain intensity, and physical function in addition to demographic and injury information. We used the Preacher and Hayes' bootstrapping approach to quantify the indirect effect of negative affectivity on physical function through pain intensity. Negative affectivity correlated with greater pain intensity and lower self-reported physical function significantly. Also, pain intensity mediated the association of negative affectivity with physical function. The indirect effect accounted for one-third of the total effect. To conclude, negative affectivity is associated with decreased engagement in daily life activities both directly, but also indirectly through increased pain intensity. Treatments targeting negative affectivity may be more economical and efficient for alleviation of pain and limitations associated with musculoskeletal illness than those addressing coping strategies or psychological distress.

  1. HIV testing and self-reported HIV status in South African MSM: Results from a community-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Nel, Juan; Rich, Eileen; Reddy, Vasu; Yi, Huso

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics of South African men who have sex with men (MSM) who (1) have been tested for HIV and (2) are HIV-positive. Methods Data were collected among 1045 MSM in community surveys using questionnaires which were administered either face-to-face, mail, or on the internet. The mean age of the men was 29.9 years. The racial distribution was as follows: 35.3% black, 17.0% coloured, 5.3% Indian, and 41.1% white. Results The proportion of MSM that were HIV-tested was 69.7%; having been tested was independently associated with being older, being more open about one's homosexuality, and being homosexually instead of bisexually attracted; black MSM, students, and MSM living in KwaZulu-Natal were less likely to have been tested. Of the 728 MSM who had ever been tested, 14.1% (n=103) reported to be HIV-positive (9.9% of the total sample). Being HIV-positive is independently associated with two factors: men who were positive were more likely to have a lower level of education and to know other persons who were living with HIV/AIDS; race was not independently associated with HIV status among those who had been tested. Conclusions The likelihood of having been tested for HIV seems to decrease with increasing social vulnerability. Racially, the distribution of HIV among MSM seems to differ from that of the general South African population, suggesting that while intertwined with the heterosexual epidemic, there is also an epidemic among South African MSM with specific dynamics. These findings suggest that in-depth research is urgently needed to address the lack of understanding of HIV testing practices and HIV prevalence in South African MSM. PMID:19028940

  2. Socioeconomic and ethnic group differences in self reported health status and use of health services by children and young people in England: cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Sonia; Eliahoo, Joseph; Majeed, Azeem

    2002-09-07

    To examine whether self reported health status and use of health services varies in children of different social class and ethnic group. Cross sectional study from the 1999 health survey for England. 6648 children and young adults aged 2-20 years. Private households in England. Proportion of children (or their parents) reporting episodes of acute illness in the preceding fortnight and prevalence of self reported longstanding illness. Proportion reporting specific illnesses. Proportion reporting that they had consulted a general practitioner in the preceding fortnight, attended hospital outpatient departments in the three preceding months, or been admitted to hospital in the preceding year. Large socioeconomic differences were observed between ethnic subgroups; a higher proportion of Afro-Caribbean, Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi children belonged to lower social classes than the general population. The proportion of children and young adults reporting acute illnesses in the preceding two weeks was lower in Bangladeshi and Chinese subgroups (odds ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.27 to 0.61 and 0.46, 0.28 to 0.77, respectively) than in the general population. Longstanding illnesses was less common in Bangladeshi and Pakistani children (0.52, 0.40 to 0.67 and 0.57, 0.46 to 0.70) than in the general population. Irish and Afro-Caribbean children reported the highest prevalence of asthma (19.5% and 17.7%) and Bangladeshi children the lowest (8.2%). A higher proportion of Afro-Caribbean children reported major injuries than the general population (11.0% v 10.0%), and children from all Asian subgroups reported fewer major and minor injuries than the general population. Indian and Pakistani children were more likely to have consulted their general practitioner in the preceding fortnight than the general population (1.86, 1.35 to 2.57 and 1.51, 1.13 to 2.01, respectively). Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, and Chinese children were less likely to have attended

  3. Social class and self-reported health status among men and women: what is the role of work organisation, household material standards and household labour?

    PubMed

    Borrell, Carme; Muntaner, Carles; Benach, Joan; Artazcoz, Lucía

    2004-05-01

    Social class understood as social relations of ownership and control over productive assets taps into parts of the social variation in health that are not captured by conventional measures of social stratification. The objectives of this study are to analyse the association between self-reported health status and social class and to examine the role of work organisation, material standards and household labour as potential mediating factors in explaining this association. We used the Barcelona Health Interview Survey, a cross-sectional survey of 10,000 residents of the city's non-institutionalised population in 2000. This was a stratified sample, strata being the 10 districts of the city. The present study was conducted on the working population, aged 16-64 years (2345 men and 1874 women). Social class position was measured with Erik Olin Wright's indicators according to ownership and control over productive assets. The dependent variable was self-reported health status. The independent variables were social class, age, psychosocial and physical working conditions, job insecurity, type of labour contract, number of hours worked per week, possession of appliances at home, as well as household labour (number of hours per week, doing the housework alone and having children, elderly or disabled at home). Several hierarchical logistic regression models were performed by adding different blocks of independent variables. Among men the prevalence of poor reported health was higher among small employers and petit bourgeois, supervisors, semi-skilled (adjusted odds ratio-aOR: 4.92; 95% CI: 1.88-12.88) and unskilled workers (aOR: 7.69; 95%CI: 3.01-19.64). Work organisation and household material standards were associated with poor health status with the exception of number of hours worked per week. Work organisation variables were the main explanatory variables of social class inequalities in health, although material standards also contributed. Among women, only unskilled

  4. Participation bias in postal surveys among older adults: the role played by self-reported health, physical functional decline and frailty.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Philipe de Souto

    2012-01-01

    Postal survey is a simple and efficient way to collect information in large study samples. The purpose of this study was to find out differences between older adults who responded to a postal survey on health outcomes and those who did not, and to examine the importance of frailty, physical functional decline and poor self-reported health in determining non-response. We mailed out a questionnaire on general health twice at a year's interval to 1000 individuals ≥60 years, and members of the medical insurance scheme of the French national education system. At Year1, 535 persons responded to the questionnaire (65% women, 70.9 ± 8.4 years). A year later (Year2), we obtained 384 responses (63.3% women, 70.5 ± 7.8 years). Compared to respondents, non-respondents at Year2 were more frequently categorized as frail, reported more often to be in bad health, and had more physical functional declines. Frailty, physical functional decline and poor self-reported health increased the likelihood of not responding to Year2 questionnaire, with poor self-reported health weakening the association of physical functional decline and non-response. Respondents of this postal survey are fitter and healthier than non-respondents. This participation bias precludes the generalization of postal surveys results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High HIV prevalence among low-income, Black women in New York City with self-reported HIV negative and unknown status.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Kathleen H; Neaigus, Alan; Jenness, Samuel M; Hagan, Holly; Wendel, Travis; Gelpí-Acosta, Camila

    2013-09-01

    Black women are disproportionally affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study investigates factors associated with newly identified HIV infection among previously self-reported HIV negative or unknown status black women living in high risk areas (HRAs) of New York City (NYC). Heterosexuals residing in or socially connected to NYC HRAs were recruited using respondent driven sampling for participation in the United States Centers for Disease Control-sponsored National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System in 2010. Eligible individuals were interviewed and offered an HIV test. The analysis reported here focused on black women with valid HIV results who did not report being HIV positive, and examined factors related to HIV infection in this group. Of 153 black women who did not report being HIV positive at enrollment, 15 (9.8%) tested HIV positive. Age ≥40 years, ever injected drugs, and in the last 12 months had unprotected vaginal sex, exchange sex, last sex partner used crack, non-injection crack use, and non-injection heroin use were significantly associated with HIV infection (p<0.05). Only ever injected drugs (prevalence ratio: 5.1; 95% confidence interval: 2.0, 12.9) was retained in the final model. Black women who had reported being either HIV negative or unaware of their serostatus had high HIV prevalence. Efforts to identify and treat HIV positive black women in HRAs should target those with a history of injection drug use. Frequent testing for HIV should be promoted in HRAs.

  6. Self-reported Function, Health Resource Use, and Total Health Care Costs Among Medicare Beneficiaries With Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Prager, Alisa J; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Cioffi, George A; Blumberg, Dana M

    2016-04-01

    The effect of glaucoma on nonglaucomatous medical conditions and resultant secondary health care costs is not well understood. To assess self-reported medical conditions, the use of medical services, and total health care costs among Medicare beneficiaries with glaucoma. Longitudinal observational study of 72,587 Medicare beneficiaries in the general community using the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (2004-2009). Coding to extract data started in January 2015, and analyses were performed between May and July 2015. Self-reported health, the use of health care services, adjusted mean annual total health care costs per person, and adjusted mean annual nonoutpatient costs per person. Participants were 72,587 Medicare beneficiaries 65 years or older with (n = 4441) and without (n = 68,146) a glaucoma diagnosis in the year before collection of survey data. Their mean age was 76.9 years, and 43.2% were male. Patients with glaucoma who responded to survey questions on visual disability were stratified into those with (n = 1748) and without (n = 2639) self-reported visual disability. Medicare beneficiaries with glaucoma had higher adjusted odds of inpatient hospitalizations (odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.17-1.39; P < .001) and home health aide visits (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.13-1.43; P < .001) compared with Medicare beneficiaries without glaucoma. Furthermore, patients with glaucoma with self-reported visual disability were more likely to report depression (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.26-1.71; P < .001), falls (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.09-1.66; P = .006), and difficulty walking (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.02-1.45; P = .03) compared with those without self-reported visual disability. In the risk-adjusted model, Medicare beneficiaries with glaucoma incurred an additional $2903 (95% CI, $2247-$3558; P < .001) annual total health care costs and $2599 (95% CI, $1985-$3212; P < .001) higher costs for nonoutpatient services compared with Medicare

  7. Self-reported hearing difficulties, main income sources, and socio-economic status; a cross-sectional population-based study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hearing difficulties constitute the most common cause of disability globally. Yet, studies on people with hearing difficulties regarding socio-economic status (SES), work, long-term unemployment, sickness absence, and disability pension are scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the main income sources of men and women of working ages with and without self-reported hearing difficulties and associations with gender, age, SES, type of living area, and country of birth. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study, using information on self-reported hearing difficulties and SES of 19 045 subjects aged 20–64 years participating in Statistics Sweden’s annual Living Conditions Surveys in any of the years 2004 through 2008. The information was linked to a nationwide database containing data on demographics and income sources. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, using binary logistic regression analysis. Results Hearing difficulties increased with age and were more common in men (age-adjusted OR: 1.42 (95% CI: 1.30-1.56)) with an overall prevalence of 13.1% in men and 9.8% in women. Using working men as reference, the OR of having hearing difficulties was 1.23 (0.94-1.60) in men with unemployment benefits and 1.36 (1.13-1.65) in men with sickness benefits or disability pension, when adjusting for age and SES. The corresponding figures in women were 1.59 (1.17-2.16) and 1.73 (1.46-2.06). The OR of having sickness benefits or disability pension in subjects with hearing difficulties was 1.36 (1.12-1.64) in men and 1.70 (1.43-2.01) in women, when adjusting for age and SES and using men and women with no hearing difficulties as reference. Conclusions Hearing difficulties were more prevalent in men. After adjustment with age and SES as well as with type of living area and country of birth, a significant association with unemployment benefits was found only in women, and the associations with long

  8. Self-reported and parent-reported pain for common painful events in high-functioning children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Bandstra, Nancy F; Johnson, Shannon A; Filliter, Jillian H; Chambers, Christine T

    2012-10-01

    Previous research suggests that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at a higher risk for painful experiences, but there is limited research examining pain in children with ASD. The current study examined self-reported and parent-reported pain in 20 high-functioning youth with ASD (17 boys; 3 girls) and 20 typically developing controls (16 boys; 4 girls) ranging in age from 9 to 18 years and matched on age and IQ. Participants with and without ASD rated their hypothetical pain in a series of pictures depicting common childhood situations. They also rated the amount of pain they would expect to feel (using the Faces Pain Scale-Revised and a Numeric Rating Scale) in a series of validated hypothetical pain situations depicted in cartooned images (eg, scraping knee on sidewalk). Parents rated the amount of pain they would expect their child to show in each of the same cartoon stimuli. There were no significant differences between pain vignette ratings of youth with ASD and their non-ASD peers or in the ratings provided by their parents. High-functioning youth with ASD were able to successfully use both of the self-report scales to rate pain. This is the first study to successfully obtain self-report of pain from youth with ASD. Implications for the understanding of pain and pain assessment in high-functioning youth with ASD are discussed.

  9. Functioning Without Cartilage: Older People With Radiographic Knee Osteoarthritis Who Self-Report No Functional Limitations Do Score Lower on a Performance Battery.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Daniël M; van de Bunt, Fabian; de Ruiter, Cornelis J; van Schoor, Natasja M; Deeg, Dorly J H; Emanuel, Kaj S

    2017-09-18

    The majority of the older population shows signs of radiographic knee osteoarthritis. However, many remain without functional complaints for a long period. This study aims to find early functional changes associated with stages of radiographic knee osteoarthritis. A group of older people without self-reported complaints was divided in two groups: knee osteoarthritis (K&L = 2-4, N = 29) and control (K&L = 0-1, N = 31). Muscle function was assessed with voluntary and electrically-stimulated isometric knee contractions, including a fatigue test. Physical functioning was assessed with a 6-min walk test (6MWT), a stair climb test (SCT), and a short performance battery. There were no differences in muscle function parameters, 6MWT, and SCT between groups. A clinically relevant lower score on the performance battery was found in participants with knee osteoarthritis. In conclusion, even when older people indicate to have no functional limitations, a decline in functional outcome can be measured with a physical performance battery.

  10. Self-reported Knee Function Can Identify Athletes Who Fail Return to Activity Criteria up to 1 Year after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. A Delaware-Oslo ACL Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Logerstedt, David; Stasi, Stephanie Di; Grindem, Hege; Lynch, Andrew; Eitzen, Ingrid; Engebretsen, Lars; Risberg, May Arna; Axe, Michael J; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN Cohort study, cross-sectional. OBJECTIVES To determine if self-reported knee function assessed with the International Knee Documentation Committee 2000 Subjective Knee Form (IKDC2000) could discriminate between successful and non-successful performance on return to activity criteria (RTAC) tests after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. BACKGROUND Rehabilitation specialists are challenged in selecting appropriate performance-based and patient-reported tests that can detect side-to-side asymmetries, assess global knee function, and determine a participant's readiness to return to activity after ACL reconstruction. A simple tool or questionnaire that could identify athletes with neuromuscular impairments or activity limitations could provide rehabilitation specialists crucial data pertinent to their current knee function and their readiness to return to higher level activities. METHODS One hundred fifty-eight Level I/II athletes 6 months after ACL reconstruction and 141 athletes 12 months after ACL reconstruction completed a functional test battery to determine readiness to return to activity and the IKDC2000 to determine self-reported knee function. For each athlete, status on return to activity tests criteria was dichotomized as “Passed” or ”Failed” and status on the IKDC2000 scores was dichotomized as being “within” or “below age- and sex-matched normal ranges”. Comparisons were made between status on RTAC and IKDC2000 using Chi-square tests. Accuracy statistics were also calculated. RESULTS Six months after ACL reconstruction, 112 athletes (70.9%) failed RTAC and 76 (48.1%) were classified as having self-reported knee function below normal ranges. Among the 76 participants with IKDC2000 scores below normal ranges, 69 (90.8%) failed RTAC test battery (P<.001). However, among the 82 participants whose IKDC2000 scores were within normal limits at 6 months, only 39 (47.6%) passed RTAC test battery (P=.74). Twelve months after

  11. Life after Adolescent and Adult Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Self-Reported Executive, Emotional, and Behavioural Function 2–5 Years after Injury

    PubMed Central

    Finnanger, Torun Gangaune; Olsen, Alexander; Skandsen, Toril; Lydersen, Stian; Vik, Anne; Evensen, Kari Anne I.; Catroppa, Cathy; Håberg, Asta K.; Andersson, Stein; Indredavik, Marit S.

    2015-01-01

    Survivors of moderate-severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) are at risk for long-term cognitive, emotional, and behavioural problems. This prospective cohort study investigated self-reported executive, emotional, and behavioural problems in the late chronic phase of moderate and severe TBI, if demographic characteristics (i.e., age, years of education), injury characteristics (Glasgow Coma Scale score, MRI findings such as traumatic axonal injury (TAI), or duration of posttraumatic amnesia), symptoms of depression, or neuropsychological variables in the first year after injury predicted long-term self-reported function. Self-reported executive, emotional, and behavioural functioning were assessed among individuals with moderate and severe TBI (N = 67, age range 15–65 years at time of injury) 2–5 years after TBI, compared to a healthy matched control group (N = 72). Results revealed significantly more attentional, emotional regulation, and psychological difficulties in the TBI group than controls. Demographic and early clinical variables were associated with poorer cognitive and emotional outcome. Fewer years of education and depressive symptoms predicted greater executive dysfunction. Younger age at injury predicted more aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour. TAI and depressive symptoms predicted Internalizing problems and greater executive dysfunction. In conclusion, age, education, TAI, and depression appear to elevate risk for poor long-term outcome, emphasising the need for long-term follow-up of patients presenting with risk factors. PMID:26549936

  12. Impact of selected medical conditions on self-reported lower-extremity function in Mexican-American elderly.

    PubMed

    Ma, J; Markides, K S; Perkowski, L P; Stroup-Benham, C A; Lichtenstein, M; Goodwin, J S

    1998-01-01

    To examine the independent impact of common medical conditions on lower-extremity function in Mexican-American elderly. Cross-sectional study using a probability sample of non-institutionalized Mexican Americans aged 65 or older. The five Southwestern states, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado and California. All subjects were interviewed in person (n = 2,873) or by proxy (n = 177) in their homes during late 1993 and early 1994. Respondents were asked whether they could perform four activities related to lower-extremity function without help: walking across a small room, getting from a bed to a chair, walking up and down stairs, and walking half a mile. A summary measure of lower body disability created from these four items was regressed on seven common medical conditions plus five control variables using multiple logistic regression. Adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) suggested that impaired lower-extremity function was associated with previous diagnosis of hip fracture (OR = 4.28), stroke (OR = 3.47), lower extremity arthritis (OR = 2.60), heart attack (OR = 2.29), diabetes (OR = 2.03) and obesity (OR = 1.50). Impaired lower-extremity function was significantly associated with older age (75+ years old), gender (female) and marital status (unmarried). In addition, there was a linear increase in the risk of function loss by number of medical conditions. It appears that Mexican-American elderly diagnosed with medical conditions, especially stroke and hip fracture, have a high risk for lower-extremity dysfunction. These findings have implications for efforts to prevent or reduce lower-extremity dysfunction, as well as for the provision of community-based long-term care services for Mexican-American elderly.

  13. Children's Sleep and Cognitive Functioning: Race and Socioeconomic Status as Moderators of Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keller, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Race and socioeconomic status (SES) moderated the link between children's sleep and cognitive functioning. One hundred and sixty-six 8- to 9-year-old African and European American children varying in SES participated. Sleep measures were actigraphy, sleep diaries, and self-report; cognitive measures were from the Woodcock-Johnson III and reaction…

  14. Vitamin D status in apparently healthy medication-free Slovaks: Association to blood pressure, body mass index, self-reported smoking status and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Sebekova, K; Krivosikova, Z; Gajdos, M; Podracka, L

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D plays a role in protecting against chronic degenerative diseases. Slovak adults present one of the highest cardiovascular mortality rates among 27 EU countries. We asked whether the 25(OH)D3 status in apparently healthy medication-free Slovaks deteriorates upon ageing, and in the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors. We studied the impact of blood pressure, overweight/obesity, smoking, and physical activity on 25(OH)D3 levels determined using RIA method in 578 (5-81 years old) subjects. The average level of 25(OH)D3 was 36±17 ng/ml. A proportion of 15 % of participants were 25(OH)D3‑deficient (≤20 ng/ml), 26 % presented insufficient (20-to-30 ng/ml), and 59 % satisfactory (> 30 ng/ml) levels. Neither mean 25(OH)D3 levels, nor the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D showed age dependence. Physically active normotensive non-smokers presented the highest (41±19 ng/ml), and their smoking counterparts with elevated BP the lowest 25(OH)D3 levels (30±12 ng/ml). In apparently healthy medication-free Slovaks the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D is high. Vitamin D status does not deteriorate in course of healthy ageing. Physical activity, normotension, and non-smoking status are associated with favorable vitamin D status while low 25(OH)D3 levels are associated with multiple cardiometabolic risk factors. Further studies in subjects at high cardiovascular risk are needed to elucidate the potential association of hypovitaminosis D with high cardiovascular mortality in Slovak adults (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 42).

  15. Impact of a walking intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness, self-reported physical function, and pain in patients undergoing treatment for solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Kathleen; Wenzel, Jennifer; Shang, JingJing; Thompson, Carol; Stewart, Kerry; Mock, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Background Cancer treatment is associated with decline in measured and self-reported physical function and increased pain. We evaluated the impact of a walking intervention on these outcomes during chemotherapy/radiation. Methods 126 patients with breast, prostate, and other cancers were randomized to a home-based walking intervention (exercise) or usual care (control). Exercise dose during the intervention was assessed using a five-item Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ). Outcome measures were cardiorespiratory fitness, expressed as peak oxygen uptake (VO2) measured during treadmill testing (n=85) or estimated by 12-minute walk (n=27), and self-reported physical function, role limitations, and pain derived from Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) SF-36. Linear regression was used to evaluate pre-to-post intervention change outcomes between groups. Results Mean (SD) age of patients was 60.2 (10.6). Diagnoses included prostate (55.6%) and breast (32.5%) cancer. Treatment included external beam radiation (52.3%) and chemotherapy (34.9%). Exercise patients reported worsening MOS-physical function role limitations by end of cancer treatment (p=.037). Younger age was associated with improved MOS-physical function (p=.048). In all patients, increased exercise dose was associated with decreased MOS-pain (p=.046), regardless of diagnosis. The percent change of peak VO2 between prostate and non-prostate cancer patients when adjusted for baseline peak VO2 and PAQ values was 17.45% (p=0.008), with better peak VO2 maintenance in the prostate group. Conclusion Exercise during cancer treatment improves cardiorespiratory fitness and self-reported physical function in prostate cancer patients and in younger patients, regardless of diagnosis, and may attenuate loss of those capacities in patients undergoing chemotherapy. Exercise also reduces the pain experience. PMID:19637345

  16. Cardiovascular Disease is Associated with COPD Severity and Reduced Functional Status and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Black-Shinn, Jennifer L.; Kinney, Gregory L.; Wise, Anastasia L.; Regan, Elizabeth A.; Make, Barry; Krantz, Mori J.; Barr, R. Graham; Murphy, James R.; Lynch, David; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James D.; Hokanson, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is a major risk factor for both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). More individuals with COPD die from CVD than respiratory causes and the risk of developing CVD appears to be independent of smoking burden. Although CVD is a common comorbid condition within COPD, the nature of its relationships to COPD affection status and severity, and functional status is not well understood. Methods The first 2,500 members of the COPDGene cohort were evaluated. Subjects were current and former smokers with a minimum 10 pack year history of cigarette smoking. COPD was defined by spirometry as an FEV1/FVC < lower limit of normal (LLN) with further identification of severity by FEV1 percent of predicted (GOLD stages 2, 3, and 4) for the main analysis. The presence of physician-diagnosed self-reported CVD was determined from a medical history questionnaire administered by a trained staff member. Results A total of 384 (15%) had pre-existing CVD. Self-reported CVD was independently related to COPD (Odds Ratio=1.61, 95% CI=1.18–2.20, p=0.01) after adjustment for covariates with CHF having the greatest association with COPD. Within subjects with COPD, pre-existing self-reported CVD placed subjects at greater risk of hospitalization due to exacerbation, higher BODE index, and greater St. George’s questionnaire score. The presence of self-reported CVD was associated with a shorter six-minute walk distance in those with COPD (p<0.05). Conclusions Self-reported CVD was independently related to COPD with presence of both self-reported CVD and COPD associated with a markedly reduced functional status and reduced quality of life. Identification of CVD in those with COPD is an important consideration in determining functional status. PMID:24831864

  17. A nested case–control analysis of self-reported physical functioning after total knee replacement surgery in the 45 and Up Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Kris D; Blyth, Fiona M; March, Lyn M; Jorm, Louisa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The rate of total knee arthroplasty surgery (TKA) is rising in Australia despite varying impacts of TKA on physical function (PF) in population-based studies. There are potentially modifiable risk factors that could enhance PF after TKA, so we evaluated (1) the levels of PF in persons with TKA and the rest of the population, (2) potentially modifiable characteristics of those reporting poor PF after TKA. Design Nested case–control study. Setting Population-based cohort study in New South Wales, Australia. Participants Members of a large (n=267 151) cohort study recruited by a self-completed, mailed questionnaire from 2006 to 2008. After exclusions (for hip arthroplasty, partial TKA, missing important variables and mismatching TKA status between self-reported and hospital record data), this study included 205 148 participants. Primary and secondary outcomes Primary outcome, Medical Outcomes Study Physical Function scale (MOS-PF). Secondary outcome, dispensings of analgesics or anti-inflammatory drugs. Results We found 2916 TKA participants and 202 232 participants with no TKA (confirmed across datasets). Persons with TKA had a lower MOS-PF (59.9, 95% CI 58.5 to 60.6) than those without TKA (83.8, 95% CI 83.7 to 83.9). In the matched analysis, the TKA group had a lower MOS-PF (59.9, 95% CI 59.9 to 62.4) than those without TKA (68.4, 95% CI 67.8 to 69.0). In persons with TKA, lower levels of MOS-PF were associated with low self-rated health, high psychological distress, comorbidity, greater age, recent treatment for osteoarthritis and use of paracetamol. Women had an MOS-PF that was 11.6 points (95% CI 9.5 to 13.8) lower than men. Conclusions Several modifiable risk factors have been identified to influence PF in persons receiving TKA, with notable differences between sexes. The importance of these risk factors should be examined in incident TKA to test if early identification and intervention for individuals can improve outcomes. PMID:23836760

  18. The Effectiveness of Manual Therapy Versus Surgery on Self-reported Function, Cervical Range of Motion, and Pinch Grip Force in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cleland, Joshua; Palacios-Ceña, María; Fuensalida-Novo, Stella; Pareja, Juan A; Alonso-Blanco, Cristina

    2017-03-01

    Study Design Randomized parallel-group trial. Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common pain condition that can be managed surgically or conservatively. Objective To compare the effectiveness of manual therapy versus surgery for improving self-reported function, cervical range of motion, and pinch-tip grip force in women with CTS. Methods In this randomized clinical trial, 100 women with CTS were randomly allocated to either a manual therapy (n = 50) or a surgery (n = 50) group. The primary outcome was self-rated hand function, assessed with the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included active cervical range of motion, pinch-tip grip force, and the symptom severity subscale of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. Patients were assessed at baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the last treatment by an assessor unaware of group assignment. Analysis was by intention to treat, with mixed analyses of covariance adjusted for baseline scores. Results At 12 months, 94 women completed the follow-up. Analyses showed statistically significant differences in favor of manual therapy at 1 month for self-reported function (mean change, -0.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.1, -0.5) and pinch-tip grip force on the symptomatic side (thumb-index finger: mean change, 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.9 and thumb-little finger: mean change, 1.0; 95% CI: 0.5, 1.5). Improvements in self-reported function and pinch grip force were similar between the groups at 3, 6, and 12 months. Both groups reported improvements in symptom severity that were not significantly different at all follow-up periods. No significant changes were observed in pinch-tip grip force on the less symptomatic side and in cervical range of motion in either group. Conclusion Manual therapy and surgery had similar effectiveness for improving self-reported function, symptom severity, and pinch-tip grip force on the symptomatic hand in women with CTS. Neither manual therapy nor surgery resulted

  19. The Sexual Thoughts Questionnaire: Psychometric Evaluation of a Measure to Assess Self-Reported Thoughts During Exposure to Erotica Using Sexually Functional Individuals.

    PubMed

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2016-05-01

    Validated instruments for assessing specific thought content during exposure to sexually explicit material are lacking. To investigate the psychometric properties of a measure that assesses self-reported thoughts during exposure to sexual stimuli in laboratory settings, namely the Sexual Thoughts Questionnaire. The factorial structure of the questionnaire and its reliability and validity were examined. One hundred sixty-seven sexually functional individuals (97 women and 70 men) were exposed to sexually explicit material while their genital arousal was being assessed. Subjective sexual arousal and thoughts during exposure to sexually explicit material also were assessed. Women's genital arousal was measured with a vaginal photoplethysmograph and men's genital arousal was measured with an indium-gallium strain gauge. Subjective sexual arousal and thoughts during exposure to erotica were assessed with self-report scales. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation identified five factors: sexual arousal thoughts, distractive and disengaging thoughts, body image and performance thoughts, actress's physical attractiveness thoughts, and sinful and lack of affection thoughts. Moreover, the scale showed satisfactory levels of internal consistency. Studies on convergent validity showed an association between self-reported thoughts and subjective sexual arousal levels in the women and men. The Sexual Thoughts Questionnaire showed adequate psychometric properties in a sexually functional sample. It could be useful in further experimental research on the role of cognitions in sexual response and allow further comparison between sexually functional and dysfunctional individuals, with possible significant implications for the assessment and treatment of sexual problems. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nutritional status and functional capacity of hospitalized elderly.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria R M; Fogaça, Kelly C P; Leandro-Merhi, Vânia A

    2009-11-17

    The nutritional status of the aging individual results from a complex interaction between personal and environmental factors. A disease influences and is influenced by the nutritional status and the functional capacity of the individual. We asses the relationship between nutritional status and indicators of functional capacity among recently hospitalized elderly in a general hospital. A cross-sectional study was done with 240 elderly (women, n = 127 and men, n = 113) hospitalized in a hospital that provides care for the public and private healthcare systems. The nutritional status was classified by the MNA (Mini Nutritional Assessment) into: malnourished, risk of malnutrition and without malnutrition (adequate). The functional autonomy indicators were obtained by the self-reported Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) and Activity of Daily Living (ADL) questionnaire. The chi-square test was used to compare the proportions and the level of significance was 5%. Among the assessed elderly, 33.8% were classified as adequate regarding nutritional status; 37.1% were classified as being at risk of malnutrition and 29.1% were classified as malnourished. All the IADL and ADL variables assessed were significantly more deteriorated among the malnourished individuals. Among the ADL variables, eating partial (42.9%) or complete (12.9%) dependence was found in more than half of the malnourished elderly, in 13.4% of those at risk of malnutrition and in 2.5% of those without malnutrition. There is an interrelationship between the nutritional status of the elderly and reduced functional capacity.

  1. Users and non-users of web-based health advice service among Finnish university students - chronic conditions and self-reported health status (a cross-sectional study).

    PubMed

    Castrén, Johanna; Huttunen, Teppo; Kunttu, Kristina

    2008-01-31

    The Internet is increasingly used by citizens as source of health information. Young, highly educated adults use the Internet frequently to search for health-related information. Our study explores whether reported chronic conditions or self-reported health status differed among Finnish university students using the Finnish Student Health Services web-based health advice service compared with those not using the service. Cross-sectional study performed by a national postal survey in 2004. A random sample (n = 5 030) of a population of 101 805 undergraduate Finnish university students aged 19-35. The response rate: 63% (n = 3 153). Proportion of university students reporting use a of web-based health advice service, diagnosed chronic conditions, and self-reported health status of users and non-users of a web-based health advice service. Data were presented with frequency distributions and cross-tabulations and the chi2 test was used. 12% (n = 370) of Finnish undergraduate students had used the web-based health advice service and were identified as 'users'. The proportion of male students reporting allergic rhinitis or conjunctivitis was greater among users than non-users (24%, n = 22 vs. 15%, n = 154, chi2, P = .03). The proportion of female students reporting chronic mental health problems was greater among users than non-users (12%, n = 34 vs. 8%, n = 140, chi2, P = .03). There was no statistical significance between the group differences of male or female users and non-users in self-reported health status (good or fairly good, average, rather poor or poor). Among young, highly educated adults the use of a web-based health advice service is not associated with self-reported health status. However, a web-based health advice service could offer support for managing several specific chronic conditions. More research data is needed to evaluate the role of web-based health advice services that supplement traditional forms of health services.

  2. Speed, not magnitude, of knee extensor torque production is associated with self-reported knee function early after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chao-Jung; Indelicato, Peter A; Moser, Michael W; Vandenborne, Krista; Chmielewski, Terese L

    2015-11-01

    To examine the magnitude and speed of knee extensor torque production at the initiation of advanced anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction rehabilitation and the associations with self-reported knee function. Twenty-eight subjects who were 12 weeks post-ACL reconstruction and 28 age- and sex-matched physically active controls participated in this study. Knee extensor torque was assessed bilaterally with an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/s. The variables of interest were peak torque, average rate of torque development, time to peak torque and quadriceps symmetry index. Knee function was assessed with the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC-SKF). Peak torque and average rate of torque development were lower on the surgical side compared to the non-surgical side and controls. Quadriceps symmetry index was lower in subjects with ACL reconstruction compared to controls. On the surgical side, average rate of torque development was positively correlated with IKDC-SKF score (r = 0.379) while time to peak torque was negatively correlated with IKDC-SKF score (r = -0.407). At the initiation of advanced ACL reconstruction rehabilitation, the surgical side displayed deficits in peak torque and average rate of torque development. A higher rate of torque development and shorter time to peak torque were associated with better self-reported knee function. The results suggest that the rate of torque development should be addressed during advanced ACL reconstruction rehabilitation and faster knee extensor torque generation may lead to better knee function. III.

  3. Self-report measures of executive functioning are a determinant of academic performance in first-year students at a university of applied sciences

    PubMed Central

    Baars, Maria A. E.; Nije Bijvank, Marije; Tonnaer, Geertje H.; Jolles, Jelle

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies in late adolescents (age 17+) show that brain development may proceed till around the 25th year of age. This implies that study performance in higher education could be dependent upon the stage of brain maturation and neuropsychological development. Individual differences in development of neuropsychological skills may thus have a substantial influence on the outcome of the educational process. This hypothesis was evaluated in a large survey of 1760 first-year students at a University of Applied Sciences, of which 1332 are included in the current analyses. This was because of their fit within the age range we pre-set (17–20 years' old at start of studies). Student characteristics and three behavioral ratings of executive functioning (EF) were evaluated with regard to their influence on academic performance. Self-report measures were used: self-reported attention, planning, and self-control and self-monitoring. Results showed that students with better self-reported EF at the start of the first year of their studies obtained more study credits at the end of that year than students with a lower EF self-rating. The correlation between self-control and self-monitoring on the one hand, and study progress on the other, appeared to differ for male and female students and to be influenced by the level of prior education. The results of this large-scale study could have practical relevance. The profound individual differences between students may at least partly be a consequence of their stage of development as an adolescent. Students who show lower levels of attention control, planning, and self-control/self-monitoring can be expected to have a problem in study planning and study progress monitoring and hence study progress. The findings imply that interventions directed at the training of these (executive) functions should be developed and used in higher education in order to improve academic achievement, learning attitude, and motivation. PMID:26300823

  4. Self-report measures of executive functioning are a determinant of academic performance in first-year students at a university of applied sciences.

    PubMed

    Baars, Maria A E; Nije Bijvank, Marije; Tonnaer, Geertje H; Jolles, Jelle

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies in late adolescents (age 17+) show that brain development may proceed till around the 25th year of age. This implies that study performance in higher education could be dependent upon the stage of brain maturation and neuropsychological development. Individual differences in development of neuropsychological skills may thus have a substantial influence on the outcome of the educational process. This hypothesis was evaluated in a large survey of 1760 first-year students at a University of Applied Sciences, of which 1332 are included in the current analyses. This was because of their fit within the age range we pre-set (17-20 years' old at start of studies). Student characteristics and three behavioral ratings of executive functioning (EF) were evaluated with regard to their influence on academic performance. Self-report measures were used: self-reported attention, planning, and self-control and self-monitoring. Results showed that students with better self-reported EF at the start of the first year of their studies obtained more study credits at the end of that year than students with a lower EF self-rating. The correlation between self-control and self-monitoring on the one hand, and study progress on the other, appeared to differ for male and female students and to be influenced by the level of prior education. The results of this large-scale study could have practical relevance. The profound individual differences between students may at least partly be a consequence of their stage of development as an adolescent. Students who show lower levels of attention control, planning, and self-control/self-monitoring can be expected to have a problem in study planning and study progress monitoring and hence study progress. The findings imply that interventions directed at the training of these (executive) functions should be developed and used in higher education in order to improve academic achievement, learning attitude, and motivation.

  5. Age and Functional Health Status

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    gender such that energy level declined with older age for males, but energy level was lowest for females in the 35-49 age group. The correlations...psychosocial function," Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 185, 1963, pp. 914-919. Health Status 42 Koenig, H., "Depression and dysphoria among

  6. Correlation between olfactory severity ratings based on olfactory function test scores and self-reported severity rating of olfactory loss.

    PubMed

    Seok, Jungirl; Shim, Ye Ji; Rhee, Chae-Seo; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2017-07-01

    Olfactory test scores are significantly correlated with self-rated severity scales. However, the statistical rating based on olfactory tests did not strongly agree with the self-reported severity rating. This suggests that there is a discrepancy between olfactory test results and the severity described by patients themselves. This study aimed to identify the correlation between statistical ratings based on test scores and self-rating of the severity of olfactory loss. A total of 1555 subjects were asked to rate olfactory loss severity by one of five scales. Olfactory tests consist of the butanol threshold test (BTT) and cross-cultural smell identification test (CCSIT). There were significant correlations between BTT scores and self-rated severity scales (r = 0.619, p < 0.001) and between CCSIT scores and self-rated severity scales (r = 0.597, p < 0.001) after adjustment for age, sex, and medical conditions. Using discriminant analysis for both BTT and CCSIT, scores 0-4 could be statistically rated as anosmia, scores 5 and 6 as severe hyposmia, scores 7 and 8 as moderate hyposmia, and scores 9-12 as normosmia (Wilks's lambda = 0.605, p < 0.001 for BTT and Wilks's lambda = 0.597, p < 0.001 for CCSIT).

  7. Self-Reported Halitosis in relation to Oral Hygiene Practices, Oral Health Status, General Health Problems, and Multifactorial Characteristics among Workers in Ilala and Temeke Municipals, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mumghamba, E. G.

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To assess self-reported halitosis, oral hygiene practices, oral health conditions, general health problems, sociodemographic factors, and behavioural and psychological characteristics among workers in Ilala and Temeke municipals. Materials and Methods. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Four hundred workers were recruited using a self-administered structured questionnaire. Results. Self-reported tooth brushing practice was 100%, tongue cleaning 58.5%, dental flossing 4.3%, gum bleeding on tooth brushing 79.3%, presence of hard deposits on teeth 32%, mobile teeth 15.3%, and self-reported halitosis (SRH) 48.5%. Tea users were 95%, coffee users 75.8%, smokers 21%, and alcohol consumers 47%. The SRH was significantly associated with bleeding gums, hard deposits, and mobile and malaligned teeth. Tongue cleaning and regular change of toothbrush were associated with low prevalence of SRH (P < 0.001). Higher occurrence of SRH was significantly related to low education and smoking. Conclusion. Self-reported halitosis was prevalent among workers and was significantly associated with bleeding gums, hard dental deposits, mobile teeth, and smoking. All participants brushed their teeth and cleaned the tongue regularly but use of dental floss was extremely low. Oral health education and health promotion are recommended. PMID:28280509

  8. Self-Reported Halitosis in relation to Oral Hygiene Practices, Oral Health Status, General Health Problems, and Multifactorial Characteristics among Workers in Ilala and Temeke Municipals, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kayombo, C M; Mumghamba, E G

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To assess self-reported halitosis, oral hygiene practices, oral health conditions, general health problems, sociodemographic factors, and behavioural and psychological characteristics among workers in Ilala and Temeke municipals. Materials and Methods. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Four hundred workers were recruited using a self-administered structured questionnaire. Results. Self-reported tooth brushing practice was 100%, tongue cleaning 58.5%, dental flossing 4.3%, gum bleeding on tooth brushing 79.3%, presence of hard deposits on teeth 32%, mobile teeth 15.3%, and self-reported halitosis (SRH) 48.5%. Tea users were 95%, coffee users 75.8%, smokers 21%, and alcohol consumers 47%. The SRH was significantly associated with bleeding gums, hard deposits, and mobile and malaligned teeth. Tongue cleaning and regular change of toothbrush were associated with low prevalence of SRH (P < 0.001). Higher occurrence of SRH was significantly related to low education and smoking. Conclusion. Self-reported halitosis was prevalent among workers and was significantly associated with bleeding gums, hard dental deposits, mobile teeth, and smoking. All participants brushed their teeth and cleaned the tongue regularly but use of dental floss was extremely low. Oral health education and health promotion are recommended.

  9. The Cross-sectional relationship of hemoglobin levels and functional outcomes in women with self-reported osteoarthrits: Results from the Women’s Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Charles B.; Hochberg, Marc C.; Assaf, Annlouise; Cryer, Byron L.; Lu, Bing; Sands, George; Rodriguez, Beatriz; LaCroix, Andrea; Lessin, Lawrence; Limacher, Marian C.; Woods, Nancy Fugate; Connelly, Stephanie; Chen, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Gastrointestinal (GI) blood loss is a recognized complication of the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) in patients with arthritis. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of patient reported outcomes of overall health, physical function, vitality and quality of life (QoL) to hemoglobin (hgb) levels in post menopausal women with self-reported osteoarthritis to determine whether hgb levels as potential markers of chronic blood loss were associated with these functional outcomes. Method Post-menopausal women (N=64,850) with self-reported osteoarthritis (srOA) at baseline in the Women’s Health Initiative study, excluding participants with chronic or hemolytic diseases associated with anemia, had hgb levels measured and completed Short Form Health Surveys (SF-36). General linear models analysis adjusting for potential confounders was performed. Results A non-linear plateauing relationship between hgb levels and functional outcomes was found. Participants with srOA had statistically significantly worse overall health, physical function, and vitality, but not QoL, for each gram of hgb below 14 g/dL, compared to those with hgb 14 g/dL (p<0.001.) Participants with srOA taking NSAIDS had worse functional outcomes for each level of Hgb compared to those not reporting NSAIDS use. Conclusion In cross-sectional analyses of post-menopausal women with srOA, differences in hgb levels are related to differences in functional outcomes of overall health, physical function and vitality at clinically important levels. Prospective studies evaluating whether changes in hgb levels result in changes in functional outcomes in participants with OA are needed to confirm of our findings and before any changes in therapeutics based upon hemoglogin levels are considered in the care of patients with osteoarthritis. PMID:21723591

  10. Does it fit okay? Problems with condom use as a function of self-reported poor fit.

    PubMed

    Crosby, R A; Yarber, W L; Graham, C A; Sanders, S A

    2010-02-01

    To identify associations between men's self-reports of ill-fitting condoms and selected condom use problems, using an event-specific analysis. A convenience sample of men was recruited via advertisements in newspapers (two urban and one small town) and a blog on the website of a condom sales company. Men completed a questionnaire posted on the website of The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction. Inclusion criteria were: at least 18 years old, used condoms for penile-vaginal intercourse in the past 3 months and the ability to read English. In controlled, event-specific, analyses of 436 men, those reporting ill-fitting condoms (44.7%) were significantly more likely to report breakage (adjusted odds ratio (AOR 2.6), slippage (AOR 2.7), difficulty reaching orgasm, both for their female partners (AOR 1.9) and for themselves (AOR 2.3). In addition, they were more likely to report irritation of the penis (AOR 5.0) and reduced sexual pleasure, both for their female partner (AOR 1.6) and for themselves (AOR 2.4). Furthermore, they were more likely to report that condoms interfered with erection (AOR 2.0), caused erection loss (AOR 2.3), or became dry during sex (AOR 1.9). Finally, they were more likely to report removing condoms before penile-vaginal sex ended (AOR 2.0). Men and their female sex partners may benefit from public health efforts designed to promote the improved fit of condoms.

  11. Randomized controlled trial of increasing physical activity on objectively measured and self-reported cognitive functioning among breast cancer survivors: The memory & motion study.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Sheri J; Nelson, Sandahl H; Myers, Emily; Natarajan, Loki; Sears, Dorothy D; Palmer, Barton W; Weiner, Lauren S; Parker, Barbara A; Patterson, Ruth E

    2017-09-19

    Increasing physical activity can improve cognition in healthy and cognitively impaired adults; however, the benefits for cancer survivors are unknown. The current study examined a 12-week physical activity intervention, compared with a control condition, on objective and self-reported cognition among breast cancer survivors. Sedentary breast cancer survivors were randomized to an exercise arm (n = 43) or a control arm (n = 44). At baseline and at 12 weeks, objective cognition was measured with the National Institutes of Health Cognitive Toolbox, and self-reported cognition using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System scales. Linear mixed-effects regression models tested intervention effects for changes in cognition scores. On average, participants (n = 87) were aged 57 years (standard deviation, 10.4 years) and were 2.5 years (standard deviation, 1.3 years) post surgery. Scores on the Oral Symbol Digit subscale (a measure of processing speed) evidenced differential improvement in the exercise arm versus the control arm (b = 2.01; P < .05). The between-group differences in improvement on self-reported cognition were not statistically significant but were suggestive of potential group differences. Time since surgery moderated the correlation, and participants who were ≤2 years post surgery had a significantly greater improvement in Oral Symbol Digit score (exercise vs control (b = 4.00; P < .01), but no significant improvement was observed in patients who were >2 years postsurgery (b = -1.19; P = .40). A significant dose response was observed with greater increased physical activity associated with objective and self-reported cognition in the exercise arm. The exercise intervention significantly improved processing speed, but only among those who had been diagnosed with breast cancer within the past 2 years. Slowed processing speed can have substantial implications for independent functioning, supporting the

  12. No association between iron status and self-reported health-related quality of life in 16,375 Danish blood donors: results from the Danish Blood Donor Study.

    PubMed

    Rigas, Andreas S; Pedersen, Ole B; Sørensen, Cecilie J; Sørensen, Erik; Kotzé, Sebastian R; Petersen, Mikkel S; Thørner, Lise W; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian; Ullum, Henrik

    2015-07-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) represents people's subjective assessment of their mental and physical well-being. HRQL is highly predictive of future health. The effect of iron deficiency without anemia induced by blood donation on HRQL is presently unknown. The aim was to explore the relationship between iron status and self-reported mental component score (MCS; SF-12) and physical component score (PCS; SF-12) in Danish blood donors. Complete relevant data, including the 12-item short-form health survey (SF-12), plasma ferritin levels, age, body mass index, smoking status, C-reactive protein levels, number of donations in the previous 3 years, and PCS and MCS, were available for 8692 men and 7683 women enrolled from March 1, 2010, to December 31, 2010. Multivariable linear and logistic (cutoff at the 10th percentile) regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between iron deficiency (ferritin < 15 ng/mL) and MCS and PCS, respectively. Analyses were performed separately for men and women. There was no significant relationship between iron deficiency and self-reported mental or physical health. This study found no association between iron stores and self-reported HRQL among Danish blood donors. © 2015 AABB.

  13. Functional assessment of nutrition status.

    PubMed

    Russell, Mary Krystofiak

    2015-04-01

    Functional status assessment has been recommended as a part of a complete nutrition assessment for decades, but the specific components of this assessment have eluded a consensus definition. The recent Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition consensus criteria for identification of malnutrition include functional assessment determined by handgrip dynamometry, with the understanding that this technique is not practical for use in some patient populations. Other techniques for functional assessment include physical performance measures such as timed gait and chair stands, as well as activities of daily living tools such as the Katz Index, Lawton Scale, and Karnofsky Scale Index. Manual muscle testing and computed tomography scan assessment of lean tissue are other tools that show promise in correlating functional and nutrition assessments. Functional assessment parameters may be least well correlated with nutrition status in older individuals. Despite a number of scientific studies of a variety of tools for functional assessment, there is to date no definitive tool for use in all individuals in all settings. Nutrition scientists and clinicians must continue to collaborate with colleagues in physical and occupational therapy, geriatrics, and nursing to refine current functional assessment tools to more effectively correlate with nutrition and malnutrition assessment parameters.

  14. Factors that influence self-reported general health status among different Asian ethnic groups: evidence from the Roadmap to the New Horizon: Linking Asians to Improved Health and Wellness study.

    PubMed

    Maty, Siobhan C; Leung, Holden; Lau, Christine; Kim, Gemma

    2011-06-01

    Little is known about the determinants of self-reported general health status among different Asian ethnic subgroups. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we designed, administered, and analyzed a cross-sectional survey of 705 Asians (292 Chinese, 226 Korean, 187 Vietnamese) in the Portland, Oregon region to describe associations between general health status and several sociodemographic and health-related factors in pooled and ethnic-group-stratified samples. Ethnic variation existed in all covariate distributions, except employment, public-service use, language use, health status, visiting healthcare providers, sleep habits, and use of prayer, meditation, yoga or acupuncture. Acculturation measures were strong predictors of poor/fair health in logistic regression models regardless of ethnicity. Ethnic variation in outcome status existed for all remaining covariates. Most health-related research overlooks the heterogeneity within the Asian population. These findings highlight substantial variability in the associations between self-reported general health status and sociodemographic and health-related measures between Asian ethnic groups.

  15. Physical functioning in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: comparing approaches of experienced ability with self-reported and objectively measured physical activity.

    PubMed

    van Genderen, Simon; van den Borne, Carlie; Geusens, Piet; van der Linden, Sjef; Boonen, Annelies; Plasqui, Guy

    2014-04-01

    Physical functioning can be assessed by different approaches that are characterized by increasing levels of individual appraisal. There is insufficient insight into which approach is the most informative in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) compared with control subjects. The objective of this study was to compare patients with AS and control subjects regarding 3 approaches of functioning: experienced ability to perform activities (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index [BASFI]), self-reported amount of physical activity (PA) (Baecke questionnaire), and the objectively measured amount of PA (triaxial accelerometer). This case-control study included 24 AS patients and 24 control subjects (matched for age, gender, and body mass index). Subjects completed the BASFI and Baecke questionnaire and wore a triaxial accelerometer. Subjects also completed other self-reported measures on disease activity (Bath AS Disease Activity Index), fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory), and overall health (EuroQol visual analog scale). Both groups included 14 men (58%), and the mean age was 48 years. Patients scored significantly worse on the BASFI (3.9 vs 0.2) than their healthy peers, whereas PA assessed by Baecke and the accelerometer did not differ between groups. Correlations between approaches of physical functioning were low to moderate. Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index was associated with disease activity (r = 0.49) and physical fatigue (0.73) and Baecke with physical and activity related fatigue (r = 0.54 and r = 0.54), but total PA assessed by accelerometer was not associated with any of these experience-based health outcomes. Different approaches of the concept physical functioning in patients with AS provide different information. Compared with matched control subjects, patients with AS report more difficulties but report and objectively perform the same amount of PA.

  16. Association between penile dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI-derived quantitative parameters and self-reported sexual function in patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Donati, Olivio F; Wibmer, Andreas; Goldman, Debra A; Mulhall, John P; Sala, Evis; Hricak, Hedvig

    2014-10-01

    The high incidence of prostate cancer, coupled with excellent prostate cancer control rates, has resulted in growing interest in nononcological survivorship issues such as sexual function. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly being performed for local staging of prostate cancer, and due to the close anatomical relationship to the prostate, penile enhancement is often depicted in prostate MRI. To evaluate the associations between quantitative perfusion-related parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI of the penis and self-reported sexual function in patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer. This retrospective study included 50 patients who underwent DCE-MRI for prostate cancer staging before prostatectomy. The following perfusion-related parameters were calculated: volume transfer constant (K(trans)), rate constant (k(ep)), extracellular-extravascular volume fraction (v(e)), contrast enhancement ratio (CER), area under the gadolinium curve after 180 seconds (AUC180), and slope of the time/signal intensity curve of the corpora cavernosa. Associations between perfusion-related parameters and self-reported sexual function were evaluated using the Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test. Patient responses to the sexual function domain of the Prostate Quality of Life survey. Five of the six DCE-MRI parameters (K(trans), v(e), CER, AUC180, and slope) were significantly associated with the overall score from the sexual domain of the survey (P = 0.0020-0.0252). CER, AUC180, and slope were significantly associated with the answers to all six questions (P = 0.0020-0.0483), ve was significantly associated with the answers to five of six questions (P = 0.0036-0.1029), and K(trans) was significantly associated with the answers to three of six questions (P = 0.0252-0.1023). k(ep) was not significantly associated with the overall survey score (P = 0.7665) or the answers to any individual questions (P = 0

  17. Behavioral and emotional problems in high-functioning girls and boys with autism spectrum disorders: Parents' reports and adolescents' self-reports.

    PubMed

    Pisula, Ewa; Pudło, Monika; Słowińska, Monika; Kawa, Rafał; Strząska, Magdalena; Banasiak, Anna; Wolańczyk, Tomasz

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate sex differences in behavioral and emotional problems in high-functioning girls and boys with autism spectrum disorder. The results obtained by adolescents with autism spectrum disorder were compared with those of typically developing girls and boys. Correlations between parents' and adolescents' ratings were also analyzed. Participants were 35 girls and 35 boys with autism spectrum disorder, aged 11-18 years, matched for chronological age and full-scale IQ. The control group consisted of 24 typically developing girls and 24 boys of the same age and IQ. The parents of adolescent participants were also included in the study. The measures used were the Child Behavior Checklist (4-18) completed by parents and Youth Self-Report (11-18) completed by adolescents. The adolescents with autism spectrum disorder presented higher levels of behavioral and emotional problems than the control group, according to both the parents' reports and the adolescents' self-reports. No sex differences were found in that respect. More differences between the assessments of adolescents and their parents occurred in the control group, and the effect size was larger.

  18. Sensitivity and Specificity of Self-Reported Olfactory Function in a Home-Based Study of Independent-Living, Healthy Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Rawal, Shristi; Hoffman, Howard J.; Chapo, Audrey K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The 2011–14 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey chemosensory protocol asks adults to self-rate their orthonasal (via nostrils) and retronasal (via mouth) smell abilities for subsequent odor identification testing. From data collected with a similar protocol, we aimed to identify a self-reported olfactory index that showed the best sensitivity (correctly identifying dysfunction) and specificity (correctly indentifying normosmia) with measured olfaction. Methods In home-based testing, 121 independent-living older women (age 73±7 years) reported their olfactory function by interviewer-administered survey. Olfactory function was measured orthonasally via composite (odor threshold, identification task) or identification task alone. Results Only 16 % of women self-rated “below average” smell function. More women perceived loss of smell (38 %) or flavor (30 %) with aging. The rate of measured dysfunction was 30 % by composite (threshold and identification) and 21.5 % by identification task, the latter misclassifying some mild dysfunction as normosmia. An index of self-rated smell function and perceived loss yielded the most favorable sensitivity (65 %) and specificity (77 %) to measured function. Self-rated olfaction showed better agreement with severe measured dysfunction; mild dysfunction was less noticed. Conclusions Self-reported indices that query about current and perceived changes in smell and flavor with aging showed better sensitivity estimates than those previously reported. Specificity was somewhat lower—some older adults may correctly perceive loss unidentified in a single assessment, or have a retronasal impairment that was undetected by an orthonasal measure. Implications Our findings should inform self-rated measures that screen for severe olfactory dysfunction in clinical/community settings where testing is not routine. PMID:25866597

  19. Relationship between self-reported task persistence and history of quitting smoking, plans for quitting smoking, and current smoking status in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Marc L; Krejci, Jonathan A; Collett, Kerstin; Brandon, Thomas H; Ziedonis, Douglas M; Chen, Kevin

    2007-07-01

    The task persistence construct has previously been measured primarily behaviorally (e.g., with a mirror-tracing task, or breath holding), and only in adults. It has been shown to differentiate between adult smokers and non-smokers and to predict smoking cessation in adult smokers trying to quit. This theory-based analysis is the first to examine task persistence in adolescent smokers and to examine a two-item, internally consistent, self-report measure of task persistence. Results indicate that task persistence is greater among adolescent non-smokers as compared to adolescent current smokers, and those planning to quit smoking as compared to those with no plans to quit. Contrary to hypotheses, task persistence was not found to be related to prior successful attempts to quit smoking. Our results suggest that a brief, self-report measure of task persistence may be a methodologically sound, practical clinical tool for this population.

  20. The effects of mobilization with movement on dorsiflexion range of motion, dynamic balance, and self-reported function in individuals with chronic ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Gilbreath, Julie P; Gaven, Stacey L; Van Lunen, L; Hoch, Matthew C

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have examined the effectiveness of a manual therapy intervention known as Mobilization with Movement (MWM) to increase dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) in individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI). While a single talocrural MWM treatment has increased dorsiflexion ROM in these individuals, examining the effects of multiple treatments on dorsiflexion ROM, dynamic balance, and self-reported function would enhance the clinical application of this intervention. This study sought to determine if three treatment sessions of talocrural MWM would improve dorsiflexion ROM, Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) reach distances, and self-reported function using the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) in individuals with CAI. Eleven participants with CAI (5 Males, 6 Females, age: 21.5 ± 2.2 years, weight: 83.9 ± 15.6 kg, height: 177.7 ± 10.9 cm, Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool: 17.5 ± 4.2) volunteered in this repeated-measures study. Subjects received three MWM treatments over one week. Weight-bearing dorsiflexion ROM (cm), normalized SEBT reach distances (%), and self-reported function (%) were assessed one week before the intervention (baseline), prior to the first MWM treatment (pre-intervention), and 24–48 h following the final treatment (post-intervention). No significant changes were identified in dorsiflexion ROM, SEBT reach distances, or the FAAM-Activities of Daily Living scale (p > 0.05). Significant changes were identified on the FAAM-Sport (p = 0.01). FAAM-Sport scores were significantly greater post-intervention (86.82 ± 9.18%) compared to baseline (77.27 ± 11.09%; p = 0.01) and pre-intervention (79.82 ± 13.45%; p = 0.04). These results indicate the MWM intervention did not improve dorsiflexion ROM, dynamic balance, or patient-centered measures of activities of daily living. However, MWM did improve patient-centered measures of sport-related activities in individuals with CAI.

  1. A nationwide population-based survey on visual acuity, near vision, and self-reported visual function in the adult population in Finland.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, Arja; Koskinen, Seppo; Härkänen, Tommi; Reunanen, Antti; Laatikainen, Leila; Aromaa, Arpo

    2005-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence rates of habitual visual acuity (VA) levels and visual impairment in Finland and to assess their correlation with self-reported visual function. Cross-sectional population-based study. Subjects were selected randomly from the Finnish population aged 30 years or older. Of 7979 eligible people, 7393 (93%) were interviewed, 6771 (85%) were examined, and 6663 (84%) had distance VA assessed. Participants underwent a home interview and a comprehensive examination including measuring binocular VA for distance and for near with the participants' current spectacles, if any. The level of VA for distance and for near with current spectacle correction. The self-reported capability to read newsprint and television text and the ability to move about without being restricted by reduced vision. The prevalence of good to moderate VA for distance (VA> or =0.5 [> or =20/40]) measured with current spectacles was 95.9%, and 87.4% had a VA level of 0.8 (20/25) or better. The prevalence of habitual visual impairment (VA< or =0.25 [< or =20/80]) was 1.6%, and 0.5% were blind (VA<0.1 [<20/200]). The prevalence of visual impairment increased significantly with age (P<0.001), especially in the age group of 65 to 74 years and upward. There was no gender difference in VA for distance, but decreased near vision (VA< or =0.25 [< or =20/80]) was significantly more common in men than in women (P<0.01). By applying the imputated numbers of visually impaired and blind participants to the Finnish population (approximately 3 million aged 30 years or older), there were approximately 65000 (2.1%) visually impaired and 17000 (0.6%) blind adult persons in the country in 2000. The correlation between self-reported visual ability and measured visual function was moderate but statistically significant (r = 0.27-0.40; P<0.0001). The proportion of people with reading difficulties or who were unable to read newsprint has decreased 7% during the last 2 decades. Functional visual

  2. Anxiety and depression in adolescents with ADHD and autism spectrum disorders; correlation between parent- and self-reports and with attention and adaptive functioning.

    PubMed

    Davidsson, Maria; Hult, Nicklas; Gillberg, Carina; Särneö, Charlotte; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2017-08-24

    Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk of anxiety and depression. This is important to identify in the clinical assessment to understand its impact. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between parent- and self-reports of anxiety and depression in adolescents with ADHD or ASD, as well as the correlation with adaptive functioning and performance on an attention test. A total of 65 adolescents with an ADHD diagnosis (n = 24) or an ASD diagnosis (n = 41) filled out Beck Youth Inventories of Emotional and Social Impairment (BYI) to assess depression and anxiety and completed a Continuous Performance Test (QbTest) measuring ADHD symptoms. Parents of the participants completed the internalizing domain in the Five to Fifteen questionnaire (FTF), measuring symptoms of anxiety and depression, and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) about the adolescent's adaptive functioning. Approximately a third of the study group self-reported substantial internalizing mental symptoms not always recognized by parents, and not always obvious in adaptive function or performance at ADHD test. Correlations between BYI and FTF were low. The BYI depression inventory correlated negatively with VABS and positively with activity level in a subgroup medicated for ADHD. There was a stronger correlation between girls BYI and FTF results as compared with boys. The results highlight the need for identification of anxiety and depression, using both self- and parent report. Present anxiety and depression symptoms do not seem to affect the clinical assessment of ASD and ADHD.

  3. Differences of self-reported osteoarthritis disability and race.

    PubMed

    Burns, Robert; Graney, Marshall J; Lummus, Allan C; Nichols, Linda O; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer

    2007-09-01

    Differences in self-reported disability may be found for older black and white adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). This secondary analysis of data from a randomized single-blind clinical trial examined race differences in the relationship between self-reports and timed performance tests of walking. Study participants were 518 older adults (131 blacks, 387 whites), including 363 women and 155 men, with an average age of 68.6 years. Older black and white adults with radiographically documented knee OA reported equivalent functional ability and pain severity. However, both blacks' OA severity rating and tested performance were significantly worse than those of whites. Self-report and tested walking performance were significantly less correlated among black older adults than among white older adults. Analyses of potential confounding variables documented that the difference was not due to marital status, gender, education, income, body mass index, comorbidity, pain level, OA severity or general health. Self-reports of OA disability were less related to tested performance for walking among black older adults. Clinicians' knowledge of black patients' underestimation of their disability has compelling potential for improving clinical treatment and enhancing diagnostic approaches to care of older adults.

  4. Quality of life and self-reported lower extremity function in adults with HIV-related distal sensory polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Galantino, Mary Lou A; Kietrys, David M; Parrott, James Scott; Stevens, Maureen E; Stevens, Anne Marie; Condoluci, David V

    2014-10-01

    Distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) is a common complication of HIV disease. Its effects on quality of life (QOL) and function have not been well described. The study objectives were: (1) to compare QOL and lower extremity function in people with HIV-related DSP and people with HIV disease who do not have DSP, (2) to determine the extent to which function predicts QOL, (3) to evaluate the agreement of 2 function scales, and (4) to describe the use of pain management resources. This was a cross-sectional survey study with predictive modeling and measurement tool concordant validation. A demographic questionnaire, the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey, the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS), the Lower Limb Functional Index (LLFI), and a review of medical records were used. General linear modeling was used to assess group differences in QOL and the relationship between function and QOL. Bland-Altman procedures were used to assess the agreement of the LEFS and the LLFI. Usable data for analyses were available for 82 of the 94 participants enrolled. The 67% of participants who reported DSP symptoms tended to be older, had HIV disease longer, and were more likely to receive disability benefits. Participants without DSP had better LLFI, LEFS, and physical health summary scores. In multivariate models, lower limb function predicted physical and mental health summary scores. The LLFI identified participants with a lower level of function more often than the LEFS. Participants with DSP were more likely to use medical treatment, physical therapy, and complementary or alternative treatments. A sample of convenience was used; the sample size resulted in a low power for the mental health summary score of the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey. Quality of life and function were more impaired in participants with HIV disease and DSP. The LLFI was more likely to capture limitations in function than the LEFS. Participants with DSP reported more frequent use of pain

  5. Untangling Protégé Self-Reports of Mentoring Functions: Further Meta-Analytic Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Jubilee; Kirkpatrick-Husk, Katie; Kendall, Dana; Longabaugh, James; Patel, Ajal; Scielzo, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we sought to further our understanding of the relations between various types of protégé-reported mentoring functions (psychosocial and career support and role modeling [RM]) by conducting a meta-analysis. We examined the relationships among these functions and investigated their relationships with expected mentorship…

  6. Untangling Protégé Self-Reports of Mentoring Functions: Further Meta-Analytic Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Jubilee; Kirkpatrick-Husk, Katie; Kendall, Dana; Longabaugh, James; Patel, Ajal; Scielzo, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we sought to further our understanding of the relations between various types of protégé-reported mentoring functions (psychosocial and career support and role modeling [RM]) by conducting a meta-analysis. We examined the relationships among these functions and investigated their relationships with expected mentorship…

  7. Self-reported alcohol and drug use six months after brief intervention: do changes in reported use vary by mental-health status?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although brief intervention (BI) for alcohol and other drug problems has been associated with subsequent decreased levels of self-reported substance use, there is little information in the extant literature as to whether individuals with co-occurring hazardous substance use and mental illness would benefit from BI to the same extent as those without mental illness. This is an important question, as mental illness is estimated to co-occur in 37% of individuals with an alcohol use disorder and in more than 50% of individuals with a drug use disorder. The goal of this study was to explore differences in self-reported alcohol and/or drug use in patients with and without mental illness diagnoses six months after receiving BI in a hospital emergency department (ED). Methods This study took advantage of a naturalistic situation where a screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) program had been implemented in nine large EDs in the US state of Washington as part of a national SBIRT initiative. A subset of patients who received BI was interviewed six months later about current alcohol and drug use. Linear regression was used to assess whether change in substance use measures differed among patients with a mental illness diagnosis compared with those without. Data were analyzed for both a statewide (n = 828) and single-hospital (n = 536) sample. Results No significant differences were found between mentally ill and non-mentally ill subgroups in either sample with regard to self-reported hazardous substance use at six-month follow-up. Conclusion These results suggest that BI may not have a differing impact based on the presence of a mental illness diagnosis. Given the high prevalence of mental illness among individuals with alcohol and other drug problems, this finding may have important public health implications. PMID:23186062

  8. Cognitive empathy contributes to poor social functioning in schizophrenia: Evidence from a new self-report measure of cognitive and affective empathy.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Tania M; Horan, William P; Ginger, Emily J; Martinovich, Zoran; Pinkham, Amy E; Smith, Matthew J

    2014-09-04

    Cognitive empathy impairments have been linked to poor social functioning in schizophrenia. However, prior studies primarily used self-reported empathy measures developed decades ago that are not well-aligned with contemporary models of empathy. We evaluated empathy and its relationship to social functioning in schizophrenia using the recently developed Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy (QCAE). Schizophrenia (n=52) and healthy comparison (n=37) subjects completed the QCAE, Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), and measures of neurocognition, symptoms, and social functioning. Between-group differences on the QCAE, and relationships between QCAE and IRI subscales, neurocognition, symptoms, and social functioning were examined. The schizophrenia group reported significantly lower cognitive empathy than comparison subjects, which was driven by low online simulation scores. Cognitive empathy explained significant variance in social functioning after accounting for neurocognition and symptoms. Group differences for affective empathy were variable; the schizophrenia group reported similar proximal responsivity, but elevated emotion contagion relative to comparison subjects. These findings bolster support for the presence and functional significance of impaired cognitive empathy in schizophrenia using a contemporary measure of empathy. Emerging evidence that some aspects of affective empathy may be unimpaired or hyper-responsive in schizophrenia and implications for the assessment and treatment of empathy in schizophrenia are discussed.

  9. Cognitive empathy contributes to poor social functioning in schizophrenia: Evidence from a new self-report measure of cognitive and affective empathy.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Tania M; Horan, William P; Ginger, Emily J; Martinovich, Zoran; Pinkham, Amy E; Smith, Matthew J

    2014-12-30

    Cognitive empathy impairments have been linked to poor social functioning in schizophrenia. However, prior studies primarily used self-reported empathy measures developed decades ago that are not well-aligned with contemporary models of empathy. We evaluated empathy and its relationship to social functioning in schizophrenia using the recently developed Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy (QCAE). Schizophrenia (n=52) and healthy comparison (n=37) subjects completed the QCAE, Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), and measures of neurocognition, symptoms, and social functioning. Between-group differences on the QCAE, and relationships between QCAE and IRI subscales, neurocognition, symptoms, and social functioning were examined. The schizophrenia group reported significantly lower cognitive empathy than comparison subjects, which was driven by low online simulation scores. Cognitive empathy explained significant variance in social functioning after accounting for neurocognition and symptoms. Group differences for affective empathy were variable; the schizophrenia group reported similar proximal responsivity, but elevated emotion contagion relative to comparison subjects. These findings bolster support for the presence and functional significance of impaired cognitive empathy in schizophrenia using a contemporary measure of empathy. Emerging evidence that some aspects of affective empathy may be unimpaired or hyper-responsive in schizophrenia and implications for the assessment and treatment of empathy in schizophrenia are discussed.

  10. Self-reported visual function in healthy older people in Britain: an exploratory study of associations with age, sex, depression, education and income.

    PubMed

    Iliffe, Steve; Kharicha, Kalpa; Harari, Danielle; Swift, Cameron; Gillmann, Gerhard; Stuck, Andreas

    2005-12-01

    Tractable but undetected visual impairment in older people may be relatively common, particularly amongst the very old and in more deprived populations. Measurement of visual acuity is unlikely to be helpful in identifying this impairment, but targeted assessment of visual function may be beneficial. There is uncertainty about the defining characteristics of the target group. To explore factors associated with self-reported visual impairment in community dwelling older people. secondary cross sectional analysis of baseline data from a randomised controlled trial. three large group practices in outer London. older people aged 65 and over enrolled in a study of health risk appraisal. postal questionnaire using questions from the National Eye Institute Visual Function questionnaire. Moderate or extreme visual function loss occurred in 4 to 12% of community-dwelling older people in this population reporting less than excellent vision, depending on which aspect of visual function is considered. Visual function loss in this subgroup increases in prevalence with advancing age, but is not associated with female sex, low educational attainment or low income. It is associated with depressed mood. Questions about visual function identify a group of older people whose vision and mental state needs further investigation.

  11. Users and non-users of web-based health advice service among Finnish university students – chronic conditions and self-reported health status (a cross-sectional study)

    PubMed Central

    Castrén, Johanna; Huttunen, Teppo; Kunttu, Kristina

    2008-01-01

    Background The Internet is increasingly used by citizens as source of health information. Young, highly educated adults use the Internet frequently to search for health-related information. Our study explores whether reported chronic conditions or self-reported health status differed among Finnish university students using the Finnish Student Health Services web-based health advice service compared with those not using the service. Methods Cross-sectional study performed by a national postal survey in 2004. Material: A random sample (n = 5 030) of a population of 101 805 undergraduate Finnish university students aged 19–35. The response rate: 63% (n = 3 153). Main outcome measures: Proportion of university students reporting use a of web-based health advice service, diagnosed chronic conditions, and self-reported health status of users and non-users of a web-based health advice service. Statistical methods: Data were presented with frequency distributions and cross-tabulations and the χ2 test was used. Results 12% (n = 370) of Finnish undergraduate students had used the web-based health advice service and were identified as 'users'. The proportion of male students reporting allergic rhinitis or conjunctivitis was greater among users than non-users (24%, n = 22 vs. 15%, n = 154, χ2, P = .03). The proportion of female students reporting chronic mental health problems was greater among users than non-users (12%, n = 34 vs. 8%, n = 140, χ2, P = .03). There was no statistical significance between the group differences of male or female users and non-users in self-reported health status (good or fairly good, average, rather poor or poor). Conclusion Among young, highly educated adults the use of a web-based health advice service is not associated with self-reported health status. However, a web-based health advice service could offer support for managing several specific chronic conditions. More research data is needed to evaluate the role of web-based health advice

  12. Correlates of self-reported physical function in individuals with spinal cord injuries and disorders: does self-efficacy matter?

    PubMed

    Hill, J N; Etingen, B; Miskevics, S; LaVela, S L

    2017-06-06

    Data were collected via a cross-sectional mailed survey with Veterans with spinal cord injury and disorders (SCI/D). To examine self-efficacy in Veterans with SCI/D reporting high versus low perceptions of physical function. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Spinal Cord Injury System of Care-nation-wide, 24 Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Centers. The survey provided patient-reported data on demographic and injury characteristics, basic mobility and fine motor function, and perceived self-efficacy. Bivariate comparisons were conducted to compare perceptions of self-efficacy between Veterans with SCI/D reporting perceptions of 'high' versus 'low' basic mobility and fine motor function. A multivariate logistic regression was conducted to identify factors independently associated with high physical function when controlling for covariates. Response rate (896/1452=61.7%). Multivariate analysis showed that age (odds ratio (OR)=0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.96-1.00, P=0.03), tetraplegia (OR=0.20, 95% CI: 0.13-0.32, P⩽0.0001), diabetes (OR=0.53, 95% CI: 0.31-0.91, P=0.02), depression (OR=0.62, 95% CI: 0.39-0.98, P=0.04) and pressure ulcers (OR=0.42, 95% CI: 0.25-0.72, P=0.001) were all independently associated with lower odds of high physical function. When controlling for covariates, persons with high self-efficacy were nearly two times more likely to have high physical function (OR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.22-3.22, P=0.01). Lower perceptions of basic mobility and fine motor function among individuals with SCI/D were correlated with lower self-efficacy, even when controlling for other covariates. The relationship between physical function and self-efficacy suggests that interventions focused on improving self-efficacy or physical function may also see improvements in the other. Further, studies exploring the impact of interventions on the relationship between self-efficacy and physical function are needed to understand the relationship between the two.Spinal Cord advance

  13. Everyday cognitive functioning in cardiac patients: relationships between self-report, report of a significant other and cognitive test performance.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Peter C; Smith, Geoff; Ernest, Christine S; Murphy, Barbara M; Worcester, Marian U C; Higgins, Rosemary O; Le Grande, Michael R; Goble, Alan J; Andrewes, David; Tatoulis, James

    2010-01-01

    Candidates for cardiac bypass surgery often experience cognitive decline. Such decline is likely to affect their everyday cognitive functioning. The aim of the present study was to compare cardiac patients' ratings of their everyday cognitive functioning against significant others' ratings and selected neuropsychological tests. Sixty-nine patients completed a battery of standardised cognitive tests. Patients and significant others also completed the Everyday Function Questionnaire independently of each other. Patient and significant other ratings of patients' everyday cognitive difficulties were found to be similar. Despite the similarities in ratings of difficulties, some everyday cognitive tasks were attributed to different processes. Patients' and significant others' ratings were most closely associated with the neuropsychological test of visual memory. Tests of the patients' verbal memory and fluency were only related to significant others' ratings. Test scores of attention and planning were largely unrelated to ratings by either patients or their significant others.

  14. Emotional Responses to Odors in Children with High-Functioning Autism: Autonomic Arousal, Facial Behavior and Self-Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legisa, Jasna; Messinger, Daniel S.; Kermol, Enzo; Marlier, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Although emotional functioning is impaired in children with autism, it is unclear if this impairment is due to difficulties with facial expression, autonomic responsiveness, or the verbal description of emotional states. To shed light on this issue, we examined responses to pleasant and unpleasant odors in eight children (8-14 years) with…

  15. Maintaining Instrument Quality while Reducing Items: Application of Rasch Analysis to a Self-Report of Visual Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velozzo, Craig A.; Lai, Jin-Shei; Mallinson, Trudy; Hauselman, Ellyn

    2001-01-01

    Studied how Rasch analysis could be used to reduce the number of items in an instrument while maintaining credible psychometric properties. Applied the approach to the Visual Function-14 developed to measure the need for and outcomes of cataract surgery. Results show how Rasch analysis can be useful in designing modifications of instruments. (SLD)

  16. Emotional Responses to Odors in Children with High-Functioning Autism: Autonomic Arousal, Facial Behavior and Self-Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legisa, Jasna; Messinger, Daniel S.; Kermol, Enzo; Marlier, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Although emotional functioning is impaired in children with autism, it is unclear if this impairment is due to difficulties with facial expression, autonomic responsiveness, or the verbal description of emotional states. To shed light on this issue, we examined responses to pleasant and unpleasant odors in eight children (8-14 years) with…

  17. Development of a self-report physical function instrument for disability assessment: item pool construction and factor analysis.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Christine M; Jette, Alan M; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Brandt, Diane E; Chan, Leighton; Meterko, Mark; Haley, Stephen M; Rasch, Elizabeth K

    2013-09-01

    To build a comprehensive item pool representing work-relevant physical functioning and to test the factor structure of the item pool. These developmental steps represent initial outcomes of a broader project to develop instruments for the assessment of function within the context of Social Security Administration (SSA) disability programs. Comprehensive literature review; gap analysis; item generation with expert panel input; stakeholder interviews; cognitive interviews; cross-sectional survey administration; and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to assess item pool structure. In-person and semistructured interviews and Internet and telephone surveys. Sample of SSA claimants (n=1017) and a normative sample of adults from the U.S. general population (n=999). Not applicable. Model fit statistics. The final item pool consisted of 139 items. Within the claimant sample, 58.7% were white; 31.8% were black; 46.6% were women; and the mean age was 49.7 years. Initial factor analyses revealed a 4-factor solution, which included more items and allowed separate characterization of: (1) changing and maintaining body position, (2) whole body mobility, (3) upper body function, and (4) upper extremity fine motor. The final 4-factor model included 91 items. Confirmatory factor analyses for the 4-factor models for the claimant and the normative samples demonstrated very good fit. Fit statistics for claimant and normative samples, respectively, were: Comparative Fit Index=.93 and .98; Tucker-Lewis Index=.92 and .98; and root mean square error approximation=.05 and .04. The factor structure of the physical function item pool closely resembled the hypothesized content model. The 4 scales relevant to work activities offer promise for providing reliable information about claimant physical functioning relevant to work disability. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of a Self-Report Physical Function Instrument for Disability Assessment: Item Pool Construction and Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, Christine M.; Jette, Alan M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Brandt, Diane E; Chan, Leighton; Meterko, Mark; Haley, Stephen M.; Rasch, Elizabeth K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To build a comprehensive item pool representing work-relevant physical functioning and to test the factor structure of the item pool. These developmental steps represent initial outcomes of a broader project to develop instruments for the assessment of function within the context of Social Security Administration (SSA) disability programs. Design Comprehensive literature review; gap analysis; item generation with expert panel input; stakeholder interviews; cognitive interviews; cross-sectional survey administration; and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to assess item pool structure. Setting In-person and semi-structured interviews; internet and telephone surveys. Participants A sample of 1,017 SSA claimants, and a normative sample of 999 adults from the US general population. Interventions Not Applicable. Main Outcome Measure Model fit statistics Results The final item pool consisted of 139 items. Within the claimant sample 58.7% were white; 31.8% were black; 46.6% were female; and the mean age was 49.7 years. Initial factor analyses revealed a 4-factor solution which included more items and allowed separate characterization of: 1) Changing and Maintaining Body Position, 2) Whole Body Mobility, 3) Upper Body Function and 4) Upper Extremity Fine Motor. The final 4-factor model included 91 items. Confirmatory factor analyses for the 4-factor models for the claimant and the normative samples demonstrated very good fit. Fit statistics for claimant and normative samples respectively were: Comparative Fit Index = 0.93 and 0.98; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.92 and 0.98; Root Mean Square Error Approximation = 0.05 and 0.04. Conclusions The factor structure of the Physical Function item pool closely resembled the hypothesized content model. The four scales relevant to work activities offer promise for providing reliable information about claimant physical functioning relevant to work disability. PMID:23542402

  19. Self-reported assessment of visual function in a population-based study: the SEE project. Salisbury Eye Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Valbuena, M; Bandeen-Roche, K; Rubin, G S; Munoz, B; West, S K

    1999-02-01

    To report on the usefulness of the Activities of Daily Vision Scale (ADVS) questionnaire for assessing visual functioning, a population-based sample of elderly Americans. The ADVS questionnaire was administered to a population-based sample of 2520 community-dwelling individuals 65 to 84 years of age in Salisbury, MD. Items and subscales were evaluated for internal consistency, item discrimination, and content validity. Published subscale groupings and item associations in our population were compared for coherence using correlation, factor, and cluster analyses. Whole-sample and race- and gender-specific analyses were conducted. External validity was explored by regressing ADVS scores on standard psychophysical vision measures. ADVS scores were skewed to high visual functioning levels; approximately 60% of the population had function scores of 95 or better (of a possible 100). The overall, night driving, and near vision scales were internally consistent and had strong item-subscale associations; the day driving and glare subscales were not acceptable regarding these properties. The far vision subscale was acceptably scalable but only weakly differentiated from the other subscales. Overall, night driving, near vision, and far vision scores were all statistically and independently associated with multiple psychophysical vision measures. Findings were consistent across race and gender subgroups. As assessed by the ADVS, reported visual functioning is high in our representative older population. The overall scale and selected subscales effectively distinguish persons along a spectrum of ability. They correlate with measures of visual impairment in a reasonable way and thus hold promise for risk factor investigations. The published day driving and glare subscales should be examined for relevance and consistency before being applied in population-based settings. Methods specific to population-based settings should be investigated for their ability to better elicit

  20. Self-reported quality of life and clinician-rated functioning in mood and anxiety disorders: relationships and neuropsychological correlates.

    PubMed

    Caldirola, Daniela; Grassi, Massimiliano; Riva, Alice; Daccò, Silvia; De Berardis, Domenico; Dal Santo, Barbara; Perna, Giampaolo

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate 1) the relationship between subjective perception of quality of life (QoL) and clinician-rated levels of psychosocial functioning and 2) the relationship of these indicators with neuropsychological performances, in a sample of 117 subjects with mood and anxiety disorders hospitalized for a 4-week psychiatric rehabilitation program. At the beginning of the hospitalization, QoL and clinician-rated functioning were respectively measured by the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-Brief Form (WHOQOL-BREF) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale, and subjects were administered a neuropsychological battery evaluating verbal and visual memory, working memory, attention, visual-constructive ability, language fluency and comprehension. We did not find any association between WHOQOL-BREF and GAF scores and between cognitive impairment and lower QoL or clinician-rated functioning. Our results suggest that 1) the individuals' condition encompasses different dimensions that are not fully captured by using only clinician-rated or self-administered evaluations; 2) the GAF scale seems unable to indicate the cognitive impairments of our subjects and the WHOQOL-BREF does not appear to be influenced by these deficits. Overall, our findings suggest the need of simultaneously use of multiple assessment tools, including objective evaluations of functioning and different measures of QoL, in order to obtain a more complete clinical picture of the patients. This may allow to identify more specific targets of therapeutic interventions and more reliable measures of outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Attention system functions and their relationship with self-reported health in patients with brain damage due to tumor].

    PubMed

    Egorov, V N; Razumnikova, O M; Perfil'ev, A M; Stupak, V V

    2015-01-01

    To compare parameters of attention in healthy people and patients with neoplasms in different regions of the cerebral cortex and to evaluate quality of life (QoL) indices with regard to impairment of different attention systems. Twenty patients with oncological lesions of the brain (mean age 56.5±8.8 years) who did not undergo surgery were studied. Tumor localization was confirmed using contrast-enhanced computed tomography, the tumor type was histologically verified. A control group included 18 healthy people matched for age, sex and education level. To determine attention system functions, we developed a computed version of the Attention Network Test. Error rate and reaction time for correct responses to the target stimulus, displayed along with neutral, congruent and incongruent signals, were the indicators of the efficacy of selective processes. QoL indices were assessed using SF-36 health survey questionnaire. The readiness to respond to incoming stimuli was mostly impaired in patients with brain tumors. Efficacy of executive attention, assessed as the increase in the number of errors in selection of visual stimuli, was decreased while temporary parameters of the functions of this system were not changed in patients compared to controls. The SF-36 total score was stable in patients with marked reduction in scores on the Role and Emotional Functioning scales. The most severe health impairment measured on the SF-36 scales of role/social emotional functioning and viability was recorded in patients with the lesions of frontal cortical areas compared to temporal/parietal areas. The relationship between SF-36 Health self-rating and attention systems was found. This finding puts the question of the importance of attention characteristics and QoL for survival prognosis of patients with brain tumors.

  2. Predictors of functional status at service entry and discharge among young people with first episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Cotton, S M; Lambert, M; Schimmelmann, B G; Filia, K; Rayner, V; Hides, L; Foley, D L; Ratheesh, A; Watson, A; Rodger, P; McGorry, P D; Conus, P

    2017-05-01

    Most patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) are neither studying nor employed (have a poor functional status) when first accessing care. Knowledge of the characteristics of patients with poor functioning and the features influencing functional status over time may pave the way to better treatment. A medical file audit was used to collect data on premorbid, entry, treatment and 18-month outcome characteristics on 661 FEP patients who consecutively attended the Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centre, Melbourne, Australia, between 1998 and 2000. Functional status was ascertained using the modified vocational status index and was rated at baseline (poor or good) and according to its evolution over the treatment period (stable good, stable poor, deteriorating or improved functional status). 52.0% of patients had a poor functional status at service entry. They were more likely to be male with a non-affective psychosis. They also had lower levels of premorbid global functioning and education, and were more likely to have self-reported histories of learning disability, forensic issues, traumatic experiences and substance use. At service entry, they had more severe symptoms and poorer global functioning. 37% of these patients maintained a poor functional status at discharge, and 18% of those with a good functional status at service entry experienced a decline. Although psychosocial interventions might assist a young person with FEP with working towards functional goals, for some, the impact of factors such as ongoing substance use and forensic issues on functional status needs to be addressed.

  3. Age Differences and Longitudinal Change in the Effects of Data Collection Mode on Self-Reports of Psychosocial Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Luong, Gloria; Charles, Susan T.; Rook, Karen S.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Gatz, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated how participant aging may influence mode effects, wherein individuals report less negative and more positive psychosocial functioning with data collection modes that have greater (vs. less) direct contact with interviewers (e.g., in-person interviews vs. telephone interviews). Using two longitudinal datasets, the Later Life Study of Social Exchanges (LLSSE) and Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA), we tested how mode effects may vary with cohort (baseline age differences) and maturational development (longitudinal change). In Study 1, LLSSE participants (65–90 years old) completed in-person and telephone interviews assessing negative and positive aspects of psychosocial functioning across two years. The data collection mode with greater direct contact with interviewers (in-person interviews) was associated with reporting less negative and more positive psychosocial functioning compared to the mode with less direct contact (telephone interviews). These mode effects were more pronounced with older baseline age, but only for the negative psychosocial measures. Mode effects also became stronger over time for reports of negative affect. In Study 2, SATSA participants (38–86 years old) completed mailed questionnaires and questionnaires collected in-person that assessed depressive symptoms and positive affect across 18 years. Consistent with Study 1, participants reported fewer depressive symptoms and more positive affect with greater (vs. less) direct contact with interviewers (questionnaires collected in-person vs. mailed questionnaires). For reports of depressive symptoms, but not positive affect, mode effects were more pronounced with age and time. Together, the results underscore how mode effects may contribute to inconsistent findings in the socioemotional aging literature. PMID:25528065

  4. Association between sensory function and hop performance and self-reported outcomes in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury

    PubMed Central

    Cronström, Anna; Roos, Ewa M; Ageberg, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Background In patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency (ACLD) or reconstruction (ACLR), sensory deficits are commonly assessed as knee kinesthesia using time-consuming laboratory equipment. Portable equipment such as that used for evaluation of vibration sense would be preferable. In contrast to kinesthesia, vibration sense is not well studied in these patients. Objectives 1) To study the association between kinesthesia and vibration sense to investigate if one sensory measurement can replace the other; and 2) to determine the clinical relevance by investigating associations between the sensory measurements and functional performance and patient-reported outcomes in patients with ACLD or ACLR. Methods Twenty patients with ACLD and 33 patients with ACLR were assessed with knee kinesthesia, vibration sense, the one-leg hop test for distance, as well as the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and the Tegner Activity Scale. Results There were no significant correlations between kinesthesia and vibration sense (r= −0.267, p>0.269) or between the sensory measures and hop performance (r= −0.351, p>0.199). In patients with ACLD, worse knee kinesthesia was associated with worse scores on KOOS subscales pain (r= −0.464, p=0.046) and activities of daily living (r= −0.491, p=0.033), and worse vibration sense was associated with worse scores on KOOS subscale quality of life (r= −0.469, p=0.037) and worse knee confidence (item Q3 from subscale quality of life) (rs=0.436, p=0.054). In patients with ACLR, worse vibration sense was associated with worse scores on KOOS subscales pain (r= −0.402, p=0.020) and activities of daily living (r= −0.385, p=0.027). Conclusion Kinesthesia and vibration sense cannot be used interchangeably as measures of sensory function in patients with ACLD or ACLR. Both sensory measurements were weakly related to hop performance. Adequate sensory function appears to have importance for perceived function in

  5. Association between sensory function and hop performance and self-reported outcomes in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Cronström, Anna; Roos, Ewa M; Ageberg, Eva

    2017-01-01

    In patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency (ACLD) or reconstruction (ACLR), sensory deficits are commonly assessed as knee kinesthesia using time-consuming laboratory equipment. Portable equipment such as that used for evaluation of vibration sense would be preferable. In contrast to kinesthesia, vibration sense is not well studied in these patients. 1) To study the association between kinesthesia and vibration sense to investigate if one sensory measurement can replace the other; and 2) to determine the clinical relevance by investigating associations between the sensory measurements and functional performance and patient-reported outcomes in patients with ACLD or ACLR. Twenty patients with ACLD and 33 patients with ACLR were assessed with knee kinesthesia, vibration sense, the one-leg hop test for distance, as well as the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and the Tegner Activity Scale. There were no significant correlations between kinesthesia and vibration sense (r= -0.267, p>0.269) or between the sensory measures and hop performance (r= -0.351, p>0.199). In patients with ACLD, worse knee kinesthesia was associated with worse scores on KOOS subscales pain (r= -0.464, p=0.046) and activities of daily living (r= -0.491, p=0.033), and worse vibration sense was associated with worse scores on KOOS subscale quality of life (r= -0.469, p=0.037) and worse knee confidence (item Q3 from subscale quality of life) (rs=0.436, p=0.054). In patients with ACLR, worse vibration sense was associated with worse scores on KOOS subscales pain (r= -0.402, p=0.020) and activities of daily living (r= -0.385, p=0.027). Kinesthesia and vibration sense cannot be used interchangeably as measures of sensory function in patients with ACLD or ACLR. Both sensory measurements were weakly related to hop performance. Adequate sensory function appears to have importance for perceived function in patients with ACLD or ACLR and may therefore be a factor that

  6. Alcohol use self report in chronic back pain--relationships to psychosocial factors, function performance, and medication use.

    PubMed

    Booker, Ethan A; Haig, Andrew J; Geisser, Michael E; Yamakawa, Karen

    2003-11-18

    Alcohol consumption is a known risk factor for spinal disability, but there is no data on the relationship between reported alcohol consumption and behaviours in persons who are disabled. To determine the interaction between reported alcohol consumption, physical performance, and medication use in this group. To determine psychosocial correlates of reported alcohol consumption in this group. A retrospective review 147 men and 136 women with more than 3 months disability who underwent a multidisciplinary physical, functional and psychosocial Spine Team Assessment. Questions about alcohol consumption were related to outcome measures. None of the women reported more than 5 drinks/week. Ten men reported more than 12 drinks per week. These performed significantly better on the Progressive Isoinertial Lifting Evaluation (PILE) low lift and the Functional Assessment Screening Test (FAST) 5 minute twisting test, and trended towards better performance on all other tests (the PILE high lift, all 4 other FAST components, Sorenson trunk extension test, and bicycle ergometer submaximal stress test). They had less back pain disability (Quebec p = 0.061), but no difference in depression (CESD), pain (visual analog scale) or fear (Tampa). They used fewer Non-steroidal medications, but similar narcotic medications as the others. No significant differences in the SF-36 were noted. This first assessment of the relationship of alcohol consumption with back pain disability suggests that women with chronic back pain disability seldom report heavy alcohol consumption. Men with back pain disability who consume large amounts of alcohol have less physical disability despite similar pain. Despite potential interactions, heavy drinkers with pain do not use fewer narcotic analgesics than light drinkers.

  7. Comparing Self-Reported Health Status and Diagnosis-Based Risk Adjustment to Predict 1- and 2 to 5-Year Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Pietz, Kenneth; Petersen, Laura A

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To compare the ability of two diagnosis-based risk adjustment systems and health self-report to predict short- and long-term mortality. Data Sources/Study Setting Data were obtained from the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) administrative databases. The study population was 78,164 VA beneficiaries at eight medical centers during fiscal year (FY) 1998, 35,337 of whom completed an 36-Item Short Form Health Survey for veterans (SF-36V) survey. Study Design We tested the ability of Diagnostic Cost Groups (DCGs), Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACGs), SF-36V Physical Component score (PCS) and Mental Component Score (MCS), and eight SF-36V scales to predict 1- and 2–5 year all-cause mortality. The additional predictive value of adding PCS and MCS to ACGs and DCGs was also evaluated. Logistic regression models were compared using Akaike's information criterion, the c-statistic, and the Hosmer–Lemeshow test. Principal Findings The c-statistics for the eight scales combined with age and gender were 0.766 for 1-year mortality and 0.771 for 2–5-year mortality. For DCGs with age and gender the c-statistics for 1- and 2–5-year mortality were 0.778 and 0.771, respectively. Adding PCS and MCS to the DCG model increased the c-statistics to 0.798 for 1-year and 0.784 for 2–5-year mortality. Conclusions The DCG model showed slightly better performance than the eight-scale model in predicting 1-year mortality, but the two models showed similar performance for 2–5-year mortality. Health self-report may add health risk information in addition to age, gender, and diagnosis for predicting longer-term mortality. PMID:17362210

  8. Comparing self-reported health status and diagnosis-based risk adjustment to predict 1- and 2 to 5-year mortality.

    PubMed

    Pietz, Kenneth; Petersen, Laura A

    2007-04-01

    To compare the ability of two diagnosis-based risk adjustment systems and health self-report to predict short- and long-term mortality. Data were obtained from the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) administrative databases. The study population was 78,164 VA beneficiaries at eight medical centers during fiscal year (FY) 1998, 35,337 of whom completed an 36-Item Short Form Health Survey for veterans (SF-36V) survey. We tested the ability of Diagnostic Cost Groups (DCGs), Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACGs), SF-36V Physical Component score (PCS) and Mental Component Score (MCS), and eight SF-36V scales to predict 1- and 2-5 year all-cause mortality. The additional predictive value of adding PCS and MCS to ACGs and DCGs was also evaluated. Logistic regression models were compared using Akaike's information criterion, the c-statistic, and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. The c-statistics for the eight scales combined with age and gender were 0.766 for 1-year mortality and 0.771 for 2-5-year mortality. For DCGs with age and gender the c-statistics for 1- and 2-5-year mortality were 0.778 and 0.771, respectively. Adding PCS and MCS to the DCG model increased the c-statistics to 0.798 for 1-year and 0.784 for 2-5-year mortality. The DCG model showed slightly better performance than the eight-scale model in predicting 1-year mortality, but the two models showed similar performance for 2-5-year mortality. Health self-report may add health risk information in addition to age, gender, and diagnosis for predicting longer-term mortality.

  9. Development of a comprehensive survey of sexuality issues including a self-report version of the International Spinal Cord Injury sexual function basic data sets.

    PubMed

    New, P W; Currie, K E

    2016-08-01

    Questionnaire development, validation and completion. Develop comprehensive survey of sexuality issues including validated self-report versions of the International Spinal Cord Injury male sexual function and female sexual and reproductive function basic data sets (SR-iSCI-sexual function). People with spinal cord damage (SCD) living in the community, Australia from August 2013 to June 2014. An iterative process involving rehabilitation medicine clinicians, a nurse specialising in sexuality issues in SCD and people with SCD who developed a comprehensive survey that included the SR-iSCI-sexual function. Participants recruitment through spinal rehabilitation review clinic and community organisations that support people with SCD. Surveys completed by 154 people. Most were male (n=101, 65.6%). Respondents' median age was 50 years (interquartile range (IQR) 38-58), and they were a median of 10 years (IQR 4-20) after the onset of SCD. Sexual problems unrelated to SCD were reported by 12 (8%) respondents, and 114 (n=75.5%) reported sexual problems because of SCD. Orgasms were much less likely (χ(2)=13.1, P=0.006) to be normal in males (n=5, 5%) compared with females (n=11, 22%). Males had significantly worse (χ(2)=26.0, P=0.001) psychogenic genital functioning (normal n=9, 9%) than females (normal n=13, 26%) and worse (χ(2)=10.8, P=0.013) reflex genital functioning. Normal ejaculation was reported in only three (3%) men. Most (n=26, 52%) women reported reduced or absent menstruation pattern since SCD. The SR-iSCI-sexual function provides a useful tool for researchers and clinicians to collect information regarding patient-reported sexual functioning after SCD and to facilitate comparative studies.

  10. A Derived Transfer of Simple Discrimination and Self-Reported Arousal Functions in Spider Fearful and Non-Spider-Fearful Participants

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Sinéad; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Forsyth, John P

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the derived transfer of functions through equivalence relations established using a stimulus pairing observation procedure. In Experiment 1, participants were trained on a simple discrimination (A1+/A2−) and then a stimulus pairing observation procedure was used to establish 4 stimulus pairings (A1–B1, A2–B2, B1–C1, B2–C2). Subsequently, a transfer of the simple discrimination functions through equivalence relations was observed (e.g., C1+/C2−). These procedures were modified in Experiment 2, which demonstrated that spider-fearful and non-spider-fearful participants show differing levels of a transfer of self-reported arousal functions for stimuli used in equivalence relations with video-based material depicting scenes with spiders. The results demonstrate that the stimulus pairing observation procedure provides a viable alternative to matching-to-sample, and also offer tentative support for a derived-relations model of the acquisition of anxiety responses in at least one sub-clinical population. PMID:16673827

  11. A derived transfer of simple discrimination and self-reported arousal functions in spider fearful and non-spider-fearful participants.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Sinéad; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Forsyth, John P

    2006-03-01

    Two experiments investigated the derived transfer of functions through equivalence relations established using a stimulus pairing observation procedure. In Experiment 1, participants were trained on a simple discrimination (A1+/A2-) and then a stimulus pairing observation procedure was used to establish 4 stimulus pairings (A1-B1, A2-B2, B1-C1, B2-C2). Subsequently, a transfer of the simple discrimination functions through equivalence relations was observed (e.g., C1+/C2-). These procedures were modified in Experiment 2, which demonstrated that spider-fearful and non-spider-fearful participants show differing levels of a transfer of self-reported arousal functions for stimuli used in equivalence relations with video-based material depicting scenes with spiders. The results demonstrate that the stimulus pairing observation procedure provides a viable alternative to matching-to-sample, and also offer tentative support for a derived-relations model of the acquisition of anxiety responses in at least one sub-clinical population.

  12. Temporal trends in self-reported functional limitations and physical disability among the community-dwelling elderly population: the Framingham heart study.

    PubMed

    Murabito, Joanne M; Pencina, Michael J; Zhu, Lei; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Shrader, Peter; D'Agostino, Ralph B

    2008-07-01

    We sought to determine change in the prevalence of functional limitations and physical disability among the community-dwelling elderly population across 3 decades. We studied original participants of the Framingham Heart Study, aged 79 to 88 years, at examination 15 (1977-1979; 177 women, 103 men), examination 20 (1988-1990; 159 women, 98 men) and examination 25 (1997-1999; 174 women, 119 men). Self-reported functional limitation was defined using the Nagi scale, and physical disability was defined using the Rosow-Breslau and Katz scales. Functional limitations declined across examinations from 74.6% to 60.5% to 37.9% (P < .001) among women and from 54.2% to 37.8% to 27.8% (P<.001) among men. Physical disability declined from 74.5% to 48.5% to 34.6% (P < .001) among women and 42.3% to 33.3% to 22.8% (P = .009) among men. Among women, improvements in functional limitations (P = .05) were greater from examination 20 to 25, whereas for physical disability (P=.02), improvements were greater from examination 15 to 20. Improvements in function were constant across the 3 examinations in men. Among community-dwelling elders, the prevalence of functional limitations and physical disability declined significantly in both women and men from the 1970s to the 1990s. This may in part be due to improvements in technological devices used to maintain independence. Further work is needed to identify the underlining causes of the decline so preventative measures can be established that promote independence for the elderly population.

  13. The relationship between perceived promotion of autonomy/dependence and pain-related disability in older adults with chronic pain: the mediating role of self-reported physical functioning.

    PubMed

    Matos, Marta; Bernardes, Sónia F; Goubert, Liesbet

    2016-08-01

    Chronic pain is prevalent among older adults and is usually associated with high levels of functional disability. Social support for the promotion of functional autonomy and dependence has been associated with pain-related disability and self-reported physical functioning. Nevertheless, these relationships need further inquiry. Our aims were to investigate: (1) the relationship between perceived promotion of autonomy/dependence and pain-related disability and (2) the extent to which self-reported physical functioning mediated these relationships. 118 older adults (Mage = 81.0) with musculoskeletal chronic pain completed the Portuguese versions of the revised formal social support for Autonomy and Dependence in Pain Inventory, the pain severity and interference scales of the Brief Pain Inventory, and the physical functioning scale of the Medical Outcomes Study-Short-Form 36 v2. Higher levels of perceived promotion of autonomy were associated with lower pain-related disability; this relationship was partially mediated by self-reported physical functioning (B = -.767, p < .001 decreasing to B' = -.485, p < .01). Higher perceived promotion of dependence was associated with higher pain-related disability; this effect was also partially accounted for by self-reported physical functioning (B = .889, p < .01 decreasing to B' = .597, p < .05). These results highlight the importance of perceived promotion of autonomy and dependence for managing older adults' experience of chronic pain.

  14. Preventing Compulsory Admission to Psychiatric Inpatient Care: Perceived Coercion, Empowerment, and Self-Reported Mental Health Functioning after 12 Months of Preventive Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lay, Barbara; Drack, Thekla; Bleiker, Marco; Lengler, Silke; Blank, Christina; Rössler, Wulf

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of a preventive monitoring program targeted to reduce compulsory rehospitalization and perceived coercion in patients with severe mental disorder. We analyze patient outcomes in terms of perceived coercion, empowerment, and self-reported mental health functioning at 12 months. The program consists of individualized psychoeducation, crisis cards and, after discharge from the psychiatric hospital, a 24-month preventive monitoring. In total, 238 psychiatric inpatients who had had compulsory admission(s) during the past 24 months were included in the trial. T1-assessment 12 months after baseline was achieved for 182 patients. Study participants reported lower levels of perceived coercion, negative pressures, and process exclusion, a higher level of optimism, and a lesser degree of distress due to symptoms, interpersonal relations, and social role functioning (significant time effects). However, improvements were not confined to the intervention group, but seen also in the treatment-as-usual group (no significant group or interaction effects). Altered perceptions were linked to older age, shorter illness duration, female sex, non-psychotic disorder, and compulsory hospitalization not due to risk of harm to others. Our findings suggest that changes in the subjective perspective were fueled primarily by participation in this study rather than by having received the specific intervention. The study contributes to a better understanding of the interaction between "objective" measures (compulsory readmissions) and patients' perceptions and highlights the need for treatment approaches promoting empowerment in individuals with a history of involuntary psychiatric hospitalizations.

  15. The Consequence of a Medial Ankle Sprain on Physical and Self-reported Functional Limitations: A Case Study Over a 5-Month Period.

    PubMed

    Terada, Masafumi; Thomas, Abbey C; Pietrosimone, Brian; Hiller, Claire E; Bowker, Samantha; Gribble, Phillip A

    2015-10-01

    Case report. Little evidence exists about impairments and perceived disability following eversion injury to the deltoid ligament. This case study prospectively examined the neuromuscular, biomechanical, and psychological consequences of a case of a medial ankle sprain. A recreationally active man with a history of a lateral ankle sprain (grade I) was participating in a university Institutional Review Board-approved research study examining the neuromuscular and mechanical characteristics associated with chronic ankle instability. Twenty-two days after the testing session, the participant sustained an eversion injury to his left ankle while playing basketball. Outcomes The outcomes of this case are presented using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model. Outcome variables were assessed at preinjury (medial ankle sprain), 3 months postinjury, and 5 months postinjury. Measurements included neural excitability of the soleus, balance assessment, joint stability, and psychological assessments. Data from this case study revealed that a medial ankle sprain reduces joint mobility and alters neural excitability of the soleus, with concurrent deficits in balance and self-reported function. These impairments forced the participant to downgrade his physical activity lifestyle up to 5 months postinjury. These data suggest the need for the development of intervention strategies to address impairments in neural excitability and joint mobility at the ankle to help patients meet the goal of maintaining long-term joint health. Prognosis, level 4.

  16. Evaluating functional outcomes in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: development and initial testing of a self-report instrument.

    PubMed

    Hareendran, Asha; Setyawan, Juliana; Pokrzywinski, Robin; Steenrod, Anna; Madhoo, Manisha; Erder, M Haim

    2015-08-22

    Engaging adolescents in decisions about their health may enhance their compliance with treatment and result in better health outcomes. Treatment outcomes in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are rarely evaluated from the adolescents' point of view. There is also concern that adolescents with ADHD may not have insight about the impacts of their disease. This article describes research conducted to understand the experiences of adolescents with ADHD and how the research was used to develop an adolescent self-report instrument. This research involved an iterative process to ensure content validity and was conducted in the following stages: concept identification from literature reviews and interviews with teachers and clinicians; concept elicitation interviews with adolescents with ADHD and their caregivers, review of existing instruments; development of a new instrument and cognitive interviews. Experts in instrument development and translation and clinical practitioners in ADHD also participated. A conceptual framework to measure the impact of ADHD on adolescent functioning identified from concept identification research informed concept elicitation interviews with 60 adolescents with ADHD and their primary caregivers. In the interviews, adolescents discussed difficulties with performing activities in various contexts: school, home, leisure activities and social interactions. Caregivers provided additional insights. The instrument review revealed that none of the existing instruments were suitable to collect data on the elicited concepts; therefore, a new instrument was developed. Revisions were made to the format and content of the instrument (a daily diary) based on feedback received from cognitive testing with 15 adolescents. Our research helped to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the impacts of ADHD on adolescent functioning, to inform the development of a new instrument for measuring outcomes. Adolescents were able to discuss the impact of

  17. Self-reported vaccination in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos; Borda, Miguel German; Arciniegas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of vaccination in older adults within the city of Bogotá and to estimate the association with sociodemographic and health factors. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis from the SABE-Bogotá Study, a cross-sectional population-based study that included a total of 2,000 persons aged 60 years. Weighted percentages for self-reported vaccination [influenza, pneumococcal, tetanus] were determined. The association between vaccination and covariates was evaluate by logistic regression models. Results: A total of 73.0% of respondents received influenza, 57.8% pneumococcal and 47.6% tetanus vaccine. Factors independently associated with vaccination included: 1- age (65-74 years had higher odds of receiving vaccinations, compared to 60-64 years); 2- socioeconomic status (SES) (higher SES had lower odds of having influenza and pneumococcal vaccines, compared to those with lower SES); 3- health insurance (those with contributive or subsidized health insurance had higher odds (between 3 and 5 times higher) of having vaccinations, compared to those with no insurance); 4- older adults with better functional status (greater Lawton scores) had increased odds for all vaccinations; 5- older adults with higher comorbidity had increased odds for influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. Conclusion: Vaccination campaigns should be strengthened to increase vaccination coverage, especially in the group more reticent to vaccination or vulnerable to reach it such as the disabled elder. PMID:27226661

  18. Self-reported strategies in decisions under risk: role of feedback, reasoning abilities, executive functions, short-term-memory, and working memory.

    PubMed

    Schiebener, Johannes; Brand, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    In decisions under objective risk conditions information about the decision options' possible outcomes and the rules for outcomes' occurrence are provided. Thus, deciders can base decision-making strategies on probabilistic laws. In many laboratory decision-making tasks, choosing the option with the highest winning probability in all trials (=maximization strategy) is probabilistically regarded the most rational behavior. However, individuals often behave less optimal, especially in case the individuals have lower cognitive functions or in case no feedback about consequences is provided in the situation. It is still unclear which cognitive functions particularly predispose individuals for using successful strategies and which strategies profit from feedback. We investigated 195 individuals with two decision-making paradigms, the Game of Dice Task (GDT) (with and without feedback), and the Card Guessing Game. Thereafter, participants reported which strategies they had applied. Interaction effects (feedback × strategy), effect sizes, and uncorrected single group comparisons suggest that feedback in the GDT tended to be more beneficial to individuals reporting exploratory strategies (e.g., use intuition). In both tasks, the self-reported use of more principled and more rational strategies was accompanied by better decision-making performance and better performances in reasoning and executive functioning tasks. The strategy groups did not significantly differ in most short-term and working-memory tasks. Thus, particularly individual differences in reasoning and executive functions seem to predispose individuals toward particular decision-making strategies. Feedback seems to be useful for individuals who rather explore the decision-making situation instead of following a certain plan.

  19. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: What Does Self-Report with the OCI-R Tell Us?

    PubMed

    Cadman, Tim; Spain, Debbie; Johnston, Patrick; Russell, Ailsa; Mataix-Cols, David; Craig, Michael; Deeley, Quinton; Robertson, Dene; Murphy, Clodagh; Gillan, Nicola; Wilson, C Ellie; Mendez, Maria; Ecker, Christine; Daly, Eileen; Findon, James; Glaser, Karen; Happé, Francesca; Murphy, Declan

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the symptom profile of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in individuals who have autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It is also unknown whether self-report questionnaires are useful in measuring OCD in ASD. We sought to describe the symptom profiles of adults with ASD, OCD, and ASD + OCD using the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R), and to assess the utility of the OCI-R as a screening measure in a high-functioning adult ASD sample. Individuals with ASD (n = 171), OCD (n = 108), ASD + OCD (n = 54) and control participants (n = 92) completed the OCI-R. Individuals with ASD + OCD reported significantly higher levels of obsessive-compulsive symptoms than those with ASD alone. OCD symptoms were not significantly correlated with core ASD repetitive behaviors as measured on the ADI-R or ADOS-G. The OCI-R showed good psychometric properties and corresponded well with clinician diagnosis of OCD. Receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested cut-offs for OCI-R Total and Checking scores that discriminated well between ASD + versus -OCD, and fairly well between ASD-alone and OCD-alone. OCD manifests separately from ASD and is characterized by a different profile of repetitive thoughts and behaviors. The OCI-R appears to be useful as a screening tool in the ASD adult population. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Self-reported and informant-reported memory functioning and awareness in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer´s disease.

    PubMed

    Silva, Martina Rios; Moser, Doris; Pflüger, Melanie; Pusswald, Gisela; Stögmann, Elisabeth; Dal-Bianco, Peter; Auff, Eduard; Lehrner, Johann

    2016-06-01

    Awareness of subjective memory is an important factor for adequate treatment of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study served to find out whether awareness of subjective memory complies with objective performance, if differences in awareness are observed longitudinally and whether decrease of awareness can serve as a predictor of AD in MCI patients. Thirty-four patients with MCI seeking help in a memory outpatient clinic were included. All participants underwent thorough neuropsychological examination. Awareness of subjective memory was obtained by calculating difference scores between patient and informant ratings on a 16-item questionnaire concerning complaints about loss of memory in every-day life. Retesting was performed after a mean follow-up period of 24 months. Whole group analyses showed that awareness remained relatively stable across time. Self-reported memory complaints correlated with episodic memory at baseline and with performance on a language task at follow-up. Retests displayed decrease of awareness. At group level differences in awareness between both times of assessment were not significant for MCI and MCI patients converting to mild AD at follow-up. The predictive value of awareness was low. Awareness of subjective memory deficit is linked to episodic memory function and decreases with decline of cognitive ability. Further studies evaluating predictive power of awareness of subjective memory should include a larger patient sample.

  1. Visual/verbal-analytic reasoning bias as a function of self-reported autistic-like traits: a study of typically developing individuals solving Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices.

    PubMed

    Fugard, Andrew J B; Stewart, Mary E; Stenning, Keith

    2011-05-01

    People with autism spectrum condition (ASC) perform well on Raven's matrices, a test which loads highly on the general factor in intelligence. However, the mechanisms supporting enhanced performance on the test are poorly understood. Evidence is accumulating that milder variants of the ASC phenotype are present in typically developing individuals, and that those who are further along the autistic-like trait spectrum show similar patterns of abilities and impairments as people with clinically diagnosed ASC. We investigated whether self-reported autistic-like traits in a university student sample, assessed using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ; Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Skinner, et al., 2001), predict performance on Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices. We found that reporting poorer social skills but better attention switching predicted a higher Advanced matrices score overall. DeShon, Chan, and Weissbein (1995) classified Advanced matrices items as requiring a visuospatial, or a verbal-analytic strategy. We hypothesised that higher AQ scores would predict better performance on visuospatial items than on verbal-analytic items. This prediction was confirmed. These results are consistent with the continuum view and can be explained by the enhanced perceptual functioning theory of performance peaks in ASC. The results also confirm a new prediction about Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices performance in people with ASC.

  2. Self-reported disability according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Low Back Pain Core Set: Test-retest agreement and reliability.

    PubMed

    Bagraith, Karl S; Strong, Jenny; Meredith, Pamela J; McPhail, Steven M

    2017-01-06

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Low Back Pain Core Set (LBP-CS) has been proposed as a tool to facilitate the description and measurement of chronic low back pain (CLBP) related disability. Patient ratings of ICF categories may serve as a practical and effective method for acquiring patient input on activity limitations and participation restrictions. To investigate the test-retest agreement and reliability of patient ratings of activity and participation according to the LBP-CS. A cross-sectional repeated-measures questionnaire study was undertaken with thirty-one medically stable adults with CLBP who presented for treatment at two public Australian hospitals. Participants completed the LBP-CS Self-Report Checklist (LBP-CS-SRC) on two occasions (mean = 12.5 (SD = 4.5) days between administrations). The LBP-CS-SRC permits patients to self-rate their functioning according to the LBP-CS activity and participation categories and enables the derivation of activity limitation and participation restriction scales. Patient ratings of individual LBP-CS categories generally exhibited good - excellent test-retest agreement (percentage exact agreement: 74.19-100.00%) and reliability (kappa: 0.53-1.00). The test-retest reliability coefficients of the LBP-CS-SRC activity (ICC = 0.94) and participation (ICC = 0.90) scales were excellent. The minimum detectable change values for the activity and participation scales were 8.11 and 15.26, respectively. This study is the first to demonstrate that patients can provide reliable ratings of functioning using the LBP-CS. The LBP-CS-SRC was shown to be acceptably reliable and precise to support understanding of patients' perspectives on disability in rehabilitation practice and research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A single institution study on patient's self-reporting appraisal and functional outcomes of the first set of men following radical perineal prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Słupski, Piotr; Wiśniewski, Przemysław

    2012-01-01

    Introduction This study evaluates the functional outcomes and satisfaction of an initial series of 47 patients after radical perineal prostatectomy performed in our department. Material and methods The first set of 47 consecutive patients underwent perineal prostatectomy during 2008 and 2009. Continence, sexual outcomes, and satisfaction of the treatment were evaluated using a self-reporting questionnaire, which was mailed to all patients after 15 to 33 months of follow-up. 26 patients (55.3%) returned a completed form and participated in the study. Additionally, final outcomes were compared to results reported elsewhere. Results Amid respondents, 91.7% were satisfied with the chosen treatment and 8.3% regret the previous decision. 38.5% patients reported any urine leakage, 15.4% drip up to 100 ml a day, and only one patient (3.8%) was totally incontinent. 76.9% men report a decline in prior sexual function. Six patients (23.1%) patients have any degree of spontaneous erections and undertake sexual activity. However, as erectile outcomes are adjusted to nine nerve-sparing cases, 66.7% have spontaneous erections and 55.5% undertake sexual activity, but only 40% of them describe their sexual function as satisfying. Conclusions Our survey demonstrates that, because of short operating time, fast recovery, low postoperative pain score, early patient mobilization and feeding, and a small (8-10 cm) and inconspicuous skin incision, radical perineal prostatectomy fully deserves to be recognized as a low-morbidity procedure. The perineal approach provides a quality of life and patients satisfaction rate comparable to trendy, highly equipped procedures and emerges as an attractive alternative to them. Even novice “perineal surgeons” may achieve favorable results. PMID:24578947

  4. Functional Fitness and Self-Reported Quality of Life of Older Women Diagnosed with Knee Osteoarthrosis: A Cross-Sectional Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcante, Paula Andréa Malveira; Doro, Márcio Roberto; Suzuki, Frank Shiguemitsu; Rica, Roberta Luksevicius; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Pontes Junior, Francisco Luciano; Evangelista, Alexandre Lopes; Figueira Junior, Aylton José; Baker, Julien Steven; Bocalini, Danilo Sales

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Utilizing a cross-sectional case control design, the aim of this study was to evaluate the functional fitness and self-reported quality of life differences in older people diagnosed with knee osteoarthrosis (O) who participated in health promotion groups. Methods. Ninety older women were distributed into two groups: control without O of the knee (C, n = 40) and a group diagnosed with primary and secondary knee O with grade II or higher, with definite osteophytes (OA, n = 50). Functional fitness was evaluated by specific tests, and the time spent in physical activity and quality of life was evaluated by the IPAQ and WHOQOL (distributed in four domains: physical: P, psychological: PS, social: S, and environmental: E) domain questionnaires. Results. No differences were found between ages of groups (C: 66 ± 7; OA: 67 ± 9; years). The values of the chair stand test (rep) in the OA (13 ± 5) group were different when compared to C group (22 ± 5). For the 6-minute walk test (meters), the values obtained for the C (635 ± 142) were higher (P < 0.01) than the OA (297 ± 143) group. The time spent in physical activity (min) was greater (P < 0.001) in the control (220 ± 12) group compared to OA (100 ± 10) group. Higher values (P < 0.001) in all domains were found in the C (P: 69 ± 16, PS: 72 ± 17, S: 67 ± 15, E: 70 ± 15) group compared to OA (P: 48 ± 7, PS: 43 ± 8, S: 53 ± 13, E: 47 ± 14) group. Conclusion. Our data suggests that knee O, in older women, can promote a decline in time spent performing physical activity and functional fitness with decline in quality of life with an increase in sitting time. PMID:26346896

  5. Long-term use of minimal footwear on pain, self-reported function, analgesic intake, and joint loading in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Trombini-Souza, Francis; Matias, Alessandra B; Yokota, Mariane; Butugan, Marco K; Goldenstein-Schainberg, Claudia; Fuller, Ricardo; Sacco, Isabel C N

    2015-12-01

    Efforts have been made to retard the progressive debilitating pain and joint dysfunction in patients with knee osteoarthritis. We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of a low-cost minimalist footwear on pain, function, clinical and gait-biomechanical aspects of elderly women with knee osteoarthritis. Throughout a randomized, parallel and controlled clinical trial, fifty-six patients with medial knee osteoarthritis were randomly allocated to an intervention (n=28) or control group (n=28), and assessed at baseline and after three and six months. The intervention involved wearing Moleca(®) footwear for at least 6h/day, 7 days/week, over 6 months. The pain subscale of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index was the primary outcome. The secondary outcomes were the other subscales, Lequesne score, distance walked in 6 min, knee oedema and effusion, knee adduction moment and paracetamol intake. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed using two-way casewise ANOVA (< .05) and Cohen's d coefficient. Intervention group showed improvement in pain (effect size: 1.41, p<.001), function (effect size: 1.22, p=.001), stiffness (effect size: 0.76, p=.001), Lequesne score (effect size: 1.07, p<.001), and reduction by 21.8% in the knee adduction moment impulse (p=.017) during gait wearing Moleca(®). The analgesic intake was lower in the intervention group. The long-term use of Moleca(®) footwear relieves pain, improves self-reported function, reduces the knee loading while wearing Moleca(®), refrains the increase of analgesic intake in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis and can be considered as a conservative mechanical treatment option. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01342458). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Socio-economic status and self-reported tuberculosis: a multilevel analysis in a low-income township in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cramm, Jane M.; Koolman, Xander; Møller, Valerie; Nieboer, Anna P.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the interplay of multiple factors affecting the prevalence of tuberculosis in developing countries. The compositional and contextual factors that affect health and disease patterns must be fully understood to successfully control tuberculosis. Experience with tuberculosis in South Africa was examined at the household level (overcrowding, a leaky roof, social capital, unemployment, income) and at the neighbourhood level (Gini coefficient of inequality, unemployment rate, headcount poverty rate). A hierarchical random-effects model was used to assess household-level and neighbourhood-level effects on self-reported tuberculosis experience. Every tenth household in each of the 20 Rhini neighbourhoods was selected for inclusion in the sample. Eligible respondents were at least 18 years of age and had been residents of Rhini for at least six months of the previous year. A Kish grid was used to select one respondent from each targeted household, to ensure that all eligible persons in the household stood an equal chance of being included in the survey. We included 1,020 households within 20 neighbourhoods of Rhini, a suburb of Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. About one-third of respondents (n=329; 32%) reported that there had been a tuberculosis case within the household. Analyses revealed that overcrowding (P≤0.05) and roof leakage (P≤0.05) contributed significantly to the probability of a household tuberculosis experience experience, whereas higher social capital (P≤0.01) significantly reduced this probability. Overcrowding, roof leakage and the social environment affected tuberculosis prevalence in this economically disadvantaged community. Policy makers should consider the possible benefits of programs that deal with housing and social environments when addressing the spread of tuberculosis in economically poor districts. PMID:28299075

  7. Self-reported HIV-positive status but subsequent HIV-negative test result using rapid diagnostic testing algorithms among seven sub-Saharan African military populations

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Braden R.; Tran, Bonnie R.; Thomas, Anne G.; Grillo, Michael P.; Jacobs, Marni B.; McAnany, Jennifer; Shaffer, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    HIV rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) combined in an algorithm are the current standard for HIV diagnosis in many sub-Saharan African countries, and extensive laboratory testing has confirmed HIV RDTs have excellent sensitivity and specificity. However, false-positive RDT algorithm results have been reported due to a variety of factors, such as suboptimal quality assurance procedures and inaccurate interpretation of results. We conducted HIV serosurveys in seven sub-Saharan African military populations and recorded the frequency of personnel self-reporting HIV positivity, but subsequently testing HIV-negative during the serosurvey. The frequency of individuals who reported they were HIV-positive but subsequently tested HIV-negative using RDT algorithms ranged from 3.3 to 91.1%, suggesting significant rates of prior false-positive HIV RDT algorithm results, which should be confirmed using biological testing across time in future studies. Simple measures could substantially reduce false-positive results, such as greater adherence to quality assurance guidelines and prevalence-specific HIV testing algorithms as described in the World Health Organization’s HIV testing guidelines. Other measures to improve RDT algorithm specificity include classifying individuals with weakly positive test lines as HIV indeterminate and retesting. While expansion of HIV testing in resource-limited countries is critical to identifying HIV-infected individuals for appropriate care and treatment, careful attention to potential causes of false HIV-positive results are needed to prevent the significant medical, psychological, and fiscal costs resulting from individuals receiving a false-positive HIV diagnosis. PMID:28686678

  8. IMPROVEMENTS IN KNEE EXTENSION STRENGTH ARE ASSOCIATED WITH IMPROVEMENTS IN SELF-REPORTED HIP FUNCTION FOLLOWING ARTHROSCOPY FOR FEMOROACETABULAR IMPINGEMENT SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Thomas J.; Amesur, Ajit K.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Di Stasi, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Background Recovery of strength is critical for return to sport, and is a known predictor of functional outcomes in post-surgical orthopedic populations. Muscle weakness is a known impairment in patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) but whether improvements in muscle strength after arthroscopy are associated with improved hip function is unknown. Hypothesis/Purpose To examine the relationships between changes in hip and thigh muscle strength and self-reported function in athletes undergoing arthroscopy for FAIS. Study Design Single cohort descriptive and correlational study Methods Twenty-eight athletes underwent strength testing and completed the Hip Outcome Score Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL) and Sports (HOS-S) subscales prior to and six months after surgery. Isokinetic knee extension and flexion strength were measured using a Biodex dynamometer at 60 °/s and 300 °/s. Isometric hip abduction strength was measured using a custom dynamometer. Changes in strength, limb symmetry, and HOS scores were assessed using paired t-tests. Spearman's rank correlations were used to examine relationships between change in involved limb strength and change in HOS scores. Results Subjects were tested an average of 32 days before and 178 days after surgery. HOS-ADL and HOS-S subscales improved by a mean of 19.0 ± 21.1 and 23.8 ± 31.9, respectively, over time (p < 0.001). Hip abduction strength did not increase over time in either limb (p ≥ 0.27). Involved limb knee flexion and extension strength did not increase significantly over time (p-values: 0.10-0.48) with the exception of knee extension at 300 °/s (p = 0.04). Uninvolved limb knee extension strength at both velocities and knee flexion strength at 60 °/s improved significantly over time (p < 0.012). Increases in knee extension strength (60 °/s) of the involved limb were significantly correlated with improvements on the HOS-ADL (r = 0.431; 0 = 0

  9. SOCIOECONOMIC INEQUALITIES IN SELF-REPORTED HEALTH AND PHYSICAL FUNCTIONING IN ARGENTINA: FINDINGS FROM THE NATIONAL SURVEY ON QUALITY OF LIFE OF OLDER ADULTS 2012 (ENCaViAM).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez López, Santiago; Colantonio, Sonia E; Celton, Dora E

    2016-11-09

    This study aimed to evaluate educational and income inequalities in self-reported health (SRH), and physical functioning (limitations in Activities of Daily Living (ADL)/Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL)), among 60-year-old and older adults in Argentina. Using cross-sectional data from the Argentinian National Survey on Quality of Life of Older Adults 2012 (Encuesta Nacional sobre Calidad de Vida de Adultos Mayores, ENCaViAM), gender-specific socioeconomic inequalities in SRH and ADL and IADL limitations were studied in relation to educational level and household per capita income. The Relative Index of Inequality (RII) - an index of the relative size of socioeconomic inequalities in health - was used. Socioeconomic inequalities in the studied health indicators were found - except for limitations in ADL among women - favouring socially advantaged groups. The results remained largely significant after full adjustment, suggesting that educational and income inequalities, mainly in SRH and IADL, were robust and somehow independent of age, marital status, physical activity, the use of several medications, depression and the occurrence of falls. The findings add to the existing knowledge on the relative size of the socioeconomic inequalities in subjective health indicators among Argentinian older adults, which are to the detriment of lower socioeconomic groups. The results could be used to inform planning interventions aimed at decreasing socioeconomic inequalities in health, to the benefit of socially disadvantaged adults.

  10. Cognitive Functioning and Walking Speed in Older Adults as Predictors of Limitations in Self-Reported Instrumental Activity of Daily Living: Prospective Findings from the Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Doi, Takehiko; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Lee, Sangyoon; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Harada, Kazuhiro; Lee, Sungchul; Bae, Seongryu; Harada, Kenji; Suzuki, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to determine whether baseline measures of cognitive functioning, walking speed, and depressive status are independent predictors of limitations in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in older adults. The cross-sectional study involved 1329 community-dwelling adults, aged 75 years or older. At baseline, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST), Geriatric Depressive Scale (GDS), and a word list memory task were completed, and self-reported IADLs and walking speed were recorded. The longitudinal study involved 948 participants without baseline IADL limitation, which was assessed at baseline and 15-month follow up, using the three Kihon Checklist subitems. In cross-sectional analyses, participants with IADL limitation demonstrated greater GDS scores, slower walking speeds, and lower MMSE, word list memory task, and SDST (only for women) scores relative to those without IADL limitation. In the longitudinal analyses, baseline walking speed (men: OR 0.98; women: OR 0.97, p < 0.05) and word list memory task scores (men: OR 0.84; women: OR 0.83, p < 0.05) in both sexes and SDST scores in women (OR 0.96, p = 0.04) were independent predictors of subsequent IADL limitation. Walking speed, memory, and processing speed may be independent predictors of IADL limitation in older adults. PMID:25768239

  11. Periodontal status, tooth loss and self-reported periodontal problems effects on oral impacts on daily performances, OIDP, in pregnant women in Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Wandera, Margaret N; Engebretsen, Ingunn M; Rwenyonyi, Charles M; Tumwine, James; Åstrøm, Anne N

    2009-01-01

    Background An important aim of antenatal care is to improve maternal health- and well being of which oral health is an important part. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) during pregnancy, using a locally adapted OIDP inventory, and to document how periodontal status, tooth-loss and reported periodontal problems are related to oral impacts. Methods Pregnant women at about 7 months gestational age who were members of a community based multi-center cluster randomized community trial: PROMISE EBF: Safety and Efficacy of Exclusive Breast feeding in the Era of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa, were recruited in the district of Mbale, Eastern Uganda between January 2006 and June 2008. A total of 877 women (participation rate 877/886, 98%, mean age 25.6, sd 6.4) completed an interview and 713 (participation rate 713/886, 80.6%, mean age 25.5 sd 6.6) were examined clinically with respect to tooth-loss and according to the Community Periodontal Index, CPI. Results Seven of the original 8 OIDP items were translated into the local language. Cronbach's alpha was 0.85 and 0.80 in urban and rural areas, respectively. The prevalence of oral impacts was 25% in the urban and 30% in the rural area. Corresponding estimates for CPI>0 were 63% and 68%. Adjusted ORs for having any oral impact were 1.1 (95% CI 0.7-1.7), 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-3.1), 1.7 (1.1-2.7) and 2.0 (0.9-4.4) if having respectively, CPI>0, at least one tooth lost, tooth loss in molars and tooth loss in molar-and anterior regions. The Adjusted ORs for any oral impact if reporting periodontal problems ranged from 2.7(95% CI 1.8-4.2) (bad breath) through 8.6(95% CI 5.6-12.9) (chewing problem) to 22.3 (95% CI 13.3-35.9) (toothache). Conclusion A substantial proportion of pregnant women experienced oral impacts. The OIDP impacts were most and least substantial regarding functional- and social concerns, respectively. The OIDP varied systematically with tooth loss in the molar region

  12. Periodontal status, tooth loss and self-reported periodontal problems effects on oral impacts on daily performances, OIDP, in pregnant women in Uganda: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wandera, Margaret N; Engebretsen, Ingunn M; Rwenyonyi, Charles M; Tumwine, James; Astrøm, Anne N

    2009-10-14

    An important aim of antenatal care is to improve maternal health- and well being of which oral health is an important part. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) during pregnancy, using a locally adapted OIDP inventory, and to document how periodontal status, tooth-loss and reported periodontal problems are related to oral impacts. Pregnant women at about 7 months gestational age who were members of a community based multi-center cluster randomized community trial: PROMISE EBF: Safety and Efficacy of Exclusive Breast feeding in the Era of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa, were recruited in the district of Mbale, Eastern Uganda between January 2006 and June 2008. A total of 877 women (participation rate 877/886, 98%, mean age 25.6, sd 6.4) completed an interview and 713 (participation rate 713/886, 80.6%, mean age 25.5 sd 6.6) were examined clinically with respect to tooth-loss and according to the Community Periodontal Index, CPI. Seven of the original 8 OIDP items were translated into the local language. Cronbach's alpha was 0.85 and 0.80 in urban and rural areas, respectively. The prevalence of oral impacts was 25% in the urban and 30% in the rural area. Corresponding estimates for CPI>0 were 63% and 68%. Adjusted ORs for having any oral impact were 1.1 (95% CI 0.7-1.7), 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-3.1), 1.7 (1.1-2.7) and 2.0 (0.9-4.4) if having respectively, CPI>0, at least one tooth lost, tooth loss in molars and tooth loss in molar-and anterior regions. The Adjusted ORs for any oral impact if reporting periodontal problems ranged from 2.7(95% CI 1.8-4.2) (bad breath) through 8.6(95% CI 5.6-12.9) (chewing problem) to 22.3 (95% CI 13.3-35.9) (toothache). A substantial proportion of pregnant women experienced oral impacts. The OIDP impacts were most and least substantial regarding functional- and social concerns, respectively. The OIDP varied systematically with tooth loss in the molar region, reported chewing-and periodontal

  13. Psychometric properties of self-reported questionnaires for the evaluation of symptoms and functional limitations in individuals with rotator cuff disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Corinne; Desmeules, François; Dionne, Clermont E; Frémont, Pierre; MacDermid, Joy C; Roy, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the psychometric properties (reliability, validity and responsiveness) of self-report questionnaires used to assess symptoms and functional limitations of individuals with rotator cuff (RC) disorders. A systematic search in three databases (Cinahl, Medline and Embase) was conducted. Data extraction and critical methodological appraisal were performed independently by three raters using structured tools, and agreement was achieved by consensus. A descriptive synthesis was performed. One-hundred and twenty articles reporting on 11 questionnaires were included. All questionnaires were highly reliable and responsive to change, and showed construct validity; seven questionnaires also shown known-group validity. The minimal detectable change ranged from 6.4% to 20.8% of total score; only two questionnaires (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeon questionnaire [ASES] and Upper Limb Functional Index [ULFI]) had a measurement error below 10% of global score. Minimal clinically important differences were established for eight questionnaires, and ranged from 8% to 20% of total score. Overall, included questionnaires showed acceptable psychometric properties for individuals with RC disorders. The ASES and ULFI have the smallest absolute error of measurement, while the Western Ontario RC Index is one of the most responsive questionnaires for individuals suffering from RC disorders. All included questionnaires are reliable, valid and responsive for the evaluation of individuals with RC disorders. As all included questionnaires showed good psychometric properties for the targeted population, the choice should be made according to the purpose of the evaluation and to the construct being evaluated by the questionnaire. The WORC, a RC-specific questionnaire, appeared to be more responsive. It should therefore be used to evaluate change in time. If the evaluation is time-limited, shorter questionnaires or short versions should be considered (such as

  14. Ageing and mental health: changes in self-reported health due to physical illness and mental health status with consecutive cross-sectional analyses

    PubMed Central

    Lorem, Geir Fagerjord; Schirmer, Henrik; Wang, Catharina E A; Emaus, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Objectives It is known that self-reported health (SRH) declines with increasing age and that comorbidity increases with age. We wished to examine how age transfers its effect to SRH through comorbid disease and mental illness and whether these processes remained stable from 1994 until 2008. The hypothesis is that ageing and/or the increased age-related burden of pathology explains the declining SRH. Setting The Tromsø Study (TS) is a cohort study using a survey approach with repeated physical examinations. It was conducted in the municipality of Tromsø, Norway, from 1974 to 2008. Participants A total of 21 199 women and 19 229 men participated. Primary and secondary outcome measures SRH is the outcome of interest. We calculated and compared the effect sizes of age, comorbidity and mental health symptoms using multimediator analysis based on OLS regression. Results Ageing had a negative impact on SRH, but the total effect of age decreased from 1994 to 2007. We assessed the direct effect of age and then the proportion of indirect age-related effects through physical illness and mental health symptoms on the total effect. The direct effect of age represented 79.3% of the total effect in 1994 and decreased to 58.8% in 2007. Physical illness emerged as an increasingly important factor and increased its influence from 15.7% to 41.2% of the total effect. Age alone had a protective effect on mental health symptoms and this increased (2.5% to 17.3%), but we found a stronger association between mental health symptoms and physical disease in the later waves of the study (increasing from 3.7% to 14.8%). Conclusions The results suggest that the effect on SRH of mental health symptoms caused by physical illness is an increasing public health problem. Treatment and care for specific medical conditions must therefore focus more strongly on how these conditions affect the patient's mental health and address these concerns accordingly. PMID:28100564

  15. Is cigarette smoking associated with impaired physical and mental functional status? An office-based survey of primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Woolf, S H; Rothemich, S F; Johnson, R E; Marsland, D W

    1999-08-01

    To examine the relationship between cigarette smoking and self-reported physical and mental functional status. Cross-sectional survey of 837 patients visiting 2 family-practice centers. Patients completed a self-administered survey about functional status, tobacco use, and demographic characteristics while waiting to be called back for their appointments. An inner-city family practice clinic in Richmond, Virginia, and a more affluent suburban practice outside Washington, DC. Physical and mental functional status, as measured by the SF-36 (Medical Outcomes Trust, Boston, MA); current and former cigarette use; and demographic variables (age, gender, education, income). Among current smokers, self-reported functional status scores were significantly lower than those of nonsmokers in all SF-36 domains (p < or = 0.02), a pattern that was more dramatic for mental functional status domains (social function, vitality, emotional role limitations, mental health). In several SF-36 domains, a dose-response relationship between smoking and functional status was noted. After multivariate adjustment for demographic confounders and practice site, the statistical significance of these differences diminished considerably, but it remained significant for certain domains and for the overall difference across all domains (MANCOVA p = 0.017). Current smokers report lower functional status than nonsmokers, in physical and especially in mental domains. The meaning of this cross-sectional relationship is unclear without further longitudinal study. Smoking may be associated with other variables that have a causal role.

  16. Physical activities in daily life and functional capacity compared to disease activity control in acromegalic patients: impact in self-reported quality of life.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Renata Aparecida Elias; Passos, Karine Elias; Porto, Lara Benigno; Zakir, Juliano Coelho Oliveira; Reis, Marcia Cristina; Naves, Luciana Ansaneli

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the quality of life and its association with daily physical activity and disease control in acromegalic patients. A cross-sectional, case series study, composed of 42 patients recruited from the Neuroendocrinology Unit of the University Hospital of Brasilia. Level of physical activity was accessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ 6-short-form), which evaluates the weekly time spent on physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity in different contexts of life. Quality of life was evaluated by The Medical Outcome Study Questionnaire Short Form (SF-36). Data was compared to growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) levels. Students' t test and Fisher test were used, p < 0.05, SPSS 17.0. Twenty-two women, aged 51.33 ± 14.33 and 20 men, aged 46.2 ± 13.18 were evaluated. Arthralgia was present in 83% of cases. In men, the most common sites of pain were the knees (73%), spine (47% lumbar, and 53% thoracic and cervical segments), hands and wrists (40%). Higher scores on SF-36 were observed in patients with intermediate or high levels of physical activity, in the domains social functioning (75 CI 57.3-92.6), general health (75.5 CI 60.4-90.5), mental health (70 CI 57.8-82.1). In this study, the presence and severity of physical disability and pain were not associated with initial GH and IGF-1 levels or time of exposure to GH excess. However, the patients considered controlled, with normal a normal age-adjusted IGF-1, presented higher scores in SF-36, in physical and emotional domains, compared with patients with persistent hypersomatotrophism. These findings suggest benefits of metabolic control in self-reported quality of life.

  17. Self-Report of Tobacco Use Status: Comparison of Paper-Based Questionnaire, Online Questionnaire, and Direct Face-to-Face Interview—Implications for Meaningful Use

    PubMed Central

    Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Hays, J. Taylor; Newcomb, Richard D.; Molella, Robin G.; Cha, Stephen S.; Hagen, Philip T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Identifying tobacco use status is essential to address use and provide resources to help patients quit. Being able to collect this information in an electronic format will become increasingly important, as the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has included the assessment of tobacco use as part of its Stage 1 Meaningful Use criteria. The objective was to compare the accuracy of online vs. paper assessment methods to ascertain cigarette smoking status using a face-to-face structured interview as the gold standard. This was a retrospective analysis of a stratified opportunity sample of consecutive patients, reporting in 2010 for a periodic health evaluation, who completed either a scannable paper-based form or an online questionnaire and underwent a standardized rooming interview. Compared with face-to-face structured interview, the overall observed agreement and kappa coefficient for both methods combined (paper and online) were 97.7% and 0.69 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51–0.86) . For the online form they were 97.4% and 0.61 (95% CI 0.33–0.90), and for the paper form they were 97.9% and 0.75 (95% CI 0.54–0.96). There was no statistically significant difference in agreement between the online and paper-based methods (P=0.76) compared with a face-to-face structured interview. Online assessment of tobacco use status is as accurate as a paper questionnaire, and both methods have greater than 97% observed agreement with a face-to-face structured interview. The use of online assessment of tobacco use status has several advantages and more widespread use should be explored. (Population Health Management 2014;17:185–189) PMID:24476559

  18. Self-report of tobacco use status: comparison of paper-based questionnaire, online questionnaire, and direct face-to-face interview--implications for meaningful use.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Mark W; Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Hays, J Taylor; Newcomb, Richard D; Molella, Robin G; Cha, Stephen S; Hagen, Philip T

    2014-06-01

    Identifying tobacco use status is essential to address use and provide resources to help patients quit. Being able to collect this information in an electronic format will become increasingly important, as the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has included the assessment of tobacco use as part of its Stage 1 Meaningful Use criteria. The objective was to compare the accuracy of online vs. paper assessment methods to ascertain cigarette smoking status using a face-to-face structured interview as the gold standard. This was a retrospective analysis of a stratified opportunity sample of consecutive patients, reporting in 2010 for a periodic health evaluation, who completed either a scannable paper-based form or an online questionnaire and underwent a standardized rooming interview. Compared with face-to-face structured interview, the overall observed agreement and kappa coefficient for both methods combined (paper and online) were 97.7% and 0.69 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.86) . For the online form they were 97.4% and 0.61 (95% CI 0.33-0.90), and for the paper form they were 97.9% and 0.75 (95% CI 0.54-0.96). There was no statistically significant difference in agreement between the online and paper-based methods (P=0.76) compared with a face-to-face structured interview. Online assessment of tobacco use status is as accurate as a paper questionnaire, and both methods have greater than 97% observed agreement with a face-to-face structured interview. The use of online assessment of tobacco use status has several advantages and more widespread use should be explored.

  19. Preliminary Evidence Suggesting Caution in the Use of Psychiatric Self-Report Measures with Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazefsky, C. A.; Kao, J.; Oswald, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the utility of self-report measures to screen for psychiatric comorbidities in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Thirty-eight 10-17 year olds with an ASD and without mental retardation completed: the "Children's Depression Inventory-Short version (CDI-S)", "Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale…

  20. Effects of inpatient physical therapy on the functional status of elderly individuals

    PubMed Central

    Zasadzka, Ewa; Kropińska, Sylwia; Pawlaczyk, Mariola; Krzymińska-Siemaszko, Roma; Lisiński, Przemysław; Wieczorowska-Tobis, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Purpose] The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of inpatient rehabilitation on the functional status of the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 100 patients (>65 years of age) in a rehabilitation ward were enrolled in this study. Age, absence of depression and signs of dementia in screening tests constituted the inclusion criteria. A comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed of all of the subjects twice, at the beginning and end of hospitalization (Assessments I and II, respectively), and included fall risk assessment (Timed Up and Go Test, TUG), evaluation of physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery Test, SPPB), the handgrip strength test, as well as patients’ self-reports of pain intensity, well-being and functional status. [Results] At the end of inpatient rehabilitation, significant improvement was observed in reduction the TUG time, physical function, and handgrip strength, as well as in subjective parameters such as self-reported pain intensity, well-being, and functional status. [Conclusion] Our results show the high efficacy of inpatient rehabilitation as a means of improving functional independence. Hospital rehabilitation should be recommended for elderly people, not only in cases of absolute indications for hospital admission, but also periodically for patients at risk of physical disability. PMID:27065526

  1. Medical students' health behaviour and self-reported mental health status by their country of origin: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Terebessy, András; Czeglédi, Edit; Balla, Bettina Claudia; Horváth, Ferenc; Balázs, Péter

    2016-05-28

    Numerous previous studies have investigated the lifestyle and self-perceived health status of medical students. This study examined whether students' country of origin contributed to their mental health and health risk behaviour. We conducted our cross-sectional questionnaire survey over four consecutive years (2009-2012). The target population was fourth-year English- and Hungarian-language course medical students at Semmelweis University, Hungary. We gathered data on medical students' health behaviour (tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, dietary habits and exercise) and mental health status and used analysis of variance (ANOVA) to examine the association between country of origin and mental health. The response rate was 76.1 % for the Hungarian and 63.4 % for the English course students. The mean age of our sample was 24.1 years (SD = 2.42). Only 15.3 % of students reported following dietary recommendations, but 75.0 % reported engaging in vigorous and regular physical exercise. The prevalence of tobacco smoking was 18.6 % and 13.8 % overconsumed alcoholic beverages. Hungarian and Iranian students reported lower mental well-being than Mediterranean, Israeli and Scandinavian students (F(4) = 18.943, p < 0.001, η(2) = 0.103). Results of the multiway ANOVA indicated that both country of origin and exercise showed a significant relationship with mental health: vigorous exercise was associated with better mental health status (F(1) = 5.505, p = 0.019). Medical students' mental health and health behaviour are associated with multiple factors. One of these is country of origin but exercise may also influence mental health. Health promotion programmes organised for medical students should take their country of origin into consideration and should include physical activity.

  2. Sedentary behavior is associated with disability status and walking performance, but not cognitive function, in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Elizabeth A; Motl, Robert W

    2015-02-01

    Eighty-two persons with multiple sclerosis wore an accelerometer as a measure of sedentary time (min/day) and completed measures of disability status (self-reported Expanded Disability Status Scale), walking performance (timed 25-foot walk and 6-min walk), and cognitive function (symbol digit modalities test). Accelerometry-measured sedentary time was significantly correlated with disability status scores (r = 0.31, p < 0.01), 6-min walk distance (r = -0.40, p < 0.01), and timed 25-foot walk performance (r = 0.35, p < 0.01), but not cognitive function performance (r = -0.12, p = 0.29).

  3. Parental self-efficacy and oral health-related knowledge are associated with parent and child oral health behaviors and self-reported oral health status.

    PubMed

    de Silva-Sanigorski, Andrea; Ashbolt, Rosie; Green, Julie; Calache, Hanny; Keith, Benedict; Riggs, Elisha; Waters, Elizabeth

    2013-08-01

    This study sought to advance understanding of the influence of psychosocial factors on oral health by examining how parental self-efficacy (with regard to acting on their child's oral health needs) and oral health knowledge relate to parental and child oral health behaviors and self-rated oral health. Parents of children in grades 0/1 and 5/6 (n = 804) and children in grades 5/6 (n = 377, mean age 11.5 ± 1.0, 53.9% female) were recruited from a stratified random sample of 11 primary (elementary) schools. Participants completed surveys capturing psychosocial factors, oral health-related knowledge, and parental attitudes about oral health. Parents also rated their own oral health status and the oral health of their child. Correlations and logistic regression analysis (adjusted for socioeconomic status, child age, and gender) examined associations between psychosocial factors and the outcomes of interest (parent and child behaviors and self-rated oral health status). Higher parental self-efficacy was associated with more frequent toothbrushing (by parent and child), and more frequent visits to a dental professional. These associations were particularly strong with regard to dental visits for children, with parents with the highest tertile for self-efficacy 4.3 times more likely to report that their child attended a dentist for a checkup at least once a year (95%CI 2.52-7.43); and 3 times more likely to report their child brushing their teeth at least twice a day (Adjusted Odds Ratio 3.04, 95%CI 1.64-5.64) compared with those parents in the lowest tertile for self-efficacy. No associations with oral health knowledge were found when examined by tertile of increasing knowledge. Oral health self-efficacy and knowledge are potentially modifiable risk factors of oral health outcomes, and these findings suggest that intervening on these factors could help foster positive dental health habits in families. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Evaluation of Neuropsychiatric Function in Phenylketonuria: Psychometric Properties of the ADHD Rating Scale-IV and Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Inattention Subscale in Phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Wyrwich, Kathleen W; Auguste, Priscilla; Yu, Ren; Zhang, Charlie; Dewees, Benjamin; Winslow, Barbara; Yu, Shui; Merilainen, Markus; Prasad, Suyash

    2015-06-01

    Previous qualitative research among adults and parents of children with phenylketonuria (PKU) has identified inattention as an important psychiatric aspect of this condition. The parent-reported ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD RS-IV) and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) have been validated for measuring inattention symptoms in persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, their psychometric attributes for measuring PKU-related inattention have not been established. The primary objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the ADHD RS-IV and ASRS inattention symptoms subscales in a randomized controlled trial of patients with PKU aged 8 years or older. A post hoc analysis investigated the psychometric properties (Rasch model fit, reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness) of the ADHD RS-IV and ASRS inattention subscales using data from a phase 3b, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in those with PKU aged 8 years or older. The Rasch results revealed good model fit, and reliability analyses revealed strong internal consistency reliability (α ≥ 0.87) and reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ 0.87) for both measures. Both inattention measures demonstrated the ability to discriminate between known groups (P < 0.001) created by the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale. Correlations between the ADHD RS-IV and the ASRS with the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale and the age-appropriate Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Working Memory subscale were consistently moderate to strong (r ≥ 0.56). Similarly, results of the change score correlations were of moderate magnitude (r ≥ 0.43) for both measures when compared with changes over time in Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Working Memory subscales. These findings of reliability, validity, and responsiveness of both the ADHD RS-IV and the ASRS inattention scales

  5. Alzheimer's disease, oral function and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Nordenram, G; Ryd-Kjellen, E; Johansson, G; Nordstrom, G; Winblad, B

    1996-07-01

    To study differences in nutritional, dental status and oral function between institutionalised patients with Alzheimer's disease and cognitively healthy elderly people living in the community. Comparison was made between two groups. Alzheimer's disease sufferers and healthy controls, using established criteria for anthropometric, mental and dental state. An institution and residential area in Stockholm, Sweden. Forty patients with Alzheimer's disease living in a nursing home and 40 age- and gender-matched control subjects living independently. Dental status and anthropometric variables. Overnutrition was less frequent among the demented than the controls and more demented were undernourished. Dental status was similar in the two groups with few edentulous subjects but only 2 of 7 edentulous subjects with Alzheimer's disease wore dentures. Having natural teeth and many functional oral zones is important for food consistency choice, but not for nutritional status. In the Alzheimer group, the stage of dementia has a strong association to the ability to eat unaided and an association with dental status. There are differences in nutritional status between Alzheimer's patients in institutions and cognitively healthy elderly living at home. The choice of food consistency is correlated to dental status but nutritional status is not shown to be influenced by dental status. However, the ability to eat unaided is strongly correlated to cognitive status.

  6. Self-reported difficulty in climbing up or down stairs in nondisabled elderly.

    PubMed

    Verghese, Joe; Wang, Cuiling; Xue, Xiaonan; Holtzer, Roee

    2008-01-01

    To examine clinical and functional correlates of self-reported difficulty in climbing up or climbing down stairs in older adults. Cross-sectional survey. Community sample. Older adults (N=310; mean age, 79.7 y; 62% women), without disability or dementia. Not applicable. Clinical and functional status as well as activity limitations (able to perform activities of daily living [ADLs] with some difficulty). Of the 310 subjects, 140 reported difficulties in climbing up and 83 in climbing down stairs (59 both). Self-reported difficulty in climbing up stairs was associated with hypertension, arthritis, and depressive symptoms. Difficulty in climbing up stairs was also associated with poor balance and grip strength as well as neurologic gait abnormalities. Subjects with difficulty climbing down stairs had more falls. Both activities were associated with leg claudication, fear of falling, non-neurologic gait abnormalities, and slow gait. Examined individually, self-reported difficulty climbing down stairs captured a wider spectrum of ADL limitations than climbing up stairs. However, combined difficulty in both phases of stair climbing had a stronger association with activity limitations (vs no difficulty; odds ratio, 6.58; 95% confidence interval, 3.35-12.91) than difficulty in any one phase alone. Self-reported difficulty in climbing up and down stairs revealed commonalities as well as differences in related clinical correlates. Difficulty in both climbing up and down stairs should be separately assessed to better capture clinical and functional status in older adults.

  7. Dental Attendance and Self-reported Oral Health Status of Renal Dialysis Patients: A Comparison of Results with the UK Adult Dental Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Djemal, Serpil; Rumjon, Adam; Macdougall, Iain C; Singh, Parmjit; Warnakulasuriya, Saman

    To compare the oral health status of renal patients attending a dialysis unit at a London teaching hospital with an age- and sex-matched sample from the Adult Dental Health Survey UK (ADHS) 2009. Questions adapted from the ADHS 2009 national survey were used to interview renal dialysis patients about their oral health, oral hygiene and dental visits. Any significant differences between the two groups were statistically analysed using the chi-squared (χ2) test. Two hundred renal dialysis patients participated. More renal dialysis patients were edentulous (p < 0.0001) and those who were dentate had fewer teeth (p < 0.0001) compared to the ADHS 2009 participants. Although 12% of the renal dialysis patients had difficulty in finding a dentist, 77% were linked to a dental practice, but fewer reported that they had previously been shown how to brush their teeth compared to the dentate ADHS group (p < 0.0001). The frequency of brushing (twice daily) was similar in the dialysis and ADHS groups. Awareness for good oral health needs to be raised in this group of medically compromised patients regularly attending a hospital unit. The responsibility for achieving this goal needs to be shared by both dialysis teams and oral health care professionals. We suggest an 'oral health toolkit' be made available in dialysis units for both professionals and patients.

  8. Self reported health status, and health service contact, of illicit drug users aged 50 and over: a qualitative interview study in Merseyside, United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Beynon, Caryl M; Roe, Brenda; Duffy, Paul; Pickering, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    Background The populations of industrialised countries are ageing; as this occurs, those who continue to use alcohol and illicit drugs age also. While alcohol use among older people is well documented, use of illicit drugs continues to be perceived as behaviour of young people and is a neglected area of research. This is the first published qualitative research on the experiences of older drug users in the United Kingdom. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Merseyside, in 2008, with drug users aged 50 and over recruited through drug treatment services. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and analysed thematically. Only health status and health service contact are reported here. Results Nine men and one woman were interviewed (age range: 54 to 61 years); all but one had been using drugs continuously or intermittently for at least 30 years. Interviewees exhibited high levels of physical and mental morbidity; hepatitis C was particularly prevalent. Injecting-related damage to arm veins resulted in interviewees switching to riskier injecting practices. Poor mental health was evident and interviewees described their lives as depressing. The death of drug-using friends was a common theme and social isolation was apparent. Interviewees also described a deterioration of memory. Generic healthcare was not always perceived as optimal, while issues relating to drug specific services were similar to those arising among younger cohorts of drug users, for example, complaints about inadequate doses of prescribed medication. Conclusion The concurrent effects of drug use and ageing are not well understood but are thought to exacerbate, or accelerate the onset of, medical conditions which are more prevalent in older age. Here, interviewees had poor physical and mental health but low expectations of health services. Older drug users who are not in contact with services are likely to have greater unmet needs. The number of drug users aged 50 and over is

  9. Health-Related Quality of Life and Functional Status Quality Indicators for Older Persons with Multiple Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Dy, Sydney M.; Pfoh, Elizabeth R.; Salive, Marcel E.; Boyd, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To explore central challenges with translating self-reported measurement tools for functional status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) into ambulatory quality indicators for older people with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). DESIGN Review. SETTING Sources including the National Quality Measures Clearinghouse and National Quality Forum were reviewed for existing ambulatory quality indicators relevant to functional status, HRQOL, and people with MCCs. PARTICIPANTS Seven informants with expertise in indicators using functional status and HRQOL. MEASUREMENTS Informant interviews were conducted to explore knowledge about these types of indicators, particularly usability and feasibility. RESULTS Nine important existing indicators were identified in the review. For process, identified indicators addressed whether providers assessed functional status; outcome indicators addressed quality of life. In interviews, informants agreed that indicators using self-reported data were important in this population. Challenges identified included concerns about usability due to inability to discriminate quality of care adequately between organizations and feasibility concerns regarding high data collection burden, with a correspondingly low response rate. Validity was also a concern because evidence is mixed that healthcare interventions can improve HRQOL or functional status for this population. As a possible first step, a structural standard could be systematic collection of these measures in a specific setting. CONCLUSION Although functional status and HRQOL are important outcomes for older people with MCCs, few relevant ambulatory quality indicators exist, and there are concerns with usability, feasibility, and validity. Further research is needed on how best to incorporate these outcomes into quality indicators for people with MCCs. PMID:24320819

  10. The association of menopause status with physical function: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Lisa A; El Khoudary, Samar R; Young, Elizabeth A; Farhat, Ghada N; Sowers, MaryFran; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Newman, Anne B

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether postmenopause status is associated with self-reported limitations in physical function. The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation is a multisite, multiethnic, longitudinal study of midlife women. Women aged 45 to 57 years (N = 2,566) completed the physical function scale of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 on visit 4 (2000-2001). Scores created a three-category variable of physical function limitations: none (86-100), moderate (51-85), and substantial (0-50). In the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, menopause status is a five-category list variable based on menstrual bleeding patterns and gynecological surgery. Premenopausal and perimenopausal women using hormones (n = 284) or missing physical function scores (n = 46) were excluded. Multinomial logistic regression was used to relate physical function and menopause status after adjustment for age, ethnicity, site, education, body mass index (BMI), and self-reported diabetes, hypertension, arthritis, depressive symptoms, smoking, and hormone use among postmenopausal women. Of 2,236 women, 8% were premenopausal, 51% were early perimenopausal, 12% were late perimenopausal, 24% were naturally postmenopausal, and 5% were surgically postmenopausal. In the full model, substantial limitations in physical function were higher in postmenopausal women, whether naturally postmenopausal (odds ratio, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.46-10.0) or surgically postmenopausal (odds ratio, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.15-10.84), than in premenopausal women. These associations were attenuated by higher BMI and depressive symptoms but remained significant. Moderate limitations in physical function were not significantly related to menopause status. Women experiencing surgical or naturally occurring postmenopause report greater limitations in physical function compared with premenopausal women, independent of age and only partly explained by higher BMI and depressive symptoms. This suggests that

  11. Medications affecting functional status in older persons.

    PubMed

    Corsonello, Andrea; Onder, Graziano; Maggio, Marcello; Corica, Francesco; Lattanzio, Fabrizia

    2014-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that functional status is an important outcome of pharmacologic treatments in older people. At the moment, studies have shown diverse effects of medications on functional status. For example, some have shown potentially detrimental effects, while others have found improvements on physical function in elders. Overall, suboptimal prescribing and the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) may negatively affect functional status. The use of selected drugs acting on central nervous system (CNS), e.g. benzodiazepines and antipsychotics, is generally associated with an increased risk of functional decline. The greater sensitivity of older people to these drugs, together with age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, account for the observed detrimental effect and suggests a cautious approach to older and frail patients when prescribing CNS agents. On the other hand, selected drugs may slow or delay functional decline in older people. In particular, drugs aimed at targeting sarcopenia (loss in muscle mass and strength), such as testosterone in androgen deficiency, ACE-inhibitors, vitamin D and β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate (HMB), as well as the recently developed selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) may hold extreme importance. This review will provide available evidence of the diverse impacts of drug medications on functional status in older persons.

  12. Functional status after childbirth and related concepts.

    PubMed

    Aktan, Nadine M

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between functional status after childbirth and related concepts. The sample consisted of 177 women. The Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ) 85-Part 2, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Inventory of Functional Status After Childbirth (IFSAC) were used to measure variables. Data were collected during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 6 weeks postpartum. Overall, this group had relatively low levels of anxiety and high levels of social support and functional status after childbirth. The STAI demonstrated coefficient alphas from .90 to .93, the PRQ 85-Part 2 .87 to .93, and the IFSAC .90. The relationship between state anxiety in the postpartum period and FSAC (r = -.204, p = .008) was significant. Additional significant findings between social support, anxiety, and subscales of the IFSAC were found. Nurses must understand these relationships to develop and implement effective interventions. This study is clinically relevant to nurses involved in caring for pregnant and postpartum clients.

  13. Neurocognitive complaints and functional status among patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Schmaling, Karen B; Betterton, Karran L

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a longitudinal examination of cognitive complaints and functional status in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) alone and those who also had fibromyalgia (CFS/FM). A total of 93 patients from a tertiary care fatigue clinic were evaluated on four occasions, each 6 months apart. Each evaluation included a tender point assessment, and self-reported functional status and cognitive complaints. Patients with CFS/FM reported significantly worse physical functioning, more bodily pain, and more cognitive difficulties (visuo-perceptual ability and verbal memory) than patients with CFS alone. Over time, bodily pain decreased only for participants with CFS alone. Verbal memory problems were associated with more bodily pain for both patient groups, whereas visuo-perceptual problems were associated with worse functional status for patients with CFS alone. This study adds to the literature on functional status, longitudinal course, and cognitive difficulties among patients with CFS and those with CFS and FM. The results suggest that patients with CFS/FM are more disabled, have more cognitive complaints, and improve more slowly over time than patients with CFS alone. Specific cognitive difficulties are related to worse functional status, which supports the addition of cognitive difficulties to the FM case criteria.

  14. Variations in a university subject pool as a function of earlier or later participation and self-report: a replication and extension.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Larry C; Walsh, R Patricia

    2002-10-01

    The present study replicated and extended earlier research on temporal sampling effects in university subject pools. Data were obtained from 236 participants, 79 men and 157 women, in a university subject pool during a 15-wk. semester. Without knowing the purpose of the study, participants self-selected to participate earlier (Weeks 4 and 5; n = 105) or later (Weeks 14 and 15; n = 131). Three hypotheses were investigated: (1) that the personality patterns of earlier and later participants on the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and the Personality Research Form differ significantly, with earlier participants scoring higher on the latter scales reflecting social responsibility and higher on former Conscientiousness and Neuroticism scales; (2) that there are similar significant differences between participants in the earlier and later groups compared to the male and female college normative samples for the two tests: and (3) that earlier participants will have higher actual Scholastic Assessment Test scores and Grade Point Averages. Also investigated was whether participants' foreknowledge that their actual Scholastic Assessment Test scores and Grade Point Averages would be obtained would affect their accuracy of self-report. In contrast to prior research, neither the first nor second hypothesis was supported by the current study; there do not appear to be consistent differences on personality variables. However, the third hypothesis was supported. Earlier participants had higher actual high school Grade Point Average, college Grade Point Average, and Scholastic Assessment Test Verbal scores. Foreknowledge that actual Scholastic Assessment Test scores and Grade Point Averages would be obtained did not affect the accuracy of self-report. In addition, later participants significantly over-reported their scores, and significantly more women than men and more first-year than senior-year subjects participated in the early group.

  15. The functional barometer -a self-report questionnaire in accordance with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for pain related problems; validity and patient-observer comparisons.

    PubMed

    Norrefalk, Jan-Rickard; Svensson, Elisabeth

    2014-04-24

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, (ICF) provides a unified, international standardized framework for describing and classifying health and health-related functioning and disability. Based on an ICF core sets the Functional Barometer, (FB), was developed for assessments of perceived pain-related problems with functions, activity and quality-of-life by patients suffering from long-term pain. The aim was to evaluate the construct validity, and to compare the assessments of a patient's problems from the perspectives of the patient and of the examining professional when using the validated FB and corresponding ICF-classification form, respectively. Patients with long-term pain for more than 3 months that visited one of four pain clinics during specified time periods of data collections were eligible. The self-report Balanced Inventory for Spinal disorders was used for validation of the FB. Correspondingly to the validated FB an ICF-classification form for professional's assessment was developed. The data sets for these inter-scale and the patient-professional comparisons were collected adjacent to the clinical examination. By the statistical method used for evaluation of the pairs of ordinal data presence of systematic disagreement was identified and measured separately from additional individual variations. The validation process resulted in a revised FB(2.0) that meets the requirements of good construct and content validity. The professionals' ICF-classifications of the patients' problems disagreed with the patients' assessments on the FB(2.0); the percentage agreements ranged from 18% to 51%. The main reason was that the practitioners systematically underestimated the patients' levels of problems but the different professionals contributed also to a large individual variability (noise) in assessment. This study presents an ICF-based validated self-report questionnaire, The FB, to be used for identifying and describing pain

  16. The functional barometer –a self-report questionnaire in accordance with the international classification of functioning, disability and health for pain related problems; validity and patient-observer comparisons

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, (ICF) provides a unified, international standardized framework for describing and classifying health and health-related functioning and disability. Based on an ICF core sets the Functional Barometer, (FB), was developed for assessments of perceived pain-related problems with functions, activity and quality-of-life by patients suffering from long-term pain. The aim was to evaluate the construct validity, and to compare the assessments of a patient’s problems from the perspectives of the patient and of the examining professional when using the validated FB and corresponding ICF-classification form, respectively. Methods Patients with long-term pain for more than 3 months that visited one of four pain clinics during specified time periods of data collections were eligible. The self-report Balanced Inventory for Spinal disorders was used for validation of the FB. Correspondingly to the validated FB an ICF-classification form for professional’s assessment was developed. The data sets for these inter-scale and the patient-professional comparisons were collected adjacent to the clinical examination. By the statistical method used for evaluation of the pairs of ordinal data presence of systematic disagreement was identified and measured separately from additional individual variations. Results The validation process resulted in a revised FB(2.0) that meets the requirements of good construct and content validity. The professionals’ ICF-classifications of the patients’ problems disagreed with the patients’ assessments on the FB(2.0); the percentage agreements ranged from 18% to 51%. The main reason was that the practitioners systematically underestimated the patients’ levels of problems but the different professionals contributed also to a large individual variability (noise) in assessment. Conclusions This study presents an ICF-based validated self-report questionnaire, The FB

  17. [Functional status, morbidity, and mortality of centenarians].

    PubMed

    Arai, Yasumichi; Hirose, Nobuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Prevention or postponement of age-related diseases and functional limitation is the key component of successful aging. We studied centenarians, a model for successful aging in terms of functional status and morbidities. Vast majority of centenarians had chronic disease such as hypertension (63.6%) , heart disease (28.8%) , stroke (15.9%) , fragile fracture (46.4%) , and few centenarians were free from any chronic diseases. Male centenarians had better physical function than female counterparts. Stroke and fragile fracture had negative impacts on their functional status, but hypertension was paradoxically associated with better physical function. When we looked at mortality beyond 100 years of age, physical function, but not morbidity profile had significant impact on their mortality. These results raised a notion that age-related frailty or diminution of functional reserve may be the major cause both for physical disability and poor prognosis of centenarians. Previous results from our study suggested that stability of energy homeostasis, in which neuroendocrine system has a key role, may be important to maintain physical function at the extreme old age.

  18. Health and functional status among older people with HIV/AIDS in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the health and functional status of older people who either themselves are HIV infected or are affected by HIV and AIDS in the family. This aim of this study was to describe health among older people in association with the HIV epidemic. Methods The cross-sectional survey consisted of 510 participants aged 50 years and older, equally divided into five study groups including; 1) HIV infected and on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for at least 1 year; 2) HIV infected and not yet eligible for ART; 3) older people who had lost a child due to HIV/AIDS; 4) older people who have an adult child with HIV/AIDS; 5) older people not known to be infected or affected by HIV in the family. The participants were randomly selected from ongoing studies in a rural and peri-urban area in Uganda. Data were collected using a WHO standard questionnaire and performance tests. Eight indicators of health and functioning were examined in an age-adjusted bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results In total, 198 men and 312 women participated. The overall mean age was 65.8 and 64.5 years for men and women respectively. Men had better self-reported health and functional status than women, as well as lower self-reported prevalence of chronic diseases. In general, health problems were common: 35% of respondents were diagnosed with at least one of the five chronic conditions, including 15% with depression, based on algorithms; 31% of men and 35% of women had measured hypertension; 25% of men and 21% of women had poor vision test results. HIV-positive older people, irrespective of being on ART, and HIV-negative older people in the other study groups had very similar results for most health status and functioning indicators. The main difference was a significantly lower BMI among HIV-infected older people. Conclusion The systematic exploration of health and well being among older people, using eight self-reported and objective health indicators

  19. Aptamer technology for tracking cells' status & function.

    PubMed

    Wiraja, Christian; Yeo, David; Lio, Daniel; Labanieh, Louai; Lu, Mengrou; Zhao, Weian; Xu, Chenjie

    2014-01-01

    In fields such as cancer biology and regenerative medicine, obtaining information regarding cell bio-distribution, tropism, status, and other cellular functions are highly desired. Understanding cancer behaviors including metastasis is important for developing effective cancer treatments, while assessing the fate of therapeutic cells following implantation is critical to validate the efficacy and efficiency of the therapy. For visualization purposes with medical imaging modalities (e.g. magnetic resonance imaging), cells can be labeled with contrast agents (e.g. iron-oxide nanoparticles), which allows their identification from the surrounding environment. Despite the success of revealing cell biodistribution in vivo, most of the existing agents do not provide information about the status and functions of cells following transplantation. The emergence of aptamers, single-stranded RNA or DNA oligonucleotides of 15 to 60 bases in length, is a promising solution to address this need. When aptamers bind specifically to their cognate molecules, they undergo conformational changes which can be transduced into a change of imaging contrast (e.g. optical, magnetic resonance). Thus by monitoring this signal change, researchers can obtain information about the expression of the target molecules (e.g. mRNA, surface markers, cell metabolites), which offer clues regarding cell status/function in a non-invasive manner. In this review, we summarize recent efforts to utilize aptamers as biosensors for monitoring the status and function of transplanted cells. We focus on cancer cell tracking for cancer study, stem cell tracking for regenerative medicine, and immune cell (e.g. dendritic cells) tracking for immune therapy.

  20. Functional Status, Time to Transplantation, and Survival Benefit of Kidney Transplantation Among Wait-Listed Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Peter P.; Shults, Justine; Bloom, Roy D.; Mussell, Adam; Harhay, Meera N.; Abt, Peter; Levine, Matthew; Johansen, Kirsten L.; Karlawish, Jason T.; Feldman, Harold I.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the context of an aging end-stage renal disease population with multiple comorbidities, transplantation professionals face challenges in evaluating the global health of patients awaiting kidney transplantation. Functional status might be useful for identifying which patients will derive a survival benefit from transplantation versus dialysis. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of wait-listed patients using data on functional status from a national dialysis provider linked to United Network for Organ Sharing registry data. Setting & Participants Adult kidney transplant candidates added to the waiting list between the years 2000 and 2006. Predictor Physical function scale of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Healthy Survey, analyzed as a time-varying covariate. Outcomes Kidney transplantation; Survival benefit of transplantation versus remaining wait-listed. Measurements We used multivariable Cox regression to assess the association between physical function with study outcomes. In survival benefit analyses, transplant status was modeled as a time-varying covariate. Results The cohort comprised 19,242 kidney transplant candidates (median age, 51 years; 36% black race) receiving maintenance dialysis. Candidates in the lowest baseline physical function quartile were more likely to be inactivated (adjusted HR vs. highest quartile, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.21-1.39) and less likely to undergo transplantation (adjusted HR vs. highest quartile, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.61-0.68). After transplantation, worse physical function was associated with shorter 3-year survival (84% vs. 92% for the lowest vs. highest function quartiles). However, compared to dialysis, transplantation was associated with a statistically significant survival benefit by 9 months for patients in every function quartile. Limitations Functional status is self-reported. Conclusions Even patients with low function appear to live longer with kidney transplantation versus dialysis. For waitlisted

  1. Self-Reported Difficulty in Climbing Up or Down Stairs in Nondisabled Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Verghese, Joe; Wang, Cuiling; Xue, Xiaonan; Holtzer, Roee

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine clinical and functional correlates of self-reported difficulty in climbing up or climbing down stairs in older adults. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Community sample. Participants Older adults (N=310; mean age, 79.7y; 62% women), without disability or dementia. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Clinical and functional status as well as activity limitations (able to perform activities of daily living [ADLs] with some difficulty). Results Of the 310 subjects, 140 reported difficulties in climbing up and 83 in climbing down stairs (59 both). Self-reported difficulty in climbing up stairs was associated with hypertension, arthritis, and depressive symptoms. Difficulty in climbing up stairs was also associated with poor balance and grip strength as well as neurologic gait abnormalities. Subjects with difficulty climbing down stairs had more falls. Both activities were associated with leg claudication, fear of falling, non-neurologic gait abnormalities, and slow gait. Examined individually, self-reported difficulty climbing down stairs captured a wider spectrum of ADL limitations than climbing up stairs. However, combined difficulty in both phases of stair climbing had a stronger association with activity limitations (vs no difficulty; odds ratio, 6.58; 95% confidence interval, 3.35–12.91) than difficulty in any one phase alone. Conclusions Self-reported difficulty in climbing up and down stairs revealed commonalities as well as differences in related clinical correlates. Difficulty in both climbing up and down stairs should be separately assessed to better capture clinical and functional status in older adults. PMID:18164338

  2. Improved control of osteoarthritis pain and self-reported health status in non-responders to celecoxib switched to rofecoxib: results of PAVIA, an open-label post-marketing survey in Spain.

    PubMed

    Collantes-Estevez, Eduardo; Fernandez-Perez, Cristina

    2003-01-01

    An open-label multicentre study was conducted in primary care centres in Spain to investigate the effect of a switch from celecoxib to rofecoxib among patients with osteoarthritis and to identify factors associated with a good response to rofecoxib treatment. Patients were eligible to participate in this study if their physicians considered that they might benefit from such a change of therapy. A total of 2,228 patients (1481 women) were enrolled in the study: participants' mean age was 66.37 years (SD 9.04). Mean duration of OA was 7.44 (6.38) years. Predominant sites of OA included the knee (1,132 patients, 50.8%), lumbar spine (977 patients, 43.9%) and cervical spine (739 patients, 33.2%). At baseline, most patients (77%) were being prescribed celecoxib 200 mg/day; during the study most (92.5%) received rofecoxib 25 mg/day. The mean interval between switch to rofecoxib and follow-up interview was 33 days. Patients considered the therapeutic response to rofecoxib substantially and significantly superior to that previously obtained with celecoxib for the management of OA-related pain and OA-related health status (p < 0.001). Seventy-two percent of patients classified their response to rofecoxib therapy as 'good' or 'very good' (vs 6.6% of patients at baseline with celecoxib) and 89.3% of patients expressed satisfaction with rofecoxib (vs 28.9% at baseline with celecoxib). Improvements reported in patient self-assessments following rofecoxib therapy were complemented by similar changes in physician perceptions. The number of patients considered by their doctors to have 'good' or 'very good' OA-related health status rose from 10.1% at baseline to 80.0% on completion of rofecoxib therapy. Ancillary indices such as the proportion of patients with self-reported depression were also favourably influenced by the switch to rofecoxib from celecoxib. Determinants of response: Patient characteristics identified in multivariate analysis as predictive of a favourable response

  3. Effects of Hip Strengthening on Neuromuscular Control, Hip Strength, and Self-Reported Functional Deficits in Individuals With Chronic Ankle Instability.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brent I; Docherty, Carrie L; Curtis, Denice

    2017-06-12

    Deficits in ankle and hip strength and lower extremity postural control are associated with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Following strength training, muscle groups demonstrate increased strength. This change is partially credited to improved neuromuscular control and many studies have investigated ankle protocols for subjects with CAI. The effects of isolating hip musculature in strength training protocols in this population is not well understood. Examine the effects of hip strengthening on clinical and self-reported outcomes in patients with CAI. Prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. Athletic Training facility. Twenty-six participants with CAI (12 males and 14 females, 20.9±1.5 years, 170.0±12.7 cm, 77.5±17.5 kg) were randomly assigned to training or control groups. The participants completed either four weeks of supervised hip strengthening (resistance bands 3x/week) or no intervention. Participants were assessed on four clinical measures (Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) in the anterior, posteromedial and posterolateral directions, Balance Error Scoring System (BESS), hip external rotation strength, hip abduction strength) and a patient reported measure (the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) activities of daily living and sports subscales) before and after the four-week training period. The training group displayed significantly improved post-test measures compared with the control group for: hip abduction strength (training 446.3±77.4 N, control 314.7±49.6 N, p < .01), hip external rotation strength (training 222.1±48.7 N, control 169.4±34.6 N, p < .01); SEBT reach in the anterior (training 93.1±7.4%, control 90.2±7.9%, p <.01), posteromedial (training 96.3±8.9 %, control 88.0±8.8 %, p <.01) and posterolateral (training 95.4±11.1%, control 86.6±9.6%, p <.01) directions; BESS total errors (training 9.9±6.3 errors, control 21.2±6.3 errors, p <.01); and FAAM-sports score (training 88.0±12.6, control 84.8±10.9, p <.01

  4. Medication Use and Functional Status Decline in Older Adults: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Peron, Emily P.; Gray, Shelly L.; Hanlon, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To critically review published articles that have examined the relationship between medication use and functional status decline in the elderly. METHODS The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for English-language articles published from January 1986 to December 2010. Search terms included aged, humans, drug utilization, polypharmacy, inappropriate prescribing, anticholinergics, psychotropics, antihypertensives, drug burden index, functional status, function change or decline, activities of daily living, gait, mobility limitation, and disability. A manual search of the reference lists of the identified articles and the authors’ article files, book chapters, and recent reviews was conducted to retrieve additional publications. Only articles that used rigorous observational or interventional designs were included. Cross-sectional studies and case series were excluded from this review. RESULTS Nineteenstudies met the inclusion criteria. Five studies addressed the impact of suboptimal prescribing on function, three of which found an increased risk of worse function in community-dwelling subjects receiving polypharmacy. Three of the four studies that assessed benzodiazepine use and functional status decline found a statistically significant association. One cohort study identified no relationship between antidepressant use and functional status while a randomized trial found that amitriptyline, but not desipramine or paroxetine, impaired certain measures of gait. Two studies found that increasing anticholinergic burden was associated with worse functional status. In a study of hospitalized rehabilitation patients, users of hypnotics/anxiolytics (e.g., phenobarbital, zolpidem) had lower relative Functional Independence Measure motor gains than nonusers. Use of multiple central nervous system (CNS) drugs (using different definitions) was linked to greater declines in self-reported mobility and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) scores in two

  5. Health-related quality of life and functional status quality indicators for older persons with multiple chronic conditions.

    PubMed

    Dy, Sydney M; Pfoh, Elizabeth R; Salive, Marcel E; Boyd, Cynthia M

    2013-12-01

    To explore central challenges with translating self-reported measurement tools for functional status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) into ambulatory quality indicators for older people with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). Review. Sources including the National Quality Measures Clearinghouse and National Quality Forum were reviewed for existing ambulatory quality indicators relevant to functional status, HRQOL, and people with MCCs. Seven informants with expertise in indicators using functional status and HRQOL. Informant interviews were conducted to explore knowledge about these types of indicators, particularly usability and feasibility. Nine important existing indicators were identified in the review. For process, identified indicators addressed whether providers assessed functional status; outcome indicators addressed quality of life. In interviews, informants agreed that indicators using self-reported data were important in this population. Challenges identified included concerns about usability due to inability to discriminate quality of care adequately between organizations and feasibility concerns regarding high data collection burden, with a correspondingly low response rate. Validity was also a concern because evidence is mixed that healthcare interventions can improve HRQOL or functional status for this population. As a possible first step, a structural standard could be systematic collection of these measures in a specific setting. Although functional status and HRQOL are important outcomes for older people with MCCs, few relevant ambulatory quality indicators exist, and there are concerns with usability, feasibility, and validity. Further research is needed on how best to incorporate these outcomes into quality indicators for people with MCCs. © Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  6. Decline in Tested and Self-Reported Cognitive Functioning After Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation for Lung Cancer: Pooled Secondary Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Randomized Trials 0212 and 0214

    SciTech Connect

    Gondi, Vinai; Paulus, Rebecca; Bruner, Deborah W.; Meyers, Christina A.; Gore, Elizabeth M.; Wolfson, Aaron; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Sun, Alexander Y.; Choy, Hak; Movsas, Benjamin

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To assess the impact of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on self-reported cognitive functioning (SRCF), a functional scale on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30). Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0214 randomized patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer to PCI or observation; RTOG 0212 randomized patients with limited-disease small cell lung cancer to high- or standard-dose PCI. In both trials, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT)-Recall and -Delayed Recall and SRCF were assessed at baseline (after locoregional therapy but before PCI or observation) and at 6 and 12 months. Patients developing brain relapse before follow-up evaluation were excluded. Decline was defined using the reliable change index method and correlated with receipt of PCI versus observation using logistic regression modeling. Fisher's exact test correlated decline in SRCF with HVLT decline. Results: Of the eligible patients pooled from RTOG 0212 and RTOG 0214, 410 (93%) receiving PCI and 173 (96%) undergoing observation completed baseline HVLT or EORTC QLQ-C30 testing and were included in this analysis. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was associated with a higher risk of decline in SRCF at 6 months (odds ratio 3.60, 95% confidence interval 2.34-6.37, P<.0001) and 12 months (odds ratio 3.44, 95% confidence interval 1.84-6.44, P<.0001). Decline on HVLT-Recall at 6 and 12 months was also associated with PCI (P=.002 and P=.002, respectively) but was not closely correlated with decline in SRCF at the same time points (P=.05 and P=.86, respectively). Conclusions: In lung cancer patients who do not develop brain relapse, PCI is associated with decline in HVLT-tested and self-reported cognitive functioning. Decline in HVLT and decline in SRCF are not closely correlated, suggesting that they may represent distinct elements of the cognitive spectrum.

  7. Racial and ethnic differences in the relationship between depression severity and functional status.

    PubMed

    Huang, Frederick Y; Chung, Henry; Kroenke, Kurt; Spitzer, Robert L

    2006-04-01

    Major depression has a negative impact on functional status and quality of life, but little is known about racial or ethnic differences in the relationship between depression and functional disability. This study compared the association between depression severity and functional status among three different racial or ethnic groups. Data were from participants in the original Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) Primary Care Study and PHQ Obstetrics-Gynecology Study (N=5,427). Among the study participants, 62.0 percent were non-Hispanic white, 14.8 percent were African American, and 23.1 percent were Latino. Depression severity was assessed with the PHQ-9, the self-administered DSM-IV criteria-based depression module of the PHQ diagnostic instrument for mental disorders. Functional status was measured with the scales of the Medical Outcomes Study 20-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-20), self-reported disability days, clinic visits, and symptom-related difficulty. Groups were compared in terms of mean PHQ-9 scores and functional status at varying levels of depression severity. Linear regression was used to control for age, gender, education level, and language. Mean PHQ-9 scores were not significantly different between the three different racial or ethnic groups. Similar linear associations were found in all three racial or ethnic groups between increasing PHQ-9 scores (more severe depression) and worsening function on the SF-20 scales and an increased number of disability days and clinic visits. Latinos reported significantly less functional impairment on all measures of functionality compared with non-Hispanic whites. Functional impairment increased with increasing levels of depression severity in all three racial or ethnic groups, although Latinos consistently reported fewer functional disturbances compared with non-Hispanic whites.

  8. Self-Reported quality of life in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and executive function impairment treated with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate: a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Adler, Lenard A; Dirks, Bryan; Deas, Patrick; Raychaudhuri, Aparna; Dauphin, Matthew; Saylor, Keith; Weisler, Richard

    2013-10-09

    This study examined the effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) on quality of life (QOL) in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and clinically significant executive function deficits (EFD). This report highlights QOL findings from a 10-week randomized placebo-controlled trial of LDX (30-70 mg/d) in adults (18-55 years) with ADHD and EFD (Behavior Rating Inventory of EF-Adult, Global Executive Composite [BRIEF-A GEC] ≥65). The primary efficacy measure was the self-reported BRIEF-A; a key secondary measure was self-reported QOL on the Adult ADHD Impact Module (AIM-A). The clinician-completed ADHD Rating Scale version IV (ADHD-RS-IV) with adult prompts and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) were also employed. The Adult ADHD QoL (AAQoL) was added while the study was in progress. A post hoc analysis examined the subgroup having evaluable results from both AIM-A and AAQoL. Of 161 randomized (placebo, 81; LDX, 80), 159 were included in the safety population. LDX improved AIM-A multi-item domain scores versus placebo; LS mean difference for Performance and Daily Functioning was 21.6 (ES, 0.93, P<.0001); Impact of Symptoms: Daily Interference was 14.9 (ES, 0.62, P<.0001); Impact of Symptoms: Bother/Concern was 13.5 (ES, 0.57, P=.0003); Relationships/Communication was 7.8 (ES, 0.31, P=.0302); Living With ADHD was 9.1 (ES, 0.79, P<.0001); and General Well-Being was 10.8 (ES, 0.70, P<.0001). AAQoL LS mean difference for total score was 21.0; for subscale: Life Productivity was 21.0; Psychological Health was 12.1; Life Outlook was 12.5; and Relationships was 7.3. In a post hoc analysis of participants with both AIM-A and AAQoL scores, AIM-A multi-item subgroup analysis scores numerically improved with LDX, with smaller difference for Impact of Symptoms: Daily Interference. The safety profile of LDX was consistent with amphetamine use in previous studies. Overall, adults with ADHD/EFD exhibited self-reported improvement on QOL, using the

  9. Validation of Self-Report on Smoking among University Students in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chung Yul; Shin, Sunmi; Lee, Hyeon Kyeong; Hong, Yoon Mi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To validate the self-reported smoking status of Korean university students. Methods: Subjects included 322 Korean university in Korea, who participated in an annual health screening. Data on smoking were collected through a self-reported questionnaire and urine test. The data were analyzed by the McNemar test. Results: In the…

  10. Validation of Self-Report on Smoking among University Students in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chung Yul; Shin, Sunmi; Lee, Hyeon Kyeong; Hong, Yoon Mi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To validate the self-reported smoking status of Korean university students. Methods: Subjects included 322 Korean university in Korea, who participated in an annual health screening. Data on smoking were collected through a self-reported questionnaire and urine test. The data were analyzed by the McNemar test. Results: In the…

  11. Unexpected Long-term Improvements in Urinary and Erectile Function in a Large Cohort of Men with Self-reported Outcomes Following Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Justin K.; Assel, Melissa; Thong, Alan E.; Sjoberg, Daniel D.; Mulhall, John P.; Sandhu, Jaspreet; Vickers, Andrew J.; Ehdaie, Behfar

    2015-01-01

    Background It is generally assumed that if a man does not regain urinary continence or erectile function within 12 mo of radical prostatectomy (RP), then the chance of subsequent recovery is low. Objective To determine the probability of achieving good urinary function (UF) or erectile function (EF) up to 48 mo postoperatively in men who reported poor UF or EF at 12 mo after RP. Design, setting, and participants We identified 3187 patients who underwent RP from 2007 through 2013 at a tertiary institution and had extended multidisciplinary follow-up with patient-reported UF and EF scores at ≥12 mo. Intervention Open or minimally invasive RP. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Primary outcome was good UF as defined by a urinary score ≥17 (range: 0–21) or good EF as defined by a modified International Index of Erectile Function-6 score ≥22 (range: 1–30). The probability of functional recovery beyond 12 mo was determined by Kaplan-Meier analyses. Results and limitations Among patients incontinent at 12 mo, the probability of achieving good UF at 24, 36, and 48 mo was 30%, 49%, and 59%. In patients experiencing erectile dysfunction at 12 mo, the probability of recovering EF at 24, 36, and 48 mo was 22%, 32%, and 40%. On multivariable analyses, 12-mo functional score and age were associated with recovery, but only score was consistently significant. Conclusions Men with incontinence or erectile dysfunction at 12 mo have higher than anticipated rates of subsequent functional improvement. Probability of recovery is strongly influenced by score at 12 mo. Further research should address the impact of ongoing multidisciplinary follow-up care on our observed rates of recovery. Patient summary Many prostate cancer patients continue to recover urinary and erectile function after 12 mo. The level of functional recovery by 12 mo is associated with long-term recovery and should be discussed by the physician and patient when deciding on rehabilitative

  12. Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement Ameliorates the Impact of Pain on Self-Reported Psychological and Physical Function Among Opioid-Using Chronic Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric L.; Thomas, Elizabeth; Howard, Matthew O.

    2014-01-01

    Context Chronic pain impacts one-third of the U.S. population, and its effects are debilitating for individuals and costly to the medical system. Although opioids are commonly prescribed to address chronic pain, they confer risk for misuse and addiction, and may not fully restore life function – particularly with regard to psychosocial factors. Because of the multiplicity of impacts that chronic pain may have on daily functioning, broad-spectrum behavioral interventions are needed. Objectives The purpose of this study was to conduct follow-up analyses from a pilot randomized controlled trial of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE) to assess specific effects of MORE on various biopsychosocial aspects of pain-related impairment. Methods Chronic pain patients (N=115; mean age 48±14 years; 68% female) were randomly assigned to either eight weeks of MORE or to a support group (SG). Domains of pain-related functional interference were measured with the Brief Pain Inventory at pre- and post-treatment, and at a three-month follow-up. Treatment effects were analyzed with multivariate intention-to-treat models. Results MORE participants reported significantly greater reductions in functional interference than SG participants at post-treatment across all domains, including: general activity, mood, walking ability, normal work, relationships, sleep, and enjoyment of life. These effects were largely maintained by the three-month follow-up; however, general activity level and walking ability were no longer significant, indicating differential long-term effects between physiological and psychological functioning. Conclusion Findings demonstrate preliminary efficacy of MORE as a treatment for pain-related functional impairments, and suggest that effects may be more pronounced and durable for aspects of psychological function. PMID:24780180

  13. Relationship of executive function and educational status with functional balance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Voos, Mariana Callil; Custódio, Elaine Bazilio; Malaquias, Joel

    2011-01-01

    The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) is frequently used to assess functional balance in older adults. The relationship of executive function and level of education with the BBS performance has not been described. The aim of this study was to determine whether (1) the performance on a task requiring executive function (part B of the Trail Making Test, TMT-B) influences results of motor and cognitive tests and (2) the number of years of formal education could be related to performance on BBS in older adults. We also explored whether there would be differences, based on performance on TMT-B (high vs low) in motor function (BBS, the timed up and go [TUG]) or cognitive function (TMT-A and TMTDELTA), the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), as well as years of education. Participants included 101 older adults (age range, 60-80 years) residing in São Paulo, Brazil. Functional balance was assessed using BBS and TUG. Executive function was assessed using the TMT and MMSE. Educational status was determined by self-report of participant's total number of years of formal education. The BBS scores were inversely related to TMT-A time (r = -0.63, r = 0.40, P < .001) and TMT-B time (r = -0.56, r = 0.31, P < .001). There was a similar relationship with TMTDELTA (r = -0.47, r = 0.22, P < .001). The BBS scores were positively correlated to years of formal education (r = 0.48, r = 0.23, P < .001). There was a ceiling effect on the TMT-B, with many individuals reaching maximum score of 300 seconds. Participants with high levels of executive function had higher BBS and MMSE scores, more education, and lower TMT-A, TMTDELTA and TUG scores (P < .001) than the lower functioning group. Individuals with higher capacity on tasks requiring visuospatial abilities, psychomotor speed, and executive function, such as the TMT, had better performance on BBS. Individuals with a high executive function, measured by TMT-B, also performed better on other motor and cognitive tests.

  14. Psychometric properties of questionnaires on functional health status in oropharyngeal dysphagia: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Speyer, Renée; Cordier, Reinie; Kertscher, Berit; Heijnen, Bas J

    2014-01-01

    Questionnaires on Functional Health Status (FHS) are part of the assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of English-language FHS questionnaires in adults with oropharyngeal dysphagia. A systematic search was performed using the electronic databases Pubmed and Embase. The psychometric properties of the questionnaires were determined based on the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties and definitions for health-related patient-reported outcomes and the COSMIN checklist using preset psychometric criteria. Three questionnaires were included: the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10), the Swallowing Outcome after Laryngectomy (SOAL), and the Self-report Symptom Inventory. The Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ) proved to be identical to the Modified Self-report Symptom Inventory. All FHS questionnaires obtained poor overall methodological quality scores for most measurement properties. The retrieved FHS questionnaires need psychometric reevaluation; if the overall methodological quality shows satisfactory improvement on most measurement properties, the use of the questionnaires in daily clinic and research can be justified. However, in case of insufficient validity and/or reliability scores, new FHS questionnaires need to be developed using and reporting on preestablished psychometric criteria as recommended in literature.

  15. Psychometric Properties of Questionnaires on Functional Health Status in Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Speyer, Renée; Cordier, Reinie; Kertscher, Berit; Heijnen, Bas J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Questionnaires on Functional Health Status (FHS) are part of the assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Objective. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of English-language FHS questionnaires in adults with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Methods. A systematic search was performed using the electronic databases Pubmed and Embase. The psychometric properties of the questionnaires were determined based on the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties and definitions for health-related patient-reported outcomes and the COSMIN checklist using preset psychometric criteria. Results. Three questionnaires were included: the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10), the Swallowing Outcome after Laryngectomy (SOAL), and the Self-report Symptom Inventory. The Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ) proved to be identical to the Modified Self-report Symptom Inventory. All FHS questionnaires obtained poor overall methodological quality scores for most measurement properties. Conclusions. The retrieved FHS questionnaires need psychometric reevaluation; if the overall methodological quality shows satisfactory improvement on most measurement properties, the use of the questionnaires in daily clinic and research can be justified. However, in case of insufficient validity and/or reliability scores, new FHS questionnaires need to be developed using and reporting on preestablished psychometric criteria as recommended in literature. PMID:24877095

  16. Local Information Processing in Adults with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome: The Usefulness of Neuropsychological Tests and Self-Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spek, Annelies A.; Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    2011-01-01

    Local information processing in 42 adults with high functioning autism, 41 adults with Asperger syndrome and 41 neurotypical adults was examined. Contrary to our expectations, the disorder groups did not outperform the neurotypical group in the neuropsychological measures of local information processing. In line with our hypotheses, the…

  17. Behavioral and Emotional Problems in High-Functioning Girls and Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Parents' Reports and Adolescents' Self-Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisula, Ewa; Pudlo, Monika; Slowinska, Monika; Kawa, Rafal; Strzaska, Magdalena; Banasiak, Anna; Wolanczyk, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate sex differences in behavioral and emotional problems in high-functioning girls and boys with autism spectrum disorder. The results obtained by adolescents with autism spectrum disorder were compared with those of typically developing girls and boys. Correlations between parents' and adolescents' ratings…

  18. Local Information Processing in Adults with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome: The Usefulness of Neuropsychological Tests and Self-Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spek, Annelies A.; Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    2011-01-01

    Local information processing in 42 adults with high functioning autism, 41 adults with Asperger syndrome and 41 neurotypical adults was examined. Contrary to our expectations, the disorder groups did not outperform the neurotypical group in the neuropsychological measures of local information processing. In line with our hypotheses, the…

  19. Self-Reported Emotional and Behavioral Problems, Family Functioning and Parental Bonding among Psychiatric Outpatient Adolescent Offspring of Croatian Male Veterans with Partial PTSD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarajlic Vukovic, Iris; Boricevic Maršanic, Vlatka; Aukst Margetic, Branka; Paradžik, Ljubica; Vidovic, Domagoj; Buljan Flander, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in male veterans has been linked with impaired family relationships and psychopathology in their children. Less is known about symptoms in children of veterans with partial PTSD. Objective: To compare mental health problems, family functioning and parent-child bonding among adolescent offspring of…

  20. A Derived Transfer of Simple Discrimination and Self-Reported Arousal Functions in Spider Fearful and Non-Spider-Fearful Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, Sinead; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Forsyth, John P.

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the derived transfer of functions through equivalence relations established using a stimulus pairing observation procedure. In Experiment 1, participants were trained on a simple discrimination (A1+/A2-) and then a stimulus pairing observation procedure was used to establish 4 stimulus pairings (A1-B1, A2-B2, B1-C1,…

  1. Self-Reported Emotional and Behavioral Problems, Family Functioning and Parental Bonding among Psychiatric Outpatient Adolescent Offspring of Croatian Male Veterans with Partial PTSD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarajlic Vukovic, Iris; Boricevic Maršanic, Vlatka; Aukst Margetic, Branka; Paradžik, Ljubica; Vidovic, Domagoj; Buljan Flander, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in male veterans has been linked with impaired family relationships and psychopathology in their children. Less is known about symptoms in children of veterans with partial PTSD. Objective: To compare mental health problems, family functioning and parent-child bonding among adolescent offspring of…

  2. A Derived Transfer of Simple Discrimination and Self-Reported Arousal Functions in Spider Fearful and Non-Spider-Fearful Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, Sinead; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Forsyth, John P.

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the derived transfer of functions through equivalence relations established using a stimulus pairing observation procedure. In Experiment 1, participants were trained on a simple discrimination (A1+/A2-) and then a stimulus pairing observation procedure was used to establish 4 stimulus pairings (A1-B1, A2-B2, B1-C1,…

  3. Performance of Comorbidity, Risk Adjustment, and Functional Status Measures in Expenditure Prediction for Patients With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Maciejewski, Matthew L.; Liu, Chuan-Fen; Fihn, Stephan D.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To compare the ability of generic comorbidity and risk adjustment measures, a diabetes-specific measure, and a self-reported functional status measure to explain variation in health care expenditures for individuals with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—This study included a retrospective cohort of 3,092 diabetic veterans participating in a multisite trial. Two comorbidity measures, four risk adjusters, a functional status measure, a diabetes complication count, and baseline expenditures were constructed from administrative and survey data. Outpatient, inpatient, and total expenditure models were estimated using ordinary least squares regression. Adjusted R2 statistics and predictive ratios were compared across measures to assess overall explanatory power and explanatory power of low- and high-cost subgroups. RESULTS—Administrative data–based risk adjusters performed better than the comorbidity, functional status, and diabetes-specific measures in all expenditure models. The diagnostic cost groups (DCGs) measure had the greatest predictive power overall and for the low- and high-cost subgroups, while the diabetes-specific measure had the lowest predictive power. A model with DCGs and the diabetes-specific measure modestly improved predictive power. CONCLUSIONS—Existing generic measures can be useful for diabetes-specific research and policy applications, but more predictive diabetes-specific measures are needed. PMID:18945927

  4. Performance of comorbidity, risk adjustment, and functional status measures in expenditure prediction for patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Maciejewski, Matthew L; Liu, Chuan-Fen; Fihn, Stephan D

    2009-01-01

    To compare the ability of generic comorbidity and risk adjustment measures, a diabetes-specific measure, and a self-reported functional status measure to explain variation in health care expenditures for individuals with diabetes. This study included a retrospective cohort of 3,092 diabetic veterans participating in a multisite trial. Two comorbidity measures, four risk adjusters, a functional status measure, a diabetes complication count, and baseline expenditures were constructed from administrative and survey data. Outpatient, inpatient, and total expenditure models were estimated using ordinary least squares regression. Adjusted R(2) statistics and predictive ratios were compared across measures to assess overall explanatory power and explanatory power of low- and high-cost subgroups. Administrative data-based risk adjusters performed better than the comorbidity, functional status, and diabetes-specific measures in all expenditure models. The diagnostic cost groups (DCGs) measure had the greatest predictive power overall and for the low- and high-cost subgroups, while the diabetes-specific measure had the lowest predictive power. A model with DCGs and the diabetes-specific measure modestly improved predictive power. Existing generic measures can be useful for diabetes-specific research and policy applications, but more predictive diabetes-specific measures are needed.

  5. Baseline Self-Reported Functional Health and Vulnerability to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder after Combat Deployment: Prospective US Military Cohort Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-26

    biostatistician,1 Timothy S Wells, medical chief epidemiologist,2 Margaret A K Ryan, occupational and preventive medicine physician3 for the Millennium Cohort...behavioural and occupational characteristics related to military service that might be associated with adverse health.20 21 The invited cohort was ran...tary occupation (combat specialist, healthcare specia- list, functional support, and others). As service members exposed to combat are at the highest

  6. Autonomic function, as self-reported on the SCOPA-autonomic questionnaire, is normal in essential tremor but not in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Damian, Anne; Adler, Charles H.; Hentz, Joseph G.; Shill, Holly A.; Caviness, John N.; Sabbagh, Marwan N.; Evidente, Virgilio G.H.; Beach, Thomas G.; Driver-Dunckley, Erika

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare autonomic function of subjects with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET) relative to controls. Background It has been reported that patients with PD have autonomic dysfunction while no literature exists regarding autonomic function in ET. Methods Subjects with PD, ET, and controls had autonomic function measured using the SCOPA-Autonomic questionnaire, with the total and domain scores transformed to a scale of 0–100 points. Results 62 subjects with PD, 84 with ET, and 291 controls were included. Women were more prevalent in control (69%) compared to PD (44%) and ET (44%) groups, and mean age was significantly younger in PD (73 yrs) and older in ET (83) compared to controls (81). The mean SCOPA-Aut Total score in PD was significantly higher than controls, with no difference in ET. No autonomic dysfunction was found in any domain in ET but in PD there were significant abnormalities in gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, and thermoregulatory domains. Individual question data revealed a significantly higher percentage of subjects with dysfunction on 11/23 questions in the PD group but only 1 question (sialorrhea) in the ET group compared with controls. Conclusion Autonomic scores, particularly gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, and thermoregulatory were increased in patients with PD, as assessed by SCOPA-Aut. Patients with ET did not exhibit autonomic dysfunction, with the exception of sialorrhea. PMID:22771283

  7. Development and Preliminary Psychometric Evaluation of a Brief Self-Report Questionnaire for the Assessment of the DSM-5 level of Personality Functioning Scale: The LPFS Brief Form (LPFS-BF).

    PubMed

    Hutsebaut, Joost; Feenstra, Dine J; Kamphuis, Jan H

    2016-04-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) alternative model for personality disorders (PDs) introduced a new paradigm for the assessment of PDs that includes levels of personality functioning indexing the severity of personality pathology irrespective of diagnosis. In this study, we describe the development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of a newly developed brief self-report questionnaire to assess levels of personality functioning, the Level of Personality Functioning Scale-Brief Form (LPFS-BF; Bender, Morey, & Skodol, 2011). Patients (N = 240) referred to a specialized setting for the assessment and treatment of PDs completed the LPFS-BF, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI; Derogatis, 1975), the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118; Verheul et al., 2008), and were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Personality Disorders (SCID-I; APA, 1994; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1997) and the SCID Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, Williams, & Benjamin, 1996). When constrained to a 2-factor oblique solution, the LPFS-BF yielded a structure that corresponded well to an interpretation of Self- and Interpersonal Functioning scales. The instrument demonstrated fair to satisfactory internal consistency and promising construct validity. The LPFS-BF constitutes a short, user-friendly instrument that provides a quick impression of the severity of personality pathology, specifically oriented to the DSM-5 model. Clearly, more research is needed to test its validity and clinical utility. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Pain as a Barrier to Human Performance: A Focus on Function for Self-Reporting Pain With the Defense Veterans Pain Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Buckenmaier, Chester C; Galloway, Kevin T; Polomano, Rosemary C; Deuster, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    The intense physical demands and dangerous operational environments common to Special Operations Forces (SOF) result in a variety of painful conditions, including musculoskeletal pain, headaches, and acute and chronic pain from combat injuries. Pain is a wellaccepted barrier to human performance. The Pain Management Task Force and the development of the Defense Veterans Pain Rating Scale (DVPRS) are discussed to provide a framework for changing the culture of pain management away from intensity of pain to interference with function and performance. The emergence of complementary and integrative pain management (CIM) practices is briefly reviewed as viable alternatives to the traditional reliance on opioids and other prescription medications. The SOF community can be the change agent for the DVPRS and CIM approaches to pain management, which will in the end serve to accelerate recovery and return SOF operators to duty faster and with an enhanced ability to perform with less pain. 2016.

  9. Major motor-functional determinants associated with poor self-reported health-related quality of life in myasthenia gravis patients.

    PubMed

    Cioncoloni, David; Casali, Stefania; Ginanneschi, Federica; Carone, Marisa; Veronica, Boni; Rossi, Alessandro; Giannini, Fabio

    2016-05-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune neuromuscular disorder in which disabling muscle weakness may affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to investigate which common motor-functional deficits and corresponding severity are most determinant of poor HRQoL in these patients. In 41 patients, the dichotomized first item of the Italian Myasthenia Gravis Questionnaire (IMGQ), categorizing patients who report "good" and "poor" HRQoL, was chosen as dependent-outcome variable. All items composing the myasthenia gravis-specific scale (MG-ADL), i.e. talking, chewing, swallowing, breathing, impairment of ability to brush teeth or comb hair, impairment of ability to rise from chair, double vision, and eyelid droop were acquired as independent variables and dichotomized. Stepwise backward LR multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. In addition, the main characteristics of patients were compared. MG-ADL items "chewing" ≥1, i.e. "fatigue chewing solid food", and "breathing" ≥2, i.e. "shortness of breath at rest" proved to be significant determinants. Higher dose of corticosteroid therapy was significantly (p = 0.027; r s  = -0.35), correlated with poor HRQoL. At diagnosis, a decremental response to repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) from the abductor pollicis brevis was significantly more frequent in patients with poor HRQoL. In conclusion, impaired "chewing" and "breathing" functions indicate the need for careful planning of rehabilitation, re-education and patient management. Moreover, decremental response to RNS at diagnosis may identify patients at risk for poor HRQoL.

  10. A method to provide a more efficient and reliable measure of self-report physical work capacity for patients with spinal pain.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Leonard; Mayer, John; Mooney, Vert; Sarkin, Andrew; Dreisinger, Theodore; Verna, Joe; Leggett, Scott

    2008-03-01

    Self-report measures of functional ability are commonly used in occupational rehabilitation to measure the current status of an individual and his or her progress in response to intervention. Most of these measures have been developed using classical test theory that does not provide calibration of the items. Methods of test development that originated in the field of Education have been applied recently to healthcare measures, providing item calibration and allowing proportional evaluation of total scores. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the application of these methods in the revision of an existing self-report measure. The potential value of these methods to improve established measures is demonstrated.

  11. Behavioral approach system activity and self-reported somatic symptoms in fibromyalgia: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Becerra-García, Juan A; Robles Jurado, Manuel J

    2014-01-01

    The first objective was to investigate the behavioural activity in the systems of Gray's theory; these are the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) and Behavioural Approach System (BAS), in fibromyalgia (FM) patients. The second aim was to assess in FM patients whether there is an association between BIS or BAS with self-reported somatic symptoms. Twenty FM patients and 20 healthy controls completed questionnaire measures of BIS and BAS activity (Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire), self-reported somatic symptoms (Somatic Symptoms Scale Revised), positive and negative affect (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) and health status (EuroQoL Visual Analogue Scale). The results showed that FM patients had lower Sensitivity to Reward (SR) scores than controls. The SR score correlated with different somatic symptoms groups. The partial correlation (controlling for other variables measured) showed that the SR score correlated specifically with musculoskeletal symptoms. Furthermore, in regression analysis, SR score significantly predicted musculoskeletal symptoms, after controlling for other variables measured in this study. Our findings suggest that FM patients show BAS hypoactivity. This BAS activity in FM is similar to patients with depression, where a lower BAS functioning has also been found. The BAS activity predicts the musculoskeletal self-reported symptoms in FM better than other measures included in this study. Although this is a preliminary study, it suggests the importance of BAS activity in FM.

  12. Bringing functional status into a big data world: Validation of national Veterans Affairs functional status data.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rebecca T; Komaiko, Kiya D; Shi, Ying; Fung, Kathy Z; Boscardin, W John; Au-Yeung, Alvin; Tarasovsky, Gary; Jacob, Riya; Steinman, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    The ability to perform basic daily activities ("functional status") is key to older adults' quality of life and strongly predicts health outcomes. However, data on functional status are seldom collected during routine clinical care in a way that makes them available for clinical use and research. To validate functional status data that Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers recently started collecting during routine clinical care, compared to the same data collected in a structured research setting. Prospective validation study. Seven VA medical centers that collected complete data on 5 activities of daily living (ADLs) and 8 instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) from older patients attending primary care appointments. Randomly selected patients aged 75 and older who had new ADL and IADL data collected during a primary care appointment (N = 252). We oversampled patients with ADL dependence and applied these sampling weights to our analyses. Telephone-based interviews using a validated measure to assess the same 5 ADLs and 8 IADLs. Mean age was 83 years, 96% were male, and 75% were white. Of 85 participants whom VA data identified as dependent in 1 or more ADLs, 74 (87%) reported being dependent by interview; of 167 whom VA data identified as independent in ADLs, 149 (89%) reported being independent. The sample-weighted sensitivity of the VA data for identifying ADL dependence was 45% (95% CI, 29%, 62%) compared to the reference standard, the specificity was 99% (95% CI, 99%, >99%), and the positive predictive value was 87% (95% CI, 79%, 93%). The weighted kappa statistic was 0.55 (95% CI, 0.41, 0.68) for the agreement between VA data and research-collected data in identifying ADL dependence. Overall agreement of VA functional status data with a reference standard was moderate, with fair sensitivity but high specificity and positive predictive value.

  13. Self-Report Measures of Family Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Robert G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes and compares two self-report measures of family competence: the Family Awareness Scales (FAS) (Green and Kolevzon, late 1970s) and the Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI) (Beavers, 1983). Discusses reliability and validity. Their focus on the "insider" (family member) is different from the traditional examination of family…

  14. On the Use of Self-Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hample, Dale

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the case against and for verbal self-reports, then attempts a balanced assessment. Also critiques recent argumentation studies. (Examples of self-reports include disclosures under psychoanalysis, thinking aloud protocols of undergraduates reading a message, oral choices made in perceptual judgment tasks, marks on a Likert scale.) (PD)

  15. Informal Caregiving and Self-Reported Mental and Physical Health: Results From the Gazel Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonnaud, Sophie; Boumendil, Ariane; Andrieu, Sandrine; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Ankri, Joël

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether, and under what conditions, informal caregiving is associated with improved self-reported physical and mental health, most notably in terms of cognitive functioning. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 2008 data from the Gazel Cohort Study, which involved 10 687 men and women aged 54 to 70 years. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between self-reported health and caregiving status and burden. Results. Regular caregivers with the highest burden scores reported significantly worse health status than did noncaregivers for almost all of the physical and mental outcomes evaluated after adjustment for potential confounding factors. In particular, they reported more cognitive complaints (odds ratio [OR] = 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21, 1.73). Conversely, caregivers with the lowest burden scores reported better perceived health status, less physical and mental tiredness, and fewer depressive symptoms (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.37, 0.68) than did noncaregivers; however, they did not report decreases in cognitive difficulties (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.81, 1.18). Conclusions. Our findings support the hypothesis that caregiving can have positive effects on health, provided that caregiving activities themselves are not too heavy a burden. PMID:21493948

  16. The effectiveness of low-level laser therapy on pain, self-reported hand function, and grip strength compared to placebo or "sham" treatment for adults with carpal tunnel syndrome: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Burger, Marlette; Kriel, Réna; Damon, Andrea; Abel, Amy; Bansda, Anisha; Wakens, Marinique; Ernstzen, Dawn

    2017-03-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is one of the most common peripheral neuropathies in the upper extremity. The aim of this review was to systematically and critically appraise the available literature for the effectiveness of Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) on pain, self-reported hand function, and grip strength compared to placebo treatment in adults with CTS. Seven databases were searched from 2000 to March 2015 namely: Cinahl, Cochrane Library, EBSCOhost, PEDro, PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus. Key search terms were: CTS, LLLT, and physiotherapy. Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. The methodological quality was appraised with the PEDro scale. Data were extracted and captured on an Excel spreadsheet. The nine included randomized control trials (RCTs) had an average score of 8.2/11 according to the PEDro scale. The heterogeneity of the LLLT regimes used made statistical pooling inappropriate for this review and results were described narratively. No strong evidence exists concerning the effects of LLLT on CTS in adults. Studies that used 780-860 nm Lasers and energy dosages of 9-11 J/cm(2) or 10.8 J reported a more favorable outcome for pain, symptom severity, and functional ability as well as grip strength at the end of treatment and short-term follow up.

  17. Anxiety levels in clinically referred children and their parents: examining the unique influence of self-reported attachment styles and interview-based reflective functioning in mothers and fathers.

    PubMed

    Esbjørn, Barbara H; Pedersen, Signe H; Daniel, Sarah I F; Hald, Helle H; Holm, Jon M; Steele, Howard

    2013-11-01

    Although much is known about childhood anxiety disorders, the differential contributions by mothers and fathers to child anxiety is poorly understood. This study examined the relation between child anxiety and parental level of psychopathology, attachment style, and reflective functioning (RF). Thirty-eight clinically anxious children aged 7-12 years (55.3% female) referred for treatment and their parents (37 mothers, 34 fathers) participated in the study. Reflective functioning was coded based on Adult Attachment Interviews. Self-report questionnaires on attachment and psychopathology were administered. Paternal psychopathology, attachment avoidance, and attachment anxiety as well as maternal attachment anxiety were associated with child anxiety. Mothers had higher RF abilities than fathers. Lower levels of RF in mothers and higher levels of attachment avoidance in fathers explained 42% of the variance in anxiety levels of the child. Mothers and fathers may provide unique contributions to the development of child anxiety. The findings highlight the importance of considering fathers as well as mothers in research and treatment for childhood anxiety disorders. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  18. A longitudinal study of quality of life and functional status in total hip and total knee replacement patients.

    PubMed

    Mandzuk, Lynda L; McMillan, Diana E; Bohm, Eric R

    2015-05-01

    Primary total hip and primary total knee surgeries are commonly performed to improve patients' quality of life and functional status. This longitudinal retrospective study (N = 851) examined self-reported quality of life and functional status over the preoperative and postoperative periods: 12 months prior to surgery, one month prior to surgery and 12 months following surgery. A linear mixed effects model was used to analyze the changes in quality of life and functional status over the sampling period. Patients in the convenience sample reported improvements in quality of life and functional status utilizing the SF-12 and Oxford Hip and Oxford Knee, although differences were noted by procedure and gender. Total hip patients tended to demonstrate greater improvement than total knee patients and males reported higher levels of physical and mental quality of life as well as functional status when compared to females. Of particular note was that mental health scores were consistently lower in both total hip and total knee replacement patients across the perioperative period and up to one year postoperative. This study identifies an opportunity for health care providers to proactively address the mental health of total hip and total knee replacement patients throughout their joint replacement trajectory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neuropsychological performance in patients with schizophrenia and controls as a function of cigarette smoking status

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Victoria C.; Bacher, Ingrid; Sacco, Kristi A.; George, Tony P.

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with many neurocognitive deficits, some of which are improved by nicotine and cigarette smoking. To better understand the relationship between smoking and cognitive function in schizophrenia, cross-sectional assessment of neuropsychological performance as a function of smoking status (smoker or non-smoker) and smoking history (current, former or never-smoker) in clinically-stable outpatients with schizophrenia and controls was evaluated. Subjects (N=140) were divided into subgroups on the basis of self-report and biochemical verification of smoking history. Current smokers with schizophrenia (n=38), former smokers with schizophrenia (n=17), never-smokers with schizophrenia (n=12), control smokers (n=31), control former smokers (n=16), and control never-smokers (n=26) were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Smokers were studied under non-deprivation conditions. Comparison of neuropsychological performance in schizophrenia and control subjects revealed significant main effects of diagnosis. Analysis of the data as a function of smoking history demonstrated that never-smokers with schizophrenia performed the poorest on measures of sustained attention, processing speed and response inhibition, when compared to the other schizophrenia subgroups. Cigarette smoking did not alter neuropsychological performance in controls. Our findings suggest that smoking status and history differentially alters neuropsychological outcomes in schizophrenia compared to non-psychiatric controls, and that never-smokers may present with more severe neurocognitive impairments. PMID:21669462

  20. Are dieting-related cognitive impairments a function of iron status?

    PubMed

    Green, Michael W; Elliman, Nicola A

    2013-01-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the impairments in cognitive function observed in unsupported dieting are related to compromised Fe status. During a non-clinical intervention, overweight participants (age: 18-45 years, BMI: 25-30 kg/m²) either participated in a commercially available weight-loss regimen (n 14), dieted without support (n 17) or acted as a non-dieting control group (n 14) for a period of 8 weeks. Measurements of cognitive function and blood chemistry were taken at a pre-diet baseline, after 1 week and 8 weeks of dieting. After 1 week, unsupported dieters displayed impaired verbal memory, executive function and slower reaction speeds than the other two groups, this difference disappearing by the end of the study. There were no significant group-related changes in blood chemistry over the course of the study, although there were group-related changes in a number of self-reported food-related cognitions. In conclusion, impaired cognition among unsupported dieters is not due to compromised Fe status and is most likely to result from psychological variables.

  1. Self-reported Rates of Interpersonal Conflict Vary as a Function of Questionnaire Format: Why Age-related Trends in Disagreement (and Other Events) May Not be What They Seem

    PubMed Central

    Dirghangi, Shrija; Laursen, Brett; Puder, Justin; Bjorklund, Dave; DeLay, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Two studies examine whether self-reports of interpersonal conflict differ as a function of how the question is asked. In Study 1, 56 U.S. college students (M=20.7 years) completed different versions of a questionnaire, four times, at one week intervals. Participants reported more conflicts with the aid of memory prompts than without, an effect that was especially strong when questions focused on events from the previous day. In Study 2, 123 middle-school students (M=11.08 years) and 128 primary school students (M=8.2 years) from the same region completed one of two questionnaires describing conflict during the previous day. Children reported more conflicts with memory prompts than without. The effect was twice as strong for younger children than older children. The findings suggest that increases in reports of conflict across the transition into adolescence may be due to improvements in the ability to recall and recount events in the absence of memory cues. PMID:25086497

  2. The Incremental Validity of Average State Self-Reports Over Global Self-Reports of Personality.

    PubMed

    Finnigan, Katherine M; Vazire, Simine

    2017-03-09

    Personality traits are most often assessed using global self-reports of one's general patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behavior. However, recent theories have challenged the idea that global self-reports are the best way to assess traits. Whole Trait Theory postulates that repeated measures of a person's self-reported personality states (i.e., the average of many state self-reports) can be an alternative and potentially superior way of measuring a person's trait level (Fleeson & Jayawickreme, 2015). Our goal is to examine the validity of average state self-reports of personality for measuring between-person differences in what people are typically like. In order to validate average states as a measure of personality, we examine whether they are incrementally valid in predicting informant reports above and beyond global self-reports. In 2 samples, we find that average state self-reports tend to correlate with informant reports, although this relationship is weaker than the relationship between global self-reports and informant reports. Further, using structural equation modeling, we find that average state self-reports do not significantly predict informant reports independently of global self-reports. Our results suggest that average state self-reports may not contain information about between-person differences in personality traits beyond what is captured by global self-reports, and that average state self-reports may contain more self-bias than is commonly believed. We discuss the implications of these findings for research on daily manifestations of personality and the accuracy of self-reports. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Self-reported prevalence, description and management of pain in adults with haemophilia: methods, demographics and results from the Pain, Functional Impairment, and Quality of life (P-FiQ) study.

    PubMed

    Witkop, M; Neff, A; Buckner, T W; Wang, M; Batt, K; Kessler, C M; Quon, D; Boggio, L; Recht, M; Baumann, K; Gut, R Z; Cooper, D L; Kempton, C L

    2017-07-01

    Haemophilia is characterized by frequent haemarthrosis, leading to acute/chronic joint pain. To assess self-reported prevalence, description and management of pain in adult males with mild-to-severe haemophilia and history of joint pain/bleeding. Participants completed a pain survey and five patient-reported outcome instruments assessing pain, functional impairment and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Of 381 participants enrolled, median age was 34 years; 77% had haemophilia A, 71% had severe disease and 65% were overweight/obese. Many (56%) were not receiving routine infusions; 30% never received routine infusions. During the prior 6 months, 20% experienced acute pain, 34% chronic pain and 32% both acute/chronic pain. Subjects with both acute/chronic pain (vs. none, acute or chronic) were more likely to be depressed (30% vs. 0-15%), obese (35% vs. 20-29%) and have lower HRQoL (mean EQ-5D visual analog scale, 69 vs. 83-86) and function (median overall Hemophilia Activities List, 60 vs. 88-99). Most common analgesics used for acute/chronic pain during the prior 6 months were acetaminophen (62%/55%) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (34%/49%); most common non-pharmacologic strategies were ice (65%/33%) and rest (51%/33%). Hydrocodone-acetaminophen was the most common opioid for both acute/chronic pain (30%); other long-acting opioids were infrequently used specifically for chronic but not acute pain (morphine, 7%; methadone, 6%; fentanyl patch, 2%). Patients with chronic pain, particularly those with both acute/chronic pain, frequently experience psychological issues, functional disability and reduced HRQoL. Treatment strategies for acute pain (e.g. routine infusions to prevent bleeding) and for chronic pain (e.g. long-acting opioids) may be underused. © 2017 The Authors. Haemophilia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Nutritional status, physical performance and functional capacity in an elderly population in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Danielewicz, Ana Lúcia; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; Del Duca, Giovâni Firpo

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between nutritional status and functional limitation and disability in an elderly population in southern Brazil. Epidemiological, cross-sectional household-based study carried out with 477 elderly of both sexes (60 to 100 years). Body mass index (BMI) served to assess the nutritional status: underweight (BMI < 22 kg/m2) and overweight (BMI > 27 kg/m2). The sum score (0-5) obtained in three tests: "chair stand" and "pick up a pen" (measured by time) and standing balance (four static measurements) assessed the functional limitation. The disability was evaluated by the difficulty in performing one or more self-reported tasks related to basic activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Crude and adjusted analyzes (3 models) were carried out using Poisson regression; prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Crude analyzes showed a positive association between underweight and functional limitation (PR = 2.71, 95% CI = 1.63 to 4.51); overweight and disability in ADLs (PR = 2.20, CI 95% = 1.44 to 3.35); overweight and disability in IADLs (PR = 1.56, CI 95% = 1.20 to 2.03). The additional adjustments for gender, age, level of education, living arrangements, current work, cognitive function and number of morbidities reduced the strength of the associations, without changing the statistical strength. Nutritional status is a factor that is independently and positively associated with functional limitation and disability. We recommend the use of this indicator to monitor the health of the elderly.

  5. Are self-reports of health and morbidities in developing countries misleading? Evidence from India

    PubMed Central

    Subramanyam, Malavika A; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Self reported measures of poor health and morbidities from developing countries tend to be viewed with considerable skepticism. Examination of the social gradient in self-reported health and morbidity measures provides a useful test of the validity of self-reports of poor-health and morbidities. The prevailing view, in part influenced by Amartya Sen, is that socially disadvantaged individuals will fail to perceive and report the presence of illness or health-deficits because an individual’s assessment of their health is directly contingent on their social experience. In this study, we tested whether the association between self-reported poor-health/morbidities and socioeconomic status (SES) in India follows the expected direction or not. Cross sectional logistic regression analyses were carried out on a nationally representative population based sample from the 1998–99 Indian National Family Health Survey (INFHS); and 1995–96 and 2004 Indian National Sample Survey (INSS). Four binary outcomes were analyzed: any self-reported morbidity; self-reported sickness in the last 15 days; self-reported sickness in the past year; and poor self-rated health. In separate adjusted models, individuals with no education reported higher levels of any self-reported, self-reported sickness in the last 15 days, self-reported sickness in the last year, and poor self-rated health compared to those with most education. Contrary to the prevailing thesis, we find that the use of self-rated ill health has face validity as assessed via its relationship to SES. A less dismissive and pessimistic view of health data obtained through self-reports seems warranted. PMID:19019521

  6. Are self-reports of health and morbidities in developing countries misleading? Evidence from India.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, S V; Subramanyam, Malavika A; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Self-reported measures of poor health and morbidities from developing countries tend to be viewed with considerable skepticism. Examination of the social gradient in self-reported health and morbidity measures provides a useful test of the validity of self-reports of poor health and morbidities. The prevailing view, in part influenced by Amartya Sen, is that socially disadvantaged individuals will fail to perceive and report the presence of illness or health-deficits because an individual's assessment of their health is directly contingent on their social experience. In this study, we tested whether the association between self-reported poor health/morbidities and socioeconomic status (SES) in India follows the expected direction or not. Cross-sectional logistic regression analyses were carried out on a nationally representative population-based sample from the 1998 to 1999 Indian National Family Health Survey (INFHS); and 1995-1996 and 2004 Indian National Sample Survey (INSS). Four binary outcomes were analyzed: any self-reported morbidity; self-reported sickness in the last 15 days; self-reported sickness in the past year; and poor self-rated health. In separate adjusted models, individuals with no education reported higher levels of any self-reported, self-reported sickness in the last 15 days, self-reported sickness in the last year, and poor self-rated health compared to those with most education. Contrary to the prevailing thesis, we find that the use of self-rated ill-health has face validity as assessed via its relationship to SES. A less dismissive and pessimistic view of health data obtained through self-reports seems warranted.

  7. Crime Self-Reporting Study: Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    Security Research Center Crime Self-Reporting Study: Phase I Kelly R. Buck Defense Personnel Security Research Center Andrée E. Rose Northrop Grumman...Mission Systems Technical Report 05-1 November 2004 Crime Self-Reporting Study: Phase I Kelly R...including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing

  8. Examination of Variables That May Affect the Relationship Between Cognition and Functional Status in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mcalister, Courtney; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Lamb, Richard

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to improve understanding of the heterogeneity in the relationship between cognition and functional status in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Demographic, clinical, and methodological moderators were examined. Cognition explained an average of 23% of the variance in functional outcomes. Executive function measures explained the largest amount of variance (37%), whereas global cognitive status and processing speed measures explained the least (20%). Short- and long-delayed memory measures accounted for more variance (35% and 31%) than immediate memory measures (18%), and the relationship between cognition and functional outcomes was stronger when assessed with informant-report (28%) compared with self-report (21%). Demographics, sample characteristics, and type of everyday functioning measures (i.e., questionnaire, performance-based) explained relatively little variance compared with cognition. Executive functioning, particularly measured by Trails B, was a strong predictor of everyday functioning in individuals with MCI. A large proportion of variance remained unexplained by cognition.

  9. Return to Preinjury Sports Participation Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Contributions of Demographic, Knee Impairment, and Self-report Measures

    PubMed Central

    Lentz, Trevor A.; Zeppieri, Giorgio; Tillman, Susan M.; Indelicato, Peter A.; Moser, Michael W.; George, Steven Z.; Chmielewski, Terese L.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional cohort. OBJECTIVES (1) To examine differences in clinical variables (demographics, knee impairments, and self-report measures) between those who return to preinjury level of sports participation and those who do not at 1 year following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, (2) to determine the factors most strongly associated with return-to-sport status in a multivariate model, and (3) to explore the discriminatory value of clinical variables associated with return to sport at 1 year postsurgery. BACKGROUND Demographic, physical impairment, and psychosocial factors individually prohibit return to preinjury levels of sports participation. However, it is unknown which combination of factors contributes to sports participation status. METHODS Ninety-four patients (60 men; mean age, 22.4 years) 1 year post–anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction were included. Clinical variables were collected and included demographics, knee impairment measures, and self-report questionnaire responses. Patients were divided into “yes return to sports” or “no return to sports” groups based on their answer to the question, “Have you returned to the same level of sports as before your injury?” Group differences in demographics, knee impairments, and self-report questionnaire responses were analyzed. Discriminant function analysis determined the strongest predictors of group classification. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves determined the discriminatory accuracy of the identified clinical variables. RESULTS Fifty-two of 94 patients (55%) reported yes return to sports. Patients reporting return to preinjury levels of sports participation were more likely to have had less knee joint effusion, fewer episodes of knee instability, lower knee pain intensity, higher quadriceps peak torque-body weight ratio, higher score on the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Evaluation Form, and lower levels of kinesiophobia. Knee

  10. Nutritional status according to Mini Nutritional Assessment is related to functional status in geriatric patients--independent of health status.

    PubMed

    Schrader, E; Baumgärtel, C; Gueldenzoph, H; Stehle, P; Uter, W; Sieber, C C; Volkert, D

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nutritional and functional status in acute geriatric patients including mobility and considering health status. Cross-sectional study. Hospital. 205 geriatric patients (median age 82.0 (IQR: 80-86) years, 69.3% women). Nutritional status was determined by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and patients were categorized as well-nourished (≥ 24 points), at risk of malnutrition (17-23.5 points) or as malnourished (< 17 points). Functional status was determined by Barthel Index (BI) and Timed 'Up and Go' Test (TUG) and related to MNA categories. Using binary multiple logistic regression the impact of nutritional status on functional status was examined, adjusted for health status. 60.3% of the patients were at risk of malnutrition and 29.8% were malnourished. Ability to perform basic activities of daily living (ADL) decreased with declining nutritional status. The proportion of patients unable to perform the TUG increased with worsening of nutritional status (45.0% vs. 50.4% vs. 77.0%, p<0.01). After adjusting for age, gender, number of diagnoses, disease severity and cognitive function, a higher MNA score significantly lowered the risk of being dependent in ADL (OR 0.85, 95 % CI 0.77-0.94) and inability to perform the TUG (OR 0.90, 95 % CI 0.82-0.99). Nutritional status according to MNA was related to ADL as well as to mobility in acute geriatric patients. This association remained after adjusting for health status.

  11. Comparing children's self-report instruments for health-related quality of life using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth (ICF-CY).

    PubMed

    Petersson, Christina; Simeonsson, Rune J; Enskar, Karin; Huus, Karina

    2013-05-04

    Children with chronic conditions often experience a long treatment which can be complex and negatively impacts the child's well-being. In planning treatment and interventions for children with chronic conditions, it is important to measure health-related quality of life (HrQoL). HrQoL instruments are considered to be a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) and should be used in routine practice. The aim of this study was to compare the content dimensions of HrQoL instruments for children's self-reports using the framework of ICF-CY. The sample consist of six instruments for health-related quality of life for children 5 to 18 years of age, which was used in the Swedish national quality registries for children and adolescents with chronic conditions. The following instruments were included: CHQ-CF, DCGM-37, EQ-5D-Y, KIDSCREEN-52, Kid-KINDL and PedsQL 4.0. The framework of the ICF-CY was used as the basis for the comparison. There were 290 meaningful concepts identified and linked to 88 categories in the classification ICF-CY with 29 categories of the component body functions, 48 categories of the component activities and participation and 11 categories of the component environmental factors. No concept were linked to the component body structures. The comparison revealed that the items in the HrQoL instruments corresponded primarily with the domains of activities and less with environmental factors. In conclusion, the results confirm that ICF-CY provide a good framework for content comparisons that evaluate similarities and differences to ICF-CY categories. The results of this study revealed the need for greater consensus of content across different HrQoL instruments. To obtain a detailed description of children's HrQoL, DCGM-37 and KIDSCREEN-52 may be appropriate instruments to use that can increase the understanding of young patients' needs.

  12. Is there an association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function in older people? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Miles, Lisa M; Mills, Kerry; Clarke, Robert; Dangour, Alan D

    2015-08-28

    Low vitamin B12 status is common in older people; however, its public health significance in terms of neurological manifestations remains unclear. The present systematic review evaluated the association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function and clinically relevant neurological outcomes in adults aged 50+ years. A systematic search of nine bibliographic databases (up to March 2013) identified twelve published articles describing two longitudinal and ten cross-sectional analyses. The included study populations ranged in size (n 28-2287) and mean/median age (range 65-81 years). Studies reported various neurological outcomes: nerve function; clinically measured signs and symptoms of nerve function; self-reported neurological symptoms. Studies were assessed for risk of bias, and results were synthesised qualitatively. Among the general population groups of older people, one longitudinal study reported no association, and four of seven cross-sectional studies reported limited evidence of an association of vitamin B12 status with some, but not all, neurological outcomes. Among groups with clinical and/or biochemical evidence of low vitamin B12 status, one longitudinal study reported an association of vitamin B12 status with some, but not all, neurological outcomes and three cross-sectional analyses reported no association. Overall, there is limited evidence from observational studies to suggest an association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function in older people. The heterogeneity and quality of the evidence base preclude more definitive conclusions, and further high-quality research is needed to better inform understanding of public health significance in terms of neurological function of vitamin B12 status in older people.

  13. Calibration of Self-Reported Oral Health to Clinically Determined Standards

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Honghu; Maida, Carl A.; Spolsky, Vladimir W.; Shen, Jie; Li, Helen; Zhou, Xiaomeng; Marcus, Marvin

    2010-01-01

    Objective Self-report of oral health is an inexpensive approach to assessing an individual’s oral health status, but it is heavily influenced by personal views and usually differs from that of clinically determined oral health status. To assist researchers and clinicians in estimating oral health self-report, we summarize clinically determined oral health measures that can objectively measure oral health and evaluate the discrepancies between self-reported and clinically determined oral health status. We test hypotheses of trends across covariates, thereby creating optimal calibration models and tools that can adjust self-reported oral health to clinically determined standards. Methods Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data, we examined the discrepancy between self-reported and clinically determined oral health. We evaluated the relationship between the degree of this discrepancy and possible factors contributing to this discrepancy, such as patient characteristics and general health condition. We used a regression approach to develop calibration models for self-reported oral health. Results The relationship between self-reported and clinically determined oral health is complex. Generally, there is a discrepancy between the two that can best be calibrated by a model that includes general health condition, number of times a person has received health care, gender, age, education, and income. Conclusion The model we developed can be used to calibrate and adjust self-reported oral health status to that of clinically determined standards and for oral health screening of large populations in federal, state, and local programs, enabling great savings in resources used in dental care. PMID:21054482

  14. Assessing the accuracy of self-reported self-talk

    PubMed Central

    Brinthaupt, Thomas M.; Benson, Scott A.; Kang, Minsoo; Moore, Zaver D.

    2015-01-01

    As with most kinds of inner experience, it is difficult to assess actual self-talk frequency beyond self-reports, given the often hidden and subjective nature of the phenomenon. The Self-Talk Scale (STS; Brinthaupt et al., 2009) is a self-report measure of self-talk frequency that has been shown to possess acceptable reliability and validity. However, no research using the STS has examined the accuracy of respondents’ self-reports. In the present paper, we report a series of studies directly examining the measurement of self-talk frequency and functions using the STS. The studies examine ways to validate self-reported self-talk by (1) comparing STS responses from 6 weeks earlier to recent experiences that might precipitate self-talk, (2) using experience sampling methods to determine whether STS scores are related to recent reports of self-talk over a period of a week, and (3) comparing self-reported STS scores to those provided by a significant other who rated the target on the STS. Results showed that (1) overall self-talk scores, particularly self-critical and self-reinforcing self-talk, were significantly related to reports of context-specific self-talk; (2) high STS scorers reported talking to themselves significantly more often during recent events compared to low STS scorers, and, contrary to expectations, (3) friends reported less agreement than strangers in their self-other self-talk ratings. Implications of the results for the validity of the STS and for measuring self-talk are presented. PMID:25999887

  15. Factors Associated with Inaccurate Self-Reporting of Olfactory Dysfunction in Older US Adults.

    PubMed

    Adams, Dara R; Wroblewski, Kristen E; Kern, David W; Kozloski, Michael J; Dale, William; McClintock, Martha K; Pinto, Jayant M

    2017-03-01

    Self-reported olfactory function has poor sensitivity (i.e., people with measured olfactory dysfunction are unlikely to accurately report it). We aimed to identify factors associated with lack of awareness of smell dysfunction. Objective odor identification was evaluated using a validated 5-item test in respondents from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a representative sample of home-dwelling, US adults ages 57-85 (n = 1468). Self-reported olfaction was assessed with a 5-point Likert scale. Using multivariate logistic regression, we tested factors that might influence inaccuracy of self-reported olfaction, including age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, cognition, comorbidity, smoking, depression, anxiety, self-rated mental and physical health, and social activity. Among older US adults, 12.4% reported their sense of smell as fair or poor, while 22.0% had objective olfactory dysfunction (≤3 items correct out of 5). Among those with measured olfactory dysfunction, 74.2% did not recognize it; these individuals were more likely to be older, Black, never married, and to have worse cognitive function compared to individuals who recognized their dysfunction (P < 0.05, all). Individuals who lacked awareness of their olfactory dysfunction had the greatest cognitive impairment at 5-year follow-up, followed by individuals aware of their dysfunction and finally normosmics (P < 0.001). Older Americans with measured olfactory dysfunction are unlikely to report it, and those who lack awareness of this dysfunction have distinct demographic, social, and cognitive characteristics. Therefore, clinicians should objectively test patients. Individuals who lack awareness of their olfactory dysfunction have poor cognitive outcomes and should receive additional clinical scrutiny. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Low back functional health status of patient handlers.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sue A; Grooms, Dustin R; Onate, James A; Khan, Safdar N; Marras, William S

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess low back functional health among a group of nurses with a history of low back pain symptoms in a university hospital using a direct measure of low back functional performance and compare to traditional low back disability and pain questionnaires. Fifty-two nurses and patient care associates volunteered for the study. The clinical lumbar motion monitor (LMM) was used to directly measure low back functional performance. The participants performed a series of standard tasks involving trunk flexion and extension at different asymmetries. The LMM measures the motion signature of the participant (range of motion, velocity and acceleration) in all three planes of the body. The clinical LMM evaluation documented objective assessment of low back function normalized for age and gender. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was used to evaluate self-reported disability and the McGill Pain Questionnaire visual analog scale assessed pain symptom. The average functional performance probability was 0.49 with a standard deviation of 0.29, indicating that on average the functional performance was impaired. The average ODI score was 13.4 with a standard deviation of 11.6. The correlation between the functional performance probability and ODI was 0.046 (not statistically significant). The clinical LMM functional performance measure provides a direct measure of trunk function. The low correlation between the ODI and clinical LMM functional performance probability indicates that the direct functional performance measure adds another component to our understanding of low back health or impairment that traditional questionnaires lack.

  17. Self-reported sleep difficulty during the menopausal transition: results from a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tom, Sarah E.; Kuh, Diana; Guralnik, Jack M.; Mishra, Gita

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between menopausal transition status and self-reported sleep difficulty. Methods Using data on women participating in the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development who have been followed up from birth in March 1946 (n = 962), relationships between menopausal transition status and self-reported sleep difficulty were assessed annually between ages 48 – 54. Results Menopausal transition status was related to severe self-reported sleep difficulty. Odds of reporting severe self-reported sleep difficulty were increased approximately 2 to 3.5 fold (95% CI ranges from (1.08, 3.27) – (1.99, 6.04)) for most menopausal transition statuses, compared to women who remained premenopausal. After adjustment for current psychological, vasomotor, and somatic symptoms and waking frequently at night to use the toilet, only women with hysterectomy remained at an increased risk for moderate sleep difficulty. Conclusions The modest relationship between menopausal transition status and moderate sleep difficulty may be related to greater variation in individual definitions of moderate difficulty. Attention to the level of sleep difficulty in this group of women will assist in the decision to address current health symptoms versus sleep itself. Women without prior health problems may experience severe self-reported sleeping difficulty during the menopausal transition and require tailored care from health professionals. PMID:20551846

  18. Smoking status and self-reported race affect the frequency of clinically relevant oncogenic alterations in non-small-cell lung cancers at a United States-based academic medical practice.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Norihiro; Vanderlaan, Paul A; Folch, Erik; Boucher, David H; Canepa, Hannah M; Kent, Michael S; Gangadharan, Sidharta P; Majid, Adnan; Kocher, Olivier N; Goldstein, Michael A; Huberman, Mark S; Costa, Daniel B

    2013-10-01

    The identification of somatic genomic aberrations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is part of evidence-based practice guidelines for care of patients with NSCLC. We sought to establish the frequency and correlates with these changes in routine patient-tumor sample pairs. Clinicopathologic data and tumor genotype were retrospectively compiled and analyzed from an overall cohort of 381 patient-tumor samples. Of these patients, 75.9% self-reported White race, 13.1% Asian, 6.5% Black, 27.8% were never-smokers, 54.9% former-smokers and 17.3% current-smokers. The frequency of EGFR mutations was 23.9% (86/359), KRAS mutations 34.2% (71/207) and ALK FISH positivity 9.1% (23/252) in tumor samples, and almost all had mutually exclusive results for these oncogenes. In tumors from White, Black and Asian patients, the frequencies of EGFR mutations were 18.4%, 18.2% and 62%, respectively; of ALK FISH positivity 7.81%, 0% and 14.8%, respectively; and of KRAS mutations 41.6%, 20% and 0%. These patterns changed significant with increasing pack-year history of smoking. In White patients, the frequencies of EGFR mutations and ALK FISH positivity decreased with increasing pack-year cohorts; while the frequencies of KRAS mutations increased. Interestingly, in Asian patients the frequencies of EGFR mutations were similar in never smokers and in the cohorts with less than 45pack-year histories of smoking and only decreased in the 45pack-year plus cohort. The frequencies of somatic EGFR, KRAS, and ALK gene abnormalities using routine lung cancer tissue samples from our United States-based academic medical practice reflect the diverse ethnicity (with a higher frequency of EGFR mutations in Asian patients) and smoking patterns (with an inverse correlation between EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement) of our tested population. These results may help other medical practices appreciate the expected results from introduction of routine tumor genotyping techniques into their day-to-day care

  19. Functional status and survival after kidney transplantation1–12

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Peter P.; Bloom, Roy D.; Shults, Justine; Thomasson, Arwin; Mussell, Adam; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Johansen, Kirsten L.; Abt, Peter; Levine, Matthew; Caplan, Arthur; Feldman, Harold I.; Karlawish, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Background Older patients constitute a growing proportion of U.S. kidney transplant recipients and often have a high burden of comorbidities. A summary measure of health such as functional status might enable transplant professionals to better evaluate and counsel these patients about their prognosis after transplant. Methods We linked UNOS registry data about post-transplant survival with pre-transplant functional status data (physical function [PF] scale of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36) among individuals undergoing kidney transplant from 6/1/2000 – 5/31/2006. We examined the relationship between survival and functional status with multivariable Cox regression, adjusted for age. Using logistic regression models for three-year survival, we also estimated the reduction in deaths in the hypothetical scenario that recipients with poor functional status in this cohort experienced modest improvements in function. Results The cohort comprised 10,875 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with a mean age of 50 years; 14% were ≥65. Differences in three-year mortality between highest and lowest PF groups ranged from 3% among recipients <35 years to 14% among recipients ≥65 years. In multivariable Cox regression, worse PF was associated with higher mortality (HR 1.66 for lowest versus highest PF quartiles; p<0.001). Interactions between PF and age were non-significant. We estimated that 11% fewer deaths would occur if KTRs with the lowest functional status experienced modest improvements in function. Conclusions Across a wide age range, functional status was an independent predictor of post-transplant survival. Functional status assessment may be a useful tool with which to counsel patients about post-transplant outcomes. PMID:24113514

  20. Self-reported and clinically-diagnosed dental needs: determining the factors that affect subjective assessment.

    PubMed

    Seremidi, Kyriaki; Koletsi-Kounari, Haroula; Kandilorou, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The role of demographic, socioeconomic and psychological factors that influence the subjective assessment of dental needs has been the subject of contemporary dental research. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between self-reported and clinically diagnosed dental needs, with the view of understanding the factors that affect subjective assessments of dental problems. A random sample of 130 subjects, aged 21 to 63 years, was selected from the non-academic staff members of the Athens University of Economics and Business. Data were obtained for 92% (120 participants) of the sample by a questionnaire-based interview and a clinical examination. The questions concentrated on the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and the ratings of oral health, the perceived need, oral functional impacts and the level of satisfaction with the appearance. In the clinical examination, the oral health status of the participants was thoroughly recorded. A strong relationship was detected with the presence of caries, badly broken and missing teeth, and self-reported need for care. Embarrassment due to one's dental health was also associated with the perceived need, although satisfaction with the appearance was not. Neither demographic and socioeconomic status nor self-rated oral health was significantly associated with a currently perceived dental problem. Perceived need for dental care is affected by parameters other than demographic and socioeconomic status (i.e. parameters that are associated with the presence of symptoms and/or impacts on everyday life). Therefore, functional and psychological impacts of the disease seem to be as important, if not more, as the clinical indicators while estimating the dental needs.

  1. Depressive Symptoms, Cardiac Disease Severity, and Functional Status Among Older Patients with Coronary Heart Disease: The Heart and Soul Study

    PubMed Central

    Sin, Nancy L.; Yaffe, Kristine; Whooley, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare the relative contributions of depressive symptoms and cardiac disease severity to functional decline among patients with coronary heart disease. Design Longitudinal. Setting Twelve outpatient clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area. Participants Older adults (N = 960; mean age 67) with stable coronary heart disease recruited between 9/2000 and 12/2002. Measurements At baseline, depressive symptoms and angina were assessed by self-report, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and exercise capacity were evaluated by echocardiography and exercise treadmill testing. We assessed difficulty performing Activities of Daily Living and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living at baseline and annually for the next 5 years. Covariates included demographics, comorbid conditions, cognitive function, social support, and health behaviors. Five years later, 658 participants returned for follow-up assessments. Results Higher baseline depressive symptoms predicted greater risk of functional decline across 5 years, whereas higher baseline exercise capacity was associated with lower risk of functional decline. Among 658 participants who returned for follow-up, 5-year changes in depressive symptoms and exercise capacity were associated with 5-year changes in functional status. Angina frequency and LVEF were not associated with functional decline or change in functional status, after adjusting for covariates and other predictors. Conclusion Among older adults with coronary heart disease, depressive symptoms and lower exercise capacity predicted functional decline across 5 years. In contrast, other traditional measures of cardiac disease severity (LVEF and angina) were not independently predictive of subsequent functional status. These findings suggest that efforts to ameliorate depressive symptoms may be as important as treating cardiac disease severity to enhance functional status. PMID:25597554

  2. Depressive symptoms, cardiovascular disease severity, and functional status in older adults with coronary heart disease: the heart and soul study.

    PubMed

    Sin, Nancy L; Yaffe, Kristine; Whooley, Mary A

    2015-01-01

    To compare the contributions of depressive symptoms and cardiovascular disease (CVD) severity to functional decline in individuals with coronary heart disease. Longitudinal. Twelve outpatient clinics in the San Francisco Bay area. Older adults (N = 960; mean age 67) with stable coronary heart disease recruited between September 2000 and December 2002. At baseline, depressive symptoms and angina pectoris were assessed according to self-report, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and exercise capacity were evaluated using echocardiography and exercise treadmill testing. Difficulty performing activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living was assessed at baseline and annually for the next 5 years. Covariates included demographic characteristics, comorbid conditions, cognitive function, social support, and health behaviors. Five years later, 658 participants returned for follow-up assessments. Higher baseline depressive symptoms predicted greater risk of functional decline over 5 years, whereas higher baseline exercise capacity was associated with lower risk of functional decline. In 658 participants who returned for follow-up, 5-year changes in depressive symptoms and exercise capacity were associated with 5-year changes in functional status. Angina pectoris frequency and LVEF were not associated with functional decline or change in functional status, after adjusting for covariates and other predictors. In older adults with coronary heart disease, depressive symptoms and lower exercise capacity predicted functional decline over 5 years. In contrast, other traditional measures of CVD severity (LVEF and angina pectoris) were not independently predictive of subsequent functional status. These findings suggest that efforts to ameliorate depressive symptoms may be as important as treating CVD severity to enhance functional status. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Capturing and classifying functional status information in administrative databases.

    PubMed

    Iezzoni, Lisa I; Greenberg, Marjorie S

    2003-01-01

    The health care delivery system aims to improve the functioning of Americans, but little information exists to judge progress toward meeting this goal. Administrative data generated through running and overseeing health care delivery offer considerable information about diagnoses and procedures in coded formats comparable across settings of care. This article explores the issues raised when considering adding coded information about functional status to administrative databases throughout the health care system. The National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics (NCVHS) identified the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as the only viable code set for consistently reporting functional status.

  4. The relationship between self-reported and clinical measures and the number of days to return to sport following acute lateral ankle sprains.

    PubMed

    Cross, Kevin M; Worrell, Teddy W; Leslie, James E; Van Veld, K Renee

    2002-01-01

    This is a prospective observational study. To determine the relationship of self-reported and clinical measures to the number of days to return to sport following acute lateral ankle sprains. In order to direct rehabilitation, injury classification schemes should include self-reported and clinical measures that help prognosticate the number of days to return to sport (DAYS). Twenty Division II college athletes (7 men, 13 women; mean age = 19.2 +/- 1.1 years) were assessed following an acute lateral ankle sprain and upon return to sport. Athletes were assessed by three self-reported measures: global function question, Short Form-36 Physical Function scale (SF36PF), visual analog pain scale, and four clinical measures: ankle active range of motion (AROM), ankle dorsiflexion strength, ankle plantar flexion strength, ambulation status. Simple regression, multiple regression, and effect sizes (ES) were used to analyze these data. The simple regression revealed a statistically significant relationship between DAYS and the global function question (r2 = .22), the SF36PF (r2 = .28), and the patient's ambulation status (r2 = .27). A multiple regression using these three variables in combination was also statistically significant (P = .015) and explained approximately one-third of the variance in DAYS, (r2 = .37). All dependent variables revealed large or moderate ES. Self-reported functional measures in conjunction with the athlete's ambulation status are important factors in predicting the number of days to return to sport following acute lateral ankle sprains. Further research using large sample sizes and other clinical and functional measures is necessary.

  5. Examining population stratification via individual ancestry estimates versus self-reported race.

    PubMed

    Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Sellers, Thomas A; Schwartz, Ann G

    2005-06-01

    Population stratification has the potential to affect the results of genetic marker studies. Estimating individual ancestry provides a continuous measure to assess population structure in case-control studies of complex disease, instead of using self-reported racial groups. We estimate individual ancestry using the Federal Bureau of Investigation CODIS Core short tandem repeat set of 13 loci using two different analysis methods in a case-control study of early-onset lung cancer. Individual ancestry proportions were estimated for "European" and "West African" groups using published allele frequencies. The majority of Caucasian, non-Hispanics had >50% European ancestry, whereas the majority of African Americans had <20% European ancestry, regardless of ancestry estimation method, although significant overlap by self-reported race and ancestry also existed. When we further investigated the effect of ancestry and self-reported race on the frequency of a lung cancer risk genotype, we found that the frequency of the GSTM1 null genotype varies by individual European ancestry and case-control status within self-reported race (particularly for African Americans). Genetic risk models showed that adjusting for individual European ancestry provided a better fit to the data compared with the model with no group adjustment or adjustment for self-reported race. This study suggests that significant population substructure differences exist that self-reported race alone does not capture and that individual ancestry may be confounded with disease status and/or a candidate gene risk genotype.

  6. Corticolimbic structural alterations linked to health status and trait anxiety in functional neurological disorder.

    PubMed

    Perez, David L; Williams, Benjamin; Matin, Nassim; LaFrance, W Curt; Costumero-Ramos, Victor; Fricchione, Gregory L; Sepulcre, Jorge; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2017-08-26

    Affective symptoms influence health status (health-related quality of life) in functional neurological disorder (FND), and the salience network is implicated in the pathophysiology of FND and mood/anxiety disorders. We hypothesised that self-reported health status and affective symptoms would map onto salience network regions and that patients with FND would show decreased insular volumes compared with controls. This voxel-based morphometry study investigated volumetric differences in 26 patients with FND (21 women, 5 men; mean age=40.3±11.5) compared with 27 healthy controls (22 women, 5 men; mean age=40.5±10.8). Post hoc analyses stratified patients with FND by mental and physical health scores (Short Form Health Survey-36). Within-group analyses investigated associations with mental health, physical health, trait anxiety and depression in patients with FND. There were no volumetric differences between the complete FND cohort and controls. In stratified analyses, however, patients with FND reporting the most severe physical health impairments showed reduced left anterior insular volume compared with controls. In within-group analyses, impaired mental health and elevated trait anxiety were associated with increased right amygdalar volumes in patients with FND. The relationship between amygdalar volume and mental health, driven by emotional well-being deficits and role limitations due to emotional problems, was independent of sensorimotor functional neurological symptom severity and motor FND subtype. In secondary within-group analyses, increased periaqueductal grey volume was associated with role limitations due to emotional problems. Impaired physical functioning correlated with decreased left anterior insular volumes. These findings support roles for several regions of the salience network in the pathophysiology of FND. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  7. Prevalence of self-report photosensitivity in cutaneous lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Foering, Kristen; Goreshi, Renato; Klein, Rachel; Okawa, Joyce; Rose, Mathew; Cucchiara, Andrew; Werth, Victoria P

    2012-02-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of self-reported photosensitivity (PS) and its effects on quality of life in a US cutaneous lupus population. We sought to determine the prevalence of self-reported PS among a cutaneous lupus population and to examine its impact on quality of life. A total of 169 patients with lupus were interviewed about PS symptoms and completed the modified Skindex-29+3, a quality-of-life survey. A complete skin examination was conducted and the Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus Disease Area and Severity Index was completed. In all, 68% of patients reported some symptoms of PS. The PS group (those who reported a history of and current PS) scored worse on PS-related items of the modified Skindex-29+3 and had higher cutaneous disease activity as determined by the Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus Disease Area and Severity Index. Patients with PS had worse symptoms and emotions and experienced significant functional impairments compared with patients who had cutaneous lupus without PS. This study was done at a single referral center. Self-reported PS is very common among patients with cutaneous lupus and is associated with significant impairments related to symptoms, emotions, and daily functioning. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of Self-report Photosensitivity in Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Foering, Kristen; Goreshi, Renato; Klein, Rachel; Okawa, Joyce; Rose, Mathew; Cucchiara, Andrew; Werth, Victoria P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about the prevalence of self-reported photosensitivity and its effects on quality of life in a U.S. cutaneous lupus population Objective We sought to determine the prevalence of self-reported photosensitivity among a cutaneous lupus population and to examine its impact on quality of life Methods 169 subjects with lupus were interviewed about photosensitivity symptoms and completed the modified Skindex-29+3, a quality of life survey. A complete skin exam was conducted and the Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus Disease Area and Severity Index (CLASI) was completed. Results 68% of subjects reported some symptoms of photosensitivity (PS). The PS group (subjects who reported a history of and current photosensitivity) scored worse on photosensitivity-related items of the modified Skindex-29+3 and had higher cutaneous disease activity as determined by the CLASI. Photosensitive patients had worse symptoms and emotions and experienced significant functional impairments compared to patients with cutaneous lupus but without photosensitivity. Limitations This study was done at a single-referral center Conclusions Self-reported photosensitivity is very common among cutaneous lupus patients and is associated with significant impairments related to symptoms, emotions, and daily functioning. PMID:21742409

  9. Genetic variation in the 15q25 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster (CHRNA5–CHRNA3–CHRNB4) interacts with maternal self-reported smoking status during pregnancy to influence birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Huikari, Ville; Christie, Jennifer T.; Cavadino, Alana; Bakker, Rachel; Brion, Marie-Jo A.; Geller, Frank; Paternoster, Lavinia; Myhre, Ronny; Potter, Catherine; Johnson, Paul C.D.; Ebrahim, Shah; Feenstra, Bjarke; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Hofman, Albert; Kaakinen, Marika; Lowe, Lynn P.; Magnus, Per; McConnachie, Alex; Melbye, Mads; Ng, Jane W.Y.; Nohr, Ellen A.; Power, Chris; Ring, Susan M.; Sebert, Sylvain P.; Sengpiel, Verena; Taal, H. Rob; Watt, Graham C.M.; Sattar, Naveed; Relton, Caroline L.; Jacobsson, Bo; Frayling, Timothy M.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Pennell, Craig E.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Hypponen, Elina; Lowe, William L.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Davey Smith, George; Freathy, Rachel M.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight. Common variation at rs1051730 is robustly associated with smoking quantity and was recently shown to influence smoking cessation during pregnancy, but its influence on birth weight is not clear. We aimed to investigate the association between this variant and birth weight of term, singleton offspring in a well-powered meta-analysis. We stratified 26 241 European origin study participants by smoking status (women who smoked during pregnancy versus women who did not smoke during pregnancy) and, in each stratum, analysed the association between maternal rs1051730 genotype and offspring birth weight. There was evidence of interaction between genotype and smoking (P = 0.007). In women who smoked during pregnancy, each additional smoking-related T-allele was associated with a 20 g [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 4–36 g] lower birth weight (P = 0.014). However, in women who did not smoke during pregnancy, the effect size estimate was 5 g per T-allele (95% CI: −4 to 14 g; P = 0.268). To conclude, smoking status during pregnancy modifies the association between maternal rs1051730 genotype and offspring birth weight. This strengthens the evidence that smoking during pregnancy is causally related to lower offspring birth weight and suggests that population interventions that effectively reduce smoking in pregnant women would result in a reduced prevalence of low birth weight. PMID:22956269

  10. Genetic variation in the 15q25 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster (CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4) interacts with maternal self-reported smoking status during pregnancy to influence birth weight.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Huikari, Ville; Christie, Jennifer T; Cavadino, Alana; Bakker, Rachel; Brion, Marie-Jo A; Geller, Frank; Paternoster, Lavinia; Myhre, Ronny; Potter, Catherine; Johnson, Paul C D; Ebrahim, Shah; Feenstra, Bjarke; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hofman, Albert; Kaakinen, Marika; Lowe, Lynn P; Magnus, Per; McConnachie, Alex; Melbye, Mads; Ng, Jane W Y; Nohr, Ellen A; Power, Chris; Ring, Susan M; Sebert, Sylvain P; Sengpiel, Verena; Taal, H Rob; Watt, Graham C M; Sattar, Naveed; Relton, Caroline L; Jacobsson, Bo; Frayling, Timothy M; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Murray, Jeffrey C; Lawlor, Debbie A; Pennell, Craig E; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hypponen, Elina; Lowe, William L; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Davey Smith, George; Freathy, Rachel M

    2012-12-15

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight. Common variation at rs1051730 is robustly associated with smoking quantity and was recently shown to influence smoking cessation during pregnancy, but its influence on birth weight is not clear. We aimed to investigate the association between this variant and birth weight of term, singleton offspring in a well-powered meta-analysis. We stratified 26 241 European origin study participants by smoking status (women who smoked during pregnancy versus women who did not smoke during pregnancy) and, in each stratum, analysed the association between maternal rs1051730 genotype and offspring birth weight. There was evidence of interaction between genotype and smoking (P = 0.007). In women who smoked during pregnancy, each additional smoking-related T-allele was associated with a 20 g [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 4-36 g] lower birth weight (P = 0.014). However, in women who did not smoke during pregnancy, the effect size estimate was 5 g per T-allele (95% CI: -4 to 14 g; P = 0.268). To conclude, smoking status during pregnancy modifies the association between maternal rs1051730 genotype and offspring birth weight. This strengthens the evidence that smoking during pregnancy is causally related to lower offspring birth weight and suggests that population interventions that effectively reduce smoking in pregnant women would result in a reduced prevalence of low birth weight.

  11. Functional status, age, and long-term survival after trauma.

    PubMed

    Peetz, Allan B; Brat, Gabriel A; Rydingsward, Jessica; Askari, Reza; Olufajo, Olubode A; Elias, Kevin M; Mogensen, Kris M; Lesage, Jessica L; Horkan, Clare M; Salim, Ali; Christopher, Kenneth B

    2016-09-01

    The association between functional status in trauma survivors and long-term outcomes is unknown. We performed an observational cohort study on adult trauma patients (≥18 years), who required admission to the intensive care unit and who survived hospitalization between 1997 and 2011. The exposure of interest was a functional status defined as bed mobility, transfers, and gait level assessed at the time of hospital discharge. Adjusted odds ratios were estimated by multivariable logistic regression models. The primary outcome was all-cause, postdischarge mortality. We analyzed 3,565 patients with a mean (standard deviation) age of 55 (12.4) years; 60% were male, and 78% were white. The 720-day postdischarge mortality was 22.8%. In a logistic regression model, the lowest functional status category at hospital discharge was associated with 4-fold increased odds of 720-day postdischarge mortality (adjusted odds ratio 4.06 (95% confidence interval, 2.65-6.20, P < .001) compared with patients with independent functional status. We compared the odds of 720-day postdischarge mortality in patients with independent functional status and in patients in the lowest functional status category at hospital discharge. The odds of 720-day postdischarge mortality were stronger in older adults (≥65 years: adjusted odds ratio 3.34 [95% confidence interval, 1.72-6.50, P < .001]) than in younger adults (<65 years: adjusted odds ratio 2.53 [95% confidence interval, 1.39-4.60, P = .002]). Finally, improvement of functional status prior to discharge was associated with a 52% decrease in the odds of 720-day postdischarge mortality (adjusted odds ratio 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.30-0.75; P < .001) compared with patients without a change in functional status prior to discharge. In trauma intensive care unit survivors, functional status at hospital discharge is predictive of long-term mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Status of vestibular function after prolonged bedrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgeat, M.; Toupet, M.; Loth, D.; Ingster, I.; Guell, A.; Coll, J.

    6 young, healthy, male volunteers were submitted to one week of head down (-4°) bedrest. This position simulates the cerebral hemodynamic conditions in weightlessness. Measurements of vestibular equilibrium and of oculomotor system function were made before and after the prolonged bedrest. Analysis of the results indicates that vestibular responses, as measured by the maximal speed of the slow phase of the provoked nystagmus (caloric and sinusoidal rotatory stimulations), are decreased after prolonged bedrest. This statistically significant diminution requires confirmation with a greater number of cases. The reflex conflicting or interacting with the cervico-ocular and optokinetic reflexes on the one hand and the foveal vision on the other, is one of several possible explanations for the observed changes.

  13. Correction for faking in self-report personality tests.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Lennart

    2015-10-01

    Faking is a common problem in testing with self-report personality tests, especially in high-stakes situations. A possible way to correct for it is statistical control on the basis of social desirability scales. Two such scales were developed and applied in the present paper. It was stressed that the statistical models of faking need to be adapted to different properties of the personality scales, since such scales correlate with faking to different extents. In four empirical studies of self-report personality tests, correction for faking was investigated. One of the studies was experimental, and asked participants to fake or to be honest. In the other studies, job or school applicants were investigated. It was found that the approach to correct for effects of faking in self-report personality tests advocated in the paper removed a large share of the effects, about 90%. It was found in one study that faking varied as a function of degree of how important the consequences of test results could be expected to be, more high-stakes situations being associated with more faking. The latter finding is incompatible with the claim that social desirability scales measure a general personality trait. It is concluded that faking can be measured and that correction for faking, based on such measures, can be expected to remove about 90% of its effects.

  14. Subjective Sleep Measures in Children: Self-Report

    PubMed Central

    Erwin, Andrea M.; Bashore, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) recently published a consensus statement on the recommended number of hours of sleep in infants and children. The AASM expert panel identified seven health categories in children influenced by sleep duration, a component of sleep quality. For optimal health and general function, children require a certain number of hours of sleep each night. Limited data exist to subjectively assess sleep in this population. Practitioners must evaluate overall sleep quality not simply sleep duration. The purpose of this article is to provide a mini-review of the self-report sleep measures used in children. The authors individually completed a review of the literature for this article via an independent review followed by collaborative discussion. The subjective measures included in this mini-review have been used in children, but not all measures have reported psychometrics. Several tools included in this mini-review measure subjective sleep in children but with limited reliabilities or only preliminary psychometrics. Accurate measurement of self-reported sleep in children is critical to identify sleep problems in this population and further detect associated health problems. Ongoing studies are warranted to establish reliable and valid measures of self-reported sleep in children to accurately detect health problems associated with poor sleep quality. This mini-review of the literature is an important first step to identify the most reliable subjective sleep measures in children. PMID:28243584

  15. Information processing difficulty long after self-reported concussion.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Daniel M

    2002-07-01

    Recovery of cognitive function after mild head injury (MHI) is thought to be relatively swift and complete. The present study replicates and extends previous work in which university students with self-reported concussion demonstrated reduced P300 amplitude on a set of easy and difficult attention tasks, in addition to performing more poorly than controls on demanding cognitive tasks many years after injury. In the present study, 13 students with self-reported concussion (MHI group: M time since injury = 8 years) and 10 controls were matched for age, sex, education, and a variety of cognitive, physical and emotional complaints. Controls outperformed the MHI group on the Digit Symbol substitution task and on a difficult dual task involving tone discrimination and visual working memory. Additionally, controls exhibited larger P300 amplitudes on both an easy and a difficult auditory discrimination task. A combination of electrophysiological, neuropsychological and self-report indices predicted group membership (MHI vs. control) with 88% accuracy. The present results, coupled with previous work, offer preliminary evidence that the combination of event-related potentials and demanding behavioral measures might reveal long-lasting, subtle cognitive problems associated with MHI. These findings may challenge existing notions of complete recovery after MHI.

  16. [Health conditions and functional status of older adults in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Manrique-Espinoza, Betty; Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Moreno-Tamayo, Karla Margarita; Acosta-Castillo, Isaac; Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Luisa; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Ma

    2013-01-01

    To describe the health conditions and functional status of Mexicans older adults. Descriptive study with a sample of 8,874 adults aged 60 and over, based on a nationally representative study. We analyzed major indicators associated with health conditions and functional status, obtaining prevalence and statistical tests of differences in proportions. The main conditions of this population are: hypertension (40%), diabetes (24%) and hypercholesterolemia (20%). For mental health indicators, 17.6% had depressive symptoms, 7.3% cognitive decline, and 7.9% dementia. For functional status, 26.9% reported difficulty in daily activities and 24.6% in instrumental activities. It is required the implementation of a new model of care to address the increasing prevalence of chronic degenerative diseases in old age, as well as the increased disability and consequent dependence resulting from them.

  17. Health literacy and functional health status in Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Hyun

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships of health literacy to chronic medical conditions and the functional health status among community-dwelling Korean older adults. In the literature, limited health literacy has been reported to have adverse effect on health outcomes. However, the link between health literacy to health status among Korean older adults needs to be clarified. A cross-sectional survey. A cross-sectional survey of 103 community-dwelling Korean older adults was conducted from June 2007-September 2007. Health literacy was measured using the Korean Functional Health Literacy test and functional health status was measured using the subscales of the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Individuals with a low health literacy had significantly higher rates of arthritis and hypertension. After adjusting for age, education and income, older individuals with low health literacy had higher limitations in activity and lower subjective health. In a model adjusting for age and income only, older individuals with low health literacy were more likely to report lower levels of physical function and subjective health and higher levels of limitations in activity and pain. Among community-dwelling Korean older adults, limited health literacy is associated independently with higher rates of chronic medical conditions and lower subjective health status. Nurses are key to providing health education to older adults. The understanding of the relationship of health literacy to health status is essential to develop communication and health education efforts for older adults in nursing practice.

  18. Self-reported cataracts in older adults in Ghana: sociodemographic and health related factors.

    PubMed

    Yawson, Alfred E; Ackuaku-Dogbe, Edith M; Seneadza, Nana A Hagan; Mensah, George; Minicuci, Nadia; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul; Biritwum, Richard B

    2014-09-12

    Changes in function of sensory organs with increasing age have significant impact on health and wellbeing of older persons. This paper describes cataract, a chronic eye condition, self-reported among older adults in Ghana and the need for improving access to eye care services. This work was based on the World Health Organization's multi-country Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE), conducted in six countries including Ghana. SAGE Wave 1 in Ghana was conducted in 2007-2008 in a nationally representative sample of 4278 older adults, ≥ 50 years. Data were obtained on sociodemographic and health factors related to self-reported cataracts in older persons in Ghana. Data were analysed using descriptive measures (frequencies and proportions), chi-square test for associations in categorical outcome measures, and logistic regression for predictors of cataracts with SPSS version 21. Overall prevalence of self-reported cataracts among 4278 older adults in Ghana was 5.4%. Prevalence was proportionately higher for women (5.9%) than men (4.7%). Reported cataracts increased with age, among urban residents, in older adults living without partners and among those with the worse life satisfaction index. Older adults in lower income groups, poorly educated or living alone had difficulty seeking vision care services. Prevalence was 8.4% among persons with diabetes, 10.4% among hypertensives and 11.4% in persons with previous history of stroke. Among older persons who had ever used alcohol or tobacco, prevalence rates of reported cataracts were 5.7% and 4.9%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis indicated that increasing age, lower income status and self-reported hypertension were significantly associated with cataract among older adults in Ghana. Cataract is prevalent in older people in Ghana with approximately 1 in 20 people aged 50 years or older reporting a previous diagnosis of cataract. As cataract surgery is restorative, a public health approach on behavioural

  19. Functional status and quality of life among breast cancer survivors with heart failure: results of the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jordan M; Davis, Matthew A; Barton, Debra L; Janz, Nancy K; Pressler, Susan J; Friese, Christopher R

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this population-based study was to examine health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and functional status among breast cancer survivors with heart failure. We examined Medicare Health Outcomes Survey data from women aged 65 and older diagnosed with breast cancer in the past 5 years. Surveys were linked to Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries. Each woman identified with self-reported heart failure (n = 239) was matched to controls without heart failure (n = 685) using propensity scores. The Short Form-36/Veterans Rand-12 measured eight domains of HRQOL. Functional status impairment was measured by limitations in six activities of daily living (ADLs). Linear models estimated associations between heart failure status and HRQOL. Logistic regression models estimated odds ratios for associations between heart failure and ADL impairment. We examined associations for the total study population and subgroups stratified by cancer stage. Among all study participants, heart failure was associated with significant deficits in every HRQOL domain and impairment in all ADLs (p < 0.01, ORs ranged from 1.74 to 2.47). After stratification by cancer stage, heart failure was associated with physical HRQOL deficits across all cancer stages (physical function, vitality, general health) and mental HRQOL deficits only in women with stage I/II cancer (role-emotional, social function). Women with early stage cancer experienced the greatest HRQOL deficits associated with heart failure. Heart failure in breast cancer survivors is associated with substantial HRQOL deficits and functional status impairment, particularly in early stage cancer. Tailored interventions are needed to improve physical function and mental wellbeing in this high-risk population.

  20. Physical Activity and Self-Reported Cardiovascular Comorbidities in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Motl, Robert W.; Fernhall, Bo; McAuley, Edward; Cutter, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Background This study examined the possibility of a linear, inverse association between physical activity and the number of self-reported cardiovascular comorbidities in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods The sample included 561 persons with MS who completed demographic, cardiovascular comorbidity, disability status, and physical activity self-report assessments, and then wore an accelerometer for 7 days. The data were analyzed using bivariate correlation and multiple linear regression analyses. Results Bivariate correlation analysis indicated that there were statistically significant, inverse associations between the number of self-reported cardiovascular comorbidities and objectively measured (r = −0.192, p = 0.0001) and self-reported (r = −0.151, p = 0.0001) physical activity. The first multiple linear regression indicated that objectively measured physical activity was significantly associated with the number of self-reported cardiovascular comorbidities (B = −0.003, SE B = 0.001, β = −0.128), even after controlling for confounding variables. The second multiple linear regression indicated that self-reported physical activity, too, was significantly associated with the number of self-reported cardiovascular comorbidities (B = −0.011, SE B = 0.004, β = −0.114), even after controlling for confounding variables. Conclusion Physical activity was associated with the number of self-reported cardiovascular comorbidities, independent of disability status and other possible confounding variables, in persons with MS. PMID:21597305

  1. Self-reported adherence with the use of a device in a clinical trial as validated by electronic monitors: the VIBES study.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Brianne A; Hannan, Marian T; Quinn, Emily K; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Barton, Bruce A; Rubin, Clinton T; Kiel, Douglas P

    2012-11-14

    Adherences to treatments that require a behavioral action often rely on self-reported recall, yet it is vital to determine whether real time self reporting of adherence using a simple logbook accurately captures adherence. The purpose of this study was to determine whether real time self-reported adherence is an accurate measurement of device usage during a clinical trial by comparing it to electronic recording. Using data collected from older adult men and women (N=135, mean age 82.3 yrs; range 66 to 98 yrs) participating in a clinical trial evaluating a vibrating platform for the treatment of osteoporosis, daily adherence to platform treatment was monitored using both self-reported written logs and electronically recorded radio-frequency identification card usage, enabling a direct comparison of the two methods over one year. Agreement between methods was also evaluated after stratification by age, gender, time in study, and cognition status. The two methods were in high agreement (overall intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.96). The agreement between the two methods did not differ between age groups, sex, time in study and cognitive function. Using a log book to report adherence to a daily intervention requiring a behavioral action in older adults is an accurate and simple approach to use in clinical trials, as evidenced by the high degree of concordance with an electronic monitor.

  2. Self-reported adherence with the use of a device in a clinical trial as validated by electronic monitors: the VIBES study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adherences to treatments that require a behavioral action often rely on self-reported recall, yet it is vital to determine whether real time self reporting of adherence using a simple logbook accurately captures adherence. The purpose of this study was to determine whether real time self-reported adherence is an accurate measurement of device usage during a clinical trial by comparing it to electronic recording. Methods Using data collected from older adult men and women (N=135, mean age 82.3 yrs; range 66 to 98 yrs) participating in a clinical trial evaluating a vibrating platform for the treatment of osteoporosis, daily adherence to platform treatment was monitored using both self-reported written logs and electronically recorded radio-frequency identification card usage, enabling a direct comparison of the two methods over one year. Agreement between methods was also evaluated after stratification by age, gender, time in study, and cognition status. Results The two methods were in high agreement (overall intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.96). The agreement between the two methods did not differ between age groups, sex, time in study and cognitive function. Conclusions Using a log book to report adherence to a daily intervention requiring a behavioral action in older adults is an accurate and simple approach to use in clinical trials, as evidenced by the high degree of concordance with an electronic monitor. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00396994 PMID:23150931

  3. Self-Reporting and Test Discrepancy: Evidence from a National Literacy Survey in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Samir Ranjan

    2007-03-01

    This paper aims to explore the discrepancy between self-reported and test-based literacy estimates in Bangladesh. It uses the Education Watch national literacy survey data of 2002, during which the literacy status of a nationally representative sample was identified using the two methods referred to above. The findings revealed that the literacy rate generated through a literacy test was significantly lower than that found when the self-report method was used. The level of discrepancy varied from one population group to another, indicating that literacy assessment using the self-report method cannot be equally appropriate for all population groups. Those with a few years of schooling were at a particular risk of over-estimating their status. The paper makes a case for a written literacy assessment rather than an oral evaluation.

  4. Rurality and Self-Reported Health in Women with a History of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Rafat; Loxton, Deborah; Khan, Asad

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate differences in self-reported health among Australian women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV) in relation to rurality of residence. Methods Data were drawn from six survey waves of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health 1973–78 birth cohort. Self-reported general and mental health scores derived from the SF-36 scale were compared for women with a history of IPV living in metropolitan, regional and rural areas. Multivariable generalised estimating equations were constructed adjusting for income hardship, number of children, education, social support, age and marital status. Results Women with a history of IPV living in regional and rural areas had no significant differences in self-reported general health scores compared to their metropolitan counterparts. Rural women affected by IPV had slightly better self-reported mental health than equivalent women living in metropolitan or regional areas. The socio-demographic factors with the strongest association with self-reported health were income, education, social support, and number of children. Conclusions Women in regional and rural areas were no more disadvantaged, in terms of self-reported general health or mental health, than IPV affected women living in major cities in Australia. PMID:27622559

  5. Associations of adiposity with measured and self-reported academic performance in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Huang, Terry T-K; Goran, Michael I; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2006-10-01

    To examine the associations of adiposity with measured and self-reported academic performance independently of demographics and physical activity among U.S. adolescents. We surveyed 666 students 11 to 14 years old from seven middle schools in Los Angeles, CA. Weight and height were measured. Actual grade point average was obtained from school records. Self-reported school grades and physical activity time were measured by questionnaire. Adiposity measures included BMI, BMI percentile (> or =85th percentile defined as at-risk-of-overweight), and percentage body fat (bioimpedance). After adjusting for gender, ethnicity, age, and physical activity time, overweight at-risk status, BMI, and percentage body fat were negatively related to only self-reported (p < 0.01) but not measured grades. Level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity time was negatively related to measured and self-reported grades, independently of adiposity (p < 0.01). To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine both body mass and body fat in relation to measured and self-reported school grades. Adiposity did not relate to actual academic performance in a sample of predominantly Latino and Asian-American adolescents. The use of measured vs. self-reported academic outcomes may represent different constructs and influence study conclusions. Cultural factors may also play a role in our findings, but this requires further study.

  6. Moral disengagement in self-reported and peer-nominated school bullying.

    PubMed

    Obermann, Marie-Louise

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relation between moral disengagement and different self-reported and peer-nominated positions in school bullying. The aims of this study were to (1) investigate moral disengagement among children for whom self-reported and peer-nominated bully status diverged and (2) compare levels of disengagement among self-reported and peer-nominated pure bullies, pure victims, bully-victims, and children not involved in bullying. A sample of 739 Danish sixth grade and seventh grade children (mean age 12.6) was included in the study. Moral disengagement was measured using a Danish version of the Moral Disengagement Scale and bullying was measured using both self-reports and peer nominations. Results revealed that both self-reported and peer-nominated bullying were related to moral disengagement, and that both pure bullies and bully-victims displayed higher moral disengagement than outsiders. Discrepancies between self-reported and peer-nominated bullying involvement indicates that a person's social reputation has a stronger association with moral disengagement than so far expected. Implications are discussed, highlighting the importance of further research and theory development.

  7. Comorbidities, polypharmacy, functionality and nutritional status in Turkish community-dwelling female elderly.

    PubMed

    Bahat, Gulistan; Tufan, Fatih; Bahat, Zumrut; Tufan, Asli; Aydin, Yucel; Akpinar, Timur Selcuk; Nadir, Sevilay; Erten, Nilgun; Karan, Mehmet Akif

    2014-06-01

    Most elderly persons live in developing countries where current geriatric epidemiological data are scarce. We aimed to study major comorbidities, polypharmacy, functional and nutritional status in a Turkish community-dwelling female elderly clinic population. Female geriatrics outpatient clinic patients were assessed cross-sectionally. Patients underwent comprehensive geriatric cassessment, including identification of chronic diseases, drugs, functionality, and nutrition. Comorbidities and drugs were defined by the review of patients' self-reports and current medications. Geriatric depression and cognition were assessed by 30-item geriatric depression scale and Folstein mini-mental-state-examination. Functional status was assessed by the evaluation of activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) scales. Nutritional assessment was performed by mini-nutritional-assessment-short form. Five-hundred and fifteen patients were included in this study over an 8-year period. Mean age was 73.4 ± 6.9 years. Mean number of chronic diseases was 2.8. 61.1 % had >3 chronic diseases. Most common 3 diagnoses were hypertension (75.3 %), depression (45.5 %) and dementia (39.4 %). Mean number of drugs was 4.8. Polypharmacy was noted as 63.2 and 47.6 % by definitions as >4 or >5 chronic drug use, respectively. Subjects with at least one dependency of ADL and IADL were 23.4 and 64.0 %. Prevalence of poor nutrition was 39.1 %. In patients with at least one ADL or IADL dependency, undernutrition (p < 0.001), dementia (p < 0.001), cerebrovascular accident, Parkinson's disease, diabetes were more prevalent (p < 0.05) and were taking higher number of drugs (p < 0.01). Polypharmacy and functional dependency seem to be prevalent among female elders in our country. Nutritional status was worse than the other reported urban area of Turkey and also than among males of same region but better than among Iranian counterparts. This study illustrates geographical

  8. Functional Status of Thyroid and Cognitive Functions after Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Bojar, Iwona; Owoc, Alfred; Gujski, Mariusz; Witczak, Mariusz; Gnatowski, Maciej; Walecka, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Background Thyroid activity plays a role in cognition. However, the relation between the functional state of thyroid and neuropsychiatric changes proceeding with age among people without clinical symptoms of thyroid dysfunction is still unknown. The aim of this study was analysis of cognitive function levels in reference to thyroid examination: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxin (TT4), triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPO-AB), and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-AB), TSH receptor antibodies (AB-TSHR) in women after menopause. Material/Methods A group of 383 women was recruited for the study. The inclusion criteria were: minimum two years after the last menstruation and no dementia signs on Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Computerized battery of Central Nervous System Vital Signs (CNS VS) test was used to diagnostic cognitive functions. The blood plasma values were determined: TSH, FT3, FT4, TT3, TT4, TPO-AB, Tg-AB, and AB-TSHR. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and analysis of variance in STATISTICA software. Results In women after menopause, TSH was negatively correlated with NCI results, executive functions, complex attention, and cognitive flexibility. FT4 was positively correlated with results of psychomotor speed. TT3 and TT4 were negatively correlated with results of memory and verbal memory. Furthermore, TT4 was negatively correlated with NCI, executive functions, and cognitive flexibility. TPO-AB was negatively correlated with results of memory, verbal memory, and psychomotor speed. Tg-AB was positively correlated with results of reaction time. AB-TSHR was negatively correlated with NCI results, memory, executive functions, psychomotor speed, complex attention, and cognitive flexibility. Conclusions Our study supports the importance of thyroid functionality in cognitive functioning in a group of women after menopause. The values

  9. APOE genotype influences functional status among elderly without dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, S.M.; Jacobs, D.M.; Stern, Y.

    1995-12-18

    The presence of apolipoprotein-{epsilon}4 (APOE-{epsilon}4) significantly increases the risk of Alzheimer`s disease (AD). The association between APOE-{epsilon}4 status and functional abilities was explored further in a multicultural sample of community-dwelling, nondemented elders. The sample was limited to cognitively-intact, community-dwelling elders, who were free of stroke or other neurologic disability. In 218 elders who met research criteria, the presence of APOE-{epsilon}4 was associated with poorer functional status, apart from the effects of neuropsychological performance, gender, age, and education (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3, 4.9). In 158 subjects without an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele, 50% reported no functional limitation; in the 60 subjects with an {epsilon}4 allele, only 28% reported no functional limitation (P < .01). The relationship was not explained by the distribution of co-morbidities. The association between poorer function and the presence of an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele was evident in each ethnic group. In path analyses, the presence of an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele was associated with decreased functional ability in non-demented elders not simply through an association with poorer cognitive status, but also independently. These results suggest that the APOE-{epsilon}4 genotype is associated with functional deficit in people with normal neuropsychological profiles. 29 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. [Relationship between self-reported ADHD symptoms and WAIS-IV performance].

    PubMed

    Theiling, J; Petermann, F; Daseking, M

    2013-11-01

    This study has examined the relationship between cognitive functions and self-reported symptoms in ADHD adults. Cognitive functions were investigated with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) in N=113 ADHD adults. The severity of self-reported symptoms was based on a screening questionnaire (ADHS-E). Results indicated only weak correlations between self-reported ADHD symptoms and WAIS-IV performance. The ADHS-E scale "Emotion & Affect" accounted for a small but significant variance on most WAIS-IV indices and turned out to be the most important variable to explain performance. The findings suggest that concurrent and discrepant information contribute to a differentiated examination on adult ADHD and that both objective performance diagnostics and self-reports complement each other within the diagnostic process. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Predictors of functional disability at hospital discharge after status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Belluzzo, Marco; Furlanis, Giovanni; Stragapede, Lara

    2015-02-01

    Although status epilepticus is a common neurological emergency, literature about its short term functional disability is scarce and often difficult to interpret. The aim of the present study was to identify possible predictive factors of functional disability in a well-selected cohort of EEG-confirmed status epilepticus patients. We carried out a retrospective evaluation of clinical and radiologic parameters potentially affecting status epilepticus-related disability in a cohort of adult patients admitted to our institution between 2003 and 2013. Functional decline was defined as a ≥ 1 increase in the modified Rankin scale from preadmission to discharge. Seventy-nine patients fulfilled inclusion criteria (46% male). Median age was 69 years. History of epilepsy was present in 49% of patients. Deterioration occurred in 46 subjects (58%). Multivariate analysis revealed the following negative predicting factors for disability: normal neuroimaging (OR = 0.031) and presence of status epilepticus on hospital admission (OR = 0.127). Patients without evident brain lesions are at low risk of functional deterioration development. SE on admission portends a good prognosis as well, probably because it is more promptly treated and it develops in subjects with less systemic complications compared to those in hospital. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Socioeconomic Status and Executive Function: Developmental Trajectories and Mediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackman, Daniel A.; Gallop, Robert; Evans, Gary W.; Farah, Martha J.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) predicts executive function (EF), but fundamental aspects of this relation remain unknown: the developmental course of the SES disparity, its continued sensitivity to SES changes during that course, and the features of childhood experience responsible for the SES-EF relation. Regarding course, early disparities…

  13. Accuracy of self-reported tobacco use in newly diagnosed cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Nelson A.; Romano, Michelle A.; Cummings, K. Michael; Marshall, James R.; Hyland, Andrew J.; Hutson, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Accurate identification of tobacco use is critical to implement evidence-based cessation treatments in cancer patients. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of self-reported tobacco use in newly diagnosed cancer patients. Methods Tobacco use questionnaires and blood samples were collected from 233 newly diagnosed cancer patients (77 lung, 77 breast, and 79 prostate cancer). Blood was analyzed for cotinine levels using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients with cotinine measurements exceeding 10 ng/mL were categorized as current smokers. Smoking status based upon cotinine levels was contrasted with self-report in current smokers, recent quitters (1 or less year since quit), non-recent quitters (>1 year since quit), and never smokers. Multivariate analyses were used to identify potential predictors of discordance between self-reported and biochemically confirmed smoking. Results Cotinine confirmed 100 % accuracy in self-reporting of current and never smokers. Discordance in cotinine and smoking status was observed in 26 patients (15.0 %) reporting former tobacco use. Discordance in self-reported smoking was 12 times higher in recent (35.4 %) as compared with non-recent quitters (2.8 %). Combining disease site, pack-year history, and employment status predicted misrepresentation of tobacco use in 82.4 % of recent quitters. Conclusions Self-reported tobacco use may not accurately assess smoking status in newly diagnosed cancer patients. Patients who claim to have recently stopped smoking within the year prior to a cancer diagnosis and lung cancer patients may have a higher propensity to misrepresent tobacco use and may benefit from biochemical confirmation. PMID:23553611

  14. Functional Status in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Silva, Thais Bento; Bahia, Valéria Santoro; Nitrini, Ricardo; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to conduct a systematic review of studies that described the functional profile of patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), published between 2000 and 2013. The bibliographic search was conducted using the terms “frontotemporal dementia” and “frontotemporal lobar degeneration” in combination with “independence,” “functionality,” “basic activities of daily living,” “disability,” and scales that measure functional performance: “Disability Assessment for Dementia-DAD,” “Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ),” “Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS).” To be included in the review, the study had to mention the characterization of the functional status of patients with bvFTD in the objectives of the study, using a previously validated instrument of functional assessment. Fourteen studies met this criterion. The reviewed studies suggested that individuals with bvFTD have greater functional impairment when compared to those with other subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration or Alzheimer's disease. The studies documented a significant association between cognitive impairment and measures of functionality in these patients. The cognitive profile of patients may predict faster functional decline. PMID:24308008

  15. Psychomotor slowness is associated with self-reported sleep duration among the general population.

    PubMed

    Kronholm, Erkki; Sallinen, Mikael; Era, Pertti; Suutama, Timo; Sulkava, Raimo; Partonen, Timo

    2011-06-01

    Short and long self-reported sleep durations have been found to be associated with several seemingly disparate health risks and impaired functional abilities, including cognitive functioning. The role of long sleep is especially poorly understood in this context. Psychomotor slowness, shown to have analogous associations with cognitive performance and health risks as self-reported long sleep duration, has not been studied together with sleep duration in epidemiological settings. We hypothesized that self-reported habitual sleep duration, especially long sleep, is associated with slow psychomotor reaction time, and that this association is independent of vigilance-related factors. The hypothesis was tested in a sample of 5352 individuals, representing the general adult population. We found a U-shaped association between self-reported sleep duration and psychomotor speed, which prevailed even after controlling for several pertinent confounders. This novel finding can be interpreted to mean that self-reported sleep duration, at least in the case of long sleep, is an indicator of bodily/brain integrity and, taken together with the results of cognitive epidemiology, may provide some new insights into the mechanisms underlying the associations between habitual self-reported sleep duration, health risks and impaired functional abilities.

  16. Predicting habitual walking performance in multiple sclerosis: relevance of capacity and self-report measures.

    PubMed

    Gijbels, Domien; Alders, Geert; Van Hoof, Elke; Charlier, Caroline; Roelants, Machteld; Broekmans, Tom; Eijnde, Bert Op 't; Feys, Peter

    2010-05-01

    The objective was to establish the extent to which physical functioning capacity and self-report measures are able to predict the habitual walking performance in ambulatory persons with multiple sclerosis. Fifty persons with multiple sclerosis (Expanded Disability Status Scale, EDSS, 1.5-6.5) were tested on leg muscle strength as well as walking and balance capacity, and completed self-report indices on perceived physical functioning. Habitual walking performance, that is, the real amount of steps that is performed in the customary living environment, was registered by means of an ambulant accelerometer-based monitor during seven consecutive days. Mild (EDSS 1.5-4.0, n = 29) and moderate (EDSS 4.5-6.5, n = 21) multiple sclerosis subgroups were additionally distinguished as predictor variables and values were hypothesized to differ depending on multiple sclerosis severity and concomitant ambulatory function. Multiple regression analyses yielded a single most significant predictor for each (sub)group with other variables making no independent contribution to the variation in habitual walking performance. For the total study sample, this was the 6-Minute Walking Test (R(2) = 0.458, p < 0.01). In the mild multiple sclerosis subgroup, the 6-Minute Walking Test was again most predictive, yet to a modest degree (R(2) = 0. 187, p = 0.02). In the moderate multiple sclerosis subgroup, the 2-Minute Walking Test explained over half of the variance (R(2) = 0.532, p < 0.01). Habitual walking performance is best reflected by longer walking capacity tests. The extent to which it can be predicted based on clinical testing is larger in a multiple sclerosis patient sample with more severe walking disability. Ambulatory monitoring, however, includes aspects of community ambulation not captured in the clinic, and must be considered as an additional outcome for evaluating interventions in multiple sclerosis.

  17. Self-Reporting and Test Discrepancy: Evidence from a National Literacy Survey in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Samir Ranjan

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the discrepancy between self-reported and test-based literacy estimates in Bangladesh. It uses the Education Watch national literacy survey data of 2002, during which the literacy status of a nationally representative sample was identified using the two methods referred to above. The findings revealed that the literacy…

  18. Self-Reported Health among Older Bangladeshis: How Good a Health Indicator Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, M. Omar; Barsky, Arthur J.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the value of self-reported health (SRH) as an indicator of underlying health status in a developing country setting. Design and Methods: Logistic regression methods with adjustments for multistage sampling are used to examine the factors associated with SRH in 2,921 men and women aged 50 and older in rural Bangladesh.…

  19. The Association of Blood Pressure and Mortality Differs by Self-reported Walking Speed in Older Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Covinsky, Kenneth E.; Neuhaus, John M.; Mayeda, Elizabeth R.; Peralta, Carmen A.; Haan, Mary N.

    2012-01-01

    Background. In some older adults, higher blood pressure (BP) is associated with a lower risk of mortality. We hypothesized that higher BP would be associated with greater mortality in high-functioning elders and lower mortality in elders with lower functional status. Methods. Participants were 1,562 Latino adults aged 60–101 years in the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging. Functional status was measured by self-reported walking speed, and BP was measured by automatic sphygmomanometer. Death information was determined from vital statistics records. Results. There were 442 deaths from 1998 to 2010; 53% were cardiovascular. Mean BP levels (mmHg) varied across fast, medium, and slow walkers: 136, 139, and 140 mmHg (systolic), p = .02 and 75, 76, and 77 mmHg (diastolic), p = .08, respectively. The relationship between systolic BP and mortality varied by self-reported walking speed: The adjusted hazard ratio for mortality in slow walkers was 0.96 per 10 mmHg higher systolic BP (95% confidence interval: 0.89, 1.02) and 1.29 (95% confidence interval: 1.08, 1.55) in fast walkers (p value for interaction <.001). We found a similar pattern for diastolic BP, although the interaction did not reach statistical significance; the adjusted hazard ratio per 10 mmHg higher diastolic BP was 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.78, 1.02) in slow walkers and 1.20 (95% confidence interval: 0.82, 1.76) in fast walkers (p value for interaction = .06). Conclusions. In high-functioning older adults, elevated systolic BP is a risk factor for all-cause mortality. If confirmed in other studies, the assessment of functional status may help to identify persons who are most at-risk for adverse outcomes related to high BP. PMID:22389463

  20. The Prevalence of Self-Reported Smoking and Validation with Urinary Cotinine Among Commercial Drivers in Major Parks in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dania, Michelle G.; Irusen, Elvis M.

    2014-01-01

    The validity of self-reported smoking is questionable because smokers are inclined to deny smoking. We aimed to determine the prevalence of self-reported smoking among intra-city commercial drivers in Lagos, and assess its validity based on urinary cotinine assessment. This study was conducted at three major motor parks in Lagos, Nigeria. Information on smoking status and habits was obtained from 500 consecutive male drivers using a structured questionnaire during a face-to-face interview. Eighty-one self-reported smokers and non-smokers were selected by systematic random sampling for urinary cotinine assessment using cotinine strips. The prevalence of self-reported smoking was compared to the prevalence of smoking based on urinary cotinine and the specificity and positive predictive values of self-reported smoking was determined. Prevalence of self-reported current smoking was 32% and 17.9% of non-smokers were passive smokers. Among 81 drivers in whom urinary cotinine assessment was performed, the prevalence of smoking based on self-report was 34 (42%) compared to 41 (50.6%) when based on urinary cotinine, (X2=38.56, P<0.001). The rate of misclassification among self-reported non-smokers as smokers was 21.3% and misclassification rate for self-reported smokers as non-smokers was 8.8%. The sensitivity of self-reported smoking in accurately classifying smoking status was 91.2% and the specificity was 78.7%. The prevalence of self-reported cigarette smoking among commercial drivers in Lagos is high and a significant proportion of self-reported non-smokers are passive smokers. Self-reported smoking status obtained during face-to-face interview appears unreliable in obtaining accurate smoking data in our locality. PMID:28299115