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Sample records for semantic bridging srs

  1. Bridging the semantic gap in sports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baoxin; Errico, James; Pan, Hao; Sezan, M. Ibrahim

    2003-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing current media management systems and the related applications is the so-called "semantic gap" between the rich meaning that a user desires and the shallowness of the content descriptions that are automatically extracted from the media. In this paper, we address the problem of bridging this gap in the sports domain. We propose a general framework for indexing and summarizing sports broadcast programs. The framework is based on a high-level model of sports broadcast video using the concept of an event, defined according to domain-specific knowledge for different types of sports. Within this general framework, we develop automatic event detection algorithms that are based on automatic analysis of the visual and aural signals in the media. We have successfully applied the event detection algorithms to different types of sports including American football, baseball, Japanese sumo wrestling, and soccer. Event modeling and detection contribute to the reduction of the semantic gap by providing rudimentary semantic information obtained through media analysis. We further propose a novel approach, which makes use of independently generated rich textual metadata, to fill the gap completely through synchronization of the information-laden textual data with the basic event segments. An MPEG-7 compliant prototype browsing system has been implemented to demonstrate semantic retrieval and summarization of sports video.

  2. Bridging the Gap between Linked Data and the Semantic Desktop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groza, Tudor; Drăgan, Laura; Handschuh, Siegfried; Decker, Stefan

    The exponential growth of the World Wide Web in the last decade brought an explosion in the information space, which has important consequences also in the area of scientific research. Finding relevant work in a particular field and exploring the links between publications is currently a cumbersome task. Similarly, on the desktop, managing the publications acquired over time can represent a real challenge. Extracting semantic metadata, exploring the linked data cloud and using the semantic desktop for managing personal information represent, in part, solutions for different aspects of the above mentioned issues. In this paper, we propose an innovative approach for bridging these three directions with the overall goal of alleviating the information overload problem burdening early stage researchers. Our application combines harmoniously document engineering-oriented automatic metadata extraction with information expansion and visualization based on linked data, while the resulting documents can be seamlessly integrated into the semantic desktop.

  3. Bridging the Semantic Gap Between Heterogeneous Modeling Formalisms and FMI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-25

    Bridging the Semantic Gap Between Heterogeneous Modeling Formalisms and FMI Stavros Tripakis David Broman Electrical Engineering and Computer...Modeling Formalisms and FMI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT FMI (Functional Mockup Interface) is a standard for exchanging and co-simulating model components (called FMUs) coming

  4. Bridging semantics and syntax with graph algorithms-state-of-the-art of extracting biomedical relations.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuan; Uzuner, Özlem; Szolovits, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Research on extracting biomedical relations has received growing attention recently, with numerous biological and clinical applications including those in pharmacogenomics, clinical trial screening and adverse drug reaction detection. The ability to accurately capture both semantic and syntactic structures in text expressing these relations becomes increasingly critical to enable deep understanding of scientific papers and clinical narratives. Shared task challenges have been organized by both bioinformatics and clinical informatics communities to assess and advance the state-of-the-art research. Significant progress has been made in algorithm development and resource construction. In particular, graph-based approaches bridge semantics and syntax, often achieving the best performance in shared tasks. However, a number of problems at the frontiers of biomedical relation extraction continue to pose interesting challenges and present opportunities for great improvement and fruitful research. In this article, we place biomedical relation extraction against the backdrop of its versatile applications, present a gentle introduction to its general pipeline and shared resources, review the current state-of-the-art in methodology advancement, discuss limitations and point out several promising future directions.

  5. Why SRS Matters - Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Paul

    2015-01-21

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode provides an introduction to the SRS mission and operations.

  6. Why SRS Matters - Introduction

    ScienceCinema

    Hunt, Paul

    2016-08-26

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode provides an introduction to the SRS mission and operations.

  7. Why SRS Matters- Tritium

    ScienceCinema

    Howell, Steve; Schifer, Lee

    2016-07-12

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site’s (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer.

  8. Bridging Social and Semantic Computing - Design and Evaluation of User Interfaces for Hybrid Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostandjiev, Svetlin Alex I.

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the Web brought new interesting problems to computer scientists that we loosely classify in the fields of social and semantic computing. Social computing is related to two major paradigms: computations carried out by a large amount of people in a collective intelligence fashion (i.e. wikis), and performing computations on social…

  9. SRS SWPF Construction Completion

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Jack; Sheppard, Frank; Marks, Pam

    2016-08-04

    Now that construction is complete, DOE and construction contractor Parsons, are focusing on testing the Savannah River Site’s Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) systems and training the workforce to operate the plant in preparation for the start of operations. Once in operation, the SWPF will significantly increase processing rates at SRS tank farms in an effort to empty the site’s high-level radioactive waste tanks.

  10. SRS SWPF Construction Completion

    ScienceCinema

    Craig, Jack; Sheppard, Frank; Marks, Pam

    2016-08-17

    Now that construction is complete, DOE and construction contractor Parsons, are focusing on testing the Savannah River Site’s Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) systems and training the workforce to operate the plant in preparation for the start of operations. Once in operation, the SWPF will significantly increase processing rates at SRS tank farms in an effort to empty the site’s high-level radioactive waste tanks.

  11. Ontology Design Patterns: Bridging the Gap Between Local Semantic Use Cases and Large-Scale, Long-Term Data Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Adam; Arko, Robert; Krisnadhi, Adila; Hitzler, Pascal; Janowicz, Krzysztof; Chandler, Cyndy; Narock, Tom; Cheatham, Michelle; Schildhauer, Mark; Jones, Matt; Raymond, Lisa; Mickle, Audrey; Finin, Tim; Fils, Doug; Carbotte, Suzanne; Lehnert, Kerstin

    2015-04-01

    Integrating datasets for new use cases is one of the common drivers for adopting semantic web technologies. Even though linked data principles enables this type of activity over time, the task of reconciling new ontological commitments for newer use cases can be daunting. This situation was faced by the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) as it sought to integrate its existing linked data with other data repositories to address newer scientific use cases as a partner in the GeoLink Project. To achieve a successful integration with other GeoLink partners, BCO-DMO's metadata would need to be described using the new ontologies developed by the GeoLink partners - a situation that could impact semantic inferencing, pre-existing software and external users of BCO-DMO's linked data. This presentation describes the process of how GeoLink is bridging the gap between local, pre-existing ontologies to achieve scientific metadata integration for all its partners through the use of ontology design patterns. GeoLink, an NSF EarthCube Building Block, brings together experts from the geosciences, computer science, and library science in an effort to improve discovery and reuse of data and knowledge. Its participating repositories include content from field expeditions, laboratory analyses, journal publications, conference presentations, theses/reports, and funding awards that span scientific studies from marine geology to marine ecology and biogeochemistry to paleoclimatology. GeoLink's outcomes include a set of reusable ontology design patterns (ODPs) that describe core geoscience concepts, a network of Linked Data published by participating repositories using those ODPs, and tools to facilitate discovery of related content in multiple repositories.

  12. Enterprise.SRS = Business for Success at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Goals and accomplishments of SRS. The debut of enterprise.srs, a strategic vision that will refocus site talents and efforts on developing future missions by broadening its impact in existing and new areas of national service. An expansion of people and facility in 3 areas: National Security, Clean Energy, and Environmental Stewardship.

  13. Enterprise.SRS = Business for Success at SRS

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Goals and accomplishments of SRS. The debut of enterprise.srs, a strategic vision that will refocus site talents and efforts on developing future missions by broadening its impact in existing and new areas of national service. An expansion of people and facility in 3 areas: National Security, Clean Energy, and Environmental Stewardship.

  14. Using Semantic Web technologies to bridge the Language Gap between Academia and Industry in the Construction Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argüello, M.; El-Hasia, A.; Lees, M.

    Semantic Web technologies are emerging technologies which can considerably improve the information sharing process by overcoming the problems of current Web portals. Portals based on Semantic Web technologies represent the next generation of Web portals, however, before industry is willing to adopt Semantic Web technologies it is essential to demonstrate that Semantic Web portals are significantly better than Web portals. This paper focuses on a case study which compares the performance of a traditional Web portal using a keyword-based search engine and a Semantic Web portal using an ontology-based search engine. The empirical results of the comparison performed between these two search engines over an input data set of 100 data provides strong evidence of the tangible benefits of using Semantic Web technologies.

  15. SRS ECOLOGY ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Wike, L; Doug Martin, D; Eric Nelson, E; Nancy Halverson, N; John Mayer, J; Michael Paller, M; Rodney Riley, R; Michael Serrato, M

    2006-03-01

    The SRS Ecology Environmental Information Document (EEID) provides a source of information on the ecology of Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)--owned property on the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina, centered approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) southeast of Augusta, Georgia. The entire site was designated a National Environmental Research Park in 1972 by the Atomic Energy Commission, the predecessor of DOE. This document summarizes and synthesizes ecological research and monitoring conducted on the three main types of ecosystems found at SRS: terrestrial, wetland and aquatic. It also summarizes the available information on the threatened and endangered species found on the Savannah River Site. SRS is located along the Savannah River and encompasses an area of 80,267 hectares (310 square miles) in three South Carolina counties. It contains diverse habitats, flora, and fauna. Habitats include upland terrestrial areas, wetlands, streams, reservoirs, and the adjacent Savannah River. These diverse habitats support a variety of plants and animals, including many commercially or recreationally valuable species and several rare, threatened, or endangered species. Soils are the basic terrestrial resource, influencing the development of terrestrial biological communities. Many different soils exist on the SRS, from hydric to well-drained, and from sand to clay. In general, SRS soils are predominantly well-drained loamy sands.

  16. Why SRS Matters - F Area

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, Steve; Tadlock, Bill; Beeler, Dewitt; Gardner, Curt

    2015-02-17

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode features F Area's mission and operations.

  17. Why SRS Matters - K Area

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Paul; Lawson, Janice

    2015-02-04

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode features K Area's mission and operations.

  18. SRS control system upgrade requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.F.

    1998-08-04

    This document defines requirements for an upgrade of the Sodium Removal System (SRS) control system. The upgrade is being performed to solve a number of maintainability and operability issues. The upgraded system will provide the same functions, controls and interlocks as the present system, and in addition provide enhanced functionality in areas discussed in this document.

  19. Why SRS Matters - L Area

    ScienceCinema

    Hunt, Paul

    2016-07-12

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode features L Area's mission and operations.

  20. Why SRS Matters - H Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Paul; Lewczyk, Mike; Swain, Mike

    2015-02-17

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode features H Canyon's mission and operations.

  1. Why SRS Matters - L Area

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Paul

    2015-01-28

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode features L Area's mission and operations.

  2. Why SRS Matters - F Area

    ScienceCinema

    Howell, Steve; Tadlock, Bill; Beeler, Dewitt; Gardner, Curt

    2016-07-12

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode features F Area's mission and operations.

  3. Why SRS Matters - K Area

    ScienceCinema

    Hunt, Paul; Lawson, Janice

    2016-07-12

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode features K Area's mission and operations.

  4. Why SRS Matters - E Area

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, Steve; Mooneyhan, Verne; Tempel, Kevin; Bullington, Michele

    2015-03-09

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode features E Area's mission and operations.

  5. Why SRS Matters - H Canyon

    ScienceCinema

    Hunt, Paul; Lewczyk, Mike; Swain, Mike

    2016-07-12

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode features H Canyon's mission and operations.

  6. Why SRS Matters - E Area

    ScienceCinema

    Howell, Steve; Mooneyhan, Verne; Tempel, Kevin; Bullington, Michele

    2016-07-12

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode features E Area's mission and operations.

  7. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    SciTech Connect

    Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there.

  8. Saturation of SRS-LDI with Non-local Growth of SRS Driven Electron Plasma Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcedo, A.; Bers, A.; Ram, A. K.

    2000-10-01

    Experimental observations have shown the coupling of SRS and Langmuir decay interaction (LDI), in ICF experiments where the SRS backscattering is dependent on the damping of ion acoustic waves.(Juan P. Fernandez, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.) 77, 2702 (1996); R. K. Kirkwood, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 13, (1996). A model 3-wave interaction equations for LDI with a growing EPW (driven by SRS) and its non-local Landau damping, gives a simple description of the effect of LDI on the saturation of SRS and its dependence on IAW damping. ( A. Salcedo, A. Bers, A. K. Ram, in Proc. 1st IFSA), Bordeaux, France (1999), pp. 343-348. We present results on the extension of this model to include the non-local growth of the SRS driven EPW, and a comparison with simulations of the full five-wave interaction equations for SRS coupled to LDI. (J. A. Heikkinen, J. Karttunen, Phys. Fluids) 29 (4), (1986).

  9. A lifespan perspective on semantic processing of concrete concepts: does a sensory/motor model have the potential to bridge the gap?

    PubMed

    Antonucci, Sharon M; Alt, Mary

    2011-12-01

    Research regarding semantic knowledge of objects is often conducted independently in children and adults. Review of these bodies of evidence suggests that the two literatures are often complementary. It seems critical to determine what we can learn from a developmental perspective, toward the common goal of understanding semantic organization. Here we focus on the proposal that semantic knowledge about concrete concepts may be built on the foundation of sensory/motor processes. In particular, we focus on a moderate formulation of this viewpoint, the sensory/motor model of semantic representations of objects (e.g., Gainotti 2007; Martin 2007), which has been examined utilizing behavioral, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological evidence. Taken together, behavioral and neuroimaging studies with infants, older children, and adults have suggested that patterns laid down in early childhood remain salient throughout the lifespan and may also predict patterns of deficit that emerge following brain injury.

  10. Savannah River Site (SRS) environmental overview

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rear, M.G. ); Steele, J.L.; Kitchen, B.G. )

    1990-01-01

    The environmental surveillance activities at and in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site (SRS) (formerly the Savannah River Plant (SRP)) comprise one of the most comprehensive and extensive environmental monitoring programs in the United States. This overview contains monitoring data from routine and nonroutine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities, summaries of environmental protection programs in progress, a summary of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) activities, and a listing of environmental permits (Appendix A) issued by regulatory agencies. This overview provides information about the impact of SRS operations on the public and the environment. The SRS occupies a large area of approximately 300 square miles along the Savannah River, principally in Aiken and Barnwell counties of South Carolina. SRS's primary function is the production of tritium, plutonium, and other special nuclear materials for national defense, for other governmental uses, and for some civilian purposes. From August 1950 to March 31, 1989, SRS was operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by E. I. du Pont de Nemours Co. On April 1, 1989 the Westinghouse Savannah River Company assumed responsibility as the prime contractor for the Savannah River Site.

  11. SRS Computer Animation and Drive Train System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthun, Daniel; Schachner, Christian

    2001-01-01

    The spinning rocket simulator (SRS) is an ongoing project at Oral Roberts University. The goal of the SRS is to gather crucial data concerning a spinning rocket under thrust for the purpose of analysis and correction of the coning motion experienced by this type of spacecraft maneuver. The computer animation simulates a virtual, scale model of the component of the SRS that represents the spacecraft itself. This component is known as the (VSM), or virtual spacecraft model. During actual physical simulation, this component of the SRS will experience a coning. The goal of the animation is to cone the VSM within that range to accurately represent the motion of the actual simulator. The drive system of the SRS is the apparatus that turns the actual simulator. It consists of a drive motor, motor mount and chain to power the simulator into motion. The motor mount is adjustable and rigid for high torque application. A digital stepper motor controller actuates the main drive motor for linear acceleration. The chain transfers power from the motor to the simulator via sprockets on both ends.

  12. Groundwater Treatment at SRS: An Innovative Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Jorque, M.A.; Golshir, G.H.; Davis, B.

    1998-03-01

    The SRS is located in southwestern South Carolina, occupying an almost circular area of approximately 800 km{sub 2} within Aiken, Barnwell, and Allendale counties. The site lies approximately 36 km southeast of Augusta, Georgia, and is bounded by the Savannah River along its southwestern border. Prior to the establishment of the SRS in 1952, the area was largely a rural agricultural community. As part of the defense complex, the SRS produced special nuclear materials for the national defense. From 1955 until 1988, unlined earthen basins were used to dispose of wastewater from the SRS separations facilities located in the F and H areas. Approximately 300 million liters of wastewater was transported annually from the process area through underground piping to the basins. The wastewater was allowed to evaporate and to seep into the underlying formations. There were three basins in the F-Area covering a total of about 3 hectares; while the H-Area was served by four basins covering about 6 hectares. The seepage basins closure was started in 1989 and SCDHEC certified the closures as completed in 1991. Groundwater monitoring conducted in accordance with the provisions of the RCRA Permits determined that the underlying hydrogeologic units were contaminated by tritium, radioactive metals (primarily Cesium{sup 137}, Strontium{sup 90}, and Uranium{sup 235}), nitrate and heavy metals, some of which are defined as hazardous by RCRA. Under the terms and conditions of the RCRA Post-Closure Permits, it was necessary to remediate the contaminated groundwater plumes.

  13. Mixing in SRS Closure Business Unit Applications

    SciTech Connect

    POIRIER, MICHAELR.

    2004-06-23

    The following equipment is commonly used to mix fluids: mechanical agitators, jets (pumps), shrouded axial impeller mixers (Flygt mixers), spargers, pulsed jet mixers, boiling, static mixers, falling films, liquid sprays, and thermal convection. This discussion will focus on mechanical agitators, jets, shrouded axial impeller mixers, spargers, and pulsed jet mixers, as these devices are most likely to be employed in Savannah River Site (SRS) Closure Business applications. In addressing mixing problems in the SRS Tank Farm, one must distinguish between different mixing objectives. These objectives include sludge mixing (e.g., Extended Sludge Processing), sludge retrieval (e.g., sludge transfers between tanks), heel retrieval (e.g., Tanks 18F and 19F), chemical reactions (e.g., oxalic acid neutralization) and salt dissolution. For example, one should not apply sludge mixing guidelines to heel removal applications. Mixing effectiveness is a function of both the mixing device (e.g., slurry pump, agitator, air sparger) and the properties of the material to be mixed (e.g., yield stress, viscosity, density, and particle size). The objective of this document is to provide background mixing knowledge for the SRS Closure Business Unit personnel and to provide general recommendations for mixing in SRS applications.

  14. Groundwater Treatment at SRS: An Innovative Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Jorque, M.A.; Golshir, G.H.; Davis, B.

    1998-03-01

    The SRS is located in southwestern South Carolina, occupying an almost circular area of approximately 800 km2 within Aiken, Barnwell, and Allendale counties. The site lies approximately 36 km southeast of Augusta, Georgia, and is bounded by the Savannah River along its southwestern border. Prior to the establishment of the SRS in 1952, the area was largely a rural agricultural community. As part of the defense complex, the SRS produced special nuclear materials for the national defense.From 1955 until 1988, unlined earthen basins were used to dispose of wastewater from the SRS separations facilities located in the F and H areas. Approximately 300 million liters of wastewater was transported annually from the process area through underground piping to the basins. The wastewater was allowed to evaporate and to seep into the underlying formations. There were three basins in the F-Area covering a total of about 3 hectares; while the H-Area was served by four basins covering about 6 hectares. The seepage basins closure was started in 1989 and SCDHEC certified the closures as completed in 1991.Groundwater monitoring conducted in accordance with the provisions of the RCRA Permits determined that the underlying hydrogeologic units were contaminated by tritium, radioactive metals (primarily Cesium 137, Strontium 90, and Uranium 235), nitrate and heavy metals, some of which are defined as hazardous by RCRA. Under the terms and conditions of the RCRA Post- Closure Permits, it was necessary to remediate the contaminated groundwater plumes.

  15. SRS Geology/Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, M.E.

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of the Savannah River Site Geology and Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document (EID) is to provide geologic and hydrogeologic information to serve as a baseline to evaluate potential environmental impacts. This EID is based on a summary of knowledge accumulated from research conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and surrounding areas.

  16. Treatability Variance Petition for SRS Raschig Ring Packing Material

    SciTech Connect

    Hagstrom, T.

    1999-08-31

    The Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) is a vital component in the nation's nuclear weapons complex. When in full operation, SRS produced nuclear material by manufacturing fuel and target components that were then irradiated in nuclear reactors.

  17. SRS Burial Ground Complex: Remediation in Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, M.; Crapse, B.; Cowan, S.

    1998-01-21

    Closure of the various areas in the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) represents a major step in the reduction of risk at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a significant investment of resources. The Burial Ground Complex occupies approximately 195 acres in the central section of the SRS. Approximately 160 acres of the BGC consists of hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites that require remediation. Of these source acres, one-third have been remediated while two-thirds are undergoing interim or final action. These restoration activities have been carried out in a safe and cost effective manner while minimizing impact to operating facilities. Successful completion of these activities is in large part due to the teamwork demonstrated by the Department of Energy, contractor/subcontractor personnel, and the regulatory agencies. The experience and knowledge gained from the closure of these large disposal facilities can be used to expedite closure of similar facilities.

  18. Roadmap to the SRS computing architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.

    1994-07-05

    This document outlines the major steps that must be taken by the Savannah River Site (SRS) to migrate the SRS information technology (IT) environment to the new architecture described in the Savannah River Site Computing Architecture. This document proposes an IT environment that is {open_quotes}...standards-based, data-driven, and workstation-oriented, with larger systems being utilized for the delivery of needed information to users in a client-server relationship.{close_quotes} Achieving this vision will require many substantial changes in the computing applications, systems, and supporting infrastructure at the site. This document consists of a set of roadmaps which provide explanations of the necessary changes for IT at the site and describes the milestones that must be completed to finish the migration.

  19. Repackaging SRS Black Box TRU Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Swale, D. J.; Stone, K.A.; Milner, T. N.

    2006-01-09

    Historically, large items of TRU Waste, which were too large to be packaged in drums for disposal have been packaged in various sizes of custom made plywood boxes at the Savannah River Site (SRS), for many years. These boxes were subsequently packaged into large steel ''Black Boxes'' for storage at SRS, pending availability of Characterization and Certification capability, to facilitate disposal of larger items of TRU Waste. There are approximately 107 Black Boxes in inventory at SRS, each measuring some 18' x 12' x 7', and weighing up to 45,000 lbs. These Black Boxes have been stored since the early 1980s. The project to repackage this waste into Standard Large Boxes (SLBs), Standard Waste Boxes (SWB) and Ten Drum Overpacks (TDOP), for subsequent characterization and WIPP disposal, commenced in FY04. To date, 10 Black Boxes have been repackaged, resulting in 40 SLB-2's, and 37 B25 overpack boxes, these B25's will be overpacked in SLB-2's prior to shipping to WIPP. This paper will describe experience to date from this project.

  20. RADIOIODINE GEOCHEMISTRY IN THE SRS SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.; Emerson, H.; Powell, B.; Roberts, K.; Zhang, S.; Xu, C.; Schwer, K.; Li, H.; Ho, Y.; Denham, M.; Yeager, C.; Santschi, P.

    2013-05-16

    Iodine-129 is one of the key risk drivers for several Savannah River Site (SRS) performance assessments (PA), including that for the Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility in E-Area. In an effort to reduce the uncertainty associated with the conceptual model and the input values used in PA, several studies have recently been conducted dealing with radioiodine geochemistry at the SRS. The objective of this report was to review these recent studies and evaluate their implications on SRS PA calculations. For the first time, these studies measured iodine speciation in SRS groundwater and provided technical justification for assuming the presence of more strongly sorbing species (iodate and organo-iodine), and measured greater iodine sediment sorption when experiments included these newly identified species; specifically they measured greater sorption coefficients (K{sub d} values: the concentration ratio of iodine on the solid phase divided by the concentration in the aqueous phase). Based on these recent studies, new best estimates were proposed for future PA calculations. The new K{sub d} values are greater than previous recommended values. These proposed K{sub d} values reflect a better understanding of iodine geochemistry in the SRS subsurface environment, which permits reducing the associated conservatism included in the original estimates to account for uncertainty. Among the key contributing discoveries supporting the contention that the K{sub d} values should be increased are that: 1) not only iodide (I{sup -}), but also the more strongly sorbing iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup -}) species exists in SRS groundwater (average total iodine = 15% iodide, 42% iodate, and 43% organoiodine), 2) when iodine was added as iodate, the measured K{sub d} values were 2 to 6 times greater than when the iodine was added as iodide, and perhaps most importantly, 3) higher desorption (10 to 20 mL/g) than (ad)sorption (all previous studies) K{sub d} values were measured. The implications of this

  1. SRS stainless steel beneficial reuse program

    SciTech Connect

    Boettinger, W.L.

    1997-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) has thousands of tons of stainless steel radioactive scrap metal (RSNI). Much of the metal is volumetrically contaminated. There is no {open_quotes}de minimis{close_quotes} free release level for volumetric material, and therefore no way to recycle the metal into the normal commercial market. If declared waste, the metal would qualify as low level radioactive waste (LLW) and ultimately be dispositioned through shallow land buried at a cost of millions of dollars. The metal however could be recycled in a {open_quotes}controlled release{close_quote} manner, in the form of containers to hold other types of radioactive waste. This form of recycle is generally referred to as {open_quotes}Beneficial Reuse{close_quotes}. Beneficial reuse reduces the amount of disposal space needed and reduces the need for virgin containers which would themselves become contaminated. Stainless steel is particularly suited for long term storage because of its resistance to corrosion. To assess the practicality of stainless steel RSM recycle the SRS Benficial Reuse Program began a demonstration in 1994, funded by the DOE Office of Science and Technology. This paper discusses the experiences gained in this program.

  2. SRS tank closure. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-08-01

    High-level waste (HLW) tank closure technology is designed to stabilize any remaining radionuclides and hazardous constituents left in a tank after bulk waste removal. Two Savannah River Site (SRS) HLW tanks were closed after cleansing and then filling each tank with three layers of grout. The first layer consists of a chemically reducing grout. The fill material has chemical properties that retard the movement of some radionuclides and chemical constituents. A layer of controlled low-strength material (CLSM), a self-leveling fill material, is placed on top of the reducing grout. CLSM provides sufficient strength to support the overbearing weight. The final layer is a free-flowing, strong grout similar to normal concrete. After the main tank cavity is filled, risers are filled with grout, and all waste transfer piping connected to the tank is isolated. The tank ventilation system is dismantled, and the remaining systems are isolated. Equipment that remains with the tank is filled with grout. The tank and ancillary systems are left in a state requiring only limited surveillance. Administrative procedures are in place to control land use and access. DOE eventually plans to remove all of its HLW storage tanks from service. These tanks are located at SRS, Hanford, and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Low-activity waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge Reservation are also scheduled for closure.

  3. Radiological effects of SRS operations, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, L.R.

    1989-10-25

    A discussion of the offsite effective dose equivalents reported for 1988 SRS releases serves as the basis for this report. Detailed analyses of atmospheric and liquid release trends and their consequences in terms of relative importance among facilities, radionuclides, and exposure pathways have also been included. Releases of radioactivity to the atmosphere were generally lower in 1988 than in 1987. No major unplanned tritium releases were recorded during the year. However, there were three inadvertent releases of Pu-238 from F Area in January, March and October of 160, 32 and 83 uCi, respectively. Radioactive releases to onsite streams from direct discharges and seepage basin migration decreased in 1988. However, as a result of a decrease in the flow rate of the Savannah River in 1988, higher offsite doses were reported. The maximum individual dose, conversely, was down from 1987. This decrease reflected the fact that the maximum individual dose is most significantly affected by the cesium concentration in fish. In terms of largest contributors to dose, the releases were dominated by tritium, Cs-137 and to a much lesser extent Sr-90. With respect to the offsite population, doses from atmospheric releases are generally higher than those from liquid releases, and this trend continued in 1988. Analyses of 1988 data and the data for the preceding decade suggest that radioactive releases from the SRS during this period have not significantly impacted the offsite population.

  4. SRS baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, H.W.; Aadland, R.K.; Sargent, K.A.

    1990-11-01

    Work on the Savannah River Site (SRS) Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation began in 1983 when it was determined that the knowledge of the plant hydrogeologic systems needed to be expanded and improved in response to changing stratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic terminology and increased involvement by regulatory agencies (Bledsoe, 1984). Additionally, site-wide data were needed to determine flow paths, gradients, and velocities associated with the different aquifers underlying the plant site. The program was divided into three phases in order to allow the results of one phase to be evaluated and necessary changes and improvements incorporated into the following phases. This report summarizes the results of all three phases and includes modified graphic logs, lithologic descriptions of the different geologic formations, profiles of each cluster site, hydrostratigraphic cross sections, hydrographs of selected wells within each cluster for the first full year of uninterrupted water level measurements, potentiometric maps developed from data collected from all clusters, completion diagrams for each well, and a summary of laboratory tests. Additionally, the proposed new classification of hydrostratigraphic units at SRS (Aadland and Bledsoe, 1990) has been incorporated.

  5. ENTERPRISE SRS: LEVERAGING ONGOING OPERATIONS TO ADVANCE RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, A.; Wilmarth, W.; Marra, J.; Mcguire, P.; Wheeler, V.

    2013-05-16

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is repurposing its vast array of assets to solve future national issues regarding environmental stewardship, national security, and clean energy. The vehicle for this transformation is Enterprise SRS which presents a new, strategic view of SRS as a united endeavor for “all things nuclear” as opposed to a group of distinct and separate entities with individual missions and organizations. Key among the Enterprise SRS strategic initiatives is the integration of research into facilities in conjunction with ongoing missions to provide researchers from other national laboratories, academic institutions, and commercial entities the opportunity to demonstrate their technologies in a relevant environment and scale prior to deployment. To manage that integration of research demonstrations into site facilities, The DOE Savannah River Operations Office, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) have established a center for applied nuclear materials processing and engineering research (hereafter referred to as the Center). The key objective of this initiative is to bridge the gap between promising transformational nuclear materials management advancements and large-scale deployment of the technology by using SRS assets (e.g. facilities, staff, and property) for those critical engineering-scale demonstrations necessary to assure the successful deployment of new technologies. The Center will coordinate the demonstration of R&D technologies and serve as the interface between the engineering-scale demonstration and the R&D programs, essentially providing cradle-to-grave support to the R&D team during the demonstration. While the initial focus of the Center will be on the effective use of SRS assets for these demonstrations, the Center also will work with research teams to identify opportunities to perform R&D demonstrations at other facilities. Unique to this approach is the fact that these SRS assets will

  6. RADIOLYTIC HYDROGEN GENERATION INSAVANNAH RIVER SITE (SRS) HIGH LEVEL WASTETANKS COMPARISON OF SRS AND HANFORDMODELING PREDICTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C; Ned Bibler, N

    2009-04-15

    In the high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), hydrogen is produced continuously by interaction of the radiation in the tank with water in the waste. Consequently, the vapor spaces of the tanks are purged to prevent the accumulation of H{sub 2} and possible formation of a flammable mixture in a tank. Personnel at SRS have developed an empirical model to predict the rate of H{sub 2} formation in a tank. The basis of this model is the prediction of the G value for H{sub 2} production. This G value is the number of H{sub 2} molecules produced per 100 eV of radiolytic energy absorbed by the waste. Based on experimental studies it was found that the G value for H{sub 2} production from beta radiation and from gamma radiation were essentially equal. The G value for H{sub 2} production from alpha radiation was somewhat higher. Thus, the model has two equations, one for beta/gamma radiation and one for alpha radiation. Experimental studies have also indicated that both G values are decreased by the presence of nitrate and nitrite ions in the waste. These are the main scavengers for the precursors of H{sub 2} in the waste; thus the equations that were developed predict G values for hydrogen production as a function of the concentrations of these two ions in waste. Knowing the beta/gamma and alpha heat loads in the waste allows one to predict the total generation rate for hydrogen in a tank. With this prediction a ventilation rate can be established for each tank to ensure that a flammable mixture is not formed in the vapor space in a tank. Recently personnel at Hanford have developed a slightly different model for predicting hydrogen G values. Their model includes the same precursor for H{sub 2} as the SRS model but also includes an additional precursor not in the SRS model. Including the second precursor for H{sub 2} leads to different empirical equations for predicting the G values for H{sub 2} as a function of the nitrate and nitrite concentrations in

  7. Bootstrapping to a Semantic Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Schwidder, Jens; Talbott, Tara; Myers, James D.

    2005-02-28

    The Scientific Annotation Middleware (SAM) is a set of components and services that enable researchers, applications, problem solving environments (PSE) and software agents to create metadata and annotations about data objects and document the semantic relationships between them. Developed starting in 2001, SAM allows applications to encode metadata within files or to manage metadata at the level of individual relationships as desired. SAM then provides mechanisms to expose metadata and relation¬ships encoded either way as WebDAV properties. In this paper, we report on work to further map this metadata into RDF and discuss the role of middleware such as SAM in bridging between traditional and semantic grid applications.

  8. Shedding new light on lipid functions with CARS and SRS microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yong; Ramachandran, Prasanna V.; Wang, Meng C.

    2014-01-01

    Modern optical microscopy has granted biomedical scientists unprecedented access to the inner workings of a cell, and revolutionized our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying physiological and disease states. In spite of these advances, however, visualization of certain classes of molecules (e.g. lipids) at the sub-cellular level has remained elusive. Recently developed chemical imaging modalities – Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy and Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) microscopy – have helped bridge this gap. By selectively imaging the vibration of a specific chemical group, these non-invasive techniques allow high-resolution imaging of individual molecules in vivo, and circumvent the need for potentially perturbative extrinsic labels. These tools have already been applied to the study of fat metabolism, helping uncover novel regulators of lipid storage. Here we review the underlying principle of CARS and SRS microscopy, and discuss the advantages and caveats of each technique. We also review recent applications of these tools in the study of lipids as well as other biomolecules, and conclude with a brief guide for interested researchers to build and use CARS/SRS systems for their own research. PMID:24576891

  9. Shedding new light on lipid functions with CARS and SRS microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong; Ramachandran, Prasanna V; Wang, Meng C

    2014-08-01

    Modern optical microscopy has granted biomedical scientists unprecedented access to the inner workings of a cell, and revolutionized our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying physiological and disease states. In spite of these advances, however, visualization of certain classes of molecules (e.g. lipids) at the sub-cellular level has remained elusive. Recently developed chemical imaging modalities - Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy and Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) microscopy - have helped bridge this gap. By selectively imaging the vibration of a specific chemical group, these non-invasive techniques allow high-resolution imaging of individual molecules in vivo, and circumvent the need for potentially perturbative extrinsic labels. These tools have already been applied to the study of fat metabolism, helping uncover novel regulators of lipid storage. Here we review the underlying principle of CARS and SRS microscopy, and discuss the advantages and caveats of each technique. We also review recent applications of these tools in the study of lipids as well as other biomolecules, and conclude with a brief guide for interested researchers to build and use CARS/SRS systems for their own research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Tools to study lipid functions.

  10. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, K.; Jannik, T.

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the air monitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  11. Significance of Soft Zone Sediments at the SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Aadland, R.K.

    2000-02-03

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the origin, extent and stability of ''soft zones'' in the carbonate bearing strata at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As part of this study, a comprehensive historical compendium of how soft zones have been addressed during the past 47 years at SRS is reviewed.

  12. Enterprise SRS: Leveraging Ongoing Operations To Advance Nuclear Fuel Cycles Research And Development Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Alice M.; Marra, John E.; Wilmarth, William R.; Mcguire, Patrick W.; Wheeler, Vickie B.

    2013-07-03

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is repurposing its vast array of assets to solve future national issues regarding environmental stewardship, national security, and clean energy. The vehicle for this transformation is Enterprise SRS which presents a new, radical view of SRS as a united endeavor for ''all things nuclear'' as opposed to a group of distinct and separate entities with individual missions and organizations. Key among the Enterprise SRS strategic initiatives is the integration of research into facilities in conjunction with on-going missions to provide researchers from other national laboratories, academic institutions, and commercial entities the opportunity to demonstrate their technologies in a relevant environment and scale prior to deployment. To manage that integration of research demonstrations into site facilities, The Department of Energy, Savannah River Operations Office, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) have established a center for applied nuclear materials processing and engineering research (hereafter referred to as the Center). The key proposition of this initiative is to bridge the gap between promising transformational nuclear fuel cycle processing discoveries and large commercial-scale-technology deployment by leveraging SRS assets as facilities for those critical engineering-scale demonstrations necessary to assure the successful deployment of new technologies. The Center will coordinate the demonstration of R&D technologies and serve as the interface between the engineering-scale demonstration and the R&D programs, essentially providing cradle-to-grave support to the research team during the demonstration. While the initial focus of the Center will be on the effective use of SRS assets for these demonstrations, the Center also will work with research teams to identify opportunities to perform research demonstrations at other facilities. Unique to this approach is the fact that these SRS

  13. SRS: Site ranking system for hazardous chemical and radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Brown, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the rationale and presents instructions for a site ranking system (SRS). SRS ranks hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites by scoring important and readily available factors that influence risk to human health. Using SRS, sites can be ranked for purposes of detailed site investigations. SRS evaluates the relative risk as a combination of potentially exposed population, chemical toxicity, and potential exposure of release from a waste site; hence, SRS uses the same concepts found in a detailed assessment of health risk. Basing SRS on the concepts of risk assessment tends to reduce the distortion of results found in other ranking schemes. More importantly, a clear logic helps ensure the successful application of the ranking procedure and increases its versatility when modifications are necessary for unique situations. Although one can rank sites using a detailed risk assessment, it is potentially costly because of data and resources required. SRS is an efficient approach to provide an order-of-magnitude ranking, requiring only readily available data (often only descriptive) and hand calculations. Worksheets are included to make the system easier to understand and use. 88 refs., 19 figs., 58 tabs.

  14. Generative Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagha, Karim Nazari

    2011-01-01

    Generative semantics is (or perhaps was) a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of…

  15. Semantics and Syntax of Non-Standard Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paperno, Denis

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the diversity and unity of coordination constructions in natural language. Following the goal of bridging syntactic typology with formal semantics, it takes the typological variation in NP coordination patterns as a challenge for semantic theory. Hybrid Coordination in Russian and Comitative Coordination in…

  16. 75 FR 32158 - Information Collection; SRS Publications Evaluation Card

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; SRS Publications Evaluation Card AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; request for comment. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Forest Service is seeking comments from all interested individuals...

  17. SRS history and experience with palladium diffusers. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.; Dauchess, D.A.; Heung, L.K.; Rabun, R.L.; Motyka, T.

    1995-08-11

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has processed tritium in support of national defense programs since 1955. Palladium diffusers have been used extensively for separating hydrogen isotopes from inert gases (such as argon, helium, and nitrogen). In almost forty years of service, the design of the diffuser has been steadily improving. Several diffuser designs from different manufacturers have been evaluated at SRS. The operating experience gained from these designs together with failure analyses performed on failed units have led to several recommendations for improved diffuser designs and operating methods. This experience gained at SRS and the following recommendations form the basis of this report. Even though palladium diffuser technology has proven to be reliable, SRS has examined several alternative technologies over the past several years. This report will also review some of these promising alternatives.

  18. ENHANCED UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS FOR SRS COMPOSITE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.; Phifer, M.

    2011-06-30

    The Composite Analysis (CA) performed for the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 2009 (SRS CA 2009) included a simplified uncertainty analysis. The uncertainty analysis in the CA (Smith et al. 2009b) was limited to considering at most five sources in a separate uncertainty calculation performed for each POA. To perform the uncertainty calculations in a reasonable amount of time, the analysis was limited to using 400 realizations, 2,000 years of simulated transport time, and the time steps used for the uncertainty analysis were increased from what was used in the CA base case analysis. As part of the CA maintenance plan, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) committed to improving the CA uncertainty/sensitivity analysis. The previous uncertainty analysis was constrained by the standard GoldSim licensing which limits the user to running at most four Monte Carlo uncertainty calculations (also called realizations) simultaneously. Some of the limitations on the number of realizations that could be practically run and the simulation time steps were removed by building a cluster of three HP Proliant windows servers with a total of 36 64-bit processors and by licensing the GoldSim DP-Plus distributed processing software. This allowed running as many as 35 realizations simultaneously (one processor is reserved as a master process that controls running the realizations). These enhancements to SRNL computing capabilities made uncertainty analysis: using 1000 realizations, using the time steps employed in the base case CA calculations, with more sources, and simulating radionuclide transport for 10,000 years feasible. In addition, an importance screening analysis was performed to identify the class of stochastic variables that have the most significant impact on model uncertainty. This analysis ran the uncertainty model separately testing the response to variations in the following five sets of model parameters: (a) K{sub d} values (72 parameters for the 36 CA elements in

  19. Potential for erosion corrosion of SRS high level waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Zapp, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    SRS high-level radioactive waste tanks will not experience erosion corrosion to any significant degree during slurry pump operations. Erosion corrosion in carbon steel structures at reported pump discharge velocities is dominated by electrochemical (corrosion) processes. Interruption of those processes, as by the addition of corrosion inhibitors, sharply reduces the rate of metal loss from erosion corrosion. The well-inhibited SRS waste tanks have a near-zero general corrosion rate, and therefore will be essentially immune to erosion corrosion. The experimental data on carbon steel erosion corrosion most relevant to SRS operations was obtained at the Hanford Site on simulated Purex waste. A metal loss rate of 2.4 mils per year was measured at a temperature of 102 C and a slurry velocity comparable to calculated SRS slurry velocities on ground specimens of the same carbon steel used in SRS waste tanks. Based on these data and the much lower expected temperatures, the metal loss rate of SRS tanks under waste removal and processing conditions should be insignificant, i.e. less than 1 mil per year.

  20. Repeat Courses of Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS), Deferring Whole-Brain Irradiation, for New Brain Metastases After Initial SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Shultz, David B.; Modlin, Leslie A.; Jayachandran, Priya; Von Eyben, Rie; Gibbs, Iris C.; Choi, Clara Y.H.; Chang, Steven D.; Harsh, Griffith R.; Li, Gordon; Adler, John R.; Hancock, Steven L.; Soltys, Scott G.

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To report the outcomes of repeat stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), deferring whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT), for distant intracranial recurrences and identify factors associated with prolonged overall survival (OS). Patients and Methods: We retrospectively identified 652 metastases in 95 patients treated with 2 or more courses of SRS for brain metastases, deferring WBRT. Cox regression analyzed factors predictive for OS. Results: Patients had a median of 2 metastases (range, 1-14) treated per course, with a median of 2 courses (range, 2-14) of SRS per patient. With a median follow-up after first SRS of 15 months (range, 3-98 months), the median OS from the time of the first and second course of SRS was 18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 15-24) and 11 months (95% CI 6-17), respectively. On multivariate analysis, histology, graded prognostic assessment score, aggregate tumor volume (but not number of metastases), and performance status correlated with OS. The 1-year cumulative incidence, with death as a competing risk, of local failure was 5% (95% CI 4-8%). Eighteen (24%) of 75 deaths were from neurologic causes. Nineteen patients (20%) eventually received WBRT. Adverse radiation events developed in 2% of SRS sites. Conclusion: Multiple courses of SRS, deferring WBRT, for distant brain metastases after initial SRS, seem to be a safe and effective approach. The graded prognostic assessment score, updated at each course, and aggregate tumor volume may help select patients in whom the deferral of WBRT might be most beneficial.

  1. User-centered semantic harmonization: a case study.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chunhua; Gennari, John H; Fridsma, Douglas B

    2007-06-01

    Semantic interoperability is one of the great challenges in biomedical informatics. Methods such as ontology alignment or use of metadata neither scale nor fundamentally alleviate semantic heterogeneity among information sources. In the context of the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid program, the Biomedical Research Integrated Domain Group (BRIDG) has been making an ambitious effort to harmonize existing information models for clinical research from a variety of sources and modeling agreed-upon semantics shared by the technical harmonization committee and the developers of these models. This paper provides some observations on this user-centered semantic harmonization effort and its inherent technical and social challenges. The authors also compare BRIDG with related efforts to achieve semantic interoperability in healthcare, including UMLS, InterMed, the Semantic Web, and the Ontology for Biomedical Investigations initiative. The BRIDG project demonstrates the feasibility of user-centered collaborative domain modeling as an approach to semantic harmonization, but also highlights a number of technology gaps in support of collaborative semantic harmonization that remain to be filled.

  2. Technical Review of SRS Dose Reconstrruction Methods Used By CDC

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, Ali, A

    2005-07-20

    At the request of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a subcontractor Advanced Technologies and Laboratories International, Inc.(ATL) issued a draft report estimating offsite dose as a result of Savannah River Site operations for the period 1954-1992 in support of Phase III of the SRS Dose Reconstruction Project. The doses reported by ATL differed than those previously estimated by Savannah River Site SRS dose modelers for a variety of reasons, but primarily because (1) ATL used different source terms, (2) ATL considered trespasser/poacher scenarios and (3) ATL did not consistently use site-specific parameters or correct usage parameters. The receptors with the highest dose from atmospheric and liquid pathways were within about a factor of four greater than dose values previously reported by SRS. A complete set of technical comments have also been included.

  3. Assessment of SRS radiological liquid and airborne contaminants and pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Jannik, G.T.

    1997-04-01

    This report compiles and documents the radiological critical-contaminant/critical-pathway analysis performed for SRS. The analysis covers radiological releases to the atmosphere and to surface water, which are the principal media that carry contaminants off site. During routine operations at SRS, limited amounts of radionuclides are released to the environment through atmospheric and/or liquid pathways. These releases potentially result in exposure to offsite people. Though the groundwater beneath an estimated 5 to 10 percent of SRS has been contaminated by radionuclides, there is no evidence that groundwater contaminated with these constituents has migrated offsite (Arnett, 1996). Therefore, with the notable exception of radiological source terms originating from shallow surface water migration into site streams, onsite groundwater was not considered as a potential exposure pathway to offsite people.

  4. Methodology for Estimating Ingestion Dose for Emergency Response at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, A.A.

    2003-07-21

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), emergency response computer models are used to estimate dose following releases of radioactive materials to the environment. Downwind air and ground concentrations and their associated doses from inhalation and ground shine pathways are estimated. The emergency response model (PUFF-PLUME) uses real-time data to track either instantaneous (puff) or continuous (plume) releases. A site-specific ingestion dose model was developed for use with PUFF-PLUME that includes the following ingestion dose pathways pertinent to the surrounding SRS area: milk, beef, water, and fish. The model is simplistic and can be used with existing code output.

  5. Bridge permeameter

    DOEpatents

    Graf, Darin C.; Warpinski, Norman R.

    1996-01-01

    A system for single-phase, steady-state permeability measurements of porous rock utilizes a fluid bridge arrangement analogous to a Wheatstone bridge. The arms of the bridge contain the sample and calibrated flow resistors.

  6. Preserved Musical Semantic Memory in Semantic Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Jessica; Koenig, Phyllis; Gunawardena, Delani; McMillan, Corey; Bonner, Michael; Grossman, Murray

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the scope of semantic impairment in semantic dementia. Design Case study. Setting Academic medical center. Patient A man with semantic dementia, as demonstrated by clinical, neuropsychological, and imaging studies. Main Outcome Measures Music performance and magnetic resonance imaging results. Results Despite profoundly impaired semantic memory for words and objects due to left temporal lobe atrophy, this semiprofessional musician was creative and expressive in demonstrating preserved musical knowledge. Conclusion Long-term representations of words and objects in semantic memory may be dissociated from meaningful knowledge in other domains, such as music. PMID:21320991

  7. Wastewaters at SRS where heavy metals are a potential problem

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.; Radway, J.C.

    1994-11-01

    The principal objective of this report is to identify and prioritize heavy metal-containing wastewaters at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in terms of their suitability for testing of and clean-up by a novel bioremediation process being developed by SRTC. This process involves the use of algal biomass for sequestering heavy metal and radionuclides from wastewaters. Two categories of SRS wastewaters were considered for this investigation: (1) waste sites (primarily non-contained wastes managed by Environmental Restoration), and (2) waste streams (primarily contained wastes managed by Waste Management). An attempt was made to evaluate all sources of both categories of waste throughout the site so that rational decisions could be made with regard to selecting the most appropriate wastewaters for present study and potential future treatment. The investigation included a review of information on surface and/or groundwater associated with all known SRS waste sites, as well as waters associated with all known SRS waste streams. Following the initial review, wastewaters known or suspected to contain potentially problematic concentrations of one or more of the toxic metals were given further consideration.

  8. Three Bridge Fryer's Ford Bridge, Nimrod Bridge, and Ward's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Three Bridge - Fryer's Ford Bridge, Nimrod Bridge, and Ward's Crossing Bridge - Fryer's Ford Bridge, Spanning East Fork of Point Remove Creek at Fryer Bridge Road (CR 67), Solgohachia, Conway County, AR

  9. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the modern management of patients with brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Hany; Das, Sunit; Larson, David A.; Sahgal, Arjun

    2016-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an established non-invasive ablative therapy for brain metastases. Early clinical trials with SRS proved that tumor control rates are superior to whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) alone. As a result, WBRT plus SRS was widely adopted for patients with a limited number of brain metastases (“limited number” customarily means 1-4). Subsequent trials focused on answering whether WBRT upfront was necessary at all. Based on current randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses comparing SRS alone to SRS plus WBRT, adjuvant WBRT results in better intracranial control; however, at the expense of neurocognitive functioning and quality of life. These adverse effects of WBRT may also negatively impact on survival in younger patients. Based on the results of these studies, treatment has shifted to SRS alone in patients with a limited number of metastases. Additionally, RCTs are evaluating the role of SRS alone in patients with >4 brain metastases. New developments in SRS include fractionated SRS for large tumors and the integration of SRS with targeted systemic therapies that cross the blood brain barrier and/or stimulate an immune response. We present in this review the current high level evidence and rationale supporting SRS as the standard of care for patients with limited brain metastases, and emerging applications of SRS. PMID:26848525

  10. Evaluation of Background Mercury Concentrations in the SRS Groundwater System

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B.

    1999-03-03

    Mercury analyses associated with the A-01 Outfall have highlighted the importance of developing an understanding of mercury in the Savannah River Site groundwater system and associated surface water streams. This activity is critical based upon the fact that the EPA Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC) for this constituent is 0.012mg/L, a level that is well below conventional detection limits of 0.1 to 0.2 mg/L. A first step in this process is obtained by utilizing the existing investment in groundwater mercury concentrations (20,242 records) maintained in the SRS geographical information management system (GIMS) database. Careful use of these data provides a technically defensible initial estimate for total recoverable mercury in background and contaminated SRS wells.

  11. Continuous-wave stimulated Raman scattering (cwSRS) microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zhaokai; Petrov, Georgi I.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2013-08-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy is a powerful tool for chemically sensitive non-invasive optical imaging. However, ultrafast laser sources, which are currently employed, are still expensive and require substantial maintenance to provide temporal overlap and spectral tuning. SRS imaging, which utilizes continuous-wave laser sources, has a major advantage, as it eliminates the cell damage due to exposure to the high-intensity light radiation, while substantially reducing the cost and complexity of the setup. As a proof-of-principle, we demonstrate microscopic imaging of dimethyl sulfoxide using two independent, commonly used lasers, a diode-pumped, intracavity doubled 532-nm laser and a He-Ne laser operating at 632.8-nm.

  12. Hybrid Microwave Treatment of SRS TRU and Mixed Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, G.G.

    1999-11-18

    A new process, using hybrid microwave energy, has been developed as part of the Strategic Research and Development program and successfully applied to treatment of a wide variety of non-radioactive materials, representative of SRS transuranic (TRU) and mixed wastes. Over 35 simulated (non-radioactive) TRU and mixed waste materials were processed individually, as well as in mixed batches, using hybrid microwave energy, a new technology now being patented by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC).

  13. THERMAL MODELING ANALYSIS OF SRS 70 TON CASK

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Jordan, J.; Hensel, S.

    2011-03-08

    The primary objective of this work was to perform the thermal calculations to evaluate the Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel assembly temperatures inside the SRS 70-Ton Cask loaded with various bundle powers. MTR fuel consists of HFBR, MURR, MIT, and NIST. The MURR fuel was used to develop a bounding case since it is the fuel with the highest heat load. The results will be provided for technical input for the SRS 70 Ton Cask Onsite Safety Assessment. The calculation results show that for the SRS 70 ton dry cask with 2750 watts total heat source with a maximum bundle heat of 670 watts and 9 bundles of MURR bounding fuel, the highest fuel assembly temperatures are below about 263 C. Maximum top surface temperature of the plastic cover is about 112 C, much lower than its melting temperature 260 C. For 12 bundles of MURR bounding fuel with 2750 watts total heat and a maximum fuel bundle of 482 watts, the highest fuel assembly temperatures are bounded by the 9 bundle case. The component temperatures of the cask were calculated by a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach. The modeling calculations were performed by considering daily-averaged solar heat flux.

  14. Examining Reuse in LaSRS++-Based Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, Michael M.

    2001-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) developed the Langley Standard Real-Time Simulation in C++ (LaSRS++) to consolidate all software development for its simulation facilities under one common framework. A common framework promised a decrease in the total development effort for a new simulation by encouraging software reuse. To judge the success of LaSRS++ in this regard, reuse metrics were extracted from 11 aircraft models. Three methods that employ static analysis of the code were used to identify the reusable components. For the method that provides the best estimate, reuse levels fall between 66% and 95% indicating a high degree of reuse. Additional metrics provide insight into the extent of the foundation that LaSRS++ provides to new simulation projects. When creating variants of an aircraft, LaRC developers use object-oriented design to manage the aircraft as a reusable resource. Variants modify the aircraft for a research project or embody an alternate configuration of the aircraft. The variants inherit from the aircraft model. The variants use polymorphism to extend or redefine aircraft behaviors to meet the research requirements or to match the alternate configuration. Reuse level metrics were extracted from 10 variants. Reuse levels of aircraft by variants were 60% - 99%.

  15. Health effects of SRS non-radiological air emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.

    1997-06-16

    This report examines the potential health effects of non radiological emissions to the air resulting from operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The scope of this study was limited to the 55 air contaminants for which the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has quantified risk by determining unit risk factors (excess cancer risks) and/or reference concentrations (deleterious non cancer risks). Potential health impacts have been assessed in relation to the maximally exposed individual. This is a hypothetical person who resides for a lifetime at the SRS boundary. The most recent (1994) quality assured SRS emissions data available were used. Estimated maximum site boundary concentrations of the air contaminants were calculated using air dispersion modeling and 24-hour and annual averaging times. For the emissions studied, the excess cancer risk was found to be less than the generally accepted risk level of 1 in 100,000 and, in most cases, was less than 1 in 1,000,000. Deleterious non cancer effects were also found to be very unlikely.

  16. Semantics via Machine Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culhane, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

  17. SEMANTICS AND CRITICAL READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FLANIGAN, MICHAEL C.

    PROFICIENCY IN CRITICAL READING CAN BE ACCELERATED BY MAKING STUDENTS AWARE OF VARIOUS SEMANTIC DEVICES THAT HELP CLARIFY MEANINGS AND PURPOSES. EXCERPTS FROM THE ARTICLE "TEEN-AGE CORRUPTION" FROM THE NINTH-GRADE SEMANTICS UNIT WRITTEN BY THE PROJECT ENGLISH DEMONSTRATION CENTER AT EUCLID, OHIO, ARE USED TO ILLUSTRATE HOW SEMANTICS RELATE TO…

  18. The SRS-Viewer: A Software Tool for Displaying and Evaluation of Pyroshock Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberl, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    For the evaluation of the success of a pyroshock, the time domain and the corresponding Shock-Response- Spectra (SRS) have to be considered. The SRS-Viewer is an IABG developed software tool [1] to read data in Universal File format (*.unv) and either display or plot for each accelerometer the time domain, corresponding SRS and the specified Reference-SRS with tolerances in the background.The software calculates the "Average (AVG)", "Maximum (MAX)" and "Minimum (MIN)" SRS of any selection of accelerometers. A statistical analysis calculates the percentages of measured SRS above the specified Reference-SRS level and the percentage within the tolerance bands for comparison with the specified success criteria.Overlay plots of single accelerometers of different test runs enable to monitor the repeatability of the shock input and the integrity of the specimen. Furthermore the difference between the shock on a mass-dummy and the real test unit can be examined.

  19. Bridge permeameter

    DOEpatents

    Graf, D.C.; Warpinski, N.R.

    1996-08-13

    A system is described for single-phase, steady-state permeability measurements of porous rock which utilizes a fluid bridge arrangement analogous to a Wheatstone bridge. The arms of the bridge contain the sample and calibrated flow resistors. 8 figs.

  20. Growth in Coculture Stimulates Metabolism of the Phenylurea Herbicide Isoproturon by Sphingomonas sp. Strain SRS2

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Sebastian R.; Ronen, Zeev; Aamand, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Metabolism of the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon by Sphingomonas sp. strain SRS2 was significantly enhanced when the strain was grown in coculture with a soil bacterium (designated strain SRS1). Both members of this consortium were isolated from a highly enriched isoproturon-degrading culture derived from an agricultural soil previously treated regularly with the herbicide. Based on analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, strain SRS1 was assigned to the β-subdivision of the proteobacteria and probably represents a new genus. Strain SRS1 was unable to degrade either isoproturon or its known metabolites 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1-methylurea, 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-urea, or 4-isopropyl-aniline. Pure culture studies indicate that Sphingomonas sp. SRS2 is auxotrophic and requires components supplied by association with other soil bacteria. A specific mixture of amino acids appeared to meet these requirements, and it was shown that methionine was essential for Sphingomonas sp. SRS2. This suggests that strain SRS1 supplies amino acids to Sphingomonas sp. SRS2, thereby leading to rapid metabolism of 14C-labeled isoproturon to 14CO2 and corresponding growth of strain SRS2. Proliferation of strain SRS1 suggests that isoproturon metabolism by Sphingomonas sp. SRS2 provides unknown metabolites or cell debris that supports growth of strain SRS1. The role of strain SRS1 in the consortium was not ubiquitous among soil bacteria; however, the indigenous soil microflora and some strains from culture collections also stimulate isoproturon metabolism by Sphingomonas sp. strain SRS2 to a similar extent. PMID:12089031

  1. Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web.

    PubMed

    Splendiani, Andrea; Burger, Albert; Paschke, Adrian; Romano, Paolo; Marshall, M Scott

    2011-03-07

    The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial for the life sciences? Is biomedical information too complex to benefit from simple interlinked representations? What are the implications of adopting a new paradigm for knowledge representation? What are the incentives for the adoption of the Semantic Web, and who are the facilitators? Is there going to be a Semantic Web revolution in the life sciences?We report here a few reflections on these questions, following discussions at the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences) workshop series, of which this Journal of Biomedical Semantics special issue presents selected papers from the 2009 edition, held in Amsterdam on November 20th.

  2. New strontium polysulfides, SrS3, and Sr2(OH)2S4.10H2O, obtained by the high-pressure treatment of a Sr-S mixture.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Suga, Rimiko; Komaguchi, Kenji; Yamanaka, Shoji; Shiotani, Masaru

    2004-09-06

    A new polymorph of SrS(3) was obtained by a reaction of SrS and S with an atomic ratio of Sr:S = 1:5 under a pressure of 5 GPa at 1200 degrees C. It crystallized in a tetragonal unit cell with a = 6.708(1) A, c = 3.942(1) A, and V = 177.36(6) A(3). It was isotypic with BaS(3), and contained S3(2-) polysulfide ions. The product obtained from the high-pressure synthesis contained an amorphous component. It was highly deliquescent and formed a yellowish solution. A new layered polysulfide, Sr(2)(OH)(2)S(4).10H(2)O, crystallized in the solution. The sulfide belonged to a triclinic space group of P (No. 2) with lattice constants of a = 5.9107(5) A, b = 7.8682(6) A, c = 9.4134(6) A, alpha = 75.639(6) degrees, beta = 73.824(3) degrees, gamma = 71.639(3) degrees, V = 392.83(5) A(3), and Z = 1. Each Sr ion was coordinated with one OH ligand and eight H(2)O ligands. Six H(2)O ligands out of the eight were bridging ligands to form two-dimensional [Sr(2)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(10)(2+)]( infinity ) cationic layers, between which S4(2-) tetrapolysulfide ions were situated. The S4(2-) anion had a coplanar configuration with a dihedral angle of 180.0 degrees. The stability of S4(2-) anions having different conformations was discussed from a viewpoint of ab initio MO calculations on changing the dihedral angles of S4(2-).

  3. SRS environmental air surveillance program 1954-2015: General trends

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, K.; Jannik, T.

    2016-06-02

    The radiological monitoring program at SRS was established under the DuPont Company in June 1951 and was used as a measurement of the effectiveness of plant controls and as an authoritative record of environmental conditions surrounding the plant. It also served as a method of demonstrating compliance with applicable federal regulations and guidance. This document serves as a general summary of changes made specifically to the environmental air monitoring program since its inception, and a discussion of the general trends seen in the air monitoring program at SRS from 1954 to 2015. Initially, the environmental air surveillance program focused not only on releases from SRS but also on fallout from various weapons testing performed through the end of 1978. Flypaper was used to measure the amount of fallout in the atmosphere during this period, and was present at each of the 10 monitoring stations. By 1959, all site stacks were included in the air monitoring program to determine their contribution to the airborne radioactivity onsite, and the number of air surveillance samplers rose to 18. This trend of an increased number of sampling locations continued to a peak of 35 sampling locations before shifting to a downward trend in the mid-1990s. In 1962, 4 outer-range samplers were placed in Savannah and Macon, GA, and in Greenville and Columbia, SC. Until 1976, air samplers were simply placed around the perimeter of the various operation locations (after 1959, this included stacks to determine their contribution to the airborne radioactivity), with the intent of creating as representative a distribution as possible of the air surrounding operations.

  4. Vitrification of actinide solutions in SRS separations facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Minichan, R.L.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1995-09-01

    The actinide vitrification system being developed at SRS provides the capability to convert specialized or unique forms of nuclear material into a stable solid glass product that can be safely shipped, stored or reprocessed according to the DOE complex mission. This project is an application of technology developed through funds from the Office of Technology Development (OTD). This technology is ideally suited for vitrifying relatively small quantities of fissile or special nuclear material since it is designed to be critically safe. Successful demonstration of this system to safely vitrify radioactive material could open up numerous opportunities for transferring this technology to applications throughout the DOE complex.

  5. Lead pyrovanadate single crystal as a new SRS material

    SciTech Connect

    Basiev, Tasoltan T; Voronko, Yu K; Maslov, Vladislav A; Sobol, A A; Shukshin, V E

    2011-02-28

    Lead pyrovanadate Pb{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7} single crystals of optical quality suitable for laser experiments are obtained. Vibrational modes are identified based on the analysis of the polarised Raman spectra of the single crystals. The main parameters (width at half maximum, peak and integral intensities) of the spectral lines most promising for SRS conversion in this material are estimated. These parameters are compared with the corresponding parameters of the most frequently used lines of known Raman materials: yttrium and gadolinium vanadates, potassium and lead tungstates, and lead molybdate. (active media)

  6. PC-Based Applications Programming on the SRS Control System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martlew, Brian; Owen, Hywel; Pugh, Martin; Rawlinson, Bill; Smith, Susan

    1997-05-01

    The CERN PC-based ISOLDE control system has been installed at the SRS electron storage ring at Daresbury Laboratory. The use of Windows NT for the control consoles together with PC and VME front-end computers running under several operating systems has resulted in a flexible and reliable system for accelerator control. The implementation and philosophy of control application programs, based around a suite of Microsoft Visual Basic and Excel programs, is described. In particular, the use of Excel to provide adaptable programs online allows rapid generation of new control functions; orbit correction and servoing at the application level are described as examples of this.

  7. SRS facility impacts on Crackerneck Wildlife Management Area

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-11

    Savannah River site (SRS) facilities that contain hazardous materials have completed the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) process in accordance with Emergency Management Program Procedure (EMPP) 6Q-001. The EPHA determines the consequences of releases from these facilities and identifies events that exceed Protective Action Criteria (PAC) at defined receptor locations for areas of interest. One such area of interest is the Crackerneck wildlife Management Area (WMA). As such, facilities with releases that have the potential to exceed PAC at the Crackerneck WMA have been identified.

  8. Semantic Networks and Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate the need for social network metadata within semantic metadata. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys properties of social networks and the semantic web, suggests that social network analysis applies to semantic content, argues that semantic content is more searchable if social network metadata is merged with semantic web…

  9. Alternative Ultrafiltration Membrane Testing for the SRS Baseline Process

    SciTech Connect

    N. R. Mann; R. S. Herbst; T. G. Garn; M. R. Poirier; S. D. Fink

    2004-06-01

    The ability to more rapidly process high-level waste sludge and supernate, without sacrificing cost savings, continues to be a crucial challenge facing the Savannah River Site (SRS). There has, to date, not been any extensive investigation of alternative filter technologies for the SRS baseline process. To address this problem, a focused investigation into alternative, state-of-the art filtration technologies to facilitate the strontium and actinide removal process, which can be cost effectively implemented in existing facilities and current equipment designs, was completed. Filter technologies manufactured by Mott (0.1 µm and 0.5 µm) Graver (0.07 µm), Pall (0.1 µm and 0.8 µm) and GKN (0.1 µm) were evaluated. Membranes had a nominal inside diameter of 3/8 inches and an active membrane length of 2 feet. The investigation was performed in two phases. The first phase of testing evaluated the consistency or variability in flux through the different membranes using water and a standard 5.0 wt% strontium carbonate slurry. The second phase of testing evaluated the achievable permeate flux and clarity through the various membranes using the SRS average salt supernate simulant at solids loadings of 0.06, 0.29 and 4.5 wt%. Membrane variation data indicate that membranes having an asymmetric ceramic coating (Pall 0.1 µm and Graver 0.07 µm), typically displayed the lowest variability with water. Membranes without a ceramic asymmetric coating (Mott 0.5 µm and GKN 0.1 µm) displayed the highest variability. This is most likely associated with the experimental uncertainties in measuring large volumes of permeate in a short amount of time and to the impact of impurities in the water. In general, variability ranging from 4-56% was observed when using water for all membranes. In the case of variation testing using strontium carbonate, variability decreased to 3-12%. In addition, membrane structure or composition had little effect on the variability. Data obtained from SRS

  10. Long-term outcome of stereotactic radiosurgery (Srs) in patients with acoustic neuromas

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, Stephanie E. . E-mail: Stephanie.Combs@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Thilmann, Christoph; Debus, Juergen; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness and long-term outcome of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for acoustic neuromas (AN). Patients and Methods: Between 1990 and 2001, we treated 26 patients with 27 AN with SRS. Two patients suffered from neurofibromatosis type 2. Before SRS, a subtotal or total resection had been performed in 3 and in 5 patients, respectively. For SRS, a median single dose of 13 Gy/80% isodose was applied. Results: The overall actuarial 5-year and 10-year tumor control probability in all patients was 91%. Two patients developed tumor progression after SRS at 36 and 48 months. Nineteen patients (73%) were at risk of treatment-related facial nerve toxicity; of these, 1 patient developed a complete facial nerve palsy after SRS (5%). A total of 93% of the lesions treated were at risk of radiation-induced trigeminal neuralgia. Two patients (8%) developed mild dysesthesia of the trigeminal nerve after SRS. The hearing preservation rate in patients with useful hearing before SRS was 55% at 9 years. Conclusion:: Stereotactic radiosurgery results in good local control rates of AN and the risk of cranial nerve toxicities is acceptable. As toxicity is lower with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, SRS should be reserved for smaller lesions.

  11. Safer Bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Safer bridges are among a number of spinoff benefits from NASA procedures for testing 'cfracture toughness" of a structural part, meaning its ability to -siscracktsh at might cause failure. The New River Bridge in West Virginia, shown under construction, is the world's largest single span bridge. U.S. Steel fracture toughness requirements for such bridges include NASA-developed test procedures. Bridge materials and other metal structures may develop flaws during their service lifetimes. Such flaws can affect the structural integrity of the part. Thus, it is important to know the "fracture toughness" of a structural part, or its ability to resist cracks. NASA has long experience in developing fracture toughness tests for aerospace hardware. Since 1960, NASA-Lewis has worked closely with the American Society for Testing & Materials. Lewis and NASA-funded industrial contractors have made many important contributions to test procedures, now recommended by ASTM, for measuring fracture toughness.

  12. Model-based semantic dictionaries for medical language understanding.

    PubMed Central

    Rassinoux, A. M.; Baud, R. H.; Ruch, P.; Trombert-Paviot, B.; Rodrigues, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    Semantic dictionaries are emerging as a major cornerstone towards achieving sound natural language understanding. Indeed, they constitute the main bridge between words and conceptual entities that reflect their meanings. Nowadays, more and more wide-coverage lexical dictionaries are electronically available in the public domain. However, associating a semantic content with lexical entries is not a straightforward task as it is subordinate to the existence of a fine-grained concept model of the treated domain. This paper presents the benefits and pitfalls in building and maintaining multilingual dictionaries, the semantics of which is directly established on an existing concept model. Concrete cases, handled through the GALEN-IN-USE project, illustrate the use of such semantic dictionaries for the analysis and generation of multilingual surgical procedures. PMID:10566333

  13. The Semantic Learning Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicilia, Miguel-Angel; Lytras, Miltiadis D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is introducing the concept of a "semantic learning organization" (SLO) as an extension of the concept of "learning organization" in the technological domain. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes existing definitions and conceptualizations of both learning organizations and Semantic Web technology to develop…

  14. Aging and Semantic Activation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Darlene V.

    Three studies tested the theory that long term memory consists of a semantically organized network of concept nodes interconnected by leveled associations or relations, and that when a stimulus is processed, the corresponding concept node is assumed to be temporarily activated and this activation spreads to nearby semantically related nodes. In…

  15. Semantic Sensor Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, A.; Henson, C.; Thirunarayan, K.

    2008-12-01

    Sensors are distributed across the globe leading to an avalanche of data about our environment. It is possible today to utilize networks of sensors to detect and identify a multitude of observations, from simple phenomena to complex events and situations. The lack of integration and communication between these networks, however, often isolates important data streams and intensifies the existing problem of too much data and not enough knowledge. With a view to addressing this problem, the Semantic Sensor Web (SSW) [1] proposes that sensor data be annotated with semantic metadata that will both increase interoperability and provide contextual information essential for situational knowledge. Kno.e.sis Center's approach to SSW is an evolutionary one. It adds semantic annotations to the existing standard sensor languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) defined by OGC. These annotations enhance primarily syntactic XML-based descriptions in OGC's SWE languages with microformats, and W3C's Semantic Web languages- RDF and OWL. In association with semantic annotation and semantic web capabilities including ontologies and rules, SSW supports interoperability, analysis and reasoning over heterogeneous multi-modal sensor data. In this presentation, we will also demonstrate a mashup with support for complex spatio-temporal-thematic queries [2] and semantic analysis that utilize semantic annotations, multiple ontologies and rules. It uses existing services (e.g., GoogleMap) and semantics enhanced SWE's Sensor Observation Service (SOS) over weather and road condition data from various sensors that are part of Ohio's transportation network. Our upcoming plans are to demonstrate end to end (heterogeneous sensor to application) semantics support and study scalability of SSW involving thousands of sensors to about a billion triples. Keywords: Semantic Sensor Web, Spatiotemporal thematic queries, Semantic Web Enablement, Sensor Observation Service [1] Amit Sheth, Cory Henson, Satya

  16. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  17. Enhancing medical database semantics.

    PubMed Central

    Leão, B. de F.; Pavan, A.

    1995-01-01

    Medical Databases deal with dynamic, heterogeneous and fuzzy data. The modeling of such complex domain demands powerful semantic data modeling methodologies. This paper describes GSM-Explorer a Case Tool that allows for the creation of relational databases using semantic data modeling techniques. GSM Explorer fully incorporates the Generic Semantic Data Model-GSM enabling knowledge engineers to model the application domain with the abstraction mechanisms of generalization/specialization, association and aggregation. The tool generates a structure that implements persistent database-objects through the automatic generation of customized SQL ANSI scripts that sustain the semantics defined in the higher lever. This paper emphasizes the system architecture and the mapping of the semantic model into relational tables. The present status of the project and its further developments are discussed in the Conclusions. PMID:8563288

  18. Commercial Submersible Mixing Pump For SRS Tank Waste Removal - 15223

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, Mike; Herbert, James E.; Scheele, Patrick W.

    2015-01-12

    The Savannah River Site Tank Farms have 45 active underground waste tanks used to store and process nuclear waste materials. There are 4 different tank types, ranging in capacity from 2839 m3 to 4921 m3 (750,000 to 1,300,000 gallons). Eighteen of the tanks are older style and do not meet all current federal standards for secondary containment. The older style tanks are the initial focus of waste removal efforts for tank closure and are referred to as closure tanks. Of the original 51 underground waste tanks, six of the original 24 older style tanks have completed waste removal and are filled with grout. The insoluble waste fraction that resides within most waste tanks at SRS requires vigorous agitation to suspend the solids within the waste liquid in order to transfer this material for eventual processing into glass filled canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SRS suspends the solid waste by use of recirculating mixing pumps. Older style tanks generally have limited riser openings which will not support larger mixing pumps, since the riser access is typically 58.4 cm (23 inches) in diameter. Agitation for these tanks has been provided by four long shafted standard slurry pumps (SLP) powered by an above tank 112KW (150 HP) electric motor. The pump shaft is lubricated and cooled in a pressurized water column that is sealed from the surrounding waste in the tank. Closure of four waste tanks has been accomplished utilizing long shafted pump technology combined with heel removal using multiple technologies. Newer style waste tanks at SRS have larger riser openings, allowing the processing of waste solids to be accomplished with four large diameter SLPs equipped with 224KW (300 HP) motors. These tanks are used to process the waste from closure tanks for DWPF. In addition to the SLPs, a 224KW (300 HP) submersible mixer pump (SMP) has also been developed and deployed within older style tanks. The SMPs are product cooled and

  19. Clemson final report: High temperature formulations for SRS soils

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, R.F.

    1997-03-11

    This study was undertaken to demonstrate the application of a DC arc melter to in-situ vitrification of SRS soils. The melter that was available at the DOE/Industrial Vitrification Laboratory at Clemson University was equipped with opposing solid electrodes. To simulate field conditions, two hollow electrode configurations were evaluated which allowed fluxes to be injected into the melter while the soils were being vitrified. the first 4 runs utilized pre-blended flux (two runs) and attempted flux injection (two runs). These runs were terminated prematurely due to offgas sampling problems and melt freezing. The remaining four runs utilized a different electrode geometry, and the runs were not interrupted to change out the offgas sampling apparatus. These runs were conducted successfully.

  20. Period Analysis of Three SRS: Stars in the Kepler Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Red, Wesley; Jones, Gabrielle; Cash, Jennifer; Walter, Donald K.

    2017-01-01

    As a portion of a larger project to observe SemiRegular Variable Stars in the original Kepler field, our research group is analyzing the light curve of three objects currently classified as SRS: stars in the GCVS, meaning that they possible members of the newer classification of Semi Regular variables of Short periods. We will present our analysis of the Kepler data to date. In particular these targets presented some interesting challenges to the standard analysis pipeline and we will present the steps taken to work around these challenges.This work was support by the South Carolina Space Grant Consortium. This work was also supported in part by NSF PAARE award AST-1358913 to SCSU and Kepler GO award NNX13AC24G to SCSU.

  1. APPLICATION OF NONSPHERICAL FISSILE CONFIGURATION IN WASTE CONTAINERS AT SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Eghbali, D; Michelle Abney, M

    2007-01-03

    Transuranic (TRU) solid waste that has been generated as a result of the production of nuclear material for the United States defense program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been stored in more than 30,000 55-gallon drums and carbon steel boxes since 1953. Nearly two thirds of those containers have been processed and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Among the containers assayed so far, the results indicate several drums with fissile inventories significantly higher (600-1000 fissile grams equivalent (FGE) {sup 239}Pu) than their original assigned values. While part of this discrepancy can be attributed to the past limited assay capabilities, human errors are believed to be the primary contributor. This paper summarizes the application of nonspherical fissile material configuration in waste containers, resulting in less restrictive mass and spacing limits, increased storage capacity, and several administrative controls for handling and storage of waste containers being modified without compromising safety.

  2. Semantics, Pragmatics, and the Nature of Semantic Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spewak, David Charles, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The primary concern of this dissertation is determining the distinction between semantics and pragmatics and how context sensitivity should be accommodated within a semantic theory. I approach the question over how to distinguish semantics from pragmatics from a new angle by investigating what the objects of a semantic theory are, namely…

  3. The role of textual semantic constraints in knowledge-based inference generation during reading comprehension: A computational approach.

    PubMed

    Yeari, Menahem; van den Broek, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The present research adopted a computational approach to explore the extent to which the semantic content of texts constrains the activation of knowledge-based inferences. Specifically, we examined whether textual semantic constraints (TSC) can explain (1) the activation of predictive inferences, (2) the activation of bridging inferences and (3) the higher prevalence of the activation of bridging inferences compared to predictive inferences. To examine these hypotheses, we computed the strength of semantic associations between texts and probe items as presented to human readers in previous behavioural studies, using the Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) algorithm. We tested whether stronger semantic associations are observed for inferred items compared to control items. Our results show that in 15 out of 17 planned comparisons, the computed strength of semantic associations successfully simulated the activation of inferences. These findings suggest that TSC play a central role in the activation of knowledge-based inferences.

  4. Justification for Continued Operation of the SRS Saltstone Facility (Z-Area)

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, W.A.

    1999-01-20

    Saltstone Production and Disposal Facilities (Z-Area) are a part of the Defense Waste Processing Facilities (DWPF). Z-Area facilities are just one segment of an integrated waste management and disposal system located at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The bases for the Justification of Continuing Operations (JCO) of the Saltstone Production and Disposal Facilities (Z-Area) at SRS are provided.

  5. Srs2 promotes Mus81-Mms4-mediated resolution of recombination intermediates.

    PubMed

    Chavdarova, Melita; Marini, Victoria; Sisakova, Alexandra; Sedlackova, Hana; Vigasova, Dana; Brill, Steven J; Lisby, Michael; Krejci, Lumir

    2015-04-20

    A variety of DNA lesions, secondary DNA structures or topological stress within the DNA template may lead to stalling of the replication fork. Recovery of such forks is essential for the maintenance of genomic stability. The structure-specific endonuclease Mus81-Mms4 has been implicated in processing DNA intermediates that arise from collapsed forks and homologous recombination. According to previous genetic studies, the Srs2 helicase may play a role in the repair of double-strand breaks and ssDNA gaps together with Mus81-Mms4. In this study, we show that the Srs2 and Mus81-Mms4 proteins physically interact in vitro and in vivo and we map the interaction domains within the Srs2 and Mus81 proteins. Further, we show that Srs2 plays a dual role in the stimulation of the Mus81-Mms4 nuclease activity on a variety of DNA substrates. First, Srs2 directly stimulates Mus81-Mms4 nuclease activity independent of its helicase activity. Second, Srs2 removes Rad51 from DNA to allow access of Mus81-Mms4 to cleave DNA. Concomitantly, Mus81-Mms4 inhibits the helicase activity of Srs2. Taken together, our data point to a coordinated role of Mus81-Mms4 and Srs2 in processing of recombination as well as replication intermediates.

  6. SRS2 and SGS1 prevent chromosomal breaks and stabilize triplet repeats by restraining recombination.

    PubMed

    Kerrest, Alix; Anand, Ranjith P; Sundararajan, Rangapriya; Bermejo, Rodrigo; Liberi, Giordano; Dujon, Bernard; Freudenreich, Catherine H; Richard, Guy-Franck

    2009-02-01

    Several molecular mechanisms have been proposed to explain trinucleotide repeat expansions. Here we show that in yeast srs2Delta cells, CTG repeats undergo both expansions and contractions, and they show increased chromosomal fragility. Deletion of RAD52 or RAD51 suppresses these phenotypes, suggesting that recombination triggers trinucleotide repeat instability in srs2Delta cells. In sgs1Delta cells, CTG repeats undergo contractions and increased fragility by a mechanism partially dependent on RAD52 and RAD51. Analysis of replication intermediates revealed abundant joint molecules at the CTG repeats during S phase. These molecules migrate similarly to reversed replication forks, and their presence is dependent on SRS2 and SGS1 but not RAD51. Our results suggest that Srs2 promotes fork reversal in repetitive sequences, preventing repeat instability and fragility. In the absence of Srs2 or Sgs1, DNA damage accumulates and is processed by homologous recombination, triggering repeat rearrangements.

  7. A Semantic Graph Query Language

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I L

    2006-10-16

    Semantic graphs can be used to organize large amounts of information from a number of sources into one unified structure. A semantic query language provides a foundation for extracting information from the semantic graph. The graph query language described here provides a simple, powerful method for querying semantic graphs.

  8. A Defense of Semantic Minimalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Su

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Minimalism is a position about the semantic content of declarative sentences, i.e., the content that is determined entirely by syntax. It is defined by the following two points: "Point 1": The semantic content is a complete/truth-conditional proposition. "Point 2": The semantic content is useful to a theory of…

  9. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by closure

  10. Treatment of SRS Tank 48H Simulants Using Fenton's Reagent

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, PA

    2003-11-18

    High-level-waste Tank 48H at the Savannah River Site (SRS) contains about 50,000 lb of tetraphenylborate (TPB), which must be destroyed to return the tank to active service. Laboratory-scale tests were conducted to evaluate the use of Fenton's Reagent (hydrogen peroxide and a metal catalyst) to treat simulants of the Tank 48H waste. Samples of the treated slurry and the off-gas were analyzed to determine the reaction products. Process parameters developed earlier by AEA Technology were used for these tests; namely (for 500 mL of waste simulant), reduce pH to 7.5 with nitric acid, heat to boiling, add hydrogen peroxide at 1 mL/min for 1 h, reduce pH to 3.5, and add the remaining peroxide at 2 mL/min. These parameters were developed to minimize the formation of tarry materials during the early part of the reaction and to minimize the concentration of total organic carbon in the final treated slurry. The treated samples contained low concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC) and no detectable TPB. Tests using a mixture of iron and copper salts as the Fenton's catalyst had a lower TOC concentration in the final treated slurry than did tests that used a copper-only catalyst. TPB is known to hydrolyze to benzene, particularly at high temperature and low pH, and copper is known to increase the rate of hydrolysis. Significant amounts of benzene were present in the off-gas from the tests, especially during the early portion of the treatment, indicating that the hydrolysis reaction was occurring in parallel with the oxidation of the TPB by Fenton's reagent. For the reaction conditions used in these tests, approximately equal fractions of the TPB were converted to benzene and carbon dioxide. Minimizing the formation of benzene is important to SRS personnel; however, this consideration was not addressed in the AEA-recommended parameters, since they did not analyze for benzene in the off-gas. Smaller amounts of carbon monoxide and other organics were also produced. One test

  11. Feasibility of using the Vero SBRT system for intracranial SRS.

    PubMed

    Burghelea, Manuela; Verellen, Dirk; Gevaert, Thierry; Depuydt, Tom; Poels, Kenneth; Simon, Viorica; De Ridder, Mark

    2014-01-06

    The Vero SBRT system was benchmarked in a planning study against the Novalis SRS system for quality of delivered dose distributions to intracranial lesions and assessing the Vero system's capacity for SRS. A total of 27 patients with one brain lesion treated on the Novalis system, with 3 mm leaf width MLC and C-arm gantry, were replanned for Vero, with a 5 mm leaf width MLC mounted on an O-ring gantry allowing rotations around both the horizontal and vertical axis. The Novalis dynamic conformal arc (DCA) planning included vertex arcs, using 90° couch rotation. These vertex arcs cannot be reproduced with Vero due to the mechanical limitations of the O-ring gantry. Alternative class solutions were investigated for the Vero. Additionally, to distinguish between the effect of MLC leaf width and different beam arrangements on dose distributions, the Vero class solutions were also applied for Novalis. In addition, the added value of noncoplanar IMRT was investigated in this study. Quality of the achieved dose distributions was expressed in the conformity index (CI) and gradient index (GI), and compared using a paired Student's t-test with statistical significance for p-values ≤ 0.05. For lesions larger than 5 cm3, no statistical significant difference in conformity was observed between Vero and Novalis, but for smaller lesions, the dose distributions showed a significantly better conformity for the Novalis (ΔCI = 13.74%, p = 0.0002) mainly due to the smaller MLC leaf width. Using IMRT on Vero reduces this conformity difference to nonsignificant levels. The cutoff for achieving a GI around 3, characterizing a sharp dose falloff outside the target volume was 4 cm3 for Novalis and 7 cm3 for Vero using DCA technique. Using noncoplanar IMRT, this threshold was reduced to 3 cm3 for the Vero system. The smaller MLC and the presence of the vertex fields allow the Novalis system to better conform the dose around the lesion and to obtain steeper dose falloff outside the lesion

  12. MIXING MODELING ANALYSIS FOR SRS SALT WASTE DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2011-01-18

    Nuclear waste at Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks consists of three different types of waste forms. They are the lighter salt solutions referred to as supernate, the precipitated salts as salt cake, and heavier fine solids as sludge. The sludge is settled on the tank floor. About half of the residual waste radioactivity is contained in the sludge, which is only about 8 percentage of the total waste volume. Mixing study to be evaluated here for the Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) project focuses on supernate preparations in waste tanks prior to transfer to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The methods to mix and blend the contents of the SRS blend tanks were evalutaed to ensure that the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 50H to the SWPF feed tank. The work consists of two principal objectives to investigate two different pumps. One objective is to identify a suitable pumping arrangement that will adequately blend/mix two miscible liquids to obtain a uniform composition in the tank with a minimum level of sludge solid particulate in suspension. The other is to estimate the elevation in the tank at which the transfer pump inlet should be located where the solid concentration of the entrained fluid remains below the acceptance criterion (0.09 wt% or 1200 mg/liter) during transfer operation to the SWPF. Tank 50H is a Waste Tank that will be used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the mixing modeling analysis during miscible liquid blending operation, and the flow pattern analysis during transfer operation of the blended liquid. The modeling results will provide quantitative design and operation information during the mixing/blending process and the transfer operation of the blended

  13. ALTERNATE APPROACH TO HAZARD CATEGORIZATION FOR SALTSTONE FACILITY AT SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, B.

    2009-04-28

    The Saltstone Facility at Savannah River Site (SRS) was originally segmented into two segments: the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). Based on the inventory of radionuclides available for release the SPF and SDF were categorized as Nonreactor Hazard Category (HC)-3. The hazard categorization recognized the SDF will contain contributions of radionuclides which would exceed the HC-2 Threshold Quantity (TQ) in the form of grout. However it was determined not to impact the facility hazard categorization based on the grout being in a solid, monolithic form which was not easily dispersible. But, the impact of a quantity of unset grout expected to be present at the vault following operation of the process was not addressed. A Potential Inadequacy in Safety Analysis (PISA) was later issued based on the hazard categorization determination for the facility not addressing unset grout. This initiated a re-evaluation of the accident scenarios within the hazards analysis. During this re-evaluation, the segmentation of the facility was challenged based on the potential interaction between facility segments; specifically, the leachate return line and the grout transfer line, which were considered separate segments, are located in close proximity at one point. such that for certain events (NPH as well as External Vehicle Impact) both could be damaged simultaneously and spill contents on the ground that could commingle. This would violate the guideline for segmentation. Therefore, the Hazard Categorization (HC) was reevaluated based on the facility being a single segment and including the additional unset grout as part of total inventory. This total inventory far exceeded the limit for HC-2 TQ and made the facility's initial categorization as HC-2. However, alternative analysis methodology based on credible release fractions allowed in DOE-STD-1027-92 (Ref.1) showed that the Saltstone facility could still be categorized as Hazard Category

  14. Trusting Crowdsourced Geospatial Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodhue, P.; McNair, H.; Reitsma, F.

    2015-08-01

    The degree of trust one can place in information is one of the foremost limitations of crowdsourced geospatial information. As with the development of web technologies, the increased prevalence of semantics associated with geospatial information has increased accessibility and functionality. Semantics also provides an opportunity to extend indicators of trust for crowdsourced geospatial information that have largely focused on spatio-temporal and social aspects of that information. Comparing a feature's intrinsic and extrinsic properties to associated ontologies provides a means of semantically assessing the trustworthiness of crowdsourced geospatial information. The application of this approach to unconstrained semantic submissions then allows for a detailed assessment of the trust of these features whilst maintaining the descriptive thoroughness this mode of information submission affords. The resulting trust rating then becomes an attribute of the feature, providing not only an indication as to the trustworthiness of a specific feature but is able to be aggregated across multiple features to illustrate the overall trustworthiness of a dataset.

  15. Multimodal visual dictionary learning via heterogeneous latent semantic sparse coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chenxiao; Ding, Guiguang; Zhou, Jile; Guo, Yuchen; Liu, Qiang

    2014-11-01

    Visual dictionary learning as a crucial task of image representation has gained increasing attention. Specifically, sparse coding is widely used due to its intrinsic advantage. In this paper, we propose a novel heterogeneous latent semantic sparse coding model. The central idea is to bridge heterogeneous modalities by capturing their common sparse latent semantic structure so that the learned visual dictionary is able to describe both the visual and textual properties of training data. Experiments on both image categorization and retrieval tasks demonstrate that our model shows superior performance over several recent methods such as K-means and Sparse Coding.

  16. A federated semantic metadata registry framework for enabling interoperability across clinical research and care domains.

    PubMed

    Sinaci, A Anil; Laleci Erturkmen, Gokce B

    2013-10-01

    In order to enable secondary use of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) by bridging the interoperability gap between clinical care and research domains, in this paper, a unified methodology and the supporting framework is introduced which brings together the power of metadata registries (MDR) and semantic web technologies. We introduce a federated semantic metadata registry framework by extending the ISO/IEC 11179 standard, and enable integration of data element registries through Linked Open Data (LOD) principles where each Common Data Element (CDE) can be uniquely referenced, queried and processed to enable the syntactic and semantic interoperability. Each CDE and their components are maintained as LOD resources enabling semantic links with other CDEs, terminology systems and with implementation dependent content models; hence facilitating semantic search, much effective reuse and semantic interoperability across different application domains. There are several important efforts addressing the semantic interoperability in healthcare domain such as IHE DEX profile proposal, CDISC SHARE and CDISC2RDF. Our architecture complements these by providing a framework to interlink existing data element registries and repositories for multiplying their potential for semantic interoperability to a greater extent. Open source implementation of the federated semantic MDR framework presented in this paper is the core of the semantic interoperability layer of the SALUS project which enables the execution of the post marketing safety analysis studies on top of existing EHR systems.

  17. Cementitious Grout for Closing SRS High Level Waste Tanks - 12315

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.; Stefanko, D.B.; Burns, H.H.; Waymer, J.; Mhyre, W.B.; Herbert, J.E.; Jolly, J.C. Jr.

    2012-07-01

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. Ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks will also be filled to the extent practical. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and to be chemically reducing with a reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400. Grouts with this chemistry stabilize potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted to support the mass placement strategy developed by

  18. SRS supplemental safety system injection (gas pressurizer) test

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, W.L.; Dimenna, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation and validation of an existing version of the RELAP5 thermal hydraulics computer code was undertaken for the purpose of certification for use in the new production reactor - heavy water reactor (NPR-HWR) program. This version of the code was RELAP5/MOD3 Version 5q, designated for the purposes of the NPR-HWR program as RELAP5/NPR Version 0. As part of the evaluation and assessment, test data from theSRS Supplemental Safety System Injection (Gas Pressurizer) was used to verify and assess the ability of RELAP5/NPR Version 0 to perform thermal-hydraulic model analysis using the test data. Specifically, the assessment determines RELAP5/NPR Version 0 capability in modeling sudden depressurization phenomena. Two RELAP5/NPR Version 0 components (pipe and accumulator) were used to compare calculated pressure and temperature against test data. The code deficiencies are a temperature clamp in the accumulator component prevents the gas temperature from going below [minus]9[degrees]F, and RELAP5 accumulator and pipe components wall-to-fluid heat transfer correlation and interfacial vapor heat transfer correlation need substantial improvement. Only the code pipe component calculated pressures and temperatures within the specified 10 percent accuracy.

  19. SRS supplemental safety system injection (gas pressurizer) test

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, W.L.; Dimenna, R.A.

    1992-12-31

    An evaluation and validation of an existing version of the RELAP5 thermal hydraulics computer code was undertaken for the purpose of certification for use in the new production reactor - heavy water reactor (NPR-HWR) program. This version of the code was RELAP5/MOD3 Version 5q, designated for the purposes of the NPR-HWR program as RELAP5/NPR Version 0. As part of the evaluation and assessment, test data from theSRS Supplemental Safety System Injection (Gas Pressurizer) was used to verify and assess the ability of RELAP5/NPR Version 0 to perform thermal-hydraulic model analysis using the test data. Specifically, the assessment determines RELAP5/NPR Version 0 capability in modeling sudden depressurization phenomena. Two RELAP5/NPR Version 0 components (pipe and accumulator) were used to compare calculated pressure and temperature against test data. The code deficiencies are a temperature clamp in the accumulator component prevents the gas temperature from going below {minus}9{degrees}F, and RELAP5 accumulator and pipe components wall-to-fluid heat transfer correlation and interfacial vapor heat transfer correlation need substantial improvement. Only the code pipe component calculated pressures and temperatures within the specified 10 percent accuracy.

  20. Control of collective FSBS and backscatter SRS through plasma composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Harvey; Lushnikov, Pavel

    2005-10-01

    Nominal NIF parameters are near the collective forward SBS (FSBS) threshold (P. M. Lushnikov and H. A. Rose, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 255003 (2004), ``L&R''). It will be shown that being on this instability edge can be used as a control lever: a small amount of high Z dopant may lead to qualitative change in FSBS regime at fixed laser intensity, possibly reducing backscatter instability losses (Such results have already been observed, but absent SSD, a key aspect of our theory: R. M. Stevenson et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2709 (2004); L. J. Suter et al., 2738, ib.). Ponderomotive FSBS regimes are determined by the parameter I=F^2( vosc / vosc ve . - ve )^2( ne / ne nc . - nc ) / ( ne / ne nc . - nc ) ν . - ν, with ν the dimensionless ion acoustic damping coefficient and F the optic f/#. Analytical results will be presented which show a decrease of I1pt's threshold value through the addition of high Z dopant to low Z plasma, owing to increased thermal contribution to FSBS. Alternatively, one may raise the threshold by managing the value of νby, e.g., adding He to SiO2. For nominal NIF parameters, a range of He fraction in SiO2 plasma is predicted to suppress backscatter SRS while maintaining control of forward SBS.

  1. Analyses of SRS waste glass buried in granite in Sweden and salt in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.P.; Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Lodding, A.R.

    1991-12-31

    Simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste glass forms have been buried in the granite geology of the Stirpa mine in Sweden for two years. Analyses of glass surfaces provided a measure of the performance of the waste glasses as a function of time. Similar SRS waste glass compositions have also been buried in salt at the WIPP facility in Carlsbad, New Mexico for a similar time period. Analyses of the SRS waste glasses buried in-situ in granite will be presented and compared to the performance of these same compositions buried in salt at WIPP.

  2. Analyses of SRS waste glass buried in granite in Sweden and salt in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.P. ); Wicks, G.G. ); Clark, D.E. ); Lodding, A.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste glass forms have been buried in the granite geology of the Stirpa mine in Sweden for two years. Analyses of glass surfaces provided a measure of the performance of the waste glasses as a function of time. Similar SRS waste glass compositions have also been buried in salt at the WIPP facility in Carlsbad, New Mexico for a similar time period. Analyses of the SRS waste glasses buried in-situ in granite will be presented and compared to the performance of these same compositions buried in salt at WIPP.

  3. NPH Risk Assessment and Mitigation of a SRS Facility for the Safe Storage of Tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, J.R.; Griffin, M.J.; Bjorkman, G.S.

    1995-10-18

    Because of the reduction in the nation`s stockpile of weapon systems a large amount of tritium is being returned to the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Due to the increased quantity of tritium returning to SRS, the SRS Tritium Facility was tasked to determine the most cost effective means to safely store the tritium gas in a short period of time. This paper presents results of the risk assessment developed to evaluate the safe storage of tritium at SRS, and highlights the structural design of the HIVES used as the cost-effective short term NPH mitigation solution.

  4. DECOMMISSIONING THE PHYSICS LABORATORY, BUILDING 777-10A, AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE (SRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Musall, J; Cathy Sizemore, C

    2007-01-17

    SRS recently completed a four-year mission to decommission {approx}250 excess facilities. As part of that effort, SRS decommissioned a 48,000 ft{sup 2} laboratory that housed four low-power test reactors, formerly used by SRS to determine reactor physics. This paper describes and reviews the decommissioning, with a focus on component segmentation and handling (i.e. hazardous material removal, demolition, and waste handling). The paper is intended to be a resource for engineers, planners, and project managers who face similar decommissioning challenges.

  5. Non-semantic contributions to "semantic" redundancy gain.

    PubMed

    Shepherdson, Peter; Miller, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Recently, two groups of researchers have reported redundancy gains (enhanced performance with multiple, redundant targets) in tasks requiring semantic categorization. Here we report two experiments aimed at determining whether the gains found by one of these groups resulted from some form of semantic coactivation. We asked undergraduate psychology students to complete choice RT tasks requiring the semantic categorization of visually presented words, and compared performance with redundant targets from the same semantic category to performance with redundant targets from different semantic categories. If the redundancy gains resulted from the combination of information at a semantic level, they should have been greater in the former than the latter situation. However, our results showed no significant differences in redundancy gain (for latency and accuracy) between same-category and different-category conditions, despite gains appearing in both conditions. Thus, we suggest that redundancy gain in the semantic categorization task may result entirely from statistical facilitation or combination of information at non-semantic levels.

  6. Bridges, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Michael, Ed.; Zito, Michael, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document is comprised of the one issue in volume 7 of "Bridges," a publication produced by the California Head Start-State Collaboration Office to detail the activities of the educational partnership and to provide relevant information to programs participating in the partnership. The Summer 2002 issue focuses on several topics of…

  7. Software Bridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    I-Bridge is a commercial version of software developed by I-Kinetics under a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The software allows users of Windows applications to gain quick, easy access to databases, programs and files on UNIX services. Information goes directly onto spreadsheets and other applications; users need not manually locate, transfer and convert data.

  8. Wheatstone's Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2005-01-01

    The arrangement of four resistors, a source of emf, and a galvanometer, known as Wheatstone's bridge, has been in existence for more than 170 years. The only other piece of apparatus with its staying power is Atwood's machine. Now that it has reached mature status, it seems only fitting to describe its origin, analysis, circuit topology, and past and future uses.

  9. TRANSIENT HEAT TRANSFER MODEL FOR SRS WASTE TANK OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-03-27

    A transient heat balance model was developed to assess the impact of a Submersible Mixer Pump (SMP) on waste temperature during the process of waste mixing and removal for the Type-I Savannah River Site (SRS) tanks. The model results will be mainly used to determine the SMP design impacts on the waste tank temperature during operations and to develop a specification for a new SMP design to replace existing long-shaft mixer pumps used during waste removal. The model will also be used to provide input to the operation planning. This planning will be used as input to pump run duration in order to maintain temperature requirements within the tank during SMP operation. The analysis model took a parametric approach. A series of the modeling analyses was performed to examine how submersible mixer pumps affect tank temperature during waste removal operation in the Type-I tank. The model domain included radioactive decay heat load, two SMP's, and one Submersible Transfer Pump (STP) as heat source terms. The present model was benchmarked against the test data obtained by the tank measurement to examine the quantitative thermal response of the tank and to establish the reference conditions of the operating variables under no SMP operation. The results showed that the model predictions agreed with the test data of the waste temperatures within about 10%. Transient modeling calculations for two potential scenarios of sludge mixing and removal operations have been made to estimate transient waste temperatures within a Type-I waste tank. When two 200-HP submersible mixers and 12 active cooling coils are continuously operated in 100-in tank level and 40 C initial temperature for 40 days since the initiation of mixing operation, waste temperature rises about 9 C in 48 hours at a maximum. Sensitivity studies for the key operating variables were performed. The sensitivity results showed that the chromate cooling coil system provided the primary cooling mechanism to remove process

  10. Autonomous Sampling Platform Development: Radiological Contamination Mapping at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Moya, Nicholas; Whiteside, Tad

    2016-07-01

    From 1961 to 1964, radioactive elements were released from the Savannah River Site into local bodies of water via cooling water charges from the reactors on site. In 1983, the extent of the radioactive contamination was first studied, and elements such as 137Cs, 90Sr, 238Pu, 241Am, 244Cm, and tritium were found to have seeped from local bodies of water into sediment and the surrounding flora and fauna. The current method of tracking and monitoring radioactive contamination at the SRS is to gather samples and conduct measurements in a laboratory. A cheaper, and safer, method to conduct such measurements would be to automate the process by using an autonomous boat that can travel to locations, conduct measurements, and return home all without human intervention. To introduce this idea, the construction of an autonomous boat prototype was completed to demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of such an idea. The prototype travels to a set of waypoints, stops at each waypoint, and returns when all waypoints have been reached. It does this by employing a simple battery-powered boat with an Arduino controller that steers the boat using a steering algorithm incorporated into a Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) function. A total of three tests were conducted at two different bodies of water; and after working out some hardware problems, the boat drone was able to successfully steer and reach all programmed waypoints. With the prototype complete, the next steps to realizing the final product of the boat drone will include adopting a processing unit with higher-bit architecture, using a bigger boat with a more powerful trolling motor, and incorporating a solar panel for continuous power and round-the-clock performance.

  11. SU-E-T-630: Commissioning for SRS Planning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pella, S; Smith, C; Leventouri, T; Bacala, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: This study will try to find optimal procedures to collect small fields beam data for commissioning in treatment planning systems (TPS), and to provide a protocol to collect output factors for very small field sizes: 0.5 cm × 0.5 cm to 4.0 cm × 4.0 cm.This will help in determining the correct beam configuration methods in TPS planning intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and stereotactic radiosurgery SRS using mini multileaf collimation (mMLC). Methods: Data has been collected for a mMLC linear accelerator (linac) Novalis from 0.5 cm × 0.5 cm to 10 cm × 10 cm (its maximum field size). The TPS chosen is BrainLab, Eclipse and Cyberknife. The beam data collected was modeled and imported in the TPS. Verification plans were generated in solid water to confirm the goodness of the data. 3D and IMRT plans on regular CT scans were generated and verified using Mapcheck. All 3D plans with field sizes above 4 cm × 4 cm verified excellent using a distance to agreement of 2 mm and a 2% tolerance. IMRT plans gave an error of -8%. New scans with new detectors have been taken, new field sizes were introduced, and focus has been applied on determining the dosimetric leaf gap. Results: Although this is still a work in progress, this study brings several issues to light: the importance of the correct technique in beam data collection from the correct watertank to the correct detectors. Readings for rectangular fields have to be taken especially for fields which one side is under 4 cm. Conclusion: The use of equivalent square fields will not provide correct readings for the fields with large differences between the length and the width.

  12. [A study for time-history waveform synthesis of algorithm in shock response spectrum (SRS)].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-ying; Ma, Ai-jun

    2002-12-01

    Objective. To present an effective on-line SRS time-history waveform synthesis method for simulating pyrotechnic shock environment with electrodynamic shakers. Method. A procedure was developed for synthesizing a SRS time-history waveform according to a general principle. The effect of three main parameters to waveform's shape, amplitude of acceleration and duration were investigated. A modification method of SRS's amplitude and an optimal algorithm of time-history waveform were presented. Result. The algorithm was used to generate a time-history waveform that could satisfy SRS's accuracy requirement and electrodynamic shaker's acceleration limitation. Conclusion. The numerical example indicates that the developed method is effective. The synthesized time-history waveform can be used to simulate pyrotechnic shock environment using electrodynamic shakers.

  13. Optical Properties of Rare Earth Doped SrS Phosphor: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Ayush; Mishra, Shubhra; Kshatri, D. S.; Tiwari, Sanjay

    2017-02-01

    Rare earth (RE) doped SrS phosphor has attracted a lot of attention on a wide range of photo-, cathodo-, thermo-, and electroluminescent applications. Upon doping with different RE elements (e.g., Ce, Pr, Eu, Yb), the luminescence from SrS can be varied over the entire visible region by appropriately choosing the composition of the strontium sulfide host. The main applications include flat panel displays and SrS-based powder electroluminescence (EL) for back lights. Sulfide materials known for providing Eu2+ based red emission band and preferred as a color conversion material in white light emitting diodes are discussed. Especially, the applications of RE doped SrS are described in light of their utility as conversion and storage phosphors. The effect of energy level splitting, EL efficiency, post-annealing, milling time, and impurity on luminescence properties for SrS are also discussed.

  14. Action Plan for updated Chapter 15 Accident Analysis in the SRS Production Reactor SAR

    SciTech Connect

    Hightower, N.T. III; Burnett, T.W.

    1989-11-15

    This report describes the Action Plan for the upgrade of the Chapter 15 Accident Analysis in the SRS Production Reactor SAR required for K-Restart. This Action Plan will be updated periodically to reflect task accomplishments and issue resolutions.

  15. Seismic Hazard Characterization at the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS): Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Savy, J.B.

    1994-06-24

    The purpose of the Seismic Hazard Characterization project for the Savannah River Site (SRS-SHC) is to develop estimates of the seismic hazard for several locations within the SRS. Given the differences in the geology and geotechnical characteristics at each location, the estimates of the seismic hazard are to allow for the specific local conditions at each site. Characterization of seismic hazard is a critical factor for the design of new facilities as well as for the review and potential retrofit of existing facilities at SRS. The scope of the SRS seismic hazard characterization reported in this document is limited to the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA). The goal of the project is to provide seismic hazard estimates based on a state-of-the-art method which is consistent with developments and findings of several ongoing studies which are deemed to bring improvements in the state of the seismic hazard analyses.

  16. Bridged graphite oxide materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

  17. Ground motion following selection of SRS design basis earthquake and associated deterministic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of a deterministic assessment of earthquake ground motions at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The purpose of this study is to assist the Environmental Sciences Section of the Savannah River Laboratory in reevaluating the design basis earthquake (DBE) ground motion at SRS during approaches defined in Appendix A to 10 CFR Part 100. This work is in support of the Seismic Engineering Section's Seismic Qualification Program for reactor restart.

  18. PCNASUMO and Srs2: a model SUMO substrate-effector pair.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, H D

    2007-12-01

    Attachment of the SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) to the replication factor PCNA (proliferating-cell nuclear antigen) in the budding yeast has been shown to recruit a helicase, Srs2, to active replication forks, which in turn prevents unscheduled recombination events. In the present review, I will discuss how the interaction between SUMOylated PCNA and Srs2 serves as an example for a mechanism by which SUMO modulates the properties of its targets and mediates the activation of downstream effector proteins.

  19. MEDTAG: tag-like semantics for medical document indexing.

    PubMed

    Ruch, P; Wagner, J; Bouillon, P; Baud, R H; Rassinoux, A M; Scherrer, J R

    1999-01-01

    Medical documentation is central in health care, as it constitutes the main means of communication between care providers. However, there is a gap to bridge between storing information and extracting the relevant underlying knowledge. We believe natural language processing (NLP) is the best solution to handle such a large amount of textual information. In this paper we describe the construction of a semantic tagset for medical document indexing purposes. Rather than attempting to produce a home-made tagset, we decided to use, as far as possible, standard medicine resources. This step has led us to choose UMLS hierarchical classes as a basis for our tagset. We also show that semantic tagging is not only providing bases for disambiguisation between senses, but is also useful in the query expansion process of the retrieval system. We finally focus on assessing the results of the semantic tagger.

  20. Rapid unwinding of triplet repeat hairpins by Srs2 helicase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Alok; Lahue, Robert S

    2008-06-01

    Expansions of trinucleotide repeats cause at least 15 heritable human diseases. Single-stranded triplet repeat DNA in vitro forms stable hairpins in a sequence-dependent manner that correlates with expansion risk in vivo. Hairpins are therefore considered likely intermediates during the expansion process. Unwinding of a hairpin by a DNA helicase would help protect against expansions. Yeast Srs2, but not the RecQ homolog Sgs1, blocks expansions in vivo in a manner largely dependent on its helicase function. The current study tested the idea that Srs2 would be faster at unwinding DNA substrates with an extrahelical triplet repeat hairpin embedded in a duplex context. These substrates should mimic the relevant intermediate structure thought to occur in vivo. Srs2 was faster than Sgs1 at unwinding several substrates containing triplet repeat hairpins or another structured loop. In contrast, control substrates with an unstructured loop or a Watson-Crick duplex were unwound equally well by both enzymes. Results with a fluorescently labeled, three-way junction showed that Srs2 unwinding proceeds unabated through extrahelical triplet repeats. In summary, Srs2 maintains its facile unwinding of triplet repeat hairpins embedded within duplex DNA, supporting the genetic evidence that Srs2 is a key helicase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for preventing expansions.

  1. Localization of recombination proteins and Srs2 reveals anti-recombinase function in vivo.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Rebecca C; Lisby, Michael; Altmannova, Veronika; Krejci, Lumir; Sung, Patrick; Rothstein, Rodney

    2009-06-15

    Homologous recombination (HR), although an important DNA repair mechanism, is dangerous to the cell if improperly regulated. The Srs2 "anti-recombinase" restricts HR by disassembling the Rad51 nucleoprotein filament, an intermediate preceding the exchange of homologous DNA strands. Here, we cytologically characterize Srs2 function in vivo and describe a novel mechanism for regulating the initiation of HR. We find that Srs2 is recruited separately to replication and repair centers and identify the genetic requirements for recruitment. In the absence of Srs2 activity, Rad51 foci accumulate, and surprisingly, can form in the absence of Rad52 mediation. However, these Rad51 foci do not represent repair-proficient filaments, as determined by recombination assays. Antagonistic roles for Rad52 and Srs2 in Rad51 filament formation are also observed in vitro. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Srs2 removes Rad51 indiscriminately from DNA, while the Rad52 protein coordinates appropriate filament reformation. This constant breakdown and rebuilding of filaments may act as a stringent quality control mechanism during HR.

  2. The Belizean Bridge Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murfin, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Describes the famous swing bridge in Belize. Students build bridges from a variety of materials and answer the questions, What are different types of bridges?, How do bridges work?, How can you tell if a bridge design will be safe?, and What is the best way to build a bridge over a river while still allowing boat traffic? (SAH)

  3. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  4. Semantic Search of Web Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses semantic search of Web services using natural language processing. We first survey various existing approaches, focusing on the fact that the expensive costs of current semantic annotation frameworks result in limited use of semantic search for large scale applications. We then propose a vector space model based service…

  5. Semantator: semantic annotator for converting biomedical text to linked data.

    PubMed

    Tao, Cui; Song, Dezhao; Sharma, Deepak; Chute, Christopher G

    2013-10-01

    More than 80% of biomedical data is embedded in plain text. The unstructured nature of these text-based documents makes it challenging to easily browse and query the data of interest in them. One approach to facilitate browsing and querying biomedical text is to convert the plain text to a linked web of data, i.e., converting data originally in free text to structured formats with defined meta-level semantics. In this paper, we introduce Semantator (Semantic Annotator), a semantic-web-based environment for annotating data of interest in biomedical documents, browsing and querying the annotated data, and interactively refining annotation results if needed. Through Semantator, information of interest can be either annotated manually or semi-automatically using plug-in information extraction tools. The annotated results will be stored in RDF and can be queried using the SPARQL query language. In addition, semantic reasoners can be directly applied to the annotated data for consistency checking and knowledge inference. Semantator has been released online and was used by the biomedical ontology community who provided positive feedbacks. Our evaluation results indicated that (1) Semantator can perform the annotation functionalities as designed; (2) Semantator can be adopted in real applications in clinical and transactional research; and (3) the annotated results using Semantator can be easily used in Semantic-web-based reasoning tools for further inference.

  6. JET MIXING ANALYSIS FOR SRS HIGH-LEVEL WASTE RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2011-07-05

    The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank to ensure uniformity of the discharge stream. Mixing is accomplished with one to four slurry pumps located within the tank liquid. The slurry pump may be fixed in position or they may rotate depending on the specific mixing requirements. The high-level waste in Tank 48 contains insoluble solids in the form of potassium tetraphenyl borate compounds (KTPB), monosodium titanate (MST), and sludge. Tank 48 is equipped with 4 slurry pumps, which are intended to suspend the insoluble solids prior to transfer of the waste to the Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) process. The FBSR process is being designed for a normal feed of 3.05 wt% insoluble solids. A chemical characterization study has shown the insoluble solids concentration is approximately 3.05 wt% when well-mixed. The project is requesting a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) mixing study from SRNL to determine the solids behavior with 2, 3, and 4 slurry pumps in operation and an estimate of the insoluble solids concentration at the suction of the transfer pump to the FBSR process. The impact of cooling coils is not considered in the current work. The work consists of two principal objectives by taking a CFD approach: (1) To estimate insoluble solids concentration transferred from Tank 48 to the Waste Feed Tank in the FBSR process and (2) To assess the impact of different combinations of four slurry pumps on insoluble solids suspension and mixing in Tank 48. For this work, several different combinations of a maximum of four pumps are considered to determine the resulting flow patterns and local flow velocities which are thought to be associated with sludge particle mixing. Two different elevations of pump nozzles are used for an assessment of the flow patterns on the tank mixing. Pump design and operating parameters used for the analysis are summarized in Table 1. The baseline

  7. Embedding of Semantic Predications.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Trevor; Widdows, Dominic

    2017-03-08

    This paper concerns the generation of distributed vector representations of biomedical concepts from structured knowledge, in the form of subject-relation-object triplets known as semantic predications. Specifically, we evaluate the extent to which a representational approach we have developed for this purpose previously, known as Predication-based Semantic Indexing (PSI), might benefit from insights gleaned from neural-probabilistic language models, which have enjoyed a surge in popularity in recent years as a means to generate distributed vector representations of terms from free text. To do so, we develop a novel neural-probabilistic approach to encoding predications, called Embedding of Semantic Predications (ESP), by adapting aspects of the Skipgram with Negative Sampling (SGNS) algorithm to this purpose. We compare ESP and PSI across a number of tasks including recovery of encoded information, estimation of semantic similarity and relatedness, and identification of potentially therapeutic and harmful relationships using both analogical retrieval and supervised learning. We find advantages for ESP in some, but not all of these tasks, revealing the contexts in which the additional computational work of neural-probabilistic modeling is justified.

  8. Environmental Attitudes Semantic Differential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehne, Paul R.; Goulard, Cary J.

    This booklet is an evaluation instrument which utilizes semantic differential data to assess environmental attitudes. Twelve concepts are included: regulated access to beaches, urban planning, dune vegetation, wetlands, future cities, reclaiming wetlands for building development, city parks, commercial development of beaches, existing cities,…

  9. Semantically Grounded Briefings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    occurring relations. AeroText and consequently AeroDAML can be tailored to particular domains through training sessions with annotated corpuses...the complexities of semantic markup by using mnemonic names for URIs, hiding unnamed intermediate objects (represented by “ GenSym ” identifiers), and

  10. Semantic and Lexical Coherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahnestock, Jeanne

    Helping students understand coherence in terms of the lexical ties and semantic relations possible between clauses and sentences formalizes an area of writing instruction that has been somewhat vague before and makes the process of creating a coherent paragraph less mysterious. Many students do not have the intuitive knowledge base for absorbing…

  11. "Dyslexia": Toward Semantical Clarification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Anthony V.; Duffelmeyer, Fred

    A formulated definition of the term dyslexia is proposed in this paper in order to clarify the semantical confusion which exists among both specialists and the general public. Dyslexia is explained as a generic term for severe and puzzling reading disability, found to be both acute (where reading-age lags 25 percent or more below mental age) and…

  12. Latent Semantic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumais, Susan T.

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA): (1) LSA overview; (2) applications of LSA, including information retrieval (IR), information filtering, cross-language retrieval, and other IR-related LSA applications; (3) modeling human memory, including the relationship of LSA to other…

  13. Semantic Web Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    many documents are not expressible in logica at all, and many in logic but not in N3. However, we are building a system for which a prime goal is the...demonstrate that conventional logica programming tools are efficent and straightforwradly adapted to semantic web work. • Jena RDF toolkit now accepts N3 as

  14. SAS- Semantic Annotation Service for Geoscience resources on the web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elag, M.; Kumar, P.; Marini, L.; Li, R.; Jiang, P.

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing need for increased integration across the data and model resources that are disseminated on the web to advance their reuse across different earth science applications. Meaningful reuse of resources requires semantic metadata to realize the semantic web vision for allowing pragmatic linkage and integration among resources. Semantic metadata associates standard metadata with resources to turn them into semantically-enabled resources on the web. However, the lack of a common standardized metadata framework as well as the uncoordinated use of metadata fields across different geo-information systems, has led to a situation in which standards and related Standard Names abound. To address this need, we have designed SAS to provide a bridge between the core ontologies required to annotate resources and information systems in order to enable queries and analysis over annotation from a single environment (web). SAS is one of the services that are provided by the Geosematnic framework, which is a decentralized semantic framework to support the integration between models and data and allow semantically heterogeneous to interact with minimum human intervention. Here we present the design of SAS and demonstrate its application for annotating data and models. First we describe how predicates and their attributes are extracted from standards and ingested in the knowledge-base of the Geosemantic framework. Then we illustrate the application of SAS in annotating data managed by SEAD and annotating simulation models that have web interface. SAS is a step in a broader approach to raise the quality of geoscience data and models that are published on the web and allow users to better search, access, and use of the existing resources based on standard vocabularies that are encoded and published using semantic technologies.

  15. Review of seismicity and ground motion studies related to development of seismic design at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, D.E.; Acree, J.R.

    1992-08-01

    The NRC response spectra developed in Reg. Guide 1.60 is being used in the studies related to restarting of the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors. Because it envelopes all the other site specific spectra which have been developed for SRS, it provides significant conservatism in the design and analysis of the reactor systems for ground motions of this value or with these probability levels. This spectral shape is also the shape used for the design of the recently licensed Vogtle Nuclear Station, located south of the Savannah River from the SRS. This report provides a summary of the data base used to develop the design basis earthquake. This includes the seismicity, rates of occurrence, magnitudes, and attenuation relationships. A summary is provided for the studies performed and methodologies used to establish the design basis earthquake for SRS. The ground motion response spectra developed from the various studies are also summarized. The seismic hazard and PGA`s developed for other critical facilities in the region are discussed, and the SRS seismic instrumentation is presented. The programs for resolving outstanding issues are discussed and conclusions are presented.

  16. From Data to Semantic Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floridi, Luciano

    2003-06-01

    There is no consensus yet on the definition of semantic information. This paper contributes to the current debate by criticising and revising the Standard Definition of semantic Information (SDI) as meaningful data, in favour of the Dretske-Grice approach: meaningful and well-formed data constitute semantic information only if they also qualify as contingently truthful. After a brief introduction, SDI is criticised for providing necessary but insufficient conditions for the definition of semantic information. SDI is incorrect because truth-values do not supervene on semantic information, and misinformation (that is, false semantic information) is not a type of semantic information, but pseudo-information, that is not semantic information at all. This is shown by arguing that none of the reasons for interpreting misinformation as a type of semantic information is convincing, whilst there are compelling reasons to treat it as pseudo-information. As a consequence, SDI is revised to include a necessary truth-condition. The last section summarises the main results of the paper and indicates the important implications of the revised definition for the analysis of the deflationary theories of truth, the standard definition of knowledge and the classic, quantitative theory of semantic information.

  17. Latent Semantic Indexing of medical diagnoses using UMLS semantic structures.

    PubMed Central

    Chute, C. G.; Yang, Y.; Evans, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    The relational files within the UMLS Metathesaurus contain rich semantic associations to main concepts. We invoked the technique of Latent Semantic Indexing to generate information matrices based on these relationships and created "semantic vectors" using singular value decomposition. Evaluations were made on the complete set and subsets of Metathesaurus main concepts with the semantic type "Disease or Syndrome." Real number matrices were created with main concepts, lexical variants, synonyms, and associated expressions. Ancestors, children, siblings, and related terms were added to alternative matrices, preserving the hierarchical direction of the relation as the imaginary component of a complex number. Preliminary evaluation suggests that this technique is robust. A major advantage is the exploitation of semantic features which derive from a statistical decomposition of UMLS structures, possibly reducing dependence on the tedious construction of semantic frames by humans. PMID:1807584

  18. Learning contextualized semantics from co-occurring terms via a Siamese architecture.

    PubMed

    Sandouk, Ubai; Chen, Ke

    2016-04-01

    One of the biggest challenges in Multimedia information retrieval and understanding is to bridge the semantic gap by properly modeling concept semantics in context. The presence of out of vocabulary (OOV) concepts exacerbates this difficulty. To address the semantic gap issues, we formulate a problem on learning contextualized semantics from descriptive terms and propose a novel Siamese architecture to model the contextualized semantics from descriptive terms. By means of pattern aggregation and probabilistic topic models, our Siamese architecture captures contextualized semantics from the co-occurring descriptive terms via unsupervised learning, which leads to a concept embedding space of the terms in context. Furthermore, the co-occurring OOV concepts can be easily represented in the learnt concept embedding space. The main properties of the concept embedding space are demonstrated via visualization. Using various settings in semantic priming, we have carried out a thorough evaluation by comparing our approach to a number of state-of-the-art methods on six annotation corpora in different domains, i.e., MagTag5K, CAL500 and Million Song Dataset in the music domain as well as Corel5K, LabelMe and SUNDatabase in the image domain. Experimental results on semantic priming suggest that our approach outperforms those state-of-the-art methods considerably in various aspects.

  19. Concept-oriented indexing of video databases: toward semantic sensitive retrieval and browsing.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianping; Luo, Hangzai; Elmagarmid, Ahmed K

    2004-07-01

    Digital video now plays an important role in medical education, health care, telemedicine and other medical applications. Several content-based video retrieval (CBVR) systems have been proposed in the past, but they still suffer from the following challenging problems: semantic gap, semantic video concept modeling, semantic video classification, and concept-oriented video database indexing and access. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to make some advances toward the final goal to solve these problems. Specifically, the framework includes: 1) a semantic-sensitive video content representation framework by using principal video shots to enhance the quality of features; 2) semantic video concept interpretation by using flexible mixture model to bridge the semantic gap; 3) a novel semantic video-classifier training framework by integrating feature selection, parameter estimation, and model selection seamlessly in a single algorithm; and 4) a concept-oriented video database organization technique through a certain domain-dependent concept hierarchy to enable semantic-sensitive video retrieval and browsing.

  20. pF3D Simulations of SBS and SRS in NIF Hohlraum Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Steven; Strozzi, David; Amendt, Peter; Chapman, Thomas; Hopkins, Laura; Kritcher, Andrea; Sepke, Scott

    2016-10-01

    We present simulations of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) for NIF experiments using high foot pulses in cylindrical hohlraums and for low foot pulses in rugby-shaped hohlraums. We use pF3D, a massively-parallel, paraxial-envelope laser plasma interaction code, with plasma profiles obtained from the radiation-hydrodynamics codes Lasnex and HYDRA. We compare the simulations to experimental data for SBS and SRS power and spectrum. We also show simulated SRS and SBS intensities at the target chamber wall and report the fraction of the backscattered light that passes through and misses the lenses. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Release number LLNL-ABS-697482.

  1. Utilization of SRS pond ash in controlled low strength material. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.; Rajendran, N.

    1995-12-01

    Design mixes for Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM) were developed which incorporate pond ashes (fly ashes) from the A-Area Ash Pile, the old F-Area Ash Basin and the D-Area Ash Basin. CLSM is a pumpable, flowable, excavatable backfill used in a variety of construction applications at SRS. Results indicate that CLSM which meets all of the SRS design specifications for backfill, can be made with the A-, D-, and F-Area pond ashes. Formulations for the design mixes are provided in this report. Use of the pond ashes may result in a cost savings for CLSM used at SRS and will utilize a by-product waste material, thereby decreasing the amount of material requiring disposal.

  2. Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.; Morris, S.C.; Pardi, R.; Sun, C. ); Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.; McKone, T.E.; Straume, T.; Anspaugh, L. )

    1993-03-01

    An assessment of the health risks was made for releases of tritium and [sup 137]Cs from the Savannah River Site (SRS) at water-receptor locations downriver. Although reactor operations were shut down at the SRS in 1989, liquid wastes continue to be released to the Savannah River either by direct discharges into onsite surface waters or by groundwater transport into surface waters from waste facilities. Existing state mandates will cause the liquid waste streams from future operations to go directly into surface waters. Two drinking water processing plants take water from the river approximately 129 km downriver from the SRS. Potential incremental risks of cancer fatality to individuals and each population were analyzed for either no further reactor operations or resumption of operation of one specific reactor.

  3. Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.; Morris, S.C.; Pardi, R.; Sun, C.; Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.; McKone, T.E.; Straume, T.; Anspaugh, L.

    1993-03-01

    An assessment of the health risks was made for releases of tritium and {sup 137}Cs from the Savannah River Site (SRS) at water-receptor locations downriver. Although reactor operations were shut down at the SRS in 1989, liquid wastes continue to be released to the Savannah River either by direct discharges into onsite surface waters or by groundwater transport into surface waters from waste facilities. Existing state mandates will cause the liquid waste streams from future operations to go directly into surface waters. Two drinking water processing plants take water from the river approximately 129 km downriver from the SRS. Potential incremental risks of cancer fatality to individuals and each population were analyzed for either no further reactor operations or resumption of operation of one specific reactor.

  4. Complex Semantic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, G. M.; Aguiar, M. S. F.; Carvalho, C. F.; Dantas, D. R.; Cunha, M. V.; Morais, J. H. M.; Pereira, H. B. B.; Miranda, J. G. V.

    Verbal language is a dynamic mental process. Ideas emerge by means of the selection of words from subjective and individual characteristics throughout the oral discourse. The goal of this work is to characterize the complex network of word associations that emerge from an oral discourse from a discourse topic. Because of that, concepts of associative incidence and fidelity have been elaborated and represented the probability of occurrence of pairs of words in the same sentence in the whole oral discourse. Semantic network of words associations were constructed, where the words are represented as nodes and the edges are created when the incidence-fidelity index between pairs of words exceeds a numerical limit (0.001). Twelve oral discourses were studied. The networks generated from these oral discourses present a typical behavior of complex networks and their indices were calculated and their topologies characterized. The indices of these networks obtained from each incidence-fidelity limit exhibit a critical value in which the semantic network has maximum conceptual information and minimum residual associations. Semantic networks generated by this incidence-fidelity limit depict a pattern of hierarchical classes that represent the different contexts used in the oral discourse.

  5. The Tumor Radiobiology of SRS and SBRT: Are More Than the 5 Rs Involved?

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J. Martin; Carlson, David J.; Brenner, David J.

    2014-02-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), also known as stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR), are rapidly becoming accepted practice for the radiation therapy of certain tumors. Typically, SRS and SBRT involve the delivery of 1 or a few large-dose fractions of 8 to 30 Gy per fraction: a major paradigm shift from radiation therapy practice over the past 90 years, when, with relatively large amounts of normal tissues receiving high doses, the goal was to maximize tumor response for an acceptable level of normal tissue injury. The development of SRS and SBRT have come about because of technologic advances in image guidance and treatment delivery techniques that enable the delivery of large doses to tumors with reduced margins and high gradients outside the target, thereby minimizing doses to surrounding normal tissues. Because the results obtained with SRS and SBRT have been impressive, they have raised the question whether classic radiobiological modeling, and the linear-quadratic (LQ) model, are appropriate for large doses per fraction. In addition to objections to the LQ model, the possibility of additional biological effects resulting from endothelial cell damage, enhanced tumor immunity, or both have been raised to account for the success of SRS and SBRT. In this review, we conclude that the available preclinical and clinical data do not support a need to change the LQ model or to invoke phenomena over and above the classic 5 Rs of radiobiology and radiation therapy, with the likely exception that for some tumors high doses of irradiation may produce enhanced antitumor immunity. Thus, we suggest that for most tumors, the standard radiobiology concepts of the 5 Rs are sufficient to explain the clinical data, and the excellent results obtained from clinical studies are the result of the much larger biologically effective doses that are delivered with SRS and SBRT.

  6. Thermodynamic Modeling of the SRS Evaporators: Part II. The 3H System

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2001-10-02

    Accumulations of two solid phases have formed scale deposits in the Savannah River Site 2H Evaporator system since late 1996. The aluminosilicate scale deposits caused the evaporator pot to become inoperable in October 1999. Accumulations of the diuranate phase have caused criticality concerns in the SRS 2H Evaporator. In order to ensure that similar deposits are not and will not form in the SRS 3H Evaporator, thermodynamically derived activity diagrams specific to the feeds processed from Tanks 30 and 32 are evaluated in this report.

  7. Development of critical life stage assays: Teratogenic effects of SRS effluent components on freshwater fish, gambusia

    SciTech Connect

    Guram, M.S.

    1990-11-01

    The final report of the research carried out at Voorhees College contains a composite compilation of the last two years work. The data note variation in the number of young fish delivered per female vary markedly between several ponds on the SRS and of SRS ponds. The reasons for this are unknown at present. Initial research was carried out on the effects on the developing fish fetus of various substances that may have produced these variations. Further study is necessary to identify the factors that produce the observed alterations. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Highly Selective Nuclide Removal from the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J. B.; Austin, W. E.; Dukes, H. H.

    2002-02-26

    This paper describes the results of a deployment of highly selective ion-exchange resin technologies for the in-situ removal of Cs-137 and Sr-90 from the Savannah River Site (SRS) R-Reactor Disassembly Basin. The deployment was supported by the DOE Office of Science and Technology's (OST, EM-50) National Engineering Technology Laboratory (NETL), as a part of an Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) project. The Facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning (FDD) Program at the SRS conducted this deployment as a part of an overall program to deactivate three of the site's five reactor disassembly basins.

  9. The UMLS Semantic Network and the Semantic Web.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Vipul

    2003-01-01

    The Unified Medical Language System is an extensive source of biomedical knowledge developed and maintained by the US National Library of Medicine (NLM) and is being currently used in a wide variety of biomedical applications. The Semantic Network, a component of the UMLS is a structured description of core biomedical knowledge consisting of well defined semantic types and relationships between them. We investigate the expressiveness of DAML+OIL, a markup language proposed for ontologies on the Semantic Web, for representing the knowledge contained in the Semantic Network. Requirements specific to the Semantic Network, such as polymorphic relationships and blocking relationship inheritance are discussed and approaches to represent these in DAML+OIL are presented. Finally, conclusions are presented along with a discussion of ongoing and future work.

  10. 75 FR 34260 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2005-040, Electronic Subcontracting Reporting System (eSRS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE... Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2005-040, Electronic Subcontracting Reporting System (eSRS) AGENCIES... Electronic Subcontracting Reporting System (eSRS), rather than Standard Form 294 - Subcontract Report...

  11. SRS analyses of direct-drive ICF experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, P.; Rosenberg, M.; Myatt, J.; Solodov, A.; Seka, W.; Chapman, T.; Hohenberger, M.; Masse, L.; Goyon, C.; Turnbull, D.; Regan, S.; Moody, J. D.

    2016-10-01

    A series of planar target experiments was recently conducted at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to study the laser-plasma interactions processes responsible for the production of suprathermal electrons, and their scaling from experiments at the Omega facility to full-scale ICF experiments at the MJ level on the NIF. We will present experimental analyses and simulations of Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) in these planar target experiments. Our work indicates the presence of purely backscattered SRS refracted off nearly one-dimensional density gradients, as well as more complicated features such as side-scatter and scattering from non-1D features (e.g. edges) in the target. Simulations using ray- and paraxial-wave- based simulation codes are used to extrapolate the hot electron fraction from the SRS measurements, and point to SRS being the primary mechanism for the generation of suprathermal electrons in these experiments. We will also present analyses of spherical implosions experiments and provide extrapolations and implications for future full-scale direct-drive experiments at NIF. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. Trigonal LaF3: a novel SRS-active crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminskii, A. A.; Lux, O.; Hanuza, J.; Rhee, H.; Eichler, H. J.; Zhang, J.; Tang, D.; Shen, D.; Yoneda, H.; Shirakawa, A.

    2014-12-01

    Trigonal fluoride LaF3, widely known as a host crystal for Ln3+-lasants, was found to be an attractive many-phonon Raman material and a subject for the investigation of different χ(3)-nonlinear optical effects. We present the manifestation of photon-phonon interactions related to stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and Raman-induced four-wave mixing (RFWM) processes, initiated by picosecond exсitation at room temperature. Sesqui-octave-spanning Stokes and anti-Stokes frequency comb generation as well as many-step cascaded and cross-cascaded up-conversion χ(3)-nonlinear processes have been observed. The recorded spectral lines originated by SRS and RFWM are identified and attributed to the three observed SRS-promoting phonon modes. The lower limit of the steady-state Raman gain coefficient for near-IR first Stokes generation was estimated. Moreover, a brief review of known Ln3+ : LaF3 laser crystals and SRS-active fluorides is given.

  13. 75 FR 17765 - Termination of Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Special Resource Study (SRS) for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... (EA) AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 102(2)(C... Federal Register on November 21, 2007 (72 FR 65593). The NPS has since determined that an EA rather than... with the Draft SRS/EA. All public review and other written public information will be made...

  14. Electron momentum density, band structure, and structural properties of SrS

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.; Munjal, N.; Vyas, V.; Kumar, R.; Sharma, B. K.; Joshi, K. B.

    2013-10-15

    The electron momentum density, the electronic band structure, and the structural properties of SrS are presented in this paper. The isotropic Compton profile, anisotropies in the directional Compton profiles, the electronic band structure and density of states are calculated using the ab initio periodic linear combination of atomic orbitals method with the CRYSTAL06 code. Structural parameters of SrS-lattice constants and bulk moduli in the B1 and B2 phases-are computed together with the transition pressure. The computed parameters are well in agreement with earlier investigations. To compare the calculated isotropic Compton profile, measurement on polycrystalline SrS is performed using 5Ci-{sup 241}Am Compton spectrometer. Additionally, charge transfer is studied by means of the Compton profiles computed from the ionic model. The nature of bonding in the isovalent SrS and SrO compounds is compared on the basis of equal-valenceelectron-density profiles and the bonding in SrS is found to be more covalent than in SrO.

  15. Modulation of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae DNA Double-Strand Break Repair by Srs2 and Rad51

    PubMed Central

    Milne, G. T.; Ho, T.; Weaver, D. T.

    1995-01-01

    RAD52 function is required for virtually all DNA double-strand break repair and recombination events in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To gain greater insight into the mechanism of RAD52-mediated repair, we screened for genes that suppress partially active alleles of RAD52 when mutant or overexpressed. Described here is the isolation of a phenotypic null allele of SRS2 that suppressed multiple alleles of RAD52 (rad52B, rad52D, rad52-1 and KlRAD52) and RAD51 (KlRAD51) but failed to suppress either a rad52δ or a rad51δ. These results indicate that SRS2 antagonizes RAD51 and RAD52 function in recombinational repair. The mechanism of suppression of RAD52 alleles by srs2 is distinct from that which has been previously described for RAD51 overexpression, as both conditions were shown to act additively with respect to the rad52B allele. Furthermore, overexpression of either RAD52 or RAD51 enhanced the recombination-dependent sensitivity of an srs2δ RAD52 strain, suggesting that RAD52 and RAD51 positively influence recombinational repair mechanisms. Thus, RAD52-dependent recombinational repair is controlled both negatively and positively. PMID:7768432

  16. Semantic Interpretation of Insar Estimates Using Optical Images with Application to Urban Infrastructure Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Zhu, X. X.

    2015-08-01

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) has been an established method for long term large area monitoring. Since the launch of meter-resolution spaceborne SAR sensors, the InSAR community has shown that even individual buildings can be monitored in high level of detail. However, the current deformation analysis still remains at a primitive stage of pixel-wise motion parameter inversion and manual identification of the regions of interest. We are aiming at developing an automatic urban infrastructure monitoring approach by combining InSAR and the semantics derived from optical images, so that the deformation analysis can be done systematically in the semantic/object level. This paper explains how we transfer the semantic meaning derived from optical image to the InSAR point clouds, and hence different semantic classes in the InSAR point cloud can be automatically extracted and monitored. Examples on bridges and railway monitoring are demonstrated.

  17. Semantic Feature Distinctiveness and Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Lexical access is the process in which basic components of meaning in language, the lexical entries (words) are activated. This activation is based on the organization and representational structure of the lexical entries. Semantic features of words, which are the prominent semantic characteristics of a word concept, provide important information…

  18. Semantic Research for Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the need for semantic research in digital libraries to help overcome interoperability problems. Highlights include federal initiatives; semantic analysis; knowledge representations; human-computer interactions and information visualization; and the University of Illinois DLI (Digital Libraries Initiative) project through partnership with…

  19. Semantic Tools in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinoff, Morris; Stone, Don C.

    This report discusses the problem of the meansings of words used in information retrieval systems, and shows how semantic tools can aid in the communication which takes place between indexers and searchers via index terms. After treating the differing use of semantic tools in different types of systems, two tools (classification tables and…

  20. Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deerwester, Scott; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes a new method for automatic indexing and retrieval called latent semantic indexing (LSI). Problems with matching query words with document words in term-based information retrieval systems are discussed, semantic structure is examined, singular value decomposition (SVD) is explained, and the mathematics underlying the SVD model is…

  1. Semantic Processing of Mathematical Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Vanessa K.; Wilson, Anna J.; Hamm, Jeff P.; Phillips, Nicola; Iwabuchi, Sarina J.; Corballis, Michael C.; Arzarello, Ferdinando; Thomas, Michael O. J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether or not university mathematics students semantically process gestures depicting mathematical functions (mathematical gestures) similarly to the way they process action gestures and sentences. Semantic processing was indexed by the N400 effect. Results: The N400 effect elicited by words primed with mathematical gestures…

  2. Information tables with neighborhood semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yiyu

    2000-04-01

    Information tables provide a convenient and useful tool for representing a set of objects using a group of attributes. This notion is enriched by introducing neighborhood systems on attribute values. The neighborhood systems represent the semantics relationships between, and knowledge about, attribute values. With added semantics, neighborhood based information tables may provide a more general framework for knowledge discovery, data mining, and information retrieval.

  3. The semantic planetary data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Daniel; Kelly, Sean; Mattmann, Chris

    2005-01-01

    This paper will provide a brief overview of the PDS data model and the PDS catalog. It will then describe the implentation of the Semantic PDS including the development of the formal ontology, the generation of RDFS/XML and RDF/XML data sets, and the buiding of the semantic search application.

  4. A RECOMMENDED PASQUILL-GIFFORD STABILITY CLASSIFICATION METHOD FOR SAFETY BASIS ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION MODELING AT SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C.

    2012-03-28

    Several of the most common methods for estimating Pasquill-Gifford (PG) stability (turbulence) class were evaluated for use in modeling the radiological consequences of SRS accidental releases using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Ver. 2 (MACCS2). Evaluation criteria included: (1) the ability of the method to represent diffusion characteristics above a predominantly forested landscape at SRS, (2) suitability of the method to provide data consistent with the formulation of the MACCS2 model, and (3) the availability of onsite meteorological data to support implementation of the method The evaluation resulted in a recommendation that PG stability classification for regulatory applications at SRS should be based on measurements of the standard deviation of the vertical component of wind direction fluctuations, {sigma}{sub e}, collected from the 61-m level of the SRS meteorological towers, and processed in full accordance with EPA-454/R-99-005 (EPA, 2000). This approach provides a direct measurement that is fundamental to diffusion and captures explicitly the turbulence generated by both mechanical and buoyant forces over the characteristic surface (forested) of SRS. Furthermore, due to the potentially significant enhancement of horizontal fluctuations in wind direction from the occurrence of meander at night, the use of {sigma}{sub e} will ensure a reasonably conservative estimate of PG stability class for use in dispersion models that base diffusion calculations on a single value of PG stability class. Furthermore, meteorological data bases used as input for MACCS2 calculations should contain hourly data for five consecutive annual periods from the most recent 10 years.

  5. TRANSFORMING THE SRS ENVIRONMENTAL BUSINESS: COMMUNICATION AND APPLIED PROJECT MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Saldivar, E.

    2010-01-20

    A process for communicating information relating to core business functions that also encourages improving internal communications has been established at SRS. This process continues to grow and strengthen as the multiple Contractors, Regulators and DOE-SR relationships mature. A number of management communication tools have been initiated, retooled, rebooted or continued with enhancements to ensure appropriate information is communicated to all levels with environmental responsibility at SRS. The types of information that are the focus of this improved process are feedback from the customer and from informational exchange forums (i.e., Challenge Opportunity and Resolution (COR), SRS Regulatory Integration Team (SRIT), Environmental Quality Management Division (EQMD), Senior Environmental Managers Council (SEMC), etc.). These forums, SRS environmental functions centralization, and the creation of a Regulatory Integration process allows for cross-functional decision making, problem solving and information sharing that involves the field organizations, Environmental Compliance Authorities (ECA), Subject Matter Experts (SME), DOE and the Regulators. Numerous examples of effective decision-making and problem solving will be shared. Lessons Learned involving inadequate communications and the resulting impacts on the environment, customer satisfaction, and relationships will also be discussed. Additionally, the focus on improved communications also includes maintaining awareness of business activities. The tools being utilized to facilitate the continuing improvement of internal communications include weekly staff meetings for all individuals within the organization, quarterly ECA and SME meeting, quarterly Regulatory Integration & Environmental Services (RI&ES) All-Hands meetings hosted by the Director, bi-weekly EQMD and EQMD Lite meetings with the customer, bi-annual SRIT meetings, and COR meetings on an as need basis. In addition, an existing Required Reading Program

  6. [Semantic information. Internal language. Thinking].

    PubMed

    Azcoaga, J E

    1993-06-01

    Semantic information has reached an objective condition after a lengthy history of semantic inquiries that instrumental neurophysiological devices--such as event-related potentials, electroencephalographic spectral analysis, regional brain circulation, PET scan, deep brain electrodes, and other--have made easier. In turn, internal language, as screened according to Vigotsky's perspective, is considered a product of semantic information circulation understood as neurosemae interconnection. Finally, in normal adults, thinking processes are assumed to be made up by both sensoperceptive information (proprioceptive information included) and semantic information. Thus, an "extraverbal thinking" can be distinguished, whose activity is hardly describable in healthy adults but should be considered as a condition of non-educated deaf persons, and a "verbal thinking", or internal language, made up by semantic information.

  7. Hierarchical abstract semantic model for image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhipeng; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Wei; Tang, Xianglong

    2015-09-01

    Semantic gap limits the performance of bag-of-visual-words. To deal with this problem, a hierarchical abstract semantics method that builds abstract semantic layers, generates semantic visual vocabularies, measures semantic gap, and constructs classifiers using the Adaboost strategy is proposed. First, abstract semantic layers are proposed to narrow the semantic gap between visual features and their interpretation. Then semantic visual words are extracted as features to train semantic classifiers. One popular form of measurement is used to quantify the semantic gap. The Adaboost training strategy is used to combine weak classifiers into strong ones to further improve performance. For a testing image, the category is estimated layer-by-layer. Corresponding abstract hierarchical structures for popular datasets, including Caltech-101 and MSRC, are proposed for evaluation. The experimental results show that the proposed method is capable of narrowing semantic gaps effectively and performs better than other categorization methods.

  8. Distributed Semantic Overlay Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doulkeridis, Christos; Vlachou, Akrivi; Nørvåg, Kjetil; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    Semantic Overlay Networks (SONs) have been recently proposed as a way to organize content in peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. The main objective is to discover peers with similar content and then form thematically focused peer groups. Efficient content retrieval can be performed by having queries selectively forwarded only to relevant groups of peers to the query. As a result, less peers need to be contacted, in order to answer a query. In this context, the challenge is to generate SONs in a decentralized and distributed manner, as the centralized assembly of global information is not feasible. Different approaches for exploiting the generated SONs for content retrieval have been proposed in the literature, which are examined in this chapter, with a particular focus on SON interconnections for efficient search. Several applications, such as P2P document and image retrieval, can be deployed over generated SONs, motivating the need for distributed and truly scalable SON creation. Therefore, recently several research papers focus on SONs as stated in our comprehensive overview of related work in the field of semantic overlay networks. A classification of existing algorithms according to a set of qualitative criteria is also provided. In spite of the rich existing work in the field of SONs, several challenges have not been efficiently addressed yet, therefore, future promising research directions are pointed out and discussed at the end of this chapter.

  9. Semantic Workflows and Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Y.

    2011-12-01

    While sharing and disseminating data is widely practiced across scientific communities, we have yet to recognize the importance of sharing and disseminating the analytic processes that leads to published data. Data retrieved from shared repositories and archives is often hard to interpret because we lack documentation about those processes: what models were used, what assumptions were made, what calibrations were carried out, etc. This process documentation is also key to aggregate data in a meaningful way, whether aggregating shared third party data or aggregating shared data with local sensor data collected by individual investigators. We suggest that augmenting published data with process documentation would greatly enhance our ability to find, reuse, interpret, and aggregate data and therefore have a significant impact in the utility of data repositories and archives. We will show that semantic workflows and provenance provide key technologies for capturing process documentation. Semantic workflows describe the kinds of data transformation and analysis steps used to create new data products, and can include useful constraints about why specific models were selected or parameters chosen. Provenance records can be used to publish workflow descriptions in standard formats that can be reused to enable verification and reproducibility of data products.

  10. Characterizing the semantic information loss between geospatial sensors and geospatial information systems (GIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik P.

    2011-06-01

    Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) collect, integrate, store, edit, analyze, share, and display geographic information. Naturally, GIS analysts rely on external data coming from disparate sensors to associate the sensor content (e.g. imagery) with relational databases. Inherently, these GIS sensors present differences in their data structures, labelling, ontologies, and resolution. Given different data structures, information may be lost in the transfer of information, alignment, and association of related context, which yields uncertainty in the meaning of the conveyed information. Ontology alignment typically consists of manual operations from users with different experiences and understandings and limited reporting is conducted in the quality of mappings. To assist the International Organization for Standards (ISO) in development of information quality assessment, we propose an approach using information theory for semantic uncertainty analysis. Information theory has widely been adopted in communications and provides uncertainty assessment for quality of service (QOS) analysis. Quality of information (QOI) or Information Quality (IQ) definitions for semantic assessment can be used to bridge the gap between ontology (semantic) uncertainty alignment and information theory (symbolic) analysis. Utilizing a measure of semantic information loss, analysts can improve the information fusion process, predict data needs, and appropriately understand the GIS product. This paper aims at developing a semantic information loss measure based on information theory relating GIS sensor processing uncertainties and GIS analyst syntactic associations. A maritime domain situational awareness example with waterway semantic labels is shown to demonstrate semantic information loss.

  11. DOORS to the semantic web and grid with a PORTAL for biomedical computing.

    PubMed

    Taswell, Carl

    2008-03-01

    The semantic web remains in the early stages of development. It has not yet achieved the goals envisioned by its founders as a pervasive web of distributed knowledge and intelligence. Success will be attained when a dynamic synergism can be created between people and a sufficient number of infrastructure systems and tools for the semantic web in analogy with those for the original web. The domain name system (DNS), web browsers, and the benefits of publishing web pages motivated many people to register domain names and publish web sites on the original web. An analogous resource label system, semantic search applications, and the benefits of collaborative semantic networks will motivate people to register resource labels and publish resource descriptions on the semantic web. The Domain Ontology Oriented Resource System (DOORS) and Problem Oriented Registry of Tags and Labels (PORTAL) are proposed as infrastructure systems for resource metadata within a paradigm that can serve as a bridge between the original web and the semantic web. The Internet Registry Information Service (IRIS) registers [corrected] domain names while DNS publishes domain addresses with mapping of names to addresses for the original web. Analogously, PORTAL registers resource labels and tags while DOORS publishes resource locations and descriptions with mapping of labels to locations for the semantic web. BioPORT is proposed as a prototype PORTAL registry specific for the problem domain of biomedical computing.

  12. "Pre-Semantic" Cognition Revisited: Critical Differences between Semantic Aphasia and Semantic Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal "pre-semantic" tasks, e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are…

  13. Decommissioning the physics laboratory, building 777-10A, at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Musall, John C.; Cope, Jeff L.

    2008-01-15

    SRS recently completed a four year mission to decommission {approx}250 excess facilities. As part of that effort, SRS decommissioned a 48,000 ft{sup 2} laboratory that housed four low-power test reactors, formerly used by SRS to determine reactor physics. This paper describes and reviews the decommissioning, with a focus on component segmentation and handling (i.e. hazardous material removal, demolition, and waste handling). The paper is intended to be a resource for engineers, planners, and project managers, who face similar decommissioning challenges. Building 777-10A, located at the south end of SRS's A/M-Area, was built in 1953 and had a gross area of {approx}48,000 ft{sup 2}. Building 777-10A had two main areas: a west wing, which housed four experimental reactors and associated equipment; and an east wing, which housed laboratories, and shops, offices. The reactors were located in two separate areas: one area housed the Process Development Pile (PDP) reactor and the Lattice Test Reactor (LTR), while the second area housed the Standard Pile (SP) and the Sub-critical Experiment (SE) reactors. The west wing had five levels: three below and three above grade (floor elevations of -37', -28', -15', 0', +13'/+16' and +27' (roof elevation of +62')), while the east wing had two levels: one below and one above grade (floor elevations of -15' and 0' (roof elevation of +16')). Below-grade exterior walls were constructed of reinforced concrete, {approx}1' thick. In general, above-grade exterior walls were steel frames covered by insulation and corrugated, asbestos-cement board. The two interior walls around the PDP/LTR were reinforced concrete {approx}5' thick and {approx}30' high, while the SP/SE reactors resided in a reinforced, concrete cell with 3.5'-6' thick walls/roof. All other interior walls were constructed of metal studs covered with either asbestos-cement or gypsum board. In general, the floors were constructed of reinforced concrete on cast-in-place concrete

  14. Semantic Representation and Naming in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Karla K.; Friedman, Rena M.; Reilly, Renee M.; Newman, Robyn M.

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments examined children's semantic representations and semantic naming errors. Results suggested that functional and physical properties are core aspects of object representations in the semantic lexicon and that the degree of semantic knowledge makes words more or less vulnerable to retrieval failure. Discussion focuses on the dynamic…

  15. The Semantic Distance Model of Relevance Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the Semantic Distance Model (SDM) of Relevance Assessment, a cognitive model of the relationship between semantic distance and relevance assessment. Discusses premises of the model such as the subjective nature of information and the metaphor of semantic distance. Empirical results illustrate the effects of semantic distance and semantic…

  16. Mapping the Structure of Semantic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morais, Ana Sofia; Olsson, Henrik; Schooler, Lael J.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregating snippets from the semantic memories of many individuals may not yield a good map of an individual's semantic memory. The authors analyze the structure of semantic networks that they sampled from individuals through a new snowball sampling paradigm during approximately 6 weeks of 1-hr daily sessions. The semantic networks of individuals…

  17. SRS BEDROCK PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSIS (PSHA) DESIGN BASIS JUSTIFICATION (U)

    SciTech Connect

    , R

    2005-12-14

    This represents an assessment of the available Savannah River Site (SRS) hard-rock probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs), including PSHAs recently completed, for incorporation in the SRS seismic hazard update. The prior assessment of the SRS seismic design basis (WSRC, 1997) incorporated the results from two PSHAs that were published in 1988 and 1993. Because of the vintage of these studies, an assessment is necessary to establish the value of these PSHAs considering more recently collected data affecting seismic hazards and the availability of more recent PSHAs. This task is consistent with the Department of Energy (DOE) order, DOE O 420.1B and DOE guidance document DOE G 420.1-2. Following DOE guidance, the National Map Hazard was reviewed and incorporated in this assessment. In addition to the National Map hazard, alternative ground motion attenuation models (GMAMs) are used with the National Map source model to produce alternate hazard assessments for the SRS. These hazard assessments are the basis for the updated hard-rock hazard recommendation made in this report. The development and comparison of hazard based on the National Map models and PSHAs completed using alternate GMAMs provides increased confidence in this hazard recommendation. The alternate GMAMs are the EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and a regional specific model (Silva et al., 2004). Weights of 0.6, 0.3 and 0.1 are recommended for EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and Silva et al. (2004) respectively. This weighting gives cluster weights of .39, .29, .15, .17 for the 1-corner, 2-corner, hybrid, and Greens-function models, respectively. This assessment is judged to be conservative as compared to WSRC (1997) and incorporates the range of prevailing expert opinion pertinent to the development of seismic hazard at the SRS. The corresponding SRS hard-rock uniform hazard spectra are greater than the design spectra developed in WSRC (1997) that were based on the LLNL (1993) and EPRI (1988) PSHAs. The

  18. Exploiting Recurring Structure in a Semantic Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, Richard M.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing popularity of the Semantic Web, an increasing amount of information is becoming available in machine interpretable, semantically structured networks. Within these semantic networks are recurring structures that could be mined by existing or novel knowledge discovery methods. The mining of these semantic structures represents an interesting area that focuses on mining both for and from the Semantic Web, with surprising applicability to problems confronting the developers of Semantic Web applications. In this paper, we present representative examples of recurring structures and show how these structures could be used to increase the utility of a semantic repository deployed at NASA.

  19. Workspaces in the Semantic Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the recency and relatively limited adoption of Semantic Web technologies. practical issues related to technology scaling have received less attention than foundational issues. Nonetheless, these issues must be addressed if the Semantic Web is to realize its full potential. In particular, we concentrate on the lack of scoping methods that reduce the size of semantic information spaces so they are more efficient to work with and more relevant to an agent's needs. We provide some intuition to motivate the need for such reduced information spaces, called workspaces, give a formal definition, and suggest possible methods of deriving them.

  20. High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.

    2011-06-02

    As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

  1. Does semantic redundancy gain result from multiple semantic priming?

    PubMed

    Schröter, Hannes; Bratzke, Daniel; Fiedler, Anja; Birngruber, Teresa

    2015-10-01

    Fiedler, Schröter, and Ulrich (2013) reported faster responses to a single written word when the semantic content of this word (e.g., "elephant") matched both targets (e.g., "animal", "gray") as compared to a single target (e.g., "animal", "brown"). This semantic redundancy gain was explained by statistical facilitation due to a race of independent memory retrieval processes. The present experiment addresses one alternative explanation, namely that semantic redundancy gain results from multiple pre-activation of words that match both targets. In different blocks of trials, participants performed a redundant-targets task and a lexical decision task. The targets of the redundant-targets task served as primes in the lexical decision task. Replicating the findings of Fiedler et al., a semantic redundancy gain was observed in the redundant-targets task. Crucially, however, there was no evidence of a multiple semantic priming effect in the lexical decision task. This result suggests that semantic redundancy gain cannot be explained by multiple pre-activation of words that match both targets.

  2. High temperature vitrification of surrogate Savannah River Site (SRS) mixed waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Applewhite-Ramsey, A.; Schumacher, R.F.; Spatz, T.L.; Newsom, R.A.; Circeo, L.J.; Danjaji, M.B.

    1995-11-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been funded through the DOE Office of Technology Development (DOE-OTD) to investigate high-temperature vitrification technologies for the treatment of diverse low-level and mixed wastes. High temperature vitrification is a likely candidate for processing heterogeneous solid wastes containing low levels of activity. Many SRS wastes fit into this category. Plasma torch technology is one high temperature vitrification method. A trial demonstration of plasma torch processing is being performed at the Georgia Institute of Technology on surrogate SRS wastes. This effort is in cooperation with the Engineering Research and Development Association of Georgia Universities (ERDA) program. The results of phase 1 of these plasma torch trials will be presented.

  3. An Improved Model for Studying the Role Played by the Trapped Particle Instability in SRS Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Stephan; Valeo, Ernest

    2005-10-01

    Simulations under laser-fusion conditions have shown the potential role played by the trapped-particle instability (TPI) in saturating the non-linear evolution of Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS). The TPI may indeed act as a secondary instability by breaking-up the primary electron plasma wave [S. Brunner and E. Valeo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 145003-1 (2004)]. First analysis of simulation results were performed using the reduced model of Kruer for the TPI [W. L. Kruer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 838 (1969)]. An improved analysis tool has now been developed which directly implements the general linear stability theory of large BGK-like plasma waves [M. Goldman, Phys. Fluids 13, 1281 (1970)]. The implementation of this stability analysis tool, and its application to the SRS simulation results will be presented.

  4. PROBABILISTIC ASSESSMENT OF A CRITICALITY IN A WASTE CONTAINER AT SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Eghbali, D

    2006-12-26

    Transuranic solid waste that has been generated as a result of the production of nuclear material for the United States defense program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been stored in more than 30,000 55-gallon drums and various size carbon steel boxes since 1953. Nearly two thirds of those containers have been processed and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Among the containers assayed so far, the results indicate several drums with fissile inventories significantly higher (600-1000 grams {sup 239}Pu) than their original assigned values. While part of this discrepancy can be attributed to the past limited assay capabilities, human errors are believed to be the primary contributor. This paper summarizes an assessment of the probability of occurrence of a criticality accident during handling of the remaining transuranic waste containers at SRS.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE NPDES STORM WATER COMPLIANCE ALTERNATIVES AT THE SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Shedrow, C

    2006-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with proposed and alternative actions to achieve water quality permit compliance at 38 storm water outfalls located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) (Figure 1-1). Effluent monitoring data indicates that some of these outfalls may not presently comply with new National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm Water General Permit effluent standards that became effective July 1, 2005 (SCR000000). The NPDES permit requires that best management practices (BMPs) be implemented and maintained, as necessary, to ensure that storm water discharges at SRS do not cause or contribute to the contravention of applicable state water quality standards (WQS).

  6. Problem Solving with General Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, David

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)

  7. Nine Principles of Semantic Harmonization.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, James A; Van Speybroeck, Michel; Kalra, Dipak; Verbeeck, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    Medical data is routinely collected, stored and recorded across different institutions and in a range of different formats. Semantic harmonization is the process of collating this data into a singular consistent logical view, with many approaches to harmonizing both possible and valid. The broad scope of possibilities for undertaking semantic harmonization do lead however to the development of bespoke and ad-hoc systems; this is particularly the case when it comes to cohort data, the format of which is often specific to a cohort's area of focus. Guided by work we have undertaken in developing the 'EMIF Knowledge Object Library', a semantic harmonization framework underpinning the collation of pan-European Alzheimer's cohort data, we have developed a set of nine generic guiding principles for developing semantic harmonization frameworks, the application of which will establish a solid base for constructing similar frameworks.

  8. Nine Principles of Semantic Harmonization

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, James A.; Van Speybroeck, Michel; Kalra, Dipak; Verbeeck, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    Medical data is routinely collected, stored and recorded across different institutions and in a range of different formats. Semantic harmonization is the process of collating this data into a singular consistent logical view, with many approaches to harmonizing both possible and valid. The broad scope of possibilities for undertaking semantic harmonization do lead however to the development of bespoke and ad-hoc systems; this is particularly the case when it comes to cohort data, the format of which is often specific to a cohort’s area of focus. Guided by work we have undertaken in developing the ‘EMIF Knowledge Object Library’, a semantic harmonization framework underpinning the collation of pan-European Alzheimer’s cohort data, we have developed a set of nine generic guiding principles for developing semantic harmonization frameworks, the application of which will establish a solid base for constructing similar frameworks. PMID:28269840

  9. Distributed semantic networks and CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, James; Rodriguez, Tony

    1991-01-01

    Semantic networks of frames are commonly used as a method of reasoning in many problems. In most of these applications the semantic network exists as a single entity in a single process environment. Advances in workstation hardware provide support for more sophisticated applications involving multiple processes, interacting in a distributed environment. In these applications the semantic network may well be distributed over several concurrently executing tasks. This paper describes the design and implementation of a frame based, distributed semantic network in which frames are accessed both through C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) expert systems and procedural C++ language programs. The application area is a knowledge based, cooperative decision making model utilizing both rule based and procedural experts.

  10. SRS SLUDGE BATCH QUALIFICATION AND PROCESSING; HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND LESSONS LEARNED

    SciTech Connect

    Cercy, M.; Peeler, D.; Stone, M.

    2013-09-25

    This report provides a historical overview and lessons learned associated with the SRS sludge batch (SB) qualification and processing programs. The report covers the framework of the requirements for waste form acceptance, the DWPF Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), waste feed acceptance, examples of how the program complies with the specifications, an overview of the Startup Program, and a summary of continuous improvements and lessons learned. The report includes a bibliography of previous reports and briefings on the topic.

  11. NASA and The Semantic Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashish, Naveen

    2005-01-01

    We provide an overview of several ongoing NASA endeavors based on concepts, systems, and technology from the Semantic Web arena. Indeed NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic Web Technology and we describe ongoing and completed R&D efforts for several applications ranging from collaborative systems to airspace information management to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and discovery systems at NASA.

  12. Semantic Interoperability on the Web

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    these agents would not be affected by presentation changes if the pages were available in XML, they would still break if the XML representation of the... these semantics into tools that are used to interpret or translate the XML documents, but software tools cannot acquire these semantics independently...mapping differences in naming conventions. As with natural language, XML DTDs have the problems of polysemy and synonymy. For example, the elements

  13. Neural substrates of semantic memory.

    PubMed

    Hart, John; Anand, Raksha; Zoccoli, Sandra; Maguire, Mandy; Gamino, Jacque; Tillman, Gail; King, Richard; Kraut, Michael A

    2007-09-01

    Semantic memory is described as the storage of knowledge, concepts, and information that is common and relatively consistent across individuals (e.g., memory of what is a cup). These memories are stored in multiple sensorimotor modalities and cognitive systems throughout the brain (e.g., how a cup is held and manipulated, the texture of a cup's surface, its shape, its function, that is related to beverages such as coffee, and so on). Our ability to engage in purposeful interactions with our environment is dependent on the ability to understand the meaning and significance of the objects and actions around us that are stored in semantic memory. Theories of the neural basis of the semantic memory of objects have produced sophisticated models that have incorporated to varying degrees the results of cognitive and neural investigations. The models are grouped into those that are (1) cognitive models, where the neural data are used to reveal dissociations in semantic memory after a brain lesion occurs; (2) models that incorporate both cognitive and neuroanatomical information; and (3) models that use cognitive, neuroanatomic, and neurophysiological data. This review highlights the advances and issues that have emerged from these models and points to future directions that provide opportunities to extend these models. The models of object memory generally describe how category and/or feature representations encode for object memory, and the semantic operations engaged in object processing. The incorporation of data derived from multiple modalities of investigation can lead to detailed neural specifications of semantic memory organization. The addition of neurophysiological data can potentially provide further elaboration of models to include semantic neural mechanisms. Future directions should incorporate available and newly developed techniques to better inform the neural underpinning of semantic memory models.

  14. Hanford Supplemental Treatment: Literature and Modeling Review of SRS HLW Salt Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A. S.; Flach, G. P.; Martino, C. J.; Zamecnik, J. R.; Harris, M. K.; Wilmarth, W. R.; Calloway, T. B.

    2005-03-23

    In order to accelerate waste treatment and disposal of Hanford tank waste by 2028, the Department of Energy (DOE) and CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CHG), Inc. are evaluating alternative technologies which will be used in conjunction with the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) to safely pretreat and immobilize the tank waste. Several technologies (Bulk Vitrification and Steam Reforming) are currently being evaluated for immobilizing the pretreated waste. Since the WTP does not have sufficient capacity to pretreat all the waste going to supplemental treatment by the 2028 milestone, two technologies (Selective Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization) are being considered for pretreatment of salt waste. The scope of this task was to: (1) evaluate the recent Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 41 dissolution campaign and other literature to provide a more complete understanding of selective dissolution, (2) provide an update on the progress of salt dissolution and modeling activities at SRS, (3) investigate SRS experience and outside literature sources on industrial equipment and experimental results of previous fractional crystallization processes, and (4) evaluate recent Hanford AP104 boildown experiments and modeling results and recommend enhancements to the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) to improve its predictive capabilities. This report provides a summary of this work and suggested recommendations.

  15. Spontaneous Raman Scattering (SRS) System for Calibrating High-Pressure Flames Became Operational

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2003-01-01

    A high-performance spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) system for measuring quantitative species concentration and temperature in high-pressure flames is now operational. The system is located in Glenn s Engine Research Building. Raman scattering is perhaps the only optical diagnostic technique that permits the simultaneous (single-shot) measurement of all major species (N2, O2, CO2, H2O, CO, H2, and CH4) as well as temperature in combustion systems. The preliminary data acquired with this new system in a 20-atm hydrogen-air (H2-air) flame show excellent spectral coverage, good resolution, and a signal-to-noise ratio high enough for the data to serve as a calibration standard. This new SRS diagnostic system is used in conjunction with the newly developed High- Pressure Gaseous Burner facility (ref. 1). The main purpose of this diagnostic system and the High-Pressure Gaseous Burner facility is to acquire and establish a comprehensive Raman-scattering spectral database calibration standard for the combustion diagnostic community. A secondary purpose of the system is to provide actual measurements in standardized flames to validate computational combustion models. The High-Pressure Gaseous Burner facility and its associated SRS system will provide researchers throughout the world with new insights into flame conditions that simulate the environment inside the ultra-high-pressure-ratio combustion chambers of tomorrow s advanced aircraft engines.

  16. Recognition of SUMO-modified PCNA requires tandem receptor motifs in Srs2

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Anthony A.; Mohideen, Firaz; Lima, Christopher D.

    2013-04-08

    Ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like (Ubl) modifiers such as SUMO (also known as Smt3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mediate signal transduction through post-translational modification of substrate proteins in pathways that control differentiation, apoptosis and the cell cycle, and responses to stress such as the DNA damage response. In yeast, the proliferating cell nuclear antigen PCNA (also known as Pol30) is modified by ubiquitin in response to DNA damage and by SUMO during S phase. Whereas Ub-PCNA can signal for recruitment of translesion DNA polymerases, SUMO-PCNA signals for recruitment of the anti-recombinogenic DNA helicase Srs2. It remains unclear how receptors such as Srs2 specifically recognize substrates after conjugation to Ub and Ubls. Here we show, through structural, biochemical and functional studies, that the Srs2 carboxy-terminal domain harbors tandem receptor motifs that interact independently with PCNA and SUMO and that both motifs are required to recognize SUMO-PCNA specifically. The mechanism presented is pertinent to understanding how other receptors specifically recognize Ub- and Ubl-modified substrates to facilitate signal transduction.

  17. Electron Acoustic Waves Generated in SRS by Beam-Plasma Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focia, R. J.; Bers, A.; Ram, A. K.; Shoucri, M. M.

    2001-10-01

    In recent single hot spot laser-plasma experiments on the Los Alamos National Laboratory TRIDENT laser, stimulated scattering was observed at a frequency and phase velocity (ω ≈ 0.4 ω_pe, v_φ ≈ 1.4 v_e) below that of the usual SRS electron plasma wave (EPW).(D. S. Montgomery et al., LANL Report LA-UR-01-1857.) This mode has the characteristics of an electron acoustic wave (EAW). We suggest that this new mode is generated by the interaction of an energetic beam of electrons, produced by nonlinear trapping in the SRS-EPW, with the background plasma. Using a bi-Maxwellian electron distribution function to model the beam-plasma system, we find that, in addition to the usual beam-plasma mode, there exists another mode with characteristic features of an EAW. The weakly damped EAW, obtained from the dispersion relation with the complete plasma dispersion function, exists for parameters consistent with the experiments. EAW features will be presented. The validity of the beam-plasma model is also being studied with an Eulerian-Vlasov code which allows for the nonlinear evolution of the electron distribution function in SRS.

  18. Modeling SRS and its Hot Electrons as they occur within Ignition Scale Hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Mordecai; Harte, Judy; Hinkel, Denise; Town, Richard; Scott, Howard; Zimmerman, George; Williams, Ed; Callahan, Debra; Michel, Pierre; Thomas, Cliff; Bailey, David

    2012-10-01

    We utilize a package within the Lasnex code that can generate Stimulated Raman Back Scatter (SRS) light within the hohlraum. The user can specify the amount of SRS backward propagating light, its frequency, and the density at which the process occurs. In addition, the user can specify how the remaining energy, which in reality resides initially within the electron plasma wave (EPW), is to be modeled. Choices include a) ignoring the EPW and simply continuing to propagate the rest of the laser energy forward, b) local thermal energy deposition, or c) putting it into a super-thermal hot electron distribution. The level and spectrum of these hot electrons can also be chosen. Thus, we can model either the main SRS component of ˜ 100 kJ at ˜ 20 keV, or the super-hots of ˜ 1 kJ and 80 keV. The hot electrons are transported in a diffusive, quasi isotropic manner. We present preliminary results using these various deposition models, reporting on capsule implosion symmetry and on the x-ray spectrum emitted from the Au excited by the hot electrons. The need to model the hot electron transport more as beaming along the direction of the EPW is raised.

  19. Semantic preview benefit during reading.

    PubMed

    Hohenstein, Sven; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word during the saccade to the preview (boundary paradigm). In the 1st experiment the preview word was semantically related or unrelated to the target. Fixation durations on the target were shorter for semantically related than unrelated previews, consistent with a semantic preview benefit. In the 2nd experiment, half the sentences were presented following the rules of German spelling (i.e., previews and targets were printed with an initial capital letter), and the other half were presented completely in lowercase. A semantic preview benefit was obtained under both conditions. In the 3rd experiment, we introduced 2 further preview conditions, an identical word and a pronounceable nonword, while also manipulating the text contrast. Whereas the contrast had negligible effects, fixation durations on the target were reliably different for all 4 types of preview. Semantic preview benefits were greater for pretarget fixations closer to the boundary (large preview space) and, although not as consistently, for long pretarget fixation durations (long preview time). The results constrain theoretical proposals about eye movement control in reading. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Liquid bridges with thermocapillarity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, J.-J.; Davis, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    An axisymmetric liquid bridge is subjected to an axial temperature gradient. Thermal variations in surface tension drive a motion that is described using lubrication theory for slender bridges. At leading order in aspect ratio, a class of similarity solutions is obtained valid in the core region away from the endwalls of the bridge. These solutions describe the flows, temperature fields, and interfacial shapes of bridges that may sustain substantial interfacial deflections.

  1. Serodiagnosis of Neospora caninum infection in cattle using a recombinant tNcSRS2 protein-based ELISA.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Yu, Jinshu; Wang, Ming; Liu, Qun; Zhang, Wei; Deng, Chong; Ding, Jun

    2007-02-28

    The truncated NcSRS2 gene (tNcSRS2) by removal of the N-terminal hydrophobic sequence was cloned into the pGEX-6p-1 plasmid and subsequently expressed as a glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion protein. The purified recombinant tNcSRS2 protein was specific to Neospora caninum and was used in an ELISA for the diagnosis of neosporosis. There was a good agreement between tNctSRS2-based ELISA and three commercially available diagnostic kits (IDEXX ELISA, HIPRA ELISA and VMRD IFAT). Three hundred dairy cattle serum samples from 9 regions were tested by our ELISA. The herd prevalence was 100% and the overall prevalence was 20.3%. There was a statistically significant difference in seroprevalence between regions (P<0.01) and an association between abortion history and N. caninum seropositivity. Our study showed that neosporosis in dairy cattle is widespread in China.

  2. PILOT SCALE TESTING OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE MIXING FOR THE SRS SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS - 11224

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Restivo, M.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.; Steeper, T.

    2011-01-25

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and select actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the requirements for the pumps to suspend the MST particles so that they can contact the strontium and actinides in the liquid and be removed from the tank. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of SRS Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5 and B2 for two pump configurations and Risers B5, B3, and B1 for three pump configurations). The conclusions from this work follow: (i) Neither two standard slurry pumps nor two quad volute slurry pumps will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. (ii) Two Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. However, the testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is close to the maximum discharge velocity of the pump (within 12%). (iii) Three SMPs will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 66% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (iv) Three SMPs are needed to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 77% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. Two SMPs are not sufficient to resuspend MST that settled under these

  3. Ground motion following selection of SRS design basis earthquake and associated deterministic approach. Final report: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of a deterministic assessment of earthquake ground motions at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The purpose of this study is to assist the Environmental Sciences Section of the Savannah River Laboratory in reevaluating the design basis earthquake (DBE) ground motion at SRS during approaches defined in Appendix A to 10 CFR Part 100. This work is in support of the Seismic Engineering Section`s Seismic Qualification Program for reactor restart.

  4. SRS 2010 Vegetation Inventory GeoStatistical Mapping Results for Custom Reaction Intensity and Total Dead Fuels.

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Lloyd A.; Paresol, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    This report of the geostatistical analysis results of the fire fuels response variables, custom reaction intensity and total dead fuels is but a part of an SRS 2010 vegetation inventory project. For detailed description of project, theory and background including sample design, methods, and results please refer to USDA Forest Service Savannah River Site internal report “SRS 2010 Vegetation Inventory GeoStatistical Mapping Report”, (Edwards & Parresol 2013).

  5. Neuroanatomic substrates of semantic memory impairment in Alzheimer’s disease: Patterns of functional MRI activation

    PubMed Central

    SAYKIN, ANDREW J.; FLASHMAN, LAURA A.; FRUTIGER, SALLY A.; JOHNSON, STERLING C.; MAMOURIAN, ALEXANDER C.; MORITZ, CHAD H.; O’JILE, JUDITH R.; RIORDAN, HENRY J.; SANTULLI, ROBERT B.; SMITH, CYNTHIA A.; WEAVER, JOHN B.

    2015-01-01

    Impairment in semantic processing occurs early in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and differential impact on subtypes of semantic relations have been reported, yet there is little data on the neuroanatomic basis of these deficits. Patients with mild AD and healthy controls underwent 3 functional MRI auditory stimulation tasks requiring semantic or phonological decisions (match–mismatch) about word pairs (category–exemplar, category–function, pseudoword). Patients showed a significant performance deficit only on the exemplar task. On voxel-based fMRI activation analyses, controls showed a clear activation focus in the left superior temporal gyrus for the phonological task; patients showed additional foci in the left dorsolateral prefrontal and bilateral cingulate areas. On the semantic tasks, predominant activation foci were seen in the inferior and middle frontal gyrus (left greater than right) in both groups but patients showed additional activation suggesting compensatory recruitment of locally expanded foci and remote regions, for example, right frontal activation during the exemplar task. Covariance analyses indicated that exemplar task performance was strongly related to signal increase in bilateral medial prefrontal cortex. The authors conclude that fMRI can reveal similarities and differences in functional neuroanatomical processing of semantic and phonological information in mild AD compared to healthy elderly, and can help to bridge cognitive and neural investigations of the integrity of semantic networks in AD. PMID:10439584

  6. Development of SRS.php, a Simple Object Access Protocol-based library for data acquisition from integrated biological databases.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Silva, A; Pafilis, E; Ortega, J M; Schneider, R

    2007-12-11

    Data integration has become an important task for biological database providers. The current model for data exchange among different sources simplifies the manner that distinct information is accessed by users. The evolution of data representation from HTML to XML enabled programs, instead of humans, to interact with biological databases. We present here SRS.php, a PHP library that can interact with the data integration Sequence Retrieval System (SRS). The library has been written using SOAP definitions, and permits the programmatic communication through webservices with the SRS. The interactions are possible by invoking the methods described in WSDL by exchanging XML messages. The current functions available in the library have been built to access specific data stored in any of the 90 different databases (such as UNIPROT, KEGG and GO) using the same query syntax format. The inclusion of the described functions in the source of scripts written in PHP enables them as webservice clients to the SRS server. The functions permit one to query the whole content of any SRS database, to list specific records in these databases, to get specific fields from the records, and to link any record among any pair of linked databases. The case study presented exemplifies the library usage to retrieve information regarding registries of a Plant Defense Mechanisms database. The Plant Defense Mechanisms database is currently being developed, and the proposal of SRS.php library usage is to enable the data acquisition for the further warehousing tasks related to its setup and maintenance.

  7. Semantic Services for Wikipedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haofen; Penin, Thomas; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Qiaoling; Xue, Guirong; Yu, Yong

    Wikipedia, a killer application in Web 2.0, has embraced the power of collaborative editing to harness collective intelligence. It features many attractive characteristics, like entity-based link graph, abundant categorization and semi-structured layout, and can serve as an ideal data source to extract high quality and well-structured data. In this chapter, we first propose several solutions to extract knowledge from Wikipedia. We do not only consider information from the relational summaries of articles (infoboxes) but also semi-automatically extract it from the article text using the structured content available. Due to differences with information extraction from the Web, it is necessary to tackle new problems, like the lack of redundancy in Wikipedia that is dealt with by extending traditional machine learning algorithms to work with few labeled data. Furthermore, we also exploit the widespread categories as a complementary way to discover additional knowledge. Benefiting from both structured and textural information, we additionally provide a suggestion service for Wikipedia authoring. With the aim to facilitate semantic reuse, our proposal provides users with facilities such as link, categories and infobox content suggestions. The proposed enhancements can be applied to attract more contributors and lighten the burden of professional editors. Finally, we developed an enhanced search system, which can ease the process of exploiting Wikipedia. To provide a user-friendly interface, it extends the faceted search interface with relation navigation and let the user easily express his complex information needs in an interactive way. In order to achieve efficient query answering, it extends scalable IR engines to index and search both the textual and structured information with an integrated ranking support.

  8. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    PubMed

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  9. Semantic processing of crowded stimuli?

    PubMed

    Huckauf, Anke; Knops, Andre; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Willmes, Klaus

    2008-11-01

    Effects of semantic processing of crowded characters were investigated using numbers as stimuli. In an identification task, typical spacing effects in crowding were replicated. Using the same stimuli in a magnitude comparison task, a smaller effect of spacing was observed as well as an effect of response congruency. These effects were replicated in a second experiment with varying stimulus-onset asynchronies. In addition, decreasing performance with increasing onset-asynchrony (so-called type-B masking) for incongruent flankers indicates semantic processing of target and flankers. The data show that semantic processing takes place even in crowded stimuli. This argues strongly against common accounts of crowding in terms of early stimulus-driven impairments of processing.

  10. Ontology Matching with Semantic Verification

    PubMed Central

    Jean-Mary, Yves R.; Shironoshita, E. Patrick; Kabuka, Mansur R.

    2009-01-01

    ASMOV (Automated Semantic Matching of Ontologies with Verification) is a novel algorithm that uses lexical and structural characteristics of two ontologies to iteratively calculate a similarity measure between them, derives an alignment, and then verifies it to ensure that it does not contain semantic inconsistencies. In this paper, we describe the ASMOV algorithm, and then present experimental results that measure its accuracy using the OAEI 2008 tests, and that evaluate its use with two different thesauri: WordNet, and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). These results show the increased accuracy obtained by combining lexical, structural and extensional matchers with semantic verification, and demonstrate the advantage of using a domain-specific thesaurus for the alignment of specialized ontologies. PMID:20186256

  11. Semantic Web Research Trends and Directions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    social trust on the semantic web that builds upon the previous work to create end user applications that benefit from the semantic foundation. 2 Swoop...security, authentication, and privacy. However, the social component of trust is one that is both important and ideally suited for the Semantic Web. When the...Semantic Web-based social networks are augmented with trust information, it is possible to make computations over the values, and integrate the

  12. Design of a Carousel Process for Removing Cesium from SRS Waste Using Crystalline Silicotitanate Ion Exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    1999-01-15

    Designs of a three-column carousel process based on crystalline silicotitanate (CST) ion exchanger have been developed for removing radioactive 137Cs+ from Savannah River Site's (SRS) nuclear wastes. A multicomponent ion exchange equilibrium model (Zheng et al., 1997) from Texas A&M University, which is based on batch data obtained from CST powder, is used to generate cesium loading data at different cesium concentrations for various types of SRS wastes. These loading data are fit to the Langmuir equation to obtain effective single-component cesium isotherm parameters. The predictions are in reasonable agreement with batch test data obtained from CST powder, an early CST pellet batch (38B), and a later batch (IE911) using two SRS waste simulants. The ratios between experimental cesium distribution coefficients and predicted values are between 0.56 and 1.0. The variation appears to be due to inadequate equilibration time in some of the batches. Mass transfer parameters are estimated by analyzing column data of a simulated SRS waste and Melton Valley Storage Tank W29 (MVST-W29) waste. The intraparticle diffusivity estimated for the two wastes can be well correlated by means of the Stokes-Einstein equation.Simulations are performed to determine the length of the mass transfer zone for given feed compositions, Cs+ concentrations, and linear velocities. In order to ensure high column utilization during both the transient and cyclic steady state periods, the length of a single segment in the carousel process is chosen to be the mass transfer zone length after the concentration wave achieves a constant pattern. Analysis of the dimensionless groups in the differential mass balance equations reveals that the normalized mass transfer zone length is linearly proportional to the particle Peclet number. The proportionality constant is a function of the waste composition and the Cs+ concentration in the waste. The higher the effective Cs+ capacity and the higher the Cs

  13. Recent Advances in SRS on Hydrogen Isotope Separation Using Thermal Cycling Absorption Process

    DOE PAGES

    Xiao, Xin; Sessions, Henry T.; Heung, L. Kit

    2015-02-01

    The recent Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) advances at Savannah River Site (SRS) include compressor-free concept for heating/cooling, push and pull separation using an active inverse column, and compact column design. The new developments allow significantly higher throughput and better reliability from 1/10th of the current production system’s footprint while consuming 60% less energy. Various versions are derived in the meantime for external customers to be used in fusion energy projects and medical isotope production.

  14. Fifty Years of Ornithological Coverage at SRS: What Species and Groups Have Fallen Through the Cracks?

    SciTech Connect

    McCallum, D.A.; Leatherman, S.; Mayer, J.J.

    2000-10-01

    The extensive databases on avian species developed at SRS over the last fifty years have been significant. The authors identified that temporal periods and higher taxonomic groups have received little or no coverage. Waterfowl and water birds have been adequately covered as have the three endangered species. Extensive terrestrial monitoring was initiated in the 1990's. Two groups are singled out for study include raptors and cavity nesters. Aerial foragers and nocturnal species have received little attention. Recommendations are made to compare on-site and off-site populations through partnerships.

  15. Integrated use of SRS Data &GIS Technique for Monitoring Changes in Riverine Forest of Sindh, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, M.; Ali, Z.

    Deforestation / depletion in forest area threaten the sustainability of agricultural production systems and en-danger the economy of the country. Every year extensive areas of arable agricultural and forestlands are degraded and turned into wastelands, due to natural causes or human interventions. There are several causes of deforestation, such as expansion in agricultural area, urban development, forest fires, commercial logging, illicit cutting, grazing, constructions of dams / reservoirs and barrages, com munication links, etc. Depletion in forest cover, therefore, has an important impact on socio - economic development and ecological balance. High population growth rate in Pakistan is one of the main causes for the rapid deterioration of physical environment and natural resource base. In view of this, it is felt necessary to carryout land -u s e studies focusing on strategies for mapping the past and present conditions and extent of forests and rangelands using Satellite Remote Sensing (SRS) data and GIS t echnology. The SRS and GIS technology provides a possible means of monitoring and mapping changes occurring in natural resources and the environment on a continuing basis. The riverine forests of Sindh mostly grow along the River Indus in the flood plains, spread over an area of 241,000 ha are disappearing very rapidly. Construction of dams / barrages on the upper reaches of the River Indus for hydroelectric power and irrigation works have significantly reduced the discharge of fresh water into the lower Indus basin and as a result, 100,000 acres of forests have disappeared. Furthermore, the heavy floods that occurred in 1978, 1988, 1992 and 1997, altered the course of the River Indus in many places, especially in the lower reaches, this has also damaged the riverine forests of Sindh. An integrated approach involving analysis of SRS data from 1977 to 1998 and GIS technique have been used to evaluate the geographic ex-tent and distribution of the riverine

  16. Semantic processing in information retrieval.

    PubMed Central

    Rindflesch, T. C.; Aronson, A. R.

    1993-01-01

    Intuition suggests that one way to enhance the information retrieval process would be the use of phrases to characterize the contents of text. A number of researchers, however, have noted that phrases alone do not improve retrieval effectiveness. In this paper we briefly review the use of phrases in information retrieval and then suggest extensions to this paradigm using semantic information. We claim that semantic processing, which can be viewed as expressing relations between the concepts represented by phrases, will in fact enhance retrieval effectiveness. The availability of the UMLS domain model, which we exploit extensively, significantly contributes to the feasibility of this processing. PMID:8130547

  17. Language networks in semantic dementia.

    PubMed

    Agosta, Federica; Henry, Roland G; Migliaccio, Raffaella; Neuhaus, John; Miller, Bruce L; Dronkers, Nina F; Brambati, Simona M; Filippi, Massimo; Ogar, Jennifer M; Wilson, Stephen M; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in semantic dementia have been attributed to anterior temporal lobe grey matter damage; however, key aspects of the syndrome could be due to altered anatomical connectivity between language pathways involving the temporal lobe. The aim of this study was to investigate the left language-related cerebral pathways in semantic dementia using diffusion tensor imaging-based tractography and to combine the findings with cortical anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained during a reading activation task. The left inferior longitudinal fasciculus, arcuate fasciculus and fronto-parietal superior longitudinal fasciculus were tracked in five semantic dementia patients and eight healthy controls. The left uncinate fasciculus and the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum were also obtained for comparison with previous studies. From each tract, mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, as well as parallel and transverse diffusivities were obtained. Diffusion tensor imaging results were related to grey and white matter atrophy volume assessed by voxel-based morphometry and functional magnetic resonance imaging activations during a reading task. Semantic dementia patients had significantly higher mean diffusivity, parallel and transverse in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The arcuate and uncinate fasciculi demonstrated significantly higher mean diffusivity, parallel and transverse and significantly lower fractional anisotropy. The fronto-parietal superior longitudinal fasciculus was relatively spared, with a significant difference observed for transverse diffusivity and fractional anisotropy, only. In the corpus callosum, the genu showed lower fractional anisotropy compared with controls, while no difference was found in the splenium. The left parietal cortex did not show significant volume changes on voxel-based morphometry and demonstrated normal functional magnetic resonance imaging activation in response to reading items that

  18. Language networks in semantic dementia

    PubMed Central

    Agosta, Federica; Henry, Roland G.; Migliaccio, Raffaella; Neuhaus, John; Miller, Bruce L.; Dronkers, Nina F.; Brambati, Simona M.; Filippi, Massimo; Ogar, Jennifer M.; Wilson, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in semantic dementia have been attributed to anterior temporal lobe grey matter damage; however, key aspects of the syndrome could be due to altered anatomical connectivity between language pathways involving the temporal lobe. The aim of this study was to investigate the left language-related cerebral pathways in semantic dementia using diffusion tensor imaging-based tractography and to combine the findings with cortical anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained during a reading activation task. The left inferior longitudinal fasciculus, arcuate fasciculus and fronto-parietal superior longitudinal fasciculus were tracked in five semantic dementia patients and eight healthy controls. The left uncinate fasciculus and the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum were also obtained for comparison with previous studies. From each tract, mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, as well as parallel and transverse diffusivities were obtained. Diffusion tensor imaging results were related to grey and white matter atrophy volume assessed by voxel-based morphometry and functional magnetic resonance imaging activations during a reading task. Semantic dementia patients had significantly higher mean diffusivity, parallel and transverse in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The arcuate and uncinate fasciculi demonstrated significantly higher mean diffusivity, parallel and transverse and significantly lower fractional anisotropy. The fronto-parietal superior longitudinal fasciculus was relatively spared, with a significant difference observed for transverse diffusivity and fractional anisotropy, only. In the corpus callosum, the genu showed lower fractional anisotropy compared with controls, while no difference was found in the splenium. The left parietal cortex did not show significant volume changes on voxel-based morphometry and demonstrated normal functional magnetic resonance imaging activation in response to reading items that

  19. Abstraction and natural language semantics.

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    According to the traditional view, a word prototypically denotes a class of objects sharing similar features, i.e. it results from an abstraction based on the detection of common properties in perceived entities. I explore here another idea: words result from abstraction of common premises in the rules governing our actions. I first argue that taking 'inference', instead of 'reference', as the basic issue in semantics does matter. I then discuss two phenomena that are, in my opinion, particularly difficult to analyse within the scope of traditional semantic theories: systematic polysemy and plurals. I conclude by a discussion of my approach, and by a summary of its main features. PMID:12903662

  20. Examining Lateralized Semantic Access Using Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovseth, Kyle; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2010-01-01

    A divided visual field (DVF) experiment examined the semantic processing strategies employed by the cerebral hemispheres to determine if strategies observed with written word stimuli generalize to other media for communicating semantic information. We employed picture stimuli and vary the degree of semantic relatedness between the picture pairs.…

  1. Semantic Relatedness for Evaluation of Course Equivalencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Beibei

    2012-01-01

    Semantic relatedness, or its inverse, semantic distance, measures the degree of closeness between two pieces of text determined by their meaning. Related work typically measures semantics based on a sparse knowledge base such as WordNet or Cyc that requires intensive manual efforts to build and maintain. Other work is based on a corpus such as the…

  2. Semantic Weight and Verb Retrieval in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barde, Laura H. F.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Boronat, Consuelo B.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic aphasia may have difficulty with verb production in comparison to nouns. Additionally, they may have greater difficulty producing verbs that have fewer semantic components (i.e., are semantically "light") compared to verbs that have greater semantic weight. A connectionist verb-production model proposed by Gordon and…

  3. Chinese Character Decoding: A Semantic Bias?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Clay; Bever, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The effects of semantic and phonetic radicals on Chinese character decoding were examined. Our results suggest that semantic and phonetic radicals are each available for access when a corresponding task emphasizes one or the other kind of radical. But in a more neutral lexical recognition task, the semantic radical is more informative. Semantic…

  4. Metasemantics: On the Limits of Semantic Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, T.

    2009-01-01

    METASEMANTICS is a wake-up call for semantic theory: It reveals that some semantic questions have no adequate answer. (This is meant to be the "epistemic" point that certain semantic questions cannot be "settled"--not a metaphysical point about whether there is a fact-of-the-matter.) METASEMANTICS thus checks our default "optimism" that any…

  5. LOOKING WNW, CHEVROLET AVENUE BRIDGE CROSSING FLINT RIVER. BRIDGE CONNECTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING WNW, CHEVROLET AVENUE BRIDGE CROSSING FLINT RIVER. BRIDGE CONNECTED NORTH AND SOUTH PORTIONS OF FACTORY COMPLEX. DANIEL LUTEN DESIGNED THE BRIDGE, AND ILLINOIS BRIDGE COMPANY BUILT IT IN 1918. THE BRIDGE WAS THE SITE OF THE BATTLE OF RUNNING BULLS IN THE 1936-1937 GM SIT DOWN STRIKE. - Delphi Flint West, 300 Chevrolet Avenue, Flint, Genesee County, MI

  6. Physeal bridge resection.

    PubMed

    Khoshhal, Khalid I; Kiefer, Gerhard N

    2005-01-01

    Growth arrest secondary to physeal bridge formation is an uncommon but well-recognized complication of physeal fractures and other injuries. Regardless of the underlying etiology, physeal bridges may cause angular and/or longitudinal growth disturbances, with progression dependent on the remaining physeal growth potential. Physeal bridge resection and insertion of interposition material releases the tethering effect of the bridge. Physeal bridge resection has become an accepted treatment option for patients with existing or developing deformity and for those with at least 2 years or 2 cm of growth remaining. Current experimental research is focused on the use of gene therapy and other factors that enhance chondrocyte proliferation to improve the management of growth arrest. The use of cartilage and cultured chondrocytes as interposition material after physeal bridge resection is an area of active research.

  7. Bridge Crossing Simulator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-07

    reaction structure, and a control system, the BCS physically simulates vehicular crossing loads for the expected life span of the bridge undergoing...information provided by the customer. In general, statics will be used to determine equations for moments and deflections based on the specific bridge ...systems. Through the use of hydraulic actuators, a reaction structure, and a control system, the Bridge Crossing Simulator physically simulates vehicular

  8. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Grubelich, Mark C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length.

  9. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1999-01-19

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge (SCB) igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length. 3 figs.

  10. Ichthyoplankton entrainment study at the SRS Savannah River water intakes for Westinghouse Savannah River Company

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M. )

    1992-03-26

    Cooling water for L and K Reactors and makeup water for Par Pond is pumped from the Savannah River at the 1G, 3G, and 5G pump houses. Ichthyoplankton (drifting fish larvae and eggs) from the river are entrained into the reactor cooling systems with the river water and passed through the reactor's heat exchangers where temperatures may reach 70[degrees]C during full power operation. Ichthyoplankton mortality under such conditions is assumed to be 100 percent. The number of ichthyoplankton entrained into the cooling system depends on a variety of variables, including time of year, density and distribution of ichthyoplankton in the river, discharge levels in the river, and the volume of water withdrawn by the pumps. Entrainment at the 1 G pump house, which is immediately downstream from the confluence of Upper Three Runs Creek and the Savannah River, is also influenced by discharge rates and ichthyoplankton densities in Upper Three Runs Creek. Because of the anticipated restart of several SRS reactors and the growing concern surrounding striped bass and American shad stocks in the Savannah River, the Department of Energy requested that the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory sample ichthyoplankton at the SRS Savannah River intakes. Dams Moore, Inc., under a contract with Westinghouse Savannah River Company performed the sampling and data analysis for the ESS.

  11. An evaluation of the ecological consequences of partial-power operation of the K Reactor, SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Gladden, J.B.; Mackey, H.E.; Paller, M.H.; Specht, W.L.; Wike, L.D.; Wilde, E.W.

    1991-06-01

    The K Reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS) shut-down in spring 1988 for maintenance and safety upgrades. Since that time the receiving stream for thermal effluent, Indian Grave Branch and Pen Branch, have undergone a pattern of post-thermal recovery that is typical of other SRS streams following removal of thermal stress. Divesity of fish and aquatic macroinvertebrate communities has increased and available habitats have been colonized by numerous species of herbaceous and woody plants. K Reactor is scheduled to resume operation in 1991 and operate through 1992 without a cooling tower to cool the discharge. It is likely that the reactor will operate at approximately one-third to one-half of full power (800--1200 MW thermal) during this period and effluent temperatures will be substantially lower than earlier operation at full power. Monthly average discharge temperatures at half-power operation will range from approximately 42{degrees}C in winter to 49{degrees}C in summer. The volume of water discharged will not be affected by altered power levels and will average approximately 10--11 m{sup 3}/s. The ecological consequences of this mode of operation on the Indian Grave/Pen Branch stream system have been evaluated.

  12. AmeriFlux US-Skr Shark River Slough (Tower SRS-6) Everglades

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, Jordan G.; Fuentes, Jose

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Skr Shark River Slough (Tower SRS-6) Everglades. Site Description - The Florida Everglades Shark River Slough Mangrove Forest site is located along the Shark River in the western region of Everglades National Park. Also referred to as site SRS6 of the Florida Coastal Everglades LTER program, freshwater in the mangrove riverine floods the forest floor under a meter of water twice per day. Transgressive discharge of freshwater from the Shark river follows annual rainfall distributions between the wet and dry seasons. Hurricane Wilma struck the site in October of 2005 causing significant damage. The tower was offline until the following October in order to continue temporally consistent measurements. In post-hurricane conditions, ecosystem respiration rates and solar irradiance transfer increased. 2007- 2008 measurements indicate that these factors led to an decline in both annual -NEE and daily NEE from pre-hurricane conditions in 2004-2005.

  13. Feasibility Study on Applying Radiophotoluminescent Glass Dosimeters for CyberKnife SRS Dose Verification

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Shih-Ming; Hung, Chao-Hsiung; Liao, Yi-Jen; Fu, Hsiao-Mei; Tsai, Jo-Ting

    2017-01-01

    CyberKnife is one of multiple modalities for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Due to the nature of CyberKnife and the characteristics of SRS, dose evaluation of the CyberKnife procedure is critical. A radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter was used to verify the dose accuracy for the CyberKnife procedure and validate a viable dose verification system for CyberKnife treatment. A radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter, thermoluminescent dosimeter, and Kodak EDR2 film were used to measure the lateral dose profile and percent depth dose of CyberKnife. A Monte Carlo simulation for dose verification was performed using BEAMnrc to verify the measured results. This study also used a radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter coupled with an anthropomorphic phantom to evaluate the accuracy of the dose given by CyberKnife. Measurements from the radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter were compared with the results of a thermoluminescent dosimeter and EDR2 film, and the differences found were less than 5%. The radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter has some advantages in terms of dose measurements over CyberKnife, such as repeatability, stability, and small effective size. These advantages make radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeters a potential candidate dosimeter for the CyberKnife procedure. This study concludes that radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeters are a promising and reliable dosimeter for CyberKnife dose verification with clinically acceptable accuracy within 5%. PMID:28046056

  14. Performance Modeling Applied to the Treatment and Disposal of a Mixed Waste at the SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.; Jantzen, C.M.; Cook, J.R.; Whited, A.R.; Field, R.A.

    1997-05-01

    Performance modeling for Low Level Mixed Waste disposal was conducted using the measured leach rates from a number of vitrified waste formulations. The objective of the study was to determine if the improved durability of a vitrified mixed waste would allow trench disposal at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Leaching data were compiled from twenty-nine diverse reference glasses, encompassing a wide range of exposed glass surface area to leachant volume ratios (SA/V), and various leachant solutions; all of which had been leached at 90 degrees Celsius, using the MCC-1 or PCT procedures (ASTM Procedures C1220-92 and C1285-94, respectively). The normalized leach rates were scaled to the ambient disposal temperature of 25 degrees Celsius, and compared to the allowable leach rate of uranium - which would meet the performance assessment requirements. The results indicated that a glass of above average durability (vs. the reference glasses) would meet the uranium leaching concentration for direct SRS trench disposal.

  15. PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE NEXT-GENERATION CSSX SOLVENT WITH ACTUAL SRS TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.; Crowder, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-11-01

    Efforts are underway to qualify the Next-Generation Solvent for the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. Researchers at multiple national laboratories have been involved in this effort. As part of the effort to qualify the solvent extraction system at the Savannah River Site (SRS), SRNL performed a number of tests at various scales. First, SRNL completed a series of batch equilibrium, or Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS), tests. These tests used {approx}30 mL of Next-Generation Solvent and either actual SRS tank waste, or waste simulant solutions. The results from these cesium mass transfer tests were used to predict solvent behavior under a number of conditions. At a larger scale, SRNL assembled 12 stages of 2-cm (diameter) centrifugal contactors. This rack of contactors is structurally similar to one tested in 2001 during the demonstration of the baseline CSSX process. Assembly and mechanical testing found no issues. SRNL performed a nonradiological test using 35 L of cesium-spiked caustic waste simulant and 39 L of actual tank waste. Test results are discussed; particularly those related to the effectiveness of extraction.

  16. Phenotype classification of single cells using SRS microscopy, RNA sequencing, and microfluidics (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streets, Aaron M.; Cao, Chen; Zhang, Xiannian; Huang, Yanyi

    2016-03-01

    Phenotype classification of single cells reveals biological variation that is masked in ensemble measurement. This heterogeneity is found in gene and protein expression as well as in cell morphology. Many techniques are available to probe phenotypic heterogeneity at the single cell level, for example quantitative imaging and single-cell RNA sequencing, but it is difficult to perform multiple assays on the same single cell. In order to directly track correlation between morphology and gene expression at the single cell level, we developed a microfluidic platform for quantitative coherent Raman imaging and immediate RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of single cells. With this device we actively sort and trap cells for analysis with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy (SRS). The cells are then processed in parallel pipelines for lysis, and preparation of cDNA for high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. SRS microscopy offers three-dimensional imaging with chemical specificity for quantitative analysis of protein and lipid distribution in single cells. Meanwhile, the microfluidic platform facilitates single-cell manipulation, minimizes contamination, and furthermore, provides improved RNA-Seq detection sensitivity and measurement precision, which is necessary for differentiating biological variability from technical noise. By combining coherent Raman microscopy with RNA sequencing, we can better understand the relationship between cellular morphology and gene expression at the single-cell level.

  17. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS).

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A.; Steven J. Wagner.

    2005-06-29

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A., and Steven J. Wagner. 2005. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS). Final Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 48 pp. Abstract: During the 1970's and 1980's a dramatic decline occurred in the populations of Neotropical migratory birds, species that breed in North America and winter south of the border in Central and South America and in the Caribbean. In 1991 an international initiative was mounted by U. S. governmental land management agencies, nongovernmental conservation agencies, and the academic and lay ornithological communities to understand the decline of Neotropical migratory birds in the Americas. In cooperation with the USDA Forest Service - Savannah River (FS - SR) we began 1992 a project directed to monitoring population densities of breeding birds using the Breeding Bird Census (BBC) methodology in selected habitats within the Savannah River Site SRS. In addition we related point count data on the occurrence of breeding Neotropical migrants and other bird species to the habitat data gathered by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service and data on habitat treatments within forest stands.

  18. Feasibility Study on Applying Radiophotoluminescent Glass Dosimeters for CyberKnife SRS Dose Verification.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shih-Ming; Hung, Chao-Hsiung; Liao, Yi-Jen; Fu, Hsiao-Mei; Tsai, Jo-Ting; Huang, Yung-Hui; Huang, David Y C

    2017-01-01

    CyberKnife is one of multiple modalities for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Due to the nature of CyberKnife and the characteristics of SRS, dose evaluation of the CyberKnife procedure is critical. A radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter was used to verify the dose accuracy for the CyberKnife procedure and validate a viable dose verification system for CyberKnife treatment. A radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter, thermoluminescent dosimeter, and Kodak EDR2 film were used to measure the lateral dose profile and percent depth dose of CyberKnife. A Monte Carlo simulation for dose verification was performed using BEAMnrc to verify the measured results. This study also used a radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter coupled with an anthropomorphic phantom to evaluate the accuracy of the dose given by CyberKnife. Measurements from the radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter were compared with the results of a thermoluminescent dosimeter and EDR2 film, and the differences found were less than 5%. The radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter has some advantages in terms of dose measurements over CyberKnife, such as repeatability, stability, and small effective size. These advantages make radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeters a potential candidate dosimeter for the CyberKnife procedure. This study concludes that radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeters are a promising and reliable dosimeter for CyberKnife dose verification with clinically acceptable accuracy within 5%.

  19. Action representation: crosstalk between semantics and pragmatics.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Marc Jeannerod pioneered a representational approach to movement and action. In his approach, motor representations provide both, declarative knowledge about action and procedural knowledge for action (action semantics and action pragmatics, respectively). Recent evidence from language comprehension and action simulation supports the claim that action pragmatics and action semantics draw on common representational resources, thus challenging the traditional divide between declarative and procedural action knowledge. To account for these observations, three kinds of theoretical frameworks are discussed: (i) semantics is grounded in pragmatics, (ii) pragmatics is anchored in semantics, and (iii) pragmatics is part and parcel of semantics.

  20. LOOKING WEST, BETWEEN READING DEPOT BRIDGE AND SKEW ARCH BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING WEST, BETWEEN READING DEPOT BRIDGE AND SKEW ARCH BRIDGE (HAER No. PA-116). - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Reading Depot Bridge, North Sixth Street at Woodward Street, Reading, Berks County, PA

  1. 1. Claremont Railway Bridge, Main Street Bridge, and Clement and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Claremont Railway Bridge, Main Street Bridge, and Clement and Rossiter Store in context, looking west - Claremont Railway Bridge, Spanning Sugar River at Claremont Railroad Company Line, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  2. 32. DETAIL OF BRIDGE COUNTERWEIGHTS AND SUSPENSION STRUCTURE BETWEEN BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. DETAIL OF BRIDGE COUNTERWEIGHTS AND SUSPENSION STRUCTURE BETWEEN BRIDGE NOS. 12 AND 13. LOOKING EAST-SOUTHEAST. - Greenville Yard, Transfer Bridge System, Port of New York/New Jersey, Upper New York Bay, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  3. GOETHALS BRIDGE FROM NORTH SIDE OVER ARTHUR KILL. RAILROAD BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GOETHALS BRIDGE FROM NORTH SIDE OVER ARTHUR KILL. RAILROAD BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND - Goethals Bridge, Spanning Arthur Kill from New Jersey to Staten Island, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  4. 10. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'WISCONSIN BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'WISCONSIN BRIDGE & IRON COMPANY, MILWAUKEE, WIS., 1933' - St. Francis River Bridge, Spanning St. Francis River at U.S. Highway 70, Forrest City, St. Francis County, AR

  5. 2. LONG VIEW NORTHWEST, EASTBOUND BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND, WESTBOUND BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. LONG VIEW NORTHWEST, EASTBOUND BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND, WESTBOUND BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND - Willow Run Expressway Bridge No. R01, Spanning Conrail Railway, eastbound, at US-10, Ypsilanti, Washtenaw County, MI

  6. Plans: Poop Deck, Boat Deck, Housetop, Bridge Deck, Upper Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plans: Poop Deck, Boat Deck, Housetop, Bridge Deck, Upper Bridge Deck, Navigating Bridge, Forecastle Deck, Upper Deck, Second Deck and Hold - Saugatuck, James River Reserve Fleet, Newport News, Newport News, VA

  7. 3. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing southwest. Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing southwest. Bridge from north shore of Clark Fork River. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  8. 7. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northwest. Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northwest. Bridge from south shore of Clark Fork River showing 4 1/2 spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  9. 4. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northeast. Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northeast. Bridge from south shoreof Clark Fork River showing 4 spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  10. 2. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northeast. Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northeast. Bridge from south shore of Clark Fork River showing 4 1/2 spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  11. APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN FROM ENTRY. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower Foot Bridge, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  12. APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN FROM BELOW, SHOWING VALVE TOWER TO RIGHT. VIEW FACING NORTH - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower Foot Bridge, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  13. Semantic Annotation of Computational Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, Peter; Mehrotra, Piyush

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology to specify machine-processable semantic descriptions of computational components to enable them to be shared and reused. A particular focus of this scheme is to enable automatic compositon of such components into simple work-flows.

  14. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    PubMed

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders.

  15. Incrementally Dissociating Syntax and Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Jonathan R.

    2010-01-01

    A basic challenge for research into the neurobiology of language is understanding how the brain combines words to make complex representations. Linguistic theory divides this task into several computations including syntactic structure building and semantic composition. The close relationship between these computations, however, poses a strong…

  16. Genres, Semantics, and Classroom Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, Jay

    1988-01-01

    Argues that competence in academic subjects depends on mastery of their specialized patterns of language use. These patterns are described in terms of: 1) the semantics underlying Halliday's functional linguistics and 2) the structural analysis of communication genres. A sample classroom episode illustrates relationships among semantic…

  17. A Note on Semantic Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Yoshio

    1989-01-01

    The notions of categorical selection (c-selection) and semantic selection (s-selection) as outlined in recent research on generative grammar are discussed. The first section addresses the type of selectional constraint imposed on English small clauses (e.g., "John considers [Mary smart]"). In the second section, it is suggested that the constraint…

  18. Taxonomic and Thematic Semantic Systems.

    PubMed

    Mirman, Daniel; Landrigan, Jon-Frederick; Britt, Allison E

    2017-03-23

    Object concepts are critical for nearly all aspects of human cognition, from perception tasks like object recognition, to understanding and producing language, to making meaningful actions. Concepts can have 2 very different kinds of relations: similarity relations based on shared features (e.g., dog-bear), which are called "taxonomic" relations, and contiguity relations based on co-occurrence in events or scenarios (e.g., dog-leash), which are called "thematic" relations. Here, we report a systematic review of experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience evidence of this distinction in the structure of semantic memory. We propose 2 principles that may drive the development of distinct taxonomic and thematic semantic systems: differences between which features determine taxonomic versus thematic relations, and differences in the processing required to extract taxonomic versus thematic relations. This review brings together distinct threads of behavioral, computational, and neuroscience research on semantic memory in support of a functional and neural dissociation, and defines a framework for future studies of semantic memory. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Semantic Fission through Dialect Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Michael D.

    The linguistic atlas projects have provided much information on the regional distribution of pronunciation, vocabulary, and syntax and have given important evidence for a greater understanding of problems involved in semantic change, particularly in pointing out transition areas where dialects become fused. In a study supplementary to that…

  20. The Semantic Web in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The semantic web or Web 3.0 makes information more meaningful to people by making it more understandable to machines. In this article, the author examines the implications of Web 3.0 for education. The author considers three areas of impact: knowledge construction, personal learning network maintenance, and personal educational administration.…

  1. Colourful Semantics: A Clinical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolderson, Sarah; Dosanjh, Christine; Milligan, Claudine; Pring, Tim; Chiat, Shula

    2011-01-01

    Children with language difficulties often omit verbs and grammatical elements and fail to complete sentences. Bryan (1997) described "colourful semantics", a therapy she used to treat a 5-year-old boy. The therapy uses colour coding to highlight the predicate argument structure of sentences. This study further tested the therapy's…

  2. Semantic Preview Benefit during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohenstein, Sven; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word…

  3. Lexical Semantics and Irregular Inflection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi Ting; Pinker, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Whether a word has an irregular inflection does not depend on its sound alone: compare lie-lay (recline) and lie-lied (prevaricate). Theories of morphology, particularly connectionist and symbolic models, disagree on which nonphonological factors are responsible. We test four possibilities: (1) Lexical effects, in which two lemmas differ in whether they specify an irregular form; (2) Semantic effects, in which the semantic features of a word become associated with regular or irregular forms; (3) Morphological structure effects, in which a word with a headless structure (e.g., a verb derived from a noun) blocks access to a stored irregular form; (4) Compositionality effects, in which the stored combination of an irregular word’s meaning (e.g., the verb’s inherent aspect) with the meaning of the inflection (e.g., pastness) doesn’t readily transfer to new senses with different combinations of such meanings. In four experiments, speakers were presented with existing and novel verbs and asked to rate their past-tense forms, semantic similarities, grammatical structure, and aspectual similarities. We found (1) an interaction between semantic and phonological similarity, coinciding with reported strategies of analogizing to known verbs and implicating lexical effects; (2) weak and inconsistent effects of semantic similarity; (3) robust effects of morphological structure, and (4) robust effects of aspectual compositionality. Results are consistent with theories of language that invoke lexical entries and morphological structure, and which differentiate the mode of storage of regular and irregular verbs. They also suggest how psycholinguistic processes have shaped vocabulary structure over history. PMID:21151703

  4. An Experiment in Scientific Code Semantic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns a procedure that analyzes aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. This procedure involves taking a user's existing code, adding semantic declarations for some primitive variables, and parsing this annotated code using multiple, distributed expert parsers. These semantic parser are designed to recognize formulae in different disciplines including physical and mathematical formulae and geometrical position in a numerical scheme. The parsers will automatically recognize and document some static, semantic concepts and locate some program semantic errors. Results are shown for a subroutine test case and a collection of combustion code routines. This ability to locate some semantic errors and document semantic concepts in scientific and engineering code should reduce the time, risk, and effort of developing and using these codes.

  5. Interoperable cross-domain semantic and geospatial framework for automatic change detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Chiao-Ling; Hong, Jung-Hong

    2016-01-01

    With the increasingly diverse types of geospatial data established over the last few decades, semantic interoperability in integrated applications has attracted much interest in the field of Geographic Information System (GIS). This paper proposes a new strategy and framework to process cross-domain geodata at the semantic level. This framework leverages the semantic equivalence of concepts between domains through bridge ontology and facilitates the integrated use of different domain data, which has been long considered as an essential superiority of GIS, but is impeded by the lack of understanding about the semantics implicitly hidden in the data. We choose the task of change detection to demonstrate how the introduction of ontology concept can effectively make the integration possible. We analyze the common properties of geodata and change detection factors, then construct rules and summarize possible change scenario for making final decisions. The use of topographic map data to detect changes in land use shows promising success, as far as the improvement of efficiency and level of automation is concerned. We believe the ontology-oriented approach will enable a new way for data integration across different domains from the perspective of semantic interoperability, and even open a new dimensionality for the future GIS.

  6. LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, FACING NORTHWEST Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, FACING NORTHWEST - Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, Spanning Marble Fork of Kaweah River, approximately 21 miles northwest of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  7. LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, FACING SOUTHEAST Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, FACING SOUTHEAST - Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, Spanning Marble Fork of Kaweah River, approximately 21 miles northwest of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  8. Category-specific semantic deficits in Alzheimer's disease: a semantic priming study.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Mireia; Costa, Albert; Juncadella, Montserrat; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Reñé, Ramón

    2008-03-07

    Category-specific semantic deficits in individuals suffering brain damage after relatively focal lesions provide an important source of evidence about the organization of semantic knowledge. However, whether Alzheimer's disease (AD), in which the brain damage is more widespread, affects semantic categories to a different extent is still controversial. In the present study, we assess this issue by means of the semantic priming technique. AD patients with a mild impairment of their semantic knowledge showed comparable priming effects to that of controls for the categories of animals and artifacts. Interestingly, however, patients with a moderate impairment of their semantic knowledge showed a normal priming effect for animals but a very reduced priming effect (if any) for artifacts. These results reveal that AD may affect the semantic knowledge of different semantic categories to a different extent. The implications of this observation for current theoretical accounts of semantic representation in the brain are discussed.

  9. Virtual Bridge Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    This design/problem-solving activity challenges students to design a replacement bridge for one that has been designated as either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. The Aycock MS Technology/STEM Magnet Program Virtual Bridge Design Challenge is an authentic introduction to the engineering design process. It is a socially relevant…

  10. Precision bolometer bridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. R.

    1968-01-01

    Prototype precision bolometer calibration bridge is manually balanced device for indicating dc bias and balance with either dc or ac power. An external galvanometer is used with the bridge for null indication, and the circuitry monitors voltage and current simultaneously without adapters in testing 100 and 200 ohm thin film bolometers.

  11. Active-bridge oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    2001-01-01

    An active bridge oscillator is formed from a differential amplifier where positive feedback is a function of the impedance of one of the gain elements and a relatively low value common emitter resistance. This use of the nonlinear transistor parameter h stabilizes the output and eliminates the need for ALC circuits common to other bridge oscillators.

  12. Bridging the Development Gap.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-11-01

    Bridging the Development Gap is contractual cooperative agreement between Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. and DARPA. This program was developed...processing, interfacing with I/O devices, memory constraints, as well as real-time throughput and latency challenges. Mercury has bridged the indicated

  13. Benefits of a Unified LaSRS++ Simulation for NAS-Wide and High-Fidelity Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaab, Patricia; Madden, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The LaSRS++ high-fidelity vehicle simulation was extended in 2012 to support a NAS-wide simulation mode. Since the initial proof-of-concept, the LaSRS++ NAS-wide simulation is maturing into a research-ready tool. A primary benefit of this new capability is the consolidation of the two modeling paradigms under a single framework to save cost, facilitate iterative concept testing between the two tools, and to promote communication and model sharing between user communities at Langley. Specific benefits of each type of modeling are discussed along with the expected benefits of the unified framework. Current capability details of the LaSRS++ NAS-wide simulations are provided, including the visualization tool, live data interface, trajectory generators, terminal routing for arrivals and departures, maneuvering, re-routing, navigation, winds, and turbulence. The plan for future development is also described.

  14. BRIDGES BETWEEN MICROTUBULES

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Bridges between microtubules have been studied with the electron microscope in the axostyle of Saccinobaculus and in various tubule systems of chicken testis, including the helix of tubules surrounding the elongating spermatid nucleus and the flagellum of the sperm tail. In addition to the previously described periodic bridges, evidence is presented that nonperiodic bridges exist between certain tubules. An analysis of axial spacing between adjacent nonperiodic bridges suggests that these structures are attached to periodic binding sites on the microtubule wall, but that not all the binding sites are filled. The bridges appear nonperiodic as a result of random occupancy of some fraction of the periodic sites. The distribution of these binding sites is related to the substructure of the microtubule wall as seen with negative staining and optical diffraction. PMID:4132065

  15. Helping System Engineers Bridge the Peaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rungta, Neha; Tkachuk, Oksana; Person, Suzette; Biatek, Jason; Whalen, Michael W.; Castle, Joseph; Castle, JosephGundy-Burlet, Karen

    2014-01-01

    In our experience at NASA, system engineers generally follow the Twin Peaks approach when developing safety-critical systems. However, iterations between the peaks require considerable manual, and in some cases duplicate, effort. A significant part of the manual effort stems from the fact that requirements are written in English natural language rather than a formal notation. In this work, we propose an approach that enables system engineers to leverage formal requirements and automated test generation to streamline iterations, effectively "bridging the peaks". The key to the approach is a formal language notation that a) system engineers are comfortable with, b) is supported by a family of automated V&V tools, and c) is semantically rich enough to describe the requirements of interest. We believe the combination of formalizing requirements and providing tool support to automate the iterations will lead to a more efficient Twin Peaks implementation at NASA.

  16. Exploiting semantic linkages among multiple sources for semantic information retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, JianQiang; Yang, Ji-Jiang; Liu, Chunchen; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Bo; Shi, Yuliang

    2014-07-01

    The vision of the Semantic Web is to build a global Web of machine-readable data to be consumed by intelligent applications. As the first step to make this vision come true, the initiative of linked open data has fostered many novel applications aimed at improving data accessibility in the public Web. Comparably, the enterprise environment is so different from the public Web that most potentially usable business information originates in an unstructured form (typically in free text), which poses a challenge for the adoption of semantic technologies in the enterprise environment. Considering that the business information in a company is highly specific and centred around a set of commonly used concepts, this paper describes a pilot study to migrate the concept of linked data into the development of a domain-specific application, i.e. the vehicle repair support system. The set of commonly used concepts, including the part name of a car and the phenomenon term on the car repairing, are employed to build the linkage between data and documents distributed among different sources, leading to the fusion of documents and data across source boundaries. Then, we describe the approaches of semantic information retrieval to consume these linkages for value creation for companies. The experiments on two real-world data sets show that the proposed approaches outperform the best baseline 6.3-10.8% and 6.4-11.1% in terms of top five and top 10 precisions, respectively. We believe that our pilot study can serve as an important reference for the development of similar semantic applications in an enterprise environment.

  17. SRS MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R.

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. Six initial site combinations were proposed: (1) Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) with support from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), (2) Hanford, (3) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with support from Pantex, (4) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (5) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and (6) Savannah River Site(SRS). After further analysis by the sites and DOE-MD, five site combinations were established as possible candidates for producing MOX LAs: (1) ANL-W with support from INEEL, (2) Hanford, (3) LANL, (4) LLNL, and (5) SRS. SRS has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. An alternate approach would allow fabrication of fuel pellets and assembly of fuel rods in an S and S Category 2 or 3 facility with storage of bulk PuO{sub 2} and assembly, storage, and shipping of fuel bundles in an S and S Category 1 facility. The total Category 1 approach, which is the recommended option, would be done in the 221-H Canyon Building. A facility that was never in service will be removed from one area, and a hardened wall will be constructed in another area to accommodate execution of the LA fuel fabrication. The non-Category 1 approach would require removal of process equipment in the FB-Line metal production and packaging glove boxes, which requires work in a contamination area. The Immobilization Hot Demonstration Program

  18. Experimental Determination and Thermodynamic Modeling of Electrical Conductivity of SRS Waste Tank Supernate

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, J.; Reboul, S.

    2015-06-01

    SRS High Level Waste Tank Farm personnel rely on conductivity probes for detection of incipient overflow conditions in waste tanks. Minimal information is available concerning the sensitivity that must be achieved such that that liquid detection is assured. Overly sensitive electronics results in numerous nuisance alarms for these safety-related instruments. In order to determine the minimum sensitivity required of the probe, Tank Farm Engineering personnel need adequate conductivity data to improve the existing designs. Little or no measurements of liquid waste conductivity exist; however, the liquid phase of the waste consists of inorganic electrolytes for which the conductivity may be calculated. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Tank Farm Facility Engineering requested SRNL to determine the conductivity of the supernate resident in SRS waste Tank 40 experimentally as well as computationally. In addition, SRNL was requested to develop a correlation, if possible, that would be generally applicable to liquid waste resident in SRS waste tanks. A waste sample from Tank 40 was analyzed for composition and electrical conductivity as shown in Table 4-6, Table 4-7, and Table 4-9. The conductivity for undiluted Tank 40 sample was 0.087 S/cm. The accuracy of OLI Analyzer™ was determined using available literature data. Overall, 95% of computed estimates of electrical conductivity are within ±15% of literature values for component concentrations from 0 to 15 M and temperatures from 0 to 125 °C. Though the computational results are generally in good agreement with the measured data, a small portion of literature data deviates as much as ±76%. A simplified model was created that can be used readily to estimate electrical conductivity of waste solution in computer spreadsheets. The variability of this simplified approach deviates up to 140% from measured values. Generally, this model can be applied to estimate the conductivity within a factor of two. The comparison of the

  19. ASSESSMENT OF RESIDUAL STRESSES IN SRS AND HANFORD 3013 INNER AND CONVENIENCE CANS

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.

    2009-03-01

    Chloride stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a plausible corrosion mechanism for the stainless steel 3013 containers during their lifetime for plutonium material storage if sufficient electrolyte is present within the container. Contributing factors for SCC, such as fabrication and welding residual stresses, are present in the 3013 cans. Convenience and inner cans from both Hanford and SRS are made by a flow form process, which cold works the stainless steel during fabrication. Additionally, the inner cans also are sealed at the can top with a closure weld to the sealing plug. Only SRS and Hanford were tested since moisture levels were significant for SCC. As part of the 3013 corrosion plan for FY09, testing in a boiling magnesium chloride solution was performed on actual 3013 convenience and inner cans to determine if the residual stresses were sufficient for the initiation and propagation of SCC. Additional testing in a 40% calcium chloride solution was also performed on 304L stainless steel SCC coupons, i.e. stressed teardrop-shaped samples (teardrops), and an inner can welded top to provide comparative results and to assess the effect of residual stresses in a less aggressive environment. The testing performed under this task consisted of 3013 inner and convenience cans and 304L teardrops exposed to a boiling magnesium chloride solutions per ASTM G36 and a 40% calcium chloride solution at 100 C following the guidance of ASTM G123. Cracking occurred in all can types including the inner can bottom and welded top and the bottoms of the SRS and Hanford convenience cans when exposed to the boiling magnesium chloride solution at 155 C. Cracking occurred at different times indicative of the residual stress levels in the cans. 304L teardrops cracked in the shortest time interval and therefore provide a conservative estimate for can performance. Testing in a 40% calcium chloride solution at 100 C demonstrated that cracking occurs in a less aggressive environment but at

  20. Bio-jETI: a framework for semantics-based service composition

    PubMed Central

    Lamprecht, Anna-Lena; Margaria, Tiziana; Steffen, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Background The development of bioinformatics databases, algorithms, and tools throughout the last years has lead to a highly distributed world of bioinformatics services. Without adequate management and development support, in silico researchers are hardly able to exploit the potential of building complex, specialized analysis processes from these services. The Semantic Web aims at thoroughly equipping individual data and services with machine-processable meta-information, while workflow systems support the construction of service compositions. However, even in this combination, in silico researchers currently would have to deal manually with the service interfaces, the adequacy of the semantic annotations, type incompatibilities, and the consistency of service compositions. Results In this paper, we demonstrate by means of two examples how Semantic Web technology together with an adequate domain modelling frees in silico researchers from dealing with interfaces, types, and inconsistencies. In Bio-jETI, bioinformatics services can be graphically combined to complex services without worrying about details of their interfaces or about type mismatches of the composition. These issues are taken care of at the semantic level by Bio-jETI's model checking and synthesis features. Whenever possible, they automatically resolve type mismatches in the considered service setting. Otherwise, they graphically indicate impossible/incorrect service combinations. In the latter case, the workflow developer may either modify his service composition using semantically similar services, or ask for help in developing the missing mediator that correctly bridges the detected type gap. Newly developed mediators should then be adequately annotated semantically, and added to the service library for later reuse in similar situations. Conclusion We show the power of semantic annotations in an adequately modelled and semantically enabled domain setting. Using model checking and synthesis methods

  1. Adopting Abstract Images for Semantic Scene Understanding.

    PubMed

    Zitnick, C Lawrence; Vedantam, Ramakrishna; Parikh, Devi

    2016-04-01

    Relating visual information to its linguistic semantic meaning remains an open and challenging area of research. The semantic meaning of images depends on the presence of objects, their attributes and their relations to other objects. But precisely characterizing this dependence requires extracting complex visual information from an image, which is in general a difficult and yet unsolved problem. In this paper, we propose studying semantic information in abstract images created from collections of clip art. Abstract images provide several advantages over real images. They allow for the direct study of how to infer high-level semantic information, since they remove the reliance on noisy low-level object, attribute and relation detectors, or the tedious hand-labeling of real images. Importantly, abstract images also allow the ability to generate sets of semantically similar scenes. Finding analogous sets of real images that are semantically similar would be nearly impossible. We create 1,002 sets of 10 semantically similar abstract images with corresponding written descriptions. We thoroughly analyze this dataset to discover semantically important features, the relations of words to visual features and methods for measuring semantic similarity. Finally, we study the relation between the saliency and memorability of objects and their semantic importance.

  2. Hydrostratigraphy of the General Separations Area, Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Aadland, R.K.; Harris, M.K.; Lewis, C.M.; Gaughan, T.F. ); Westbrook, T.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Detailed analysis and synthesis of geophysical, core, and hydrologic data from 230 wells were used to delineate the hydrostratigraphy and aquifer characteristics of the General Separations Area at SRS. The study area is hydrologically bounded on the north and northwest by Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) and on the south by Fourmile Branch (FB). The Cretaceous-Tertiary sedimentary sequence underlying the study area is divided into two Aquifer Systems; in ascending order, Aquifer Systems I and 11. The study concentrated on Aquifer System U, which includes all the Tertiary sediments above the Black Mingo Group (Paleocene) to the water table. This report includes a series of lithostratigraphic cross-sections, piezometric gradient profiles, head ratio contour maps, aquifer isopach maps, and potentiometric surface maps which illustrate the aquifer characteristics of the study area.

  3. TRENDS IN ATMOPSHERIC CLIMATE PARAMETERS MEASURED AT SRS 1964-2013

    SciTech Connect

    Weinbeck, S.

    2016-04-20

    Meteorological data collected at SRS since the mid-1960’s have been analyzed for trends in minimum and maximum temperature, heating and cooling degree days, precipitation and relative humidity. The trends in meteorological data collected have been relatively small compared to the interannual variability that is observed. The observed increases, while small, appear to be real (statistically significant). Overnight low temperatures (3.1°F) have increased over twice as fast as the increases in daytime highs (1.4°F). Similarly, there are statistically significant increases in the number of cooling degree days as well. There has been a similar decrease in the number of HDD and freezing days, consistent with the overall increase in overnight low temperatures.

  4. The Rush to Remediate: Long Term Performance Favors Passive Systems at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.; Cauthen, K.; Beul. R. R.

    2003-02-24

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the long-term performance of groundwater remediation systems at SRS and compare active versus passive systems. The presentation will focus on the limited effectiveness of active pump and treat systems and share the experience with more passive and natural systems such as soil vapor extraction, barometric pumping, bioremediation, and phytoremediation. Three remediation projects are presented. In each case the waste source is capped with clay or synthetic barriers; however, extensive groundwater contamination remains. The first project features the cleanup of the largest plume in the United States. The second project entails solvent and vinyl chloride remediation of groundwater beneath a hazardous waste landfill. The third project discusses tritium containment from a 160-acre radioactive waste disposal area. Special emphasis is placed on performance data from alternate technology cleanup. The goals are to share remediation data, successes and lessons learned, while making a case for passive systems use in groundwater remediation.

  5. Recent advances in SRS on hydrogen isotope separation using thermal cycling absorption process

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, X.; Kit Heung, L.; Sessions, H.T.

    2015-03-15

    TCAP (Thermal Cycling Absorption Process) is a gas chromatograph in principle using palladium in the column packing, but it is unique in the fact that the carrier gas, hydrogen, is being isotopically separated and the system is operated in a semi-continuous manner. TCAP units are used to purify tritium. The recent TCAP advances at Savannah River Site (SRS) include compressor-free concept for heating/cooling, push and pull separation using an active inverse column, and compact column design. The new developments allow significantly higher throughput and better reliability from 1/10 of the current production system's footprint while consuming 60% less energy. Various versions are derived in the meantime for external customers to be used in fusion energy projects.

  6. Tritium Phytoremediation at the Savannah River Site (SRS), USA: Water Management, Operations, and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitchcock, D. R.; Singer, J.; Barton, C. D.; Seaman, J.

    2003-12-01

    A sprinkler irrigation system is being utilized on a 22-acre upland forested area for the distribution of tritiated groundwater that is collected by a constructed pond before it can enter the Savannah River. Irrigation scheduling for the phytoremediation system is typically based on continuous soil water deficit calculations using observed rainfall data and estimated evapotranspiration. In situ measurements include soil water moisutre and water table depth. Vadose zone soil water samples are also collected for tritium analyses. Complex hydrological, biochemical, and ecological factors, as well as operations strategies, influence remediation system success. Factors that contribute to tritium remediation efficiencies, including relationships with irrigation volumes and frequency, as well as soil and vegetation types and characteristics within irrigation plots, are being evaluated. Related studies associated with the tritium phytoremediation project include vadose zone transport modeling and watershed scale water balance estimations. Data analyses from this project should aid in developing design criteria for future phytoremediation systems at SRS and other nuclear facilities.

  7. Evaluation of the Validity of Groundwater Samples Obtained Using the Purge Water Management System at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Beardsley, C.C.

    1999-04-27

    As part of the demonstration testing of the Purge Water Management System (PWMS) technology at the Savannah River Site (SRS), four wells were equipped with PWMS units in 1997 and a series of sampling events were conducted at each during 1997-1998. Three of the wells were located in A/M Area while the fourth was located at the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground in the General Separations Area.The PWMS is a ''closed-loop'', non-contact, system used to collect and return purge water to the originating aquifer after a sampling event without having significantly altered the water quality. One of the primary concerns as to its applicability at SRS, and elsewhere, is whether the PWMS might resample groundwater that is returned to the aquifer during the previous sampling event. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare groundwater chemical analysis data collected at the four test wells using the PWMS vs. historical data collected using the standard monitoring program methodology to determine if the PWMS provides representative monitoring samples.The analysis of the groundwater chemical concentrations indicates that the PWMS sampling methodology acquired representative groundwater samples at monitoring wells ABP-1A, ABP-4, ARP-3 and BGO-33C. Representative groundwater samples are achieved if the PWMS does not resample groundwater that has been purged and returned during a previous sampling event. Initial screening calculations, conducted prior to the selection of these four wells, indicated that groundwater velocities were high enough under the ambient hydraulic gradients to preclude resampling from occurring at the time intervals that were used at each well. Corroborating evidence included a tracer test that was conducted at BGO-33C, the high degree of similarity between analyte concentrations derived from the PWMS samples and those obtained from historical protocol sampling, as well as the fact that PWMS data extend all previously existing concentration

  8. The evolution of semantic systems.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    2004-05-01

    Semantic or cultural systems are sets of concepts connected by meaningful relationships, and they exhibit properties similar to those of populations of biological organisms. Drawing upon ideas from evolutionary biology and methods from information technology, this article explores the potential for research and engineering on the evolution of semantic systems. Such work in cultural genetics requires two things: (1) a rigorous but evolving taxonomic system to categorize cultural artifacts, elements, and clusters, and (2) a set of hypotheses about the processes that cause evolutionary change. This article illustrates systematic approaches to cultural taxonomy with data on the popular ideology of the space program, science fiction motion pictures, nanotechnology books, and nanotechnology research grants. It offers hypotheses derived from evolutionary and population biology that might be useful in explaining cultural evolution.

  9. The Formal Semantics of PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1999-01-01

    A specification language is a medium for expressing what is computed rather than how it is computed. Specification languages share some features with programming languages but are also different in several important ways. For our purpose, a specification language is a logic within which the behavior of computational systems can be formalized. Although a specification can be used to simulate the behavior of such systems, we mainly use specifications to state and prove system properties with mechanical assistance. We present the formal semantics of the specification language of SRI's Prototype Verification System (PVS). This specification language is based on the simply typed lambda calculus. The novelty in PVS is that it contains very expressive language features whose static analysis (e.g., typechecking) requires the assistance of a theorem prover. The formal semantics illuminates several of the design considerations underlying PVS, the interaction between theorem proving and typechecking.

  10. Semantic priming of familiar songs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah K; Halpern, Andrea R

    2012-05-01

    We explored the functional organization of semantic memory for music by comparing priming across familiar songs both within modalities (Experiment 1, tune to tune; Experiment 3, category label to lyrics) and across modalities (Experiment 2, category label to tune; Experiment 4, tune to lyrics). Participants judged whether or not the target tune or lyrics were real (akin to lexical decision tasks). We found significant priming, analogous to linguistic associative-priming effects, in reaction times for related primes as compared to unrelated primes, but primarily for within-modality comparisons. Reaction times to tunes (e.g., "Silent Night") were faster following related tunes ("Deck the Hall") than following unrelated tunes ("God Bless America"). However, a category label (e.g., Christmas) did not prime tunes from within that category. Lyrics were primed by a related category label, but not by a related tune. These results support the conceptual organization of music in semantic memory, but with potentially weaker associations across modalities.

  11. Semantic Event Correlation Using Ontologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Thomas; Roth, Heinz; Rozsnyai, Szabolcs; Mordinyi, Richard; Biffl, Stefan

    Complex event processing (CEP) is a software architecture paradigm that aims at low latency, high throughput, and quick adaptability of applications for supporting and improving event-driven business processes. Events sensed in real time are the basic information units on which CEP applications operate and react in self-contained decision cycles based on defined processing logic and rules. Event correlation is necessary to relate events gathered from various sources for detecting patterns and situations of interest in the business context. Unfortunately, event correlation has been limited to syntactically identical attribute values instead of addressing semantically equivalent attribute meanings. Semantic equivalence is particularly relevant if events come from organizations that use different terminologies for common concepts.

  12. ACTUAL-WASTE TESTING OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT TO AUGMENT THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

    2012-07-10

    In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC), an alternative to the baseline 8 wt% oxalic acid (OA) chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. ECC utilizes a more dilute OA solution (2 wt%) and an oxalate destruction technology using ozonolysis with or without the application of ultraviolet (UV) light. SRNL conducted tests of the ECC process using actual SRS waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. The previous phase of testing involved testing of all phases of the ECC process (sludge dissolution, OA decomposition, product evaporation, and deposition tank storage) but did not involve the use of UV light in OA decomposition. The new phase of testing documented in this report focused on the use of UV light to assist OA decomposition, but involved only the OA decomposition and deposition tank portions of the process. Compared with the previous testing at analogous conditions without UV light, OA decomposition with the use of UV light generally reduced time required to reach the target of <100 mg/L oxalate. This effect was the most pronounced during the initial part of the decomposition batches, when pH was <4. For the later stages of each OA decomposition batch, the increase in OA decomposition rate with use of the UV light appeared to be minimal. Testing of the deposition tank storage of the ECC product resulted in analogous soluble concentrations regardless of the use or non-use of UV light in the ECC reactor.

  13. Groundwater Monitoring Optimization of Post Closure Waste Sites at SRS - 13184

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Jeff; O'Quinn, Sadika; Adams, Karen; Prater, Phil

    2013-07-01

    Groundwater monitoring at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is required at dozens of waste sites and includes sampling at over 1,000 monitoring wells. The expected longevity of groundwater contamination and associated groundwater monitoring and reporting constitutes a significant long-term cost that represents an increasing proportion of the environmental management budget as surface waste units are closed. Therefore, a comprehensive evaluation of the monitoring program for eighteen regulated waste units was conducted to identify areas where monitoring could be optimized. The units evaluated varied considerably in the scope of monitoring; ranging from two wells to hundreds of wells. In order to systematically evaluate such disparate monitoring networks, SRS developed a decision-logic analysis using flow sheets to address potential areas of optimization. Five areas were identified for evaluation, including: (1) Comparison of current monitoring to regulatory requirements, (2) Spatial distribution, (3) Temporal sampling, (4) Analyte requirements, and (5) Reporting frequency and content. Optimization recommendations were made for fifteen of the eighteen groundwater units. The spatial evaluation resulted in recommendations to suspend sampling in 79 wells and add sampling at 16 wells. The temporal evaluation resulted in recommendations to reduce the number of well visits per year by 504. Analyte reductions were recommended at three groundwater units, with increases at three other units. Reporting frequency reductions were recommended for five units. Approximately $700,000 (direct dollars) of potential annualized cost savings were identified for these groundwater units, provided all recommendations are approved. The largest area of savings was associated with reducing the reporting frequency. The optimization approach has been presented to the EPA and South Carolina Department of Environmental Control (SCHDEC), with unit-specific recommendations approved for all five units

  14. MOBILIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COLLOIDS GENERATED FROM CEMENT LEACHATES MOVING THROUGH A SRS SANDY SEDIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.; Seaman, J.

    2011-09-20

    Naturally occurring mobile colloids are ubiquitous and are involved in many important processes in the subsurface zone. For example, colloid generation and subsequent mobilization represent a possible mechanism for the transport of contaminants including radionuclides in the subsurface environments. For colloid-facilitated transport to be significant, three criteria must be met: (1) colloids must be generated; (2) contaminants must associate with the colloids preferentially to the immobile solid phase (aquifer); and (3) colloids must be transported through the groundwater or in subsurface environments - once these colloids start moving they become 'mobile colloids'. Although some experimental investigations of particle release in natural porous media have been conducted, the detailed mechanisms of release and re-deposition of colloidal particles within natural porous media are poorly understood. Even though this vector of transport is known, the extent of its importance is not known yet. Colloid-facilitated transport of trace radionuclides has been observed in the field, thus demonstrating a possible radiological risk associated with the colloids. The objective of this study was to determine if cementitious leachate would promote the in situ mobilization of natural colloidal particles from a SRS sandy sediment. The intent was to determine whether cementitious surface or subsurface structure would create plumes that could produce conditions conducive to sediment dispersion and mobile colloid generation. Column studies were conducted and the cation chemistries of influents and effluents were analyzed by ICP-OES, while the mobilized colloids were characterized using XRD, SEM, EDX, PSD and Zeta potential. The mobilization mechanisms of colloids in a SRS sandy sediment by cement leachates were studied.

  15. Thirty-year solid waste generation forecast for facilities at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The information supplied by this 30-year solid waste forecast has been compiled as a source document to the Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement (WMEIS). The WMEIS will help to select a sitewide strategic approach to managing present and future Savannah River Site (SRS) waste generated from ongoing operations, environmental restoration (ER) activities, transition from nuclear production to other missions, and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) programs. The EIS will support project-level decisions on the operation of specific treatment, storage, and disposal facilities within the near term (10 years or less). In addition, the EIS will provide a baseline for analysis of future waste management activities and a basis for the evaluation of the specific waste management alternatives. This 30-year solid waste forecast will be used as the initial basis for the EIS decision-making process. The Site generates and manages many types and categories of waste. With a few exceptions, waste types are divided into two broad groups-high-level waste and solid waste. High-level waste consists primarily of liquid radioactive waste, which is addressed in a separate forecast and is not discussed further in this document. The waste types discussed in this solid waste forecast are sanitary waste, hazardous waste, low-level mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste, and transuranic waste. As activities at SRS change from primarily production to primarily decontamination and decommissioning and environmental restoration, the volume of each waste s being managed will change significantly. This report acknowledges the changes in Site Missions when developing the 30-year solid waste forecast.

  16. Evaluation of no-MST operations in the SRS ARP for Hanford LAWPS

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, D.

    2016-11-14

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Actinide Removal Process has been processing salt waste since 2008. This process includes a filtration step in the 512-S facility. Initial operations included the addition, or strike, of monosodium titanate (MST) to remove soluble actinides and strontium. The added MST and any entrained sludge solids were then separated from the supernate by cross flow filtration. During this time, the filter operations have, on many occasions, been the bottleneck process limiting the rate of salt processing. Recently, 512-S- has started operations utilizing “No-MST” where the MST actinide removal strike was not performed and the supernate was simply pre-filtered prior to Cs removal processing. Direct filtration of decanted tank supernate, as demonstrated in 512-S, is the proposed method of operation for the Hanford Low Activity Waste Pretreatment System (LAWPS) facility. Processing decanted supernate without MST solids has been demonstrated for cross flow filtration to provide a significant improvement in production with the SRS Salt Batches 8 and 9 feed chemistries. The average filtration rate for the first 512-S batch processing cycle using No-MST has increased filtrate production by over 35% of the historical average. The increase was sustained for more than double the amount of filtrate batches processed before cleaning of the filter was necessary. While there are differences in the design of the 512-S and Hanford filter systems, the 512-S system should provide a reasonable indication of LAWPS filter performance with similar feed properties. Based on the data from the 512-S facility and with favorable feed properties, the LAWPS filter, as currently sized at over twice the size of the 512-S filter (532 square feet filtration area versus 235 square feet), has the potential to provide sustained filtrate production at the upper range of the planned LAWPS production rate of 17 gpm.

  17. Results of Macroinvertebrate Sampling Conducted at 33 SRS Stream Locations, July--August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1994-12-01

    In order to assess the health of the macroinvertebrate communities of SRS streams, the macroinvertebrate communities at 30 stream locations on SRS were sampled during the summer of 1993, using Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers. In addition, three off-site locations in the Upper Three Runs drainage were sampled in order to assess the potential for impact from off-site activities. In interpreting the data, it is important to recognize that these data were from a single set of collections. Macroinvertebrate communities often undergo considerable temporal variation, and are also greatly influenced by such factors as water depth, water velocity, and available habitat. These stations were selected with the intent of developing an on-going sampling program at a smaller number of stations, with the selection of the stations to be based largely upon the results of this preliminary sampling program. When stations within a given stream showed similar results, fewer stations would be sampled in the future. Similarly, if a stream appeared to be perturbed, additional stations or chemical analyses might be added so that the source of the perturbation could be identified. In general, unperturbed streams will contain more taxa than perturbed streams, and the distribution of taxa among orders or families will differ. Some groups of macroinvertebrates, such as Ephemeroptera (mayflies), Plecoptera (stoneflies) and Trichoptera (caddisflies), which are collectively called EPT taxa, are considered to be relatively sensitive to most kinds of stream perturbation; therefore a reduced number of EPT taxa generally indicates that the stream has been subject to chemical or physical stressors. In coastal plain streams, EPT taxa are generally less dominant than in streams with rocky substrates, while Chironomidae (midges) are more abundant. (Abstract Truncated)

  18. 5. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing east. Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing east. Bridge from south shore of Clark Fork River-southernmost span. 1900-era Northern Pacific Railway Bridge in background. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  19. Morphological Cues for Lexical Semantics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    father, and turned thirty-graduate school has been a long varied haul and I could never have made it alone. Thus it is a good time to thank all the...distinction between world and linguistic knowledge has a long history in philosophy. Whether the distinction exists and if so how it should be drawn are...explaining human language acquisition. Language semantics cueing is more promising from a computational perspective and consequently has a long (for

  20. Semantic search via concept annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkelberger, Kirk A.

    2007-04-01

    Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment wherein the microstructure of a material is altered, causing changes in its properties such as strength and hardness. We define concept annealing as a lexical, syntactic, and semantic expansion capability (the removal of defects and the internal stresses that cause term- and phrase-based search failure) coupled with a directed contraction capability (semantically-related terms, queries, and concepts nucleate and grow to replace those originally deformed by internal stresses). These two capabilities are tied together in a control loop mediated by the information retrieval precision and recall metrics coupled with intuition provided by the operator. The specific representations developed have been targeted at facilitating highly efficient and effective semantic indexing and searching. This new generation of Find capability enables additional processing (i.e. all-source tracking, relationship extraction, and total system resource management) at rates, precisions, and accuracies previously considered infeasible. In a recent experiment, an order magnitude reduction in time to actionable intelligence and nearly three orderss magnitude reduction in false alarm rate was achieved.

  1. Entropy, semantic relatedness and proximity.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Lance W; Sivley, Robert M

    2011-09-01

    Although word co-occurrences within a document have been demonstrated to be semantically useful, word interactions over a local range have been largely neglected by psychologists due to practical challenges. Shannon's (Bell Systems Technical Journal, 27, 379-423, 623-665, 1948) conceptualization of information theory suggests that these interactions should be useful for understanding communication. Computational advances make an examination of local word-word interactions possible for a large text corpus. We used Brants and Franz's (2006) dataset to generate conditional probabilities for 62,474 word pairs and entropy calculations for 9,917 words in Nelson, McEvoy, and Schreiber's (Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36, 402-407, 2004) free association norms. Semantic associativity correlated moderately with the probabilities and was stronger when the two words were not adjacent. The number of semantic associates for a word and the entropy of a word were also correlated. Finally, language entropy decreases from 11 bits for single words to 6 bits per word for four-word sequences. The probabilities and entropies discussed here are included in the supplemental materials for the article.

  2. Semantic priming in the prime task effect: evidence of automatic semantic processing of distractors.

    PubMed

    Marí-Beffa, P; Fuentes, L J; Catena, A; Houghton, G

    2000-06-01

    The automaticity of the semantic processing of words has been questioned because of the reduction of semantic priming when the prime word is processed nonsemantically--for example, in letter search (the prime task effect). In two experiments, prime distractor words produced semantic priming in a subsequent lexical decision task, but with the direction of priming (positive or negative) depending on the prime task. Lexico-semantic tasks produced negative semantic priming, whereas letter search produced positive semantic priming. These results are discussed in terms of task-based inhibition. We argue that, given the results from the distractors, the absence of semantic priming does not indicate an absence of semantic activation but reflects the action of control processes on prepotent responses when less practiced responses are needed.

  3. SU-E-T-480: Radiobiological Dose Comparison of Single Fraction SRS, Multi-Fraction SRT and Multi-Stage SRS of Large Target Volumes Using the Linear-Quadratic Formula

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, C; Hrycushko, B; Jiang, S; Meyer, J; Timmerman, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare the radiobiological effect on large tumors and surrounding normal tissues from single fraction SRS, multi-fractionated SRT, and multi-staged SRS treatment. Methods: An anthropomorphic head phantom with a centrally located large volume target (18.2 cm{sup 3}) was scanned using a 16 slice large bore CT simulator. Scans were imported to the Multiplan treatment planning system where a total prescription dose of 20Gy was used for a single, three staged and three fractionated treatment. Cyber Knife treatment plans were inversely optimized for the target volume to achieve at least 95% coverage of the prescription dose. For the multistage plan, the target was segmented into three subtargets having similar volume and shape. Staged plans for individual subtargets were generated based on a planning technique where the beam MUs of the original plan on the total target volume are changed by weighting the MUs based on projected beam lengths within each subtarget. Dose matrices for each plan were export in DICOM format and used to calculate equivalent dose distributions in 2Gy fractions using an alpha beta ratio of 10 for the target and 3 for normal tissue. Results: Singe fraction SRS, multi-stage plan and multi-fractionated SRT plans had an average 2Gy dose equivalent to the target of 62.89Gy, 37.91Gy and 33.68Gy, respectively. The normal tissue within 12Gy physical dose region had an average 2Gy dose equivalent of 29.55Gy, 16.08Gy and 13.93Gy, respectively. Conclusion: The single fraction SRS plan had the largest predicted biological effect for the target and the surrounding normal tissue. The multi-stage treatment provided for a more potent biologically effect on target compared to the multi-fraction SRT treatments with less biological normal tissue than single-fraction SRS treatment.

  4. Scene Classfication Based on the Semantic-Feature Fusion Fully Sparse Topic Model for High Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiqi; Zhong, Yanfei; Zhang, Liangpei

    2016-06-01

    Topic modeling has been an increasingly mature method to bridge the semantic gap between the low-level features and high-level semantic information. However, with more and more high spatial resolution (HSR) images to deal with, conventional probabilistic topic model (PTM) usually presents the images with a dense semantic representation. This consumes more time and requires more storage space. In addition, due to the complex spectral and spatial information, a combination of multiple complementary features is proved to be an effective strategy to improve the performance for HSR image scene classification. But it should be noticed that how the distinct features are fused to fully describe the challenging HSR images, which is a critical factor for scene classification. In this paper, a semantic-feature fusion fully sparse topic model (SFF-FSTM) is proposed for HSR imagery scene classification. In SFF-FSTM, three heterogeneous features - the mean and standard deviation based spectral feature, wavelet based texture feature, and dense scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) based structural feature are effectively fused at the latent semantic level. The combination of multiple semantic-feature fusion strategy and sparse based FSTM is able to provide adequate feature representations, and can achieve comparable performance with limited training samples. Experimental results on the UC Merced dataset and Google dataset of SIRI-WHU demonstrate that the proposed method can improve the performance of scene classification compared with other scene classification methods for HSR imagery.

  5. “Pre-semantic” cognition revisited: Critical differences between semantic aphasia and semantic dementia

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal “pre-semantic” tasks: e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are atypical of the domain and “regularisation errors” (irregular/atypical items are produced as if they were domain-typical). The emergence of this pattern across diverse tasks in the same patients indicates that semantic memory plays a key role in all of these types of “pre-semantic” processing. However, this claim remains controversial because semantically-impaired patients sometimes fail to show an influence of regularity. This study demonstrates that (a) the location of brain damage and (b) the underlying nature of the semantic deficit affect the likelihood of observing the expected relationship between poor comprehension and regularity effects. We compared the effect of multimodal semantic impairment in the context of semantic dementia and stroke aphasia on the seven “pre-semantic” tasks listed above. In all of these tasks, the semantic aphasia patients were less sensitive to typicality than the semantic dementia patients, even though the two groups obtained comparable scores on semantic tests. The semantic aphasia group also made fewer regularisation errors and many more unrelated and perseverative responses. We propose that these group differences reflect the different locus for the semantic impairment in the two conditions: patients with semantic dementia have degraded semantic representations, whereas semantic aphasia patients show deregulated semantic cognition with concomitant executive deficits. These findings suggest a reinterpretation of single case studies of comprehension-impaired aphasic patients who fail to show the expected effect of regularity on “pre-semantic” tasks. Consequently, such

  6. Perilesional edema in brain metastasis from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as predictor of response to radiosurgery (SRS).

    PubMed

    Tini, Paolo; Nardone, Valerio; Pastina, Pierpaolo; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Vinciguerra, Claudia; Carfagno, Tommaso; Rubino, Giovanni; Carbone, Salvatore Francesco; Sebaste, Lucio; Cerase, Alfonso; Federico, Antonio; Pirtoli, Luigi

    2017-03-04

    Radiosurgery (SRS) is widely used in the treatment of brain oligo-metastases from NSCLC. The aim of present study is to evaluate the extent of perilesional edema in brain metastases as predictive factor of treatment response. This single center retrospective study included 42 consecutive patients (January 2011-December 2014) with 1-2 brain metastasis from NSCLC treated with Radiosurgery (SRS). Extent of perilesional edema was measured as maximal extension from the edge of lesion and classified as minor (<10 mm) or major (≥10 mm). We analyzed Modality of Brain Recurrence (MBR), classified as in-field or out-of- field, and Brain Progression Free-Survival (BPFS) after treatment stratified according to extent of perilesional edema. Analyzing modality of brain recurrence and BPFS, after a median follow-up of 6 months, we found that patients with minor edema had a better radiological response to SRS with none in-field recurrences and a lower risk of the onset of new brain lesions (out-of-field recurrence). Instead, patients group with major edema had a worse response rate of lesions treated, further, a higher risk of out-of-field brain relapse. Extent of perilesional edema in brain metastasis from NSCLC could be a predictive factor of response and brain progression after SRS treatment alone.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Isoproturon-Mineralizing Sphingomonas sp. SRS2, Isolated from an Agricultural Field in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Tue Kjærgaard; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg

    2015-01-01

    Sphingomonas sp. SRS2 was the first described pure strain that is capable of mineralizing the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon and some of its related compounds. This strain has been studied thoroughly and shows potential for bioremediation purposes. We present the draft genome sequence of this bacterium, which will aid future studies. PMID:26021936

  8. Mineral bridges in nacre.

    PubMed

    Checa, Antonio G; Cartwright, Julyan H E; Willinger, Marc-Georg

    2011-12-01

    We confirm with high-resolution techniques the existence of mineral bridges between superposed nacre tablets. In the towered nacre of both gastropods and the cephalopod Nautilus there are large bridges aligned along the tower axes, corresponding to gaps (150-200nm) in the interlamellar membranes. Gaps are produced by the interaction of the nascent tablets with a surface membrane that covers the nacre compartment. In the terraced nacre of bivalves bridges associated with elongated gaps in the interlamellar membrane (>100nm) have mainly been found at or close to the edges of superposed parental tablets. To explain this placement, we hypothesize that the interlamellar membrane breaks due to differences in osmotic pressure across it when the interlamellar space below becomes reduced at an advanced stage of calcification. In no cases are the minor connections between superimposed tablets (<60nm), earlier reported to be mineral bridges, found to be such.

  9. Bridging Humanism and Behaviorism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Humanistic behaviorism may provide the necessary bridge between behaviorism and humanism. Perhaps the most humanistic approach to teaching is to learn how certain changes will help students and how these changes can be accomplished. (Author/MLF)

  10. SLED: Semantic Label Embedding Dictionary Representation for Multilabel Image Annotation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaochun; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Xiaojie; Liu, Si; Meng, Dan

    2015-09-01

    Most existing methods on weakly supervised image annotation rely on jointly unsupervised feature representation, the components of which are not directly correlated with specific labels. In practical cases, however, there is a big gap between the training and the testing data, say the label combination of the testing data is not always consistent with that of the training. To bridge the gap, this paper presents a semantic label embedding dictionary representation that not only achieves the discriminative feature representation for each label in the image, but also mines the semantic relevance between co-occurrence labels for context information. More specifically, to enhance the discriminative representation of labels, the training data is first divided into a set of overlapped groups by graph shift based on the exclusive label graph. Afterward, given a group of exclusive labels, we try to learn multiple label-specific dictionaries to explicitly decorrelate the feature representation of each label. A joint optimization approach is proposed according to the Fisher discrimination criterion for seeking its solution. Then, to discover the context information hidden in the co-occurrence labels, we explore the semantic relationship between visual words in dictionaries and labels in a multitask learning way with respect to the reconstruction coefficients of the training data. In the annotation stage, with the discriminative dictionaries and exclusive label groups as well as a group sparsity constraint, the reconstruction coefficients of a test image can be easily obtained. Finally, we introduce a label propagation scheme to compute the score of each label for the test image based on its reconstruction coefficients. Experimental results on three challenging data sets demonstrate that our proposed method leads to significant performance gains over existing methods.

  11. SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for Semantic Web Services

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol) is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP is the driving technology behind the Virtual Plant Information Network, an NSF-funded semantic w...

  12. Explaining semantic short-term memory deficits: Evidence for the critical role of semantic control

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with apparently selective short-term memory (STM) deficits for semantic information have played an important role in developing multi-store theories of STM and challenge the idea that verbal STM is supported by maintaining activation in the language system. We propose that semantic STM deficits are not as selective as previously thought and can occur as a result of mild disruption to semantic control processes, i.e., mechanisms that bias semantic processing towards task-relevant aspects of knowledge and away from irrelevant information. We tested three semantic STM patients with tasks that tapped four aspects of semantic control: (i) resolving ambiguity between word meanings, (ii) sensitivity to cues, (iii) ignoring irrelevant information and (iv) detecting weak semantic associations. All were impaired in conditions requiring more semantic control, irrespective of the STM demands of the task, suggesting a mild, but task-general, deficit in regulating semantic knowledge. This mild deficit has a disproportionate effect on STM tasks because they have high intrinsic control demands: in STM tasks, control is required to keep information active when it is no longer available in the environment and to manage competition between items held in memory simultaneously. By re-interpreting the core deficit in semantic STM patients in this way, we are able to explain their apparently selective impairment without the need for a specialised STM store. Instead, we argue that semantic STM patients occupy the mildest end of spectrum of semantic control disorders. PMID:21195105

  13. Representations for Semantic Learning Webs: Semantic Web Technology in Learning Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzbor, M.; Stutt, A.; Motta, E.; Collins, T.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work on applying semantic technologies to learning has concentrated on providing novel means of accessing and making use of learning objects. However, this is unnecessarily limiting: semantic technologies will make it possible to develop a range of educational Semantic Web services, such as interpretation, structure-visualization, support…

  14. Semantic Clustering of Search Engine Results

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Sara Saad; El-Sayed, Maged F.; Hassan, Yasser F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for search engine results clustering that relies on the semantics of the retrieved documents rather than the terms in those documents. The proposed approach takes into consideration both lexical and semantics similarities among documents and applies activation spreading technique in order to generate semantically meaningful clusters. This approach allows documents that are semantically similar to be clustered together rather than clustering documents based on similar terms. A prototype is implemented and several experiments are conducted to test the prospered solution. The result of the experiment confirmed that the proposed solution achieves remarkable results in terms of precision. PMID:26933673

  15. Language networks associated with computerized semantic indices.

    PubMed

    Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Jones, David T; Knopman, David S

    2015-01-01

    Tests of generative semantic verbal fluency are widely used to study organization and representation of concepts in the human brain. Previous studies demonstrated that clustering and switching behavior during verbal fluency tasks is supported by multiple brain mechanisms associated with semantic memory and executive control. Previous work relied on manual assessments of semantic relatedness between words and grouping of words into semantic clusters. We investigated a computational linguistic approach to measuring the strength of semantic relatedness between words based on latent semantic analysis of word co-occurrences in a subset of a large online encyclopedia. We computed semantic clustering indices and compared them to brain network connectivity measures obtained with task-free fMRI in a sample consisting of healthy participants and those differentially affected by cognitive impairment. We found that semantic clustering indices were associated with brain network connectivity in distinct areas including fronto-temporal, fronto-parietal and fusiform gyrus regions. This study shows that computerized semantic indices complement traditional assessments of verbal fluency to provide a more complete account of the relationship between brain and verbal behavior involved organization and retrieval of lexical information from memory.

  16. Synonyms Provide Semantic Preview Benefit in English

    PubMed Central

    Schotter, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    While orthographic and phonological preview benefits in reading are uncontroversial (see Schotter, Angele, & Rayner, 2012 for a review), researchers have debated the existence of semantic preview benefit with positive evidence in Chinese and German, but no support in English. Two experiments, using the gazecontingent boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975), show that semantic preview benefit can be observed in English when the preview and target are synonyms (share the same or highly similar meaning, e.g., curlers-rollers). However, no semantic preview benefit was observed for semantic associates (e.g., curlers-styling). These different preview conditions represent different degrees to which the meaning of the sentence changes when the preview is replaced by the target. When this continuous variable (determined by a norming procedure) was used as the predictor in the analyses, there was a significant relationship between it and all reading time measures, suggesting that similarity in meaning between what is accessed parafoveally and what is processed foveally may be an important influence on the presence of semantic preview benefit. Why synonyms provide semantic preview benefit in reading English is discussed in relation to (1) previous failures to find semantic preview benefit in English and (2) the fact that semantic preview benefit is observed in other languages even for non-synonymous words. Semantic preview benefit is argued to depend on several factors—attentional resources, depth of orthography, and degree of similarity between preview and target. PMID:24347813

  17. Similarity Based Semantic Web Service Match

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hui; Niu, Wenjia; Huang, Ronghuai

    Semantic web service discovery aims at returning the most matching advertised services to the service requester by comparing the semantic of the request service with an advertised service. The semantic of a web service are described in terms of inputs, outputs, preconditions and results in Ontology Web Language for Service (OWL-S) which formalized by W3C. In this paper we proposed an algorithm to calculate the semantic similarity of two services by weighted averaging their inputs and outputs similarities. Case study and applications show the effectiveness of our algorithm in service match.

  18. [Artificial intelligence meeting neuropsychology. Semantic memory in normal and pathological aging].

    PubMed

    Aimé, Xavier; Charlet, Jean; Maillet, Didier; Belin, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Artificial intelligence (IA) is the subject of much research, but also many fantasies. It aims to reproduce human intelligence in its learning capacity, knowledge storage and computation. In 2014, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) started the restoring active memory (RAM) program that attempt to develop implantable technology to bridge gaps in the injured brain and restore normal memory function to people with memory loss caused by injury or disease. In another IA's field, computational ontologies (a formal and shared conceptualization) try to model knowledge in order to represent a structured and unambiguous meaning of the concepts of a target domain. The aim of these structures is to ensure a consensual understanding of their meaning and a univariant use (the same concept is used by all to categorize the same individuals). The first representations of knowledge in the AI's domain are largely based on model tests of semantic memory. This one, as a component of long-term memory is the memory of words, ideas, concepts. It is the only declarative memory system that resists so remarkably to the effects of age. In contrast, non-specific cognitive changes may decrease the performance of elderly in various events and instead report difficulties of access to semantic representations that affect the semantics stock itself. Some dementias, like semantic dementia and Alzheimer's disease, are linked to alteration of semantic memory. We propose in this paper, using the computational ontologies model, a formal and relatively thin modeling, in the service of neuropsychology: 1) for the practitioner with decision support systems, 2) for the patient as cognitive prosthesis outsourced, and 3) for the researcher to study semantic memory.

  19. Hierarchical layered and semantic-based image segmentation using ergodicity map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadegar, Jacob; Liu, Xiaoqing

    2010-04-01

    Image segmentation plays a foundational role in image understanding and computer vision. Although great strides have been made and progress achieved on automatic/semi-automatic image segmentation algorithms, designing a generic, robust, and efficient image segmentation algorithm is still challenging. Human vision is still far superior compared to computer vision, especially in interpreting semantic meanings/objects in images. We present a hierarchical/layered semantic image segmentation algorithm that can automatically and efficiently segment images into hierarchical layered/multi-scaled semantic regions/objects with contextual topological relationships. The proposed algorithm bridges the gap between high-level semantics and low-level visual features/cues (such as color, intensity, edge, etc.) through utilizing a layered/hierarchical ergodicity map, where ergodicity is computed based on a space filling fractal concept and used as a region dissimilarity measurement. The algorithm applies a highly scalable, efficient, and adaptive Peano- Cesaro triangulation/tiling technique to decompose the given image into a set of similar/homogenous regions based on low-level visual cues in a top-down manner. The layered/hierarchical ergodicity map is built through a bottom-up region dissimilarity analysis. The recursive fractal sweep associated with the Peano-Cesaro triangulation provides efficient local multi-resolution refinement to any level of detail. The generated binary decomposition tree also provides efficient neighbor retrieval mechanisms for contextual topological object/region relationship generation. Experiments have been conducted within the maritime image environment where the segmented layered semantic objects include the basic level objects (i.e. sky/land/water) and deeper level objects in the sky/land/water surfaces. Experimental results demonstrate the proposed algorithm has the capability to robustly and efficiently segment images into layered semantic objects

  20. Exploitation of Semantic Building Model in Indoor Navigation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjomshoaa, A.; Shayeganfar, F.; Tjoa, A. Min

    2009-04-01

    . The available solutions for location tagging are mostly based on proximity sensors and the information are bound to sensor references. In the proposed solution of this paper, the sensors simply play a role similar to annotations in Semantic Web world. Hence the sensors data in ontology sense bridges the gap between sensed information and building model. Combining these two and applying the proper inference rules, the building visitors will be able to reach their destinations with instant support of their communication devices such as hand helds, wearable computers, mobiles, etc. In a typical scenario of this kind, user's profile will be delivered to the smart building (via building ad-hoc services) and the appropriate route for user will be calculated and delivered to user's end-device. The calculated route is calculated by considering all constraints and requirements of the end user. So for example if the user is using a wheelchair, the calculated route should not contain stairs or narrow corridors that the wheelchair does not pass through. Then user starts to navigate through building by following the instructions of the end-device which are in turn generated from the calculated route. During the navigation process, the end-device should also interact with the smart building to sense the locations by reading the surrounding tags. So for example when a visually impaired person arrives at an unknown space, the tags will be sensed and the relevant information will be delivered to user in the proper way of communication. For example the building model can be used to generate a voice message for a blind person about a space and tell him/her that "the space has 3 doors, and the door on the left should be chosen which needs to be pushed to open". In this paper we will mainly focus on automatic generation of semantic building information models (Semantic BIM) and delivery of results to the end user. Combining the building information model with the environment and user

  1. Automatic Scoring of Multiple Semantic Attributes with Multi-task Feature Leverage: A Study on Pulmonary Nodules in CT Images.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sihong; Qin, Jing; Ji, Xing; Lei, Baiying; Wang, Tianfu; Ni, Dong; Cheng, Jie-Zhi

    2016-11-16

    The gap between the computational and semantic features is the one of major factors that bottlenecks the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) performance from clinical usage. To bridge this gap, we exploit three multi-task learning (MTL) schemes to leverage heterogeneous computational features derived from deep learning models of stacked denoising autoencoder (SDAE) and convolutional neural network (CNN), as well as hand-crafted Haar-like and HoG features, for the description of 9 semantic features for lung nodules in CT images. We regard that there may exist relations among the semantic features of "spiculation", "texture", "margin", etc., that can be explored with the MTL. The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) data is adopted in this study for the rich annotation resources. The LIDC nodules were quantitatively scored w.r.t. 9 semantic features from 12 radiologists of several institutes in U.S.A. By treating each semantic feature as an individual task, the MTL schemes select and map the heterogeneous computational features toward the radiologists' ratings with cross validation evaluation schemes on the randomly selected 2400 nodules from the LIDC dataset. The experimental results suggest that the predicted semantic scores from the three MTL schemes are closer to the radiologists' ratings than the scores from single-task LASSO and elastic net regression methods. The proposed semantic attribute scoring scheme may provide richer quantitative assessments of nodules for better support of diagnostic decision and management. Meanwhile, the capability of the automatic association of medical image contents with the clinical semantic terms by our method may also assist the development of medical search engine.

  2. The Algebra of Lexical Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornai, András

    The current generative theory of the lexicon relies primarily on tools from formal language theory and mathematical logic. Here we describe how a different formal apparatus, taken from algebra and automata theory, resolves many of the known problems with the generative lexicon. We develop a finite state theory of word meaning based on machines in the sense of Eilenberg [11], a formalism capable of describing discrepancies between syntactic type (lexical category) and semantic type (number of arguments). This mechanism is compared both to the standard linguistic approaches and to the formalisms developed in AI/KR.

  3. Speech Generation from Semantic Nets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    Speech Generation from Semantic Nets Page 2 (inPUt and output) is monitored bY a "discourse module" ( Deutsch , 1975) to maintain an accurate...in the Phrase, HEURISTIC RULES Hornby describes three basic positions for adverbs in the c1ause1 "front" position, "mid" position, and "end...34 position, Front position adverbs occur before the subject: •YesterdaY he went home, from there he took a taxi," The interrogative adverbs (e,g, how, when

  4. Adaptation and Recommendation Techniques to Improve the Quality of Annotations and the Relevance of Resources in Web 2.0 and Semantic Web-Based Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torre, Ilaria

    The Web 2.0 and the Semantic Web represent different forms of evolution of the first-generation Web, and both of them enrich Web resources with semantic annotations. Recommendation and personalization of Web resources is another trend that becomes more and more important with the growth of information, and both the Web 2.0 and the Semantic Web are deeply connected to it. The objective of this paper is to analyze the contribution of recommendation and adaptation techniques to these paradigms and to investigate if these techniques can be used as a bridge for their integration. More specifically, the paper will focus on the contribution of adaptation and recommendation techniques to improve the quality of annotations in the Web 2.0, Semantic Web, and mixed approaches and the relevance of annotated resources that are retrieved or filtered to users.

  5. The Semantic Web and Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddux, Cleborne D., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The "Semantic Web" is an idea proposed by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the "World Wide Web." The topic has been generating a great deal of interest and enthusiasm, and there is a rapidly growing body of literature dealing with it. This article attempts to explain how the Semantic Web would work, and explores short-term and long-term…

  6. Is There a Critical Period for Semantics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slabakova, Roumyana

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews recent research on the second language acquisition of meaning with a view of establishing whether there is a critical period for the acquisition of compositional semantics. It is claimed that the functional lexicon presents the most formidable challenge, while syntax and phrasal semantics pose less difficulty to learners.…

  7. Computation of Semantic Number from Morphological Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berent, Iris; Pinker, Steven; Tzelgov, Joseph; Bibi, Uri; Goldfarb, Liat

    2005-01-01

    The distinction between singular and plural enters into linguistic phenomena such as morphology, lexical semantics, and agreement and also must interface with perceptual and conceptual systems that assess numerosity in the world. Three experiments examine the computation of semantic number for singulars and plurals from the morphological…

  8. Learning the Semantics of Structured Data Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taheriyan, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Information sources such as relational databases, spreadsheets, XML, JSON, and Web APIs contain a tremendous amount of structured data, however, they rarely provide a semantic model to describe their contents. Semantic models of data sources capture the intended meaning of data sources by mapping them to the concepts and relationships defined by a…

  9. Quantifying Semantic Linguistic Maturity in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Kristina; Bååth, Rasmus; Löhndorf, Simone; Sahlén, Birgitta; Sikström, Sverker

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method to quantify "semantic linguistic maturity" (SELMA) based on a high dimensional semantic representation of words created from the co-occurrence of words in a large text corpus. The method was applied to oral narratives from 108 children aged 4;0-12;10. By comparing the SELMA measure with maturity ratings made by human…

  10. Exploring the Relationship between Semantics and Space

    PubMed Central

    Turriziani, Patrizia; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Bonnì, Sonia; Koch, Giacomo; Smirni, Daniela; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The asymmetric distribution of human spatial attention has been repeatedly documented in both patients and healthy controls. Biases in the distribution of attention and/or in the mental representation of space may also affect some aspects of language processing. We investigated whether biases in attention and/or mental representation of space affect semantic representations. In particular, we investigated whether semantic judgments could be modulated by the location in space where the semantic information was presented and the role of the left and right parietal cortices in this task. Healthy subjects were presented with three pictures arranged horizontally (one middle and two outer pictures) of items belonging to the same semantic category. Subjects were asked to indicate the spatial position in which the semantic distance between the outer and middle pictures was smaller. Subjects systematically overestimated the semantic distance of items presented in the right side of space. We explored the neural correlates underpinning this bias using rTMS over the left and right parietal cortex. rTMS of the left parietal cortex selectively reduced this rightward bias. Our findings suggest the existence of an attentional and/or mental representational bias in semantic judgments, similar to that observed for the processing of space and numbers. Spatial manipulation of semantic material results in the activation of specialised attentional resources located in the left hemisphere. PMID:19396359

  11. Aspects of Semantic Theory and Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeremiah, Milford A.

    This paper investigates the ways readers use two semantic tools, synonymy and entailment, when responding to reading-comprehension questions. After a brief overview of semantic theory, two reading passages and their attendant multiple-choice questions are analyzed, demonstrating how readers might choose the correct answer by analyzing the way it…

  12. Elaborative Retrieval: Do Semantic Mediators Improve Memory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Melissa; Karpicke, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    The elaborative retrieval account of retrieval-based learning proposes that retrieval enhances retention because the retrieval process produces the generation of semantic mediators that link cues to target information. We tested 2 assumptions that form the basis of this account: that semantic mediators are more likely to be generated during…

  13. Semantique et psychologie (Semantics and Psychology)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Ny, Jean-Francois

    1975-01-01

    Semantic activities constitute a sub-class of psychological activities; from this point of departure the article discusses such topics as: idiosyncrasies, meaning and causality, internal determinants, neo-associationism, componential theories, noun- and verb-formation, sentences and propositions, semantics and cognition, mnemesic compontents, and…

  14. Implicit Causality, Implicit Consequentiality and Semantic Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crinean, Marcelle; Garnham, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Stewart, Pickering, and Sanford (1998) reported a new type of semantic inference, implicit consequentiality, which they suggest is comparable to, although not directly related to, the well-documented phenomenon of implicit causality. It is our contention that there is a direct relation between these two semantic phenomena but that this relation…

  15. The Semantic Web in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerkawski, Betül Özkan

    2014-01-01

    The Semantic Web enables increased collaboration among computers and people by organizing unstructured data on the World Wide Web. Rather than a separate body, the Semantic Web is a functional extension of the current Web made possible by defining relationships among websites and other online content. When explicitly defined, these relationships…

  16. Analyticity and Features of Semantic Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Danny D.

    The findings reported in this paper are the result of an experiment to determine the empirical validity of such semantic concepts as analytic, synthetic, and contradictory. Twenty-eight university students were presented with 156 sentences to assign to one of four semantic categories: (1) synthetic ("The dog is a poodle"), (2) analytic…

  17. Priming Addition Facts with Semantic Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F.; Oskarsson, An T.

    2008-01-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations…

  18. Research: General Semantics Training: Pride or Prejudice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Bruce K.

    1978-01-01

    Argues that general semantics research into prejudice has made only minor contributions to an understanding of prejudice because of weak experimental designs. Suggests improvements in research methodology and urges that knowledge of the semantic world of minority groups be sought as a prerequisite to eliminating cultural bias in standardized…

  19. Essay Assessment with Latent Semantic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Tristan

    2003-01-01

    Latent semantic analysis (LSA) is an automated, statistical technique for comparing the semantic similarity of words or documents. In this article, I examine the application of LSA to automated essay scoring. I compare LSA methods to earlier statistical methods for assessing essay quality, and critically review contemporary essay-scoring systems…

  20. Implicit Learning of Semantic Preferences of Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of semantic implicit learning in language have only examined learning grammatical form-meaning connections in which learning could have been supported by prior linguistic knowledge. In this study we target the domain of verb meaning, specifically semantic preferences regarding novel verbs (e.g., the preference for a novel verb to…

  1. Semantics vs Pragmatics of a Compound Word

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smirnova, Elena A.; Biktemirova, Ella I.; Davletbaeva, Diana N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of correlation between semantic and pragmatic potential of a compound word, which functions in informal speech, and the mechanisms of secondary nomination, which realizes the potential of semantic-pragmatic features of colloquial compounds. The relevance and the choice of the research question is based on the…

  2. Semantic and Phonemic Verbal Fluency in Blinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejati, Vahid; Asadi, Anoosh

    2010-01-01

    A person who has suffered the total loss of a sensory system has, indirectly, suffered a brain lesion. Semantic and phonologic verbal fluency are used for evaluation of executive function and language. The aim of this study is evaluation and comparison of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency in acquired blinds. We compare 137 blinds and 124…

  3. Orthographic and Semantic Processing in Young Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polse, Lara R.; Reilly, Judy S.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examined orthographic and semantic processing during reading acquisition. Children in first to fourth grade were presented with a target word and two response alternatives, and were asked to identify the semantic match. Words were presented in four conditions: an exact match and unrelated foil (STONE-STONE-EARS), an exact match…

  4. Semantic Processing of Previews within Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sarah J.; Bertram, Raymond; Hyona, Jukka

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that previews of words prior to fixation can be processed orthographically, but not semantically, during reading of sentences (K. Rayner, D. A. Balota, & A. Pollatsek, 1986). The present study tested whether semantic processing of previews can occur within words. The preview of the second constituent of…

  5. Social Semantics for an Effective Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, Sarah; Doane, Mike

    2012-01-01

    An evolution of the Semantic Web, the Social Semantic Web (s2w), facilitates knowledge sharing with "useful information based on human contributions, which gets better as more people participate." The s2w reaches beyond the search box to move us from a collection of hyperlinked facts, to meaningful, real time context. When focused through the lens of Enterprise Search, the Social Semantic Web facilitates the fluid transition of meaningful business information from the source to the user. It is the confluence of human thought and computer processing structured with the iterative application of taxonomies, folksonomies, ontologies, and metadata schemas. The importance and nuances of human interaction are often deemphasized when focusing on automatic generation of semantic markup, which results in dissatisfied users and unrealized return on investment. Users consistently qualify the value of information sets through the act of selection, making them the de facto stakeholders of the Social Semantic Web. Employers are the ultimate beneficiaries of s2w utilization with a better informed, more decisive workforce; one not achieved with an IT miracle technology, but by improved human-computer interactions. Johnson Space Center Taxonomist Sarah Berndt and Mike Doane, principal owner of Term Management, LLC discuss the planning, development, and maintenance stages for components of a semantic system while emphasizing the necessity of a Social Semantic Web for the Enterprise. Identification of risks and variables associated with layering the successful implementation of a semantic system are also modeled.

  6. SemanticOrganizer Brings Teams Together

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laufenberg, Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    SemanticOrganizer enables researchers in different locations to share, search for, and integrate data. Its customizable semantic links offer fast access to interrelated information. This knowledge management and information integration tool also supports real-time instrument data collection and collaborative image annotation.

  7. Semantic search integration to climate data

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Palanisamy, Giri; Pouchard, Line Catherine; Shrestha, Biva

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present how research projects at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are using Semantic Search capabilities to help scientists perform their research. We will discuss how the Mercury metadata search system, with the help of the semantic search capability, is being used to find, retrieve, and link climate change data. DOI: 10.1109/CTS.2014.6867639

  8. Should We Teach Semantic Prosody Awareness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Iain

    2012-01-01

    While considerable attention has been paid to collocation, and the development of the collocational competence of L2 learners in recent years, very little has been said about a related concept in teaching journals, namely semantic prosody, and L2 learner awareness of this phenomenon. In this paper the concept of semantic prosody is introduced, and…

  9. Phasic Affective Modulation of Semantic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topolinski, Sascha; Deutsch, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The present research demonstrates that very brief variations in affect, being around 1 s in length and changing from trial to trial independently from semantic relatedness of primes and targets, modulate the amount of semantic priming. Implementing consonant and dissonant chords (Experiments 1 and 5), naturalistic sounds (Experiment 2), and visual…

  10. Social Networking on the Semantic Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finin, Tim; Ding, Li; Zhou, Lina; Joshi, Anupam

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to investigate the way that the semantic web is being used to represent and process social network information. Design/methodology/approach: The Swoogle semantic web search engine was used to construct several large data sets of Resource Description Framework (RDF) documents with social network information that were encoded using the…

  11. Approach for ontological modeling of database schema for the generation of semantic knowledge on the web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozeva, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Currently there is large quantity of content on web pages that is generated from relational databases. Conceptual domain models provide for the integration of heterogeneous content on semantic level. The use of ontology as conceptual model of a relational data sources makes them available to web agents and services and provides for the employment of ontological techniques for data access, navigation and reasoning. The achievement of interoperability between relational databases and ontologies enriches the web with semantic knowledge. The establishment of semantic database conceptual model based on ontology facilitates the development of data integration systems that use ontology as unified global view. Approach for generation of ontologically based conceptual model is presented. The ontology representing the database schema is obtained by matching schema elements to ontology concepts. Algorithm of the matching process is designed. Infrastructure for the inclusion of mediation between database and ontology for bridging legacy data with formal semantic meaning is presented. Implementation of the knowledge modeling approach on sample database is performed.

  12. The effectiveness of combined bracing and exercise in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis based on SRS and SOSORT criteria: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently an RCT confirmed brace efficacy in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Previously, a Cochrane review suggested also producing studies according to the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) criteria on the effectiveness of bracing for AIS. Even if the SRS criteria propose a prospective design, until now only one out of 6 published studies was prospective. Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of bracing plus exercises following the SRS and the international Society on Scoliosis Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT) criteria for AIS conservative treatment. Methods Study design/setting: prospective cohort study nested in a clinical database of all outpatients of a clinic specialized in scoliosis conservative treatment. Patient sample: seventy-three patients (60 females), age 12 years 10 months ±17 months, 34.4±4.4 Cobb degrees, who satisfied SRS criteria were included out of 3,883 patients at first evaluation. Outcome measures: Cobb angle at the end of treatment according to SRS criteria : (unchanged; worsened 6° or more, over 45° and surgically treated, and rate of improvement of 6° or more). Braces were prescribed for 18–23 hours/day according to curves magnitude and actual international guidelines. Weaning was gradual after Risser 3. All patients performed exercises and were managed according to SOSORT criteria. Results in all patients were analyzed according to intent-to-treat at the end of the treatment. Funding and Conflict of Interest: no. Results Overall 34 patients (52.3%) improved. Seven patients (9.6%) worsened, of which 1 patient progressed beyond 45° and was fused. Referred compliance was assessed during a mean period of 3 years 4 months ±20 months; the median adherence was 99.1% (range 22.2-109.2%). Employing intent-to-treat analysis, there were failures in 11 patients (15.1%). At start, these patients had statistically significant low BMI and kyphosis, high thoracic rotation and higher Cobb angles. Drop

  13. Approaching semantic interoperability in Health Level Seven

    PubMed Central

    Alschuler, Liora

    2010-01-01

    Semantic Interoperability’ is a driving objective behind many of Health Level Seven's standards. The objective in this paper is to take a step back, and consider what semantic interoperability means, assess whether or not it has been achieved, and, if not, determine what concrete next steps can be taken to get closer. A framework for measuring semantic interoperability is proposed, using a technique called the ‘Single Logical Information Model’ framework, which relies on an operational definition of semantic interoperability and an understanding that interoperability improves incrementally. Whether semantic interoperability tomorrow will enable one computer to talk to another, much as one person can talk to another person, is a matter for speculation. It is assumed, however, that what gets measured gets improved, and in that spirit this framework is offered as a means to improvement. PMID:21106995

  14. Differentiating Sense through Semantic Interaction Data

    PubMed Central

    Elizabeth Workman, T.; Weir, Charlene; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    Words which have different representations but are semantically related, such as dementia and delirium, can pose difficult issues in understanding text. We explore the use of interaction frequency data between semantic elements as a means to differentiate concept pairs, using semantic predications extracted from the biomedical literature. We applied datasets of features drawn from semantic predications for semantically related pairs to two Expectation Maximization clustering processes (without, and with concept labels), then used all data to train and evaluate several concept classifying algorithms. For the unlabeled datasets, 80% displayed expected cluster count and similar or matching proportions; all labeled data exhibited similar or matching proportions when restricting cluster count to unique labels. The highest performing classifier achieved 89% accuracy, with F1 scores for individual concept classification ranging from 0.69 to 1. We conclude with a discussion on how these findings may be applied to natural language processing of clinical text. PMID:28269921

  15. SASL: A Semantic Annotation System for Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Pingpeng; Wang, Guoyin; Zhang, Qin; Jin, Hai

    Due to ambiguity, search engines for scientific literatures may not return right search results. One efficient solution to the problems is to automatically annotate literatures and attach the semantic information to them. Generally, semantic annotation requires identifying entities before attaching semantic information to them. However, due to abbreviation and other reasons, it is very difficult to identify entities correctly. The paper presents a Semantic Annotation System for Literature (SASL), which utilizes Wikipedia as knowledge base to annotate literatures. SASL mainly attaches semantic to terminology, academic institutions, conferences, and journals etc. Many of them are usually abbreviations, which induces ambiguity. Here, SASL uses regular expressions to extract the mapping between full name of entities and their abbreviation. Since full names of several entities may map to a single abbreviation, SASL introduces Hidden Markov Model to implement name disambiguation. Finally, the paper presents the experimental results, which confirm SASL a good performance.

  16. Pro-recombination Role of Srs2 Protein Requires SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier) but Is Independent of PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen) Interaction.

    PubMed

    Kolesar, Peter; Altmannova, Veronika; Silva, Sonia; Lisby, Michael; Krejci, Lumir

    2016-04-01

    Srs2 plays many roles in DNA repair, the proper regulation and coordination of which is essential. Post-translational modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is one such possible mechanism. Here, we investigate the role of SUMO in Srs2 regulation and show that the SUMO-interacting motif (SIM) of Srs2 is important for the interaction with several recombination factors. Lack of SIM, but not proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-interacting motif (PIM), leads to increased cell death under circumstances requiring homologous recombination for DNA repair. Simultaneous mutation of SIM in asrs2ΔPIMstrain leads to a decrease in recombination, indicating a pro-recombination role of SUMO. Thus SIM has an ambivalent function in Srs2 regulation; it not only mediates interaction with SUMO-PCNA to promote the anti-recombination function but it also plays a PCNA-independent pro-recombination role, probably by stimulating the formation of recombination complexes. The fact that deletion of PIM suppresses the phenotypes of Srs2 lacking SIM suggests that proper balance between the anti-recombination PCNA-bound and pro-recombination pools of Srs2 is crucial. Notably, sumoylation of Srs2 itself specifically stimulates recombination at the rDNA locus.

  17. A Genetic Screen for High Copy Number Suppressors of the Synthetic Lethality Between elg1Δ and srs2Δ in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Gazy, Inbal; Liefshitz, Batia; Bronstein, Alex; Parnas, Oren; Atias, Nir; Sharan, Roded; Kupiec, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Elg1 and Srs2 are two proteins involved in maintaining genome stability in yeast. After DNA damage, the homotrimeric clamp PCNA, which provides stability and processivity to DNA polymerases and serves as a docking platform for DNA repair enzymes, undergoes modification by the ubiquitin-like molecule SUMO. PCNA SUMOylation helps recruit Srs2 and Elg1 to the replication fork. In the absence of Elg1, both SUMOylated PCNA and Srs2 accumulate at the chromatin fraction, indicating that Elg1 is required for removing SUMOylated PCNA and Srs2 from DNA. Despite this interaction, which suggests that the two proteins work together, double mutants elg1Δ srs2Δ have severely impaired growth as haploids and exhibit synergistic sensitivity to DNA damage and a synergistic increase in gene conversion. In addition, diploid elg1Δ srs2Δ double mutants are dead, which implies that an essential function in the cell requires at least one of the two gene products for survival. To gain information about this essential function, we have carried out a high copy number suppressor screen to search for genes that, when overexpressed, suppress the synthetic lethality between elg1Δ and srs2Δ. We report the identification of 36 such genes, which are enriched for functions related to DNA- and chromatin-binding, chromatin packaging and modification, and mRNA export from the nucleus. PMID:23704284

  18. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    PubMed

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  19. Use of Gadolinium as a Primary Criticality Control in Disposing Waste Containing Plutonium at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew, Vincent

    2005-01-04

    Use of gadolinium as a neutron poison has been proposed for disposing of several metric tons of excess plutonium at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The plutonium will first be dissolved in nitric acid in small batches. Gadolinium nitrate will then be added to the plutonium nitrate solution. The Gd-poisoned plutonium solution will be neutralized and transferred to large under-ground tanks. The pH of small batches of neutralized plutonium solution will be adjusted prior to addition of the glass frit for eventual production as glass logs. The use of gadolinium as the neutron poison would minimize the number of glass logs generated from this disposition. The primary criticality safety concerns regarding the disposal process are: (1) maintaining neutron moderation under all processing conditions since gadolinium has a very large absorption cross section for thermal neutrons, (2) characteristics of plutonium and gadolinium precipitation during the neutralization process, (3) mixing characteristics of the precipitate to ensure that plutonium would remain homogeneously mixed with gadolinium, and (4) potential separation of plutonium and gadolinium during nitric and formic acids addition. A number of experiments were conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory to study the behavior of plutonium and gadolinium at various stages of the disposition process.

  20. A review of vapor explosion information pertinent to the SRS reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hyder, M.L.; Allison, D.K.

    1992-04-01

    Vapor explosions are explosive events resulting from the mixing of two liquids, one of which is heated to a temperature well above the boiling point of the second. Under some circumstances mixing of the liquids can boil part of the lower boiling liquid so quickly that the expanding vapor generates a strong pressure wave and explosion. If the lower boiling liquid is water, as is frequently the case, the event is called a ``steam explosion``. Analyses in support of the K-Reactor Probabilistic Risk Assessment have shown that steam explosions generated by the interaction of molten reactor fuel with water contribute significantly to the risk of reactor operation at the SRS. This calculated risk incorporates a conservative treatment of the uncertainties associated with such explosions. Study of steam explosions involving molten reactor materials has been included in the Severe Accident Analysis Program (SAAP) in order to obtain a better evaluation of their importance, and, if possible, to find ways to avoid them. This paper presents a brief review and summary of steam explosion experience from literature accounts, along with the results of experimental studies from the SAAP. It concludes with an evaluation of current knowledge, and suggestions for future development. 71 refs.

  1. Inline Monitors for Measuring Cs-137 in the SRS Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, V

    2006-04-24

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, a portion of dissolved saltcake waste will be processed through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). The MCU employs the CSSX process, a continuous process that uses a novel solvent to extract cesium from waste and concentrate it in dilute nitric acid. Of primary concern is Cs-137 which makes the solution highly radioactive. Since the MCU does not have the capacity to wait for sample results while continuing to operate, the Waste Acceptance Strategy is to perform inline analyses. Gamma-ray monitors are used to: measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) before entering the DSS Hold Tank; measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent (SE) before entering the SE Hold Tank; and verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process. Since this gamma ray monitoring system application is unique, specially designed shielding was developed and software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified interface for controlling the monitor hardware and communicating with the host Distributed Control System. This paper presents the design, fabrication and implementation of this monitoring system.

  2. RANGE AND DISTRIBUTION OF TECHNETIUM KD VALUES IN THE SRS SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D

    2008-10-28

    Performance assessments (PAs) are risk calculations used to estimate the amount of low-level radioactive waste that can be disposed at DOE sites. Distribution coefficients (K{sub d} values) are input parameters used in PA calculations to provide a measure of radionuclide sorption to sediment; the greater the K{sub d} value, the greater the sorption and the slower the estimated movement of the radionuclide through sediment. Understanding and quantifying K{sub d} value variability is important for estimating the uncertainty of PA calculations. Without this information, it is necessary to make overly conservative estimates about the possible limits of K{sub d} values, which in turn may increase disposal costs. Finally, technetium is commonly found to be amongst the radionuclides posing potential risk at waste disposal locations because it is believed to be highly mobile in its anionic form (pertechnetate, TcO{sub 4}{sup -}), it exists in relatively high concentrations in SRS waste, and it has a long half-life (213,000 years). The objectives of this laboratory study were to determine under SRS environmental conditions: (1) whether and to what extent TcO{sub 4}{sup -} sorbs to sediments, (2) the range of Tc K{sub d} values, (3) the distribution (normal or log-normal) of Tc K{sub d} values, and (4) how strongly Tc sorbs to SRS sediments through desorption experiments. Objective 3, to identify the Tc K{sub d} distribution is important because it provides a statistical description that influences stochastic modeling of estimated risk. The approach taken was to collect 26 sediments from a non-radioactive containing sediment core collected from E-Area, measure Tc K{sub d} values and then perform statistical analysis to describe the measured Tc K{sub d} values. The mean K{sub d} value was 3.4 {+-} 0.5 mL/g and ranged from -2.9 to 11.2 mL/g. The data did not have a Normal distribution (as defined by the Shapiro-Wilk's Statistic) and had a 95-percentile range of 2.4 to 4.4 m

  3. Reactor Materials Program -- weldment component toughness of SRS PWS piping materials. [Process Water System

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.L.

    1993-02-01

    The mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel materials from the reactor systems in the unirradiated (baseline) and the irradiated conditions have been developed previously for structural and fracture analyses of the pressure boundary of the SRS reactor Process Water System (PWS) components. Individual mechanical specimen test results were compiled into three separate weldment components or regions, namely, the base, weld, and weld heat-affected-zone (HAZ), for two orientations (L-C and C-L) with respect to the pipe axis of the source materials and for two test temperatures of 25 and 125[degrees]C. Twelve separate categories were thus defined to assess the effect of test conditions on the mechanical properties and to facilitate selection of properties for structural and fracture analyses. The testing results show high fracture toughness of the materials and support the demonstration of PWS pressure boundary structural integrity under all conditions of reactor operation. The fracture toughness of a fourth weldment component, namely, the weld fusion line region, has been measured to evaluate the potential for a region of low toughness in the interface between the Type 308 stainless steel weld metal and the Type 304 stainless steel pipe. The testing details and results of the weld fusion line toughness are contained in this report.

  4. Nej1 recruits the Srs2 helicase to DNA double-strand breaks and supports repair by a single-strand annealing-like mechanism.

    PubMed

    Carter, Sidney D; Vigasová, Dana; Chen, Jiang; Chovanec, Miroslav; Aström, Stefan U

    2009-07-21

    Double-strand breaks (DSBs) represent the most severe DNA lesion a cell can suffer, as they pose the risk of inducing loss of genomic integrity and promote oncogenesis in mammals. Two pathways repair DSBs, nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). With respect to mechanism and genetic requirements, characterization of these pathways has revealed a large degree of functional separation between the two. Nej1 is a cell-type specific regulator essential to NHEJ in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Srs2 is a DNA helicase with multiple roles in HR. In this study, we show that Nej1 physically interacts with Srs2. Furthermore, mutational analysis of Nej1 suggests that the interaction was strengthened by Dun1-dependent phosphorylation of Nej1 serines 297/298. Srs2 was previously shown to be recruited to replication forks, where it promotes translesion DNA synthesis. We demonstrate that Srs2 was also efficiently recruited to DSBs generated by the HO endonuclease. Additionally, efficient Srs2 recruitment to this DSB was dependent on Nej1, but independent of mechanisms facilitating Srs2 recruitment to replication forks. Functionally, both Nej1 and Srs2 were required for efficient repair of DSBs with 15-bp overhangs, a repair event reminiscent of a specific type of HR called single-strand annealing (SSA). Moreover, absence of Rad51 suppressed the SSA-defect in srs2 and nej1 strains. We suggest a model in which Nej1 recruits Srs2 to DSBs to promote NHEJ/SSA-like repair by dismantling inappropriately formed Rad51 nucleoprotein filaments. This unexpected link between NHEJ and HR components may represent cross-talk between DSB repair pathways to ensure efficient repair.

  5. Nej1 recruits the Srs2 helicase to DNA double-strand breaks and supports repair by a single-strand annealing-like mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Sidney D.; Vigašová, Dana; Chen, Jiang; Chovanec, Miroslav; Åström, Stefan U.

    2009-01-01

    Double-strand breaks (DSBs) represent the most severe DNA lesion a cell can suffer, as they pose the risk of inducing loss of genomic integrity and promote oncogenesis in mammals. Two pathways repair DSBs, nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). With respect to mechanism and genetic requirements, characterization of these pathways has revealed a large degree of functional separation between the two. Nej1 is a cell-type specific regulator essential to NHEJ in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Srs2 is a DNA helicase with multiple roles in HR. In this study, we show that Nej1 physically interacts with Srs2. Furthermore, mutational analysis of Nej1 suggests that the interaction was strengthened by Dun1-dependent phosphorylation of Nej1 serines 297/298. Srs2 was previously shown to be recruited to replication forks, where it promotes translesion DNA synthesis. We demonstrate that Srs2 was also efficiently recruited to DSBs generated by the HO endonuclease. Additionally, efficient Srs2 recruitment to this DSB was dependent on Nej1, but independent of mechanisms facilitating Srs2 recruitment to replication forks. Functionally, both Nej1 and Srs2 were required for efficient repair of DSBs with 15-bp overhangs, a repair event reminiscent of a specific type of HR called single-strand annealing (SSA). Moreover, absence of Rad51 suppressed the SSA-defect in srs2 and nej1 strains. We suggest a model in which Nej1 recruits Srs2 to DSBs to promote NHEJ/SSA-like repair by dismantling inappropriately formed Rad51 nucleoprotein filaments. This unexpected link between NHEJ and HR components may represent cross-talk between DSB repair pathways to ensure efficient repair. PMID:19571008

  6. 4. VIEW OF SILVER BRIDGE (ST. MARY'S BRIDGE), CARRYING COUNTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF SILVER BRIDGE (ST. MARY'S BRIDGE), CARRYING COUNTY ROAD OVER SOURIS RIVER NEAR SOUTH END OF REFUGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  7. Axionometric Cutaway of Bridge Structure Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Axionometric Cutaway of Bridge Structure - Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison County Railroad (later, Rutland Railroad, Addison Branch), spanning Lemon Fair River above Richville Pond, west of East Shoreham Road, Shoreham, Addison County, VT

  8. Dog Bridge, view of the deck of the bridge and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Dog Bridge, view of the deck of the bridge and rails looking from Linden Lane - National Park Seminary, Bounded by Capitol Beltway (I-495), Linden Lane, Woodstove Avenue, & Smith Drive, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  9. Demonstrating the Qualitative Differences between Semantic Aphasia and Semantic Dementia: A Novel Exploration of Nonverbal Semantic Processing

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Krist A.; Garrard, Peter; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Eshan, Sheeba; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    Semantic dementia (SD) implicates the anterior temporal lobes (ATL) as a critical substrate for semantic memory. Multi-modal semantic impairment can also be a feature of post-stroke aphasia (referred to here as “semantic aphasia” or SA) where patients show impaired regulatory control accompanied by lesions to the frontal and/or temporo-parietal cortices, and thus the two patient groups demonstrate qualitatively different patterns of semantic impairment [1]. Previous comparisons of these two patient groups have tended to focus on verbal receptive tasks. Accordingly, this study investigated nonverbal receptive abilities via a comparison of reality decision judgements in SD and SA. Pictures of objects were presented alongside non-real distracters whose features were altered to make them more/less plausible for the semantic category. The results highlighted a number of critical differences between the two groups. Compared to SD patients, SA patients: (1) were relatively unimpaired on the two alternative forced choice (2AFC) decisions despite showing a comparable degree of semantic impairment on other assessments; (2) showed minimal effects of the plausibility manipulation; (3) were strongly influenced by variations in the regulatory requirements of tasks; and (4) exhibited a reversed effect of familiarity–i.e., better performance on less commonly encountered items. These results support a distinction between semantic impairments which arise from impaired regulatory processes (e.g., SA) versus those where degraded semantic knowledge is the causal factor (e.g., SD). SA patients performed relatively well because the task structure reduced the requirement for internally generated control. In contrast, SD patients performed poorly because their degraded knowledge did not allow the fine-grained distinctions required to complete the task. PMID:22713375

  10. Development of a δ f code for studying the effect of non-Maxwellian velocity distributions on SRS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, S.; Valeo, E.; Krommes, J. A.

    2000-10-01

    It has been shown that non-Maxwellian velocity distributions resulting from non-classical heating and transport in laser fusion-type plasmas can significantly affect the linear kinetic response of such systems(B. B. Afeyan et al.), Phys.Rev.Lett. 80, 2322 (1998).. In particular for the electron plasma waves (EPW), the reduction in their Landau damping may have a strong effect on the gain of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). We are presently developing a δ f code that should enable the simulation of the fully non-linear evolution of SRS, while accurately taking account of the critical non-Maxwellian tails of the background distributions. Different techniques developed for carrying out nonlocal transport simulations(S. Brunner, E. Valeo, and J. A. Krommes, Phys.Plasmas 7), 2810 (2000). will be used to provide the backgrounds to these microinstability simulations.

  11. Getting connected: Both associative and semantic links structure semantic memory for newly learned persons.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Holger; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether semantic memory for newly learned people is structured by visual co-occurrence, shared semantics, or both. Participants were trained with pairs of simultaneously presented (i.e., co-occurring) preexperimentally unfamiliar faces, which either did or did not share additionally provided semantic information (occupation, place of living, etc.). Semantic information could also be shared between faces that did not co-occur. A subsequent priming experiment revealed faster responses for both co-occurrence/no shared semantics and no co-occurrence/shared semantics conditions, than for an unrelated condition. Strikingly, priming was strongest in the co-occurrence/shared semantics condition, suggesting additive effects of these factors. Additional analysis of event-related brain potentials yielded priming in the N400 component only for combined effects of visual co-occurrence and shared semantics, with more positive amplitudes in this than in the unrelated condition. Overall, these findings suggest that both semantic relatedness and visual co-occurrence are important when novel information is integrated into person-related semantic memory.

  12. 16. LOG AND PLANK BRIDGE ON ACCESS ROAD NEAR BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. LOG AND PLANK BRIDGE ON ACCESS ROAD NEAR BRIDGE SITE; SAME STRUCTURE AS SHOWN IN PHOTO #12. ZION NP NEGATIVE NO. 967 ZIO. - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Virgin River Bridge, Spanning North Fork of Virgin River on Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  13. 50. INTERIOR OF BRIDGE SUSPENSION STRUCTURE ABOVE BRIDGE NOS. 10 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. INTERIOR OF BRIDGE SUSPENSION STRUCTURE ABOVE BRIDGE NOS. 10 AND 9 SHOWING CABLE COUNTERWEIGHT SYSTEM AND SCREW-TYPE VERTICAL ADJUSTMENT MACHINERY (LIFTING SCREWS). LOOKING NORTH. - Greenville Yard, Transfer Bridge System, Port of New York/New Jersey, Upper New York Bay, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  14. BUILDING "BRIDGES" WITH QUALITY ASSURANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The papr describes how, rather than building "bridges" across centuries, quality assurance (QA) personnel have the opportunity to build bridges across technical disciplines, between public and private organizations, and between different QA groups. As reviewers and auditors of a...

  15. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vičan, Josef; Gocál, Jozef; Odrobiňák, Jaroslav; Koteš, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  16. The Bridges Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnen, Elizabeth; Klie, Judy

    This report describes BRIDGES, an employment equity special measures training program developed by the City of Toronto (Ontario, Canada). It was designed to help women employees move from their traditional jobs into trades, technical or operation (TTO) jobs within their own organization. The program is a combination of classroom sessions, shop…

  17. Building a Straw Bridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Science, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This project is for a team of students (groups of two or three are ideal) to design and construct a model of a single-span bridge, using plastic drinking straws as the building material. All steps of the design, construction, testing and critiquing stages should be recorded by students in a journal. Students may like to include labelled diagrams,…

  18. Bridging the Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Colin

    2009-01-01

    The political context of the conversion of the Historic Tramway Bridge, adjacent to Sandon Point in Bulli (NSW, Australia), and how this was exploited to serve predetermined ends, illustrates that technologies can be designed to have particular social (and political) effects. Through reflection on this relatively small engineering project, this…

  19. Building Migratory Bridges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Michael; Doss, Laurie K.

    2007-01-01

    The Building Migratory Bridges (BOMB) program--a collaboration between the Marvel wood School and Audubon Sharon in Connecticut and Conservation Research Education Action (CR EA), a U.S. not-for-profit in Panama--uses nontropical migratory bird research in the United States and Panama to demonstrate how negative environmental impacts in one…

  20. Bridging a Cultural Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leviatan, Talma

    2008-01-01

    There has been a broad wave of change in tertiary calculus courses in the past decade. However, the much-needed change in tertiary pre-calculus programmes--aimed at bridging the gap between high-school mathematics and tertiary mathematics--is happening at a far slower pace. Following a discussion on the nature of the gap and the objectives of a…

  1. Bridging the Abyss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olcott, Marianina

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to explain the epistemological bases for the two cultures and to show why this disciplinary divide continues to plague American academic culture. Next, we discuss strategies for bridging the two cultures through general education curricula which promote mutual understanding of the two cultures while educating students in basic…

  2. Bridging Disciplinary Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Interdisciplinary education promotes the unity of knowledge by bridging the cultural divide between the social constructs of disciplines and encourages the development of knowledge to enhance society. As an inquiry-based and relevant approach that expands and advances knowledge, interdisciplinary education facilitates creativity and flexibility,…

  3. The Bridge to Somewhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    Since its inception in 2000, Pan-Asian American Community House's (PAACH's) education mission has bridged Asian-American studies to student life. PAACH initiatives have helped spread Asian-American diaspora to thousands of students at the University of Pennsylvania. They have also helped students determine for themselves what it means to be a…

  4. Tech Prep Bridge Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gohdes, William

    1995-01-01

    Although tech prep is still in its infancy in Georgia, increasing numbers of students are entering technical institutes after having completed the secondary-level component of tech prep programs. Georgia's technical institutes must begin the process of developing bridge programs to help adult students with no tech prep experience develop academic…

  5. Virtual Bridge Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisogno, Janet; JeanPierre, Bobby

    2008-01-01

    The West Point Bridge Design (WPBD) building project engages students in project-based learning by giving them a real-life problem to solve. By using technology, students are able to become involved in solving problems that they normally would not encounter. Involvement with interactive websites, such as WPBD, assists students in using…

  6. Bridging and Reading Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philbin, Margaret M.; Rubenstein, Herbert

    A study was conducted for additional support of the view that bridging--drawing inferences to relate a sentence to a preceding sentence--occurs during reading rather than at the time of testing. Subjects were 88 third and 67 fifth grade students whose reading proficiency was measured by performance on the Metropolitan Achievement Test. The…

  7. Building Bridges to China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasta, Stephanie; Scott, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Describes a theme cycle called "Building Bridges to China" developed for third grade students that focuses on the similarities between the lives of children and families in China and the United States. Explains that the theme cycle addresses the National Geography Standards and three of the National Council for the Social Studies…

  8. Semantic Categories and Context in L2 Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolger, Patrick; Zapata, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    This article extends recent findings that presenting semantically related vocabulary simultaneously inhibits learning. It does so by adding story contexts. Participants learned 32 new labels for known concepts from four different semantic categories in stories that were either semantically related (one category per story) or semantically unrelated…

  9. Semantic Priming for Coordinate Distant Concepts in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perri, R.; Zannino, G. D.; Caltagirone, C.; Carlesimo, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic priming paradigms have been used to investigate semantic knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While priming effects produced by prime-target pairs with associative relatedness reflect processes at both lexical and semantic levels, priming effects produced by words that are semantically related but not associated should…

  10. Verb Production during Action Naming in Semantic Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meligne, D.; Fossard, M.; Belliard, S.; Moreaud, O.; Duvignau, K.; Demonet, J.-F.

    2011-01-01

    In contrast with widely documented deficits of semantic knowledge relating to object concepts and the corresponding nouns in semantic dementia (SD), little is known about action semantics and verb production in SD. The degradation of action semantic knowledge was studied in 5 patients with SD compared with 17 matched control participants in an…

  11. Proof-Theoretic Semantics for a Natural Language Fragment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francez, Nissim; Dyckhoff, Roy

    We propose a Proof - Theoretic Semantics (PTS) for a (positive) fragment E+0 of Natural Language (NL) (English in this case). The semantics is intended [7] to be incorporated into actual grammars, within the framework of Type - Logical Grammar (TLG) [12]. Thereby, this semantics constitutes an alternative to the traditional model - theoretic semantics (MTS), originating in Montague's seminal work [11], used in TLG.

  12. The Influence of Semantic Neighbours on Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Although it is assumed that semantics is a critical component of visual word recognition, there is still much that we do not understand. One recent way of studying semantic processing has been in terms of semantic neighbourhood (SN) density, and this research has shown that semantic neighbours facilitate lexical decisions. However, it is not clear…

  13. Magnetism in the p-type Monolayer II-VI semiconductors SrS and SrSe

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Heng-Fu; Lau, Woon-Ming; Zhao, Jijun

    2017-01-01

    Using density functional theory calculations, we study the electronic and magnetic properties of the p-type monolayer II-VI semiconductors SrX (X = S,Se). The pristine SrS and SrSe monolayers are large band gap semiconductor with a very flat band in the top valence band. Upon injecting hole uniformly, ferromagnetism emerges in those system in a large range of hole density. By varying hole density, the systems also show complicated phases transition among nonmagnetic semiconductor, half metal, magnetic semiconductor, and nonmagnetic metal. Furthermore, after introducing p-type dopants in SrS and SrSe via substitutionary inserting P (or As) dopants at the S (or Se) sites, local magnetic moments are formed around the substitutional sites. The local magnetic moments are stable with the ferromagnetic order with appreciable Curie temperature. The ferromagnetism originates from the instability of the electronic states in SrS and SrSe with the large density of states at the valence band edge, which demonstrates a useful strategy for realizing the ferromagnetism in the two dimensional semiconductors. PMID:28378761

  14. Specific features of SRS-CARS monitoring of low impurity concentrations of hydrogen in dense gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikheev, Gennady M.; Mogileva, Tatyana N.; Popov, Aleksey Yu.

    2006-09-01

    The possibility of measuring the hydrogen impurity concentration in dense gas mixtures by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is studied. In this technique, biharmonic laser pumping based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in compressed hydrogen is used. Because of the interference between the coherent scattering components from buffer gas molecules and molecules of the impurity to be detected, the signal recorded may depend on the hydrogen concentration by a parabolic law, which has a minimum and makes the results uncertain. It is shown that this uncertainty can be removed if the frequency of the biharmonic laser pump, which is produced by the SRS oscillator, somewhat differs from the frequency of molecular oscillations of hydrogen in the test mixture. A sensitivity of 5 ppm is obtained as applied to the hydrogen-air mixture under normal pressure. The description of a set-up for the determination of the coefficient of the hydrogen diffusion in gas mixtures is given. The main assembly units are a diffusion chamber and an automated laser system for the selective hydrogen diagnostics in gas mixtures by the SRS-CARS method. The determination of the diffusion coefficient is based on the approximation of the experimental data describing the hydrogen concentration varying with time at a specified point in the diffusion chamber and the accurate solution of the diffusion equation for the selected one-dimensional geometry of the experiment.

  15. Label-free chemical imaging of live Euglena gracilis by high-speed SRS spectral microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakisaka, Yoshifumi; Suzuki, Yuta; Tokunaga, Kyoya; Hirose, Misa; Domon, Ryota; Akaho, Rina; Kuroshima, Mai; Tsumura, Norimichi; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Iwata, Osamu; Suzuki, Kengo; Nakashima, Ayaka; Goda, Keisuke; Ozeki, Yasuyuki

    2016-03-01

    Microbes, especially microalgae, have recently been of great interest for developing novel biofuels, drugs, and biomaterials. Imaging-based screening of live cells can provide high selectivity and is attractive for efficient bio-production from microalgae. Although conventional cellular screening techniques use cell labeling, labeling of microbes is still under development and can interfere with their cellular functions. Furthermore, since live microbes move and change their shapes rapidly, a high-speed imaging technique is required to suppress motion artifacts. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy allows for label-free and high-speed spectral imaging, which helps us visualize chemical components inside biological cells and tissues. Here we demonstrate high-speed SRS imaging, with temporal resolution of 0.14 seconds, of intracellular distributions of lipid, polysaccharide, and chlorophyll concentrations in rapidly moving Euglena gracilis, a unicellular phytoflagellate. Furthermore, we show that our method allows us to analyze the amount of chemical components inside each living cell. Our results indicate that SRS imaging may be applied to label-free screening of living microbes based on chemical information.

  16. Transient development of SRS and SBS in ps-time scale by using sub-ps Thomson diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseaux, C.; Casanova, M.; Gremillet, L.; Loiseau, P.; Rabec Le Gloahec, M.; Baton, S. D.; Amiranoff, F.; Audebert, P.; Popescu, H.; Adam, J. C.; Héron, A.; Hüller, S.; Mora, P.; Pesme, D.

    2006-06-01

    The control of parametric instabilities in large plasmas remains a challenge for the ICF program. Clearly, kinetic effects play an important role in the saturation mechanisms. Sub-picosecond Thomson analysis associated with short pulse interaction permits to explore these topics. A set of experiments have been performed in preformed, He plasmas using the 100-TW laser facility at LULI. The spectra of the electrostatic waves driven by stimulated Raman and Brillouin backscatterings generated in the 1.5 ps, ω laser interaction have been measured with 0.3 ps time-resolution by using a short Thomson probe. Additionally, space-resolved and k-resolved spectra have been obtained. The experiments show that the fastest instability -B-SRS- first develops in the rising part of the pump. The B-SBS-driven IAW grows more slowly. B-SRS then abruptly vanishes around the maximum of the pump, while the IAW can be detected tens of picoseconds after the pump, allowing direct measurement of the IAW damping. The EPW k-spectra show that the EPW dispersion relation significantly deviates from the standard one. They exhibit a k-feature which could be related to the presence of a hot electron population produced in the B-SRS saturation process.

  17. Uncovering the Architecture of Action Semantics

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Christine E.; Buxbaum, Laurel J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite research suggesting that stored sensorimotor information about tool use is a component of the semantic representations of tools, little is known about the action features or organizing principles that underlie this knowledge. We used methods similar to those applied in other semantic domains to examine the “architecture” of action semantic knowledge. In Experiment 1, participants sorted photographs of tools into groups according to the similarity of their associated “use” actions and rated tools on dimensions related to action. The results suggest that the magnitude of arm movement, configuration of the hand, and manner of motion during tool use play a role in determining how tools cluster in action “semantic space”. In Experiment 2, we validated the architecture uncovered in Experiment 1 using an implicit semantic task for which tool use knowledge was not ostensibly relevant (blocked cyclic word-picture matching). Using stimuli from Experiment 1, we found that participants performed more poorly during blocks of trials containing tools used with similar versus unrelated actions, and the amount of semantic interference depended on the magnitude of action similarity among tools. Thus, the degree of featural overlap between tool use actions plays a role in determining the overall semantic similarity of tools. PMID:25045905

  18. Peer-to-Peer Semantic Wikis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaf-Molli, Hala; Rahhal, Charbel; Molli, Pascal

    Wikis have demonstrated how it is possible to convert a community of strangers into a community of collaborators. Semantic wikis have opened an interesting way to mix web 2.0 advantages with the semantic web approach. P2P wikis have illustrated how wikis can be deployed on P2P wikis and take advantages of its intrinsic qualities: fault-tolerance, scalability and infrastructure cost sharing. In this paper, we present the first P2P semantic wiki that combines advantages of semantic wikis and P2P wikis. Building a P2P semantic wiki is challenging. It requires building an optimistic replication algorithm that is compatible with P2P constraints, ensures an acceptable level of consistency and generic enough to handle semantic wiki pages. The contribution of this paper is the definition of a clear model for building P2P semantic wikis. We define the data model, operations on this model, intentions of these operations, algorithms to ensure consistency and finally we implement the SWOOKI prototype based on these algorithms.

  19. Semantic classification of pictures and words.

    PubMed

    Taikh, Alex; Hargreaves, Ian S; Yap, Melvin J; Pexman, Penny M

    2015-01-01

    We provide new behavioural norms for semantic classification of pictures and words. The picture stimuli are 288 black and white line drawings from the International Picture Naming Project ([Székely, A., Jacobsen, T., D'Amico, S., Devescovi, A., Andonova, E., Herron, D., et al. (2004). A new on-line resource for psycholinguistic studies. Journal of Memory & Language, 51, 247-250]). We presented these pictures for classification in a living/nonliving decision, and in a separate version of the task presented the corresponding word labels for classification. We analyzed behavioural responses to a subset of the stimuli in order to explore questions about semantic processing. We found multiple semantic richness effects for both picture and word classification. Further, while lexical-level factors were related to semantic classification of words, they were not related to semantic classification of pictures. We argue that these results are consistent with privileged semantic access for pictures, and point to ways in which these data could be used to address other questions about picture processing and semantic memory.

  20. Semantically aided interpretation and querying of Jefferson Project data using the SemantEco framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, E. W.; Pinheiro, P.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    We will describe the benefits we realized using semantic technologies to address the often challenging and resource intensive task of ontology alignment in service of data integration. Ontology alignment became relatively simple as we reused our existing semantic data integration framework, SemantEco. We work in the context of the Jefferson Project (JP), an effort to monitor and predict the health of Lake George in NY by deploying a large-scale sensor network in the lake, and analyzing the high-resolution sensor data. SemantEco is an open-source framework for building semantically-aware applications to assist users, particularly non-experts, in exploration and interpretation of integrated scientific data. SemantEco applications are composed of a set of modules that incorporate new datasets, extend the semantic capabilities of the system to integrate and reason about data, and provide facets for extending or controlling semantic queries. Whereas earlier SemantEco work focused on integration of water, air, and species data from government sources, we focus on redeploying it to provide a provenance-aware, semantic query and interpretation interface for JP's sensor data. By employing a minor alignment between SemantEco's ontology and the Human-Aware Sensor Network Ontology used to model the JP's sensor deployments, we were able to bring SemantEco's capabilities to bear on the JP sensor data and metadata. This alignment enabled SemantEco to perform the following tasks: (1) select JP datasets related to water quality; (2) understand how the JP's notion of water quality relates to water quality concepts in previous work; and (3) reuse existing SemantEco interactive data facets, e.g. maps and time series visualizations, and modules, e.g. the regulation module that interprets water quality data through the lens of various federal and state regulations. Semantic technologies, both as the engine driving SemantEco and the means of modeling the JP data, enabled us to rapidly

  1. Varieties of semantic ‘access’ deficit in Wernicke’s aphasia and semantic aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Holly; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Comprehension deficits are common in stroke aphasia, including in cases with (i) semantic aphasia, characterized by poor executive control of semantic processing across verbal and non-verbal modalities; and (ii) Wernicke’s aphasia, associated with poor auditory–verbal comprehension and repetition, plus fluent speech with jargon. However, the varieties of these comprehension problems, and their underlying causes, are not well understood. Both patient groups exhibit some type of semantic ‘access’ deficit, as opposed to the ‘storage’ deficits observed in semantic dementia. Nevertheless, existing descriptions suggest that these patients might have different varieties of ‘access’ impairment—related to difficulty resolving competition (in semantic aphasia) versus initial activation of concepts from sensory inputs (in Wernicke’s aphasia). We used a case series design to compare patients with Wernicke’s aphasia and those with semantic aphasia on Warrington’s paradigmatic assessment of semantic ‘access’ deficits. In these verbal and non-verbal matching tasks, a small set of semantically-related items are repeatedly presented over several cycles so that the target on one trial becomes a distractor on another (building up interference and eliciting semantic ‘blocking’ effects). Patients with Wernicke’s aphasia and semantic aphasia were distinguished according to lesion location in the temporal cortex, but in each group, some individuals had additional prefrontal damage. Both of these aspects of lesion variability—one that mapped onto classical ‘syndromes’ and one that did not—predicted aspects of the semantic ‘access’ deficit. Both semantic aphasia and Wernicke’s aphasia cases showed multimodal semantic impairment, although as expected, the Wernicke’s aphasia group showed greater deficits on auditory-verbal than picture judgements. Distribution of damage in the temporal lobe was crucial for predicting the initially

  2. Varieties of semantic 'access' deficit in Wernicke's aphasia and semantic aphasia.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Hannah E; Robson, Holly; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Comprehension deficits are common in stroke aphasia, including in cases with (i) semantic aphasia, characterized by poor executive control of semantic processing across verbal and non-verbal modalities; and (ii) Wernicke's aphasia, associated with poor auditory-verbal comprehension and repetition, plus fluent speech with jargon. However, the varieties of these comprehension problems, and their underlying causes, are not well understood. Both patient groups exhibit some type of semantic 'access' deficit, as opposed to the 'storage' deficits observed in semantic dementia. Nevertheless, existing descriptions suggest that these patients might have different varieties of 'access' impairment-related to difficulty resolving competition (in semantic aphasia) versus initial activation of concepts from sensory inputs (in Wernicke's aphasia). We used a case series design to compare patients with Wernicke's aphasia and those with semantic aphasia on Warrington's paradigmatic assessment of semantic 'access' deficits. In these verbal and non-verbal matching tasks, a small set of semantically-related items are repeatedly presented over several cycles so that the target on one trial becomes a distractor on another (building up interference and eliciting semantic 'blocking' effects). Patients with Wernicke's aphasia and semantic aphasia were distinguished according to lesion location in the temporal cortex, but in each group, some individuals had additional prefrontal damage. Both of these aspects of lesion variability-one that mapped onto classical 'syndromes' and one that did not-predicted aspects of the semantic 'access' deficit. Both semantic aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia cases showed multimodal semantic impairment, although as expected, the Wernicke's aphasia group showed greater deficits on auditory-verbal than picture judgements. Distribution of damage in the temporal lobe was crucial for predicting the initially 'beneficial' effects of stimulus repetition: cases with

  3. The Semantic eScience Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, P. A.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2009-12-01

    The goal of this effort is to design and implement a configurable and extensible semantic eScience framework (SESF). Configuration requires research into accommodating different levels of semantic expressivity and user requirements from use cases. Extensibility is being achieved in a modular approach to the semantic encodings (i.e. ontologies) performed in community settings, i.e. an ontology framework into which specific applications all the way up to communities can extend the semantics for their needs.We report on how we are accommodating the rapid advances in semantic technologies and tools and the sustainable software path for the future (certain) technical advances. In addition to a generalization of the current data science interface, we will present plans for an upper-level interface suitable for use by clearinghouses, and/or educational portals, digital libraries, and other disciplines.SESF builds upon previous work in the Virtual Solar-Terrestrial Observatory. The VSTO utilizes leading edge knowledge representation, query and reasoning techniques to support knowledge-enhanced search, data access, integration, and manipulation. It encodes term meanings and their inter-relationships in ontologies anduses these ontologies and associated inference engines to semantically enable the data services. The Semantically-Enabled Science Data Integration (SESDI) project implemented data integration capabilities among three sub-disciplines; solar radiation, volcanic outgassing and atmospheric structure using extensions to existingmodular ontolgies and used the VSTO data framework, while adding smart faceted search and semantic data registrationtools. The Semantic Provenance Capture in Data Ingest Systems (SPCDIS) has added explanation provenance capabilities to an observational data ingest pipeline for images of the Sun providing a set of tools to answer diverseend user questions such as ``Why does this image look bad?.

  4. The Semantic eScience Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuinness, Deborah; Fox, Peter; Hendler, James

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this effort is to design and implement a configurable and extensible semantic eScience framework (SESF). Configuration requires research into accommodating different levels of semantic expressivity and user requirements from use cases. Extensibility is being achieved in a modular approach to the semantic encodings (i.e. ontologies) performed in community settings, i.e. an ontology framework into which specific applications all the way up to communities can extend the semantics for their needs.We report on how we are accommodating the rapid advances in semantic technologies and tools and the sustainable software path for the future (certain) technical advances. In addition to a generalization of the current data science interface, we will present plans for an upper-level interface suitable for use by clearinghouses, and/or educational portals, digital libraries, and other disciplines.SESF builds upon previous work in the Virtual Solar-Terrestrial Observatory. The VSTO utilizes leading edge knowledge representation, query and reasoning techniques to support knowledge-enhanced search, data access, integration, and manipulation. It encodes term meanings and their inter-relationships in ontologies anduses these ontologies and associated inference engines to semantically enable the data services. The Semantically-Enabled Science Data Integration (SESDI) project implemented data integration capabilities among three sub-disciplines; solar radiation, volcanic outgassing and atmospheric structure using extensions to existingmodular ontolgies and used the VSTO data framework, while adding smart faceted search and semantic data registrationtools. The Semantic Provenance Capture in Data Ingest Systems (SPCDIS) has added explanation provenance capabilities to an observational data ingest pipeline for images of the Sun providing a set of tools to answer diverseend user questions such as ``Why does this image look bad?. http://tw.rpi.edu/portal/SESF

  5. Introduction to geospatial semantics and technology workshop handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varanka, Dalia E.

    2012-01-01

    The workshop is a tutorial on introductory geospatial semantics with hands-on exercises using standard Web browsers. The workshop is divided into two sections, general semantics on the Web and specific examples of geospatial semantics using data from The National Map of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Open Ontology Repository. The general semantics section includes information and access to publicly available semantic archives. The specific session includes information on geospatial semantics with access to semantically enhanced data for hydrography, transportation, boundaries, and names. The Open Ontology Repository offers open-source ontologies for public use.

  6. Semantic processing and response inhibition.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Motes, Michael A; Mudar, Raksha A; Rao, Neena K; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Brier, Matthew R; Maguire, Mandy J; Kraut, Michael A; Hart, John

    2013-11-13

    The present study examined functional MRI (fMRI) BOLD signal changes in response to object categorization during response selection and inhibition. Young adults (N=16) completed a Go/NoGo task with varying object categorization requirements while fMRI data were recorded. Response inhibition elicited increased signal change in various brain regions, including medial frontal areas, compared with response selection. BOLD signal in an area within the right angular gyrus was increased when higher-order categorization was mandated. In addition, signal change during response inhibition varied with categorization requirements in the left inferior temporal gyrus (lIT). lIT-mediated response inhibition when inhibiting the response only required lower-order categorization, but lIT mediated both response selection and inhibition when selecting and inhibiting the response required higher-order categorization. The findings characterized mechanisms mediating response inhibition associated with semantic object categorization in the 'what' visual object memory system.

  7. Semantics of color in chromatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, Nikolai V.

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this investigation is to describe the semantics of color in chromatism (from the ancient Greek triune notion of <>: (1) color as ideal (Id- plan), psychic; (2) tint as physical, verbal; material (M- plan), physiological, syntonic (S-plan), and (3) emotion as their informative-energetic correlation). Being a new field of science, chromatism links humanitarian and natural subjects by means of interdiscipline investigation of a real (f-m) man living in a real (color) surrounding environment. According to the definition for <>, color may be considered to be the most universal notion, permitting to assume the unity of both a man and an environment. Due to this assumption, we may give models of human intellect.

  8. A Semantic Analysis Method for Scientific and Engineering Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a procedure to statically analyze aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. The analysis involves adding semantic declarations to a user's code and parsing this semantic knowledge with the original code using multiple expert parsers. These semantic parsers are designed to recognize formulae in different disciplines including physical and mathematical formulae and geometrical position in a numerical scheme. In practice, a user would submit code with semantic declarations of primitive variables to the analysis procedure, and its semantic parsers would automatically recognize and document some static, semantic concepts and locate some program semantic errors. A prototype implementation of this analysis procedure is demonstrated. Further, the relationship between the fundamental algebraic manipulations of equations and the parsing of expressions is explained. This ability to locate some semantic errors and document semantic concepts in scientific and engineering code should reduce the time, risk, and effort of developing and using these codes.

  9. SemanticOrganizer: A Customizable Semantic Repository for Distributed NASA Project Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.; Berrios, Daniel C.; Carvalho, Robert E.; Hall, David R.; Rich, Stephen J.; Sturken, Ian B.; Swanson, Keith J.; Wolfe, Shawn R.

    2004-01-01

    SemanticOrganizer is a collaborative knowledge management system designed to support distributed NASA projects, including diverse teams of scientists, engineers, and accident investigators. The system provides a customizable, semantically structured information repository that stores work products relevant to multiple projects of differing types. SemanticOrganizer is one of the earliest and largest semantic web applications deployed at NASA to date, and has been used in diverse contexts ranging from the investigation of Space Shuttle Columbia's accident to the search for life on other planets. Although the underlying repository employs a single unified ontology, access control and ontology customization mechanisms make the repository contents appear different for each project team. This paper describes SemanticOrganizer, its customization facilities, and a sampling of its applications. The paper also summarizes some key lessons learned from building and fielding a successful semantic web application across a wide-ranging set of domains with diverse users.

  10. Cross border semantic interoperability for clinical research: the EHR4CR semantic resources and services

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Christel; Ouagne, David; Sadou, Eric; Forsberg, Kerstin; Gilchrist, Mark Mc; Zapletal, Eric; Paris, Nicolas; Hussain, Sajjad; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; MD, Dipka Kalra

    2016-01-01

    With the development of platforms enabling the use of routinely collected clinical data in the context of international clinical research, scalable solutions for cross border semantic interoperability need to be developed. Within the context of the IMI EHR4CR project, we first defined the requirements and evaluation criteria of the EHR4CR semantic interoperability platform and then developed the semantic resources and supportive services and tooling to assist hospital sites in standardizing their data for allowing the execution of the project use cases. The experience gained from the evaluation of the EHR4CR platform accessing to semantically equivalent data elements across 11 European participating EHR systems from 5 countries demonstrated how far the mediation model and mapping efforts met the expected requirements of the project. Developers of semantic interoperability platforms are beginning to address a core set of requirements in order to reach the goal of developing cross border semantic integration of data. PMID:27570649

  11. The principals of meaning: Extracting semantic dimensions from co-occurrence models of semantics.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Geoff; Westbury, Chris

    2016-12-01

    Notable progress has been made recently on computational models of semantics using vector representations for word meaning (Mikolov, Chen, Corrado, & Dean, 2013; Mikolov, Sutskever, Chen, Corrado, & Dean, 2013). As representations of meaning, recent models presumably hone in on plausible organizational principles for meaning. We performed an analysis on the organization of the skip-gram model's semantic space. Consistent with human performance (Osgood, Suci, & Tannenbaum, 1957), the skip-gram model primarily relies on affective distinctions to organize meaning. We showed that the skip-gram model accounts for unique variance in behavioral measures of lexical access above and beyond that accounted for by affective and lexical measures. We also raised the possibility that word frequency predicts behavioral measures of lexical access due to the fact that word use is organized by semantics. Deconstruction of the semantic representations in semantic models has the potential to reveal organizing principles of human semantics.

  12. Semantic Metrics for Analysis of Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etzkorn, Letha H.; Cox, Glenn W.; Farrington, Phil; Utley, Dawn R.; Ghalston, Sampson; Stein, Cara

    2005-01-01

    A recently conceived suite of object-oriented software metrics focus is on semantic aspects of software, in contradistinction to traditional software metrics, which focus on syntactic aspects of software. Semantic metrics represent a more human-oriented view of software than do syntactic metrics. The semantic metrics of a given computer program are calculated by use of the output of a knowledge-based analysis of the program, and are substantially more representative of software quality and more readily comprehensible from a human perspective than are the syntactic metrics.

  13. Semantic-Web Technology: Applications at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashish, Naveen

    2004-01-01

    We provide a description of work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on building system based on semantic-web concepts and technologies. NASA has been one of the early adopters of semantic-web technologies for practical applications. Indeed there are several ongoing 0 endeavors on building semantics based systems for use in diverse NASA domains ranging from collaborative scientific activity to accident and mishap investigation to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and integration to aviation safety decision support We provide a brief overview of many applications and ongoing work with the goal of informing the external community of these NASA endeavors.

  14. Clinical commissioning and use of the Novalis Tx linear accelerator for SRS and SBRT.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinkoo; Wen, Ning; Jin, Jian-Yue; Walls, Nicole; Kim, Sangroh; Li, Haisen; Ren, Lei; Huang, Yimei; Doemer, Anthony; Faber, Kathleen; Kunkel, Tina; Balawi, Ahssan; Garbarino, Kimberly; Levin, Kenneth; Patel, Samir; Ajlouni, Munther; Miller, Brett; Nurushev, Teamor; Huntzinger, Calvin; Schulz, Raymond; Chetty, Indrin J; Movsas, Benjamin; Ryu, Samuel

    2012-05-10

    ) MLC commissioning: Winston Lutz test, light/radiation field congruence, and Picket Fence tests were performed and were within criteria established by the relevant task group reports. The measured mean MLC transmission and dynamic leaf gap of 6 MV SRS beam were 1.17% and 0.36 mm, respectively. (3) Baseline characteristics of OBI and ETX: The isocenter localization errors in the left/right, posterior/anterior, and superior/inferior directions were, respectively, -0.2 ± 0.2 mm, -0.8 ± 0.2 mm, and -0.8 ± 0.4 mm for ETX, and 0.5 ± 0.7 mm, 0.6 ± 0.5 mm, and 0.0 ± 0.5 mm for OBI cone-beam computed tomography. The registration angular discrepancy was 0.1 ± 0.2°, and the maximum robotic couch error was 0.2°. (4) End-to-end tests: The measured isocenter dose differences from the planned values were 0.8% and 0.4%, measured respectively by an ion chamber and film. The gamma pass rate, measured by EBT2 film, was 95% (3% DD and 1 mm DTA). Through a systematic series of quantitative commissioning experiments and end-to-end tests and our initial clinical experience, described in this report, we demonstrate that the NTX is a robust system, with the image guidance and MLC requirements to treat a wide variety of sites - in particular for highly accurate delivery of SRS and SBRT-based treatments.

  15. EVALUATION OF THE DURABILITY OF THE STRUCTURAL CONCRETE OF REACTOR BUILDINGS AT SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, A.; Reigel, M.

    2011-02-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE) intends to close 100-150 facilities in the DOE complex using an in situ decommissioning (ISD) strategy that calls for grouting the below-grade interior volume of the structure and leaving the above-grade interior open or demolishing it and disposing of it in the slit trenches in E Area. These closures are expected to persist and remain stable for centuries, but there are neither facility-specific monitoring approaches nor studies on the rate of deterioration of the materials used in the original construction or on the ISD components added during closure (caps, sloped roofs, etc). This report will focus on the evaluation of the actual aging/degradation of the materials of construction used in the ISD structures at Savannah River Site (SRS) above grade, specifically P & R reactor buildings. Concrete blocks (six 2 to 5 ton blocks) removed from the outer wall of the P Reactor Building were turned over to SRNL as the first source for concrete cores. Larger cores were received as a result of grouting activities in P and R reactor facilities. The cores were sectioned and evaluated using microscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), ion chromatography (IC) and thermal analysis. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the aggregate and cement phases present in the concrete are consistent with the mix design and no degradation mechanisms are evident at the aggregate-cement interfaces. Samples of the cores were digested and analyzed for chloride ingress as well as sulfate attack. The concentrations of chloride and sulfate ions did not exceed the limits of the mix design and there is no indication of any degradation due to these mechanisms. Thermal analysis on samples taken along the longitudinal axis of the cores show that there is a 1 inch carbonation layer (i.e., no portlandite) present in the interior wall of the reactor building and a negligible carbonation layer in the exterior wall. A mixed layer of carbonate and portlandite extends deeper into the

  16. Attention trees and semantic paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Christian; Pieroni, Goffredo G.; Pieroni, Laura

    2007-02-01

    In the last few decades several techniques for image content extraction, often based on segmentation, have been proposed. It has been suggested that under the assumption of very general image content, segmentation becomes unstable and classification becomes unreliable. According to recent psychological theories, certain image regions attract the attention of human observers more than others and, generally, the image main meaning appears concentrated in those regions. Initially, regions attracting our attention are perceived as a whole and hypotheses on their content are formulated; successively the components of those regions are carefully analyzed and a more precise interpretation is reached. It is interesting to observe that an image decomposition process performed according to these psychological visual attention theories might present advantages with respect to a traditional segmentation approach. In this paper we propose an automatic procedure generating image decomposition based on the detection of visual attention regions. A new clustering algorithm taking advantage of the Delaunay- Voronoi diagrams for achieving the decomposition target is proposed. By applying that algorithm recursively, starting from the whole image, a transformation of the image into a tree of related meaningful regions is obtained (Attention Tree). Successively, a semantic interpretation of the leaf nodes is carried out by using a structure of Neural Networks (Neural Tree) assisted by a knowledge base (Ontology Net). Starting from leaf nodes, paths toward the root node across the Attention Tree are attempted. The task of the path consists in relating the semantics of each child-parent node pair and, consequently, in merging the corresponding image regions. The relationship detected in this way between two tree nodes generates, as a result, the extension of the interpreted image area through each step of the path. The construction of several Attention Trees has been performed and partial

  17. TU-F-201-02: Applications in SRS, SBRT, IMRT, VMAT, and KV Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu-Tsao, S.

    2015-06-15

    Since the introduction of radiochromic films (RCF) for radiation dosimetry, the scope of RCF dosimetry has expanded steadily to include many medical applications, such as radiation therapy and diagnostic radiology. The AAPM Task Group (TG) 55 published a report on the recommendations for RCF dosimetry in 1998. As the technology is advancing rapidly, and its routine clinical use is expanding, TG 235 has been formed to provide an update to TG-55 on radiochromic film dosimetry. RCF dosimetry applications in clinical radiotherapy have become even more widespread, expanding from primarily brachytherapy and radiosurgery applications, and gravitating towards (but not limited to) external beam therapy (photon, electron and protons), such as quality assurance for IMRT, VMAT, Tomotherapy, SRS/SRT, and SBRT. In addition, RCF applications now extend to measurements of radiation dose in particle beams and patients undergoing medical exams, especially fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures and CT. The densitometers/scanners used for RCF dosimetry have also evolved from the He-Ne laser scanner to CCD-based scanners, including roller-based scanner, light box-based digital camera, and flatbed color scanner. More recently, multichannel RCF dosimetry introduced a new paradigm for external beam dose QA for its high accuracy and efficiency. This course covers in detail the recent advancements in RCF dosimetry. Learning Objectives: Introduce the paradigm shift on multichannel film dosimetry Outline the procedures to achieve accurate dosimetry with a RCF dosimetry system Provide comprehensive guidelines on RCF dosimetry for various clinical applications One of the speakers has a research agreement from Ashland Inc., the manufacturer of Gafchromic film.

  18. Dosimetric and mechanical characteristics of a commercial dynamic {mu}MLC used in SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Galal, Mohamed M.; Keogh, Sinead; Khalil, Sultan

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to carry out mechanical and dosimetric assessments on a commercial dynamic micromulti leaf collimator system to be used for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). Mechanical parameters such as leaf position accuracy with different gantry angles and leaf position reproducibility were measured. Also dosimetric measurements of the interleaf leakage, intraleaf transmission, penumbra width, and light field alignment were carried out. Furthermore, measurements of output factors (S{sub cp}) and in-air factors (S{sub c}) for the {mu}MLC system will be reported. Methods: EBT2 films were used to assess the leaf position error with gantry angle and after stress test, penumbra width and light field alignment. Leaf leakage was quantified using both EBT2 film and a pinpoint ion chamber. With regard to output factors, the pinpoint chamber was placed in a water phantom at 10 cm depth and 100 cm SSD. For in-air output factor measurements, 0.2 cm of brass was placed above the photon diode as build-up. Results: Measurements of mechanical parameters gave values of 0.05 cm (SD 0.035) for the average leaf position accuracy for different gantry angles and after stress test. Dosimetric measurements, yielded values of 0.22 {+-} 0.01 and 0.24 {+-} 0.01 cm, respectively, for side and head leaf penumbras. Also, average leaf abutting, leakage and transmission were found to be 0.65, 0.91, and 0.20%, respectively. Conclusions: (a) The add-on {mu}MLC system in combination with our LINAC has been commissioned to be used for clinical purposes and showed good agreement with published results for different {mu}MLC types. (b) This work has lead to the recommendation that leaves should be recalibrated after ten static beams or after each dynamic arc.

  19. ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS WASTE TANKS TO IMPROVE ACTINIDE SOLUBILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.; Thompson, M.

    2011-09-20

    Processes for the removal of residual sludge from SRS waste tanks have historically used solutions containing up to 0.9 M oxalic acid to dissolve the remaining material following sludge removal. The selection of this process was based on a comparison of a number of studies performed to evaluate the dissolution of residual sludge. In contrast, the dissolution of the actinide mass, which represents a very small fraction of the waste, has not been extensively studied. The Pu, Np, and Am in the sludge is reported to be present as hydrated and crystalline oxides. To identify aqueous solutions which have the potential to increase the solubility of the actinides, the alkaline and mildly acidic test solutions shown below were selected as candidates for use in a series of solubility experiments. The efficiency of the solutions in solubilizing the actinides was evaluated using a simulated sludge prepared by neutralizing a HNO{sub 3} solution containing Pu, Np, and Am. The hydroxide concentration was adjusted to a 1.2 M excess and the solids were allowed to age for several weeks prior to starting the experiments. The sludge was washed with 0.01 M NaOH to prepare the solids for use. Following the addition of an equal portion of the solids to each test solution, the concentrations of Pu, Np, and Am were measured as a function of time over a 792 h (33 day) period to provide a direct comparison of the efficiency of each solution in solubilizing the actinide elements. Although the composition of the sludge was limited to the hydrated actinide oxides (and did not contain other components of demonstrated importance), the results of the study provides guidance for the selection of solutions which should be evaluated in subsequent tests with a more realistic surrogate sludge and actual tank waste.

  20. SRL in-situ tests in the United Kingdom: Part 2, Surface analyses of SRS waste glass buried for one and two years in limestone at Ballidon, UK

    SciTech Connect

    Namboodri, C.G. Jr.; Wicks, G.G.

    1991-02-26

    A multiphase experimental program to assess and understand waste glass behavior under a wide range of conditions has been in progress at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) for over a decade. An important part of this experimental effort is to assess the effects of repository relevant conditions on performance of SRS waste glass, in both controlled laboratory tests, as well as in actual field experiments. In laboratory test, SRS waste glass, simulated and in many cases also fully radioactive, has been tested in environments of salt, basalt, shale, granite, clay and tuff. In field experiments, there are four joint international programs being conducted in four different countries, involving burial of SRS simulated waste glass in granite, limestone, clay and salt geologies. This report discusses the SRS waste glass studies in limestone at Ballidon, UK..

  1. Semantic Facilitation and Semantic Interference in Language Production: Further Evidence for the Conceptual Selection Model of Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloem, Ineke; van den Boogaard, Sylvia; Heij, Wido La

    2004-01-01

    Bloem and La Heij (2003) reported that in a word-translation task context words induce semantic interference whereas context pictures induce semantic facilitation. This finding was accounted for by a model of lexical access in which: (a) semantic facilitation is localized at the conceptual level, (b) semantic interference is localized at the…

  2. Semantic and Domain-based Interoperability (Interoperabilite Semantique et Interoperabilite basee sur un domaine)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    approval of the RTA Information Management Systems Branch is required for more than one copy to be made or an extract included in another publication...of knowledge-based methods based on ontologies for the bridging of semantic gaps between different systems. Finally, ‘Battle Management Language...sporadique et quelques projets de référence ont été créés mais d’une part, des recherches approfondies s’avèrent nécessaires et d’autre part, le

  3. Putting semantics into the semantic web: how well can it capture biology?

    PubMed

    Kazic, Toni

    2006-01-01

    Could the Semantic Web work for computations of biological interest in the way it's intended to work for movie reviews and commercial transactions? It would be wonderful if it could, so it's worth looking to see if its infrastructure is adequate to the job. The technologies of the Semantic Web make several crucial assumptions. I examine those assumptions; argue that they create significant problems; and suggest some alternative ways of achieving the Semantic Web's goals for biology.

  4. TESTING OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS ACTUAL WASTE TANK 5F AND TANK 12H SLUDGES

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.; King, W.

    2011-08-22

    Forty three of the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have internal structures that hinder removal of the last approximately five thousand gallons of waste sludge solely by mechanical means. Chemical cleaning can be utilized to dissolve the sludge heel with oxalic acid (OA) and pump the material to a separate waste tank in preparation for final disposition. This dissolved sludge material is pH adjusted downstream of the dissolution process, precipitating the sludge components along with sodium oxalate solids. The large quantities of sodium oxalate and other metal oxalates formed impact downstream processes by requiring additional washing during sludge batch preparation and increase the amount of material that must be processed in the tank farm evaporator systems and the Saltstone Processing Facility. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) was identified as a potential method for greatly reducing the impact of oxalate additions to the SRS Tank Farms without adding additional components to the waste that would extend processing or increase waste form volumes. In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate an alternative to the baseline 8 wt. % OA chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. The baseline OA technology results in the addition of significant volumes of oxalate salts to the SRS tank farm and there is insufficient space to accommodate the neutralized streams resulting from the treatment of the multiple remaining waste tanks requiring closure. ECC is a promising alternative to bulk OA cleaning, which utilizes a more dilute OA (nominally 2 wt. % at a pH of around 2) and an oxalate destruction technology. The technology is being adapted by AREVA from their decontamination technology for Nuclear Power Plant secondary side scale removal. This report contains results from the SRNL small scale testing of the ECC process

  5. A Collection of Features for Semantic Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Eliassi-Rad, T; Fodor, I K; Gallagher, B

    2007-05-02

    Semantic graphs are commonly used to represent data from one or more data sources. Such graphs extend traditional graphs by imposing types on both nodes and links. This type information defines permissible links among specified nodes and can be represented as a graph commonly referred to as an ontology or schema graph. Figure 1 depicts an ontology graph for data from National Association of Securities Dealers. Each node type and link type may also have a list of attributes. To capture the increased complexity of semantic graphs, concepts derived for standard graphs have to be extended. This document explains briefly features commonly used to characterize graphs, and their extensions to semantic graphs. This document is divided into two sections. Section 2 contains the feature descriptions for static graphs. Section 3 extends the features for semantic graphs that vary over time.

  6. Semantic Considerations in the Treatment of Echolalia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garber, Norman B.; David, Leigh E.

    1975-01-01

    Two mentally retarded preschool children, both of whom echoed all forms of yes-no questions, were subjected to different treatment procedures varied according to the semantic function of the antecedent verbal stimulus. (Author)

  7. Semantic Antinomies and Deep Structure Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuber, Ryszard

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses constructions known as semantic antinomies, that is, the paradoxical results of false presuppositions, and how they can be dealt with by means of deep structure analysis. See FL 508 186 for availability. (CLK)

  8. Static Semantics and Compiler Error Recovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    for Semantics-directed Error Recovery .......... 24 5.1 Attribute Grammars ...25 5.2 LL- and LR-attributed Grammars .............................................................. 25 5.3 A Practical Organization that...96 Appendix A: The Grammar for the Pascal Auditor

  9. Bridge of bone canthopexy.

    PubMed

    Yaremchuk, Michael J; Chen, Yi-Chieh

    2009-01-01

    Bridge of bone canthopexy has utility when significant movements of canthal position are required. It is a technique whereby the lateral canthal structures are purchased with a figure-of-eight suture of titanium wire. Drill holes are placed in the lateral orbital rim using the zygomaticofrontal sutures as reference landmarks. A canthal fixation point (the inferior drill hole) creates a measured distance from a fixed anatomic point (the zygomaticofrontal suture) assuring accurate and symmetric canthus positioning. Wire suture fixation over the bridge of bone created by the two drill holes provides maximum stability to counter soft tissue deforming forces. Fine adjustments can be made to the canthal position by twisting or untwisting the wire ends.

  10. Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Monica (Compiler); Sharkey, John (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the NASA Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging (ELA-TB) Workshop held in Huntsville, Alabama, September 29-October 1, 1992. The workshop was sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Systems Development and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The workshop addressed key technologies bridging the entire field of electrical actuation including systems methodology, control electronics, power source systems, reliability, maintainability, and vehicle health management with special emphasis on thrust vector control (TVC) applications on NASA launch vehicles. Speakers were drawn primarily from industry with participation from universities and government. In addition, prototype hardware demonstrations were held at the MSFC Propulsion Laboratory each afternoon. Splinter sessions held on the final day afforded the opportunity to discuss key issues and to provide overall recommendations. Presentations are included in this document.

  11. Project Integration Architecture: Formulation of Semantic Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William Henry

    2005-01-01

    One of several key elements of the Project Integration Architecture (PIA) is the intention to formulate parameter objects which convey meaningful semantic information. In so doing, it is expected that a level of automation can be achieved in the consumption of information content by PIA-consuming clients outside the programmatic boundary of a presenting PIA-wrapped application. This paper discusses the steps that have been recently taken in formulating such semantically-meaningful parameters.

  12. Conceptual graphs for semantics and knowledge processing

    SciTech Connect

    Fargues, J.; Landau, M.C.; Dugourd, A.; Catach, L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the representational and algorithmic power of the conceptual graph model for natural language semantics and knowledge processing. Also described is a Prolog-like resolution method for conceptual graphs, which allows to perform deduction on very large semantic domains. The interpreter developed is similar to a Prolog interpreter in which the terms are any conceptual graphs and in which the unification algorithm is replaced by a specialized algorithm for conceptual graphs.

  13. Evaluating word semantic properties using Sketch Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoykova, Velislava; Simkova, Maria

    2015-02-01

    The paper describes approach to use statistically-based tools incorporated into Sketch Engine system for electronic text corpora processing to mining big textual data for search and extract word semantic properties. It presents and compares series of word search experiments using different statistical approaches and evaluates results for Bulgarian language EUROPARL 7 Corpus search to extract word semantic properties. Finally, the methodology is extended for multilingual application using Slovak language EUROPARL 7 Corpus.

  14. Ontology Reuse in Geoscience Semantic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayernik, M. S.; Gross, M. B.; Daniels, M. D.; Rowan, L. R.; Stott, D.; Maull, K. E.; Khan, H.; Corson-Rikert, J.

    2015-12-01

    The tension between local ontology development and wider ontology connections is fundamental to the Semantic web. It is often unclear, however, what the key decision points should be for new semantic web applications in deciding when to reuse existing ontologies and when to develop original ontologies. In addition, with the growth of semantic web ontologies and applications, new semantic web applications can struggle to efficiently and effectively identify and select ontologies to reuse. This presentation will describe the ontology comparison, selection, and consolidation effort within the EarthCollab project. UCAR, Cornell University, and UNAVCO are collaborating on the EarthCollab project to use semantic web technologies to enable the discovery of the research output from a diverse array of projects. The EarthCollab project is using the VIVO Semantic web software suite to increase discoverability of research information and data related to the following two geoscience-based communities: (1) the Bering Sea Project, an interdisciplinary field program whose data archive is hosted by NCAR's Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL), and (2) diverse research projects informed by geodesy through the UNAVCO geodetic facility and consortium. This presentation will outline of EarthCollab use cases, and provide an overview of key ontologies being used, including the VIVO-Integrated Semantic Framework (VIVO-ISF), Global Change Information System (GCIS), and Data Catalog (DCAT) ontologies. We will discuss issues related to bringing these ontologies together to provide a robust ontological structure to support the EarthCollab use cases. It is rare that a single pre-existing ontology meets all of a new application's needs. New projects need to stitch ontologies together in ways that fit into the broader semantic web ecosystem.

  15. Lexical Semantic Techniques for Corpus Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    work suggests how linguistic phenomena such as metonymy and polysemy might be exploitable for semantic tagging of lexical items. Unlike with purely...discover what kinds of knowledge can be reliably acquired through the use of these methods, exploiting, as they do, general linguis- tic knowledge...language. These devices and the associated dictionary make up a generative lexicon, where semantic information is distributed throughout the lexicon to

  16. Climbing techniques for bridge inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaslan, Erol C.

    1998-03-01

    California has about 24,000 publicly owned bridges that require routine structural evaluations to comply with National Bridge Inspection Standard (NBIS) mandates. Of these, about 800 are identified as possessing fatigue prone or fracture critical details requiring thorough tactile investigations. Gaining access to bridge elements to perform these investigations has become increasingly difficult and costly. The traditional uses of under bridge inspection trucks, lift equipment and rigging are economically and practically limited by bridge size, structure type, traffic demands and support costs. In some cases, bridges that have become damaged by earthquakes cannot safely support the loads of heavy personnel lift equipment. The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans)'s Office of Structural Materials and Office of Structure Maintenance and Investigations evaluated the use of rock climbing and mountaineering techniques as an alternative means of gaining access for bridge inspections. Under a small research grant, a bridge climbing training course was developed through a local University of California outdoor recreation group and 7 engineers and technicians were initially trained. A comprehensive Code of Safe Practices was created and standards of training, procedures and equipment required for bridge inspections were established. A successful climb investigation on a large, previously inaccessible arch bridge was completed at the end of the training that proved the techniques safe, economical and effective. Within one year, 20 bridge maintenance engineers were trained, and a formal program was established to organize, schedule, equip and certify engineers and technicians for bridge climbing. Several other offices within Caltrans as well as the California Department of Water Resources have since adopted these techniques for specialized structural inspection tasks. Climbing techniques are now used routinely in California as an alterative means of gaining access

  17. Nematic liquid crystal bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doss, Susannah; Ellis, Perry; Vallamkondu, Jayalakshmi; Danemiller, Edward; Vernon, Mark; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    We study the effects of confining a nematic liquid crystal between two parallel glass plates with homeotropic boundary conditions for the director at all bounding surfaces. We find that the free surface of the nematic bridge is a surface of constant mean curvature. In addition, by changing the distance between the plates and the contact angle with the glass plates, we transition between loops and hedgehogs that can be either radial or hyperbolic.

  18. Semantic relatedness for evaluation of course equivalencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Beibei

    Semantic relatedness, or its inverse, semantic distance, measures the degree of closeness between two pieces of text determined by their meaning. Related work typically measures semantics based on a sparse knowledge base such as WordNet or Cyc that requires intensive manual efforts to build and maintain. Other work is based on a corpus such as the Brown corpus, or more recently, Wikipedia. This dissertation proposes two approaches to applying semantic relatedness to the problem of suggesting transfer course equivalencies. Two course descriptions are given as input to feed the proposed algorithms, which output a value that can be used to help determine if the courses are equivalent. The first proposed approach uses traditional knowledge sources such as WordNet and corpora for courses from multiple fields of study. The second approach uses Wikipedia, the openly-editable encyclopedia, and it focuses on courses from a technical field such as Computer Science. This work shows that it is promising to adapt semantic relatedness to the education field for matching equivalencies between transfer courses. A semantic relatedness measure using traditional knowledge sources such as WordNet performs relatively well on non-technical courses. However, due to the "knowledge acquisition bottleneck," such a resource is not ideal for technical courses, which use an extensive and growing set of technical terms. To address the problem, this work proposes a Wikipedia-based approach which is later shown to be more correlated to human judgment compared to previous work.

  19. Semantics by analogy for illustrative volume visualization.

    PubMed

    Gerl, Moritz; Rautek, Peter; Isenberg, Tobias; Gröller, Eduard

    2012-05-01

    We present an interactive graphical approach for the explicit specification of semantics for volume visualization. This explicit and graphical specification of semantics for volumetric features allows us to visually assign meaning to both input and output parameters of the visualization mapping. This is in contrast to the implicit way of specifying semantics using transfer functions. In particular, we demonstrate how to realize a dynamic specification of semantics which allows to flexibly explore a wide range of mappings. Our approach is based on three concepts. First, we use semantic shader augmentation to automatically add rule-based rendering functionality to static visualization mappings in a shader program, while preserving the visual abstraction that the initial shader encodes. With this technique we extend recent developments that define a mapping between data attributes and visual attributes with rules, which are evaluated using fuzzy logic. Second, we let users define the semantics by analogy through brushing on renderings of the data attributes of interest. Third, the rules are specified graphically in an interface that provides visual clues for potential modifications. Together, the presented methods offer a high degree of freedom in the specification and exploration of rule-based mappings and avoid the limitations of a linguistic rule formulation.

  20. Usage of semantic representations in recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Ryoji; Hirano, Tetsuji; Ukita, Jun

    2017-04-11

    Meanings of words facilitate false acceptance as well as correct rejection of lures in recognition memory tests, depending on the experimental context. This suggests that semantic representations are both directly and indirectly (i.e., mediated by perceptual representations) used in remembering. Studies using memory conjunction errors (MCEs) paradigms, in which the lures consist of component parts of studied words, have reported semantic facilitation of rejection of the lures. However, attending to components of the lures could potentially cause this. Therefore, we investigated whether semantic overlap of lures facilitates MCEs using Japanese Kanji words in which a whole-word image is more concerned in reading. Experiments demonstrated semantic facilitation of MCEs in a delayed recognition test (Experiment 1), and in immediate recognition tests in which participants were prevented from using phonological or orthographic representations (Experiment 2), and the salient effect on individuals with high semantic memory capacities (Experiment 3). Additionally, analysis of the receiver operating characteristic suggested that this effect is attributed to familiarity-based memory judgement and phantom recollection. These findings indicate that semantic representations can be directly used in remembering, even when perceptual representations of studied words are available.

  1. Semantics by analogy for illustrative volume visualization☆

    PubMed Central

    Gerl, Moritz; Rautek, Peter; Isenberg, Tobias; Gröller, Eduard

    2012-01-01

    We present an interactive graphical approach for the explicit specification of semantics for volume visualization. This explicit and graphical specification of semantics for volumetric features allows us to visually assign meaning to both input and output parameters of the visualization mapping. This is in contrast to the implicit way of specifying semantics using transfer functions. In particular, we demonstrate how to realize a dynamic specification of semantics which allows to flexibly explore a wide range of mappings. Our approach is based on three concepts. First, we use semantic shader augmentation to automatically add rule-based rendering functionality to static visualization mappings in a shader program, while preserving the visual abstraction that the initial shader encodes. With this technique we extend recent developments that define a mapping between data attributes and visual attributes with rules, which are evaluated using fuzzy logic. Second, we let users define the semantics by analogy through brushing on renderings of the data attributes of interest. Third, the rules are specified graphically in an interface that provides visual clues for potential modifications. Together, the presented methods offer a high degree of freedom in the specification and exploration of rule-based mappings and avoid the limitations of a linguistic rule formulation. PMID:23576827

  2. Vowelling and semantic priming effects in Arabic.

    PubMed

    Mountaj, Nadia; El Yagoubi, Radouane; Himmi, Majid; Lakhdar Ghazal, Faouzi; Besson, Mireille; Boudelaa, Sami

    2015-01-01

    In the present experiment we used a semantic judgment task with Arabic words to determine whether semantic priming effects are found in the Arabic language. Moreover, we took advantage of the specificity of the Arabic orthographic system, which is characterized by a shallow (i.e., vowelled words) and a deep orthography (i.e., unvowelled words), to examine the relationship between orthographic and semantic processing. Results showed faster Reaction Times (RTs) for semantically related than unrelated words with no difference between vowelled and unvowelled words. By contrast, Event Related Potentials (ERPs) revealed larger N1 and N2 components to vowelled words than unvowelled words suggesting that visual-orthographic complexity taxes the early word processing stages. Moreover, semantically unrelated Arabic words elicited larger N400 components than related words thereby demonstrating N400 effects in Arabic. Finally, the Arabic N400 effect was not influenced by orthographic depth. The implications of these results for understanding the processing of orthographic, semantic, and morphological structures in Modern Standard Arabic are discussed.

  3. Semantic framework for mapping object-oriented model to semantic web languages

    PubMed Central

    Ježek, Petr; Mouček, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework. PMID:25762923

  4. Semantic framework for mapping object-oriented model to semantic web languages.

    PubMed

    Ježek, Petr; Mouček, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework.

  5. USE OF CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS FOR SRS REACTOR FACILITY IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING - 11620

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.; Serrato, M.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.; Waymer, J.; Matheny, D.; Singh, D.

    2010-12-07

    for filling the reactor vessels, and (2) a specialty grout mix to fill a selected portion of the P-Reactor Disassembly Basin. Details of the grout mixes designed for ISD of he SRS Reactor Disassembly Basins and below grade portions of the 105-Buildings was described elsewhere. Material property test results, placement strategies, full-scale production and delivery systems will also be described.

  6. EVALUATION OF ENHANCED VOC REMOVAL WITH SOIL FRACTURING IN THE SRS UPLAND UNIT

    SciTech Connect

    Riha, B

    2005-10-31

    The Environmental Restoration Technology Section (ERTS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted pilot scale testing to evaluate the effectiveness of using hydraulic fracturing as a means to improve soil vapor extraction (SVE) system performance. Laboratory and field research has shown that significant amounts of solvents can be entrapped in low permeability zones by capillary forces and removal by SVE can be severely limited due to low flow rates, mass transfer resistance of the hydrophobic compounds by trapped interparticle water, and diffusion resistance. Introducing sand-filled fractures into these tight zones improves the performance of SVE by (1) increasing the overall permeability of the formation and thereby increasing SVE flow rates, (2) shortening diffusion pathways, and (3) increasing air permeability by improving pore water removal. The synergistic effect of the fracture well completion methods, fracture and flow geometry, and pore water removal appears to increase the rate of solvent mass removal over that of increasing flow rate alone. A field test was conducted where a conventional well in the SRS Upland Unit was tested before and after hydraulic fracturing. ERTS teamed with Clemson University through the South Carolina University and Education Foundation (SCUREF) program utilizing their expertise in fracturing and fracture modeling. The goals of the fracturing pilot testing were to evaluate the following: (1) The effect of hydraulic fractures on the performance of a conventional well. This was the most reliable way to remove the effects of spatial variations in permeability and contaminant distribution on relative well performance. It also provided data on the option of improving the performance of existing wells using hydraulic fractures. (2) The relative performance of a conventional SVE well and isolated hydraulic fractures. This was the most reliable indicator of the performance of hydraulic fractures that could be created in a

  7. Wernicke's Aphasia Reflects a Combination of Acoustic-Phonological and Semantic Control Deficits: A Case-Series Comparison of Wernicke's Aphasia, Semantic Dementia and Semantic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Holly; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Wernicke's aphasia (WA) is the classical neurological model of comprehension impairment and, as a result, the posterior temporal lobe is assumed to be critical to semantic cognition. This conclusion is potentially confused by (a) the existence of patient groups with semantic impairment following damage to other brain regions (semantic dementia and…

  8. Semantic Preview Benefit in English: Individual Differences in the Extraction and Use of Parafoveal Semantic Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Although there is robust evidence that skilled readers of English extract and use orthographic and phonological information from the parafovea to facilitate word identification, semantic preview benefits have been elusive. We sought to establish whether individual differences in the extraction and/or use of parafoveal semantic information could…

  9. Sub-Lexical Phonological and Semantic Processing of Semantic Radicals: A Primed Naming Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lin; Peng, Gang; Zheng, Hong-Ying; Su, I-Fan; Wang, William S.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    Most sinograms (i.e., Chinese characters) are phonograms (phonetic compounds). A phonogram is composed of a semantic radical and a phonetic radical, with the former usually implying the meaning of the phonogram, and the latter providing cues to its pronunciation. This study focused on the sub-lexical processing of semantic radicals which are…

  10. List Context Fosters Semantic Processing: Parallels between Semantic and Morphological Facilitation when Primes Are Forward Masked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Laurie Beth; Basnight-Brown, Dana M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined patterns of facilitation under forward-masked priming conditions across 3 list contexts (Experiments 1-3) that varied with respect to properties of filler trials--(a) mixed (morphological, orthographic, semantic), (b) identity, and (c) semantic--but held the relatedness proportion constant (75%). Facilitation for targets that…

  11. Ambiguity and Relatedness Effects in Semantic Tasks: Are They Due to Semantic Coding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hino, Yasushi; Pexman, Penny M.; Lupker, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    According to parallel distributed processing (PDP) models of visual word recognition, the speed of semantic coding is modulated by the nature of the orthographic-to-semantic mappings. Consistent with this idea, an ambiguity disadvantage and a relatedness-of-meaning (ROM) advantage have been reported in some word recognition tasks in which semantic…

  12. Is more always better? Effects of semantic richness on lexical decision, speeded pronunciation, and semantic classification.

    PubMed

    Yap, Melvin J; Tan, Sarah E; Pexman, Penny M; Hargreaves, Ian S

    2011-08-01

    Evidence from large-scale studies (Pexman, Hargreaves, Siakaluk, Bodner, & Pope, 2008) suggests that semantic richness, a multidimensional construct reflecting the extent of variability in the information associated with a word's meaning, facilitates visual word recognition. Specifically, recognition is better for words that (1) have more semantic neighbors, (2) possess referents with more features, and (3) are associated with more contexts. The present study extends Pexman et al. (2008) by examining how two additional measures of semantic richness, number of senses and number of associates (Pexman, Hargreaves, Edwards, Henry, & Goodyear, 2007), influence lexical decision, speeded pronunciation, and semantic classification performance, after controlling for an array of lexical and semantic variables. We found that number of features and contexts consistently facilitated word recognition but that the effects of semantic neighborhood density and number of associates were less robust. Words with more senses also elicited faster lexical decisions but less accurate semantic classifications. These findings point to how the effects of different semantic dimensions are selectively and adaptively modulated by task-specific demands.

  13. An Intelligent Semantic E-Learning Framework Using Context-Aware Semantic Web Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Weihong; Webster, David; Wood, Dawn; Ishaya, Tanko

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments of e-learning specifications such as Learning Object Metadata (LOM), Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM), Learning Design and other pedagogy research in semantic e-learning have shown a trend of applying innovative computational techniques, especially Semantic Web technologies, to promote existing content-focused…

  14. On the Existence of Semantic Working Memory: Evidence for Direct Semantic Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivde, Geeta; Anderson, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Despite widespread acknowledgment of the importance of online semantic maintenance, there has been astonishingly little work that clearly establishes this construct. We review the extant work relevant to short-term retention of meaning and show that, although consistent with semantic working memory, most data can be accommodated in other ways.…

  15. Semantic Signature: Comparative Interpretation of Gene Expression on a Semantic Space.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihun; Kim, Keewon; Kim, Ju Han

    2016-01-01

    Background. Interpretation of microarray data remains challenging because biological meaning should be extracted from enormous numeric matrices and be presented explicitly. Moreover, huge public repositories of microarray dataset are ready to be exploited for comparative analysis. This study aimed to provide a platform where essential implication of a microarray experiment could be visually expressed and various microarray datasets could be intuitively compared. Results. On the semantic space, gene sets from Molecular Signature Database (MSigDB) were plotted as landmarks and their relative distances were calculated by Lin's semantic similarity measure. By formal concept analysis, a microarray dataset was transformed into a concept lattice with gene clusters as objects and Gene Ontology terms as attributes. Concepts of a lattice were located on the semantic space reflecting semantic distance from landmarks and edges between concepts were drawn; consequently, a specific geographic pattern could be observed from a microarray dataset. We termed a distinctive geography shared by microarray datasets of the same category as "semantic signature." Conclusions. "Semantic space," a map of biological entities, could serve as a universal platform for comparative microarray analysis. When microarray data were displayed on the semantic space as concept lattices, "semantic signature," characteristic geography for a microarray experiment, could be discovered.

  16. Explaining Semantic Short-Term Memory Deficits: Evidence for the Critical Role of Semantic Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with apparently selective short-term memory (STM) deficits for semantic information have played an important role in developing multi-store theories of STM and challenge the idea that verbal STM is supported by maintaining activation in the language system. We propose that semantic STM deficits are not as selective as previously thought…

  17. Revisiting intracellular calcium signaling semantics.

    PubMed

    Haiech, Jacques; Audran, Emilie; Fève, Marie; Ranjeva, Raoul; Kilhoffer, Marie-Claude

    2011-12-01

    Cells use intracellular free calcium concentration changes for signaling. Signal encoding occurs through both spatial and temporal modulation of the free calcium concentration. The encoded message is detected by an ensemble of intracellular sensors forming the family of calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) which must faithfully translate the message using a new syntax that is recognized by the cell. The cell is home to a significant although limited number of genes coding for proteins involved in the signal encoding and decoding processes. In a cell, only a subset of this ensemble of genes is expressed, leading to a genetic regulation of the calcium signal pathways. Calmodulin (CaM), the most ubiquitous expressed intracellular calcium-binding protein, plays a major role in calcium signal translation. Similar to a hub, it is central to a large and finely tuned network, receiving information, integrating it and dispatching the cognate response. In this review, we examine the different steps starting with an external stimulus up to a cellular response, with special emphasis on CaM and the mechanism by which it decodes calcium signals and translates it into exquisitely coordinated cellular events. By this means, we will revisit the calcium signaling semantics, hoping that we will ease communication between scientists dealing with calcium signals in different biological systems and different domains.

  18. Considering the role of semantic memory in episodic future thinking: evidence from semantic dementia.

    PubMed

    Irish, Muireann; Addis, Donna Rose; Hodges, John R; Piguet, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    Semantic dementia is a progressive neurodegenerative condition characterized by the profound and amodal loss of semantic memory in the context of relatively preserved episodic memory. In contrast, patients with Alzheimer's disease typically display impairments in episodic memory, but with semantic deficits of a much lesser magnitude than in semantic dementia. Our understanding of episodic memory retrieval in these cohorts has greatly increased over the last decade, however, we know relatively little regarding the ability of these patients to imagine and describe possible future events, and whether episodic future thinking is mediated by divergent neural substrates contingent on dementia subtype. Here, we explored episodic future thinking in patients with semantic dementia (n=11) and Alzheimer's disease (n=11), in comparison with healthy control participants (n=10). Participants completed a battery of tests designed to probe episodic and semantic thinking across past and future conditions, as well as standardized tests of episodic and semantic memory. Further, all participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Despite their relatively intact episodic retrieval for recent past events, the semantic dementia cohort showed significant impairments for episodic future thinking. In contrast, the group with Alzheimer's disease showed parallel deficits across past and future episodic conditions. Voxel-based morphometry analyses confirmed that atrophy in the left inferior temporal gyrus and bilateral temporal poles, regions strongly implicated in semantic memory, correlated significantly with deficits in episodic future thinking in semantic dementia. Conversely, episodic future thinking performance in Alzheimer's disease correlated with atrophy in regions associated with episodic memory, namely the posterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyrus and frontal pole. These distinct neuroanatomical substrates contingent on dementia group were further qualified by correlational

  19. SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for semantic web services

    PubMed Central

    Gessler, Damian DG; Schiltz, Gary S; May, Greg D; Avraham, Shulamit; Town, Christopher D; Grant, David; Nelson, Rex T

    2009-01-01

    Background SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol; pronounced "swap") is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP was developed as a hybrid semantic web services technology to overcome limitations found in both pure web service technologies and pure semantic web technologies. Results There are currently over 2400 resources published in SSWAP. Approximately two dozen are custom-written services for QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) and mapping data for legumes and grasses (grains). The remaining are wrappers to Nucleic Acids Research Database and Web Server entries. As an architecture, SSWAP establishes how clients (users of data, services, and ontologies), providers (suppliers of data, services, and ontologies), and discovery servers (semantic search engines) interact to allow for the description, querying, discovery, invocation, and response of semantic web services. As a protocol, SSWAP provides the vocabulary and semantics to allow clients, providers, and discovery servers to engage in semantic web services. The protocol is based on the W3C-sanctioned first-order description logic language OWL DL. As an open source platform, a discovery server running at (as in to "swap info") uses the description logic reasoner Pellet to integrate semantic resources. The platform hosts an interactive guide to the protocol at , developer tools at , and a portal to third-party ontologies at (a "swap meet"). Conclusion SSWAP addresses the three basic requirements of a semantic web services architecture (i.e., a common syntax, shared semantic, and semantic discovery) while addressing three technology limitations common in distributed service systems: i.e., i) the fatal mutability of traditional interfaces, ii) the rigidity and fragility of static subsumption hierarchies, and iii) the confounding of content, structure, and presentation. SSWAP is novel by establishing

  20. REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OPTIONS FOR SRS WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M.; Koopman, D.

    2009-08-01

    A literature review was conducted to support the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan for Alternative Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (AECC) for sludge heel removal funded as part of the EM-21 Engineering and Technology program. The goal was to identify potential technologies or enhancements to the baseline oxalic acid cleaning process for chemically dissolving or mobilizing Savannah River Site (SRS) sludge heels. The issues with the potentially large volume of oxalate solids generated from the baseline process have driven an effort to find an improved or enhanced chemical cleaning technology for the tank heels. This literature review builds on a previous review conducted in 2003. A team was charged with evaluating the information in these reviews and developing recommendations of alternative technologies to pursue. The new information in this report supports the conclusion of the previous review that oxalic acid remains the chemical cleaning agent of choice for dissolving the metal oxides and hydroxides found in sludge heels in carbon steel tanks. The potential negative impact of large volumes of sodium oxalate on downstream processes indicates that the amount of oxalic acid used for chemical cleaning needs to be minimized as much as possible or the oxalic acid must be destroyed prior to pH adjustment in the receipt tank. The most straightforward way of minimizing the volume of oxalic acid needed for chemical cleaning is through more effective mechanical cleaning. Using a mineral acid to adjust the pH of the sludge prior to adding oxalic acid may also help to minimize the volume of oxalic acid used in chemical cleaning. If minimization of oxalic acid proves insufficient in reducing the volume of oxalate salts, several methods were found that could be used for oxalic acid destruction. For some waste tank heels, another acid or even caustic treatment (or pretreatment) might be more appropriate than the baseline oxalic acid cleaning process. Caustic treatment of high

  1. Semantic Visualization Mapping for Illustrative Volume Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautek, P.; Bruckner, S.; Gröller, M. E.

    2009-04-01

    Measured and simulated data is usually divided into several meaningful intervals that are relevant to the domain expert. Examples from medicine are the specific semantics for different measuring modalities. A PET scan of a brain measures brain activity. It shows regions of homogeneous activity that are labeled by experts with semantic values such as low brain activity or high brain activity. Diffusion MRI data provides information about the healthiness of tissue regions and is classified by experts with semantic values like healthy, diseased, or necrotic. Medical CT data encode the measured density values in Hounsfield units. Specific intervals of the Hounsfield scale refer to different tissue types like air, soft tissue, bone, contrast enhanced vessels, etc. However, the semantic parameters from expert domains are not necessarily used to describe a mapping between the volume attributes and visual appearance. Volume rendering techniques commonly map attributes of the underlying data on visual appearance via a transfer function. Transfer functions are a powerful tool to achieve various visualization mappings. The specification of transfer functions is a complex task. The user has to have expert knowledge about the underlying rendering technique to achieve the desired results. Especially the specification of higher-dimensional transfer functions is challenging. Common user interfaces provide methods to brush in two dimensions. While brushing is an intuitive method to select regions of interest or to specify features, user interfaces for higher-dimensions are more challenging and often non-intuitive. For seismic data the situation is even more difficult since the data typically consists of many more volumetric attributes than for example medical datasets. Scientific illustrators are experts in conveying information by visual means. They also make use of semantics in a natural way describing visual abstractions such as shading, tone, rendering style, saturation

  2. SU-E-T-48: A Multi-Institutional Study of Independent Dose Verification for Conventional, SRS and SBRT

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, R; Kamima, T; Tachibana, H; Baba, H; Itano, M; Yamazaki, T; Ishibashi, S; Higuchi, Y; Shimizu, H; Yamamoto, T; Yamashita, M; Sugawara, Y; Sato, A; Nishiyama, S; Kawai, D; Miyaoka, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To show the results of a multi-institutional study of the independent dose verification for conventional, Stereotactic radiosurgery and body radiotherapy (SRS and SBRT) plans based on the action level of AAPM TG-114. Methods: This study was performed at 12 institutions in Japan. To eliminate the bias of independent dose verification program (Indp), all of the institutions used the same CT-based independent dose verification software (Simple MU Analysis, Triangle Products, JP) with the Clarkson-based algorithm. Eclipse (AAA, PBC), Pinnacle{sup 3} (Adaptive Convolve) and Xio (Superposition) were used as treatment planning system (TPS). The confidence limits (CL, Mean±2SD) for 18 sites (head, breast, lung, pelvis, etc.) were evaluated in comparison in dose between the TPS and the Indp. Results: A retrospective analysis of 6352 treatment fields was conducted. The CLs for conventional, SRS and SBRT were 1.0±3.7 %, 2.0±2.5 % and 6.2±4.4 %, respectively. In conventional plans, most of the sites showed within 5 % of TG-114 action level. However, there were the systematic difference (4.0±4.0 % and 2.5±5.8 % for breast and lung, respectively). In SRS plans, our results showed good agreement compared to the action level. In SBRT plans, the discrepancy between the Indp was variable depending on dose calculation algorithms of TPS. Conclusion: The impact of dose calculation algorithms for the TPS and the Indp affects the action level. It is effective to set the site-specific tolerances, especially for the site where inhomogeneous correction can affect dose distribution strongly.

  3. Survival in Nuclear Waste, Extreme Resistance, and Potential Applications Gleaned from the Genome Sequence of Kineococcus radiotolerans SRS30216

    PubMed Central

    Bagwell, Christopher E.; Bhat, Swapna; Hawkins, Gary M.; Smith, Bryan W.; Biswas, Tapan; Hoover, Timothy R.; Saunders, Elizabeth; Han, Cliff S.; Tsodikov, Oleg V.; Shimkets, Lawrence J.

    2008-01-01

    Kineococcus radiotolerans SRS30216 was isolated from a high-level radioactive environment at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and exhibits γ-radiation resistance approaching that of Deinococcus radiodurans. The genome was sequenced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute which suggested the existence of three replicons, a 4.76 Mb linear chromosome, a 0.18 Mb linear plasmid, and a 12.92 Kb circular plasmid. Southern hybridization confirmed that the chromosome is linear. The K. radiotolerans genome sequence was examined to learn about the physiology of the organism with regard to ionizing radiation resistance, the potential for bioremediation of nuclear waste, and the dimorphic life cycle. K. radiotolerans may have a unique genetic toolbox for radiation protection as it lacks many of the genes known to confer radiation resistance in D. radiodurans. Additionally, genes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and the excision repair pathway are overrepresented. K. radiotolerans appears to lack degradation pathways for pervasive soil and groundwater pollutants. However, it can respire on two organic acids found in SRS high-level nuclear waste, formate and oxalate, which promote the survival of cells during prolonged periods of starvation. The dimorphic life cycle involves the production of motile zoospores. The flagellar biosynthesis genes are located on a motility island, though its regulation could not be fully discerned. These results highlight the remarkable ability of K radiotolerans to withstand environmental extremes and suggest that in situ bioremediation of organic complexants from high level radioactive waste may be feasible. PMID:19057647

  4. Semantic features and semantic categories: differences in rapid activation of the lexicon.

    PubMed

    Frenck-Mestre, C; Bueno, S

    Robust priming was shown in a semantic categorization task for prime-target pairs which shared semantic features (e.g., pumpkin-squash). Priming facilitation for these pairs was demonstrated at extremely rapid prime exposures (28 and 43 ms) and increased with prime duration. The onset and amount of facilitation differed significantly for these semantic, nonassociative pairs and for associative-semantic prime-target pairs (e.g., cow-bull). The latter pairs produced facilitation, but later (at prime-target SOAs of 70 and 200 ms) and of lesser magnitude. These results are discussed in relation to three current models of semantic memory: spreading activation, compound cue, and distributed models.

  5. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified

    PubMed Central

    Ganis, Giorgio; Schendan, Haline E.

    2013-01-01

    Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT) try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a crime-related item (probe) by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) between this item and comparison items (irrelevants). Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as “memory detection,” little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addresses the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth) and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study). Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive complex (LPC) than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. These findings show that the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research. PMID:23355816

  6. Production of refolded Toxoplasma gondii recombinant SAG1-related sequence 3 (SRS3) and its use for serodiagnosis of human toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Mirzadeh, Abolfazl; Saadatnia, Geita; Golkar, Majid; Babaie, Jalal; Noordin, Rahmah

    2017-03-02

    SAG1-related sequence 3 (SRS3) is one of the major Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite surface antigens and has been shown to be potentially useful for the detection of toxoplasmosis. This protein is highly conformational due to the presence of six disulfide bonds. To achieve solubility and antigenicity, SRS3 depends on proper disulfide bond formation. The aim of this study was to over-express the SRS3 protein with correct folding for use in serodiagnosis of the disease. To achieve this, a truncated SRS3 fusion protein (rtSRS3) was produced, containing six histidyl residues at both terminals and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The refolding process was performed through three methods, namely dialysis in the presence of chemical additives along with reduced/oxidized glutathione and drop-wise dilution methods with reduced/oxidized glutathione or reduced DTT/oxidized glutathione. Ellman's assay and ELISA showed that the protein folding obtained by the dialysis method was the most favorable, probably due to the correct folding. Subsequently, serum samples from individuals with chronic infection (n = 76), probable acute infection (n = 14), and healthy controls (n = 81) were used to determine the usefulness of the refolded rtSRS3 for Toxoplasma serodiagnosis. The results of the developed IgG-ELISA showed a diagnostic specificity of 91% and a sensitivity of 82.89% and 100% for chronic and acute serum samples, respectively. In conclusion, correctly folded rtSRS3 has the potential to be used as a soluble antigen for the detection of human toxoplasmosis.

  7. The Macaque Social Responsiveness Scale (mSRS): A Rapid Screening Tool for Assessing Variability in the Social Responsiveness of Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Feczko, Eric J; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Walum, Hasse; Pruett, John R; Parr, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying human neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has been hindered by the lack of a robust, translational animal model. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) display many of the same social behaviors that are affected in ASD, making them an excellent animal species in which to model social impairments. However, the social impairments associated with ASD may reflect extreme ends of a continuous distribution of traits. Thus, to validate the rhesus monkey as an animal model for studying social impairments that has strong translational relevance for ASD, researchers need an easily-implemented measurement tool that can quantify variation in social behavior dimensionally. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a 65-item survey that identifies both typical and atypical social behaviors in humans that covary with ASD symptom severity. A chimpanzee SRS has already been validated and the current study adapted this tool for use in the rhesus monkey (mSRS). Fifteen raters completed the mSRS for 105 rhesus monkeys living at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. The mSRS scores showed a unimodal distribution with a positive skew that identified 6 statistical outliers. Inter-rater reliability was very strong, but only 17 of the 36 questions showed positive intra-item reliability. The results of an exploratory factor analysis identified 3 factors that explained over 60% of the variance, with 12 items significantly loading onto the primary factor. These items reflected behaviors associated with social avoidance, social anxiety or inflexibility and social confidence. These initial findings are encouraging and suggest that variability in the social responsiveness of rhesus monkeys can be quantified using the mSRS: a tool that has strong translational relevance for human disorders. With further modification, the mSRS may provide an promising new direction for research on the biological mechanisms underlying

  8. Automatic image orientation detection via confidence-based integration of low-level and semantic cues.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiebo; Boutell, Matthew

    2005-05-01

    Automatic image orientation detection for natural images is a useful, yet challenging research topic. Humans use scene context and semantic object recognition to identify the correct image orientation. However, it is difficult for a computer to perform the task in the same way because current object recognition algorithms are extremely limited in their scope and robustness. As a result, existing orientation detection methods were built upon low-level vision features such as spatial distributions of color and texture. Discrepant detection rates have been reported for these methods in the literature. We have developed a probabilistic approach to image orientation detection via confidence-based integration of low-level and semantic cues within a Bayesian framework. Our current accuracy is 90 percent for unconstrained consumer photos, impressive given the findings of a psychophysical study conducted recently. The proposed framework is an attempt to bridge the gap between computer and human vision systems and is applicable to other problems involving semantic scene content understanding.

  9. A semantic model for multimodal data mining in healthcare information systems.

    PubMed

    Iakovidis, Dimitris; Smailis, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) are representative examples of multimodal/multisource data collections; including measurements, images and free texts. The diversity of such information sources and the increasing amounts of medical data produced by healthcare institutes annually, pose significant challenges in data mining. In this paper we present a novel semantic model that describes knowledge extracted from the lowest-level of a data mining process, where information is represented by multiple features i.e. measurements or numerical descriptors extracted from measurements, images, texts or other medical data, forming multidimensional feature spaces. Knowledge collected by manual annotation or extracted by unsupervised data mining from one or more feature spaces is modeled through generalized qualitative spatial semantics. This model enables a unified representation of knowledge across multimodal data repositories. It contributes to bridging the semantic gap, by enabling direct links between low-level features and higher-level concepts e.g. describing body parts, anatomies and pathological findings. The proposed model has been developed in web ontology language based on description logics (OWL-DL) and can be applied to a variety of data mining tasks in medical informatics. It utility is demonstrated for automatic annotation of medical data.

  10. Linking DICOM pixel data with radiology reports using automatic semantic annotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Sayan D.; Kim, Woojin; Munasinghe, Indeera; Criminisi, Antonio; White, Steve; Siddiqui, Khan

    2012-02-01

    Improved access to DICOM studies to both physicians and patients is changing the ways medical imaging studies are visualized and interpreted beyond the confines of radiologists' PACS workstations. While radiologists are trained for viewing and image interpretation, a non-radiologist physician relies on the radiologists' reports. Consequently, patients historically have been typically informed about their imaging findings via oral communication with their physicians, even though clinical studies have shown that patients respond to physician's advice significantly better when the individual patients are shown their own actual data. Our previous work on automated semantic annotation of DICOM Computed Tomography (CT) images allows us to further link radiology report with the corresponding images, enabling us to bridge the gap between image data with the human interpreted textual description of the corresponding imaging studies. The mapping of radiology text is facilitated by natural language processing (NLP) based search application. When combined with our automated semantic annotation of images, it enables navigation in large DICOM studies by clicking hyperlinked text in the radiology reports. An added advantage of using semantic annotation is the ability to render the organs to their default window level setting thus eliminating another barrier to image sharing and distribution. We believe such approaches would potentially enable the consumer to have access to their imaging data and navigate them in an informed manner.

  11. Morphological aspects of myocardial bridges.

    PubMed

    Lujinović, Almira; Kulenović, Amela; Kapur, Eldan; Gojak, Refet

    2013-11-01

    Although some myocardial bridges can be asymptomatic, their presence often causes coronary disease either through direct compression of the "tunnel" segment or through stimulation and accelerated development of atherosclerosis in the segment proximally to the myocardial bridge. The studied material contained 30 human hearts received from the Department of Anatomy. The hearts were preserved 3 to 5 days in 10% formalin solution. Thereafter, the fatty tissue was removed and arterial blood vessels prepared by careful dissection with special reference to the presence of the myocardial bridges. Length and thickness of the bridges were measured by the precise electronic caliper. The angle between the myocardial bridge fibre axis and other axis of the crossed blood vessel was measured by a goniometer. The presence of the bridges was confirmed in 53.33% of the researched material, most frequently (43.33%) above the anterior interventricular branch. The mean length of the bridges was 14.64 ± 9.03 mm and the mean thickness was 1.23 ± 1.32 mm. Myocardial bridge fibres pass over the descending blood vessel at the angle of 10-90 degrees. The results obtained on a limited sample suggest that the muscular index of myocardial bridge is the highest for bridges located on RIA, but that the difference is not significant in relation to bridges located on other branches. The results obtained suggest that bridges located on other branches, not only those on RIA, could have a great contractive power and, consequently, a great compressive force, which would be exerted on the wall of a crossed blood vessel.

  12. Mapping the semantic homunculus: a functional and behavioural analysis of overt semantic generation.

    PubMed

    Esopenko, Carrie; Borowsky, Ron; Cummine, Jacqueline; Sarty, Gordon

    2008-09-01

    Previous neuroanatomical research has shown that semantic processing of action-related language activates the premotor, motor, and sensory cortices somatotopically (e.g., Tettamanti et al., J Cognitive Neurosci. 2005;17(2): 273-281, using a listening task, and Hauk et al., Neuron. 2004;41:301-307 and Pulvermuller et al., Eur J Neurosci 2005;21:793-797; J Cognitive Neurosci 2005;17(6):884-892 using a silent reading task). We examined this somatotopic semantics hypothesis using an overt semantic generation task (i.e., participants generated aloud their own personal description of how they would interact with target object words), rather than semantic comprehension as examined in previous research, so as to provide a stronger test of the hypothesis under conditions that tap one's own semantic knowledge about interacting with objects. Experiment 1 used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to examine somatotopically organized activation in the premotor cortex for an overt semantic generation task, using targets that naturally involve either arm interactions or leg interactions. Consistent with previous research, our results showed that semantic processing related to object interaction involves the motor, premotor and sensory cortices in a somatotopic fashion. Previous behavioural research has shown a response advantage in lexical decision for words with multiple meanings or features, which diminishes with tasks that decrease semantic involvement (e.g., Borowsky and Masson, J Exp Psychol: Learn Memory Cognit 1996; 22(1):63-85; Pexman et al., Psychon Bull Rev 2002;9(3): 542-549). Experiment 2 evaluated whether semantic generation response times (total duration of response) display a complexity advantage (i.e., faster response times for more complex objects), and whether complexity ratings were related to the volume of brain activation during the task. Results from this behavioural experiment revealed a significant negative relationship between the total duration

  13. Semantic segmentation of multispectral overhead imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Lakshman; Pope, Paul A.; Sentz, Kari

    2016-05-01

    Land cover classification uses multispectral pixel information to separate image regions into categories. Image segmentation seeks to separate image regions into objects and features based on spectral and spatial image properties. However, making sense of complex imagery typically requires identifying image regions that are often a heterogeneous mixture of categories and features that constitute functional semantic units such as industrial, residential, or commercial areas. This requires leveraging both spectral classification and spatial feature extraction synergistically to synthesize such complex but meaningful image units. We present an efficient graphical model for extracting such semantically cohesive regions. We employ an initial hierarchical segmentation of images into features represented as nodes of an attributed graph that represents feature properties as well as their adjacency relations with other features. This provides a framework to group spectrally and structurally diverse features, which are nevertheless semantically cohesive, based on user-driven identifications of features and their contextual relationships in the graph. We propose an efficient method to construct, store, and search an augmented graph that captures nonadjacent vicinity relationships of features. This graph can be used to query for semantic notional units consisting of ontologically diverse features by constraining it to specific query node types and their indicated/desired spatial interaction characteristics. User interaction with, and labeling of, initially segmented and categorized image feature graph can then be used to learn feature (node) and regional (subgraph) ontologies as constraints, and to identify other similar semantic units as connected components of the constraint-pruned augmented graph of a query image.

  14. Developmental changes in semantic knowledge organization.

    PubMed

    Unger, Layla; Fisher, Anna V; Nugent, Rebecca; Ventura, Samuel L; MacLellan, Christopher J

    2016-06-01

    Semantic knowledge is a crucial aspect of higher cognition. Theoretical accounts of semantic knowledge posit that relations between concepts provide organizational structure that converts information known about individual entities into an interconnected network in which concepts can be linked by many types of relations (e.g., taxonomic, thematic). The goal of the current research was to address several methodological shortcomings of prior studies on the development of semantic organization, by using a variant of the spatial arrangement method (SpAM) to collect graded judgments of relatedness for a set of entities that can be cross-classified into either taxonomic or thematic groups. In Experiment 1, we used the cross-classify SpAM (CC-SpAM) to obtain graded relatedness judgments and derive a representation of developmental changes in the organization of semantic knowledge. In Experiment 2, we validated the findings of Experiment 1 by using a more traditional pairwise similarity judgment paradigm. Across both experiments, we found that an early recognition of links between entities that are both taxonomically and thematically related preceded an increasing recognition of links based on a single type of relation. The utility of CC-SpAM for evaluating theoretical accounts of semantic development is discussed.

  15. Deep Aesthetic Quality Assessment With Semantic Information.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yueying; He, Ran; Huang, Kaiqi

    2017-03-01

    Human beings often assess the aesthetic quality of an image coupled with the identification of the image's semantic content. This paper addresses the correlation issue between automatic aesthetic quality assessment and semantic recognition. We cast the assessment problem as the main task among a multi-task deep model, and argue that semantic recognition task offers the key to address this problem. Based on convolutional neural networks, we employ a single and simple multi-task framework to efficiently utilize the supervision of aesthetic and semantic labels. A correlation item between these two tasks is further introduced to the framework by incorporating the inter-task relationship learning. This item not only provides some useful insight about the correlation but also improves assessment accuracy of the aesthetic task. In particular, an effective strategy is developed to keep a balance between the two tasks, which facilitates to optimize the parameters of the framework. Extensive experiments on the challenging Aesthetic Visual Analysis dataset and Photo.net dataset validate the importance of semantic recognition in aesthetic quality assessment, and demonstrate that multitask deep models can discover an effective aesthetic representation to achieve the state-of-the-art results.

  16. Semantic transparency affects memory conjunction errors

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Mungchen; Rotello, Caren M.

    2009-01-01

    Memory conjunction errors occur when aspects of two different events are falsely recognized or recalled as having occurred as parts of the same event. One theoretical account of conjunction errors is rooted in traditional dual-process models of recognition judgments, in which responses are based on an item’s familiarity or the retrieval of recollected details associated with the encoding of that item. We manipulated the familiarity of test probes by varying their semantic overlap with studied items, taking advantage of the inherent semantic transparency of compound words. Transparent compounds are those whose component parts (lexemes) are semantically related to the meaning of the entire word. In contrast, opaque compounds’ lexemes do not contribute directly to the meaning of the compound. We showed that the familiarity of semantically transparent assembly lures created from their lexemes (study dog and house, test on doghouse) is greater than the familiarity of opaque assembly lures (study back and draw, test on drawback). A response-signal experiment revealed no evidence for the use of a recall-to-reject process for either semantically transparent or opaque lures. PMID:19966238

  17. Detecting syntactic and semantic anomalies in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Moro, Andrea; Bambini, Valentina; Bosia, Marta; Anselmetti, Simona; Riccaboni, Roberta; Cappa, Stefano F; Smeraldi, Enrico; Cavallaro, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    One of the major challenges in the study of language in schizophrenia is to identify specific levels of the linguistic structure that might be selectively impaired. While historically a main semantic deficit has been widely claimed, results are mixed, with also evidence of syntactic impairment. This might be due to heterogeneity in materials and paradigms across studies, which often do not allow to tap into single linguistic components. Moreover, the interaction between linguistic and neurocognitive deficits is still unclear. In this study, we concentrated on syntactic and semantic knowledge. We employed an anomaly detection task including short and long sentences with either syntactic errors violating the principles of Universal Grammar, or a novel form of semantic errors, resulting from a contradiction in the computation of the whole sentence meaning. Fifty-eight patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia were compared to 30 healthy subjects. Results showed that, in patients, only the ability to identify syntactic anomaly, both in short and long sentences, was impaired. This result cannot be explained by working memory abilities or psychopathological features. These findings suggest the presence of an impairment of syntactic knowledge in schizophrenia, at least partially independent of the cognitive and psychopathological profile. On the contrary, we cannot conclude that there is a semantic impairment, at least in terms of compositional semantics abilities.

  18. Occurrence, Characterization and Synthesis of Hanford and SRS Tank Heel Materials

    SciTech Connect

    KRUMHANSL, JAMES L.

    2002-07-01

    , was produced by wicking the pore fluid out of a sludge gel (into packed diatomaceous earth), while simultaneously applying pressure to compact the sludge as it dehydrated. Osmotic gradients could provide the same function as the capillary forces provided by the diatomaceous earth sorbant placed in contact with the sludge. Tests on the anomalous materials added to the tanks all indicated potential problems. Hard granules, and maybe chunks, may be encountered where Portland cement was added to a tank. Sand, spent zeolite resin, and diatomaceous earth, will all react with the tank fluids to produce a sodalite/cancrinite material. The degree of reaction determines whether the grains become cemented together. SRS activities showed that heels formed when spent zeolites were added to tanks can be readily dislodged and it is expected that heels from sand would possess equal or less cohesion. Diatomaceous earth may form more resilient crusts or masses. To summarize, the existence of ''hard'' heels has yet to be documented. A broader definition suggests inclusion of poorly cohesive cancrinite-cemented masses and dense past-like accumulations of abnormally compacted ''normal'' sludges. Chemical treatments to remove these materials must focus on agents that are active against aluminosilicates and hydrous oxides of iron and aluminum. Exploiting the high pore-water content of these materials may provide a second avenue for dislodging such accumulations. Techniques were developed to produce synthetic sludges on which various removal technologies could be tried.

  19. 25. White Plains Road Bridge in foreground; Unionport Road Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. White Plains Road Bridge in foreground; Unionport Road Bridge in background. Van Nest, Bronx Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 12.75./78. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  20. Different impairments of semantic cognition in semantic dementia and semantic aphasia: evidence from the non-verbal domain

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Faye; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Ehsan, Sheeba

    2009-01-01

    Disorders of semantic cognition in different neuropsychological conditions result from diverse areas of brain damage and may have different underlying causes. This study used a comparative case-series design to examine the hypothesis that relatively circumscribed bilateral atrophy of the anterior temporal lobe in semantic dementia (SD) produces a gradual degradation of core semantic representations, whilst a deficit of cognitive control produces multi-modal semantic impairment in a subset of patients with stroke aphasia following damage involving the left prefrontal cortex or regions in and around the temporoparietal area; this condition, which transcends traditional aphasia classifications, is referred to as ‘semantic aphasia’ (SA). There have been very few direct comparisons of these patient groups to date and these previous studies have focussed on verbal comprehension. This study used a battery of object-use tasks to extend this line of enquiry into the non-verbal domain for the first time. A group of seven SA patients were identified who failed both word and picture versions of a semantic association task. These patients were compared with eight SD cases. Both groups showed significant deficits in object use but these impairments were qualitatively different. Item familiarity correlated with performance on object-use tasks for the SD group, consistent with the view that core semantic representations are degrading in this condition. In contrast, the SA participants were insensitive to the familiarity of the objects. Further, while the SD patients performed consistently across tasks that tapped different aspects of knowledge and object use for the same items, the performance of the SA participants reflected the control requirements of the tasks. Single object use was relatively preserved in SA but performance on complex mechanical puzzles was substantially impaired. Similarly, the SA patients were able to complete straightforward item matching tasks, such as