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Sample records for sellae tuberculum sellae

  1. Penetration and Splitting of Optic Nerve by Tuberculum Sellae Meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Preservation of the optic nerves is an important issue in the resection of tuberculum sellae meningiomas. We report the case of a patient whose optic nerve was penetrated by a tuberculum sellae meningioma. During surgery, a bulging tumor was found to penetrate the right optic nerve. The tumor was gross totally removed, including tumors bulging through the optic nerve. Two trunks of the split optic nerve were preserved. The penetrated shape of the optic nerve may lead to misjudgment and its damage. Divided trunks of optic nerves are difficult to recognize and may be confused for the tumor capsule, because they may be thinned and seem to contain tumors. In addition, a single trunk may be confused for the whole nerve; thus, the other trunk may be easily damaged if not dissected cautiously. Treatment strategy according to the remnant visual acuity was suggested. PMID:27651874

  2. Extended endoscopic transphenoidal approach for tuberculum sellae meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Savas; Koc, Kenan; Anık, Ihsan

    2011-01-01

    Removal of tuberculum sella (TS) meningiomas is traditionally performed through transcranial approaches. Wide use of the endoscope in transphenoidal pituitary surgery is recently accessible through the tuberculum sellae with an endoscope-assisted or purely endoscopic technique. Extended endoscopic approach is an important and alternative route for meningiomas, which are located on the midline originating from the tuberculum sella. However, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage is an important problem in extended endoscopic approaches. In this report, we discuss surgical limitations and nuances of endoscopic transphenoidal approach from a retrospective analysis of nine patients with TS meningiomas. Endoscopic transphenoidal approach was performed for seven women and two men (mean age, 51.1 years; age range, 32-78 years) with TS meningiomas between July 2007 and March 2010 in the Department of Neurosurgery, Kocaeli, Turkey. Total removal was achieved in six of nine patients. An improvement of the preoperative visual deficits was observed in six of the nine patients. Multilayer closure was performed for reconstruction, and lumbar external drainage was used for all patients for 3-5 days. CSF leakage was not seen in any of the patients after the operation and removal of the drainage. Endoscopic extended transphenoidal approach is still not a standardized procedure for TS meningiomas, but it may be considered as an alternative procedure in selected cases.

  3. Tuberculum sellae meningiomas: clinical outcome considering different surgical approaches.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Makoto; Roser, Florian; Struck, Melena; Vorkapic, Peter; Samii, Madjid

    2006-11-01

    Tuberculum sellae meningiomas present a special challenge because of their proximity to arteries of the anterior circulation, anterior visual pathways, and the hypothalamus. The authors report on the clinical outcome after surgical treatment of tuberculum sellae meningiomas in our neurosurgical department. A retrospective study was conducted analyzing the charts of the patients, including surgical records, discharge letters, histological records, follow-up records, and imaging studies. Patients with associated neurofibromatosis Type 2 were excluded from the study. One thousand eight hundred meningiomas were operated on between 1978 and 2002. Seventy-two of these patients had tuberculum sellae meningiomas; four had undergone previous surgical procedures in outside hospitals. Fifty-five patients were women; 17 were men. Their mean age was 54.3 years (range, 30-86 yr). All patients had visual disturbances at presentation. Tumors were operated through the bifrontal approach (n = 21, from 1978 through 1995), the pterional/frontotemporal approach (n = 21, from 1982 through 2002), and the frontolateral approach (n = 30, from 1984 through 2002). Total tumor removal was achieved in most patients (Simpson 1 + 2, 91.7%). The perioperative mortality rate was 2.8% (two out of 72 patients). Immediate postoperative improvement of visual disturbance was observed in 65% of patients. Visual improvement was dependent on the duration of preoperative visual symptoms, but not on preoperative visual acuity or tumor size. The visual improvement rate was significantly better in patients who underwent frontolateral tumor resection (77.8%) compared with those who underwent bifrontal craniotomy (46.2%). The overall recurrence rate was 2.8% (two out of 72 patients). The mean follow-up time for all patients was 4 to 238 months (mean, 45.3 mo [3.8 yr]). From 1978 through 2002, tuberculum sellae meningiomas were removed microsurgically using three different surgical approaches. Considering the

  4. [ENDOSCOPIC REMOVAL OF TUBERCULUM SELLAE MENINGEOMA THROUGH ENDONASAL TRANSSPHENOIDAL APPROACH].

    PubMed

    Fülöp, Béla; Bella, Zsolt; Palágyi, Péter; Barzó, Pál

    2016-03-30

    Experiences acquired in our department with endoscope assisted microsurgical transsphenoidal pituitary surgery encouraged us to expanded the endoscopic approach to skull base lesions. The endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach proved to be less traumatic to the traditional microsurgical approaches, yet very effective. The endoscopic transsphenoidal technique was applied in a patient havin anterior skull base tumor. The patient was a 49-year-old woman with several months history of left visual defect. The magnetic resonance (MR) scans of the skull revealed a midline anterior fossa space-occupying lesion measuring 21 x 16 x 22 mm located on planum sphenoidale, tuberculum sellae and intrasellar. The tumor compressed both optic nerves and optic chiasm. Total resection of the tumor was achieved by use of endoscopic transnasal, transsphenoidal technique. This is the first reported case of an anterior fossa meningeoma being treated by an endoscopic transsphenoidal technique in Hungary.

  5. Endonasal transsphenoidal removal of tuberculum sellae meningiomas: technical note.

    PubMed

    Cook, Shon W; Smith, Zachary; Kelly, Daniel F

    2004-07-01

    Tuberculum sellae meningiomas traditionally have been removed through a transcranial approach. More recently, the sublabial transsphenoidal approach has been used to remove such tumors. Here, we describe use of the direct endonasal transsphenoidal approach for removal of suprasellar meningiomas. Three women, aged 32, 34, and 55 years, each sought treatment for visual loss and headaches. In each patient, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a suprasellar mass causing optic chiasmal and optic nerve compression (average size, 2 x 2 cm). All three patients underwent tumor removal via an endonasal approach with the operating microscope. Suprasellar exposure was facilitated by removal of the posterior planum sphenoidale. Ultrasound was used to help define tumor location before dural opening. The extent of tumor removal was verified with angled endoscopes in all patients, and with intraoperative MRI in one patient. The surgical dural and bony defects were repaired in all patients with abdominal fat, titanium mesh, and 2 to 3 days of cerebrospinal fluid lumbar drainage. Nasal packing was not used. There were no postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leaks or meningitis. One patient required a reoperation 2 weeks after surgery to reduce the size of her fat graft, which was causing optic nerve compression; within 24 hours, her vision rapidly improved. At 3 months after surgery, all three patients had normal vision, no new endocrinopathy, and no residual tumor on MRI. At 10 months after surgery, one patient had a small asymptomatic tumor regrowth seen on MRI. The endonasal approach with the operating microscope appears to be an effective minimally invasive method for removing relatively small midline tuberculum sellae meningiomas. Intraoperative ultrasound, the micro-Doppler probe, and angled endoscopes are useful adjuncts for safely and completely removing such tumors. Longer follow-up is needed to monitor for tumor recurrence in these patients.

  6. Endoscopic endonasal approach for a tuberculum sellae meningioma.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Pinheiro-Neto, Carlos D; Gardner, Paul A; Snyderman, Carl H

    2012-01-01

    The authors present the technical and anatomical nuances needed to perform an endoscopic endonasal removal of a tuberculum sellae meningioma. The patient is a 47-year-old female with headaches and an incidental finding of a small tuberculum sellae meningioma with no vascular encasement, no optic canal invasion, but mild inferior to superior compression of the cisternal segment of the left optic nerve. Neuroophthalmology assessment revealed no visual defects. Treatment options included clinical observation with imaging follow-up studies, radiosurgery, and resection. The patient elected to undergo surgical removal and an endonasal endoscopic approach was the preferred surgical option. Preoperative radiological studies showed the presence of an osseous ring between the left middle and anterior clinoids, the so-called carotico-clinoidal ring. The surgical implications of this finding and its management are illustrated. The surgical anatomy of the suprasellar region is reviewed, including concepts such as the chiasmatic sulcus and limbus sphenoidale, medial and lateral optico-carotid recesses, and the paraclinoidal and supraclinoidal segments of the internal carotid artery. Emphasis is made in the importance of exposing the distal dural ring of the internal carotid artery and the precanalicular segment of the optic nerve for adequate intradural dissection. The endonasal route allows for early coagulation of the tumor meningeal supply and extensive resection of dural attachments, and importantly, provides an inferior to superior access to the infrachiasmatic region that facilitates complete tumor removal without any manipulation of the optic nerve. The lateral limit of dural removal is formed by the distal dural ring, which is gently coagulated after the tumor is resected. A 45° scope is used to inspect for any residual tumor, in particular at the entrance of the optic nerve into the optic canal and at the most anterior margin of the exposure (limbus sphenoidale). The

  7. Endoscopic endonasal approach for a tuberculum sellae meningioma.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Pinheiro-Nieto, Carlos; Gardner, Paul A; Snyderman, Carl H

    2012-01-01

    The authors present the technical and anatomical nuances needed to perform an endoscopic endonasal removal of a tuberculum sellae meningioma. The patient is a 47-year-old female with headaches and an incidental finding of a small tuberculum sellae meningioma with no vascular encasement, no optic canal invasion, but mild inferior to superior compression of the cisternal segment of the left optic nerve. Neuroophthalmology assessment revealed no visual defects. Treatment options included clinical observation with imaging follow-up studies, radiosurgery, and resection. The patient elected to undergo surgical removal and an endonasal endoscopic approach was the preferred surgical option. Preoperative radiological studies showed the presence of an osseous ring between the left middle and anterior clinoids, the so-called carotico-clinoidal ring. The surgical implications of this finding and its management are illustrated. The surgical anatomy of the suprasellar region is reviewed, including concepts such as the chiasmatic sulcus and limbus sphenoidale, medial and lateral optico-carotid recesses, and the paraclinoidal and supraclinoidal segments of the internal carotid artery. Emphasis is made in the importance of exposing the distal dural ring of the internal carotid artery and the precanalicular segment of the optic nerve for adequate intradural dissection. The endonasal route allows for early coagulation of the tumor meningeal supply and extensive resection of dural attachments, and importantly, provides an inferior to superior access to the infrachiasmatic region that facilitates complete tumor removal without any manipulation of the optic nerve. The lateral limit of dural removal is formed by the distal dural ring, which is gently coagulated after the tumor is resected. A 45° scope is used to inspect for any residual tumor, in particular at the entrance of the optic nerve into the optic canal and at the most anterior margin of the exposure (limbus sphenoidale). The

  8. Surgical management of tuberculum sellae meningioma: role of selective extradural anterior clinoidectomy.

    PubMed

    Otani, Naoki; Muroi, Carl; Yano, Hirohito; Khan, Nadia; Pangalu, Athina; Yonekawa, Yasuhiro

    2006-06-01

    A retrospective analysis of 32 patients with tuberculum sellae meningiomas who underwent surgery via a unilateral pterional approach was performed. A selective extradural anterior clinoidectomy (SEAC) technique was added in 20 patients. All patients had visual dysfunction preoperatively. Macroscopically complete removal with Simpson grade II was performed in 28 patients (87.5%). The postoperative visual function improved in 25 (78.1%), did not change in 3 (9.4%), and worsened in 4 patients (12.5%). The SEAC technique was effective, especially for removal of the tumour extending into the sellae/pituitary stalk (9 patients), the optic canal (4 patients) and hypothalamus (4 patients) with preservation of the visual and endocrinological function. These results were superior to those of surgery without SEAC technique. This technique is therefore recommended for complete resection of the tuberculum sellae meningiomas extending to the surrounding anatomical structures as the SEAC procedure reduces the risk of intraoperative optic nerve injury considerably.

  9. Endoscopic endonasal extended transsphenoidal removal of tuberculum sellae meningioma (TSM): an experience of six cases.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Forhad H; Haque, Mohammod R; Goel, Atul H; Kawsar, Khandkar A

    2012-10-01

    Tuberculum sellae meningiomas (TSMs) are usually removed through a transcranial approach. Recently, the sublabial transsphenoidal microscopic approach has been used to remove such tumours. More recently, endonasal extended transsphenoidal approach is getting popular for removal of tuberculum sellae meningioma. Here, we describe our initial experience of endonasal extended transsphenoidal approach for removal of suprasellar meningiomas in six consecutive cases. Six patients (four female and two male) who presented for headache and visual loss were investigated with MRI of brain that showed tuberculum sellae meningioma compressing visual apparatus. Average size was 3 × 3 cm in three cases and 4 × 4 cm in rest of the three. All patients underwent endoscopic endonasal extended transsphenoidal tumour removal, but in two patients with large tumour, microscopic assistance was needed. Complete tumour removal was done in all cases except one case where perforators seemed to be encased by the tumour and resulted in incomplete removal. The surgical dural and bony defects were repaired in all patients with thigh fat graft. Nasal packing was not used, but inflated balloon of Foley's catheter was used to keep fat in position. There was mild postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage in one patient on the fourth postoperative day after removal of lumbar CSF drain and stopped spontaneously on the seventh postoperative day. There were no postoperative CSF leaks or meningitis in the rest of the cases. In one patient, there was visual deterioration due to pressure on optic nerve by grafted fat and improved within 4 weeks. At 4 months after surgery, three patients had normal vision, two patients improved vision comparing with that of preoperative state but with some persisting deficit; one patient had static vision, no new endocrinopathy and no residual tumour on MRI in five cases but residual tumour in remaining case was static at the end of the ninth month. The endoscopic

  10. Optic Nerve Vascular Compression in a Patient with a Tuberculum Sellae Meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Mizrahi, Cezar José; Moscovici, Samuel; Dotan, Shlomo; Spektor, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Background. Optic nerve vascular compression in patients with suprasellar tumor is a known entity but is rarely described in the literature. Case Description. We present a unique, well-documented case of optic nerve strangulation by the A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery in a patient with a tuberculum sellae meningioma. The patient presented with pronounced progressive visual deterioration. Following surgery, there was immediate resolution of her visual deficit. Conclusion. Vascular strangulation of the optic nerve should be considered when facing progressive and/or severe visual field deterioration in patients with tumors proximal to the optic apparatus. PMID:25705535

  11. Optic nerve vascular compression in a patient with a tuberculum sellae meningioma.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, Cezar José; Moscovici, Samuel; Dotan, Shlomo; Spektor, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Background. Optic nerve vascular compression in patients with suprasellar tumor is a known entity but is rarely described in the literature. Case Description. We present a unique, well-documented case of optic nerve strangulation by the A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery in a patient with a tuberculum sellae meningioma. The patient presented with pronounced progressive visual deterioration. Following surgery, there was immediate resolution of her visual deficit. Conclusion. Vascular strangulation of the optic nerve should be considered when facing progressive and/or severe visual field deterioration in patients with tumors proximal to the optic apparatus.

  12. Anatomical Origin of Tuberculum Sellae Meningioma: Off-Midline Location and Its Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungjoo; Hong, Seok Ho; Cho, Young Hyun; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Chang Jin

    2016-05-01

    Tuberculum sellae meningiomas (TSM) arise from the dura mater of tuberculum sellae, limbus sphenoidale, and chiasmatic sulcus and cause asymmetric visual disturbances. In this study, we analyzed the laterality of the origin of TSM and discussed its clinical implications on immediate and long-term visual outcomes. Between 1994 and 2013, TSM was diagnosed in 100 patients after microsurgical resection. The medical records, radiologic features, and operative findings were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed in these patients. Visual disturbances were evident in 95 patients (95%) after neuro-ophthalmologic testing. Among them, 89 patients (89%) showed marked asymmetric visual field defect, and 6 patients (6%) had relatively symmetric visual field defect. On intraoperative inspection, the origin of TSM was at the one lateral end portion of the tuberculum sellae in 85 patients (85%). In 15 patients (15%), the TSM originated from the midline region, including the central portion of the tuberculum sellae (n = 13) and diaphragm sellae (n = 2). Optic canal involvement was observed in 73 patients (73%). Preexisting visual field defects were improved in 70 patients (70%), were stationary in 25 patients (25%), and aggravated in 5 patients (5%) during postoperative follow-up (mean 58 months, 24∼122 months). The preoperative symptom duration, the laterality of the origin of TSM, and optic disc atrophy were associated with long-term poor visual outcomes. Most TSMs that originated from the dura of one lateral end portion of the tuberculum sellae correlated with asymmetric visual symptoms and poor visual outcomes. This microsurgical feature should be considered in the planning of optimal surgical strategy to achieve favorable outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Endonasal versus supraorbital keyhole removal of craniopharyngiomas and tuberculum sellae meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, Nasrin; Dusick, Joshua R; de Paiva Neto, Manoel A; Malkasian, Dennis; Kelly, Daniel F

    2009-05-01

    Endonasal and supraorbital "eyebrow" craniotomies are increasingly being used to remove craniopharyngiomas and tuberculum sellae meningiomas. Herein, we assess the relative advantages, disadvantages, and selection criteria of these 2 keyhole approaches. All consecutive patients who had endonasal or supraorbital removal of a craniopharyngioma or tuberculum sellae meningioma were analyzed. Of 43 patients, 22 had a craniopharyngioma (18 endonasal, 4 supraorbital), and 21 had a meningioma (12 endonasal, 7 supraorbital, 2 both routes); 33% had prior surgery. Craniopharyngiomas were primarily retrochiasmal in location in 78% of endonasal cases versus 25% of supraorbital cases (P = 0.08). Meningiomas were larger when approached by the supraorbital route versus the endonasal route (33 +/- 10 versus 25 +/- 8 mm, respectively; P = 0.008). Endoscopy was used in 84% of endonasal approaches and in 31% of supraorbital approaches (P = 0.001). Of patients having first-time surgery for a craniopharyngioma (n = 14) or meningioma (n = 15), total/near total removal was achieved in 83% and 80% of patients by the endonasal route and in 50% and 80% of patients by the supraorbital route, respectively. Vision improved in 87% and 70% of patients who had surgery by an endonasal versus supraorbital route, respectively (P = 0.3). Visual deterioration occurred in 2 patients with meningiomas, 1 by endonasal (7%), and 1 by supraorbital (11%) removal. The endonasal approach was associated with a higher rate of postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leaks (16 versus 0%; P = 0.3), 4 of 5 of which occurred in patients with meningioma. The endonasal route is preferred for removal of most retrochiasmal craniopharyngiomas, whereas the supraorbital route is recommended for meningiomas larger than 30 to 35 mm or with growth beyond the supraclinoid carotid arteries. For smaller midline tumors, either approach can be used, depending on surgeon experience and tumor anatomy. Compared with traditional craniotomies

  14. Pure endoscopic expanded endonasal approach for olfactory groove and tuberculum sellae meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Khan, Osaama H; Krischek, Boris; Holliman, Damian; Klironomos, George; Kucharczyk, Walter; Vescan, Allan; Gentili, Fred; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2014-06-01

    The expanded endoscopic endonasal (EEE) approach for the removal of olfactory groove (OGM) and tuberculum sellae (TSM) meningiomas is currently becoming an acceptable surgical approach in neurosurgical practice, although it is still controversial with respect to its outcomes, indications and limitations. Here we provide a review of the available literature reporting results with use of the EEE approach for these lesions together with our experience with the use of the endoscope as the sole means of visualization in a series of patients with no prior surgical biopsy or resection. Surgical cases between May 2006 and January 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-three patients (OGM n=6; TSM n=17) were identified. In our series gross total resection (GTR) was achieved in 4/6 OGM (66.7%) and 11/17 (64.7%) TSM patients. Vision improved in the OGM group (2/2) and 8/11 improved in the TSM group with no change in visual status in the remaining three patients. Post-operative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak occurred in 2/6 (33%) OGM and 2/17 (11.8%) TSM patients. The literature review revealed a total of 19 OGM and 174 TSM cases which were reviewed. GTR rate was 73% for OGM and 56.3% for TSM. Post-operative CSF leak was 30% for OGM and 14% for TSM. With careful patient selection and a clear understanding of its limitations, the EEE technique is both feasible and safe. However, longer follow-ups are necessary to better define the appropriate indications and ideal patient population that will benefit from the use of these newer techniques.

  15. Surgical Indications of Exploring Optic Canal and Visual Prognostic Factors in Neurosurgical Treatment of Tuberculum Sellae Meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hao-Cheng; Qiu, E; Zhang, Jia-Liang; Kang, Jun; Li, Yong; Li, Yong; Jiang, Li-Bin; Fu, Ji-Di

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tuberculum sellae meningiomas (TSMs) present a special symptom because of the adherence and compression to the optic nerve, optic artery, and the chiasm. A significant number of patients with TSMs appear visual deficits. This study aimed to investigate the surgical indications of exploring the optic canal and visual prognostic factors in the neurosurgical treatment of TSMs. Methods: Totally 21 patients with TSM, who were operated from September 2007 to August 2011 in the Department of Neurosurgery, Tongren Hospital were enrolled in this study. Results of orbital computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), visual acuity, Goldmann visual field test, orbital color Doppler flow imaging (CDI) test in these patients were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Visual deficit and optic canal involvement (OCI) were detected in all the 21 patients. Fourteen patients had bone proliferation within the area of the optic canal. After the operation, visual outcomes were improved in 13 patients, unchanged in 7 patients, and deteriorated in 1 patient. All the 21 patients performed orbital CDI test preoperatively, the results showed that if the peak systolic velocity (PSV) of central retinal artery (CRA) value was ≤8 cm/s, the visual outcome would be better. Conclusions: The surgical indications of exploring optic canal in TSM cases included: (1) The neuroimaging evidences of OCI (CT and/or MRI); (2) PSV of CRA in orbital CDI test was ≤8 cm/s; (3) visual acuity was below 0.1; (4) visual field deficit. The PSV of CRA in CDI test could be a prognostic factor for visual outcomes of TSMs. PMID:26315077

  16. Empty sella syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... sella syndrome is a condition in which the pituitary gland shrinks or becomes flattened. ... The pituitary gland is a small gland located just underneath the brain. It is attached to the bottom of the ...

  17. From above or below: the controversy and historical evolution of tuberculum sellae meningioma resection from open to endoscopic skull base approaches.

    PubMed

    Soni, Resha S; Patel, Smruti K; Husain, Qasim; Dahodwala, Mufaddal Q; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Liu, James K

    2014-04-01

    In the early 20th century, the first successful surgical removal of a tuberculum sellae meningioma (TSM) was performed and described by Harvey Cushing. It soon became recognized that TSM pose a formidable challenge for skull base surgeons because of their deep and sensitive location, proximity to critical neurovascular elements, and often dense and fibrous nature. Because of this, over the next several decades controversy transpired regarding their optimal method of resection. Early attempts involved utilization of open transcranial routes. This included classic bilateral and unilateral frontal approaches, followed by pterional or frontotemporal approaches, which have evolved to incorporate skull base modifications, such as the supraorbital, orbitozygomatic, and orbitopterional approaches. Minimally invasive supraorbital keyhole approaches through eyebrow incisions have also been adopted. Over the past 25 years, the microsurgical transsphenoidal approach, classically used for pituitary and parasellar tumors, was modified to resect suprasesllar TSM via the extended transsphenoidal approach. More recently, with the evolution of endoscopic techniques, resection of TSM has been achieved using purely endoscopic endonasal transplanum transtuberculum approaches. Although each of these techniques has been successfully described for the treatment of TSM, the question still remains: is it better to access and operate on these lesions via a traditional, transcranial avenue, or are they better treated via endoscopic endonasal techniques? We outline the surgical management of TSM through history, from early transcranial and transsphenoidal approaches to modern extended endoscopic endonasal procedures. We briefly explore the arguments favoring each of the methods and the advancements which have emerged to further optimize surgical resection.

  18. Visual outcome after fronto-temporo-orbito-zygomatic approach combined with early extradural and intradural optic nerve decompression in tuberculum and diaphragma sellae meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Mortini, Pietro; Barzaghi, Lina Raffaella; Serra, Carlo; Orlandi, Vittoria; Bianchi, Stefania; Losa, Marco

    2012-07-01

    The surgical challenge of the treatment of tuberculum (TSMs) and diaphragma sellae meningiomas (DSMs) is to preserve or improve the visual function. Extradural and intradural optic nerve decompression should reduce surgical trauma of the nerve achieving a good visual result. We reported 37 consecutive TSMs and DSMs operated through fronto-temporo-orbito-zygomatic approach with extradural unroofing of the optical canal and early intradural incision of the dural sheath. Visual data were recorded measuring the visual impairment score (VIS), the visual acuity (VA), the visual field (VF) and the postoperative improvement. A good visual outcome (VIS improved or unchanged) was obtained in 97.2% of patients (35/36). The evaluation of 72 eyes showed a good outcome (VA and VF unchanged or improved) in 98.6% (71/72 eyes). The degree of preoperative VA and VF impairment was the only factor correlating with the postoperative improvement of VA (P<.001 and P=.018) and VF defect (P<.001). Worsening of visual function occurred in 1/37 patient (2.7%). Using this surgical technique we achieved a high improvement rate of visual defects and a low frequency of worsening. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Endoscopic Assisted Supraorbital Keyhole Approach or Endoscopic Endonasal Approach in Cases of Tuberculum Sellae Meningioma: Which Surgical Route Should Be Favored?

    PubMed

    Linsler, Stefan; Fischer, Gerrit; Skliarenko, Volodymyr; Stadie, Axel; Oertel, Joachim

    2017-08-01

    Keyhole approaches are under investigation for skull base tumor surgery. They are expected to have a low complication rate with the same successful resection rate compared with endoscopic endonasal procedures. In this study, we compare our current series of tuberculum sellae meningiomas resected via an endoscopic endonasal or microsurgical supraorbital keyhole approach. Between 2011 and 2016, 16 patients were treated using the supraorbital keyhole procedure and 6 patients received an endoscopic endonasal procedure. Both surgical techniques were analyzed and compared concerning complications, surgical radicality, endocrinologic, and ophthalmologic outcome and recurrences in patients' follow-up. The 2 different approaches yielded similar rates of gross total resection (endonasal 83% [5 of 6] vs. supraorbital 87% [14 of 16]), near total resection (17% [1 of 6] vs. 13% [2 of 16]), and visual recovery (endonasal 66% [2 of 3] vs. supraorbital 60% [3 of 5]). An extension lateral to the internal carotid artery was noted in 81% (13 of 16) of the supraorbital cases and in none of the endonasal cases. Tumor volume was 14.9 cm(3) (±8.2 cm(3)) for supraorbital tumors versus 2.1 cm(3) (±0.8 cm(3)) for the endonasal approach. Both approaches provide minimally invasive surgical routes accessing meningiomas of the sellar region. The ideal approach should be tailored to the individual patient considering the tumor anatomy, lateral extension, and the experience of the surgeon with both surgical approaches. We suggest using the supraorbital approach for larger meningiomas of sellar region with far lateral extension or broad vascular encasement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hyperprolactinaemia and the empty sella.

    PubMed

    Thwin, M; Brophy, B P

    2012-04-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia is an endocrine abnormality seen not infrequently in the population with empty sella; a radiological and anatomical diagnosis of a deformed and enlarged sella turcica. Often there is no associated pathology within the pituitary gland itself, lending to the hypothesis that the empty sella syndrome per se has a yet-to-be defined role in hyperprolactinemia. We report a patient who presented initially with non-specific symptoms of meningeal irritation and viral illness on a long background of galactorrhoea. The patient demonstrated elevated serum prolactin, and a diagnosis of empty sella was made on the basis of MRI findings.

  1. Comparison of the effectiveness of using the optic strut and tuberculum sellae as radiological landmarks in diagnosing paraclinoid aneurysms with CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chih-Hsiang; Lin, Chung-Jung; Lin, Chun-Fu; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Min-Hsiung; Hsu, Sanford P C; Shih, Yang-Hsin

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE The treatment of paraclinoid aneurysms remains challenging. It is important to determine the exact location of the paraclinoid aneurysm when considering treatment options. The authors herein evaluated the effectiveness of using the optic strut (OS) and tuberculum sellae (TS) as radiographic landmarks for distinguishing between intradural and extradural paraclinoid aneurysms on source images from CT angiography (CTA). METHODS Between January 2010 and September 2013, a total of 49 surgical patients with the preoperative diagnoses of paraclinoid aneurysm and 1 symptomatic cavernous-clinoid aneurysm were retrospectively identified. With the source images from CTA, the OS and the TS were used as landmarks to predict the location of the paraclinoid aneurysm and its relation to the distal dural ring (DDR). The operative findings were examined to confirm the definitive location of the paraclinoid aneurysm. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the diagnostic effectiveness of the landmarks. RESULTS Nineteen patients without preoperative CTA were excluded. The remaining 30 patients comprised the current study. The intraoperative findings confirmed 12 intradural, 12 transitional, and 6 extradural paraclinoid aneurysms, the diagnoses of which were significantly related to the type of aneurysm (p < 0.05) but not factors like sex, age, laterality of aneurysm, or relation of the aneurysm to the ophthalmic artery on digital subtraction angiography. To measure agreement with the correct diagnosis, the OS as a reference point was far superior to the TS (Cohen's kappa coefficients 0.462 and 0.138 for the OS and the TS, respectively). For paraclinoid aneurysms of the medial or posterior type, using the base of the OS as a reference point tended to overestimate intradural paraclinoid aneurysms. The receiver operating characteristic curve indicated that if the aneurysmal neck traverses the axial plane 2 mm above the base of the OS, the aneurysm is most likely to grow

  2. The Enigma behind Pituitary and Sella Turcica

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, Umarevathi; Mahendra, Lodd; Rangarajan, Sumanth; Madasamy, Ramasamy; Ibrahim, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The pituitary gland's role as a functional matrix for sella turcica has not been suggested in orthodontic literature. This paper is an attempt to correlate the role of pituitary gland in the development of sella turcica. A case report of dwarfism associated with hypopituitarism is presented to highlight the above hypothesis. PMID:26199763

  3. A Cephalometric Analysis on Magnitudes and Shape of Sella Turcica.

    PubMed

    Rai, Ashwin R; Rai, Rohan; Pc, Vani; Rai, Rajalakshmi; Vadgaonkar, Rajanigandha; Tonse, Mamatha

    2016-07-01

    Familiarity with the shape and dimensions of sella turcica is important to recognize and manage pathological conditions of pituitary gland as well as for orthodontic treatment planning. The present study aims to describe the morphology and dimensions of sella turcica from Indian population, using lateral cephalograms to set a reference data for comparison among different races. The study used 36 lateral skull radiographs of both sexes between age group of 13 to 18 years. Shape of sella turcica was noted by visual inspection. Length, height anterior, height median, height posterior, distance between frontonasal suture and mental spine to midpoint of posterior clinoid process, and tuberculum sella were measured using digital vernier caliper with reference to Frankfort line. The results of the study revealed that mean length, height anterior, height median, height posterior were larger in females than in males. The morphological types identified include pointed posterior clinoid process with rounded hypophyseal fossa, hooked posterior clinoid process with rounded hypophyseal fossa, hooked posterior clinoid process with flask-shaped hypophyseal fossa. These observations would be beneficial for the clinicians and orthodontists to design treatment planning in pathology of pituitary gland and in correcting dentofacial anomalies.

  4. Sella turcica-Its importance in orthodontics and craniofacial morphology

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana, Haritha Pottipalli; Kailasam, Vignesh; Chitharanjan, Arun B

    2013-01-01

    The sella turcica is a structure which can be readily seen on lateral cephalometric radiographs and sella point is routinely traced for various cephalometric analyses. The search was carried out using the following key words (sella turcica, bridging of sella, size, shape of sella turcica) and with the following search engine (Pubmed, Cochrane, Google scholar). The morphology is very important for the cephalometric position of the reference point sella, not only for evaluating craniofacial morphology, but also when growth changes and orthodontic treatment results are to be evaluated. This makes it a good source of additional diagnostic information related to pathology of the pituitary gland, or to various syndromes that affect the craniofacial region. Clinicians should be familiar with the normal radiographic anatomy and morphologic variability of this area, in order to recognize and investigate deviations that may reflect pathological situations, even before these become clinically apparent. During embryological development, the sella turcica area is the key point for the migration of the neural crest cells to the frontonasal and maxillary developmental fields. The neural crest cells are involved in the formation and development of sella turcica and teeth. The size of sella turcica ranges from 4 to 12 mm for the vertical and 5 to 16 mm for the anteroposterior dimension. There are many classification systems regarding the shape of sella turcica. Majority of the studies show that about 67% of the subjects had normal appearance and about 33% showed variations. The prevalence of sella turcica bridging is high in class III malocclusions and dental anomalies. PMID:24348611

  5. Intranasal approach to the sella turcica.

    PubMed

    Freidberg, S R; Hybels, R L; Oliver, P

    1979-08-01

    A transseptal approach to the sella turcica is described which is entirely intranasal and avoids the sublabial incision. The first incision is unilateral along the caudal edge of the septum, and the second incision is made across the base of the nasal columella. This allows the speculum to open the width of both nasal chambers, giving adequate exposure. The septal cartilage is either preserved or resected except for a caudal strut. The difficult dissection of mucosa from the nasal floor and maxillary crest is avoided. This technique is rapid and straightforward and results in a cosmetically acceptable scar.

  6. Schizophernia and empty sella - casual or correlated?

    PubMed

    Wix-Ramos, Richard Joseph; Capote, Eduardo; Mendoza, Milet; Garcia, Margreth; Ezequiel, Uribe

    2011-04-01

    A male patient, 44 years old, with schizophrenia which started at the age of 18. At his last follow-up visit, laboratory tests and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed, revealing the presence of a sellar arachnoidocele. To our knowledge, there is only one similar case report of a set of male monozygotic triplets with schizophrenia and empty sella syndrome. High-resolution chromosome analysis found an extra band at chromosome 15p in all the triplets and their father. We performed a similar evaluation in our patient and his family to compare the results and identify new information on neuroanatomical abnormalities, hormonal alterations or genetic origins of schizophrenia.

  7. Sella turcica anomalies on lateral cephalometric radiographs of Polish children

    PubMed Central

    Kucia, A; Jankowski, T; Siewniak, M; Grocholewicz, K; Szych, Z; Wilk, G

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the prevalence of sella turcica anomalies on lateral cephalograms of children with malocclusion. To describe the craniofacial morphology in patients with sella turcica anomalies. Methods: Lateral cephalograms obtained at ages 8–16 years (n = 431) were assessed for good visibility of cephalometric structures, including the sella turcica, and the absence of craniofacial congenital deformities; finally, 322 cephalograms were included and analysed. Subsequently, anomalies of sella turcica have been identified. Hypertrophic posterior clinoid process, hypotrophic posterior clinoid process and oblique contour of the floor were the abnormalities found that could not be classified based on literature. The study group consisted of 151 cephalograms with abnormal sella turcica, while the control group consisted of 171 cephalograms without any sellar pathology. Data normality has been tested using Shapiro–Wilk test. Correlations with age were made using Spearman correlation coefficient and those with sex were made using independence test with Yate's correction for continuity. Mann–Whitney test was used to compare between groups and subgroups. The level of significance has been established as p < 0.05. Results: Sellar anomalies were found in 151 individuals (46.9%). Statistically significant differences between patients with normal and abnormal sellar morphology were found concerning: Pg:NB (p = 0.0009), 1+:NA (p = 0.0004) and 1−:NB (p = 0.012), indicating a more distal position of jaw structures in subjects with abnormal sella. Conclusions: The finding that almost 50% of children with malocclusion have sellar abnormalities confirms a general aetiology of malocclusion. Sella turcica assessment should be carried out during cephalometric analysis. PMID:25182120

  8. Sella turcica bridging and dental anomalies: is there an association?

    PubMed

    Scribante, Andrea; Sfondrini, Maria Francesca; Cassani, Marco; Fraticelli, Danilo; Beccari, Sergio; Gandini, Paola

    2017-04-07

    Sella turcica bridging (STB), or calcification of the interclinoid ligament of sella turcica, has been reported to be associated with some dental anomalies (palatal canine impaction and transposition). The aim of the study was to find any association between canine impaction, hyperdontia or hypodontia and sellar dimensions or bridging. Lateral cephalometric radiographs from 78 patients with impacted canines, 68 with dental agenesis and 17 with hyperdontia were collected. Linear dimensions of sella turcica were calculated and compared to those of a control group (47 individuals). A standardize scoring scale was used to quantify the extent of STB from each radiographs. The frequency of partial and complete calcifications of sella in patients with dental anomalies is increased when compared to controls. STB can influence the interclinoid distance but does not affect other linear dimensions of sella. No statistically significant difference has been found in sellar dimensions and STB expression when evaluating radiographs at different ages. STB is frequently found in patients with dental abnormalities. © 2017 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Pituitary gland and sella turcica in human trisomy 18 fetuses.

    PubMed

    Kjaer, I; Keeling, J W; Reintoft, I; Hjalgrim, H; Nolting, D; Fischer Hansen, B

    1998-02-26

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the phenotypic conditions in the sella turcica/pituitary gland complex in human trisomy 18 fetuses. Fourteen human fetuses with gestational ages from 12 to 39 weeks were included in the study. Normal fetuses at corresponding ages were used as controls. Whole body and special radiographic examination was undertaken before the midsagittal cranial base block, including the pituitary gland, was excised and analyzed histologically and immunohistochemically (keratin wide spectrum [KWS], thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], and neurophysin [Nph]). In all trisomy 18 fetuses, TSH-positive adenopituitary tissue was present in the sella and in greater or lesser amounts pharyngeally. The neurohypophysis was Nph-positive and located normally in the sella turcica. The adenohypophyseal tissue reacted either KWS-faint or KWS-negative, whereas KWS-positive reaction occurs in normal fetuses. This circumstance might suggest an altered cytoskeletal structure of the surface ectoderm in the pituitary placode in trisomy 18. The sella turcica was malformed in all the fetuses. Very broad craniopharyngeal canals were observed in some of the fetuses. Because endocrine disorders occur in many congenital malformations, it is essential in future studies to chart the sella turcica/pituitary gland region systematically in different genotypes.

  10. The collapse of the Sella Zerbino gravity dam.

    PubMed

    Petaccia, G; Lai, C G; Milazzo, C; Natale, L

    2016-08-23

    When a severe flood wave completely filled the Ortiglieto reservoir on August 13, 1935, the 14 m high "Sella Zerbino" secondary dam failed catastrophically causing > 100 casualties. Both of the dams, Sella Zerbino-Zerbino Saddle and Bric Zerbino-Zerbino Peak (Fig. 1) were overtopped but only the Sella Zerbino failed whereas the main barrage did not suffer any damage. The lawsuit that followed this tragic event ended with a full acquittal of the dam's designers since the plaintiff experts succeeded in demonstrating that the collapse was due to an extreme rainfall storm of unpredictable intensity. The case was then officially closed and still today the failure of the Sella Zerbino dam is attributed to the unpredictable hydrological event. Recently, Natale and Petaccia (2013) re-examined the case assessing the capacity of the flood spillways which equipped the Bric Zerbino dam. This paper thoroughly reviews the mechanics of the collapse of the Sella Zerbino dam focusing on the stability of the structure. The water pressure underneath the dam and the poor quality of the foundation rock is believed to have played a major role in the sequence of events that ended in the collapse of the barrage.

  11. Reproducibility of the sella turcica landmark in three dimensions using a sella turcica-specific reference system

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Reinhilde; Odri, Guillaume A.; Vasconcelos, Karla de Faria; Willems, Guy; Olszewski, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to assess the reproducibility of identifying the sella turcica landmark in a three-dimensional (3D) model by using a new sella-specific landmark reference system. Materials and Methods Thirty-two cone-beam computed tomographic scans (3D Accuitomo® 170, J. Morita, Kyoto, Japan) were retrospectively collected. The 3D data were exported into the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine standard and then imported into the Maxilim® software (Medicim NV, Sint-Niklaas, Belgium) to create 3D surface models. Five observers identified four osseous landmarks in order to create the reference frame and then identified two sella landmarks. The x, y, and z coordinates of each landmark were exported. The observations were repeated after four weeks. Statistical analysis was performed using the multiple paired t-test with Bonferroni correction (intraobserver precision: p<0.005, interobserver precision: p<0.0011). Results The intraobserver mean precision of all landmarks was <1 mm. Significant differences were found when comparing the intraobserver precision of each observer (p<0.005). For the sella landmarks, the intraobserver mean precision ranged from 0.43±0.34 mm to 0.51±0.46 mm. The intraobserver reproducibility was generally good. The overall interobserver mean precision was <1 mm. Significant differences between each pair of observers for all anatomical landmarks were found (p<0.0011). The interobserver reproducibility of sella landmarks was good, with >50% precision in locating the landmark within 1 mm. Conclusion A newly developed reference system offers high precision and reproducibility for sella turcica identification in a 3D model without being based on two-dimensional images derived from 3D data. PMID:25793179

  12. [A case of solitary fibrous tumor in the sella turcica].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kiyoharu; Tominaga, Atsushi; Kinoshita, Yasuyuki; Usui, Satoshi; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2013-10-01

    A 64-year-old male presented with an incidental tumor in the sella turcica during a brain medical checkup. Because he lacked any neurological symptoms or signs of pituitary dysfunction, the patient did not undergo surgery. Three years later, visual disturbances developed, including poor eyesight and visual field defects. The response to the growth hormone(GH)releasing peptide-2 demonstrated severe GH deficiency. MRI revealed an enlarged tumor appearing as a mosaic pattern of high and very low intensity on T2-weighted imaging. The region of very low intensity on T2-weighted imaging exhibited enhancement after T1 gadolinium-DTPA administration. The tumor was totally removed via the microscopic trans-sphenoidal approach in combination with endoscopic observation. The hard tumor adhered to the dura of the sella turcica and the medial wall of the left cavernous sinus. Histological verification confirmed a solitary fibrous tumor(SFT). Fourteen months after the operation, MRI revealed no recurrent tumors. SFT infrequently occurs in the sella turcica; however it should be included in the differential diagnosis in cases of enhanced tumors with marked low intensity on T2-weighted imaging.

  13. Primary empty sella (PES): a review of 175 cases.

    PubMed

    Guitelman, M; Garcia Basavilbaso, Natalia; Vitale, M; Chervin, A; Katz, D; Miragaya, K; Herrera, J; Cornalo, D; Servidio, M; Boero, L; Manavela, M; Danilowicz, K; Alfieri, A; Stalldecker, G; Glerean, M; Fainstein Day, P; Ballarino, C; Mallea Gil, Maria Susana; Rogozinski, A

    2013-06-01

    The term primary empty sella (PES) makes reference to the herniation of the subarachnoid space within the sella turcica in patients with no history of pituitary tumor, surgery or radiotherapy. To retrospectively assess clinical features, radiological findings and the biochemical endocrine function from the records of 175 patients with a diagnosis of PES. One hundred seventy-five patients (150 females) were studied. The mean age at diagnosis was 48.2 ± 14 year. Most diagnoses were made by magnetic resonance imaging (n = 172). In most patients, the pituitary function was assessed by basal pituitary hormones measurements. Pituitary scans were ordered for different reasons: headache (33.1 %), endocrine disorders (30.6 %), neurological symptoms (12.5 %), visual disturbances (8.75 %), abnormalities on sella turcica radiograph (8.75 %) and others (6.25 %). Multiple pregnancies were observed in 58.3 % of women; headaches, obesity, and hypertension were found in 59.4, 49.5, and 27.3 % of the studied population, respectively. Mild hyperprolactinemia (<50 ng/ml) was present in 11.6 % of women and 17.3 % of men. Twenty-eight percent of our patients had some degree of hypopituitarism. In the male population, hypopituitarism represented 64 % of cases, whereas it accounted for 22 % of all females. PES seems to be more commonly found in middle-aged women, with a history of multiple pregnancies. In most patients, PES was discovered as an incidental finding on imaging studies, while in almost a quarter of patients PES was found during the diagnostic evaluation of anterior pituitary deficiency, which was more common in men.

  14. Sella turcica measurements on lateral cephalograms of patients with neurofibromatosis type 1

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Reinhard E.; Baumann, Johanna; Suling, Anna; Scheuer, Hannah T.; Scheuer, Hanna A.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure line segments and areas of sella turcica on lateral cephalograms with respect to the clinical diagnosis of facial phenotype of patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Special attention was given to correlate the measured values with certain tumour types that are typical for this disease. Material and methods: Lateral cephalograms of 194 individuals were investigated. Patients with NF1 were further divided according to the detection and topography of facial plexiform neurofibromas (PNF) taking into account the distribution pattern of the trigeminal nerve. All patients with PNF showed unilateral tumour localisation. Patients without any facial PNF constituted a separate group. Healthy volunteers with ideal occlusion and no history of any intervention in the maxillofacial region served as a control group. The following items were determined on the radiographs: sella entrance, sella width, sella depths, sella diagonal, and sella area. Results: Patients with PNF of the first and second trigeminal nerve branch or affected in all branches showed highly statistically significant enlarged sella tucica measurement values. On the other hand, patients with PNF restricted to one branch only or simultaneously in the second and third branches showed measurement values that were not different to those obtained in NF1 patients devoid of facial PNF. The latter group also showed no difference of sella turcica parameters obtained in the control group. Conclusion: This study provides evidence for the association of a certain NF1 phenotype with distinct skeletal alterations of the skull base, shown here using the example of the representation of the sella turcica in the lateral radiograph. These findings are also relevant in the discussion of NF1 as a disease of bones and in the assessment of brain development in NF1. Both items are discussed in relationship to a facial plexiform neurofibroma. Furthermore, the knowledge of this association of

  15. Primary empty sella, hyperprolactinemia, and isolated ACTH deficiency after postpartum hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Stacpoole, P W; Kandell, T W; Fisher, W R

    1983-05-01

    In a 20-year-old woman, a complicated full-term delivery was followed by a 14-month history of galactorrhea, amenorrhea, and symptoms of hypocortisolism. Evaluation revealed the presence of an empty sella, hyperprolactinemia, and an isolated pituitary deficiency of ACTH, resulting in secondary adrenal insufficiency. The defect in ACTH secretion was apparently due to intrinsic pituitary rather than hypothalamic disease, because administration of lysine vasopressin did not stimulate ACTH release. An empty sella with hyperprolactinemia has been described before. However, to the authors' knowledge, isolated ACTH deficiency as a complication of postpartum hypopituitarism (atypical Sheehan's syndrome) in association with an empty sella and hyperprolactinemia has not previously been reported.

  16. Transpalatal Transsphenoidal Approach to the Sella in Children

    PubMed Central

    Mattox, Douglas E.; Carson, Benjamin S.

    1991-01-01

    The sublabial transseptal transsphenoidal approach provides excellent exposure for pituitary surgery in adults. However, sellar lesions in children are more difficult to approach because of the smaller size of the pyramidal aperture and because of the limited pneumatization of the sella. We resurrected the transpalatal transsphenoidal approach for the treatment of sellar lesions in three children (one adenoma and two cystic craniopharyngiomas). The advantages of this approach were a short working distance and a wide exposure that permitted extensive drilling of the poorly pneumatized sphenoid bone under direct vision. The technique successfully provided exposure for management of the sellar pathology in all three cases and resulted in no nasal or palatal defects. ImagesFigure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:17170809

  17. Schizophernia and empty sella – casual or correlated?

    PubMed Central

    Wix-Ramos, Richard Joseph; Capote, Eduardo; Mendoza, Milet; Garcia, Margreth; Ezequiel, Uribe

    2011-01-01

    Summary A male patient, 44 years old, with schizophrenia which started at the age of 18. At his last follow-up visit, laboratory tests and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed, revealing the presence of a sellar arachnoidocele. To our knowledge, there is only one similar case report of a set of male monozygotic triplets with schizophrenia and empty sella syndrome. High-resolution chromosome analysis found an extra band at chromosome 15p in all the triplets and their father. We performed a similar evaluation in our patient and his family to compare the results and identify new information on neuroanatomical abnormalities, hormonal alterations or genetic origins of schizophrenia. PMID:22802833

  18. Isolated ACTH deficiency in a patient with empty sella as revealed by severe hyponatremia.

    PubMed

    Doroftei, Nicoleta Alina; de Rudder, Catherine; de Visscher, Nathalie; Hanon, Francois

    2016-12-01

    Hyponatremia due to isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency is difficult to diagnose as it is usually indistinguishable from non-endocrine syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). We present a case secondary to empty sella. Most patients with empty sella remain asymptomatic throughout life and require no treatment; however, in cases involving the development of isolated ACTH deficiency, corticosteroid treatment should be enforced to avoid fatal consequences.

  19. [A clinical analysis of 123 cases of primary empty sella].

    PubMed

    Li, J; Jia, H W; Wang, C L; Zhang, R; Qu, M Y; Li, W; Yuan, M H; Cui, J; He, Q; Wei, H Y; Zhu, T H; Ma, Z S; Liu, W; Dong, Z L; Gao, Z G

    2017-04-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to analyze the clinical characteristics and pituitary function of patients with primary empty sella (PES). Methods: The clinical data from 123 hospitalized adult patients with PES from January 2010 to May 2016 were retrospectively studied. Results: (1) The average age of the 123 (male 43, female 80) PES patients was (59.2±13.6) years (ranging 24-92 years), among whom 61% patients were in the age group between 50-69 years. (2) The symptoms of the patients included fatigue (56.1%), headache (34.1%), nausea and vomiting (17.9%), gonadal dysfunction (17.1%), visual disturbance (5.7%) and hypopituitarism crisis (3.3%). (3) Hypopituitarism was found in 66 of the 123 patients. Among them, 36.6%, 31.7% and 17.1% were central hypoadrenalism, hypogonadism, and hypothyroidism, respectively.The percentage of hypopituitarism in complete PES was significantly higher than that in partial PES (P<0.05). (4) Sixteen patients were concomitant with other autoimmune diseases including 11 patients with Graves' disease and 2 with Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal adenoma. Conclusions: The incidence of hypopituitarism in PES was 53.7%, in which the pituitary-adrenal axis hypofunction was more common. An overall evaluation of the pituitary function was essential for the patients who had headache and fatigue, or with suspected PES. The patients with hypopituitarism should be given hormone replacement therapy in time and followed up afterword.

  20. Correlation of Shape and Size of Sella Turcica With the Type of Facial Skeletal Class in an Iranian Group

    PubMed Central

    Valizadeh, Solmaz; Shahbeig, Shahrzad; Mohseni, Sudeh; Azimi, Fateme; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

    2015-01-01

    Background: In orthodontic science, diagnosis of facial skeletal type (class I, II, and III) is essential to make the correct treatment plan that is usually expensive and complicated. Sometimes results from analysis of lateral cephalometry radiographies are not enough to discriminate facial skeletal types. In this situation, knowledge about the relationship between the shape and size of the sella turcica and the type of facial skeletal class can help to make a more definitive decision for treatment plan. Objectives: The present study was designed to investigate this relationship in patients referred to a dental school in Iran. Patients and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, cephalometric radiographies of 90 candidates for orthodontic treatment (44 females and 46 males) with an age range of 14 - 26 years and equal distribution in terms of class I, class II, and class III facial skeletal classification were selected. The shape, length, diameter, and depth of the sella turcica were determined on the radiographs. Linear dimensions were assessed by one-way analysis of variance while the correlation between the dimensions and age was investigated using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results: Sella turcica had normal morphology in 24.4% of the patients while irregularity (notching) in the posterior part of the dorsum sella was observed in 15.6%, double contour of sellar floor in 5.6%, sella turcica bridge in 23.3%, oblique anterior wall in 20% and pyramidal shape of the dorsum sella in 11.1% of the subjects. In total, 46.7% of class I patients had a normal shape of sella turcica, 23.3% of class II patients had an oblique anterior wall and a pyramidal shape of the dorsum sella, and 43.3% of class III individuals had sella turcica bridge (the greatest values). Sella turcica length was significantly greater in class III patients compared to class II and class I (P < 0.0001). However, depth and diameter of sella turcica were similar in class I, class II, and

  1. The shape and size of the sella turcica in skeletal Class I, Class II, and Class III Saudi subjects.

    PubMed

    Alkofide, Eman A

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the shape and measure the size of the sella turcica in Saudi subjects with different skeletal types. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 180 individuals (90 males and 90 females) with an age range of 11-26 years were taken and distributed according to skeletal classification; 60 Class I, 60 Class II, and 60 Class III. The sella turcica on each radiograph was analysed and measured to determine the shape of the sella, in addition to the linear dimensions of length, depth, and diameter. A Student's t-test was used to calculate differences in linear dimensions, while a one-way analysis of variance was performed to study the relationship between skeletal type and sella size. The results show that the sella turcica presented with a normal morphology in the majority of subjects (67 per cent). No significant differences in linear dimensions between genders could be found. When age was evaluated, significant differences were found between the older (15 years or more) and the younger (11-14 years) age groups at the 0.01 and 0.001 levels for length, depth, and diameter. Sella size of the older age group was larger than in the younger age group. When skeletal type was compared with sella size, a significant difference was found in the diameter of sella between the Class II and Class III subjects (P < 0.01). Larger diameter values were present in the skeletal Class III subjects, while smaller diameter sizes were apparent in Class II subjects (multiple comparison tests). When gender, age, and skeletal type were all compared with the size of the sella (regression analyses), age was significantly related to a change of length (P < 0.01) and diameter (P < 0.001). Sella shape and dimensions reported in the current study can be used as reference standards for further investigations involving the sella turcica area in Saudi subjects.

  2. [Primary empty sella syndrome. Observations on 71 cases].

    PubMed

    Bianconcini, G; Bragagni, G; Bianconcini, M

    1999-02-01

    Primary empty sella syndrome (ESS) is an anatomo-radiological picture characterized by the presence of an arachnoid herniation filled with liquor that compresses the pituitary against the sellar wall. ESS occurs particularly in obese, hypertensive, cephalgic women, it is often asymptomatic but it may be associated with ophthalmologic, neurologic and sometime non-characterizing endocrine disorders. We report here 71 cases of primary ESS observed and assessed during the last fourteen years. The following endocrinological diagnostic procedures were carried out: hormonal (RIA) basal profile: FT3, FT4, TSH, PRL, ACTH, FSH, LH, 8.00 a.m. and p.m. cortisolemia, Aldo, PRA, DHEA-S, FTe, E2, P, PTH, CT, and calcemia and phosphoremia; provocative tests: TRH, GnRH, insulin hypoglycemia, etc.; inhibition tests: "overnight" and high dose dexamethasone. Clinical, radiological (skull radiographs, CT and/or MRI) and ophthalmologic (fundus, visual fields) assessment were made. We found principally cephalgia (52/71: 73.2%), hypertension (42/71: 59.1%), obesity (47/71: 66.1%). But we found especially mental disorders (57/71: 80.2%), in our knowledge not previously reported in the literature, as anxiety or dysthymic disorders with behavioural disturbances (chiefly oral compulsion). We found endocrinopathies in 36/71 (50.7%), isolated or coexisting in some patients: hyperPRL (14%), hypopituitarism (10.4%), hypogonadism (7%), diabetes insipidus (2.8%), hyperACTH (1.4%), hypoGH (15.4%), pituitary adenomas (8.4%). Several hypothalamic illness show a clinical picture including mental disorders and obesity. The Authors hypothesize that the ESS may be a "new" hypothalamic syndrome (compression/stretching on hypophysis and/or hypophyseal stalk by arachnoidocele; disorder of some hormones and neurotransmitters as leptin, neuropeptide Y, orexins, POMC-derived peptides, etc).

  3. Pilomyxoid astrocytoma with involvement of the sella turcica in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Alimohamadi, Maysam; Bidabadi, Mohammad Shirani; Ayan, Zahra; Ketabchi, Ebrahim; Amirjamshidi, Abbas

    2009-12-01

    Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently described tumor typically occurring in the hypothalamic-chiasmatic region of very young children. PMA is characterized by a more aggressive course than pilocytic astrocytoma and exhibits certain differing histological features. We report a PMA in an adolescent patient with visual field disturbance. Imaging studies revealed enlargement of the sella turcica due to a homogenously enhancing sellar and suprasellar mass identifiable both on CT scans and MRI. We believe that PMA may be included in the list of differential diagnoses of the lesions expanding the sella turcica.

  4. From Pituitary Expansion to Empty Sella: Disease Progression in a Mouse Model of Autoimmune Hypophysitis

    PubMed Central

    Lupi, Isabella; Zhang, Jiangyang; Gutenberg, Angelika; Landek-Salgado, Melissa; Tzou, Shey-Cherng; Mori, Susumu

    2011-01-01

    Lymphocytic hypophysitis has a variable clinical course, where a swelling of the pituitary gland at presentation is thought to be followed by pituitary atrophy and empty sella. Data in patients, however, are scanty and contradictory. To better define the course of hypophysitis, we used an experimental model based on the injection of pituitary proteins into SJL mice. A cohort of 33 mice was divided into three groups: 18 cases were immunized with pituitary proteins emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant; six controls were injected with adjuvant only; and nine controls were left untreated. Mice were followed by cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for up to 300 d, for a total of 106 MRI scans, and killed at different time points to correlate radiological and pathological findings. Empty sella was defined as a reduction in pituitary volume greater than 2 sd below the mean volume. All immunized mice showed by MRI a significant expansion of pituitary volume during the early phases of the disease. The volume then decreased gradually in the majority of cases (14 of 18, 78%), reaching empty sella values by d 300 after immunization. In a minority of cases (four of 18, 22%), the decrease was so rapid and marked to induce a central area of necrosis accompanied by hemorrhages, mimicking the condition known in patients as pituitary apoplexy. No radiological or pathological changes were observed in controls. Overall, these findings indicate that the evolution of hypophysitis is complex but can lead, through different routes, to the development of empty sella. PMID:21862619

  5. Morphometric Study of the Korean Adult Pituitary Glands and the Diaphragma Sellae

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Kyo-Sung; Park, Hyung-Ki; Chang, Jae-Chil; Choi, Soon-Kwan; Sim, Ki-Bum

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the morphometric characteristics of the pituitary gland and diaphragma sellae in Korean adults. Methods Using the 33 formaline fixed adult cadavers (23 male, 10 female), the measurements were taken at the diaphragma sellae and pituitary gland. The authors investigated the relationship between dura and structures surrounding pituitary gland, morphometric aspects of pituitary gland and stalk, and morphometric aspect of central opening of diaphragma sellae. Results The boundary between the lateral surface of pituitary gland and the medial wall of cavernous sinus was formed by the thin dural layer and pituitary capsule. The pituitary capsule adherent tightly to the pituitary gland was observed to continue from the diaphragma sellae. Mean width, length, and height of the pituitary gland were 14.3 ± 2.1, 7.9 ± 1.3, and 6.0 ± 0.9 mm in anterior lobes, and 8.7 ± 1.7, 2.9 ± 1.1, and 5.8 ± 1.0 mm in posterior lobes, respectively. Although all dimensions of anterior lobe in female were slightly larger than those in male, statistical significance was noted in only longitudinal dimension. The ratio of posterior lobe to the whole length of pituitary gland was about 27%. The mean thickness of pituitary stalk was 2 mm. The diaphragmal opening was 5 mm or more in 26 (78.8%) of 33 specimen. The opening was round in 60.6% of the specimen, and elliptical oriented in an anterior-posterior or transverse direction in 39.4%. Conclusion These results provide the safe anatomical knowledge during the transsphenoidal surgery and may be helpful to access the possibility of the development of empty sella syndrome. PMID:20157377

  6. [Analysis of the joint and a posteriori probability between primary empty sella, its comorbidities and audiovestibular pathology].

    PubMed

    Delgado-Hernández, Alhelí; Verduzco-Mendoza, Antonio; Luna-Reyes, Francisco Alfredo; Márquez-Palacios, Salvador; Arch-Tirado, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Primary empty sella is a herniation of the sellar diaphragm into the pituitary space. It is an incidental finding and patients may manifest neurological, ophthalmological and/or endocrine disorders. Episodes of vertigo, dizziness, and hearing loss, have been reported. To determine the conditional probability, as well as the statistical dependency, through the Bayesian analysis in patients with primary empty sella and audiovestibular disorders. Individuals who attended the National Rehabilitation Institute from January 2010 to December 2011, diagnosed with primary empty sella and audiovestibular disorders. An analysis was performed on a sample of 18 patients with a diagnosis of primary empty sella confirmed with magnetic resonance studies and who had signs of vertigo, hearing loss and dizziness. Of the 18 patients studied, 3 (16.66%) had primary empty sella as the only clinical evidence. In 9 patients (50%) empty sella was associated with vertigo, and 16 patients (88.88%) were diagnosed with hearing loss, with sensorineural hearing loss being the most frequent (77.77%). The intersection between the proportions of primary empty sella with the presence and type of hearing loss was calculated. Thus for sensorineural hearing loss, the calculated ratio was P(AB)=0.6912, and for conductive and mixed hearing loss the value of P(AB)=0.0493 in both cases. Bayesian analysis and conditional probability enables the dependence between two or more variables to be calculated. In this study both mathematical models were used to analyse comorbidities and audiovestibular disorders in patients diagnosed with primary empty sella. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  7. Anatomical analysis on the lateral bone window of the sella turcica: a study on 530 adult dry skull base specimens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianxin; Wang, Renzhi; Lu, Yuntao; Yao, Yong; Qi, Songtao

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the morphometric characteristics of the lateral bone window (LBW) of the sella turica. A descriptive anatomical study of LBW was performed in 530 cases of dry skull base specimens with relatively complete sella turcica. Detailed morphometric characteristics such as dimensions and classification of the LBW was studied. All data analysis was performed using SPSS 17.0 statistical software. LBW is located in the lateral bony structures of sella turcica. The mean area sizes of the LBW were 75.99 ± 25.81 mm(2) (left) and 76.00 ± 25.53 mm(2) (right). There was no significant difference and there was a ​​good positive correlation between bilateral areas of the LBWs. The area size of the LBWs is graded as follows: Grade A (< 60 mm(2)), B (60~90 mm(2)) and C (> 90 mm(2)). LBW morphology was typed as follows: Type I, II, III, IV. And Tpye III includes Type IIIa and IIIb; Type IV includes Type IVa, IVb, IVc, IVd. The lateral bone window of sella turcica is an important structure located between pituiary fossa and parasellar region. The morphological measurements and variations of LBW in this study will provide preliminary data for further anatomical study of sella turcica. Moreover, knowing detailed anatomy of this region is essential for neurosurgeons who make surgery on cranial base or for teaching about the sella turcica in the neuroanatomy lab.

  8. Anatomical Analysis on the Lateral Bone Window of the Sella Turcica: A Study on 530 Adult Dry Skull Base Specimens

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Jianxin; WANG, Renzhi; LU, Yuntao; YAO, Yong; QI, Songtao

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the morphometric characteristics of the lateral bone window (LBW) of the sella turica. Methods: A descriptive anatomical study of LBW was performed in 530 cases of dry skull base specimens with relatively complete sella turcica. Detailed morphometric characteristics such as dimensions and calssification of the LBW was studied. All data analysis was performed using SPSS 17.0 statistical software. Results: LBW is located in the lateral bony structures of sella turcica. The mean area sizes of the LBW were 75.99 ± 25.81 mm2 (left) and 76.00 ± 25.53 mm2 (right). There was no significant difference and there was a ​​good positive correlation between bilateral areas of the LBWs. The area size of the LBWs is graded as follows: Grade A (< 60 mm2), B (60~90 mm2) and C (> 90 mm2). LBW morphology was typed as follows: Type I, II, III, IV. And Tpye III includes Type IIIa and IIIb; Type IV includes Type IVa, IVb, IVc, IVd. Conclusions: The lateral bone window of sella turcica is an important structure located between pituiary fossa and parasellar region. The morphological measurements and variations of LBW in this study will provide preliminary data for further anatomical study of sella turcica. Moreover, knowing detailed anatomy of this region is essential for neurosurgeons who make surgery on cranial base or for teaching about the sella turcica in the neuroanatomy lab. PMID:24465158

  9. A cone beam computed tomographic evaluation of the size of the sella turcica in patients with cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Paknahad, Maryam; Shahidi, Shoaleh; Khaleghi, Iman

    2017-09-01

    Changes in the size of the sella turcica are frequently related to pathologies and syndromes. The aim of this was to compare the sella turcica dimensions in patients with unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate and non-cleft subjects. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of three groups consisted of 20 patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate; 20 patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate and a control group consisting of 20 non-cleft subjects were the research population in this pilot study. The sella turcica linear dimensions in terms of length, depth and diameter were measured for all subjects. One-way ANOVA test was used to determine any significant differences among the three groups for the measured parameters. The length, depth and diameter of sella turcica were found to be significantly smaller in the unilateral and bilateral groups compared with the normal age and gender matched group. No significant differences were found in the measured variables between the unilateral and bilateral cleft patients. CBCT images showed a greater likelihood of abnormal sella turcica dimensions in patients with unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate. Therefore, the sella turcica dimensions may have an intrinsic relationship to the cleft condition.

  10. Prevalence and Dimensions of Complete Sella Turcica Bridges and Its Clinical Significance.

    PubMed

    Brahmbhatt, Ritesh Jyotindra; Bansal, Minaxi; Mehta, Chandrakant; Chauhan, Ketan Bharat

    2015-12-01

    The ossification of ligamentous structures in various part of the body may result in clinical problems. The complete sella turcica bridge corresponds to the complete ossification of the interclinoid ligaments. Fifty dry adult skull bones were studied for presence of ossified interclinoid ligaments. Three skull bones show sella turcica bridge, of which one shows bilateral and two show unilateral. The ligamentous or bony interclinoid connections have important neuronal and vascular relations and are both clinically and surgically important. The knowledge of detailed anatomy of the interclinoid ligament can increase the success of diagnostic evaluation and surgical approaches to the region. The existence of a bony caroticoclinoid foramen may cause compression, tightening, or stretching of the internal carotid artery. Further, removing the anterior clinoid process is an important step in regional surgery; the presence of a bony caroticoclinoid foramen may have high risk.

  11. [The characteristics and treatment of empty sella combined cerebrospinal fluid leakage of nasal].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xiang; Zhang, Jinling; Liu, Gang

    2012-12-01

    To study the feature and treatment method of patients with empty sella merger cerebro-spinal fluid leakage of nasal. There were 8 cases with empty sella merger cerebrospinal fluid leakage of nasal, 2 cases were accepted the repairing surgery of cerebrospinal fluid leakage one time, 4 cases were accepted the repairing surgery of cerebrospinal fluid leakage used endoscope 2 times, 1 case was accepted repairing surgery of cerebrospinal fluid leakage used endoscope merge craniotomy and ventricle celiac bypass, 1 case recurrences after repairing surgery of cerebrospinal fluid was recurred after conservative treatment. Some postoperative were stayed in bed for three weeks and lumbar drainage for 1 week. One case of cerebral hemorrhage after surgery was cured with craniotomy, followed for 2 years without recurrence. One case was recurred after conservative treatment. Two cases recurrences after surgery 3 years ago were accepted surgery again followed by one year without recurrence. One case who recurrence 1 year later was accepted repairing surgery of cerebrospinal fluid leakage used endoscope merge craniotomy and ventricle celiac bypass followed six months without recurrence. One cash after once surgery was followed half a year without recurrence. One case with recurrence 5 years later was accepted repairing surgery again. The patient with empty sella combined cerebrospinal fluid leakage of nasal was rare, the main method was endoscopic sinus surgery treatment, but it recurred usually. The patients with repeatedly recurrence can be considered to accepted the surgery of ventricle celiac bypass. It required long-term postoperative follow-up and review.

  12. [Does Onodi cell limit the exposure of sella during transsphenoidal pituitary surgery?].

    PubMed

    İmre, Abdulkadir; Pinar, Ercan; Yüceer, Nurullah; Songu, Murat; Olgun, Yüksel; Aladağ, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the association between the presence of Onodi cell and sella exposure during endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery (EETPS). Forty-two patients who underwent EETPS for a pituitary adenoma with the collaboration of Neurosurgery and Otorhinolaryngology Departments at Katip Çelebi University Atatürk Training and Research Hospital between February 2011 and March 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative paranasal sinus tomography and intraoperative findings were evaluated for the presence of Onodi cells. The location of the Onodi cell and its relation with sella exposure during surgery were also assessed. The incidence of Onodi cell was 19%. The Onodi cells were observed in eight of 42 patients on preoperative paranasal sinus computed tomography. The Onodi cells were unilateral in five patients and bilateral in three. Intraoperative findings were correlated with tomographic findings. In seven patients, Onodi cells limited the exposure of sellar floor and the inferior-medial wall of these cells were removed and connected with the sphenoid sinus and the entire sellar floor was exposed. In the remaining one patient, the Onodi cell was smaller and located superolaterally. This cell was not removed, as it did not limited the sellar exposure. The Onodi cell may limit the sella exposure during transsphenoidal surgery. Onodi cell should be removed and connected with the sphenoid sinus cavity for the entire sellar floor exposure.

  13. Transoral robotic-assisted skull base surgery to approach the sella turcica: cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Chauvet, Dorian; Missistrano, Antoine; Hivelin, Mikaël; Carpentier, Alexandre; Cornu, Philippe; Hans, Stéphane

    2014-10-01

    Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) offers new possibilities that have not been experimented in the field of minimally invasive skull base neurosurgery. We propose to evaluate the feasibility of transoral approach to the sella turcica with the da Vinci system on cadavers. We performed four robot-assisted dissections on human fresh cadavers in order to reach the pituitary fossa by the oral cavity. Cavum mucosa dissection was performed by the head and neck surgeon at the console and then the sphenoid was drilled by the neurosurgeon at the bedside, with intraoperative fluoroscopy and a "double surgeon" control. Mucosa closure was attempted with robotic arms. We succeeded in performing a sellar opening in all cadavers with a minimally invasive approach, as the hard palate was never drilled. The video endoscope offered a large view inside the sphenoidal sinus, as observed in transnasal endoscopy, but with 3D visualization. The camera arm could be inserted into the sphenoidal sinus, and instrument arms in the pituitary fossa. Operative time to reach the pituitary fossa was approximately 60 min in all procedures: 20 min of initial setup, 10 min of mucosal dissection, and 30 min of sphenoid surgery. New anatomical landmarks were defined. Advantages and pitfalls of such an unpublished technique were discussed. This is the first cadaveric study reported da Vinci robotic transoral approach to the sella turcica with a minimally invasive procedure. This innovative technique may modify the usual pituitary adenoma removal as the sella is approached infero-superiorly.

  14. Sella turcica morphology and the pituitary gland-a new contribution to craniofacial diagnostics based on histology and neuroradiology.

    PubMed

    Kjær, Inger

    2015-02-01

    The present review summarizes two decades of published and unpublished studies on normal and pathological development of sella turcica and pituitary gland in humans. The pathological conditions are studied in known genotype deviations, syndromes, and other malformations. The studies include histological analyses of human prenatal material and profile radiographic analyses of human postnatal material, supplemented in a few cases with neuroradiology. Prenatal and postnatal results are compared. Similarities between prenatal and postnatal deviations in sella turcica morphology were demonstrated. Malformations in the pituitary gland were observed in several cases. For diagnostic purposes, the review distinguishes between deviations in the anterior wall and in the posterior wall of the sella turcica. Deviations in the anterior wall seem to be associated with deviations specifically in the frontonasal developmental field, while deviations in the posterior wall are often connected with malformations in the posterior structures, e.g. the cerebellum. In normal cases, minor variations in morphology are observed. In each pathological case, a specific malformation pattern was observed in sella turcica morphology, varying from mild to severe phenotype. The malformation in the sella turcica/pituitary gland can be associated with a malformation within a developmental field that forms the craniofacial region (frontonasal, maxillary, palatal, and mandibular fields), sometimes also involving the brain stem, thymus, thyroid, and heart (velocardiofacial syndrome). Pathological sella turcica morphology can also be associated with malformations in the cerebellum and larynx (Cri-du-Chat syndrome). This review demonstrates the value of combining profile radiographic diagnostics with neuroradiological diagnostics in cases with malformed sella turcicae. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For

  15. [Behaviour of the sella turcica in juveniles with severe iron deficiency (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Reimann, F; Berker, F; Gökmen, E; Kücükcakirlar, T

    1978-11-01

    In juvenile patients with a severe and longstanding iron deficiency disease several abnormal features such as delayed growth, retarded development and maturation are displayed. The roentgenological examination of the sella turcica in 81 patients and the determination of the sellar size in 73 cases, including 40 men and 33 women, by employing the method of Haas with a slight modification and the following comparison of the results with the values obtained by this author in normal individuals of the same sex and age revealed that in the iron deficient patients the sellar area is considerably reduced. In addition, it could be shown that in the patients the normal augmentation of the size with the advancing age is likewise diminished and comes to an early standstill. It could be, moreover, demonstrated that in men the sellar size and growth are more reduced than in women and that the difference in the patients is much larger than the difference existing normally between both sexes. The reduced size of the sella turcica in the patients indicated that the pituitary gland placed in the sellar cavity is likewise diminished and that the activity of the gland, as far as the function is related to the volume, is equally decreased. This assumption is in good keeping with the clinical findings in the patients being attributed to a low and failing hormonal activity. The close relation between volume and function of the pituitary gland, is proved by the observation made in the patients after the administration of iron showing that the size of the sella is considerably augmented during a relatively short space of time and that at the same time a definite amelioration of clinical symptoms occurs. Thus the X-ray examination of the sella turcica and the determination of its area is a suitable method for a comparative investigation of the size and function of the pituitary gland. It offers a valuable tool for studying the disorders of growth, development and maturation in juvenile

  16. Psychosis in Secondary Empty Sella Syndrome following a Russell's Viper Bite

    PubMed Central

    Ratnakaran, Badr; Punnoose, Varghese P.; Das, Soumitra; Kartha, Arjun

    2016-01-01

    Hypopituitarism can present with psychiatric symptoms. We report a unique case of psychosis in clear consciousness in a case of hypopituitarism due to the secondary empty sella syndrome following a Russell's viper bite which was untreated and presented with psychotic symptoms for past 13 years following the snake bite. After the diagnosis of psychosis due to hypopituitarism was made, the patient was treated with levothyroxine and prednisolone supplements and his psychotic symptoms subsided without any psychotropic drugs. Vasculotoxic snake bites can cause hypopituitarism and can present with psychosis. Further research will be needed into the prevalence of this phenomenon. PMID:27335524

  17. A Case Report of Late Onset Mania Caused by Hyponatremia in a Patient With Empty Sella Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chung-Hao; Lin, Yu-Chen; Chou, Po-Han; Chen, Hung-Chieh; Chan, Chin-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recurrent manic-like episodes can be induced by hyponatremia possibly due to empty sella syndrome. In the present case, the patient was proven to have syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion with manic symptoms that resolved after the normalization of the plasma sodium level. To our knowledge, this is the first case of hyponatremia-induced manic symptoms in a patient with empty sella syndrome. More attention should be paid to late-onset mania, because it may be the sign of a more serious medical problem. PMID:26871784

  18. 78 FR 13870 - Roberto Sella; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting Comments, Protests, and/or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ...: Hydro-electric and Geothermal Alternative Energy System at Paper Hill Farm (Paper Hill Farm). f... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Roberto Sella; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting Comments...

  19. Diabetes Insipidus and Polydipsia in a Patient with Asperger's Disorder and an Empty Sella: A Case Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raja, Michele; Azzoni, Antonella; Giammarco, Vincenzo

    1998-01-01

    Describes an Italian patient with Asperger disorders, Neurogenic Diabetes Insipidus, and Primary Empty Sella. His response to vasopressin treatment suggested a concomitant presence of primary polydipsia. Implications of the observed concurrence of these rare disorders are discussed in relation to diagnosis and pathogenesis. (Author/CR)

  20. Diabetes Insipidus and Polydipsia in a Patient with Asperger's Disorder and an Empty Sella: A Case Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raja, Michele; Azzoni, Antonella; Giammarco, Vincenzo

    1998-01-01

    Describes an Italian patient with Asperger disorders, Neurogenic Diabetes Insipidus, and Primary Empty Sella. His response to vasopressin treatment suggested a concomitant presence of primary polydipsia. Implications of the observed concurrence of these rare disorders are discussed in relation to diagnosis and pathogenesis. (Author/CR)

  1. Petrous apex cephalocele and empty sella/arachnoid cyst coexistence: a clue for cerebrospinal fluid pressure imbalance?

    PubMed

    Hatipoğlu, Hatice Gül; Cetin, Mehmet Ali; Gürses, Mehmet Ali; Dağlioğlu, Ergun; Sakman, Bülent; Yüksel, Enis

    2010-03-01

    To reveal the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) properties of incidental petrous apex cephalocele (PAC) and coexisting empty sella-arachnoid cyst. We reviewed our archive from June 2005 to July 2008. Four patients were diagnosed with PAC (four females; age range, 41-60 years; mean, 48.5). All patients underwent MRI examination of the cranium. We evaluated the lesions for extension into the neighboring structures, content, signal intensity, enhancement, and relation to Meckel's cave, petrous apex and for the presence of empty sella. The presenting symptoms included headache for three patients and diplopia for one patient. All patients had bilateral PAC, more prominent on one side. All lesions were centered posterolateral to the Meckel's cave. They were isointense to cerebrospinal fluid signal intensity and continuous with Meckel's cave on T1W, T2W and FLAIR sequences. In two patients, there was no diffusion restriction on diffusion-weighted MR images and the ADC map. Three patients had empty sella. One patient had arachnoid cyst. Coexistence with empty sella-arachnoid cyst raises the possibility of cerebrospinal fluid inbalance in the etiology.

  2. [The exposure dose of the sella turcica in panoramic dental radiography with an intraoral radiogenic source].

    PubMed

    Pastremoli, A; Cucchi, G; Ciminari, R

    1991-06-01

    Panoramic dental radiography using an intraoral X-ray source exposes critical organs, such as the crystalline and the thyroid, as well as organs of fundamental importance such as the pituitary gland, to X-rays. An experimental study was carried out to assess the exposure dose to the sella turcica during the radiological examination of the upper and lower dental arches using an X-ray source within the oral cavity. The comprehensive exposure dose for the upper and lower dental arches exceeded that found in orthopantomography (110 micro Gy/examination vs 47 micro Gy/examination) with errors which are respectively inferior to 15% and 30%. The authors conclude that the risk of provoking anatomical or functional changes of the pituitary gland is extremely remote using this type of examination.

  3. Brain and Optic Chiasm Herniation into Sella after Pituitary Tumor Apoplexy.

    PubMed

    Pineyro, Maria M; Furtenbach, Patricia; Lima, Ramiro; Wajskopf, Saul; Sgarbi, Nicolas; Pisabarro, Raul

    2017-01-01

    Brain and optic chiasm herniation has been rarely reported following dopamine agonist treatment for large prolactinomas. We report a case of brain and optical chiasm herniation, secondary to an empty sella due to apoplexy of a prolactinoma, and we focus on the specific presentation of this case. A 32-year-old female presented to a neurologist complaining of headaches. Her past medical history was significant for acute vision loss in both eyes accompanied by right third nerve palsy when she was 16 years old. She does not recall any endocrine or imaging evaluation at that time and she had spontaneous partial recovery of left eye vision within 3 months, with permanent blindness of right eye. She did not return to any follow-up until her neurologist consultation. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed herniation of frontal lobe and optic chiasm into the pituitary sella, as well as a pituitary hypointense lesion measuring 5 mm × 5 mm after gadolinium injection. Prolactin levels were 206 ng/ml (4.79-23.3 ng/ml). Repeated prolactin was 258 ng/ml (4.79-23.3 ng/ml). She was started on bromocriptine 2.5 mg/day. Prolactin levels and menstrual cycles normalized. A repeat brain MRI performed 5 months later showed disappearance of pituitary mass, with no changes in brain and chiasmal herniation. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of brain associated with chiasm herniation secondary to pituitary apoplexy of a prolactinoma. In conclusion, this case highlights that frontal lobe herniation in combination with optic chiasm herniation can be a complication of pituitary tumor apoplexy. Long-term surveillance of patients with pituitary apoplexy is warranted to detect delayed complications.

  4. [Chiasmal radionecrosis after irradiation of the sella turcica using a conventional dosage. Contribution of magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Croisile, B; Piperno, D; Bascoulergue, Y; Romestaing, P; Trillet, M; Aimard, G; Perrin-Fayolle, M

    1990-01-01

    A 47 year-old man developed rapid visual loss, visual field defects and memory disturbances after radiotherapy with conventional doses for a pituitary metastasis from a renal carcinoma. CT and MRI did not show recurrent tumour, pituitary apoplexy or empty sella. Eventually, T2-weighted MRI images showed abnormal high signals in the optic chiasm, the left mesial temporal lobe and the right inferior frontal lobe, supporting the diagnosis of delayed radionecrosis. The role of chemotherapy associated with radiotherapy is discussed.

  5. Evaluation of surgical freedom for microscopic and endoscopic transsphenoidal approaches to the sella.

    PubMed

    Elhadi, Ali M; Hardesty, Douglas A; Zaidi, Hasan A; Kalani, M Yashar S; Nakaji, Peter; White, William L; Preul, Mark C; Little, Andrew S

    2015-03-01

    Microscopic and endoscopic transsphenoidal approaches to the sellar are well established. Surgical freedom is an important skull base principle that can be measured objectively and used to compare approaches. To compare the surgical freedom of 4 transsphenoidal approaches to the sella turcica to aid in surgical approach selection. Four transsphenoidal approaches to the sella were performed on 8 silicon-injected cadaveric heads. Surgical freedom was determined with stereotactic image guidance using previously established techniques. The results are presented as the area of surgical freedom and angular surgical freedom (angle of attack) in the axial and sagittal planes. Mean total exposed area surgical freedom for the microscopic sublabial, endoscopic binostril, endoscopic uninostril, and microscopic endonasal approaches were 102 ± 13, 89 ± 6, 81 ± 4, and 69 ± 10 cm2, respectively. The endoscopic binostril approach had the greatest surgical freedom at the pituitary gland and ipsilateral and contralateral internal carotid arteries (25.7 ± 5.4, 28.0 ± 4.0, and 23.0 ± 3.0 cm2) compared with the microscopic sublabial (21.8 ± 3.5, 21.3 ± 2.4, and 19.5 ± 6.3 cm2), microscopic endonasal (14.2 ± 2.7, 14.1 ± 3.2, and 16.3 ± 4.0 cm2), and endoscopic uninostril (19.7 ± 4.8, 22.4 ± 2.3, and 19.5 ± 2.9 cm2) approaches. Axial angle of attack was greatest for the microscopic sublabial approach to the same targets (14.7 ± 1.3°, 11.0 ± 1.5°, and 11.8 ± 1.1°). For the sagittal angle of attack, the endoscopic binostril approach was superior for all 3 targets (16.6 ± 1.7°, 17.2 ± 0.70°, and 15.5 ± 1.2°). Microscopic sublabial and endoscopic binostril approaches provided superior surgical freedom compared with the endonasal microscopic and uninostril endoscopic approaches. This work provides objective baseline values for the quantification and evaluation of future refinements in surgical technique or instrumentation.

  6. Effect of primary empty sella syndrome on pituitary surgery for Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Gautam U; Bakhtian, Kamran D; Oldfield, Edward H

    2014-09-01

    Primary empty sella syndrome (ESS) results from herniation of arachnoid mater into the pituitary fossa. It has been suggested to have a negative effect on pituitary surgery; however, outcomes in this cohort have not been defined. This study was performed to determine the effect of ESS on immediate and long-term biochemical outcome after pituitary surgery for Cushing's disease (CD). Using a matched cohort study design, the authors followed patients treated with pituitary surgery for CD with and without ESS. Complete ESS was defined as pituitary gland height ≤ 2 mm, whereas partial ESS was defined as pituitary gland height > 2 mm but less than three-quarters of the total sellar depth. The primary end points were immediate and long-term biochemical outcome. Cerebrospinal fluid leaks were recorded as a secondary end point. Seventy-eight patients with CD and primary ESS were identified and matched with 78 patients with CD without ESS. After surgical management, immediate biochemical remission was achieved in 69 patients (88%) with ESS and 75 controls (96%, p = 0.10). Long-term remission was achieved in most patients in both groups (5-year cure: 85% vs 92%, p = 0.10). Among patients with ESS, the presence of complete ESS predicted a worse long-term outcome (p = 0.04). Intraoperative CSF leaks were significantly more frequent with ESS (54% vs 24%, p < 0.001), and despite sellar floor repair, the rate of postoperative CSF leaks was also increased (6% vs 3%, p = 0.27). Biochemical outcome after pituitary surgery for CD was worse in patients with complete ESS, and the risk of a CSF leak was increased with both partial and complete ESS. However, as outcome remains superior to those following alternative therapies and the biology of these tumors is unchanged in the setting of ESS, pituitary surgery should remain the initial treatment of choice.

  7. Evolution of Minimally Invasive Approaches to the Sella and Parasellar Region

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Robert G.; Eisenberg, Amy; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Griffiths, Chester; Kelly, Daniel F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Given advancements in endoscopic image quality, instrumentation, surgical navigation, skull base closure techniques, and anatomical understanding, the endonasal endoscopic approach has rapidly evolved into a widely utilized technique for removal of sellar and parasellar tumors. Although pituitary adenomas and Rathke cleft cysts constitute the majority of lesions removed via this route, craniopharyngiomas, clival chordomas, parasellar meningiomas, and other lesions are increasingly removed using this approach. Paralleling the evolution of the endonasal route to the parasellar region, the supraorbital eyebrow craniotomy has also been increasingly used as an alternative minimally invasive approach to reach this skull base region. Similar to the endonasal route, the supraorbital route has been greatly facilitated by advances in endoscopy, along with development of more refined, low-profile instrumentation and surgical navigation technology. Objectives This review, encompassing both transcranial and transsphenoidal routes, will recount the high points and advances that have made minimally invasive approaches to the sellar region possible, the evolution of these approaches, and their relative indications and technical nuances. Data Synthesis The literature is reviewed regarding the evolution of surgical approaches to the sellar region beginning with the earliest attempts and emphasizing technological advances, which have allowed the evolution of the modern technique. The surgical techniques for both endoscopic transsphenoidal and supraorbital approaches are described in detail. The relative indications for each approach are highlighted using case illustrations. Conclusions Although tremendous advances have been made in transitioning toward minimally invasive transcranial and transsphenoidal approaches to the sella, further work remains to be done. Together, the endonasal endoscopic and the supraorbital endoscope-assisted approaches are complementary

  8. Pituitary Adenoma Recurrence Suspected on Central Hyperthyroidism Despite Empty Sella and Confirmed by 68Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Gauthé, Mathieu; Sarfati, Julie; Bourcigaux, Nathalie; Christin-Maitre, Sophie; Talbot, Jean-Noël; Montravers, Françoise

    2017-06-01

    Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas are very rare tumors, known to present overexpression of somatostatin receptor subtype 2 and which may consequently demonstrate abnormal uptake on Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT. A 67-year-old woman with a history of operated pituitary macroadenoma presented with symptoms of hyperthyroidism including a large goiter. Her serum thyroid hormone levels were in favor of central hyperthyroidism. Pituitary MRI depicted an empty sella but visualized an ambiguous lesion centered on the left sphenoidal sinus. Complementary Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT finally demonstrated intense uptake by the sphenoidal lesion, confirming recurrence of the pituitary adenoma.

  9. Endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal chiasmapexy using a clival cranial base cranioplasty for visual loss from massive empty sella following macroprolactinoma treatment with bromocriptine: case report.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Berastegui, G Rene; Raza, Shaan M; Anand, Vijay K; Schwartz, Theodore H

    2016-04-01

    Visual deterioration after dopamine-agonist treatment of prolactinomas associated with empty sella syndrome and secondary optic apparatus traction is a rare event. Chiasmapexy has been described as a viable treatment option, although few cases exist in the literature. Here, a novel endonasal endoscopic approach to chiasmapexy is described and its efficacy is demonstrated in a case report. A 55-year-old female patient with a history of a giant prolactinoma and 14 years of treatment using dopaminergic agonist therapy presented to our institution with a 1-month history of visual changes. Neuroophthalmological examination confirmed severe bitemporal field defects, and MRI revealed a large empty sella with downward optic chiasmal herniation. Endoscopic endonasal chiasmapexy was performed by elevating the chiasm with lumbar drainage and filling the clival and sellar defect with an extradural liquid (HydroSet; a cranioplasty bone cement), and a piece of AlloDerm was used to cover and cushion the chiasm. Postoperative imaging demonstrated successful anatomical elevation of the optic apparatus, and the patient showed functional improvement in the visual field at 3 months postoperatively. Although rare, massive empty sellar and chiasmal descent from macroadenoma treatment can result in progressive visual loss. Here, a novel technique of endonasal endoscopic extradural cranioplasty aided by lumbar drainage is reported, which appears to be an effective technique for stabilizing and possibly reversing anatomical and visual deterioration.

  10. Empty Sella Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... who have high levels of prolactin may be given bromocriptine. In some cases, particularly when spinal fluid drainage is observed, surgery may be needed. × Treatment Unless the syndrome results in other medical problems, treatment for endocrine dysfunction ...

  11. Tectal glioma presenting with clinical triad of obesity, amenorrhea and central cord syndrome with radiological pentad of hydrocephalus, empty sella, suprapineal diverticula, Chiari and syrinx.

    PubMed

    Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam; Karthigeyan, Madhivanan; Sahoo, Sushanta K; Gupta, Vivek

    2017-02-01

    Tectal gliomas (TG) are slow-growing tumors and generally present with features of increased intracranial pressure. We describe an unusual case of a young girl who presented with clinical triad of obesity, primary amenorrhea and central cord syndrome. The radiology unveiled a pentad of hydrocephalus, empty sella, suprapineal recess diverticulum, secondary Chiari malformation and cervical syringomyelia, masking a relatively obscure tectal plate glioma. She was subjected to endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV). All of her symptoms improved after ETV and the tumor is being followed up. The possible pathogenesis of such a highly atypical clinico-radiological presentation is described. This unusual syndromic presentation of tectal glioma without clinical features of increased intracranial pressure is probably due to increased compliance of third ventricular walls, and is relieved with ETV.

  12. Direct visualization of improved optic nerve pial vascular supply following tuberculum meningioma resection: case report

    PubMed Central

    Han, Seunggu J.; Magill, Stephen T.; Tarapore, Phiroz E.; Horton, Jonathan C.; McDermott, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculum sellae meningiomas frequently produce visual loss by direct compression from tumor, constriction of the optic nerve (ON) under the falciform ligament, and/or ON ischemia. The authors hypothesized that changes in visual function after tumor removal may be related to changes in blood supply to the ON that might be seen in the pial circulation at surgery. Indocyanine green (ICG) angiography was used to attempt to document these changes at surgery. The first patient in whom the technique was used had a left-sided, 1.4-cm, tuberculum meningioma. Time-lapse comparison of images was done postsurgery, and the comparison of video images revealed both faster initial filling and earlier complete filling of the ON pial circulation, suggesting improved pial blood flow after surgical decompression. In follow-up the patient had significant improvements in both visual acuity and visual fields function. Intraoperative ICG angiography of the ON can demonstrate measurable changes in pial vascular flow that may be predictive of postoperative visual outcome. The predictive value of this technique during neurosurgical procedures around the optic apparatus warrants further investigation in a larger cohort. PMID:26684783

  13. Efficacy of Trans-septal Trans-sphenoidal Surgery in Correcting Visual Symptoms Caused by Hematogenous Metastases to the Sella and Pituitary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Feiz-Erfan, Iman; Rao, Ganesh; White, William L.; McCutcheon, Ian E.

    2008-01-01

    The rate of symptomatic improvement of visual symptoms associated with hematogenous metastases to the sella and pituitary was evaluated retrospectively in seven patients (five men, two women; mean age, 52.3 years) with primarily visual symptoms (diplopia alone in three, diplopia with blurred vision in one, blurred vision alone in one, loss of peripheral vision in one, and unilateral complete blindness in one). Symptom duration ranged from 0.5 to 2 months. The primary diseases were non-small cell lung cancer in two patients, renal cell carcinoma in two patients, prostate cancer in two patients, and medullary thyroid carcinoma in one patient. All patients had widespread metastatic disease. Three patients had a suprasellar tumoral component. One patient had a clival extension, and one patient had extension into the cavernous sinus. All underwent trans-sphenoidal surgery to correct visual symptoms. Gross total resection was achieved in three patients. Subtotal resections and a partial resection were performed in three patients and one patient, respectively. Surgical blood loss averaged 282 mL. One patient died from sepsis. Five patients developed complications (cerebrospinal fluid leakage in three, diabetes insipidus in two, anterior pituitary dysfunction in two, and colitis in one). At a mean follow-up of 15 months, three patients were alive. Visual symptoms improved in five patients and were unchanged in two. Trans-sphenoidal surgery helped improve visual symptoms in most patients. The morbidity rate was high and likely related to the locally destructive and extensive nature of the lesions in overall morbid patients with widespread metastatic disease. Unless nonoperative measures can provide equal results, however, this approach provides reasonable palliation. PMID:18769652

  14. Radiographic imaging of the distal dural ring for determining the intradural or extradural location of aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Beretta, Federica; Sepahi, Ali Nader; Zuccarello, Mario; Tomsick, Thomas A; Keller, Jeffrey T

    2005-11-01

    The effectiveness of several anatomical and radiological landmarks proposed to determine whether an aneurysm is located intradurally or extradurally is still debated. In anatomical and radiological studies, we examined the relationships of the distal dural ring (DDR) to the internal carotid artery (ICA) and surrounding bony structures to aid in the localization of aneurysms near the DDR. Anatomical relationships were examined by performing dissections on 10 specimens (5 formalin-fixed cadaveric heads). After the position of the DDR, optic nerve, and tuberculum sellae were marked with surgical steel wire, radiographs were taken in multiple projections. The only bony landmark consistently visible on radiographs was the planum sphenoidale. The superior border of the DDR is located at or below the level of the tuberculum sellae, which laterally becomes the superomedial aspect of the optic strut; thus, the optic strut marks the dorsal limit of the DDR. On 50 dry skulls, we measured the vertical distance between the planum sphenoidale and medial aspect of the optic strut (5.0 +/- 0.4 mm), the interoptic strut distance (14.4 +/- 1.4 mm), and the linear distance between the most posterior aspect of the planum sphenoidale (limbus sphenoidale) and the tuberculum sellae (6.0 +/- 0.5 mm). Using these measurements and the planum sphenoidale, tuberculum sellae, and optic strut as reference landmarks, we determined the location of the aneurysm relative to the DDR on angiographic images. In this way, we were able to identify whether lesions were intra- or extradural.

  15. The Recesses of the Sellar Wall of the Sphenoid Sinus and Their Intracranial Relationships.

    PubMed

    Peris-Celda, Maria; Kucukyuruk, Baris; Monroy-Sosa, Alejandro; Funaki, Takeshi; Valentine, Rowan; Rhoton, Albert L

    2013-02-19

    BACKGROUND:: The sellar wall of the sphenoid sinus and its recesses have been previously studied, but their intracranial relationships to the diaphragma sellae, tuberculum, clinoid segment of the internal carotid artery, chiasmatic sulcus, and middle clinoid process need further definition. OBJECTIVE:: To describe these intra and extracranial relationships of the recesses in the anterior sellar wall. METHODS:: The middle clinoid was studied in 132 parasellar areas of dry skulls. Thirty-eight parasellar areas of formalin-fixed/silicone-colored specimens were dissected. After transsphenoidal endoscopic exposure, the optic, carotid, and sellar prominences; lateral opticocarotid and tuberculum recesses; and caroticosellar and medial opticocarotid points were identified. High-speed drills opened 1 mm perforations at these points to allow study of intracranial relationships. RESULTS:: Two recesses and two junction points can be recognized in the sphenoid sinus: lateral opticocarotid and tuberculum recesses and medial opticocarotid and caroticosellar points. The lateral opticocarotid recess corresponds to the optic strut base, and the clinoid segment of the internal carotid artery is located medially. The diaphragma sellae attachment is at the level of the tuberculum recess, which in 50% of cases corresponds to the tuberculum. A middle clinoid in base or height greater than 1.5 mm is present in 21.1% and a caroticoclinoid ring in 3%. The middle clinoid is 1 mm inferior and lateral to the caroticosellar point and 4.7 mm inferior to the medial opticocarotid point. CONCLUSION:: An understanding of the intra and extracranial relationships of the recesses of the sphenoid sinus will aid in accurately directing transsphenoidal approaches.

  16. Expanded Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches to Skull Base Meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Prosser, J. Drew; Vender, John R.; Alleyne, Cargill H.; Solares, C. Arturo

    2012-01-01

    Anterior cranial base meningiomas have traditionally been addressed via frontal or frontolateral approaches. However, with the advances in endoscopic endonasal treatment of pituitary lesions, the transphenoidal approach is being expanded to address lesions of the petrous ridge, anterior clinoid, clivus, sella, parasellar region, tuberculum, planum, olfactory groove, and crista galli regions. The expanded endoscopic endonasal approach (EEEA) has the advantage of limiting brain retraction and resultant brain edema, as well as minimizing manipulation of neural structures. Herein, we describe the techniques of transclival, transphenoidal, transplanum, and transcribiform resections of anterior skull base meningiomas. Selected cases are presented. PMID:23730542

  17. The supraorbital endoscopic approach for tumors.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David A; Duong, Huy; Teo, Charles; Kelly, Daniel F

    2014-12-01

    To describe the indications, technical nuances, and techniques for complication avoidance for the supraorbital keyhole approach with endoscopic assistance. The supraorbital eyebrow craniotomy provides minimally invasive access to a wide range of frontal fossa, parasellar, and some middle and posterior fossae tumors. This approach is considered ideal for removal of many, if not most, planum and tuberculum sellae meningiomas, some olfactory groove meningiomas, and suprasellar craniopharyngiomas, particularly tumors with far lateral extensions. It is also ideal for many intraaxial tumors, including metastases and gliomas arising from the orbitofrontal, frontal pole, and medial temporal lobe regions. The use of endoscopy further extends the range and versatility of this keyhole approach and is considered an essential adjunct for allowing safe and maximal tumor removal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The supraorbital endoscopic approach for tumors.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David A; Duong, Huy; Teo, Charles; Kelly, Daniel F

    2014-01-01

    The supraorbital eyebrow craniotomy is being increasingly used for the removal of frontal fossa, parasellar, as well as some middle and posterior fossa tumors. The indications, technical nuances, and complication avoidance techniques for the supraorbital keyhole approach with endoscopic assistance are described. The supraorbital approach is considered ideal for removal of many, if not most, planum and tuberculum sellae meningiomas, some olfactory groove meningiomas, as well as suprasellar craniopharyngiomas, particularly those with far lateral extensions. It is also ideal for many intra-axial tumors, including metastases and gliomas arising from the orbitofrontal, frontal pole, and medial temporal lobe regions. The use of endoscopy further extends the range and versatility of this keyhole approach and is considered an essential adjunct for allowing safe and maximal tumor removal. The supraorbital eyebrow craniotomy with endoscopic assistance provides minimally invasive access to a wide range of frontal fossa, parasellar, and some middle and posterior fossa tumors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Usefulness of the indocyanine green fluorescence endoscope in endonasal transsphenoidal surgery.

    PubMed

    Hide, Takuichiro; Yano, Shigetoshi; Shinojima, Naoki; Kuratsu, Jun-ichi

    2015-05-01

    To avoid disorientation during endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (ETSS), the confirmation of anatomical landmarks is essential. Neuronavigation systems can be pointed at exact sites, but their spatial resolution power is too low for the detection of vessels that cannot be seen on MR images. On Doppler ultrasonography the shape of concealed arteries and veins cannot be visualized. To address these problems, the authors evaluated the clinical usefulness of the indocyanine green (ICG) endoscope. The authors included 38 patients with pituitary adenomas (n = 26), tuberculum sellae meningiomas (n = 4), craniopharyngiomas (n = 3), chordomas (n = 2), Rathke's cleft cyst (n = 1), dermoid cyst (n = 1), or fibrous dysplasia (n = 1). After opening the sphenoid sinus and placing the ICG endoscope, the authors injected 12.5 mg of ICG into a peripheral vein as a bolus and observed the internal carotid arteries (ICAs), cavernous sinus, intercavernous sinus, and pituitary. The ICA was clearly identified by a strong fluorescence signal through the dura mater and the covering thin bone. The intercavernous and cavernous sinuses were visualized a few seconds later. In patients with tuberculum sellae meningiomas, the abnormal tumor arteries in the dura were seen and the vague outline of the attachment was identified. At the final inspection after tumor removal, perforators to the brain, optic nerves, chiasm, and pituitary stalk were visualized. ICG fluorescence signals from the hypophyseal arteries were strong enough to see and spread to the area of perfusion with the passage of time. The ICA and the patent cavernous sinus were detected with the ICG endoscope in real time and at high resolution. The ICG endoscope is very useful during ETSS. The authors suggest that the real-time observation of the blood supply to the optic nerves and pituitary helps to predict the preservation of their function.

  20. Extended transsphenoidal approach with submucosal posterior ethmoidectomy for parasellar tumors. Technical note.

    PubMed

    Kitano, M; Taneda, M

    2001-06-01

    The authors have developed an extended transsphenoidal approach with submucosal posterior ethmoidectomy for resection of tumors located in the cavernous sinus or the suprasellar region that are difficult to remove via the conventional transsphenoidal approach. Surgery was performed using this approach in 14 patients with large pituitary adenomas, three patients with craniopharyngiomas, and one patient with a meningioma of the tuberculum sellae. The submucosal dissection of the nasal septum used in the conventional transsphenoidal approach was extended to the superior lateral wall of the nasal cavity to expose the bony surface of the superior turbinate lying under the nasal mucosa. Submucosal posterior ethmoidectomy widened the area visualized through the conventional transsphenoidal approach both superiorly and laterally. This provided a safer and less invasive access to lesions in the cavernous sinus or the suprasellar region through the sphenoid sinus. Using this approach the authors encountered no postoperative complications, such as olfactory disturbance, cranial nerve palsy, or arterial injury. In this article the authors present the surgical methods used in this approach.

  1. Lateral supraorbital approach applied to sellar tumors in 23 consecutive patients: the Suzhou experience from China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pituitary adenoma, craniopharyngioma and meningioma are common sellar lesions, accounting for more than 90% of sellar tumors. The aim of this study is to assess the reliability and safety of the lateral supraorbital (LSO) approach to remove sellar tumors. Methods Between June 2011 and December 2011, 23 patients with neoplastic lesions underwent surgery by the corresponding author (ZW) via the LSO approach. The clinical presentations, neuroradiological findings, microsurgical techniques, and outcome at discharge of these patients were analyzed. In addition, the clinical series in the available literature written in English were also extensively reviewed. Eleven (48%) patients were treated for pituitary adenoma; six (26%) patients for tuberculum sellae meningioma; and six (26%) patients for craniopharyngioma. Results Seemingly complete tumor removal was achieved in 21 patients (91%); surgical mortality was one patient (4.3%). Postoperatively, no patient had developed cerebrospinal fluid leakage or new visual deficits. One (4%) patient had intracranial infection, and one (4%) had a postoperative hematoma. The median Karnofsky score at discharge was 87.4 (range, 0 to 100). The Glasgow outcome scale at discharge was 4.6 (range, 1 to 5). Of all, 21 (91.3%) patients achieved favorable outcomes. Conclusion Sellar tumors can be removed via the LSO approach with relatively low morbidity and mortality. Surgical results with this fast and simple approach are similar to those obtained with more extensive, complex, and time-consuming approaches. PMID:23432938

  2. Acromegaly and sleep apnea: cephalometric evaluations.

    PubMed

    Bruwier, A; Albert, A; Beckers, A; Limme, M; Poirrier, R

    2011-06-01

    Lateral teleradiography is a standard and quick examination. It has enabled us to define differences as regards to the craniofacial morphology between 20 acromegalic patients and 20 control subjects. The height of the mandibular ramus (from the posterior condyle point to the gonion point) increases significantly with the acromegalic patient and the cranial base angle (basion-superior tuberculum sellae-M point) is more extended. As acromegalic patients are more subject to sleep apnea (30% prevailing), the relationship between the amount of sleep apnea and hypopnea (AHI) in an acromegalic patient and his bone, tissue and hormone factors has been researched, in order to act on the causes of sleep apnea. It has emerged that confronting craniofacial bones and soft tissues factors enables a good prediction of the apnea and hypopnea index. Of course, we can find again the potential action of growth hormone (GH) but only in fifth place in importance order. The tongue, which increases in volume with the GH impact, is in a too short "lingual enclosure" (reduced length of the mandibular horizontal branch).

  3. Anatomic study of the prechiasmatic sulcus and its surgical implications.

    PubMed

    Guthikonda, Bharat; Tobler, William D; Froelich, Sebastien C; Leach, James L; Zimmer, Lee A; Theodosopoulos, Philip V; Tew, John M; Keller, Jeffrey T

    2010-09-01

    To address a lack of anatomical descriptions in the literature regarding the prechiasmatic sulcus, we conducted an anatomical study of this sulcal region and discuss its clinical relevance to cranial base surgery. Our systematic morphometric analysis includes the variable types of chiasmatic sulcus and a classification schema that has surgical implications. We examined the sulcal region in 100 dry skulls; bony relationships measured included the interoptic distance, sulcal length/width, planum sphenoidale length, and sulcal angle. The varied anatomy of the prechiasmatic sulcii was classified as four types in combinations of wide to narrow, steep to flat. Its anterior border is the limbus sphenoidale at the posterior aspect of the planum sphenoidale. The sulcus extends posteriorly to the tuberculum sellae and laterally to the posteromedial aspect of each optic strut. Averages included an interoptic distance (19.3 +/- 2.4 mm), sulcal length (7.45 +/- 1.27 mm), planum sphenoidale length (19 +/- 2.35 mm), and sulcal angle (31 +/- 14.2 degrees). Eighteen percent of skulls had a chiasmatic ridge, a bony projection over the chiasmatic sulcus. The four types of prechiasmatic sulcus in our classification hold potential surgical relevance. Near the chiasmatic ridge, meningiomas may be hidden from the surgeon's view during a subfrontal or pterional approach. Preoperative evaluation by thin-cut CT scans of this region can help detect this ridge.

  4. Current Status of Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery for Skull Base Meningiomas: Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    SHIN, Masahiro; KONDO, Kenji; SAITO, Nobuhito

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) is expected to be ideal for the paramedian ventral skull base meningiomas, allowing wide access to the ventral skull base regions and realizing early devascularization of the tumor without retraction of the brain. We searched clinical reports of EEA for skull base meningiomas, written in English language, published before October 2014, using the PubMed literature search on the website. Skull base meningiomas are subdivided by the site of occurrence, olfactory groove (8 articles including 80 cases), tuberculum sellae (14 articles, 153 cases), cavernous sinus (2 articles, 8 cases), petroclival region (4 articles, 10 cases), and craniofacial region (2 articles, 5 cases), and the surgical outcomes of EEA were analyzed. In anterior skull base regions, EEA contributed to effective improvement of the symptoms in small and round-shaped meningiomas, but 25% of the patients had postoperative cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea. In cavernous sinus and petroclival regions, successful surgical removal largely depended on tumor consistency, and the extent of the surgical resection proportionally increased the risks of serious complications. Thus, judicious endoscopic resection with adjuvant radiotherapy or radiosurgery remains to be the most reasonable treatment option. To decrease the risks of surgical complications, the surgeons must master the closure techniques of dural defect and meticulous microsurgical procedure under endoscopic vision. Further progress will depend on the progresses of surgical technique in neurosurgeons engaging this potentially “minimally invasive” surgery. PMID:26345667

  5. Feasibility of Piezoelectric Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Craniotomy: A Cadaveric Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomazic, Peter Valentin; Gellner, Verena; Koele, Wolfgang; Hammer, Georg Philipp; Braun, Eva Maria; Gerstenberger, Claus; Clarici, Georg; Holl, Etienne; Braun, Hannes; Stammberger, Heinz; Mokry, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Endoscopic transsphenoidal approach has become the gold standard for surgical treatment of treating pituitary adenomas or other lesions in that area. Opening of bony skull base has been performed with burrs, chisels, and hammers or standard instruments like punches and circular top knives. The creation of primary bone flaps—as in external craniotomies—is difficult.The piezoelectric osteotomes used in the present study allows creating a bone flap for endoscopic transnasal approaches in certain areas. The aim of this study was to prove the feasibility of piezoelectric endoscopic transnasal craniotomies. Study Design. Cadaveric study. Methods. On cadaveric specimens (N = 5), a piezoelectric system with specially designed hardware for endonasal application was applied and endoscopic transsphenoidal craniotomies at the sellar floor, tuberculum sellae, and planum sphenoidale were performed up to a size of 3–5 cm2. Results. Bone flaps could be created without fracturing with the piezoosteotome and could be reimplanted. Endoscopic handling was unproblematic and time required was not exceeding standard procedures. Conclusion. In a cadaveric model, the piezoelectric endoscopic transsphenoidal craniotomy (PETC) is technically feasible. This technique allows the surgeon to create a bone flap in endoscopic transnasal approaches similar to existing standard transcranial craniotomies. Future trials will focus on skull base reconstruction using this bone flap. PMID:24689037

  6. Endoscopic Endonasal Skull Base Surgery: Advantages, Limitations, and Our Techniques to Overcome Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage: Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    ISHII, Yudo; TAHARA, Shigeyuki; TERAMOTO, Akira; MORITA, Akio

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, resections of midline skull base tumors have been conducted using endoscopic endonasal skull base (EESB) approaches. Nevertheless, many surgeons reported that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage is still a major complication of these approaches. Here, we report the results of our 42 EESB surgeries and discuss the advantages and limits of this approach for resecting various types of tumors, and also report our technique to overcome CSF leakage. All 42 cases involved midline skull base tumors resected using the EESB technique. Dural incisions were closed using nasoseptal flaps and fascia patch inlay sutures. Total removal of the tumor was accomplished in seven pituitary adenomas (33.3%), five craniopharyngiomas (62.5%), five tuberculum sellae meningiomas (83.3%), three clival chordomas (100%), and one suprasellar ependymoma. Residual regions included the cavernous sinus, the outside of the intracranial part of the internal carotid artery, the lower lateral part of the posterior clivus, and the posterior pituitary stalk. Overall incidence of CSF leakage was 7.1%. Even though the versatility of the approach is limited, EESB surgery has many advantages compared to the transcranial approach for managing mid-line skull base lesions. To avoid CSF leakage, surgeons should have skills and techniques for complete closure, including use of the nasoseptal flap and fascia patch inlay techniques. PMID:25446379

  7. Circumferential watertight dural repair using nitinol U-clips in expanded endonasal and sublabial approaches to the cranial base.

    PubMed

    Acerbi, Francesco; Genden, Eric; Bederson, Joshua

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, significant advances have been made in the field of expanded endonasal approaches that permit treatment of different cranial base intradural lesions. To report our technique of cranial base dural repair by the application of nitinol U-Clips in endoscope-assisted extended endonasal or sublabial approaches. Closure techniques and postoperative cerebrospinal (CSF) leaks are reported. We reviewed 11 patients with different kinds of cranial base tumors or vascular diseases (2 tuberculum sellae meningiomas, 1 planum sphenoidale meningioma, 4 craniopharyngiomas, 1 recurrent clival chordoma, 1 esthesioneuroblastoma, 1 ethmoidal melanoma metastasis, 1 basilar trunk aneurysm) who underwent an endoscope-assisted extended endonasal or sublabial approach. Dural repair was performed using nitinol U-Clips to circumferentially suture AlloDerm or fascia lata directly to the existing dural borders. Lumbar drainage was not used in 9 patients and was used in 2 patients for 5 days. Patients were evaluated for the appearance of CSF leaks. Postoperative CSF leak was observed in 1 patient (9%). This required a second transnasal repair. Circumferential dural closure with U-Clips is a useful adjunct to prevent CSF leaks after expanded endonasal or sublabial approaches to the cranial base for treatment of intracranial pathology.

  8. Skull Base Meningiomas and Cranial Nerves Contrast Using Sodium Fluorescein: A New Application of an Old Tool

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Carlos Eduardo; da Silva, Vinicius Duval; da Silva, Jefferson Luis Braga

    2014-01-01

    Objective The identification of cranial nerves is one of the most challenging goals in the dissection of skull base meningiomas. The authors present an application of sodium fluorescein (SF) in skull base meningiomas with the purpose of improving the identification of cranial nerves. Design A prospective study within-subjects design. Setting Hospital Ernesto Dornelles, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Participants Patients with skull base meningiomas. Main Outcomes Measures Cranial nerve identification. Results The group of nine meningiomas was composed of one cavernous sinus, three petroclival, one tuberculum sellae, two sphenoid wing, one olfactory groove, and one temporal floor meningioma. The SF enhancement in all tumors was strong, and the contrast with cranial nerves clearly evident. There were one definite olfactory nerve deficit, one transient abducens deficit, and one definite hemiparesis. All lesions were resected (Simpson grades 1 and 2). The analysis of the difference of the delta SF wavelength between the meningiomas and cranial nerve contrast was performed by the Wilcoxon signed rank test and showed p = 0.011. Conclusions The contrast between the enhanced meningiomas and cranial nerves was evident and assisted in the visualization and microsurgical dissection of these structures. The anatomical preservation of these structures was improved using the contrast. PMID:27054056

  9. Skull Base Meningiomas and Cranial Nerves Contrast Using Sodium Fluorescein: A New Application of an Old Tool.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Carlos Eduardo; da Silva, Vinicius Duval; da Silva, Jefferson Luis Braga

    2014-08-01

    Objective The identification of cranial nerves is one of the most challenging goals in the dissection of skull base meningiomas. The authors present an application of sodium fluorescein (SF) in skull base meningiomas with the purpose of improving the identification of cranial nerves. Design A prospective study within-subjects design. Setting Hospital Ernesto Dornelles, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Participants Patients with skull base meningiomas. Main Outcomes Measures Cranial nerve identification. Results The group of nine meningiomas was composed of one cavernous sinus, three petroclival, one tuberculum sellae, two sphenoid wing, one olfactory groove, and one temporal floor meningioma. The SF enhancement in all tumors was strong, and the contrast with cranial nerves clearly evident. There were one definite olfactory nerve deficit, one transient abducens deficit, and one definite hemiparesis. All lesions were resected (Simpson grades 1 and 2). The analysis of the difference of the delta SF wavelength between the meningiomas and cranial nerve contrast was performed by the Wilcoxon signed rank test and showed p = 0.011. Conclusions The contrast between the enhanced meningiomas and cranial nerves was evident and assisted in the visualization and microsurgical dissection of these structures. The anatomical preservation of these structures was improved using the contrast.

  10. Preoperative Visualization of Cranial Nerves in Skull Base Tumor Surgery Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging Technology.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Su, Shaobo; Yue, Shuyuan; Zhao, Yan; Li, Yonggang; Chen, Xiaochen; Ma, Hui

    2016-01-01

    To visualize cranial nerves (CNs) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with special parameters. This study also involved the evaluation of preoperative estimates and intraoperative confirmation of the relationship between nerves and tumor by verifying the accuracy of visualization. 3T magnetic resonance imaging scans including 3D-FSPGR, FIESTA, and DTI were used to collect information from 18 patients with skull base tumor. DTI data were integrated into the 3D slicer for fiber tracking and overlapped anatomic images to determine course of nerves. 3D reconstruction of tumors was achieved to perform neighboring, encasing, and invading relationship between lesion and nerves. Optic pathway including the optic chiasm could be traced in cases of tuberculum sellae meningioma and hypophysoma (pituitary tumor). The oculomotor nerve, from the interpeduncular fossa out of the brain stem to supraorbital fissure, was clearly visible in parasellar meningioma cases. Meanwhile, cisternal parts of trigeminal nerve and abducens nerve, facial nerve were also imaged well in vestibular schwannomas and petroclival meningioma cases. The 3D-spatial relationship between CNs and skull base tumor estimated preoperatively by tumor modeling and tractography corresponded to the results determined during surgery. Supported by DTI and 3D slicer, preoperative 3D reconstruction of most CNs related to skull base tumor is feasible in pathological circumstances. We consider DTI Technology to be a useful tool for predicting the course and location of most CNs, and syntopy between them and skull base tumor.

  11. Large and giant skull base meningiomas: The role of radical surgical removal

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Carlos Eduardo; de Freitas, Paulo Eduardo Peixoto

    2015-01-01

    Background: The large and giant skull base meningiomas are challenging lesions, and the involvement of crucial neurovascular structures needs the surgical removal as the primordial treatment. The authors report on a series of patients with large and giant skull base meningiomas who were treated with the goal of radical removal. Methods: A retrospective study including 49 patients with large and giant skull base meningiomas was carried out. Tumors presenting 3 cm or larger were included. Results: The meningiomas in the sample included the following types: 10 olfactory groove, 8 sphenoorbital, 8 petroclival, 8 tentorial, 4 clinoidal, 4 cavernous sinus, 3 temporal floor, 2 tuberculum sellae and 2 foramen magnum. The average age was 53 years, the mean follow-up period was 52 months, Simpson Grades I and II were obtained in 75.5%. The overall mortality was 5%. Transient cranial nerve deficits occurred in 32% with definite cranial nerve lesion in 18%. Cerebrospinal fluid leak occurred in 14%. Conclusions: The surgical treatment is a mandatory option for large and giant skull base meningiomas. The radical removal is achievable and should be considered an alternative with a good outcome and an acceptable morbidity for such challenge lesions. PMID:26167365

  12. Commentary on "Comparison of abiraterone acetate versus ketoconazole in patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer refractory to docetaxel." Peer A, Gottfried M, Sinibaldi V, Carducci MA, Eisenberger MA, Sella A, Leibowitz-Amit R, Berger R, Keizman D, Department of Oncology, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel.: Prostate 2014 Apr;74(4):433-40; doi:10.1002/pros.22765. [Epub 2013 Dec 11].

    PubMed

    Trump, Donald

    2016-05-01

    Abiraterone, a potent CYP 17 inhibitor, is standard treatment in docetaxel refractory, metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, in countries where abiraterone has not been approved yet, or for patients who cannot afford it, ketoconazole is used as an alternative CYP 17 inhibitor. Although preclinical data suggests that ketoconazole is a less potent inhibitor of CYP 17, there are limited clinical data comparing both agents. We aimed to compare the clinical effectiveness of abiraterone versus ketoconazole in docetaxel refractory mCRPC. Records from mCRPC patients treated with ketoconazole (international multicenter database, n = 162) were reviewed retrospectively. Twenty-six patients treated post docetaxel were individually matched by clinicopathologic factors to patients treated with abiraterone (national multicenter database, n = 140). We compared the PSA response, biochemical and radiological progression free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) between the groups. PFS and OS were determined by Cox regression. The groups were matched by Gleason score, pre-treatment disease extent, ECOG PS, pre-treatment risk category (Keizman, Oncologist 2012). Furthermore, they were balanced regarding other known confounding risk factors. In the groups of abiraterone versus ketoconazole, PSA response was 46% versus 19% (OR 4.3, P = 0.04), median biochemical PFS 7 versus 2 months (HR 1.54, P = 0.02), median radiological PFS 8 versus 2.5 months (HR 1.8, P = 0.043), median OS 19 versus 11 months (HR 0.53, P = 0.79), and treatment interruption d/t severe adverse events 8% (n = 2) versus 31% (n = 8) (OR 0.6, P = 0.023). In docetaxel refractory mCRPC, the outcome of abiraterone treatment may be superior to ketoconazole. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A panoramic view of the skull base: systematic review of open and endoscopic endonasal approaches to four tumors.

    PubMed

    Graffeo, Christopher S; Dietrich, August R; Grobelny, Bartosz; Zhang, Meng; Goldberg, Judith D; Golfinos, John G; Lebowitz, Richard; Kleinberg, David; Placantonakis, Dimitris G

    2014-08-01

    Endoscopic endonasal surgery has been established as the safest approach to pituitary tumors, yet its role in other common skull base lesions has not been established. To answer this question, we carried out a systematic review of reported series of open and endoscopic endonasal approaches to four major skull base tumors: olfactory groove meningiomas (OGM), tuberculum sellae meningiomas (TSM), craniopharyngiomas (CRA), and clival chordomas (CHO). Data from 162 studies containing 5,701 patients were combined and compared for differences in perioperative mortality, gross total resection (GTR), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, neurological morbidity, post-operative visual function, post-operative anosmia, post-operative diabetes insipidus (DI), and post-operative obesity/hyperphagia. Weighted average rates for each outcome were calculated using relative study size. Our findings indicate similar rates of GTR and perioperative mortality between open and endoscopic approaches for all tumor types. CSF leak was increased after endoscopic surgery. Visual function symptoms were more likely to improve after endoscopic surgery for TSM, CRA, and CHO. Post-operative DI and obesity/hyperphagia were significantly increased after open resection in CRA. Recurrence rates per 1,000 patient-years of follow-up were higher in endoscopy for OGM, TSM, and CHO. Trends for open and endoscopic surgery suggested modest improvement in all outcomes over time. Our observations suggest that endonasal endoscopy is a safe alternative to craniotomy and may be preferred for certain tumor types. However, endoscopic surgery is associated with higher rates of CSF leak, and possibly increased recurrence rates. Prospective study with long-term follow-up is required to verify these preliminary observations.

  14. A panoramic view of the skull base: systematic review of open and endoscopic endonasal approaches to four tumors

    PubMed Central

    Graffeo, Christopher S.; Dietrich, August R.; Grobelny, Bartosz; Zhang, Meng; Goldberg, Judith D.; Golfinos, John G.; Lebowitz, Richard; Kleinberg, David; Placantonakis, Dimitris G.

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic endonasal surgery has been established as the safest approach to pituitary tumors, yet its role in other common skull base lesions has not been established. To answer this question, we carried out a systematic review of reported series of open and endoscopic endonasal approaches to four major skull base tumors: olfactory groove meningiomas (OGM), tuberculum sellae meningiomas (TSM), craniopharyngiomas (CRA), and clival chordomas (CHO). Data from 162 studies containing 5,701 patients were combined and compared for differences in perioperative mortality, gross total resection (GTR), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, neurological morbidity, post-operative visual function, post-operative anosmia, post-operative diabetes insipidus (DI), and post-operative obesity/hyperphagia. Weighted average rates for each outcome were calculated using relative study size. Our findings indicate similar rates of GTR and perioperative mortality between open and endoscopic approaches for all tumor types. CSF leak was increased after endoscopic surgery. Visual function symptoms were more likely to improve after endoscopic surgery for TSM, CRA, and CHO. Post-operative DI and obesity/hyperphagia were significantly increased after open resection in CRA. Recurrence rates per 1,000 patient-years of follow-up were higher in endoscopy for OGM, TSM, and CHO. Trends for open and endoscopic surgery suggested modest improvement in all outcomes over time. Our observations suggest that endonasal endoscopy is a safe alternative to craniotomy and may be preferred for certain tumor types. However, endoscopic surgery is associated with higher rates of CSF leak, and possibly increased recurrence rates. Prospective study with long-term follow-up is required to verify these preliminary observations. PMID:24014055

  15. Extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for retrochiasmatic craniopharyngioma: Surgical technique and results

    PubMed Central

    Sankhla, Suresh K.; Jayashankar, Narayan; Khan, Ghulam M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Surgical treatment of retrochiasmatic craniopharyngioma still remains a challenge. While complete removal of the tumor with preservation of the vital neurovascular structures is often the goal of the treatment, there is no optimal surgical approach available to achieve this goal. Transcranial and transsphenoidal microsurgical approaches, commonly used in the past, have considerable technical limitations. The extended endonasal endoscopic surgical route, obtained by removal of tuberculum sellae and planum sphenoidale, offers direct midline access to the retrochiasmatic space and provides excellent visualization of the undersurface of the optic chiasm. In this report, we describe the technical details of the extended endoscopic approach, and review our results using this approach in the surgical management of retrochiasmatic craniopharyngiomas. Methods: Fifteen children, including 9 girls and 6 boys, aged 8 to 15 years underwent surgery using extended endoscopic transsphenoidal approach between 2008 and 2014. Nine patients had a surgical procedure done previously and presented with recurrence of symptoms and regrowth of their residual tumors. Results: A gross total or near total excision was achieved in 10 (66.7%) patients, subtotal resection in 4 (26.7%), and partial removal in 1 (6.7%) patient. Postoperatively, headache improved in 93.3%, vision recovered in 77.3%, and the hormonal levels stabilised in 66.6%. Three patients (20%) developed postoperative CSF leaks which were managed conservatively. Three (20%) patients with diabetes insipidus and 2 (13.3%) with panhypopituitarism required long-term hormonal replacement therapy. Conclusions: Our early experience suggests that the extended endonasal endoscopic approach is a reasonable option for removal of the retrochiasmal craniopharyngiomas. Compared to other surgical approaches, it provides better opportunities for greater tumor removal and visual improvement without any increase in risks. PMID:26962333

  16. Internal Carotid Artery and Its Relationship with Structures in Sellar Region: Anatomy Study and Its Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yishui; Yang, Wen

    2017-10-03

    Complications of the ICA in surgeries are rare but severe. This study aims to locate the ICA with 5 stationary bony structures in the sellar region: the anterior clinoid process (ACP), the tuberculum sellae, the bottom of the hypophyseal fossa, the posterior edge of the hypophyseal fossa and the post clinoid process and do measurements to determine their anatomic relationship with the ICA. After multiple planar reconstructions on computer tomographic angiography images of 120 ICA in 60 individuals, we defined the 5 bony structures as 5 origins in horizontal, sagittal and vertical planes with the 3D coordinate system and got the cross-sections of bilateral ICA on the coronal plane passing through each origin. We measured the distances between the cross-sections and the origins and angles between the horizontal plane and the line passing through the origin and the cross sections on each coronal plane. We also measured the distances between bilateral ICA on the 5 coronal planes. Besides, we measured the coordinate of the anterior edge of bilateral ICA taking the anterior clinoid process as the origin. With the three-dimensional coordinate system, we located the ICA to the bony structures in skull base. Distance between bilateral ICA on coronal planes is 18.8±2.9mm, 23.6±3.7mm, 19.9±3.4mm, 24.7±4.3mm, 23.5±3.5mm, from anterior to posterior respectively. The 3D coordinate system used in this study is of value in preoperational assessment and data we obtained indicate the safety ranges avoiding damage to the ICA in surgeries. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Slack brain in meningioma surgery through lateral supraorbital approach

    PubMed Central

    Romani, Rossana; Silvasti-Lundell, Marja; Laakso, Aki; Tuominen, Hanna; Hernesniemi, Juha; Niemi, Tomi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Surgery of skull base meningiomas by the lateral supraorbital (LSO) approach requires relaxed brain. Therefore, we assessed combined effects of the elements of neuroanesthesia on neurosurgical conditions during craniotomy. Methods: The anesthesiological and surgical charts of 66 olfactory groove, 73 anterior clinoidal, and 52 tuberculum sellae meningioma patients operated on by the senior author (J.H.) at the Department of Neurosurgery of Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland, between September 1997 and August 2010, were retrospectively analyzed. Results: One-hundred fifty-four (82%) patients had good surgical conditions, and this was achieved by (1) elevating the head 20 cm above the cardiac level in all patients with only slightly lateral turn or neck flexion, (2) administering mannitol preoperatively in medium or large meningiomas (n = 60), (3) maintaining anesthesia with propofol infusion (n = 46) or volatile anesthetics (n = 107) also in patients with large tumors (n = 37), and (4) controlling intraoperative hemodynamics. Brain relaxation was satisfactory in 18 (10%) and poor in 15 (8%) patients. The median intraoperative blood loss was 200 (range, 0-2000) ml. Only 9% of patients received red blood cell transfusion. The median time to extubation was 18 (range, 8-105) min after surgery. Extubation time correlated with the patients’ preoperative clinical status and the size of tumor but not with the modality of anesthesia. Conclusions: Slack brain during the LSO approach is achieved by correct patient positioning, preoperative mannitol, either by propofol or in small tumors inhaled anesthetics, and optimizing cerebral perfusion pressure. Under these circumstances, intraoperative brain swelling is prevented, bleeding is minimal, and no blood transfusions are needed. PMID:22145086

  18. Frontal Lobe Morphometry with MRI in a Normal Age Group of 6-17 Year-Olds

    PubMed Central

    İlkay Koşar, M; Otağ, İlhan; Sabancıoğulları, Vedat; Atalar, Mehmet; Tetiker, Hasan; Otağ, Aynur; Çimen, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Background Morphometric data of the frontal lobe are important for surgical planning of lesions in the frontal lobe and its surroundings. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide suitable data for this purpose. Objectives In our study, the morphometric data of mid-sagittal MRI of the frontal lobe in certain age and gender groups of children have been presented. Patients and Methods In a normal age group of 6-17-year-old participants, the length of the line passing through predetermined different points, including the frontal pole (FP), commissura anterior (AC), commissura posterior (PC), the outermost point of corpus callosum genu (AGCC), the innermost point of corpus callosum genu (IGCC), tuberculum sella (TS), AGCC and IGCC points parallel to AC-PC line and the point such line crosses at the frontal lobe surface (FCS) were measured in three age groups (6-9, 10-13 and 14-17 years) for each gender. Results The frontal lobe morphometric data were higher in males than females. Frontal lobe measurements peak at the age group of 10-13 in the male and at the age group of 6-13 in the female. In boys, the length of FP-AC increases 4.1% in the 10-13 age group compared with the 6-9-year-old group, while this increase is 2.3% in girls. Conclusion Differences in age and gender groups were determined. While the length of AGCC-IGCC increases 10.4% in adults, in children aged 6-17, the length of AC-PC is 11.5% greater than adults. These data will contribute to the preliminary assessment for developing a surgical plan in fine interventions in the frontal lobe and its surroundings in children. PMID:23599707

  19. Frontal lobe morphometry with MRI in a normal age group of 6-17 year-olds.

    PubMed

    Ilkay Koşar, M; Otağ, Ilhan; Sabancıoğulları, Vedat; Atalar, Mehmet; Tetiker, Hasan; Otağ, Aynur; Cimen, Mehmet

    2012-12-01

    Morphometric data of the frontal lobe are important for surgical planning of lesions in the frontal lobe and its surroundings. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide suitable data for this purpose. In our study, the morphometric data of mid-sagittal MRI of the frontal lobe in certain age and gender groups of children have been presented. In a normal age group of 6-17-year-old participants, the length of the line passing through predetermined different points, including the frontal pole (FP), commissura anterior (AC), commissura posterior (PC), the outermost point of corpus callosum genu (AGCC), the innermost point of corpus callosum genu (IGCC), tuberculum sella (TS), AGCC and IGCC points parallel to AC-PC line and the point such line crosses at the frontal lobe surface (FCS) were measured in three age groups (6-9, 10-13 and 14-17 years) for each gender. The frontal lobe morphometric data were higher in males than females. Frontal lobe measurements peak at the age group of 10-13 in the male and at the age group of 6-13 in the female. In boys, the length of FP-AC increases 4.1% in the 10-13 age group compared with the 6-9-year-old group, while this increase is 2.3% in girls. Differences in age and gender groups were determined. While the length of AGCC-IGCC increases 10.4% in adults, in children aged 6-17, the length of AC-PC is 11.5% greater than adults. These data will contribute to the preliminary assessment for developing a surgical plan in fine interventions in the frontal lobe and its surroundings in children.

  20. Visual findings as primary manifestations in patients with intracranial tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sefi-Yurdakul, Nazife

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the visual findings as primary manifestations in patients with intracranial tumors. METHODS The medical charts of the patients with intracranial tumors who initially admitted to the Neuro-ophthalmology and Strabismus Department with ocular complaints between August 1999 and December 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. The detailed clinical history and the findings of neuro-ophthalmologic examination were recorded. Ocular symptoms and signs, the types and locations of intracranial tumors, and the duration of symptoms before the diagnosis were evaluated. RESULTS The mean age of 11 women (61.1%) and 7 men (38.9%) was 42.2±11.0 (range 20-66y) at the time of intracranial tumor diagnosis. Initial symptoms were transient visual obscurations, visual loss or visual field defect in 16 cases (88.9%), and diplopia in 2 cases (11.1%). Neuro-ophthalmologic examination revealed normal optic discs in both eyes of 6 patients (33.3%), paleness, atrophy or edema of optic disc in 12 patients (66.7%), and sixth cranial nerve palsy in 2 patients (11.1%). Visual acuity ranged between normal vision and loss of light perception. Cranial imaging demonstrated craniopharyngioma (n=1), plasmacytoma (n=1), meningioma (n=6; olfactory groove and tuberculum sellae, pontocerebellar angle, anterior cranial fossa, frontal vertex, suprasellar region), and pituitary macroadenoma (n=10). The mean duration between the onset of visual disturbances and the diagnosis of intracranial tumor was 9.8±18mo (range 3d-6y). CONCLUSION The ophthalmologist is frequently the first physician to encounter a patient with clinical manifestations of intracranial tumors that may cause neurological and ocular complications. Neuro-ophthalmologic findings should be carefully evaluated to avoid a delay in the diagnosis of intracranial tumors. PMID:26309882

  1. How I do it: the endoscopic endonasal optic nerve and orbital apex decompression.

    PubMed

    Jacquesson, Timothée; Abouaf, Lucie; Berhouma, Moncef; Jouanneau, Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    With the refinement of the technique, endoscopic endonasal surgery increases its field of indications. The orbital compartment is among the locations easily reached through the nostril. This anteromedial approach has been described primarily for inflammatory or traumatic diseases, with few data for tumoral diseases. Since 2010, this route has been used at our institution either for decompression or for biopsy of orbital tumoral diseases. Even if further studies are warranted, this strategy proved to be beneficial for patients, with improvements in visual outcome. In this article, the authors summarize their technique and their experience with endonasal endoscopic orbital decompression. Nasal and sphenoidal anatomies determine the feasibility and risks for doing an efficient medial optic or orbit decompression. • Techniques and tools used are those developed for pituitary surgery. • A middle turbinectomy and posterior ethmoidectomy are mandatory to expose the medial wall of the orbit. • The Onodi cell is a key marker for the optic canal and must be opened up with caution. • The lamina papyracea is opened first with a spatula and the optic canal opened up by a gentle drilling under continuous irrigation from distal to proximal. • Drilling might always be used under continuous irrigation to avoid overheating of the optic nerve. An ultrasonic device can be used as well. • The nasal corridor is narrow and instruments may hide the infrared neuronavigation probe. To overcome this issue, a magnetic device could be useful. • Doppler control could be useful to locate the ICA. • The optic canal must be opened up from the tuberculum of the sella to the orbital apex and from the planum (anterior cranial fossa) to the lateral OCR or ICA canal • At the end of the procedure, the optic nerve becomes frequently pulsatile, which is a good marker of decompression.

  2. Surgical management of midline anterior skull base meningiomas: experience of 30 cases.

    PubMed

    Refaat, Mohamed I; Eissa, Ehab M; Ali, Mohamed H

    2015-01-01

    Midline anterior skull base meningiomas include olfactory groove meningiomas (OGMs), Tuberculum Sellae meningiomas (TSMs), and planum sphenoidale meningiomas (PSMs). The main surgical challenge in treating these lesions is to excise the tumor totally without causing mortality or morbidity. Studying the clinical patterns and the surgical outcomes of these lesions. Thirty cases of midline anterior skull base lesions were included in our study. Patients were operated upon by four routes: (i) unilateral subfrontal, (ii) bilateral subfrontal, (iii) frontotemporal approach, and (iv) bifrontal basal interhemispheric. Extent of resection was classified according to the Simpson grading system. The functional outcome of the patients was assessed by comparing the preoperative and the postoperative neurological examination, as well as the Karnofsky performance scale. We had 14 OGMs (46.7%), 9 TSMs (30%), and 7 PSMs (23.3%). The most commonly utilized approach was the subfrontal approach (unilateral or bilateral) in 80% of the cases, followed by the pterional approach in 16.6% of the cases. Total removal was achieved in 86.7% of the cases; subtotal excision was achieved in 13.3% of the cases. 41.2% of our cases showed postoperative clinical improvement. We had two mortalities in our study, representing 6.7%. We did not detect any tumor recurrences in our follow up. The median preoperative Karnofsky scale was 85, while the median postoperative Karnofsky scale was 90. Midline anterior skull base lesions are becoming amenable for total surgical excision with minimal morbidities and mortalities. Most preferred surgical routes are the subfrontal and the pterional approaches.

  3. Combined anterior pituitary function test using CRH, GRH, LH-RH, TRH and vasopressin in patients with non-functioning pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, K; Makino, S; Hirasawa, R; Takao, T; Kageyama, J; Ogasa, T; Ota, Z

    1990-06-01

    We examined 8 normal subjects and 16 patients with non-functioning pituitary tumors with a combined anterior pituitary test to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the test. Diagnoses included 9 of chromophobe adenoma, 3 of craniopharyngioma, 2 of Rathke's cleft cyst, and 1 each of intrasellar cyst and tuberculum sella meningioma. All subjects received hypothalamic releasing hormones: 1 micrograms/kg corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), 1 micrograms/kg growth hormone releasing hormone (GRH), 500 micrograms thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), 100 micrograms luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LH-RH), and a relatively small dose (5 mU/kg) of lysine vasopressin (LVP). In the normal subjects, the addition of LVP potentiated the secretion of adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) induced by CRH, but had no significant effect on the secretion of other anterior pituitary hormones. In the combined test with 5 releasing hormones, the plasma ACTH and cortisol responses were not impaired in the majority of the patients before pituitary surgery. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin (PRL) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) responses were not impaired in 82%, 70% and 67% of the patients, respectively, while the serum LH and GH responses were impaired in 67% and 73% of the patients, respectively. Following pituitary surgery, responses of these hormones to combined testing were similarly impaired in more than 75% of the patients. These results indicate that plasma ACTH, cortisol and serum TSH responses are fairly good before pituitary surgery but are impaired significantly after surgery. No subjects experienced any serious adverse effects related to the testing. These results suggest that combined testing with hypothalamic hormones is a convenient and useful method for evaluating pituitary function.

  4. Enlarging pediatric ectopic Rathke's cleft cyst in the prepontine cistern: case report.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Takamasa; Nonaka, Masahiro; Uemura, Yoshiko; Yamanouchi, Yasuo; Komori, Yumiko; Iwata, Ryoichi; Takeda, Junichi; Hashiba, Tetsuo; Yoshimura, Kunikazu; Asai, Akio

    2017-09-08

    Rathke's cleft cyst is a cystic disease that occurs in the sella turcica or, occasionally, in the suprasellar area. An ectopic Rathke's cleft cyst is extremely rare, and its nature is less well understood. The authors report the case of a 14-year-old girl who presented with a growing cystic lesion in the prepontine cistern, immediately behind the dorsum sellae. Preoperative imaging and intraoperative investigation showed part of the cyst wall continuing into the dorsum sellae, to the pituitary gland. The cisternal portion of the cyst wall was totally resected via a right subtemporal approach. Histopathological examination of the cyst wall showed a monolayer of ciliated cells, identical to those of Rathke's cleft cyst. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this represents the first pediatric case of Rathke's cleft cyst occurring in the prepontine cistern.

  5. Isolated double pituitary adenomas: A silent corticotroph adenoma and a microprolactinoma.

    PubMed

    Eytan, Shira; Kim, Ki-Yoon; Bleich, David; Raghuwanshi, Maya; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Liu, James K

    2015-10-01

    We report a 27-year-old woman with amenorrhea and galactorrhea with mildly elevated serum prolactin levels. Her MRI demonstrated a cystic macroadenoma in the left aspect of the sella and a small microadenoma in the right aspect of the sella. Endoscopic transsphenoidal resection of the tumors revealed two histologically distinct tumors. The left tumor was consistent with a silent corticotroph macroadenoma and the right tumor was a prolactin producing microadenoma. Isolated double pituitary adenomas that are clearly separated by normal pituitary gland tissue are extremely rare. The incidence is approximately 0.37-2.6%. The coexistence of double adenomas can pose diagnostic and management challenges for the pituitary neuroendocrine team.

  6. Postpartum pituitary apoplexy with isolated oculomotor nerve palsy: A rare medical emergency.

    PubMed

    Raina, Sujeet; Jearth, Vaneet; Sharma, Ashish; Sharma, Rajesh; Mistry, Kewal

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary apoplexy is a clinical syndrome characterized by sudden onset headache, visual deficits, ophthalmoplegia, altered mental status, and hormonal dysfunction due to an expanding mass within the sella turcica resulting from hemorrhage or infarction of pituitary gland. We report a case of pituitary apoplexy that developed in postpartum period following postpartum hemorrhage and presented with isolated third cranial nerve palsy.

  7. Remote Medical Diagnosis System (RMDS) Advanced Development Model (ADM) Radiology Performance Test Results.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    Double floor of sells. 5 4 Abdomen Prostatic calculi 6 1 Abdomen Bilateral adrenal calcification B 1 1 Skull Broken nose 2 3 Appendage Osteoid osteoma 3 6...Double floor of sella 5 4 Abdomen Prostatic calculi 6 1 Abdomen Bilateral adrenal calcification B 1 1 Skull Broken nose 2 3 Appendage Osteoid osteoma 3

  8. Pathogenesis of non-traumatic cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea.

    PubMed

    Bjerre, P; Lindholm, J; Gyldensted, C

    1982-08-01

    15 consecutive patients with non-traumatic cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea were studied. 13 operations were performed on 10 patients. In 8 transcranial operations, an assumed defect in the anterior fossa was plugged with muscle, but only 3 operations were successful. In 4 operations, either transcranial or transsphenoidal, the sella was packed with muscle and rhinorrhea ceased immediately. Based on radiological and operative findings, 3 groups of patients appeared (1) 9 patients had pathology related to the pituitary gland or the sella turcica: enlarged sella, empty sella, pituitary tumour, intrasellar cyst or erosion of the sellar osseous border. (2) 2 patients had rhinorrhea from extrasellar origin. (3) In 4 patients no abnormality could be found. Prior to the rhinorrhea, 6 patients (5 from group 1 and 1 from group 3) had experienced episodes of neurological symptoms, compatible with a pituitary apoplexy. It is suggested that non-traumatic cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea in most cases is the result of a spontaneous necrosis in a pituitary adenoma, which has caused sellar bony erosion.

  9. Fat deposition in the cavernous sinus in Cushing disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bachow, T.B.; Hesselink, J.R.; Aaron, J.O.; Davis, K.R.; Taveras, J.M.

    1984-10-01

    Fat density in the cavernous sinus on computed tomography (CT) is described in 6 out of 16 (37.5%) patients with Cushing disease. This finding may aid in making a specific diagnosis in patients with a pituitary mass. It was not seen in 30 random CT studies of the sella; however, supra seller fat was incidentally noted in the patient with acromegaly.

  10. Closure of cerebrospinal fluid leakage after transsphenoidal surgery: technical note.

    PubMed

    Freidberg, S R; Hybels, R L; Bohigian, R K

    1994-07-01

    It is necessary to pack the sella turcica to prevent the leakage of cerebrospinal fluid after transsphenoidal surgery if the arachnoid has been torn. The packing is usually supported by nasal cartilage. If this is not available, we recommend the Synthes minifragment plate to support the intradural pack.

  11. Postpartum pituitary apoplexy with isolated oculomotor nerve palsy: A rare medical emergency

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Sujeet; Jearth, Vaneet; Sharma, Ashish; Sharma, Rajesh; Mistry, Kewal

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary apoplexy is a clinical syndrome characterized by sudden onset headache, visual deficits, ophthalmoplegia, altered mental status, and hormonal dysfunction due to an expanding mass within the sella turcica resulting from hemorrhage or infarction of pituitary gland. We report a case of pituitary apoplexy that developed in postpartum period following postpartum hemorrhage and presented with isolated third cranial nerve palsy. PMID:26752912

  12. Commentary on "Cabozantinib in patients with advanced prostate cancer: results of a phase II randomized discontinuation trial." Smith DC, Smith MR, Sweeney C, Elfiky AA, Logothetis C, Corn PG, Vogelzang NJ, Small EJ, Harzstark AL, Gordon MS, Vaishampayan UN, Haas NB, Spira AI, Lara PN Jr, Lin CC, Srinivas S, Sella A, SchoffskiSchöffski P, Scheffold C, Weitzman AL, Hussain M, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. J Clin Oncol 2013;31(4):412-9. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2012.45.0494. Epub 2012 Nov 19.

    PubMed

    Trump, Donald L

    2013-11-01

    Cabozantinib (XL184) is an orally bioavailable tyrosine kinase inhibitor with activity against MET and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2. We evaluated the activity of cabozantinib in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in a phase II randomized discontinuation trial with an expansion cohort. Patients received 100mg of cabozantinib daily. Those with stable disease per RECIST at 12 weeks were randomly assigned to cabozantinib or placebo. Primary end points were objective response rate at 12 weeks and progression-free survival (PFS) after random assignment. One hundred seventy-one men with CRPC were enrolled. Random assignment was halted early based on the observed activity of cabozantinib. Seventy-two percent of patients had regression in soft tissue lesions, whereas 68% of evaluable patients had improvement on bone scan, including complete resolution in 12%. The objective response rate at 12 weeks was 5%, with stable disease in 75% of patients. Thirty-one patients with stable disease at week 12 were randomly assigned. Median PFS was 23.9 weeks (95% CI, 10.7 to 62.4 weeks) with cabozantinib and 5.9 weeks (95% CI, 5.4 to 6.6 weeks) with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.12; P<.001). Serum total alkaline phosphatase and plasma cross-linked C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen were reduced by ≥ 50% in 57% of evaluable patients. On retrospective review, bone pain improved in 67% of evaluable patients, with a decrease in narcotic use in 56%. The most common grade 3 adverse events were fatigue (16%), hypertension (12%), and hand-foot syndrome (8%). Cabozantinib has clinical activity in men with CRPC, including reduction of soft tissue lesions, improvement in PFS, resolution of bone scans, and reductions in bone turnover markers, pain, and narcotic use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [A case of pituitary apoplexy with severe consciousness disturbance following mild head trauma].

    PubMed

    Horie, Nobutaka; Tokunaga, Yoshiharu; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Furuichi, Shoji; Mori, Katsuharu; Shibata, Shoubu

    2002-08-01

    A rare case of pituitary apoplexy following mild head trauma is reported. A 56-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for loss of consciousness following a traffic accident. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed a large suprasellar tumor containing a low intensity area on the T 1-, T 2-weighted images and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) image. These findings indicated fresh intratumoral hemorrhage. The tumor extended to the suprasellar region and put pressure on the hypothalamus and brain stem. The tumor, with marked intratumoral hemorrhage, was resected with an emergency right front-temporal craniotomy. And the patient was left severely disabled. The tumor histology was diffuse-type pituitary adenoma. In our case, we suggest that the cause of pituitary apoplexy following head trauma was shearing stress between the intra- and suprasellar part of the easy bleeding tumor, or direct injury by bone structure such as teberculum sellae, dorsum sellae, or anterior clinoid process.

  14. Neurocysticercosis, meningioma, and silent corticotroph pituitary adenoma in a 61-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Maria Del Pilar; Restrepo, Juan E; Syro, Luis V; Rotondo, Fabio; Londoño, Francisco J; Penagos, Luis C; Uribe, Humberto; Horvath, Eva; Kovacs, Kalman

    2012-01-01

    We report here the case of a 61-year-old woman who presented with hydrocephalus and cystic and solid lesions in sella turcica, suprasellar areas, and third ventricle. After ventriculoperitoneal shunt she developed cognitive changes and the cystic lesions enlarged. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated multiple cysts and a solid lesion in the sella and around the anterior clinoid process. With diagnosis of neurocysticercosis she underwent craniotomy. Pathologic examination documented two different lesions: viable and dead cysticerci with inflaming infiltration and a left anterior clinoidal meningioma. At the second surgery, six weeks later via transnasal transsphenoidal approach a silent corticotroph pituitary adenoma was removed which was studied by histology, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. To our knowledge, the occurrence of these three different lesions in the sellar area was not described before.

  15. Neurocysticercosis, Meningioma, and Silent Corticotroph Pituitary Adenoma in a 61-Year-Old Woman

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Maria del Pilar; Restrepo, Juan E.; Syro, Luis V.; Rotondo, Fabio; Londoño, Francisco J.; Penagos, Luis C.; Uribe, Humberto; Horvath, Eva; Kovacs, Kalman

    2012-01-01

    We report here the case of a 61-year-old woman who presented with hydrocephalus and cystic and solid lesions in sella turcica, suprasellar areas, and third ventricle. After ventriculoperitoneal shunt she developed cognitive changes and the cystic lesions enlarged. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated multiple cysts and a solid lesion in the sella and around the anterior clinoid process. With diagnosis of neurocysticercosis she underwent craniotomy. Pathologic examination documented two different lesions: viable and dead cysticerci with inflaming infiltration and a left anterior clinoidal meningioma. At the second surgery, six weeks later via transnasal transsphenoidal approach a silent corticotroph pituitary adenoma was removed which was studied by histology, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. To our knowledge, the occurrence of these three different lesions in the sellar area was not described before. PMID:23346440

  16. Technical nuances of subtemporal approach for the treatment of basilar tip aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Nakov, Vladimir S.; Spiriev, Toma Y.; Todorov, Ivan T.; Simeonov, Plamen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Basilar tip aneurysms are one of the most complex vascular lesions to treat surgically because of their location, depth of the approach, and close proximity of vital neurovascular structures such as the mesencephalon, cranial nerves, perforating arteries to the thalamus. There are different surgical approaches utilized to reach basilar tip aneurysms, namely, pterional, pretemporal, orbitozygomatic, subtemporal, and anterior petrosectomy. Each of them has its advantages and limitations. Methods: In this paper, we present our personal experience with the use of subtemporal approach. The technique is described in detail including its nuances and potential pitfalls. Results: The subtemporal approach is indicated for basilar tip aneurysms located at the level of the floor of the sella turcica to 1 cm above the dorsum sellae. Conclusion: Subtemporal approach offers good surgical corridor for the management of these complex vascular lesions. PMID:28217394

  17. High Le Fort I osteotomy for correction of mid-face deformity in Crouzon syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yasumichi; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Sumida, Tomoki; Yamada, Tomohiro; Inoue, Kazuya; Sugiyama, Goro; Mishima, Katsuaki; Mori, Yoshihide

    2016-09-01

    An 18-year-old woman with mild Crouzon syndrome was referred with malocclusion and mandibular protrusion. Examination revealed Class III canine and molar relationships, hypoplastic maxilla, 1-mm overbite, and -2-mm overjet. Analysis showed 69° sella-nasion-A, 73.6° sella-nasion-B, and -4.6° A point-nasion-B point angles. Polysomnography revealed respiratory disturbance and 6.3% oxygen desaturation indices of 5.4/h and 9.0/h. We performed double-jaw surgery using high Le Fort I osteotomy and bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy for midfacial deformity correction. Twelve months post-surgery, her measures were 70.8°, 72°, -1.2°, 3.0/h, and 6.1/h, respectively. Esthetics were satisfactory. High Le Fort I osteotomy is effective for midfacial deformity correction in patients with Crouzon syndrome. © 2016 Japanese Teratology Society.

  18. CT of pituitary abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, T.C.; Johns, R.D.; Long, M.; Myles, S.T.

    1985-06-01

    Pituitary abscess is a rare condition, with only 50 cases reported in the literature. Of those, 29 cases were well documented for analysis. Preoperative diagnosis of pituitary abscess is difficult. The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of pituitary abscess was first described in 1983; the abscess was depicted by axial images with coronal reconstruction. The authors recently encountered a case of pituitary abscess documented by direct coronal CT of the sella turcica.

  19. Blindness in a bladder cancer patient.

    PubMed

    Remón, J; Guardeño, R; Badía, A; Cardona, T; Picaza, J M; Lianes, P

    2007-02-01

    Blindness is an unusual symptom in the clinical course of cancer. When it appears it is necessary to differentiate between benign and malign causes. Brain metastases in bladder cancer are extremely rare. MRI is the best diagnostic option. We present a deaf-and-dumb male with subacute blindness, 12 months after the diagnosis of a metastatic bladder cancer. Computerised tomography scan and MRI revealed a mass into the pituitary gland and sella, probably of metastatic origin.

  20. Erythroleukaemia, diabetes insipidus and hypophyseal damage: Two case reports.

    PubMed

    Piccin, A; Raimondi, R; Laspina, S; Marchi, M; Rodeghiero, F; Rovigatti, U

    2007-08-01

    We report on two cases of patients who developed diabetes insipidus (DI) before acute erythroleukaemia (EL). A brain MRI showed an empty sella turcica in one case and hypothalamo-hypophyseal peduncle damage in the second case. Reduced levels of TGF-beta1 and Vitamin D3, with associated EVI-1 over-expression and karyotypic abnormalities were documented. These two cases show specific chromosomal/molecular alterations in EL with DI. The hypothesis of pituitary involvement in erythroleukemogenesis is discussed.

  1. Seismic Characterization of Northeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    the inclusion of United States Geological Survey Earthquake Data Reports and International Seismological Centre magnitudes for larger events where...sources (both seismologic character and tectonics), and locations of events. RESEARCH ACCOMPLISHED Source Characteristics and Active Faulting...Arctic Region, Geological Society of America, Boulder, 79-100. Fujita, K., G. Sella, K. G. Mackey, S. Stein , K.-D. Park, V.S. and Imaev (2004

  2. [Neurologic manifestations in Ollier's disease].

    PubMed

    Neretin, V Ia; Kir'iakov, V A; Skorochkina, L V; Loseva, T V

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe a case of Ollier's syndrome which developed in a 31-year-old female patient. The patient manifested hypertrophy of osseous and soft tissues, deformity of the dorsum sellae and of the walls of the cavernous sinus and siphon of the internal carotid artery. In the clinical picture of the disease, one could see symptoms of the impairment of pairs III and VI of the craniocerebral nerves, pains due to the irritation of the first branch of nerve V.

  3. Ectopic prolactinoma in the clivus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Narese, D; Virzì, V; Virzì, G; Narese, F; Sciortino, A; Culmone, G; Virzì, F; Maira, G

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of an ectopic pituitary adenoma in a 65-year-old man with an empty sella who initially presented with right ptosis and eyelid edema and headache. Neuroimaging studies revealed a large tumoral process at the height of the clivus, with partial destruction of surrounding bone structure. He underwent transphenoidal surgery and histopathologic examination, including immunohistochemical studies, revealed a prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma. A careful review of the literature was done.

  4. Cephalometric superimposition on the occipital condyles as a longitudinal growth assessment reference: I-point and I-curve.

    PubMed

    Standerwick, Richard; Roberts, Eugene; Hartsfield, James; Babler, William; Kanomi, Ryuzo

    2008-12-01

    This retrospective study tests the hypothesis that superimposition referenced at the occipital condyles (defined as I-point, I-curve) and oriented to the anterior cranial base (ACB) will display a growth pattern that is more consistent with independent evaluations, such as the Melsen necropsy specimens and the Bjork implant studies, when compared with traditional superimpositions referenced at sella turcica. Twenty-eight sets of serial lateral cephalometric radiographs were selected from an archived growth study. The apparent facial growth was compared using polar coordinate analysis from superimposition tracings of the serial films for each subject. The two superimposition methods were compared. The traditional method, ACB registered on the anterior curvature of sella turcica, versus registration on I-point while maintaining ACB parallel. I-point registered superimpositions consistently displayed a facial growth pattern that was more consistent with the classic necropsy specimens of children and the cephalometric studies superimposing on implant markers. Traditional ACB superimposition suggests that airway is restricted by normal growth. This apparent physiologic artifact does not occur when superimpositions are registered on I-point. Sella turcica displays vertical movement that is consistent with brain growth. These data indicate that registration on I-point is a more accurate physiologic representation of facial growth than the traditional ACB superimpositions. When compared with the traditional registration at sella turcica, I-point superimposition better elucidates physiologic growth patterns. As cephalometrics evolve from a two to a three dimensional science, it is important to use a more biologically valid registration for evaluating therapeutics and facial growth patterns.

  5. Cushing's disease due to a giant pituitary adenoma in early infancy: CT and MRI features.

    PubMed

    Maeder, P; Gudinchet, F; Rillet, B; Theintz, G; Meuli, R

    1996-01-01

    We report the case of a 12-month-old girl presenting with diabetes insipidus and Cushing s disease. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a large tumour arising from the sella turcica, extending up to the foramen of Monro and invading the cavernous sinuses. Surgery was performed to remove the suprasellar part of the tumour, and histology revealed an adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) secreting pituitary adenoma. This entity is very rare in this age group and the MRI features have not previously been described.

  6. Sheehan's syndrome presenting as postpartum seizures.

    PubMed

    Jain, G; Singh, D; Kumar, S

    2010-05-01

    We report a case where a patient presented with generalised tonic-clonic seizures secondary to nausea, vomiting and dehydration. She had suffered a postpartum haemorrhage six months previously. On laboratory assessment hyponatraemia and low hormone concentrations suggested pituitary failure. The diagnosis was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging of the head, which showed a partially empty sella turcica. Given the severity of the morbidity in this case we emphasise that Sheehan's syndrome should be suspected in women presenting with postpartum seizures.

  7. ACTH-producing remnants following apoplexy of an ACTH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma.

    PubMed

    Messer, Caroline Korsten; Fowkes, Mary E; Gabrilove, J Lester; Post, Kalmon D; Son, Honju; Levine, Alice C

    2012-12-01

    Describe a case of apoplexy of an ACTH-producing pituitary adenoma which resulted not only in an empty sella with concurrent hypothyroidism, hypoprolactinemia, and hypogonadism but persistent hypercortisolemia from two distinct extrasellar remnants of the original adenoma. Review the literature to identify other similar cases. The patient's medical history, physical exam, lab data, imaging exams and histopathological results were analyzed and compiled into a case report, and an extensive review of the literature was performed. Endocrinological data revealed hypercortisolism and an elevated ACTH with an otherwise suppressed pituitary axis. A pituitary MRI showed a macroadenoma in the left cavernous sinus in addition to an empty sella. An octreotide scan revealed lesions in the left sella turcica and the right sphenoid sinus. Tissue samples of both lesions stained positive for ACTH and negative for GH, prolactin, FSH, LH, and TSH. The lesions were surgically removed, and the patient treated with radiation and ketoconazole. This resulted in a significant decrease in ACTH and cortisol as well as a marked improvement in blood glucose control. The review of literature revealed the absence of any similar cases in the past. The patient presented with apoplexy of an ACTH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma with two hormonally active extrasellar remnants. Several cases in the literature describe recurrence of Cushing's disease following infarction of ACTH-secreting adenomas. This is the first documented case of infarction of an ACTH-producing adenoma resulting in two distinct ACTH-producing remnants without recurrence of the original adenoma.

  8. Metastatic Mantle Cell Lymphoma to the Pituitary Gland: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Arthur; Carberry, Nathan; Solli, Elena; Kleinman, George; Tandon, Adesh

    2016-01-01

    We present an unusual case of a metastatic mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) to the pituitary gland. The patient had a known history of MCL for which she previously received chemotherapy. She presented with new-onset diplopia and confusion, and reported a history of progressive vision blurriness associated with headache, nausea, and vomiting. MRI of the brain showed an enhancing lesion within the sella turcica involving the cavernous sinuses bilaterally, extending into Meckel's cave on the left, and abutting the optic nerves bilaterally. Following surgical excision, histopathology revealed the tumor to be a MCL. Metastatic pituitary tumors are rare and have been estimated to make up 1% of tumors discovered in the sellar region. The two most common secondary metastatic lesions to the sella are breast and lung carcinoma followed by prostate, renal cell, and gastrointestinal carcinoma. Metastatic lymphoma to the pituitary gland is especially rare and is estimated to constitute 0.5% of all metastatic tumors to the sella turcica. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of MCL metastasizing to the pituitary gland.

  9. The anterolateral approach for the transcranial resection of pituitary adenomas: technical note.

    PubMed

    Agazzi, Siviero; Youssef, Ashraf Sami; van Loveren, Harry R

    2010-05-01

    We sought to quantify the mean surface area of the exposed diaphragma sellae and the mean sellar volume in the subfrontal and anterolateral approaches to pituitary adenomas and to detail our expansion of the superficial and deep window in the anterolateral approach. We performed a retrospective data analysis and cadaveric study in a clinical and skull base laboratory. We studied eight patients who had anterolateral approach for transcranial resection of pituitary macroadenoma and seven cadaveric specimens. Main outcome measures were degree of tumor resection, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, cranial nerve outcome, and quantification of the exposed sella via the anterior (subfrontal) and anterolateral approach. We observed complete resection in one; visual outcome: stable in three, improved in four, worsened in one; CSF leakage in two; transient CN III palsy in three; mean surface area (mm(2)) of exposed diaphragma sellae,115.3 (subfrontal approach) versus 94.7 (anterolateral approach; p = 0.1); mean sellar volume (mm(3)) exposed, 224.8 (subfrontal approach) versus 569.3 (anterolateral approach; p < 0.0001). Our technical note supports the increased exposure of sellar volume via the anterolateral approach. Despite the relatively high complication rate, complex cranial surgeons should maintain the skills and knowledge of transcranial approaches. Indeed, the rapid expansion of transsphenoidal techniques will continue to decrease the number of cases but will also continue to increase the complexity of those adenomas that are referred for transcranial resection.

  10. Intracranial metastatic disease rarely involves the pituitary: retrospective analysis of 935 metastases in 155 patients and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Marsh, James C; Garg, Shalini; Wendt, Julie A; Gielda, Benjamin T; Turian, Julius V; Herskovic, Arnold M

    2010-09-01

    We present a case report of a patient recently treated at our institution for an isolated non-small cell lung cancer metastatic lesion to the sella, report the lack of involvement of the pituitary gland in a large single-institution series of treated intracranial parenchymal metastases, and review the pertinent literature. We reviewed cranial imaging studies (CT and MRI) for 935 metastases in 155 patients treated at our institution over the previous 3 years for intracranial metastatic disease. Special attention was paid to the skull base to document the presence of any metastatic disease involving the pituitary gland, infundibular stalk, sella turcica (including anterior and posterior clinoids), or diaphragm sellae. We found no other involvement of the pituitary gland or other sellar structures by metastatic disease in this series. Intracranial metastatic disease rarely involves the pituitary gland and infundibular stalk parenchyma, suggesting that this structure may be safely omitted from the treatment field during WBRT and prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). This treatment approach should reduce the late sequelae of treatment to this critical organ.

  11. Metastatic Mantle Cell Lymphoma to the Pituitary Gland: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Arthur; Carberry, Nathan; Solli, Elena; Kleinman, George; Tandon, Adesh

    2016-01-01

    We present an unusual case of a metastatic mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) to the pituitary gland. The patient had a known history of MCL for which she previously received chemotherapy. She presented with new-onset diplopia and confusion, and reported a history of progressive vision blurriness associated with headache, nausea, and vomiting. MRI of the brain showed an enhancing lesion within the sella turcica involving the cavernous sinuses bilaterally, extending into Meckel's cave on the left, and abutting the optic nerves bilaterally. Following surgical excision, histopathology revealed the tumor to be a MCL. Metastatic pituitary tumors are rare and have been estimated to make up 1% of tumors discovered in the sellar region. The two most common secondary metastatic lesions to the sella are breast and lung carcinoma followed by prostate, renal cell, and gastrointestinal carcinoma. Metastatic lymphoma to the pituitary gland is especially rare and is estimated to constitute 0.5% of all metastatic tumors to the sella turcica. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of MCL metastasizing to the pituitary gland. PMID:26933415

  12. Facies interfingering and synsedimentary tectonics on late Ladinian-early Carnian carbonate platforms (Dolomites, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keim, Lorenz; Brandner, Rainer

    2001-11-01

    A stratigraphic model for carbonate platform evolution in the Dolomites during the late Ladinian-early Carnian is presented. New light on pre-Raibl growth of individual carbonate platforms of the western Dolomites was shed by biostratigraphic data combined with a revised lithostratigraphy. At the Schlern, Langkofel and Sella, the carbonate factory (Upper Schlern Dolomite) remained productive into the lowermost Carnian (Cordevolian = Aon Zone), and caused a levelling-out of the former steep platform-to-basin relief. In the eastern Dolomites, platforms were producing till basal Julian 2 (Austriacum Zone). At the Sella and Langkofel, the sedimentation pattern after deposition of the Upper Schlern Dolomite was strongly influenced by synsedimentary tectonics. A first phase of extensional tectonics led to local fissures, block-tilting, graben structures and breccia deposits. Composition and fabric of the reworked clasts argue for local-source sediments and short transport distances. The extensional structures are sealed by sediments of Lower Carnian age. Two facies belts (Schlernplateau beds and Dürrenstein Dolomite), which interfinger at the western side of the Sella, reflect the shallow marine environment with terrigenous-volcanoclastic input in the western Dolomites. A second generation of breccias at the Sella documents local fracturing of the Dürrenstein and Upper Schlern Dolomite. Depositional environments across the western and eastern Dolomites were largely dependent on differential subsidence. The sediments of early Carnian age on top of the Schlern platform are a few metres thick only, whereas, in the eastern Dolomite, up to 400-m-thick carbonate sediments ('Richthofen reef' and Settsass platform) were deposited. The most incomplete stratigraphic record is present at the Mendel platform in the west, where Ladinian volcanics are unconformably overlain by late Carnian 'Raibl beds'. The increase in sediment thickness towards the eastern Dolomites becomes partly

  13. [Operative neurosurgery: personal view and historical backgrounds. (5) Meningioma].

    PubMed

    Yonekawa, Yasuhiro

    2009-01-01

    The author reports his experience of 410 surgeries of meningiomas on 365 cases during the last 13.5 years, including 51 surgeries on recurrent meningiomas and 8 surgeries with the change of initial approach on the same meningiomas. In the surgical management of meningiomas, following comments are to be emphasized: Appropriate approach and interruption of blood supply are of cardinal importance in surgical management of meningiomas. For the latter purpose, preoperative embolization of feeding arteries is recommended especially in deep seated and large meningiomas more than 3 cm in diameter for carrying out their surgical extirpation fast and radically. Olfactory groove meningiomas, planum sphenoidal meningiomas, tuberculum sellae meningiomas and sphenoid ridge meningiomas are managed with pterional approach. The latter two meningiomas may necessitate selective extradural anterior clinoidectomy SEAC. For the management of large midline meningiomas, combination with interhemispheric approach is necessary to manage pial supply appropriately for the preservation of circulation of the anterior cerebral artery ACA. Extension of the former two meningiomas to the other side can be managed with falcal incision and/or drilling out of the crista galli without performing a bifrontal approach. Reduction of exophthalmos due to sphenoid ridge meningiomas infiltrating Periorbita and extraocular muscles is hardly to be expected even after subtotal removal and extensive decompression of the orbita at the superior and lateral walls in combination with SEAC. Accidental compromise of the lenticulostriate arteries arising from M1 portion embraced by tumor nodules should be managed with oxycellulose and fibrin glue at first without their bipolar coagulation, as resulting infarction in the territory causes persistent hemiparesis. Meningiomas in the cavernous sinus should be observed as long as possible in case of no growth, as they remain the same in their size and extension mostly for a

  14. Granulomatous hypophysitis: two case reports and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jian; Zhang, Jian-min; Wu, Qun; Chen, Gao; Zhang, Hong; Bo, Wen-liang

    2009-01-01

    Granulomatous hypophysitis (GRH) is extremely rare and commonly presents with chronic inflammatory of the enlarged pituitary gland. In our study, 66-year-old and 57-year-old women, both Chinese, were diagnosed with GRH presenting preoperatively definite imageology characters as pituitary adenoma. The 66-year-old woman presented with a year of headache, half a year of gradual decrease of visual acuity, and one month of right ptosis. Serum prolactin level was slightly elevated. Screening computed tomography (CT) scanning revealed typical low density mass found on the enlarged sella, which demonstrated invasive extension from the sella to the right cavernous sinus by contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Consequently, the patient was diagnosed with probable invasive pituitary adenoma. The other 57-year-old woman complained a light headache and had been previously treated as nonfunctional pituitary adenoma in other hospital. Finally these two patients underwent transsphenoidal microsurgery and were diagnosed with GRH according to postoperative histopathology. They then were treated with steroid. During the follow-up, the clinical symptoms such as headache, visual damage, and ptosis vanished, and the mass of the sellae dramatically shrank on repeated MR images. Clinically and radiologically, GRH is a rare sellar entity easily to be misdiagnosed as a pituitary adenoma. Trans-sphenoidal surgery can decompress the optical nerve or oculomotornerve as a therapeutic strategy, and support biopsy or further pathological diagnosis. However, the hormonal therapy should be emphasized both as diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Conservative and tentative steroid treatment should be performed in preoperative period without acute nerve damage. PMID:19585674

  15. Spontaneous Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea: Association with Body Weight and Imaging Data.

    PubMed

    Quatre, Raphaële; Attye, Arnaud; Righini, Christian Adrien; Reyt, Emile; Giai, Joris; Schmerber, Sébastien; Karkas, Alexandre

    2017-10-01

    Objective  Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea (SCSFR) might be the only clinical manifestation of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), which has been historically related to overweight. Our goal was to search for an association between SCSFR and increased body weight on the one hand and SCSFR and imaging findings suggestive of IIH on the other hand. Materials and Methods  We retrospectively collected clinical and radiological data of patients operated on endoscopically for SCSFR in our institution from 1993 to 2013. Analyzed factors were body mass index (BMI), extended sphenoid sinus pneumatization on computed tomography, and empty sella and distention of the optic nerve sheath on magnetic resonance imaging. Results  There were 15 patients: 8 females/7 males; mean age 50 years. Primary surgical success rate was 86.7%. Regarding body weight, 80% were overweight (BMI ≥ 25) versus 32% in the French general population ( p  < 0.001). Among patients with SCSFR, 20% were obese (BMI ≥ 30) versus 15% in French individuals without SCSFR ( p  = 0.483). Increased pneumatization of sphenoid sinuses was observed in 92.9 versus 27.5% in the general population ( p  < 0.0001). Empty sella was found in 46.2 versus 3% in the general population ( p  < 0.00001). Dilation of the optic nerve sheath was observed in 46.2 versus 15% in the general population ( p  < 0.01). Conclusion  We found statistically significant associations between SCSFR and overweight, increased pneumatization of sphenoid sinuses, empty sella, and dilation of optic nerve sheath, but not with obesity, which did not have any additional impact of CSF leak than did overweight.

  16. Transpalatal distraction using bone-borne distractor: clinical observations and dental and skeletal changes.

    PubMed

    Günbay, Tayfun; Akay, M Cemal; Günbay, Sevtap; Aras, Aynur; Koyuncu, Banu Ozveri; Sezer, Bahar

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this clinical study was to analyze the outcome, complications, and long-term results of transpalatal distraction for the correction of maxillary transverse deficiency (MTD) and assess skeletal and dental changes in the sagittal, vertical, and transverse planes through cephalograms and dental casts. Ten adult patients with MTD were treated with a Transpalatal Distractor (Surgi-Tec, Bruges, Belgium). Lateral and posteroanterior cephalometric films and dental casts were taken before surgery and at the end of the consolidation period. The statistical analysis of cephalometric film and dental cast measurements was undertaken with paired t tests. The intraoperative and postoperative problems encountered were damage to the central incisive teeth as a result of vertical osteotomy, wound dehiscence after the latent period, pain during the distraction period, and loosening of the distractor and buccal displacement of the left alveolar segment during the consolidation period. Model analysis showed that the greatest amount of transverse increase was in the premolar region (7.07 mm for first premolar and 7.10 mm for second premolar). Frontal cephalometric analysis indicated that transverse distances increased more at the alveolar level (7.75 mm) than in the maxillary base (5.25 mm) and nasal region (4.3 mm). The asymmetries between the left and right sides in both dental and skeletal expansions were statistically nonsignificant. The changes in the Sella-nasion-point A, Sella-nasion-point B, Sella-nasion and gonion-gnasion angles were statistically significant. According to the results of this study, transpalatal distraction was found to be a clinically effective technique for palatal expansion in adult patients with MTD. However, treatment planning and regular clinical follow-up visits are necessary for long-term clinical success.

  17. Granulomatous hypophysitis: two case reports and literature review.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jian; Zhang, Jian-Min; Wu, Qun; Chen, Gao; Zhang, Hong; Bo, Wen-Liang

    2009-07-01

    Granulomatous hypophysitis (GRH) is extremely rare and commonly presents with chronic inflammatory of the enlarged pituitary gland. In our study, 66-year-old and 57-year-old women, both Chinese, were diagnosed with GRH presenting preoperatively definite imageology characters as pituitary adenoma. The 66-year-old woman presented with a year of headache, half a year of gradual decrease of visual acuity, and one month of right ptosis. Serum prolactin level was slightly elevated. Screening computed tomography (CT) scanning revealed typical low density mass found on the enlarged sella, which demonstrated invasive extension from the sella to the right cavernous sinus by contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Consequently, the patient was diagnosed with probable invasive pituitary adenoma. The other 57-year-old woman complained a light headache and had been previously treated as nonfunctional pituitary adenoma in other hospital. Finally these two patients underwent transsphenoidal microsurgery and were diagnosed with GRH according to postoperative histopathology. They then were treated with steroid. During the follow-up, the clinical symptoms such as headache, visual damage, and ptosis vanished, and the mass of the sellae dramatically shrank on repeated MR images. Clinically and radiologically, GRH is a rare sellar entity easily to be misdiagnosed as a pituitary adenoma. Trans-sphenoidal surgery can decompress the optical nerve or oculomotornerve as a therapeutic strategy, and support biopsy or further pathological diagnosis. However, the hormonal therapy should be emphasized both as diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Conservative and tentative steroid treatment should be performed in preoperative period without acute nerve damage.

  18. Variability of the inclination of anatomic horizontal reference planes of the craniofacial complex in relation to the true horizontal line in orthognathic patients.

    PubMed

    Zebeib, Ameen M; Naini, Farhad B

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of the Frankfort horizontal (FH), sella-nasion horizontal, and optic planes in terms of their variabilities in relation to a true horizontal line in orthognathic surgery patients. Thirty-six consecutive presurgical orthognathic patients (13 male, 23 female; age range, 16-35 years; 30 white, 6 African Caribbean) had lateral cephalometric radiographs taken in natural head position, with a plumb line orientating the true vertical line, and the true horizontal line perpendicular to the true vertical. The inclinations of the anatomic reference planes were compared with the true horizontal. The FH plane was found to be on average closest to the true horizontal, with a mean of -1.6° (SD, 3.4°), whereas the sella-nasion horizontal and the optic plane had means of 2.1° (SD, 5.1°) and 3.2° (SD, 4.7°), respectively. The FH showed the least variability of the 3 anatomic planes. The ranges of variability were high for all anatomic planes: -8° to 8° for the FH, -8° to 15° for the sella-nasion horizontal, and -6° to 13° for the optic plane. No significant differences were found in relation to patients' sex, skeletal patterns, or ethnic backgrounds. The clinically significant variability in the inclinations of anatomic reference planes in relation to the true horizontal plane makes their use unreliable in orthognathic patients. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Somatotropic pituitary tumor in a patient with a previous ovarian strumal carcinoid. Report of one case].

    PubMed

    Riedemann, Erick; Rojas, Claudio; Quevedo, Iván

    2004-07-01

    Strumal carcinoid is an unusual form of monodermal ovarian teratoma with thyroid-like follicles mixed with typical carcinoid tumor patterns. We report a 49 years old woman presenting with an acromegaly. At the age of 45, an ovarian strumal carcinoid was excised and at three years of follow up, she complained of finger and feet growth. Laboratory showed an elevated serum IGF-1 and a sella turcica magnetic resonance imaging showed an 8 mm microadenoma. She was subjected to a transphenoidal excision and the pathological study disclosed a solid acidophilic pituitary adenoma. Two months after surgery, there was a significant decrease in serum IGT-I levels.

  20. Ruptured Intrasellar Superior Hypophyseal Artery Aneurysm Presenting with Pure Subdural Haematoma

    PubMed Central

    Hornyak, M.; Hillard, V.; Nwagwu, C.; Zablow, B. C.; Murali, R.

    2004-01-01

    Summary Subdural haemorrhage from a ruptured intracranial aneurysm is a well-known entity when associated with subarachnoid haemorrhage. However, haemorrhage confined only to the subdural space is rare because there are limited anatomical sites where extravasation can be purely subdural. We report the rare case of a patient who suffered pure subdural haematoma after the rupture of a left superior hypophyseal artery aneurysm located within the sella turcica. The patient was treated with endovascular coil embolization of the aneurysm. Angiography immediately after treatment and one month later revealed complete obliteration of the aneurysm. Six months after treatment, the patient remained symptom free. PMID:20587264

  1. Head, neck, and spine

    SciTech Connect

    Raval, B.; Yeakley, J.W.; Harris, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Together these volumes form an atlas for multiplanar anatomy of the entire body - using modern computed tomography supplemented with MRI to provide the thorough knowledge of normal anatomy that's fundamental to recognizing pathological alteration. Each volume can stand alone, and each presents the material using radiologic images presented side by side with labeled drawings. There's information of the sella, temporal bone, wrist, and foot. Different window settings are used to emphasize bone and soft tissue detail. Each of the CT or MR images in the atlas have been specifically selected by the authors to illustrate particular radiologic anatomy.

  2. [Case report: bilateral Cushing's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Cheikhrouhou, Héla; Khiari, Karima; Chérif, Lotfi; Ben Abdallah, Néjib; Ben Maïz, Hédi

    2003-04-01

    The authors report a case of a 49-year-old woman presenting a Cushing's syndrome (January 1997). The Magnetic Resonance Image of the pituitary gland revealed a microadenoma without extension in the cavernous sinus and a partial empty sella. The computed tomography scan showed a discreet bilateral adrenal hyperplasia with a left nodule (23 mm in diameter) a second nodule was noted. These data suggested the eventuality of maconodular adrenocortical hyperplasia in long-standing Cushing's disease. We discuss the implications of this finding for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up.

  3. Hypothalamic type of hypopituitarism and central diabetes insipidus probably linked to Rathke's cleft cyst.

    PubMed

    Asano, Tomoko; Yamada, Hodaka; Yoshida, Masashi; Aoki, Atsushi; Ikoma, Aki; Kusaka, Ikuyo; Toyoshima, Hideo; Kakei, Masafumi; Ishikawa, San-E

    2015-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman was admitted due to weight loss and generalized malaise. The basal levels of all the anterior pituitary hormones, except for prolactin, were reduced. However, they were all elevated in response to exogenous hypothalamic hormones. After starting hydrocortisone replacement, the patient had polyuria of >5,000 mL/day. T1-weighted MRI depicted a low signal of an oval mass in the sella turcica and an iso-intense signal of another mass at the pituitary stalk. These findings indicate a hypothalamic type of hypopituitarism and masked central diabetes insipidus which possibly derived from the atypical occupation of Rathke's cleft cyst at the pituitary stalk.

  4. A Painless Retroauricular Mass in A Patient with Myotonic Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Som, Peter M.; Rothschild, Michael A.; Silvers, Adam R.; Norton, Karen I.

    1997-01-01

    A 16-year-old male with a history of neonatal myotonic dystrophy had a painless enlarging left retroauricular mass. Computed tomography showed an enlarged frontal sinus, thickened apparently normal bone in the anterior left clinoid process, doresum sellae, and all portions of the temporal bones. In particular, there was bone production in the left retroauricular region and along the margins of the left internal auditory canal. The left temporomandibular joint was also dislocated. This is the first case report to document the dynamic aspect of the bone changes in this dystrophy. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:17171035

  5. [Anatomic approach to the sphenooccipital synchondrosis in newborns and infants with craniocerebral injury].

    PubMed

    Parilov, S L; Chikun, V I; Klevno, V A

    2008-01-01

    An anatomic approach is developed to sphenooccipital synchondrosis in newborn infants and nurslings. After removal of the squamous portion of the occipital bone by the method of Medvedev, opening of the cerebrospinal canal, removal of the spinal cord and hypophysis, two parallel cuts converging at an angle of approximately 90 degrees were made with a dissecting blade saw along both sides of sella turcica towards the anterior edge of the great occipital foramen to transect the sphenoid bone and main part of the occipital bone. The resulting osteochondrous fragment showed up defects in synchondrosis including consolidated ones.

  6. [Incomplete isosexual puberty, myopathy, and pseudoprolactinoma in a 20-year-old girl with primary hypothyroidism].

    PubMed

    Sidibé, El Hassane

    2007-01-01

    Primary hypothyroidism, possibly due to Hashimoto thyroiditis in infancy, led to abnormal puberty in this girl: menstruation began at the age of 16 years, with a cycle duration of 40 days and lack of axillary and pubic hair. Hypertrophic myopathy without myotony was also present, and assays showed very low levels of follicular hormone. The severity of the primary hypothyroidism was shown by the TSH level of 236 microIU/mL, a prolactin level of 390 microU/mL and a large sella turcica. This clinical-laboratory picture is the hallmark of a hormonal receptor disorder related to primary hypothyroidism and is reversible with substitution treatment.

  7. Cephalometric Predictors of Clinical Severity in Treacher Collins Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Esenlik, Elcin; Plana, Natalie M; Grayson, Barry H; Flores, Roberto L

    2017-08-08

    The aim of this study is to identify cephalometric measurements associated with clinical severity in patients with Treacher Collins Syndrome (TCS). A retrospective single-institutional review of patients with TCS was conducted. Pre-operative cephalograms and computed tomography scans (n=30) were evaluated. 50 cephalometric measurements were compared to age-specific normative data using ANOVA. These cephalometric measurements and the patient's Pruzansky classification were correlated to clinical severity using Spearman analysis. Clinical severity was defined as: severe (required tracheostomy), moderate (obstructive sleep apnea, oral cleft, or gastrostomy-tube), or mild (absence of listed co-morbidities). Cephalometric measurements with a strong correlation (rs>0.60) were identified as predictors of clinical severity. Cephalograms of the study population contained thirty measurements that were found to be significantly different from normative data (p<0.01). These measurements were largely related to maxillary/mandibular projection, maxillary/mandibular plane angle, mandibular morphology, facial height, facial convexity and mandible/throat position. Ten of these 30 statistically significant measurements in addition to Pruzansky classification were found to be strongly correlated (rs>.60) to clinical severity. These measurements include: Mandibular projection/position [Sella-Nasion-Pogonion (SN-Pg) rs=-0.64; Hyoid-Menton (Hy-Me) rs=-0.62]; Posterior facial height [Posterior Facial Height/Anterior Facial Height (PFH/AFH) rs=0.60; Condyle-Gonion (Co-Go) rs=-0.66]; Maxillary/mandibular plane angle [Sella-Nasion-Mandibular Plane (SN-MP) rs=0.62; Frankfort Horizontal-Mandibular Plane (FH-MP) rs=0.61; Sella-Nasion-Palatal Plane (SN-PP) rs=0.69; Sella-Nasion-Symphysis (SN-Symph) rs=-0.69; Pruzansky classification rs=0.82. Specific cephalometric measurements of increased mandibular retrognathia, decreased posterior facial height, more obtuse maxillary/mandibular plane angle

  8. Combined sellar fibrosarcoma and prolactinoma with neuronal metaplasia: report of a case unassociated with radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Moro, Mario; Giannini, Caterina; Scheithauer, Bernd W; Lloyd, Ricardo V; Restall, Paul; Eagleton, Carl; Law, Andrew J; Kovacs, Kalman

    2004-01-01

    We report the occurrence of a primary pituitary fibrosarcoma causally unrelated to radiotherapy, admixed in association with a prolactin cell pituitary adenoma showing neuronal metaplasia. These unique findings were associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1). Primary fibrosarcoma involving the sella is a very rare tumor. The majority of cases have been associated with prior irradiation of either a pituitary adenoma or a craniopharyngioma. Pituitary adenoma with neuronal metaplasia is also rare and usually occurs in the setting of acromegaly. Despite the intimate association of both elements in our lesion, no transition of adenoma to sarcoma was demonstrable by immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridization studies.

  9. Comparison of drug-induced sleep endoscopy and lateral cephalometry in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    George, Jonathan R; Chung, Sooyoun; Nielsen, Ib; Goldberg, Andrew N; Miller, Arthur; Kezirian, Eric J

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the association between findings from drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) and lateral cephalometry in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. This was a consecutive series of subjects with OSA who underwent DISE and lateral cephalometry. DISE findings were characterized according to the region/degree of obstruction as well as the VOTE classification (velum, oropharyngeal lateral walls, tongue, and epiglottis). The primary measurements from lateral cephalometry images were sella-nasion-point A angle, sella-nasion-point B angle, distance from the posterior nasal spine-tip of palate, posterior airway space, and mandibular plane to hyoid (MPH) distance, although additional airway measurements were taken. Descriptive statistics summarized DISE and lateral cephalometry findings, and χ(2) and t tests examined potential associations between their findings. Among the 55 subjects, most demonstrated velum-related obstruction, although obstruction related to other structures was also common. Lateral cephalometry findings were within population norms with the exception of an increased MPH and decreased airway 4 and airway 5 measurements. There was little association between DISE and lateral cephalometry findings, although significant associations were identified between tongue-related obstruction and airway measurements posterior to the tongue base. DISE and lateral cephalometry are largely distinct airway evaluation techniques in OSA. The use of these techniques remains complementary. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. The role of endoscopic third ventriculostomy in the treatment of triventricular hydrocephalus seen in children with achondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Etus, Volkan; Ceylan, Savas

    2005-09-01

    The authors of this paper describe two patients with achondroplasia in whom triventricular hydrocephalus has been successfully treated using endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV). The authors performed ETVs in two children with achondroplasia involving a moderate macrocranium and enlarged lateral and third ventricles with intermittent clinical evidence of increased intracranial pressure. The endoscopic procedure revealed a significant deformation of the floor of the third ventricle in both patients caused by longstanding hydrocephalus. Because of the anatomical variations such as empty sella and the persistence of the infundibular recess, the ETV procedure became technically demanding. The standard ventriculostomy on the tuber cinereum was not possible. Ventriculostomies were performed on the part of the third ventricular floor that was hanging ventral to the pons. Both patients became symptom free postoperatively, and phase-contrast cine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies confirmed the patency and effectivity of the ventriculostomy sites. The authors suggest that ETVs may constitute an alternative for ventriculoperitoneal shunt therapy as the treatment of choice for patients with achondroplasia who have triventricular hydrocephalus and clinical symptoms. Attention should be paid to the shape of the floor of the third ventricle, however, especially in cases of longstanding hydrocephalus. An association of the empty sella or the persistence of the infundibular recess must be carefully evaluated using MR imaging studies before attempting ETVs in such patients.

  11. Alteration of maxillary and mandibular growth of adult patients with unoperated isolated cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunqiang; Wu, Yeke; Gu, Yifei; Yang, Qijian; Shi, Bing; Zheng, Qian; Wang, Yan

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cleft palate itself on the growth of maxilla and mandible. Fifty-two adult female patients with unoperated isolated cleft palate and 52 adult female individuals with normal occlusion were included in our study. Computer software was used for lateral cephalometry measurement. Manual measurement was performed for dental cast measurements, and sample t test analysis was applied to analyze the differences between the 2 groups using SPSS 17.0. The sella-nasion-subspinale point angle, subspinale-nasion-supramentale point angle, and maxillary arch length of the cleft group were significantly smaller than those of the control group (P < 0.01). Both maxillary and mandibular posterior dental arch widths of the cleft group were significantly larger compared with the control group (P < 0.01), whereas the sella-nasion-supramentale point angle, mandible arch length, palate height, and palate shelf inclination did not differ between the 2 groups. The measurements did not differ between the submucosal cleft and the overt cleft patients. Cleft palate itself has adverse effects on the maxilla growth with shorter maxillary arch length and wider posterior dental arch width.

  12. Quantitative analysis of anatomical relationship between cavernous segment internal carotid artery and pituitary macroadenoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Bon-Jour; Chung, Tzu-Tsao; Lin, Meng-Chi; Lin, Chin; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan; Chen, Yuan-Hao; Hsia, Chung-Ching; Ju, Da-Tong; Ma, Hsin-I; Liu, Ming-Ying; Tang, Chi-Tun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cavernous segment internal carotid artery (CSICA) injury during endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary tumor is rare but fatal. The aim of this study is to investigate anatomical relationship between pituitary macroadenoma and corresponding CSICA using quantitative means with a sense to improve safety of surgery. In this retrospective study, a total of 98 patients with nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal surgeries were enrolled from 2005 to 2014. Intercarotid distances between bilateral CSICAs were measured in the 4 coronal levels, namely optic strut, convexity of carotid prominence, median sella turcica, and dorsum sellae. Parasellar extension was graded and recorded by Knosp–Steiner classification. Our findings indicated a linear relationship between size of pituitary macroadenoma and intercarotid distance over CSICA. The correlation was absent in pituitary macroadenoma with Knosp–Steiner grade 4 parasellar extension. Bigger pituitary macroadenoma makes more lateral deviation of CSICA. While facing larger tumor, sufficient bony graft is indicated for increasing surgical field, working area and operative safety. PMID:27741111

  13. [Etiological diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus: about 41 cases].

    PubMed

    Chaker, Fatma; Chihaoui, Melika; Yazidi, Meriem; Slimane, Hedia

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of polyuria-polydipsia syndrome with hypotonic urine requires careful diagnostic strategy. This study aims to evaluate diagnostic modalities for central diabetes insipidus. We conducted a retrospective study of 41 cases with central diabetes insipidus (CDI). Data were collected at the Department of Endocrinology, University Hospital La Rabta, Tunis, from 1990 to 2013. We identified the circumstances for detecting CDI, the abnormalities in anterior pituitary assessment and pituitary imaging. CDI occurred in the postoperative period in 20 patients. The average urine 24-hour volume was significantly higher in patients with CDI outside a surgical setting. Water deprivation test was successful in all patients who benefited from it. Outside of neurosurgery, infiltration causes were found in 6 patients and tumor causes were found in 6 patients. CDI was associated with empty sella turcica in 1 case and idiopathic sella turcica in 3 patients. Hypothalamic-pituitary magnetic resonance imaging and anterior pituitary balance sheet are systematic outside pituitary surgery setting and obvious primary polydipsia.

  14. Postnatal sellar spine growth

    PubMed Central

    Hosokawa, Takahiro; Yamada, Yoshitake; Sato, Yumiko; Tanami, Yutaka; Kurihara, Jun; Oguma, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: A sellar spine is a bony spur protruding anteriorly from the central portion of the dorsum sellae. Its etiology is an ossified notochordal remnant of the cephalic end of the notochord. It is presumed to be a congenital malformation based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of sellar spine in a 4-year-old boy. A sellar spine should therefore be detectable at birth with or without ossification, and the posterior pituitary lobe should be displaced. Methods and Results: Here we review the literature and report the first case of typical sellar spine in an 8-year-old girl who presented with precocious puberty, but her MRI taken at age 4 months for a febrile convulsion did not show a sellar spine or posterior pituitary lobe deformation. T1-weighted sagittal images at 8 years old showed a bony structure protruding anteriorly from the central portion of the dorsum sellae. The length of this lesion was 3.8 mm on computed tomography (CT) scanning at 9 years old, and it elongated to 4.7 mm on CT at 12 years old. Conclusions: Based on the present case, we speculate that the sellar spine would be too small to detect early in development and would grow in size after birth. In this case, a sellar spine and precocious puberty were potentially associated due to deformation of the growing pituitary gland. PMID:27537588

  15. Acromegaly with negative pituitary MRI and no evidence of ectopic source: the role of transphenoidal pituitary exploration?

    PubMed

    Daud, Sameera; Hamrahian, Amir H; Weil, Robert J; Hamaty, Marwan; Prayson, Richard A; Olansky, Leann

    2011-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) producing adenomas of the pituitary gland are usually macroadenomas (>10 mm in size). Often these adenomas are locally invasive by the time of diagnosis. Acromegaly secondary to a very small pituitary microadenoma not visualized on pituitary magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is rare. We report a patient with acromegaly and an unremarkable pituitary MR imaging who had negative work up for ectopic growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) or GH secreting tumors. Transsphenoidal pituitary exploration revealed a pituitary adenoma located on the left side of the sella against the medial wall of the cavernous sinus extending posteriorly along the floor of the sella all the way to the right side. The acromegaly was treated with resection of the pituitary adenoma and normalization of serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and GH levels. In a patient with acromegaly and unremarkable pituitary MR imaging, with no evidence of ectopic GH and GHRH production, transsphenoidal pituitary exploration is a reasonable approach and may result in clinical improvement and biochemical cure in the hand of experienced surgeon. This approach may avoid long term medical treatment with its associated cost.

  16. Deformation studies at Furnas and Sete Cidades Volcanoes (São Miguel Island, Azores). Velocities and further investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trota, A.; Houlié, N.; Briole, P.; Gaspar, J. L.; Sigmundsson, F.; Feigl, K. L.

    2006-08-01

    The Azores archipelago is located near the triple junction between the Nubian (NU), North America (NA), and Eurasia (EU) plates. It is characterized by a relatively strong seismicity and active volcanism. The best estimate of the current plate velocities in the area over geologic timescales comes from the NUVEL1-NNR model (DeMets et al.) . At the geodetic timescale, plate motion models (Altamimi et al., Sella et al.) including GPS, DORIS, SLR and VLBI data currently do not yet include data from the Azores. In the framework of a research project focused on the seismotectonics and volcanotectonics of São Miguel island, we have analysed GPS data collected there in 1993, 1994, 1997, 2000 and 2002. Our analysis determines both the velocity in the REVEL (Sella et al.) reference frame of São Miguel and its internal deformation. The comparison of the 2000 and 2002 coordinates indicates that São Miguel accommodates moderate WNW-ESE extension at a rate slower than 5 mm yr-1.

  17. Endoscope-assisted supraorbital approach to the retroinfundibular area: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chi-Tun; Baidya, Nishanta B; Ammirati, Mario

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and evaluate the exposure and maneuverability of this areas provided by an endoscope-assisted supraorbital approach and to compare that to a microscopic supraorbital approach. We exposed microscopically the optico-carotid and the infrachiasmatic windows after a supraorbital craniotomy executed using an eyebrow incision. We then proceeded to explore the retroinfundibular area using these two windows either using the microscope alone or using the endoscope-microscope combination where the microscope was used to (1) guide instrument and endoscope insertion into the surgical field, and (2) explore (with microscopic 3-d vision) subsegments of the endoscopic field of view. We compared the exposure and surgical maneuverability of the approach utilizing the microscopic mode alone with the endoscope-assisted mode. We evaluated the exposure and the surgical maneuverability of key anatomical structures of the retroinfundibular area. The structures evaluated included the diaphragma sellae, the dorsum sellae, the posterior clinoid process, the pituitary stalk, the mammillary bodies, the tuber cinereum, the oculomotor nerves, the basal pons, the upper trunk of the basilar artery, the superior cerebellar arteries, the posterior cerebral arteries, the posterior communicating arteries and the basilar bifurcation. The exposure and the surgical maneuverability were significantly higher in the endoscope-assisted mode (P < 0.0001). Based on our study, the endoscope-assisted supraorbital retroinfundibular approach is associated with larger exposure and maneuverability than the pure microscopic approach. Further clinical information is required to verify the results of this study.

  18. Morphometry of the pituitary gland and hypothalamus in long-term survivors of childhood trauma.

    PubMed

    Porto, L; Margerkurth, J; Althaus, J; You, S-J; Zanella, F E; Kieslich, M

    2011-11-01

    Chronic pituitary dysfunction is increasingly recognized as a sequela of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Our aim was to rule out any late morphometric changes of the pituitary gland and hypothalamus in survivors of TBI during childhood requiring intensive care. We assessed morphometric abnormalities of the sella region and hypothalamus in patients who sustained TBI during childhood. The patients showed no clinical hormonal dysfunction at the acute phase and pituitary hormone levels at the time of our study were within normal limits. From the 18 enrolled patients in the magnetic resonance study, five were removed due to morphological changes or anatomical variations. We studied the MRI of 13 male survivors (mean age 27 years, mean time after trauma 20 years) and compared them to 13 male control subjects who were matched in terms of age (mean age, 26 years), education and ethnicity. Analyses of the pituitary gland and sella on a midsagittal T2- and T1-weighted image were performed. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM), an unbiased MRI morphometric method to investigate hypothalamic region in this group of patients. There was only a trend towards a reduced pituitary gland width in the patient group compared to controls. However, no significant morphological and morphometric abnormality was seen and VBM showed no hypothalamic grey matter loss. In the absence of hormonal dysfunction, no persisting morphometric changes of the pituitary gland and hypothalamus were seen in survivors of childhood TBI requiring intensive care.

  19. Comparison of observer reliability of three-dimensional cephalometric landmark identification on subject images from Galileos and i-CAT cone beam CT

    PubMed Central

    Katkar, R A; Kummet, C; Dawson, D; Moreno Uribe, L; Allareddy, V; Finkelstein, M; Ruprecht, A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Recently, there has been increasing interest in the use of cone beam CT (CBCT) for three-dimensional cephalometric analysis and craniofacial reconstruction in orthodontic and orthognathic surgical treatment planning. However, there is a need to redefine the cephalometric landmarks in three dimensional cephalometric analysis and to demonstrate the reproducibility of landmark identification on the type of CBCT machine being used. Methods: CBCT images of 20 subjects aged 15–25 years were selected, ten each from Galileos® (Sirona Dental Systems Inc., Bensheim, Germany) and Next Generation i-CAT® (Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA). 2 observers located 18 landmarks on each subject twice using Dolphin-3D v. 11 software (Dolphin Imaging and Management Systems, Chatsworth, CA). Inter- and intraobserver reliability was assessed using Euclidean distances and linear mixed models. Results: Overall, the intra- and interobserver reliability was excellent for both machines. The landmarks Gonion, Nasion, Orbitale and Anterior Nasal Spine (ANS) showed the greatest median Euclidean distances for both intra- and interobserver measurements. There were significant observer effects in the unified models for Sella, Menton and all six dental landmarks. For Sella, the distances between the measures were significantly smaller (more closely spaced) on the i-CAT machine than on the Galileos in both intra- and interobserver measurements. Conclusions: The intra- and interobserver reliability was excellent for both machines. Some of the landmarks were not as reproducible as others. Which machine produced the highest reliability depended on the landmark considered. PMID:23833319

  20. Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliosarcomatosis with a sphenoid/sellar mass: confirmation of the ectopic glial tissue theory?

    PubMed

    Dimou, James; Tsui, Alpha; Maartens, Nicholas F; King, James A J

    2011-05-01

    Gliosarcoma is a rare glioblastoma variant, classically arising in the cerebral hemispheres. We report a patient with primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis (PDLG) with a sphenoid sinus and sellar mass. An 84-year-old woman presented with progressive headache and right-sided visual failure, associated with ipsilateral oculomotor nerve palsy and left temporal field loss. Neuraxial MRI showed a large lesion within the sphenoid sinus and sella resulting in chiasmal compression, and diffuse cranial and spinal leptomeningeal enhancement. Endoscopic transphenoidal biopsy and debulking of the sphenosellar lesion was performed, and gliosarcoma was diagnosed on histopathological examination. The patient was palliated due to poor performance status. To our knowledge, this is the only report of gliosarcoma within the paranasal sinuses and the second report of PDLG where the histological analysis has confirmed gliosarcoma. We believe this adds significant weight to the theory that heterotopic nests of glial tissue, in this instance within the sphenoid or sella, are the putative origin of PDLG. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative analysis of anatomical relationship between cavernous segment internal carotid artery and pituitary macroadenoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bon-Jour; Chung, Tzu-Tsao; Lin, Meng-Chi; Lin, Chin; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan; Chen, Yuan-Hao; Hsia, Chung-Ching; Ju, Da-Tong; Ma, Hsin-I; Liu, Ming-Ying; Tang, Chi-Tun

    2016-10-01

    Cavernous segment internal carotid artery (CSICA) injury during endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary tumor is rare but fatal. The aim of this study is to investigate anatomical relationship between pituitary macroadenoma and corresponding CSICA using quantitative means with a sense to improve safety of surgery.In this retrospective study, a total of 98 patients with nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal surgeries were enrolled from 2005 to 2014. Intercarotid distances between bilateral CSICAs were measured in the 4 coronal levels, namely optic strut, convexity of carotid prominence, median sella turcica, and dorsum sellae. Parasellar extension was graded and recorded by Knosp-Steiner classification.Our findings indicated a linear relationship between size of pituitary macroadenoma and intercarotid distance over CSICA. The correlation was absent in pituitary macroadenoma with Knosp-Steiner grade 4 parasellar extension.Bigger pituitary macroadenoma makes more lateral deviation of CSICA. While facing larger tumor, sufficient bony graft is indicated for increasing surgical field, working area and operative safety.

  2. Pituitary function and morphology in Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Maione, Luigi; Tortora, Fabio; Modica, Roberta; Ramundo, Valeria; Riccio, Eleonora; Daniele, Aurora; Belfiore, Maria Paola; Colao, Annamaria; Pisani, Antonio; Faggiano, Antongiulio

    2015-11-01

    Endocrine abnormalities are known to affect patients with Fabry disease (FD). Pituitary gland theoretically represents an ideal target for FD because of high vascularization and low proliferation rate. We explored pituitary morphology and function in a cohort of FD patients through a prospectic, monocentric study at an Academic Tertiary Center. The study population included 28 FD patients and 42 sex and age-matched normal subjects. The protocol included a contrast enhancement pituitary MRI, the assessment of pituitary hormones, anti-pituitary, and anti-hypothalamus antibodies. At pituitary MRI, an empty sella was found in 11 (39%) FD patients, and in 2 (5%) controls (p < 0.001). Pituitary volume was significantly smaller in FD than in controls (p < 0.001). Determinants of pituitary volume were age and alpha-galactosidase enzyme activity. Both parameters resulted independently correlated at multivariate analysis. Pituitary function was substantially preserved in FD patients. Empty sella is a common finding in patients with FD. The major prevalence in the elderly supports the hypothesis of a progressive pituitary shrinkage overtime. Pituitary function seems not to be impaired in FD. An endocrine workup with pituitary hormone assessment should be periodically performed in FD patients, who are already at risk of cardiovascular complications.

  3. Spontaneous remission of acromegaly or gigantism due to subclinical apoplexy of pituitary growth hormone adenoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Ling; Dou, Jing-Tao; Lü, Zhao-Hui; Zhong, Wen-Wen; Ba, Jian-Ming; Jin, Du; Lu, Ju-Ming; Pan, Chang-Yu; Mu, Yi-Ming

    2011-11-01

    Subclinical apoplexy of pituitary functional adenoma can cause spontaneous remission of hormone hypersecretion. The typical presence of pituitary growth hormone (GH) adenoma is gigantism and/or acromegaly. We investigated the clinical characteristics of patients with spontaneous partial remission of acromegaly or gigantism due to subclinical apoplexy of GH adenoma. Six patients with spontaneous remission of acromegaly or gigantism were enrolled. The clinical characteristics, endocrinological evaluation and imageological characteristics were retrospectively analyzed. In these cases, the initial clinical presences were diabetes mellitus or hypogonadism. No abrupt headache, vomiting, visual function impairment, or conscious disturbance had ever been complained of. The base levels of GH and insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were normal or higher, but nadir GH levels were all still > 1 µg/L in 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Magnetic resonance imaging detected enlarged sella, partial empty sella and compressed pituitary. The transsphenoidal surgery was performed in 2 cases, and the other patients were conservatively managed. All the patients were in clinical remission. When the clinical presences, endocrine evaluation, biochemical examination and imageology indicate spontaneous remission of GH hypersecretion in patients with gigantism or acromegaly, the diagnosis of subclinical apoplexy of pituitary GH adenoma should be presumed. To these patients, conservative therapy may be appropriate.

  4. Cephalometric comparison of cesarean and normal births.

    PubMed

    Goymen, Merve; Topcuoglu, Tolga; Aktan, Ali Murat; Isman, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare cephalometric variables of subjects with normal and cesarean births. Ninety age- and gender-matched patients, who were treated in Gaziantep University, Faculty of Dentistry Orthodontics Department were equally divided into normal and cesarean groups according to the birth methods reported by their mothers. To eliminate the negative effects of being different in terms of age and gender among parameters, control, and patient groups were matched in the present study. Pretreatment cephalometrics radiographs were used. Six measurements representing sagittal and vertical relationships were evaluated from pretreatment cephalograms using Dolphin Imaging Orthodontics Software was used in this issue by an orthodontist. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Student's t-test, and Mann-Whitney U-test were used for statistical comparisons. A point-nasion-B point angle (ANB) and Wits values were higher in the normal group, while sella-nasion-A point angle, sella-nasion-B point angle, Frankfort horizontal-mandibular plane angle, and gonion-gnathion-SN plane angle values were higher in the cesarean group. However, the groups showed no significant differences (P > 0.05). ANB angle and Wits values showed high correlation. Within the study limitations, the results suggest that the birth method may not have a considerable effect on the development of the craniofacial skeletal system.

  5. Cephalometric comparison of cesarean and normal births

    PubMed Central

    Goymen, Merve; Topcuoglu, Tolga; Aktan, Ali Murat; Isman, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare cephalometric variables of subjects with normal and cesarean births. Materials and Methods: Ninety age- and gender-matched patients, who were treated in Gaziantep University, Faculty of Dentistry Orthodontics Department were equally divided into normal and cesarean groups according to the birth methods reported by their mothers. To eliminate the negative effects of being different in terms of age and gender among parameters, control, and patient groups were matched in the present study. Pretreatment cephalometrics radiographs were used. Six measurements representing sagittal and vertical relationships were evaluated from pretreatment cephalograms using Dolphin Imaging Orthodontics Software was used in this issue by an orthodontist. Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, Student's t-test, and Mann–Whitney U-test were used for statistical comparisons. Results: A point-nasion-B point angle (ANB) and Wits values were higher in the normal group, while sella-nasion-A point angle, sella-nasion-B point angle, Frankfort horizontal-mandibular plane angle, and gonion-gnathion-SN plane angle values were higher in the cesarean group. However, the groups showed no significant differences (P > 0.05). ANB angle and Wits values showed high correlation. Conclusions: Within the study limitations, the results suggest that the birth method may not have a considerable effect on the development of the craniofacial skeletal system. PMID:27095896

  6. Delayed Diagnosis of Cushing's Disease in a Pediatric Patient due to Apparent Remission from Spontaneous Apoplexy.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Sara H; Chittibonia, Prashant; Quezado, Martha; Patronas, Nicholas; Stratakis, Constantine A; Lodish, Maya B

    2016-12-01

    We report here a pediatric patient whose Cushing's Disease was diagnosed late because of her cyclical presentation, presumably due to subclinical pituitary apoplexy. Starting at age 8, she presented with observable signs of Cushing's but was not clinically assessed for Cushing's Syndrome until the age of 15. Initial tests at age 15 were consistent with Cushing's Disease, however, the patient presented with spontaneous remission of hypercortisolemia just a few short months later. Her cushingoid features never subsided, and at age 17, her MRI showed a partially empty sella; this finding of an empty sella contributed evidence to our suspicion of asymptomatic apoplexy, especially since the patient never reported an episode of acute headache. Pituitary apoplexy in corticotroph adenomas is very uncommon, but even more rare in microadenomas, making this case very unusual. Lost to follow-up, she was not reevaluated for Cushing's Disease until age 25, and her laboratory tests were consistent with an adrenocorticotrophic-dependent pituitary tumor; Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 9 mm X 6 mm X 8 mm mass projecting on the superior aspect of pituitary and abutting the wall of the right cavernous sinus. The patient had a transsphenoidal surgery to remove the microadenoma and is planned to undergo radiation therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of subclinical apoplexy of a microadenoma in a pediatric patient with Cushing's Disease. It brings to light the importance of long term follow up for pediatric patients presenting with clinical symptoms of Cushing's Syndrome.

  7. Pregnancy in hyperprolactinemic infertile women treated with vaginal bromocriptine: report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ricci, G; Giolo, E; Nucera, G; Pozzobon, C; De Seta, F; Guaschino, S

    2001-01-01

    Vaginal bromocriptine has proven safe and effective in treating hyperprolactinemic women. However, there has been no long-term clinical assessment regarding the influence of daily vaginal bromocriptine administration on the ability to conceive. This article presents two cases of successful pregnancy resulting from this alternative treatment. An infertile woman with an empty sella and hyperprolactinemia was treated with vaginal bromocriptine because of intolerance to oral administration. Prolactin levels were quickly normalized and no side effects occurred. Repeated postcoital tests during treatment proved normal. Twelve months later, the patient conceived. The therapy was discontinued during pregnancy, without complications. Although bromocriptine treatment was not resumed after delivery, postpartum prolactin levels were lower than before treatment and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an unchanged empty sella. Another patient with infertility and pituitary microadenoma with intolerance to oral dopaminergic agonists received the same treatment. Prolactin quickly fell to within the normal range. Vaginal bromocriptine was well tolerated and postcoital test results were not impaired. Tumor regression occurred and 10 months later the patient conceived. Despite bromocriptine withdrawal, no significant complications occurred during pregnancy. It can therefore be concluded that a couple's fertility does not appear to be significantly affected by the persistent local presence of bromocriptine.

  8. Lyme disease associated neuroretinitis - Case report.

    PubMed

    Vanya, Melinda; Fejes, Imre; Jako, Maria; Tula, Areta; Terhes, Gabriella; Janaky, Marta; Bartfai, Gyorgy

    2015-12-01

    We describe a rare case of Lyme disease complicated by unilateral neuroretinitis in the right eye. We report a case of a 27-year-old woman with blurred vision on her right eye. Because of the suspicion of optic neuritis (multiplex sclerosis) neurological examination was ordered. Surprisingly, computer tomography of the brain revealed incomplete empty sella, which generally results not monocular, but bilateral optic nerve swelling. Opthalmological examination (ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography) indicated not only monocular optic nerve, but retinal oedema next to the temporal part of the right optic disk. Visual evoked potentials (VEP) demonstrated no P100 latency delay and mild differences between the amplitudes of the responses of the left and right eye. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) demonstrated the swelling of the optic nerve head and oedematous retina at the temporal part of the disk. Suspicion of an inflammatory cause of visual disturbance blood tests was ordered. Doxycycline treatment was ordered till the result of the blood test arrived. The Western blot and ELISA test were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Following one week corticosteroide and ceftriaxone treatments, the patient displayed a clinical improvement. Unilateral neuroretinitis with optic disk swelling due to neuroborreliosis is a rare complication and in many cases it is difficult to distinguish between inflammatory and ischemic lesions. Further difficulty in the diagnosis can occur when intracranial alterations such as empty sella is demonstrated by CT examination.

  9. Postnatal treatment factors affecting craniofacial morphology of unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Alam, M K; Iida, J; Sato, Y; Kajii, Takashi S

    2013-12-01

    We have evaluated the craniofacial morphology of Japanese patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and assessed the various postnatal factors that affect it. Lateral cephalograms of 140 subjects (mean (SD) aged 7 (2) years) with UCLP were taken before orthodontic treatment. Surgeons from Hokkaido University Hospital had done the primary operations. The craniofacial morphology was assessed by angular and linear cephalometric measurements. Cheiloplasty, palatoplasty, and preoperative orthopaedic treatment were chosen as postnatal factors. To compare the assessments of the postnatal factors, we made angular and linear cephalometric measurements for each subject and converted them into Z scores in relation to the mean (SD) of the two variables. Subjects treated by the modified Millard cheiloplasty had larger sella-nasion-point A (SNA) and nasion-point A-pogonion (NA-POG) measurements than subjects treated by the modified Millard with a vomer flap cheiloplasty. Two-stage palatoplasty showed consistently better craniofacial morphology than the other palatoplasty. Subjects who had preoperative orthopaedic treatment with a Hotz plate had significantly larger upper incisor/sella-nasion (U1-SN) measurements than who had no preoperative orthopaedic treatment or an active plate. We conclude that in subjects treated by a modified Millard type of cheiloplasty, a two-stage palatoplasty, and a Hotz plate there were fewer adverse effects on craniofacial morphology.

  10. Transsphenoidal pituitary surgery in the treatment of patients with Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Freidberg, S R

    1989-08-01

    Transsphenoidal adenomectomy is the treatment of choice for patients with Cushing's disease. The combination of high serum and urinary cortisol and high plasma ACTH point to a nonadrenal source for Cushing's syndrome. It is important to rule out an ectopic source of ACTH production. Imaging of the sella with MRI and CT and sampling petrosal sinus blood for ACTH measurement should allow differentiation between the two conditions. For younger patients, every effort should be made to preserve the normal gland. If in the younger patient the adenoma cannot be clearly demonstrated, it is appropriate to remove the central portion of the gland, as advocated by Hardy. Should hypercortisolism persist, radiation therapy to the sella should be considered before attempting total hypophysectomy. In the woman past childbearing age, a total hypophysectomy can readily be considered if a sharply demarcated adenoma is not found. In fact, we counsel our older patients before operation that a total hypophysectomy is a possibility. For the patient with an aggressive tumor that is not cured by pituitary operation, radiation therapy must be considered. If it is not possible to wait for the therapeutic effect of radiation, adrenal suppression with aminoglutethimide, metyrapone, or ketoconazole is indicated. Adrenalectomy may be considered.

  11. Manual tracing versus smartphone application (app) tracing: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sayar, Gülşilay; Kilinc, Delal Dara

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the results of conventional manual cephalometric tracing with those acquired with smartphone application cephalometric tracing. The cephalometric radiographs of 55 patients (25 females and 30 males) were traced via the manual and app methods and were subsequently examined with Steiner's analysis. Five skeletal measurements, five dental measurements and two soft tissue measurements were managed based on 21 landmarks. The durations of the performances of the two methods were also compared. SNA (Sella, Nasion, A point angle) and SNB (Sella, Nasion, B point angle) values for the manual method were statistically lower (p < .001) than those for the app method. The ANB value for the manual method was statistically lower than that of app method. L1-NB (°) and upper lip protrusion values for the manual method were statistically higher than those for the app method. Go-GN/SN, U1-NA (°) and U1-NA (mm) values for manual method were statistically lower than those for the app method. No differences between the two methods were found in the L1-NB (mm), occlusal plane to SN, interincisal angle or lower lip protrusion values. Although statistically significant differences were found between the two methods, the cephalometric tracing proceeded faster with the app method than with the manual method.

  12. Changes in mandibular position in treated Class II division 2 malocclusions in growing and non-growing subjects.

    PubMed

    AL-Nimri, Kazem; Abo-Zomor, Mohamad; Alomari, Sawsan

    2016-05-01

    To determine changes in mandibular position after the treatment of patients presenting with Class II division 2 malocclusions and to test the null hypothesis that there is posterior displacement of the mandible in these patients, in comparison with a control group of Class II division 1 subjects. The assessed data consisted of pre- and post-treatment cephalometric radiographs of 77 subjects identified with Class II division 1 and Class II division 2 malocclusions matched according to age, gender and treatment duration. All completed fixed appliance orthodontic treatment. The changes in the position of point B, Pogonion and Articulare were determined at the end of treatment by superimposing the cephalometric radiographs on Sella-Nasion line at Sella. Thirteen cephalometric parameters including the distance between Basion and Articular (Ba-Art) were measured at each stage. In both groups, SNB angle, SNPog angle and Ba-Art distance showed no statistically significant changes. Pogonion was displaced significantly in a forward and downward direction in the growing group, with no significant differences identified between Class I division 1 and Class II division 2 subjects. The null hypothesis that there is posterior displacement of the mandible in Class II division 2 malocclusion is rejected. The growth pattern of the mandible in both divisions of a Class I malocclusion after orthodontic treatment was found to be similar

  13. Value of anatomical landmarks in single-nostril endonasal transnasal-sphenoidal surgery

    PubMed Central

    WEI, LIANG-FENG; ZHANG, JINCHAO; CHEN, HONG-JIE; WANG, RUMI

    2013-01-01

    The sphenoid sinus occupies a central location in transsphenoidal surgery (TSS). It is important to identify relevant anatomical landmarks to enter the sphenoid sinus and sellar region properly. The aim of this study was to identify anatomical landmarks and their value in single-nostril endonasal TSS. A retrospective study was performed to review 148 cases of single-nostril endonasal TSS for pituitary lesions. The structure of the nasal cavities and sphenoid sinus, the position of apertures of the sphenoid sinus and relevant arteries and the morphological characteristics of the anterior wall of the sphenoid sinus and sellar floor were observed and recorded. The important anatomical landmarks included the mucosal aperture of the sphenoid sinus, a blunt longitudinal prominence on the posterior nasal septum, the osseocartilaginous junction of the nasal septum, the ‘bow sign’ of the anterior wall of the sphenoid sinus, the osseous aperture and its relationship with the nutrient arteries, the bulge of the sellar floor and the carotid protuberance. These landmarks outlined a clear route to the sella turcica with an optimal view and lesser tissue damage. Although morphological variation may exist, the position of these landmarks was generally consistent. Locating the sphenoid sinus aperture is the gold standard to direct the surgical route of TSS. The ‘bow sign’ and the sellar bulge are critical landmarks for accurate entry into the sphenoid sinus and sella fossa, respectively. PMID:23596471

  14. Sheehan's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Keleştimur, Fahrettin

    2003-01-01

    Sheehan's syndrome occurs as a result of ischemic pituitary necrosis due to severe postpartum hemorrhage. It may be rarely seen without massive bleeding or after normal delivery. Improvement in obstetric care and availability of rapid blood transfusion coincided with a remarkable reduction in the frequency of Sheehan's syndrome particularly in western society. But it has recently been reported more often from well-developed countries. It is one of the most common causes of hypopituitarism in underdeveloped or developing countries. Enlargement of pituitary gland, small sella size, disseminated intravascular coagulation and autoimmunity have been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of Sheehan's syndrome in women who suffer from severe postpartum hemorrhage. The patients may seek medical advice because of various presentations ranging from non-specific symptoms to coma and the clinical manifestation may change from one patient to another. Failure of postpartum lactation and failure to resume menses after delivery are the most common presenting symptoms. Although a small percentage of patients with Sheehan's syndrome may cause abrupt onset severe hypopituitarism immediately after delivery, most patients have a mild disease and go undiagnosed and untreated for a long time. It may result in partial or panhypopituitarism and GH is one of the hormones lost earliest. The great majority of the patients has empty sella on CT or MRI. Lymphocytic hypophysitis should be kept in mind in differential diagnosis. In this review, the old and recent data regarding Sheehan's syndrome are presented.

  15. Clinical report of 28 patients with Sheehan's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sert, Murat; Tetiker, Tamer; Kirim, Sinan; Kocak, Mustafa

    2003-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the clinical and hormonal characteristics with Sheehan's syndrome in 28 cases that we had diagnosed and followed in the last 20 years. Twenty-eight patients with Sheehan's syndrome, diagnosed and followed at our University Endocrinology Clinic in the last 20 years were reported in the study. Medical history, physical examination, routine laboratory examinations, pituitary hormone analysis, CT and/or MRI scan of the sella of the patients were reviewed. All patients had a history of massive hemorrhage at delivery and physical signs of Sheehan's syndrome. Twenty-six of them lacked postpartum milk production, followed by failure of resumption of menses. There were 9 subjects with disturbances in consciousness associated with hyponatremia on admittance. All 28 patients had secondary hypothyroidism, adrenal cortex failure, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and growth hormone deficiency. Diabetes insipidus has not been found in any patient. Empty sellae were revealed in 8 patients by CT and/or MRI scan. Sheehan's syndrome is still encountered in clinical practice occasionally. If not diagnosed early, it could cause increased morbidity and mortality. The most important clues for diagnosis of Sheehan's syndrome are lack of lactation and failure of menstrual resumption after a delivery complicated with severe hemorrhage.

  16. Sheehan syndrome: clinical and laboratory evaluation of 20 cases.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Yusuf; Colak, Ramis

    2005-06-01

    Sheehan syndrome (SS) or post-partum pituitary necrosis is a pituitary insufficiency secondary to excessive post-partum blood losses. SS is a very significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries although it is a rarity in developed countries in which obstetrical care has been improved. In this study, we reviewed 20 cases retrospectively who were diagnosed as SS in our clinic. The patients aged 40 to 65 years with a mean age of 51.12 +/- 9.44 years (mean +/- SD). Time to make a definitive diagnosis of the disease ranged between 5 and 25 years with a mean of 16.35 +/- 4.74 years. Three of our patient (15%) had a previous diagnosis of SS. Three patients (15%) were referred to emergency service for hypoglycemia, three patients (15%) for hypothyroidism and one patient (5%) for hyponatremia. Dynamic examination of the pituitary revealed GH, Prolactin, FSH, TSH and ACTH insufficiency in all of the patients. One of our patients had a sufficient LH response to LHRH challenge. All of the patients were imaged with pituitary MRI. Eleven patients had empty sella and 9 patients had partial empty sella. SS is still a common problem in our country, especially in rural areas. Considering the duration of disease, important delays occur in diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  17. Proposed clinical internal carotid artery classification system

    PubMed Central

    Abdulrauf, Saleem I; Ashour, Ahmed M; Marvin, Eric; Coppens, Jeroen; Kang, Brian; Hsieh, Tze Yu Yeh; Nery, Breno; Penanes, Juan R; Alsahlawi, Aysha K; Moore, Shawn; Al-Shaar, Hussam Abou; Kemp, Joanna; Chawla, Kanika; Sujijantarat, Nanthiya; Najeeb, Alaa; Parkar, Nadeem; Shetty, Vilaas; Vafaie, Tina; Antisdel, Jastin; Mikulec, Tony A; Edgell, Randall; Lebovitz, Jonathan; Pierson, Matt; Pires de Aguiar, Paulo Henrique; Buchanan, Paula; Di Cosola, Angela; Stevens, George

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Numerical classification systems for the internal carotid artery (ICA) are available, but modifications have added confusion to the numerical systems. Furthermore, previous classifications may not be applicable uniformly to microsurgical and endoscopic procedures. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically useful classification system. Materials and Methods: We performed cadaver dissections of the ICA in 5 heads (10 sides) and evaluated 648 internal carotid arteries with computed tomography angiography. We identified specific anatomic landmarks to define the beginning and end of each ICA segment. Results: The ICA was classified into eight segments based on the cadaver and imaging findings: (1) Cervical segment; (2) cochlear segment (ascending segment of the ICA in the temporal bone) (relation of the start of this segment to the base of the styloid process: Above, 425 sides [80%]; below, 2 sides [0.4%]; at same level, 107 sides [20%]; P < 0.0001) (relation of cochlea to ICA: Posterior, 501 sides [85%]; posteromedial, 84 sides [14%]; P < 0.0001); (3) petrous segment (horizontal segment of ICA in the temporal bone) starting at the crossing of the eustachian tube superolateral to the ICA turn in all 10 samples; (4) Gasserian-Clival segment (ascending segment of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the petrolingual ligament (PLL) (relation to vidian canal on imaging: At same level, 360 sides [63%]; below, 154 sides [27%]; above, 53 sides [9%]; P < 0.0001); in this segment, the ICA projected medially toward the clivus in 275 sides (52%) or parallel to the clivus with no deviation in 256 sides (48%; P < 0.0001); (5) sellar segment (medial loop of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the takeoff of the meningeal hypophyseal trunk (ICA was medial into the sella in 271 cases [46%], lateral without touching the sella in 127 cases [23%], and abutting the sella in 182 cases [31%]; P < 0.0001); (6) sphenoid segment (lateral loop of ICA within the

  18. Vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI) is an independent indicator for invasion in human pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wang; Sander, Andrew J; Jia, Guijun; Ni, Ming; Liu, Xiao; Lu, Runchun; Jiang, Wen G

    2013-09-01

    Pituitary ademonas are benign tumours from the pituitary gland but may have an invasive and destructive growth pattern. There is little understanding of the growth and progression control of pituitary tumours. In the present study, we investigated the expression of vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI), a vascular endothelial growth and apoptosis regulator and VEGI receptor Death Receptor-3 (DR3), in clinical pituitary tumours. Pituitary tumours from 95 patients were included in the study. Fresh pituitary tumours were obtained immediately after surgery and processed for histological and molecular-based analyses. Histopathological and clinical information including tumour size, tumour invasion and endocrine status were analyzed against the gene transcript expression of VEGI, DR3 and VEGF. VEGI and VEGF family and VEGF receptors were quantitatively determined for their gene transcript expression. The expression levels of VEGI were significantly lower in pituitary tumours which invaded the sella floor, and with suprasellar extension than in non-invasive tumours (p=0.0073). VEGI levels were also negatively correlated with cavernous sinus invasion stage (p<0.0001), in that a high level of VEGI was associated with low tumour grade. Multivariate analysis indicated that VEGI is an independent factor predictive of invasion (p=0.05). It was further demonstrated that the relationship between VEGI and pituitary tumour invasion were independent of the expression of VEGF and its receptors. Low levels of VEGI transcripts were associated with the intratumoural haemorrhage (p=0.05). Out of all the pituitary tumours, 59 were non-functional. Out of the functional tumours, it was found that follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-expressing and gonadotrophic tumours tended to have markedly low levels of VEGI transcripts, compared with non-functional tumours (p=0.0026 and p=0.003, respectively). The opposite was seen with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-secreting tumours. Levels of

  19. Transsphenoidal Resection of Sellar Tumors Using High-Field Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Szerlip, Nicholas J.; Zhang, Yi-Chen; Placantonakis, Dimitris G.; Goldman, Marc; Colevas, Kara B.; Rubin, David G.; Kobylarz, Eric J.; Karimi, Sasan; Girotra, Monica; Tabar, Viviane

    2011-01-01

    There has been increasing experience in the utilization of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) for intracranial surgery. Despite this trend, only a few U.S centers have examined the use of this technology for transsphenoidal resection of tumors of the sella. We present the largest series in North America examining the role of iMRI for pituitary adenoma resection. We retrospectively reviewed our institutional experience of 59-patients who underwent transsphenoidal procedures for sellar and suprasellar tumors with iMRI guidance. Of these, 52 patients had a histological diagnosis of pituitary adenoma. The technical results of this subgroup were examined. A 1.5-T iMRI was integrated with the BrainLAB (Feldkirchen, Germany) neuronavigation system. The majority (94%) of tumors in our series were macroadenomas. Seventeen percent of tumors were confined to the sella, 49% had suprasellar extensions without involvement of the cavernous sinus, 34% had frank cavernous sinus invasion. All patients underwent at least one iMRI, and 19% required one or more additional sets of intraoperative imaging. In 58% of patients, iMRI led to the surgeon attempting more resection. A gross total resection was obtained in 67% of the patients with planned total resections. There was one case of permanent postoperative diabetes insipidus and no other instances of new hormone replacement. In summary, iMRI was most useful for tumors of the sella with and without suprasellar extension where the information from the iMRI extended the complete resection rate from 40 to 72% and 55 to 88%, respectively. As one would expect, it did not substantially increase the rate of resection of tumors with cavernous sinus invasion. Overall, iMRI was particularly useful in guiding resection safely, aiding in clinical decision making, and allowing identification and preservation of the pituitary stalk and normal pituitary gland. Limitations of the iMRI include a need for additional personnel and training

  20. Sellar reconstruction without intrasellar packing after endoscopic surgery of pituitary macroadenomas is better than its reputation.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Mostafa; Fares, Abd Alla; Abdelhak, Balegh; D'Haens, Jean; Michel, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Ziele: Die Rekonstruktion der Sella mit intrasellärer Tamponade nach endoskopischer Resektion von Hypophysenmakroadenomen bleibt in der klinischen und radiologischen Diskussion umstritten, besonders wenn keine Liquorfistel vorhanden ist. Diese Studie wurde durchgeführt, um unsere Erfahrungen mit der Sellarekonstruktion nach einer endoskopischen Standardresektion von Hypophysenmakroadenomen ohne intraoperative Liquorfistel zur laufenden Diskussion über Techniken mit und ohne intrasellärer Tamponade beizutragen.Methoden: Eine konsekutive Serie von 47 Hypophysenmakroadenomen, die in einem chirurgischen Standardverfahren endoskopisch über einen endonasalen transsphenoidalen Zugang ohne ersichtliche intraoperative Liquorfistel entfernt wurden, wurde nachträglich während einer durchschnittlich zehnmonatigen Nachbeobachtungszeit ausgewertet. Bezüglich der sellären Rekonstuktionstechnik konnten drei Gruppen identifiziert werden: Gruppe A – ohne intraselläre Tamponade, Gruppe B – mit Tamponade aus hämostatischen Materialien und Gruppe C – mit Bauchfetttamponade. Die postoperative klinische und radiologische Bewertung der drei Gruppen wurde dokumentiert und auf Unterschiede in den Ergebnissen hin analysiert.Ergebnisse: Die postoperative klinische Beurteilung ergab keine signifikanten Unterschiede zwischen den drei Gruppen. In der Gruppe A wurden postoperativ weder Liquorfistel noch Keilbeinhöhlenentzündung oder Empty-Sella-Syndrom beobachtet. Allerdings konnte ein signifikanter Unterschied in der radiologischen Bewertung identifiziert werden: die Interpretation von sellären Inhalten bei der postoperativen MRT der Gruppe A gelang früher und zuverlässiger als in anderen Gruppen mit intrasellärer Tamponade.Schlussfolgerung: Es gibt keinen Unterschied in der Inzidenz von postoperativen Liquorfisteln und Empty-Sella-Syndromen bei den verschiedenen rekonstruktiven Techniken mit und ohne intrasellärer Tamponade, unabhängig von Größe und Ausdehnung des

  1. Analysis of general facial growth, maxillary and mandibular growth and treatment changes ("Structural analysis").

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Ib Leth

    2011-12-01

    General facial growth has in the past mostly been analyzed by superimposing on the nasion-sella line using the so-called "best fit" technique. Best fit approaches have also been used to analyze maxillary and mandibular growth and treatment changes. In this article we shall present a more reliable method for analyzing the changes that occur as a result of growth and treatment using the so-called "Structural technique" developed by Björk et al. This technique is based on the results of studies of facial growth using metallic implants over more than 25years. We will discuss how this technique can be applied without the benefit of implants to provide a better and more reliable understanding of the skeletal and dental changes in treated cases. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. [Psychopathology and neuro-ophthalmology in meningioma of the olfactory groove].

    PubMed

    Lange, E; Bräunig, K P; Fötzsch, R

    1982-01-01

    In 14 patients with a surgically nad histopathologically verified meningioma of the olfactory nerve groove (OGM) (12 women, 2 men), clinical findings and diagnosis were analysed, especially with respect to neuropathology and psychopathology. The apodictic theorem that an OGM leads to a Foster-Kennedy syndrome as well as to a psychopathological orbital brain syndrome cannot be maintained. The Foster-Kennedy syndrome does not occur in a characteristically high incidence, and psychopathologically an orbital brain syndrome can only be diagnosed in case of an anterior location of the OGM. The more the OGM shows starting point or growth development to or from the anterior chiasmal angle, the more is resembles that psychopathological syndrome that we have found and described for the meningioma of the Tuberculus sellae.

  3. Unilateral Agenesis of Internal Carotid Artery with Intercavernous Anastomosis: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kumaresh, Athiyappan; Vasanthraj, Praveen Kumar; Chandrasekharan, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral agenesis of internal carotid artery (ICA) with intercavernous anastomosis is a rare congenital anomaly. We present a case of a 25-year-old female with 2-month history of holocranial headache. Neurological examination was unremarkable. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) showed absence of left ICA with an abnormal intercavernous vessel in the sella. Computed tomography (CT) showed absence of the left carotid canal. Doppler ultrasonography (USG) showed high resistance flow in the left common carotid artery (CCA). Since no hemorrhage or aneurysm was seen, patient was managed conservatively and is on regular follow-up. Based on our knowledge, this is the first case to demonstrate the features of unilateral agenesis of ICA with intercavernous anastomosis in X-ray, Doppler USG, CT, and MRI scans of the brain. PMID:25806142

  4. MR and CT diagnosis of carotid pseudoaneurysm in children following surgical resection of craniopharyngioma.

    PubMed

    Lakhanpal, S K; Glasier, C M; James, C A; Angtuaco, E J

    1995-01-01

    We report the cases of two children who underwent CT, MR, MRA and angiography in the diagnosis of postoperative aneurysmal dilatation of the supraclinoid carotid arteries following surgical resection of craniopharyngioma. Craniopharyngiomas are relatively common lesions, accounting for 6-7% of brain tumors in children. They are histologically benign, causing symptoms by their growth within the sella and suprasellar cistern with compression of adjacent structures, especially the pituitary gland, hypothalamus and optic nerves, chiasm, and tracts. Complete surgical resection, particularly of large tumors, is complicated by the fact that the lesions are usually found within the circle of Willis, with displacement and adherence to the adventitia of these vessels [1, 2]. Recent reports in the neurosurgical literature have described aneurysmal dilatation of the supraclinoid internal carotid arteries following aggressive surgical resection of craniopharyngioma [3, 4].

  5. Transsphenoidal pituitary resection with intraoperative MR guidance: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pergolizzi, Richard S., Jr.; Schwartz, Richard B.; Hsu, Liangge; Wong, Terence Z.; Black, Peter M.; Martin, Claudia; Jolesz, Ferenc A.

    1999-05-01

    The use of intraoperative MR image guidance has the potential to improve the precision, extent and safety of transsphenoidal pituitary resections. At Brigham and Women's Hospital, an open-bore configuration 0.5T MR system (SIGNA SP, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI) has been used to provide image guidance for nine transsphenoidal pituitary adenoma resections. The intraoperative MR system allowed the radiologist to direct the surgeon toward the sella turcica successfully while avoiding the cavernous sinus, optic chiasm and other sensitive structures. Imaging performed during the surgery monitored the extent of resection and allowed for removal of tumor beyond the surgeon's view in five cases. Dynamic MR imaging was used to distinguish residual tumor from normal gland and postoperative changes permitting more precise tumor localization. A heme-sensitive long TE gradient echo sequence was used to evaluate for the presence of hemorrhagic debris. All patients tolerated the procedure well without significant complications.

  6. Prolactin-secreting pituitary microadenomas: inaccuracy of high-resolution CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.C.; Hoffman, J.C. Jr.; Tindall, G.T.; Braun, I.F.

    1985-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) and surgical findings were correlated retrospectively in 51 patients with preoperative diagnoses of prolactin-secreting pituitary microadenomas. Thirty-nine had microadenomas at surgery. Twenty-three had identifiable discrete lesions. Of these, 21 had microadenomas and two did not; these two groups could not be distinguished reliably. Six patients with proven microadenomas had normal CT scans. Focal hypodense lesions, sellar floor erosion, infundibulum displacement, gland height greater than 8 mm, and an abnormal diaphragma sellae configuration are neither sensitive nor specific findings or microadenoma. A significant number of patients with proven microadenomas has few or none of these abnormalities. Thus, recognition of prolactin microadenoma may not be possible by CT alone, even with high-resolution direct coronal imaging.

  7. Craniofacial abnormalities in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, N J; Silvera, V M; Campbell, S E; Gordon, L B

    2012-09-01

    HGPS is a rare syndrome of segmental premature aging. Our goal was to expand the scope of structural bone and soft-tissue craniofacial abnormalities in HGPS through CT or MR imaging. Using The Progeria Research Foundation Medical and Research Database, 98 imaging studies on 25 patients, birth to 14.1 years of age, were comprehensively reviewed. Eight newly identified abnormalities involving the calvaria, skull base, and soft tissues of the face and orbits were present with prevalences between 43% and 100%. These included J-shaped sellas, a mottled appearance and increased vascular markings of the calvaria, abnormally configured mandibular condyles, hypoplastic articular eminences, small zygomatic arches, prominent parotid glands, and optic nerve kinking. This expanded craniofacial characterization helps link disease features and improves our ability to evaluate how underlying genetic and cellular abnormalities culminate in a disease phenotype.

  8. Intracranial hypertension with delayed puberty: a rare presentation of juvenile onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Mathew, M; Cherian, A

    2012-01-01

    An adolescent boy presented with headache, bilateral papilloedema, growth retardation and absent secondary sexual characteristics. The diagnosis of intracranial hypertension was confirmed by increased intracranial pressure and normal neuroimaging of the brain except for partial empty sella and prominent perioptic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces. Evaluation showed an erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 150 mm/hr, positive antinuclear antibody, anti-dsDNA and antiribosomal P protein. Renal biopsy revealed diffuse segmental proliferative lupus nephritis (LN) class IV-S (A), which confirmed the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Treatment of LN with intravenous pulse methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide normalised the patient's CSF pressure and symptoms. In cases of intracranial hypertension, SLE must be considered. Growth retardation and absence of secondary sexual characteristics could coexist and may be presenting features of SLE. These manifestations point to advanced grades of LN, which could be asymptomatic and may be missed without a renal biopsy.

  9. Transseptal approach for the treatment of pituitary lesions.

    PubMed

    Escajadillo, J R; de Gortari, E

    1983-05-01

    The transseptal approach is the most logical and adequate technique to reach the sella turcica and adjacent structures. In the era before the use of antibiotic and steroid replacement therapy, Harvey Cushing, MD, and Norman Dott, MD, obtained successful results by using the transseptal approach to resect and decompress pituitary adenomas. Some authors use the maxilla-premaxilla technique followed by a sublabial incision through which they introduce the trans-sphenoidal speculum. The endonasal approach is a modification of the sublabial incision, but much of the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid is still removed. Therefore, we have added another modification that consists in removing only a fragment of the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid and vomer anterior to the sphenoid rostrum. We also describe our experience with this technique and analyze our results.

  10. Atypical Case of Congenital Maxillomandibular Fusion with Duplication of the Craniofacial Midline

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Lorena Pingarrón; Pérez, Mercedes Martín; García, Elena Gómez; Martín-Moro, Javier González; González, Jose Ignacio Rodríguez; García, Miguel Burgueño

    2011-01-01

    We report the first case of syngnathia with hypophyseal duplication and describe the central nervous system (CNS) and craniofacial anomalies associated with hypophyseal duplication in the reported autopsy case. We studied clinical reports, scanner images, and autopsy results of a 2-months-old female baby. The propositus had frontonasal dysmorphism, retrognathia, and bifid tongue. She also presented maxillomandibular bony fusion (syngnathia) and an intraoral hairy polyp. In the cranium, the sella turcica was broadened, with two complete hypophyses and two infundibulums. The CNS had both olfactory bulbs and corpus callosum agenesis. There are 27 previous cases of maxillomandibular fusion and seven previous autopsy cases of hypophyseal duplication associated with other frontonasal malformations. As far as the authors know, this is the first case reported in the literature that associates syngnathia with duplication of the craniofacial midline including hypophyseal duplication. PMID:22655122

  11. Anatomical compartments of the parasellar region: adipose tissue bodies represent intracranial continuations of extracranial spaces

    PubMed Central

    WENINGER, WOLFGANG J.; STREICHER, JOHANNES; MÜLLER, GERD B.

    1997-01-01

    The cavernous sinus is traditionally described as a single anatomical compartment that contains cranial nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue. A detailed analysis of 45 infant and 4 fetal parasellar regions shows that this view must be modified. The spatial arrangement, the topographic relations, and the expansion of the adipose and connective tissue spaces were analysed and reconstructed 3-dimensionally on a computer. It is shown that 3 different anatomical compartments, which are strictly demarcated by connective tissue, compose the parasellar region of infants. Two represent intracranial continuations of extracranial tissue spaces. The 3rd compartment corresponds to the so-called ‘cavernous sinus’ of the adult. Each of the 3 compartments contains characteristic adipose tissue bodies. Because the cavernous sinus represents only one compartment of the area, we propose to use the term ‘parasellar region’ to designate the entire anatomical region on either side of the sella turcica. PMID:9306202

  12. Bilateral Osseous Interclinoid Bridges Associated with Foramina of Vesalius: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nitsa, Zoi; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    The current study displays a very rare combination of ossified interclinoid ligaments at the sella turcica region associated with bilateral foramina of Vesalius. In a macerated skull four osseous bars interconnecting the clinoid processes bilaterally were detected. Specifically, two bilateral osseous bars were observed bridging the gap between the anterior and middle clinoid processes forming the so called caroticoclinoid foramen on each side and two additional osseous bridges linked the anterior and posterior clinoid processes, bilaterally. Furthermore, two distinct bilateral foramina of Vesalius were documented just anterior and medial to the foramen ovale. The awareness of the osseous sellar bridges is crucial for the physician and especially the neurosurgeon since their presence may complicate the removal of clinoid processes and induce damage of the internal carotid artery and oculomotor nerves. Furthermore, the likely existence of the foramen of Vesalius may lead to transfer of an infected thrombus into the cranial cavity and complicate a percutaneous trigeminal rhizotomy. PMID:26393114

  13. Cavernous sinus syndrome due to osteochondromatosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Perazzi, Anna; Bernardini, Marco; Mandara, Maria T; De Benedictis, Giulia M; De Strobel, Francesca; Zotti, Alessandro

    2013-12-01

    A 1-year-old sexually intact male Korat cat was referred for ophthalmological consultation due to anisocoria. Mydriasis with external ophthalmoplegia and absence of pupillary light responses in the right eye and nasofacial hypalgesia were seen. Cavernous sinus syndrome (CSS) was suspected. Bilateral deformities of the jaw and phalangeal bones, severe spinal pain and abnormal conformation of the lumbar spine were also present. Radiographic examination revealed several mineralised masses in the appendicular and axial skeleton, indicative of multiple cartilaginous exostoses. For further investigation of the CSS-related neurological deficits, the cat underwent computed tomography (CT) examination of the skull. CT images revealed a non-vascularised, calcified, amorphous mass originating from the right lateral skull base and superimposing on the sella turcica. Based on the severity of diffuse lesions and owing to the clinical signs of extreme pain, the cat was euthanased. A diffuse skeletal and intracranial osteochondromatosis was diagnosed histologically.

  14. MRI of paraganglioma of the filum terminale

    SciTech Connect

    Boncoeur-Martel, M.P.; Lesort, A.; Moreau, J.J.; Labrousse, F.; Roche, I.; Bouillet, P.; Pascaud, J.L.; Dupuy, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Paragangliomas are benign tumors arising from paraganglionic cells of the sympathetic nervous system. They are of neuroectodermal derivation, with the majority occurring in the adrenal medulla. Extraadrenal locations are usually nonfunctioning and mostly observed (90%) in the head and neck region (carotid body or glomus jugulare tumors). Rare reported locations include the mediastinum, retroperitoneum, lungs, duodenum, and bladder. Within the CNS, paragangliomas have been observed in the pineal region, petrous ridge, sella turcica, and spinal canal. Paraganglioma of the cauda equina was first reported, but not recognized as such, in 1970. We know of 10 reports that describe MRI appearance. We present a new case and review the imaging findings of a paraganglioma of the filum terminale. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Ependymal and periventricular magnetic resonance imaging changes in four dogs with central nervous system blastomycosis.

    PubMed

    Bentley, R Timothy; Reese, Michael J; Heng, Hock Gan; Lin, Tsang Long; Shimonohara, Nozomi; Fauber, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Rapid detection of central nervous system (CNS) involvement is important for dogs with blastomycosis, as this can affect antifungal drug selection and has been associated with an increased risk of death. Previous reports describing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of canine CNS blastomycosis primarily identified mass lesions. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine whether other MRI characteristics of CNS blastomycosis may also occur. Medical records of the Purdue University Veterinary Teaching Hospital were searched and four dogs met inclusion criteria. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics included periventricular edema, periventricular and meningeal contrast enhancement, and ventriculomegaly. Periventricular lesions most commonly involved the rostral horn of the lateral ventricles and the third ventricle. Increased meningeal contrast enhancement involved the cerebrum, thalamus, sella turcica, and brainstem. Findings indicated that, in addition to mass lesions, MRI characteristics of periventricular hyperintensity, contrast enhancement, and ventriculomegaly may also occur in dogs with CNS blastomycosis. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  16. Hemorrhagic pituitary apoplexy in an 18 year-old male presenting as non-ketotic hyperglycemic coma (NKHC).

    PubMed

    Kamboj, Manmohan K; Zhou, Ping; Molofsky, Walter J; Franklin, Bonita; Shah, Bina; David, Raphael; Kohn, Brenda

    2005-06-01

    Pituitary apoplexy is an acute clinical event usually caused by hemorrhage or infarction in a pituitary adenoma. We report the unusual case of hemorrhagic pituitary apoplexy in an 18 year-old male with previously undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus who presented with unexplained hyperglycemia (glucose 49.2 mmol/l [887 mg/dl]) and obtundation and in whom an initial diagnosis of non-ketotic hyperglycemic coma (NKHC) was made. MRI revealed a heterogeneous mass arising from an expanded sella turcica into the suprasellar cistern. Despite well-controlled glucose levels on continuous insulin infusion, dexamethasone, and initiation of bromoergocriptine (parlodel) therapy, the patient's vision and pupillary responses deteriorated acutely. Following emergency transphenoidal surgery, the patient's vision and mental status improved. Data confirmed preoperative panhypopituitarism; serum prolactin was 396 ng/ml (microg/l). Immunostudies demonstrated tumoral labeling for prolactin, but not for ACTH, GH, TSH, LH, FSH, or P53.

  17. Gasserian ganglion: appearance on contrast-enhanced MR.

    PubMed

    Downs, D M; Damiano, T R; Rubinstein, D

    1996-02-01

    To characterize the appearance of the gasserian ganglion on contrast-enhanced MR images. We retrospectively reviewed the MR images from 57 patients with suspected pituitary disease. These patients had undergone unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the sella, including evaluation of Meckel's cave. None of the patients had clinical signs or symptoms referable to the fifth cranial nerve or ganglion. Correlation was made with a previous study that compared gross anatomy with high-resolution CT scans of cadaveric specimens. A discrete semilunar enhancing structure within the inferolateral aspect of Meckel's cave was identified in 100 of the 114 caves examined; the other 14 caves had a thickened area of enhancement that blended with the dura inferolaterally. A small semilunar structure within the inferolateral aspect of Meckel's cave was also identified on CT scans of the cadaveric specimens. The gasserian ganglion enhances on MR images and should not be confused with a pathologic process.

  18. [Preservation of gonadotrophic function and pregnancy in Sheehan's syndrome: a case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Vieira, H B; Knoepfelmacher, M; Salgado, L R; Wajchenberg, B L; Liberman, B

    1995-01-01

    Pregnancy occurring in patient with Sheehan's syndrome is seldom described. It depends on the preservation of LH and FSH secretion after the pituitary apoplexy event. PURPOSE--To report a patient with Sheehan's syndrome who became pregnant twice after the pituitary apoplexy episode and to discuss the maintenance of gonadotrophic function. METHOD--Clinical aspects are described and the pituitary reserve evaluation was performed as well as a computerized tomography and a magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. RESULTS--Gonadotrophic and thyrotrophic function were preserved and the neuroradiologic evaluation disclosed an empty sella turcica preservation of the posterior lobe of the hypophysis. CONCLUSION--A patient with Sheehan's syndrome is reported in whom the LH and FSH pituitary secretion was preserved allowing normal pregnancy twice after the pituitary apoplexy.

  19. Giant Chondroma of the Saddle Area: Case Report and Literature Review*

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Lubin; Zhu, Yongjun; Wang, Haijun; Wang, Yatang; Wu, Qiang; Yang, Jianming

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A 63-year-old man presented with sexual dysfunction of 6-year duration, 5-year history of bilateral vision loss, and left nasal obstruction for 3 years. Brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a large mass lesion in the saddle area and extending upward to the dorsum sellae, bilateral cavernous sinus, and suprasellar region, and down into the sphenoid sinus and nasal cavity; the optic nerves and optic chiasm were elevated upward and compressed. Endocrine tests indicated that all serum level of anterior pituitary hormones decreased. The preoperative diagnosis included invasive pituitary adenoma, chordoma, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and craniopharyngioma. The tumour was subtotally removed through transsphenoidal approach. Histopathology examination revealed a chondroma. Postoperatively, the patient was stable and his visual acuity and visual field defect improved and his pituitary function return to normal except for hypothyroidism. PMID:28167992

  20. Do We Need Hormonal Screening In Patients With Subcentimeter Pituitary Microadenomas?

    PubMed

    Martínez-Méndez, José Hernán; Gutiérrez-Acevedo, Madeleine; Palermo-Garofalo, Coromoto; Miranda-Adorno, María de Lourdes; Mangual-García, Michelle; Sánchez-Cruz, Alfredo; Rivera-Anaya, Carmen; Mansilla-Letelier, Paola; Laboy-Ortiz, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman came to our endocrinology clinics presenting with upper and lower extremity paresthesia, salt cravings, episodes of hypotension, fatigue and a long term history of depression. Physical exam was unremarkable. Cervical and brain MRI ordered by her neurologist three years ago revealed sella and pituitary normal in size, stable very small 3 mm pituitary incidentaloma and mild disc bulging. Basal pituitary hormonal screening showed low cortisol and ACTH levels. Insulin Tolerance Test and Glucagon Stimulation Test confirmed secondary ACTH deficiency with concomitant GH deficiency. In spite of medical counseling the patient refused glucocorticoid replacement. Due to the non-specific symptoms of this condition it remains a challenge to be diagnosed by clinicians. In conclusion: Our case shows that hormonal deficiencies may occur in small tumors less than 6 mm.

  1. Unilateral agenesis of internal carotid artery with intercavernous anastomosis: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Kumaresh, Athiyappan; Vasanthraj, Praveen Kumar; Chandrasekharan, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral agenesis of internal carotid artery (ICA) with intercavernous anastomosis is a rare congenital anomaly. We present a case of a 25-year-old female with 2-month history of holocranial headache. Neurological examination was unremarkable. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) showed absence of left ICA with an abnormal intercavernous vessel in the sella. Computed tomography (CT) showed absence of the left carotid canal. Doppler ultrasonography (USG) showed high resistance flow in the left common carotid artery (CCA). Since no hemorrhage or aneurysm was seen, patient was managed conservatively and is on regular follow-up. Based on our knowledge, this is the first case to demonstrate the features of unilateral agenesis of ICA with intercavernous anastomosis in X-ray, Doppler USG, CT, and MRI scans of the brain.

  2. [Endoscopic endonasal sinus surgery using a navigation system for pituitary adenoma].

    PubMed

    Kashio, Akinori; Suzuki, Mitsuya; Watanabe, Hidetoshi

    2005-11-01

    Hardy's operation using a microscope has long been the standard for treating pituitary adenoma. A new endonasal approach to the sella using an endoscope combined with a navigation system has been reported, which we used to conduct endocopic endonasal hypophysectomy from October 2000 to June 2003 in 11 patients with pituitary lesions. We introduced an angle-dependent navigation system, Neuro Navigator III. We approached the sphenoid sinus mainly via the hemilateral common meatus. The deviation of the nasal septum and sphenoidal septum was carefully evaluated to determine the optimal operating side. We concluded that the hemilateral common meatus route is useful because it is least invasive in endocopic endonasal hypophysectomy. Another route should be taken, however, if hemorrhaging is uncontrollable or the tumor is quite large. Navigation systems are quite effective in executing this operation safely. Angle-dependent navigation system is a good choice for this operation, considering its cost performance.

  3. A distinctive type of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with characteristic thickening of the distal ulna and radius: possible metaphyseal chondrodysplasia-Rosenberg.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yung-Seng; Elliott, Alison M; Loke, Kah-Yin; Lachman, Ralph S

    2003-05-15

    We report an 8-year-old boy with a distinctive form of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia (MCD). He presented with moderate disproportionate short stature and bony swelling of his wrists, knees, and ankles. There were severe metaphyseal abnormalities with a honeycomb appearance affecting the distal tibiae and fibulae, proximal tibiae, distal femurs, distal ulnae and radii, and both hands. His thoracolumbar spine was normal. Radiological examination of the mother's forearms revealed widening of the distal radii and short ulnae with hypoplastic distal ends. Rosenberg and Löhr [1986: Eur J Pediatr 145:40-45] reported a four-generational kindred in which affected members had thickening of the wrist proximal to the styloid process of the ulna and thickening of the dorsum sellae. Although many of the radiographic features of this patient are those of MCD-Rosenberg, the skeletal features of our patient do not appear to represent any known classified forms of MCD.

  4. Familial hypopituitarism associated with mosaic form of Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lomna-Bogdanov, Elzbieta; Bolanowski, Marek; Slezak, Ryszard; Sokolska, Violetta; Pałczyiński, Bogusław; Spring, Adam; Demissie, Marek

    2005-01-01

    We present herein an unusual coincidence of familial hypopituitarism associated with a mosaic form of Turner syndrome in two adult sisters (51 and 43 years old). Both patients had hypopituitarism diagnosed in childhood. They have never been administered growth hormone, and remained short in stature. They were not given long-term estrogen-progestin treatment, despite lack of menstruation. Early in childhood both received thyroid hormone substitution. Pituitary imaging revealed pituitary hypoplasia with partial empty sella in one sister, and pituitary hypoplasia in the other. Very recently, during endocrinological evaluation, they were diagnosed with a mosaic form of Turner syndrome, additionally to their hypopituitarism. In this paper, we place special emphasis on the results of hormonal analyses and discuss the differential diagnosis.

  5. 68Ga DOTATATE PET/CT of Synchronous Meningioma and Prolactinoma.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sandip; Ranade, Rohit; Hazarika, Suman

    2016-03-01

    Ga DOTATATE PET/CT in noninvasive characterization of synchronous pituitary neoplasm and meningioma in a 38-year-old man is illustrated. The patient presented with an MRI-detected lobulated enhancing sellar-suprasellar mass with erosion of bony sella measuring 4.5 × 3.5 × 3.4 cm (with differential diagnosis with germ cell tumor) and a right parafalcine mass (2.7 × 2.6 cm) suggesting meningioma. Ga DOTATATE PET/CT demonstrated intense uptake in both lesions, suggesting the sellar mass to be pituitary macroadenoma. The finding of high serum prolactin and normal LH, FSH, cortisol, and testosterone levels suggested diagnosis of prolactinoma, and the patient was started on cabergoline.

  6. Pituitary adenoma with seizures: PET demonstration of reduced glucose utilization in the medial temporal lobe

    SciTech Connect

    Bairamian, D.; Di Chiro, G.; Blume, H.; Ehrenberg, B.

    1986-05-01

    A patient with a benign chromophobe adenoma, who had incomplete surgical removal followed by radiotherapy, continued to have epileptic seizures up to two or three times a day. She was studied with positron emission tomography using /sup 18/F-2-deoxyglucose (FDG). This technique showed a high level of glucose utilization in the area of the operated tumor but also clear reduction of glucose utilization in the left medial temporal region adjacent to the sella and the scar tissue from the neoplasm. This area of reduced glucose utilization corresponded well to the same finding observed in other patients with complex partial epilepsy. A left temporal anterior lobectomy was carried out followed by improved control of the epilepsy. Positron emission tomography using FDG, together with electrophysiological examinations, may assist in the management of epilepsy related to pituitary tumors.

  7. Trans-nasal-trans-sphenoidal brain injury by a fencing foil: an unusual case report and brief literature review.

    PubMed

    Özay, Rafet; Balkan, Mehmet S; Tönge, Çağhan; Şekerci, Zeki

    2017-11-01

    In this report, the authors present an unusual case of a 10-year-old child who suffered a severe headache and rhinorrhea that occurred as a result of fencing foil sports injury via trans-nasal-trans-sphenoidal (TNTS) pathway. Following trauma, the child had shown neurological symptoms such a pupil dilatation, change in consciousness and mild hemiparesia. Imaging demonstrated destruction of bone structures including posterior wall of sphenoid sinus and antero-superior part of sella turcica, and also a contusion at right thalamic region. For treatment of rhinorrhea lumbar drainage system (LDS) had planted in order to relieve cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. After the treatment, the patient had fully recovered without any need of further surgical intervention. CSF leakage had prevented and neurological symptoms were completely treated. This case represents the first report of brain injury via TNTS pathway in a sports practice. Diagnosis, clinic follow-up and treatment options of this rare accidental sports injury are discussed.

  8. A practical approach for the evaluation of women with abnormal polytomography or elevated prolactin levels.

    PubMed

    Speroff, L; Levin, R M; Haning, R V; Kase, N G

    1979-12-01

    Based upon the experience gained in the evaluation of 60 patients with abnormal polytomography and/or elevated prolactin levels, the following observations can be made: Patients with amenorrhea, amenorrhea and galactorrhea, galactorrhea alone, or anovulatory cycles and infertility may or may not have pituitary tumors. Clinical symptoms do not always correlate with the prolactin level, and patients with normal prolactins may have pituitary tumors. The incidence of empty sella is significant (15.8% in this series). Visual field examination is not a useful screening procedure, but evaluation of thyroid function is important to detect the occasional patient with hypothyroidism (3.5% in this series). The insulin tolerance test is not helpful in detecting the presence of pituitary tumors or in guiding management decisions, and the CT scan contributes little and should be omitted from the evaluation process. A straightforward, economical, and efficient approach to this clinical problem is presented.

  9. A case of acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, N I; Chowdhury, K S; Rahman, S; Sarker, C B; Rahman, K M

    2003-01-01

    A fifty years old woman hailing from Purbadhala of Netrokona district complaining of gradual enlargement of hands, feet, nose and other acral parts of the body for about last eight years. She noticed coarsening of the skin and gradual protrusion of her lower jaw. She complained of headache, vertigo, frequent passage of urine, increased thirst, weight loss and fatiguability. She was found hypertensive having blood pressure 200/110 mm of Hg. Her appearance was coarse with rough skin. There were enlargement of hands, feet, nose, lower jaw with prognathism and enlargement of other acral parts. Investigations revealed high plasma glucose level, both fasting and 2 hrs. after glucose, high level of growth hormone, failure of suppression of growth hormone during OGTT. Thyroid function tests of the patient were found normal with increased heel pad size and enlarged sella turcica in all diameters. She was diagnosed as a case of acromegaly due to growth hormone hypersecretion.

  10. [A 74 year old patient with recurrent shock caused by hypopituitarism].

    PubMed

    Goedgezelschap, Annelien; Dejaeger, Eddy

    2015-12-01

    This article analyzes the case of a 74 year old patient who was hospitalized four times with recurrent complaints, which consisted of hypothermia, hypotension, weakness, and a hyponatremia, and were always caused by an underlying acute infection. Laboratory results showed an hypothyroidism, a secondary adrenal insufficiency, a secondary hypogonadism, and a growth hormone deficiency, which led to a diagnosis of pituitary dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed an 'empty sella', a non-visualization of the pituitary gland caused by an herniation of a supra-sellar cistern into the pituitary fossa. Considering the lack of an underlying pituitary tumor, a treatment consisting of partial hormonal substitution was started, eventually resulting in the full recovery of the patient.

  11. [Computer-tomographic cisternography with amipaque].

    PubMed

    Kornienko, V N; Saakian, O A

    1984-01-01

    As compared to ordinary computer tomography, computer-aided tomographic cisternography (CTC) demonstrates better the anatomy of the brain cisterns and at the same time gives an idea of the processes of c.s.f. circulation in dynamic examination. The article discusses the results of examination of 112 patients with various neurosurgical diseases by means of CTC. A detailed classification of the brain cisterns is given. The authors show the advantages of the method in examination of patients with small three-dimentional processes in the chiasma-sellar region, cerebellopontine angle, and posterior cranial fossa, with the syndrome of an "empty" sella turcica, cystic structures, and disorders of c.s.f. circulation.

  12. Clinical computed tomography: Illustrated procedural guide

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, L.C.; Lipcamon, J.D.; Yie-Chiu, B.S.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents an overview of physics and instrumentation. It addresses the role of the CT technologist; discusses the use of contrast media, its potential complications, and their avoidance, discusses techniques for scanning the brain, sella, orbits, petrous temporal bones, paranasal sinuses, neck, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, and spine; and demonstrates the normal anatomy of the foregoing regions. All this is followed by 171 examples of disease; a chapter on CT-guided biopsy and drainage procedures; and a description, in tabular form, of six different models of CT scanners, with the parameters for 15 separate examinations tabulated for each model of machine. The scanning techniques are presented in recipe fashion without clear reasons for the choices made or discussion on how choices can be varied for different clinical problems. They are also oriented toward one model of CT scanner. The anatomic sections are good but can be found in numerous other publications.

  13. Sheehan's syndrome with cardiac arrest: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lijun; Lu, Zhonghua; Zheng, Yao

    2014-01-01

    A 62-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of unconsciousness and hypoglycaemia. She had a history of weakness and fatigue after postpartum haemorrhage in 1983. Unfortunately, she was not diagnosed with Sheehan's syndrome and did not receive sufficient professional treatment due to the limited medical resources in her hometown. A laboratory examination at the local hospital revealed severe hypoglycaemia (1.8 mmol/L) with relatively low serum potassium (2.9 mmol/L). The woman appeared twice in the hospital with cardiac arrest, and her medical history, and the later laboratory investigations were consistent with Sheehan's syndrome. Empty sella was also found by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We conclude that Sheehan's syndrome may lead to cardiac arrest with the complication of hypokalaemia and deserves the vigilance of clinicians.

  14. Recovery of prolactin function following spontaneous pregnancy in a woman with Sheehan's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Laway, Bashir A; Mir, Shahnaz A; Zargar, Abdul H

    2013-12-01

    Sheehan's syndrome (SS) presents with hypopituitarism after parturition, usually preceded by postpartum hemorrhage. The first symptom of the disorder is lactation failure because of lactotroph cell necrosis. Recovery of lactotroph function after initial insult has not been reported in the literature. We describe the evaluation of a case of SS in whom lactotroph function recovered after the second pregnancy. A young woman delivered her first child at the age of 25 years; delivery was followed by severe postpartum hemorrhage and required blood transfusion. Sheehan's syndrome was diagnosed because of lactotroph, corticotroph, thyrotroph and somatotroph failure and empty sella on MRI. She conceived twice spontaneously and had normal lactation after the second delivery; investigations confirmed the normal basal and stimulable prolactin levels. We presume that recovery of lactotroph function after the second pregnancy in a patient with SS is possibly because of stimulatory effect of estrogen and progesterone on residual lactotroph cells.

  15. Recurrent hypoglycaemia: a delayed presentation of Sheehan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naresh; Singh, Pratap; Kumar, Jyoti; Dhanwal, Dinesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Sheehan syndrome is a rare but potentially serious complication of postpartum haemorrhage. The diagnosis can often be delayed by many years as symptoms may be subtle. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman who presented to the medical emergency unit with acute onset altered sensorium. On further evaluation she was found to have severe hypoglycaemia which was corrected by giving intravenous dextrose. On detailed clinical evaluation, she had a history of agalactia and amenorrhoea following her last pregnancy which was 15 years ago. She had a history of excessive postpartum bleeding during her last delivery. MRI of the brain showed empty sella and hormonal evaluation revealed adenohypophyseal insufficiency as evident from decreased levels of cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone and prolactin. Based on clinical, radiological and laboratory parameters her final diagnosis was Sheehan syndrome with hypoglycaemia. PMID:24842349

  16. Sheehan's syndrome with central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Mir, Shahnaz Ahmad; Dar, Mohd Iqbal; Zargar, Abdul Hamid

    2011-03-01

    Sheehan's syndrome refers to the occurrence of hypopituitarism after delivery, usually preceded by postpartum hemorrhage. The condition still continues to be a common cause of hypopituitarism in developing countries like India. The disorder usually presents with anterior pituitary failure with preservation of posterior pituitary functions. Posterior pituitary dysfunction in the form of central diabetes insipidus is rare in patients with Sheehan's syndrome. We describe the clinical course of a young lady who after her sixth childbirth developed severe postpartum hemorrhage followed by development of panhypopituitarism which was confirmed by hormonal investigation and demonstration of empty sella on imaging. In addition, she developed Polyuria. The water deprivation test and response to vasopressin test results indicated central diabetes insipidus. She needed oral desmopressin on a continuous basis to control polyuria.

  17. Recovery of prolactin function following spontaneous pregnancy in a woman with Sheehan's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Laway, Bashir A.; Mir, Shahnaz A.; Zargar, Abdul H.

    2013-01-01

    Sheehan's syndrome (SS) presents with hypopituitarism after parturition, usually preceded by postpartum hemorrhage. The first symptom of the disorder is lactation failure because of lactotroph cell necrosis. Recovery of lactotroph function after initial insult has not been reported in the literature. We describe the evaluation of a case of SS in whom lactotroph function recovered after the second pregnancy. A young woman delivered her first child at the age of 25 years; delivery was followed by severe postpartum hemorrhage and required blood transfusion. Sheehan's syndrome was diagnosed because of lactotroph, corticotroph, thyrotroph and somatotroph failure and empty sella on MRI. She conceived twice spontaneously and had normal lactation after the second delivery; investigations confirmed the normal basal and stimulable prolactin levels. We presume that recovery of lactotroph function after the second pregnancy in a patient with SS is possibly because of stimulatory effect of estrogen and progesterone on residual lactotroph cells. PMID:24910842

  18. Cardiac tamponade as a presenting manifestation of Sheehan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Varkey; Chattopadhyay, Arijit; Yasin, Khalid; Kurian, Thomas T

    2008-01-01

    We report a 38-year-old Syrian woman who presented with progressive breathlessness, hypotension and circulatory collapse. Echocardiogram revealed a large pericardial effusion with evidence of cardiac tamponade. There was a history of secondary amenorrhoea, loss of axillary and pubic hair following childbirth at 28 years of age. Investigations revealed low levels of gonadotrophins, oestrogen, prolactin and thyrotrophin but normal levels of basal and post-synacthen (ACTH) cortisol. An MRI of the sella showed atrophic changes of the pituitary. She was treated with intravenous fluids, dopamine infusion, intravenous hydrocortisone and thyroxine replacement. The clinical suspicion of Sheehan syndrome facilitated early administration of corticosteroids, adequate thyroxine replacement and rapid resolution of pericardial effusion.

  19. Recurrent hypoglycaemia: a delayed presentation of Sheehan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Naresh; Singh, Pratap; Kumar, Jyoti; Dhanwal, Dinesh Kumar

    2014-05-19

    Sheehan syndrome is a rare but potentially serious complication of postpartum haemorrhage. The diagnosis can often be delayed by many years as symptoms may be subtle. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman who presented to the medical emergency unit with acute onset altered sensorium. On further evaluation she was found to have severe hypoglycaemia which was corrected by giving intravenous dextrose. On detailed clinical evaluation, she had a history of agalactia and amenorrhoea following her last pregnancy which was 15 years ago. She had a history of excessive postpartum bleeding during her last delivery. MRI of the brain showed empty sella and hormonal evaluation revealed adenohypophyseal insufficiency as evident from decreased levels of cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone and prolactin. Based on clinical, radiological and laboratory parameters her final diagnosis was Sheehan syndrome with hypoglycaemia.

  20. Sheehan syndrome with reversible dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Laway, Bashir A; Alai, Mohammad S; Gojwari, Tariq; Ganie, Mohd A; Zargar, Abdul Hamid

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac abnormalities in patients with Sheehan syndrome are uncommon. A case of Sheehan syndrome with dilated cardiomyopathy is presented in whom hormone replacement with levothyroxine and prednisolone resulted in complete recovery of cardiomyopathy. A 25-year-old woman presented with lactation failure, secondary amenorrhea, features of hypothyroidism and a hypocortisol state following severe postpartum hemorrhage after her last child birth. She also had smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis. After starting antitubercular treatment, she developed shock, suggestive of hypocortisol crisis. Hormonal investigations revealed evidence of panhypopitutarism and magnetic resonance imaging revealed partial empty sella. Meanwhile echocardiography revealed evidence of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The patient was given replacement therapy in the form of glucocorticoids and levothyroxine in addition to antitubercular treatment. She improved and on follow-up over a period of 7 months, the DCM completely reversed. To our knowledge this is the first report of reversible DCM in a patient with Sheehan syndrome.

  1. Hepatocellular carcinoma metastasizing to the skull base involving multiple cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Ryang; Kanda, Fumio; Kobessho, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Koji; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Kudo, Masatoshi; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2006-11-07

    We describe a rare case of HCV-related recurrent multiple hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasizing to the skull base involving multiple cranial nerves in a 50-year-old woman. The patient presented with symptoms of ptosis, fixation of the right eyeball, and left abducens palsy, indicating disturbances of the right oculomotor and trochlear nerves and bilateral abducens nerves. Brain contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed an ill-defined mass with abnormal enhancement around the sella turcica. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed that the mass involved the clivus, cavernous sinus, and petrous apex. On contrast-enhanced MRI with gadolinium-chelated contrast medium, the mass showed inhomogeneous intermediate enhancement. The diagnosis of metastatic HCC to the skull base was made on the basis of neurological findings and imaging studies including CT and MRI, without histological examinations. Further studies may provide insights into various methods for diagnosing HCC metastasizing to the craniospinal area.

  2. Diagnostic performance of various cephalometric parameters for the assessment of vertical growth pattern.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Maheen; Shaikh, Attiya; Fida, Mubassar

    2016-01-01

    Multiple cephalometric analyses are used to diagnose vertical skeletal facial discrepancy. A multitude of times, these parameters show conflicting results, and a specific diagnosis is hard to reach. Hence, this study aimed to identify the skeletal analysis that performs best for the identification of vertical skeletal pattern in borderline cases. The sample consisted of 161 subjects (71 males and 90 females; mean age = 23.6 ± 4.6 years). Y-axis, Sella-Nasion to mandibular plane angle (SN.MP), maxillary plane to mandibular plane angle (MMA), Sella-Nasion to Gonion-Gnathion angle (SN.GoGn), Frankfort to mandibular plane angle (FMA), R-angle and facial height ratio (LAFH.TAFH) were used to evaluate vertical growth pattern on lateral cephalograms. The subjects were divided into three groups (hypodivergent, normodivergent and hyperdivergent groups), as indicated by the diagnostic results of the majority of parameters. Kappa statistics was applied to compare the diagnostic accuracy of various analyses. To further validate the results, sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPV) for each parameter were also calculated. SN.GoGn showed a substantial interclass agreement (k = 0.850). In the hypodivergent group, MMA showed the highest sensitivity (0.934), whereas FMA showed the highest PPV (0.964). In the normodivergent group, FMA showed the highest sensitivity (0.909) and SN.GoGn had the highest PPV (0.903). SN.GoGn showed the highest sensitivity (0.980) and PPV (0.87) in the hyperdivergent group. SN.GoGn and FMA were found to be the most reliable indicators, whereas LAFH.TAFH is the least reliable indicator in assessing facial vertical growth pattern. Hence, the cephalometric analyses may be limited to fewer analyses of higher diagnostic performance.

  3. Portlandemys gracilis n. sp., a New Coastal Marine Turtle from the Late Jurassic of Porrentruy (Switzerland) and a Reconsideration of Plesiochelyid Cranial Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Anquetin, Jérémy; Püntener, Christian; Billon-Bruyat, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Several groups of stem cryptodires became adapted to coastal marine environments as early as the Late Jurassic, 40 million years before the Pan-Chelonioidea. The Plesiochelyidae are a major component of this first radiation of crown-group turtles into marine habitats. They are abundant in many European localities, but their systematics is still greatly confused. Only three species are represented by cranial material: Plesiochelys etalloni, Plesiochelys planiceps, and Portlandemys mcdowelli. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we describe a cranium and a mandible from the Kimmeridgian of Porrentruy (Switzerland), which we refer to a new species, Portlandemys gracilis n. sp. This new taxon differs from Portlandemys mcdowelli in several aspects of the cranium and mandible, notably in being generally more gracile, but the two species share a narrow skull, a more acute angle between the labial ridges on the mandible, and a unique configuration of the anterodorsal part of the basicranium. The cranial anatomy of plesiochelyid turtles is discussed in details based primarily on these new specimens and new cranial material of Plesiochelys etalloni from Solothurn, Switzerland. Conclusions/Significance Several characters (e.g., the contribution of the parietal to the foramen nervi trigemini, the configuration of the dorsum sellae and sella turcica, the presence of an infolding ridge on the posterior surface of the quadrate) appear as potential candidates to help elucidate plesiochelyid relationships. Some of these characters are included in a previously published phylogenetic dataset and help to stabilize the relationships of plesiochelyid turtles and closely related taxa. For the first time, our results suggest that plesiochelyids, 'Thalassemys' moseri, and Solnhofia parsonsi (representing the Eurysternidae) form a clade at the base of Eucryptodira. PMID:26106888

  4. Symptomatic hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients following radiation therapy: a retrospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, K.S.; Ho, J.H.; Lee, A.W.; Tse, V.K.; Chan, P.K.; Wang, C.; Ma, J.T.; Yeung, R.T.

    1987-09-01

    Endocrine assessment was performed in 32 relapse-free southern Chinese patients 5-17 years following radiation therapy (RT) alone for early nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Initial screening was done using questionnaires emphasizing impaired sexual function and menstrual disturbance plus measurement of serum levels of thyroxine, free thyroxine index, thyrotropic hormone, prolactin, and additionally testosterone for males only. Those showing abnormalities were subjected to detailed pituitary function tests. Hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction was found in 7 female patients and only 1 male patient. A delayed TSH response to thyrotropin releasing hormone suggesting a hypothalamic disorder was seen in 6 of the affected female patients, and hyperprolactinaemia in also 6. None of the patients had evidence of diabetes insipidus. Hypopituitarism became symptomatic 2-5 years after RT with a mean latent interval of 3.8 years. A practical protocol for regular endocrine assessment for NPC patients after RT has been proposed. Multiple linear regression analysis of the radiotherapeutic data from the 11 female patients indicates that the likelihood of late occurrence of symptomatic hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction following RT is dependent on the TDF of the target dose to the nasopharyngeal region and the height of the upper margin of the opposed lateral facial fields above the diaphragma sellae (coefficient of multiple correlation = 0.9025). Except when the sphenoid sinus or the middle cranial fossa is involved, it is advisable to set the height of the upper margin of the lateral facial field at a level no higher than the diaphragma sellae. The hypothalamus and possibly the pituitary stalk as well may sustain permanent damage by doses of radiation within the conventional radiotherapeutic range for carcinomas.

  5. Posterior clinoidectomy: dural tailoring technique and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Youssef, A Samy; van Loveren, Harry R

    2009-05-01

    The posterior clinoid process, a bony prominence at the superolateral aspect of the dorsum sellae, has a strategic importance in a transcavernous approach to basilar tip aneurysms. To further optimize this microsurgical technique during posterior clinoidectomy, we performed a cadaveric study of this regional anatomy, describe a technique called dural tailoring, and report initial results in the surgical treatment of upper basilar artery (BA) aneurysm. After 10 adult cadaver heads (silicone-injected) were prepared for dissection, a posterior clinoidectomy with dural tailoring was performed. The dura overlying the upper clivus was coagulated with bipolar electrocoagulation and incised. Stripping dura off the clivus and lateral reflection then exposed the ipsilateral posterior clinoid process and dorsum sellae, thus creating a dural flap. Posterior clinoidectomy with dural tailoring was then used in seven patients with upper BA aneurysms. Our stepwise modification of the posterior clinoidectomy with dural tailoring created a flap that afforded protection of the cavernous sinus and oculomotor nerve. During surgery, there were no recorded intraoperative injuries to neurovascular structures. One patient died postoperatively from morbidity related to severe-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage. Postoperative oculomotor nerve palsy occurred in 3 patients (43%). In all cases, the nerve was anatomically preserved and partial to complete recovery was recorded during the first postoperative year. This technique effectively provided exposure of retrosellar upper basilar aneurysms in seven patients (basilar tip 43% and superior cerebellar artery aneurysms 57%). Outcomes and safety are at least equivalent to or better than basilar aneurysm surgery performed without surgical adjuncts, presumably a less complex subset.

  6. Studies of the cranial base in 23 patients with cri-du-chat syndrome suggest a cranial developmental field involved in the condition.

    PubMed

    Kjaer, I; Niebuhr, E

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the cranial base on profile radiographs of patients with cri-du-chat syndrome and to relate the findings to current knowledge of brain malformation in an attempt to localize the developmental field affected in cri-du-chat syndrome. The material of profile radiographs of 23 patients was collected in Denmark in the 1970s. Twenty-two patients had terminal deletions of chromosome 5 (5p13.3, 5p14.1, 5p14.2, and 5p14.3), and one patient had an interstitial deletion. The cranial base angle (n-s-ba) was in most cases reduced and in no cases increased compared to age-related standards for normal individuals. Malformations in the bony contours of the sella turcica and the clivus occurred in cri-du-chat patients with terminal deletions. This specific cranial base region develops around the notochord at the location from where the rhombencephalic-derived brainstem, pons, and cerebellum have developed dorsally, and from where the neurons to the larynx have migrated ventrally. As the cranial base, the cerebellum and the larynx are involved in cri-du-chat syndrome, and attention is drawn to a new developmental field which comprises the dorsum sellae, clivus, cerebellum, and larynx. This field seemingly originates from the same notochordal location. The study has demonstrated a cranial base malformation in cri-du-chat patients, which ought to be elucidated in future research and combined with neurological and chromosomal investigations.

  7. Persistence of intrasellar trigeminal artery and simultaneous pituitary adenoma: description of two cases and their importance for the differential diagnosis of sellar lesions.

    PubMed

    Machado, Marcio Carlos; Kodaira, Sergio; Musolino, Nina Rosa Castro

    2014-08-01

    Persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is the most frequent embryonic communication between the carotid and vertebrobasilar systems. However, hormonal changes or the association of PTA with other sellar lesions, such as pituitary adenomas, are extremely rare. The aim of the present study was to report two patients with intrasellar PTA and simultaneous pituitary adenoma in order to emphasize the importance of differential diagnoses for sellar lesions. Case 1. A female patient, 41 years old, was admitted with a history of chronic headache (> 20 years). Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a rounded lesion in the left portion of the pituitary gland suggestive of adenoma (most likely clinically non-functioning adenoma). In addition to this lesion, the MRI demonstrated ecstasy of the right internal carotid artery and imaging suggestive of an intrasellar artery that was subsequently confirmed by an angio-MRI of the cerebral vessels as PTA. Case 2. A female patient, 42 years old, was admitted with a history of amenorrhea and galactorrhea in 1994. Laboratorial investigation revealed hyperprolactinemia. Pituitary MRI showed a small hyposignal area in the anterior portion of pituitary gland suggestive of a microadenoma initiated by a dopaminergic agonist. Upon follow-up, aside from the first lesion, the MRI showed a well delineated rounded lesion inside the pituitary gland, similar to a vessel. Angio-MRI confirmed a left primitive PTA. Failure to recognize these anomalous vessels within the sella might lead to serious complications during transsphenoidal surgery. Therefore, although their occurrence is uncommon, a working knowledge of vascular lesions in the sella turcica or pituitary gland is important for the differential diagnosis of pituitary lesions, especially pituitary adenomas.

  8. Orthodontic camouflage versus orthognathic surgery for class III deformity: comparative cephalometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Martinez, P; Bellot-Arcís, C; Llamas, J M; Cibrian, R; Gandia, J L; Paredes-Gallardo, V

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare different cephalometric variables in adult patients with class III malocclusions before and after treatment, in order to determine which variables are indicative of orthodontic camouflage or orthognathic surgery. The cases of 156 adult patients were assessed: 77 treated with orthodontic camouflage and 79 treated with orthodontics and orthognathic surgery. The following cephalometric variables were measured on pre-treatment (T1) and post-treatment (T2) lateral cephalograms: sella-nasion-A-point (SNA), sella-nasion-B-point (SNB), and A-point-nasion-B-point (ANB) angles, Wits appraisal, facial axis angle, mandibular plane angle, upper and lower incisor inclination, and inter-incisal angle. There were statistically significant differences in cephalometric variables before and after treatment between the two groups. The percentage of normal pre-treatment measurements in the camouflage orthodontics group was 30.7%, which worsened slightly to 28.4% post-treatment. However in the group receiving surgery, this was 24.5% pre-treatment, improving to 33.5% after surgery. SNA, SNB, Wits appraisal, lower incisor inclination, and inter-incisal angle showed differences between the two groups before and after treatment. Wits appraisal, lower incisor inclination, and inter-incisal angle were indicative of one or other treatment. Upper and lower incisor decompensation in both groups did not reach ideal values, which impeded complete skeletal correction in 52% of surgical cases. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Role of OsiriX Based Virtual Endoscopy in Planning Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Surgery for Pituitary Adenoma.

    PubMed

    Rotariu, Daniel Ilie; Ziyad, Faiyad; Budu, Alexandru; Poeata, Ion

    2017-01-01

    Virtual endoscopy (VE) is the navigation of a 3D model reconstructed from radiological image data. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the role and accuracy of the virtual endoscopy realized using commercially available software, OsiriX, as a method of planning of surgical interventions. The computed tomographies of 22 patients with pituitary adenomas proposed for endoscopic approach were reconstructed using OsiriX. VE was performed prior to surgery to assess the surgical corridor and particular anatomy. We evaluated the following landmarks: inferior and middle turbinate, sphenoid ostia (SO), choanal arch (Ch), sphenoethmoidal recess (SER), sphenoid septa, sella turcica, carotid prominences and opticocarotid recesses (OCR). The intraoperative endoscopic images were reviewed and compared with the virtual images. The virtual images had a good resemblance with the actual surgical images. All the structures from the nasal cavity were identified and had a perfect matching except the SO which was identified in 8 cases in VE vs. 12 intraoperative. All the structures from the sphenoid sinus were identified with perfect matching except the ipsilateral carotid prominence (14 in VE vs. 10 intraoperative) and the contralateral carotid prominence (16 in VE vs. 18 intraoperative). The VE could not show the state of the sellar floor and did not offer any information about the sellar content. VE realized in OsiriX represents an affordable alternative to the specially designed systems, offering reliable data and good quality images that are useful for the preoperative planning, but some limitations are present such as inability to obtain additional information in cases where the sphenoid sinus is fully occupied by tumor or not aerated, inability to clearly differentiate between structures at the level of the sella, and impossibility to simulate working instruments.

  10. Fronto-temporo-orbitozygomatic craniotomy and "half-and-half" approach for basilar apex aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Behari, Sanjay; Das, Rupant K; Jaiswal, Awadhesh K; Jain, Vijendra K

    2009-01-01

    Basilar apex aneurysms (BAA) are located in interpeduncular cistern surrounded by eloquent neurovascular structures. Surgical access is difficult due to narrow surgical corridors and requires traversing through a depth of 6-8 cm of subarachnoid space. Surgical management of BAAs clipped using frontotemporal craniotomy, orbitozygomatic osteotomy with combined subtemporal and transylvian (half and half) approach is discussed. Tertiary care referral institute; prospective study. Five patients with BAA rupture causing subarachnoid hemorrhage presented in modified Hunt and Hess (Hand H) grades II (n=1), III (n=1) and IV (n=3), respectively. In 4 patients, the aneurysms were 0.8-1.2 cm in diameter, situated 7 mm-1 cm above dorsum sellae. Two of them had posteriorly projecting aneurysms. One patient had a giant, high BAA with a left parietooccipital arteriovenous malformation. Vasospasm of posterior cerebral/proximal basilar artery was seen in 2 patients. In one patient, internal carotid artery was mobilized by intradural anterior clinoid drilling with carotid collar division. Triple-H therapy was administered following surgery. There was no intraoperative rupture or temporary clipping. Follow up angiography showed complete aneurysmal obliteration with preservation of posterior cerebral and superior cerebellar arteries. Follow up (mean: 8.7+/-3.5 months) H and H grades were II (n=2) and III (n=3), respectively. The morbidity include caudate and thalamic region infarct, transient III rd nerve palsy and cerebrospinal fluid otorrhoea (n=1, respectively). This simple approach provides a wide surgical corridor from 5 mm below to greater than 1 cm above dorsum sellae with adequate proximal control of basilar artery. It is an option to endovascular embolization especially with large and giant, or wide-necked BAA, vertebrobasilar tortuosity, coil compaction or postcoiling re-rupture and an associated large haematoma.

  11. A two-year audit of outcomes of pituitary surgery at an Australian teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Davis, Timothy M E; Badshah, Imran; Drinkwater, Jocelyn; Kusich, Emily; Latkovic, Erin; Knuckey, Neville

    2017-07-04

    There is evidence that cure rates and complications are influenced by the case load in neurosurgical centres performing transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Although Australian centres may perform relatively small numbers of these procedures, there have been few published audits of their performance. To conduct an audit of surgery for pituitary tumours between 2012 and 2014 in the only public hospital neurosurgical unit in the state of Western Australia. A retrospective chart review was conducted with standardised extraction of data relating to indications for surgery, tumour type, procedure and post-operative endocrinological and other outcomes. Of 53 patients identified, most (91%) underwent transsphenoidal surgery. Most tumours were non-functioning (71.7%) and most of these extended outside the sella turcica (86.8% versus 73.3% of functioning tumours). There was complete removal in 43.3% of patients and evidence of biochemical cure in 33.3% of functioning tumours, but readmission for further surgery was infrequent (5.7%). Persistent cerebrospinal fluid leakage, photophobia and deep venous thrombosis occurred in <4% of patients. There were no deaths. There was a relatively high rate of permanent diabetes insipidus (DI) (13.2% versus <5% in published series) while the frequency of new post-operative anterior pituitary dysfunction (11.3%) was within the range reported in the literature (3-14%). The outcomes of pituitary surgery in this audit were largely comparable to those reported from other neurosurgical units in Australia and other countries. The increased risk of permanent post-operative DI may reflect the high proportion of non-functioning tumours with extension outside the sella turcica. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Diagnostic performance of various cephalometric parameters for the assessment of vertical growth pattern

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Maheen; Shaikh, Attiya; Fida, Mubassar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Multiple cephalometric analyses are used to diagnose vertical skeletal facial discrepancy. A multitude of times, these parameters show conflicting results, and a specific diagnosis is hard to reach. Objective: Hence, this study aimed to identify the skeletal analysis that performs best for the identification of vertical skeletal pattern in borderline cases. Methods: The sample consisted of 161 subjects (71 males and 90 females; mean age = 23.6 ± 4.6 years). Y-axis, Sella-Nasion to mandibular plane angle (SN.MP), maxillary plane to mandibular plane angle (MMA), Sella-Nasion to Gonion-Gnathion angle (SN.GoGn), Frankfort to mandibular plane angle (FMA), R-angle and facial height ratio (LAFH.TAFH) were used to evaluate vertical growth pattern on lateral cephalograms. The subjects were divided into three groups (hypodivergent, normodivergent and hyperdivergent groups), as indicated by the diagnostic results of the majority of parameters. Kappa statistics was applied to compare the diagnostic accuracy of various analyses. To further validate the results, sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPV) for each parameter were also calculated. Results: SN.GoGn showed a substantial interclass agreement (k = 0.850). In the hypodivergent group, MMA showed the highest sensitivity (0.934), whereas FMA showed the highest PPV (0.964). In the normodivergent group, FMA showed the highest sensitivity (0.909) and SN.GoGn had the highest PPV (0.903). SN.GoGn showed the highest sensitivity (0.980) and PPV (0.87) in the hyperdivergent group. Conclusions: SN.GoGn and FMA were found to be the most reliable indicators, whereas LAFH.TAFH is the least reliable indicator in assessing facial vertical growth pattern. Hence, the cephalometric analyses may be limited to fewer analyses of higher diagnostic performance. PMID:27653263

  13. Pharyngeal airway dimensions in skeletal class II: A cephalometric growth study.

    PubMed

    Uslu-Akcam, Ozge

    2017-03-01

    This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal dimensions of individuals with skeletal class II, division 1 and division 2 patterns during the pre-peak, peak, and post-peak growth periods for comparison with a skeletal class I control group. Totally 124 lateral cephalograms (47 for skeletal class I; 45 for skeletal class II, division 1; and 32 for skeletal class II, division 2) in pre-peak, peak, and post-peak growth periods were selected from the department archives. Thirteen landmarks, 4 angular and 4 linear measurements, and 4 proportional calculations were obtained. The ANOVA and Duncan test were applied to compare the differences among the study groups during the growth periods. Statistically significant differences were found between the skeletal class II, division 2 group and other groups for the gonion-gnathion/sella-nasion angle. The sella-nasion-B-point angle was different among the groups, while the A-point-nasion-B-point angle was significantly different for all 3 groups. The nasopharyngeal airway space showed a statistically significant difference among the groups throughout the growth periods. The interaction among the growth periods and study groups was statistically significant regarding the upper oropharyngeal airway space measurement. The lower oropharyngeal airway space measurement showed a statistically significant difference among the groups, with the smallest dimension observed in the skeletal class II, division 2 group. The naso-oropharyngeal airway dimensions showed a statistically significant difference among the class II, division 1; class II, division 2; and class I groups during different growth periods.

  14. Correcting the typical Apert face: combining bipartition with monobloc distraction.

    PubMed

    Greig, Aina V H; Britto, Jonathan A; Abela, Christopher; Witherow, Helen; Richards, Robin; Evans, Robert D; Jeelani, N U Owase; Hayward, Richard D; Dunaway, David J

    2013-02-01

    Bipartition distraction is a novel procedure combining frontofacial bipartition and monobloc distraction. Apert syndrome and other syndromic craniofacial dysostoses are often characterized by hypertelorism, with a negative canthal axis and counterrotated orbits. Central midface hypoplasia can result in a biconcave face in both midsagittal and axial planes. Bipartition distraction can correct these facial abnormalities. Twenty patients (19 Apert syndrome patients and one Pfeiffer syndrome patient, aged 1.6 to 21 years) underwent bipartition distraction. Severity of appearance was graded preoperatively and postoperatively as mild, moderate, or severe. Functional problems were documented by a multidisciplinary team. Central and lateral midface skeletal advancement were measured. Follow-up ranged from 15 months to 7 years. Bipartition distraction consistently produced more central than lateral facial advancement. Mean central advancement was 13.2 ± 5.9 mm at sella-nasion and 11.7 ± 5.4 mm at sella-A point. Lateral advancement was 4.7 ± 2.8 mm. Unbending the face improved aesthetic appearance. Airway function, eye exposure, and elevated intracranial pressure were improved. Complications included six temporary cerebrospinal fluid leaks (four needing a lumbar drain), five patients with postoperative seizures, five patients requiring Rigid External Distraction frame repositioning, one palatal fistula, one velopharyngeal incompetence, five pin-site infections, one abscess under frontal bone, three cases of sepsis, nine patients with worsened strabismus, two patients with enophthalmos, one patient with partial visual field loss, and three patients who required reintubation because of aspiration. : Bipartition distraction is an effective procedure with which to differentially advance the central face in Apert syndrome. It improves both function and aesthetics. : Therapeutic, IV.

  15. Pharyngeal airway dimensions in skeletal class II: A cephalometric growth study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal dimensions of individuals with skeletal class II, division 1 and division 2 patterns during the pre-peak, peak, and post-peak growth periods for comparison with a skeletal class I control group. Materials and Methods Totally 124 lateral cephalograms (47 for skeletal class I; 45 for skeletal class II, division 1; and 32 for skeletal class II, division 2) in pre-peak, peak, and post-peak growth periods were selected from the department archives. Thirteen landmarks, 4 angular and 4 linear measurements, and 4 proportional calculations were obtained. The ANOVA and Duncan test were applied to compare the differences among the study groups during the growth periods. Results Statistically significant differences were found between the skeletal class II, division 2 group and other groups for the gonion-gnathion/sella-nasion angle. The sella-nasion-B-point angle was different among the groups, while the A-point-nasion-B-point angle was significantly different for all 3 groups. The nasopharyngeal airway space showed a statistically significant difference among the groups throughout the growth periods. The interaction among the growth periods and study groups was statistically significant regarding the upper oropharyngeal airway space measurement. The lower oropharyngeal airway space measurement showed a statistically significant difference among the groups, with the smallest dimension observed in the skeletal class II, division 2 group. Conclusion The naso-oropharyngeal airway dimensions showed a statistically significant difference among the class II, division 1; class II, division 2; and class I groups during different growth periods. PMID:28361023

  16. Endosphenoidal coil for intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland during transsphenoidal surgery.

    PubMed

    Chittiboina, Prashant; Lalith Talagala, S; Merkle, Hellmut; Sarlls, Joelle E; Montgomery, Blake K; Piazza, Martin G; Scott, Gretchen; Ray-Chaudhury, Abhik; Lonser, Russell R; Oldfield, Edward H; Koretsky, Alan P; Butman, John A

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Pituitary MR imaging fails to detect over 50% of microadenomas in Cushing's disease and nearly 80% of cases of dural microinvasion. Surface coils can generate exceptionally high-resolution images of the immediately adjacent tissues. To improve imaging of the pituitary gland, a receive-only surface coil that can be placed within the sphenoid sinus (the endosphenoidal coil [ESC]) during transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) was developed and assessed. METHODS Five cadaver heads were used for preclinical testing of the ESC. The ESC (a double-turn, 12-mm-diameter surface coil made from 1-mm-diameter copper wire) was developed to obtain images in a 1.5-T MR scanner. The ESC was placed (via a standard sublabial TSS approach) on the anterior sella face. Clinical MR scans were obtained using the 8-channel head coil and ESC as the receiver coils. Using the ESC, ultra-high-resolution, 3D, balanced fast field echo (BFFE) and T1-weighted imaging were performed at resolutions of 0.25 × 0.25 × 0.50 mm(3) and 0.15 × 0.15 × 0.30 mm(3), respectively. RESULTS Region-of-interest analysis indicated a 10-fold increase in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the pituitary when using the ESC compared with the 8-channel head coil. ESC-related improvements (p < 0.01) in the SNR were inversely proportional to the distance from the ESC tip to the anterior pituitary gland surface. High-resolution BFFE MR imaging obtained using ESC revealed a number of anatomical features critical to pituitary surgery that were not visible on 8-channel MR imaging, including the pituitary capsule, the intercavernous sinus, and microcalcifications in the pars intermedia. These ESC imaging findings were confirmed by the pathological correlation with whole-mount pituitary sections. CONCLUSIONS ESC can significantly improve SNR in the sellar region intraoperatively using current 1.5-T MR imaging platforms. Improvement in SNR can provide images of the sella and surrounding structures with unprecedented

  17. Evaluation of diffusivity in pituitary adenoma: 3D turbo field echo with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation

    PubMed Central

    Togao, Osamu; Yamashita, Koji; Kikuchi, Kazufumi; Obara, Makoto; Yoshiura, Takashi; Honda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Diffusivity of pituitary adenoma has not been investigated fully. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of turbo field echo with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium (DSDE-TFE) preparation for pituitary adenoma in the sella turcica and unaffected anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Methods: This retrospective study included 23 adult patients with pituitary adenomas. Among them, 6 each were prolactin-producing adenomas and growth hormone-producing adenomas (GH) and the remaining 11 were non-functioning adenomas (NON). The apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were measured in the pituitary adenoma and in the unaffected pituitary gland using coronal reformatted plane. Results: All pituitary adenomas were clearly visualized on DSDE-TFE and ADC maps without obvious geometrical distortion. There were no statistically significant differences in ADC of the all pituitary adenoma (1.50 ± 0.61 × 10−3 mm2 s−1) and the unaffected anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (1.49 ± 0.37 × 10−3 mm2 s−1, p = 0.99). The ADC in prolactin-producing adenomas (2.04 ± 0.76 × 10−3 mm2 s−1) was significantly higher than that in GH (1.26 ± 0.47 × 10−3 mm2 s−1; p < 0.05) and NON (1.33 ± 0.42 × 10−3 mm2 s−1; p = 0.04). There was no statistically significant difference between GH and NON (p = 0.97). The intraclass correlation coefficient for ADC was 0.985 in adenomas and 0.635 in unaffected glands. Conclusion: With its insensitivity to field inhomogeneity and high spatial resolution, DSDE-TFE proved a feasible method for evaluating the diffusivity in the pituitary gland and adenoma. Advances in knowledge: DSDE-TFE could enable us to assess ADC of pituitary adenoma in the sella turcica with high resolution and few susceptibility artefacts. PMID:27187598

  18. Anchor Plate Efficiency in Postoperative Orthodontic Treatment Following Orthognathic Surgery via Minimal Presurgical Orthodontic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Tae-Min; Kim, Yoon-Ho; Song, Seung-Il

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The efficiency of an anchor plate placed during orthognathic surgery via minimal presurgical orthodontic treatment was evaluated by analyzing the mandibular relapse rate and dental changes. Methods: The subjects included nine patients with Class III malocclusion who had bilateral sagittal split osteotomy at the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Dentistry in Ajou University Hospital, after minimal presurgical orthodontic treatment. During orthognathic surgery, anchor plates were placed at both maxillary buttresses. The anchor plates were used to move maxillary teeth backward and for maximum anchorage of Class III elastics to minimize mandibular relapse during the postoperative orthodontic treatment. The lateral cephalometric X-ray was taken preoperatively (T0), postoperatively (T1), and one year after the surgery (T2). Seven measurements (distance from Pogonion to line Nasion-Nasion perpendicular [Pog-N Per.], angle of line B point-Nasion and Nasion-Sella [SNB], angle of line maxilla 1 root-maxilla 1 crown and Nasion-Sella [U1 to SN], distance from maxilla 1 crown to line A point-Nasion [U1 to NA], overbite, overjet, and interincisal angle) were taken. Measurements at T0 to T1 and T1 to T2 were compared and differences tested by standard statistical methods. Results: The mean skeletal change was posterior movement by 13.87±4.95 mm based on pogonion from T0 to T1, and anterior movement by 1.54±2.18 mm from T1 to T2, showing relapse of about 10.2%. There were significant changes from T0 to T1 for both Pog-N Per. and SNB (P <0.05). However, there were no statistically significant changes from T1 to T2 for both Pog-N Per. and SNB. U1 to NA that represents the anterior-posterior changes of maxillary incisor did not differ from T0 to T1, yet there was a significant change from T1 to T2 (P <0.05). Conclusion: This study found that the anchor plate minimizes mandibular relapse and moves the maxillary teeth backward during the postoperative

  19. Endosphenoidal coil for intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland during transsphenoidal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chittiboina, Prashant; Talagala, S. Lalith; Merkle, Hellmut; Sarlls, Joelle E.; Montgomery, Blake K.; Piazza, Martin G.; Scott, Gretchen; Ray-Chaudhury, Abhik; Lonser, Russell R.; Oldfield, Edward H.; Koretsky, Alan P.; Butman, John A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Pituitary MR imaging fails to detect over 50% of microadenomas in Cushing’s disease and nearly 80% of cases of dural microinvasion. Surface coils can generate exceptionally high-resolution images of the immediately adjacent tissues. To improve imaging of the pituitary gland, a receive-only surface coil that can be placed within the sphenoid sinus (the endosphenoidal coil [ESC]) during transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) was developed and assessed. METHODS Five cadaver heads were used for preclinical testing of the ESC. The ESC (a double-turn, 12-mm-diameter surface coil made from 1-mm-diameter copper wire) was developed to obtain images in a 1.5-T MR scanner. The ESC was placed (via a standard sublabial TSS approach) on the anterior sella face. Clinical MR scans were obtained using the 8-channel head coil and ESC as the receiver coils. Using the ESC, ultra–high-resolution, 3D, balanced fast field echo (BFFE) and T1-weighted imaging were performed at resolutions of 0.25 × 0.25 × 0.50 mm3 and 0.15 × 0.15 × 0.30 mm3, respectively. RESULTS Region-of-interest analysis indicated a 10-fold increase in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the pituitary when using the ESC compared with the 8-channel head coil. ESC-related improvements (p < 0.01) in the SNR were inversely proportional to the distance from the ESC tip to the anterior pituitary gland surface. High-resolution BFFE MR imaging obtained using ESC revealed a number of anatomical features critical to pituitary surgery that were not visible on 8-channel MR imaging, including the pituitary capsule, the intercavernous sinus, and microcalcifications in the pars intermedia. These ESC imaging findings were confirmed by the pathological correlation with whole-mount pituitary sections. CONCLUSIONS ESC can significantly improve SNR in the sellar region intraoperatively using current 1.5-T MR imaging platforms. Improvement in SNR can provide images of the sella and surrounding structures with unprecedented

  20. Blood-feeding patterns of native mosquitoes and insights into their potential role as pathogen vectors in the Thames estuary region of the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Brugman, V A; Hernández-Triana, L M; England, M E; Medlock, J M; Mertens, P P C; Logan, J G; Wilson, A J; Fooks, A R; Johnson, N; Carpenter, S

    2017-03-27

    The range of vertebrate hosts on which species of mosquito blood-feed is an important parameter for identifying potential vectors and in assessing the risk of incursion and establishment of vector-borne pathogens. In the United Kingdom, studies of mosquito host range have collected relatively few specimens and used techniques that could only broadly identify host species. This study conducted intensive collection and analysis of mosquitoes from a grazing marsh environment in southeast England. This site provides extensive wetland habitat for resident and migratory birds and has abundant human nuisance biting mosquitoes. The aim was to identify the blood-feeding patterns of mosquito species present at the site which could contribute to the transmission of pathogens. Twice-weekly collections of mosquitoes were made from Elmley Nature Reserve, Kent, between June and October 2014. Mosquitoes were collected using resting boxes, by aspiration from man-made structures and using a Mosquito Magnet Pro baited with 1-octen-3-ol. Blood-fed specimens were classified according to the degree of blood meal digestion using the Sella scale and vertebrate origin determined using sequencing of a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene. Mosquitoes that were morphologically cryptic were identified to species level using multiplex PCR and sequencing methods. A total of 20,666 mosquitoes of 11 species were collected, and 2,159 (10.4%) were blood-fed (Sella scale II-VI); of these 1,341 blood-fed specimens were selected for blood meal analysis. Vertebrate origin was successfully identified in 964 specimens (72%). Collections of blood-fed individuals were dominated by Anopheles maculipennis complex (73.5%), Culiseta annulata (21.2%) and Culex pipiens form pipiens (10.4%). Nineteen vertebrate hosts comprising five mammals and 14 birds were identified as hosts for mosquitoes, including two migratory bird species. Feeding on birds by Culex modestus and Anopheles

  1. Transoral robotic surgery for sellar tumors: first clinical study.

    PubMed

    Chauvet, Dorian; Hans, Stéphane; Missistrano, Antoine; Rebours, Celeste; Bakkouri, Wissame El; Lot, Guillaume

    2016-12-23

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to confirm the feasibility of an innovative transoral robotic surgery (TORS), using the da Vinci Surgical System, for patients with sellar tumors. This technique was designed to offer a new minimally invasive approach, without soft-palate splitting, that avoids the rhinological side effects of classic endonasal approaches. METHODS The authors performed a prospective study of TORS in patients with symptomatic sellar tumors. Specific anatomical features were required for inclusion in the study and were determined on the basis of preoperative open-mouth CT scans of the brain. The main outcome measure was sellar accessibility using the robot. Resection quality, mean operative time, postoperative changes in patients' vision, side effects, and complications were additionally reported. RESULTS Between February and May 2016, 4 patients (all female, mean age 49.5 years) underwent TORS for resection of sellar tumors as participants in this study. All patients presented with symptomatic visual deficits confirmed as bitemporal hemianopsia. All tumors had a suprasellar portion and a cystic part. In all 4 cases, the operation was performed via TORS, without the need for a second surgery. Sella turcica accessibility was satisfactory in all cases. In 3 cases, tumor resection was complete. The mean operative time was 2 hours 43 minutes. Three patients had a significant visual improvement at Day 1. No rhinological side effects or complications in patients occurred. No pathological examination was performed regarding the fluid component of the tumors. There was 1 postoperative delayed CSF leak and 1 case of transient diabetes insipidus. Side effects specific to TORS included minor sore throat, transient hypernasal speech, and 1 case of delayed otitis media. The mean length of hospital stay and mean follow up were 8.25 days and 82 days, respectively. CONCLUSIONS To our knowledge, this is the first report of the surgical treatment of sellar tumors by

  2. Evaluation of soft and hard tissue changes after bimaxillary surgery in class III orthognathic surgery and aesthetic consideration.

    PubMed

    Ghassemi, Mehrangiz; Ghassemi, Alireza; Showkatbakhsh, Rahman; Ahmad, Syed Sayeed; Shadab, Mohammad; Modabber, Ali; Jamilian, Abdolreza

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate hard and soft tissue change after bimaxillary surgery in class III patients by focusing on sella, nasion, A point (SNA) and sella, nasion, B point (SNB) angle and aesthetic outcome. The sample consisted of 96 skeletal Class III patients (42 women, 54 men) with a mean age of 25 years with standard deviation (SD) of 8.4. The youngest patient was 16-years-old and the oldest 51-years-old at the time of surgery. In total, seven skeletal parameters, eight soft tissue parameters, and two dental parameters were evaluated on the cephalograms. At the beginning of the treatment 49 Patients had SNA between 80° and 84°, 34 had SNA of less than 80° and 13 had SNA of more than 84°. Post surgically, 25 patients had SNA of 78°-84°, 19 had SNA less than 78° and 52 patients had SNA of more than 84°. Out of 96 patients 22 had SNB of 78°-82° before surgery, 16 had less than 78° and 58 had SNA of more than 84°. Postoperatively, we measured SNB of 78°-80° in 42, less than 78° in 18 and of more than 82° in 36 patients. The inclination of the maxilla relative to the cranial base changed from 7.2° (SD = 4)-8° (SD = 5.1) and the mandible changed from 35.7° (SD = 6.6) to 36° (SD = 6.3) postoperatively which was not significant. The distance from upper lip to E-line increased by 2.6 mm (SD = 3.9) after surgery (P < 0.001), while, the lower lip distance to E-line decreased slightly by 0.9 mm (SD = 3.2) (P < 0.01). Nasolabial angle was decreased by 9.5° (SD = 9.4) after surgery (P < 0.001). The nose prominence also decreased from 18.2 mm (SD = 3.5) -16.5 mm (SD = 3.3). Although in many cases we did not have a SNA angle or SNB angle in normal range but a good aesthetic outcome have been observed. Consequently our study showed that soft tissue change and aesthetic aspects should be considered in surgical planning and achieving SNA angle or SNB angle of norm range should not be the only goal. As we could show the advancement of maxilla will

  3. The eye as a window to rare endocrine disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Rupali; Chander, Ashish; Jacob, Jubbin J.

    2012-01-01

    The human eye, as an organ, can offer critical clues to the diagnosis of various systemic illnesses. Ocular changes are common in various endocrine disorders such as diabetes mellitus and Graves’ disease. However there exist a large number of lesser known endocrine disorders where ocular involvement is significant. Awareness of these associations is the first step in the diagnosis and management of these complex patients. The rare syndromes involving the pituitary hypothalamic axis with significant ocular involvement include Septo-optic dysplasia, Kallman's syndrome, and Empty Sella syndrome all affecting the optic nerve at the optic chiasa. The syndromes involving the thyroid and parathyroid glands that have ocular manifestations and are rare include Mc Cune Albright syndrome wherein optic nerve decompression may occur due to fibrous dysplasia, primary hyperparathyroidism that may present as red eye due to scleritis and Ascher syndrome wherein ptosis occurs. Allgrove's syndrome, Cushing's disease, and Addison's disease are the rare endocrine syndromes discussed involving the adrenals and eye. Ocular involvement is also seen in gonadal syndromes such as Bardet Biedl, Turner's, Rothmund's, and Klinefelter's syndrome. This review also highlights the ocular manifestation of miscellaneous syndromes such as Werner's, Cockayne's, Wolfram's, Kearns Sayre's, and Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome. The knowledge of these relatively uncommon endocrine disorders and their ocular manifestations will help an endocrinologist reach a diagnosis and will alert an ophthalmologist to seek specialty consultation of an endocrinologist when encountered with such cases. PMID:22629495

  4. Clinical evaluation of posterior embryotoxon in one institution.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, H; Shirai, S; Majima, A; Sano, M; Ikeda, K

    1997-01-01

    To elucidate the pathogenesis of posterior embryotoxon, we estimated its incidence in our clinic and evaluated its associated ocular and systemic anomalies. Slit-lamp and gonioscopic examinations were performed on 440 randomly selected patients at Nagoya City University Hospital over a 10-month period. Posterior embryotoxon was detected in 107, 50 bilateral and 57 unilateral, cases (24.3%). Twelve (11.2%) of the 107 cases had open-angle glaucoma. Accompanying ocular anomalies included six cases of sclerocornea, two each of persistent pupillary membrane and familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, and 1 each of melanocytoma of the optic nervehead, choroidal nevus and subconjunctival dermoid cyst. Associated systemic anomalies included three cases of Alagille syndrome, two of congenital biliary atresia, and one each of congenital facial palsy with microtia, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, empty sella syndrome, Hirschsprung disease and Wilson disease. Many of these ocular and systemic anomalies were caused by the maldevelopment of neural crest cells. Patients with posterior embryotoxon should be examined for the possible presence of open-angle glucoma and for ocular and systemic anomalies related to maldevelopment of neural crest cells.

  5. Pituitary and systemic autoimmunity in a case of intrasellar germinoma.

    PubMed

    Gutenberg, Angelika; Bell, Jennifer J; Lupi, Isabella; Tzou, Shey-Cherng; Landek-Salgado, Melissa A; Kimura, Hiroaki; Su, Jack; Karaviti, Lefkothea P; Salvatori, Roberto; Caturegli, Patrizio

    2011-12-01

    Germinomas arising in the sella turcica are difficult to differentiate from autoimmune hypophysitis because of similar clinical and pathological features. This differentiation, nevertheless, is critical for patient care due to different treatments of the two diseases. We report the case of an 11-year-old girl who presented with diabetes insipidus and growth retardation, and was found to have an intra- and supra-sellar mass. Initial examination of the pituitary biopsy showed diffuse lymphocytic infiltration of the adenohypophysis and absent placental alkaline phosphatase expression, leading to a diagnosis of hypophysitis and glucocorticoid treatment. Because of the lack of clinical and radiological response, the pituitary specimen was re-examined, revealing this time the presence of scattered c-kit and Oct4 positive germinoma cells. The revised diagnosis prompted the initiation of radiotherapy, which induced disappearance of the pituitary mass. Immunological studies showed that the patient's serum recognized antigens expressed by the patient's own germinoma cells, as well as pituitary antigens like growth hormone and systemic antigens like the Sjögren syndrome antigen B and alpha-enolase. The study first reports the presence of pituitary and systemic antibodies in a patient with intrasellar germinoma, and reminds us that diffuse lymphocytic infiltration of the pituitary gland and pituitary antibodies does not always indicate a diagnosis of autoimmune hypophysitis.

  6. Björk-Jarabak cephalometric analysis on CBCT synthesized cephalograms with different dentofacial sagittal skeletal patterns

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Cardenas, Yalil Augusto; Arriola-Guillen, Luis Ernesto; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the Björk and Jabarak cephalometric analysis generated from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) synthesized lateral cephalograms in adults with different sagittal skeletal patterns. METHODS: The sample consisted of 46 CBCT synthesized cephalograms obtained from patients between 16 and 40 years old. A Björk and Jarabak cephalometric analysis among different sagittal skeletal classes was performed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), multiple range test of Tukey, Kruskal-Wallis test, and independent t-test were used as appropriate. RESULTS: In comparison to the standard values: Skeletal Class III had increased gonial and superior gonial angles (P < 0.001). This trend was also evident when sex was considered. For Class I males, the sella angle was decreased (P = 0.041), articular angle increased (P = 0.027) and gonial angle decreased (P = 0.002); whereas for Class III males, the gonial angle was increased (P = 0.012). For Class I females, the articular angle was increased (P = 0.029) and the gonial angle decreased (P = 0.004). Björk's sum and Björk and Jabarak polygon sum showed no significant differences. The facial biotype presented in the three sagittal classes was mainly hypodivergent and neutral. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample, skeletal Class III malocclusion was strongly differentiated from the other sagittal classes, specifically in the mandible, as calculated through Björk and Jarabak analysis. PMID:25628079

  7. Transsphenoidal surgery using a high definition video telescope for pituitary adenomas in dogs with pituitary dependent hypercortisolism: methods and results.

    PubMed

    Mamelak, Adam N; Owen, Tina Jo; Bruyette, David

    2014-05-01

    To (1) establish a technique for transsphenoidal removal of pituitary adenomas in dogs with pituitary dependent hypercortisolism (PDH) using a high definition video telescope, and (2) report initial outcomes. Prospective case series. Dogs with pituitary dependent hypercortisolism (PDH; n = 26) with suprasellar masses. Pituitary tumors were removed using a modification of a transoral transsphenoidal approach. Surgery was observed using a high definition video telescope (VITOM™) and localization of the sella was performed by drilling pilot holes in the basisphenoid bone followed by computed tomography (CT). Dogs had PDH confirmed by urinary cortisol to creatinine ratio (UCCR) and endogenous ACTH assays, and tumors confirmed by MRI. There were no postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leaks, wound dehiscence, or surgical site infections. Overall postoperative mortality was 19% with no mortality observed in the last 16 dogs, indicating an initial "learning curve" followed by good surgical results. All dogs that survived the immediate postoperative period (1 week) returned to their owners in good health, on hormonal replacement therapy. Follow-up ranged from 3 to 36 months. Sustained tumor control and hormonal remission based on normalized ACTH and UCCR measurements were observed in 20/21 (95%) dogs at 1-year follow-up. Modifications of a trans-oral transsphenoidal technique for surgical removal of pituitary tumors provides a safe and effective strategy for long-term remission of PDH with acceptable morbidity and mortality. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  8. Multiportal robotic access to the anterior cranial fossa: a surgical and engineering feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Bly, Randall A; Su, David; Lendvay, Thomas S; Friedman, Diana; Hannaford, Blake; Ferreira, Manuel; Moe, Kris S

    2013-12-01

    Integration of robotic surgical technology into skull base surgery is limited due to minimum angle requirements between robotic tools (narrow funnel effect), steep angle of approach, and instrumentation size. The objectives of this study were to systematically analyze surgical approach portals using a computer model, determine optimal approaches, and assess feasibility of the derived approaches on robotic surgical systems. Computer analysis on 10 computed tomography scans was performed to determine approach trajectories, angles between robotic tools, and distances to specified skull base target locations for transorbital and transnasal surgical approach portals. Dry laboratory and cadaver laboratory. The optimal combinations were tested on the da Vinci and Raven robotic systems. Multiportal analyses showed the angles between 2 robotic tools were 14.7, 28.3, and 52.0 degrees in the cases of 2 transnasal portals, combined transnasal and medial orbit portals, and bilateral superior orbit portals, respectively, approaching a prechiasmatic target. The addition of medial and superior transorbital portals improved the skull base trajectory angles 21 and 27 degrees, respectively. Two robotic tools required an angle of at least 20 degrees between them to function effectively at skull base targets. Technical feasibility of robotic transorbital and transnasal approaches to access sella and parasellar target locations was demonstrated. This technique addresses the 2 major drawbacks of (1) the narrow funnel effect generated from portals in close proximity and (2) the steep angle of approach to the skull base, as observed in previous studies analyzing transoral, transcervical, transmaxillary, and transhyoid portals.

  9. Effect of thrombin concentration on the adhesion strength and clinical application of fibrin glue-soaked sponge.

    PubMed

    Campos, Francia; Fujio, Shingo; Sugata, Sei; Tokimura, Hiroshi; Hanaya, Ryosuke; Bohara, Manoj; Arita, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Fibrin glue-soaked gelatin sponge (FGGS) has been used for tissue sealing in neurosurgical practice, but too rapid clotting of fibrin glue occasionally prevents good fixation of FGGS. Dilution of thrombin may provide adequate manipulation time between mixing fibrinogen and thrombin on gelatin sponge and application into the tissue defects. The present study characterized the effect of thrombin dilution on the adhesion strength of FGGS and retrospectively assessed the clinical usage of the dilution for filling dead space or sealing arachnoid defect in 255 cases who underwent transsphenoidal surgery for the last 66 months. FGGS was prepared using three different concentrations of thrombin: 250 (standard), 50 (1:5 dilution), and 25 (1:10 dilution) units/ml, and incubated for three different periods (5, 20, and 60 seconds). FGGSs were applied over two adjacently positioned porcine skins placed on two metallic plates. The adhesion strength was evaluated by measuring maximum tensile strength during pulling out the sliding plate at a constant rate of displacement. The maximum adhesion strength was greater for FGGS with 1:10 diluted thrombin solution than for FGGS prepared with higher concentrations (p < 0.05). Adhesion strength did not decay for 20 seconds after the mixture. Only four of 255 cases (1.6%) required second reconstruction of sella floor due to the cerebrospinal fluid leakage. FGGS prepared with diluted thrombin solution can provide adequate adhesion strength for clinical use.

  10. Skeletal manifestations of juvenile hypothyroidism and the impact of treatment on skeletal system.

    PubMed

    Gutch, Manish; Philip, Rajeev; Philip, Renjit; Toms, Ajit; Saran, Sanjay; Gupta, K K

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid hormone mediates growth and development of the skeleton through its direct effects and through its permissive effects on growth hormone. The effect of hypothyroidism on bone is well described in congenital hypothyroidism, but the impact of thyroid hormone deficiency on a growing skeleton, as it happens with juvenile hypothyroidism, is less defined. In addition, the extent to which the skeletal defects of juvenile hypothyroidism revert on the replacement of thyroid hormone is not known. A study was undertaken in 29 juvenile autoimmune hypothyroid patients to study the skeletal manifestations of juvenile hypothyroidism and the impact of treatment of hypothyroidism on the skeletal system of juvenile patients. Hypothyroidism has a profound impact on the skeletal system and delayed bone age, dwarfism, and thickened bands at the metaphyseal ends being the most common findings. Post treatment, skeletal findings like delayed bone age and dwarfism improved significantly, but there were no significant changes in enlargement of sella, presence of wormian bones, epihyseal dysgenesis, vertebral changes and thickened band at the metaphyseal ends. With the treatment of hypothyroidism, there is an exuberant advancement of bone age, the catch up of bone age being approximately double of the chronological age advancement.

  11. Sellar Reconstruction and Rates of Delayed Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak after Endoscopic Pituitary Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sanders-Taylor, Chris; Anaizi, Amjad; Kosty, Jennifer; Zimmer, Lee A.; Theodosopoulos, Phillip V.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Delayed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are a complication in transsphenoidal surgery, potentially causing morbidity and longer hospital stays. Sella reconstruction can limit this complication, but is it necessary in all patients? Design Retrospective review. Setting Single-surgeon team (2005–2012) addresses this trend toward graded reconstruction. Participants A total of 264 consecutive patients with pituitary adenomas underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal resections. Sellar defects sizable to accommodate a fat graft were reconstructed. Main outcomes Delayed CSF leak and autograft harvesting. Results Overall, 235 (89%) had reconstruction with autograft (abdominal fat, septal bone/cartilage) and biological glue. Delayed CSF leak was 1.9%: 1.7%, and 3.4% for reconstructed and nonreconstructed sellar defects, respectively (p = 0.44). Complications included one reoperation for leak, two developed meningitis, and autograft harvesting resulted in abdominal hematoma in 0.9% and wound infection in 0.4%. Conclusion In our patients, delayed CSF leaks likely resulted from missed intraoperative CSF leaks or postoperative changes. Universal sellar reconstruction can preemptively treat missed leaks and provide a barrier for postoperative changes. When delayed CSF leaks occurred, sellar reconstruction often allowed for conservative treatment (i.e., lumbar drain) without repeat surgery. We found universal reconstruction provides a low risk of delayed CSF leak with minimal complications. PMID:26225317

  12. Diabetes insipidus--diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Di Iorgi, Natascia; Napoli, Flavia; Allegri, Anna Elsa Maria; Olivieri, Irene; Bertelli, Enrica; Gallizia, Annalisa; Rossi, Andrea; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is the end result of a number of conditions that affect the hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system. The known causes include germinoma/craniopharyngioma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), local inflammatory, autoimmune or vascular diseases, trauma resulting from surgery or an accident, sarcoidosis, metastases and midline cerebral and cranial malformations. In rare cases, the underlying cause can be genetic defects in vasopressin synthesis that are inherited as autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X-linked recessive traits. The diagnosis of the underlying condition is challenging and raises several concerns for patients and parents as it requires long-term follow-up. Proper etiological diagnosis can be achieved via a series of steps that start with clinical observations and then progress to more sophisticated tools. Specifically, MRI identification of pituitary hyperintensity in the posterior part of the sella, now considered a clear marker of neurohypophyseal functional integrity, together with the careful analysis of pituitary stalk shape and size, have provided the most striking findings contributing to the diagnosis and understanding of some forms of 'idiopathic' CDI. MRI STIR (short-inversion-time inversion recovery sequencing) is a promising technology for the early identification of LCH-dependent CDI.

  13. Spontaneous pituitary adenoma occurring after resection of a Rathke's cleft cyst.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Nauman S; Raber, Michael R; Cote, David J; Laws, Edward R

    2016-11-01

    Rathke's cleft cysts (RCC) are benign cystic lesions that originate from remnants of the epithelial lining of Rathke's pouch. RCC are known rarely to occur together with a concomitant pituitary adenoma. Here, we report a patient with a pituitary adenoma arising in the same location as a previously-resected RCC, 3 years post-operatively, and review the literature of "collision" sellar lesions. Consecutive transsphenoidal operations from a single-center between 2008 and 2016 were reviewed to identify patients with pituitary adenoma arising after surgical resection of RCC, and a systematic search of the literature was also performed to identify such patient reports, as well as reports of concomitant pituitary adenoma and RCC. Of 837 transsphenoidal operations from our own experience, one patient with pituitary adenoma occurring after RCC resection was identified and is reported here. A systematic review of the literature resulted in identification of 34 patients with concomitant RCC and pituitary adenoma and no incidents of pituitary adenoma occurring after resection of RCC. Concomitant occurrence of RCC and pituitary adenoma was more commonly diagnosed in women (61%), at a median age of diagnosis of 44 years. The RCC histological analysis in these patients consistently described ciliated columnar or cuboidal epithelium. Although rare, the presence of a new, pathologically-distinct lesions in the sella after prior surgical treatment, is possible. During post-operative monitoring, physicians should consider that what appears as a "recurrent" lesion may actually be growth of a new and entirely different lesion.

  14. Extended endoscopic endonasal surgery using three-dimensional endoscopy in the intra-operative MRI suite for supra-diaphragmatic ectopic pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Fuminari, Komatsu; Hideki, Atsumi; Manabu, Osakabe; Mitsunori, Matsumae

    2015-01-01

    We describe a supra-diaphragmatic ectopic pituitary adenoma that was safely removed using the extended endoscopic endonasal approach, and discuss the value of three-dimensional (3D) endoscopy and intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to this type of procedure. A 61-year-old-man with bitemporal hemianopsia was referred to our hospital, where MRI revealed an enhanced suprasellar tumor compressing the optic chiasma. The tumor extended on the planum sphenoidale and partially encased the right internal carotid artery. An endocrinological assessment indicated normal pituitary function. The extended endoscopic endonasal approach was taken using a 3D endoscope in the intraoperative MRI suite. The tumor was located above the diaphragma sellae and separated from the normal pituitary gland. The pathological findings indicated non-functioning pituitary adenoma and thus the tumor was diagnosed as a supra-diaphragmatic ectopic pituitary adenoma. Intra-operative MRI provided useful information to minimize dural opening and the supra-diaphragmatic ectopic pituitary adenoma was removed from the complex neurovascular structure via the extended endoscopic endonasal approach under 3D endoscopic guidance in the intra-operative suite. Safe and effective removal of a supra-diaphragmatic ectopic pituitary adenoma was accomplished via the extended endoscopic endonasal approach with visual information provided by 3D endoscopy and intra-operative MRI.

  15. Presenting Symptoms of Pituitary Apoplexy.

    PubMed

    Pyrgelis, Efstratios-Stylianos; Mavridis, Ioannis; Meliou, Maria

    2017-04-24

    The classical term "pituitary apoplexy" (PA) describes a clinical syndrome usually characterized by abrupt onset of headache accompanied by neurologic and/or endocrinologic deterioration due to sudden expansion of a mass within the sella turcica as a result of hemorrhage or infarction within a pituitary tumor and adjacent pituitary gland. PA is a medical emergency and a difficult diagnosis to establish. Thus this article reviews the presenting symptoms of PA patients to help clinicians recognize or at least suspect this critical condition early on. PA commonly occurs in the setting of a preexisting adenoma, and several patients are unaware of its existence prior to the onset of apoplexy symptoms, which are mainly of a neurologic, ophthalmologic, and endocrinologic nature. Neurologic symptoms include sudden-onset severe headache and other symptoms of subarachnoid hemorrhage, symptoms from compression of the cavernous sinus contents, nausea/vomiting, impaired consciousness, and symptoms of meningeal irritation. Ophthalmologic symptoms include visual field defects, visual loss, diplopia, and ophthalmoplegia. Endocrinologic disturbances include pituitary adenoma symptoms, cortisol deficiency, panhypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus, and syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging method of choice to aid the PA diagnosis. Its differential diagnoses include cerebrovascular accidents, infectious diseases, and other causes of endocrinologic imbalance. Transsphenoidal surgery is the treatment of choice, especially if there are associated visual abnormalities and ophthalmoplegia. Clinicians should be aware of the presenting symptoms because early diagnosis may reduce the morbidity and mortality of this neurosurgical emergency. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Sudden and unexpected death from pituitary tumor apoplexy.

    PubMed

    Shields, Lisa B E; Balko, M Gregory; Hunsaker, John C

    2012-01-01

    Pituitary tumor apoplexy refers to a clinical syndrome precipitated by the expansion of a pituitary adenoma by hemorrhage or infarction. Individuals may present with myriad signs, including sudden onset of severe headache, visual changes, altered mental status, cranial nerve palsies, and hormonal dysfunction. This disorder constitutes a medical emergency and warrants an expedited evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment to prevent the potential sequelae of permanent visual loss, endocrine abnormalities, or death. We report a case of sudden death from undiagnosed pituitary tumor apoplexy. The decedent was evaluated by medical personnel on three occasions in the week prior to her death for severe headache, nausea, vomiting, and photophobia. Postmortem examination demonstrated a hemorrhagic infarction of a pituitary adenoma with necrosis and expansion out of the sella turcica. The recognition of and treatment for a patient with pituitary tumor apoplexy requires a rapid multidisciplinary effort. Failure of prompt diagnosis may be fatal and require a medico-legal death investigation for sudden and unexpected death. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Pituitary apoplexy and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: a new case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Maïza, J C; Bennet, A; Thorn-Kany, M; Lagarrigue, J; Caron, Ph

    2004-01-01

    Pituitary apoplexy can occur as a complication of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. We report here a new case of such association. A male patient aged 59 years, complaining of decreased libido for one year, was referred to the emergency department for purpura and severe thrombocytopenia (4000 platelets/mm3). 24 hours after the cutaneous rash the patient presented with clinical symptoms of bilateral cavernous sinus compression comprising ptosis, bilateral ophtalmoplegia and right supraorbital hypoesthesia. Cranial CT scan showed an enlarged sella and a pituitary mass with signs of intrapituitary haemorrhage. Hormonal evaluation showed hyperprolactinemia (50 ng/mL) and hypopituitarism, and the patient needed substitution with hydrocortisone and levothyroxine. Immunoglobulins and corticosteroids were given to the patient to treat thrombocytopenia, then worsening of neurological and ophtalmological symptoms led to pituitary surgery. Histopathological examination found necrotical pituitary tissue. Immunostaining with an anti-prolactin antibody was positive in several groups of cells. Neurological symptoms subsided and thrombocytopenia was corrected by treatment. In conclusion, we report a case of pituitary apoplexy due to severe thrombocytopenia occurring as a complication of a preexisting macroprolactinoma.

  18. Chondroblastoma of the Clivus: Case Report and Review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jonathan; Ahmadpour, Arjang; Bewley, Arnaud F.; Lechpammer, Mirna; Bobinski, Matthew; Shahlaie, Kiarash

    2015-01-01

    Background and Importance Chondroblastoma is a benign primary bone tumor that typically develops in the epiphyses of long bones. Chondroblastoma of the craniofacial skeleton is extremely rare, with most cases occurring in the squamosal portion of the temporal bone. In this report, we describe the first case of chondroblastoma of the clivus presenting with cranial neuropathy that was treated with endoscopic endonasal resection. We review the literature on craniofacial chondroblastomas with particular emphasis on extratemporal lesions. Case Presentation A 27-year-old woman presented with severe headache, left facial dysesthesias, and diplopia. Physical examination revealed hypesthesia in the left maxillary nerve dermatome, and complete left abducens nerve palsy. Imaging demonstrated an expansile intraosseous mass originating in the upper clivus with extension superiorly into the sella turcica and laterally to involve the medial wall of the left cavernous sinus. The tumor was completely resected via an endoscopic endonasal approach, with postoperative improvement in lateral gaze palsy. Histopathology was consistent with chondroblastoma. Conclusion Chondroblastoma is a rare tumor of the craniofacial skeleton that should be included in the differential diagnosis of an osteolytic lesion of the clivus. Complete surgical resection remains the mainstay of treatment. PMID:26623238

  19. Gorlin–Goltz syndrome: A case series of 5 patients in North Indian population with comparative analysis of literature

    PubMed Central

    Lata, Jeevan; Verma, Nitin; Kaur, Amandeep

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In Indian scenario, Gorlin–Goltz syndrome (nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome [NBCCS]) has been rarely reported. The clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings and major and minor criteria in five cases of NBCCS in North Indian population have been presented along with a discussion of the role of gene mutation analysis in early diagnosis of syndrome. Materials and Methods: The diagnostic findings of Gorlin–Goltz syndrome in 5 patients were compared with other reports in Indian population and with reports of this syndrome in other parts of the world. Results: The most common features seen were keratocystic odontogenic tumors (100%), calcifications of falx cerebri (60%), palmar-plantar pits (80%), rib anomalies (80%), macroencephaly (60%), ocular hypertelorism (80%), and frontal bossing (60%) in our series. Retained deciduous teeth seen in 80% patients whose association has not been previously reported has been presented. None of our patients had basal cell carcinoma, syndactyly or polydactyly, pectus deformity, bridging of sella turcica, pigmented nevi, or family history of this syndrome in contrast to such findings in other Indian patients. Medulloblastoma has not been reported in any Indian patient so far compared to this finding in other studies conducted worldwide. Conclusions: Combining the features of 48 patients in 38 cases of NBCCS being published in Indian literature with five cases of our series and on comparison with other studies in the world, a wide disparity in different ethnic groups and a wide variation in presentation of syndrome within the same population is suggested. PMID:26604574

  20. Unusual association of turner syndrome and hypopituitarism in a Tunisian family.

    PubMed

    Bougacha-Elleuch, N; Elleuch, M; Charfi, N; Mnif, F; Belghith, N; Abdelhedi, F; Kammoun, H; Hachicha, M; Mnif, M; Abid, M

    2016-01-01

    Familial occurrence of either Turner syndrome or hypopituitarism is very rare. Particularly, their association is an uncommon finding. In this context, we describe for the first time 4 sisters with Turner syndrome, hypopituitarism was reported in three among them. Our cohort consists of four Tunisian adult sisters belonging to a consanguineous family. Biochemical analysis, resonance magnetic imaging and cytogenetic analyses were performed. Turner syndrome was diagnosed at the ages of 14, 17, 31 and 43 years in cases 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. They suffered from short stature, dysmorphic syndrome and/or delayed puberty. Interestingly, 3 among them showed also hypopituitarism, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and central hypothyroidism. Somatotropic insufficiency was proven in one case. Pituitary MRI has shown an empty sella turcica with hypoplastic pituitary gland in three cases. Their karyotypes were compatible with 45X in one case, 45X/46XX in the second and 45X/46XX/47XXY with x label in two cases. Hence, the presence of these familial cases of TS must evoke new etiopathogenetic arguments. Coincidence of hypopituitarism in this family, might suggest common genetic background for the two diseases. This particular family would be a precious tool for an extensive molecular analysis. More attention should be given to other family's members mainly in the presence of delayed puberty and sterility in other members. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Pineal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Concomitant With Pituitary Prolactinoma: Possible Correlation Between 2 Distinguished Pathologies: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeong-Jin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Jung, Shin; Noh, Myung-Giun; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Moon, Kyung-Sub

    2016-02-01

    This is the first reported case of pineal lymphoma with concomitant prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma.A 51-year-old male experienced worsening headaches accompanied by nausea, diplopia, and memory loss for 1 month. Cranial nerve examination revealed bilateral upward gaze limitation with convergence impairment, which is known as Parinaud syndrome. Magnetic resonance images revealed a mass in the pineal gland with a coexisting mass within the enlarged sella fossa. Hormone analysis revealed hyperprolactinemia. The pineal mass was removed without injuring the hypothalamus, brain stem, or any neighboring vessels. Pathology examination confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the pineal gland. After further studies, the pineal lymphoma was determined to be a secondary tumor from a gastric primary tumor. The patient died 6 months after diagnosis due to systemic progression of DLBCL.Although the mechanistic link between hyperprolactinemia and lymphoma progression has not been clarified on a clinical basis, high prolactin levels may contribute to the rapid progression and therapeutic resistance of the lymphoma.

  2. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumour of the Skull Base

    PubMed Central

    Maire, Jean-Philippe; Eimer, Sandrine; San Galli, François; Franco-Vidal, Valérie; Galland-Girodet, Sigolène; Huchet, Aymeri; Darrouzet, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are rare benign clinical and pathological entities. IMTs have been described in the lungs, abdomen, retroperitoneum, and extremities but rarely in the head and neck region. A 38-year-old man presented with headache, right exophthalmia, and right 6th nerve palsy. A CT scan revealed enlargement of the right cavernous sinus and osteolytic lesions of the right sphenoid and clivus. MR imaging showed a large tumor of the skull base which was invading the sella turcica, right cavernous sinus, and sphenoidal sinus. A biopsy was performed and revealed an IMT. Corticosteroids were given for 3 months but were inefficient. In the framework of our pluridisciplinary consultation, fractionated conformal radiotherapy (FRT) was indicated at a low dose; 20 Gy in 10 fractions of 2 Gy over 12 days were delivered. Clinical response was complete 3 months after FRT. Radiological response was subtotal 6 months after FRT. Two years later, the patient is well. PMID:23573442

  3. Visualization of the normal pituitary gland during the endoscopic endonasal removal of pituitary adenoma by narrow band imaging.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, Nobuyuki; Taniguchi, Masaaki; Kohmura, Eiji

    2016-10-01

    Narrow band imaging (NBI) is an endoscopic technology that enhances the visualization of the superficial and submucosal vasculature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of NBI in visualizing the normal pituitary gland during the endoscopic endonasal removal of pituitary adenoma. A total of 25 patients with pituitary adenoma underwent endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery using a rigid endoscope with conventional imaging. The NBI of the surgical field was conducted under air and/or continuous irrigation of artificial cerebrospinal fluid using a flexible videoscope before and/or after the gross removal of the tumor. The capillaries of the normal pituitary gland had a characteristic appearance that could be confirmed in 16 cases. In contrast, the adenomas exhibited no characteristic vascular enhancement under NBI. The reasons why NBI failed to visualize the pituitary gland included the presence of a blood clot or a certain amount of tumor obscuring the normal pituitary gland and difficulty in steering the videoscope within the sella to approach the assumed site of the residual pituitary gland. NBI observation during the endoscopic endonasal removal of pituitary adenoma may be useful for visualizing the normal pituitary gland after the gross removal of the tumor. The absence of a typical vascular pattern suggests the presence of a residual tumor, which may justify further exploration in cases where gross total removal is considered necessary.

  4. Mimicry between mitochondrial disorder and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Höftberger, Romana; Stöllberger, Claudia; Rolinski, Boris

    2012-06-01

    Under certain conditions or at certain stages of the disease course, multiple sclerosis (MS) and mitochondrial disorder (MID) may be differential diagnoses and thus may be confused with each other. In a 30 years old female MS was diagnosed at age 16 year upon recurrent sensory disturbances of the right lower leg, an "inflammatory" cerebrospinal fluid, and a cerebral MRI with multiple non-enhancing white matter lesions. Steroids were repeatedly given but because of rapid deterioration treatment was switched to interferon and mitoxantrone, without improvement. Fourteen years after onset the patient additionally presented with a history of rhabdomyolysis, hypothyroidism, ophthalmoparesis, anarthria, tetraspasticity, tetraparesis, and joint contractures. After MID had been diagnosed in her mother she was re-evaluated and elevated resting lactate, axonal polyneuropathy, and empty sella were additionally found. Muscle biopsy revealed myophagy, fat deposition, and type-II predominance, and biochemical investigations showed a deficiency of complex I and IV of the respiratory chain. MID was diagnosed also in the index patient. It is concluded that even if CSF investigations or imaging studies suggest MS, differentials such as MIDs need to be excluded before prescribing medication possibly toxic to a MID. An "inflammatory CSF" may also occur in MIDs.

  5. Daily pattern of some fatty acids in the athletic horse.

    PubMed

    Piccione, G; Assenza, A; Borruso, M; Fazio, F; Caola, G

    2009-02-01

    In the sport field, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are important for the physical performance during the aerobic exercise of short intensity and long duration. In man, rat, goat and in the sedentary horse studies on the chronometabolism showed the presence of a circadian rhythm of the plasmatic concentration of NEFA while data for the athletic horse are lacking. To define a chronogram helpful for a specific planning and the differentiation of the training programmme in the athletic horse, the circadian pattern of some fatty acids (NEFA, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids) was studied in five Sella Italiana horses. These horses trained following a daily model of activity consisting of walk, trot, gallop and jump of obstacles of different heights. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein every 4 h, starting at 08:00 hours, for 2 days to assess the concentrations of total NEFA (by spectrophotometry), palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids (by gas chromatography). anova for repeated measures showed a statistical significant effect of the time of the day in NEFA, oleic and linolenic acids. The application of the periodic model showed the periodic pattern of NEFA, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids. Acrophases were in the afternoon for all parameters. The results obtained showed a different trend of the circadian pattern of the studied parameters in the athletic horse than in the sedentary one because the physical activity and the post-prandial metabolism acted as zeitgebers.

  6. [Euclid and Pythagorus in the 21st century. A proposal on various harmonious craniofacial and occlusal constants].

    PubMed

    Blocquel, H

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the architectural relationships between different squeletal and dental pieces participating in the mastication, and to prove their fixity. We have at our disposition a collection of teleradiographies taken from profile on the same subject, over the course of several years; 3000 of them have been selected. With the help of tracings, where are drawn 36 degrees angles; or 72 degrees and 108 degrees; we systematize our locations. Together with our ten experimenters, we have noticed the existence of a parallelism between the graphic representations of the Bouvet occlusal plane, the sphenoïdal planum (sphenoïdale bone) and the course of the second trigeminal branch (trigeminus nerve) in its infra-orbital section. The angle of those different marks with the superior clivus (quadrilateral strip of the sphenoïd) (dorsum sellae) still measures 72 degrees. It is equal to 108 degrees with the graphic representation of the third antero-inferior pterygoïd process. (pterygoïdeus process). The angle between the superior clivus and the pterygoïd process still measures 36 degrees. These works are new contributions to the orthodontic, occlusodontic or prosthetic conceptions.

  7. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension in children: Diagnostic and management approach.

    PubMed

    Albakr, Abdulrahman; Hamad, Muddathir H; Alwadei, Ali H; Bashiri, Fahad A; Hassan, Hamdy H; Idris, Hiyam; Hassan, Saeed; Muayqil, Taim; Altweijri, Ikhlass; Salih, Mustafa A

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a rare neurological disorder in children. It is characterized by raised intracranial pressure (ICP) in the absence of brain parenchymal lesion, vascular malformations, hydrocephalus, or central nervous system (CNS) infection. The diagnosis is usually confirmed by high opening pressure of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with exclusion of secondary causes of intracranial hypertension. If not treated properly, it may lead to severe visual dysfunction. Here we review the etiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria and management of IIH in children through illustration of the clinical and radiological presentation of a 13-year-old overweight girl who presented with severe headache, diplopia and bilateral papilledema. Otherwise, she had unremarkable neurological and systemic examinations. Lumbar puncture showed a high CSF opening pressure (360-540 mmH2O). Her investigations showed normal complete blood count (CBC), normal renal, liver, and thyroid function tests. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood chemistry were unremarkable. Magnetic resonant image (MRI) of the brain demonstrated empty sella turcica, tortuous optic nerves, and flattening of the posterior sclera. Magnetic resonant venography (MRV) showed focal narrowing of the distal transverse sinuses and absence of venous sinus thrombosis. She required treatment with acetazolamide and prednisolone. With medical treatment, weight reduction, and exercise, our patient had a remarkable improvement in her symptoms with resolution of papilledema in two months. This review highlights the importance of early recognition and management of IIH to prevent permanent visual loss.

  8. Robotic Anterior and Midline Skull Base Surgery: Preclinical Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    O'Malley, Bert W. Weinstein, Gregory S.

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To develop a minimally invasive surgical technique to access the midline and anterior skull base using the optical and technical advantages of robotic surgical instrumentation. Methods and Materials: Ten experimental procedures focusing on approaches to the nasopharynx, clivus, sphenoid, pituitary sella, and suprasellar regions were performed on one cadaver and one live mongrel dog. Both the cadaver and canine procedures were performed in an approved training facility using the da Vinci Surgical Robot. For the canine experiments, a transoral robotic surgery (TORS) approach was used, and for the cadaver a newly developed combined cervical-transoral robotic surgery (C-TORS) approach was investigated and compared with standard TORS. The ability to access and dissect tissues within the various areas of the midline and anterior skull base were evaluated, and techniques to enhance visualization and instrumentation were developed. Results: Standard TORS approaches did not provide adequate access to the midline and anterior skull base; however, the newly developed C-TORS approach was successful in providing the surgical access to these regions of the skull base. Conclusion: Robotic surgery is an exciting minimally invasive approach to the skull base that warrants continued preclinical investigation and development.

  9. The Reverse-Flow Facial Artery Buccinator Flap for Skull Base Reconstruction: Key Anatomical and Technical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Farzal, Zainab; Lemos-Rodriguez, Ana M; Rawal, Rounak B; Overton, Lewis J; Sreenath, Satyan B; Patel, Mihir R; Zanation, Adam M

    2015-12-01

    Objective To highlight key anatomical and technical considerations for facial artery identification, and harvest and transposition of the facial artery buccinator (FAB) flap to facilitate its future use in anterior skull base reconstruction. Only a few studies have evaluated the reverse-flow FAB flap for skull base defects. Design Eight FAB flaps were raised in four cadaveric heads and divided into thirds; the facial artery's course at the superior and inferior borders of the flap was measured noting in which incisional third of the flap it laid. The flap's reach to the anterior cranial fossa, sella turcica, clival recess, and contralateral cribriform plate were studied. A clinical case and operative video are also presented. Results The facial artery had a near vertical course and stayed with the middle (⅝) or posterior third (⅜) of the flap in the inferior and superior incisions. Seven of eight flaps covered the sellar/planar regions. Only four of eight flaps covered the contralateral cribriform region. Lastly, none reached the middle third of the clivus. Conclusions The FAB flap requires an understanding of the facial artery's course, generally seen in the middle third of the flap, and is an appropriate alternative for sellar/planar and ipsilateral cribriform defects.

  10. Development of the orbital region in the chondrocranium of Caretta caretta. Reconsideration of the vertebrate neurocranium configuration.

    PubMed

    Kuratani, S

    1989-01-01

    By studying the development of the orbital region in the Loggarhead turtle (Caretta caretta) and some placental mammals, it has become clear that the orbital region of the neurocranium should not be regarded as merely a "bowl" to contain the brain, but rather that its ventral part is originally flexured along with the cephalic flexure of the neural tube. At this flexure, the neurocranium is to be divided into 2 parts, the anterior and posterior. The anterior part of the neurocranial sheet is medially perforated by the infundibulum and gives rise to pila metoptica laterally. The post orbital cartilage represents the posterior part. From the above "Bauplan" of the neurocranium, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) the simple homology of the reptilian and placental mammalian pila metoptica is questionable; (2) the pila antotica is produced by the absorption of the mid-dorsal part of the postorbital cartilage, while the dorsum sellae in mammals is produce by the chondrification of the middle part of the same anlage; (3) homology of the ala hypochiasmatica in mammals with the supratrabecular cartilage in reptiles is more feasible than with the cartilago hypochiasmatica; and (4) the crista sellaris in reptiles is not a part of the primary cranial wall but probably of secondary production.

  11. Association of craniopharyngioma and pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Guaraldi, Federica; Prencipe, Nunzia; di Giacomo, Valentina; Scanarini, Massimo; Gasco, Valentina; Gardiman, Marina Paola; Berton, Alessandro M; Ghigo, Ezio; Grottoli, Silvia

    2013-08-01

    Intracranial tumors of different histologic types infrequently affect patients with pituitary adenomas and no history of head irradiation. The association with craniopharyngioma is extremely rare. Aims of this paper are: (1) to provide a critical literature review of typical features of pituitary adenoma presenting in association with craniopharyngioma; (2) to describe the first documented (clinically, biochemically, histologically, and radiologically) case of aggressive, suprasellar papillary craniopharyngioma presenting with amenorrhea, progressive reduction of visual field, and severe headache in a 38-year-old woman, a decade after surgical cure for microprolactinoma associated with empty sella, during which she had carried two pregnancies; and (3) to discuss common etiopathogenetic mechanisms, in relation to the management of these lesions. Systematic literature search for English literature focusing on the association of craniopharyngioma and pituitary adenoma was performed using PubMed database. Additional relevant articles from references lists were also included. Clinical, laboratory, and radiological examinations performed in our patient for the two brain lesions at diagnosis and follow up were collected. Literature search retrieved nine articles. Typically, craniopharyngioma were of adamantinomatous type, occurred simultaneously to pituitary adenoma, presented with headache and visual loss, and affected men. No case of clearly documented metachronous lesion affecting a woman after pregnancy had been described before. Although very rare and with uncertain etiopathogenesis, second tumors (i.e., craniopharyngioma) should be considered in patients with a history of pituitary adenoma, presenting with suggestive signs and symptoms, even after a long disease-free period, in order to provide proper and prompt treatment.

  12. A De Novo Arisen Case of Primary Adrenal Insufficiency in an Adolescent Patient With Crohn Disease

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yun; Mao, Ren; Chen, Min-hu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Several recent population-based studies have demonstrated that patients with inflammatory bowel disease are likely to have other autoimmune diseases. Here we describe the first de novo arisen case of primary adrenal insufficiency in an adolescent female patient with Crohn disease (CD). A 17-year-old female diagnosed with stricturing colonic CD received the maintenance regimen of Remicade (infliximab) 5 mg/kg every 8 weeks following the standard induction regimen. She had an ileocecostomy due to acute small bowel obstruction at 1.5-year since the last infusion of Remicade. She was presented with skin hyperpigmentation of her face, neck, upper limbs, buccal mucosa and lips, which worsened when commenced on 6-mercaptopurine treatment for prophylaxis of postoperative recurrence. An increased adrenocorticotropic hormone (20.3 pmol/L, range 2–11) measurement was obtained. Radiography of the sella turcica region showed no signs of pituitary disease, or abnormality of bilateral adrenal cortex. Since serum aldosterone was below the reference range, more importantly, assessments for both antiadrenal antibodies and anti-21-hydroxylase antibodies were positive, she was then diagnosed as primary adrenal insufficiency. The symptoms improved after supplement of hydrocortisone. This case highlights a rare immune-mediated comorbidity in an adolescent patient with CD. Recognition of a new pattern of autoimmune endocrine comorbidity enables clinicians to be alert about the possibility of concurrence of primary adrenal insufficiency with CD. PMID:26061303

  13. Post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy--two case reports.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, H; Nishizawa, S; Satoh, A; Yokoyama, T; Uemura, K

    1999-01-01

    A 60-year-old female and a 66-year-old male presented with post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy associated with clinically asymptomatic pituitary macroadenoma manifesting as severe visual disturbance that had not developed immediately after the head injury. Skull radiography showed a unilateral linear occipital fracture. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed pituitary tumor with dumbbell-shaped suprasellar extension and fresh intratumoral hemorrhage. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed in the first patient, and the visual disturbance subsided. Decompressive craniectomy was performed in the second patient to treat brain contusion and part of the tumor was removed to decompress the optic nerves. The mechanism of post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy may occur as follows. The intrasellar part of the tumor is fixed by the bony structure forming the sella, and the suprasellar part is free to move, so a rotational force acting on the occipital region on one side will create a shearing strain between the intra- and suprasellar part of the tumor, resulting in pituitary apoplexy. Recovery of visual function, no matter how severely impaired, can be expected if an emergency operation is performed to decompress the optic nerves. Transsphenoidal surgery is the most advantageous procedure, as even partial removal of the tumor may be adequate to decompress the optic nerves in the acute stage. Staged transsphenoidal surgery is indicated to achieve total removal later.

  14. Embryological Consideration of Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas

    PubMed Central

    TANAKA, Michihiro

    2016-01-01

    The topographical distribution of dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) was analyzed based on the embryological anatomy of the dural membrane. Sixty-six consecutive cases of intracranial and spinal DAVFs were analyzed based on the angiography, and each shunt point was identified according to the embryological bony structures. The area of dural membranes was categorized into three different groups: a ventral group located on the endochondral bone (VE group), a dorsal group located on the membranous bone (DM group) and a falcotentorial group (FT group) located in the falx cerebri, tentorium cerebelli, falx cerebelli, and diaphragm sellae. The FT group was designated when the dural membrane was formed only with the dura propria (meningeal layer of the dura mater) and not from the endosteal dura. Cavernous sinus, sigmoid sinus, and anterior condylar confluence was categorized to VE group, which had a female predominance, more benign clinical presentations, and a lower rate of cortical and spinal venous reflux. Transverse sinus, confluence, and superior sagittal sinus belonged to the DM group. Olfactory groove, falx, tent of the cerebellum, and nerve sleeve of spinal cord were categorized to the FT group, which presented later in life and which had a male predominance, more aggressive clinical presentations, and significant cortical and spinal venous reflux. The DAVFs was associated with the layers of the dural membrane characterized by the two different embryological bony structures. The FT group was formed only with the dura propria as an independent risk factor for aggressive clinical course and hemorrhage of DAVFs. PMID:27250699

  15. Chiasmal optic glioma after radiation therapy. Neuro-ophthalmologic/pathologic correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.C. Jr.; Smith, J.L.; Reyes, P.; Vuksanovic, M.M.

    1981-03-01

    A 16-year-old white girl with neurofibromatosis was documented as having progressive visual loss in both eyes over 3 years before diagnosis of a chiasmal glioma. She was then treated with supervoltage irradiation to the sella and parasellar area. Bitemporal fields measuring 5 x 5 cm each were initially used, and source skin distance of 80 cm with coplanar opposing technique was used whereby each field was treated daily to a midplane dose of 186 rads. The patient received a cumulative tumor dose over the 5-week course of 4680 rads. She tolerated this well, and her visual function was stabilized thereafter for over a year. Two years following therapy, she expired suddenly and unexpectedly at home. At autopsy, there was no radionecrosis in the brain or optic nerves, but minimal radiation changes were seen in the tumor. Extensive local invasion was seen in the entire chiasm, adjacent optic tracts and hypothalamus. In addition, other disparate small fibrillary astrocytic gliomas were found in the optic radiations, midbrain, and left anterior midfrontal lobe. This patient therefore documents clinically progressive visual deterioration before irradiation therapy, and palliative visual function stability for well over a year after irradiation therapy. The patient also demonstrates the difficulty in treating a locally aggressive optic chiasmal glioma, its infiltrative nature, and the multifocality of other unsuspected neural tumors in neurofibromatosis.

  16. Adult multisystem langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting with central diabetes insipidus successfully treated with chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Eun; Lee, Hae Ri; Ohn, Jung Hun; Moon, Min Kyong; Park, Juri; Lee, Seong Jin; Choi, Moon-Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Kim, Jung Han; Hong, Eun-Gyoung

    2014-09-01

    We report the rare case of an adult who was diagnosed with recurrent multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) involving the pituitary stalk and lung who present with central diabetes insipidus and was successfully treated with systemic steroids and chemotherapy. A 49-year-old man visited our hospital due to symptoms of polydipsia and polyuria that started 1 month prior. Two years prior to presentation, he underwent excision of right 6th and 7th rib lesions for the osteolytic lesion and chest pain, which were later confirmed to be LCH on pathology. After admission, the water deprivation test was done and the result indicated that he had central diabetes insipidus. Sella magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass on the pituitary stalk with loss of normal bright spot at the posterior lobe of the pituitary. Multiple patchy infiltrations were detected in both lung fields by computed tomography (CT). He was diagnosed with recurrent LCH and was subsequently treated with inhaled desmopressin, systemic steroids, vinblastine, and mercaptopurine. The pituitary mass disappeared after two months and both lungs were clear on chest CT after 11 months. Although clinical remission in multisystem LCH in adults is reportedly rare, our case of adult-onset multisystem LCH was treated successfully with systemic chemotherapy using prednisolone, vinblastine, and 6-mercaptopurine, which was well tolerated.

  17. Paleopathological findings in radiographs of ancient and modern Greek skulls.

    PubMed

    Papagrigorakis, Manolis J; Karamesinis, Kostas G; Daliouris, Kostas P; Kousoulis, Antonis A; Synodinos, Philippos N; Hatziantoniou, Michail D

    2012-12-01

    The skull, when portrayed radiologically, can be a useful tool in detecting signs of systemic diseases and results of pathological growth mechanisms. The aim of this study was therefore to examine, compare, and classify findings in cranial configuration of pathological origin, in modern and ancient skulls. The material consists of 240 modern and 141 ancient dry skulls. Three radiographs for each skull (lateral, anteroposterior, basilar) provide enough evidence for differential diagnoses. Cases of osteoporosis are among the interesting pathological findings. A prevalence of female modern skulls in those determined as osteoporotic skulls is noted. Special interest is placed on the area of the sella turcica and many variations, regarding the shape and texture, are recognized both in ancient and modern skulls. Malignancies and important causes of cranial destruction are identified in both skull collections. Diploid thickening and osteolytic areas appear commonly among ancient remains. Moreover, from the ancient skull collection, one case possibly recognizable as fibrous dysplasia is noted while another case with an unusual exostosis gives rise to many questions. Interpreted with caution, the results of the present study, which can serve as an approach of paleopathology and paleoradiology, indicate similarity trends in cranial configuration of pathologic origin in modern and ancient people. Radiography and cephalometry were the main diagnostic tools used to gather evidence and are evaluated as a quite appropriate method to examine anthropological material and assess the internal structure of skeletal remains since they are non-destructive techniques.

  18. Anterior maxillary segmental distraction for correction of maxillary hypoplasia and dental crowding in cleft palate patients: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Wang, X-X; Wang, X; Li, Z-L; Yi, B; Liang, C; Jia, Y-L; Zou, B-S

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of anterior maxillary segmental distraction (AMSD) to correct maxillary hypoplasia and severe dental crowding in cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients, 7 patients (average age 16.4 years) with maxillary hypoplasia, shortened maxillary dental arch length and severe anterior dental crowding secondary to CLP were selected for this study. After anterior maxillary segmental osteotomy, 3 patients were treated using bilateral internal distraction devices, and 4 patients were treated using rigid external distraction devices. Photographs and radiographs were taken to review the improvement in facial profile and occlusion after distraction. An average 10.25 mm anterior maxillary advancement was obtained in all patients after 10-23 days of distraction and 9-16 weeks of consolidation. The sella-nasion-point A (SNA) angle increased from 69.5 degrees to 79.6 degrees. Midface convexity was greatly improved and velopharyngeal competence was preserved. The maxillary dental arch length was greatly increased by 10.1 mm (P<0.01). Dental crowding and malocclusion were corrected by orthodontic treatment. These results show that AMSD can effectively correct the hypoplastic maxilla and severe dental crowding associated with CLP by increasing the midface convexity and dental arch length while preserving velopharyngeal function, and dental crowding can be corrected without requiring tooth extraction.

  19. Case Report: The Specter of Untreated Congenital Hypothyroidism in Immigrant Families

    PubMed Central

    Hamdoun, Elwaseila; Karachunski, Peter; Nathan, Brandon; Fischer, Melissa; Torkelson, Jane L.; Drilling, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Newborn screening has dramatically reduced rates of untreated congenital hypothyroidism (CH). However, in low-income nations where newborn screening programs do not exist, untreated CH remains a significant health and societal challenge. The goal of this report is to alert health care providers about the potential of undiagnosed CH in unscreened immigrant children. We report 3 siblings of Somali descent with CH who started treatment with levothyroxine at age 0.5 years, 7.7 years, and 14.8 years and were followed for 8 years. This case series demonstrates a spectrum of severity, response to treatment, and neurocognitive and growth outcomes depending on the age at treatment initiation. Patient 1, now 22 years old, went undiagnosed for 14.8 years. On diagnosis, his height was –7.5 SDs with a very delayed bone age of –13.5 SDs. His longstanding CH was associated with empty sella syndrome, static encephalopathy, and severe musculoskeletal deformities. Even after treatment, his height (–5.2 SDs) and cognitive deficits remained the most severe of the 3 siblings. Patient 2, diagnosed at 7.7 years, had moderate CH manifestations and thus a relatively intermediate outcome after treatment. Patient 3, who had the earliest diagnosis at 0.5 years, displayed the best response, but continues to have residual global developmental delay. In conclusion, untreated CH remains an important diagnostic consideration among immigrant children. PMID:27244801

  20. Ectopic acromegaly due to a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma in the sphenoid sinus: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Claudia; Hernández-Ramirez, Laura-Cristina; Espinosa-de-los-Monteros, Ana-Laura; Franco, Juan Manuel; Guinto, Gerardo; Mercado, Moises

    2013-10-12

    In more than 98% of cases, acromegaly is due to a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma. The term "ectopic acromegaly" includes neuroendocrine tumors secreting GH releasing hormone (GHRH), usually located in the lungs, thymus and endocrine pancreas. Considerably less frequent are cases of ectopic acromegaly due to GH-secreting tumors located out of the pituitary fossa; except for one isolated case of a well-documented GH-secreting lymphoma, the majority of these lesions are located in the sphenoid sinus. We present the case of a 45 year old woman with acromegaly whose MRI showed an empty sella without evidence of a pituitary adenoma but revealed a large mass within the sphenoid sinus. She underwent transsphenoidal surgery and the excised sphenoid sinus mass, proved to be a GH-secreting adenoma; the sellar floor was intact and no other lesions were found in the pituitary fossa. She required postoperative treatment with somatostatin analogs and cabergoline for clinical and biochemical control. This case highlights the importance of carefully evaluating the structures surrounding the sellar area when a pituitary adenoma is not found with currently available imaging techniques. The finding of an intact sellar floor and duramater lead us to conclude that the patient's tumor originated de novo from embryological pituitary remnants. Upon a careful review of the literature and a critical evaluation of our case we found neither clinical nor biochemical features that would distinguish an ectopic from the more common eutopically located somatotrophinoma.

  1. The Hoshino wooden skeleton, the first wooden model of a human skeleton, made during the Edo era in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Katsuko; Suzaki, Etsuko; Ajima, Noriaki

    2007-03-01

    The wooden model of the human skeleton, called the wooden skeleton, is a distinguished original craft object from the Edo era, in Japan, when medical doctors were unable to keep a human skeleton for study and teaching purposes. There are three types of wooden skeletons: (i) Hoshino made in 1792; (ii) Kagami made by 1810; and (iii) Okuda made around 1820. The former two are of adult males and the latter is of a female. The wooden skeletons were made with surprising accuracy compared with figures that appeared in the medical books available in Japan at that time, which suggests a scientific readiness of the doctors and the skill of the craftsmen. In the cases of the Hoshino and Kagami wooden skeletons, it is hard to consider that all wooden bones were assembled to show the entire body. Conversely, the Okuda wooden skeletons were made for showing in the sitting position. The skull of the Hoshino wooden skeleton is of special interest: the skull cap was not cut, yet the internal structures of the skull, such as the sella turcica, foramina for nerves and vessels, and the sulci for venous sinuses, were made with considerable accuracy. The skull caps of the Kagami and Okuda wooden skeletons were cut, as those used in modern medical education.

  2. A De Novo Arisen Case of Primary Adrenal Insufficiency in an Adolescent Patient With Crohn Disease: A Case report.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yun; Mao, Ren; Chen, Min-hu

    2015-06-01

    Several recent population-based studies have demonstrated that patients with inflammatory bowel disease are likely to have other autoimmune diseases. Here we describe the first de novo arisen case of primary adrenal insufficiency in an adolescent female patient with Crohn disease (CD). A 17-year-old female diagnosed with stricturing colonic CD received the maintenance regimen of Remicade (infliximab) 5 mg/kg every 8 weeks following the standard induction regimen. She had an ileocecostomy due to acute small bowel obstruction at 1.5-year since the last infusion of Remicade. She was presented with skin hyperpigmentation of her face, neck, upper limbs, buccal mucosa and lips, which worsened when commenced on 6-mercaptopurine treatment for prophylaxis of postoperative recurrence. An increased adrenocorticotropic hormone (20.3 pmol/L, range 2-11) measurement was obtained. Radiography of the sella turcica region showed no signs of pituitary disease, or abnormality of bilateral adrenal cortex. Since serum aldosterone was below the reference range, more importantly, assessments for both antiadrenal antibodies and anti-21-hydroxylase antibodies were positive, she was then diagnosed as primary adrenal insufficiency. The symptoms improved after supplement of hydrocortisone. This case highlights a rare immune-mediated comorbidity in an adolescent patient with CD. Recognition of a new pattern of autoimmune endocrine comorbidity enables clinicians to be alert about the possibility of concurrence of primary adrenal insufficiency with CD.

  3. Oblique osteotomy and coronoidectomy in extreme prognathism of Apert syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2010-03-01

    We report a case of oblique osteotomy and coronoidectomy for correction of extreme prognathism in Apert syndrome.A 16-year-old girl presented with a prognathic mandible. A prototype model was formed using computed tomography. After a mock bilateral oblique osteotomy of the mandible, the distal segment did not overlap the proximal segment, and it caused bony impingement between the coronoid process and the subcondyle of the proximal segment. An oblique osteotomy of the mandible was done through a submandibular approach, and bilateral coronoidectomy followed. After surgery, mandibular parameters were reviewed. The mandibular plane-Frankfort horizontal (MP/FH) angle decreased from 44 to 11 degrees; and the mandibular plane-sella nasion (MP/SN) angle, from 52 to 17 degrees. The mandible rotated backward and caudally after the surgery.It is predictable that there will be a bony impingement between the coronoid process and the subcondyle of the proximal segment before surgery, and so an oblique osteotomy and coronoidectomy are planned ahead through an external approach.

  4. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension in children: Diagnostic and management approach

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Muddathir H; Alwadei, Ali H; Bashiri, Fahad A; Hassan, Hamdy H; Idris, Hiyam; Hassan, Saeed; Muayqil, Taim; Altweijri, Ikhlass; Salih, Mustafa A

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a rare neurological disorder in children. It is characterized by raised intracranial pressure (ICP) in the absence of brain parenchymal lesion, vascular malformations, hydrocephalus, or central nervous system (CNS) infection. The diagnosis is usually confirmed by high opening pressure of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with exclusion of secondary causes of intracranial hypertension. If not treated properly, it may lead to severe visual dysfunction. Here we review the etiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria and management of IIH in children through illustration of the clinical and radiological presentation of a 13-year-old overweight girl who presented with severe headache, diplopia and bilateral papilledema. Otherwise, she had unremarkable neurological and systemic examinations. Lumbar puncture showed a high CSF opening pressure (360–540 mmH2O). Her investigations showed normal complete blood count (CBC), normal renal, liver, and thyroid function tests. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood chemistry were unremarkable. Magnetic resonant image (MRI) of the brain demonstrated empty sella turcica, tortuous optic nerves, and flattening of the posterior sclera. Magnetic resonant venography (MRV) showed focal narrowing of the distal transverse sinuses and absence of venous sinus thrombosis. She required treatment with acetazolamide and prednisolone. With medical treatment, weight reduction, and exercise, our patient had a remarkable improvement in her symptoms with resolution of papilledema in two months. This review highlights the importance of early recognition and management of IIH to prevent permanent visual loss. PMID:28096561

  5. Evaluation of maxillary sinus volume and dimensions in different vertical face growth patterns: a study of cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Okşayan, Rıdvan; Sökücü, Oral; Yeşildal, Seher

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to compare sinus volume and dimensions in patients with high-, low-, and normal-angle vertical growth patterns using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). According to skeletal vertical face growth patterns, 60 adults (31 female, 29 male, average age: 29.90 ± 10.91 years) were divided into three groups equally: high-angle, low-angle, and normal-angle groups. Cephalometric tracings were obtained from CBCT images and SN-GoGn (angle between Sella-Nasion line and Gonion-Gnathion line) cephalometric angular measurements used for the classification of skeletal vertical pattern evaluations. Morphological and dimensional changes in the maxillary sinuses were evaluated on CBCT images. Data were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA, Kruskall-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney U statistical tests. There were no statistically significant differences among the groups in terms of age (p > .05). The low-angle vertical growth pattern group showed significantly better results than the high-angle group in the right maxillary sinus length parameter (p < .05). According to the results, the high-angle subjects showed statistically lower values in terms of maxillary sinus length and width than the low-angle subjects. There were no effects of vertical face development on right and left maxillary sinus volumes. The results of this study may be useful in maxillary sinus evaluation when planning for orthognathic surgery and orthodontic mini screw application in various vertical face patterns.

  6. Radiological features for the approach in trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery.

    PubMed

    Twigg, Victoria; Carr, Simon D; Balakumar, Ramkishan; Sinha, Saurabh; Mirza, Showkat

    2017-08-01

    In order to perform trans-sphenoidal endoscopic pituitary surgery safely and efficiently it is important to identify anatomical and pituitary disease features on the pre-operative CT and MRI scans; thereby minimising the risk to surrounding structures and optimising outcomes. We aim to create a checklist to streamline pre-operative planning. We retrospectively reviewed pre-operative CT and MRI scans of 100 adults undergoing trans-sphenoidal endoscopic pituitary surgery. Radiological findings and their incidence included deviated nasal septum (62%), concha bullosa (32%), bony dehiscence of the carotid arteries (18%), sphenoid septation overlying the internal carotid artery (24% at the sella) and low lying CSF (32%). The mean distance of the sphenoid ostium to the skull base was 10 mm (range 2.7-17.6 mm). We also describe the 'teddy bear' sign which when present on an axial CT indicates the carotid arteries will be identifiable intra-operatively. There are significant variations in the anatomical and pituitary disease features between patients. We describe a number of features on pre-operative scans and have devised a checklist including a new 'teddy bear' sign to aid the surgeon in the anatomical assessment of patients undergoing trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery.

  7. Pineal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Concomitant With Pituitary Prolactinoma: Possible Correlation Between 2 Distinguished Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeong-Jin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Jung, Shin; Noh, Myung-Giun; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Moon, Kyung-Sub

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This is the first reported case of pineal lymphoma with concomitant prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma. A 51-year-old male experienced worsening headaches accompanied by nausea, diplopia, and memory loss for 1 month. Cranial nerve examination revealed bilateral upward gaze limitation with convergence impairment, which is known as Parinaud syndrome. Magnetic resonance images revealed a mass in the pineal gland with a coexisting mass within the enlarged sella fossa. Hormone analysis revealed hyperprolactinemia. The pineal mass was removed without injuring the hypothalamus, brain stem, or any neighboring vessels. Pathology examination confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the pineal gland. After further studies, the pineal lymphoma was determined to be a secondary tumor from a gastric primary tumor. The patient died 6 months after diagnosis due to systemic progression of DLBCL. Although the mechanistic link between hyperprolactinemia and lymphoma progression has not been clarified on a clinical basis, high prolactin levels may contribute to the rapid progression and therapeutic resistance of the lymphoma. PMID:26937937

  8. One hemodialysis patient with headache, blurred vision, and hypotension induced by pituitary prolactinoma.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wen-di; Liu, Wen-Hu; Zhang, Dong-Liang

    2012-08-01

    We reported a rare case of a dialysis patient coincident pituitary prolactinoma with calcification. A 55-year-old woman who had undergone hemodialysis for 8 years was admitted to the nephrology unit because of headache, blurred vision, and hypotension. Physical examination was normal; endocrinological examination demonstrated elevated serum levels of prolactin (> 4240 mIU/L), but other hormonal profiles, such as growth hormon, adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, were absolutely or relatively lower. A cranial computed tomography (CT) suggested saddle area a high-density screenage with an anteroposterior diameter of 1.0 cm. A cerebral magnetic resonance scan confirmed the pituitary adenoma accompanied with calcification. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images revealed a less enhancing tumor, 14 mm wide round lesion with a high intensity signal. It enlarges the sella turcica, but the optic chiasma is not displaced. We suggest that in the differential diagnosis of any hemodialysis patient with severe headache, hypotension, and visual disturbances, this syndrome should be considered as prompt pituitary adenoma.

  9. Dual-Port 2D and 3D Endoscopy: Expanding the Limits of the Endonasal Approaches to Midline Skull Base Lesions with Lateral Extension

    PubMed Central

    Beer-Furlan, Andre; Evins, Alexander I.; Rigante, Luigi; Anichini, Giulio; Stieg, Philip E.; Bernardo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate a novel dual-port endonasal and subtemporal endoscopic approach targeting midline lesions with lateral extension beyond the intracavernous carotid artery anteriorly and the Dorello canal posteriorly. Methods Ten dual-port approaches were performed on five cadaveric heads. All specimens underwent an endoscopic endonasal approach from the sella to middle clivus. The endonasal port was combined with an anterior or posterior endoscopic extradural subtemporal approach. The anterior subtemporal port was placed directly above the middle third of the zygomatic arch, and the posterior port was placed at its posterior root. The extradural space was explored using two-dimensional and three-dimensional endoscopes. Results The anterior subtemporal port complemented the endonasal port with direct access to the Meckel cave, lateral sphenoid sinus, superior orbital fissure, and lateral and posterosuperior compartments of the cavernous sinus; the posterior subtemporal port enhanced access to the petrous apex. Endoscopic dissection and instrument maneuverability were feasible and performed without difficulty in both the anterior and posterior subtemporal ports. Conclusion The anterior and posterior subtemporal ports enhanced exposure and control of the region lateral to the carotid artery and Dorello canal. Dual-port neuroendoscopy is still minimally invasive yet dramatically increases surgical maneuverability while enhancing visualization and control of anatomical structures. PMID:25072012

  10. Pituitary Function and Growth Hormone Dynamics in Acromegaloidism

    PubMed Central

    Mims, Robert B.

    1978-01-01

    Acromegaloidism is a condition which resembles acromegaly by its clinical manifestations but is not due to pituitary or hypothalamic dysfunction. Twenty patients were diagnosed as having this disorder and the results from studying growth hormone (GH) responses in 15 patients (11 women and four men) were included in this report. Clinical manifestations closely resembled those of acromegalics, including history of progressive changes, acral enlargement, visual disturbances, abnormal visual fields in four patients, and sella turcica enlargement in two patients. The glucose tolerance test (GTT) was abnormal in 12/15 patients, 13/15 were > 10 percent obese, 8/15 had hypertension, 7/15 had large-statured relatives, but lactorrhea was absent in all patients. The mean serum GH concentration was 2.2 ng/ml, which suppressed to 0.6 ng/ml during the GTT; increased to 24 ng/ml during hypoglycemia; and increased to 10.3 ng/ml after L-dopa ingestion. Other pituitary hormones (LH, FSH, TSH, prolactin), the metyrapone test, 24-hour random and nocturnal sleeping GH concentrations were normal. These GH values and responses helped to differentiate acromegaloidism from treated and untreated acromegaly. The pathogenesis of acromegaloidism was not determined, but somatomedin studies may prove helpful in further defining this disorder. PMID:731719

  11. The effect of early fusion of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis on midface hypoplasia and obstructive sleep apnea in patients with Crouzon syndrome.

    PubMed

    Driessen, Caroline; Rijken, Bianca F; Doerga, Priya N; Dremmen, Marjolein H; Joosten, Koen F; Mathijssen, Irene M

    2017-07-01

    The investigators hypothesized that patients with Crouzon syndrome and premature fusion of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis (SOS) more often have, or have more severe midface hypoplasia and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A prospective cohort study was performed among patients with Crouzon syndrome to analyze SOS closure, midface hypoplasia represented by the sella-nasion angle (SNA) and OSA. Forty patients were included in whom the OSA-prevalence was 65%. Kaplan Meier analyses suggest a trend towards earlier closure of synchondrosis in patients with OSA (p = 0.066). The mean SNA was 74.7°. There was a positive effect of age on the SNA (p = 0.020). There was no difference in SNA for patients with an open SOS as compared to patients with a closed SOS after correction for age. The longitudinal data are suggestive of a trend towards earlier fusion of the SOS in patients with Crouzon syndrome and OSA as compared to patients with Crouzon syndrome without OSA. Although the SNA increases with age, our results suggest that this increase in independent closure of the SOS. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Serial position effects in 2-alternative forced choice recognition: functional equivalence across visual and auditory modalities.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Andrew J; Miles, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments examined Ward, Avons, and Melling's (2005) proposition that the serial position function is task, rather than modality, dependent. Specifically, they proposed that for backward testing the 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) recognition paradigm is characterised by single-item recency irrespective of the modality of the stimulus presentation. In Experiment 1 the same nonword sequences, presented both visually or auditorily, produced qualitatively equivalent serial position functions with 2AFC testing. Forward testing produced a flat serial position function, while backward testing produced two-item recency in the absence of primacy. In order to rule out the possibility that the serial position functions for visual stimuli were the product of sub-vocal rehearsal, Experiment 2 employed articulatory suppression during the presentation phase. Serial position function equivalence was again observed together with a modest impairment in overall recognition rates. Taken together, these data are consistent with the Ward et al. proposition and further support the existence of a visual memory that can facilitate storage of visual-verbal material (e.g. Logie, Della Sella, Wynn, & Baddeley, 2000). However, the observation of two-item recency contradicts the original duplex account of single-item recency traditionally observed for backwards recognition testing of visual stimuli (Phillips & Christie, 1977).

  13. Platybasia and Klippel Feil-syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Alajbegović, Azra; Kovac, Fehma; Delilović-Vranić, Jasminka; Tirić-Campara, Merita; Alajbegović, Salem

    2012-06-01

    A case is presented of a 35-year-old woman diagnosed with platybasia associated with Klippel-Feil syndrome type I. She was admitted to University Department of Neurology for clinical examination because of walking difficulties, dizziness, and intermittent vision disturbances. Neurological examination revealed a predominance of cerebellar symptomatology. Relevant diagnostic work-up included craniogram, cervical spine x-ray, computed tomography (CT) of the brain and craniocervical junction, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, electroencephalography, ophthalmologic examination, urinary tract ultrasonography, laboratory tests, and psychological testing. CT of the craniocervical junction showed platybasia, congenital fusion of the second and third cervical vertebrae, and basilar invagination of dens axis. Platybasia is leveling of the angle between the floor of the anterior cranial fossa and posterior cranial fossa in the area of sella turcica, which is normally at 115-140 degrees. Basilar impression or invagination is moving up of the basis of the occiput and occipital condyles into the cranium, which means that the borders of the foramen magnum, condyles and adjacent bone are invaginated into the posterior fossa. Klippel-Feil syndrome type II is massive fusion of two of seven cervical vertebrae associated with short neck and low hair line.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features of Solitary Hypothalamitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Wang, Jing; Wu, Yue; Tang, Ying; Tao, Ran; Ye, Hongying; Yao, Zhenwei

    The study aimed to characterize magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of solitary hypothalamitis and evaluate their clinical value in diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging scans, including T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences, of 8 biopsy-proven hypothalamitis lesions were retrospectively analyzed along with MRI features including size, shape, signal intensity, enhancement pattern, correlation with adjacent tissues, and changes in infundibular stalk and sella turcica. Of 8 patients, 5 were diagnosed with lymphoplasmacytic proliferative inflammation, 2 with Langerhans cell histocytosis, and 1 with Rosai-Dorfman disease. Solitary hypothalamitis predominantly demonstrated mild hypointensity/isointensity in T1WI and mild hyperintensity in T2-weighted imaging. In contrast-enhanced T1WI, all lesions showed heterogeneous but primarily peripheral enhancement patterns. Seven cases showed the polygon sign. In T1WI, the normal high signal intensity of neurohypophysis was absent from all patients, with no infundibular stalk thickening. Seven patients presented with optic chiasma edema, and 5 with edema-like changes along the optic tract (OTE), but most showed no visual impairment (n = 7). Magnetic resonance imaging, particularly postcontrast MRI, is the optimal modality for assessment of hypothalamic lesions. Peripheral enhancement with polygon sign and optic tract or chiasm edema without visual impairment are highly suggestive of hypothalamitis.

  15. [Sleep and the circadian rhythm of cortisol in transsexuals].

    PubMed

    Puca, F M; Specchio, L M; Minervini, M G; Zaccaro, F; Todarello, O; Dello Russo, G; Giorgino, R; Abbaticchio, G; Lattanzi, V

    1983-09-30

    Polygraphic recordings of nocturnal sleep and hormonal behavior were studied in three male and two female transexual subjects, aged 17 to 26 years, who had required a surgical sex reassignment. The transexual state was assayed by psychological investigations according to the law. All subjects appeared healthy at physical examination and no abnormalities were revealed by basal laboratory data. Chromosomal picture was in accordance with sexual characteristics. Pituitary sella enlargements were excluded by radiographic examination. In each patient two adjustment days were followed by polygraphic recording (EEG,EOG,EMG of chin muscles) of nocturnal sleep and blood drawing for cortisol assay. Blood samples were drawn at 30 minutes intervals for 24 hours, starting from the bedding-time. Hormonal blood concentration were determined by radioimmunoassay. Cosinor method was employed in the analysis of circadian rhythm. In transexual subjects the percentage of sleep intermediate phase, or ambiguous sleep, with reference to total sleep time, was significantly higher than in matched controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. [Central diabetes insipidus as a first manifestation of lung adenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Granata, A; Figura, M; Gulisano, S; Romeo, G; Sicurezza, E; Failla, A; Scuderi, R

    2007-01-01

    The pituitary gland and infundibulum can be involved in a variety of medical conditions, including infiltrative diseases, fungal infections, tuberculosis, primary and metastatic tumors. Metastases to the pituitary gland are absolutely rare, and they are generally secondary to pulmonary carcinoma in men and breast carcinoma in women. Pituitary metastases more commonly affect the posterior lobe and the infundibulum than the anterior lobe. The posterior lobe involvement may explain why patients with pituitary metastases frequently present with diabetes insipidus. We are presenting a case report of a 48-year-old male patient with sudden onset of polyuria and persistent thirst. Laboratory results revealed central diabetes insipidus. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain showed a mass located in the sella turcica and suprasellar region. CT scan of the chest showed a mass in the right superior lobe with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Bronchoscopy and biopsy demonstrated a pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Thus, we made a diagnosis of lung cancer with local and pituitary metastases. The patient received radiotherapy on the pituitary gland and adjuvant chemotherapy. As a result the intrasellar and suprasellar mass decreased in size and urinary output accordingly decreased. In conclusion, in patients presenting with sudden onset of diabetes insipidus pituitary metastases should be taken in account in differential diagnosis.

  17. Imagining the absent dead: rituals of bereavement and the place of the war dead in German women's art during the First World War.

    PubMed

    Siebrecht, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on women's visual responses to the First World War, this article examines female mourning in wartime Germany. The unprecedented death toll on the battlefronts, military burial practices and the physical distance from the remains of the war dead disrupted traditional rituals of bereavement, hindered closure and compounded women's grief on the home front. In response to these novel circumstances, a number of female artists used their images to reimagine funerary customs, overcome the separation from the fallen and express acute emotional distress. This article analyses three images produced during the conflict by the artists Katharina Heise, Martha Schrag and Sella Hasse, and places their work within the civilian experience of bereavement in war. By depicting the pain of loss, female artists contested the historical tradition of proud female mourning in German society and countered wartime codes of conduct that prohibited the public display of emotional pain in response to soldiers’ deaths. As a largely overlooked body of sources, women's art adds to our understanding of the tensions in wartime cultures of mourning that emerged between 1914 and 1918.

  18. Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas: epidemiology, diagnosis, and management.

    PubMed

    Amlashi, Fatemeh G; Tritos, Nicholas A

    2016-06-01

    Inappropriate secretion of TSH was first described in 1960 in a patient with evidence of hyperthyroidism and expanded sella on imaging. It was later found that a type of pituitary adenoma that secretes TSH (thyrotropinoma) was the underlying cause. The objective of the present review article is to summarize data on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of thyrotropinomas. The prevalence of thyrotropinomas is lower than that of other pituitary adenomas. Early diagnosis is now possible thanks to the availability of magnetic resonance imaging and sensitive laboratory assays. As a corollary, many patients now present earlier in the course of their disease and have smaller tumors at the time of diagnosis. Treatment also has evolved over time. Transsphenoidal surgery is still considered definitive therapy. Meanwhile, radiation therapy, including radiosurgery, is effective in achieving tumor control in the majority of patients. In the past, radiation therapy was used as second line treatment in patients with residual or recurrent tumor after surgery. However, the availability of somatostatin analogs, which can lead to normalization of thyroid function as well as shrink these tumors, has led to an increase in the role of medical therapy in patients who are not in remission after pituitary surgery. In addition, dopamine agonists have shown some efficacy in the management of these tumors. Better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of thyrotropinomas may lead to rationally designed therapies for patients with thyrotropinomas.

  19. Longitudinal brainstem laceration associated with complex basilar skull fractures due to a fall: an autopsy case.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bao Li; Quan, Li; Ishida, Kaori; Taniguchi, Mari; Oritani, Shigeki; Fujita, Masaki Q; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2002-03-28

    This report describes an autopsy case of a rare longitudinal brainstem laceration associated with complex basilar skull fractures. The victim was a 40-year-old male who died immediately after falling from a roof (9.2m in height) of a factory onto a concrete floor. The postmortem examination revealed an incomplete ring fracture of the base of the skull with longitudinal fractures of the sphenoid (clivus of the dorsum sellae turcicae) and occipital bones, cerebral contusions in the frontal and temporal poles, a longitudinal brainstem laceration at the posterior median sulcus of the pons accompanied with multiple contusional hemorrhages in the brainstem and corpus callosum. Related blunt-force injuries were observed in the parieto-occipital region of the head, shoulder and upper back involving the fractures of the cervical and thoracic vertebrae, and sternum and ribs, indicating a huge impact to the occiput and subsequent impression of the vertebral column into the base of the skull due to violent anteroflexion of the neck, which caused the complex basilar skull fractures, contusions and longitudinal laceration of the brainstem.

  20. Banked Fascia Lata in Sellar Dura Reconstruction after Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Skull Base Surgery.

    PubMed

    Fiorindi, Alessandro; Gioffrè, Giorgio; Boaro, Alessandro; Billeci, Domenico; Frascaroli, Daniele; Sonego, Massimo; Longatti, Pierluigi

    2015-08-01

    Objectives Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage is an undesirable complication of transsphenoidal skull base surgery. The issue of the most appropriate sellar dura repair remains unresolved, although a multilayer technique using autologous fascia lata is widely used. We describe the novel application of a homologous banked fascia lata graft as an alternative to an autologous one in the reconstruction of sellar dura defects in endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery. Design The clinical records of patients who underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery at our department from June 2012, when we started using homologous fascia lata, up to July 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. The data concerning diagnosis, reconstruction technique, and surgical outcome were analyzed. Results We treated 16 patients successfully with banked fascia lata. Twelve patients presented intraoperative CSF leakage, and four patients were treated for postoperative rhinoliquorrhea. Banked fascia lata was used in a single-to-multilayer technique, depending on the anatomical features of the defect and of the sellar floor. No complications or failures in sella reconstruction occurred. Conclusion A banked fascia lata graft proved reliable and safe in providing an effective sellar dura reconstruction. Used in a multilayer strategy, it should be considered a viable alternative to an autologous fascia lata graft.

  1. More actors, different play: sphenoethmoid cell intimately related to the maxillary nerve canal and cavernous sinus apex.

    PubMed

    Săndulescu, M; Rusu, M C; Ciobanu, Iulia Camelia; Ilie, Angela; Jianu, Adelina Maria

    2011-01-01

    The sphenoid sinus is one of the most morphologically variable and surgically important structures of the skull base. Located below the sella turcica, neighbored by parasellar regions, such as the orbital apex, pterygopalatine fossa and lateral sellar region (cavernous sinus), it is clinically related to these and surgically relevant as corridor for various approaches. Moreover, at the sphenoethmoidal junction, important variations occur, most of these related to the presence of the Onodi cells and the intrasinusal protrusions of the optic nerve. That is why any identified and previously undescribed morphological variation at that level must be added to the well-established protocols, clinical and surgical. During a retrospective CT study of the sphenoid sinus anatomical features a previously unreported morphology was encountered and is reported here. It refers to a unilateral sphenoethmoid cell (SEC), Onodi-positive, not only overriding the superior aspect of the sphenoid but also its lateral side to get intimately related to the maxillary nerve. As that SEC expanded medially to the cavernous sinus apex, it altered the usual endosinusal morphological correlations and also added itself within the limits of the Mullan's triangle. It appears so that such postero-infero-lateral extended pneumatization of an Onodi cell alters the surgical landmarks and also can blur clinical pictures, by adding maxillary and pterygopalatine signs and symptoms.

  2. A Histologically Diagnosed Case with Infantile Osteopetrosis Complicated by Hypopituitarism

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Gulden; Olukman, Ozgur; Calkavur, Sebnem; Buyukinan, Muammer; Altay, Canan

    2015-01-01

    Malignant infantile osteopetrosis is a rarely seen severe disorder which appears early in life with general sclerosis of the skeleton. It is caused by functionally defective osteoclasts which fail to resorb bone. Affected infants can exhibit a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations including impaired hematopoiesis, hepatosplenomegaly, visual impairment, and hypocalcemia. With the exception of secondary hyperparathyroidism, involvement of the endocrine system seems to be quite rare. Hypopituitarism is defined as underproduction of the growth hormone in combination with deficiencies of other pituitary hormones. Any lesion that damages hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, or anterior pituitary can cause secondary hypopituitarism. In this report, we presented a rare combination of malignant infantile osteopetrosis and secondary hypopituitarism in a newborn who presented predominantly with endocrinological symptoms. This is the first case report of malignant infantile osteopetrosis accompanied by hypopituitarism secondary to sclerosis of the sella turcica. On the other hand, this is a very interesting case which was diagnosed based on histological examination of bone marrow biopsy specimens despite lack of any clinical suspicion. PMID:26576309

  3. Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak of the sphenoid sinus mimicking allergic rhinitis, and managed successfully by a ventriculoperitoneal shunt: a case report.

    PubMed

    Darouassi, Youssef; Mliha Touati, Mohamed; Chihani, Mehdi; Akhaddar, Ali; Ammar, Haddou; Bouaity, Brahim

    2016-11-03

    Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks are rare but may lead to confusion with other diseases in patients without history of trauma. We report a rare case unusual for two reasons. First, our patient was put under antiallergic medication for months before the diagnosis of spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak of the sphenoid sinus. Second, our patient was managed successfully by a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Our patient was a nonobese 49-year-old Arab man without history of trauma or surgery who presented with rhinorrhea. He was given allergic rhinitis medication for 4 months without improvement. After the onset of headache leading to the suspicion of paranasal sinusitis, a computed tomography scan discovered an osteodural defect in the sphenoid sinus roof and a magnetic resonance imaging scan showed an aspect of empty sella with an arachnoidocele. An eye fundus examination found papilledema suggesting the diagnosis of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. We performed a ventriculoperitoneal shunt without repair of the osteodural defect. Because of the favorable evolution, we decided to postpone surgery. Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak should be considered even in nonobese male patients without history of trauma. Our observation adds to other case reports suggesting the decrease of cerebrospinal fluid pressure alone as an option for the treatment of spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Additional studies are necessary to clarify the indications.

  4. Relapse and stability after mandibular setback surgery one year postoperatively: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Eirik Torjuul; Beddari, Ingri Yddal; Schilbred Eriksen, Elisabeth; Boe, Olav Egil; Wisth, Per Johan; Loes, Sigbjorn; Moen, Ketil

    2014-06-01

    A retrospective evaluation was performed of dentoalveolar and skeletal stability 1 year after mandibular setback surgery using intraoral vertical subcondylar osteotomy (IVSO) combined with intermaxillary fixation. Twenty-eight patients (16 men, 12 women) with skeletal Angle Class III malocclusions were included. Mean age at start of treatment was 23.9 years. All patients underwent combined surgical and orthodontic treatment. Dental casts and cephalometric measurements were performed for each patient before orthodontic treatment and at 8 weeks and 1 year after surgery. Treatment changes from 8 weeks to 1 year after surgery were small but significant for the angular relationship between the maxilla and the mandible in the sagittal plane (ANB) (mean difference, -0.5 mm; P = .021), Wits appraisal (mean difference, -0.7 mm; P = .044), the inclination of the mandible in relation to the nasion-sella line (ML-NSL) (mean difference, -0.8 mm; P = .010), and the inclination of the lower incisors in relation to the nasion-point B line (Li-NB) (mean difference, -0.6 mm; P < .001). These findings for cephalometric values indicated a small skeletal relapse in sagittal and vertical relations. No significant dentoalveolar relapse occurred according to the dental cast evaluations. The results clearly show that orthodontic treatment combined with IVSO provides a stable dental and skeletal result 1 year after treatment. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hyperprolactinemia Secondary to Allergic Fungal Sinusitis Compressing the Pituitary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Chapurin, Nikita; Wang, Cynthia; Steinberg, David M.; Jang, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We aim to describe the first case in the literature of allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) presenting with hyperprolactinemia due to compression of the pituitary gland. Case Presentation. A 37-year-old female presented with bilateral galactorrhea and occipital headaches of several weeks. Workup revealed elevated prolactin of 94.4, negative pregnancy test, and normal thyroid function. MRI and CT demonstrated a 5.0 × 2.7 × 2.5 cm heterogeneous expansile mass in the right sphenoid sinus with no pituitary adenoma as originally suspected. Patient was placed on cabergoline for symptomatic control until definitive treatment. Results. The patient underwent right endoscopic sphenoidotomy, which revealed nasal polyps and fungal debris in the sphenoid sinus, consistent with AFS. There was bony erosion of the sella and clivus. Pathology and microbiology were consistent with allergic fungal sinusitis caused by Curvularia species. Prolactin levels normalized four weeks after surgery with resolution of symptoms. Conclusion. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery alone was able to reverse the patient's pituitary dysfunction. To our knowledge, this is the first case of AFS presenting as hyperprolactinemia due to pituitary compression. PMID:26998375

  6. A novel AVP gene mutation in a Turkish family with neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Ilhan, M; Tiryakioglu, N O; Karaman, O; Coskunpinar, E; Yildiz, R S; Turgut, S; Tiryakioglu, D; Toprak, H; Tasan, E

    2016-03-01

    Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI) is a rare, autosomal dominant, inherited disorder which is characterized by severe polydipsia and polyuria generally presenting in early childhood. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the AVP gene in a Turkish family with FNDI. Four patients with neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus and ten healthy members of the family were studied. Diabetes insipidus was diagnosed by the water deprivation test in affected family members. Mutation analysis was performed by sequencing the whole coding region of AVP-NPII gene using DNA isolated from peripheral blood samples. Urine osmolality was low (<300 mOsm/kg) during water deprivation test, and an increase more than 50 % in urine osmolality and recovery of the symptoms were observed by the administration of desmopressin in all patients. Plasma copeptin levels were lower than expected according to plasma osmolality. Pituitary MRI revealed partial empty sella with a bright spot in index patient and a normal neurohypophysis in the other affected subjects. Genetic screening revealed a novel, heterozygous mutation designated as c.-3A>C in all patients. c.-3A>C mutation in 5'UTR of AVP gene in this family might lead to the truncation of signal peptide, aggregation of AVP in the cytoplasm instead of targeting in the endoplasmic reticulum, thereby could disrupt AVP secretion without causing neuronal cytotoxicity, which might explain the presence of bright spot. The predicted effect of this mutation should be investigated by further in vitro molecular studies.

  7. Adrenocortical carcinoma masquerading as Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Jarial, Kush Dev; Walia, Rama; Kumar, Santosh; Bhansali, Anil

    2017-03-29

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) can be classified as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent or ACTH-independent depending on the ACTH levels. However, 30% of the patients with CS have ACTH levels in the 'grey zone' (5-20 pg/mL), thereby posing a challenge in establishing the aetiological diagnosis. In a patient with full-blown features of Cushing's syndrome with equivocal ACTH levels, and a pituitary microadenoma on contrast-enhanced MRI sella, can falsely lead to a diagnosis of Cushing's disease. Pituitary microadenoma, if <6 mm in size, may be an incidental finding (incidentaloma) in this scenario and can be present in ∼3-27% of the healthy population. Therefore, in a patient with CS with equivocal ACTH levels and a pituitary microadenoma, multiple samplings for ACTH and adrenal imaging should be performed to exclude ACTH-independent CS and if required, bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling to determine the source of ACTH excess. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. [A modification of the Aulhorn flicker test with results of physiological and pathological conditions].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, I; Iijima, H; Miwa, M; Shimamoto, R

    1993-01-01

    The Aulhorn flicker test measures the subjective brightness of various frequencies of flickering light. We modified an Aulhorn flicker test with light emitting diode (LED) and the results of 21 normal eyes and 18 affected eyes (7 eyes with idiopathic optic neuritis, one eye with rhinogenous optic neuropathy (ethmoid sinus mucocele), two eyes with preoperative pituitary tumor, one eye with empty sella, one eye with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, one eye with syphilitic optic neuritis, five eyes with primary open angle glaucoma) were presented. All normal eyes showed the Brücke-Bartley effect which refers to an enhanced subjective brightness at lower frequencies. Six eyes with idiopathic optic neuritis and one eye with rhinogenous optic neuropathy in the acute stage demonstrated the Aulhorn effect which refers to a reduced subjective brightness at lower frequencies. Four eyes with the Aulhorn effect that were followed up showed less prominent Aulhorn effect. One eye with idiopathic optic neuritis and 10 eyes with other conditions did not show the Aulhorn effect. It was suggested that the modified Aulhorn flicker test with LED is a useful method for diagnosis of optic neuritis in the acute stage.

  9. Lateral meningocele syndrome: three new patients and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gripp, K W; Scott, C I; Hughes, H E; Wallerstein, R; Nicholson, L; States, L; Bason, L D; Kaplan, P; Zderic, S A; Duhaime, A C; Miller, F; Magnusson, M R; Zackai, E H

    1997-06-13

    One female and two male patients with multiple lateral meningoceles are presented. They do not have neurofibromatosis or Marfan syndrome and share findings with the two previously described patients with multiple lateral meningoceles. The original report by Lehman et al. [1977: J Pediatr 90:49-54] was titled "familial osteosclerosis," because osteosclerosis was present in the proposita and her mother; the patient described by Philip et al. [1995: Clin Dysmorphol 4:347-351] also had increased bone density of the skull base and the sutures. Thickened calvaria were present in one of our patients; two had a prominent metopic suture. Other shared findings include multiple lateral meningoceles, Wormian bones, malar hypoplasia, downslanted palpebral fissures, a high narrow palate, and cryptorchidism in males. In addition, our patients showed ligamentous laxity, keloid formation, hypotonia, and developmental delay. A short umbilical cord was noted in two patients. One had a hypoplastic posterior arch of the atlas and an enlarged sella, as reported by Lehman et al. [1977]. Our patients appear to have the same syndrome as previously reported. We suggest it be called "lateral meningocele syndrome," because of this unique finding.

  10. Diagnosis and management of acromegaly: giant invasive adenoma.

    PubMed

    Cahyanur, Rahmat; Setyawan, Wawan; Sudrajat, Dedy G; Setyowati, Susie; Purnamasari, Dyah; Soewondo, Pradana

    2011-04-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disorder caused by excessive growth hormone. Majority of acromegaly are due to pituitary adenoma. It is estimated that 5% of pituitary adenoma become invasive and may grow to gigantic sizes (>4 cm in diameter). We would like to describe a man with giant invasive adenoma. We describe the case of 52-year-old man with acromegaly. The patient was presented to medical care because of hemichorea. He also had visual field defect, uncontrolled diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Hormonal profile showed increment of GH 2-hour after a standard 75-g oral glucose load and of high IGF-1 level with low level of FSH and LH. The next was performed by pituitary imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a macroadenoma with diameter 2.3x3.5x6.6 cm3 that fills the sella tursica, and enlarges into suprasella, genu of corpus collosum, and invades third ventricle. This report describes a rare case of acromegalic patient with giant invasive adenoma. This could be a demonstrative case and lesson for diagnosis and manage acromegalic patient.

  11. Hunter syndrome in an 11-year old girl on enzyme replacement therapy with idursulfase: brain magnetic resonance imaging features and evolution.

    PubMed

    Manara, Renzo; Rampazzo, Angelica; Cananzi, Mara; Salviati, Leonardo; Mardari, Rodica; Drigo, Paola; Tomanin, Rosella; Gasparotto, Nicoletta; Priante, Elena; Scarpa, Maurizio

    2010-12-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS-II, Hunter disease) is a X-linked recessive disorder. Affected females are extremely rare, mostly due to skewed X chromosome inactivation. A few papers outline MPS-II brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) "gestalt" in males, but neuroradiological reports on females are still lacking. We present an 11-year-old girl affected by the severe form of MPS-II who was followed up over a time span of 8 years, focusing on clinical and brain MRI evolution. In the last 2.5 years, the patient has been treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with idursulfase (Elaprase™, Shire Human Genetic Therapies AB, Sweden). On brain and cervical MRI examination, abnormalities in our patient did not differ from those detected in male patients: J-shaped pituitary sella, enlargement of perivascular spaces, brain atrophy, mild T2-hyperintensity in the paratrigonal white matter, diffuse platyspondylia, and mild odontoid dysplasia with odontoid cup. Brain atrophy progressed despite ERT introduction, whereas perivascular space enlargement did not change significantly before and after ERT. Cognitive impairment worsened independently from the course of white matter abnormality. Despite a profound knowledge of genetic and biochemical aspects in MPS-II, neuroradiology is still poorly characterized, especially in female patients. Spinal and brain involvement and its natural course and evolution after ERT introduction still need to be clarified.

  12. Demonstration of reserved anterior pituitary function among patients with amenorrhea after postpartum hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y Y; Ting, M K; Hsu, B R; Tsai, J S

    2000-04-01

    To demonstrate the residual pituitary function of patients with Sheehan's syndrome years after the obstetric complication, 14 patients with postpartum hemorrhage followed by secondary amenorrhea and agalactia were included in this review. Due to their unfamiliarity with the clinical symptoms, these patients did not receive pretreatment hormonal therapy. The mean age at their last delivery was 29 years (range 21-38 years). The mean duration between postpartum hemorrhage and the subsequent clinical manifestations leading to the endocrine investigation was 18 years (range 1-33 years). Eight patients presented with symptoms of severe hyponatremia (serum sodium less than 125 mmol/l) more than 16 years (mean 23 +/- 10) after the occurrence of postpartum hemorrhage. The electrolyte abnormality was primarily due to adrenal dysfunction. Seven out of 14 patients had normal basal luteinizing hormone (LH) levels and adequate LH responses to gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulation. Administration of thyrotropin releasing hormone provoked thyrotropin release and/or prolactin secretion in four cases. The manifestation of clinical hypopituitarism and the degree of empty sella on computed tomography scanning did not accurately indicate the secreting ability of the pituitary in patients with Sheehan's syndrome. Although all the patients had amenorrhea, the gonadotropic functions of the pituitary still remain in some patients. Various degrees of other pituitary functions can also been demonstrated even several decades after the occurrence of obstetric complications. Our data suggest that the amenorrhea of Sheehan's patients is not simply due to a dysfunction of the pituitary gonadotrophs.

  13. Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies Homozygous GPR161 Mutation in a Family with Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Karaca, Ender; Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Pehlivan, Davut; Charng, Wu-Lin; Yaykasli, Kursat O.; Bayram, Yavuz; Gambin, Tomasz; Withers, Marjorie; Atik, Mehmed M.; Arslanoglu, Ilknur; Bolu, Semih; Erdin, Serkan; Buyukkaya, Ayla; Yaykasli, Emine; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) is a rare, congenital anomaly of the pituitary gland characterized by pituitary gland insufficiency, thin or discontinuous pituitary stalk, anterior pituitary hypoplasia, and ectopic positioning of the posterior pituitary gland (neurohypophysis). The clinical presentation of patients with PSIS varies from isolated growth hormone (GH) deficiency to combined pituitary insufficiency and accompanying extrapituitary findings. Mutations in HESX1, LHX4, OTX2, SOX3, and PROKR2 have been associated with PSIS in less than 5% of cases; thus, the underlying genetic etiology for the vast majority of cases remains to be determined. Objective: We applied whole-exome sequencing (WES) to a consanguineous family with two affected siblings who have pituitary gland insufficiency and radiographic findings of hypoplastic (thin) pituitary gland, empty sella, ectopic neurohypophysis, and interrupted pitiutary stalk—characteristic clinical diagnostic findings of PSIS. Design and Participants: WES was applied to two affected and one unaffected siblings. Results: WES of two affected and one unaffected sibling revealed a unique homozygous missense mutation in GPR161, which encodes the orphan G protein–coupled receptor 161, a protein responsible for transducing extracellular signals across the plasma membrane into the cell. Conclusion: Mutations of GPR161 may be implicated as a potential novel cause of PSIS. PMID:25322266

  14. Flexion contractures possibly reflect the existence of hypocortisolism: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Harbuz, Viorica; Bihan, Hélène; Salama, Jeffrey; Reach, Gérard; Cohen, Régis

    2010-07-01

    The diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency is discussed in case of low blood pressure and digestive symptoms. Rare inaugural abdomino-crural muscle contracture can be a misleading symptom. Here we report two new cases. A 50-year-old woman presenting a leaning forward walking attitude and negligence for the past 2 months was referred to the neurologic unit. Abdomino-crural contracture, clinical hypogonadism, and hyponatremia directed towards a panhypopituitarism, which was confirmed by subsequent investigations. Pituitary MRI found an empty sella turcica. The outcome was dramatic after hormone replacement therapy, with drawing up of the trunk and re-establishment of walking after a few days. The second case is a 58-year-old man, hospitalized with altered general condition, with a weight loss of 22 kg, and anorexia in the aftermath of a comminuted fracture of the right lower limb, complicated by pseudoarthrosis. There was amyotrophy on the extremities with intense cruralgia. The patient had an antalgic attitude in the flexion affecting his rehabilitation. During 1 year, the symptoms were mimicking psychiatric disorders, malabsorption, or cancer before the final diagnosis of central hypocorticism with normal MRI was established. The evolution was remarkable after a few days of therapy with hydrocortisone, where the myalgia disappeared, the patient quickly gained weight, and the disappearance of the retractions allowed rehabilitation. These two observations emphasize the delayed diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency in the case of abdomino-crural-related symptoms and the presence of misleading neurological symptoms. The mechanisms of this syndrome remain unknown.

  15. A randomized cross-over study comparing cabergoline and quinagolide in the treatment of hyperprolactinemic patients.

    PubMed

    De Luis, D A; Becerra, A; Lahera, M; Botella, J I; Valero; Varela, C

    2000-01-01

    Quinagolide (QUI) and cabergoline (CAB) are dopamine agonists recently introduced for the treatment of hyperprolactinemia. In the present study, these drugs have been compared in terms of effectiveness and tolerability. Twenty patients (18 females and 2 males) with hyperprolactinemia (8 with microprolactinomas, 6 with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia and 6 with empty sella turcica syndrome) were treated with oral QUI (75 microg once daily) and CAB (0,5 mg twice weekly), in a randomized cross-over trial with placebo between both drugs. Each drug was administered for 12 weeks, separated by other 12 weeks with placebo. PRL levels decreased with both drugs at 2 or 4 weeks of starting the treatment, without differences between both drugs at weeks 4, 8 and 12. At week 12, normal PRL levels (<20 ng/ml) were attained in 90% patients with CAB and only in 75% patients with QUI (p<0.05). After discontinuation of treatment, significant increase in serum PRL was higher after QUI withdrawal than after CAB. Clinical efficacy of both treatments was similar in terms of improvement amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, galactorrhea, and impotence. All patients completed both cycles of treatment, and the most frequent side-effects were nausea, headache and dizziness, without significant differences between CAB (30%) and QUI (55%). Our study indicates that, at the doses employed here, CAB showed a high percentage of patients with normal PRL at the end of treatment and long-lasting efficacy in the levels of PRL. Clinical response and side-effects were similar in both drugs.

  16. [Treatment of hyperprolactinemic anovulation with the dopamin-agonist quinagolide].

    PubMed

    Koloszár, S; Keresztúri, A; Kovács, L

    2000-07-16

    Quinagolide has a strong dopaminerg activity, suppresses prolactin secretion and restores gonadal function in women with hyperprolactinemic anovulation. The aim of our study was to investigate the effectiveness of quinagolide in the treatment of 16 hyperprolactinemic patients. The clinical diagnosis was functional hyperprolactinemia in 13 patients, microprolactinoma in 2 and empty sella syndrome in 1. The drug was administered orally and initially daily dose was 0.025 mg for the first three days, 0.050 mg for the next three days and 0.075 mg for the following 6 months. The serum prolactin level was measured monthly before pregnancy, three monthly during the pregnancy and six weeks after delivery. Serum prolactin levels decreased in most of the patients during the first month and only in one case remained in the pathological range after six months quinagolide++ treatment. Prolactin secretion changed (mean and range) from 3120 (780-5790) mU/l to 370 (84-1076) mU/l. Out of 16 hyperprolactinemic patients nine women were infertile. During quinagolide treatment 5 pregnancies occurred. In conclusion, our results show that quinagolide has a good efficacy on regulation of prolactin secretion and it is a well tolerated dopamin-agonist drug.

  17. Dynamics of biosonar systems in Horseshoe bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, R.

    2015-12-01

    Horseshoe bats have an active ultrasonic sonar system that allows the animals to navigate and hunt prey in structure-rich natural environments. The physical components of this biosonar system contain an unusual dynamics that could play a key role in achieving the animals' superior sensory performance. Horseshoe bat biosonar employs elaborate baffle shapes to diffract the outgoing and incoming ultrasonic wave packets; ultrasound is radiated from nostrils that are surrounded by noseleaves and received by large outer ears. Noseleaves and pinnae can be actuated while ultrasonic diffraction takes place. On the emission side, two noseleaf parts, the anterior leaf and the sella, have been shown to be in motion in synchrony with sound emission. On the reception side, the pinnae have been shown to change their shapes by up to 20% of their total length within ˜100 milliseconds. Due to these shape changes, diffraction of the incoming and outgoing waves is turned into a dynamic physical process. The dynamics of the diffraction process results in likewise dynamic device characteristics. If this additional dynamic dimension was found to enhance the encoding of sensory information substantially, horseshoe bat biosonar could be a model for the use of dynamic physical processes in sensing technology.

  18. Cholesterol granulomas presenting as sellar masses: a similar, but clinically distinct entity from craniopharyngioma and Rathke's cleft cyst.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Estrada, Raúl A; Kshettry, Varun R; Vogel, Ashley N; Curtis, Mark T; Evans, James J

    2017-06-01

    Cholesterol granulomas in the sella are rare and can mimic the appearance of craniopharyngioma or Rathke's cleft cysts. Information regarding the clinical presentation, imaging characteristics, and clinical course of sellar cholesterol granulomas can help clinicians to differentiate these lesions from other sellar cystic lesions. We present three cases of sellar cholesterol granulomas. A literature review was performed for all cases of sellar cholesterol granulomas with individual patient data reported. We identified 24 previously reported cases in addition to our three cases. Mean age was 36.6 years (range 5-68). There were 16 (59%) females. The most common (74%) presenting symptom was endocrinological deficits, typically either isolated diabetes insipidus (DI) or panhypopituitarism. Location was intrasellar in 3 (11%), suprasellar in 6 (22%), and intrasellar/suprasellar in 18 (67%) patients. Lesions were most commonly (83%) T1 hyperintense. Gross total resection was achieved in 16 (64%) and subtotal resection in 9 (36%) patients. Of the seventeen (63%) patients presenting with varying degrees of bitemporal hemianopsia, all had improvement in vision postoperatively. It is worth noting that no cases of preoperative hypopituitarism or DI improved postoperatively. Even though gross total resection was only achieved in 64%, there was only one recurrence reported. Sellar cholesterol granulomas are characterized by T1 hyperintensity, younger age, and more frequent and severe endocrinological deficits on presentation. Our review demonstrates high rates of improvement of visual deficits, but poor rates of endocrine function recovery. Recurrence is uncommon even in cases of subtotal resection.

  19. Distal brachyphalangy of the thumb in mental retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Villaverde, M M; da Silva, J A

    1975-01-01

    Distal brachyphalangy (DBP) of the thumbs is a hereditary autosomal anomaly found in 1 to 1.5% of whites and in less than 1% of blacks. It was found in 26 of 852 mentally retarded patients in the present study; a frequency of over 3%. The male:female ratio was 70:30. There was bilateral DBP IN 69.5% and unilateral DBP on the right hand in 19% and on the left in 11.5%. The 26 cases (100%) showed a subsyndromic aggregate of distal brachyphalangy of the thumb (DBT), short stature and mental retardation, 19 of them presented an abnormal head and 17 presented abnormal feet (nine of them also had convulsions). Six cases are discussed in detail; it is suggested that they belong to particular clinical categories. In addition to gene abnormalities (which is the most likely cause) a possible explanation of the aetiological factors could be found in some sort of anomaly of the hypopituitary-hypothalmic area, since in the five cases where it was investigated, the sella turcica was small in four cases and large in one. Almost all known syndromes of which the subsyndrome discussed here is a part also shown abnormal skulls, and this may add to the aetiology. PMID:1240973

  20. Craniofacial growth variations in nasal-breathing, oral-breathing, and tracheotomized children.

    PubMed

    Bakor, Silvia Fuerte; Enlow, Donald H; Pontes, Paulo; De Biase, Noemi Grigoletto

    2011-10-01

    Childhood oral breathing can alter muscular balance and lead to facial deformities. No articles in the literature have reported on the alteration of facial growth patterns in patients who have received tracheotomies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate craniofacial developmental consequences originating from variations in breathing mechanisms in children who are nasal breathers or oral breathers, and those who have been tracheotomized. The sample was divided into 3 groups of 10 each. The nasal group had a mean age of 13.9 years, the oral group had a mean age of 12.7 years, and the tracheotomy group had a mean age of 12.8 years. The masseter and suprahyoid muscles were evaluated with electromyography. The following measurements were made: facial, maxillary, and mandibular widths; nasion-sella-gnathion angle; and facial index. The tracheotomized group was similar to the nasal group for greater activity of the masseter muscles than of the suprahyoid muscles during mastication, as well as in the measurements of facial, maxillary, and mandibular widths. The oral group showed reductions in each category. The tracheotomized group was similar to the oral group during maximum dental occlusion for significantly higher activity of the suprahyoid muscles compared with the masseter muscles, with reductions in vertical values. A childhood tracheotomy might affect facial development in a way comparable with that of oral breathers, including abnormal facial growth variations. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: ongoing clinical challenges and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Julayanont, Parunyou; Karukote, Amputch; Ruthirago, Doungporn; Panikkath, Deepa; Panikkath, Ragesh

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is an uncommon disorder characterized by increased intracranial pressure without radiological or laboratory evidence of intracranial pathology except empty sella turcica, optic nerve sheath with filled out cerebrospinal fluid spaces, and smooth-walled nonflow-related venous sinus stenosis or collapse. This condition typically affects obese women. The incidence of IIH is increasing with the rising prevalence of obesity. Persistent headache is the most common symptom. Visual impairment is a serious complication that may not be recognized by the patients. This paper reviews clinical manifestations, diagnostic challenges, and current treatments of IIH in adults. Various imaging modalities have been studied on their validity for detection of IIH and papilledema. This review also includes new studies on medical, surgical, and interventional management of this condition. Acetazolamide and topiramate are the only two medications that have been studied in randomized controlled trials about their efficacy in treatment of IIH. In patients who have severe visual impairment or progressive visual deterioration despite medical management, surgical or interventional treatment may be considered. The efficacy and complications of cerebrospinal fluid diversion, optic nerve sheath fenestration, and endovascular venous stenting reported in the last 3 decades have been summarized in this review. Finally, the prospective aspects of biomarkers and treatments are proposed for future research. PMID:26929666

  2. Numerical study of the effect of the noseleaf on biosonar beamforming in a horseshoe bat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Qiao; Müller, Rolf

    2007-11-01

    Around 300 bat species are known to emit their ultrasonic biosonar pulses through the nostrils. This nasal emission coincides with the presence of intricately shaped baffle structures surrounding the nostrils. Some prior experimental evidence indicates that these “noseleaves” have an effect on the shape of the animals’ radiation patterns. Here, we present a numerical acoustical analysis of the noseleaf of a horseshoe bat species. We show that all three distinctive parts of its noseleaf (“lancet," “sella," “anterior leaf”) have an effect on the acoustic near field as well as on the directivity pattern. Furthermore, we show that furrows in one of the parts (the lancet) also exert such an influence. The underlying physical mechanisms suggested by the properties of the estimated near field are cavity resonance, as well as reflection and shadowing of the sound waves emitted by the nostrils. In their effects on the near field, the noseleaf parts showed a tendency toward spatial partitioning with the effects due to each part dominating a certain region. However, interactions between the acoustic effects of the parts were also evident, most notably, a synergism between two frequency-dependent effects (cavity resonance and shadowing) to produce an even stronger frequency selectivity.

  3. A consecutive case series of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome affecting the Hong Kong Chinese.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, David S; Li, Thomas K; Goto, Tazuko K

    2015-09-01

    To identify the clinical and radiologic features of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) in the Hong Kong Chinese, particularly those of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs), at first presentation at a dental hospital. A consecutive case series of NBCCS was identified in the University of Hong Kong Dental Hospital. All 5 Hong Kong NBCCS cases presented with symptoms arising from their KCOTs; 3 with swelling, 3 with pain, and 2 with nasal discharge. The cases exhibited 4 major features (KCOTs, calcified falx cerebri, palmar/plantar pits, and basal cell carcinoma) and 4 minor features (sella bridges, bossing, hypertelorism, and mandibular prognathism). The KCOTs were all unilocular. The tumors displaced teeth in 4 cases. Only 1 had root resorption. There were 2 nonsyndromic cases with multiple KCOTs. The unilocular presentation of the syndromic KCOTs was significantly greater than that of the solitary cases, arising within the same community over the same period. The other presenting features of the syndromic KCOTs did not differ from the solitary KCOTs. The recurrence rate of syndromic KCOTs was significantly greater than of the solitary KCOTs. Nonsyndromic cases with multiple KCOTs could be more common in East Asians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Skull deformations in craniosynostosis and endocrine disorders: morphological and tomographic analysis of the skull from the crypt of the Silesian Piasts in Brzeg (16th-17th century), Poland.

    PubMed

    Kozłowski, T; Cybulska, M; Błaszczyk, B; Krajewska, M; Jeśman, C

    2014-10-01

    of morphological and tomographic (CT) studies of the skull that was found in the crypt of the Silesian Piasts in the St. Jadwiga church in Brzeg (Silesia, Poland) are presented and discussed here. The established date of burial of probably a 20-30 years old male was 16th-17th century. The analyzed skull showed premature obliteration of the major skull sutures. It resulted in the braincase deformation, similar to the forms found in oxycephaly and microcephaly. Tomographic analysis revealed gross pathology. Signs of increased intracranial pressure, basilar invagination and hypoplasia of the occipital bone were observed. Those results suggested the occurrence of the very rare Arnold-Chiari syndrome. Lesions found in the sella turcica indicated the development of pituitary macroadenoma, which resulted in the occurrence of discreet features of acromegaly in the facial bones. The studied skull was characterized by a significantly smaller size of the neurocranium (horizontal circumference 471 mm, cranial capacity ∼ 1080 ml) and strongly expressed brachycephaly (cranial index=86.3), while its height remained within the range for non-deformed skulls. A narrow face, high eye-sockets and prognathism were also observed. Signs of alveolar process hypertrophy with rotation and displacement of the teeth were noted. The skull showed significant morphological differences compared to both normal and other pathological skulls such as those with pituitary gigantism, scaphocephaly and microcephaly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Eruption of the permanent maxillary canines in relation to mandibular second molar maturity.

    PubMed

    Perinetti, Giuseppe; Callovi, Marilena; Salgarello, Stefano; Biasotto, Matteo; Contardo, Luca

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the timing of spontaneous maxillary canine eruption in relation to stages of mandibular second molar maturation. Potential confounding effects from such factors as age, growth phase, and facial features were also explored. A sample of 106 healthy subjects (48 females and 58 males; age range, 9.4-14.3 years) with both permanent maxillary canines during the final phase of intraoral eruption were included. Mandibular second molar maturation (stages E to H) was assessed according to the method of Demirjian. Skeletal maturity was determined using the cervical vertebral maturational (CVM) method. Facial vertical and sagittal relationships were evaluated by recording the Sella-Nasion/mandibular plane (SN/MP) angle and the ANB angle. An ordered multiple logistic regression was run to evaluate adjusted correlation of each parameter with the mandibular second molar maturational stage. Overall, the prevalence of the different second molar maturational stages was 36.8%, 37.8%, and 27.4% for stages E, F and G, respectively. According to the regression model, this relation was not influenced by sex, CVM stage, SN/MP angle, and ANB angle. Irrespective of sex, growth phase, and facial features, the maturational stage of the mandibular second molar may be a reliable indicator for the timing of spontaneous eruption of the maxillary canine.

  6. Advancements in the study of miRNA regulation during the cell cycle in human pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Yang, Zijiang; Gao, Heng

    2017-06-02

    Pituitary adenomas (PAs), single-clone adenomas arising from pituitary gland cells, comprise one of the most frequent tumors found in the sella region. The prevalence of PAs is approximately 15%, third only after gliomas and meningioma among intracranial tumors. Autopsy and radiological analysis found that the incidence of PAs is approximately 22.5%. Most PAs are benign, although a few are malignant. Just 0.1% of patients with PAs develop pituitary carcinoma. However, owing to mass effects and unregulated secretion of pituitary hormones, PAs also lead to serious morbidity. The low rate of diagnosis at onset and the lack of effective treatments for patients with recurrent disease increase the morbidity rates. Therefore, there is an urgent need to ascertain the pathological mechanism of PAs for improved diagnosis and development of specific therapies. At present, the pathogenesis of PAs is poorly understood; however, disruption of the cell cycle is known to play an important role. MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play a role in regulating genes involved in carcinogenesis or tumor suppression. Previous studies have demonstrated a strong connection between dysregulation of microRNAs and dysregulation of the cell cycle in PAs. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in the study of microRNA dysregulation resulting in disruption of the cell cycle in PAs.

  7. The 360 photography: a new anatomical insight of the sphenoid bone. Interest for anatomy teaching and skull base surgery.

    PubMed

    Jacquesson, Timothée; Mertens, Patrick; Berhouma, Moncef; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Simon, Emile

    2017-01-01

    Skull base architecture is tough to understand because of its 3D complex shape and its numerous foramen, reliefs or joints. It is especially true for the sphenoid bone whom central location hinged with most of skull base components is unique. Recently, technological progress has led to develop new pedagogical tools. This way, we bought a new real-time three-dimensional insight of the sphenoid bone that could be useful for the teacher, the student and the surgeon. High-definition photography was taken all around an isolated dry skull base bone prepared with Beauchêne's technique. Pictures were then computed to provide an overview with rotation and magnification on demand. From anterior, posterior, lateral or oblique views and from in out looks, anatomical landmarks and subtleties were described step by step. Thus, the sella turcica, the optic canal, the superior orbital fissure, the sphenoid sinus, the vidian canal, pterygoid plates and all foramen were clearly placed relative to the others at each face of the sphenoid bone. In addition to be the first report of the 360 Photography tool, perspectives are promising as the development of a real-time interactive tridimensional space featuring the sphenoid bone. It allows to turn around the sphenoid bone and to better understand its own special shape, numerous foramen, neurovascular contents and anatomical relationships. This new technological tool may further apply for surgical planning and mostly for strengthening a basic anatomical knowledge firstly introduced.

  8. Metric analysis of basal sphenoid angle in adult human skulls

    PubMed Central

    Netto, Dante Simionato; Nascimento, Sergio Ricardo Rios; Ruiz, Cristiane Regina

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the variations in the angle basal sphenoid skulls of adult humans and their relationship to sex, age, ethnicity and cranial index. Methods The angles were measured in 160 skulls belonging to the Museum of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo Department of Morphology. We use two flexible rules and a goniometer, having as reference points for the first rule the posterior end of the ethmoidal crest and dorsum of the sella turcica, and for the second rule the anterior margin of the foramen magnum and clivus, measuring the angle at the intersection of two. Results The average angle was 115.41°, with no statistical correlation between the value of the angle and sex or age. A statistical correlation was noted between the value of the angle and ethnicity, and between the angle and the horizontal cranial index. Conclusions The distribution of the angle basal sphenoid was the same in sex, and there was correlation between the angle and ethnicity, being the proportion of non-white individuals with an angle >125° significantly higher than that of whites with an angle >125°. There was correlation between the angle and the cranial index, because skulls with higher cranial index tend to have higher basiesfenoidal angle too. PMID:25295452

  9. A history of pituitary pathology.

    PubMed

    Asa, Sylvia L; Mete, Ozgur

    2014-03-01

    The history of pituitary pathology is a long one that dates back to biblical times, but the last 25 years have represented an era of "coming of age." The role of the pituitary in health and disease was the subject of many studies over the last century. With the development of electron microscopy, immunoassays, and immunohistochemistry, the functional alterations associated with pituitary disease have been clarified. The additional information provided by molecular genetic studies has allowed progress in understanding the pathogenesis of pituitary disorders. Nevertheless, many questions remain to be answered. For example, pathologists cannot morphologically distinguish locally aggressive adenomas from carcinomas when tumor is confined to the sella. Sadly, basal cell carcinoma, the most common carcinoma of skin, usually causes less morbidity than pituitary adenomas, which occur in almost 20 % of the general population, can cause significant illness and even death, and yet are still classified as benign. The opportunity to increase awareness of the impact of these common lesions on quality of life is the current challenge for physicians and patients. We anticipate that ongoing multidisciplinary approaches to pituitary disease research will offer new insights into diseases arising from this fascinating organ.

  10. Upper Nasopharyngeal Corridor for Transnasal Endoscopic Drainage of Petroclival Cholesterol Granulomas: Alternative Access in Conchal Sphenoid Patients

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Nefize; Baum, Griffin R.; Holland, Christopher M.; Ahmad, Faiz U.; Henriquez, Oswaldo A.; Pradilla, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Background Cholesterol granulomas arising at the petrous apex can be treated via traditional open surgical, endoscopic, and endoscopic-assisted approaches. Endoscopic approaches require access to the sphenoid sinus, which is technically challenging in patients with conchal sphenoidal anatomy. Clinical Presentation A 55-year-old woman presented with intermittent headaches and tinnitus. Formal audiometry demonstrated moderately severe bilateral hearing loss. CT of the temporal bones and sella revealed a well-demarcated expansile lytic mass. MRI of the face, orbit, and neck showed a right petrous apex mass measuring 22 × 18 × 19 mm that was hyperintense on T1- and T2-weighted images without enhancement, consistent with a cholesterol granuloma. The patient had a conchal sphenoidal anatomy. Operative Technique Herein, we present an illustrative case of a low-lying petroclival cholesterol granuloma in a patient with conchal sphenoidal anatomy to describe an alternative high nasopharyngeal corridor for endoscopic transnasal transclival access. Postoperative Course Postoperatively, the patient's symptoms recovered and no complications occurred. Follow-up imaging demonstrated a patent drainage tract without evidence of recurrence. Conclusion In patients with a conchal sphenoid sinus, endoscopic transnasal transclival access can be gained using a high nasopharyngeal approach. This corridor facilitates safe access to these lesions and others in this location. PMID:26929897

  11. Morphometric measurements of the anterior skull base for endoscopic transoral and transnasal approaches.

    PubMed

    Lega, Bradley C; Kramer, Daniel R; Newman, Jason G; Lee, John Y K

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the bony limits of the transnasal and transoral approaches to the anterior skull base. The data we present are meant to assist surgeons in preoperative planning for lesions of the sella, clivus, foramen magnum, and odontoid. Using precise measurements undertaken on 41 high-resolution computed tomography scans from patients at the University of Pennsylvania without any history of sinus or sellar pathology, we sought to define the bony limits of transoral and transnasal approaches. Direct measurements and calculated angles were used to assess the dimensions of the anterior skull base. Using our measurements, a transnasal approach can reach an average of 22.5 mm below the plane of the hard palate to the body of C2, and a transoral route can reach 38 mm above the basion along the length of the clivus. Analysis of variance demonstrated no significant differences when subjects were grouped based on race or gender. The measurements outlined within this article help to define the relative dimensions necessary for adapted transoral and transnasal skull base surgeries.

  12. Transcranial surgery for pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Youssef, A Samy; Agazzi, Siviero; van Loveren, Harry R

    2005-07-01

    Although the transsphenoidal approach is the preferred approach to the vast majority of pituitary tumors with or without suprasellar extension, the transcranial approach remains a vital part of the neurosurgical armamentarium for 1 to 4% of these tumors. The transcranial approach is effective when resection becomes necessary for a portion of a pituitary macroadenoma that is judged to be inaccessible from the transsphenoidal route because of isolation by a narrow waist at the diaphragma sellae, containment within the cavernous sinus lateral to the carotid artery, projection anteriorly onto the planum sphenoidale, or projection laterally into the middle fossa. The application of a transcranial approach in these circumstances may still be mitigated by response to prolactin inhibition of prolactinomas, the frequent lack of necessity to remove asymptomatic nonsecretory adenomas from the cavernous sinus, and the lack of evidence that sustained chemical cures can be reliably achieved by removal of secretory adenomas (adrenocorticotropic hormone, growth hormone) from the cavernous sinus. Cranial base surgical techniques have refined the surgical approach to pituitary adenomas but have had less effect on actual surgical indications than anticipated. Because application of the transcranial approach to pituitary adenomas is and should be rare in clinical practice, it is useful to standardize the technique to a default mode with which the surgical team is most experienced and, therefore, most comfortable. Our default mode for transcranial pituitary surgery is the frontotemporal-orbitozygomatic approach.

  13. Detection of transgenerational barium dual-isotope marks in salmon otoliths by means of LA-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Huelga-Suarez, Gonzalo; Fernández, Beatriz; Moldovan, Mariella; García Alonso, J Ignacio

    2013-03-01

    The present study evaluates the use of an individual-specific transgenerational barium dual-isotope procedure and its application to salmon specimens from the Sella River (Asturias, Spain). For such a purpose, the use of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) in combination with multiple linear regression for the determination of the isotopic mark in the otoliths of the specimens is presented. In this sense, a solution in which two barium-enriched isotopes ((137)Ba and (135)Ba) were mixed at a molar ratio of ca. 1:3 (N Ba137/N Ba135) was administered to eight returning females caught during the spawning period. After injection, these females, as well as their offspring, were reared in a governmental hatchery located in the council of Cangas de Onís (Asturias, Spain). For comparison purposes, as well as for a time-monitoring control, egg and larva data obtained by solution analysis ICP-MS are also given. Otoliths (9-month-old juveniles) of marked offspring were analysed by LA-ICP-MS demonstrating a 100 % marking efficacy of this methodology. The capabilities of the molar fraction approach for 2D imaging of fish otoliths are also addressed.

  14. Bilateral femoral insuffiency fractures treated with inflatable intramedullary nails: a case report.

    PubMed

    Demiralp, Bahtiyar; Ilgan, Seyfettin; Ozgur Karacalioglu, A; Cicek, Engin Ilker; Yildrim, Duzgun; Erler, Kaan

    2007-09-01

    Stress fractures could be classified as fatigue fractures and insufficiency fractures (IF). Fatigue fractures occur when abnormal mechanical stress is applied to a normal bone, on the other hand insufficiency fractures occur when normal to moderate pressure is applied to a bone that has decreased resistance (Daffner and Pavlov in Am J Radiol 159:242-245, 1992). IF have been observed mainly in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, and are becoming more common with the increase of elderly population (Daffner and Pavlov in Am J Radiol 159:242-245, 1992). Other systemic and metabolic conditions that can result in osteopenia and IF include osteomalacia, hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, rheumatoid arthritis, fluoride treatment, diabetes mellitus, fibrous dysplasia, Paget's disease, irradiation and mechanical factors (Daffner and Pavlov in Am J Radiol 159:242-245, 1992; Soubrier et al. in Joint Bone Spine 70:209-218, 2003; Epps et al. in Am J Orthop 33:457-460, 2004; Austin and Chrissos in Orthopedics 28:795-797, 2005). In this case report, the authors present an osteoporotic woman who developed bilateral insufficiency fracture of the femoral shaft after longstanding steroid, thyroxine replacement and alendronate therapy due to partial empty sella syndrome and osteoporosis, resulting in the treatment of the fracture by inflatable intramedullary nailing.

  15. Progress in transsphenoidal hypophysectomy for treatment of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Meij, Björn; Voorhout, George; Rijnberk, Ad

    2002-11-29

    Cushing's disease or pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) is common in dogs and rare in cats. PDH is caused by a pituitary tumor producing adrenocorticotropin (ACTH). Pituitary imaging with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is required to assess the size and location of the pituitary adenoma in relation to the surgical landmarks. In a specialized veterinary institution, microsurgical transsphenoidal hypophysectomy has proven to be a safe and effective treatment for dogs (n=84) and cats (n=7) with Cushing's disease. Pituitary surgery requires a team approach and the neurosurgeon performing hypophysectomies must master a learning curve. The surgical results compared favorably with those for dogs with PDH treated medically with mitotane at the same institution. The recurrence rate after initially successful surgery increases with longer follow up-times. Pituitary function testing in 39 dogs with PDH treated with hypophysectomy revealed that, much more so than the other adenohypophyseal cell types, residual corticotropes present in the sella turcica after surgery are functional. Such normal ACTH secreting cells may maintain normocorticism whereas residual adenoma cells may lead to mild recurrence after relatively long periods of remission. Microsurgical transsphenoidal hypophysectomy is an effective treatment for canine and feline Cushing's disease.

  16. Skelate changes induced by orthodontic in class II division 1 by CBCT: a long-term follow-up prospective study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuofei; Chen, Weiting; Ding, Sheng; Han, Hongwei; Yu, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    To identify and evaluate changes in the sagittal position of point B due to orthodontic treatment using CBCT. The subjects comprised 80 patients received fixed appliance. In this population, group 1 consisting of 40 patients with Class II division 2 malocclusion and group 2 consisting of 40 patients with minor crowding in the beginning of the treatment and required no or minimal maxillary anterior tooth movement. Treatment changes in incisor inclination, sagittal position of point B, SNB and movement of incisor root apex and incisal edge were calculated on pretreatment and post treatment on CBCT. Assessment of local changes in point B revealed that the point had moved backward. No significant change was observed in the value of the sella-nasion-point B angle (SNB) in both the study and control groups. However, the changes of horizontal displacement after treatment in SNB between the two groups were found to be significant. There were no significant changes in the vertical and Z position of points B in both group. The position of point B was affected by local bone remodeling during orthodontic treatment. These changes significantly affect the SNB angle.

  17. Acromegaly: Role of Surgery in the Therapeutic Armamentarium

    PubMed Central

    Guinto, Gerardo; Abdo, Miguel; Zepeda, Erick; Aréchiga, Norma; Mercado, Moisés

    2012-01-01

    Acromegaly is a complex disease that requires the intervention of a multidisciplinary team. The most frequent clinical manifestations are growing of distal parts of the body and some areas of the face. Patients may also present arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, colonic polyps, cardiomegaly, neurological and endocrine changes secondary to the presence of a GH-secreting tumor in pituitary or extrapituitary origin, or eutopic hypothalamic GHRH hypersecretion and peripheral GHRH hypersecretion. Surgery is the first treatment used for most patients, regardless of the cause. In the great majority of cases, pituitary tumor can be removed through a transsphenoidal approach. Craniotomy is reserved for those cases with giant tumors, particularly when they grow toward the middle or posterior cranial fossa. Best surgical results are obtained when the tumor is confined into the sella turcica or if it has a regular suprasellar extension. When the disease cannot be controlled with surgery, medical treatment is indicated. Somatostatin analogues are included as the first line of medication, followed by dopamine agonist and growth hormone receptors antagonists. Radiation therapy can be also indicated in two main forms for residual tumor with medically refractory patients: radiosurgery for small tumors or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for larger ones. PMID:23209463

  18. Patients cured of acromegaly do not experience improvement of their skull deformities.

    PubMed

    Rick, Jonathan W; Jahangiri, Arman; Flanigan, Patrick M; Aghi, Manish K

    2017-04-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disease that is associated with many co-morbidities. This condition also causes progressive deformity of the skull which includes frontal bossing and cranial thickening. Surgical and/or medical management can cure this condition in many patients, but it is not understood if patients cured of acromegaly experience regression of their skull deformities. We performed a retrospective analysis on patients treated at our dedicated pituitary center from 2009 to 2014. We looked at all MRI images taken during the treatment of these patients and recorded measurements on eight skull dimensions. We then analyzed these measurements for changes over time. 29 patients underwent curative treatment for acromegaly within our timeframe. The mean age for this population was 45.0 years old (range 19-70) and 55.2 % (n = 16) were female. All of these patients were treated with a transsphenoidal resection for a somatotropic pituitary adenoma. 9 (31.1%) of these patients required further medical therapy to be cured. We found statically significant variation in the coronal width of the sella turcica after therapy, which is likely attributable to changes from transsphenoidal surgery. None of the other dimensions had significant variation over time after cure. Patients cured of acromegaly should not expect natural regression of their skull deformities. Our study suggests that both frontal bossing and cranial thickening do not return to normal after cure.

  19. Craniofacial and pharyngeal airway morphology in patients with acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Balos Tuncer, Burcu; Canigur Bavbek, Nehir; Ozkan, Cigdem; Tuncer, Cumhur; Eroglu Altinova, Alev; Gungor, Kahraman; Akturk, Mujde; Balos Toruner, Fusun

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess differences in craniofacial characteristics, upper spine and pharyngeal airway morphology in patients with acromegaly compared with healthy individuals. Twenty-one patients with acromegaly were compared with 22 controls by linear and angular measurements on cephalograms. The differences between the mean values of cephalometric parameters were analyzed with Mann-Whitney U-test. With respect to controls, anterior (p<0.05), middle (p<0.01) and posterior (p<0.05) cranial base lengths were increased, sella turcica was enlarged (p<0.001) and upper spine morphology demonstrated differences in the height of atlas (p<0.01) and axis (p<0.05) in patients with acromegaly. Craniofacial changes were predominantly found in the frontal bone (p<0.01) and the mandible (p<0.05). As for the airway, patients with acromegaly exhibited diminished dimensions at nasal (p<0.001), uvular (p<0.01), mandibular (p<0.01) pharyngeal levels and at the narrowest point of the pharyngeal airway space (p<0.001) compared to healthy controls. Soft palate width was significantly higher (p<0.001) and the hyoid bone was more vertically positioned (p<0.01) in patients with acromegaly. Current results point to the importance of the reduced airway dimensions and that dentists and/or orthodontists should be aware of the cranial or dental abnormalities in patients with acromegaly.

  20. Metastatic melanoma to the pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, Ian E; Waguespack, Steven G; Fuller, Gregory N; Couldwell, William T

    2007-08-01

    Metastasis to the pituitary gland is unusual, and occurs most often in patients with carcinomas of the breast or lung. Despite its propensity for spread to the brain, metastatic melanoma has rarely been described within the sella. We report two cases of malignant melanoma pathologically confirmed within the pituitary, both metastatic from a primary site on the chest wall. In each patient, transsphenoidal resection of the tumor was incomplete and each received local radiotherapy after surgery. One patient recurred quickly and developed brain metastasis as well. He died four months after resection of the pituitary metastasis, but the second patient survived six months without recurrence. As intrasellar metastasis portends widespread systemic disease and may be synchronous with parenchymal brain metastasis, survival in such patients is limited regardless of adjunctive therapy. Such cases are likely to arise more commonly in future due to the increasing incidence of melanoma. Identifying them by imaging alone is difficult due to inconsistent signal characteristics on MRI (as shown by these cases) and the confusion introduced by any associated intratumoral hemorrhage.

  1. [Galactorrhea after mammary plastic surgery].

    PubMed

    Inguenault, C; Capon-Degardin, N; Martinot-Duquennoy, V; Pellerin, P

    2005-04-01

    Galactorrhoea is a complication rarely observed after mammary plastic surgery. Our experience in the domain extends to three clinical cases - two after prosthetic insertion and one after breast reduction - wich will be presented here. The origin of this complication is uncertain. Nevertheless, it is likely to be multifocal, as surgery alone is not the only cause. Postsurgical galactorrhoea often follows a benign course culminating in spontaneous resolution. However, it may reveal the presence of o prolactin secreting adenoma, as was the case with one of our patients. A detailed history, exploring antecedent factors, is an essential step in guiding subsequent management. When faced with postsurgical galactorrhoea, serum prolactin levels should be measured. If serum prolactin levels exceed 150 ng/ml further investigation by way of an MRI of the sella turcica is advisable to rule out pituitary adenoma. Depending on symptom severity, treatment may be medical with the prescription of dopaminergic agonists, and/or surgical with drainage or removal of prostheses. Increased awareness of galactorrhea as a possible complication of plastic surgery to the breast will improve management.

  2. [Active acromegaly and gigantism: some clinical characteristics of 50 patients].

    PubMed

    Pumarino, H; Oviedo, S; Michelsen, H; Campino, C

    1991-08-01

    50 patients with autonomous growth hormone excess (48 with adult acromegaly and 2 with gigantism) were studied between 1966 to 1986 (2.38 pts/year). Characteristic clinical presentation, an increase in growth hormone (GH) uninhibited by glucose, and/or hyperphosphemia and hyperhydroxiprolinuria were present in all patients. No cases of hypercalcemia were recorded. Phosphemia was increased in 55.8%, alkaline phosphatases in 61.7%, calciuria in 26.9% and hydroxyprolinuria in 74.2% of the patients. Basal GH was over 5 ng/ml (89.9 DS +/- 170.9) in 42 pts, and in 37 was not suppressed after glucose administration, 38% had an increased (paradoxical response) and 62% a flat response (less than 50% change of basal values). TRH test was performed in 14 patients, 8 presented an increase in GH titer. Hyperprolactinemia was seen in 4 of 12 patients in whom this hormone was measured. The size of the sella turcica was increased in 93%, and although the larger sellar size correlated to higher levels of GH, correlation was not significant. 20% of the pts had rheumatological disease, 14% goiter, 12% cardiac disease, 26.5% had diastolic hypertension and 4% renal lithiasis (hypercalciuric pts). 38% had hyperglycemia with a diabetic glucose tolerance test and 18% had non-diabetic abnormal glucose tolerance test.

  3. A novel truncating AIP mutation, p.W279*, in a familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) kindred.

    PubMed

    Cansu, Güven Barış; Taşkıran, Bengür; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Faucz, Fabio R; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2016-07-01

    Familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) constitute 2-3% of pituitary tumours. AIP is the most commonly mutated gene in FIPA. We herein report a novel germline mutation of the AIP gene in a family with FIPA. We present two patients, a father and his 12-year-old daughter, diagnosed clinically and using laboratory measures with acromegaly-gigantism. Both underwent transsphenoidal hypophyseal surgery for macroadenomas. We initially detected a novel heterozygous germline AIP mutation, c.836G>A (p.W279*), in the father's DNA. We then found the same mutation in his affected daughter. Pituitary adenomas associated with AIP mutations mostly present as FIPA (68%) at an early age (78% occur at <30 years old). They are often growth hormone (GH) - or prolactin - secreting macroadenomas (88%) that have already extended beyond the sella at the time of diagnosis. Acromegalic cases are resistant to somatostatin analogues and multimodal management is frequently essential to control the disease. Our patients had normalized GH/IGF-1 values soon after surgery, although enough time may not have elapsed to reach final cure. While penetrance of the disease can be as low as 10% in FIPA, especially children and young patients with somatotropinoma and prolactinoma should be surveyed for inactivating mutations or deletions in AIP. Determining the causative mutations may be of assistance in early diagnosis, treatment success, and genetic counseling.

  4. Correlation between objective and subjective evaluation of profile in bimaxillary protrusion patients after orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Ping; Li, Wei-ran

    2015-07-01

    To correlate the objective cephalometric measurements with subjective facial esthetics in patients with bimaxillary protrusion. The sample consisted of 60 Asian-Chinese patients with bimaxillary protrusion who met the inclusion criteria. The facial esthetics of posttreatment profile and the change of profile on standardized lateral photographs were rated by a panel of 10 orthodontists and a panel of 10 lay persons with bimaxillary protrusion. All of the pretreatment and posttreatment cephalograms were digitized and traced. Twenty-five cephalometric measurements were constructed and analyzed. Correlations between the subjective facial esthetic scores and each cephalometric measurement were evaluated. The cephalometric measurements correlated with the facial esthetic scores of posttreatment profile given by the orthodontist and the lay persons were basically the same. For the evaluation of posttreatment profile in bimaxillary protrusion patients, the upper and lower lip to E-line, upper and lower incisor tip to AP plane, Pg-NB distance, mentolabial angle, and sulcus depth correlated significantly with the esthetic score. For the evaluation of profile change during orthodontic treatment, retraction of upper incisor relative to AP plane or the perpendicular line through sella (line Y), change of upper incisor inclination, change of mentolabial sulcus depth, and retraction of lips relative to E-line were correlated positively with the esthetic value. Cephalometric measurements of lip position, incisor position, and chin morphology were key parameters correlated to facial esthetics.

  5. Pituitary metastases from the oncocytic variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma: a case report and diagnostic dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Matyja, Ewa; Zieliński, Grzegorz; Witek, Przemysław; Kamiński, Grzegorz; Grajkowska, Wiesława; Maksymowicz, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Metastases to the pituitary gland and sella turcica are uncommon. The distinction between primary and secondary metastatic pituitary tumours is challenging as carcinomas from distant sites might closely resemble, both clinically and histopathologically, non-functional adenomas or primary pituitary carcinomas. Among metastases to pituitary gland ones from thyroid carcinoma are extremely rare. We present a unique case of a 53-year-old male patient with a past history of thyroid carcinoma who underwent repeated surgeries over a period of 7 years for a sellar-parasellar mass with paranasal sinus involvement. Morphologically, the tumour was composed of solid sheaths of monomorphic cells exhibiting oncocytic features. In electron microscope images, the cytoplasm of tumour cells was filled with numerous mitochondria. The tumour was negative for pituitary hormones but exhibited immunoreactivity for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, thyroglobulin and thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1). Based on the clinical data and immunophenotypic profile, the tumour was finally diagnosed as an oncocytic variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is probably the first report of such peculiar histopathological variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma metastasizing to the pituitary gland. The diagnostic dilemmas considering oncocytic features of the presented case are discussed.

  6. Penetration of an Optic Nerve by a Sellar/Suprasellar Arachnoid Cyst.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, Ross L; Hackney, James R; Riley, Kristen O

    2016-03-01

    Sellar/suprasellar cystic lesions can cause compression of the optic pathways and result in a decline in vision. There have been reports of optic pathways being fenestrated by intracranial aneurysms. This is the first report of a sellar/suprasellar arachnoid cyst causing fenestration of an optic nerve. Our patient presented with an 8-month history of worsening vision. Imaging revealed a sellar/suprasellar cystic lesion with compression of the optic pathways. He was treated surgically via an endoscopic transsphenoidal approach. The left optic nerve was found to have multiple round defects during surgery. Pathology was consistent with an arachnoid cyst. The patient has had progressive improvement in vision up to 6 months after surgery. Sellar/suprasellar arachnoid cysts likely form when a communication exists between the suprasellar arachnoid space and the sella turcica. We believe that our patient's cyst grew slowly enough to allow normal functioning of the optic nerve as it was being penetrated. Though visual symptoms may be gradual and not present until after the optic nerve has been penetrated, these symptoms and signs may still improve with removal of the cyst. Prognosis for visual improvement is difficult to predict with cases of compressive sellar/suprasellar cystic masses. Improvement in the vision examination after surgical resection is possible even when the optic nerve has been penetrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Microsurgical anatomy of the posterior fossa cisterns.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, H; Rhoton, A L; Peace, D

    1988-07-01

    The microsurgical anatomy of the posterior fossa cisterns was examined in 15 cadavers using 3X to 40X magnification. Liliequist's membrane was found to split into two arachnoidal sheets as it spreads upward from the dorsum sellae: an upper sheet, called the diencephalic membrane, which attaches to the diencephalon at the posterior edge of the mamillary bodies, and a lower sheet, called the mesencephalic membrane, which attaches along the junction of the midbrain and pons. Several other arachnoidal membranes that separate the cisterns were identified. These include the anterior pontine membrane, which separates the prepontine and cerebellopontine cisterns; the lateral pontomesencephalic membrane, which separates the ambient and cerebellopontine cisterns; the medial pontomedullary membrane, which separates the premedullary and prepontine cisterns; and the lateral pontomedullary membrane, which separates the cerebellopontine and cerebellomedullary cisterns. The three cisterns in which the arachnoid trabeculae and membranes are the most dense and present the greatest obstacle at operation are the interpeduncular and quadrigeminal cisterns and the cisterna magna. Numerous arachnoid membranes were found to intersect the oculomotor nerves. The neural and vascular structures in each cistern are reviewed.

  8. Endoscopic approach-routes in the posterior fossa cisterns through the retrosigmoid keyhole craniotomy: an anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Kurucz, Peter; Baksa, Gabor; Patonay, Lajos; Thaher, Firas; Buchfelder, Michael; Ganslandt, Oliver

    2016-11-10

    Endoscopy in cerebellopontine angle surgery is an increasingly used technique. Despite of its advantages, the shortcomings arising from the complex anatomy of the posterior fossa are still preventing its widespread use. To overcome these drawbacks, the goal of this study was to define the anatomy of different endoscopic approaches through the retrosigmoid craniotomy and their limitations by surgical windows. Anatomical dissections were performed on 25 fresh human cadavers to describe the main approach-routes. Surgical windows are spaces surrounded by neurovascular structures acting as a natural frame and providing access to deeper structures. The approach-routes are trajectories starting at the craniotomy and pointing to the lesion, passing through certain windows. Twelve different windows could be identified along four endoscopic approach-routes. The superior route provides access to the structures of the upper pons, lower mesencephalon, and the upper neurovascular complex through the suprameatal, superior cerebellar, and infratrigeminal windows. The supratentorial route leads to the basilar tip and some of the suprasellar structures via the ipsi- and contralateral oculomotor and dorsum sellae windows. The central endoscopic route provides access to the middle pons and the middle neurovascular complex through the inframeatal, AICA, and basilar windows. The inferior endoscopic route is the pathway to the medulla oblongata and the lower neurovascular complex through the accessory, hypoglossal, and foramen magnum windows. The anatomy and limitations of each surgical windows were described in detail. These informations are essential for safe application of endoscopy in posterior fossa surgery through the retrosigmoid approach.

  9. Endoscopic versus Open Approach to the Infratemporal Fossa: A Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Ahmed; Carrau, Ricardo L.; Tantawy, Ahmed; Ibraheim, Ahmed; Solares, Arturo C.; Otto, Bradley A.; Prevedello, Daniel M.; Filho, Leo Ditzel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Various lateral and anterior approaches to access the infratemporal fossa (ITF) have been described. We provide our observations regarding the endoscopic transpterygoid and preauricular subtemporal approaches, listing their respective advantages and limitations through cadaveric dissection. Methods A cadaver study was performed on five adult specimens. An endoscopic transpterygoid approach to the ITF was completed bilaterally in three specimens, and an open preauricular ITF approach was performed bilaterally in two specimens. Results After completing the cadaveric dissections, we studied differences between the endoscopic transpterygoid approach and open preauricular subtemporal approaches in regard to exposure and ease of dissection of different structures in the ITF. Conclusions In comparison with a lateral approach, the endonasal endoscopic transpterygoid approach provides better visualization and more direct exposure of median structures such as the nasopharynx, eustachian tube, sella, and clivus. We concluded that the endoscopic transpterygoid approach can be utilized to resect benign lesions and some select group of malignancies involving the infratemporal and middle cranial fossae. Open approaches continue to play an important role, especially in the resection of extensive malignant tumors extending to these regions. PMID:26401477

  10. Cavernous hemangioma of the dura mater mimicking meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Di Vitantonio, Hambra; De Paulis, Danilo; Ricci, Alessandro; Marzi, Sara; Dehcordi, Soheila Raysi; Galzio, Renato Juan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cavernomas are benign lesions that most commonly occur intra-parenchymally, but occasionally they have been described as arising from the dura mater. Extra-axial cavernous angiomas (or hemangiomas) account for 0.4–2% of all intracranial vascular malformations, and they usually occur in the middle cranial fossa, associated with the cavernous sinus. Other possible localizations (e.g. tentorium, convexity, anterior cranial fossa, cerebellopontine angle, Meckel's cave, sella turcica and internal auditory meatus) are rare, and they account only for 0.2–0.5%. Case Description: We report a case of a 30-year-old female presenting with a 2 years history of headache unresponsive to drug therapy. The magnetic resonance imaging showed a dural-based lesion in the left frontal region; the lesion size was: 1.5 cm × 3.5 cm. The appearance suggested a convexity meningioma. A left frontal craniotomy was performed, and the histopathological diagnosis deposed for a cavernous hemangioma of the dura mater. The follow-up at 1-year was good without any neurologic deficit. Conclusions: Dural-based cavernous hemangiomas of the convexity are uncommon lesions. Up to now, only 13 cases have been described in the literature. The authors have discussed clinical aspects, radiological features, surgical treatment, and operative findings. PMID:26421218

  11. Petrous apex cephalocoele: contribution of coexisting intracranial pathologies to the aetiopathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Duran, S; Hatipoglu, H G; Cılız, D S; Elverici, E; Sakman, B

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to show the MRI findings of petrous apex cephalocoele (PAC) and the other intracranial pathologies that coexist with PAC, and to discuss the contribution of the co-existing pathologies to aetiopathogenesis. Methods: A retrospective analysis of our imaging archive for the period from January 2012 to October 2013 revealed 13 patients with PAC (12 females and 1 male; age range, 26–69 years). 11 patients underwent MRI examination of the cranium, and 2 patients underwent MRI examination of the sellar region. We evaluated the lesions for content, signal intensity, enhancement, relation to petrous apex and Meckel's cave. Images were also evaluated for coexisting pathologies. Results: The presenting symptoms included headache, vertigo, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and trigeminal neuropathy. All patients had PAC. All lesions were located posterolateral to the Meckel's cave and were isointense with CSF signal on all pulse sequences. All lesions were continuous with Meckel's cave. Coexisting pathologies included intracranial aneurysmal dilatation, empty sella, mass in hypophysis, arachnoid cyst, inferior herniation of parahippocampal gyrus and optic nerve sheath CSF distension. Conclusion: Coexistence with other intracranial pathologies supports the possibility of CSF imbalance and/or intracranial hypertension in the aetiopathogenesis of PAC. Advances in knowledge: This study examined the contribution of the co-existing intracranial pathologies to the aetiopathogenesis of PAC. PMID:25651410

  12. The need for skull radiography in patients presenting for CT

    SciTech Connect

    Tress, B.M.

    1983-01-01

    One thousand patients had both CT of the head and a conventional skull series of radiographs. Radiographic findings were abnormal in 250 patients (25%), but only 64 patients (6.4%) had diagnostically significant abnormalities at radiography that were not detected by CT. If the 163 patients who presented after acute trauma were excluded from the series, only 39 (4.7%) of the remaining patients had radiographically significant abnormal findings that were not seen at CT, and only two (0.2%) of these abnormalities could not be diagnosed by a lateral skull radiograph alone. In only five patients (0.5%) was the management actively changed because an abnormaltiy that was detected at skull radiography was not detected at CT. Thus, in nontrauma patients who have stroke, epilepsy, dementia, or non-specific symptoms without focal signs, or have recently undergone craniotomy, and who have been referred for CT, skull radiographs are not justified. In the patient with a history and findings that are strongly suggestive of a pathological disorder anywhere other than in the sella turcica, cerebello-pontine angle, and paranasal sinuses, only the lateral skull radiograph should be obtained after CT, and only if CT is equivocal.

  13. Sellar gangliocytoma with adrenocorticotropic and prolactin adenoma.

    PubMed

    Kissiedu, Juliana O; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with weight gain, headaches, dizziness, erectile dysfunction and decreased libido. He was found to have elevated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and prolactin serum levels. The imaging studies revealed a 1.4 cm sella/suprasellar mass which was compressing the optic chiasm. Histologic slides of the lesion showed a pituitary adenoma, marked by a proliferation of biphenotypic appearing cells, associated with a gangliocytoma, and marked by a proliferation of atypical appearing neuronal cells arranged against a glial-appearing background. Pituitary adenoma-gangliocytomas are benign combination tumors that rarely occur in the sellar region. Adenomas in this setting are sometimes functional, and rare patients with mixed adenomas (adenomas secreting more than one hormone) have been reported. To our knowledge, there has been only one other report of a combined ACTH and prolactin-producing adenoma with gangliocytoma, reported in a patient who also had acromegaly. In our patient, the immunohistochemical stains demonstrated that the bulk of the adenoma cells stained with prolactin antibody, and scattered clusters of cells within the adenoma stained positively for ACTH. The adenoma did not stain with antibodies to any of the other anterior pituitary hormones. Postoperatively, the elevated prolactin and ACTH levels returned to normal levels and there was no evidence of residual tumor. Adequate sampling and immunohistochemistry are important in rendering a correct diagnosis and in identifying the hormone status of mixed adenoma-gangliocytomas.

  14. Survival and Recurrence for Patients Undergoing Surgery of Skull Base Intracranial Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Chaichana, Kaisorn L.; Flores, Mariana; Acharya, Shami; Sampognaro, Paul; Bettegowda, Chetan; Rigamonti, Daniele; Weingart, Jon D.; Olivi, Alessandro; Gallia, Gary L.; Brem, Henry; Lim, Michael; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Objective Skull base metastases (SBMs) are rare lesions in close proximity to critical neural and vasculature structures. This rarity and complexity have led many to only offer nonsurgical therapies. The surgical outcomes for patients with SBM therefore remain unknown. Design Retrospective, comparison analyses. Setting Johns Hopkins Hospital. Participants All patients who underwent intracranial metastatic tumor surgery. Main Outcome Measure Survival and recurrence. Results Of the 708 patients who underwent intracranial metastatic tumor surgery, 29 (4%) had SBM: 3 (10%) involved the anterior skull base, 7 (24%) the sella, 6 (21%) the orbit, 2 (7%) the sphenoid wing, 3 (10%) the clivus, 4 (14%) the petrous bone, and 4 (14%) the paranasal sinuses. Following surgery, 6 (50%) had improvements in vision and 14 (88%) had improvement and/or maintenance of their cranial nerve symptoms. Three (10%), 0(0%), and 1(3%) developed a new motor, language, and vision deficit, respectively. There were no differences in median survival (10.0 versus 9.2 months, p = 0.48) and local progression-free survival (PFS) (p = 0.52), but there was improved distal PFS (p = 0.04) between patients with and without SBM. Conclusions Patients with SBM are relatively rare. These patients can tolerate surgery with minimal morbidity and mortality, and they have similar prognoses to patients without SBM. PMID:24436917

  15. Anterior Hypopituitarism and Treatment Response in Hunter Syndrome: A Comparison of Two Patients

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Paola; Wei, Xing-Chang; Khan, Aneal

    2016-01-01

    Hypopituitarism is a clinically important diagnosis and has not previously been reported in Hunter syndrome. We contrast two cases with anatomic pituitary anomalies: one with anterior panhypopituitarism and the other with intact pituitary function. Patient 1, a 10-year-old boy with Hunter syndrome, was evaluated for poor growth and an ectopic posterior pituitary gland. Endocrine testing revealed growth hormone (GH) deficiency, secondary adrenal insufficiency, and tertiary hypothyroidism. An improvement in growth velocity with hormone replacement (GH, thyroxine, and corticosteroid) was seen; however, final adult height remained compromised. Patient 2, a 13-year-old male with Hunter syndrome, was evaluated for growth failure. He had a large empty sella turcica with posteriorly displaced pituitary. Functional endocrine testing was normal and a trial of GH-treatment yielded no significant effect. Panhypopituitarism associated with pituitary anomalies has not been previously reported in Hunter syndrome and was an incidental finding of significant clinical importance. In the setting of documented anterior hypopituitarism, while hormone replacement improved growth velocity, final height remained impaired. In patient 2 with equivocal GH-testing results, treatment had no effect on linear growth. These cases highlight the importance of careful clinical assessment in Hunter syndrome and that judicious hormone replacement may be indicated in individual cases. PMID:28018694

  16. Posterior cranial base natural growth and development: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Currie, Kris; Sawchuk, Dena; Saltaji, Humam; Oh, Heesoo; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Lagravere, Manuel

    2017-07-24

    To provide a synthesis of the published studies evaluating the natural growth and development of the human posterior cranial base (S-Ba). The search was performed on MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and all EBM Reviews electronic databases. In addition, reference lists of the included studies were hand-searched. Articles were included if they analyzed posterior cranial-base growth in humans specifically. Study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were completed in duplicate. A meta-analysis was not justified. Finally, 23 published studies were selected: 5 cross-sectional and 18 cohort studies. Articles were published between 1955 and 2015, and all were published in English. The sample sizes varied between 20 and 397 individuals and consisted of craniofacial measurements from either living or deceased human skulls. Validity of the measurements was not determined in any of the studies, while six papers reported some form of reliability assessment. All the articles included multiple time points within the same population or data from multiple age groups. Growth of S-Ba was generally agreed to be from spheno-occipital synchondrosis growth. Basion displaced downward and backward and sella turcica moved downward and backward during craniofacial growth. Timing of cessation of S-Ba growth was not conclusive due to limited identified evidence. Current evidence suggests that S-Ba is not totally stable, as its dimensions change throughout craniofacial growth and a minor dimensional change is observed even in late adulthood.

  17. Bacterial pituitary abscess: an unusual cause of panhypopituitarism.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Irma; Garcia, Liliana; Guinto, Gerardo; Cabrera, Lourdes; Mercado, Moisés

    2002-01-01

    To describe a case of primary bacterial pituitary abscess manifesting as hypopituitarism. We present the case history, hormonal and bacteriologic data, and findings on imaging studies in a 34-year-old man. The patient had an 8-month history of intermittent fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. Because a computed tomographic scan of the head showed a cystic sellar mass with ring enhancement, he was referred to our medical center. On physical examination, he showed signs of meningeal irritation and had mild hypotension. Hormonal evaluation revealed evidence of hypocortisolism, hypothyroidism, and hypogonadism. Three weeks after treatment with antibiotics and hormonal replacement, he underwent transsphenoidal surgical exploration and evacuation of purulent material from the sella. On culture, this specimen grew coagulase-negative staphylococci and Propionibacterium granulosum. Nine months later, dynamic testing showed persistent central hypocortisolism, hypothyroidism, and hypogonadism. Bacterial pituitary abscess is rare but manifests similar to other pituitary masses with headaches, visual field defects, and hormonal disturbances. For the correct preoperative diagnosis of this condition, the physician must have a high index of suspicion, and the characteristic ring enhancement must be present on imaging studies.

  18. Sheehan's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kilicli, Fatih; Dokmetas, Hatice Sebila; Acibucu, Fettah

    2013-04-01

    Sheehan's syndrome (SS) is characterized by various degrees of hypopituitarism, and develops as a result of ischemic pituitary necrosis due to severe postpartum hemorrhage. Increased pituitary volume, small sella size, disseminated intravascular coagulation and autoimmunity are the proposed factors in the pathogenesis of SS. Hormonal insufficiencies, ranging from single pituitary hormone insufficiency to total hypopituitarism, are observed in patients. The first most important issue in the diagnosis is being aware of the syndrome. Lack of lactation and failure of menstrual resumption after delivery that complicated with severe hemorrhage are the most important clues in diagnosing SS. The most frequent endocrine disorders are the deficiencies of growth hormone and prolactin. In patients with typical obstetric history, prolactin response to TRH seems to be the most sensitive screening test in diagnosing SS. Other than typical pituitary deficiency, symptoms such as anemia, pancytopenia, osteoporosis, impairment in cognitive functions and impairment in the quality of life are also present in these patients. Treatment of SS is based on the appropriate replacement of deficient hormones. Growth hormone replacement has been found to have positive effects; however, risk to benefit ratio, side effects and cost of the treatment should be taken into account.

  19. Multiple Fractures in Patient with Graves' Disease Accompanied by Isolated Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Hyon-Seung; Kim, Ji Min; Ju, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Younghak; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is known to decrease bone mineral density due to deficiency of sex steroid hormone. Graves' disease is also an important cause of secondary osteoporosis. However, IHH does not preclude the development of primary hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease, leading to more severe osteoporosis rapidly. Here, we describe the first case of 35-year-old Asian female patient with IHH accompanied by Graves' disease and osteoporosis-induced multiple fractures. Endocrine laboratory findings revealed preserved anterior pituitary functions except for secretion of gonadotropins and showed primary hyperthyroidism with positive autoantibodies. Sella magnetic resonance imaging showed slightly small sized pituitary gland without mass lesion. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry revealed severe osteoporosis in lumbar spine and femur neck of the patient. Plain film radiography of the pelvis and shoulder revealed a displaced and nondisplaced fracture, respectively. After surgical fixation with screws for the femoral fracture, the patient was treated with antithyroid medication, calcium, and vitamin D until now and has been recovering fairly well. We report a patient of IHH with Graves' disease and multiple fractures that is a first case in Korea. PMID:26981520

  20. Recurrent symptomatic hypoglycaemia with pancytopenia as a delayed presentation of Sheehan's syndrome with complete recovery after hormone replacement.

    PubMed

    Dharmshaktu, Pramila; Bhowmick, Jayeeta; Manglani, Danny; Dhanwal, Dinesh Kumar

    2013-11-21

    A 38-year-old woman presented to our hospital emergency section in altered sensorium and with blood pressure of 80/60 mm Hg. She gave a history of recurrent episodes of loss of consciousness for 15-20 days, generalised body swelling and generalised weakness for the past 5-6 years. On further evaluation she was found to have severe hypoglycaemic episodes. In view of history of pregnancy and significant blood loss during surgery and long history of lethargy, asthaenia and generalised anasarca, the patient was evaluated for Sheehan's syndrome. Her serum cortisol levels were very low and she was found to have central hypothyroidism. MRI of the brain also revealed small sella turcica and small pituitary gland suggestive of hypopituitarism. The patient was started on high-concentration dextrose drips, steroids and thyroid hormone replacement. The patient showed a marked improvement within 1 week of treatment. And she was discharged with an advice to follow-up at our outpatient department.

  1. Recurrent symptomatic hypoglycaemia with pancytopenia as a delayed presentation of Sheehan's syndrome with complete recovery after hormone replacement

    PubMed Central

    Dharmshaktu, Pramila; Bhowmick, Jayeeta; Manglani, Danny; Dhanwal, Dinesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman presented to our hospital emergency section in altered sensorium and with blood pressure of 80/60 mm Hg. She gave a history of recurrent episodes of loss of consciousness for 15–20 days, generalised body swelling and generalised weakness for the past 5–6 years. On further evaluation she was found to have severe hypoglycaemic episodes. In view of history of pregnancy and significant blood loss during surgery and long history of lethargy, asthaenia and generalised anasarca, the patient was evaluated for Sheehan's syndrome. Her serum cortisol levels were very low and she was found to have central hypothyroidism. MRI of the brain also revealed small sella turcica and small pituitary gland suggestive of hypopituitarism. The patient was started on high-concentration dextrose drips, steroids and thyroid hormone replacement. The patient showed a marked improvement within 1 week of treatment. And she was discharged with an advice to follow-up at our outpatient department. PMID:24265336

  2. Characteristic features of 20 patients with Sheehan's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dökmetaş, Hatice Sebila; Kilicli, Fatih; Korkmaz, Serdal; Yonem, Ozlem

    2006-05-01

    Sheehan's syndrome occurs as a result of ischemic pituitary necrosis due to severe postpartum hemorrhage. The aim of the present study was to determine the clinical characteristics of Sheehan's syndrome in 20 patients (mean age 60.15 +/- 3.41 years) with typical obstetric history. The mean duration between time of diagnosis and date of the last delivery was 26.82 +/- 2.52 years (range 2-40 years). All patients had a history of massive hemorrhage at delivery and physical signs of Sheehan's syndrome. Fourteen patients (70.0%) lacked postpartum milk production and did not menstruate following delivery. Baseline and stimulated anterior pituitary hormone levels were measured in all patients. According to the hormonal values, 18 (90.0%) patients had secondary hypothyroidism, 11 (55.0%) had adrenal failure and all of them had hypogonadism, prolactin and growth hormone deficiency. Hyponatremia was present in seven patients (35.0%). Total or partially empty sella was revealed in all patients by magnetic resonance imaging. Diabetes insipidus was not found in any patient. We found that lack of lactation in the postpartum period and early menopause seemed the most important clues for diagnosis of Sheehan's syndrome, and inadequate prolactin and gonadotropin responses to stimulation tests were the most sensitive diagnostic signs in patients with severe postpartum hemorrhage.

  3. A Patient with Postpartum Hypopituitarism (Sheehan's Syndrome) Developed Postpartum Autoimmune Thyroiditis (Transient Thyrotoxicosis and Hypothyroidism): A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Takasu, Nobuyuki; Nakayama, Yoshirou

    2011-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman with postpartum hypopituitarism (Sheehan's syndrome: SS) developed postpartum autoimmune thyroiditis (PPAT). She delivered a baby by Caesarean section (620 mL blood loss). At 1 month post partum, she developed thyrotoxicosis due to painless thyroiditis (autoimmune destructive thyroiditis). She was positive for antithyroid antibodies. Postpartum and hypoadrenalism-induced exacerbation of autoimmune thyroiditis caused the thyrotoxicosis due to autoimmune destructive thyroiditis. ACTH was undetectable. She had ACTH deficiency and secondary hypoadrenalism. Hydrocortisone was started. At 6 months post partum, she was referred to us with hypothyroidism. Thyroxine was administered. She had thyrotoxicosis at 1-2 months post partum and then hypothyroidism. She was diagnosed with PPAT. She had hypopituitarism, ACTH deficiency (secondary hypoadrenalism), low prolactin with agalactia, and low LH with failure to resume regular menses. She had empty sella on MRI. She was diagnosed with SS. Three cases with SS have been reported to develop PPAT. Postpartum immunological rebounds and hypoadrenalism-induced immunological alterations (or a combination of the two) might have been responsible for the PPAT.

  4. Sheehan's syndrome co-existing with Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Arpaci, D; Cuhaci, N; Saglam, F; Ersoy, R; Cakir, B

    2014-01-01

    Sheehan's syndrome (SS), which is an important cause of hypopituitarism, is common in developing countries. The most common presentation is the absence of lactation and amenorrhea. Hypothyroidism rather than hyperthyroidism is the usual expected phenomenon in SS. Postpartum hyperthyroidism is also common and Graves' disease (GD) is an important cause of postpartum hyperthyroidism. Here we report a case of a 22-year-old female patient in our clinic presented symptoms of amenorrhea, lack of lactation, palpitations and sweating. Her physical examination revealed goiter, moist skin and proptosis. Her laboratory evaluation showed suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone, elevated levels of free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine. Thyroid antibodies were positive. Tec 99m thyroid scintigraphy results were gland hyperplasia and increased uptake consistent with GD. She gave birth 7 months ago; after delivery she had a history of prolonged bleeding, amenorrhea and inability to lactate. She had hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hyperprolactinemia and growth hormone deficiency. Serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels were normal. Her magnetic resonance imaging was empty sella. Our diagnosis was GD co-existing with SS. GD with concomitant hypopituitarism is rare but has been described previously, but there are no reports of GD occurring with SS. In this case study, we report a patient with GD associated with SS.

  5. [Atypical and rare cardiac revelation about Sheehan's syndrome: A report of three cases].

    PubMed

    Bouznad, N; Mghari, G El; Hattaoui, M El; Ansari, N El

    2017-01-24

    Sheehan syndrome is a potentially serious complication in the postpartum period corresponding to ischemic necrosis of the anterior pituitary related to postpartum haemorrhage. We report three original observations showing an unusual mode of revelation of this syndrome. The first observation is that of a 46-year-old patient admitted initially to resuscitation for a recovered cardiorespiratory arrest, severe hypoglycemia and profound hyponatremia. The second is that of a 45-year-old patient, admitted for recurrent cardiac tamponade after pericardial and pleural puncture and pericardial drainage; clinical survey found signs of slight panhypopituitarism. The latest case is that of a patient of 44 years, admitted to pericardial effusion average abundance revealed by dyspnea and tachypnea with hypotension. The interrogation of all patients revealed the concept of an old hemorrhagic syndrome, absence of lactation and secondary amenorrhea thereafter. Laboratory tests showed insufficient thyroid-stimulating, low cortisol, a hypogonadism hypogonadism. The pituitary magnetic resonance imaging showed an empty sella in the three cases. Patients were placed under replacement therapy with L-thyroxine and hydrocortisone with good clinical, biological and echocardiographic evolution. The three cases illustrate a rare heart atypical presentation for Sheehan's syndrome and underline the importance of early diagnosis and suitable replacement therapy of this syndrome to avoid this complication that can be life threatening.

  6. Sheehan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Züleyha; Laway, Bashir A; Dokmetas, Hatice S; Atmaca, Hulusi; Kelestimur, Fahrettin

    2016-12-22

    Sheehan syndrome or postpartum hypopituitarism is a condition characterized by hypopituitarism due to necrosis of the pituitary gland. The initial insult is caused by massive postpartum haemorrhage (PPH), leading to impaired blood supply to the pituitary gland, which has become enlarged during pregnancy. Small sella turcica size, vasospasms (caused by PPH) and/or thrombosis (associated with pregnancy or coagulation disorders) are predisposing factors; autoimmunity might be involved in the progressive worsening of pituitary functions. Symptoms are caused by a decrease or absence of one or more of the pituitary hormones, and vary, among others, from failure to lactate and nonspecific symptoms (such as fatigue) to severe adrenal crisis. In accordance with the location of hormone-secreting cells relative to the vasculature, the secretion of growth hormone and prolactin is most commonly affected, followed by follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone; severe necrosis of the pituitary gland also affects the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone. Symptoms usually become evident years after delivery, but can, in rare cases, develop acutely. The incidence of Sheehan syndrome depends, to a large extent, on the occurrence and management of PPH. Sheehan syndrome is an important cause of hypopituitarism in developing countries, but has become rare in developed countries. Diagnosis is based on clinical manifestations combined with a history of severe PPH; hormone levels and/or stimulation tests can confirm clinical suspicion. Hormone replacement therapy is the only available management option so far.

  7. Glacial isostatic adjustment using GNSS permanent stations and GIA modelling tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollo, Karin; Spada, Giorgio; Vermeer, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) affects the Earth's mantle in areas which were once ice covered and the process is still ongoing. In this contribution we focus on GIA processes in Fennoscandian and North American uplift regions. In this contribution we use horizontal and vertical uplift rates from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) permanent stations. For Fennoscandia the BIFROST dataset (Lidberg, 2010) and North America the dataset from Sella, 2007 were used respectively. We perform GIA modelling with the SELEN program (Spada and Stocchi, 2007) and we vary ice model parameters in space in order to find ice model which suits best with uplift values obtained from GNSS time series analysis. In the GIA modelling, the ice models ICE-5G (Peltier, 2004) and the ice model denoted as ANU05 ((Fleming and Lambeck, 2004) and references therein) were used. As reference, the velocity field from GNSS permanent station time series was used for both target areas. Firstly the sensitivity to the harmonic degree was tested in order to reduce the computation time. In the test, nominal viscosity values and pre-defined lithosphere thicknesses models were used, varying maximum harmonic degree values. Main criteria for choosing the suitable harmonic degree was chi-square fit - if the error measure does not differ more than 10%, then one might use as well lower harmonic degree value. From this test, maximum harmonic degree of 72 was chosen to perform calculations, as the larger value did not significantly modify the results obtained, as well the computational time for observations was kept reasonable. Secondly the GIA computations were performed to find the model, which could fit with highest probability to the GNSS-based velocity field in the target areas. In order to find best fitting Earth viscosity parameters, different viscosity profiles for the Earth models were tested and their impact on horizontal and vertical velocity rates from GIA modelling was studied. For every

  8. Children with repaired bilateral cleft lip/palate: effect of age at premaxillary osteotomy on facial growth.

    PubMed

    Padwa, B L; Sonis, A; Bagheri, S; Mulliken, J B

    1999-10-01

    This study compared facial growth in three groups of patients with bilateral complete cleft lip/palate: those who had (1) no premaxillary osteotomy, (2) premaxillary osteotomy before age 8 years, and (3) premaxillary osteotomy after age 8 years. Of 24 children with bilateral complete cleft lip/palate, 7 had early premaxillary osteotomy (mean age, 6.1; range, 3.7 to 7.6 years), 10 had late osteotomy (mean age, 11.2; range, 8.3 to 20.7 years), and 7 did not require premaxillary repositioning and served as controls (mean age, 12.4; range, 6.4 to 17.8 years). Presurgical and postsurgical lateral cephalograms were digitized using the Dentofacial Planner software; most current lateral cephalograms comprised the control group. Forty-one bony and 25 soft-tissue landmarks were digitized, and 8 angles were measured: SNA, (sella-nasion-A point), SNPg (sella-nasion-pogonion), ANB (A point-nasion-B point), NAPg (nasion-A point-pogonion), ST convexity (glabella-subnasale-soft-tissue pogonion), Sn-G vertical (line perpendicular to the horizontal plane dropped from glabella and distance measured from subnasale to this vertical), Cm-Sn-Ls (columella-subnasale-abial superioris), and Sn-Gn-C (subnasale-soft-tissue gnathion-chin point). Statistical difference in mean preoperative and postoperative values were measured with analysis of variance. Tests of significance were adjusted for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni correction. Mean age at follow-up for early, late, and control groups was 11.8, 14.0, and 12.4 years, respectively. Mean follow-up for early and late groups was 5.7 and 2.8 years. There was a significant preoperative difference among the three groups for mean SNA (p < 0.01), ANB (p < 0.01), and NAPg (p < 0.01). Bonferroni analyses revealed that the early group had significantly greater SNA, ANB, and NAPg angles than the late (p < 0.01) and control groups (p < 0.05). There was a significant postoperative difference among groups for ANB (p < 0.05); Bonferroni

  9. Ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma (ESSPA) with normal anterior pituitary gland: a clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic study of 32 cases with a comprehensive review of the english literature.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Lester D R; Seethala, Raja R; Müller, Susan

    2012-03-01

    Ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma (ESSPA) may arise from a remnant of Rathke's pouch. These tumors are frequently misdiagnosed as other neuroendocrine or epithelial neoplasms which may develop in this site (olfactory neuroblastoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, paraganglioma, melanoma). Thirty-two patients with ESSPA identified in patients with normal pituitary glands (intact sella turcica) were retrospectively retrieved from the consultation files of the authors' institutions. Clinical records were reviewed with follow-up obtained. An immunohistochemical panel was performed on available material. Sixteen males and 16 females, aged 2-84 years (mean, 57.1 years), presented with chronic sinusitis, headache, obstructive symptoms, and visual field defects, although several were asymptomatic (n = 6). By definition, the tumors were centered within the sphenoid sinus and demonstrated, by imaging studies or intraoperative examination, a normal sella turcica without a concurrent pituitary adenoma. A subset of tumors showed extension into the nasal cavity (n = 5) or nasopharynx (n = 9). Mean tumor size was 3.4 cm. The majority of tumors were beneath an intact respiratory epithelium (n = 22), arranged in many different patterns (solid, packets, organoid, pseudorosette-rosette, pseudopapillary, single file, glandular, trabecular, insular). Bone involvement was frequently seen (n = 21). Secretions were present (n = 16). Necrosis was noted in 8 tumors. The tumors showed a variable cellularity, with polygonal, plasmacytoid, granular, and oncocytic tumor cells. Severe pleomorphism was uncommon (n = 5). A delicate, salt-and-pepper chromatin distribution was seen. In addition, there were intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions (n = 25) and multinucleated tumor cells (n = 18). Mitotic figures were infrequent, with a mean of 1 per 10 HPFs and a <1% proliferation index (Ki-67). There was a vascularized to sclerotic or calcified

  10. Evaluation of soft and hard tissue changes after bimaxillary surgery in class III orthognathic surgery and aesthetic consideration

    PubMed Central

    Ghassemi, Mehrangiz; Ghassemi, Alireza; Showkatbakhsh, Rahman; Ahmad, Syed Sayeed; Shadab, Mohammad; Modabber, Ali; Jamilian, Abdolreza

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate hard and soft tissue change after bimaxillary surgery in class III patients by focusing on sella, nasion, A point (SNA) and sella, nasion, B point (SNB) angle and aesthetic outcome. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 96 skeletal Class III patients (42 women, 54 men) with a mean age of 25 years with standard deviation (SD) of 8.4. The youngest patient was 16-years-old and the oldest 51-years-old at the time of surgery. In total, seven skeletal parameters, eight soft tissue parameters, and two dental parameters were evaluated on the cephalograms. Result: At the beginning of the treatment 49 Patients had SNA between 80° and 84°, 34 had SNA of less than 80° and 13 had SNA of more than 84°. Post surgically, 25 patients had SNA of 78°–84°, 19 had SNA less than 78° and 52 patients had SNA of more than 84°. Out of 96 patients 22 had SNB of 78°–82° before surgery, 16 had less than 78° and 58 had SNA of more than 84°. Postoperatively, we measured SNB of 78°–80° in 42, less than 78° in 18 and of more than 82° in 36 patients. The inclination of the maxilla relative to the cranial base changed from 7.2° (SD = 4)–8° (SD = 5.1) and the mandible changed from 35.7° (SD = 6.6) to 36° (SD = 6.3) postoperatively which was not significant. The distance from upper lip to E-line increased by 2.6 mm (SD = 3.9) after surgery (P < 0.001), while, the lower lip distance to E-line decreased slightly by 0.9 mm (SD = 3.2) (P < 0.01). Nasolabial angle was decreased by 9.5° (SD = 9.4) after surgery (P < 0.001). The nose prominence also decreased from 18.2 mm (SD = 3.5) –16.5 mm (SD = 3.3). Conclusion: Although in many cases we did not have a SNA angle or SNB angle in normal range but a good aesthetic outcome have been observed. Consequently our study showed that soft tissue change and aesthetic aspects should be considered in surgical planning and achieving SNA angle or SNB angle of norm range should not be the

  11. Ectopic ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma of the sphenoid sinus: case report of endoscopic endonasal resection and systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, Justin; Lucas, Joshua; Commins, Deborah; Lerner, Olga; Lerner, Alexander; Carmichael, John D; Zada, Gabriel

    2015-02-01

    Ectopic pituitary adenomas are exceedingly rare entities that are often misdiagnosed. The resulting delay in diagnosis may be particularly concerning in the case of Cushing syndrome caused by an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenoma. Although the total resection of ectopic adenomas results in rapid and durable remission, persistent Cushing syndrome is often associated with permanently damaging invasive procedures and significantly higher risk of mortality. The authors report the case of a 48-year-old man with ACTH-dependent Cushing syndrome. On the morning before surgery, his serum cortisol measured 51 μg/dl, his ACTH level was 195.7 pg/ml, and his urinary free cortisol level was 2109 μg/day. Serum cortisol was not suppressed with the administration of high-dose dexamethasone. Imaging showed separate masses in both the sphenoid sinus and the pituitary gland, complicating the diagnostic process and requiring pathological assessment of both masses. No other abnormalities were found on thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic scans. Gross-total resection of both lesions was accomplished via an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach. Pathology confirmed an ectopic ACTH pituitary adenoma of the sphenoid sinus and a Crooke hyaline change of the pituitary gland. The patient achieved stable hormonal remission without significant postoperative complications, returned to full activity within 3 months, and remained disease free nearly 1 year after tumor resection. In a systematic literature review, the authors identified 41 cases of ectopic ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas, including 18 arising in the sphenoid sinus without direct involvement of the sella. Including the case described here, the total number of ectopic ACTH pituitary adenomas arising in the sphenoid sinus was 19, and the total number of ectopic ACTH pituitary adenomas without regard to location was 42. For the 19 patients with adenomas found in the sphenoid sinus, ages ranged

  12. Lycopene and Beta-Carotene Induce Growth Inhibition and Proapoptotic Effects on ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leite de Oliveira, Felipe; Soares, Nathália; de Mattos, Rômulo Medina; Hecht, Fábio; Dezonne, Rômulo Sperduto; Vairo, Leandro; Goldenberg, Regina Coeli dos Santos; Gomes, Flávia Carvalho Alcântara; de Carvalho, Denise Pires; Gadelha, Mônica R.; Nasciutti, Luiz Eurico; Miranda-Alves, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas comprise approximately 10–15% of intracranial tumors and result in morbidity associated with altered hormonal patterns, therapy and compression of adjacent sella turcica structures. The use of functional foods containing carotenoids contributes to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and vascular disorders. In this study, we evaluated the influence of different concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene on cell viability, colony formation, cell cycle, apoptosis, hormone secretion, intercellular communication and expression of connexin 43, Skp2 and p27kip1 in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma cells, the AtT20 cells, incubated for 48 and 96 h with these carotenoids. We observed a decrease in cell viability caused by the lycopene and beta-carotene treatments; in these conditions, the clonogenic ability of the cells was also significantly decreased. Cell cycle analysis revealed that beta-carotene induced an increase of the cells in S and G2/M phases; furthermore, lycopene increased the proportion of these cells in G0/G1 while decreasing the S and G2/M phases. Also, carotenoids induced apoptosis after 96 h. Lycopene and beta-carotene decreased the secretion of ACTH in AtT20 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Carotenoids blocked the gap junction intercellular communication. In addition, the treatments increased the expression of phosphorylated connexin43. Finally, we also demonstrate decreased expression of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) and increased expression of p27kip1 in carotenoid-treated cells. These results show that lycopene and beta-carotene were able to negatively modulate events related to the malignant phenotype of AtT-20 cells, through a mechanism that could involve changes in the expression of connexin 43, Skp2 and p27kip1; and suggest that these compounds might provide a novel pharmacological approach to the treatment of Cushing’s disease. PMID:23667519

  13. Central nervous system imaging in childhood Langerhans cell histiocytosis – a reference center analysis

    PubMed Central

    Porto, Luciana; Schöning, Stefan; Hattingen, Elke; Sörensen, Jan; Jurcoane, Alina; Lehrnbecher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of our study was (1) to describe central nervous system (CNS) manifestations in children with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) based on images sent to a reference center and meeting minimum requirements and (2) to assess the inter-rater agreement of CNS-MRI results, which represents the overall reproducibility of this investigation. Methods We retrospectively reviewed brain MRI examinations in children with LCH, for which MRI minimum requirements were met. Abnormalities were rated by two experienced neuroradiologists, and the inter-rater agreement was assessed. Results Out of a total of 94 imaging studies, only 31 MRIs met the minimum criteria, which included T2w, FLAIR, T1w images before/after contrast in at least two different section planes, and thin post contrast sagittal slices T1w through the sella. The most common changes were osseous abnormalities, followed by solid enlargement of the pineal gland, thickened enhancing stalk and signal changes of the dentate nucleus. Whereas inter-rater agreement in assessing most of the CNS lesions was relatively high (κ > 0.61), the application of minimum criteria often did not allow to evaluate the posterior pituitary. Conclusions The diversity of radiological protocols from different institutions leads to difficulties in the diagnosis of CNS abnormalities in children with LCH. Although the inter-rater agreement between neuroradiologists was high, not all the LCH manifestations could be completely ruled out when using the minimum criteria. Brain MRIs should therefore follow LCH guideline protocols and include T1 pre-gadolinium sagittal images, and be centrally reviewed in order to improve the comparison of clinical trials. PMID:26401129

  14. Maxillary growth impairment in cleft lip and palate patients: a simplified approach in the search for a cause.

    PubMed

    Meazzini, Maria Costanza; Donati, Vera; Garattini, Giovanna; Brusati, Roberto

    2008-09-01

    No true consensus exists regarding the causes of maxillary growth restriction in cleft lip and palate patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate a simplified method to identify the causes of this growth impairment. We analyzed a sample of 82 consecutively treated 5-year-old patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate, operated on by the same surgeon (R.B.). Multiple cephalometric measurements of the sample revealed a wide distribution of maxillary growth values. We selected Sella-Nasion A point angle (SNA) as a value describing maxillary position, and we arbitrarily isolated 2 "extreme" groups of patients: the 20 patients with the highest SNA were called "good growers" (group A), and the 20 patients with the lowest SNA were called "poor growers" (group B). Parameters investigated to search for different influencing factors within the groups were initial cast measurements, timing of lip and of gingivoalveoloplasty/palatal surgery, presence of lateral incisors, and family history of maxillary hypoplasia. Statistical differences were investigated with an independent-samples t-test. The 2 extreme groups had a significant difference (P < 0.01) in SNA and in lip protrusion relative to true vertical line. Cranial base angle was larger in group A. Timing of lip surgery in group B was earlier than in group A, but only close to significance. Timing of gingivoalveoloplasty did not differ. In group A, the permanent lateral incisor was missing in 20% of the patients; whereas in group B, it was missing in 82% of the patients (P < 0.01). Selecting cleft lip and palate population with different growth pattern might help in isolating the factors responsible for maxillary growth impairment. Congenitally missing laterals that could indicate inherent tissue hypoplasia seems to be the most important factor.

  15. Prevalence, predictors and patterns of postoperative polyuria and hyponatraemia in the immediate course after transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Hensen, J; Henig, A; Fahlbusch, R; Meyer, M; Boehnert, M; Buchfelder, M

    1999-04-01

    Disturbances of osmoregulation, leading to diabetes insipidus and hyponatraemia are well known complications after surgery in the sella region. This study was performed to examine the prevalence and predictors of polyuria and hyponatraemia after a complete and selective removal of pituitary adenomas was attempted via the transnasal-transsphenoidal approach. 1571 patients with pituitary adenomas (238 Cushing's disease, 405 acromegaly, 534 hormonally inactive adenomas, 358 prolactinoma, 23 Nelson's syndrome, and 13 thyrotropinoma) were daily examined within a 10-day postoperative inpatient observation period. Prevalence of patterns of polyuria (> 2500 ml) and oliguria/hyponatraemia (< 132 mmol/l) were surveyed as well as predictors of postoperative morbidity. 487 patients (31%) developed immediate postoperative hypotonic polyuria, 161 patients (10%) showed prolonged polyuria and 37 patients (2.4%) delayed hyponatraemia. A biphasic (polyuria-hyponatraemia) and triphasic (polyuria-hyponatraemia-polyuria) pattern was seen in 53 (3.4%) and 18 (1.1%) patients, respectively. Forty-one patients (2.6%) displayed immediate postoperative (day 1) hyponatraemia. Altogether, 8.4% of patients developed hyponatraemia at some time up to the 10th day postoperative, with symptomatic hyponatraemia in 32 patients (2.1%). Risk analysis showed that patients with Cushing's disease had a fourfold higher risk of polyuria than patients with acromegaly and a 2.8-fold higher risk for postoperative hyponatraemia. Younger age, male sex, and intrasellar expansion were associated with a higher risk of hypotonic polyuria, but this was not considered clinically relevant. The analysis illustrates that disturbances in osmoregulation resulting in polyuria and pertubations of serum sodium concentration are of very high prevalence and need observation even after selective transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas, especially in patients with Cushing's disease.

  16. Epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy due to ruptured internal carotid artery aneurysm embedded within pituitary adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zesheng; Tian, Daofeng; Wang, Hongliu; Kong, Derek Kai; Zhang, Shenqi; Liu, Baohui; Deng, Gang; Xu, Zhou; Wu, Liquan; Ji, Baowei; Wang, Long; Cai, Qiang; Li, Mingchang; Wang, Junmin; Zhang, Aimin; Chen, Qianxue

    2015-01-01

    Epistaxis due to ruptured internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm embedded within a pituitary adenoma (PA) has seldom been reported in the literature. Here we want to elaborate the incidence, mechanisms, clinical manifestations, and treatment strategy for this condition. The first survived case of a patient with epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy due to ruptured aneurysm embedded within PA was reported and the literature was reviewed. A 53-year-old male patient presented to our institution with sudden onset epistaxis and progressive vision loss. Neurological examination revealed bilateral ptosis and dilated unresponsive pupils. A CT scan showed a large mass in the pituitary fossa with bony erosion. MRI revealed a large pituitary tumor and abnormal signal intensity in the tumor. No aneurysm was noted during the pre-operative MR angiography. Abundant arterial bleeding suddenly occurred during urgent transsphenoidal surgery. Digital subtraction angiography confirmed the presence of a 14 mm unexpected saccular aneurysm of right ICA in the cavernous sinus with the dome protruding into the sella turcica. Balloon test occlusion of the right ICA was undertaken and permanent occlusion was performed. The patient recovered well and received bromocriptine and thyroid hormone replacement therapy during the follow-up period. At 14-month followup, the patient had no neurological deficits, no features of ischaemia relating to the right ICA therapeutic occlusion. Our case indicated that epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy could be due to the rupture of an ICA aneurysm embedded in a PA. Clinical suspicion should remain high when evaluating any case of epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy. Optimal treatment should take into consideration individual features of the tumor, aneurysm, and patient. Making the correct diagnosis as well as identifying an appropriate management strategy is critical in the care of such patients. PMID:26823732

  17. Two forensic autopsy cases of death from unexpected lesions of the pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideto; Hayashi, Kino; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we report the findings of 2 forensic autopsy cases, in which unexpected pituitary lesions were the underlying cause of death. Case 1: A 56-year-old woman was found dead at her home during a cold winter spell. Macroscopic autopsy findings included a difference in the color of blood that filled her left and right cardiac chambers (deep red and dark red, respectively), collapse of both lungs, atrophy of the thyroid gland, and a large tumor arising from the sella turcica. Microscopic examination revealed a pituitary adenoma along with extensive bleeding. The cause of death was considered to be hypothermia, resulting from dysregulation of thermogenesis due to the pituitary adenoma. Case 2: An 86-year-old man with a history of pollakiuria was found dead in a bathtub, with his face and chest submerged in bathwater and his legs positioned outside the bathtub. The macroscopic findings of the autopsy included hyper-inflated lungs, fluid collection in the thoracic cavity, and aspiration of gastric contents in the bronchi. The atherosclerotic changes of the man's coronary and cerebral arteries were considered mild for his age. Microscopic examination showed a marked infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells in the posterior pituitary gland, as well as in the liver, pancreas, and submandibular gland. Considering the results of the autopsy and the findings from the investigation conducted at the death scene, we concluded that the man probably lost consciousness following a neurally mediated syncope, which was induced by diabetes insipidus (lymphocytic hypophysitis). After losing consciousness, the man likely fell in the filled bathtub and then drowned. These 2 cases highlight the need for a thorough post-mortem investigation, including a microscopic examination of the pituitary gland. In addition, forensic pathologists should carefully study the pituitary gland in cases where the cause of death is thought to be related to dysfunction of thermoregulation or

  18. Coexistence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and surgically identified pituitary apoplexy: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Song, Ren-Xing; Wang, Dao-Kui; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Zeng-Wu; Wang, Shou-Xian; Wei, Guang-Xin; Li, Xin-Gang

    2014-05-27

    A ruptured aneurysm associated with a pituitary apoplexy is rare. We present the first case report of the coexistence of a ruptured posterior communicating aneurysm with a surgically discovered pituitary apoplexy where the pituitary apoplexy had not been diagnosed by a pre-operative computerized tomography scan. A 31-year-old right-handed Chinese woman began to experience severe headache, vomiting and blurred vision which continued for two days. On admission to the hospital, a brain computerized tomography scan demonstrated a small amount of increased signal in the basal cisterns; no evidence of intrasellar and suprasellar lesions was seen. The appearance of her brain suggested aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. She had nuchal rigidity and reduced vision. There was no extra-ocular palsy and no other neurological deficit. Our patient had no stigmata of Cushing's syndrome or acromegaly. During an interview for further history, she reported normal menses and denied reduced vision.Cerebral digital subtraction angiography was subsequently performed, which revealed a 6mm left posterior communicating aneurysm. Urgent left pterional craniotomy was performed. The left ruptured posterior communicating artery aneurysm was completely dissected prior to clipping. At surgery, a suprasellar mass was discovered, the tumor bulging the diaphragma sella and projecting anteriorly under the chiasm raising suspicion of a pituitary tumor. The anterior part of the tumor capsule was opened and a necrotic tumor mixed with dark old blood was removed. The appearance suggested pituitary apoplexy.Histopathology revealed pituitary adenoma with evidence of hemorrhagic necrosis. Our patient made a good recovery. Our case report proves that pituitary apoplexy can be coexistent with the rupture of a posterior communicating aneurysm. This association should be considered when evaluating any case of aneurysm. A normal computerized tomography scan does not exclude pituitary apoplexy. Pre

  19. Radiographic Evidence of Occult Intracranial Hypertension in Patients with Ménière's Disease.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Kareem O; Stevens, Shawn M; Mihal, David; Costello, Mark S; Cornelius, Rebecca S; Samy, Ravi N; Pensak, Myles L

    2017-03-01

    Objectives (1) Describe the prevalence of radiographic signs of intracranial hypertension (ICH) in Ménière's disease (MD) and (2) compare the prevalence of radiographic signs of ICH in MD patients managed medically to those managed surgically. Study Design Case-control study. Setting Academic neurotologic practice. Subjects and Methods Adult MD patients (aged ≥17 years) treated from 2011 to 2015 were reviewed. Inclusion required magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head and follow-up >6 months. Patients with intracranial tumors, mass effect, trauma, previous intracranial surgery, and glaucoma were excluded. MD patients were separated by administered treatment into medical and surgical subgroups. Cochlear implant (CI) recipients served as radiographic controls. Eighty-four MD patients (46 surgical, 38 medical) and 37 CI controls were assessed. MRI measurements assessed for empty/partial sella (ES/PS), dilated/tortuous optic nerve sheath (ONS), and posterior globe flattening (PGF). Results Mean age was 53.8 ± 1.3 years and median body mass index (BMI) was 28.2 kg/m(2). Of the patients, 64% were female and 92% were white. MRI findings in the MD cohort were as follows: ES/PS, 46.4%; ONS change, 42.8%; and PGF, 8.3%. The prevalence of ONS change was higher in MD patients than in controls (42.8% vs 13.5%, P = .003). The surgical MD group had higher prevalence of ONS change (52%) compared with the medical group (31.5%, P = .05) and controls (13.5%, P = .0004). The surgical group had a higher prevalence of ≥2 simultaneous MRI findings compared with medical MD patients (39% vs 10%, P = .01) and controls (14%, P = .01). Conclusion MD patients demonstrate a high prevalence of radiographic signs of ICH. MD patients who required surgery had a greater prevalence of radiographic signs of ICH compared with non-MD patients and medically managed MD patients.

  20. A probable case of Hand-Schueller-Christian's disease in an Egyptian mummy revealed by CT and MR investigation of a dry mummy.

    PubMed

    Cavka, Mislav; Petaros, Anja; Ivanac, Gordana; Aganović, Lejla; Janković, Ivor; Reiter, Gert; Speier, Peter; Nielles-Vallespin, Sonja; Brkljacić, Boris

    2012-03-01

    The challenging mission of paleopathologists is to be capable to diagnose a disease just on the basis of limited information gained by means of one or more paleodiagnostic techniques. In this study a radiologic, anthropologic and paleopathologic analysis of an ancient Egyptian mummy through X-rays, CT and MR was conducted. An Ancient Egyptian mummy ("Mistress of the house", Archeological Museum, Zagreb, Croatia) underwent digital radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging employing 3-dimensional ultra-short-echo time (UTE) sequence, that allows to image ancient dry tissue. Morphological observations on the skull and pelvis, the stages of epiphyseal union and dental wear indicated that the remains are those of a young adult male. Multiple osseous lytic lesions were observed throughout the spine as well as on the frontal, parietal, and occipital bone, orbital wall and the sella turcica of the sphenoid. Considering the sex and age of the individual and the features of the lesions, the authors propose the diagnosis of Hand-Schueller-Christian's disease. This is the first study to have effectively used MR images in the differential diagnosis of a disease. It also confirmed the CT value in revealing central nervous system involvement just by detecting skeletal lesions. Although the mummy was previously dated to 3rd century B.C. based on the properties of the sarcophagi, the sex of the mummy suggests that it was most probably transferred into these sarcophagi in later times. The mummification techniques used and radiometric data (C14) dated it to 900-790. B.C.

  1. Effect of growth and development on cephalometric shapes in orthodontic patients: a Fourier analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Poggio, C E; Colombo, A; Cova, M

    1997-12-01

    The age- and gender-related shape variations of the craniofacial skeleton in skeletal Class I children were quantified using a Fourier analysis on the pre-treatment lateral head films of 122 orthodontic patients (age range 7-15 years), who were subdivided into six groups for sex and age (2-year intervals). Seven landmarks representative of the maxillo-mandibular sagittal and vertical relationship were identified and digitized. The contiguous landmarks were connected by segments, the form was normalized with respect to its orientation and size, and a Fourier analysis of the contour was performed. Mean values of the cosine and sine coefficients of the first six harmonics in the sex and age classes were computed. The size-standardized outlines of the oldest boys were narrower and longer than the outlines of the youngest boys (differences at gonion, menton, sella and nasion). Shape differences between mean plots in girls were negligible. In the youngest patients, girls had a larger size-independent shape in the mandibular region; their shape was narrower (anterior-posterior direction) and longer (vertical direction) than male shape. In the oldest patients, boys had a larger size-independent shape at gonion, and a narrower shape at articulare and pogonion than girls. Size increased from the youngest to the oldest boys; size differences were not conspicuous in girls. Within an age class, male size was always larger than female. Fourier analysis allowed a global evaluation of the cephalometric forms, with separate quantifications of the age- and gender-related differences in size and shape.

  2. Fully endoscopic supraorbital keyhole approach to the anterior cranial base: A cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Akçakaya, Mehmet Osman; Aras, Yavuz; İzgi, Nail; Gayretli, Özcan; Sabancı, Pulat Akın; Aydoseli, Aydın; Gürses, İlke Ali; Sencer, Altay; Öztürk, Adnan; Hepgül, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    The supraorbital keyhole approach for anterior cranial base lesions has been increasingly used in clinical practice. Anatomical studies focusing on the endoscopic anatomy via this approach are few, although the microscopic anatomy has been well studied. The aim of this study is to describe the anatomical features and surgical exposure provided by the endoscopic supraorbital keyhole approach using quantitative measurements. Nine formalin-fixed human cadavers from the inventory of the Anatomy department were used. A total of 18 supraorbital keyhole cranitomies were conducted. The distances between the target anatomical structures and the dura mater at the craniotomy site, and the distances between deep anatomical structures were measured with purpose-designed hooks. The distance between the dura mater and optic canal was measured as 69.5 ± 6.7 mm (62-83 mm); optic chiasm as 76.2 ± 5.4 mm (67-86 mm); anterior communicating artery as 82.6 ± 6.1 mm (71-93 mm); internal carotid artery (ICA) bifurcation as 74.7 ± 6.0 mm (66-84 mm) and the basilar tip as 94.9 ± 7.0 mm (87-111 mm). The mean diameter of the optic canal was 7.4 ± 1.3 mm (6-11 mm), whereas the mean diameter of diaphragma sellae was measured as 8.4 ± 1.1 mm (7-10 mm). The results of this study showed that the anterior and medial aspects of the anterior cranial fossa can be visualized properly. Dissection of the ipsilateral arteries of Circle of Willis can be performed easily using an endoscopic supraorbital keyhole approach.

  3. Craniometric and velopharyngeal assessment of infants with and without cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jamie L; Kuehn, David P; Sutton, Bradley P; Goldwasser, Michael S; Jerez, Alex D

    2011-03-01

    The current study was designed to obtain qualitative and quantitative information of the velopharyngeal mechanism and craniometric dimensions in infants born with a normal mechanism and in infants with an unrepaired cleft palate. Clinical magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained from the medical charts of 4 infants (2 with cleft lip and palate and 2 without) between the ages of 8 and 9 months. Craniometric measures and levator veli palatini muscle morphology were analyzed using visualization modeling software. Both raw measures and measures normalized by head circumference were examined. Patients 1 and 2 demonstrated normal velopharyngeal anatomy and a similar distance between levator muscle origins (38.9-40.7 mm), sagittal angles of origin (56-57 degrees), and levator muscle bundle lengths (28.4-30.7 mm). Patients with an unrepaired cleft palate displayed smaller oblique coronal angles of origins (58-62 degrees) compared with patients without cleft palate (62-67 degrees). Patients without cleft palate showed a steeper muscle (56-57 degrees) compared with patients without cleft palate (66-67 degrees). The basion-sella-nasion angle, hard palate length, and hard palate width measurements are related systematically to head circumference in this patient group. Results from the current study are in agreement with previous studies demonstrating variations across patients with cleft palate particularly in the muscle bundle lengths, distance between muscle origins, velar thickness, and velar length. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine how levator muscle and craniometric dimensions vary between those with and without cleft palate. A larger sample size is necessary to provide statistical analysis.

  4. Correction of Midface Depression Using an Inverted m-shaped Expanded Polytetrafluoroethylene Implant Improves Gingival Exposure.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiao; Herrler, Tanja; Xu, Hua; Deng, Ning; Li, Shiyu; Li, Qingfeng; Dai, Chuanchang

    2016-12-01

    Current approaches for the treatment of gingival exposure are often time- and cost-consuming and/or rather invasive. We previously observed a strong correlation between the presence of gingival excess and midfacial depression and here propose an easy 1-step correction technique as a new strategy to improve gingival exposure. From February 2004 to December 2012, 42 patients with gingival exposure associated with different degrees of midfacial depression, defined by Frankfort horizontal plane-labrale superius-subspinale angle and sella-nasion-A point angle, were treated by implantation of an inverted m-shaped expanded polytetrafluoroethylene at the base of the piriform aperture in a subperiosteal location. Patient pictures were taken preoperatively and postoperatively to assess gingival exposure at rest and fullest smile, as well as measurements of upper lip length, nasolabial angle, and facial convexity angle. A postoperative patient satisfaction survey was performed. The average maximum gingival exposure was 5.52 ± 1.64 mm preoperatively and significantly decreased to 1.79 ± 0.67 mm at 6 months after surgery (P < 0.05) along with a significantly improved nasolabial angle from initially 85.3° ± 6.21° to 95.2° ± 7.1° (P < 0.05). The majority of patients (90.5%) rated their postoperative outcome as highly improved and improved. Temporary discomfort involving upper lip numbness, foreign body sensation, and stiff smiling expression was complained at 1 month postoperatively and gradually returned to normal after 3 months. No late recurrence or other complications were seen in any of the patients. For cases involving midface depression, the present technique provides an effective and permanent treatment strategy to improve excessive gingival exposure. This single-step approach is a safe and technically easy therapeutic option which is associated with high patient acceptance.

  5. Sphenoid sinus ectopic pituitary adenomas: CT and MRI findings

    PubMed Central

    Yang, B T; Chong, V F H; Wang, Z C; Xian, J F; Chen, Q H

    2010-01-01

    Ectopic pituitary adenomas (EPAs) are rare lesions. The purpose of this study was to describe the CT and MRI features of sphenoid sinus EPAs. Eight patients with histology-proven EPAs in the sphenoid sinus, all of whom underwent CT and MRI, were reviewed retrospectively. The following imaging features were analysed: (i) size, (ii) margin, (iii) CT attenuation characteristics and (iv) MRI signal intensity. In addition, the involvement of adjacent structures and the time–intensity curve (TIC) of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI were analysed. All EPAs had well-defined margins and showed no relationship to the intrasellar pituitary gland. The mean size was 28 mm (range, 20–46 mm). On non-enhanced CT, the lesions appeared isodense to grey matter in 7 (88%) patients and hypodense in 1 (12%) patient. Only two patients underwent post-contrast CT, and they showed moderate enhancement. On T1 weighted images, EPAs appeared isointense in 6 (75%) patients and hypointense in 2 (25%). On T2 weighted images, the lesions appeared hyperintense in 2 (25%) patients and isointense in 6 (75%). EPAs showed mild to moderate heterogeneous contrast enhancement and exhibited a cribriform-like appearance. Two patients underwent DCE MRI; the TIC showed a rapidly enhancing and slow washout pattern. The following features were also seen: an empty sella, bone changes and involvement of the cavernous sinus (5 patients; 62.5%). In conclusion, a high index of suspicion for EPA and a familiarity with the imaging findings may help to diagnose this rare entity accurately. PMID:19651706

  6. Solitary fibrous tumors of the central nervous system: report of five cases with unusual clinicopathological and outcome patterns.

    PubMed

    Vassal, François; Manet, Romain; Forest, Fabien; Camdessanche, Jean Phillipe; Péoc'h, Michel; Nuti, Christophe

    2011-02-01

    This is a retrospective study of 11 patients harboring a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the central nervous system (CNS), with special emphasis on unusual clinicopathological and outcomes patterns. Between 2000 and 2008, 11 patients harboring CNS SFTs were treated at our institution. Patient charts were retrospectively reviewed and tumor location, clinical presentation, imaging characteristics, extent of resection, dural origin, pathological features, adjuvant treatment, and follow-up data were collected, focusing on five atypical cases (four intracranial and one within the spine). One intracranial SFT arose from the sella turcica and relapsed threefold during the 6 years following partial removal. Disease progressed as successive isolated local recurrences treated by subsequent surgical interventions and gamma-knife radiosurgery. The MiB-1 labeling index analysis showed a steady increase in these sequential recurrences (ranging from less than 3% up to 6%) without obvious malignant transformation. The second SFT occurred in the cerebellopontine angle and exhibited a high MiB-1 index (10%) without noticeable features of malignancy. It relapsed twice during the 5 years following gross total resection without demonstrating a more aggressive histological pattern. The third SFT arose from the cerebellar tentorium, widely invaded the lateral sinus and adjacent bone, had a low MiB-1 index, and has not recurred within the 2 years after incomplete resection. The two remaining SFTs presented with unusual clinicoradiological features. We described a extremely rare case of intraventricular SFT, and a case of extradural SFT of the thoracic spine (T8-T9) radiologically consistent with a schwannoma. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that all tumors were SFTs. These atypical presentations gave us the opportunity to provide further information about the variability of the clinicoradiological patterns and natural histological course of CNS SFTs.

  7. Comparison of linear and angular measurements using two-dimensional conventional methods and three-dimensional cone beam CT images reconstructed from a volumetric rendering program in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Oz, U; Orhan, K; Abe, N

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the linear and angular measurements made on two-dimensional (2D) conventional cephalometric images and three-dimensional (3D) cone beam CT (CBCT) generated cephalograms derived from a 3D volumetric rendering program. Methods Pre-treatment cephalometric digital radiographs of 11 patients and their corresponding CBCT images were randomly selected. The digital cephalometric radiographs were traced using Vista Dent OC (GAC International, Inc Bohemia, NY) and by hand. CBCT and Maxilim® (Medicim, Sint-Niklass, Belgium) software were used to generate cephalograms from the CBCT data set that were then linked to the 3D hard-tissue surface representations. In total, 16 cephalometric landmarks were identified and 18 widely used measurements (11 linear and 7 angular) were performed by 2 independent observers. Intraobserver reliability was assessed by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), interobserver reliability was assessed with Student t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Mann–Whitney U-tests and Kruskal–Wallis H tests were also used to compare the three methods (P < 0.05). Results The results demonstrated no statistically significant difference between interobserver analyses for CBCT-generated cephalograms (P < 0.05), except for Gonion-Menton (Go-Me) and Condylion-Gnathion (Co-Gn). Intraobserver examinations showed low ICCs, which was an indication of poor reproducibility for Go-Me and Sella-Nasion (S-N) in CBCT-generated cephalograms and poor reproducibility for Articulare-Gonion (Ar-Go) in the 2D hand tracing method (P < 0.05). No statistical significance was found for Vista Dent OC measurements (P > 0.05). Conclusions Measurements from in vivo CBCT-generated cephalograms from Maxilim® software were found to be similar to conventional images. Thus, owing to higher radiation exposure, CBCT examinations should only be used when the inherent 3D information could improve the outcome of treatment. PMID

  8. False aneurysms of the intracavernous carotid artery--report of 7 cases.

    PubMed

    Bavinzski, G; Killer, M; Knosp, E; Ferraz-Leite, H; Gruber, A; Richling, B

    1997-01-01

    We present 7 cases of false intracavernous carotid artery aneurysms. Four occurred after trauma and three were caused iatrogenically. Two of the latter occurred in patients with pituitary adenomas, one after transsphenoidal microsurgery and the other after yttrium [YI90] seed implantation into the sella. The third iatrogenic aneurysm was seen shortly after transcavernous tumour surgery. In five of our seven patients massive, delayed, life-threatening epistaxis was the leading symptom. All traumatic cases were associated with immediate unilateral blindness or blurred vision and with skull base fractures. One of these had a concomitant carotid cavernous fistula. Treatment of choice of our 5 recent cases was permanent balloon occlusion of the intracavernous carotid artery at the level of the lesion. Collateral circulation was evaluated prior to definitive carotid occlusion using a balloon test occlusion. During the balloon test adequate collateral circulation was defined as symmetric angiographic filling of both hemispheres. Awake patients were neurologically examined continuously. In unconscious patients transcranial Doppler sonography, electroencephalographic and somatosensory evoked potential monitoring was used in addition. Intra-operative heparin administration was not reversed with protamin. A postoperative continuous heparin infusion was not found necessary. In our two early cases this technique was not available: In the first case we accomplished aneurysm occlusion by a surgically introduced Fogarty balloon catheter. Our second patient needed surgical trapping of the involved carotid after early unsuccessful attempts of selective aneurysm occlusion. After treatment no further epistaxis occurred. Follow-up angiography showed persistent aneurysm occlusion. The results were excellent in 5 cases and good in 1 case. One patient with bilateral lesions suffered a stroke after occlusion of the second, remaining carotid artery, despite functioning bilateral extra

  9. Qualitative and Quantitative Radio-Anatomical Variation of the Posterior Clinoid Process

    PubMed Central

    Salma, Asem; Baidya, Nishanta B.; Wendt, Benjamin; Aguila, Francisco; Sammet, Steffen; Ammirati, Mario

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the radiological anatomy of the posterior clinoid process (PCP) to highlight preoperative awareness of its variations and its relationships to other skull base landmarks. The PCPs of 36, three-dimensional computed tomographic cadaveric heads were evaluated by studying the gross anatomy of the PCP and by measuring the distances between the PCP and other skull base anatomical landmarks relevant to transnasal or transcranial skull base approaches. PCP variations were found in five specimens (14%): in two the dorsum sellae was absent, in one the PCP and the anterior clinoid process (ACP) were connected unilaterally and in two bilaterally. The mean distance between the right/left PCP and the crista galli was 45.14 ± 4.0 standard deviation (SD_/46.24 ± 4.5 SD, respectively, while the distance to the middle point of the basion at the level of the foramen magnum was 40.41 ± 5.1 SD/41.0 ± 5.2 SD, respectively. The mean distance between the PCP and the ACP was 12.03 ± 3.18 SD on the right side and 12.11 ± 2.77 SD on the left. The data provided highlights the importance of careful preoperative evaluation of the PCP and of its relationships to other commonly encountered skull base landmarks. This information may give an idea of the exposure achievable through different transcranial and transnasal approaches. This is especially relevant when neuronavigation is not available. PMID:22547963

  10. Fully endoscopic supraorbital keyhole approach to the anterior cranial base: A cadaveric study

    PubMed Central

    Akçakaya, Mehmet Osman; Aras, Yavuz; İzgi, Nail; Gayretli, Özcan; Sabancı, Pulat Akın; Aydoseli, Aydın; Gürses, İlke Ali; Sencer, Altay; Öztürk, Adnan; Hepgül, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The supraorbital keyhole approach for anterior cranial base lesions has been increasingly used in clinical practice. Anatomical studies focusing on the endoscopic anatomy via this approach are few, although the microscopic anatomy has been well studied. The aim of this study is to describe the anatomical features and surgical exposure provided by the endoscopic supraorbital keyhole approach using quantitative measurements. Materials and Methods: Nine formalin-fixed human cadavers from the inventory of the Anatomy department were used. A total of 18 supraorbital keyhole cranitomies were conducted. The distances between the target anatomical structures and the dura mater at the craniotomy site, and the distances between deep anatomical structures were measured with purpose-designed hooks. Results: The distance between the dura mater and optic canal was measured as 69.5 ± 6.7 mm (62–83 mm); optic chiasm as 76.2 ± 5.4 mm (67–86 mm); anterior communicating artery as 82.6 ± 6.1 mm (71–93 mm); internal carotid artery (ICA) bifurcation as 74.7 ± 6.0 mm (66–84 mm) and the basilar tip as 94.9 ± 7.0 mm (87–111 mm). The mean diameter of the optic canal was 7.4 ± 1.3 mm (6–11 mm), whereas the mean diameter of diaphragma sellae was measured as 8.4 ± 1.1 mm (7–10 mm). Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the anterior and medial aspects of the anterior cranial fossa can be visualized properly. Dissection of the ipsilateral arteries of Circle of Willis can be performed easily using an endoscopic supraorbital keyhole approach. PMID:26167020

  11. Qualitative and quantitative radio-anatomical variation of the posterior clinoid process.

    PubMed

    Salma, Asem; Baidya, Nishanta B; Wendt, Benjamin; Aguila, Francisco; Sammet, Steffen; Ammirati, Mario

    2011-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the radiological anatomy of the posterior clinoid process (PCP) to highlight preoperative awareness of its variations and its relationships to other skull base landmarks. The PCPs of 36, three-dimensional computed tomographic cadaveric heads were evaluated by studying the gross anatomy of the PCP and by measuring the distances between the PCP and other skull base anatomical landmarks relevant to transnasal or transcranial skull base approaches. PCP variations were found in five specimens (14%): in two the dorsum sellae was absent, in one the PCP and the anterior clinoid process (ACP) were connected unilaterally and in two bilaterally. The mean distance between the right/left PCP and the crista galli was 45.14 ± 4.0 standard deviation (SD_/46.24 ± 4.5 SD, respectively, while the distance to the middle point of the basion at the level of the foramen magnum was 40.41 ± 5.1 SD/41.0 ± 5.2 SD, respectively. The mean distance between the PCP and the ACP was 12.03 ± 3.18 SD on the right side and 12.11 ± 2.77 SD on the left. The data provided highlights the importance of careful preoperative evaluation of the PCP and of its relationships to other commonly encountered skull base landmarks. This information may give an idea of the exposure achievable through different transcranial and transnasal approaches. This is especially relevant when neuronavigation is not available.

  12. Factors influencing superimposition error of 3D cephalometric landmarks by plane orientation method using 4 reference points: 4 point superimposition error regression model.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae Joon; Kim, Kee-Deog; Park, Hyok; Park, Chang Seo; Jeong, Ho-Gul

    2014-01-01

    Superimposition has been used as a method to evaluate the changes of orthodontic or orthopedic treatment in the dental field. With the introduction of cone beam CT (CBCT), evaluating 3 dimensional changes after treatment became possible by superimposition. 4 point plane orientation is one of the simplest ways to achieve superimposition of 3 dimensional images. To find factors influencing superimposition error of cephalometric landmarks by 4 point plane orientation method and to evaluate the reproducibility of cephalometric landmarks for analyzing superimposition error, 20 patients were analyzed who had normal skeletal and occlusal relationship and took CBCT for diagnosis of temporomandibular disorder. The nasion, sella turcica, basion and midpoint between the left and the right most posterior point of the lesser wing of sphenoidal bone were used to define a three-dimensional (3D) anatomical reference co-ordinate system. Another 15 reference cephalometric points were also determined three times in the same image. Reorientation error of each landmark could be explained substantially (23%) by linear regression model, which consists of 3 factors describing position of each landmark towards reference axes and locating error. 4 point plane orientation system may produce an amount of reorientation error that may vary according to the perpendicular distance between the landmark and the x-axis; the reorientation error also increases as the locating error and shift of reference axes viewed from each landmark increases. Therefore, in order to reduce the reorientation error, accuracy of all landmarks including the reference points is important. Construction of the regression model using reference points of greater precision is required for the clinical application of this model.

  13. Ectopic acromegaly due to a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma in the sphenoid sinus: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In more than 98% of cases, acromegaly is due to a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma. The term “ectopic acromegaly” includes neuroendocrine tumors secreting GH releasing hormone (GHRH), usually located in the lungs, thymus and endocrine pancreas. Considerably less frequent are cases of ectopic acromegaly due to GH-secreting tumors located out of the pituitary fossa; except for one isolated case of a well-documented GH-secreting lymphoma, the majority of these lesions are located in the sphenoid sinus. Case presentation We present the case of a 45 year old woman with acromegaly whose MRI showed an empty sella without evidence of a pituitary adenoma but revealed a large mass within the sphenoid sinus. She underwent transsphenoidal surgery and the excised sphenoid sinus mass, proved to be a GH-secreting adenoma; the sellar floor was intact and no other lesions were found in the pituitary fossa. She required postoperative treatment with somatostatin analogs and cabergoline for clinical and biochemical control. Conclusions This case highlights the importance of carefully evaluating the structures surrounding the sellar area when a pituitary adenoma is not found with currently available imaging techniques. The finding of an intact sellar floor and duramater lead us to conclude that the patient’s tumor originated de novo from embryological pituitary remnants. Upon a careful review of the literature and a critical evaluation of our case we found neither clinical nor biochemical features that would distinguish an ectopic from the more common eutopically located somatotrophinoma. PMID:24119925

  14. Narrowing of Meckel's cave and cavernous sinus and enlargement of the optic nerve sheath in Pseudotumor Cerebri.

    PubMed

    Degnan, Andrew Joseph; Levy, Lucien M

    2011-01-01

    Pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) is a clinical entity of uncertain etiology associated with several subtle findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including posterior flattening of the globes, enlargement of the optic nerve sheath (ONS), empty sella sign. We aimed to characterize the incidence of and significance of 2 novel MRI findings: narrowing of Meckel's cave and of cavernous sinus. Forty-six patients with a condition diagnosed as PTC based on clinical history were retrospectively reviewed, and their MRI studies were assessed for previously reported imaging findings associated with PTC. The maximal diameters of the cavernous sinuses, Meckel's caves, and ONSs were measured along with those of age-matched controls on axial T2-weighted images. The Meckel's caves and cavernous sinuses are significantly (P < 0.01) narrowed in patients (mean diameters: 0.41 and 0.25 cm) versus controls (0.54 and 0.36 cm), respectively. The ONS was enlarged in patients with a mean diameter of 0.65 cm versus 0.54 cm (P < 0.01). Meckel's cave narrowing and ONS enlargement seem to be better indicators of PTC than cavernous sinus narrowing, with sensitivities of 78.3% and 86.9% and specificities of 84.8% and 76.1% versus 60.9% and 76.1%, respectively. This finding of narrowed Meckel's caves in PTC may be clinically useful as a novel imaging finding seen on routine MRI studies. Optic nerve sheath enlargement is also confirmed as an important finding in PTC.

  15. [Wooden models of human skeleton made in Edo era, Japan, with special reference to Hoshino wooden skeleton].

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Katsuko; Suzaki, Etsuko; Ajima, Noriaki

    2006-03-01

    The wooden model of the human skeleton, called wooden skeleton, is a distinguished original craft object in Edo era (1600-1867), Japan, when medical doctors were unable to keep the human skeleton for their study and teaching purpose. There are three kinds of wooden skeletons, i. e. Hoshino, Kagami and Okuda wooden skeletons made in 1792, 1810 and 1820, respectively. The former two are of adult male and the latter of female. They were made in surprising accuracy as compared with figures appeared in medical books available in Japan at that time, which suggests scientific readiness of the doctors and skills of the craftsmen. A complete set of the skeleton, except for the hyoid bone, has been preserved for Hoshino and Okuda wooden skeletons, while several bones have been missing in Kagami wooden skeleton. Each bone of Hoshino and Kagami wooden skeletons was made separately and connected by a tenon and a corresponding mortise at the articular surface. So it is hardly considered that all wooden bones were assembled into the whole body skeleton on use. Okuda wooden skeleton, on the other hand, was made for being shown in sitting position. The skull of Hoshino wooden skeleton is of special interest: the skull cap is not open, yet the internal structures of the skull, such as the sella turcica, foramina for nerves and vessels, and sulci for venous sinuses were made in considerable accuracy. Moreover, the proper connection of most foramina was proved between the inside and outside of the skull. The skull caps of Kagami and Okuda wooden skeletons are open as those used in the modern medical education.

  16. Cone beam computed tomographic analyses of alveolar bone anatomy at the maxillary anterior region in Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhixuan; Chen, Wu; Shen, Ming; Sun, Chao; Li, Jun; Chen, Ning

    2014-01-01

    To provide an anatomical basis for clinical implant esthetics, we evaluated the morphology of the nasopalatine canal (NPC) and analyzed labial and interproximal bone anatomy at the maxillary anterior region. We sought to investigate the effect of maxillary protrusion and tooth labiolingual inclination on labial bone anatomy in Chinese adults. Three dimensional (3D) images were reconstructed using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images from 80 Chinese subjects and by SimPlant 11.04. The dimensions of the NPC, the thickness and profile of the labial bone, the width and height of the interproximal bone, angle sella-nasion-subspinale (SNA) and angle upper central incisor-nasion,subspinale (U1-NA) were measured. The incisive foramen of the NPC was markedly wider than its nasal foramen. The dimension of its labial bone wall demonstrated an increasing width from the crestal to apical measurements. The labial bone at the maxillary anterior region was rather thin, especially at 3 mm below the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) and the mid-root level; the profile of the labial bone was more curved at the central incisor, and the interproximal bone became wider and shorter posteriorly. There were significant relationships between maxillary protrusion and labial bone profile, tooth labiolingual inclination and labial bone thickness (P < 0.02). To achieve optimal esthetic outcome of implant, bone augmentation is necessary at the maxillary anterior region. For immediate or early placement at the maxillary anterior region, the implant should be located palatally to reduce labial bone resorption and marginal recession; its apex should be angulated palatally to avoid labial perforation at the apical region. To protect the NPC, implants at the central incisor region should be placed away from NPC. PMID:25469120

  17. A retrospective study of brain lesions in goats submitted to three veterinary diagnostic laboratories.

    PubMed

    Allen, Andrew L; Goupil, Brad A; Valentine, Beth A

    2013-07-01

    A retrospective study of brain lesions in goats was conducted to identify the range of lesions and diseases recognized and to make recommendations regarding the best tissues to examine and tests to conduct in order to maximize the likelihood of making a definitive diagnosis in goats that may have had clinical signs referable to the brain. One hundred thirty-nine goats with a brain lesion were identified. The most common lesion, in 52.5% of the goats, was suppurative inflammation. Approximately two-thirds of these goats had encephalitic listeriosis. Other goats were found to have suppurative inflammation in association with septicemia, pituitary abscesses, dehorning injury, and otitis. Thirty goats (21.6%) were diagnosed with polioencephalomalacia. Twenty-one goats (15.1%) were diagnosed with nonsuppurative inflammation. In more than half of these goats, no definitive diagnosis was made, while 8 were infected with Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus and 1 with Rabies virus. However, few goats were tested for rabies. Based on these findings, it is recommended that, in addition to appropriate handling of the brain, the head should be examined with attention paid to the sella turcica and the temporal bones for evidence of a pituitary abscess and otitis, respectively. Histologic examination should include multiple areas of the brain, including the brainstem, for lesions of encephalic listeriosis; the cerebral cortex, for lesions of polioencephalomalacia; and the hippocampus, for Negri bodies associated with Rabies virus infection. Consideration should be given to collecting samples of other tissues including, but not limited to, the spinal cord and liver for ancillary testing if warranted.

  18. A phantom study of the immobilization and the indications for using virtual isocenter in stereoscopic X-ray image guidance system referring to position localizer in frameless radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsiao-Han; Lee, Hsiao-Fei; Sung, Chien-Cheng; Liao, Tsung-I; Huang, Yu-Jie

    2013-07-08

    A frameless radiosurgery system is using a set of thermoplastic mask for fixation and stereoscopic X-ray imaging for alignment. The accuracy depends on mask fixation and imaging. Under certain circumstances, the guidance images may contain insufficient bony structures, resulting in lesser accuracy. A virtual isocenter function is designed for such scenarios. In this study, we investigated the immobilization and the indications for using virtual isocenter. Twenty-four arbitrary imaginary treatment targets (ITTs) in phantom were evaluated. The external Localizer with positioner films was used as reference. The alignments by using actual and virtual isocenter in image guidance were compared. The deviation of the alignment after mask removing and then resetting was also checked. The results illustrated that the mean deviation between the alignment by image guidance using actual isocenter (Iso(img)) and the localizer(Iso(loc)) was 2.26 mm ± 1.16 mm (standard deviation, SD), 1.66 mm ± 0.83 mm for using virtual isocenter. The deviation of the alignment by the image guidance using actual isocenter to the localizer before and after mask resetting was 7.02 mm ± 5.8 mm. The deviations before and after mask resetting were insignificant for the target center from skull edge larger than 80 mm on craniocaudal direction. The deviations between the alignment using actual and virtual isocenter in image guidance were not significant if the minimum distance from target center to skull edge was larger or equal to 30 mm. Due to an unacceptable deviation after mask resetting, the image guidance is necessary to improve the accuracy of frameless immobilization. A treatment isocenter less than 30 mm from the skull bone should be an indication for using virtual isocenter to align in image guidance. The virtual isocenter should be set as caudally as possible, and the sella of skull should be the ideal point.

  19. Characteristics of the infant Apert skull and its subsequent development.

    PubMed

    Kreiborg, S; Cohen, M M

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to describe and analyze the infant Apert skull with emphasis on the calvaria and its early postnatal development. Skull radiographs of 16 Apert syndrome patients were examined (12 American, 4 Danish; 8 males, 8 females). The criterion for inclusion in the study was that the first skull film had to be obtained before 1 year of age. Study methods employed included plain skull radiographs, roentgencephalometric films in several projections, CT-scans, and 3-D reconstructions. Data from 2 dry skulls and 2 early cases from the literature were also evaluated The following findings were common to all cases during early infancy (less than 3 months): The coronal suture area was prematurely closed and was represented by a bone condensation line beginning at the cranial base, extending upwards, and having a characteristic posterior convexity. Anterior and posterior fontanelles were widely patent. The midline of the calvaria had a gaping defect which extended from the glabellar area to the posterior fontanelle via the metopic suture area, anterior fontanelle, and sagittal suture area. Bony islands of varying sizes were observed in the midline defect. The calvaria was hypomineralized. During the first 2-4 years of life, the midline defect was obliterated by coalescence of the enlarging bony islands without evidence of any proper formation of sutures. The calvaria became thicker with time and several cases developed increased digital markings and enlargement of the sella turcica. During infancy, the Apert skull with its gaping midline defect appears to permit adequate accommodation of the growing brain, albeit distorted in shape. Normal metopic, sagittal, and coronal sutures with interdigitations were not observed in a single instance; in contrast, the lambdoidal sutures appeared normal in all cases. The invariable findings of an extremely short squama and orbital part of the frontal bone together with the posterior convexity of the coronal bone

  20. Binostril versus mononostril approaches in endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery: clinical evaluation and cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Jens; Ayyad, Ali; Wüster, Christian; Omran, Wael; Weber, Matthias M; Konerding, Moritz A; Müller-Forell, Wibke; Giese, Alf; Oertel, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Over the past 2 decades, endoscopy has become an integral part of the surgical repertoire for skull base procedures. The present clinical evaluation and cadaver study compare binostril and mononostril endoscopic transnasal approaches and the surgical techniques involved. METHODS Forty patients with pituitary adenomas were treated with either binostril or mononostril endoscopic surgery. Neurosurgical, endocrinological, ophthalmological, and neuroradiological examinations were performed. Ten cadaver specimens were prepared, and surgical aspects of the preparation and neuroradiological examination were documented. RESULTS In the clinical evaluation, 0° optics were optimal in the nasal and sphenoidal phase of surgery for both techniques. For detection of tumor remnants, 30° optics were superior. The binostril approach was significantly more time consuming than the mononostril technique. The nasal retractor limited maneuverability of instruments during mononostril approaches in 5 of 20 patients. Endocrinological pituitary function, control of excessive hormone secretion, ophthalmological outcome, residual tumor, and rates of adverse events, such as CSF leaks and diabetes insipidus, were similar in both groups. In the cadaver study, there was no significant difference in the time required for dissection via the binostril or mononostril technique. The panoramic view was superior in the binostril group; this was due to the possibility of wider opening of the sella in the craniocaudal and horizontal directions, but the need for removal of more of the nasal septum was disadvantageous. CONCLUSIONS Because of maneuverability of instruments and a wider view in the sphenoid sinus, the binostril technique is superior for resection of large tumors with parasellar and suprasellar expansion and tumors requiring extended approaches. The mononostril technique is preferable for tumors with limited extension in the intra- and suprasellar area.

  1. Analysis of midface retrusion in Crouzon and Apert syndromes.

    PubMed

    Forte, Antonio Jorge; Alonso, Nivaldo; Persing, John A; Pfaff, Miles J; Brooks, Eric D; Steinbacher, Derek M

    2014-08-01

    Midface retrusion is the hallmark of the syndromic dysostoses (i.e., Crouzon and Apert). Lack of forward projection and/or structural deficiency could be responsible, but neither has been adequately assessed three-dimensionally. The authors examined both the cranial base/facial interface and the midface volume to provide an understanding of the etiopathogenesis of midface deficiency. Children with computed tomographic scans in the absence of any surgical intervention were included. Demographic information was recorded for three groups: Apert, Crouzon, and control. Scans were digitized and manipulated using Materialise software (Surgicase CMF). Craniometric data relating to the midface and sphenoid were collected. Volumetric assessment of the midface was tabulated. Statistical analysis was performed using the t test. Thirty-six scans were included (control, n=17; Crouzon/Apert, n=19). All children were in the early mixed dentition stage. The anterior cranial fossa proved to be shorter and wider in Crouzon/Apert patients compared with controls. The cranial base angles (N-S-BA, N-S-SO, N-SO-BA, S-SO-BA, and N-S-AR) were not statistically different across the groups. The Crouzon/Apert group showed angles more obtuse between the greater wings of the sphenoid, and more obtuse (more splayed) between the pterygoid plates. Nasion-sella-pterygomaxillary fissure angle was more obtuse (flatter) in the Crouzon/Apert group. There was no volumetric difference in the maxilla, zygoma, and sphenoid comparing the Crouzon/Apert group to controls. Midface retrusion in the Crouzon/Apert group is associated with altered sphenoid morphology (widened and retruded pterygoid plates), with a flatter and wider maxilla, suggesting diminished growth inferiorly and anteriorly. There is no volumetric deficiency in Crouzon/Apert patients compared with controls. Risk, II.

  2. Developments in neuroendoscopy: trial of a miniature rigid endoscope with a multidirectional steerable tip camera in the anatomical lab.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Florian H; Marquardt, Jakob S; Hirt, Bernhard; Honegger, Juergen; Herlan, Stephan; Tatagiba, Marcos; Schuhmann, Martin U

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess field of view, usability and applicability of a rigid, multidirectional steerable video endoscope (EndActive) in various intracranial regions relevant to neurosurgical practice. In four cadaveric specimens, frontolateral, pterional, transnasal (to sella and clivus), interhemispheric (transcallosal and retrocallosal) and retrosigmoid approaches as well as precoronal burr holes for ventriculoscopy were performed. Anatomical target structures were defined in each region. We assessed field of view as well as optical and ergonomic features of the prototype. The EndActive is a 4-mm-diameter rigid video (endo)scope with an integral image sensor comprising an embedded light source. The viewing direction in a range of 160° can either be controlled by the computer keyboard or a four-way joystick mounted to the handle section of the endoscope. The endoscopic imaging system allows the operator to simultaneously see both a 160° wide-angle view of the site and an inset of a specific region of interest. The surgeon can hold the device like a microsurgical instrument in one hand and control movements precisely due to its reduced weight and ergonomic shape. The multiplanar variable-view rigid endoscope proved to be useful for following anatomical structures (cranial nerves I-XII). The device is effective in narrow working spaces where movements jeopardize the delicate surrounding structures. The multiplanar variable viewing mechanism in a compact device offers advantages in terms of safety and ergonomics. Improving the usability will probably optimize the applicability of endoscopic techniques in neurosurgery.

  3. Acute hypophysitis and hypopituitarism in early syphilitic meningitis in a HIV-infected patient: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted diseases and most notably syphilis-infections are rising amongst men who have sex with men. In HIV-co-infected patients, an accelerated clinical course of syphilis neurological involvement is known. Case presentation A 46 year old HIV-positive male patient came in to our emergency department in the late evening with acute fever, rapidly progressive cephalgia and photophobia. Palmar skin efflorescence was evocative of an active syphilis infection. A reactive Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay with positive Treponema pallidum-specific IgG/IgM immunofluorescence as well as a highly reactive Veneral diseases research laboratory (VDRL) test confirmed the diagnosis. Liquor pleocytosis, liquor protein elevation and a highly positive VDRL test in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were interpreted in context of the clinical symptoms as neurosyphilitic manifestations within an early syphilis infection (stage II). Cranial nuclear magnetic resonance scans of the sella turcica, which were performed due to low thyroidea stimulation hormone (TSH) and thyroxin levels, showed signs of hypophysitis such as pituitary gland enlargement and inhomogeneous contrast enhancement. Advanced endocrine laboratory testing revealed hypopituitarism. Fourteen days of intravenous ceftriaxone treatment and levothyroxine- and hydrocortisone-substitution led to complete disappearance of all clinical symptoms. Two months later, nuclear magnetic resonance scan showed normal pituitary size and that the syphilis serology had normalized. Conclusion We report to the best of our knowledge the first case of a HIV-positive patient with acute hypophysitis and hypopituarism due to early neurosyphilis infection. Ceftriaxone treatment and levothyroxine- and hydrocortisone-substitution led to the disappearance of all clinical symptoms. We strongly recommend to exclude syphilis infection in every clinical situation unclear in HIV-patients, especially when additional risk

  4. Norman Dott, Gerard Guiot, and Jules Hardy: key players in the resurrection and preservation of transsphenoidal surgery.

    PubMed

    Patel, Smruti K; Husain, Qasim; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Couldwell, William T; Liu, James K

    2012-08-01

    Developed over a century ago, the transsphenoidal approach to access lesions of the pituitary gland and sella turcica has transformed the field of neurosurgery, largely due to the work of Oskar Hirsch and Harvey Cushing. Furthermore, its use and modification in the early 1900s was perhaps one of Cushing's greatest legacies to skull base surgery. However, Cushing, who had worked relentlessly to improve the transsphenoidal route to the pituitary region, abandoned the approach by 1929 in his pursuit to master transcranial approaches to the suprasellar region. Hirsch and a few other surgeons continued to perform transsphenoidal operations, but they were unable to maintain the popularity of the approach among their peers. During a time when transsphenoidal surgery was on the brink of extinction, a critical lineage of 3 key surgeons--Norman Dott, Gerard Guiot, and Jules Hardy--would resurrect the art, each working to further improve the procedure. Dott, Cushing's apprentice from 1923 to 1924, brought his experiences with transsphenoidal surgery to Edinburgh, Scotland, and along the way, developed the lighted nasal speculum to provide better illumination in the narrow working area. Guiot, inspired by Dott, adopted his technique and used intraoperative radiofluoroscopic technique for image guidance. Hardy, a fellow of Guiot, from Montreal, Canada, revolutionized transsphenoidal microsurgery with the introduction of the binocular microscope and selective adenomectomy. The teachings of these pioneers have endured over time and are now widely used by neurosurgeons worldwide. In this paper, we review the lineage and contributions of Dott, Guiot, and Hardy who served as crucial players in the preservation of transsphenoidal surgery.

  5. Hypothalamic, pituitary and thyroid dysfunction after radiotherapy to the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Samaan, N.A.; Vieto, R.; Schultz, P.N.; Maor, M.; Meoz, R.T.; Sampiere, V.A.; Cangir, A.; Ried, H.L.; Jesse, R.H. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    One hundred-ten patients who had nasopharyngeal cancer and paranasal sinus tumors and were free of the primary disease were studied one to 26 years following radiotherapy. There were 70 males and 40 females ranging in age from 4 to 75 years, with a mean age of 36.5 years. During therapy both the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland were in the field of irradiation. The radiation dose to the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland was estimated to be 400 to 7500 rad with a median dose of 5618 rad to the anterior pituitary gland and a median dose of 5000 rad to the hypothalamus. We found evidence of endocrine deficiencies in 91 of the 110 patients studied. Seventy-six patients showed evidence of one or more hypothalamic lesions and 43 patients showed evidence of primary pituitary deficiency. Forty of the 66 patients who received radiotherapy to the neck for treatment or prevention of lymph node metastasis showed evidence of primary hypothyroidism. The range of the dose to the thyroid area was 3000 to 8800 rad with a median of 5000 rad. One young adult woman who developed galactorrhea and amenorrhea 2 years following radiotherapy showed a high serum prolactin level, but had normal anterior pituitary function and sella turcica. She regained her menses and had a normal pregnancy and delivery following bromocriptine therapy. These results indicate that endocrine deficiencies after radiotherapy for tumors of the head and neck are common and should be detected early and treated. Long-term follow-up of these patients is indicated since complications may appear after the completion of radiotherapy.

  6. Hybrid Microscopic-Endoscopic Surgery for Craniopharyngioma in Neurosurgical Suite: Technical Notes.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Tomotsugu; Otani, Yoshihiro; Ishida, Joji; Fujii, Kentaro; Kurozumi, Kazuhiko; Ono, Shigeki; Date, Isao

    2016-01-01

    The best chance of curing craniopharyngioma is achieved by microsurgical total resection; however, its location adjacent to critical structures hinders complete resection without neurologic deterioration. Unrecognized residual tumor within microscopic blind spots might result in tumor recurrences. To improve outcomes, new techniques are necessary to visualize tissue within these blind spots. We examined the success of hybrid microscopic-endoscopic neurosurgery for craniopharyngioma in a neurosurgical suite. Four children with craniopharyngiomas underwent microscopic resection. When the neurosurgeon was confident that most of the visible tumor was removed but was suspicious of residual tumor within the blind spot, he or she used an integrated endoscope-holder system to inspect and remove any residual tumor. Two ceiling monitors were mounted side by side in front of the surgeon to display both microscopic and endoscopic views and to view both monitors simultaneously. Surgery was performed in all patients via the frontobasal interhemispheric approach. Residual tumors were observed in the sella (2 patients), on the ventral surface of the chiasm and optic nerve (1 patient), and in the third ventricle (1 patient) and were resected to achieve total resection. Postoperatively, visual function was improved in 2 patients and none exhibited deterioration related to the surgery. Simultaneous microscopic and endoscopic observation with the use of dual monitors in a neurosurgical suite was ergonomically optimal for the surgeon to perform microsurgical procedures and to avoid traumatizing surrounding vessels or neural tissues. Hybrid microscopic-endoscopic neurosurgery may contribute to safe, less-invasive, and maximal resection to achieve better prognosis in children with craniopharyngioma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Endoscopic endonasal trans-sphenoid surgery of pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Yr; Sachdev, S; Parihar, V; Namdev, H; Bhatele, Pr

    2012-09-01

    Endoscopic endonasal trans-sphenoid surgery (EETS) is increasingly used for pituitary lesions. Pre-operative CT and MRI scans and peroperative endoscopic visualization can provide useful anatomical information. EETS is indicated in sellar, suprasellar, intraventricular, retro-infundibular, and invasive tumors. Recurrent and residual lesions, pituitary apoplexy and empty sella syndrome can be managed by EETS. Modern neuronavigation techniques, ultrasonic aspirators, ultrasonic bone curette can add to the safety. The binostril approach provides a wider working area. High definition camera is much superior to three-chip camera. Most of the recent reports favor EETS in terms of safety, quality of life and tumor resection, hospital stay, better endocrinological, and visual outcome as compared to the microscopic technique. Nasal symptoms, blood loss, operating time are less in EETS. Various naso-septal flaps and other techniques of CSF leak repair could help reduce complications. Complications can be further reduced after achieving the learning curve, good understanding of limitations with proper patient selection. Use of neuronavigation, proper post-operative care of endocrine function, establishing pituitary center of excellence and more focused residency and endoscopic fellowship training could improve results. The faster and safe transition from microscopic to EETS can be done by the team concept of neurosurgeon/otolaryngologist, attending hands on cadaveric dissection, practice on models, and observation of live surgeries. Conversion to a microscopic or endoscopic-assisted approach may be required in selected patients. Multi-modality treatment could be required in giant and invasive tumors. EETS appears to be a better surgical option in most pituitary adenoma.

  8. Endoscopic endonasal trans-sphenoid surgery of pituitary adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, YR; Sachdev, S; Parihar, V; Namdev, H; Bhatele, PR

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic endonasal trans-sphenoid surgery (EETS) is increasingly used for pituitary lesions. Pre-operative CT and MRI scans and peroperative endoscopic visualization can provide useful anatomical information. EETS is indicated in sellar, suprasellar, intraventricular, retro-infundibular, and invasive tumors. Recurrent and residual lesions, pituitary apoplexy and empty sella syndrome can be managed by EETS. Modern neuronavigation techniques, ultrasonic aspirators, ultrasonic bone curette can add to the safety. The binostril approach provides a wider working area. High definition camera is much superior to three-chip camera. Most of the recent reports favor EETS in terms of safety, quality of life and tumor resection, hospital stay, better endocrinological, and visual outcome as compared to the microscopic technique. Nasal symptoms, blood loss, operating time are less in EETS. Various naso-septal flaps and other techniques of CSF leak repair could help reduce complications. Complications can be further reduced after achieving the learning curve, good understanding of limitations with proper patient selection. Use of neuronavigation, proper post-operative care of endocrine function, establishing pituitary center of excellence and more focused residency and endoscopic fellowship training could improve results. The faster and safe transition from microscopic to EETS can be done by the team concept of neurosurgeon/otolaryngologist, attending hands on cadaveric dissection, practice on models, and observation of live surgeries. Conversion to a microscopic or endoscopic-assisted approach may be required in selected patients. Multi-modality treatment could be required in giant and invasive tumors. EETS appears to be a better surgical option in most pituitary adenoma. PMID:23188987

  9. Multiorgan autoimmunity in a Turner syndrome patient with partial monosomy 2q and trisomy 10p.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Armando; Palma, Alessia; Zanni, Ginevra; Novelli, Antonio; Loddo, Sara; Cappa, Marco; Fierabracci, Alessandra

    2013-02-25

    Turner syndrome is a condition caused by numeric and structural abnormalities of the X chromosome, and is characterized by a series of clinical features, the most common being short stature and gonadal dysgenesis. An increased frequency of autoimmune diseases as well as an elevated incidence of autoantibodies has been observed in Turner patients. We present a unique case of mosaic Turner syndrome with a complex rearrangement consisting of a partial deletion of chromosome 2q and duplication of chromosome 10p {[46],XX,der(2)t(2;10)(2pter→2q37::10p13→10pter)[127]/45,X,der(2)t(2;10)(2pter→2q37::10p13→10pter)[23]}. The patient is affected by partial empty sella, in association with a group of multiorgan autoimmunity-related manifestations including Hashimoto's thyroiditis, celiac disease, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 1 diabetes, T1D), possible autoimmune inner ear disease with sensorineural deficit, preclinical Addison disease and alopecia universalis. The patient was previously described at the age of 2.4 years and now re-evaluated at the age of 14 years after she developed autoimmune conditions. AIRE gene screening revealed heterozygous c.834 C>G polymorphism (p.Ser278Arg) and IVS9+6G>A variation, thus likely excluding autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome Type 1 (APECED). Heterozygous R620W polymorphism of the protein tyrosine phosphatase non receptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene was detected in patient's DNA. SNP-array analysis revealed that autoimmunity-related genes could be affected by the partial monosomy 2q and trisomy 10p. These data suggest that early genetic analysis in TS patients with complex associations of multiorgan autoimmune manifestations would permit a precise diagnostic classification and also be an indicator for undiscovered pathogenetic mechanisms.

  10. Morphometric analysis of untreated adult skulls in syndromic and nonsyndromic craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Weber, J; Collmann, H; Czarnetzki, A; Spring, A; Pusch, C M

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a morphometric analysis of untreated adult skulls displaying syndromic and nonsyndromic craniosynostosis. We analyzed, in detail, 42 adult craniosynostoses (18 scaphocephaly, 11 anterior plagiocephaly, 2 trigonocephaly, 9 oxycephaly, and 2 brachycephaly) from archeological (three skulls) and pathoanatomical samples (39 skulls). The univariate and bivariate measurements from the pathological skulls were compared with 40 anatomical skulls with normal cranial vault morphology. Bony signs of chronic elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) are (1) diffuse beaten copper pattern, (2) dorsum sellae erosion, (3) suture diastasis, and (4) abnormalities of venous drainage that particularly affect the sigmoid-jugular sinus complex. The mean cranial length was significantly greater in scaphocephaly than in anatomical skulls (20.3 vs 18.0 cm), and the sagittal suture was also longer (14.3 vs 11.8 cm). There were three types of suture course in the bregma region in scaphocephaly: anterior spur (28%), normal configuration (61%), and posterior spur (11%). The plagiocephaly measurements showed nonsignificant differences, and there was no correlation between the length of the anterior and middle skull base (ipsilateral anterior-posterior shortening of the skull) and incomplete or complete suture synostosis. Bony signs of chronic elevated ICP were found in 82% of cases of oxycephaly and brachycephaly. In three such cases of oxycephaly, we found a marked (1.8-2.1 cm) elevation of bregma region. One skull (Saethre-Chotzen syndrome) yielded human DNA sufficient for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based amplification procedures. Mutation analyses in the FGFR3 gene revealed nucleotide alterations located in the mutational hot spot at amino acid residue 250 (g.C749). The mean cranial length in adult scaphocephaly was 12% greater than anatomical skulls. A unilateral complete or incomplete coronal synostosis can be found with or without plagiocephalic

  11. Features of lateral cephalograms associated with difficult laryngoscopy in Japanese children undergoing oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Kohjitani, Atsushi; Miyawaki, Takuya; Miyawaki, Shouichi; Nakamura, Norifumi; Iwase, Yoko; Nishihara, Kazuhide; Ohno, Sachi; Shimada, Masahiko; Sugiyama, Kazuna

    2013-11-01

    Difficult laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation are occasionally encountered in children with congenital anomalies or micrognathia. However, no study has elucidated anatomical etiology in relation to craniofacial development. Two hundred ten patients aged 8 months-18 years were analyzed. We analyzed the lateral cephalograms of: (i) eight patients in whom laryngoscopy was anticipated as difficult before anesthesia and who were unable to be intubated by direct laryngoscopy and needed fiberoptic bronchoscopy (group A); (ii) 11 patients in whom laryngoscopy was anticipated as difficult before anesthesia but who were able to be intubated by direct laryngoscopy (group B); and (iii) 191 patients in whom laryngoscopy was anticipated as easy before anesthesia and was actually found to be easy (group C). Eight cephalometric parameters were measured and age-parameter relationships were plotted. Logistic regression analysis was performed to characterize group A children for each of the cephalometric variables. Apparently insufficient growth of the mandible was observed in the group A children. Furthermore, the group A children of aged <4 years had undeveloped maxilla, longer mandibular plane-hyoid distances (≥1.3 cm), and deeper depth of the oropharynx; those of aged ≥4 years showed increased inclination of the mandible (sella-nasion plane to mandibular plane angle of ≥46.5°). Difficult laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation are expected in children aged <4 years with lower-positioned hyoid bone caused by caudal larynx as well as undeveloped maxilla and mandible, and in those aged ≥4 years with increased inclination of the mandible as well as undeveloped mandible. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery for Remission of Cushing Disease Caused by Ectopic Intracavernous Macroadenoma: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Koutourousiou, Maria; Winstead, Welby I

    2017-02-01

    Complete surgical resection of an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenoma is the gold standard of treatment of Cushing disease. Ectopic location of these adenomas is an extremely rare condition that may compromise the diagnosis and surgical success. We present the first case of an ectopic intracavernous ACTH-secreting macroadenoma totally resected with endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES). A 36-year-old woman presented with Cushing syndrome. Increased ACTH, serum cortisol, and free urine cortisol levels were identified; however, pituitary magnetic resonance imaging failed to show a pituitary tumor; instead, a parasellar lesion in the left cavernous sinus (CS) was noticed. Inferior petrosal sinus sampling showed a significant central to peripheral and lateralized left-sided ACTH gradient. The patient underwent EES. No tumor was found in the sella; however, the left CS was widely explored and a tumor was found lateral to the paraclival segment of the carotid artery. There were no complications after EES. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of an ACTH-secreting adenoma. During the immediate postoperative course, serum cortisol levels decreased lower than 5 μg/dL. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging showed complete tumor resection. At 20 months follow-up, the patient remained in clinical and biochemical remission of Cushing disease. Only 12 cases of ectopic intracavernous ACTH-secreting adenomas have been reported and all were microadenomas. The presence of an ectopic ACTH-secreting macroadenoma in the CS represents a surgical challenge. EES is the ideal approach for complete resection of ectopic intracavernous adenomas, allowing for a wide exploration of the CS with no surgical complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cabergoline treatment for recurrent Cushing's disease during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nakhleh, Afif; Saiegh, Leonard; Reut, Maria; Ahmad, Mohammad Sheikh; Pearl, Irit Wirsansky; Shechner, Carmela

    2016-07-01

    Cushing's disease during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for maternal and fetal complications. In recurrent Cushing`s disease following transsphenoidal surgery, and when re-operation is not feasible, medical treatment is usually considered. Cabergoline was found to be effective in reducing hypercortisolism in Cushing's disease. Evolving data concerning the safety of cabergoline use during pregnancy show no significant increase in the rate of complications during pregnancy or the postnatal period. We report a 29-year-old woman, gravida 0, para 0, with recurrent Cushing`s disease, three years after transsphenoidal resection of pituitary ACTH-secreting macroadenoma. Repeated MRI revealed an empty sella with a small gadolinium-enhancing lesion, suspected to be an adenoma remnant on the medial wall of the right cavernous sinus. As the patient was not willing to undergo repeat surgical intervention, treatment with cabergoline was initiated, with a gradual dose titration up to 3.5 mg/week. Clinical improvement ensued, and 4 months later, she conceived spontaneously. After discussing treatment options with the patient, cabergoline treatment at a dose of 2 mg/week was continued throughout pregnancy. The patient showed complete clinical remission during pregnancy. Consecutive tests of 24-h urinary free cortisol concentration were not found to be elevated. Pregnancy and delivery were uneventful except for mild hypothyroidism observed during the second trimester. At full term the patient delivered a healthy female infant, by an elective cesarean section. This case report demonstrates that cabergoline may be an effective and safe therapeutic option for the treatment of Cushing's disease during pregnancy.

  14. Dentoalveolar compensation according to skeletal discrepancy and overjet in skeletal Class III patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Kim, Kyung-Ho; Yu, Hyung-Seog; Baik, Hyoung-Seon

    2014-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate dentoalveolar compensation in untreated skeletal Class III patients with either positive or negative overjet. The positive overjet groups consisted of 104 adults, divided into group 1 (angle between sella-nasion to mandibular plane (SN-MP) > 38°, n = 30), group 2 (30° < SN-MP < 38°, n = 43), and group 3 (SN-MP <30°, n = 31). The negative overjet groups (groups 4-6) consisted of 90 adults who were closely matched to the positive overjet groups with regard to the ANB and SN-MP angles. Twenty-two cephalometric measurements were compared between the matched groups. In the positive overjet groups, correlation analysis was performed between the skeletal and dental measurements, and regression analysis was performed to determine the incisor-mandibular plane angle. The maxillary incisors were more proclined and the occlusal plane was more flattened in the positive overjet groups than in the negative overjet groups; however, there was no statistically significant difference between them with regard to mandibular incisor inclination. The inclinations of the maxillary and mandibular incisors were correlated with both the sagittal and vertical skeletal measurements. Eight regression equations for the incisor-mandibular plane angle were calculated with the highest coefficient of determination of 0.547. Proclination of the maxillary incisors and flattening of the occlusal plane contributed to a positive overjet. Mandibular incisor inclination was more closely associated with sagittal and vertical skeletal discrepancies and was not affected by the incisal relationship. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [High incidence of hyperestrogenemia and dyslipidemia in a group of infertile men].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Torres, M A; Carrera, A; Zambrana, M

    2000-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe metabolic and endocrine alterations in the male, partners of infertile couples. One hundred and six consecutive men were taken in order to analyze their serum samples. Each serum sample was analyzed by duplicate for luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), free-testosterone (T), 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), androstenedione (A), dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S), prolactin (PRL), insulin, glucose, total cholesterol and triclylcerides. The data analysis evidenced different metabolic or endocrine alterations in the group. A dysplipidemia incidence of 65% was found (isolated hypercholesterolemia, isolated triglyceridemia or both), where 80% of these patients were younger than 40 years. There was no correlation with obesity, overweight any endocrine alteration and the type of sperm alterations. There was a positive correlation between E2 and FSH (r = 0.67, p < 0.0001) in the group of 106 patients, which remained significant in the group of hyperestrogenic men (n = 27, r = 0.68, p < 0.0001), but not in men with normal serum estrogen levels (n = 79, r = 0.10, NS). Other alterations: obesity in 18%, overweight in 30.2%, diabetes mellitus 4.7%, glucose intolerance 15%, hypertension 26% (14/53), hypergonadotropic hypogonadism 3.8% (one of them with an Emty Sella syndrome). Unexpectedly only nine patients (8.4%) out of the 106 consecutive patients recluted did not have any of the metabolic or endodrine abnormalities here described. These are more significant since 83% of the patients are younger than 40 years. The most interesting non previously described finding was the positive correlation observed between E2 and FSH when estradiol levels exceeds 50 pg/mL.

  16. Modified orbitozygomatic craniotomy for craniopharyngioma resection in children.

    PubMed

    Golshani, Kiarash J; Lalwani, Kirk; Delashaw, Johnny B; Selden, Nathan R

    2009-10-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated the efficacy and safety of modified orbitozygomatic craniotomy for resection of craniopharyngioma in children. A prospective, institutional review board-approved database was retrospectively reviewed for pediatric patients undergoing craniopharyngioma resection performed by a single surgeon. Ten patients underwent craniopharyngioma resection surgery between July 2000 and January 2006 (4 girls and 6 boys, ages 1.5-17 years). Nine patients presented to the authors' institution, and 1 patient was referred after surgery and radiation therapy were administered elsewhere. Nine patients presented with visual field deficits (2 with unilateral or bilateral light perception only) and 5 with endocrine dysfunction. Eight patients had large tumors that significantly displaced the optic chiasm and hypothalamus. All patients underwent a modified frontotemporal orbitozygomatic osteotomy in a single piece. The lamina terminalis was opened in 4 patients with third ventricular extension. One patient required a staged transsphenoidal operation to remove residual tumor in the sella turcica, and 1 patient underwent a contralateral subtemporal approach to resect a daughter lesion in the prepontine cistern. Complete radiographic resection was achieved in all patients. Follow-up averaged 55 months (range 12-95 months). Vision was improved in 8 patients and remained stable in 2. All patients had postoperative endocrine dysfunction. One patient experienced transient cranial nerve IV palsy and 1 suffered a small caudate stroke 5 months after surgery without sequelae. Two patients experienced polyphagia and weight gain without other symptoms of hypothalamic dysfunction. There were no other new neurological deficits. Modified orbitozygomatic craniotomy provides excellent exposure of the suprasellar region with minimal brain retraction, allowing complete resection of craniopharyngiomas with good visual and neurological results.

  17. Factors Influencing Superimposition Error of 3D Cephalometric Landmarks by Plane Orientation Method Using 4 Reference Points: 4 Point Superimposition Error Regression Model

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jae Joon; Kim, Kee-Deog; Park, Hyok; Park, Chang Seo; Jeong, Ho-Gul

    2014-01-01

    Superimposition has been used as a method to evaluate the changes of orthodontic or orthopedic treatment in the dental field. With the introduction of cone beam CT (CBCT), evaluating 3 dimensional changes after treatment became possible by superimposition. 4 point plane orientation is one of the simplest ways to achieve superimposition of 3 dimensional images. To find factors influencing superimposition error of cephalometric landmarks by 4 point plane orientation method and to evaluate the reproducibility of cephalometric landmarks for analyzing superimposition error, 20 patients were analyzed who had normal skeletal and occlusal relationship and took CBCT for diagnosis of temporomandibular disorder. The nasion, sella turcica, basion and midpoint between the left and the right most posterior point of the lesser wing of sphenoidal bone were used to define a three-dimensional (3D) anatomical reference co-ordinate system. Another 15 reference cephalometric points were also determined three times in the same image. Reorientation error of each landmark could be explained substantially (23%) by linear regression model, which consists of 3 factors describing position of each landmark towards reference axes and locating error. 4 point plane orientation system may produce an amount of reorientation error that may vary according to the perpendicular distance between the landmark and the x-axis; the reorientation error also increases as the locating error and shift of reference axes viewed from each landmark increases. Therefore, in order to reduce the reorientation error, accuracy of all landmarks including the reference points is important. Construction of the regression model using reference points of greater precision is required for the clinical application of this model. PMID:25372707

  18. Differential diagnosis for inappropriate upper incisal display during posed smile: contribution of soft tissue and underlying hard tissue.

    PubMed

    Suh, Ye-Jin; Nahm, Dong-Seok; Choi, Jin-Young; Baek, Seung-Hak

    2009-11-01

    The amount of upper incisor display (UID) during smile and conversation is one of the most decisive components in aesthetic judgment. The purpose of this study was to find which soft tissue and underlying hard tissue factors contributed to the amount of UID during posed smile (PS) and at rest posture (RP). The subjects consisted of 76 young adults (33 men and 43 women; mean [SD] age, 24.79 [2.29] y) with skeletal and dental class I relationship, normal overbite/overjet, and minor crowding (<2 mm). After checking reproducibility of the amounts of UID during PS and at RP in lateral cephalograms with facial photographs, 15 hard and soft tissue variables were measured, and statistical analysis was done. There was no significant sex difference in the amount of UID during PS and at RP. The amount of UID during PS significantly increased when anterior maxillary height was longer, lower gonial angle was larger, occlusal plane to sella-to-nasion plane angle was steeper, interlabial gap at RP was larger, upper lip length at RP was shorter and upper lip elevation during PS was larger. Multiple linear regression analysis to predict the degree of UID during PS generated a 4-variable model (adjusted R = 0.607): upper lip elevation (the dynamic soft tissue variable), interlabial gap and upper lip length (the static soft tissue ones), and anterior maxillary height (the hard tissue one). The diverse causes of inappropriate UID according to the soft and hard tissue factors need different treatment approaches such as orthodontic treatment, periodontal treatment, orthognathic surgery, botulinum toxin, or myectomy. The clinician can use these variables as a guideline for differential diagnosis of inappropriate UID.

  19. Relationship between the vertical craniofacial disproportions and the cervicovertebral morphology in adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Trajković, Milena; Lazić, Emira; Nedeljković, Nenad; Stamenković, Zorana; Glisić, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontic diagnosis includes the interpretation of the relations between the craniofacial and cervical system, given the potential impact of the irregularities from one system to another. The aim of this study was to examine morphological characteristics of the cervical spine, depending on the parameters of the vertical craniofacial growth and gender in adult subjects. The sample comprised lateral cephalograms of 120 subjects with different vertical facial growth, aged 17.5-35 years. Measured parameters were the following: anterior and posterior vertebral body height (ABHC2-C5, PBHC2-C5), anterior and posterior intervertebral space (AISC2-C5, PISC2-C5), distance between vertebrae and point sella (SC2, SC3, SC4), pterygomaxillare (PmC2), gonion (GoC2) and basion (BaC4); cervical spine angulation (OPT/CVT) and inclination (OPT/HOR, CVT/HOR). Results showed that subjects with anterior facial growth rotation have greater values for BaC4, OPT/HOR, CVT/HOR, OPT/CVT, anterior and posterior vertebral body heights and intervertebral spaces, and lower values for GoC2 and PmC2. Higher values in males were found for anterior and posterior vertebral body heights, distances SC2, SC3, SC4, and BaC4. In females, the greater values were found for GoC2 and OPT/CVT. Subjects with anterior facial growth rotation have greater cervical spine inclination and angulation, higher cervical vertebrae and intervertebral spaces, longer upper cervical spines and shorter distances GoC2 and PmC2. Males show smaller cervical column curvature, but higher cervical vertebrae and greater length of the upper cervical spine.

  20. A cross-over study with the two novel dopaminergic drugs cabergoline and quinagolide in hyperprolactinemic patients.

    PubMed

    Giusti, M; Porcella, E; Carraro, A; Cuttica, M; Valenti, S; Giordano, G

    1994-01-01

    Cabergoline and quinagolide, two new dopamine agonist drugs with long-lasting activity, are currently under investigation for the treatment of hyperprolactinemia. At present, studies comparing these drugs for tolerability and efficacy in the same patients are lacking. It was our aim to make such a comparison in an open randomized cross-over trial. Cabergoline (0.5 mg twice weekly) and quinagolide (75 micrograms once daily) were given orally. Each drug was administered for 12 weeks. Treatment with the second drug was started after the recurrence of hyperprolactinemia. Twelve women with hyperprolactinemia due to idiopathic disease (n = 6), microprolactinoma (n = 5) or postsurgical empty sella (n = 1) were evaluated. Six women were amenorrheic and 6 were oligomenorrheic. Ten had spontaneous or provoked galactorrhea. Baseline characteristics (age, clinical signs and PRL levels) of patients initially allocated to the two treatment groups were similar. Nine patients completed both treatment cycles and PRL levels were lower under cabergoline (10.7 +/- 3.7 micrograms/L) than under quinagolide (25.0 +/- 7.7 micrograms/L; p < 0.05). One patient discontinued cabergoline because of dryness of the eyes after having completed the quinagolide cycle and 2 patients initially treated with cabergoline discontinued quinagolide because of gastrointestinal symptoms. After completion of the first treatment cycle, the time of recurrence of hyperprolactinemia was significantly longer after cabergoline (14 +/- 7 weeks) than after quinagolide (5 +/- 1 weeks; p < 0.05). At week 12, normal PRL levels (< 20 micrograms/L) were observed in 10 and 6 women during cabergoline and quinagolide, respectively. Only one case was resistant to both drugs. The clinical effects of the two treatments were similar.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Long-term (up to 18 years) effects on GH/IGF-1 hypersecretion and tumour size of primary somatostatin analogue (SSTa) therapy in patients with GH-secreting pituitary adenoma responsive to SSTa

    PubMed Central

    Maiza, Jean Christophe; Vezzosi, Delphine; Matta, Maria; Donadille, Florence; Loubes-Lacroix, Florence; Cournot, Maxime; Bennet, Antoine; Caron, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Context The role of somatostatin analogues (SSTa) in the treatment of acromegaly. Objective To evaluate the antihormonal and antitumour efficacy of long-term (up to 18 years) primary treatment with SSTa in patients with GH-secreting pituitary adenoma responsive to SSTa. Design An open, prospective, single-centre, clinical study. Patients Thirty-six acromegalic patients, aged 17–75 years (postoral glucose tolerance test GH > 1 µg/l, increased IGF-1 for age and sex), were monitored in a single centre and treated with SSTa as first-line therapy. The mean pretreatment GH level was 13·5 ±3·1 µg/l, and IGF-1 (as a percentage of the value over the normal range) was 302 ± 26%. The patients had macroadenoma (n = 25), microadenoma (n = 8) or empty sella turcica (n = 3). The mean duration of treatment was 8 years (range 3–18 years). Hormonal and morphological monitoring was undertaken after 6 months, and then the patients were followed annually. Results After 1 year, the mean GH and IGF-1 levels had reduced considerably (GH: 2·4 ± 0·3 µg/l; IGF-1; 174 ± 14%, P < 0·01), and they continued to decrease over 10 years, with a mean GH level of 1·6 ± 0·1 µg/l and IGF-1 of 123 ± 18% (P = 0·02). GH < 2 µg/l, normal IGF-1, or both were observed in 25 (70%), 24 (67%) and 21 (58%) patients, respectively. The mean reduction in tumour volume was 43% (range 13–97%) and shrinkage > 20% was obtained in 21 patients (72%). SSTa treatment was well tolerated with few digestive or metabolic side-effects. Conclusion Long-term (up to 18 years) treatment with SSTa used as first-line therapy is effective from both an antihormonal and antitumour perspective, and is well tolerated in acromegalic patients. PMID:17524029

  2. Cluster headache associated with a clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Edvardsson, Bengt

    2014-12-20

    Cluster headache belongs to a group of primary headache entities: the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. Cluster headache is the most common variant. The headache is usually severe and it is also associated with autonomic symptoms. Secondary causes of cluster headache have been reported, such as intracranial artery aneurysms and tumors. The question of when to carry out neuroimaging in patients with cluster headache is yet unsettled. To the best of the author's knowledge, cluster headache associated with a clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma (chromophobe adenoma) has not been described. This case report describes the case of a man with cluster headache where the evaluation showed a clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma. This case involved a 49-year-old Caucasian man who presented with a one-month history of side-locked attacks of pain located in the right orbit. His symptoms fulfilled the criteria for cluster headache and a diagnosis of cluster headache was made. The patient responded to symptomatic treatment. Enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed a pituitary adenoma. Further evaluations including hormonal screening revealed a clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma (chromophobe adenoma). After surgery to remove the tumor, his headache attacks resolved totally. Tumors have been reported in patients with cluster headache whose clinical attacks are identical to genuine cluster headache. A clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma can present as cluster headache. This case emphasizes the need of imaging procedures in patients with cluster headache. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging including the sella turcica should always be done in patients with cluster headache.

  3. Orthognathic Consequences of Sphincter Pharyngoplasty in Cleft Patients: A 2-Institutional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikane, Frances; Lai, Li Han; Hui, Brian K.; Martins, Deborah B.; Farias-Eisner, Gina; Mandelbaum, Rachel S.; Hoang, Han; Bradley, James P.; Wilson, Libby

    2016-01-01

    Background: Understanding long-term sequelae of cleft treatment is paramount in the refinement of treatment algorithms to accomplish optimized immediate and long-term outcomes. In this study, we reviewed sphincter pharyngoplasties as a method of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) treatment in relationship to orthognathic surgery. Methods: Cleft lip/palate and cleft palate patients, 15 years of age and older, were reviewed for demographics, VPI surgery, revisions, and subsequent orthognathic surgery at 2 institutions. Chi-square test, Student’s t test, and logistic regression analyses were performed. Results: In 214 patients reviewed (mean age, 19.5 years), 61.7% were male, 18.2% had isolated cleft palate, 61.2% had unilateral cleft lip and palate, and 20.6% had bilateral cleft lip and palate. A total of 33.6% were diagnosed with VPI and received a sphincter pharyngoplasty (mean age, 11.9 years). When subsequent orthognathic surgery was examined, sphincter pharyngoplasty was not associated with maxillary advancement (P = 0.59) but did correlate with an increase in mandibular surgery from 2.8% to 11.1% (P = 0.02). The indications for mandibular surgery in the pharyngoplasty population were related to congenital micrognathia. When cephalometric analyses were evaluated, sphincter pharyngoplasty resulted in a decreased sella-to-nasion-to-B point angle (mean, 79.0–76.3 degrees, P = 0.02) and a higher incidence of normal to class II maxillomandibular relationships as defined by A point-to-nasion-to-B point angles >0.5 (P = 0.02). Conclusions: Sphincter pharyngoplasty decreases anterior mandibular growth and the discrepancy between maxillomandibular skeletal relationships because of the frequent predisposition of cleft patients to maxillary hypoplasia. In patients with congenital mandibular micrognathia, a small increase in mandibular surgeries may occur. PMID:27200238

  4. New neonatal classification of unilateral cleft lip and palate part 2: to predict permanent lateral incisor agenesis and maxillary growth.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Jean-Charles; Delestan, Christian; Montoya, Pedro; Matei, Lucia; Bigorre, Michèle; Herlin, Christian; Baümler, Caroline; Daures, Jean-Pierre; Captier, Guillaume

    2014-09-01

    Objectives : To bring a neonatal classification system of unilateral cleft lip and palate and to correlate this classification with the distribution of the permanent lateral incisor and maxillary growth. Design : Retrospective with longitudinal follow-up. Setting : Tertiary. Patients : A total of 112 individuals with treated unilateral cleft lip and palate and 30 controls. Main Outcome Measures : Unilateral cleft lip and palate neonatal casts were classified anatomically in four categories, in which Class 1 corresponds to a maxillary arch with a narrow alveolar cleft; Class 2 corresponds to a balanced form; Class 3 corresponds to a wide cleft and short maxilla; and Class 4 corresponds to a wide cleft and long maxilla. The classification was correlated with the distribution of the permanent lateral incisor. Maxillary growth was evaluated using a cephalometric analysis after the age of 10 years. Results : Clinical classification of unilateral cleft lip and palate found 10 cases of Class 1 (8.9%), 34 cases of Class 2 (30.4%), 46 cases of Class 3 (41.1%), and 22 cases of Class 4 (19.6%). The permanent lateral incisor was most often present in narrower clefts (Classes 1 and 2); whereas, large clefts (Classes 3 and 4) were relatively more frequently associated with an agenesis of the permanent lateral incisor (P = .019). Maxillary growth impairment was most severe in Class 3, with a mean sella-nasion-A point angle at 71.9° ± 4.6° (P < .001). Conclusions : Using the cleft width, arch form, and shape of the nasal septum, unilateral cleft lip and palate can be classified into four different classes at birth, which can all give information about permanent lateral incisor agenesis and maxillary growth.

  5. Incidence and pattern of direct blunt neurovascular injury associated with trauma to the skull base.

    PubMed

    Feiz-Erfan, Iman; Horn, Eric M; Theodore, Nicholas; Zabramski, Joseph M; Klopfenstein, Jeffrey D; Lekovic, Gregory P; Albuquerque, Felipe C; Partovi, Shahram; Goslar, Pamela W; Petersen, Scott R

    2007-08-01

    Skull base fractures are often associated with potentially devastating injuries to major neural arteries in the head and neck, but the incidence and pattern of this association are unknown. Between April and September 2002, 1738 Level 1 trauma patients were admitted to St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center in Phoenix, Arizona. Among them, a skull base fracture was diagnosed in 78 patients following computed tomography (CT) scans. Seven patients had no neurovascular imaging performed and were excluded. Altogether, 71 patients who received a diagnosis of skull base fractures after CT and who also underwent a neurovascular imaging study were included (54 men and 17 women, mean age 29 years, range 1-83 years). Patients underwent CT angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, or digital subtraction angiography of the head and craniovertebral junction, or combinations thereof. Nine neurovascular injuries were identified in six (8.5%) of the 71 patients. Fractures of the clivus were very likely to be associated with neurovascular injury (p < 0.001). A high risk of neurovascular injury showed a strong tendency to be associated with fractures of the sella turcica-sphenoid sinus complex (p = 0.07). The risk of associated blunt neurovascular injury appears to be significant in Level 1 trauma patients in whom a diagnosis of skull base fracture has been made using CT. The incidence of neurovascular trauma is particularly high in patients with clival fractures. The authors recommend neurovascular imaging for Level 1 trauma patients with a high-risk fracture pattern of the central skull base to rule out cerebrovascular injuries.

  6. Gamma knife surgery for treatment of residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas after surgical debulking.

    PubMed

    Losa, Marco; Valle, Micol; Mortini, Pietro; Franzin, Alberto; da Passano, Camillo Ferrari; Cenzato, Marco; Bianchi, Stefania; Picozzi, Piero; Giovanelli, Massimo

    2004-03-01

    Radiation therapy diminishes the risk of recurrence of incompletely removed nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NPA). The authors evaluated the efficacy and safety of gamma knife surgery (GKS) in patients with residual NPA following surgical debulking of the tumor. Fifty-four patients, 26 men and 28 women, ranging in age from 29 to 72 years underwent gamma knife treatment. Baseline and follow-up studies involved magnetic resonance imaging, hormone evaluation, and neuroophthalmological examination 6 and 12 months after GKS and at yearly intervals thereafter. The mean follow up after GKS was 41.1 +/- 3.1 months. Two of 52 patients undergoing follow up had a recurrence 40 and 49 months after GKS. In both of these patients the treated lesion had reduced in size, but a new lesion appeared in the contralateral side of the sella turcica. The recurrence-free interval at 5 years was 88.2% (95% confidence interval 72.6-100%). Tumor volume decreased from a baseline value of 2.3 +/- 0.2 to 1.7 +/- 0.2 cm3 at the last follow up (p < 0.001). Twenty-two patients (42.3%) had a 20% or greater reduction in tumor volume. The administered radiation dose had been significantly higher in patients who experienced tumor reduction. Visual function and motility did not deteriorate in any patient. New cases of hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, and hypoadrenalism occurred in 12.5, 8.6, and 2.3%, respectively, of assessable patients at risk. Gamma knife surgery was effective in controlling the growth of residual NPA after previously performed maximal surgical debulking. The major advantage of GKS compared with fractionated radiotherapy seems to be a lower risk of side effects, especially a lower risk of hypopituitarism.

  7. [A quantitative evaluation of brain computerized tomography in children using color image analyzer].

    PubMed

    Yamatani, M; Naganuma, Y; Hongoh, K; Murakami, M; Konishi, T; Okada, T

    1989-11-01

    We attempted the quantitative analysis of brain computerized tomographic scans in children using Color Image Analyzer. A consecutive series of 167 computerized tomographic scans were reviewed. Areas of subarachnoid spaces, cavums, ventricles and cerebellums were measured on three slices: A slice is at the level of head of caudate nucleus, anterior horn of lateral ventricle and third ventricle. B slice is at the level of body of lateral ventricle. C slice is at the level of sella turcica and pons. We investigated these values compared with Evans ratio, Cella Media Index, cerebellar atrophy score and visually evaluations. Serial brain CT scans of eight patient with infantile spasms were also evaluated for the assessment of the brain shrinkage after ACTH therapy. 1) The ratios of the subarachnoid space/the intracranial area on A and B slices (SAS A%, SAS B%) were significantly higher in the patients of severe brain atrophy. 2) There were linear relationship between Evans ratio and SAS A% (r = 0.405, p less than 0.001), Cella Media Index and the ratio of the lateral ventricles/the intracranial areas on B slice (r = -0.501, p less than 0.001), and the cerebellar atrophy score by Une and SAS C% (r = 0.369, p less than 0.001). 3) In the normal patients, the values of SAS A% and SAS B% were much greater in less than 1.5 years old children. These results suggest that the trend of CT findings related to age may reflect physiological changes of the space between the skull and the brain with age. 4) Brain shrinkage after ACTH therapy was more pronounced in the subarachnoid space than the ventricle.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Incidental sinonasal findings identified during preoperative evaluation for endoscopic transsphenoidal approaches

    PubMed Central

    Laury, Adrienne M.; Oyesiku, Nelson M.; Hadjipanayis, Costas G.; DelGaudio, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The endoscopic transsphenoidal approach (eTSA) to lesions of the sellar region is typically performed jointly by neurosurgeons and otolaryngologists. Occasionally, the approach is significantly altered by sinonasal disease, anatomic variants, or previous surgery. However, there are no current guidelines that describe which physical or radiological findings should prompt a change in the plan of care. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of sinonasal pathology or anatomic variants noted endoscopically or by imaging that altered preoperative or intraoperative management. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of 355 consecutive patients who underwent combined neurosurgery–otolaryngology endoscopic sella approach from August 1, 2007 to April 1, 2011. Our practice in these patients involves preoperative otolaryngology clinical evaluation and MRI review. Intraoperative image guidance is not routinely used in uncomplicated eTSA. Results: The most common management alteration was the addition of image guidance based on anatomic variants on MRI, which occurred in 81 patients (35.0%). Eight patients (2.9%) were preoperatively treated with antibiotics and surgery was postponed secondary to acute or chronic purulent rhinosinusitis; two (0.7%) required functional endoscopic sinus surgery for medically refractory disease before eTSA. Five patients (1.8%) required anterior septoplasty intraoperatively for severe nasal septal deviation. Two patients (0.7%) had inverted papilloma and one patient had esthesioneuroblastoma identified preoperatively during rigid nasal endoscopy. Conclusion: This is one of the larger reviews of patients undergoing eTSA for sellar lesions and the only study that describes how intraoperative management may be altered by preoperative sinonasal evaluation. We found a significant incidence of sinonasal pathology and anatomic variants that altered routine operative planning; therefore, a thorough sinonasal evaluation

  9. Nelson's syndrome: complete remission with cabergoline but not with bromocriptine or cyproheptadine treatment.

    PubMed

    Casulari, Luiz Augusto; Naves, Luciana A; Mello, Paulo A; Pereira Neto, Aldo; Papadia, Carla

    2004-01-01

    A woman affected by Cushing's disease underwent bilateral adrenalectomy followed by radiotherapy of the hypothalamic-pituitary area when she was 18 years old. Thereafter, she used hydrocortisone acetate replacement therapy (35.5 mg divided into two daily doses). At the age of 26 years, the patient exhibited the clinical signs of the Nelson's syndrome, i.e. skin and gingival hyperpigmentation accompanied by amenorrhea, and elevated ACTH plasma levels (2,850 pg/ml, normal range 15-80 pg/ml). The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis of the sellar region evidenced a pituitary macroadenoma, measuring 14 x 13 mm. The patient was initially treated with cyproheptadine hydrochloride (12 mg/day) for 18 months. There was a partial improvement of the symptoms, with a reduction of the ACTH plasma levels to 112 pg/ml, but without any modification of the tumor mass. Due to sleepiness and weight gain, the cyproheptadine treatment was interrupted and substituted by a cabergoline (0.5 mg twice a week) therapy. Soon after cabergoline was applied an improvement of the clinical symptoms and signs was observed such as a regression of the tumor mass and the normalization of the ACTH plasma titers (38 pg/ml). Later, cabergoline was substituted by bromocriptine (7.5 mg/day) and the plasma levels of ACTH increased again (247 pg/ml), and headache and cutaneous hyperpigmentation were recorded. When cabergoline was reintroduced there was a clinical improvement and normalization of ACTH plasma levels (64 pg/ml). The MRI analysis of the sella region demonstrated a complete remission of the pituitary adenoma. The results obtained show for the first time that a long-term treatment with cabergoline also brings about a complete remission of Nelson's syndrome in the presence of a pituitary macroadenoma.

  10. The endonasal microscopic approach for pituitary adenomas and other parasellar tumors: a 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, Nasrin; Dusick, Joshua R; de Paiva Neto, Manoel A; Kelly, Daniel F

    2008-10-01

    THE DIRECT ENDONASAL transsphenoidal approach to the sella with the operating microscope was initially described more than 20 years ago. Herein, we describe the technique, its evolution, and lessons learned over a 10-year period for treating pituitary adenomas and other parasellar pathology. From July 1998 to January 2008, 812 patients underwent a total of 881 operations for a pituitary adenoma (n = 605), Rathke's cleft cyst (n = 59), craniopharyngioma (n = 26), parasellar meningioma (n = 23), chordoma (n = 18), or other pathological condition (n = 81). Of these, 118 operations (13%) included an extended approach to the suprasellar, infrasellar/clival, or cavernous sinus regions. Endoscopic assistance was used in 163 cases (19%) overall, including 36% of the last 200 cases in the series and 18 (72%) of the last 25 extended endonasal cases. Surgical complications included 19 postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leaks (2%), 6 postoperative hematomas (0.7%), 4 carotid artery injuries (0.4%), 4 new permanent neurological deficits (0.4%), 3 cases of bacterial meningitis (0.3%), and 2 deaths (0.2%). The overall complication rate was higher in the first 500 cases in the series and in extended approach cases. Major technical modifications over the 10-year period included increased use of shorter (60-70 mm) endonasal speculums for greater instrument maneuverability and visualization, the micro-Doppler probe for cavernous carotid artery localization, endoscopy for more panoramic visualization, and a graded cerebrospinal fluid leak repair protocol. These changes appear to have collectively and incrementally made the approach safer and more effective. In summary, the endonasal approach provides a minimally invasive route for removal of pituitary adenomas and other parasellar tumors.

  11. A Morphological Classification Scheme for the Mandibular Hypoplasia in Treacher Collins Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ligh, Cassandra A; Swanson, Jordan; Yu, Jason W; Samra, Fares; Bartlett, Scott P; Taylor, Jesse A

    2017-01-27

    Mandibular hypoplasia is a hallmark of Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS), and its severity accounts for significant functional morbidity. The purpose of this study is to develop a mandibular classification scheme. A classification scheme was designed based on three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) scans to assess 3 characteristic features: degree of condylar hypoplasia, mandibular plane angle (condylion-gonion-menton), and degree of retrognathia (sella-nasion-B point angle). Each category was graded from I to IV and a composite mandible classification was determined by the median value among the 3 component grades. Twenty patients with TCS, aged 1 month to 20 years, with at least one 3D-CT prior to mandibular surgery were studied. Overall, 33 3D-CTs were evaluated and ordered from least to most severe phenotype with 10 (30%) Grade 1 (least severe), 14 (42%) Grade 2, 7 (21%) Grade 3, and 2 (7%) Grade 4 (most severe). Seven patients had at least 2 longitudinal scans encompassing an average 5.7 (range 5-11) years of growth. Despite increasing age, mandibular classification (both components and composite) remained stable in those patients over time (P = 0.2182). The authors present a classification scheme for the TCS mandible based on degree of condylar hypoplasia, mandibular plane angle (Co-Go-Me angle), and retrognathia (SNB angle). While there is a natural progression of the mandibular morphology with age, patients followed longitudinally demonstrate consistency in their classification. Further work is needed to determine the classification scheme's validity, generalizability, and overall utility.

  12. A Morphological Classification Scheme for the Mandibular Hypoplasia in Treacher Collins Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ligh, Cassandra A; Swanson, Jordan; Yu, Jason W; Samra, Fares; Bartlett, Scott P; Taylor, Jesse A

    2017-05-01

    Mandibular hypoplasia is a hallmark of Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS), and its severity accounts for significant functional morbidity. The purpose of this study is to develop a mandibular classification scheme. A classification scheme was designed based on three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) scans to assess 3 characteristic features: degree of condylar hypoplasia, mandibular plane angle (condylion-gonion-menton), and degree of retrognathia (sella-nasion-B point angle). Each category was graded from I to IV and a composite mandible classification was determined by the median value among the 3 component grades. Twenty patients with TCS, aged 1 month to 20 years, with at least one 3D-CT prior to mandibular surgery were studied. Overall, 33 3D-CTs were evaluated and ordered from least to most severe phenotype with 10 (30%) Grade 1 (least severe), 14 (42%) Grade 2, 7 (21%) Grade 3, and 2 (7%) Grade 4 (most severe). Seven patients had at least 2 longitudinal scans encompassing an average 5.7 (range 5-11) years of growth. Despite increasing age, mandibular classification (both components and composite) remained stable in those patients over time (P = 0.2182). The authors present a classification scheme for the TCS mandible based on degree of condylar hypoplasia, mandibular plane angle (Co-Go-Me angle), and retrognathia (SNB angle). While there is a natural progression of the mandibular morphology with age, patients followed longitudinally demonstrate consistency in their classification. Further work is needed to determine the classification scheme's validity, generalizability, and overall utility.

  13. History of endonasal skull base surgery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Amy J; Zaidi, Hasan A; Laws, Edward D

    2016-12-01

    While the endonasal approach to the skull base continues to advance, this paper invokes its long history. The centuries of medieval neuroanatomy and early neurosurgery enabled the conception of the first transfacial approaches in the late 1800s; Henry Schloffer performed the first transsphenoidal surgery in 1907. Although the procedure was initially met with much interest, Harvey Cushing eventually led the field of neurosurgery to abandon the transsphenoidal approach in the 1920s. The following three generations of neurosurgeons contained several key figures including Norman Dott, Gerard Guiot, and Jules Hardy who were steadfast in preserving the technique as well as in addressing its shortcomings. The endoscopic approach developed simultaneously, and advances in magnifying and fiberoptics further resolved limitations previously inherent to the transsphenoidal approach. At last, in the 1960s, the transsphenoidal approach entered its renaissance. Today, the momentum of its development persists in the endoscopic endonasal approach, which has recently expanded the indications for transsphenoidal surgery across the skull base, far beyond its original jurisdiction of the sella. Continued progress must not take for granted the rich history of the transsphenoidal approach, which was developed over centuries by surgeons around the world. The authors present the evolution of modern endonasal surgery as a dynamic interplay between technology, medicine, and surgery over the past 100 years. Progress can be attributed to courageous surgeons who affirmed their contemporary practices despite gaps in technology or medicine, and to visionary individuals who produced and incorporated new elements into transsphenoidal surgery. And so while the new endoscopic technique brings forth new challenges, its development reaffirms the principles laid down by the pioneers of transsphenoidal surgery.

  14. Sagittal parameters of global cervical balance using EOS imaging: normative values from a prospective cohort of asymptomatic volunteers.

    PubMed

    Le Huec, J C; Demezon, H; Aunoble, S

    2015-01-01

    To define reference parameters for analyzing sagittal balance of the cervical spine in asymptomatic volunteers. Prospective study after Bioethics Committee approval. Imaging performed using a low-dose radiographic system (EOS Imaging, Paris, France). The absence of pain was assessed using the Oswestry Questionnaire and VAS. 106 subjects were included of whom 55.66 % were men. The parameters measured were: pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt, sacral slope, thoracic and lumbar curvature, C7 plumb line position and the spino-sacral angle. The C7 slope and new parameters were measured: cranial incidence, defined in relation to the McGregor line and the sella turcica allowing to define cranial slope and tilt, and the spino-cranial angle (SCA). This study demonstrated a close correlation between the C7 slope and the cranio-cervical system. Economic sagittal balance in the asymptomatic population was defined by a constant SCA angle of 83° ± 9°. To maintain this balance, a spine with a marked C7 slope will present lordosis and vice versa. Cranial incidence is an anatomical parameter characteristic of the cranio-cervical system which makes it possible to analyze the spatial positioning of the head and to predict the desired value of cervical lordosis which is closely correlated to cranial slope. The C7 slope has a predictive value of the shape of the cervical spine in the sagittal plane. One-third of the asymptomatic population had cervical kyphosis. Our results could be used to study sagittal balance before and after arthrodesis, or cervical prosthesis.

  15. Combined pituitary hormone deficiency caused by a novel mutation of a highly conserved residue (F88S) in the homeodomain of PROP-1.

    PubMed

    Osorio, M G; Kopp, P; Marui, S; Latronico, A C; Mendonca, B B; Arnhold, I J

    2000-08-01

    Mutations in the pituitary-specific paired-like homeodomain transcription factor, PROP-1, result in combined pituitary hormone deficiency. We studied a Brazilian girl, offspring of first cousins, who presented with short stature and deficiencies of GH, TSH, PRL, LH, and FSH. Her cortisol response to hypoglycemia was determined at age 4.9, 10.7, and 14.1 yr and remained normal. Magnetic resonance imaging at the age of 9 yr revealed an anterior pituitary lobe of diminished height (3 mm; normal, 4.5 +/- 0.6), but radiography revealed a sella turcica volume above the normal mean. Direct sequencing of the PROP-1 gene revealed homozygosity for a novel 263T>C transition that results in the replacement of a highly conserved phenylalanine by serine at codon 88 (F88S). F88 constitutes the hydrophobic core of the first helix of the homeodomain of PROP-1, and the substitution by the polar residue serine is expected to alter the secondary structure and impair binding of the mutated PROP-1 to DNA target sequences. The F88S mutation (which corresponds to murine F85S) was introduced into the murine Prop-1 complementary DNA and its consequences on DNA binding and trans-activation were assessed in vitro. In contrast to wild-type Prop-1, the F88S mutant showed no significant DNA binding to a PRDQ9 Prop-1 response element in gel shift assays. Transcriptional activation of a luciferase reporter gene containing a PRDQ9 site upstream of a simian virus 40 promoter was reduced to approximately 34% compared with that of wild-type Prop-1 in transiently transfected TSA-201 human embryonic kidney cells. The F88S mutation further expands the repertoire of mutations in PROP-1.

  16. Pituitary imaging findings in male patients with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Dania; Benbassat, Carlos; Toledano, Yoel; S'chigol, Irena; Tsvetov, Gloria; Shraga-Slutzky, Ilana; Eizenberg, Yoav; Shimon, Ilan

    2015-08-01

    Data on pituitary imaging in adult male patients presenting with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (HH) and no known pituitary disease are scarce. To assess the usefulness of pituitary imaging in the evaluation of men presenting with HH after excluding known pituitary disorders and hyperprolactinemia. A historical prospective cohort of males with HH. Men who presented for endocrine evaluation from 2011 to 2014 with testosterone levels <10.4 nmol/L (300 ng/mL), normal LH and FSH levels and no known pituitary disease. Seventy-five men were included in the analysis. Their mean age and BMI were 53.4 ± 14.8 years and 30.7 ± 5.2 kg/m2, respectively. Mean total testosterone, LH, and FSH were 6.2 ± 1.7 nmol/L, 3.4 ± 2 and 4.7 ± 3.1 mIU/L, respectively. Prolactin level within the normal range was obtained in all men (mean 161 ± 61, range 41-347 mIU/L). Sixty-two men had pituitary MRI and 13 performed CT. In 61 (81.3%) men pituitary imaging was normal. Microadenoma was found in 8 (10.7%), empty sella and thickened pituitary stalk in one patient (1.3%) each. In other four patients (5.3%) a small or mildly asymmetric pituitary gland was noted. No correlation was found between testosterone level and the presence of pituitary anomalies. This study suggests that the use of routine hypothalamic-pituitary imaging in the evaluation of IHH, in the absence of clinical characteristics of other hormonal loss or sellar compression symptoms, will not increase the diagnostic yield of sellar structural abnormalities over that reported in the general population.

  17. Familial acromegaly due to aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene mutation in a Turkish cohort.

    PubMed

    Niyazoglu, Mutlu; Sayitoglu, Muge; Firtina, Sinem; Hatipoglu, Esra; Gazioglu, Nurperi; Kadioglu, Pinar

    2014-06-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) is associated with 15-20% of familial isolated pituitary adenomas and 50-80% of cases with AIP mutation exhibit a somatotropinoma. Herein we report clinical characteristics of a large family where AIP R304X variants have been identified. AIP mutation analysis was performed on a large (n = 52) Turkish family across six generations. Sella MRIs of 30 family members were obtained. Basal pituitary hormone levels were evaluated in 13 family members harboring an AIP mutation. Thirteen of 52 family members (25%) were found to have a heterozygous nonsense germline R304X mutation in the AIP gene. Seven of the 13 mutation carriers (53.8%) had current or previous history of pituitary adenoma. Of these 7 mutation carriers, all but one had somatotropinoma/somatolactotropinoma (85.7% of the pituitary adenomas). Of the 6 acromegaly patients with AIP mutation (F/M: 3/3) the mean age at diagnosis of acromegaly was 32 ± 10.3 years while the mean age of symptom onset was 24.8 ± 9.9 years. Three of the six (50%) acromegaly cases with AIP mutation within the family presented with a macroadenoma and none presented with gigantism. Biochemical disease control was achieved in 66.6% (4/6) of the mutation carriers with acromegaly after a mean follow-up period of 18.6 ± 17.6 years. Common phenotypic characteristics of familial pituitary adenoma or somatotropinoma due to AIP mutation vary between families or even between individuals within a family.

  18. Hypopituitarism in patients with vasculotoxic snake bite envenomation related acute kidney injury: a prospective study on the prevalence and outcomes of this complication.

    PubMed

    Golay, Vishal; Roychowdhary, Arpita; Dasgupta, Sanjay; Pandey, Rajendra

    2014-04-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in patients with vasculotoxic snake bite (SB) envenomation but hypopituitarism (HP) is an uncommonly reported complication. We conducted a prospective observational study on survivors of SB-AKI who were evaluated and followed up from September 2010 till September 2012. Pituitary function tests were done if they developed any symptoms of HP. MRI of the hypothalamo-pituitary axis was done in those with documented HP. Response to therapy in the form of improvement in the quality of life (QoL) was evaluated by asking patients to mark on a visual analogue scale marked over 0-100 mm which was reported as percentage improvement. 126 patients were included for this study (30 were lost to follow up and were excluded). 25 cases were clinically suspected to have pituitary dysfunction and underwent evaluation with 9 (9.37%, n = 96) found to have evidence of HP. One child had partial empty sella on MRI with anterior as well as posterior pituitary abnormality and stunting; imaging was normal in others. Higher number of patients with HP had hypotension (p = 0.005, n = 7), coagulation abnormalities (p = 0.005, n = 9), severe clinical snake bite envenomation (p = 0.024, n = 9) and progression to chronic kidney disease (CKD) (p = 0.001, n = 5) as compared to those who did not. Dialysis dependence at presentation was not significantly different (p = 0.348, n = 9). Only development of CKD on follow up predicted the development of HP. Patients had an improvement in the QoL after treatment with mean score on the visual analogue scale of 66.67 ± 14.14%. HP is not very uncommon in patients with severe vasculotoxic SB-AKI. Threshold of clinical suspicion and evaluation should be low as it causes significant morbidity.

  19. Correlation Between the Position of the Hyoid Bone on Lateral Cephalographs and Formant Frequencies.

    PubMed

    Macari, Anthony T; Ziade, Georges; Turfe, Zaahir; Chidiac, Alissar; Alam, Elie; Hamdan, Abdul-Latif

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the F1, F2, F3, and F4 during sustained vowels /ɑ/, /i/, /o/, /u/. Prospective cross-sectional study. Fifty-two consecutive patients aged between 9 years and 38 years were invited to participate in this study. Linear measurements included linear vertical distance from the hyoid bone to the sella turcica (H-S); linear vertical distance from the hyoid bone to the posterior nasal spine (H-PNS); linear measure from the hyoid bone to the most anterior point of the cervical vertebra C3 (H-C3); and linear vertical distance from the hyoid bone to the mandibular plane (H-MP). The results showed a moderate and statistically significant correlation between the average fundamental frequency for the vowel /ɑ/ and H-C3, H-S, and H-PNS and another moderate negative correlation between F3 and F4, and the vertical position of the hyoid bone H-C3 and H-S. For the vowel /i/, there was a moderate negative correlation between F1, F3, and F4 and H-S and also a moderate negative correlation between F3 and F4 and H-C3. For the vowel /o/, there was a moderate negative correlation between F4 and H-S and H-PNS. For the vowel /u/, only F4 correlated significantly with H-S. There is a moderate correlation between the high formants, mostly F4, and the cephalo-caudal position of the hyoid bone. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Significance of the sexual openings and supplementary structures on the phylogeny of brachyuran crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura), with new nomina for higher-ranked podotreme taxa.

    PubMed

    Guinot, Danièle; Tavares, Marcos; Castro, Peter

    2013-01-01

    coxal to coxo-sternal conditions. The coxo-sternal condition is not an intermediate towards the thoracotreme organisation, and a step in heterotreme evolution is the adoption of the coxo-sternal condition. An extreme carcinisition may also result in the sternal arrangement of male gonopores in the form of a "sternitreme" disposition, as in the case of Hymenosomatoidea, which displays a broad thoracic sternum and true sternal male gonopores (as in thoracotremes) together with several plesiomorphic traits that are assumed to represent an old, deeply-rooted heterotreme clade. A sternitreme condition evolved independently in the most ancestral heterotreme clades (such as Hymenosomatoidea) and in Thoracotremata. The older the lineage of a heterotreme is, the higher the possibility of having evolved carcinisation. Evidence that "derived" traits may be the consequence of a strong carcinisation, rather than being recently acquired, necessitates reconsidering certain character states in Brachyura. Eubrachyurans can only evolve either the heterotreme or the thoracotreme arrangement, the consistency of the inferred ancestral characters states providing a useful criterion for evaluating ancestral trait reconstructions. A widened thoracic sternum together with sternal gonopores may be present in carcinised heterotremes such as hymenosomatoids. The thoracic sternum provides a reliable complex of characters that must be carefully interpreted. The hypothesis of a coxo-sternal disposition in Cryptochiroidea and Pinnotheroidea, generally considered thoracotremes, is rejected, and an alternative interpretation of their status is discussed. A new interpretation of the phylogeny of Cryptochiroidea is outlined, but the origin of Pinnotheroidea remains puzzling. The sella turcica, frequently regarded a synapomorphy of Eubrachyura, is redefined as the structure formed by the endosternal intertagmal phragma that connects the tagma/thorax and the tagma/abdomen to thoracic interosternite 7/8. It

  1. Clinical manifestations in 105 persons with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kimonis, V E; Goldstein, A M; Pastakia, B; Yang, M L; Kase, R; DiGiovanna, J J; Bale, A E; Bale, S J

    1997-03-31

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCC; Gorlin syndrome), an autosomal dominant disorder linked to 9q22.3-q31, and caused by mutations in PTC, the human homologue of the Drosophila patched gene, comprises multiple basal cell carcinomas, keratocysts of the jaw, palmar/plantar pits, spine and rib anomalies and calcification of the falx cerebri. We reviewed the findings on 105 affected individuals examined at the NIH since 1985. The data included 48 males and 57 females ranging in age from 4 months to 87 years. Eighty percent of whites (71/90) and 38% (5/13) of African-Americans had at least one basal cell carcinoma (BCC), with the first tumor occurring at a mean age of 23 (median 20) years and 21 (median 20) years, respectively. Excluding individuals exposed to radiation therapy, the number of BCCs ranged from 1 to > 1,000 (median 8) and 1 to 3 (median 2), respectively, in the 2 groups. Jaw cysts occurred in 78/105 (74%) with the first tumor occurring in 80% by the age of 20 years. The number of total jaw cysts ranged from 1 to 28 (median 3). Palmar pits and plantar pits were seen in 87%. Ovarian fibromas were diagnosed by ultrasound in 9/52 (17%) at a mean age of 30 years. Medulloblastoma occurred in 4 patients at a mean age of 2.3 years. Three patients had cleft lip or palate. Physical findings include "coarse face" in 54%, relative macrocephaly in 50%, hypertelorism in 42%, frontal bossing in 27%, pectus deformity in 13%, and Sprengel deformity in 11%. Important radiological signs included calcification of the falx cerebri in 65%, of the tentorium cerebelli in 20%, bridged sella in 68%, bifid ribs in 26%, hemivertebrae in 15%, fusion of the vertebral bodies in 10%, and flame shaped lucencies of the phalanges, metacarpal, and carpal bones of the hands in 30%. Several traits previously considered components of the syndrome (including short fourth metacarpal, scoliosis, cervical ribs and spina bifida occulta) were not found to be significantly increased in the

  2. Effect of blood meal digestion and DNA extraction protocol on the success of blood meal source determination in the malaria vector Anopheles atroparvus.

    PubMed

    Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2013-03-21

    Host identification is an essential step in studies on the transmission dynamics of vector-borne disease. Nowadays, molecular tools allow the identification of vertebrate hosts to the species level. However, the proportion of successful identifications is variable and may be affected by the quality of the samples and the laboratory protocols. Here, the effect of two of these factors, namely the digestion status of mosquito blood meal and the DNA extraction procedure, on the success of host identification by amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene were tested. Mosquitoes collected both outdoors and indoors during 2012 in southern Spain were identified to species level and their blood meal digestion status recorded using the Sella score, a visual estimation of the digestion status of mosquito blood meals. Each mosquito was assigned randomly to one of two DNA extraction procedures: the quick and cheap HotSHOT procedure or the QIAGEN DNeasy Blood and Tissue(®) kit and their hosts identified by a molecular method. Three hundred and forty-seven blood-fed mosquitoes belonging to Anopheles atroparvus (n=171), Culex perexiguus (n=84), Culex pipiens (n=43), Culex theileri (n=39), Culex modestus (n=5), Ochlerotatus caspius (n=4), Culiseta sp. (n=1) were included in this study. Overall, hosts were identified from 234 blood meals compromising at least 25 species including mammals, birds and a single reptile. The success of host identification was lower in mosquitoes with an advanced stage of blood meal digestion and for blood meals extracted using the HotSHOT procedure. The success of host identification decreases with the advanced stage of mosquito blood meal digestion, from 84.5% for recent blood meals to 25.0% for more digested ones. Using the QIAGEN kit, the identification success improved by 17.6%, with larger increases at more advanced stages of blood meal digestion. Availability of blood-fed females used to be very limited for studies

  3. Prevalence of hypopituitarism after intracranial operations not directly associated with the pituitary gland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the last few years, awareness and detection rates of hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has steadily increased. Moreover, recent studies have found that a clinically relevant number of patients develop pituitary insufficiency after intracranial operations and radiation treatment for non-pituitary tumors. But, in a substantial portion of more than 40%, the hypopituitarism already exists before surgery. We sought to determine the frequency, pattern, and severity of endocrine disturbances using basal and advanced dynamic pituitary testing following non-pituitary intracranial procedures. Methods 51 patients (29 women, 22 men) with a mean age of 55 years (range of 20 to 75 years) underwent prospective evaluation of basal parameters and pituitary function testing (combined growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH)/arginine test, insulin tolerance test (ITT), low dose adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test), performed 5 to 168 months (median 47.2 months) after intracranial operation (4 patients had additional radiation and 2 patients received additional radiation combined with chemotherapy). Results We discovered an overall rate of hypopituitarism with distinct magnitude in 64.7% (solitary in 45.1%, multiple in 19.6%, complete in 0%). Adrenocorticotropic hormone insufficiency was found in 51.0% (partial in 41.2%, complete in 9.8%) and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) occurred in 31.4% (partial in 25.5%, severe in 5.9%). Thyrotropic hormone deficiency was not identified. The frequency of hypogonadism was 9.1% in men. Pituitary deficits were associated with operations both in close proximity to the sella turcica and more distant regions (p = 0.91). Age (p = 0.76) and gender (p = 0.24) did not significantly differ across patients with versus those without hormonal deficiencies. Groups did not significantly differ across pathology and operation type (p = 0.07). Conclusion Hypopituitarism

  4. A study on the reproducibility of cephalometric landmarks when undertaking a three-dimensional (3D) cephalometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Llamas, José M.; Cibrián, Rosa; Gandia, José L.; Paredes, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Cone Beam Computerized Tomography (CBCT) allows the possibility of modifying some of the diagnostic tools used in orthodontics, such as cephalometry. The first step must be to study the characteristics of these devices in terms of accuracy and reliability of the most commonly used landmarks. The aims were 1- To assess intra and inter-observer reliability in the location of anatomical landmarks belonging to hard tissues of the skull in images taken with a CBCT device, 2- To determine which of those landmarks are more vs. less reliable and 3- To introduce planes of reference so as to create cephalometric analyses appropriated to the 3D reality. Study design: Fifteen patients who had a CBCT (i-CAT®) as a diagnostic register were selected. To assess the reproducibility on landmark location and the differences in the measurements of two observers at different times, 41 landmarks were defined on the three spatial axes (X,Y,Z) and located. 3.690 measurements were taken and, as each determination has 3 coordinates, 11.070 data were processed with SPSS® statistical package. To discover the reproducibility of the method on landmark location, an ANOVA was undertaken using two variation factors: time (t1, t2 and t3) and observer (Ob1 and Ob2) for each axis (X, Y and Z) and landmark. The order of the CBCT scans submitted to the observers (Ob1, Ob2) at t1, t2, and t3, were different and randomly allocated. Multiple comparisons were undertaken using the Bonferroni test. The intra- and inter-examiner ICC´s were calculated. Results: Intra- and inter-examiner reliability was high, both being ICC ≥ 0.99, with the best frequency on axis Z. Conclusions: The most reliable landmarks were: Nasion, Sella, Basion, left Porion, point A, anterior nasal spine, Pogonion, Gnathion, Menton, frontozygomatic sutures, first lower molars and upper and lower incisors. Those with less reliability were the supraorbitals, right zygion and posterior nasal spine. Key words:Cone Beam

  5. The pituitary gland in patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a clinical and radiological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kurtulmus, Neslihan; Mert, Meral; Tanakol, Refik; Yarman, Sema

    2015-04-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease in which the most common endocrine manifestation is diabetes insipidus (DI). Data on anterior pituitary function in patients with LCH are limited. Thus, the present study investigated anterior pituitary function in LCH patients with DI via the evaluation of clinical and radiological findings at disease onset and during follow-up. The present study retrospectively evaluated nine patients with LCH (five males and four females). All diagnoses of LCH were made following histological and/or immunophenotypic analyses of tissue biopsies, bronchoalveolar lavage, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Basal and, if necessary, dynamic pituitary function tests were used to assess anterior pituitary function, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were used to image the pituitary. The LCH treatment modality was based on organ involvement. The mean age at onset of DI was 27.6 years (range 15-60 years). One patient (11%) exhibited single organ involvement, while eight patients (89%) displayed multisystem organ involvement. On admittance, one patient had hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, one patient exhibited panhypopituitarism [hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, central hypothyroidism, hypocortisolism, and growth hormone (GH) deficiency], and four patients (44%) displayed hyperprolactinemia. The MRI data revealed infundibular enlargement in seven patients (78%), a thalamic mass in one patient (11%), and the absence of the bright spot in all patients. A single patient (11%) showed a mass in the pons that had a partially empty sella. The patients were treated with radiation therapy (RT), chemotherapy (CT), or a combination of both (RT+CT) and were followed up for a median of 91.8 months (range 2-318 months). Seven patients were assessed during the follow-up period, of whom four patients (57.1%) developed anterior pituitary hormone deficiency, three (43%) were diagnosed with GH deficiency, and one (14%) exhibited gonadotropin deficiency

  6. Severe hyperosmolarity and hypernatremia in an adipsic young woman.

    PubMed

    Latcha, S; Lubetzky, M; Weinstein, A M

    2011-11-01

    Combined deficits in arginine vasopressin secretion (AVP) and thirst sensation can result in life threatening hyperosmolality and hypernatremia. Complications include seizures, profound volume contraction and renal failure. Fortunately, this is an uncommon clinical condition, with approximately 70 cases reported in the literature over the past 47 years [1]. Defects in AVP secretion and/or synthesis produce central diabetes insipidus (DI), polyuria with polydipsia, hypernatremia and hyperosmolality. Most awake and alert patients with an intact thirst stimulus will "drink" themselves back to a normal serum sodium and osmolality. However, if there is concomitant destruction of the osmoreceptors that regulate thirst, osmolal and volume homeostasis cannot be maintained. The relationships between urine osmolarity and serum osmolarity and plasma vasopressin levels are vital for distinguishing a reset osmostat from central DI. After obtaining approval from our institutional review board, we retrospectively reviewed the medical record of a 37-year-old patient who presented to our institution with a serum sodium of 176 mEq/l. Admission laboratory examination revealed: hemoglobin 12.8 g/dl; white blood cell count 4.7 × 103/µl, with a normal differential; random serum glucose 91 mg/dl ; sodium 176 mEq/l; plasma osmolality 366 mOsm/kg; BUN 33 mg/dl; serum creatinine 1 mg/dl; calcium 9.5 mg/dl; urine specific gravity 1.032; and urine osmolality 1,172 mOsm/kg. An MRI with contrast of the sella/ pituitary revealed an enhancing mass centered within the suprasellar cistern and anterior third ventricle, measuring 3.0 × 3.9 × 3.4 cm. The lesion appeared to involve the hypothalamus and displaced the optic chiasm inferiorly. Evaluation of pituitary function revealed normal serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone, AM cortisol, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and prolactin. Figure 1 illustrates the relationship between measured serum AVP levels and serum

  7. Hyperthyroidism due to inappropriate TSH secretion with associated hyperprolactinaemia--a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Spitz, I. M.; Sheinfeld, M.; Glasser, B.; Hirsch, H. J.

    1984-01-01

    A patient with inappropriate thyrotrophin (TSH) secretion is described. She initially presented with classical hyperthyroidism during pregnancy, responded to propylthiouracil and, subsequently, had a normal delivery. Hyperthyroidism persisted and 7.5 months later a subtotal thyroidectomy was performed. After a further 16 months, mild symptoms of hyperthyroidism recurred. She again responded to propylthiouracil, but developed galactorrhoea. At that stage, it was noted that she had persistently elevated circulating TSH in the presence of elevated T4 and T3 levels. Her symptomatology was mild, although objective indices of thyroid activity, including pulse rate, BMR, sex hormone binding globulin and cholesterol, were indicative of hyperthyroidism. CT scan and tomography of the sella were normal. She had a markedly exaggerated TSH response to thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH). Basal TSH and responsiveness to TRH was suppressed by high dose dexamethasone. The TSH response to TRH was partially suppressed by exogenous T3, but there was no effect on basal TSH levels. TSH also decreased slightly with L-dopa and bromocriptine. Circulating TSH rose markedly during methimazole administration. TSH alpha and beta subunits were elevated and appropriate for the high TSH. In addition, both subunits increased following TRH. The patient had basal hyperprolactinaemia with an impaired prolactin (PRL) response to TRH and metoclopramide. PRL suppressed with L-dopa and bromocriptine. The remaining anterior pituitary function was intact. Most of the laboratory findings argue against the presence of a TSH producing pituitary tumour and the most likely cause for inappropriate TSH secretion in this patient is selective resistance of the thyrotroph to thyroid hormones. A mild element of peripheral resistance might also be present. The hyperprolactinaemia could be related to lactotroph resistance to thyroid hormone. The complexities of treatment in this patient are stressed. Therapy was

  8. Effect of blood meal digestion and DNA extraction protocol on the success of blood meal source determination in the malaria vector Anopheles atroparvus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Host identification is an essential step in studies on the transmission dynamics of vector-borne disease. Nowadays, molecular tools allow the identification of vertebrate hosts to the species level. However, the proportion of successful identifications is variable and may be affected by the quality of the samples and the laboratory protocols. Here, the effect of two of these factors, namely the digestion status of mosquito blood meal and the DNA extraction procedure, on the success of host identification by amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene were tested. Methods Mosquitoes collected both outdoors and indoors during 2012 in southern Spain were identified to species level and their blood meal digestion status recorded using the Sella score, a visual estimation of the digestion status of mosquito blood meals. Each mosquito was assigned randomly to one of two DNA extraction procedures: the quick and cheap HotSHOT procedure or the QIAGEN DNeasy Blood and Tissue® kit and their hosts identified by a molecular method. Results Three hundred and forty-seven blood-fed mosquitoes belonging to Anopheles atroparvus (n=171), Culex perexiguus (n=84), Culex pipiens (n=43), Culex theileri (n=39), Culex modestus (n=5), Ochlerotatus caspius (n=4), Culiseta sp. (n=1) were included in this study. Overall, hosts were identified from 234 blood meals compromising at least 25 species including mammals, birds and a single reptile. The success of host identification was lower in mosquitoes with an advanced stage of blood meal digestion and for blood meals extracted using the HotSHOT procedure. Conclusions The success of host identification decreases with the advanced stage of mosquito blood meal digestion, from 84.5% for recent blood meals to 25.0% for more digested ones. Using the QIAGEN kit, the identification success improved by 17.6%, with larger increases at more advanced stages of blood meal digestion. Availability of blood

  9. Preliminary Results of Helical Tomotherapy in Patients with Complex-Shaped Meningiomas Close to the Optic Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Schiappacasse, Luis Cendales, Ricardo; Sallabanda, Kita; Schnitman, Franco; Samblas, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Meningiomas are the most common benign intracranial tumor. Meningiomas close to the optic pathway represent a treatment challenge both for surgery and radiotherapy. The aim of this article is to describe early results of helical tomotherapy treatment in complex-shaped meningiomas close to the optic pathway. Twenty-eight patients were consecutively treated. All patients were immobilized with a thermoplastic head mask and planned with the aid of a magnetic resonance imaging-computed tomography fusion. All treatments included daily image guidance. Pretreatment symptoms and acute toxicity were recorded. Median age was 57.5 years, and 92.8% patients had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status scale {<=}1. The most common localizations were the sella turcica, followed by the cavernous sinus and the sphenoid. The most common symptoms were derived from cranial nerve deficits. Tomotherapy was administered as primary treatment in 35.7% of patients, as an adjuvant treatment in 32.4%, and as a rescue treatment after postsurgical progression in 32.1% patients. Most patients were either inoperable or Simpson IV. Total dose varied between 5000 and 5400 cGy; fractionation varied between 180 and 200 cGy. Median dose to the planning target volume was 51.7 Gy (range, 50.2-55.9 Gy). Median coverage index was 0.89 (range, 0.18-0.97). Median homogeneity index was 1.05 (range, 1-1.12). Acute transient toxicity was grade 1 and included headache in 35.7% patients, ocular pain/dryness in 28.5%, and radiation dermatitis in 25%. Thus far, with a maximal follow-up of 3 years, no late effects have been seen and all patients have a radiological stabilization of the disease. Helical tomotherapy offered a safe and effective therapeutic alternative for patients with inoperable or subtotally resected complex-shaped meningiomas close to the optic pathway. Acceptable coverage and homogeneity indexes were achieved with appropriate values for maximal doses delivered to the eyes, lenses

  10. Early postoperative basal serum GH level and the GH response to TRH in relation to the long-term outcome of surgical treatment for acromegaly: a report on 39 patients.

    PubMed

    Valdemarsson, S; Bramnert, M; Cronquist, S; Elner, A; Eneroth, C M; Hedner, P; Lindvall-Axelsson, M; Nordström, C H; Strömblad, L G

    1991-07-01

    During a 10-year period 39 patients with acromegaly, aged 23-73 years, underwent selective adenomectomy via a trans-sphenoidal or transfrontal (one case) approach. Six to 12 months after the operation, the serum level of growth hormone (GH) was reduced to less than 5 micrograms l-1 in 28 patients (74%) in at least two of three random samples and/or suppressed to less than 3 micrograms l-1 during an oral glucose load, thus fulfilling the commonly used criteria for a successful operation. In 10 patients these criteria for adequate GH reduction were not fulfilled, but their median S-GH level was reduced from 38 to 11 micrograms l-1 (P less than 0.01) after the operation. Surgery was successful in 11 of 13 (85%) patients with a microadenoma (less than 10 mm in diameter), in 10 of 14 (71%) patients with an adenoma of diameter greater than 10 mm but still enclosed in the sella, and in seven of 11 (64%) patients with locally invasive tumours. Impaired pituitary function was observed in 23% of the patients after surgery, independent of tumour size. In one patient the postoperative period was complicated by a lethal intracranial infection. During follow-up for 1-10 years, four patients relapsed, after 1, 1.5, 6 and 9 years, respectively. Patients for whom surgery appeared to have been ineffective at the evaluation 6-12 months postoperatively, or who later relapsed were identified by early (within 7 d) postoperative serum GH with a sensitivity of 90%. The accuracy for identification of a satisfactory outcome of surgery was 85%, and the predictive value was 90%. The corresponding values for the GH response to TRH measured 6-12 months postoperatively were 47, 40 and 54%, respectively. It is concluded that the basal level of serum GH measured 1-7 d postoperatively has higher sensitivity and specificity than the GH response to TRH 6-12 months postoperatively for evaluation of the effect of surgery on GH overproduction, and that it has a higher predictive power with regard to the

  11. Predictability and Reliability of Different Anterio-Posterior Skeletal Discrepancy Indicators in Different Age Groups - A Cephalometric Study.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Rana; Shyagali, Tarulatha R; Gupta, Abhishek; Joshi, Rishi; Tiwari, Anil; Sen, Priyank

    2016-09-01

    The lateral cephalometric skeletal discrepancy indicators play a major role in diagnosing and preparing a case for orthognathic surgeries and the dentofacial corrections. The study was aimed to check the reliability and the predictability of different anterio-posterior skeletal discrepancy indicators in different age groups and to derive the most reliable indicator for the orthodontic diagnosis. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 100 subjects including 29 adolescent (15 males and 14 females) and 71 adult (41 males and 30 females) subjects with the mean age of 19.05 ± 5.78 years. All the subjects had Angle's Class I molar relationship. The lateral cephalograms of the sample were taken under the standard setting and hand tracing of the cephalometric radiographs using a sharp 4H pencil were made on acetate tracing paper. The anterio-posterior cephalometric indicators like β-angle, Wits appraisal (mm), Sella- Nasion plane to Point A and Point B distance (SN-AB mm) and Maxillo-Mandibular plane angle bisector to Point A and Point B distance (MM-AB mm) were measured. Intra-examiner reliability of tracings was evaluated using Intra Class Correlation (ICC) test. Mann Whitney U-test was applied for comparison of parameters between different malocclusion groups. Concurrent validity of various parameters was calculated using Cohen's kappa. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The comparison of intra-examiner reliability of tracings in Angle's Class I adolescent group showed, MM-AB to have an almost perfect agreement followed by Wits. Intra-examiner reliability of tracings in Angle's Class I adult group showed moderate agreement for Wits and MM-AB showed almost perfect agreement and all the parameters showed statistically significant ICC. Comparison of parameters between adolescent and adult, Angle's Class I malocclusion group showed significant difference between adolescent and adult group for the Wits and SN-AB parameter. The final

  12. Predictability and Reliability of Different Anterio-Posterior Skeletal Discrepancy Indicators in Different Age Groups - A Cephalometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Rana; Gupta, Abhishek; Joshi, Rishi; Tiwari, Anil; Sen, Priyank

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The lateral cephalometric skeletal discrepancy indicators play a major role in diagnosing and preparing a case for orthognathic surgeries and the dentofacial corrections. Aim The study was aimed to check the reliability and the predictability of different anterio-posterior skeletal discrepancy indicators in different age groups and to derive the most reliable indicator for the orthodontic diagnosis. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 100 subjects including 29 adolescent (15 males and 14 females) and 71 adult (41 males and 30 females) subjects with the mean age of 19.05 ± 5.78 years. All the subjects had Angle’s Class I molar relationship. The lateral cephalograms of the sample were taken under the standard setting and hand tracing of the cephalometric radiographs using a sharp 4H pencil were made on acetate tracing paper. The anterio-posterior cephalometric indicators like β-angle, Wits appraisal (mm), Sella- Nasion plane to Point A and Point B distance (SN-AB mm) and Maxillo-Mandibular plane angle bisector to Point A and Point B distance (MM-AB mm) were measured. Intra-examiner reliability of tracings was evaluated using Intra Class Correlation (ICC) test. Mann Whitney U-test was applied for comparison of parameters between different malocclusion groups. Concurrent validity of various parameters was calculated using Cohen’s kappa. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The comparison of intra-examiner reliability of tracings in Angle’s Class I adolescent group showed, MM-AB to have an almost perfect agreement followed by Wits. Intra-examiner reliability of tracings in Angle’s Class I adult group showed moderate agreement for Wits and MM-AB showed almost perfect agreement and all the parameters showed statistically significant ICC. Comparison of parameters between adolescent and adult, Angle’s Class I malocclusion group showed significant difference between adolescent and

  13. Characterization of gsp-mediated growth hormone excess in the context of McCune-Albright syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akintoye, Sunday O; Chebli, Caroline; Booher, Susan; Feuillan, Penelope; Kushner, Harvey; Leroith, Derek; Cherman, Natasha; Bianco, Paolo; Wientroub, Shlomo; Robey, Pamela Gehron; Collins, Michael T

    2002-11-01

    McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is a disorder characterized by the triad of café-au-lait skin pigmentation, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia of bone, and hyperfunctioning endocrinopathies, including GH excess. The molecular etiology of the disease is postzygotic activating mutations of the GNAS1 gene product, G(s)alpha. The term gsp oncogene has been assigned to these mutations due to their association with certain neoplasms. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of GH excess in MAS, characterize the clinical and endocrine manifestations, and describe the response to treatment. Fifty-eight patients with MAS were screened, and 22 with stigmata of acromegaly and/or elevated GH or IGF-I underwent oral glucose tolerance testing. Twelve patients (21%) had GH excess, based on failure to suppress serum GH on oral glucose tolerance test, and underwent a TRH test, serial GH sampling from 2000-0800 h, and magnetic resonance imaging of the sella. We found that vision and hearing deficits were more common in patients with GH excess (4 of 12, 33%) than those without (2 of 56, 4%). Of interest, patients with a history of precocious puberty and GH excess who had reached skeletal maturity achieved normal adult height despite a history of early epiphyseal fusion. All 9 patients tested had an increase in serum GH after TRH, 11 of 12 (92%) had hyperprolactinemia, and all 8 tested had detectable or elevated nighttime GH levels. Pituitary adenoma was detected in 4 of 12 (33%) patients. All patients with elevated IGF-I levels were treated with cabergoline (7 patients), long-acting octreotide (LAO; 8 patients), or a combination of cabergoline and LAO (4 patients). In six of the seven patients (86%) treated with cabergoline, serum IGF-I decreased, but not to the normal range. In the eight patients treated with LAO alone, IGF-I decreased, and, in four, returned to the normal range. The remaining 4 patients were treated with a combination of cabergoline and LAO. For them

  14. Monitoring the runoff response of an ephemeral rocky basin: a case study in the Dolomites (North-Eastern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalli, M.; Trevisani, S.; Marchi, L.; Penna, D.; Borga, M.; Dalla Fontana, G.

    2012-04-01

    In high elevation alpine catchments, first-order streams are often constituted by steep and narrow channels bound by cliffs. These channels frequently have a structural control imposed by fractures and faults in bedrock and typically constitute temporary streams where snowmelt processes strongly influence runoff. Rocky headwater basins show a different hydrological response with respect to soil-mantled basins and their hydrology is poorly known due to the lack of widespread monitoring sites. Herein we present the preliminary results achieved through an experimental hydro-meteorological monitoring network setup in a 0.1 km2 rocky headwater basin located on the southern flank of the Sella Group in the Dolomites (North-Eastern Italy). Elevation ranges between 2700 m, at the outlet, and 3174 m, with an average value of 2950 m. Geology is constituted mainly by the Norian "Dolomia Principale" (Dolomite) featuring a complex structural setting. The monitoring network, active since 2009, is designed with three rain gauges with a time rate of 5 minutes. Two are located at 2609 and 2597 m (close to the outlet), and the third is located on the divide in the central part of the basin (2911 m). Runoff at the outlet is monitored by a pressure transducer. The time interval was set at 5 minutes in the summer months in order to capture the stream response due to intense and spatially-concentrated rainfall events. In winter the pressure transducer is maintained active with a time rate of 30 minutes so as to be ready to register in spring the stream response due to snowmelt. In the summer 2011, some precipitation, runoff, snow and spring water samples for isotopic analysis (δ18O and δ2H) were collected aiming to better characterize the origin of subsurface water and the main sources to runoff. Preliminary results show ephemeral presence of runoff, mostly occurring during snowmelt (from May to early July) and after intense summer rainstorms. The lag-time from precipitation centroid

  15. Critical analysis of anatomical landmarks within the sphenoid sinus for transsphenoidal surgery.

    PubMed

    Ahmadipour, Yahya; Lemonas, Elias; Maslehaty, Homajoun; Goericke, Sophia; Stuck, Boris A; El Hindy, Nicolai; Sure, Ulrich; Mueller, Oliver

    2016-11-01

    The transsphenoidal approach to the sellar region has been introduced more than a 100 years ago. It is the accepted standard operative corridor to pathologies of the pituitary gland and surrounding structures. There are anatomical landmarks within the sphenoid sinus that are used for orientation directing to the sella floor or the cavernous sinus. Yet, little data can be found on the consistency of these landmarks. It is the aim of this study to evaluate the reliability of these anatomical landmarks for the surgeon's orientation. A total of 245 computed tomography (CT) volume data sets of the cranium performed according to a standardized protocol were analyzed for study purposes. CT scans of the cranium of 125 patients admitted to the emergency room of our hospital receiving a trauma spiral according to the local protocol were employed as a control group when no pathology in the sellar region was observed. In addition, preoperative CT scans of a group of 120 patients diagnosed with pituitary adenomas between 2009 and 2013 were analyzed. Image analysis of the anatomical landmarks included the minimal intercarotid distance (ICD), diameter of the sphenoid sinus (DSS), direction of the septum sinuum sphenoidalium (SSS), and the distance between vomer and clivus (VCD). The overall mean ICD was 16.2 mm, with patients suffering from adenomas showing a mean ICD of 15.8 mm compared with an average 16.5 mm in the control group. DSS was equal for both groups (adenoma group: mean 31.5 mm; controls: mean 31.3 mm). Mean VCD was 27.9 mm in patients with pituitary adenomas compared with 26.7 mm in controls. A septum of the sphenoid sinus located in the midline was found in overall 23 % only. SSS was directed into the bony shield of the internal carotid artery in 28 % of underlying tumors and in 37 % of the control group. This is the first detailed description of landmarks of the sphenoid sinus based on a large radiologic-anatomical analysis of CT scans yielding a wide

  16. Temporal distribution and behaviour of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus of the Kani Tribe settlements in the Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, R; Jambulingam, P; Kumar, N Pradeep; Selvakumar, M; Edwin, B; Kumar, T Dilip

    2015-08-01

    The temporal distribution of sand flies in relation to environmental factors was studied in the Kani tribe settlements located on the southernmost part of the Western Ghats, Kerala, India, between June 2012 and May 2013. This area is known for occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases. Employing hand-held aspirator, light trap and sticky-trap collection methods, a total of 7874 sand fly specimens, comprising 19 species was collected. Sergentomyia baghdadis was predominant species, followed by Phlebotomus argentipes. Sand fly abundance was significantly higher indoors (χ(2)=9241.8; p=0.0001) than outdoors. Mean density of P. argentipes in human dwellings, cattle sheds and outdoors was 7.2±2.9, 27.33±21.1 and 0.64±0.2 females/per man-hour (MHR), respectively. No sand fly species other than P. argentipes was obtained from cattle sheds. Although, sand fly populations were prevalent throughout the year, their abundance fluctuated with seasonal changes. Multiple regression analysis with backward elimination indicated that the increase in precipitation and relative humidity contributed to a significant positive association with the increase in sand fly abundance, while the increase in temperature showed no association. Fully engorged female sand flies tested for blood meal source showed multiple host-blood feeding. Analysis of resting populations of sand flies collected from human shelters indicated that the populations were found maximum on interior walls at 6-8 and >8 ft height, including ceiling during summer (F=83.7, df=6, p=0.001) and at the lower half of the wall at 0 and 0-2 ft height, during monsoon season (F=41.4, df=6, p=0.001). In cooler months, no preference to any height level (F=1.67, df=6, p=0.2) was observed. Proportion of females sand flies with Sella's classification of abdominal stages, namely full-fed, half-gravid and gravid females did not vary significantly (t=1.98, p=0.13827) indoors, confirming their endophilic behaviour. Risk of CL

  17. NI-18MULTIMODAL NAVIGATION IN ENDOSCOPIC TRANS-SPHENOIDAL RESECTION OF PITUITARY TUMORS USING IMAGE-BASED VASCULAR AND CRANIAL NERVE SEGMENTATION: A PROSPECTIVE VALIDATION STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Dolati, Parviz; Raber, Michael; Golby, Alexandra; Laws, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Trans-Sphenoidal surgery (TSS) is a well-known approach for treatment of pituitary tumors. However, in inexperienced hands, the risk of lateral misdirection and vascular damage, intraoperative CSF leakage, and optic nerve injury are all well-known complications of this procedure. This prospective study was conducted to validate the accuracy of image-based segmentation in localization of neurovascular structures during TSS. METHODS: Eight patients with pituitary tumor underwent preoperative 3TMRI, which included thin sectioned 3D space T2, 3D Time of Flight and MPRAGE sequences. Images were reviewed by an expert independent neuroradiologist. Imaging sequences were loaded in BrainLab iPlanNet (6/8) and Stryker (2/8) for segmentation and pre-op planning. After patient registration to the intra-op neuronavigation system and surgical exposure, each segmented neural or vascular element was validated by manual placement of the navigation probe. The pulses of the bilateral ICA were confirmed using micro-Doppler. RESULTS: Pre-operative segmentation of the ICA and cavernous sinus matched with the intra-operative endoscopic and micro-Doppler findings in all cases (Dice-coefficient =1). This information reassured surgeons regarding the lateral extent of bone removal at the sellar floor and the limits of lateral explorations. Perfect correspondence between image-based segmentation and endoscopic view was also found at the surface of the tumor and tumor-normal gland interfaces. This helped in preventing unnecessary removal of the normal pituitary gland. Image-guidance helped surgeon to localize the optic nerve and chiasm in 63% of case and Diaphragma sella in 50% of cases, which helped to determine the limits of upward exploration and decrease the risk of CSF leakage. CONCLUSION: Image-based pre-operative vascular and neural element segmentation especially with 3D reconstruction is highly informative preoperatively and helps young and inexperienced neurosurgeons to prevent

  18. Utility of Frameless Stereotaxy in the Resection of Skull Base and Basal Cerebral Lesions in Children

    PubMed Central

    Alshail, Essam; Rutka, James T.; Drake, James M.; Hoffman, Harold J.; Humphreys, Robin; Phillips, John; Cusimano, Michael; Forte, Vito; Papsin, Blake; Holowka, Stephanie

    1998-01-01

    Since 1991, we have performed nearly 300 stereotactic procedures using the ISG viewing wand on a variety of cranial lesions in patients under 22 years of age. Of these, 38 procedures were performed on 34 patients for basal cerebral and skull base lesions. Our patients ranged in age from 3.5 months to 22 years with a mean age of 9.45 years. There were 18 females and 16 males. Twenty-one patients had basal cerebral lesions located in the thalamus (10), basal ganglia (2), third ventricle (2), and hypothalamus (7). Thirteen patients had skull base lesions located within the anterior optic apparatus (3), sella turcica (4), middle and posterior cranial fossae (4), and craniocervical region (2). Preoperative CT and/or MRI scan images were taken as a volume acquisition and transferred to the computer workstation utilizing the ISG Wand software. This workstation was transferred to the operating room where it was calibrated to a faro Surgicom arm which interfaces with the patient and the three-dimensional radiological image. The ISG Wand was utilized to plan the scalp and bone flaps and to select the optional trajectory to lesion. The surgical approaches which were specifically used in this series with the ISG Wand included transcallosal (15), pterional (5), frontal (3), subtemporal (4), transsphenoidal (3), temporal (3), tumor cyst shunt insertion (1), burr hole drainage (1), transoral (2), bifrontal (1), bifrontal mid facial (1), and transnasal (1). Although brain shift occurred following craniotomy and with brain retraction, the relative immobility of these lesions at the skull or cerebral base permitted an accurate targeting of all lesions with an error range of 1.0-2.5 mm throughout the entire procedure. This relatively precise intraoperative feedback led to more accurate recognition of tumor landmarks. It is the authors' impression that a more aggressive resection of these lesions was achieved than could be without the device. We conclude that a frameless stereotactic

  19. Giovanni Verga (1879-1923), author of a pioneering treatise on pituitary surgery: the foundations of this new field in Europe in the early 1900s.

    PubMed

    Pascual, José M; Mongardi, Lorenzo; Prieto, Ruth; Castro-Dufourny, Inés; Rosdolsky, María; Strauss, Sewan; Carrasco, Rodrigo; Winter, Eduard; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2017-05-27

    The field of pituitary surgery was born in the first decade of the twentieth century in Europe, and it evolved rapidly with the development of numerous innovative surgical techniques by some of the founding fathers of neurosurgery. This study investigates the pioneering Italian treatise on pituitary surgery, La Patologia Chirurgica dell'Ipofisi (Surgical Pathology of the Hypophysis), published in 1911 by Giovanni Verga (1879-1923), a surgeon from Pavía and one of Golgi's disciples. This little-known monograph compiles the earliest experience on pituitary surgery through the analysis of the first 50 procedures performed between 1903 and 1911. We conducted a biographical survey of Giovanni Verga and the motivations for his work on pituitary surgery. In addition, a systematic analysis of all original reports and historical documents about these pituitary procedures referenced in Verga's treatise was carried out. Verga's treatise provides a summary of the techniques employed and surgical outcomes for the first 50 attempted procedures of pituitary tumor removal. This monograph is the only scientific source that includes a complete account of the series of 10 pituitary tumors operated on by Sir Victor Horsley in the 1900s. Three major types of surgery were employed: (i) palliative procedures of craniectomy (n = 6); (ii) transcranial approaches to the pituitary gland, either subfrontal or subtemporal (n = 13); and (iii) transphenoidal routes to expose the sella turcica, either using an upper transnasal-transethmoidal approach (n = 19) or a lower sublabial/endonasal-transeptal one (n = 12). An operative mortality rate of 36% (n = 17) was observed in these early series. The pathological nature of the tumors operated on was available in 42 cases. There were 28 adenomas and 15 craniopharyngiomas. Sir Victor Horsley (1857-1916) and the Viennese surgeons Anton von Eiselsberg (1860-1939) and Oskar Hirsch (1877-1965) were the leading European figures in the development

  20. Three-dimensional adult male head and skull contours.

    PubMed

    Lee, Calvin; Loyd, Andre M; Nightingale, Roger; Myers, Barry S; Damon, Andrew; Bass, Cameron R

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health issue, affecting millions of people annually. Anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and finite element models (FEMs) provide a means of understanding factors leading to TBI, potentially reducing the occurrence. Thus, there is a need to ensure that these tools accurately model humans. For example, the Hybrid III was not based on 3-dimensional human head shape data. The objective of this study is to produce average head and skull contours for an average U.S. male that can be used for ATDs and FEMs. Computed tomography (CT) scans of adult male heads were obtained from a database provided by the University of Virginia Center for Applied Biomechanics. An orthographic viewer was used to extract head and skull contours from the CT scans. Landmarks were measured graphically using HyperMesh (Altair, HyperWorks). To determine the head occipital condyle (OC) centroid, surface meshes of the OCs were made and the centroid of the surfaces was calculated. The Hybrid III contour was obtained using a MicroScribe Digitizer (Solution Technologies, Inc., Oella, MD). Comparisons of the average male and ATD contours were performed using 2 methods: (1) the midsagittal and midcoronal ATD contours relative to the OC centroid were compared to the corresponding 1 SD range of the average male contours; (2) the ATD sagittal contour was translated relative to the average male sagittal contour to minimize the area between the 2 contours. Average male head and skull contours were created. Landmark measurements were made for the dorsum sellae, nasion skin, nasion bone, infraorbital foramen, and external auditory meatus, all relative to the OC centroid. The Hybrid III midsagittal contour was outside the 1 SD range for 15.2 percent of the average male head contour but only by a maximum distance of 1.5 mm, whereas the Hybrid III midcoronal head contour was outside the 1 SD range for 12.2 percent of the average male head contour by a maximum distance

  1. Development of a monitoring platform for slope instability and sliding prevention : preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drakatos, G.; Paradissis, D.; Anastasiou, D.; Elias, P.; Marinou, A.; Chousianitis, K.; Papanikolaou, X.; Zacharis, V.; Argyrakis, P.; Papazisi, K.; Makropoulos, K.

    2012-04-01

    Land sliding, as a consequence of slope instability, constitutes a natural catastrophe resulting mainly from geological cause often followed by disastrous impact on both the natural and man-made environment. The reasons causing land slides can vary from purely geological factors, to other relevant or not natural catastrophes, urban or residential expansion, tourist growth in areas under inappropriate geological background, or even a combination of the aforementioned causes The respective consequences, also span a wide range of negative impacts, both for the man-made (e.g. destruction of transportation infrastructure, constructions and urban or sub-urban areas) and the natural environment. Unfortunately, prevention of land slides is still largely ineffective adding to an inefficient and inadequate addressing of the problem, mainly due to the lack of systematic monitoring of such regions and due to the fact that "treatment" overwhelms "prevention". Recent developments in Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Satellite Geodesy and satellite differential interferometry (DinSAR), have established these fields as fully equipped, from a scientific and engineering perspective, to act --either as autonomous techniques or in conjunction-- as prevention and/or early warning systems. Such state-of-the-art technology was implemented, in a project undertaken by the Institute of Geodynamics Dionysos Satellite Observatory/Higher Geodesy Laboratory and the Institute for Space Applications and Remote Sensing, in order to evaluate the potential of monitoring slide stability and the assessment of hazard evaluation. Therefore, for the first time in Greece, an attempt was made to develop a monitoring platform for slope instability and sliding prevention at two of the most hazardous, regarding soil instabilities, regions of Peloponnese, namely Sellas and Chalkio (in Messinia and Korinthia respectively). GPS campaigns were carried through, cGPS stations were installed and a network

  2. Treatable intracranial hypertension in patients with lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Nampoory, M R; Johny, K V; Gupta, R K; Constandi, J N; Nair, M P; al-Muzeiri, I

    1997-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a disorder of intracerebral pressure regulation and patients run the risk of permanent visual loss. Intracranial hypertension (IH) has been reported rarely in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We reviewed the medical records of 127 patients with lupus nephritis (LN) who were followed up from 1987 to 1996 in our unit. There were six patients with IH which gave a disease prevalence of 4.7% in those with LN. All were females giving a disease prevalence of 5.2% for that sex, a high rate of occurrence of IH in patients with LN. Their age ranged from 22 to 34 y (27.8 +/- 3.6 y). Headache, vomiting and diplopia were the common presenting symptoms and had started 7.3 +/- 4.4 weeks prior to the diagnosis of IH. The cerebrospinal (CSF) opening pressure (413.3 +/- 77.0 mmH2O) was raised in all cases. Biochemical and cytological analyses of CSF were normal. The only abnormal radiological finding was partially empty sella in one patient on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (performed in three patients) or computed tomography (CT) (performed in all patients). All patients had serological evidences of active lupus disease at the time of diagnosis of IH. The renal histology was WHO type IV in four cases and III and V in one each indicating severe renal involvement. Laboratory evidences of procoagulant activity were found in the form of positive anticardiolipin antibody (aCL) in two patients, lupus anticoagulant (LA) in two and an otherwise unexplained isolated prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) in the other two. Clinically, one or more episodes of symptomatic venous or arterial thrombosis had occurred in all subjects. In addition to symptomatic measures, all subjects were treated with prednisolone, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide and plasmapheresis according to the protocol of our unit. One patient who did not receive plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide had a relapse while all others recovered completely. None

  3. Genetically induced abnormal cranial development in human trisomy 18 with holoprosencephaly: comparisons with the normal tempo of osteogenic-neural development.

    PubMed

    Reid, Shaina N; Ziermann, Janine M; Gondré-Lewis, Marjorie C

    2015-07-01

    Craniofacial malformations are common congenital defects caused by failed midline inductive signals. These midline defects are associated with exposure of the fetus to exogenous teratogens and with inborn genetic errors such as those found in Down, Patau, Edwards' and Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndromes. Yet, there are no studies that analyze contributions of synchronous neurocranial and neural development in these disorders. Here we present the first in-depth analysis of malformations of the basicranium of a holoprosencephalic (HPE) trisomy 18 (T18; Edwards' syndrome) fetus with synophthalmic cyclopia and alobar HPE. With a combination of traditional gross dissection and state-of-the-art computed tomography, we demonstrate the deleterious effects of T18 caused by a translocation at 18p11.31. Bony features included a single developmentally unseparated frontal bone, and complete dual absence of the anterior cranial fossa and ethmoid bone. From a superior view with the calvarium plates removed, there was direct visual access to the orbital foramen and hard palate. Both the eyes and the pituitary gland, normally protected by bony structures, were exposed in the cranial cavity and in direct contact with the brain. The middle cranial fossa was shifted anteriorly, and foramina were either missing or displaced to an abnormal location due to the absence or misplacement of its respective cranial nerve (CN). When CN development was conserved in its induction and placement, the respective foramen developed in its normal location albeit with abnormal gross anatomical features, as seen in the facial nerve (CNVII) and the internal acoustic meatus. More anteriorly localized CNs and their foramina were absent or heavily disrupted compared with posterior ones. The severe malformations exhibited in the cranial fossae, orbital region, pituitary gland and sella turcica highlight the crucial involvement of transcription factors such as TGIF, which is located on chromosome 18 and contributes

  4. Genetically induced abnormal cranial development in human trisomy 18 with holoprosencephaly: comparisons with the normal tempo of osteogenic–neural development

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Shaina N; Ziermann, Janine M; Gondré-Lewis, Marjorie C

    2015-01-01

    Craniofacial malformations are common congenital defects caused by failed midline inductive signals. These midline defects are associated with exposure of the fetus to exogenous teratogens and with inborn genetic errors such as those found in Down, Patau, Edwards' and Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndromes. Yet, there are no studies that analyze contributions of synchronous neurocranial and neural development in these disorders. Here we present the first in-depth analysis of malformations of the basicranium of a holoprosencephalic (HPE) trisomy 18 (T18; Edwards' syndrome) fetus with synophthalmic cyclopia and alobar HPE. With a combination of traditional gross dissection and state-of-the-art computed tomography, we demonstrate the deleterious effects of T18 caused by a translocation at 18p11.31. Bony features included a single developmentally unseparated frontal bone, and complete dual absence of the anterior cranial fossa and ethmoid bone. From a superior view with the calvarium plates removed, there was direct visual access to the orbital foramen and hard palate. Both the eyes and the pituitary gland, normally protected by bony structures, were exposed in the cranial cavity and in direct contact with the brain. The middle cranial fossa was shifted anteriorly, and foramina were either missing or displaced to an abnormal location due to the absence or misplacement of its respective cranial nerve (CN). When CN development was conserved in its induction and placement, the respective foramen developed in its normal location albeit with abnormal gross anatomical features, as seen in the facial nerve (CNVII) and the internal acoustic meatus. More anteriorly localized CNs and their foramina were absent or heavily disrupted compared with posterior ones. The severe malformations exhibited in the cranial fossae, orbital region, pituitary gland and sella turcica highlight the crucial involvement of transcription factors such as TGIF, which is located on chromosome 18 and

  5. Geophysical modelling of subsidence on the Mississippi Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolstencroft, Martin; Shen, Zhixiong; Törnqvist, Torbjorn; Milne, Glenn; Kulp, Mark

    2014-05-01

    The Mississippi Delta (MD) is experiencing relative sea level rise of approximately 10 mm/yr (Penland and Ramsey, 1990). This rate is caused by a combination of global sea level rise and local subsidence of the land surface. The relative importance of processes thought to be responsible for this subsidence is vigorously