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Sample records for semantic concept learning

  1. A robotic framework for semantic concept learning.

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, Kevin M.; Levinson, Stephen E.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2004-09-01

    This report describes work carried out under a Sandia National Laboratories Excellence in Engineering Fellowship in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Our research group (at UIUC) is developing a intelligent robot, and attempting to teach it language. While there are many aspects of this research, for the purposes of this report the most important are the following ideas. Language is primarily based on semantics, not syntax. To truly learn meaning, the language engine must be part of an embodied intelligent system, one capable of using associative learning to form concepts from the perception of experiences in the world, and further capable of manipulating those concepts symbolically. In the work described here, we explore the use of hidden Markov models (HMMs) in this capacity. HMMs are capable of automatically learning and extracting the underlying structure of continuous-valued inputs and representing that structure in the states of the model. These states can then be treated as symbolic representations of the inputs. We describe a composite model consisting of a cascade of HMMs that can be embedded in a small mobile robot and used to learn correlations among sensory inputs to create symbolic concepts. These symbols can then be manipulated linguistically and used for decision making. This is the project final report for the University Collaboration LDRD project, 'A Robotic Framework for Semantic Concept Learning'.

  2. Concept-based lexical-semantic unsupervised learning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, V. I.

    2014-09-01

    Concept learning is essential for automatic knowledge acquisition and consists in linking semantic and linguistic data together. In this work, a system of concept learning, which mimics to some extent human infant learning, is presented. This system performs visual and audial feature extraction and construction of concept database by maximizing of their mutual information. Experiments show 90% recognition rate of learnt concepts.

  3. The Semantic Learning Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicilia, Miguel-Angel; Lytras, Miltiadis D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is introducing the concept of a "semantic learning organization" (SLO) as an extension of the concept of "learning organization" in the technological domain. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes existing definitions and conceptualizations of both learning organizations and Semantic Web technology to develop…

  4. The Semantic Learning Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicilia, Miguel-Angel; Lytras, Miltiadis D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is introducing the concept of a "semantic learning organization" (SLO) as an extension of the concept of "learning organization" in the technological domain. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes existing definitions and conceptualizations of both learning organizations and Semantic Web technology to develop…

  5. Semantic Features, Perceptual Expectations, and Frequency as Factors in the Learning of Polar Spatial Adjective Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunckley, Candida J. Lutes; Radtke, Robert C.

    Two semantic theories of word learning, a perceptual complexity hypothesis (H. Clark, 1970) and a quantitative complexity hypothesis (E. Clark, 1972) were tested by teaching 24 preschoolers and 16 college students CVC labels for five polar spatial adjective concepts having single word representations in English, and for three having no direct…

  6. Semantic Features, Perceptual Expectations, and Frequency as Factors in the Learning of Polar Spatial Adjective Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunckley, Candida J. Lutes; Radtke, Robert C.

    Two semantic theories of word learning, a perceptual complexity hypothesis (H. Clark, 1970) and a quantitative complexity hypothesis (E. Clark, 1972) were tested by teaching 24 preschoolers and 16 college students CVC labels for five polar spatial adjective concepts having single word representations in English, and for three having no direct…

  7. Behavioral semantics of learning and crossmodal processing in auditory cortex: the semantic processor concept.

    PubMed

    Scheich, Henning; Brechmann, André; Brosch, Michael; Budinger, Eike; Ohl, Frank W; Selezneva, Elena; Stark, Holger; Tischmeyer, Wolfgang; Wetzel, Wolfram

    2011-01-01

    Two phenomena of auditory cortex activity have recently attracted attention, namely that the primary field can show different types of learning-related changes of sound representation and that during learning even this early auditory cortex is under strong multimodal influence. Based on neuronal recordings in animal auditory cortex during instrumental tasks, in this review we put forward the hypothesis that these two phenomena serve to derive the task-specific meaning of sounds by associative learning. To understand the implications of this tenet, it is helpful to realize how a behavioral meaning is usually derived for novel environmental sounds. For this purpose, associations with other sensory, e.g. visual, information are mandatory to develop a connection between a sound and its behaviorally relevant cause and/or the context of sound occurrence. This makes it plausible that in instrumental tasks various non-auditory sensory and procedural contingencies of sound generation become co-represented by neuronal firing in auditory cortex. Information related to reward or to avoidance of discomfort during task learning, that is essentially non-auditory, is also co-represented. The reinforcement influence points to the dopaminergic internal reward system, the local role of which for memory consolidation in auditory cortex is well-established. Thus, during a trial of task performance, the neuronal responses to the sounds are embedded in a sequence of representations of such non-auditory information. The embedded auditory responses show task-related modulations of auditory responses falling into types that correspond to three basic logical classifications that may be performed with a perceptual item, i.e. from simple detection to discrimination, and categorization. This hierarchy of classifications determine the semantic "same-different" relationships among sounds. Different cognitive classifications appear to be a consequence of learning task and lead to a recruitment of

  8. Semantic Categories and Context in L2 Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolger, Patrick; Zapata, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    This article extends recent findings that presenting semantically related vocabulary simultaneously inhibits learning. It does so by adding story contexts. Participants learned 32 new labels for known concepts from four different semantic categories in stories that were either semantically related (one category per story) or semantically unrelated…

  9. Exploiting UMLS semantics for checking semantic consistency among UMLS concepts.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Halit; Erdem, Esra; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    To quantify semantic inconsistency in UMLS concepts from the perspective of their hierarchical relations and to show through examples how semantically-inconsistent concepts can help reveal erroneous synonymy relations. Inconsistency is defined in reference to concepts from the UMLS Metathesaurus. Consistency is evaluated by comparing the semantic groups of the two concepts in each pair of hierarchically-related concepts. A limited number of inconsistent concepts was inspected manually. 81,512 concepts are inconsistent due to the differences in semantic groups between a concept and its parent. Four examples of wrong synonymy are presented. A vast majority of inconsistent hierarchical relations are not indicative of any errors. We discovered an interesting semantic pattern along hierarchies, which seems associated with wrong synonymy.

  10. Enhancing clinical concept extraction with distributional semantics

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Trevor; Wu, Stephen; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2011-01-01

    Extracting concepts (such as drugs, symptoms, and diagnoses) from clinical narratives constitutes a basic enabling technology to unlock the knowledge within and support more advanced reasoning applications such as diagnosis explanation, disease progression modeling, and intelligent analysis of the effectiveness of treatment. The recent release of annotated training sets of de-identified clinical narratives has contributed to the development and refinement of concept extraction methods. However, as the annotation process is labor-intensive, training data are necessarily limited in the concepts and concept patterns covered, which impacts the performance of supervised machine learning applications trained with these data. This paper proposes an approach to minimize this limitation by combining supervised machine learning with empirical learning of semantic relatedness from the distribution of the relevant words in additional unannotated text. The approach uses a sequential discriminative classifier (Conditional Random Fields) to extract the mentions of medical problems, treatments and tests from clinical narratives. It takes advantage of all Medline abstracts indexed as being of the publication type “clinical trials” to estimate the relatedness between words in the i2b2/VA training and testing corpora. In addition to the traditional features such as dictionary matching, pattern matching and part-of-speech tags, we also used as a feature words that appear in similar contexts to the word in question (that is, words that have a similar vector representation measured with the commonly used cosine metric, where vector representations are derived using methods of distributional semantics). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort exploring the use of distributional semantics, the semantics derived empirically from unannotated text often using vector space models, for a sequence classification task such as concept extraction. Therefore, we first

  11. Semantic search via concept annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkelberger, Kirk A.

    2007-04-01

    Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment wherein the microstructure of a material is altered, causing changes in its properties such as strength and hardness. We define concept annealing as a lexical, syntactic, and semantic expansion capability (the removal of defects and the internal stresses that cause term- and phrase-based search failure) coupled with a directed contraction capability (semantically-related terms, queries, and concepts nucleate and grow to replace those originally deformed by internal stresses). These two capabilities are tied together in a control loop mediated by the information retrieval precision and recall metrics coupled with intuition provided by the operator. The specific representations developed have been targeted at facilitating highly efficient and effective semantic indexing and searching. This new generation of Find capability enables additional processing (i.e. all-source tracking, relationship extraction, and total system resource management) at rates, precisions, and accuracies previously considered infeasible. In a recent experiment, an order magnitude reduction in time to actionable intelligence and nearly three orderss magnitude reduction in false alarm rate was achieved.

  12. The semantic richness of abstract concepts

    PubMed Central

    Recchia, Gabriel; Jones, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    We contrasted the predictive power of three measures of semantic richness—number of features (NFs), contextual dispersion (CD), and a novel measure of number of semantic neighbors (NSN)—for a large set of concrete and abstract concepts on lexical decision and naming tasks. NSN (but not NF) facilitated processing for abstract concepts, while NF (but not NSN) facilitated processing for the most concrete concepts, consistent with claims that linguistic information is more relevant for abstract concepts in early processing. Additionally, converging evidence from two datasets suggests that when NSN and CD are controlled for, the features that most facilitate processing are those associated with a concept's physical characteristics and real-world contexts. These results suggest that rich linguistic contexts (many semantic neighbors) facilitate early activation of abstract concepts, whereas concrete concepts benefit more from rich physical contexts (many associated objects and locations). PMID:23205008

  13. The semantic richness of abstract concepts.

    PubMed

    Recchia, Gabriel; Jones, Michael N

    2012-01-01

    We contrasted the predictive power of three measures of semantic richness-number of features (NFs), contextual dispersion (CD), and a novel measure of number of semantic neighbors (NSN)-for a large set of concrete and abstract concepts on lexical decision and naming tasks. NSN (but not NF) facilitated processing for abstract concepts, while NF (but not NSN) facilitated processing for the most concrete concepts, consistent with claims that linguistic information is more relevant for abstract concepts in early processing. Additionally, converging evidence from two datasets suggests that when NSN and CD are controlled for, the features that most facilitate processing are those associated with a concept's physical characteristics and real-world contexts. These results suggest that rich linguistic contexts (many semantic neighbors) facilitate early activation of abstract concepts, whereas concrete concepts benefit more from rich physical contexts (many associated objects and locations).

  14. Semantic-gap-oriented active learning for multilabel image annotation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jinhui; Zha, Zheng-Jun; Tao, Dacheng; Chua, Tat-Seng

    2012-04-01

    User interaction is an effective way to handle the semantic gap problem in image annotation. To minimize user effort in the interactions, many active learning methods were proposed. These methods treat the semantic concepts individually or correlatively. However, they still neglect the key motivation of user feedback: to tackle the semantic gap. The size of the semantic gap of each concept is an important factor that affects the performance of user feedback. User should pay more efforts to the concepts with large semantic gaps, and vice versa. In this paper, we propose a semantic-gap-oriented active learning method, which incorporates the semantic gap measure into the information-minimization-based sample selection strategy. The basic learning model used in the active learning framework is an extended multilabel version of the sparse-graph-based semisupervised learning method that incorporates the semantic correlation. Extensive experiments conducted on two benchmark image data sets demonstrated the importance of bringing the semantic gap measure into the active learning process.

  15. Shared Features Dominate Semantic Richness Effects for Concrete Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grondin, Ray; Lupker, Stephen J.; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    When asked to list semantic features for concrete concepts, participants list many features for some concepts and few for others. Concepts with many semantic features are processed faster in lexical and semantic decision tasks [Pexman, P. M., Lupker, S. J., & Hino, Y. (2002). "The impact of feedback semantics in visual word recognition:…

  16. E-Learning for Depth in the Semantic Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafrir, Uri; Etkind, Masha

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we describe concept parsing algorithms, a novel semantic analysis methodology at the core of a new pedagogy that focuses learners attention on deep comprehension of the conceptual content of learned material. Two new e-learning tools are described in some detail: interactive concept discovery learning and meaning equivalence…

  17. E-Learning for Depth in the Semantic Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafrir, Uri; Etkind, Masha

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we describe concept parsing algorithms, a novel semantic analysis methodology at the core of a new pedagogy that focuses learners attention on deep comprehension of the conceptual content of learned material. Two new e-learning tools are described in some detail: interactive concept discovery learning and meaning equivalence…

  18. CONCEPT LEARNING AND CONCEPT TEACHING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GLASER, ROBERT

    REVIEWED ARE THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF CONCEPT LEARNING AS THEY RELATE TO CONCEPT TEACHING. AN ANALYSIS IS MADE OF THE NATURE OF CONCEPT LEARNING AS IT IS STUDIED IN THE PSYCHOLOGIST'S LABORATORY, INCLUDING THE NATURE OF CONCEPT TASKS AS THEY APPEAR IN SUBJECT MATTER LEARNING. THE PRIMARY KINDS OF CONCEPT LEARNING SITUATIONS, INCLUDING THE…

  19. LEARNING SEMANTICS-ENHANCED LANGUAGE MODELS APPLIED TO UNSUEPRVISED WSD

    SciTech Connect

    VERSPOOR, KARIN; LIN, SHOU-DE

    2007-01-29

    An N-gram language model aims at capturing statistical syntactic word order information from corpora. Although the concept of language models has been applied extensively to handle a variety of NLP problems with reasonable success, the standard model does not incorporate semantic information, and consequently limits its applicability to semantic problems such as word sense disambiguation. We propose a framework that integrates semantic information into the language model schema, allowing a system to exploit both syntactic and semantic information to address NLP problems. Furthermore, acknowledging the limited availability of semantically annotated data, we discuss how the proposed model can be learned without annotated training examples. Finally, we report on a case study showing how the semantics-enhanced language model can be applied to unsupervised word sense disambiguation with promising results.

  20. Implicit Learning of Semantic Preferences of Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of semantic implicit learning in language have only examined learning grammatical form-meaning connections in which learning could have been supported by prior linguistic knowledge. In this study we target the domain of verb meaning, specifically semantic preferences regarding novel verbs (e.g., the preference for a novel verb to…

  1. Implicit Learning of Semantic Preferences of Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of semantic implicit learning in language have only examined learning grammatical form-meaning connections in which learning could have been supported by prior linguistic knowledge. In this study we target the domain of verb meaning, specifically semantic preferences regarding novel verbs (e.g., the preference for a novel verb to…

  2. Representations for Semantic Learning Webs: Semantic Web Technology in Learning Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzbor, M.; Stutt, A.; Motta, E.; Collins, T.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work on applying semantic technologies to learning has concentrated on providing novel means of accessing and making use of learning objects. However, this is unnecessarily limiting: semantic technologies will make it possible to develop a range of educational Semantic Web services, such as interpretation, structure-visualization, support…

  3. Representations for Semantic Learning Webs: Semantic Web Technology in Learning Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzbor, M.; Stutt, A.; Motta, E.; Collins, T.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work on applying semantic technologies to learning has concentrated on providing novel means of accessing and making use of learning objects. However, this is unnecessarily limiting: semantic technologies will make it possible to develop a range of educational Semantic Web services, such as interpretation, structure-visualization, support…

  4. Semantic Concept Discovery for Large Scale Zero Shot Event Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-25

    NO. 0704-0188 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) - UU UU UU UU 18-08-2015 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Semantic Concept Discovery ...Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 zero shot event detection, semantic concept discovery REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11...Mellon University 5000 Forbes Avenue Pittsburgh, PA 15213 -3815 ABSTRACT Semantic Concept Discovery for Large-Scale Zero-Shot Event Detection Report

  5. Modeling Spatial Dependencies and Semantic Concepts in Data Mining

    SciTech Connect

    Vatsavai, Raju

    2012-01-01

    Data mining is the process of discovering new patterns and relationships in large datasets. However, several studies have shown that general data mining techniques often fail to extract meaningful patterns and relationships from the spatial data owing to the violation of fundamental geospatial principles. In this tutorial, we introduce basic principles behind explicit modeling of spatial and semantic concepts in data mining. In particular, we focus on modeling these concepts in the widely used classification, clustering, and prediction algorithms. Classification is the process of learning a structure or model (from user given inputs) and applying the known model to the new data. Clustering is the process of discovering groups and structures in the data that are ``similar,'' without applying any known structures in the data. Prediction is the process of finding a function that models (explains) the data with least error. One common assumption among all these methods is that the data is independent and identically distributed. Such assumptions do not hold well in spatial data, where spatial dependency and spatial heterogeneity are a norm. In addition, spatial semantics are often ignored by the data mining algorithms. In this tutorial we cover recent advances in explicitly modeling of spatial dependencies and semantic concepts in data mining.

  6. Learning the Semantics of Structured Data Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taheriyan, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Information sources such as relational databases, spreadsheets, XML, JSON, and Web APIs contain a tremendous amount of structured data, however, they rarely provide a semantic model to describe their contents. Semantic models of data sources capture the intended meaning of data sources by mapping them to the concepts and relationships defined by a…

  7. Learning the Semantics of Structured Data Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taheriyan, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Information sources such as relational databases, spreadsheets, XML, JSON, and Web APIs contain a tremendous amount of structured data, however, they rarely provide a semantic model to describe their contents. Semantic models of data sources capture the intended meaning of data sources by mapping them to the concepts and relationships defined by a…

  8. Learning semantic and visual similarity for endomicroscopy video retrieval.

    PubMed

    Andre, Barbara; Vercauteren, Tom; Buchner, Anna M; Wallace, Michael B; Ayache, Nicholas

    2012-06-01

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is a valuable computer vision technique which is increasingly being applied in the medical community for diagnosis support. However, traditional CBIR systems only deliver visual outputs, i.e., images having a similar appearance to the query, which is not directly interpretable by the physicians. Our objective is to provide a system for endomicroscopy video retrieval which delivers both visual and semantic outputs that are consistent with each other. In a previous study, we developed an adapted bag-of-visual-words method for endomicroscopy retrieval, called "Dense-Sift," that computes a visual signature for each video. In this paper, we present a novel approach to complement visual similarity learning with semantic knowledge extraction, in the field of in vivo endomicroscopy. We first leverage a semantic ground truth based on eight binary concepts, in order to transform these visual signatures into semantic signatures that reflect how much the presence of each semantic concept is expressed by the visual words describing the videos. Using cross-validation, we demonstrate that, in terms of semantic detection, our intuitive Fisher-based method transforming visual-word histograms into semantic estimations outperforms support vector machine (SVM) methods with statistical significance. In a second step, we propose to improve retrieval relevance by learning an adjusted similarity distance from a perceived similarity ground truth. As a result, our distance learning method allows to statistically improve the correlation with the perceived similarity. We also demonstrate that, in terms of perceived similarity, the recall performance of the semantic signatures is close to that of visual signatures and significantly better than those of several state-of-the-art CBIR methods. The semantic signatures are thus able to communicate high-level medical knowledge while being consistent with the low-level visual signatures and much shorter than them

  9. Semantic Generalization in Implicit Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Despite many years of investigation into implicit learning in nonlinguistic domains, the potential for implicit learning to deliver the kinds of generalizations that underlie natural language competence remains unclear. In a series of experiments, we investigated implicit learning of the semantic preferences of novel verbs, specifically, whether…

  10. Semantic Generalization in Implicit Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Despite many years of investigation into implicit learning in nonlinguistic domains, the potential for implicit learning to deliver the kinds of generalizations that underlie natural language competence remains unclear. In a series of experiments, we investigated implicit learning of the semantic preferences of novel verbs, specifically, whether…

  11. Semantic Learning Modifies Perceptual Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisz, Jennifer J.; Shedden, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Face processing changes when a face is learned with personally relevant information. In a five-day learning paradigm, faces were presented with rich semantic stories that conveyed personal information about the faces. Event-related potentials were recorded before and after learning during a passive viewing task. When faces were novel, we observed…

  12. Semantic Learning Modifies Perceptual Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisz, Jennifer J.; Shedden, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Face processing changes when a face is learned with personally relevant information. In a five-day learning paradigm, faces were presented with rich semantic stories that conveyed personal information about the faces. Event-related potentials were recorded before and after learning during a passive viewing task. When faces were novel, we observed…

  13. Science Concepts in Semantic Space--A Multidimensional Scaling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, P. F. W.

    1976-01-01

    Data on the semantic proximity of classical mechanics concepts, obtained by means of a cross-sectional investigation (100 subjects) using a continued word association test, were analyzed by individual difference multidimensional scaling to permit the mapping of semantic space for individual subjects. (JC)

  14. How Do Korsakoff Patients Learn New Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Helene; Guillery-Girard, Berengere; Witkowski, Thomas; de la Sayette, Vincent; Viader, Fausto; Desgranges, Beatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present investigation was to assess semantic learning in Korsakoff patients (KS), compared with uncomplicated alcoholics (AL) and control subjects (CS), taking the nature of the information to-be-learned and the episodic memory profiles of the three groups into account. Ten new complex concepts, each illustrated by a photo and…

  15. How Do Korsakoff Patients Learn New Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Helene; Guillery-Girard, Berengere; Witkowski, Thomas; de la Sayette, Vincent; Viader, Fausto; Desgranges, Beatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present investigation was to assess semantic learning in Korsakoff patients (KS), compared with uncomplicated alcoholics (AL) and control subjects (CS), taking the nature of the information to-be-learned and the episodic memory profiles of the three groups into account. Ten new complex concepts, each illustrated by a photo and…

  16. Concepts as Semantic Pointers: A Framework and Computational Model.

    PubMed

    Blouw, Peter; Solodkin, Eugene; Thagard, Paul; Eliasmith, Chris

    2016-07-01

    The reconciliation of theories of concepts based on prototypes, exemplars, and theory-like structures is a longstanding problem in cognitive science. In response to this problem, researchers have recently tended to adopt either hybrid theories that combine various kinds of representational structure, or eliminative theories that replace concepts with a more finely grained taxonomy of mental representations. In this paper, we describe an alternative approach involving a single class of mental representations called "semantic pointers." Semantic pointers are symbol-like representations that result from the compression and recursive binding of perceptual, lexical, and motor representations, effectively integrating traditional connectionist and symbolic approaches. We present a computational model using semantic pointers that replicates experimental data from categorization studies involving each prior paradigm. We argue that a framework involving semantic pointers can provide a unified account of conceptual phenomena, and we compare our framework to existing alternatives in accounting for the scope, content, recursive combination, and neural implementation of concepts.

  17. Semantic concept-enriched dependence model for medical information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sungbin; Choi, Jinwook; Yoo, Sooyoung; Kim, Heechun; Lee, Youngho

    2014-02-01

    In medical information retrieval research, semantic resources have been mostly used by expanding the original query terms or estimating the concept importance weight. However, implicit term-dependency information contained in semantic concept terms has been overlooked or at least underused in most previous studies. In this study, we incorporate a semantic concept-based term-dependence feature into a formal retrieval model to improve its ranking performance. Standardized medical concept terms used by medical professionals were assumed to have implicit dependency within the same concept. We hypothesized that, by elaborately revising the ranking algorithms to favor documents that preserve those implicit dependencies, the ranking performance could be improved. The implicit dependence features are harvested from the original query using MetaMap. These semantic concept-based dependence features were incorporated into a semantic concept-enriched dependence model (SCDM). We designed four different variants of the model, with each variant having distinct characteristics in the feature formulation method. We performed leave-one-out cross validations on both a clinical document corpus (TREC Medical records track) and a medical literature corpus (OHSUMED), which are representative test collections in medical information retrieval research. Our semantic concept-enriched dependence model consistently outperformed other state-of-the-art retrieval methods. Analysis shows that the performance gain has occurred independently of the concept's explicit importance in the query. By capturing implicit knowledge with regard to the query term relationships and incorporating them into a ranking model, we could build a more robust and effective retrieval model, independent of the concept importance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Collaborative E-Learning Using Semantic Course Blog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Lai-Chen; Yeh, Ching-Long

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative e-learning delivers many enhancements to e-learning technology; it enables students to collaborate with each other and improves their learning efficiency. Semantic blog combines semantic Web and blog technology that users can import, export, view, navigate, and query the blog. We developed a semantic course blog for collaborative…

  19. Collaborative E-Learning Using Semantic Course Blog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Lai-Chen; Yeh, Ching-Long

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative e-learning delivers many enhancements to e-learning technology; it enables students to collaborate with each other and improves their learning efficiency. Semantic blog combines semantic Web and blog technology that users can import, export, view, navigate, and query the blog. We developed a semantic course blog for collaborative…

  20. Shared Features Dominate Semantic Richness Effects for Concrete Concepts.

    PubMed

    Grondin, Ray; Lupker, Stephen J; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    When asked to list semantic features for concrete concepts, participants list many features for some concepts and few for others. Concepts with many semantic features are processed faster in lexical and semantic decision tasks (Pexman, Holyk, & Monfils, 2003; Pexman, Lupker, & Hino, 2002). Using both lexical and concreteness decision tasks, we provided further insight into these number-of-features (NoF) effects. We began by replicating the effect using a larger and better controlled set of items. We then investigated the relationship between NoF and feature distinctiveness and found that features shared by numerous concrete concepts such as facilitate decisions to a greater extent than do distinctive features such as . Finally, we showed that NoF effects are carried by shared visual form and surface, encyclopedic, tactile, and taste knowledge. We propose a decision-making account of these results, rather than one based on the computation of word meaning.

  1. Shared Features Dominate Semantic Richness Effects for Concrete Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Grondin, Ray; Lupker, Stephen J.; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    When asked to list semantic features for concrete concepts, participants list many features for some concepts and few for others. Concepts with many semantic features are processed faster in lexical and semantic decision tasks (Pexman, Holyk, & Monfils, 2003; Pexman, Lupker, & Hino, 2002). Using both lexical and concreteness decision tasks, we provided further insight into these number-of-features (NoF) effects. We began by replicating the effect using a larger and better controlled set of items. We then investigated the relationship between NoF and feature distinctiveness and found that features shared by numerous concrete concepts such as facilitate decisions to a greater extent than do distinctive features such as . Finally, we showed that NoF effects are carried by shared visual form and surface, encyclopedic, tactile, and taste knowledge. We propose a decision-making account of these results, rather than one based on the computation of word meaning. PMID:20046224

  2. a Comparison of Semantic Similarity Models in Evaluating Concept Similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Q. X.; Shi, W. Z.

    2012-08-01

    The semantic similarities are important in concept definition, recognition, categorization, interpretation, and integration. Many semantic similarity models have been established to evaluate semantic similarities of objects or/and concepts. To find out the suitability and performance of different models in evaluating concept similarities, we make a comparison of four main types of models in this paper: the geometric model, the feature model, the network model, and the transformational model. Fundamental principles and main characteristics of these models are introduced and compared firstly. Land use and land cover concepts of NLCD92 are employed as examples in the case study. The results demonstrate that correlations between these models are very high for a possible reason that all these models are designed to simulate the similarity judgement of human mind.

  3. Learning contextualized semantics from co-occurring terms via a Siamese architecture.

    PubMed

    Sandouk, Ubai; Chen, Ke

    2016-04-01

    One of the biggest challenges in Multimedia information retrieval and understanding is to bridge the semantic gap by properly modeling concept semantics in context. The presence of out of vocabulary (OOV) concepts exacerbates this difficulty. To address the semantic gap issues, we formulate a problem on learning contextualized semantics from descriptive terms and propose a novel Siamese architecture to model the contextualized semantics from descriptive terms. By means of pattern aggregation and probabilistic topic models, our Siamese architecture captures contextualized semantics from the co-occurring descriptive terms via unsupervised learning, which leads to a concept embedding space of the terms in context. Furthermore, the co-occurring OOV concepts can be easily represented in the learnt concept embedding space. The main properties of the concept embedding space are demonstrated via visualization. Using various settings in semantic priming, we have carried out a thorough evaluation by comparing our approach to a number of state-of-the-art methods on six annotation corpora in different domains, i.e., MagTag5K, CAL500 and Million Song Dataset in the music domain as well as Corel5K, LabelMe and SUNDatabase in the image domain. Experimental results on semantic priming suggest that our approach outperforms those state-of-the-art methods considerably in various aspects.

  4. An Intelligent Semantic E-Learning Framework Using Context-Aware Semantic Web Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Weihong; Webster, David; Wood, Dawn; Ishaya, Tanko

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments of e-learning specifications such as Learning Object Metadata (LOM), Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM), Learning Design and other pedagogy research in semantic e-learning have shown a trend of applying innovative computational techniques, especially Semantic Web technologies, to promote existing content-focused…

  5. An Intelligent Semantic E-Learning Framework Using Context-Aware Semantic Web Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Weihong; Webster, David; Wood, Dawn; Ishaya, Tanko

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments of e-learning specifications such as Learning Object Metadata (LOM), Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM), Learning Design and other pedagogy research in semantic e-learning have shown a trend of applying innovative computational techniques, especially Semantic Web technologies, to promote existing content-focused…

  6. A Bayesian generative model for learning semantic hierarchies.

    PubMed

    Mittelman, Roni; Sun, Min; Kuipers, Benjamin; Savarese, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Building fine-grained visual recognition systems that are capable of recognizing tens of thousands of categories, has received much attention in recent years. The well known semantic hierarchical structure of categories and concepts, has been shown to provide a key prior which allows for optimal predictions. The hierarchical organization of various domains and concepts has been subject to extensive research, and led to the development of the WordNet domains hierarchy (Fellbaum, 1998), which was also used to organize the images in the ImageNet (Deng et al., 2009) dataset, in which the category count approaches the human capacity. Still, for the human visual system, the form of the hierarchy must be discovered with minimal use of supervision or innate knowledge. In this work, we propose a new Bayesian generative model for learning such domain hierarchies, based on semantic input. Our model is motivated by the super-subordinate organization of domain labels and concepts that characterizes WordNet, and accounts for several important challenges: maintaining context information when progressing deeper into the hierarchy, learning a coherent semantic concept for each node, and modeling uncertainty in the perception process.

  7. Spanish semantic feature production norms for 400 concrete concepts.

    PubMed

    Vivas, Jorge; Vivas, Leticia; Comesaña, Ana; Coni, Ana García; Vorano, Agostina

    2017-06-01

    Semantic feature production norms provide many quantitative measures of different feature and concept variables that are necessary to solve some debates surrounding the nature of the organization, both normal and pathological, of semantic memory. Despite the current existence of norms for different languages, there are still no published norms in Spanish. This article presents a new set of norms collected from 810 participants for 400 living and nonliving concepts among Spanish speakers. These norms consist of empirical collections of features that participants used to describe the concepts. Four files were elaborated: a concept-feature file, a concept-concept matrix, a feature-feature matrix, and a significantly correlated features file. We expect that these norms will be useful for researchers in the fields of experimental psychology, neuropsychology, and psycholinguistics.

  8. Semantic variability predicts neural variability of object concepts.

    PubMed

    Musz, Elizabeth; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2015-09-01

    The prevailing approach to the neuroscientific study of concepts is to characterize the neural pattern evoked by a given concept, averaging over any variation that might occur upon multiple retrieval attempts (e.g., across time, tasks, or people). This approach-which diverges substantially from approaches to studying conceptual processing with other methods-treats all variation as noise. Here, our goal is to determine whether variation in neural patterns evoked by semantic retrieval of a given concept is more than just measurement error, and instead reflects variation arising from contextual variability. We measured each concept's diversity of semantic contexts ("SV") by analyzing its word frequency and co-occurrence statistics in large text corpora. To measure neural variability, we conducted an fMRI study and sampled neural activity associated with each concept when it appeared in three separate, randomized contexts. We predicted that concepts with low SV would exhibit uniform activation patterns across stimulus presentations, whereas concepts with high SV would exhibit more dynamic representations over time. We observed that a concept's SV score predicted its corresponding neural variability. This finding supports a flexible, distributed organization of semantic memory, where a concept's meaning and its neural activity patterns both continuously vary across contexts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Semantic Variability Predicts Neural Variability of Object Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Musz, Elizabeth; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    The prevailing approach to the neuroscientific study of concepts is to characterize the neural pattern evoked by a given concept, averaging over any variation that might occur upon multiple retrieval attempts (e.g., across time, tasks, or people). This approach— which diverges substantially from approaches to studying conceptual processing with other methods—treats all variation as noise. Here, our goal is to determine whether variation in neural patterns evoked by semantic retrieval of a given concept is more than just measurement error, and instead reflects variation arising from contextual variability. We measured each concept’s diversity of semantic contexts (“SV”) by analyzing its word frequency and co-occurrence statistics in large text corpora. To measure neural variability, we conducted an fMRI study and sampled neural activity associated with each concept when it appeared in three separate, randomized contexts. We predicted that concepts with low SV would exhibit uniform activation patterns across stimulus presentations, whereas concepts with high SV would exhibit more dynamic representations over time. We observed that a concept’s SV score predicted its corresponding neural variability. This finding supports a flexible, distributed organization of semantic memory, where a concept’s meaning and its neural activity patterns both continuously vary across contexts. PMID:25462197

  10. Measure Transformer Semantics for Bayesian Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgström, Johannes; Gordon, Andrew D.; Greenberg, Michael; Margetson, James; van Gael, Jurgen

    The Bayesian approach to machine learning amounts to inferring posterior distributions of random variables from a probabilistic model of how the variables are related (that is, a prior distribution) and a set of observations of variables. There is a trend in machine learning towards expressing Bayesian models as probabilistic programs. As a foundation for this kind of programming, we propose a core functional calculus with primitives for sampling prior distributions and observing variables. We define combinators for measure transformers, based on theorems in measure theory, and use these to give a rigorous semantics to our core calculus. The original features of our semantics include its support for discrete, continuous, and hybrid measures, and, in particular, for observations of zero-probability events. We compile our core language to a small imperative language that has a straightforward semantics via factor graphs, data structures that enable many efficient inference algorithms. We use an existing inference engine for efficient approximate inference of posterior marginal distributions, treating thousands of observations per second for large instances of realistic models.

  11. Thinking to Learn Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Walter C.

    1988-01-01

    States that programs which link the teaching of thinking with content have the greatest instructional value. Presents a concept formation lesson, based on the works of Taba (1967) and Ehrenberg (1978), which requires students to learn a concept by studying several examples and noting their similarities and differences. Includes a sample…

  12. Learning semantic histopathological representation for basal cell carcinoma classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Rueda, Andrea; Romero, Eduardo

    2013-03-01

    Diagnosis of a histopathology glass slide is a complex process that involves accurate recognition of several structures, their function in the tissue and their relation with other structures. The way in which the pathologist represents the image content and the relations between those objects yields a better and accurate diagnoses. Therefore, an appropriate semantic representation of the image content will be useful in several analysis tasks such as cancer classification, tissue retrieval and histopahological image analysis, among others. Nevertheless, to automatically recognize those structures and extract their inner semantic meaning are still very challenging tasks. In this paper we introduce a new semantic representation that allows to describe histopathological concepts suitable for classification. The approach herein identify local concepts using a dictionary learning approach, i.e., the algorithm learns the most representative atoms from a set of random sampled patches, and then models the spatial relations among them by counting the co-occurrence between atoms, while penalizing the spatial distance. The proposed approach was compared with a bag-of-features representation in a tissue classification task. For this purpose, 240 histological microscopical fields of view, 24 per tissue class, were collected. Those images fed a Support Vector Machine classifier per class, using 120 images as train set and the remaining ones for testing, maintaining the same proportion of each concept in the train and test sets. The obtained classification results, averaged from 100 random partitions of training and test sets, shows that our approach is more sensitive in average than the bag-of-features representation in almost 6%.

  13. Getting connected: Both associative and semantic links structure semantic memory for newly learned persons.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Holger; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether semantic memory for newly learned people is structured by visual co-occurrence, shared semantics, or both. Participants were trained with pairs of simultaneously presented (i.e., co-occurring) preexperimentally unfamiliar faces, which either did or did not share additionally provided semantic information (occupation, place of living, etc.). Semantic information could also be shared between faces that did not co-occur. A subsequent priming experiment revealed faster responses for both co-occurrence/no shared semantics and no co-occurrence/shared semantics conditions, than for an unrelated condition. Strikingly, priming was strongest in the co-occurrence/shared semantics condition, suggesting additive effects of these factors. Additional analysis of event-related brain potentials yielded priming in the N400 component only for combined effects of visual co-occurrence and shared semantics, with more positive amplitudes in this than in the unrelated condition. Overall, these findings suggest that both semantic relatedness and visual co-occurrence are important when novel information is integrated into person-related semantic memory.

  14. Improved verbal learning in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia when using semantic cues.

    PubMed

    Milano, Nicholas J; Williamson, John B; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2015-01-01

    The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-S) is characterized by impairments in confrontation naming and single word comprehension. Although episodic memory may be relatively spared, there can be impairment in verbal learning tasks. We report a patient with PPA-S and impaired verbal learning who was tested to learn if when provided with semantic categories, her learning would improve. A 70-year-old right-handed woman with a 2-year history of progressive difficulties with word finding, naming, and memory was tested for language and memory deficits using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R). She was then retested with the HVLT-R after being provided with the three semantic categories to which these words belonged. Confrontation naming was impaired on the Boston Naming Test. Sentence repetition was normal. Comprehension testing with word picture matching and sentence comprehension was normal. On a test of semantic associations, Pyramids and Palm Trees, she was impaired. She was also impaired on tests of verbal learning (HVLT-R) (total: 13) but not recall. When a different version of the HVLT-R was given with the semantic categories of the words given beforehand, her scores improved (total: 26). This patient with PPA-S had an impairment of verbal learning, but not delayed recall. When given a semantic category cue beforehand, her verbal learning performance improved. This observation suggests that this patient did not spontaneously use semantic encoding. Using a semantic cueing strategy may help other patients with PPA-S improve their capacity for verbal learning.

  15. Linked Forests: Semantic similarity of geographical concepts "forest"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čerba, Otakar; Jedlička, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Linked Data represents the new trend in geoinformatics and geomatics. It produces a structure of objects (in a form of concepts or terms) interconnected by object relations expressing a type of semantic relationships of various concepts. The research published in this article studies, if objects connected by above mentioned relations are more similar than objects representing the same phenomenon, but standing alone. The phenomenon "forest" and relevant geographical concepts were chosen as the domain of the research. The concepts similarity (Tanimoto coefficient as a specification of Tversky index) was computed on the basis of explicit information provided by thesauri containing particular concepts. Overall in the seven thesauri (AGROVOC, EuroVoc, GEMET, LusTRE/EARTh, NAL, OECD and STW) there was tested if the "forest" concept interconnected by the relation skos:exactMatch are more similar than other, not interlinked concepts. The results of the research are important for the sharing and combining of geographical data, information and knowledge. The proposed methodology can be reused to a comparison of other geographical concepts.

  16. Priming semantic concepts affects the dynamics of aesthetic appreciation.

    PubMed

    Faerber, Stella J; Leder, Helmut; Gerger, Gernot; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2010-10-01

    Aesthetic appreciation (AA) plays an important role for purchase decisions, for the appreciation of art and even for the selection of potential mates. It is known that AA is highly reliable in single assessments, but over longer periods of time dynamic changes of AA may occur. We measured AA as a construct derived from the literature through attractiveness, arousal, interestingness, valence, boredom and innovativeness. By means of the semantic network theory we investigated how the priming of AA-relevant semantic concepts impacts the dynamics of AA of unfamiliar product designs (car interiors) that are known to be susceptible to triggering such effects. When participants were primed for innovativeness, strong dynamics were observed, especially when the priming involved additional AA-relevant dimensions. This underlines the relevance of priming of specific semantic networks not only for the cognitive processing of visual material in terms of selective perception or specific representation, but also for the affective-cognitive processing in terms of the dynamics of aesthetic processing.

  17. Concept-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schill, Bethany; Howell, Linda

    2011-01-01

    A major part of developing concept-based instruction is the use of an overarching idea to provide a conceptual lens through which students view the content of a particular subject. By using a conceptual lens to focus learning, students think at a much deeper level about the content and its facts (Erickson 2007). Therefore, the authors collaborated…

  18. Concept-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schill, Bethany; Howell, Linda

    2011-01-01

    A major part of developing concept-based instruction is the use of an overarching idea to provide a conceptual lens through which students view the content of a particular subject. By using a conceptual lens to focus learning, students think at a much deeper level about the content and its facts (Erickson 2007). Therefore, the authors collaborated…

  19. Learning Statistical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akram, Muhammad; Siddiqui, Asim Jamal; Yasmeen, Farah

    2004-01-01

    In order to learn the concept of statistical techniques one needs to run real experiments that generate reliable data. In practice, the data from some well-defined process or system is very costly and time consuming. It is difficult to run real experiments during the teaching period in the university. To overcome these difficulties, statisticians…

  20. Competencies in Organizational E-Learning: Concepts and Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicilia, Miguel-Angel, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Competencies in Organizational E-Learning: Concepts and Tools" provides a comprehensive view of the way competencies can be used to drive organizational e-learning, including the main conceptual elements, competency gap analysis, advanced related computing topics, the application of semantic Web technologies, and the integration of competencies…

  1. Competencies in Organizational E-Learning: Concepts and Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicilia, Miguel-Angel, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Competencies in Organizational E-Learning: Concepts and Tools" provides a comprehensive view of the way competencies can be used to drive organizational e-learning, including the main conceptual elements, competency gap analysis, advanced related computing topics, the application of semantic Web technologies, and the integration of competencies…

  2. Social Concepts and Judgments: A Semantic Differential Analysis of the Concepts Feminist, Man, and Woman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, W. David; Sydie, R. A.; Stratkotter, Rainer

    2003-01-01

    Male and female participants (N = 274) made judgments about the social concepts of "feminist," "man," and "woman" on 63 semantic differential items. Factor analysis identified three basic dimensions termed evaluative, potency, and activity as well as two secondary factors called expressiveness and sexuality. Results for the evaluative dimension…

  3. E-Learning System Overview Based on Semantic Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsultanny, Yas A.

    2006-01-01

    The challenge of the semantic web is the provision of distributed information with well-defined meaning, understandable for different parties. e-Learning is efficient task relevant and just-in-time learning grown from the learning requirements of the new dynamically changing, distributed business world. In this paper we design an e-Learning system…

  4. RuleML-Based Learning Object Interoperability on the Semantic Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biletskiy, Yevgen; Boley, Harold; Ranganathan, Girish R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The present paper aims to describe an approach for building the Semantic Web rules for interoperation between heterogeneous learning objects, namely course outlines from different universities, and one of the rule uses: identifying (in)compatibilities between course descriptions. Design/methodology/approach: As proof of concept, a rule…

  5. RuleML-Based Learning Object Interoperability on the Semantic Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biletskiy, Yevgen; Boley, Harold; Ranganathan, Girish R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The present paper aims to describe an approach for building the Semantic Web rules for interoperation between heterogeneous learning objects, namely course outlines from different universities, and one of the rule uses: identifying (in)compatibilities between course descriptions. Design/methodology/approach: As proof of concept, a rule…

  6. Semantic Network Analysis of Earth ScienceTextbooks Focus on Learning Objectives in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Duk Ho

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how congruently the learning objectives of Earth Science textbooks match the 2009 revised Earth Science curriculum in Korea. For this purpose, we classified the learning objectives of curriculum and textbooks were into three factors including ability, cross-cutting concepts, and behavioral verbs. The text data were analyzed using the semantic network analysis method. The results are as follows. The learning objectives of textbooks with regard to ability factors mainly emphasized the cognitive and affective domain. In addition, the ability of inquiry performance was emphasized in the learning objective of the curriculum. The textbooks used various sub-frame of cross-cutting concepts in comparison with the curriculum. Both textbooks and curriculum used the term 'comprehension' the most as behavioral verbs. However, most behavioral verbs just remained at the level of cognitive system. Keywords: curriculum, textbook, learning objectives, semantic network analysis

  7. Semantic Priming for Coordinate Distant Concepts in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perri, R.; Zannino, G. D.; Caltagirone, C.; Carlesimo, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic priming paradigms have been used to investigate semantic knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While priming effects produced by prime-target pairs with associative relatedness reflect processes at both lexical and semantic levels, priming effects produced by words that are semantically related but not associated should…

  8. Semantic Priming for Coordinate Distant Concepts in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perri, R.; Zannino, G. D.; Caltagirone, C.; Carlesimo, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic priming paradigms have been used to investigate semantic knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While priming effects produced by prime-target pairs with associative relatedness reflect processes at both lexical and semantic levels, priming effects produced by words that are semantically related but not associated should…

  9. Procedural learning of semantic categorization in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Anlló, Eva M; Ingrand, Pierre; Neau, Jean-Philippe; Gil, Roger

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the procedural learning of semantic categorization in 29 patients with non-demented Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated whether the PD group was able to develop semantic skill, using a cognitive procedural task developed in our laboratory, applying a manual and serial reaction time paradigm to semantic categorization. The PD group showed similar scores to those of the control group on semantic categorization. Both groups showed reaction time reduction over the semantic procedural task, but the PD group produced longer reaction times than the control subjects. Contrary to our prediction, we observed an improvement in semantic categorization reaction times with practice, even with new verbal material for the PD patients to categorize despite their motor impairments and executive deficits. By contrast, we found a significant negative correlation between axial motor signs and the ratio of semantic procedural learning, but not for lateral motor signs. The present results support the notion that non-demented PD patients may be capable of acquiring comparable semantic skill to those of the control group.

  10. Concept Representation Reflects Multimodal Abstraction: A Framework for Embodied Semantics.

    PubMed

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Binder, Jeffrey R; Desai, Rutvik H; Pendl, Suzanne L; Humphries, Colin J; Gross, William L; Conant, Lisa L; Seidenberg, Mark S

    2016-05-01

    Recent research indicates that sensory and motor cortical areas play a significant role in the neural representation of concepts. However, little is known about the overall architecture of this representational system, including the role played by higher level areas that integrate different types of sensory and motor information. The present study addressed this issue by investigating the simultaneous contributions of multiple sensory-motor modalities to semantic word processing. With a multivariate fMRI design, we examined activation associated with 5 sensory-motor attributes--color, shape, visual motion, sound, and manipulation--for 900 words. Regions responsive to each attribute were identified using independent ratings of the attributes' relevance to the meaning of each word. The results indicate that these aspects of conceptual knowledge are encoded in multimodal and higher level unimodal areas involved in processing the corresponding types of information during perception and action, in agreement with embodied theories of semantics. They also reveal a hierarchical system of abstracted sensory-motor representations incorporating a major division between object interaction and object perception processes.

  11. Using semantics to enhance new word learning: an ERP investigation.

    PubMed

    Angwin, Anthony J; Phua, Bernadette; Copland, David A

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the addition of meaning (semantics) would enhance new word learning for novel objects, and whether it would influence the neurophysiological response to new words. Twenty-five young healthy adults underwent 4 days of training to learn the names of 80 novel objects. Half of the items were learnt under a 'semantic' condition, whereby the name consisted of a legal nonword and two adjectives denoting semantic attributes. The remaining items were learnt under a 'name' condition, whereby the name consisted of a legal nonword and two proper names. Participants demonstrated superior recognition of names in the semantic condition compared to the name condition during training sessions 1-3. On the 5th day, following training, ERPs were recorded whilst participants performed a picture-word judgement task including familiar items. Analysis of the results revealed an N400 for incongruent items in the semantic condition, whilst no ERP component was observed for the name condition. These findings suggest that items learnt with semantic information form stronger associations than those trained without semantics.

  12. Learning document semantic representation with hybrid deep belief network.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Yin, Xu-Cheng; Li, Sujian; Yang, Mingyuan; Hao, Hong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    High-level abstraction, for example, semantic representation, is vital for document classification and retrieval. However, how to learn document semantic representation is still a topic open for discussion in information retrieval and natural language processing. In this paper, we propose a new Hybrid Deep Belief Network (HDBN) which uses Deep Boltzmann Machine (DBM) on the lower layers together with Deep Belief Network (DBN) on the upper layers. The advantage of DBM is that it employs undirected connection when training weight parameters which can be used to sample the states of nodes on each layer more successfully and it is also an effective way to remove noise from the different document representation type; the DBN can enhance extract abstract of the document in depth, making the model learn sufficient semantic representation. At the same time, we explore different input strategies for semantic distributed representation. Experimental results show that our model using the word embedding instead of single word has better performance.

  13. Learning Document Semantic Representation with Hybrid Deep Belief Network

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yan; Yin, Xu-Cheng; Li, Sujian; Yang, Mingyuan; Hao, Hong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    High-level abstraction, for example, semantic representation, is vital for document classification and retrieval. However, how to learn document semantic representation is still a topic open for discussion in information retrieval and natural language processing. In this paper, we propose a new Hybrid Deep Belief Network (HDBN) which uses Deep Boltzmann Machine (DBM) on the lower layers together with Deep Belief Network (DBN) on the upper layers. The advantage of DBM is that it employs undirected connection when training weight parameters which can be used to sample the states of nodes on each layer more successfully and it is also an effective way to remove noise from the different document representation type; the DBN can enhance extract abstract of the document in depth, making the model learn sufficient semantic representation. At the same time, we explore different input strategies for semantic distributed representation. Experimental results show that our model using the word embedding instead of single word has better performance. PMID:25878657

  14. Concept Learning through Image Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cifuentes, Lauren; Yi-Chuan, Jane Hsieh

    This study explored computer-based image processing as a study strategy for middle school students' science concept learning. Specifically, the research examined the effects of computer graphics generation on science concept learning and the impact of using computer graphics to show interrelationships among concepts during study time. The 87…

  15. Verbal Memory and Semantic Organization of Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polychroni, Fotini; Economou, Alexandra; Printezi, Anna; Koutlidi, Ifigeneia

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the verbal learning performance and the semantic organization used by Greek reading-disabled readers as compared to a control group using a list-learning task. The sample consisted of 45 elementary school children with reading difficulties and 45 comparison children matched for age and gender. Tests of reading ability,…

  16. Verbal Memory and Semantic Organization of Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polychroni, Fotini; Economou, Alexandra; Printezi, Anna; Koutlidi, Ifigeneia

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the verbal learning performance and the semantic organization used by Greek reading-disabled readers as compared to a control group using a list-learning task. The sample consisted of 45 elementary school children with reading difficulties and 45 comparison children matched for age and gender. Tests of reading ability,…

  17. Case-Based Learning, Pedagogical Innovation, and Semantic Web Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Garcia, A.; Morris, S.; Tscholl, M.; Tracy, F.; Carmichael, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of Semantic Web technologies to support teaching and learning in a variety of higher education settings in which some form of case-based learning is the pedagogy of choice. It draws on the empirical work of a major three year research and development project in the United Kingdom: "Ensemble: Semantic…

  18. Case-Based Learning, Pedagogical Innovation, and Semantic Web Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Garcia, A.; Morris, S.; Tscholl, M.; Tracy, F.; Carmichael, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of Semantic Web technologies to support teaching and learning in a variety of higher education settings in which some form of case-based learning is the pedagogy of choice. It draws on the empirical work of a major three year research and development project in the United Kingdom: "Ensemble: Semantic…

  19. How do Korsakoff patients learn new concepts?

    PubMed

    Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Hélène; Guillery-Girard, Bérengère; Witkowski, Thomas; de la Sayette, Vincent; Viader, Fausto; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2009-02-01

    The goal of the present investigation was to assess semantic learning in Korsakoff patients (KS), compared with uncomplicated alcoholics (AL) and control subjects (CS), taking the nature of the information to-be-learned and the episodic memory profiles of the three groups into account. Ten new complex concepts, each illustrated by a photo and composed of a label, a category and three features, were taught to 13 KS, 23 AL and 45 CS. When examined independently of the main experimental task, the two patients' groups presented episodic memory, working memory and executive impairments but episodic memory was more severely impaired in KS. Both AL and KS exhibited label learning deficits but KS were more severely impaired than AL. The episodic memory results were the main factor accounting for label learning performance when the three groups were pooled together. When examined within each group, the correlation was significant in CS and AL but not in KS. Only KS exhibited impaired category and feature learning results. Episodic memory did not account for category and feature learning performance. New label learning may be equivalent to that of proper names, requiring the involvement of episodic memory notably to arbitrarily associate a meaningless word with a specific identity. However, when episodic memory is severely impaired like in KS, an alternative neocortical learning route, bypassing episodic memory, may be invoked. Category and feature seem to be acquired independently of episodic memory. The specific impairment in category and feature learning in KS may therefore reflect a genuine deficit of semantic memory in Korsakoff's syndrome.

  20. Concept-oriented indexing of video databases: toward semantic sensitive retrieval and browsing.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianping; Luo, Hangzai; Elmagarmid, Ahmed K

    2004-07-01

    Digital video now plays an important role in medical education, health care, telemedicine and other medical applications. Several content-based video retrieval (CBVR) systems have been proposed in the past, but they still suffer from the following challenging problems: semantic gap, semantic video concept modeling, semantic video classification, and concept-oriented video database indexing and access. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to make some advances toward the final goal to solve these problems. Specifically, the framework includes: 1) a semantic-sensitive video content representation framework by using principal video shots to enhance the quality of features; 2) semantic video concept interpretation by using flexible mixture model to bridge the semantic gap; 3) a novel semantic video-classifier training framework by integrating feature selection, parameter estimation, and model selection seamlessly in a single algorithm; and 4) a concept-oriented video database organization technique through a certain domain-dependent concept hierarchy to enable semantic-sensitive video retrieval and browsing.

  1. German norms for semantic typicality, age of acquisition, and concept familiarity.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Astrid; Gemballa, Teresa; Ruppin, Steffie; Wartenburger, Isabell

    2012-06-01

    The present study introduces the first substantial German database with norms for semantic typicality, age of acquisition, and concept familiarity for 824 exemplars of 11 semantic categories, including four natural (ANIMALS, BIRDS, FRUITS,: and VEGETABLES: ) and five man-made (CLOTHING, FURNITURE, VEHICLES, TOOLS: , and MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS: ) categories, as well as PROFESSIONS: and SPORTS: . Each category exemplar in the database was collected empirically in an exemplar generation study. For each category exemplar, norms for semantic typicality, estimated age of acquisition, and concept familiarity were gathered in three different rating studies. Reliability data and additional analyses on effects of semantic category and intercorrelations between age of acquisition, semantic typicality, concept familiarity, word length, and word frequency are provided. Overall, the data show high inter- and intrastudy reliabilities, providing a new resource tool for designing experiments with German word materials. The full database is available in the supplementary material of this file and also at www.psychonomic.org/archive .

  2. Orthographic Learning in Learning to Spell: The Roles of Semantics and Type of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, Gene

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relevance of type of practice and presence of semantic representation for orthographic learning in learning to spell. A total of 36 students in Grade 2 (mean age = 7 years 10 months) were exposed to 10 novel nonwords, 5 of which were paired with semantic information. Half of the participants practiced reading these new…

  3. Learning to name smells increases activity in heteromodal semantic areas.

    PubMed

    Fournel, Arnaud; Sezille, Caroline; Licon, Carmen C; Sinding, Charlotte; Gerber, Johannes; Ferdenzi, Camille; Hummel, Thomas; Bensafi, Moustafa

    2017-09-12

    Semantic description of odors is a cognitively demanding task. Learning to name smells is, however, possible with training. This study set out to examine how improvement in olfactory semantic knowledge following training reorganizes the neural representation of smells. First, 19 nonexpert volunteers were trained for 3 days; they were exposed (i) to odorants presented without verbal labels (perceptual learning) and (ii) to other odorants paired with lexicosemantic labels (associative learning). Second, the same participants were tested in a brain imaging study (fMRI) measuring hemodynamic responses to learned odors presented in both the perceptual and associative learning conditions. The lexicosemantic training enhanced the ability to describe smells semantically. Neurally, this change was associated with enhanced activity in a set of heteromodal areas-including superior frontal gyrus-and parietal areas. These findings demonstrate that odor-name associative learning induces recruitment of brain areas involved in the integration and representation of semantic attributes of sensory events. They also offer new insights into the brain plasticity underlying the acquisition of olfactory expertise in lay people. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Types of semantic category and stimulus modality in procedural learning: implications for models of semantic memory].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Sánchez de León, José María; Fernández Guinea, Sara; González Marqués, Javier

    2010-11-01

    The present work attempts to determine whether procedural learning of a semantic categorisation task is influenced by the type of semantic category of the stimuli (biological and non-biological elements). It is also an attempt to determine the effect of the stimulus presentation modality on the categorisation task. A semantic categorisation task (4 series of 40 stimuli) was administered to 256 participants (128 classifying pictures, and 128 classifying words). Biological categories were responded to faster than non-biological ones although there were no significant differences between the interaction of the category type and the stimulus presentation modality. Reaction times progressively decreased with practice. However, the initial differences disappeared when subjects were trained. The way that current models account for these investigation findings is discussed. In addition, it is suggested that there is an attentional bias in favor of biological elements, which disappears when presumably less relevant elements become more relevant as a function of the task characteristics.

  5. Multimodal visual dictionary learning via heterogeneous latent semantic sparse coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chenxiao; Ding, Guiguang; Zhou, Jile; Guo, Yuchen; Liu, Qiang

    2014-11-01

    Visual dictionary learning as a crucial task of image representation has gained increasing attention. Specifically, sparse coding is widely used due to its intrinsic advantage. In this paper, we propose a novel heterogeneous latent semantic sparse coding model. The central idea is to bridge heterogeneous modalities by capturing their common sparse latent semantic structure so that the learned visual dictionary is able to describe both the visual and textual properties of training data. Experiments on both image categorization and retrieval tasks demonstrate that our model shows superior performance over several recent methods such as K-means and Sparse Coding.

  6. Semantic Concept Co-Occurrence Patterns for Image Annotation and Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Feng, Linan; Bhanu, Bir

    2016-04-01

    Describing visual image contents by semantic concepts is an effective and straightforward way to facilitate various high level applications. Inferring semantic concepts from low-level pictorial feature analysis is challenging due to the semantic gap problem, while manually labeling concepts is unwise because of a large number of images in both online and offline collections. In this paper, we present a novel approach to automatically generate intermediate image descriptors by exploiting concept co-occurrence patterns in the pre-labeled training set that renders it possible to depict complex scene images semantically. Our work is motivated by the fact that multiple concepts that frequently co-occur across images form patterns which could provide contextual cues for individual concept inference. We discover the co-occurrence patterns as hierarchical communities by graph modularity maximization in a network with nodes and edges representing concepts and co-occurrence relationships separately. A random walk process working on the inferred concept probabilities with the discovered co-occurrence patterns is applied to acquire the refined concept signature representation. Through experiments in automatic image annotation and semantic image retrieval on several challenging datasets, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed concept co-occurrence patterns as well as the concept signature representation in comparison with state-of-the-art approaches.

  7. Semantics boosts syntax in artificial grammar learning tasks with recursion.

    PubMed

    Fedor, Anna; Varga, Máté; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2012-05-01

    Center-embedded recursion (CER) in natural language is exemplified by sentences such as "The malt that the rat ate lay in the house." Parsing center-embedded structures is in the focus of attention because this could be one of the cognitive capacities that make humans distinct from all other animals. The ability to parse CER is usually tested by means of artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks, during which participants have to infer the rule from a set of artificial sentences. One of the surprising results of previous AGL experiments is that learning CER is not as easy as had been thought. We hypothesized that because artificial sentences lack semantic content, semantics could help humans learn the syntax of center-embedded sentences. To test this, we composed sentences from 4 vocabularies of different degrees of semantic content due to 3 factors (familiarity, meaning of words, and semantic relationship between words). According to our results, these factors have no effect one by one but they make learning significantly faster when combined. This leads to the assumption that there were different mechanisms at work when CER was parsed in natural and in artificial languages. This finding questions the suitability of AGL tasks with artificial vocabularies for studying the learning and processing of linguistic CER.

  8. The Role of Simple Semantics in the Process of Artificial Grammar Learning.

    PubMed

    Öttl, Birgit; Jäger, Gerhard; Kaup, Barbara

    2017-05-08

    This study investigated the effect of semantic information on artificial grammar learning (AGL). Recursive grammars of different complexity levels (regular language, mirror language, copy language) were investigated in a series of AGL experiments. In the with-semantics condition, participants acquired semantic information prior to the AGL experiment; in the without-semantics control condition, participants did not receive semantic information. It was hypothesized that semantics would generally facilitate grammar acquisition and that the learning benefit in the with-semantics conditions would increase with increasing grammar complexity. Experiment 1 showed learning effects for all grammars but no performance difference between conditions. Experiment 2 replicated the absence of a semantic benefit for all grammars even though semantic information was more prominent during grammar acquisition as compared to Experiment 1. Thus, we did not find evidence for the idea that semantics facilitates grammar acquisition, which seems to support the view of an independent syntactic processing component.

  9. A Method for Overcoming the Problem of Concept-Scale Interaction in Semantic Differential Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynner, John; Romney, David

    1972-01-01

    Data collected in a study of hospital staff attitudes to drug addicts and other types of patients are used to illustrate the problem of concept-scale interaction in semantic differential research. (Authors)

  10. Can the emotional connotation of concepts modulate the lexico-semantic deficits in Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Giffard, Bénédicte; Laisney, Mickaël; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice

    2009-01-01

    Semantic memory impairments are a common symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may occur at a relatively early stage. These disturbances can be evidenced by a hyperpriming effect (greater semantic priming in AD patients than in controls). Up till now, very few studies of semantic memory have included emotionally charged concepts. Our aim was therefore to study the semantic processing of such concepts, as opposed to neutral ones, in early AD. Given that emotional processes are relatively preserved at the beginning of the disease compared with other cognitive functions, we expected that an emotional connotation would influence the spreading activation of words and affect some of the impairments in semantic processing. We administered a semantic priming task (lexical decision task) implicitly assessing semantic memory to 26 patients with AD and 26 normal controls. Primes and targets either had a semantic relationship (e.g. tiger-lion), a semantic and emotional (positive or negative) relationship (e.g. slap-smack) or no relationship at all (e.g. chair-horse), or else belonged to a word-nonword condition (e.g. window-inuly). Compared with controls, the patients showed pathological hyperpriming effects in all conditions, especially in the emotional conditions. Hyperpriming implies a deterioration in specific attributes, as it is difficult to tell two concepts apart once their distinctive attributes have been lost. These results suggest that emotional concepts, like neutral ones, lose some of their distinctive attributes in early AD, and as the emotional processes are preserved, there is greater similarity between close emotional concepts than between close neutral concepts.

  11. Integrating Experiential and Distributional Data to Learn Semantic Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Mark; Vigliocco, Gabriella; Vinson, David

    2009-01-01

    The authors identify 2 major types of statistical data from which semantic representations can be learned. These are denoted as "experiential data" and "distributional data". Experiential data are derived by way of experience with the physical world and comprise the sensory-motor data obtained through sense receptors. Distributional data, by…

  12. How Visual and Semantic Information Influence Learning in Familiar Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goujon, Annabelle; Brockmole, James R.; Ehinger, Krista A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research using the contextual cuing paradigm has revealed both quantitative and qualitative differences in learning depending on whether repeated contexts are defined by letter arrays or real-world scenes. To clarify the relative contributions of visual features and semantic information likely to account for such differences, the typical…

  13. Does Learning to Count Involve a Semantic Induction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Kathryn; Eng, Kortney; Barner, David

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, when children learn to correctly count sets, they make a semantic induction about the meanings of their number words. We tested the logical understanding of number words in 84 children that were classified as "cardinal-principle knowers" by the criteria set forth by Wynn (1992). Results show that these children often…

  14. How Visual and Semantic Information Influence Learning in Familiar Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goujon, Annabelle; Brockmole, James R.; Ehinger, Krista A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research using the contextual cuing paradigm has revealed both quantitative and qualitative differences in learning depending on whether repeated contexts are defined by letter arrays or real-world scenes. To clarify the relative contributions of visual features and semantic information likely to account for such differences, the typical…

  15. Integrating Experiential and Distributional Data to Learn Semantic Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Mark; Vigliocco, Gabriella; Vinson, David

    2009-01-01

    The authors identify 2 major types of statistical data from which semantic representations can be learned. These are denoted as "experiential data" and "distributional data". Experiential data are derived by way of experience with the physical world and comprise the sensory-motor data obtained through sense receptors. Distributional data, by…

  16. Does Learning to Count Involve a Semantic Induction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Kathryn; Eng, Kortney; Barner, David

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, when children learn to correctly count sets, they make a semantic induction about the meanings of their number words. We tested the logical understanding of number words in 84 children that were classified as "cardinal-principle knowers" by the criteria set forth by Wynn (1992). Results show that these children often…

  17. Semantic Web, Reusable Learning Objects, Personal Learning Networks in Health: Key Pieces for Digital Health Literacy.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, Stathis Th; Wharrad, Heather; Windle, Richard; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge existing in the World Wide Web is exponentially expanding, while continuous advancements in health sciences contribute to the creation of new knowledge. There are a lot of efforts trying to identify how the social connectivity can endorse patients' empowerment, while other studies look at the identification and the quality of online materials. However, emphasis has not been put on the big picture of connecting the existing resources with the patients "new habits" of learning through their own Personal Learning Networks. In this paper we propose a framework for empowering patients' digital health literacy adjusted to patients' currents needs by utilizing the contemporary way of learning through Personal Learning Networks, existing high quality learning resources and semantics technologies for interconnecting knowledge pieces. The framework based on the concept of knowledge maps for health as defined in this paper. Health Digital Literacy needs definitely further enhancement and the use of the proposed concept might lead to useful tools which enable use of understandable health trusted resources tailored to each person needs.

  18. Contextual Processing of Abstract Concepts Reveals Neural Representations of Non-Linguistic Semantic Content

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Simmons, W. Kyle; Martin, Alex; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2014-01-01

    Concepts develop for many aspects of experience, including abstract internal states and abstract social activities that do not refer to concrete entities in the world. The current study assessed the hypothesis that, like concrete concepts, distributed neural patterns of relevant, non-linguistic semantic content represent the meanings of abstract concepts. In a novel neuroimaging paradigm, participants processed two abstract concepts (convince, arithmetic) and two concrete concepts (rolling, red) deeply and repeatedly during a concept-scene matching task that grounded each concept in typical contexts. Using a catch trial design, neural activity associated with each concept word was separated from neural activity associated with subsequent visual scenes to assess activations underlying the detailed semantics of each concept. We predicted that brain regions underlying mentalizing and social cognition (e.g., medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal sulcus) would become active to represent semantic content central to convince, whereas brain regions underlying numerical cognition (e.g., bilateral intraparietal sulcus) would become active to represent semantic content central to arithmetic. The results supported these predictions, suggesting that the meanings of abstract concepts arise from distributed neural systems that represent concept-specific content. PMID:23363408

  19. A Learning Content Authoring Approach Based on Semantic Technologies and Social Networking: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesic, Sasa; Gasevic, Dragan; Jazayeri, Mehdi; Landoni, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Semantic web technologies have been applied to many aspects of learning content authoring including semantic annotation, semantic search, dynamic assembly, and personalization of learning content. At the same time, social networking services have started to play an important role in the authoring process by supporting authors' collaborative…

  20. The Effect of Semantic Set Size on Word Learning by Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storkel, Holly L.; Adlof, Suzanne M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to determine whether semantic set size, a measure of the number of semantic neighbors, influenced word learning, and whether the influence of semantic set size was broad, showing effects on multiple measures both during and after learning. Method: Thirty-six preschool children were exposed to 10 nonobjects, varying in…

  1. A Learning Content Authoring Approach Based on Semantic Technologies and Social Networking: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesic, Sasa; Gasevic, Dragan; Jazayeri, Mehdi; Landoni, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Semantic web technologies have been applied to many aspects of learning content authoring including semantic annotation, semantic search, dynamic assembly, and personalization of learning content. At the same time, social networking services have started to play an important role in the authoring process by supporting authors' collaborative…

  2. Intelligent Discovery for Learning Objects Using Semantic Web Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, I-Ching

    2012-01-01

    The concept of learning objects has been applied in the e-learning field to promote the accessibility, reusability, and interoperability of learning content. Learning Object Metadata (LOM) was developed to achieve these goals by describing learning objects in order to provide meaningful metadata. Unfortunately, the conventional LOM lacks the…

  3. Intelligent Discovery for Learning Objects Using Semantic Web Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, I-Ching

    2012-01-01

    The concept of learning objects has been applied in the e-learning field to promote the accessibility, reusability, and interoperability of learning content. Learning Object Metadata (LOM) was developed to achieve these goals by describing learning objects in order to provide meaningful metadata. Unfortunately, the conventional LOM lacks the…

  4. Concept Model on Topological Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ae, Tadashi; Kioi, Kazumasa

    2010-11-01

    We discuss a new model for concept based on topological learning, where the learning process on the neural network is represented by mathematical topology. The topological learning of neural networks is summarized by a quotient of input space and the hierarchical step induces a tree where each node corresponds to a quotient. In general, the concept acquisition is a difficult problem, but the emotion for a subject is represented by providing the questions to a person. Therefore, a kind of concept is captured by such data and the answer sheet can be mapped into a topology consisting of trees. In this paper, we will discuss a way of mapping the emotional concept to a topological learning model.

  5. Intentional learning: A concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Mollman, Sarah; Candela, Lori

    2017-07-19

    To use a concept analysis to determine a clear definition of the term "intentional learning" for use in nursing. The term intentional learning has been used for years in educational, business, and even nursing literature. It has been used to denote processes leading to higher order thinking and the ability to use knowledge in new situations; both of which are important skills to develop in nursing students. But the lack of a common, accepted definition of the term makes it difficult for nurse educators to base instruction and learning experiences on or to evaluate its overall effectiveness in educating students for diverse, fast-paced clinical practices. A concept analysis following the eight-step method developed by Walker and Avant (2011). Empirical and descriptive literature.  Five defining attributes were identified: (1) self-efficacy for learning, (2) active, effortful, and engaged learning, (3) mastery of goals where learning is the goal, (4) self-directed learning, and (5) self-regulation of learning. Through this concept analysis, nursing will have a clear definition of intentional learning. This will enable nurse educators to generate, evaluate, and test learning experiences that promote further development of intentional learning in nursing students. Nurses in practice will also be able to evaluate if the stated benefits are demonstrated and how this impacts patient care and outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Semantic Learning Designs: Recording Assumptions and Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicilia, Miguel-Angel

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments in the standardisation of learning technology have resulted in models of learning activities and resources including descriptive metadata and definitions of conditional flows for multirole activities. Nonetheless, such "learning designs" are actually representations of the "results" of the design process and do not provide…

  7. Learning Our Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laverty, Megan J.

    2009-01-01

    Richard Stanley Peters appreciates the centrality of concepts for everyday life, however, he fails to recognize their pedagogical dimension. He distinguishes concepts employed at the first-order (our ordinary language-use) from second-order conceptual clarification (conducted exclusively by academically trained philosophers). This distinction…

  8. Learning Our Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laverty, Megan J.

    2009-01-01

    Richard Stanley Peters appreciates the centrality of concepts for everyday life, however, he fails to recognize their pedagogical dimension. He distinguishes concepts employed at the first-order (our ordinary language-use) from second-order conceptual clarification (conducted exclusively by academically trained philosophers). This distinction…

  9. Retrogenesis of semantic knowledge: Comparative approach of acquisition and deterioration of concepts in semantic memory.

    PubMed

    Simoes Loureiro, Isabelle; Lefebvre, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    Semantic memory is the result of progressive development during childhood. During the construction of the lexico-semantic network, the features of the objects are progressively stored to build our knowledge. Alzheimer's disease (AD) disrupts conceptual links that support semantic memory. Individuals suffering from AD lose access to words as well as to meaning. Some researchers have made the assumption that cognitive retrogenesis leads to a cognitive decline that reverses acquisition steps in childhood. This study proposes to analyze the validity of this theory applied to semantic knowledge. We administered a semantic knowledge questionnaire (SKQ) featuring 30 objects associated with 4 questions (2 superordinate questions; Q1 = general; Q2 = intracategorial; and 2 subordinate questions; Q3 = perceptual; Q4 = thematical/functional) to 93 children (30 5-year-old children; 30 7-year-old children; and 33 9-year-old children), 32 healthy elderly people, and 66 AD patients (20 in the initial stage of the disease, AD1; 16 in the intermediate stage, AD2; and 30 in the advanced stage, AD3). Our results show that the total number of errors in the SKQ evolved in a "u-shaped" curve: children made less and less errors at the SKQ during development while AD patients presented the reverse pattern. Moreover, the performance of 5-year-old children was identical to that of AD3 patients. Similar results were observed with 7-year-old children and AD2 patients, and with 9-year-old children and AD1 patients. These data are consistent with the idea of a lexico-semantic retrogenesis process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Acquiring concepts and features of novel words by two types of learning: direct mapping and inference.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Yufang

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the semantic representation of novel words learnt in two conditions: directly mapping a novel word to a concept (Direct mapping: DM) and inferring the concept from provided features (Inferred learning: IF). A condition where no definite concept could be inferred (No basic-level meaning: NM) served as a baseline. The semantic representation of the novel word was assessed via a semantic-relatedness judgment task. In this task, the learned novel word served as a prime, while the corresponding concept, an unlearned feature of the concept, and an unrelated word served as targets. ERP responses to the targets, primed by the novel words in the three learning conditions, were compared. For the corresponding concept, smaller N400s were elicited in the DM and IF conditions than in the NM condition, indicating that the concept could be obtained in both learning conditions. However, for the unlearned feature, the targets in the IF condition produced an N400 effect while in the DM condition elicited an LPC effect relative to the NM learning condition. No ERP difference was observed among the three learning conditions for the unrelated words. The results indicate that conditions of learning affect the semantic representation of novel word, and that the unlearned feature was only activated by the novel word in the IF learning condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phonological Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreton, Elliott; Pater, Joe; Pertsova, Katya

    2017-01-01

    Linguistic and non-linguistic pattern learning have been studied separately, but we argue for a comparative approach. Analogous inductive problems arise in phonological and visual pattern learning. Evidence from three experiments shows that human learners can solve them in analogous ways, and that human performance in both cases can be captured by…

  12. Phonological Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreton, Elliott; Pater, Joe; Pertsova, Katya

    2017-01-01

    Linguistic and non-linguistic pattern learning have been studied separately, but we argue for a comparative approach. Analogous inductive problems arise in phonological and visual pattern learning. Evidence from three experiments shows that human learners can solve them in analogous ways, and that human performance in both cases can be captured by…

  13. Learning to Use Scientific Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    In responding to the research on conceptual change, this article attempts to make two points. First, scientific concepts are not possessed by individuals; rather, they are part of a culture's resources, which individuals learn to use for their own or for group purposes. Second, particular concepts are most effectively mastered when the learner is…

  14. The Concept of Developmental Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William

    Cognitive developmental learning is a concept expressing the hypothesis that learning has a continuing, cumulative, and transformational function in the development of intelligence. Two important questions are, "How much do we know about methods?" and "What classes of knowledge and abilities should we develop?" An analysis of past investigations,…

  15. Learning new meanings for old words: effects of semantic relatedness.

    PubMed

    Rodd, Jennifer M; Berriman, Richard; Landau, Matt; Lee, Theresa; Ho, Carol; Gaskell, M Gareth; Davis, Matthew H

    2012-10-01

    Changes to our everyday activities mean that adult language users need to learn new meanings for previously unambiguous words. For example, we need to learn that a "tweet" is not only the sound a bird makes, but also a short message on a social networking site. In these experiments, adult participants learned new fictional meanings for words with a single dominant meaning (e.g., "ant") by reading paragraphs that described these novel meanings. Explicit recall of these meanings was significantly better when there was a strong semantic relationship between the novel meaning and the existing meaning. This relatedness effect emerged after relatively brief exposure to the meanings (experiment 1), but it persisted when training was extended across 7 days (experiment 2) and when semantically demanding tasks were used during this extended training (experiment 3). A lexical decision task was used to assess the impact of learning on online recognition. In Experiment 3, participants responded more quickly to words whose new meaning was semantically related than to those with an unrelated meaning. This result is consistent with earlier studies showing an effect of meaning relatedness on lexical decision, and it indicates that these newly acquired meanings become integrated with participants' preexisting knowledge about the meanings of words.

  16. Learning to use scientific concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Gordon

    2008-07-01

    In responding to the research on conceptual change, this article attempts to make two points. First, scientific concepts are not possessed by individuals; rather, they are part of a culture's resources, which individuals learn to use for their own or for group purposes. Second, particular concepts are most effectively mastered when the learner is deeply engaged in solving a problem for which they function as effective semiotic tools in achieving a solution. On these grounds, it is argued that the mastering of scientific concepts is best achieved through learning to use them in motivated inquiry.

  17. Transforming Selected Concepts into Dimensions in Latent Semantic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmos, Ricardo; Jorge-Botana, Guillermo; León, José Antonio; Escudero, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a new approach for transforming the latent representation derived from a Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) space into one where dimensions have nonlatent meanings. These meanings are based on lexical descriptors, which are selected by the LSA user. The authors present three analyses that provide examples of the utility of this…

  18. Transforming Selected Concepts into Dimensions in Latent Semantic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmos, Ricardo; Jorge-Botana, Guillermo; León, José Antonio; Escudero, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a new approach for transforming the latent representation derived from a Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) space into one where dimensions have nonlatent meanings. These meanings are based on lexical descriptors, which are selected by the LSA user. The authors present three analyses that provide examples of the utility of this…

  19. Concept Map Engineering: Methods and Tools Based on the Semantic Relation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Minkyu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a better understanding of technologies that use natural language as the basis for concept map construction. In particular, this study focuses on the semantic relation (SR) approach to drawing rich and authentic concept maps that reflect students' internal representations of a problem situation. The…

  20. Concept Map Engineering: Methods and Tools Based on the Semantic Relation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Minkyu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a better understanding of technologies that use natural language as the basis for concept map construction. In particular, this study focuses on the semantic relation (SR) approach to drawing rich and authentic concept maps that reflect students' internal representations of a problem situation. The…

  1. Enabling Creative Learning Design through Semantic Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlton, Patricia; Magoulas, George; Laurillard, Diana

    2012-01-01

    The paper advocates an approach to learning design that considers it as creating digital artefacts that can be extended, modified and used for different purposes. This is realised through an "act becoming artefact" cycle, where users' actions in the authors' software environment, named Learning Designer, are automatically interpreted on…

  2. Semantic Indexing of Medical Learning Objects: Medical Students' Usage of a Semantic Network

    PubMed Central

    Gießler, Paul; Ohnesorge-Radtke, Ursula; Spreckelsen, Cord

    2015-01-01

    Background The Semantically Annotated Media (SAM) project aims to provide a flexible platform for searching, browsing, and indexing medical learning objects (MLOs) based on a semantic network derived from established classification systems. Primarily, SAM supports the Aachen emedia skills lab, but SAM is ready for indexing distributed content and the Simple Knowledge Organizing System standard provides a means for easily upgrading or even exchanging SAM’s semantic network. There is a lack of research addressing the usability of MLO indexes or search portals like SAM and the user behavior with such platforms. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the usability of SAM by investigating characteristic user behavior of medical students accessing MLOs via SAM. Methods In this study, we chose a mixed-methods approach. Lean usability testing was combined with usability inspection by having the participants complete four typical usage scenarios before filling out a questionnaire. The questionnaire was based on the IsoMetrics usability inventory. Direct user interaction with SAM (mouse clicks and pages accessed) was logged. Results The study analyzed the typical usage patterns and habits of students using a semantic network for accessing MLOs. Four scenarios capturing characteristics of typical tasks to be solved by using SAM yielded high ratings of usability items and showed good results concerning the consistency of indexing by different users. Long-tail phenomena emerge as they are typical for a collaborative Web 2.0 platform. Suitable but nonetheless rarely used keywords were assigned to MLOs by some users. Conclusions It is possible to develop a Web-based tool with high usability and acceptance for indexing and retrieval of MLOs. SAM can be applied to indexing multicentered repositories of MLOs collaboratively. PMID:27731860

  3. Knowledge represented using RDF semantic network in the concept of semantic web

    SciTech Connect

    Lukasova, A. Vajgl, M. Zacek, M.

    2016-06-08

    The RDF(S) model has been declared as the basic model to capture knowledge of the semantic web. It provides a common and flexible way to decompose composed knowledge to elementary statements, which can be represented by RDF triples or by RDF graph vectors. From the logical point of view, elements of knowledge can be expressed using at most binary predicates, which can be converted to RDF-triples or graph vectors. However, it is not able to capture implicit knowledge representable by logical formulas. This contribution shows how existing approaches (semantic networks and clausal form logic) can be combined together with RDF to obtain RDF-compatible system with ability to represent implicit knowledge and inference over knowledge base.

  4. Knowledge represented using RDF semantic network in the concept of semantic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukasova, A.; Vajgl, M.; Zacek, M.

    2016-06-01

    The RDF(S) model has been declared as the basic model to capture knowledge of the semantic web. It provides a common and flexible way to decompose composed knowledge to elementary statements, which can be represented by RDF triples or by RDF graph vectors. From the logical point of view, elements of knowledge can be expressed using at most binary predicates, which can be converted to RDF-triples or graph vectors. However, it is not able to capture implicit knowledge representable by logical formulas. This contribution shows how existing approaches (semantic networks and clausal form logic) can be combined together with RDF to obtain RDF-compatible system with ability to represent implicit knowledge and inference over knowledge base.

  5. A lifespan perspective on semantic processing of concrete concepts: does a sensory/motor model have the potential to bridge the gap?

    PubMed

    Antonucci, Sharon M; Alt, Mary

    2011-12-01

    Research regarding semantic knowledge of objects is often conducted independently in children and adults. Review of these bodies of evidence suggests that the two literatures are often complementary. It seems critical to determine what we can learn from a developmental perspective, toward the common goal of understanding semantic organization. Here we focus on the proposal that semantic knowledge about concrete concepts may be built on the foundation of sensory/motor processes. In particular, we focus on a moderate formulation of this viewpoint, the sensory/motor model of semantic representations of objects (e.g., Gainotti 2007; Martin 2007), which has been examined utilizing behavioral, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological evidence. Taken together, behavioral and neuroimaging studies with infants, older children, and adults have suggested that patterns laid down in early childhood remain salient throughout the lifespan and may also predict patterns of deficit that emerge following brain injury.

  6. Dynamics of activation of semantically similar concepts during spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Mirman, Daniel; Magnuson, James S

    2009-10-01

    Semantic similarity effects provide critical insight into the organization of semantic knowledge and the nature of semantic processing. In the present study, we examined the dynamics of semantic similarity effects by using the visual world eyetracking paradigm. Four objects were shown on a computer monitor, and participants were instructed to click on a named object, during which time their gaze position was recorded. The likelihood of fixating competitor objects was predicted by the degree of semantic similarity to the target concept. We found reliable, graded competition that depended on degree of target-competitor similarity, even for distantly related items for which priming has not been found in previous priming studies. Time course measures revealed a consistently earlier fixation peak for near semantic neighbors relative to targets. Computational investigations with an attractor dynamical model, a spreading activation model, and a decision model revealed that a combination of excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms is required to obtain such peak timing, providing new constraints on models of semantic processing.

  7. Episodic Representations Support Early Semantic Learning: Evidence from Midazolam Induced Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Paul; Hirshman, Elliot; Zamani, Shane; Hsu, John; Berrigan, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Current controversy exists regarding the role of episodic representations in the formation of long-term semantic memories. Using the drug "midazolam" to induce temporary amnesia we tested participants' memories for newly learned facts in a semantic cue condition or an episodic and semantic cue condition. Following midazolam administration, memory…

  8. Episodic Representations Support Early Semantic Learning: Evidence from Midazolam Induced Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Paul; Hirshman, Elliot; Zamani, Shane; Hsu, John; Berrigan, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Current controversy exists regarding the role of episodic representations in the formation of long-term semantic memories. Using the drug "midazolam" to induce temporary amnesia we tested participants' memories for newly learned facts in a semantic cue condition or an episodic and semantic cue condition. Following midazolam administration, memory…

  9. Semantic Annotation of Ubiquitous Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weal, M. J.; Michaelides, D. T.; Page, K.; De Roure, D. C.; Monger, E.; Gobbi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Skills-based learning environments are used to promote the acquisition of practical skills as well as decision making, communication, and problem solving. It is important to provide feedback to the students from these sessions and observations of their actions may inform the assessment process and help researchers to better understand the learning…

  10. Semantic Annotation of Ubiquitous Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weal, M. J.; Michaelides, D. T.; Page, K.; De Roure, D. C.; Monger, E.; Gobbi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Skills-based learning environments are used to promote the acquisition of practical skills as well as decision making, communication, and problem solving. It is important to provide feedback to the students from these sessions and observations of their actions may inform the assessment process and help researchers to better understand the learning…

  11. Weaknesses in Lexical-Semantic Knowledge Among College Students With Specific Learning Disabilities: Evidence From a Semantic Fluency Task

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Karla K.; Oleson, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to determine whether deficits in executive function and lexical-semantic memory compromise the linguistic performance of young adults with specific learning disabilities (LD) enrolled in postsecondary studies. Method One hundred eighty-five students with LD (n = 53) or normal language development (ND, n = 132) named items in the categories animals and food for 1 minute for each category and completed tests of lexical-semantic knowledge and executive control of memory. Groups were compared on total names, mean cluster size, frequency of embedded clusters, frequency of cluster switches, and change in fluency over time. Secondary analyses of variability within the LD group were also conducted. Results The LD group was less fluent than the ND group. Within the LD group, lexical-semantic knowledge predicted semantic fluency and cluster size; executive control of memory predicted semantic fluency and cluster switches. The LD group produced smaller clusters and fewer embedded clusters than the ND group. Groups did not differ in switching or change over time. Conclusions Deficits in the lexical-semantic system associated with LD may persist into young adulthood, even among those who have managed their disability well enough to attend college. Lexical-semantic deficits are associated with compromised semantic fluency, and the two problems are more likely among students with more severe disabilities. PMID:28267833

  12. ELE: An Ontology-Based System Integrating Semantic Search and E-Learning Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbagallo, A.; Formica, A.

    2017-01-01

    ELSE (E-Learning for the Semantic ECM) is an ontology-based system which integrates semantic search methodologies and e-learning technologies. It has been developed within a project of the CME (Continuing Medical Education) program--ECM (Educazione Continua nella Medicina) for Italian participants. ELSE allows the creation of e-learning courses…

  13. Designing Collaborative E-Learning Environments Based upon Semantic Wiki: From Design Models to Application Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yanyan; Dong, Mingkai; Huang, Ronghuai

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge society requires life-long learning and flexible learning environment that enables fast, just-in-time and relevant learning, aiding the development of communities of knowledge, linking learners and practitioners with experts. Based upon semantic wiki, a combination of wiki and Semantic Web technology, this paper designs and develops…

  14. Designing Collaborative E-Learning Environments Based upon Semantic Wiki: From Design Models to Application Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yanyan; Dong, Mingkai; Huang, Ronghuai

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge society requires life-long learning and flexible learning environment that enables fast, just-in-time and relevant learning, aiding the development of communities of knowledge, linking learners and practitioners with experts. Based upon semantic wiki, a combination of wiki and Semantic Web technology, this paper designs and develops…

  15. Lesion Detection in CT Images Using Deep Learning Semantic Segmentation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinovsky, A.; Liauchuk, V.; Tarasau, A.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the problem of automatic detection of tuberculosis lesion on 3D lung CT images is considered as a benchmark for testing out algorithms based on a modern concept of Deep Learning. For training and testing of the algorithms a domestic dataset of 338 3D CT scans of tuberculosis patients with manually labelled lesions was used. The algorithms which are based on using Deep Convolutional Networks were implemented and applied in three different ways including slice-wise lesion detection in 2D images using semantic segmentation, slice-wise lesion detection in 2D images using sliding window technique as well as straightforward detection of lesions via semantic segmentation in whole 3D CT scans. The algorithms demonstrate superior performance compared to algorithms based on conventional image analysis methods.

  16. Speaking two "Languages" in America: A semantic space analysis of how presidential candidates and their supporters represent abstract political concepts differently.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Schloss, Benjamin; Follmer, D Jake

    2017-07-17

    In this article we report a computational semantic analysis of the presidential candidates' speeches in the two major political parties in the USA. In Study One, we modeled the political semantic spaces as a function of party, candidate, and time of election, and findings revealed patterns of differences in the semantic representation of key political concepts and the changing landscapes in which the presidential candidates align or misalign with their parties in terms of the representation and organization of politically central concepts. Our models further showed that the 2016 US presidential nominees had distinct conceptual representations from those of previous election years, and these patterns did not necessarily align with their respective political parties' average representation of the key political concepts. In Study Two, structural equation modeling demonstrated that reported political engagement among voters differentially predicted reported likelihoods of voting for Clinton versus Trump in the 2016 presidential election. Study Three indicated that Republicans and Democrats showed distinct, systematic word association patterns for the same concepts/terms, which could be reliably distinguished using machine learning methods. These studies suggest that given an individual's political beliefs, we can make reliable predictions about how they understand words, and given how an individual understands those same words, we can also predict an individual's political beliefs. Our study provides a bridge between semantic space models and abstract representations of political concepts on the one hand, and the representations of political concepts and citizens' voting behavior on the other.

  17. Learning from Weak and Noisy Labels for Semantic Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhiwu; Fu, Zhenyong; Xiang, Tao; Han, Peng; Wang, Liwei; Gao, Xin

    2016-04-08

    A weakly supervised semantic segmentation (WSSS) method aims to learn a segmentation model from weak (image-level) as opposed to strong (pixel-level) labels. By avoiding the tedious pixel-level annotation process, it can exploit the unlimited supply of user-tagged images from media-sharing sites such as Flickr for large scale applications. However, these 'free' tags/labels are often noisy and few existing works address the problem of learning with both weak and noisy labels. In this work, we cast the WSSS problem into a label noise reduction problem. Specifically, after segmenting each image into a set of superpixels, the weak and potentially noisy image-level labels are propagated to the superpixel level resulting in highly noisy labels; the key to semantic segmentation is thus to identify and correct the superpixel noisy labels. To this end, a novel L1-optimisation based sparse learning model is formulated to directly and explicitly detect noisy labels. To solve the L1-optimisation problem, we further develop an efficient learning algorithm by introducing an intermediate labelling variable. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets show that our method yields state-of-the-art results given noise-free labels, whilst significantly outperforming the existing methods when the weak labels are also noisy.

  18. Harmonisation of the Educational Concept "Learning Outcome" in the Lithuanian Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pukelis, Kestutis; Smetona, Antanas

    2011-01-01

    In this article, an example of translation of the English term "learning outcome" into the Lithuanian system of educational terms is used to discuss semantic peculiarities of translating professional terms. Consistency of a concept signifier and content of a concept, as well as their tune with already existing systems of educational…

  19. Learning Styles: Concepts and Evidence.

    PubMed

    Pashler, Harold; McDaniel, Mark; Rohrer, Doug; Bjork, Robert

    2008-12-01

    The term "learning styles" refers to the concept that individuals differ in regard to what mode of instruction or study is most effective for them. Proponents of learning-style assessment contend that optimal instruction requires diagnosing individuals' learning style and tailoring instruction accordingly. Assessments of learning style typically ask people to evaluate what sort of information presentation they prefer (e.g., words versus pictures versus speech) and/or what kind of mental activity they find most engaging or congenial (e.g., analysis versus listening), although assessment instruments are extremely diverse. The most common-but not the only-hypothesis about the instructional relevance of learning styles is the meshing hypothesis, according to which instruction is best provided in a format that matches the preferences of the learner (e.g., for a "visual learner," emphasizing visual presentation of information). The learning-styles view has acquired great influence within the education field, and is frequently encountered at levels ranging from kindergarten to graduate school. There is a thriving industry devoted to publishing learning-styles tests and guidebooks for teachers, and many organizations offer professional development workshops for teachers and educators built around the concept of learning styles. The authors of the present review were charged with determining whether these practices are supported by scientific evidence. We concluded that any credible validation of learning-styles-based instruction requires robust documentation of a very particular type of experimental finding with several necessary criteria. First, students must be divided into groups on the basis of their learning styles, and then students from each group must be randomly assigned to receive one of multiple instructional methods. Next, students must then sit for a final test that is the same for all students. Finally, in order to demonstrate that optimal learning requires

  20. An Approach to Formalizing Ontology Driven Semantic Integration: Concepts, Dimensions and Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Wenlong

    2012-01-01

    The ontology approach has been accepted as a very promising approach to semantic integration today. However, because of the diversity of focuses and its various connections to other research domains, the core concepts, theoretical and technical approaches, and research areas of this domain still remain unclear. Such ambiguity makes it difficult to…

  1. An Approach to Formalizing Ontology Driven Semantic Integration: Concepts, Dimensions and Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Wenlong

    2012-01-01

    The ontology approach has been accepted as a very promising approach to semantic integration today. However, because of the diversity of focuses and its various connections to other research domains, the core concepts, theoretical and technical approaches, and research areas of this domain still remain unclear. Such ambiguity makes it difficult to…

  2. Relational, Structural, and Semantic Analysis of Graphical Representations and Concept Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifenthaler, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    The demand for good instructional environments presupposes valid and reliable analytical instruments for educational research. This paper introduces the "SMD Technology" (Surface, Matching, Deep Structure), which measures relational, structural, and semantic levels of graphical representations and concept maps. The reliability and validity of the…

  3. IPSILON: incremental parsing for semantic indexing of latent concepts.

    PubMed

    Bae, Soo Hyun; Juang, Biing-Hwang

    2010-07-01

    A new framework for content-based image retrieval, which takes advantage of the source characterization property of a universal source coding scheme, is investigated. Based upon a new class of multidimensional incremental parsing algorithm, extended from the Lempel-Ziv incremental parsing code, the proposed method captures the occurrence pattern of visual elements from a given image. A linguistic processing technique, namely the latent semantic analysis (LSA) method, is then employed to identify associative ensembles of visual elements, which lay the foundation for intelligent visual information analysis. In 2-D applications, incremental parsing decomposes an image into elementary patches that are different from the conventional fixed square-block type patches. When used in compressive representations, it is amenable in schemes that do not rely on average distortion criteria, a methodology that is a departure from the conventional vector quantization. We call this methodology a parsed representation. In this article, we present our implementations of an image retrieval system, called IPSILON, with parsed representations induced by different perceptual distortion thresholds. We evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the parsed representations by comparing their performance with that of four image retrieval systems, one using the conventional vector quantization for visual information analysis under the same LSA paradigm, another using a method called SIMPLIcity which is based upon an image segmentation and integrated region matching, and the other two based upon query-by-semantic-example and query-by-visual-example. The first two of them were tested with 20,000 images of natural scenes, and the others were tested with a portion of the images. The experimental results show that the proposed parsed representation efficiently captures the salient features in visual images and the IPSILON systems outperform other systems in terms of retrieval precision and distortion

  4. Learning Semantic Tags from Big Data for Clinical Text Representation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanpeng; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-01-01

    In clinical text mining, it is one of the biggest challenges to represent medical terminologies and n-gram terms in sparse medical reports using either supervised or unsupervised methods. Addressing this issue, we propose a novel method for word and n-gram representation at semantic level. We first represent each word by its distance with a set of reference features calculated by reference distance estimator (RDE) learned from labeled and unlabeled data, and then generate new features using simple techniques of discretization, random sampling and merging. The new features are a set of binary rules that can be interpreted as semantic tags derived from word and n-grams. We show that the new features significantly outperform classical bag-of-words and n-grams in the task of heart disease risk factor extraction in i2b2 2014 challenge. It is promising to see that semantics tags can be used to replace the original text entirely with even better prediction performance as well as derive new rules beyond lexical level.

  5. Constructivism, the so-called semantic learning theories, and situated cognition versus the psychological learning theories.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Juan José; Rodríguez Moneo, María

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, the perspective of situated cognition, which gave rise both to the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning and has probably become the most representative standpoint of constructivism, is examined. We consider the claim of situated cognition to provide alternative explanations of the learning phenomenon to those of psychology and, especially, to those of the symbolic perspective, currently predominant in cognitive psychology. The level of analysis of situated cognition (i.e., global interactive systems) is considered an inappropriate approach to the problem of learning. From our analysis, it is concluded that the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning which originated in situated cognition can hardly be considered alternatives to the psychological learning theories, and they are unlikely to add anything of interest to the learning theory or to contribute to the improvement of our knowledge about the learning phenomenon.

  6. Grounded understanding of abstract concepts: The case of STEM learning.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Justin C; Kraemer, David J M

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing the neural implementation of abstract conceptual representations has long been a contentious topic in cognitive science. At the heart of the debate is whether the "sensorimotor" machinery of the brain plays a central role in representing concepts, or whether the involvement of these perceptual and motor regions is merely peripheral or epiphenomenal. The domain of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning provides an important proving ground for sensorimotor (or grounded) theories of cognition, as concepts in science and engineering courses are often taught through laboratory-based and other hands-on methodologies. In this review of the literature, we examine evidence suggesting that sensorimotor processes strengthen learning associated with the abstract concepts central to STEM pedagogy. After considering how contemporary theories have defined abstraction in the context of semantic knowledge, we propose our own explanation for how body-centered information, as computed in sensorimotor brain regions and visuomotor association cortex, can form a useful foundation upon which to build an understanding of abstract scientific concepts, such as mechanical force. Drawing from theories in cognitive neuroscience, we then explore models elucidating the neural mechanisms involved in grounding intangible concepts, including Hebbian learning, predictive coding, and neuronal recycling. Empirical data on STEM learning through hands-on instruction are considered in light of these neural models. We conclude the review by proposing three distinct ways in which the field of cognitive neuroscience can contribute to STEM learning by bolstering our understanding of how the brain instantiates abstract concepts in an embodied fashion.

  7. A Research on E - learning Resources Construction Based on Semantic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Liu; Maode, Deng

    Traditional e-learning platforms have the flaws that it's usually difficult to query or positioning, and realize the cross platform sharing and interoperability. In the paper, the semantic web and metadata standard is discussed, and a kind of e - learning system framework based on semantic web is put forward to try to solve the flaws of traditional elearning platforms.

  8. Implicit Word Learning Benefits from Semantic Richness: Electrophysiological and Behavioral Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabovsky, Milena; Sommer, Werner; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2012-01-01

    Words differ considerably in the amount of associated semantic information. Despite the crucial role of meaning in language, it is still unclear whether and how this variability modulates language learning. Here, we provide initial evidence demonstrating that implicit learning in repetition priming is influenced by the amount of semantic features…

  9. Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytras, Miltiadis, Ed.; Naeve, Ambjorn, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    In the context of Knowledge Society, the convergence of knowledge and learning management is a critical milestone. "Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective" provides state-of-the art knowledge through a balanced theoretical and technological discussion. The semantic web perspective…

  10. Implicit Word Learning Benefits from Semantic Richness: Electrophysiological and Behavioral Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabovsky, Milena; Sommer, Werner; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2012-01-01

    Words differ considerably in the amount of associated semantic information. Despite the crucial role of meaning in language, it is still unclear whether and how this variability modulates language learning. Here, we provide initial evidence demonstrating that implicit learning in repetition priming is influenced by the amount of semantic features…

  11. Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytras, Miltiadis, Ed.; Naeve, Ambjorn, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    In the context of Knowledge Society, the convergence of knowledge and learning management is a critical milestone. "Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective" provides state-of-the art knowledge through a balanced theoretical and technological discussion. The semantic web perspective…

  12. Hypermedia-Assisted Instruction and Second Language Learning: A Semantic-Network-Based Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Min

    This literature review examines a hypermedia learning environment from a semantic network basis and the application of such an environment to second language learning. (A semantic network is defined as a conceptual representation of knowledge in human memory). The discussion is organized under the following headings and subheadings: (1) Advantages…

  13. Evaluation of unsupervised semantic mapping of natural language with Leximancer concept mapping.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew E; Humphreys, Michael S

    2006-05-01

    The Leximancer system is a relatively new method for transforming lexical co-occurrence information from natural language into semantic patterns in a nunsupervised manner. It employs two stages of co-occurrence information extraction-semantic and relational-using a different algorithm for each stage. The algorithms used are statistical, but they employ nonlinear dynamics and machine learning. This article is an attempt to validate the output of Leximancer, using a set of evaluation criteria taken from content analysis that are appropriate for knowledge discovery tasks.

  14. At the edge of semantic space: the breakdown of coherent concepts in semantic dementia is constrained by typicality and severity but not modality.

    PubMed

    Mayberry, Emily J; Sage, Karen; Ralph, Matthew A Lambon

    2011-09-01

    Hub-and-spoke models of semantic representation suggest that coherent concepts are formed from the integration of multiple, modality-specific information sources with additional modality-invariant representations-most likely stored in the ventrolateral anterior temporal lobe (vATL). As well as providing the necessary computational mechanisms for the complexities of feature integration, these modality-invariant representations also license a key aspect of semantic memory-semantic-based generalization. Semantic dementia allows us to investigate this aspect of conceptual knowledge because (a) the patients have a selective and progressive semantic degradation and (b) this is associated with profound ventrolateral ATL atrophy. Specifically, the boundaries between concepts become degraded in semantic dementia and, when tested using the appropriate materials, the patients make simultaneous under- and overgeneralization errors. We found that the rate of these errors were a function of typicality and pseudotypicality of the items as well as the severity of the patients' semantic impairment. Following the modality-invariant nature of the vATL hub representation, we also confirmed that the patients were impaired on both verbal- and picture-based versions of the same task.

  15. How visual and semantic information influence learning in familiar contexts.

    PubMed

    Goujon, Annabelle; Brockmole, James R; Ehinger, Krista A

    2012-10-01

    Previous research using the contextual cuing paradigm has revealed both quantitative and qualitative differences in learning depending on whether repeated contexts are defined by letter arrays or real-world scenes. To clarify the relative contributions of visual features and semantic information likely to account for such differences, the typical contextual cuing procedure was adapted to use meaningless but nevertheless visually complex images. The data in reaction time and in eye movements show that, like scenes, such repeated contexts can trigger large, stable, and explicit cuing effects, and that those effects result from facilitated attentional guidance. Like simpler stimulus arrays, however, those effects were impaired by a sudden change of a repeating image's color scheme at the end of the learning phase (Experiment 1), or when the repeated images were presented in a different and unique color scheme across each presentation (Experiment 2). In both cases, search was driven by explicit memory. Collectively, these results suggest that semantic information is not required for conscious awareness of context-target covariation, but it plays a primary role in overcoming variability in specific features within familiar displays.

  16. ASSOCIATIVE CONCEPT LEARNING IN ANIMALS

    PubMed Central

    Zentall, Thomas R.; Wasserman, Edward A.; Urcuioli, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Nonhuman animals show evidence for three types of concept learning: perceptual or similarity-based in which objects/stimuli are categorized based on physical similarity; relational in which one object/stimulus is categorized relative to another (e.g., same/different); and associative in which arbitrary stimuli become interchangeable with one another by virtue of a common association with another stimulus, outcome, or response. In this article, we focus on various methods for establishing associative concepts in nonhuman animals and evaluate data documenting the development of associative classes of stimuli. We also examine the nature of the common within-class representation of samples that have been associated with the same reinforced comparison response (i.e., many-to-one matching) by describing manipulations for distinguishing possible representations. Associative concepts provide one foundation for human language such that spoken and written words and the objects they represent become members of a class of interchangeable stimuli. The mechanisms of associative concept learning and the behavioral flexibility it allows, however, are also evident in the adaptive behaviors of animals lacking language. PMID:24170540

  17. Associative concept learning in animals.

    PubMed

    Zentall, Thomas R; Wasserman, Edward A; Urcuioli, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Nonhuman animals show evidence for three types of concept learning: perceptual or similarity-based in which objects/stimuli are categorized based on physical similarity; relational in which one object/stimulus is categorized relative to another (e.g., same/different); and associative in which arbitrary stimuli become interchangeable with one another by virtue of a common association with another stimulus, outcome, or response. In this article, we focus on various methods for establishing associative concepts in nonhuman animals and evaluate data documenting the development of associative classes of stimuli. We also examine the nature of the common within-class representation of samples that have been associated with the same reinforced comparison response (i.e., many-to-one matching) by describing manipulations for distinguishing possible representations. Associative concepts provide one foundation for human language such that spoken and written words and the objects they represent become members of a class of interchangeable stimuli. The mechanisms of associative concept learning and the behavioral flexibility it allows, however, are also evident in the adaptive behaviors of animals lacking language.

  18. Learning word meanings during reading: effects of phonological and semantic cues on children with language impairment.

    PubMed

    Steele, Sara C; Willoughby, Lisa M; Mills, Monique T

    2013-04-01

    Phonological and semantic deficits in spoken word learning have been documented in children with language impairment (LI), and cues that address these deficits have been shown to improve their word learning performance. However, the effects of such cues on word learning during reading remain largely unexplored. This study investigated whether (a) control, (b) phonological, (c) semantic, and (d) combined phonological-semantic conditions affected semantic word learning during reading in 9- to 11-year-old children with LI (n = 12) and with typical language (TL, n = 11) from low-income backgrounds. Children were exposed to 20 novel words across these four conditions prior to reading passages containing the novel words. After reading, a dynamic semantic assessment was given, which included oral definitions, contextual clues, and multiple choices. Results indicated that the LI group performed more poorly than the TL group in phonological and combined conditions, but not in the control or semantic conditions. Also, a similar trend for both groups was suggested, with improved performance in the semantic and combined conditions relative to the control and phonological conditions. Clinical implications include a continued need for explicit instruction in semantic properties of novel words to facilitate semantic word learning during reading in children with LI.

  19. Brain Event - Related Correlates of Concept Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    significant discrimination between below- and above-average concept learners. Molfese, Papanicolau , Hess, and Molfese (1979), however, identified...1970, �’ 59-72. Molfese, D., Papanicolau , A., Hess, T, & Molfese, V. Neuroelectrical correlates of semantic processes. In H. Begleiter (Ed

  20. Simulating Expert Clinical Comprehension: Adapting Latent Semantic Analysis to Accurately Extract Clinical Concepts from Psychiatric Narrative

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Trevor; Blatter, Brett; Patel, Vimla

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive studies reveal that less-than-expert clinicians are less able to recognize meaningful patterns of data in clinical narratives. Accordingly, psychiatric residents early in training fail to attend to information that is relevant to diagnosis and the assessment of dangerousness. This manuscript presents cognitively motivated methodology for the simulation of expert ability to organize relevant findings supporting intermediate diagnostic hypotheses. Latent Semantic Analysis is used to generate a semantic space from which meaningful associations between psychiatric terms are derived. Diagnostically meaningful clusters are modeled as geometric structures within this space and compared to elements of psychiatric narrative text using semantic distance measures. A learning algorithm is defined that alters components of these geometric structures in response to labeled training data. Extraction and classification of relevant text segments is evaluated against expert annotation, with system-rater agreement approximating rater-rater agreement. A range of biomedical informatics applications for these methods are suggested. PMID:18455483

  1. Concepts as Semantic Pointers: A Framework and Computational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blouw, Peter; Solodkin, Eugene; Thagard, Paul; Eliasmith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The reconciliation of theories of concepts based on prototypes, exemplars, and theory-like structures is a longstanding problem in cognitive science. In response to this problem, researchers have recently tended to adopt either hybrid theories that combine various kinds of representational structure, or eliminative theories that replace concepts…

  2. Concepts as Semantic Pointers: A Framework and Computational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blouw, Peter; Solodkin, Eugene; Thagard, Paul; Eliasmith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The reconciliation of theories of concepts based on prototypes, exemplars, and theory-like structures is a longstanding problem in cognitive science. In response to this problem, researchers have recently tended to adopt either hybrid theories that combine various kinds of representational structure, or eliminative theories that replace concepts…

  3. Adaptive Semantic and Social Web-based learning and assessment environment for the STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaie, Hassan; Atchison, Chris; Sunderraman, Rajshekhar

    2014-05-01

    We are building a cloud- and Semantic Web-based personalized, adaptive learning environment for the STEM fields that integrates and leverages Social Web technologies to allow instructors and authors of learning material to collaborate in semi-automatic development and update of their common domain and task ontologies and building their learning resources. The semi-automatic ontology learning and development minimize issues related to the design and maintenance of domain ontologies by knowledge engineers who do not have any knowledge of the domain. The social web component of the personal adaptive system will allow individual and group learners to interact with each other and discuss their own learning experience and understanding of course material, and resolve issues related to their class assignments. The adaptive system will be capable of representing key knowledge concepts in different ways and difficulty levels based on learners' differences, and lead to different understanding of the same STEM content by different learners. It will adapt specific pedagogical strategies to individual learners based on their characteristics, cognition, and preferences, allow authors to assemble remotely accessed learning material into courses, and provide facilities for instructors to assess (in real time) the perception of students of course material, monitor their progress in the learning process, and generate timely feedback based on their understanding or misconceptions. The system applies a set of ontologies that structure the learning process, with multiple user friendly Web interfaces. These include the learning ontology (models learning objects, educational resources, and learning goal); context ontology (supports adaptive strategy by detecting student situation), domain ontology (structures concepts and context), learner ontology (models student profile, preferences, and behavior), task ontologies, technological ontology (defines devices and places that surround the

  4. Conceptions of Learning versus Conceptions of Web-Based Learning: The Differences Revealed by College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2009-01-01

    Past research has shown the variations of students' conceptions of learning, but little has been especially undertaken to address students' conceptions of web-based learning and to make comparisons between students' conceptions of learning in general and their conceptions of web-based learning in particular. By interviewing 83 Taiwanese college…

  5. From Distributional Semantics to Conceptual Spaces: A Novel Computational Method for Concept Creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, Stephen; Agres, Kat; Purver, Matthew; Wiggins, Geraint A.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the relationship between lexical spaces and contextually-defined conceptual spaces, offering applications to creative concept discovery. We define a computational method for discovering members of concepts based on semantic spaces: starting with a standard distributional model derived from corpus co-occurrence statistics, we dynamically select characteristic dimensions associated with seed terms, and thus a subspace of terms defining the related concept. This approach performs as well as, and in some cases better than, leading distributional semantic models on a WordNet-based concept discovery task, while also providing a model of concepts as convex regions within a space with interpretable dimensions. In particular, it performs well on more specific, contextualized concepts; to investigate this we therefore move beyond WordNet to a set of human empirical studies, in which we compare output against human responses on a membership task for novel concepts. Finally, a separate panel of judges rate both model output and human responses, showing similar ratings in many cases, and some commonalities and divergences which reveal interesting issues for computational concept discovery.

  6. Clustering WHO-ART Terms Using Semantic Distance and Machine Learning Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Iavindrasana, Jimison; Bousquet, Cedric; Degoulet, Patrice; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2006-01-01

    WHO-ART was developed by the WHO collaborating centre for international drug monitoring in order to code adverse drug reactions. We assume that computation of semantic distance between WHO-ART terms may be an efficient way to group related medical conditions in the WHO database in order to improve signal detection. Our objective was to develop a method for clustering WHO-ART terms according to some proximity of their meanings. Our material comprises 758 WHO-ART terms. A formal definition was acquired for each term as a list of elementary concepts belonging to SNOMED international axes and characterized by modifier terms in some cases. Clustering was implemented as a terminology service on a J2EE server. Two different unsupervised machine learning algorithms (KMeans, Pvclust) clustered WHO-ART terms according to a semantic distance operator previously described. Pvclust grouped 51% of WHO-ART terms. K-Means grouped 100% of WHO-ART terms but 25% clusters were heterogeneous with k = 180 clusters and 6% clusters were heterogeneous with k = 32 clusters. Clustering algorithms associated to semantic distance could suggest potential groupings of WHO-ART terms that need validation according to the user’s requirements. PMID:17238365

  7. Clustering WHO-ART terms using semantic distance and machine learning algorithms.

    PubMed

    Iavindrasana, Jimison; Bousquet, Cedric; Degoulet, Patrice; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2006-01-01

    WHO-ART was developed by the WHO collaborating centre for international drug monitoring in order to code adverse drug reactions. We assume that computation of semantic distance between WHO-ART terms may be an efficient way to group related medical conditions in the WHO database in order to improve signal detection. Our objective was to develop a method for clustering WHO-ART terms according to some proximity of their meanings. Our material comprises 758 WHO-ART terms. A formal definition was acquired for each term as a list of elementary concepts belonging to SNOMED international axes and characterized by modifier terms in some cases. Clustering was implemented as a terminology service on a J2EE server. Two different unsupervised machine learning algorithms (KMeans, Pvclust) clustered WHO-ART terms according to a semantic distance operator previously described. Pvclust grouped 51% of WHO-ART terms. K-Means grouped 100% of WHO-ART terms but 25% clusters were heterogeneous with k = 180 clusters and 6% clusters were heterogeneous with k = 32 clusters. Clustering algorithms associated to semantic distance could suggest potential groupings of WHO-ART terms that need validation according to the user's requirements.

  8. Motor knowledge is one dimension for concept organization: further evidence from a Chinese semantic dementia case.

    PubMed

    Lin, Nan; Guo, Qihao; Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao

    2011-11-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have indicated that motor knowledge is one potential dimension along which concepts are organized. Here we present further direct evidence for the effects of motor knowledge in accounting for categorical patterns across object domains (living vs. nonliving) and grammatical domains (nouns vs. verbs), as well as the integrity of other modality-specific knowledge (e.g., visual). We present a Chinese case, XRK, who suffered from semantic dementia with left temporal lobe atrophy. In naming and comprehension tasks, he performed better at nonliving items than at living items, and better at verbs than at nouns. Critically, multiple regression method revealed that these two categorical effects could be both accounted for by the charade rating, a continuous measurement of the significance of motor knowledge for a concept or a semantic feature. Furthermore, charade rating also predicted his performances on the generation frequency of semantic features of various modalities. These findings consolidate the significance of motor knowledge in conceptual organization and further highlights the interactions between different types of semantic knowledge. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. SOLE: Applying Semantics and Social Web to Support Technology Enhanced Learning in Software Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Jiménez-López, Diego; García-Crespo, Ángel; Blanco-Iglesias, Borja

    eLearning educative processes are a challenge for educative institutions and education professionals. In an environment in which learning resources are being produced, catalogued and stored using innovative ways, SOLE provides a platform in which exam questions can be produced supported by Web 2.0 tools, catalogued and labeled via semantic web and stored and distributed using eLearning standards. This paper presents, SOLE, a social network of exam questions sharing particularized for Software Engineering domain, based on semantics and built using semantic web and eLearning standards, such as IMS Question and Test Interoperability specification 2.1.

  10. Weaknesses in Lexical-Semantic Knowledge among College Students with Specific Learning Disabilities: Evidence from a Semantic Fluency Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jessica; McGregor, Karla K.; Oleson, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine whether deficits in executive function and lexical-semantic memory compromise the linguistic performance of young adults with specific learning disabilities (LD) enrolled in postsecondary studies. Method: One hundred eighty-five students with LD (n = 53) or normal language development (ND, n =…

  11. Effects of Semantic Web Based Learning on Pre-Service Teachers' ICT Learning Achievement and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karalar, Halit; Korucu, Agah Tugrul

    2016-01-01

    Although the Semantic Web offers many opportunities for learners, effects of it in the classroom is not well known. Therefore, in this study explanations have been stated as how the learning objects defined by means of using the terminology in a developed ontology and kept in objects repository should be presented to learners with the aim of…

  12. Prototypicality, distinctiveness, and intercorrelation: Analyses of the semantic attributes of living and nonliving concepts.

    PubMed

    Garrard, P; Ralph, M A; Hodges, J R; Patterson, K

    2001-03-01

    Many cognitive psychological, computational, and neuropsychological approaches to the organisation of semantic memory have incorporated the idea that concepts are, at least partly, represented in terms of their fine-grained features. We asked 20 normal volunteers to provide properties of 64 concrete items, drawn from living and nonliving categories, by completing simple sentence stems (e.g., an owl is __, has __, can__). At a later date, the same participants rated the same concepts for prototypicality and familiarity. The features generated were classified as to type of knowledge (sensory, functional, or encyclopaedic), and also quantified with regard to both dominance (the number of participants specifying that property for that concept) and distinctiveness (the proportion of exemplars within a conceptual category of which that feature was considered characteristic). The results demonstrate that rated prototypicality is related to both the familiarity of the concept and its distance from the average of the exemplars within the same category (the category centroid). The feature database was also used to replicate, resolve, and extend a variety of previous observations on the structure of semantic representations. Specifically, the results of our analyses (1) resolve two conflicting claims regarding the relative ratio of sensory to other kinds of attributes in living vs. nonliving concepts; (2) offer new information regarding the types of features-across different domains-that distinguish concepts from their category coordinates; and (3) corroborate some previous claims of higher intercorrelations between features of living things than those of artefacts.

  13. Learning with Retrieval-Based Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blunt, Janell R.; Karpicke, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Students typically create concept maps while they view the material they are trying to learn. In these circumstances, concept mapping serves as an elaborative study activity--students are not required to retrieve the material they are learning. In 2 experiments, we examined the effectiveness of concept mapping when it is used as a retrieval…

  14. Learning with Retrieval-Based Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blunt, Janell R.; Karpicke, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Students typically create concept maps while they view the material they are trying to learn. In these circumstances, concept mapping serves as an elaborative study activity--students are not required to retrieve the material they are learning. In 2 experiments, we examined the effectiveness of concept mapping when it is used as a retrieval…

  15. Exploiting semantic annotations and Q-learning for constructing an efficient hierarchy/graph texts organization.

    PubMed

    El-Said, Asmaa M; Eldesoky, Ali I; Arafat, Hesham A

    2015-01-01

    Tremendous growth in the number of textual documents has produced daily requirements for effective development to explore, analyze, and discover knowledge from these textual documents. Conventional text mining and managing systems mainly use the presence or absence of key words to discover and analyze useful information from textual documents. However, simple word counts and frequency distributions of term appearances do not capture the meaning behind the words, which results in limiting the ability to mine the texts. This paper proposes an efficient methodology for constructing hierarchy/graph-based texts organization and representation scheme based on semantic annotation and Q-learning. This methodology is based on semantic notions to represent the text in documents, to infer unknown dependencies and relationships among concepts in a text, to measure the relatedness between text documents, and to apply mining processes using the representation and the relatedness measure. The representation scheme reflects the existing relationships among concepts and facilitates accurate relatedness measurements that result in a better mining performance. An extensive experimental evaluation is conducted on real datasets from various domains, indicating the importance of the proposed approach.

  16. Exploiting Semantic Annotations and Q-Learning for Constructing an Efficient Hierarchy/Graph Texts Organization

    PubMed Central

    El-Said, Asmaa M.; Eldesoky, Ali I.; Arafat, Hesham A.

    2015-01-01

    Tremendous growth in the number of textual documents has produced daily requirements for effective development to explore, analyze, and discover knowledge from these textual documents. Conventional text mining and managing systems mainly use the presence or absence of key words to discover and analyze useful information from textual documents. However, simple word counts and frequency distributions of term appearances do not capture the meaning behind the words, which results in limiting the ability to mine the texts. This paper proposes an efficient methodology for constructing hierarchy/graph-based texts organization and representation scheme based on semantic annotation and Q-learning. This methodology is based on semantic notions to represent the text in documents, to infer unknown dependencies and relationships among concepts in a text, to measure the relatedness between text documents, and to apply mining processes using the representation and the relatedness measure. The representation scheme reflects the existing relationships among concepts and facilitates accurate relatedness measurements that result in a better mining performance. An extensive experimental evaluation is conducted on real datasets from various domains, indicating the importance of the proposed approach. PMID:25685832

  17. The Role of Self-Teaching in Learning Orthographic and Semantic Aspects of New Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Jessie; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Pimperton, Hannah; Nation, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how children learn the meaning (semantics) and spelling patterns (orthography) of novel words encountered in story context. English-speaking children (N = 88) aged 7 to 8 years read 8 stories and each story contained 1 novel word repeated 4 times. Semantic cues were provided by the story context such that children could infer…

  18. Implicit Learning of Semantic Category Sequences: Response-Independent Acquisition of Abstract Sequential Regularities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goschke, Thomas; Bolte, Annette

    2007-01-01

    Through the use of a new serial naming task, the authors investigated implicit learning of repeating sequences of abstract semantic categories. Participants named objects (e.g., table, shirt) appearing in random order. Unbeknownst to them, the semantic categories of the objects (e.g., furniture, clothing) followed a repeating sequence.…

  19. Collaborative Concept Mapping in a Web-Based Learning Environment: A Pedagogic Experience in Architectural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrazo, Leandro; Vidal, Jordi

    2002-01-01

    Describes a pedagogical work, carried out within a school of architecture, using a Web-based learning environment to support collaborative understanding of texts on architectural theory. Explains the use of concept maps, creation of a critical vocabulary, exploration of semantic spaces, and knowledge discovery through navigation. (Author/LRW)

  20. Collaborative Concept Mapping in a Web-Based Learning Environment: A Pedagogic Experience in Architectural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrazo, Leandro; Vidal, Jordi

    2002-01-01

    Describes a pedagogical work, carried out within a school of architecture, using a Web-based learning environment to support collaborative understanding of texts on architectural theory. Explains the use of concept maps, creation of a critical vocabulary, exploration of semantic spaces, and knowledge discovery through navigation. (Author/LRW)

  1. Visual Tracking Utilizing Object Concept from Deep Learning Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, C.; Yilmaz, A.; Lia, S.

    2017-05-01

    Despite having achieved good performance, visual tracking is still an open area of research, especially when target undergoes serious appearance changes which are not included in the model. So, in this paper, we replace the appearance model by a concept model which is learned from large-scale datasets using a deep learning network. The concept model is a combination of high-level semantic information that is learned from myriads of objects with various appearances. In our tracking method, we generate the target's concept by combining the learned object concepts from classification task. We also demonstrate that the last convolutional feature map can be used to generate a heat map to highlight the possible location of the given target in new frames. Finally, in the proposed tracking framework, we utilize the target image, the search image cropped from the new frame and their heat maps as input into a localization network to find the final target position. Compared to the other state-of-the-art trackers, the proposed method shows the comparable and at times better performance in real-time.

  2. Evidence for semantic learning in profound amnesia: an investigation with patient H.M.

    PubMed

    O'Kane, Gail; Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Corkin, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    Until recently, it seemed unlikely that any semantic knowledge could be acquired following extensive bilateral damage to the medial temporal lobes (MTL). Although recent studies have demonstrated some semantic learning in amnesic patients, questions remain regarding the limits of this capacity and the extent to which it relies on those patients' residual MTL function. The present study examined whether detailed, semantic memory could be acquired by a patient with no functioning hippocampus. We used cued recall and forced-choice recognition tasks to investigate whether the patient H.M. had acquired knowledge of people who became famous after the onset of his amnesia. Results revealed that, with first names provided as cues, he was able to recall the corresponding famous last name for 12 of 35 postoperatively famous personalities. This number nearly doubled when semantic cues were added, suggesting that his knowledge of the names was not limited to perceptual information, but was incorporated in a semantic network capable of supporting explicit recall. In forced-choice recognition, H.M. discriminated 87% of postmorbid famous names from foils. Critically, he was able to provide uniquely identifying semantic facts for one-third of these recognized names, describing John Glenn, for example, as "the first rocketeer" and Lee Harvey Oswald as a man who "assassinated the president." Although H.M.'s semantic learning was clearly impaired, the results provide robust, unambiguous evidence that some new semantic learning can be supported by structures beyond the hippocampus proper.

  3. Structure at every scale: A semantic network account of the similarities between unrelated concepts.

    PubMed

    De Deyne, Simon; Navarro, Daniel J; Perfors, Amy; Storms, Gert

    2016-09-01

    Similarity plays an important role in organizing the semantic system. However, given that similarity cannot be defined on purely logical grounds, it is important to understand how people perceive similarities between different entities. Despite this, the vast majority of studies focus on measuring similarity between very closely related items. When considering concepts that are very weakly related, little is known. In this article, we present 4 experiments showing that there are reliable and systematic patterns in how people evaluate the similarities between very dissimilar entities. We present a semantic network account of these similarities showing that a spreading activation mechanism defined over a word association network naturally makes correct predictions about weak similarities, whereas, though simpler, models based on direct neighbors between word pairs derived using the same network cannot. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Concept indexing and expansion for social multimedia websites based on semantic processing and graph analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Po-Chuan; Chen, Bo-Wei; Chang, Hangbae

    2016-07-01

    This study presents a human-centric technique for social video expansion based on semantic processing and graph analysis. The objective is to increase metadata of an online video and to explore related information, thereby facilitating user browsing activities. To analyze the semantic meaning of a video, shots and scenes are firstly extracted from the video on the server side. Subsequently, this study uses annotations along with ConceptNet to establish the underlying framework. Detailed metadata, including visual objects and audio events among the predefined categories, are indexed by using the proposed method. Furthermore, relevant online media associated with each category are also analyzed to enrich the existing content. With the above-mentioned information, users can easily browse and search the content according to the link analysis and its complementary knowledge. Experiments on a video dataset are conducted for evaluation. The results show that our system can achieve satisfactory performance, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed idea.

  5. Semantics guide infants' vowel learning: Computational and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Ter Schure, S M M; Junge, C M M; Boersma, P P G

    2016-05-01

    In their first year, infants' perceptual abilities zoom in on only those speech sound contrasts that are relevant for their language. Infants' lexicons do not yet contain sufficient minimal pairs to explain this phonetic categorization process. Therefore, researchers suggested a bottom-up learning mechanism: infants create categories aligned with the frequency distributions of sounds in their input. Recent evidence shows that this bottom-up mechanism may be complemented by the semantic context in which speech sounds occur, such as simultaneously present objects. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether discrimination of a non-native vowel contrast improves when sounds from the contrast were paired consistently or randomly with two distinct visually presented objects, while the distribution of speech tokens suggested a single broad category. This was assessed in two ways: computationally, namely in a neural network simulation, and experimentally, namely in a group of 8-month-old infants. The neural network, trained with a large set of sound-meaning pairs, revealed that two categories emerge only if sounds are consistently paired with objects. A group of 49 real 8-month-old infants did not immediately show sensitivity to the pairing condition; a later test at 18 months with some of the same infants, however, showed that this sensitivity at 8 months interacted with their vocabulary size at 18 months. This interaction can be explained by the idea that infants with larger future vocabularies are more positively influenced by consistent training (and/or more negatively influenced by inconsistent training) than infants with smaller future vocabularies. This suggests that consistent pairing with distinct visual objects can help infants to discriminate speech sounds even when the auditory information does not signal a distinction. Together our results give computational as well as experimental support for the idea that semantic context plays a role in disambiguating

  6. Semantic Mistakes and Didactic Difficulties in Teaching the "Amount of Substance" Concept: A Useful Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekdag, Bulent; Azizoglu, Nursen

    2013-01-01

    Textbooks still have the distinction of being the most dominant teaching tool in science teaching. The manner in which a scientific concept is expressed in a textbook is of importance in the in-depth learning process of that concept. With this in mind, problems with expressing the "amount of substance" concept were reviewed in 15…

  7. Semantic Mistakes and Didactic Difficulties in Teaching the "Amount of Substance" Concept: A Useful Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekdag, Bulent; Azizoglu, Nursen

    2013-01-01

    Textbooks still have the distinction of being the most dominant teaching tool in science teaching. The manner in which a scientific concept is expressed in a textbook is of importance in the in-depth learning process of that concept. With this in mind, problems with expressing the "amount of substance" concept were reviewed in 15…

  8. Implicit word learning benefits from semantic richness: electrophysiological and behavioral evidence.

    PubMed

    Rabovsky, Milena; Sommer, Werner; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2012-07-01

    Words differ considerably in the amount of associated semantic information. Despite the crucial role of meaning in language, it is still unclear whether and how this variability modulates language learning. Here, we provide initial evidence demonstrating that implicit learning in repetition priming is influenced by the amount of semantic features associated with a given word. Electroencephalographic recordings were obtained while participants performed a visual lexical decision task; the complete stimulus set was repeated once. Repetition priming effects on performance accuracy and the N400 component of the event-related brain potential were enhanced for words with many semantic features. These findings suggest a novel and important impact of the richness of semantic representations on learning and plasticity within the lexical-conceptual system; they are discussed in their relevance for assumptions concerning basic mechanisms underlying word learning. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Semantic Event Fusion of Different Visual Modality Concepts for Activity Recognition.

    PubMed

    Crispim-Junior, Carlos F; Buso, Vincent; Avgerinakis, Konstantinos; Meditskos, Georgios; Briassouli, Alexia; Benois-Pineau, Jenny; Kompatsiaris, Ioannis Yiannis; Bremond, Francois

    2016-08-01

    Combining multimodal concept streams from heterogeneous sensors is a problem superficially explored for activity recognition. Most studies explore simple sensors in nearly perfect conditions, where temporal synchronization is guaranteed. Sophisticated fusion schemes adopt problem-specific graphical representations of events that are generally deeply linked with their training data and focused on a single sensor. This paper proposes a hybrid framework between knowledge-driven and probabilistic-driven methods for event representation and recognition. It separates semantic modeling from raw sensor data by using an intermediate semantic representation, namely concepts. It introduces an algorithm for sensor alignment that uses concept similarity as a surrogate for the inaccurate temporal information of real life scenarios. Finally, it proposes the combined use of an ontology language, to overcome the rigidity of previous approaches at model definition, and a probabilistic interpretation for ontological models, which equips the framework with a mechanism to handle noisy and ambiguous concept observations, an ability that most knowledge-driven methods lack. We evaluate our contributions in multimodal recordings of elderly people carrying out IADLs. Results demonstrated that the proposed framework outperforms baseline methods both in event recognition performance and in delimiting the temporal boundaries of event instances.

  10. Semantic Lexicon Construction: Learning from Unlabeled Data via Spectral Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    SVD). In this paper, we generally call such SVD- based subspace construction spectral analysis. Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) (Deerwester et al...Richard Harshman. 1990. Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis. Journal of the Society for Information Science, 41:391–407. A. Dempster, N. Laird, and D...and Knowledge Management. Christos H. Papadimitriou, Prabhakar Raghavan, Hisao Tamaki, and Santosh Vempala. 2000. Latent Semantic Indexing: A

  11. A Hybrid Knowledge-Based and Data-Driven Approach to Identifying Semantically Similar Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Pivovarov, Rimma; Elhadad, Noémie

    2012-01-01

    An open research question when leveraging ontological knowledge is when to treat different concepts separately from each other and when to aggregate them. For instance, concepts for the terms "paroxysmal cough" and "nocturnal cough" might be aggregated in a kidney disease study, but should be left separate in a pneumonia study. Determining whether two concepts are similar enough to be aggregated can help build better datasets for data mining purposes and avoid signal dilution. Quantifying the similarity among concepts is a difficult task, however, in part because such similarity is context-dependent. We propose a comprehensive method, which computes a similarity score for a concept pair by combining data-driven and ontology-driven knowledge. We demonstrate our method on concepts from SNOMED-CT and on a corpus of clinical notes of patients with chronic kidney disease. By combining information from usage patterns in clinical notes and from ontological structure, the method can prune out concepts that are simply related from those which are semantically similar. When evaluated against a list of concept pairs annotated for similarity, our method reaches an AUC (area under the curve) of 92%. PMID:22289420

  12. An evaluation of concept based latent semantic indexing for clinical information retrieval.

    PubMed Central

    Chute, C. G.; Yang, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) of surgical case report text using ICD-9-CM procedure codes and index terms was evaluated. The precision-recall performance of this two-step matrix retrieval process was compared with the SMART Document retrieval system, surface word matching, and humanly assigned procedure codes. Human coding performed best, two-step LSI did less well than surface matching or SMART. This evaluation suggests that concept-based LSI may be compromised by its two-stage nature and its dependence upon a robust term database linked to main concepts. However, the potential elegance of partial- credit concept matching merits the continued evaluation of LSI for clinical case retrieval. PMID:1482949

  13. The influence of consistency, frequency, and semantics on learning to read: an artificial orthography paradigm.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J S H; Plunkett, Kim; Nation, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments explored learning, generalization, and the influence of semantics on orthographic processing in an artificial language. In Experiment 1, 16 adults learned to read 36 novel words written in novel characters. Posttraining, participants discriminated trained from untrained items and generalized to novel items, demonstrating extraction of individual character sounds. Frequency and consistency effects in learning and generalization showed that participants were sensitive to the statistics of their learning environment. In Experiment 2, 32 participants were preexposed to the sounds of all items (lexical phonology) and to novel definitions for half of these items (semantics). Preexposure to either lexical phonology or semantics boosted the early stages of orthographic learning relative to Experiment 1. By the end of training, facilitation was restricted to the semantic condition and to items containing low-frequency inconsistent vowels. Preexposure reduced generalization, suggesting that enhanced item-specific learning was achieved at the expense of character-sound abstraction. The authors' novel paradigm provides a new tool to explore orthographic learning. Although the present findings support the idea that semantic knowledge supports word reading processes, they also suggest that item-specific phonological knowledge is important in the early stages of learning to read.

  14. Density: A measure of the diversity of concepts addressed in semantic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, H. B. B.; Fadigas, I. S.; Monteiro, R. L. S.; Cordeiro, A. J. A.; Moret, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we studied density effects in semantic networks constructed from a database of titles of papers published in scientific journals as a parameter to indicate the diversity of concepts in a journal. The proposed method essentially consists of fixing the number of titles for all of the studied scientific journals and analyzing the behavior of the density variation curves with regard to the inclusion of cliques (that is, complete networks associated with the titles). We observed that density behaves as a critically self-organized object when titles (cliques) are included in the network.

  15. Semantic and Thematic List Learning of Second Language Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gholami, Javad; Khezrlou, Sima

    2014-01-01

    This article overviews research on second language vocabulary instruction with a specific focus on semantic and thematic vocabulary-clustering types. The theoretical benefits associated with both the semantic and thematic approaches, as well as the potential problems associated with them, are discussed. The conclusion drawn is that reinforcing the…

  16. Syntactic and Semantic Reasoning in Mathematics Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easdown, David

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses a variety of examples in errors in mathematical reasoning, the source of which is due to the tension between the syntax (form of mathematical expression) and semantics (underlying ideas or meaning). This article suggests that the heightened awareness of syntactic and semantic reasoning, and the consequent resolution of the…

  17. Integration of nursing assessment concepts into the medical entities dictionary using the LOINC semantic structure as a terminology model.

    PubMed Central

    Cieslowski, B. J.; Wajngurt, D.; Cimino, J. J.; Bakken, S.

    2001-01-01

    Recent investigations have tested the applicability of various terminology models for the representing nursing concepts including those related to nursing diagnoses, nursing interventions, and standardized nursing assessments as a prerequisite for building a reference terminology that supports the nursing domain. We used the semantic structure of Clinical LOINC (Logical Observations, Identifiers, Names, and Codes) as a reference terminology model to support the integration of standardized assessment terms from two nursing terminologies into the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED), the concept-oriented, metadata dictionary at New York Presbyterian Hospital. Although the LOINC semantic structure was used previously to represent laboratory terms in the MED, selected hierarchies and semantic slots required revisions in order to incorporate the nursing assessment concepts. This project was an initial step in integrating nursing assessment concepts into the MED in a manner consistent with evolving standards for reference terminology models. Moreover, the revisions provide the foundation for adding other types of standardized assessments to the MED. PMID:11825165

  18. A biopsychosocial investigation of changes in self-concept on the Head Injury Semantic Differential Scale.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Avneel; Ownsworth, Tamara; King, Joshua; Shields, Cassandra

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of the "good-old-days" bias, neuropsychological functioning and cued recall of life events on self-concept change. Forty seven adults with TBI (70% male, 1-5 years post-injury) and 47 matched controls rated their past and present self-concept on the Head Injury Semantic Differential Scale (HISD) III. TBI participants also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. The matched control group of 47 were from a sample of 78 uninjured participants who were randomised to complete either the Social Readjustment Rating Scale-Revised (cued recall) or HISD (non-cued recall) first. Consistent with the good-old-days bias, participants with TBI rated their pre-injury self-concept as more positive than their present self-concept and the present self-concept of controls (p < .05). More positive pre-injury self-concept ratings were related to lower estimated premorbid IQ and poorer verbal fluency and delayed memory (p < .05). For uninjured participants, cued recall, life events and event appraisals each accounted for unique variance in self-concept change (p < .01) after controlling for negative affect. The cued recall group rated their past self-concept as significantly more negative than the non-cued group (p < .01). Overall, the good-old-days bias, neuropsychological functioning and cued recall influenced reports of self-concept change by affecting retrospective ratings of past self-concept. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of contextual cues on self-concept change after TBI.

  19. The neural correlates of semantic richness: evidence from an fMRI study of word learning.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Roberto A; Göbel, Silke M; Hymers, Mark; Ellis, Andrew W

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the neural correlates of concrete nouns with either many or few semantic features. A group of 21 participants underwent two days of training and were then asked to categorize 40 newly learned words and a set of matched familiar words as living or nonliving in an MRI scanner. Our results showed that the most reliable effects of semantic richness were located in the left angular gyrus (AG) and middle temporal gyrus (MTG), where activation was higher for semantically rich than poor words. Other areas showing the same pattern included bilateral precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus. Our findings support the view that AG and anterior MTG, as part of the multimodal network, play a significant role in representing and integrating semantic features from different input modalities. We propose that activation in bilateral precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus reflects interplay between AG and episodic memory systems during semantic retrieval. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Influences of Concept Mapping and Learning Styles on Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taricani, Ellen

    Concept mapping is a technique for visually representing the structure of information, concepts, and the relationships between them. Concept maps are useful tools that help students learn about how they structure knowledge while supporting the process of knowledge construction or metaknowledge. This paper discusses the effect of concept mapping…

  1. International Concepts and Agendas of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Hans G.

    2006-01-01

    International organisations were the main proponents of Lifelong Learning when the concept was first developed in the early 1970s. Although different organisations used different labels--Lifelong Learning, recurrent education, education permanente--they all emphasised that learning is a lifelong process and that all education should be organised…

  2. Student Conceptions of Peer-Assisted Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Yvonne; Benson, Robyn; Brack, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a programme in which peer-assisted learning (PAL) was combined with case-based learning (CBL) in a second-year radiologic biology unit of study. Our aim is to explore evidence of whether PAL supported the development of qualitative conceptions of learning. The programme involved students in small PAL groups preparing and…

  3. Retrieval speeds context fluctuation: why semantic generation enhances later learning but hinders prior learning.

    PubMed

    Divis, Kristin M; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2014-10-01

    In recent work, retrieval has been shown to enhance memory for events following that retrieval. In this set of experiments, we examined the effects of interleaved semantic retrieval on both previous and future learning within a multilist learning paradigm. Interleaved retrieval led to enhanced memory for lists learned following retrieval. In contrast, memory was impaired for lists learned prior to retrieval (Experiment 1). These results are consistent with recent work in multilist learning, directed forgetting, and list-before-last retrieval, all of which indicate a crucial role for retrieval in enhancing mental list segregation. This pattern of results follows clearly from a theoretical perspective in which retrieval drives internal contextual change and in which contextual overlap between study and test promotes better memory. Consistent with that perspective, a 15-min delay before the final test eliminated both effects (Experiment 2). Experiment 2 replicated the results of Experiment 1 with materials and assessments more appropriate for educational settings: Interleaved semantic retrieval led learners to be more able to answer questions correctly about texts studied after a retrieval event but less able to do so for texts studied earlier.

  4. Biologically Inspired Model for Visual Cognition Achieving Unsupervised Episodic and Semantic Feature Learning.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Hong; Li, Yinlin; Li, Fengfu; Xi, Xuanyang; Wu, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Recently, many biologically inspired visual computational models have been proposed. The design of these models follows the related biological mechanisms and structures, and these models provide new solutions for visual recognition tasks. In this paper, based on the recent biological evidence, we propose a framework to mimic the active and dynamic learning and recognition process of the primate visual cortex. From principle point of view, the main contributions are that the framework can achieve unsupervised learning of episodic features (including key components and their spatial relations) and semantic features (semantic descriptions of the key components), which support higher level cognition of an object. From performance point of view, the advantages of the framework are as follows: 1) learning episodic features without supervision-for a class of objects without a prior knowledge, the key components, their spatial relations and cover regions can be learned automatically through a deep neural network (DNN); 2) learning semantic features based on episodic features-within the cover regions of the key components, the semantic geometrical values of these components can be computed based on contour detection; 3) forming the general knowledge of a class of objects-the general knowledge of a class of objects can be formed, mainly including the key components, their spatial relations and average semantic values, which is a concise description of the class; and 4) achieving higher level cognition and dynamic updating-for a test image, the model can achieve classification and subclass semantic descriptions. And the test samples with high confidence are selected to dynamically update the whole model. Experiments are conducted on face images, and a good performance is achieved in each layer of the DNN and the semantic description learning process. Furthermore, the model can be generalized to recognition tasks of other objects with learning ability.

  5. Recommendation of standardized health learning contents using archetypes and semantic web technologies.

    PubMed

    Legaz-García, María del Carmen; Martínez-Costa, Catalina; Menárguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás

    2012-01-01

    Linking Electronic Healthcare Records (EHR) content to educational materials has been considered a key international recommendation to enable clinical engagement and to promote patient safety. This would suggest citizens to access reliable information available on the web and to guide them properly. In this paper, we describe an approach in that direction, based on the use of dual model EHR standards and standardized educational contents. The recommendation method will be based on the semantic coverage of the learning content repository for a particular archetype, which will be calculated by applying semantic web technologies like ontologies and semantic annotations.

  6. Apples are not the only fruit: the effects of concept typicality on semantic representation in the anterior temporal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Woollams, Anna M.

    2012-01-01

    Intuitively, an apple seems a fairly good example of a fruit, whereas an avocado seems less so. The extent to which an exemplar is representative of its category, referred to here as concept typicality, has long been thought to be a key dimension determining semantic representation. Concept typicality is, however, correlated with a number of other variables, in particular age of acquisition (AoA) and name frequency. Consideration of picture naming accuracy from a large case-series of semantic dementia (SD) patients demonstrated strong effects of concept typicality that were maximal in the moderately impaired patients, over and above the impact of AoA and name frequency. Induction of a temporary virtual lesion to the left anterior temporal lobe, the region most commonly affected in SD, via repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation produced an enhanced effect of concept typicality in the picture naming of normal participants, but did not affect the magnitude of the AoA or name frequency effects. These results indicate that concept typicality exerts its influence on semantic representations themselves, as opposed to the strength of connections outside the semantic system. To date, there has been little direct exploration of the dimension of concept typicality within connectionist models of intact and impaired conceptual representation, and these findings provide a target for future computational simulation. PMID:22529789

  7. Nonword Repetition and Vocabulary Knowledge as Predictors of Children's Phonological and Semantic Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Patten, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the unique and shared variance that nonword repetition and vocabulary knowledge contribute to children's ability to learn new words. Multiple measures of word learning were used to assess recall and recognition of phonological and semantic information. Method: Fifty children, with a mean age of 8 years (range 5-12…

  8. Effects of Semantic Ambiguity Detection Training on Reading Comprehension Achievement of English Learners with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jozwik, Sara L.; Douglas, Karen H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how explicit instruction in semantic ambiguity detection affected the reading comprehension and metalinguistic awareness of five English learners (ELs) with learning difficulties (e.g., attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, specific learning disability). A multiple probe across participants design (Gast & Ledford, 2010)…

  9. A Metadata Model for E-Learning Coordination through Semantic Web Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elci, Atilla

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on a study aiming to develop a metadata model for e-learning coordination based on semantic web languages. A survey of e-learning modes are done initially in order to identify content such as phases, activities, data schema, rules and relations, etc. relevant for a coordination model. In this respect, the study looks into the…

  10. Learning from Text: Matching Readers and Texts by Latent Semantic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Michael B. W.; Schreiner, M. E.; Rehder, Bob; Laham, Darrell; Foltz, Peter W.; Kintsch, Walter; Landauer, Thomas K

    1998-01-01

    Uses Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) to predict how much readers would learn from texts based on the estimated conceptual match between their topic knowledge and the text information. Shows a nonmonotonic relationship in which learning was greatest for texts that were neither too easy nor too difficult. Finds LSA was as effective at predicting…

  11. Visual Statistical Learning Based on the Perceptual and Semantic Information of Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otsuka, Sachio; Nishiyama, Megumi; Nakahara, Fumitaka; Kawaguchi, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Five experiments examined what is learned based on the perceptual and semantic information of objects in visual statistical learning (VSL). In the familiarization phase, participants viewed a sequence of line drawings and detected repetitions of various objects. In a subsequent test phase, they watched 2 test sequences (statistically related…

  12. An Analysis of the Semantic Relationships Among Words and Their Effect Upon Learning. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, James M.

    The purpose of this study was to (1) compare the semantic relationships among common nouns obtained via two different measurement procedures and (2) determine if the use of these relationships to classify the various words results in differential degrees of learning when the stimuli are cast in terms of the paired-associate learning paradigm.…

  13. Effects of Semantic Ambiguity Detection Training on Reading Comprehension Achievement of English Learners with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jozwik, Sara L.; Douglas, Karen H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how explicit instruction in semantic ambiguity detection affected the reading comprehension and metalinguistic awareness of five English learners (ELs) with learning difficulties (e.g., attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, specific learning disability). A multiple probe across participants design (Gast & Ledford, 2010)…

  14. The Influence of Consistency, Frequency, and Semantics on Learning to Read: An Artificial Orthography Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, J. S. H.; Plunkett, Kim; Nation, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments explored learning, generalization, and the influence of semantics on orthographic processing in an artificial language. In Experiment 1, 16 adults learned to read 36 novel words written in novel characters. Posttraining, participants discriminated trained from untrained items and generalized to novel items, demonstrating extraction…

  15. The Influence of Consistency, Frequency, and Semantics on Learning to Read: An Artificial Orthography Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, J. S. H.; Plunkett, Kim; Nation, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments explored learning, generalization, and the influence of semantics on orthographic processing in an artificial language. In Experiment 1, 16 adults learned to read 36 novel words written in novel characters. Posttraining, participants discriminated trained from untrained items and generalized to novel items, demonstrating extraction…

  16. Visual Statistical Learning Based on the Perceptual and Semantic Information of Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otsuka, Sachio; Nishiyama, Megumi; Nakahara, Fumitaka; Kawaguchi, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Five experiments examined what is learned based on the perceptual and semantic information of objects in visual statistical learning (VSL). In the familiarization phase, participants viewed a sequence of line drawings and detected repetitions of various objects. In a subsequent test phase, they watched 2 test sequences (statistically related…

  17. A Semantic-Oriented Approach for Organizing and Developing Annotation for E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brut, Mihaela M.; Sedes, Florence; Dumitrescu, Stefan D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a solution to extend the IEEE LOM standard with ontology-based semantic annotations for efficient use of learning objects outside Learning Management Systems. The data model corresponding to this approach is first presented. The proposed indexing technique for this model development in order to acquire a better annotation of…

  18. A Semantic-Oriented Approach for Organizing and Developing Annotation for E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brut, Mihaela M.; Sedes, Florence; Dumitrescu, Stefan D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a solution to extend the IEEE LOM standard with ontology-based semantic annotations for efficient use of learning objects outside Learning Management Systems. The data model corresponding to this approach is first presented. The proposed indexing technique for this model development in order to acquire a better annotation of…

  19. Towards a Semantic E-Learning Theory by Using a Modelling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yli-Luoma, Pertti V. J.; Naeve, Ambjorn

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, a semantic perspective on e-learning theory is advanced and a modelling approach is used. This modelling approach towards the new learning theory is based on the four SECI phases of knowledge conversion: Socialisation, Externalisation, Combination and Internalisation, introduced by Nonaka in 1994, and involving two levels of…

  20. [Learning in online education: analysis of concept].

    PubMed

    de Holanda, Viviane Rolim; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag

    2013-01-01

    This work aimed at clarifying the concept learning in online education, expressed by the literature in the area of health. It is a study of analysis of concept, based on the Evolutionary Model, being highlighted attributes, background, consequents and substitute terms. Learning in the context of online education is characterized by a dynamic and continuous process of active construction of knowledge and acquisition of skills, with physical separation between students and teachers. Among the background events discussed stood out: interest and motivation in learning; dedication and time self-management; and interaction and communication tools. The main evident consequents were: student's autonomy; independent and active study; and construction of own knowledge. The prevailing substitute terms were collaborative learning and self-learning. The understanding of the concept can contribute to its implementation in nursing teaching activities in virtual environments.

  1. A Proof-of-Concept for Semantically Interoperable Federation of IoT Experimentation Facilities.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Jorge; Sanchez, Luis; Gomez, David; Elsaleh, Tarek; Steinke, Ronald; Cirillo, Flavio

    2016-06-29

    The Internet-of-Things (IoT) is unanimously identified as one of the main pillars of future smart scenarios. The potential of IoT technologies and deployments has been already demonstrated in a number of different application areas, including transport, energy, safety and healthcare. However, despite the growing number of IoT deployments, the majority of IoT applications tend to be self-contained, thereby forming application silos. A lightweight data centric integration and combination of these silos presents several challenges that still need to be addressed. Indeed, the ability to combine and synthesize data streams and services from diverse IoT platforms and testbeds, holds the promise to increase the potentiality of smart applications in terms of size, scope and targeted business context. In this article, a proof-of-concept implementation that federates two different IoT experimentation facilities by means of semantic-based technologies will be described. The specification and design of the implemented system and information models will be described together with the practical details of the developments carried out and its integration with the existing IoT platforms supporting the aforementioned testbeds. Overall, the system described in this paper demonstrates that it is possible to open new horizons in the development of IoT applications and experiments at a global scale, that transcend the (silo) boundaries of individual deployments, based on the semantic interconnection and interoperability of diverse IoT platforms and testbeds.

  2. A Proof-of-Concept for Semantically Interoperable Federation of IoT Experimentation Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, Jorge; Sanchez, Luis; Gomez, David; Elsaleh, Tarek; Steinke, Ronald; Cirillo, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    The Internet-of-Things (IoT) is unanimously identified as one of the main pillars of future smart scenarios. The potential of IoT technologies and deployments has been already demonstrated in a number of different application areas, including transport, energy, safety and healthcare. However, despite the growing number of IoT deployments, the majority of IoT applications tend to be self-contained, thereby forming application silos. A lightweight data centric integration and combination of these silos presents several challenges that still need to be addressed. Indeed, the ability to combine and synthesize data streams and services from diverse IoT platforms and testbeds, holds the promise to increase the potentiality of smart applications in terms of size, scope and targeted business context. In this article, a proof-of-concept implementation that federates two different IoT experimentation facilities by means of semantic-based technologies will be described. The specification and design of the implemented system and information models will be described together with the practical details of the developments carried out and its integration with the existing IoT platforms supporting the aforementioned testbeds. Overall, the system described in this paper demonstrates that it is possible to open new horizons in the development of IoT applications and experiments at a global scale, that transcend the (silo) boundaries of individual deployments, based on the semantic interconnection and interoperability of diverse IoT platforms and testbeds. PMID:27367695

  3. Concept Learning in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William

    1965-01-01

    Because disadvantaged children have usually experienced sensory-cognitive deprivation or distortion, it is necessary to discover ways to offset this deficit. A program is being conducted to learn to what degree the introduction of systematic programing, while motivation techniques are retained, can reorient essentially noncognitive learning styles…

  4. Picture Chunking Effects in Concept Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furukawa, James M.; Sunshine, Phyllis M.

    Thirty-three second graders participated in a study to discover the value of teaching concepts using picture attribute chunking (PAC). It was hypothesized that PAC would yield superior concept learning performances compared to a picture attribute list (PAL) treatment and a word-alone treatment. The children, selected on the basis of a pretest that…

  5. Do semantic contextual cues facilitate transfer learning from video in toddlers?

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Laura; Moser, Alecia; Grenell, Amanda; Dickerson, Kelly; Yao, Qianwen; Gerhardstein, Peter; Barr, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Young children typically demonstrate a transfer deficit, learning less from video than live presentations. Semantically meaningful context has been demonstrated to enhance learning in young children. We examined the effect of a semantically meaningful context on toddlers’ imitation performance. Two- and 2.5-year-olds participated in a puzzle imitation task to examine learning from either a live or televised model. The model demonstrated how to assemble a three-piece puzzle to make a fish or a boat, with the puzzle demonstration occurring against a semantically meaningful background context (ocean) or a yellow background (no context). Participants in the video condition performed significantly worse than participants in the live condition, demonstrating the typical transfer deficit effect. While the context helped improve overall levels of imitation, especially for the boat puzzle, only individual differences in the ability to self-generate a stimulus label were associated with a reduction in the transfer deficit. PMID:26029131

  6. The Learning Resources Center: Concepts and Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducote, Richard

    The need to change the conventional library into a learning resource center is stressed. With the learning resources concept, instructors will be more prone to look upon media not with the idea of why it should be used in teaching, but how it can be used in order to do a more effective job of teaching. The effective use of media will necessarily…

  7. Context and Concepts in Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaldemark, Jimmy

    2013-01-01

    This reflective paper discusses the contextual and situated character of concepts in mobile learning. It aims at challenging current conceptualizations of mobile learning by utilizing ideas from pragmatist and socio-cultural perspectives. This challenge includes a framework that embraces a distinction between interactional and transactional…

  8. The trajectory of scientific discovery: concept co-occurrence and converging semantic distance.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Trevor; Schvaneveldt, Roger W

    2010-01-01

    The paradigm of literature-based knowledge discovery originated by Swanson involves finding meaningful associations between terms or concepts that have not occurred together in any previously published document. While several automated approaches have been applied to this problem, these generally evaluate the literature at a point in time, and do not evaluate the role of change over time in distributional statistics as an indicator of meaningful implicit associations. To address this issue, we develop and evaluate Symmetric Random Indexing (SRI), a novel variant of the Random Indexing (RI) approach that is able to measure implicit association over time. SRI is found to compare favorably to existing RI variants in the prediction of future direct co-occurrence. Summary statistics over several experiments suggest a trend of converging semantic distance prior to the co-occurrence of key terms for two seminal historical literature-based discoveries.

  9. Event-related potential study of dynamic neural mechanisms of semantic organizational strategies in verbal learning.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Sophie; Gagnon, Geneviève; Bastien, Célyne

    2007-09-19

    Neuroimaging and neuropsychological data indicate that the frontal regions are implicated in semantic organizational strategies in verbal learning. Whereas these approaches tend to adopt a localizationist view, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the dynamic neural mechanisms involved in these strategies. We recorded ERPs using a 128-channel system in 12 young adults (23.75+/-3.02 years) during 3 encoding conditions that manipulated the levels of semantic organization demands. In the Unrelated condition, the words to encode did not share any semantic attributes. For both Spontaneous and Guided conditions, the words in each list were drawn from four semantic categories. In the Spontaneous condition, participants were not informed about the semantic relationship between items. In contrast, in the Guided condition, participants were instructed to improve their subsequent recall by mentally regrouping related items with the aid of category labels. Results indicated that the P200 amplitude increased with the greater organizational demand of semantic strategies. In contrast, the late positive component (LPC) amplitude was larger in both encoding conditions with semantic related words regardless of their instructions as compared to the Unrelated condition. Finally, there was greater right frontal sustained activity in the Spontaneous condition than in the Unrelated condition. Thus, our data indicate that the P200 is sensitive to attentional processes that increase with the organizational semantic demand. The LPC indexes associative processes voluntarily involved in linking related items together. Finally, the right frontal region appears to play an important role in the self-initiation of semantic organizational strategies.

  10. Navigation as a New Form of Search for Agricultural Learning Resources in Semantic Repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cano, Ramiro; Abián, Alberto; Mena, Elena

    Education is essential when it comes to raise public awareness on the environmental and economic benefits of organic agriculture and agroecology (OA & AE). Organic.Edunet, an EU funded project, aims at providing a freely-available portal where learning contents on OA & AE can be published and accessed through specialized technologies. This paper describes a novel mechanism for providing semantic capabilities (such as semantic navigational queries) to an arbitrary set of agricultural learning resources, in the context of the Organic.Edunet initiative.

  11. Neural Representations of Belief Concepts: A Representational Similarity Approach to Social Semantics.

    PubMed

    Leshinskaya, Anna; Contreras, Juan Manuel; Caramazza, Alfonso; Mitchell, Jason P

    2017-01-01

    The present experiment identified neural regions that represent a class of concepts that are independent of perceptual or sensory attributes. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, participants viewed names of social groups (e.g. Atheists, Evangelicals, and Economists) and performed a one-back similarity judgment according to 1 of 2 dimensions of belief attributes: political orientation (Liberal to Conservative) or spiritualism (Spiritualist to Materialist). By generalizing across a wide variety of social groups that possess these beliefs, these attribute concepts did not coincide with any specific sensory quality, allowing us to target conceptual, rather than perceptual, representations. Multi-voxel pattern searchlight analysis was used to identify regions in which activation patterns distinguished the 2 ends of both dimensions: Conservative from Liberal social groups when participants focused on the political orientation dimension, and spiritual from Materialist groups when participants focused on the spiritualism dimension. A cluster in right precuneus exhibited such a pattern, indicating that it carries information about belief-attribute concepts and forms part of semantic memory-perhaps a component particularly concerned with psychological traits. This region did not overlap with the theory of mind network, which engaged nearby, but distinct, parts of precuneus. These findings have implications for the neural organization of conceptual knowledge, especially the understanding of social groups. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. A formal concept analysis and semantic query expansion cooperation to refine health outcomes of interest

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are frequently used by clinicians and researchers to search for, extract, and analyze groups of patients by defining Health Outcome of Interests (HOI). The definition of an HOI is generally considered a complex and time consuming task for health care professionals. Methods In our clinical note-based pharmacovigilance research, we often operate upon potentially hundreds of ontologies at once, expand query inputs, and we also increase the search space over clinical text as well as structured data. Such a method implies to specify an initial set of seed concepts, which are based on concept unique identifiers. This paper presents a novel method based on Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) and Semantic Query Expansion (SQE) to assist the end-user in defining their seed queries and in refining the expanded search space that it encompasses. Results We evaluate our method over a gold-standard corpus from the 2008 i2b2 Obesity Challenge. This experimentation emphasizes positive results for sensitivity and specificity measures. Our new approach provides better recall with high precision of the obtained results. The most promising aspect of this approach consists in the discovery of positive results not present our Obesity NLP reference set. Conclusions Together with a Web graphical user interface, our FCA and SQE cooperation end up being an efficient approach for refining health outcome of interest using plain terms. We consider that this approach can be extended to support other domains such as cohort building tools. PMID:26043839

  13. Does language learning disability in school-age children affect semantic word learning when reading?

    PubMed

    Steele, Sara C

    2015-04-01

    The study was undertaken to determine how position of informative context, rate of word presentation and part of speech impacted novel word learning during reading in children with language learning disability. Children with language learning disability (LLD; n = 13), age-matched peers (n = 13) and vocabulary-matched peers (n = 13) read four narrative passages containing 10 nouns and 10 verbs. Informative context provided clues to word meanings and was either adjacent or non-adjacent to the target words. Target words occurred either twice (low rate) or 5-times (high rate). Following reading, word learning was assessed using dynamic assessment, including oral definitions, contextual clues and forced choices. Overall, age-matched peers performed better than children with LLD and vocabulary-matched peers, who performed similarly. No effect was found for position of informative context; however, word learning improved with high rate of presentation for children with LLD. Nouns were easier to learn than verbs for all groups. Results indicated that children with LLD show limitations gaining semantic knowledge of novel words during reading, which could negatively impact their overall rate of vocabulary acquisition.

  14. Semantic Category Effects in Second Language Word Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkbeiner, Matthew; Nicol, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Addresses a long-standing assumption that presenting new second language (L2) vocabulary in semantically grouped sets is an effective method of teaching. Discusses findings in terms of theoretical models of second language lexical representation and development, as well as in more practical terms of L2 curriculum design and vocabulary instruction.…

  15. Semantic Processing for Communicative Exercises in Foreign-Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulford, George W.

    1989-01-01

    Outlines the history of semantically based programs that have influenced the design of computer assisted language instruction (CALI) programs. Describes early attempts to make intelligent CALI as well as current projects, including the Foreign Language Adventure Game, developed at the University of Delaware. Describes some important…

  16. Grounding Collaborative Learning in Semantics-Based Critiquing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, William K.; Mørch, Anders I.; Wong, Kelvin C.; Lee, Cynthia; Liu, Jiming; Lam, Mason H.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we investigate the use of latent semantic analysis (LSA), critiquing systems, and knowledge building to support computer-based teaching of English composition. We have built and tested an English composition critiquing system that makes use of LSA to analyze student essays and compute feedback by comparing their essays with…

  17. Actively learning human gaze shifting paths for semantics-aware photo cropping.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luming; Gao, Yue; Ji, Rongrong; Xia, Yingjie; Dai, Qionghai; Li, Xuelong

    2014-05-01

    Photo cropping is a widely used tool in printing industry, photography, and cinematography. Conventional cropping models suffer from the following three challenges. First, the deemphasized role of semantic contents that are many times more important than low-level features in photo aesthetics. Second, the absence of a sequential ordering in the existing models. In contrast, humans look at semantically important regions sequentially when viewing a photo. Third, the difficulty of leveraging inputs from multiple users. Experience from multiple users is particularly critical in cropping as photo assessment is quite a subjective task. To address these challenges, this paper proposes semantics-aware photo cropping, which crops a photo by simulating the process of humans sequentially perceiving semantically important regions of a photo. We first project the local features (graphlets in this paper) onto the semantic space, which is constructed based on the category information of the training photos. An efficient learning algorithm is then derived to sequentially select semantically representative graphlets of a photo, and the selecting process can be interpreted by a path, which simulates humans actively perceiving semantics in a photo. Furthermore, we learn a prior distribution of such active graphlet paths from training photos that are marked as aesthetically pleasing by multiple users. The learned priors enforce the corresponding active graphlet path of a test photo to be maximally similar to those from the training photos. Experimental results show that: 1) the active graphlet path accurately predicts human gaze shifting, and thus is more indicative for photo aesthetics than conventional saliency maps and 2) the cropped photos produced by our approach outperform its competitors in both qualitative and quantitative comparisons.

  18. "Clicking through" or Learning Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stidwell, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The author has developed an innovative science website resource that also shows how engineers use science. As well as addressing scientific facts and concepts, the resource also engages children in the process of scientific enquiry, using graph tools and data interpretation. Part of the resource helps children to understand that much of what they…

  19. "Clicking through" or Learning Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stidwell, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The author has developed an innovative science website resource that also shows how engineers use science. As well as addressing scientific facts and concepts, the resource also engages children in the process of scientific enquiry, using graph tools and data interpretation. Part of the resource helps children to understand that much of what they…

  20. New Semantic Learning in Patients With Large Medial Temporal Lobe Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bayley, P.J.; O'Reilly, R.C.; Curran, T.; Squire, L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Two patients with large lesions of the medial temporal lobe were given four tests of semantic knowledge that could only have been acquired after the onset of their amnesia. In contrast to previous studies of postmorbid semantic learning, correct answers could be based on a simple, nonspecific sense of familiarity about single words, faces, or objects. According to recent computational models (for example, Norman and O'Reilly (2003) Psychol Rev 110:611–646), this characteristic should be optimal for detecting the kind of semantic learning that might be supported directly by the neocortex. Both patients exhibited some capacity for new learning, albeit at a level substantially below control performances. Notably, the correct answers appeared to reflect declarative memory. It was not the case that the correct answers simply popped out in some automatic way in the absence of any additional knowledge about the items. Rather, the few correct choices made by the patients tended to be accompanied by additional information about the chosen items, and the available knowledge appeared to be similar qualitatively to the kind of factual knowledge that healthy individuals gradually acquire over the years. The results are consistent with the idea that neocortical structures outside the medial temporal lobe are able to support some semantic learning, albeit to a very limited extent. Alternatively, the small amount of learning detected in the present study could depend on tissue within the posterior medial temporal lobe that remains intact in both patients. PMID:18306299

  1. Vocabulary relearning in semantic dementia: Positive and negative consequences of increasing variability in the learning experience

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Paul; Clarke, Natasha; Jones, Roy W.; Noonan, Krist A.

    2015-01-01

    Anomia therapy typically aims to improve patients' communication ability through targeted practice in naming a set of particular items. For such interventions to be of maximum benefit, the use of trained (or relearned) vocabulary must generalise from the therapy setting into novel situations. We investigated relearning in three patients with semantic dementia, a condition that has been associated with poor generalisation of relearned vocabulary. We tested two manipulations designed to improve generalisation of relearned words by introducing greater variation into the learning experience. In the first study, we found that trained items were retained more successfully when they were presented in a variety of different sequences during learning. In the second study, we found that training items using a range of different pictured exemplars improved the patients' ability to generalise words to novel instances of the same object. However, in one patient this came at the cost of inappropriate over-generalisations, in which trained words were incorrectly used to name semantically or visually similar objects. We propose that more variable learning experiences benefit patients because they shift responsibility for learning away from the inflexible hippocampal learning system and towards the semantic system. The success of this approach therefore depends critically on the integrity of the semantic representations of the items being trained. Patients with naming impairments in the context of relatively mild comprehension deficits are most likely to benefit from this approach, while avoiding the negative consequences of over-generalisation. PMID:25585251

  2. New semantic learning in patients with large medial temporal lobe lesions.

    PubMed

    Bayley, P J; O'Reilly, R C; Curran, T; Squire, L R

    2008-01-01

    Two patients with large lesions of the medial temporal lobe were given four tests of semantic knowledge that could only have been acquired after the onset of their amnesia. In contrast to previous studies of postmorbid semantic learning, correct answers could be based on a simple, nonspecific sense of familiarity about single words, faces, or objects. According to recent computational models (for example, Norman and O'Reilly (2003) Psychol Rev 110:611-646), this characteristic should be optimal for detecting the kind of semantic learning that might be supported directly by the neocortex. Both patients exhibited some capacity for new learning, albeit at a level substantially below control performances. Notably, the correct answers appeared to reflect declarative memory. It was not the case that the correct answers simply popped out in some automatic way in the absence of any additional knowledge about the items. Rather, the few correct choices made by the patients tended to be accompanied by additional information about the chosen items, and the available knowledge appeared to be similar qualitatively to the kind of factual knowledge that healthy individuals gradually acquire over the years. The results are consistent with the idea that neocortical structures outside the medial temporal lobe are able to support some semantic learning, albeit to a very limited extent. Alternatively, the small amount of learning detected in the present study could depend on tissue within the posterior medial temporal lobe that remains intact in both patients.

  3. Investigating alternative conceptions in learning disabled students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Terry Stokes

    Science teachers have long noticed the fact that their students come to school with their own concepts, produced from daily experiences and interactions with the world around them. Sometimes these ideas are in agreement with accepted scientific theories, but often they are not. These "incorrect" ideas, or "misconceptions" have been the focus of many studies, which can be helpful to teachers when planning their lessons. However, there is a dearth of information that is geared specifically to students with learning disabilities. These students generally have deficits in areas of perception and learning that could conceivably influence the way they formulate concepts. The purpose of this study was to examine the concepts held by students with learning disabilities on the causes of the day/night cycle, the phases of the moon, and the seasons. An interview format was judged to be the best method of ensuring that the students' ideas were clearly documented. The subjects were five, sixth-grade students in a city school, who had been determined to have a learning disability. In examining the results, there did not seem to be any direct link between the type of misconception formed and the learning deficit of the child. It seemed more likely that students formed their concepts the way students usually do, but the various disabilities they exhibited interfered with their learning of more appropriate conceptions. The results of this study will be helpful to science teachers, curriculum planners, or anyone who works with students who have learning disabilities. It is hoped that this will begin to fill a void in the area of learning disabilities research.

  4. Learning computer science concepts with Scratch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerbaum-Salant, Orni; Armoni, Michal; (Moti) Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2013-09-01

    Scratch is a visual programming environment that is widely used by young people. We investigated if Scratch can be used to teach concepts of computer science (CS). We developed learning materials for middle-school students that were designed according to the constructionist philosophy of Scratch and evaluated them in a few schools during two years. Tests were constructed based upon a novel combination of the revised Bloom taxonomy and the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome taxonomy. These instruments were augmented with qualitative tools, such as observations and interviews. The results showed that students could successfully learn important concepts of CS, although there were problems with some concepts such as repeated execution, variables, and concurrency. We believe that these problems can be overcome by modifications to the teaching process that we suggest.

  5. Context-Adaptive Learning Designs by Using Semantic Web Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietze, Stefan; Gugliotta, Alessio; Domingue, John

    2007-01-01

    IMS Learning Design (IMS-LD) is a promising technology aimed at supporting learning processes. IMS-LD packages contain the learning process metadata as well as the learning resources. However, the allocation of resources--whether data or services--within the learning design is done manually at design-time on the basis of the subjective appraisals…

  6. Toward Semantic Interoperability in Home Health Care: Formally Representing OASIS Items for Integration into a Concept-oriented Terminology

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeungok; Jenkins, Melinda L.; Cimino, James J.; White, Thomas M.; Bakken, Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The authors aimed to (1) formally represent OASIS-B1 concepts using the Logical Observation Identifiers, Names, and Codes (LOINC) semantic structure; (2) demonstrate integration of OASIS-B1 concepts into a concept-oriented terminology, the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED); (3) examine potential hierarchical structures within LOINC among OASIS-B1 and other nursing terms; and (4) illustrate a Web-based implementation for OASIS-B1 data entry using Dialogix, a software tool with a set of functions that supports complex data entry. Design and Measurements: Two hundred nine OASIS-B1 items were dissected into the six elements of the LOINC semantic structure and then integrated into the MED hierarchy. Each OASIS-B1 term was matched to LOINC-coded nursing terms, Home Health Care Classification, the Omaha System, and the Sign and Symptom Check-List for Persons with HIV, and the extent of the match was judged based on a scale of 0 (no match) to 4 (exact match). OASIS-B1 terms were implemented as a Web-based survey using Dialogix. Results: Of 209 terms, 204 were successfully dissected into the elements of the LOINC semantics structure and integrated into the MED with minor revisions of MED semantics. One hundred fifty-one OASIS-B1 terms were mapped to one or more of the LOINC-coded nursing terms. Conclusion: The LOINC semantic structure offers a standard way to add home health care data to a comprehensive patient record to facilitate data sharing for monitoring outcomes across sites and to further terminology management, decision support, and accurate information retrieval for evidence-based practice. The cross-mapping results support the possibility of a hierarchical structure of the OASIS-B1 concepts within nursing terminologies in the LOINC database. PMID:15802480

  7. Toward semantic interoperability in home health care: formally representing OASIS items for integration into a concept-oriented terminology.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeungok; Jenkins, Melinda L; Cimino, James J; White, Thomas M; Bakken, Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    The authors aimed to (1) formally represent OASIS-B1 concepts using the Logical Observation Identifiers, Names, and Codes (LOINC) semantic structure; (2) demonstrate integration of OASIS-B1 concepts into a concept-oriented terminology, the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED); (3) examine potential hierarchical structures within LOINC among OASIS-B1 and other nursing terms; and (4) illustrate a Web-based implementation for OASIS-B1 data entry using Dialogix, a software tool with a set of functions that supports complex data entry. Two hundred nine OASIS-B1 items were dissected into the six elements of the LOINC semantic structure and then integrated into the MED hierarchy. Each OASIS-B1 term was matched to LOINC-coded nursing terms, Home Health Care Classification, the Omaha System, and the Sign and Symptom Check-List for Persons with HIV, and the extent of the match was judged based on a scale of 0 (no match) to 4 (exact match). OASIS-B1 terms were implemented as a Web-based survey using Dialogix. Of 209 terms, 204 were successfully dissected into the elements of the LOINC semantics structure and integrated into the MED with minor revisions of MED semantics. One hundred fifty-one OASIS-B1 terms were mapped to one or more of the LOINC-coded nursing terms. The LOINC semantic structure offers a standard way to add home health care data to a comprehensive patient record to facilitate data sharing for monitoring outcomes across sites and to further terminology management, decision support, and accurate information retrieval for evidence-based practice. The cross-mapping results support the possibility of a hierarchical structure of the OASIS-B1 concepts within nursing terminologies in the LOINC database.

  8. Learning for Semantic Parsing Using Statistical Syntactic Parsing Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    5.5) = argmax θ̄ n ∑ i=1 log ∑ D∗i Pr(D∗i |Si, Ti; θ̄) where D∗i is a semantic derivation that produces the correct MRMi. 102 L-BFGS ( Nocedal , 1980...Muggleton, ed. (1992). Inductive Logic Programming. Academic Press, New York, NY. Jorge Nocedal (1980). Updating quasi-Newton matrices with limited

  9. Investigating Orthographic and Semantic Aspects of Word Learning in Poor Comprehenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Jessie; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Nation, Kate

    2008-01-01

    This study compared orthographic and semantic aspects of word learning in children who differed in reading comprehension skill. Poor comprehenders and controls matched for age (9-10 years), nonverbal ability and decoding skill were trained to pronounce 20 visually presented nonwords, 10 in a consistent way and 10 in an inconsistent way. They then…

  10. VastMM-Tag: Semantic Indexing and Browsing of Videos for E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Mitchell J.

    2012-01-01

    Quickly accessing the contents of a video is challenging for users, particularly for unstructured video, which contains no intentional shot boundaries, no chapters, and no apparent edited format. We approach this problem in the domain of lecture videos though the use of machine learning, to gather semantic information about the videos; and through…

  11. What Exactly is a "Yait" Anyway: The Role of Semantics in Orthographic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, Gene; Fraser, Jillian R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether semantic information presented along with novel printed nonwords facilitates orthographic learning and examined predictors of individual differences in this important literacy skill. A sample of 35 fourth graders was tested on a variety of language and literacy tests, and participants were then exposed to 10 target…

  12. Investigating Orthographic and Semantic Aspects of Word Learning in Poor Comprehenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Jessie; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Nation, Kate

    2008-01-01

    This study compared orthographic and semantic aspects of word learning in children who differed in reading comprehension skill. Poor comprehenders and controls matched for age (9-10 years), nonverbal ability and decoding skill were trained to pronounce 20 visually presented nonwords, 10 in a consistent way and 10 in an inconsistent way. They then…

  13. The Impacts of Presenting New Words in Semantically-Related Sets on Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xingrong

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly explores the impacts of presenting new words in semantically-related (SR) sets on vocabulary learning. 38 students from two classes of Grade 2 in Taiyuan Foreign Language School (Senior High School Section) participate in the whole process. The same vocabulary items unknown to all students are taught to them in 4 lessons. The…

  14. VastMM-Tag: Semantic Indexing and Browsing of Videos for E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Mitchell J.

    2012-01-01

    Quickly accessing the contents of a video is challenging for users, particularly for unstructured video, which contains no intentional shot boundaries, no chapters, and no apparent edited format. We approach this problem in the domain of lecture videos though the use of machine learning, to gather semantic information about the videos; and through…

  15. Contribution of Prior Semantic Knowledge to New Episodic Learning in Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Irene P.; Alexander, Michael P.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether prior semantic knowledge would enhance episodic learning in amnesia. Subjects studied prices that are either congruent or incongruent with prior price knowledge for grocery and household items and then performed a forced-choice recognition test for the studied prices. Consistent with a previous report, healthy controls'…

  16. Semantic Search of Tools for Collaborative Learning with the Ontoolsearch System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vega-Gorgojo, Guillermo; Bote-Lorenzo, Miguel L.; Asensio-Perez, Juan I.; Gomez-Sanchez, Eduardo; Dimitriadis, Yannis A.; Jorrin-Abellan, Ivan M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces Ontoolsearch, a new search system that can be employed by educators in order to find suitable tools for supporting collaborative learning settings. Current tool search facilities commonly allow simple keyword searches, limiting the accuracy of obtained results. In contrast, Ontoolsearch supports semantic querying of tool…

  17. Semantic Web-Driven LMS Architecture towards a Holistic Learning Process Model Focused on Personalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerkiri, Tania

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive presentation is here made on the modular architecture of an e-learning platform with a distinctive emphasis on content personalization, combining advantages from semantic web technology, collaborative filtering and recommendation systems. Modules of this architecture handle information about both the domain-specific didactic…

  18. Event-Related EEG Oscillations to Semantically Unrelated Words in Normal and Learning Disabled Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Thalia; Harmony, Thalia; Mendoza, Omar; Lopez-Alanis, Paula; Marroquin, Jose Luis; Otero, Gloria; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

    2012-01-01

    Learning disabilities (LD) are one of the most frequent problems for elementary school-aged children. In this paper, event-related EEG oscillations to semantically related and unrelated pairs of words were studied in a group of 18 children with LD not otherwise specified (LD-NOS) and in 16 children with normal academic achievement. We propose that…

  19. Semantic Web-Driven LMS Architecture towards a Holistic Learning Process Model Focused on Personalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerkiri, Tania

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive presentation is here made on the modular architecture of an e-learning platform with a distinctive emphasis on content personalization, combining advantages from semantic web technology, collaborative filtering and recommendation systems. Modules of this architecture handle information about both the domain-specific didactic…

  20. Contribution of Prior Semantic Knowledge to New Episodic Learning in Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Irene P.; Alexander, Michael P.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether prior semantic knowledge would enhance episodic learning in amnesia. Subjects studied prices that are either congruent or incongruent with prior price knowledge for grocery and household items and then performed a forced-choice recognition test for the studied prices. Consistent with a previous report, healthy controls'…

  1. Testing the Statistical Learning of Spelling Patterns by Manipulating Semantic and Orthographic Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, S. Helene; Leung, Dilys

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the diverging predictions of recent theories of children's learning of spelling regularities. We asked younger (Grades 1 and 2) and older (Grades 3 and 4) elementary school-aged children to choose the correct endings for words that varied in their morphological structure. We tested the impacts of semantic frequency by…

  2. Semantic Search of Tools for Collaborative Learning with the Ontoolsearch System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vega-Gorgojo, Guillermo; Bote-Lorenzo, Miguel L.; Asensio-Perez, Juan I.; Gomez-Sanchez, Eduardo; Dimitriadis, Yannis A.; Jorrin-Abellan, Ivan M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces Ontoolsearch, a new search system that can be employed by educators in order to find suitable tools for supporting collaborative learning settings. Current tool search facilities commonly allow simple keyword searches, limiting the accuracy of obtained results. In contrast, Ontoolsearch supports semantic querying of tool…

  3. Event-Related EEG Oscillations to Semantically Unrelated Words in Normal and Learning Disabled Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Thalia; Harmony, Thalia; Mendoza, Omar; Lopez-Alanis, Paula; Marroquin, Jose Luis; Otero, Gloria; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

    2012-01-01

    Learning disabilities (LD) are one of the most frequent problems for elementary school-aged children. In this paper, event-related EEG oscillations to semantically related and unrelated pairs of words were studied in a group of 18 children with LD not otherwise specified (LD-NOS) and in 16 children with normal academic achievement. We propose that…

  4. Nonword Repetition and Vocabulary Knowledge as Predictors of Children's Phonological and Semantic Word Learning

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the unique and shared variance that nonword repetition and vocabulary knowledge contribute to children's ability to learn new words. Multiple measures of word learning were used to assess recall and recognition of phonological and semantic information. Method Fifty children, with a mean age of 8 years (range 5–12 years), completed experimental assessments of word learning and norm-referenced assessments of receptive and expressive vocabulary knowledge and nonword repetition skills. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses examined the variance in word learning that was explained by vocabulary knowledge and nonword repetition after controlling for chronological age. Results Together with chronological age, nonword repetition and vocabulary knowledge explained up to 44% of the variance in children's word learning. Nonword repetition was the stronger predictor of phonological recall, phonological recognition, and semantic recognition, whereas vocabulary knowledge was the stronger predictor of verbal semantic recall. Conclusions These findings extend the results of past studies indicating that both nonword repetition skill and existing vocabulary knowledge are important for new word learning, but the relative influence of each predictor depends on the way word learning is measured. Suggestions for further research involving typically developing children and children with language or reading impairments are discussed. PMID:28241284

  5. Nonword Repetition and Vocabulary Knowledge as Predictors of Children's Phonological and Semantic Word Learning.

    PubMed

    Adlof, Suzanne M; Patten, Hannah

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the unique and shared variance that nonword repetition and vocabulary knowledge contribute to children's ability to learn new words. Multiple measures of word learning were used to assess recall and recognition of phonological and semantic information. Fifty children, with a mean age of 8 years (range 5-12 years), completed experimental assessments of word learning and norm-referenced assessments of receptive and expressive vocabulary knowledge and nonword repetition skills. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses examined the variance in word learning that was explained by vocabulary knowledge and nonword repetition after controlling for chronological age. Together with chronological age, nonword repetition and vocabulary knowledge explained up to 44% of the variance in children's word learning. Nonword repetition was the stronger predictor of phonological recall, phonological recognition, and semantic recognition, whereas vocabulary knowledge was the stronger predictor of verbal semantic recall. These findings extend the results of past studies indicating that both nonword repetition skill and existing vocabulary knowledge are important for new word learning, but the relative influence of each predictor depends on the way word learning is measured. Suggestions for further research involving typically developing children and children with language or reading impairments are discussed.

  6. Animated and Static Concept Maps Enhance Learning from Spoken Narration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adesope, Olusola O.; Nesbit, John C.

    2013-01-01

    An animated concept map represents verbal information in a node-link diagram that changes over time. The goals of the experiment were to evaluate the instructional effects of presenting an animated concept map concurrently with semantically equivalent spoken narration. The study used a 2 x 2 factorial design in which an animation factor (animated…

  7. Animated and Static Concept Maps Enhance Learning from Spoken Narration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adesope, Olusola O.; Nesbit, John C.

    2013-01-01

    An animated concept map represents verbal information in a node-link diagram that changes over time. The goals of the experiment were to evaluate the instructional effects of presenting an animated concept map concurrently with semantically equivalent spoken narration. The study used a 2 x 2 factorial design in which an animation factor (animated…

  8. A Concept Transformation Learning Model for Architectural Design Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yun-Wu; Weng, Kuo-Hua; Young, Li-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Generally, in the foundation course of architectural design, much emphasis is placed on teaching of the basic design skills without focusing on teaching students to apply the basic design concepts in their architectural designs or promoting students' own creativity. Therefore, this study aims to propose a concept transformation learning model to…

  9. A Concept Transformation Learning Model for Architectural Design Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yun-Wu; Weng, Kuo-Hua; Young, Li-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Generally, in the foundation course of architectural design, much emphasis is placed on teaching of the basic design skills without focusing on teaching students to apply the basic design concepts in their architectural designs or promoting students' own creativity. Therefore, this study aims to propose a concept transformation learning model to…

  10. Learning Computer Science Concepts with Scratch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meerbaum-Salant, Orni; Armoni, Michal; Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2013-01-01

    Scratch is a visual programming environment that is widely used by young people. We investigated if Scratch can be used to teach concepts of computer science (CS). We developed learning materials for middle-school students that were designed according to the constructionist philosophy of Scratch and evaluated them in a few schools during two…

  11. Learning Computer Science Concepts with Scratch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meerbaum-Salant, Orni; Armoni, Michal; Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2013-01-01

    Scratch is a visual programming environment that is widely used by young people. We investigated if Scratch can be used to teach concepts of computer science (CS). We developed learning materials for middle-school students that were designed according to the constructionist philosophy of Scratch and evaluated them in a few schools during two…

  12. Expert Concept Mapping Study on Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borner, Dirk; Glahn, Christian; Stoyanov, Slavi; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The present paper introduces concept mapping as a structured participative conceptualization approach to identify clusters of ideas and opinions generated by experts within the domain of mobile learning. Utilizing this approach, the paper aims to contribute to a definition of key domain characteristics by identifying the main educational…

  13. Timely Diagnostic Feedback for Database Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng; Chuang, Yuh-Shy

    2013-01-01

    To efficiently learn database concepts, this work adopts association rules to provide diagnostic feedback for drawing an Entity-Relationship Diagram (ERD). Using association rules and Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) techniques, this work implements a novel Web-based Timely Diagnosis System (WTDS), which provides timely diagnostic feedback…

  14. Learning the Concept of Inverse Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidakovic, Draga

    1996-01-01

    Reports on part of a study that was conducted with individual students (n=5) and five groups of students who worked together in the first course of experimental calculus classes. The goal of the study was to discover how the concept of inverse function can be learned. (26 references) (DDR)

  15. Role of Concept Cartoons in Chemistry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Shilna, V.

    2013-01-01

    Cartoons are valuable aids that prompt interest and foster genuine student engagement in the classroom. Cartoons are part of a much larger effort to introduce rare and amusing activities to boost learning and student participation. Concept cartoons are visual tools composed of three or more characters' proposing ideas, discussing or thinking…

  16. Conceptions of Research in Student Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marton, Ference; Svensson, Lennart

    1979-01-01

    Differences in approaches to research into student learning are analyzed in terms of differences in the conception of six aspects of the research process. It is argued that underlying various strategies there is a variation in perspective, description, conceptualization, relations of categories, comprehension, and application of findings.…

  17. Concept mapping enhances learning of biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Surapaneni, Krishna M; Tekian, Ara

    2013-03-05

    Teaching basic science courses is challenging in undergraduate medical education because of the ubiquitous use of didactic lectures and reward for recall of factual information during examinations. The purpose of this study is to introduce concept maps with clinical cases (the innovative program) to improve learning of biochemistry course content. Participants were first year medical students (n=150) from Saveetha Medical College and Hospital (India); they were randomly divided into two groups of 75, one group attending the traditional program, the other the innovative program. Student performance was measured using three written knowledge tests (each with a maximum score of 20). The students also evaluated the relevance of the learning process using a 12-item questionnaire. Students in the innovative program using concept mapping outperformed those in the traditional didactic program (means of 7.13-8.28 vs. 12.33-13.93, p<0.001). The students gave high positive ratings for the innovative course (93-100% agreement). The new concept-mapping program resulted in higher academic performance compared to the traditional course and was perceived favorably by the students. They especially valued the use of concept mapping as learning tools to foster the relevance of biochemistry to clinical practice, and to enhance their reasoning and learning skills, as well as their deeper understanding for biochemistry.

  18. Concept mapping enhances learning of biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Surapaneni, Krishna M.; Tekian, Ara

    2013-01-01

    Background Teaching basic science courses is challenging in undergraduate medical education because of the ubiquitous use of didactic lectures and reward for recall of factual information during examinations. The purpose of this study is to introduce concept maps with clinical cases (the innovative program) to improve learning of biochemistry course content. Methods Participants were first year medical students (n=150) from Saveetha Medical College and Hospital (India); they were randomly divided into two groups of 75, one group attending the traditional program, the other the innovative program. Student performance was measured using three written knowledge tests (each with a maximum score of 20). The students also evaluated the relevance of the learning process using a 12-item questionnaire. Results Students in the innovative program using concept mapping outperformed those in the traditional didactic program (means of 7.13–8.28 vs. 12.33–13.93, p<0.001). The students gave high positive ratings for the innovative course (93–100% agreement). Conclusion The new concept-mapping program resulted in higher academic performance compared to the traditional course and was perceived favorably by the students. They especially valued the use of concept mapping as learning tools to foster the relevance of biochemistry to clinical practice, and to enhance their reasoning and learning skills, as well as their deeper understanding for biochemistry. PMID:23464600

  19. Concept mapping enhances learning of biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Surapaneni, KrishnaM; Tekian, Ara

    2013-01-01

    Teaching basic science courses is challenging in undergraduate medical education because of the ubiquitous use of didactic lectures and reward for recall of factual information during examinations. The purpose of this study is to introduce concept maps with clinical cases (the innovative program) to improve learning of biochemistry course content. Participants were first year medical students (n=150) from Saveetha Medical College and Hospital (India); they were randomly divided into two groups of 75, one group attending the traditional program, the other the innovative program. Student performance was measured using three written knowledge tests (each with a maximum score of 20). The students also evaluated the relevance of the learning process using a 12-item questionnaire. Students in the innovative program using concept mapping outperformed those in the traditional didactic program (means of 7.13-8.28 vs. 12.33-13.93, p<0.001). The students gave high positive ratings for the innovative course (93-100% agreement). The new concept-mapping program resulted in higher academic performance compared to the traditional course and was perceived favorably by the students. They especially valued the use of concept mapping as learning tools to foster the relevance of biochemistry to clinical practice, and to enhance their reasoning and learning skills, as well as their deeper understanding for biochemistry.

  20. Timely Diagnostic Feedback for Database Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng; Chuang, Yuh-Shy

    2013-01-01

    To efficiently learn database concepts, this work adopts association rules to provide diagnostic feedback for drawing an Entity-Relationship Diagram (ERD). Using association rules and Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) techniques, this work implements a novel Web-based Timely Diagnosis System (WTDS), which provides timely diagnostic feedback…

  1. Learning Disabled: Number Concepts, Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.

    Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials--the bibliography covers 62 materials for teaching number concepts to learning disabled students at the primary grades. Entries are presented in order of NIMIS accession number and…

  2. Meaningful Memory in Acute Anorexia Nervosa Patients-Comparing Recall, Learning, and Recognition of Semantically Related and Semantically Unrelated Word Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Terhoeven, Valentin; Kallen, Ursula; Ingenerf, Katrin; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Weisbrod, Matthias; Herzog, Wolfgang; Brockmeyer, Timo; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Nikendei, Christoph

    2017-03-01

    It is unclear whether observed memory impairment in anorexia nervosa (AN) depends on the semantic structure (categorized words) of material to be encoded. We aimed to investigate the processing of semantically related information in AN. Memory performance was assessed in a recall, learning, and recognition test in 27 adult women with AN (19 restricting, 8 binge-eating/purging subtype; average disease duration: 9.32 years) and 30 healthy controls using an extended version of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, applying semantically related and unrelated word stimuli. Short-term memory (immediate recall, learning), regardless of semantics of the words, was significantly worse in AN patients, whereas long-term memory (delayed recall, recognition) did not differ between AN patients and controls. Semantics of stimuli do not have a better effect on memory recall in AN compared to CO. Impaired short-term versus long-term memory is discussed in relation to dysfunctional working memory in AN. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  3. Lifelong learning: Established concepts and evolving values.

    PubMed

    Talati, Jamsheer Jehangir

    2014-03-01

    To summarise the concepts critical for understanding the content and value of lifelong learning (LL). Ideas generated by personal experience were combined with those of philosophers, social scientists, educational institutions, governments and UNESCO, to facilitate an understanding of the importance of the basic concepts of LL. Autopoietic, continuous, self-determined, informal, vicarious, biographical, lifelong reflexive learning, from and for society, when supported by self-chosen formal courses, can build capacities and portable skills that allow useful responses to challenges and society's new structures of governance. The need for LL is driven by challenges. LL flows continuously in pursuit of one agenda, which could either be citizenship, as is conventional, or as this article proposes, health. LL cannot be wholly centred on vocation. Continuous medical education and continuous professional development, important in their own right, cannot supply all that is needed. LL aids society with its learning, and it requires an awareness of the environment and structures of society. It is heavily vicarious, draws on formal learning and relies for effectiveness on reflection, self-assessment and personal shaping of views of the world from different perspectives. Health is critical to rational thought and peace, and determines society's capacity to govern itself, and improve its health. LL should be reshaped to focus on health not citizenship. Therefore, embedding learning in society and environment is critical. Each urologist must develop an understanding of the numerous concepts in LL, of which 'biographicisation' is the seed that will promote innovative strategies.

  4. Use of analogy in learning scientific concepts.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, C M; McDaniel, M A

    1993-07-01

    Four experiments compared learning of scientific concepts as expressed in either traditional literal form or through an analogy. Comprehension of basic-level details and inferential implications was measured through multiple-choice testing. In Experiment 1, literal or analogical renditions were presented in textual form only. In Experiment 2, text was accompanied by a dynamic video. In Experiment 3, the video and text literal rendition was compared with a text-only analogical rendition. In Experiment 4, subjects read only about a familiar domain. Subjects consistently answered basic-level questions most accurately when concepts were expressed literally, but answered inferential questions most accurately when concepts were expressed analogically. Analysis of individual differences (Experiment 2) indicated that this interaction strongly characterized the conceptual learning of science novices. The results are discussed within the framework of schema induction.

  5. Learning tree: a new concept in learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landelius, Tomas; Knutsson, Hans

    1993-09-01

    In this paper learning is considered to be the bootstrapping procedure where fragmented past experience of what to do when performing well is used for generation of new responses adding more information to the system about the environment. The gained knowledge is represented by a behavior probability density function which is decomposed into a number of normal distributions using a binary tree. This tree structure is built by storing highly reinforced stimuli-response combinations, decisions, and calculating their mean decision vector and covariance matrix. Thereafter the decision space is divided, through the mean vector, into two halves along the direction of maximal data variation. The mean vector and the covariance matrix are stored in the tree node and the procedure is repeated recursively for each of the two halves of the decision space forming a binary tree with mean vectors and covariance matrices in its nodes. The tree is the systems guide to response generation. Given a stimuli the system searches for decisions likely to give a high reinforcement.

  6. The Influence of Prosodic Stress Patterns and Semantic Depth on Novel Word Learning in Typically Developing Children.

    PubMed

    Gladfelter, Allison; Goffman, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of prosodic stress patterns and semantic depth on word learning. Twelve preschool-aged children with typically developing speech and language skills participated in a word learning task. Novel words with either a trochaic or iambic prosodic pattern were embedded in one of two learning conditions, either in children's stories (semantically rich) or picture matching games (semantically sparse). Three main analyses were used to measure word learning: comprehension and production probes, phonetic accuracy, and speech motor stability. Results revealed that prosodic frequency and density influence the learnability of novel words, or that there are prosodic neighborhood density effects. The impact of semantic depth on word learning was minimal and likely depends on the amount of experience with the novel words.

  7. The Influence of Prosodic Stress Patterns and Semantic Depth on Novel Word Learning in Typically Developing Children

    PubMed Central

    Gladfelter, Allison; Goffman, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of prosodic stress patterns and semantic depth on word learning. Twelve preschool-aged children with typically developing speech and language skills participated in a word learning task. Novel words with either a trochaic or iambic prosodic pattern were embedded in one of two learning conditions, either in children’s stories (semantically rich) or picture matching games (semantically sparse). Three main analyses were used to measure word learning: comprehension and production probes, phonetic accuracy, and speech motor stability. Results revealed that prosodic frequency and density influence the learnability of novel words, or that there are prosodic neighborhood density effects. The impact of semantic depth on word learning was minimal and likely depends on the amount of experience with the novel words. PMID:23667328

  8. Errorless learning of computer-generated words in a patient with semantic dementia.

    PubMed

    Jokel, Regina; Rochon, Elizabeth; Anderson, Nicole D

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the effectiveness and feasibility of an errorless learning approach administered via a computer-based treatment for anomia to CS, an individual with semantic dementia. Using a multiple baseline across behaviours design, we explored treatment specific effects, maintenance and generalisation of gains derived from the MossTalk Words((R)) therapy programme. CS was treated on three lists of words, each containing items for which CS retained some semantic knowledge and some for which he did not. CS was tested immediately after therapy, and one and three months later. Improved naming was maintained on all lists at all testing intervals. In addition, among those words for which CS retained some semantic knowledge, he maintained the ability to name all practised words, but only half of the not practised words. This study underscored the feasibility of computer-based treatments for anomia in progressive disorders, demonstrated the effectiveness of an errorless approach in semantic dementia in re-training lost words, and provided justification for training words that patients still have in their daily vocabulary. The results are discussed in relation to other treatment studies in progressive aphasia and in the context of factors necessary for therapeutic success in semantic dementia.

  9. Learning the Distribution Preserving Semantic Subspace for Clustering.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jinyu; Zhang, Taiping; Qin, Anyong; Shang, Zhaowei; Tang, Yuan Yan

    2017-09-04

    This work proposes a new clustering method for images called Distribution Preserving Indexing (DPI). It aims to find a lower-dimensional semantic space approximating the original image space in the sense of preserving the distribution of the data. In the theory, the intrinsic structure of the data clusters can be described by the distribution of the data effectively. Therefore, the cluster structure of the data in a lower-dimensional semantic space derived by DPI becomes clear. Unlike these distance based clustering methods which reveal the intrinsic Euclidean structure of data, our method attempts to discover the intrinsic cluster structure of the data space that actually is the union of some sub-manifolds. Moreover, we propose a revised Kernel Density Estimator for the case of high-dimensional data, which is a crucial step in DPI. Also, we provide a theoretical analysis of the bound of our method. Finally, the extensive experiments compared with other algorithms, on COIL20, CBCL, and MNIST demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach.

  10. Improving EFL Writing through Study of Semantic Concepts in Formulaic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenck, Andrew D.; Choi, Wonkyung

    2015-01-01

    Within Asian EFL contexts such as South Korea, large class sizes, poor sources of input and an overreliance on the Grammar-Translation Method may negatively impact semantic and pragmatic development of writing content. Since formulaic language is imbued with syntactic, semantic and pragmatic linguistic features, it represents an ideal means to…

  11. Problem-Based Learning Supported by Semantic Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Esther; Gracia, Jorge; Corcho, Oscar; Noble, Richard A.; Gómez-Pérez, Asunción

    2015-01-01

    Problem-based learning has been applied over the last three decades to a diverse range of learning environments. In this educational approach, different problems are posed to the learners so that they can develop different solutions while learning about the problem domain. When applied to conceptual modelling, and particularly to Qualitative…

  12. Relearning in Semantic Dementia Reflects Contributions from Both Medial Temporal Lobe Episodic and Degraded Neocortical Semantic Systems: Evidence in Support of the Complementary Learning Systems Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayberry, Emily J.; Sage, Karen; Ehsan, Sheeba; Ralph, Matthew A. Lambon

    2011-01-01

    When relearning words, patients with semantic dementia (SD) exhibit a characteristic rigidity, including a failure to generalise names to untrained exemplars of trained concepts. This has been attributed to an over-reliance on the medial temporal region which captures information in sparse, non-overlapping and therefore rigid representations. The…

  13. What matters in semantic feature processing for persons with stroke-aphasia: Evidence from an auditory concept-feature verification task

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, Sharon M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between object concept domains (living vs. nonliving) and their underlying feature structures is a frequent area of investigation regarding semantic processing in healthy individuals and some individuals with neuropsychological impairment resulting from herpes simplex encephalitis, semantic dementia and Alzheimer's disease. However, this relationship has been less well-investigated in persons with stroke-aphasia (PWA), even though many treatments for anomia following stroke are predicated on the use of semantic feature cues. Aims As part of a larger investigation into the influence of semantic feature processing on naming for PWA, this study examined the ability of PWA to confirm the relations between object concepts and associated semantic features. Methods & Procedures 15 native English-speaking, right handed individuals with post-stroke-aphasia responded yes or no via button press to feature-verification questions designed to probe the relationships between concept domain and feature type and distinctiveness. Outcomes & Results PWA were more accurate and quicker to confirm concept-feature relationships when features contained function/action, rather than visual-perceptual, information about concepts and when features were distinctive to concepts rather than shared. The truthfulness (i.e., veracity) of concept-feature pairings was demonstrated to differentially affect living versus nonliving concepts. Within domain, only nonliving concepts were verified more accurately and more quickly when pairings were true (rather than false). Between domains, true nonliving concept-feature pairings were more accurately and more quickly verified than true living concept-feature pairings. Also with respect to veracity, correlations were observed between aphasia severity and accuracy and speed of response to false concept-feature pairings. Conclusions Findings have implications for the way in which semantic processing is probed with PWA, as well as

  14. What matters in semantic feature processing for persons with stroke-aphasia: Evidence from an auditory concept-feature verification task.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, Sharon M

    The relationship between object concept domains (living vs. nonliving) and their underlying feature structures is a frequent area of investigation regarding semantic processing in healthy individuals and some individuals with neuropsychological impairment resulting from herpes simplex encephalitis, semantic dementia and Alzheimer's disease. However, this relationship has been less well-investigated in persons with stroke-aphasia (PWA), even though many treatments for anomia following stroke are predicated on the use of semantic feature cues. As part of a larger investigation into the influence of semantic feature processing on naming for PWA, this study examined the ability of PWA to confirm the relations between object concepts and associated semantic features. 15 native English-speaking, right handed individuals with post-stroke-aphasia responded yes or no via button press to feature-verification questions designed to probe the relationships between concept domain and feature type and distinctiveness. PWA were more accurate and quicker to confirm concept-feature relationships when features contained function/action, rather than visual-perceptual, information about concepts and when features were distinctive to concepts rather than shared. The truthfulness (i.e., veracity) of concept-feature pairings was demonstrated to differentially affect living versus nonliving concepts. Within domain, only nonliving concepts were verified more accurately and more quickly when pairings were true (rather than false). Between domains, true nonliving concept-feature pairings were more accurately and more quickly verified than true living concept-feature pairings. Also with respect to veracity, correlations were observed between aphasia severity and accuracy and speed of response to false concept-feature pairings. Findings have implications for the way in which semantic processing is probed with PWA, as well as providing preliminary information regarding responsivity of PWA to

  15. Evaluating Learning Objects across Boundaries: The Semantics of Localization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jerry Z.; Nesbit, John C.; Richards, Griff

    2006-01-01

    Learning object repositories and evaluation tools have the potential to serve as sites for interaction among different cultures and communities of practice. This article outlines Web-based learning object evaluation tools that we have developed, describes our current efforts to extend those tools to a wider range of user communities, and considers…

  16. An Enhanced Personal Learning Environment Using Social Semantic Web Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halimi, Khaled; Seridi-Bouchelaghem, Hassina; Faron-Zucker, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Compared with learning in classrooms, classical e-learning systems are less adaptive and once a system that supports a particular strategy has been designed and implemented, it is less likely to change according to student's interactions and preferences. Remote educational systems should be developed to ensure as much as necessary the…

  17. An Enhanced Personal Learning Environment Using Social Semantic Web Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halimi, Khaled; Seridi-Bouchelaghem, Hassina; Faron-Zucker, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Compared with learning in classrooms, classical e-learning systems are less adaptive and once a system that supports a particular strategy has been designed and implemented, it is less likely to change according to student's interactions and preferences. Remote educational systems should be developed to ensure as much as necessary the…

  18. Lifelong learning: Established concepts and evolving values

    PubMed Central

    Talati, Jamsheer Jehangir

    2014-01-01

    Objective To summarise the concepts critical for understanding the content and value of lifelong learning (LL). Methods Ideas generated by personal experience were combined with those of philosophers, social scientists, educational institutions, governments and UNESCO, to facilitate an understanding of the importance of the basic concepts of LL. Results Autopoietic, continuous, self-determined, informal, vicarious, biographical, lifelong reflexive learning, from and for society, when supported by self-chosen formal courses, can build capacities and portable skills that allow useful responses to challenges and society’s new structures of governance. The need for LL is driven by challenges. LL flows continuously in pursuit of one agenda, which could either be citizenship, as is conventional, or as this article proposes, health. LL cannot be wholly centred on vocation. Continuous medical education and continuous professional development, important in their own right, cannot supply all that is needed. LL aids society with its learning, and it requires an awareness of the environment and structures of society. It is heavily vicarious, draws on formal learning and relies for effectiveness on reflection, self-assessment and personal shaping of views of the world from different perspectives. Conclusion Health is critical to rational thought and peace, and determines society’s capacity to govern itself, and improve its health. LL should be reshaped to focus on health not citizenship. Therefore, embedding learning in society and environment is critical. Each urologist must develop an understanding of the numerous concepts in LL, of which ‘biographicisation’ is the seed that will promote innovative strategies. PMID:26019932

  19. The Construction of Semantic Memory: Grammar-Based Representations Learned from Relational Episodic Information

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Francesco P.; Pennartz, Cyriel M. A.

    2011-01-01

    After acquisition, memories underlie a process of consolidation, making them more resistant to interference and brain injury. Memory consolidation involves systems-level interactions, most importantly between the hippocampus and associated structures, which takes part in the initial encoding of memory, and the neocortex, which supports long-term storage. This dichotomy parallels the contrast between episodic memory (tied to the hippocampal formation), collecting an autobiographical stream of experiences, and semantic memory, a repertoire of facts and statistical regularities about the world, involving the neocortex at large. Experimental evidence points to a gradual transformation of memories, following encoding, from an episodic to a semantic character. This may require an exchange of information between different memory modules during inactive periods. We propose a theory for such interactions and for the formation of semantic memory, in which episodic memory is encoded as relational data. Semantic memory is modeled as a modified stochastic grammar, which learns to parse episodic configurations expressed as an association matrix. The grammar produces tree-like representations of episodes, describing the relationships between its main constituents at multiple levels of categorization, based on its current knowledge of world regularities. These regularities are learned by the grammar from episodic memory information, through an expectation-maximization procedure, analogous to the inside–outside algorithm for stochastic context-free grammars. We propose that a Monte-Carlo sampling version of this algorithm can be mapped on the dynamics of “sleep replay” of previously acquired information in the hippocampus and neocortex. We propose that the model can reproduce several properties of semantic memory such as decontextualization, top-down processing, and creation of schemata. PMID:21887143

  20. The New Challenges for E-learning: The Educational Semantic Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aroyo, Lora; Dicheva, Darina

    2004-01-01

    The big question for many researchers in the area of educational systems now is what is the next step in the evolution of e-learning? Are we finally moving from a scattered intelligence to a coherent space of collaborative intelligence? How close we are to the vision of the Educational Semantic Web and what do we need to do in order to realize it?…

  1. What Is Learned when Concept Learning Fails?--A Theory of Restricted-Domain Relational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Anthony A.; Lickteig, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    Two matching-to-sample (MTS) and four same/different (S/D) experiments employed tests to distinguish between item-specific learning and relational learning. One MTS experiment showed item-specific learning when concept learning failed (i.e., no novel-stimulus transfer). Another MTS experiment showed item-specific learning when pigeons'…

  2. Concept Maps for Evaluating Learning of Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shallcross, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Concept maps are used to assess student and cohort learning of sustainable development. The concept maps of 732 first-year engineering students were individually analyzed to detect patterns of learning and areas that were not well understood. Students were given 20 minutes each to prepare a concept map of at least 20 concepts using paper and pen.…

  3. A New Model of Concept Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessmer, Martin; And Others

    The concept model addressed in this paper is the set of assumptions, data, and inferences used in the instructional design of concept learning. A new way of looking at concepts is presented that takes into account the declarative and metacognitive components of concept learning and use. Implications for instruction are outlined. The paper is…

  4. Concept Maps for Evaluating Learning of Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shallcross, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Concept maps are used to assess student and cohort learning of sustainable development. The concept maps of 732 first-year engineering students were individually analyzed to detect patterns of learning and areas that were not well understood. Students were given 20 minutes each to prepare a concept map of at least 20 concepts using paper and pen.…

  5. Students' Conceptions of Constructivist Learning in Different Programme Years and Different Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Constructivist views of learning have brought conceptions of learning to attention again. Conceptions are considered important determinants of effective learning. Students can differ in their conceptions depending on their educational experience. Aims: The present study investigated students' conceptions of constructivist learning. Do…

  6. Toward a Semantic Forum for Active Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yanyan; Dong, Mingkai; Huang, Ronghuai

    2009-01-01

    Online discussion forums provide open workspace allowing learners to share information, exchange ideas, address problems and discuss on specific themes. But the substantial impediment to its promotion as effective e-learning facility lies in the continuously increasing messages but with discrete and incoherent structure as well as the loosely-tied…

  7. Toward a Semantic Forum for Active Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yanyan; Dong, Mingkai; Huang, Ronghuai

    2009-01-01

    Online discussion forums provide open workspace allowing learners to share information, exchange ideas, address problems and discuss on specific themes. But the substantial impediment to its promotion as effective e-learning facility lies in the continuously increasing messages but with discrete and incoherent structure as well as the loosely-tied…

  8. Semantic Linking of Learning Object Repositories to DBpedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lama, Manuel; Vidal, Juan C.; Otero-Garcia, Estefania; Bugarin, Alberto; Barro, Senen

    2012-01-01

    Large-sized repositories of learning objects (LOs) are difficult to create and also to maintain. In this paper we propose a way to reduce this drawback by improving the classification mechanisms of the LO repositories. Specifically, we present a solution to automate the LO classification of the Universia repository, a collection of more than 15…

  9. Semantic Linking of Learning Object Repositories to DBpedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lama, Manuel; Vidal, Juan C.; Otero-Garcia, Estefania; Bugarin, Alberto; Barro, Senen

    2012-01-01

    Large-sized repositories of learning objects (LOs) are difficult to create and also to maintain. In this paper we propose a way to reduce this drawback by improving the classification mechanisms of the LO repositories. Specifically, we present a solution to automate the LO classification of the Universia repository, a collection of more than 15…

  10. Data mining learning bootstrap through semantic thumbnail analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiato, Sebastiano; Farinella, Giovanni Maria; Giuffrida, Giovanni; Tribulato, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    The rapid increase of technological innovations in the mobile phone industry induces the research community to develop new and advanced systems to optimize services offered by mobile phones operators (telcos) to maximize their effectiveness and improve their business. Data mining algorithms can run over data produced by mobile phones usage (e.g. image, video, text and logs files) to discover user's preferences and predict the most likely (to be purchased) offer for each individual customer. One of the main challenges is the reduction of the learning time and cost of these automatic tasks. In this paper we discuss an experiment where a commercial offer is composed by a small picture augmented with a short text describing the offer itself. Each customer's purchase is properly logged with all relevant information. Upon arrival of new items we need to learn who the best customers (prospects) for each item are, that is, the ones most likely to be interested in purchasing that specific item. Such learning activity is time consuming and, in our specific case, is not applicable given the large number of new items arriving every day. Basically, given the current customer base we are not able to learn on all new items. Thus, we need somehow to select among those new items to identify the best candidates. We do so by using a joint analysis between visual features and text to estimate how good each new item could be, that is, whether or not is worth to learn on it. Preliminary results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach to improve classical data mining techniques.

  11. Integrated Learning of Words and Their Underlying Concepts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION 17. COSATI CODES 1. SlLUJEc TEReMS an:m:nE if ow::n B n1 i:,dsi b FIELD GROUP SUB ROUP Word Learning, Explanation- Based Learning, Concept...concurrently This model is implemented s a word learning component added to the GENESIS explanation- based schema acquisition system for narrative...concepts. Also. developmental data suggests that the learnig of words and their concepts frequently occurs concurrently instead of concept learnng proceeding

  12. Linking descriptive geology and quantitative machine learning through an ontology of lithological concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J. F.; Huber, R.; Robertson, J.; Cox, S. J. D.; Woodcock, R.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the recent explosion of quantitative geological data, geology remains a fundamentally qualitative science. Numerical data only constitute a certain part of data collection in the geosciences. In many cases, geological observations are compiled as text into reports and annotations on drill cores, thin sections or drawings of outcrops. The observations are classified into concepts such as lithology, stratigraphy, geological structure, etc. These descriptions are semantically rich and are generally supported by more quantitative observations using geochemical analyses, XRD, hyperspectral scanning, etc, but the goal is geological semantics. In practice it has been difficult to bring the different observations together due to differing perception or granularity of classification in human observation, or the partial observation of only some characteristics using quantitative sensors. In the past years many geological classification schemas have been transferred into ontologies and vocabularies, formalized using RDF and OWL, and published through SPARQL endpoints. Several lithological ontologies were compiled by stratigraphy.net and published through a SPARQL endpoint. This work is complemented by the development of a Python API to integrate this vocabulary into Python-based text mining applications. The applications for the lithological vocabulary and Python API are automated semantic tagging of geochemical data and descriptions of drill cores, machine learning of geochemical compositions that are diagnostic for lithological classifications, and text mining for lithological concepts in reports and geological literature. This combination of applications can be used to identify anomalies in databases, where composition and lithological classification do not match. It can also be used to identify lithological concepts in the literature and infer quantitative values. The resulting semantic tagging opens new possibilities for linking these diverse sources of data.

  13. Using Interactive Teaching and Learning Strategies to Promote Text Comprehension and Content Learning for Students with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bos, Candace S.; Anders, Patricia L.

    1992-01-01

    The Interactive Teaching Project was designed to test an instructional model to help students with learning disabilities comprehend content area concepts. This paper describes the theoretical model and the effective interactive teaching and learning strategies used, including semantic feature analysis, semantic mapping, and semantic/syntactic…

  14. Learning style preference and student aptitude for concept maps.

    PubMed

    Kostovich, Carol T; Poradzisz, Michele; Wood, Karen; O'Brien, Karen L

    2007-05-01

    Acknowledging that individuals' preferences for learning vary, faculty in an undergraduate nursing program questioned whether a student's learning style is an indicator of aptitude in developing concept maps. The purpose of this research was to describe the relationship between nursing students' learning style preference and aptitude for concept maps. The sample included 120 undergraduate students enrolled in the adult health nursing course. Students created one concept map and completed two instruments: the Learning Style Survey and the Concept Map Survey. Data included Learning Style Survey scores, grade for the concept map, and grade for the adult health course. No significant difference was found between learning style preference and concept map grades. Thematic analysis of the qualitative survey data yielded further insight into students' preferences for creating concept maps.

  15. Cognitive neuroscience studies of semantic memory in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Chertkow, Howard; Whatmough, Christine; Saumier, Daniel; Duong, Anh

    2008-01-01

    Semantic memory is the component of long-term memory that stores our concepts about the world. The disruption of semantic memory as a result of brain damage may have profound negative consequences on an individual's ability to name objects and process concepts. This can be disrupted as a result of many forms of brain damage, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD). The current paper reviews research demonstrating that semantics deteriorates early in AD, particularly on effortful semantic tasks. There is a "category effect", meaning that AD preferentially affects concepts dealing with living things and abstract concepts compared to non-living objects and verbs/actions. While this pattern of deterioration, specific for AD, may reflect a breakdown within a distributed semantic system (where living things are distinguished by a high rate of inter-correlations between concepts or by a particular mode of being learned), it is equally possible that there is a regional distribution of semantic knowledge, with living things preferentially involving left temporal regions which become damaged early on in AD. Evidence from patients with strokes and semantic dementia, as well as activation studies in normal individuals, implicates the left posterior temporal region in semantic processing for pictures, abstract words, and concrete words. AD individuals, who are impaired in a variety of semantic tasks, show functional deficits in this area, and fail to activate it normally.

  16. How semantic biases in simple adjacencies affect learning a complex structure with non-adjacencies in AGL: a statistical account

    PubMed Central

    Poletiek, Fenna H.; Lai, Jun

    2012-01-01

    A major theoretical debate in language acquisition research regards the learnability of hierarchical structures. The artificial grammar learning methodology is increasingly influential in approaching this question. Studies using an artificial centre-embedded AnBn grammar without semantics draw conflicting conclusions. This study investigates the facilitating effect of distributional biases in simple AB adjacencies in the input sample—caused in natural languages, among others, by semantic biases—on learning a centre-embedded structure. A mathematical simulation of the linguistic input and the learning, comparing various distributional biases in AB pairs, suggests that strong distributional biases might help us to grasp the complex AnBn hierarchical structure in a later stage. This theoretical investigation might contribute to our understanding of how distributional features of the input—including those caused by semantic variation—help learning complex structures in natural languages. PMID:22688639

  17. Mining e-Learning Domain Concept Map from Academic Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Nian-Shing; Kinshuk; Wei, Chun-Wang; Chen, Hong-Jhe

    2008-01-01

    Recent researches have demonstrated the importance of concept map and its versatile applications especially in e-Learning. For example, while designing adaptive learning materials, designers need to refer to the concept map of a subject domain. Moreover, concept maps can show the whole picture and core knowledge about a subject domain. Research…

  18. Learning from Concept Mapping and Hypertext: An Eye Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amadieu, Franck; Salmerón, Ladislao; Cegarra, Julien; Paubel, Pierre-Vincent; Lemarié, Julie; Chevalier, Aline

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prior domain knowledge and learning sequences on learning with concept mapping and hypertext. Participants either made a concept map in a first step and then read the hypertext's contents combined with concept mapping (high activating condition), or they read the hypertext's contents first and then made a concept…

  19. How Effective Is Example Generation for Learning Declarative Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Katherine A.; Dunlosky, John

    2016-01-01

    Declarative concepts (i.e., key terms and corresponding definitions for abstract concepts) represent foundational knowledge that students learn in many content domains. Thus, investigating techniques to enhance concept learning is of critical importance. Various theoretical accounts support the expectation that example generation will serve this…

  20. Mining e-Learning Domain Concept Map from Academic Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Nian-Shing; Kinshuk; Wei, Chun-Wang; Chen, Hong-Jhe

    2008-01-01

    Recent researches have demonstrated the importance of concept map and its versatile applications especially in e-Learning. For example, while designing adaptive learning materials, designers need to refer to the concept map of a subject domain. Moreover, concept maps can show the whole picture and core knowledge about a subject domain. Research…

  1. A Rational Analysis of Rule-Based Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Noah D.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.; Feldman, Jacob; Griffiths, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    This article proposes a new model of human concept learning that provides a rational analysis of learning feature-based concepts. This model is built upon Bayesian inference for a grammatically structured hypothesis space--a concept language of logical rules. This article compares the model predictions to human generalization judgments in several…

  2. How Effective Is Example Generation for Learning Declarative Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Katherine A.; Dunlosky, John

    2016-01-01

    Declarative concepts (i.e., key terms and corresponding definitions for abstract concepts) represent foundational knowledge that students learn in many content domains. Thus, investigating techniques to enhance concept learning is of critical importance. Various theoretical accounts support the expectation that example generation will serve this…

  3. CASE--A PROGRAM FOR SIMULATION OF CONCEPT LEARNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAKER, FRANK B.

    THE "CASE" PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED TO PROVIDE A VEHICLE FOR UNDERSTANDING THE PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESSES INVOLVED IN CONCEPT LEARNING BY MEANS OF COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNIQUES. BECAUSE THE MAJORITY OF PUBLISHED "SIMULATION OF CONCEPT LEARNING" PROGRAMS PROVIDED FEW INSIGHTS INTO THE LEARNING PROCESS, THE "CASE" PROGRAM…

  4. Effects of Variation and Prior Knowledge on Abstract Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braithwaite, David W.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Learning abstract concepts through concrete examples may promote learning at the cost of inhibiting transfer. The present study investigated one approach to solving this problem: systematically varying superficial features of the examples. Participants learned to solve problems involving a mathematical concept by studying either superficially…

  5. Conception of Learning Outcomes in the Bloom's Taxonomy Affective Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickiene, Izabela

    2010-01-01

    The article raises a problematic issue regarding an insufficient base of the conception of learning outcomes in the Bloom's taxonomy affective domain. The search for solutions introduces the conception of teaching and learning in the affective domain as well as presents validity criteria of learning outcomes in the affective domain. The…

  6. Effects of Variation and Prior Knowledge on Abstract Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braithwaite, David W.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Learning abstract concepts through concrete examples may promote learning at the cost of inhibiting transfer. The present study investigated one approach to solving this problem: systematically varying superficial features of the examples. Participants learned to solve problems involving a mathematical concept by studying either superficially…

  7. The Influence of Prosodic Stress Patterns and Semantic Depth on Novel Word Learning in Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladfelter, Allison; Goffman, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of prosodic stress patterns and semantic depth on word learning. Twelve preschool-aged children with typically developing speech and language skills participated in a word learning task. Novel words with either a trochaic or iambic prosodic pattern were embedded in one of two learning…

  8. Concept-based learning of personalized prescribing

    PubMed Central

    Rissmann, Robert; Dubois, Eline A; Franson, Kari L; Cohen, Adam F

    2012-01-01

    The variability of drug response in different patients can be caused by various factors including age, change in renal function, co-medication and genotype. Traditionally, these personal variables are considered by clinicians prior to issuing a prescription. This paper provides an overview of a process to individualize prescribing for a patient with an emphasis on how to train (learning) clinicians in skillful rational prescribing. For this purpose the 6STEP methodology, a concept-based learning strategy to achieve a structured therapeutic plan, has been introduced. In contrast to older educational approaches which focused primarily on the drugs or the process of prescribing, the 6STEP is a patient-centred method resulting in individualized therapy. The six interlinked steps provide the (training) prescriber with a structured framework that facilitates a rationalized therapeutic decision by focusing on the individual patient parameters that influence drug response. Educational tools for rational prescribing involve understanding of basic and clinical pharmacological principles, practicing to write 6STEP therapeutic plans, learning from feedback sessions on these plans and actively obtaining up to date information on drugs and therapeutic standards from online resources. PMID:22420749

  9. A semantic-based method for extracting concept definitions from scientific publications: evaluation in the autism phenotype domain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A variety of informatics approaches have been developed that use information retrieval, NLP and text-mining techniques to identify biomedical concepts and relations within scientific publications or their sentences. These approaches have not typically addressed the challenge of extracting more complex knowledge such as biomedical definitions. In our efforts to facilitate knowledge acquisition of rule-based definitions of autism phenotypes, we have developed a novel semantic-based text-mining approach that can automatically identify such definitions within text. Results Using an existing knowledge base of 156 autism phenotype definitions and an annotated corpus of 26 source articles containing such definitions, we evaluated and compared the average rank of correctly identified rule definition or corresponding rule template using both our semantic-based approach and a standard term-based approach. We examined three separate scenarios: (1) the snippet of text contained a definition already in the knowledge base; (2) the snippet contained an alternative definition for a concept in the knowledge base; and (3) the snippet contained a definition not in the knowledge base. Our semantic-based approach had a higher average rank than the term-based approach for each of the three scenarios (scenario 1: 3.8 vs. 5.0; scenario 2: 2.8 vs. 4.9; and scenario 3: 4.5 vs. 6.2), with each comparison significant at the p-value of 0.05 using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Conclusions Our work shows that leveraging existing domain knowledge in the information extraction of biomedical definitions significantly improves the correct identification of such knowledge within sentences. Our method can thus help researchers rapidly acquire knowledge about biomedical definitions that are specified and evolving within an ever-growing corpus of scientific publications. PMID:23937724

  10. A semantic-based method for extracting concept definitions from scientific publications: evaluation in the autism phenotype domain.

    PubMed

    Hassanpour, Saeed; O'Connor, Martin J; Das, Amar K

    2013-08-12

    A variety of informatics approaches have been developed that use information retrieval, NLP and text-mining techniques to identify biomedical concepts and relations within scientific publications or their sentences. These approaches have not typically addressed the challenge of extracting more complex knowledge such as biomedical definitions. In our efforts to facilitate knowledge acquisition of rule-based definitions of autism phenotypes, we have developed a novel semantic-based text-mining approach that can automatically identify such definitions within text. Using an existing knowledge base of 156 autism phenotype definitions and an annotated corpus of 26 source articles containing such definitions, we evaluated and compared the average rank of correctly identified rule definition or corresponding rule template using both our semantic-based approach and a standard term-based approach. We examined three separate scenarios: (1) the snippet of text contained a definition already in the knowledge base; (2) the snippet contained an alternative definition for a concept in the knowledge base; and (3) the snippet contained a definition not in the knowledge base. Our semantic-based approach had a higher average rank than the term-based approach for each of the three scenarios (scenario 1: 3.8 vs. 5.0; scenario 2: 2.8 vs. 4.9; and scenario 3: 4.5 vs. 6.2), with each comparison significant at the p-value of 0.05 using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Our work shows that leveraging existing domain knowledge in the information extraction of biomedical definitions significantly improves the correct identification of such knowledge within sentences. Our method can thus help researchers rapidly acquire knowledge about biomedical definitions that are specified and evolving within an ever-growing corpus of scientific publications.

  11. Threshold Concepts and Conceptions: Student Learning in Introductory Management Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, April L.; Gilmore, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how insights from the broader education literature on threshold concepts and conceptions can be applied to improve the teaching of undergraduate introductory management courses. The authors propose that these courses are underpinned by the threshold conception, or "underlying game," that management is a practice…

  12. Integrating Statistical Machine Learning in a Semantic Sensor Web for Proactive Monitoring and Control.

    PubMed

    Adeleke, Jude Adekunle; Moodley, Deshendran; Rens, Gavin; Adewumi, Aderemi Oluyinka

    2017-04-09

    Proactive monitoring and control of our natural and built environments is important in various application scenarios. Semantic Sensor Web technologies have been well researched and used for environmental monitoring applications to expose sensor data for analysis in order to provide responsive actions in situations of interest. While these applications provide quick response to situations, to minimize their unwanted effects, research efforts are still necessary to provide techniques that can anticipate the future to support proactive control, such that unwanted situations can be averted altogether. This study integrates a statistical machine learning based predictive model in a Semantic Sensor Web using stream reasoning. The approach is evaluated in an indoor air quality monitoring case study. A sliding window approach that employs the Multilayer Perceptron model to predict short term PM 2 . 5 pollution situations is integrated into the proactive monitoring and control framework. Results show that the proposed approach can effectively predict short term PM 2 . 5 pollution situations: precision of up to 0.86 and sensitivity of up to 0.85 is achieved over half hour prediction horizons, making it possible for the system to warn occupants or even to autonomously avert the predicted pollution situations within the context of Semantic Sensor Web.

  13. Varieties of testimony: children's selective learning in semantic versus episodic domains.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Elizabeth C; Koenig, Melissa A

    2015-04-01

    Although preschoolers appear sensitive to the risk of misinformation and demonstrate selective learning in certain experimental contexts (e.g., Koenig, Clément, & Harris, 2004), other paradigms emphasize their striking credulity (e.g., Jaswal, Croft, Setia, & Cole, 2010). The current study sought to explain these divergent patterns by examining the possibility that errors for semantic information, a type of information that is typically generalizable and difficult to verify independently, promote greater vigilance than errors for episodic information, which is often event-specific and independently verifiable. Three- and 4-year-olds first viewed 2 speakers testify correctly or incorrectly about object labels (Semantic condition) or locations (Episodic condition). At test, speakers presented conflicting novel object labels and locations. Preschoolers initially exposed to semantic inaccuracy more vigilantly preferred a previously accurate informant than did children initially exposed to episodic inaccuracy. Findings speak against a homogeneous treatment of testimony and suggest that preschoolers' testimonial vigilance varies according to the content of speakers' errors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Topographical Subcomponents of Electrical Brain Activity Allow to Identify Semantic Learning.

    PubMed

    Skrandies, Wolfgang; Shinoda, Haruo

    2017-03-03

    We investigated the change of event-related brain activity elicited by reading meaningful or meaningless Japanese symbols in 20 healthy German adults. In a learning phase of about 20 min, subjects acquired the meaning of 20 Kanji characters. As control stimuli 20 different Kanji characters were presented. Electrical brain activity was obtained before and after learning, The mean learning performance of all subjects was 92.5% correct responses. EEG was measured simultaneously from 30 channels, artifacts were removed offline, and the data before and after learning were compared. We found five spatial principal components that accounted for 83.8% of the variance. A significant interaction between training time (before/after learning) and stimulus (learning/control) illustrates a significant relation between successful learning and topographical changes of brain activity elicited by Kanji characters. Effects that were induced by learning were seen at short latencies in the order of 100 ms. In addition, we present evidence that differences in the weighted combination of spatial components allow to identify experimental conditions successfully by linear discriminant analysis using topographical ERP data of a single time point. In conclusion, semantic meaning can be aquired rapidly and it is associated with specific changes of ERP components.

  15. Concept learning set-size functions for Clark's nutcrackers.

    PubMed

    Wright, Anthony A; Magnotti, John F; Katz, Jeffrey S; Leonard, Kevin; Kelly, Debbie M

    2016-01-01

    Same/Different abstract-concept learning by Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) was tested with novel stimuli following learning of training set expansion (8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, and 1024 picture items). The resulting set-size function was compared to those from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and pigeons (Columba livia). Nutcrackers showed partial concept learning following initial eight-item set learning, unlike the other species (Magnotti, Katz, Wright, & Kelly, 2015). The mean function for the nutcrackers' novel-stimulus transfer increased linearly as a function of the logarithm of training set size, which intersected its baseline function at the 128-item set size. Thus, nutcrackers on average achieved full concept learning (i.e., transfer statistically equivalent to baseline performance) somewhere between set sizes of 64 to 128 items, similar to full concept learning by monkeys. Pigeons required a somewhat larger training set (256 items) for full concept learning, but results from other experiments (initial training and transfer with 32- and 64-item set sizes) suggested carryover effects with smaller set sizes may have artificially prolonged the pigeon's full concept learning. We find it remarkable that these diverse species with very different neural architectures can fully learn this same/different abstract concept, and (at least under some conditions) do so with roughly similar sets sizes (64-128 items) and numbers of training exemplars, despite initial concept learning advantages (nutcrackers), learning disadvantages (pigeons), or increasing baselines (monkeys).

  16. Supervised Learning of Semantics-Preserving Hash via Deep Convolutional Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huei-Fang; Lin, Kevin; Chen, Chu-Song

    2017-02-09

    This paper presents a simple yet effective supervised deep hash approach that constructs binary hash codes from labeled data for large-scale image search. We assume that the semantic labels are governed by several latent attributes with each attribute on or off, and classification relies on these attributes. Based on this assumption, our approach, dubbed supervised semantics-preserving deep hashing (SSDH), constructs hash functions as a latent layer in a deep network and the binary codes are learned by minimizing an objective function defined over classification error and other desirable hash codes properties. With this design, SSDH has a nice characteristic that classification and retrieval are unified in a single learning model. Moreover, SSDH performs joint learning of image representations, hash codes, and classification in a point-wised manner, and thus is scalable to large-scale datasets. SSDH is simple and can be realized by a slight enhancement of an existing deep architecture for classification; yet it is effective and outperforms other hashing approaches on several benchmarks and large datasets. Compared with state-of-the-art approaches, SSDH achieves higher retrieval accuracy, while the classification performance is not sacrificed.

  17. Learning new vocabulary during childhood: effects of semantic training on lexical consolidation and integration.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Lisa; Weighall, Anna; Gaskell, Gareth

    2013-11-01

    Research suggests that word learning is an extended process, with offline consolidation crucial for the strengthening of new lexical representations and their integration with existing lexical knowledge (as measured by engagement in lexical competition). This supports a dual memory systems account, in which new information is initially sparsely encoded separately from existing knowledge and integrated with long-term memory over time. However, previous studies of this type exploited unnatural learning contexts, involving fictitious words in the absence of word meaning. In this study, 5- to 9-year-old children learned real science words (e.g., hippocampus) with or without semantic information. Children in both groups were slower to detect pauses in familiar competitor words (e.g., hippopotamus) relative to control words 24h after training but not immediately, confirming that offline consolidation is required before new words are integrated with the lexicon and engage in lexical competition. Children recalled more new words 24h after training than immediately (with similar improvements shown for the recall and recognition of new word meanings); however, children who were exposed to the meanings during training showed further improvements in recall after 1 week and outperformed children who were not exposed to meanings. These findings support the dual memory systems account of vocabulary acquisition and suggest that the association of a new phonological form with semantic information is critical for the development of stable lexical representations.

  18. Study Sequence Matters for the Inductive Learning of Cognitive Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sana, Faria; Yan, Veronica X.; Kim, Joseph A.

    2017-01-01

    The sequence in which problems of different concepts are studied during instruction impacts concept learning. For example, several problems of a given concept can be studied together (blocking) or several problems of different concepts can be studied together (interleaving). In the current study, we demonstrate that the 2 sequences impact concept…

  19. The dark side of incremental learning: A model of cumulative semantic interference during lexical access in speech production

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheim, Gary M.; Dell, Gary S.; Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2010-01-01

    Naming a picture of a dog primes the subsequent naming of a picture of a dog (repetition priming) and interferes with the subsequent naming of a picture of a cat (semantic interference). Behavioral studies suggest that these effects derive from persistent changes in the way that words are activated and selected for production, and some have claimed that the findings are only understandable by positing a competitive mechanism for lexical selection. We present a simple model of lexical retrieval in speech production that applies error-driven learning to its lexical activation network. This model naturally produces repetition priming and semantic interference effects. It predicts the major findings from several published experiments, demonstrating that these effects may arise from incremental learning. Furthermore, analysis of the model suggests that competition during lexical selection is not necessary for semantic interference if the learning process is itself competitive. PMID:19854436

  20. Categorizing the Relationships between Structurally Congruent Concepts from Pairs of Terminologies for Semantic Harmonization.

    PubMed

    He, Zhe; Geller, James; Elhanan, Gai

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we are using "structurally congruent concepts" in pairs of terminologies to suggest methods for harmonizing the terminologies. Two concepts are structurally congruent if they are children of the same more general concept and parents of the same more specific concept in two different terminologies. We show that structurally congruent concepts can be interpreted in six useful ways, e.g., as new synonyms. All structurally congruent concepts were found for six terminologies from the UMLS, each paired with SNOMED CT. In total, 1384 concept pairs were discovered. Concepts from a sample of 241 pairs were analyzed by a human expert. It was found that 59.3% indicated alternative classifications of the same general concept. This discovery allows an ontology designer to make existing, implicit knowledge explicit. Another 14.5% were newly discovered synonyms, 23.6% suggested the import of a concept into a terminology and 2.5% indicated errors in a terminology.

  1. Design of Learning Objects for Concept Learning: Effects of Multimedia Learning Principles and an Instructional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Thomas K. F.; Churchill, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Literature suggests using multimedia learning principles in the design of instructional material. However, these principles may not be sufficient for the design of learning objects for concept learning in mathematics. This paper reports on an experimental study that investigated the effects of an instructional approach, which includes two teaching…

  2. Design of Learning Objects for Concept Learning: Effects of Multimedia Learning Principles and an Instructional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Thomas K. F.; Churchill, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Literature suggests using multimedia learning principles in the design of instructional material. However, these principles may not be sufficient for the design of learning objects for concept learning in mathematics. This paper reports on an experimental study that investigated the effects of an instructional approach, which includes two teaching…

  3. Concept of coherence of learning physical optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Elisa M.; Jaen, Mirta; de Cudmani, Leonor C.

    1995-10-01

    The aim of the actual paper is to enhance achievements of the text 'Optica Fisica Basica: estructurada alrededor del concepto de coherencia luminosa' (in English 'Basic Physical Optics centered in the concept of coherence'). We consider that this book is a very worth tool when one has to learn or to teach some fundamental concepts of physical optics. It is well known that the topics of physical optics present not easy understanding for students. Even more they also present some difficulties for the teachers when they have to introduce them to the class. First, we think that different phenomena like diffraction and polarization could be well understood if the starting point is a deep comprehension of the concept of interference of light and, associated with this, the fundamental and nothing intuitive concept of coherence of the light. In the reference text the authors propose the use of expression 'stable interference pattern of no uniform intensity' instead of 'pattern of interference' and 'average pattern of uniform untested' instead of 'lack of interference' to make reference that light always interfere but just under restrictive conditions it can be got temporal and spatial stability of the pattern. Another idea we want to stand out is that the ability to observe a 'stable interference pattern of no uniform intensity' is associated not only with the coherence of the source but also with the dimensions of the experimental system and with the temporal and spatial characteristics of the detector used - human eye, photographic film, etc. The proposal is well support by quantitative relations. With an alternate model: a train of waves with a finite length of coherence, it is possible to get range of validity of models, to decide when a source could be considered a 'point' or 'monochromatic' or 'remote', an 'infinite' wave or a train of waves, etc. Using this concept it is possible to achieve a better understanding of phenomena like the polarization of light. Here, it

  4. The Development of the Conceptions of Learning Management Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Hung-Ming; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire (called the Conceptions of Learning Management [COLM] inventory) to assess students' six categories of learning management (i.e. the learning of management), including learning management as "memorizing," "testing,'" "applying," "gaining higher…

  5. The Development of the Conceptions of Learning Management Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Hung-Ming; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire (called the Conceptions of Learning Management [COLM] inventory) to assess students' six categories of learning management (i.e. the learning of management), including learning management as "memorizing," "testing,'" "applying," "gaining higher…

  6. A New Semantic List Learning Task to Probe Functioning of the Papez Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Schallmo, Michael-Paul; Kassel, Michelle T.; Weisenbach, Sara L.; Walker, Sara J.; Guidotti-Breting, Leslie M.; Rao, Julia A.; Hazlett, Kathleen E.; Considine, Ciaran M.; Sethi, Gurpriya; Vats, Naalti; Pecina, Marta; Welsh, Robert C.; Starkman, Monica N.; Giordani, Bruno; Langenecker, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction List learning tasks are powerful clinical tools for studying memory, yet have been relatively underutilized within the functional imaging literature. This limits understanding of regions such as the Papez circuit which support memory performance in healthy, non-demented adults. Method The current study characterized list learning performance in 40 adults who completed a Semantic List Learning Task (SLLT) with a Brown-Peterson manipulation during functional MRI (fMRI). Cued recall with semantic cues, and recognition memory were assessed after imaging. Internal reliability and convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated. Results Subjects averaged 38% accuracy in recall (62% for recognition), with primacy but no recency effects observed. Validity and reliability were demonstrated by showing that the SLLT was correlated with the California Verbal Learning test (CVLT), but not with executive functioning tests, and high intraclass correlation coefficient across lists for recall (.91). fMRI measurements during Encoding (vs. Silent Rehearsal) revealed significant activation in bilateral hippocampus, parahippocampus, and bilateral anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Post-hoc analyses showed increased activation in anterior and middle hippocampus, subgenual cingulate, and mammillary bodies specific to Encoding. In addition, increasing age was positively associated with increased activation in a diffuse network, particularly frontal cortex and specific Papez regions for correctly recalled words. Gender differences were specific to left inferior and superior frontal cortex. Conclusions This is a clinically relevant list learning task that can be used in studies of groups for which the Papez circuit is damaged or disrupted, in mixed or crossover studies at imaging and clinical sites. PMID:26313512

  7. Concept Mapping Using Cmap Tools to Enhance Meaningful Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañas, Alberto J.; Novak, Joseph D.

    Concept maps are graphical tools that have been used in all facets of education and training for organizing and representing knowledge. When learners build concept maps, meaningful learning is facilitated. Computer-based concept mapping software such as CmapTools have further extended the use of concept mapping and greatly enhanced the potential of the tool, facilitating the implementation of a concept map-centered learning environment. In this chapter, we briefly present concept mapping and its theoretical foundation, and illustrate how it can lead to an improved learning environment when it is combined with CmapTools and the Internet. We present the nationwide “Proyecto Conéctate al Conocimiento” in Panama as an example of how concept mapping, together with technology, can be adopted by hundreds of schools as a means to enhance meaningful learning.

  8. Leveraging Large-Scale Semantic Networks for Adaptive Robot Task Learning and Execution.

    PubMed

    Boteanu, Adrian; St Clair, Aaron; Mohseni-Kabir, Anahita; Saldanha, Carl; Chernova, Sonia

    2016-12-01

    This work seeks to leverage semantic networks containing millions of entries encoding assertions of commonsense knowledge to enable improvements in robot task execution and learning. The specific application we explore in this project is object substitution in the context of task adaptation. Humans easily adapt their plans to compensate for missing items in day-to-day tasks, substituting a wrap for bread when making a sandwich, or stirring pasta with a fork when out of spoons. Robot plan execution, however, is far less robust, with missing objects typically leading to failure if the robot is not aware of alternatives. In this article, we contribute a context-aware algorithm that leverages the linguistic information embedded in the task description to identify candidate substitution objects without reliance on explicit object affordance information. Specifically, we show that the task context provided by the task labels within the action structure of a task plan can be leveraged to disambiguate information within a noisy large-scale semantic network containing hundreds of potential object candidates to identify successful object substitutions with high accuracy. We present two extensive evaluations of our work on both abstract and real-world robot tasks, showing that the substitutions made by our system are valid, accepted by users, and lead to a statistically significant reduction in robot learning time. In addition, we report the outcomes of testing our approach with a large number of crowd workers interacting with a robot in real time.

  9. From bird to sparrow: Learning-induced modulations in fine-grained semantic discrimination.

    PubMed

    De Meo, Rosanna; Bourquin, Nathalie M-P; Knebel, Jean-François; Murray, Micah M; Clarke, Stephanie

    2015-09-01

    Recognition of environmental sounds is believed to proceed through discrimination steps from broad to more narrow categories. Very little is known about the neural processes that underlie fine-grained discrimination within narrow categories or about their plasticity in relation to newly acquired expertise. We investigated how the cortical representation of birdsongs is modulated by brief training to recognize individual species. During a 60-minute session, participants learned to recognize a set of birdsongs; they improved significantly their performance for trained (T) but not control species (C), which were counterbalanced across participants. Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) were recorded during pre- and post-training sessions. Pre vs. post changes in AEPs were significantly different between T and C i) at 206-232ms post stimulus onset within a cluster on the anterior part of the left superior temporal gyrus; ii) at 246-291ms in the left middle frontal gyrus; and iii) 512-545ms in the left middle temporal gyrus as well as bilaterally in the cingulate cortex. All effects were driven by weaker activity for T than C species. Thus, expertise in discriminating T species modulated early stages of semantic processing, during and immediately after the time window that sustains the discrimination between human vs. animal vocalizations. Moreover, the training-induced plasticity is reflected by the sharpening of a left lateralized semantic network, including the anterior part of the temporal convexity and the frontal cortex. Training to identify birdsongs influenced, however, also the processing of C species, but at a much later stage. Correct discrimination of untrained sounds seems to require an additional step which results from lower-level features analysis such as apperception. We therefore suggest that the access to objects within an auditory semantic category is different and depends on subject's level of expertise. More specifically, correct intra

  10. Organizational Learning and the Concept of Learning Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Heather A.; Kinzie, Mable B.; Ross, Melvin V.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews organizational learning and learning organizations literature, especially the work of Peter Senge. Discusses requirements to transform schools into learning organizations (learning schools). (Contains 22 references.) (PKP)

  11. The degraded concept representation system in semantic dementia: damage to pan-modal hub, then visual spoke.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Paul; Jones, Roy W; Ralph, Matthew A Lambon

    2012-12-01

    The core clinical feature of semantic dementia is a progressive yet selective degradation of conceptual knowledge. Understanding the cognitive and neuroanatomical basis for this deficit is a key challenge for both clinical and basic science. Some researchers attribute the deficit to damage to pan-modal conceptual representations that are independent of any particular sensory-motor modality and are represented in the ventrolateral anterior temporal lobes. Others claim that damage to modality-specific visual feature representations in the occipitotemporal 'ventral stream' is responsible. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that concept degradation in semantic dementia involves a combination of these pan-modal and modality-specific elements. We investigated factors influencing knowledge of object concepts by analysing 43 sets of picture-naming data from patients with semantic dementia. We found a strong influence of two pan-modal factors: highly familiar and typical items were named more accurately than less familiar/atypical items at all stages of the disorder. Items associated with rich sensory-motor information were also named more successfully at all stages, and this effect was present for sound/motion knowledge and tactile/action knowledge when these modalities were studied separately. However, there was no advantage for items rich in visual colour/form characteristics; instead, this factor had an increasingly negative impact in the later stages of the disorder. We propose that these results are best explained by a combination of (i) degradation of modality-independent conceptual representations, which is present throughout the disorder and is a consequence of atrophy focused on the ventrolateral anterior temporal lobes; and (ii) a later additional deficit for concepts that depend heavily on visual colour/form information, caused by the spreading of atrophy to posterior ventral temporal regions specialized for representing this information. This

  12. Embedding of semantic predications.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Trevor; Widdows, Dominic

    2017-04-01

    This paper concerns the generation of distributed vector representations of biomedical concepts from structured knowledge, in the form of subject-relation-object triplets known as semantic predications. Specifically, we evaluate the extent to which a representational approach we have developed for this purpose previously, known as Predication-based Semantic Indexing (PSI), might benefit from insights gleaned from neural-probabilistic language models, which have enjoyed a surge in popularity in recent years as a means to generate distributed vector representations of terms from free text. To do so, we develop a novel neural-probabilistic approach to encoding predications, called Embedding of Semantic Predications (ESP), by adapting aspects of the Skipgram with Negative Sampling (SGNS) algorithm to this purpose. We compare ESP and PSI across a number of tasks including recovery of encoded information, estimation of semantic similarity and relatedness, and identification of potentially therapeutic and harmful relationships using both analogical retrieval and supervised learning. We find advantages for ESP in some, but not all of these tasks, revealing the contexts in which the additional computational work of neural-probabilistic modeling is justified.

  13. Corvids Outperform Pigeons and Primates in Learning a Basic Concept.

    PubMed

    Wright, Anthony A; Magnotti, John F; Katz, Jeffrey S; Leonard, Kevin; Vernouillet, Alizée; Kelly, Debbie M

    2017-04-01

    Corvids (birds of the family Corvidae) display intelligent behavior previously ascribed only to primates, but such feats are not directly comparable across species. To make direct species comparisons, we used a same/different task in the laboratory to assess abstract-concept learning in black-billed magpies ( Pica hudsonia). Concept learning was tested with novel pictures after training. Concept learning improved with training-set size, and test accuracy eventually matched training accuracy-full concept learning-with a 128-picture set; this magpie performance was equivalent to that of Clark's nutcrackers (a species of corvid) and monkeys (rhesus, capuchin) and better than that of pigeons. Even with an initial 8-item picture set, both corvid species showed partial concept learning, outperforming both monkeys and pigeons. Similar corvid performance refutes the hypothesis that nutcrackers' prolific cache-location memory accounts for their superior concept learning, because magpies rely less on caching. That corvids with "primitive" neural architectures evolved to equal primates in full concept learning and even to outperform them on the initial 8-item picture test is a testament to the shared (convergent) survival importance of abstract-concept learning.

  14. A rational analysis of rule-based concept learning.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Noah D; Tenenbaum, Joshua B; Feldman, Jacob; Griffiths, Thomas L

    2008-01-02

    This article proposes a new model of human concept learning that provides a rational analysis of learning feature-based concepts. This model is built upon Bayesian inference for a grammatically structured hypothesis space-a concept language of logical rules. This article compares the model predictions to human generalization judgments in several well-known category learning experiments, and finds good agreement for both average and individual participant generalizations. This article further investigates judgments for a broad set of 7-feature concepts-a more natural setting in several ways-and again finds that the model explains human performance. 2008 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. Conceptual Learning and the Self-Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meinke, Dean L.

    Using subjects classified on the basis of positive and less positive self-concepts, this study investigates the effects of instructions, a principle, and practice with four concept-attainment problems on the efficiency of the attainment of concepts among subjects. The findings indicate the subjects with more positive self-concepts attain abstract…

  16. Teaching and Learning the Concept of Chemical Bonding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy Nahum, Tami; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi; Taber, Keith S.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical bonding is one of the key and basic concepts in chemistry. The learning of many of the concepts taught in chemistry, in both secondary schools as well as in the colleges, is dependent upon understanding fundamental ideas related to chemical bonding. Nevertheless, the concept is perceived by teachers, as well as by learners, as difficult,…

  17. Development of Preschoolers' Learning, Retention, and Generalization of Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Judith A.; Perlmutter, Marion

    This study, which indicates that both age and variation in training affect children's concept formation, provides a basis for explaining the effect of age. Sixty-four 4- and 5-year-olds learned three novel concepts (animal-like, plant-like, and machine-like). Subjects were presented with either four different examples of each concept (multiple…

  18. Teaching and Learning the Concept of Chemical Bonding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy Nahum, Tami; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi; Taber, Keith S.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical bonding is one of the key and basic concepts in chemistry. The learning of many of the concepts taught in chemistry, in both secondary schools as well as in the colleges, is dependent upon understanding fundamental ideas related to chemical bonding. Nevertheless, the concept is perceived by teachers, as well as by learners, as difficult,…

  19. Comparative approaches to same/different abstract-concept learning.

    PubMed

    Wright, A A; Kelly, D M

    2017-04-14

    Martinho and Kacelnik (2016) imprinted newly hatched ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) with a moving pair of either same or different objects, and following only one session, the ducklings accurately transferred the same/different relationship to novel object pairs that maintained the training relationship. This rapid learning and transfer of the concepts same and different far outstrips the more gradual learning of these basic concepts by animals in associative-learning tasks in which reinforcement is given for correct responses.

  20. Superior abstract-concept learning by Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana).

    PubMed

    Magnotti, John F; Katz, Jeffrey S; Wright, Anthony A; Kelly, Debbie M

    2015-05-01

    The ability to learn abstract relational concepts is fundamental to higher level cognition. In contrast to item-specific concepts (e.g. pictures containing trees versus pictures containing cars), abstract relational concepts are not bound to particular stimulus features, but instead involve the relationship between stimuli and therefore may be extrapolated to novel stimuli. Previous research investigating the same/different abstract concept has suggested that primates might be specially adapted to extract relations among items and would require fewer exemplars of a rule to learn an abstract concept than non-primate species. We assessed abstract-concept learning in an avian species, Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana), using a small number of exemplars (eight pairs of the same rule, and 56 pairs of the different rule) identical to that previously used to compare rhesus monkeys, capuchin monkeys and pigeons. Nutcrackers as a group (N = 9) showed more novel stimulus transfer than any previous species tested with this small number of exemplars. Two nutcrackers showed full concept learning and four more showed transfer considerably above chance performance, indicating partial concept learning. These results show that the Clark's nutcracker, a corvid species well known for its amazing feats of spatial memory, learns the same/different abstract concept better than any non-human species (including non-human primates) yet tested on this same task. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. GenieTutor: A Computer Assisted Second-Language Learning System Based on Semantic and Grammar Correctness Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Oh-Woog; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, Young-Kil; Lee, Yunkeun

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a Dialog-Based Computer-Assisted second-Language Learning (DB-CALL) system using semantic and grammar correctness evaluations and the results of its experiment. While the system dialogues with English learners about a given topic, it automatically evaluates the grammar and content properness of their English utterances, then…

  2. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  3. Semantic Domain-Specific Functional Integration for Action-Related vs. Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghio, Marta; Tettamanti, Marco

    2010-01-01

    A central topic in cognitive neuroscience concerns the representation of concepts and the specific neural mechanisms that mediate conceptual knowledge. Recently proposed modal theories assert that concepts are grounded on the integration of multimodal, distributed representations. The aim of the present work is to complement the available…

  4. Semantic Domain-Specific Functional Integration for Action-Related vs. Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghio, Marta; Tettamanti, Marco

    2010-01-01

    A central topic in cognitive neuroscience concerns the representation of concepts and the specific neural mechanisms that mediate conceptual knowledge. Recently proposed modal theories assert that concepts are grounded on the integration of multimodal, distributed representations. The aim of the present work is to complement the available…

  5. Lessons learned in the generation of biomedical research datasets using Semantic Open Data technologies.

    PubMed

    Legaz-García, María del Carmen; Miñarro-Giménez, José Antonio; Menárguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical research usually requires combining large volumes of data from multiple heterogeneous sources. Such heterogeneity makes difficult not only the generation of research-oriented dataset but also its exploitation. In recent years, the Open Data paradigm has proposed new ways for making data available in ways that sharing and integration are facilitated. Open Data approaches may pursue the generation of content readable only by humans and by both humans and machines, which are the ones of interest in our work. The Semantic Web provides a natural technological space for data integration and exploitation and offers a range of technologies for generating not only Open Datasets but also Linked Datasets, that is, open datasets linked to other open datasets. According to the Berners-Lee's classification, each open dataset can be given a rating between one and five stars attending to can be given to each dataset. In the last years, we have developed and applied our SWIT tool, which automates the generation of semantic datasets from heterogeneous data sources. SWIT produces four stars datasets, given that fifth one can be obtained by being the dataset linked from external ones. In this paper, we describe how we have applied the tool in two projects related to health care records and orthology data, as well as the major lessons learned from such efforts.

  6. What's in a Word? Concept mapping: a graphical tool to reinforce learning of epidemiological concepts.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Anita

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiology is founded on central concepts and principles, essential for conducting, reporting and critically assessing epidemiological studies. Definitions of the many concepts used in the field can be found in textbooks and via the Dictionary of Epidemiology. However, central epidemiological concepts are labelled and used in multiple ways, leading to potential misunderstanding when communicating in different fora. The aim here is to describe collaborative concept mapping, and illustrate how it can be used in teaching and learning epidemiology. Concept mapping is a cognitive technique that is widely used in the education of medical and allied health professions as a tool for critical thinking, and to assimilate new knowledge, but it is still under-utilised in epidemiology. A specific concept map is defined by the aim and question in focus; it is thus framed by a context. The concept map is constructed using a set of concepts (nodes) that are linked with arrows or lines (links). Words and phrases (connective terms) are used to explain relationships between the concepts linked. Different domains can be interconnected by linking concepts in different areas (cross-links). The underlying structure of knowledge is often complex, and consequently concept maps can be constructed using different topological features. Here we provide an illustrative example of concept mapping, based on a set of 'basic' concepts introduced in a doctoral course in epidemiology. In summary, concept mapping is a compelling, active learning tool, which can promote shared deeper knowledge of concepts and their complex interconnections, thereby facilitating a better understanding of epidemiological research.

  7. Semantic and phonological schema influence spoken word learning and overnight consolidation.

    PubMed

    Havas, Viktória; Taylor, J S H; Vaquero, Lucía; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Davis, Matthew H

    2017-08-31

    We studied the initial acquisition and overnight consolidation of new spoken words that resemble words in the native language (L1) or in an unfamiliar, non-native language (L2). Spanish-speaking participants learned the spoken forms of novel words in their native language (Spanish) or in a different language (Hungarian), which were paired with pictures of familiar or unfamiliar objects, or no picture. We thereby assessed, in a factorial way, the impact of existing knowledge (schema) on word learning by manipulating both semantic (familiar vs. unfamiliar objects) and phonological (L1- vs. L2-like novel words) familiarity. Participants were trained and tested with a 12-hour intervening period that included overnight sleep or daytime awake. Our results showed; i) benefits of sleep to recognition memory that were greater for words with L2-like phonology; ii) that learned associations with familiar but not unfamiliar pictures enhanced recognition memory for novel words. Implications for complementary systems accounts of word learning are discussed.

  8. Learning language from within: Children use semantic generalizations to infer word meanings.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Mahesh; Al-Mughairy, Sara; Foushee, Ruthe; Barner, David

    2017-02-01

    One reason that word learning presents a challenge for children is because pairings between word forms and meanings are arbitrary conventions that children must learn via observation - e.g., the fact that "shovel" labels shovels. The present studies explore cases in which children might bypass observational learning and spontaneously infer new word meanings: By exploiting the fact that many words are flexible and systematically encode multiple, related meanings. For example, words like shovel and hammer are nouns for instruments, and verbs for activities involving those instruments. The present studies explored whether 3- to 5-year-old children possess semantic generalizations about lexical flexibility, and can use these generalizations to infer new word meanings: Upon learning that dax labels an activity involving an instrument, do children spontaneously infer that dax can also label the instrument itself? Across four studies, we show that at least by age four, children spontaneously generalize instrument-activity flexibility to new words. Together, our findings point to a powerful way in which children may build their vocabulary, by leveraging the fact that words are linked to multiple meanings in systematic ways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Concept Mapping as a Learning Tool in Occupational Therapy Education.

    PubMed

    Grice, Kimatha

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes concept mapping and its use as a teaching and learning tool in an entry level occupational therapy program. In order for students to demonstrate their mastery of the concepts associated with a particular topic or body of knowledge, assignments involving concept maps were developed and used in two courses in an entry level occupational therapy program. Students were then surveyed about their perceptions and attitudes regarding the assignments. Students found the process of creating concept maps valuable to their learning of the content and the majority also enjoyed the process as a learning activity. The use of concept mapping as a way to encourage independent, individualized, and student-centered learning is discussed.

  10. Integrating Concept Mapping and the Learning Cycle To Teach Diffusion and Osmosis Concepts to High School Biology Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Arthur L.; Kelly, Paul V.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the effectiveness of concept mapping, the learning cycle, expository instruction, and a combination of concept mapping/learning cycle in promoting conceptual understanding of diffusion and osmosis. Concludes that the concept mapping/learning cycle and concept mapping treatment groups significantly outperformed the expository treatment…

  11. Integrating Concept Mapping and the Learning Cycle To Teach Diffusion and Osmosis Concepts to High School Biology Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Arthur L.; Kelly, Paul V.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the effectiveness of concept mapping, the learning cycle, expository instruction, and a combination of concept mapping/learning cycle in promoting conceptual understanding of diffusion and osmosis. Concludes that the concept mapping/learning cycle and concept mapping treatment groups significantly outperformed the expository treatment…

  12. Concept mapping learning strategy to enhance students' mathematical connection ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz, M.; Kadir, Fatra, Maifalinda

    2017-05-01

    The concept mapping learning strategy in teaching and learning mathematics has been investigated by numerous researchers. However, there are still less researchers who have scrutinized about the roles of map concept which is connected to the mathematical connection ability. Being well understood on map concept, it may help students to have ability to correlate one concept to other concept in order that the student can solve mathematical problems faced. The objective of this research was to describe the student's mathematical connection ability and to analyze the effect of using concept mapping learning strategy to the students' mathematical connection ability. This research was conducted at senior high school in Jakarta. The method used a quasi-experimental with randomized control group design with the total number was 72 students as the sample. Data obtained through using test in the post-test after giving the treatment. The results of the research are: 1) Students' mathematical connection ability has reached the good enough level category; 2) Students' mathematical connection ability who had taught with concept mapping learning strategy is higher than who had taught with conventional learning strategy. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that concept mapping learning strategycould enhance the students' mathematical connection ability, especially in trigonometry.

  13. Aging and Semantic Activation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Darlene V.

    Three studies tested the theory that long term memory consists of a semantically organized network of concept nodes interconnected by leveled associations or relations, and that when a stimulus is processed, the corresponding concept node is assumed to be temporarily activated and this activation spreads to nearby semantically related nodes. In…

  14. Fast and accurate semantic annotation of bioassays exploiting a hybrid of machine learning and user confirmation.

    PubMed

    Clark, Alex M; Bunin, Barry A; Litterman, Nadia K; Schürer, Stephan C; Visser, Ubbo

    2014-01-01

    Bioinformatics and computer aided drug design rely on the curation of a large number of protocols for biological assays that measure the ability of potential drugs to achieve a therapeutic effect. These assay protocols are generally published by scientists in the form of plain text, which needs to be more precisely annotated in order to be useful to software methods. We have developed a pragmatic approach to describing assays according to the semantic definitions of the BioAssay Ontology (BAO) project, using a hybrid of machine learning based on natural language processing, and a simplified user interface designed to help scientists curate their data with minimum effort. We have carried out this work based on the premise that pure machine learning is insufficiently accurate, and that expecting scientists to find the time to annotate their protocols manually is unrealistic. By combining these approaches, we have created an effective prototype for which annotation of bioassay text within the domain of the training set can be accomplished very quickly. Well-trained annotations require single-click user approval, while annotations from outside the training set domain can be identified using the search feature of a well-designed user interface, and subsequently used to improve the underlying models. By drastically reducing the time required for scientists to annotate their assays, we can realistically advocate for semantic annotation to become a standard part of the publication process. Once even a small proportion of the public body of bioassay data is marked up, bioinformatics researchers can begin to construct sophisticated and useful searching and analysis algorithms that will provide a diverse and powerful set of tools for drug discovery researchers.

  15. Fast and accurate semantic annotation of bioassays exploiting a hybrid of machine learning and user confirmation

    PubMed Central

    Bunin, Barry A.; Litterman, Nadia K.; Schürer, Stephan C.; Visser, Ubbo

    2014-01-01

    Bioinformatics and computer aided drug design rely on the curation of a large number of protocols for biological assays that measure the ability of potential drugs to achieve a therapeutic effect. These assay protocols are generally published by scientists in the form of plain text, which needs to be more precisely annotated in order to be useful to software methods. We have developed a pragmatic approach to describing assays according to the semantic definitions of the BioAssay Ontology (BAO) project, using a hybrid of machine learning based on natural language processing, and a simplified user interface designed to help scientists curate their data with minimum effort. We have carried out this work based on the premise that pure machine learning is insufficiently accurate, and that expecting scientists to find the time to annotate their protocols manually is unrealistic. By combining these approaches, we have created an effective prototype for which annotation of bioassay text within the domain of the training set can be accomplished very quickly. Well-trained annotations require single-click user approval, while annotations from outside the training set domain can be identified using the search feature of a well-designed user interface, and subsequently used to improve the underlying models. By drastically reducing the time required for scientists to annotate their assays, we can realistically advocate for semantic annotation to become a standard part of the publication process. Once even a small proportion of the public body of bioassay data is marked up, bioinformatics researchers can begin to construct sophisticated and useful searching and analysis algorithms that will provide a diverse and powerful set of tools for drug discovery researchers. PMID:25165633

  16. Semantic Representation of Newly Learned L2 Words and Their Integration in the L2 Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordag, Denisa; Kirschenbaum, Amit; Rogahn, Maria; Opitz, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The present semantic priming study explores the integration of newly learnt L2 German words into the L2 semantic network of German advanced learners. It provides additional evidence in support of earlier findings reporting semantic inhibition effects for emergent representations. An inhibitory mechanism is proposed that temporarily decreases the…

  17. Deep Learning through Concept-Based Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donham, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Learning in the library should present opportunities to enrich student learning activities to address concerns of interest and cognitive complexity, but these must be tasks that call for in-depth analysis--not merely gathering facts. Library learning experiences need to demand enough of students to keep them interested and also need to be…

  18. Deep Learning through Concept-Based Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donham, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Learning in the library should present opportunities to enrich student learning activities to address concerns of interest and cognitive complexity, but these must be tasks that call for in-depth analysis--not merely gathering facts. Library learning experiences need to demand enough of students to keep them interested and also need to be…

  19. The clinical learning environment in nursing education: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Flott, Elizabeth A; Linden, Lois

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to report an analysis of the clinical learning environment concept. Nursing students are evaluated in clinical learning environments where skills and knowledge are applied to patient care. These environments affect achievement of learning outcomes, and have an impact on preparation for practice and student satisfaction with the nursing profession. Providing clarity of this concept for nursing education will assist in identifying antecedents, attributes and consequences affecting student transition to practice. The clinical learning environment was investigated using Walker and Avant's concept analysis method. A literature search was conducted using WorldCat, MEDLINE and CINAHL databases using the keywords clinical learning environment, clinical environment and clinical education. Articles reviewed were written in English and published in peer-reviewed journals between 1995-2014. All data were analysed for recurring themes and terms to determine possible antecedents, attributes and consequences of this concept. The clinical learning environment contains four attribute characteristics affecting student learning experiences. These include: (1) the physical space; (2) psychosocial and interaction factors; (3) the organizational culture and (4) teaching and learning components. These attributes often determine achievement of learning outcomes and student self-confidence. With better understanding of attributes comprising the clinical learning environment, nursing education programmes and healthcare agencies can collaborate to create meaningful clinical experiences and enhance student preparation for the professional nurse role. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The impact of second language learning on semantic and nonsemantic first language reading.

    PubMed

    Nosarti, Chiara; Mechelli, Andrea; Green, David W; Price, Cathy J

    2010-02-01

    The relationship between orthography (spelling) and phonology (speech sounds) varies across alphabetic languages. Consequently, learning to read a second alphabetic language, that uses the same letters as the first, increases the phonological associations that can be linked to the same orthographic units. In subjects with English as their first language, previous functional imaging studies have reported increased left ventral prefrontal activation for reading words with spellings that are inconsistent with their orthographic neighbors (e.g., PINT) compared with words that are consistent with their orthographic neighbors (e.g., SHIP). Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 17 Italian-English and 13 English-Italian bilinguals, we demonstrate that left ventral prefrontal activation for first language reading increases with second language vocabulary knowledge. This suggests that learning a second alphabetic language changes the way that words are read in the first alphabetic language. Specifically, first language reading is more reliant on both lexical/semantic and nonlexical processing when new orthographic to phonological mappings are introduced by second language learning. Our observations were in a context that required participants to switch between languages. They motivate future fMRI studies to test whether first language reading is also altered in contexts when the second language is not in use.

  1. The Impact of Second Language Learning on Semantic and Nonsemantic First Language Reading

    PubMed Central

    Nosarti, Chiara; Mechelli, Andrea; Green, David W.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between orthography (spelling) and phonology (speech sounds) varies across alphabetic languages. Consequently, learning to read a second alphabetic language, that uses the same letters as the first, increases the phonological associations that can be linked to the same orthographic units. In subjects with English as their first language, previous functional imaging studies have reported increased left ventral prefrontal activation for reading words with spellings that are inconsistent with their orthographic neighbors (e.g., PINT) compared with words that are consistent with their orthographic neighbors (e.g., SHIP). Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 17 Italian–English and 13 English–Italian bilinguals, we demonstrate that left ventral prefrontal activation for first language reading increases with second language vocabulary knowledge. This suggests that learning a second alphabetic language changes the way that words are read in the first alphabetic language. Specifically, first language reading is more reliant on both lexical/semantic and nonlexical processing when new orthographic to phonological mappings are introduced by second language learning. Our observations were in a context that required participants to switch between languages. They motivate future fMRI studies to test whether first language reading is also altered in contexts when the second language is not in use. PMID:19478033

  2. Matching-to-sample abstract-concept learning by pigeons.

    PubMed

    Bodily, Kent D; Katz, Jeffrey S; Wright, Anthony A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract concepts--rules that transcend training stimuli--have been argued to be unique to some species. Pigeons, a focus of much concept-learning research, were tested for learning a matching-to-sample abstract concept. Five pigeons were trained with three cartoon stimuli. Pigeons pecked a sample 10 times and then chose which of two simultaneously presented comparison stimuli matched the sample. After acquisition, abstract-concept learning was tested by presenting novel cartoons on 12 out of 96 trials for 4 consecutive sessions. A cycle of doubling the training set followed by retraining and novel-testing was repeated eight times, increasing the set size from 3 to 768 items. Transfer performance improved from chance (i.e., no abstract-concept learning) to a level equivalent to baseline performance (>80%) and was similar to an equivalent function for same/different abstract-concept learning. Analyses assessed the possibility that item-specific choice strategies accounted for acquisition and transfer performance. These analyses converged to rule out item-specific strategies at all but the smallest set-sizes (3-24 items). Ruling out these possibilities adds to the evidence that pigeons learned the relational abstract concept of matching-to-sample. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Thematic knowledge, artifact concepts, and the left posterior temporal lobe: Where action and object semantics converge

    PubMed Central

    Kalénine, Solène; Buxbaum, Laurel J.

    2016-01-01

    Converging evidence supports the existence of functionally and neuroanatomically distinct taxonomic (similarity-based; e.g., hammer-screwdriver) and thematic (event-based; e.g., hammer-nail) semantic systems. Processing of thematic relations between objects has been shown to selectively recruit the left posterior temporoparietal cortex. Similar posterior regions have been also been shown to be critical for knowledge of relationships between actions and manipulable human-made objects (artifacts). Based on the hypothesis that thematic relationships for artifacts are based, at least in part, on action relationships, we assessed the prediction that the same regions of the left posterior temporoparietal cortex would be critical for conceptual processing of artifact-related actions and thematic relations for artifacts. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated processing of taxonomic and thematic relations for artifact and natural objects as well as artifact action knowledge (gesture recognition) abilities in a large sample of 48 stroke patients with a range of lesion foci in the left hemisphere. Like control participants, patients identified thematic relations faster than taxonomic relations for artifacts, whereas they identified taxonomic relations faster than thematic relations for natural objects. Moreover, response times for identifying thematic relations for artifacts selectively predicted performance in gesture recognition. Whole brain Voxel Based Lesion-Symptom Mapping (VLSM) analyses and Region of Interest (ROI) regression analyses further demonstrated that lesions to the left posterior temporal cortex, overlapping with LTO and visual motion area hMT+, were associated both with relatively slower response times in identifying thematic relations for artifacts and poorer artifact action knowledge in patients. These findings provide novel insights into the functional role of left posterior temporal cortex in thematic knowledge, and suggest that the close association

  4. Thematic knowledge, artifact concepts, and the left posterior temporal lobe: Where action and object semantics converge.

    PubMed

    Kalénine, Solène; Buxbaum, Laurel J

    2016-09-01

    Converging evidence supports the existence of functionally and neuroanatomically distinct taxonomic (similarity-based; e.g., hammer-screwdriver) and thematic (event-based; e.g., hammer-nail) semantic systems. Processing of thematic relations between objects has been shown to selectively recruit the left posterior temporoparietal cortex. Similar posterior regions have also been shown to be critical for knowledge of relationships between actions and manipulable human-made objects (artifacts). Based on the hypothesis that thematic relationships for artifacts rely, at least in part, on action relationships, we assessed the prediction that the same regions of the left posterior temporoparietal cortex would be critical for conceptual processing of artifact-related actions and thematic relations for artifacts. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated processing of taxonomic and thematic relations for artifacts and natural objects as well as artifact action knowledge (gesture recognition) abilities in a large sample of 48 stroke patients with a range of lesion foci in the left hemisphere. Like control participants, patients identified thematic relations faster than taxonomic relations for artifacts, whereas they identified taxonomic relations faster than thematic relations for natural objects. Moreover, response times (RTs) for identifying thematic relations for artifacts selectively predicted performance in gesture recognition. Whole brain Voxel-based Lesion-Symptom Mapping (VLSM) analyses and Region of Interest (ROI) regression analyses further demonstrated that lesions to the left posterior temporal cortex, overlapping with LTO and visual motion area hMT+, were associated both with relatively slower RTs in identifying thematic relations for artifacts and poorer artifact action knowledge in patients. These findings provide novel insights into the functional role of left posterior temporal cortex in thematic knowledge, and suggest that the close association between thematic

  5. Latent Semantic Analysis As a Tool for Learner Positioning in Learning Networks for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter; van Rosmalen, Peter; Brouns, Francis; Vogten, Hubert; Koper, Rob; Tattersall, Colin

    2004-01-01

    As we move towards distributed, self-organised learning networks for lifelong learning to which multiple providers contribute content, there is a need to develop new techniques to determine where learners can be positioned in these networks. Positioning requires us to map characteristics of the learner onto characteristics of learning materials…

  6. Meaningful learning: theoretical support for concept-based teaching.

    PubMed

    Getha-Eby, Teresa J; Beery, Theresa; Xu, Yin; O'Brien, Beth A

    2014-09-01

    Novice nurses’ inability to transfer classroom knowledge to the bedside has been implicated in adverse patient outcomes, including death. Concept-based teaching is a pedagogy found to improve knowledge transfer. Concept-based teaching emanates from a constructivist paradigm of teaching and learning and can be implemented most effectively when the underlying theory and principles are applied. Ausubel’s theory of meaningful learning and its construct of substantive knowledge integration provides a model to help educators to understand, implement, and evaluate concept-based teaching. Contemporary findings from the fields of cognitive psychology, human development, and neurobiology provide empirical evidence of the relationship between concept-based teaching, meaningful learning, and knowledge transfer. This article describes constructivist principles and meaningful learning as they apply to nursing pedagogy.

  7. Motor Knowledge Is One Dimension for Concept Organization: Further Evidence from a Chinese Semantic Dementia Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Nan; Guo, Qihao; Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have indicated that motor knowledge is one potential dimension along which concepts are organized. Here we present further direct evidence for the effects of motor knowledge in accounting for categorical patterns across object domains (living vs. nonliving) and grammatical domains (nouns vs. verbs), as…

  8. Motor Knowledge Is One Dimension for Concept Organization: Further Evidence from a Chinese Semantic Dementia Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Nan; Guo, Qihao; Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have indicated that motor knowledge is one potential dimension along which concepts are organized. Here we present further direct evidence for the effects of motor knowledge in accounting for categorical patterns across object domains (living vs. nonliving) and grammatical domains (nouns vs. verbs), as…

  9. Using Concept Mapping to Measure Learning Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, David; Kinchin, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe a method of teaching that is based on Novak's concept-mapping technique. Design/methodology/approach: The paper shows how concept mapping can be used to measure prior knowledge and how simple mapping exercises can promote the integration of teachers' and students' understandings in ways that are meaningful.…

  10. Threshold Concepts, Systems and Learning for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandri, Orana Jade

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for understanding the role that systems theory might play in education for sustainability (EfS). It offers a sketch and critique of Land and Meyer's notion of a "threshold concept", to argue that seeing systems as a threshold concept for sustainability is useful for understanding the processes of…

  11. Threshold Concepts, Systems and Learning for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandri, Orana Jade

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for understanding the role that systems theory might play in education for sustainability (EfS). It offers a sketch and critique of Land and Meyer's notion of a "threshold concept", to argue that seeing systems as a threshold concept for sustainability is useful for understanding the processes of…

  12. Introducing Machine Learning Concepts with WEKA.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tony C; Frank, Eibe

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents an introduction to data mining with machine learning. It gives an overview of various types of machine learning, along with some examples. It explains how to download, install, and run the WEKA data mining toolkit on a simple data set, then proceeds to explain how one might approach a bioinformatics problem. Finally, it includes a brief summary of machine learning algorithms for other types of data mining problems, and provides suggestions about where to find additional information.

  13. Situated Language Learning: Concept, Significance and Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdallah, Mahmoud M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is a shift in language learning from the "acquisition" metaphor to the "participation" metaphor. This involves viewing learners as active constructors of knowledge who can collaborate together to create meaningful language learning situations and contextualised practices. Thus, this worksheet aims at exploring…

  14. The Twisting Path of Concept Development in Learning to Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smagorinsky, Peter; Cook, Leslie Susan; Johnson, Tara Star

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that teacher education programs should emphasize pedagogical concepts that interweave theory and practice so that preservice teachers learn consistent, unified approaches to teaching, noting that the theory-practice dichotomy lacks the richness of Vygotsky's notion of concepts and recommending that teacher educators strive to teach…

  15. Brain Event-Related Potential Correlates of Concept Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Pat-Anthony

    An irrelevant auditory probe procedure was used to evoke brain event-related potentials (ERPs) in 56 Navy recruits while they learned pulsed radar concepts presented to them in study booklets. A mastery test was administered to assess concept acquisition. The research issue was whether brain ERPs recorded while students are in the process of…

  16. Conceptions of Efficiency: Applications in Learning and Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Bobby; Schraw, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to clarify conceptions, definitions, and applications of learning and problem-solving efficiency. Conceptions of efficiency vary within the field of educational psychology, and there is little consensus as to how to define, measure, and interpret the efficiency construct. We compare three diverse models that differ…

  17. Students' Modelling in Learning the Concept of Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khikmiyah, Fatimatul; Lukito, Agung; Patahudin, Sitti Maesuri

    2012-01-01

    Previous research shows that speed is one of the most difficult in the upper grades of primary school. It is because students must take into consideration two variables; distance and time. Nevertheless, Indonesian students usually learn this concept as a transmission subject and teacher more emphasizes on formal mathematics in which the concept of…

  18. Factors Related to Students' Learning of Biomechanics Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, ChengTu; Smith, Jeremy D.; Bohne, Michael; Knudson, Duane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate and expand a previous study to identify the factors that affect students' learning of biomechanical concepts. Students were recruited from three universities (N = 149) located in the central and western regions of the United States. Data from 142 students completing the Biomechanics Concept Inventory…

  19. The Twisting Path of Concept Development in Learning to Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smagorinsky, Peter; Cook, Leslie Susan; Johnson, Tara Star

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that teacher education programs should emphasize pedagogical concepts that interweave theory and practice so that preservice teachers learn consistent, unified approaches to teaching, noting that the theory-practice dichotomy lacks the richness of Vygotsky's notion of concepts and recommending that teacher educators strive to teach…

  20. Stimulus Sequence and Concept Learning. Experiment II. Monograph Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Richard C.; Guthrie, John T.

    Though previous studies had suggested a link between the rate of concept learning and instructional formats in which instances of concepts were held constant or grouped together, a 1964 study by Richard Anderson questioned the conclusion, suggesting that previous studies had been confounded by other irrelevant attributes that changed from trial to…

  1. Productive Failure in Learning the Concept of Variance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapur, Manu

    2012-01-01

    In a study with ninth-grade mathematics students on learning the concept of variance, students experienced either direct instruction (DI) or productive failure (PF), wherein they were first asked to generate a quantitative index for variance without any guidance before receiving DI on the concept. Whereas DI students relied only on the canonical…

  2. Factors Related to Students' Learning of Biomechanics Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, ChengTu; Smith, Jeremy D.; Bohne, Michael; Knudson, Duane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate and expand a previous study to identify the factors that affect students' learning of biomechanical concepts. Students were recruited from three universities (N = 149) located in the central and western regions of the United States. Data from 142 students completing the Biomechanics Concept Inventory…

  3. An Introduction to Self Concept. Learning Package 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naegler, Robert; Anderson, Rosalie

    This instructional booklet is part of Learning Package #1 introducing self-concept development used in conjunction with the Child Development Training Program at Bemidji, Minnesota. This booklet is divided into 4 chapters and examines the following areas: (1) basic definitions and concepts of self; (2) how and why self development occurs; (3)…

  4. Conceptions of Efficiency: Applications in Learning and Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Bobby; Schraw, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to clarify conceptions, definitions, and applications of learning and problem-solving efficiency. Conceptions of efficiency vary within the field of educational psychology, and there is little consensus as to how to define, measure, and interpret the efficiency construct. We compare three diverse models that differ…

  5. Retrieval of abstract semantics.

    PubMed

    Noppeney, Uta; Price, Cathy J

    2004-05-01

    Behavioural and neuropsychological evidence suggests that abstract and concrete concepts might be represented, retrieved and processed differently in the human brain. Using fMRI, we demonstrate that retrieval of abstract relative to sensory-based semantics during synonym judgements increased activation in a left frontotemporal system that has been associated with semantic processing particularly at the sentence level. Since activation increases were observed irrespective of the degree of difficulty, we suggest that these differential activations might reflect a particular retrieval mechanism or strategy for abstract concepts. In contrast to sensory-based semantics, the meaning of abstract concepts is largely specified by their usage in language rather than by their relations to the physical world. Subjects might therefore generate an appropriate semantic sentential context to fully explore and specify the meaning of abstract concepts. Our results also explain why abstract semantics is vulnerable to left frontotemporal lesions.

  6. Testing a Conception of How School Leadership Influences Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithwood, Kenneth; Patten, Sarah; Jantzi, Doris

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This article describes and reports the results of testing a new conception of how leadership influences student learning ("The Four Paths"). Framework: Leadership influence is conceptualized as flowing along four paths (Rational, Emotions, Organizational, and Family) toward student learning. Each path is populated by multiple…

  7. Learning Essential Terms and Concepts in Statistics and Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Pam; Smith, Adam; Middledorp, Jenny; Karpin, Anne; Sin, Samantha; Kilgore, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a terminological approach to the teaching and learning of fundamental concepts in foundation tertiary units in Statistics and Accounting, using an online dictionary-style resource (TermFinder) with customised "termbanks" for each discipline. Designed for independent learning, the termbanks support inquiring students…

  8. Threshold Concepts: Impacts on Teaching and Learning at Tertiary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Mira; Harlow, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This project explored teaching and learning of hard-to-learn threshold concepts in first-year English, an electrical engineering course, leadership courses, and in doctoral writing. The project was envisioned to produce disciplinary case studies that lecturers could use to reflect on and refine their curriculum and pedagogy, thereby contributing…

  9. Threshold Concepts: Impacts on Teaching and Learning at Tertiary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Mira; Harlow, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This project explored teaching and learning of hard-to-learn threshold concepts in first-year English, an electrical engineering course, leadership courses, and in doctoral writing. The project was envisioned to produce disciplinary case studies that lecturers could use to reflect on and refine their curriculum and pedagogy, thereby contributing…

  10. Effects of induced orthographic and semantic knowledge on subsequent learning: A test of the partial knowledge hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Adlof, Suzanne; Frishkoff, Gwen; Dandy, Jennifer; Perfetti, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Word learning can build the high-quality word representations that support skilled reading and language comprehension. According to the partial knowledge hypothesis, words that are partially known, also known as "frontier words" (Durso & Shore, 1991), may be good targets for instruction precisely because they are already familiar. However, studies investigating this question have produced mixed findings, and individual differences in baseline knowledge have complicated results both within and across studies. We present two studies that took a different approach, controlling both familiarity and the nature of the familiarizing episode. We controlled familiarity with novel words through pre-exposure ("pre-familiarization") in isolation, to induce form-based familiarity, or in sentences that provided few clues to meaning, to induce partial semantic knowledge. The number of pre-exposures varied (0, 1, or 4). After the pre-familiarization phase, we presented the words in several highly informative sentences to support meaning acquisition. Participants included both adults and typically developing children, ages 9-12. Participants' self-rated familiarity with target words, and their knowledge of the words' meanings and orthography were each measured at baseline, immediately after learning, and one week later. Orthographic and semantic word learning showed contrasting effects of pre-familiarization. For orthographic learning, it was the number, rather than the type, of pre-familiarizations that mattered most. By contrast, the number of pre-familiarizations had little impact on word semantic learning; further, pre-familiarization in low-constraint sentences did not consistently boost subsequent learning. These findings suggest that familiarity with a word prior to instruction does not necessarily improve word-learning outcomes, and they highlight the importance of repeated exposures to high quality contexts for robust word learning.

  11. Effects of induced orthographic and semantic knowledge on subsequent learning: A test of the partial knowledge hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Adlof, Suzanne; Frishkoff, Gwen; Dandy, Jennifer; Perfetti, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Word learning can build the high-quality word representations that support skilled reading and language comprehension. According to the partial knowledge hypothesis, words that are partially known, also known as “frontier words” (Durso & Shore, 1991), may be good targets for instruction precisely because they are already familiar. However, studies investigating this question have produced mixed findings, and individual differences in baseline knowledge have complicated results both within and across studies. We present two studies that took a different approach, controlling both familiarity and the nature of the familiarizing episode. We controlled familiarity with novel words through pre-exposure (“pre-familiarization”) in isolation, to induce form-based familiarity, or in sentences that provided few clues to meaning, to induce partial semantic knowledge. The number of pre-exposures varied (0, 1, or 4). After the pre-familiarization phase, we presented the words in several highly informative sentences to support meaning acquisition. Participants included both adults and typically developing children, ages 9–12. Participants’ self-rated familiarity with target words, and their knowledge of the words’ meanings and orthography were each measured at baseline, immediately after learning, and one week later. Orthographic and semantic word learning showed contrasting effects of pre-familiarization. For orthographic learning, it was the number, rather than the type, of pre-familiarizations that mattered most. By contrast, the number of pre-familiarizations had little impact on word semantic learning; further, pre-familiarization in low-constraint sentences did not consistently boost subsequent learning. These findings suggest that familiarity with a word prior to instruction does not necessarily improve word-learning outcomes, and they highlight the importance of repeated exposures to high quality contexts for robust word learning. PMID:27777496

  12. Semantically Interoperable XML Data

    PubMed Central

    Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2013-01-01

    XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups. PMID:25298789

  13. Categorization, concept learning, and behavior analysis: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Zentall, Thomas R; Galizio, Mark; Critchfied, Thomas S

    2002-11-01

    Categorization and concept learning encompass some of the most important aspects of behavior, but historically they have not been central topics in the experimental analysis of behavior. To introduce this special issue of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (JEAB), we define key terms; distinguish between the study of concepts and the study of concept learning; describe three types of concept learning characterized by the stimulus classes they yield; and briefly identify several other themes (e.g., quantitative modeling and ties to language) that appear in the literature. As the special issue demonstrates, a surprising amount and diversity of work is being conducted that either represents a behavior-analytic perspective or can inform or constructively challenge this perspective.

  14. Categorization, concept learning, and behavior analysis: an introduction.

    PubMed Central

    Zentall, Thomas R; Galizio, Mark; Critchfied, Thomas S

    2002-01-01

    Categorization and concept learning encompass some of the most important aspects of behavior, but historically they have not been central topics in the experimental analysis of behavior. To introduce this special issue of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (JEAB), we define key terms; distinguish between the study of concepts and the study of concept learning; describe three types of concept learning characterized by the stimulus classes they yield; and briefly identify several other themes (e.g., quantitative modeling and ties to language) that appear in the literature. As the special issue demonstrates, a surprising amount and diversity of work is being conducted that either represents a behavior-analytic perspective or can inform or constructively challenge this perspective. PMID:12507002

  15. Concept-Based Word Learning in Human Infants.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Csibra, Gergely

    2015-08-01

    Whether infants initially learn object labels by mapping them onto similarity-defining perceptual features or onto concepts of object kinds remains under debate. We addressed this question by attempting to teach infants words for behaviorally defined action roles. In a series of experiments, we found that 14-month-olds could rapidly learn a label for the role played by the chaser in a chasing scenario, even when the different instances of chasers did not share perceptual features. Furthermore, when infants could choose, they preferred to interpret a novel label as expressing the agent's role within the observed interaction rather than as being associated with the agent's appearance. These results demonstrate that infants can learn labels as easily (or even more easily) for concepts identified by abstract behavioral characteristics as for objects identified by perceptual features. Thus, at early stages of word learning, infants already expect that novel words express concepts.

  16. Machine learning approaches to diagnosis and laterality effects in semantic dementia discourse.

    PubMed

    Garrard, Peter; Rentoumi, Vassiliki; Gesierich, Benno; Miller, Bruce; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2014-06-01

    Advances in automatic text classification have been necessitated by the rapid increase in the availability of digital documents. Machine learning (ML) algorithms can 'learn' from data: for instance a ML system can be trained on a set of features derived from written texts belonging to known categories, and learn to distinguish between them. Such a trained system can then be used to classify unseen texts. In this paper, we explore the potential of the technique to classify transcribed speech samples along clinical dimensions, using vocabulary data alone. We report the accuracy with which two related ML algorithms [naive Bayes Gaussian (NBG) and naive Bayes multinomial (NBM)] categorized picture descriptions produced by: 32 semantic dementia (SD) patients versus 10 healthy, age-matched controls; and SD patients with left- (n = 21) versus right-predominant (n = 11) patterns of temporal lobe atrophy. We used information gain (IG) to identify the vocabulary features that were most informative to each of these two distinctions. In the SD versus control classification task, both algorithms achieved accuracies of greater than 90%. In the right- versus left-temporal lobe predominant classification, NBM achieved a high level of accuracy (88%), but this was achieved by both NBM and NBG when the features used in the training set were restricted to those with high values of IG. The most informative features for the patient versus control task were low frequency content words, generic terms and components of metanarrative statements. For the right versus left task the number of informative lexical features was too small to support any specific inferences. An enriched feature set, including values derived from Quantitative Production Analysis (QPA) may shed further light on this little understood distinction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bow Your Head in Shame, or, Hold Your Head Up with Pride: Semantic Processing of Self-Esteem Concepts Orients Attention Vertically

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, J. Eric T.; Lam, Timothy K.; Chasteen, Alison L.; Pratt, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Embodied cognition holds that abstract concepts are grounded in perceptual-motor simulations. If a given embodied metaphor maps onto a spatial representation, then thinking of that concept should bias the allocation of attention. In this study, we used positive and negative self-esteem words to examine two properties of conceptual cueing. First, we tested the orientation-specificity hypothesis, which predicts that conceptual cues should selectively activate certain spatial axes (in this case, valenced self-esteem concepts should activate vertical space), instead of any spatial continuum. Second, we tested whether conceptual cueing requires semantic processing, or if it can be achieved with shallow visual processing of the cue words. Participants viewed centrally presented words consisting of high or low self-esteem traits (e.g., brave, timid) before detecting a target above or below the cue in the vertical condition, or on the left or right of the word in the horizontal condition. Participants were faster to detect targets when their location was compatible with the valence of the word cues, but only in the vertical condition. Moreover, this effect was observed when participants processed the semantics of the word, but not when processing its orthography. The results show that conceptual cueing by spatial metaphors is orientation-specific, and that an explicit consideration of the word cues’ semantics is required for conceptual cueing to occur. PMID:26368276

  18. How Do Young Children Learn Geometric Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohe, Pia

    Twenty children (ages 5 and 6) from each of seven cultural groups (Caucasian, Black, Jewish, Puerto Rican, Chinese, Korean-American and native Korean) were given a copying task of 21 geometric shapes to test the cultural invariancy of Piaget's topological-projective-Euclidean concept acquisition sequence. All subjects were either middle or lower…

  19. Learning Low-Dimensional Representations of Medical Concepts.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngduck; Chiu, Chill Yi-I; Sontag, David

    2016-01-01

    We show how to learn low-dimensional representations (embeddings) of a wide range of concepts in medicine, including diseases (e.g., ICD9 codes), medications, procedures, and laboratory tests. We expect that these embeddings will be useful across medical informatics for tasks such as cohort selection and patient summarization. These embeddings are learned using a technique called neural language modeling from the natural language processing community. However, rather than learning the embeddings solely from text, we show how to learn the embeddings from claims data, which is widely available both to providers and to payers. We also show that with a simple algorithmic adjustment, it is possible to learn medical concept embeddings in a privacy preserving manner from co-occurrence counts derived from clinical narratives. Finally, we establish a methodological framework, arising from standard medical ontologies such as UMLS, NDF-RT, and CCS, to further investigate the embeddings and precisely characterize their quantitative properties.

  20. Introducing the concept of learning styles in rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Verschuren, Olaf; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; van Heugten, Caroline

    2010-07-01

    A major focus of rehabilitation is that of optimizing patients' activities. Learning and teaching are key elements in this respect, but raise important questions: what do rehabilitation professionals know with respect to learning and teaching, what do they do, and what do they need? This paper discusses the issue of learning and teaching in rehabilitation practice, and introduces the concept of learning styles. This concept, new in the field of rehabilitation, but well-known in other areas, is presumed to benefit both patients and professionals, as it allows teaching strategies to be matched to individual patients. As a consequence, the process of learning may be more efficient and optimizing activities may be more effective.

  1. Learning Low-Dimensional Representations of Medical Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Youngduck; Chiu, Chill Yi-I; Sontag, David

    2016-01-01

    We show how to learn low-dimensional representations (embeddings) of a wide range of concepts in medicine, including diseases (e.g., ICD9 codes), medications, procedures, and laboratory tests. We expect that these embeddings will be useful across medical informatics for tasks such as cohort selection and patient summarization. These embeddings are learned using a technique called neural language modeling from the natural language processing community. However, rather than learning the embeddings solely from text, we show how to learn the embeddings from claims data, which is widely available both to providers and to payers. We also show that with a simple algorithmic adjustment, it is possible to learn medical concept embeddings in a privacy preserving manner from co-occurrence counts derived from clinical narratives. Finally, we establish a methodological framework, arising from standard medical ontologies such as UMLS, NDF-RT, and CCS, to further investigate the embeddings and precisely characterize their quantitative properties. PMID:27570647

  2. Incremental learning of concept drift in nonstationary environments.

    PubMed

    Elwell, Ryan; Polikar, Robi

    2011-10-01

    We introduce an ensemble of classifiers-based approach for incremental learning of concept drift, characterized by nonstationary environments (NSEs), where the underlying data distributions change over time. The proposed algorithm, named Learn(++). NSE, learns from consecutive batches of data without making any assumptions on the nature or rate of drift; it can learn from such environments that experience constant or variable rate of drift, addition or deletion of concept classes, as well as cyclical drift. The algorithm learns incrementally, as other members of the Learn(++) family of algorithms, that is, without requiring access to previously seen data. Learn(++). NSE trains one new classifier for each batch of data it receives, and combines these classifiers using a dynamically weighted majority voting. The novelty of the approach is in determining the voting weights, based on each classifier's time-adjusted accuracy on current and past environments. This approach allows the algorithm to recognize, and act accordingly, to the changes in underlying data distributions, as well as to a possible reoccurrence of an earlier distribution. We evaluate the algorithm on several synthetic datasets designed to simulate a variety of nonstationary environments, as well as a real-world weather prediction dataset. Comparisons with several other approaches are also included. Results indicate that Learn(++). NSE can track the changing environments very closely, regardless of the type of concept drift. To allow future use, comparison and benchmarking by interested researchers, we also release our data used in this paper. © 2011 IEEE

  3. The Analysis of High School Students' Conceptions of Learning in Different Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadi, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether or not conceptions of learning diverge in different science domains by identifying high school students' conceptions of learning in physics, chemistry and biology. The Conceptions of Learning Science (COLS) questionnaire was adapted for physics (Conceptions of Learning Physics, COLP), chemistry…

  4. Active learning: a step towards automating medical concept extraction.

    PubMed

    Kholghi, Mahnoosh; Sitbon, Laurianne; Zuccon, Guido; Nguyen, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an automatic, active learning-based system for the extraction of medical concepts from clinical free-text reports. Specifically, (1) the contribution of active learning in reducing the annotation effort and (2) the robustness of incremental active learning framework across different selection criteria and data sets are determined. The comparative performance of an active learning framework and a fully supervised approach were investigated to study how active learning reduces the annotation effort while achieving the same effectiveness as a supervised approach. Conditional random fields as the supervised method, and least confidence and information density as 2 selection criteria for active learning framework were used. The effect of incremental learning vs standard learning on the robustness of the models within the active learning framework with different selection criteria was also investigated. The following 2 clinical data sets were used for evaluation: the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside/Veteran Affairs (i2b2/VA) 2010 natural language processing challenge and the Shared Annotated Resources/Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum (ShARe/CLEF) 2013 eHealth Evaluation Lab. The annotation effort saved by active learning to achieve the same effectiveness as supervised learning is up to 77%, 57%, and 46% of the total number of sequences, tokens, and concepts, respectively. Compared with the random sampling baseline, the saving is at least doubled. Incremental active learning is a promising approach for building effective and robust medical concept extraction models while significantly reducing the burden of manual annotation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Effect of congenital blindness on the semantic representation of some everyday concepts.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Andrew C; Gleitman, Lila R; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2007-05-15

    This study explores how the lack of first-hand experience with color, as a result of congenital blindness, affects implicit judgments about "higher-order" concepts, such as "fruits and vegetables" (FV), but not others, such as "household items" (HHI). We demonstrate how the differential diagnosticity of color across our test categories interacts with visual experience to produce, in effect, a category-specific difference in implicit similarity. Implicit pair-wise similarity judgments were collected by using an odd-man-out triad task. Pair-wise similarities for both FV and for HHI were derived from this task and were compared by using cluster analysis and regression analyses. Color was found to be a significant component in the structure of implicit similarity for FV for sighted participants but not for blind participants; and this pattern remained even when the analysis was restricted to blind participants who had good explicit color knowledge of the stimulus items. There was also no evidence that either subject group used color knowledge in making decisions about HHI, nor was there an indication of any qualitative differences between blind and sighted subjects' judgments on HHI.

  6. Effect of congenital blindness on the semantic representation of some everyday concepts

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Andrew C.; Gleitman, Lila R.; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2007-01-01

    This study explores how the lack of first-hand experience with color, as a result of congenital blindness, affects implicit judgments about “higher-order” concepts, such as “fruits and vegetables” (FV), but not others, such as “household items” (HHI). We demonstrate how the differential diagnosticity of color across our test categories interacts with visual experience to produce, in effect, a category-specific difference in implicit similarity. Implicit pair-wise similarity judgments were collected by using an odd-man-out triad task. Pair-wise similarities for both FV and for HHI were derived from this task and were compared by using cluster analysis and regression analyses. Color was found to be a significant component in the structure of implicit similarity for FV for sighted participants but not for blind participants; and this pattern remained even when the analysis was restricted to blind participants who had good explicit color knowledge of the stimulus items. There was also no evidence that either subject group used color knowledge in making decisions about HHI, nor was there an indication of any qualitative differences between blind and sighted subjects' judgments on HHI. PMID:17483447

  7. Active learning reduces annotation time for clinical concept extraction.

    PubMed

    Kholghi, Mahnoosh; Sitbon, Laurianne; Zuccon, Guido; Nguyen, Anthony

    2017-10-01

    To investigate: (1) the annotation time savings by various active learning query strategies compared to supervised learning and a random sampling baseline, and (2) the benefits of active learning-assisted pre-annotations in accelerating the manual annotation process compared to de novo annotation. There are 73 and 120 discharge summary reports provided by Beth Israel institute in the train and test sets of the concept extraction task in the i2b2/VA 2010 challenge, respectively. The 73 reports were used in user study experiments for manual annotation. First, all sequences within the 73 reports were manually annotated from scratch. Next, active learning models were built to generate pre-annotations for the sequences selected by a query strategy. The annotation/reviewing time per sequence was recorded. The 120 test reports were used to measure the effectiveness of the active learning models. When annotating from scratch, active learning reduced the annotation time up to 35% and 28% compared to a fully supervised approach and a random sampling baseline, respectively. Reviewing active learning-assisted pre-annotations resulted in 20% further reduction of the annotation time when compared to de novo annotation. The number of concepts that require manual annotation is a good indicator of the annotation time for various active learning approaches as demonstrated by high correlation between time rate and concept annotation rate. Active learning has a key role in reducing the time required to manually annotate domain concepts from clinical free text, either when annotating from scratch or reviewing active learning-assisted pre-annotations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Curious Conceptions: Learning to Be Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Trish

    2007-01-01

    The ageing of the population in western societies has aroused great concern and interest in recent years as the so-called "baby-boomers" begin to retire, leaving a seemingly depleted workforce. Society and the individuals within it learn the "truths" of being aged or old through the normalizing of gerontological, demographic…

  9. Curious Conceptions: Learning to Be Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Trish

    2007-01-01

    The ageing of the population in western societies has aroused great concern and interest in recent years as the so-called "baby-boomers" begin to retire, leaving a seemingly depleted workforce. Society and the individuals within it learn the "truths" of being aged or old through the normalizing of gerontological, demographic…

  10. Kindergarteners' concept development in science and literacy learning through Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffit, Char Adelia

    The notion that "real work" is somehow different from authentic and engaging discovery is troublesome. (Passman, 2001, p.196) This qualitative case study examined science concept and literacy learning along with engagement of the students in a Kindergarten class in which science and literacy instruction was integrated through Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI). CORI is an instructional framework created to increase reading engagement by teaching reading comprehension strategies along with science concepts (Guthrie, et al., 1996). This study explored CORI at the Kindergarten level to examine how this curriculum framework engaged young learners in science concept and literacy learning. The study was grounded in the belief that concept learning can be engaging and motivating (Csikszentmihalyi, 1978). Data analysis resulted in five metaphors that show how the students took on multiple identities while engaged in learning concepts during CORI. Students took on the following identities: learner as docent, learner as explorer, learner as researcher, learner as author, and learner as expert. Prior to this study, the lowest grade level that CORI had been researched was 3rd grade. The present study examined the benefits of utilizing CORI with early literacy at the Kindergarten level and contributes to the body of CORI research demonstrating the potential of utilizing CORI at lower grade levels.

  11. Learning for School Leadership: Using Concept Mapping to Explore Learning from Everyday Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pegg, Ann Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This study explores concepts of learning used by leaders, focusing on learning for leadership through day-to-day workplace experiences. The participants were drawn from the senior management team within a school, the chair of governors of the school and the local authority school improvement advisor. Concept mapping was used as a participatory…

  12. Learning for School Leadership: Using Concept Mapping to Explore Learning from Everyday Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pegg, Ann Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This study explores concepts of learning used by leaders, focusing on learning for leadership through day-to-day workplace experiences. The participants were drawn from the senior management team within a school, the chair of governors of the school and the local authority school improvement advisor. Concept mapping was used as a participatory…

  13. Self Concept: Learning Disabled vs. Non-Learning Disabled College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flom, Barbara

    Learning disabled (LD) (N=16) and non-learning disabled (non-LD) (N=16) college students completed the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale and were compared with regard to various aspects of self-concept. Mean scores of LD students were higher than those of non-LD subjects on the overall scale and all eight subscales, but differences between group means…

  14. Analyzing the Effects of Various Concept Mapping Techniques on Learning Achievement under Different Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiou, Chei-Chang; Lee, Li-Tze; Tien, Li-Chu; Wang, Yu-Min

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the effectiveness of different concept mapping techniques on the learning achievement of senior accounting students and whether achievements attained using various techniques are affected by different learning styles. The techniques are computer-assisted construct-by-self-concept mapping (CACSB), computer-assisted…

  15. Promoting Students' Learning of Air Pressure Concepts: The Interrelationship of Teaching Approaches and Student Learning Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    She, Hsiao-Ching

    2005-01-01

    The author explored the potential to promote students' understanding of difficult science concepts through an examination of the inter-relationships among the teachers' instructional approach, students' learning preference styles, and their levels of learning process. The concept "air pressure," which requires an understanding of…

  16. Remote semantic memory is impoverished in hippocampal amnesia.

    PubMed

    Klooster, Nathaniel B; Duff, Melissa C

    2015-12-01

    The necessity of the hippocampus for acquiring new semantic concepts is a topic of considerable debate. However, it is generally accepted that any role the hippocampus plays in semantic memory is time limited and that previously acquired information becomes independent of the hippocampus over time. This view, along with intact naming and word-definition matching performance in amnesia, has led to the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in patients with hippocampal amnesia. Motivated by perspectives of word learning as a protracted process where additional features and senses of a word are added over time, and by recent discoveries about the time course of hippocampal contributions to on-line relational processing, reconsolidation, and the flexible integration of information, we revisit the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in amnesia. Using measures of semantic richness and vocabulary depth from psycholinguistics and first and second language-learning studies, we examined how much information is associated with previously acquired, highly familiar words in a group of patients with bilateral hippocampal damage and amnesia. Relative to healthy demographically matched comparison participants and a group of brain-damaged comparison participants, the patients with hippocampal amnesia performed significantly worse on both productive and receptive measures of vocabulary depth and semantic richness. These findings suggest that remote semantic memory is impoverished in patients with hippocampal amnesia and that the hippocampus may play a role in the maintenance and updating of semantic memory beyond its initial acquisition.

  17. Remote semantic memory is impoverished in hippocampal amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Klooster, Nathaniel B.; Duff, Melissa C.

    2015-01-01

    The necessity of the hippocampus for acquiring new semantic concepts is a topic of considerable debate. However, it is generally accepted that any role the hippocampus plays in semantic memory is time limited and that previously acquired information becomes independent of the hippocampus over time. This view, along with intact naming and word-definition matching performance in amnesia, has led to the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in patients with hippocampal amnesia. Motivated by perspectives of word learning as a protracted process where additional features and senses of a word are added over time, and by recent discoveries about the time course of hippocampal contributions to on-line relational processing, reconsolidation, and the flexible integration of information, we revisit the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in amnesia. Using measures of semantic richness and vocabulary depth from psycholinguistics and first and second language-learning studies, we examined how much information is associated with previously acquired, highly familiar words in a group of patients with bilateral hippocampal damage and amnesia. Relative to healthy demographically matched comparison participants and a group of brain-damaged comparison participants, the patients with hippocampal amnesia performed significantly worse on both productive and receptive measures of vocabulary depth and semantic richness. These findings suggest that remote semantic memory is impoverished in patients with hippocampal amnesia and that the hippocampus may play a role in the maintenance and updating of semantic memory beyond its initial acquisition. PMID:26474741

  18. Brazilian and Nigerian International Students' Conceptions of Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashong, Carol; Commander, Nannette

    2017-01-01

    The growth of international students compels examination of introspective aspects of learning experiences such as conceptions of learning. Additionally, learning conceptions profoundly impact learning outcomes (Tsai, 2009). To address the lack of research on learning conceptions of students from Africa and South America, this study examines…

  19. Concept-Based Learning in Clinical Experiences: Bringing Theory to Clinical Education for Deep Learning.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Ann

    2016-07-01

    Concept-based learning is used increasingly in nursing education to support the organization, transfer, and retention of knowledge. Concept-based learning activities (CBLAs) have been used in clinical education to explore key aspects of the patient situation and principles of nursing care, without responsibility for total patient care. The nature of best practices in teaching and the resultant learning are not well understood. The purpose of this multiple-case study research was to explore and describe concept-based learning in the context of clinical education in inpatient settings. Four clinical groups (each a case) were observed while they used CBLAs in the clinical setting. Major findings include that concept-based learning fosters deep learning, connection of theory with practice, and clinical judgment. Strategies used to support learning, major teaching-learning foci, and preconditions for concept-based teaching and learning will be described. Concept-based learning is promising to support integration of theory with practice and clinical judgment through application experiences with patients. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(7):365-371.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. The semantic pathfinder: using an authoring metaphor for generic multimedia indexing.

    PubMed

    Snoek, Cees G M; Worring, Marcel; Geusebroek, Jan-Mark; Koelma, Dennis C; Seinstra, Frank J; Smeulders, Arnold W M

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the semantic pathfinder architecture for generic indexing of multimedia archives. The semantic pathfinder extracts semantic concepts from video by exploring different paths through three consecutive analysis steps, which we derive from the observation that produced video is the result of an authoring-driven process. We exploit this authoring metaphor for machine-driven understanding. The pathfinder starts with the content analysis step. In this analysis step, we follow a data-driven approach of indexing semantics. The style analysis step is the second analysis step. Here, we tackle the indexing problem by viewing a video from the perspective of production. Finally, in the context analysis step, we view semantics in context. The virtue of the semantic pathfinder is its ability to learn the best path of analysis steps on a per-concept basis. To show the generality of this novel indexing approach, we develop detectors for a lexicon of 32 concepts and we evaluate the semantic pathfinder against the 2004 NIST TRECVID video retrieval benchmark, using a news archive of 64 hours. Top ranking performance in the semantic concept detection task indicates the merit of the semantic pathfinder for generic indexing of multimedia archives.

  1. Undergraduate students' earth science learning: relationships among conceptions, approaches, and learning self-efficacy in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Kuan-Ming; Lee, Min-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2016-06-01

    In the area of science education research, studies have attempted to investigate conceptions of learning, approaches to learning, and self-efficacy, mainly focusing on science in general or on specific subjects such as biology, physics, and chemistry. However, few empirical studies have probed students' earth science learning. This study aimed to explore the relationships among undergraduates' conceptions of, approaches to, and self-efficacy for learning earth science by adopting the structural equation modeling technique. A total of 268 Taiwanese undergraduates (144 females) participated in this study. Three instruments were modified to assess the students' conceptions of, approaches to, and self-efficacy for learning earth science. The results indicated that students' conceptions of learning made a significant contribution to their approaches to learning, which were consequently correlated with their learning self-efficacy. More specifically, students with stronger agreement that learning earth science involves applying the knowledge and skills learned to unknown problems were prone to possess higher confidence in learning earth science. Moreover, students viewing earth science learning as understanding earth science knowledge were more likely to adopt meaningful strategies to learn earth science, and hence expressed a higher sense of self-efficacy. Based on the results, practical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  2. Semantic memory content in permastore: fifty years of memory for Spanish learned in school.

    PubMed

    Bahrick, H P

    1984-03-01

    Retention of Spanish learned in school was tested over a 50-year period for 733 individuals. Tests of reading comprehension, recall, and recognition vocabulary and grammar were administered together with a questionnaire to determine the level of original training, the grades received, and rehearsals during the retention interval in the form of reading, writing, speaking, or listening to Spanish. Multiple regression analysis shows that retention throughout the 50-year period is predictable on the basis of the level of original training. The great majority of subjects rehearse so little that the data reveal no significant rehearsal effects. The analysis yields memory curves which decline exponentially for the first 3-6 years of the retention interval. After that retention remains unchanged for periods of up to 30 years before showing a final decline. Large portions of the originally acquired information remain accessible for over 50 years in spite of the fact the information is not used or rehearsed. This portion of the information in a "permastore" state is a function of the level of original training, the grades received in Spanish courses, and the method of testing (recall vs. recognition), but it appears to be unaffected by ordinary conditions of interference. The life-span frequency distribution of learned responses is discontinuous; one portion of the response distribution has life spans of 0-6 years, the other portion, life spans in excess of 25 years, and no responses have life spans of 6-25 years. This suggests a discrete transition into a permastore state during the extended period of original training. Analysis of successive relearning processes over extended time periods is deemed essential for an understanding of the acquisition of permanent semantic memory content.

  3. Decreased Fronto-Limbic Activation and Disrupted Semantic-Cued List Learning in Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kassel, Michelle T; Rao, Julia A; Walker, Sara J; Briceño, Emily M; Gabriel, Laura B; Weldon, Anne L; Avery, Erich T; Haase, Brennan D; Peciña, Marta; Considine, Ciaran M; Noll, Douglas C; Bieliauskas, Linas A; Starkman, Monica N; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Welsh, Robert C; Giordani, Bruno; Weisenbach, Sara L; Langenecker, Scott A

    2016-04-01

    Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) demonstrate poorer learning and memory skills relative to never-depressed comparisons (NDC). Previous studies report decreased volume and disrupted function of frontal lobes and hippocampi in MDD during memory challenge. However, it has been difficult to dissociate contributions of short-term memory and executive functioning to memory difficulties from those that might be attributable to long-term memory deficits. Adult males (MDD, n=19; NDC, n=22) and females (MDD, n=23; NDC, n=19) performed the Semantic List Learning Task (SLLT) during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The SLLT Encoding condition consists of 15 lists, each containing 14 words. After each list, a Distractor condition occurs, followed by cued Silent Rehearsal instructions. Post-scan recall and recognition were collected. Groups were compared using block (Encoding-Silent Rehearsal) and event-related (Words Recalled) models. MDD displayed lower recall relative to NDC. NDC displayed greater activation in several temporal, frontal, and parietal regions, for both Encoding-Silent Rehearsal and the Words Recalled analyses. Groups also differed in activation patterns in regions of the Papez circuit in planned analyses. The majority of activation differences were not related to performance, presence of medications, presence of comorbid anxiety disorder, or decreased gray matter volume in MDD. Adults with MDD exhibit memory difficulties during a task designed to reduce the contribution of individual variability from short-term memory and executive functioning processes, parallel with decreased activation in memory and executive functioning circuits. Ecologically valid long-term memory tasks are imperative for uncovering neural correlates of memory performance deficits in adults with MDD.

  4. Machine learning approaches to diagnosis and laterality effects in semantic dementia discourse

    PubMed Central

    Garrard, Peter; Rentoumi, Vassiliki; Gesierich, Benno; Miller, Bruce; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Advances in automatic text classification have been necessitated by the rapid increase in the availability of digital documents. Machine learning (ML) algorithms can ‘learn’ from data: for instance a ML system can be trained on a set of features derived from written texts belonging to known categories, and learn to distinguish between them. Such a trained system can then be used to classify unseen texts. In this paper, we explore the potential of the technique to classify transcribed speech samples along clinical dimensions, using vocabulary data alone. We report the accuracy with which two related ML algorithms [naive Bayes Gaussian (NBG) and naive Bayes multinomial (NBM)] categorized picture descriptions produced by: 32 semantic dementia (SD) patients versus 10 healthy, age-matched controls; and SD patients with left- (n = 21) versus right-predominant (n = 11) patterns of temporal lobe atrophy. We used information gain (IG) to identify the vocabulary features that were most informative to each of these two distinctions. In the SD versus control classification task, both algorithms achieved accuracies of greater than 90%. In the right- versus left-temporal lobe predominant classification, NBM achieved a high level of accuracy (88%), but this was achieved by both NBM and NBG when the features used in the training set were restricted to those with high values of IG. The most informative features for the patient versus control task were low frequency content words, generic terms and components of metanarrative statements. For the right versus left task the number of informative lexical features was too small to support any specific inferences. An enriched feature set, including values derived from Quantitative Production Analysis (QPA) may shed further light on this little understood distinction. PMID:23876449

  5. Decreased Fronto-Limbic Activation and Disrupted Semantic-Cued List Learning in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kassel, Michelle T.; Rao, Julia A.; Walker, Sara J.; Briceño, Emily M.; Gabriel, Laura B.; Weldon, Anne L.; Avery, Erich T.; Haase, Brennan D.; Peciña, Marta; Considine, Ciaran M.; Noll, Douglas C.; Bieliauskas, Linas A.; Starkman, Monica N.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Welsh, Robert C.; Giordani, Bruno; Weisenbach, Sara L.; Langenecker, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) demonstrate poorer learning and memory skills relative to never-depressed comparisons (NDC). Previous studies report decreased volume and disrupted function of frontal lobes and hippocampi in MDD during memory challenge. However, it has been difficult to dissociate contributions of short-term memory and executive functioning to memory difficulties from those that might be attributable to long-term memory deficits. Method Adult males (MDD, n=19; NDC, n=22) and females (MDD, n=23; NDC, n=19) performed the Semantic List Learning Task (SLLT) during fMRI. The SLLT Encoding condition consists of 15 lists, each containing 14 words. After each list, a Distractor condition occurs, followed by cued Silent Rehearsal instructions. Post-scan recall and recognition were collected. Groups were compared using block (Encoding-Silent Rehearsal) and event-related (Words Recalled) models. Results MDD displayed lower recall relative to NDC. NDC displayed greater activation in several temporal, frontal, and parietal regions, for both Encoding-Silent Rehearsal and the Words Recalled analyses. Groups also differed in activation patterns in regions of the Papez circuit in planned analyses. The majority of activation differences were not related to performance, presence of medications, presence of comorbid anxiety disorder, or decreased gray matter volume in MDD. Conclusions Adults with MDD exhibit memory difficulties during a task designed to reduce the contribution of individual variability from short-term memory and executive functioning processes, parallel with decreased activation in memory and executive functioning circuits. Ecologically valid long-term memory tasks are imperative for uncovering neural correlates of memory performance deficits in adults with MDD. PMID:26831638

  6. Semantics for E-Learning: An Advanced Knowledge Management Oriented Metadata Schema for Learning Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytras, Miltiadis D.

    The research described in this paper is concentrated on the demand for high quality interchangeable knowledge objects capable of supporting dynamic learning initiatives. The general metadata models (Dublin Core, IMS, LOM, SCORM) for knowledge objects enrichment are reviewed and a critique is provided in order to claim the importance of the…

  7. Developing concept maps from problem-based learning scenario discussions.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Li-Ling

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports a study examining the effects of adopting concept mapping in problem-based learning scenario discussions on the improvement of students' learning outcomes in a nursing course. Students in Taiwan usually have a high degree of anxiety about whether or not they have learned enough. Problem-based learning is a method of teaching that uses a patient situation or scenario to stimulate students to acquire and apply information to solve problems. Concept mapping can promote problem-solving and critical thinking to help students organize complex patient data, process complex relationships and offer holistic care to patients. An experimental design was used, with participants randomly assigned either to a control or experimental group. The experimental group participated in six problem-based learning scenario discussions during the 16-week semester, while the control group attended a traditional course. The experimental group had significantly higher proposition and hierarchy scores for their concept maps compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in the cross-link and example scores between the two groups. In general, the total score difference between the groups did not reach statistical significance levels. Only one student in the experimental group obtained a high score; most participants in both groups (over 50%) obtained low scores. Concept mapping strategies may be useful for analysis of individual student's thinking processes for (1) emphasizing key concepts or main ideas, (2) understanding relationships between different concepts, including cause-effect and part-whole relationships, (3) reviewing propositions, hierarchies and cross-links in a logically scientific way, and (4) revising concept structures to agree with theory and experience.

  8. Musical and verbal semantic memory: two distinct neural networks?

    PubMed

    Groussard, M; Viader, F; Hubert, V; Landeau, B; Abbas, A; Desgranges, B; Eustache, F; Platel, H

    2010-02-01

    Semantic memory has been investigated in numerous neuroimaging and clinical studies, most of which have used verbal or visual, but only very seldom, musical material. Clinical studies have suggested that there is a relative neural independence between verbal and musical semantic memory. In the present study, "musical semantic memory" is defined as memory for "well-known" melodies without any knowledge of the spatial or temporal circumstances of learning, while "verbal semantic memory" corresponds to general knowledge about concepts, again without any knowledge of the spatial or temporal circumstances of learning. Our aim was to compare the neural substrates of musical and verbal semantic memory by administering the same type of task in each modality. We used high-resolution PET H(2)O(15) to observe 11 young subjects performing two main tasks: (1) a musical semantic memory task, where the subjects heard the first part of familiar melodies and had to decide whether the second part they heard matched the first, and (2) a verbal semantic memory task with the same design, but where the material consisted of well-known expressions or proverbs. The musical semantic memory condition activated the superior temporal area and inferior and middle frontal areas in the left hemisphere and the inferior frontal area in the right hemisphere. The verbal semantic memory condition activated the middle temporal region in the left hemisphere and the cerebellum in the right hemisphere. We found that the verbal and musical semantic processes activated a common network extending throughout the left temporal neocortex. In addition, there was a material-dependent topographical preference within this network, with predominantly anterior activation during musical tasks and predominantly posterior activation during semantic verbal tasks. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cosmic Concepts: A Video Series for Scaffolded Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Summers, Frank; Maple, John

    2016-01-01

    Scaffolding is widely considered to be an essential element of effective teaching and is used to help bridge knowledge gaps for learners. Scaffolding is especially important for distance-learning programs and computer-based learning environments. Preliminary studies are showing that when students learn about complex topics within computer-based learning environments without scaffolding, they fail to gain a conceptual understanding of the topic. As a result, researchers have begun to emphasize the importance of scaffolding for web-based as well as in-person instruction.To support scaffolded teaching practices and techniques, while addressing the needs of life-long learners, we have created the Cosmic Concepts video series. The series consists of short, one-topic videos that address scientific concepts with a special emphasis on those that traditionally cause confusion or are layered with misconceptions. Each video focuses on one idea at a time and provides a clear explanation of phenomena that is succinct enough for on-demand reference usage by all types of learners. Likewise, the videos can be used by educators to scaffold the scientific concepts behind astronomical images, or can be sequenced together to create well-structured pathways for presenting deeper and more layered ideas. This approach is critical for communicating information about astronomical discoveries that are often dense with unfamiliar concepts, complex ideas, and highly technical details. Additionally, learning tools in video formats support multi-sensory presentation approaches that can make astronomy more accessible to a variety of learners.

  10. Undergraduate Students' Earth Science Learning: Relationships among Conceptions, Approaches, and Learning Self-Efficacy in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Kuan-Ming; Lee, Min-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2016-01-01

    In the area of science education research, studies have attempted to investigate conceptions of learning, approaches to learning, and self-efficacy, mainly focusing on science in general or on specific subjects such as biology, physics, and chemistry. However, few empirical studies have probed students' earth science learning. This study aimed to…

  11. Undergraduate Students' Earth Science Learning: Relationships among Conceptions, Approaches, and Learning Self-Efficacy in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Kuan-Ming; Lee, Min-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2016-01-01

    In the area of science education research, studies have attempted to investigate conceptions of learning, approaches to learning, and self-efficacy, mainly focusing on science in general or on specific subjects such as biology, physics, and chemistry. However, few empirical studies have probed students' earth science learning. This study aimed to…

  12. A Climate for Learning Science. Concept Paper. SEL (The Skills Essential to Learning Project) Phase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Lazer

    Commissioned for use during the design phase of the "Skills Essential to Learning" (SEL) video project, this concept paper makes a number of suggestions for facilitating effective scientific learning. These include: (1) establishing a positive climate for science learning in which the student can ask and pursue questions, change routes,…

  13. Kindergarteners' Concept Development in Science and Literacy Learning through Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffit, Char Adelia

    2013-01-01

    The notion that "real work" is somehow different from authentic and engaging discovery is troublesome. (Passman, 2001, p.196). This qualitative case study examined science concept and literacy learning along with engagement of the students in a Kindergarten class in which science and literacy instruction was integrated through…

  14. Kindergarteners' Concept Development in Science and Literacy Learning through Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffit, Char Adelia

    2013-01-01

    The notion that "real work" is somehow different from authentic and engaging discovery is troublesome. (Passman, 2001, p.196). This qualitative case study examined science concept and literacy learning along with engagement of the students in a Kindergarten class in which science and literacy instruction was integrated through…

  15. Role of Concept Definition, Teaching Examples, and Practice on Concept Learning from Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Two experiments, each with 132 undergraduates, evaluated the effects of definition adjunct questions on concept learning. In both experiments, only unmatched application adjunct questions preceded by a definition question produced higher performance on criterion questions than did definition questions only. The effective use of definition…

  16. Exploring Primary School Teachers' Conceptions of "Assessment for Learning"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashid, Rosdinah Abdul; Jaidin, Jainatul Halida

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents primary school teachers' conceptions of "assessment for learning" in government schools in Brunei Darussalam. The Ministry of Education in Brunei introduced a 21st century education system (codenamed SPN21) in 2007 and one of the initiatives brought by SPN21 was the implementation of School Based Assessment for…

  17. Difficulties in Learning the Concept of Electric Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furio, C.; Guisasola, J.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes students' main difficulties in learning the concept of electric field. Briefly describes the main conceptual profiles within which electric interactions can be interpreted and concludes that most students have difficulty using the idea of electric field. Contains 28 references. (DDR)

  18. Instance, Cue, and Dimension Learning in Concept Shift Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, Joan L.; Panda, Kailas C.

    Experiment I was designed to demonstrate that young children fail to abstract the positive cue as the relevant stimulus event in a restricted concept-learning task. Sixteen kindergarten and 16 fourth grade subjects were trained to criterion on a Kendler-type task, whereupon each subject was presented a pair of new instances which contrasted only…

  19. Anxiety and Self-Concept of Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margalit, Malka; Zak, Itai

    1984-01-01

    One hundred learning disabled (LD) and 118 nondisabled children (six-13 years old) participated in the study which demonstrated significantly higher anxiety and lower self-concept in the first group. The differences emphasized the self-dissatisfaction of the LD group and their pawning related anxiety. (Author/CL)

  20. Science Concepts Young Children Learn through Water Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    Water is fascinating, fun, and multifaceted. Children can play with it endlessly. But play, for play's sake, is not water's only value (Crosser, 1994, Tovey, 1993). Indeed, water play is a compelling focus of study for young children (Chalufour & Worth, 2005). The concepts that young children learn from water play are essential for early childhood…

  1. Developing Object Concepts in Infancy: An Associative Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakison, David H.; Lupyan, Gary

    2008-01-01

    We present a domain-general framework called "constrained attentional associative learning" to provide a developmental account for how and when infants form concepts for animates and inanimates that encapsulate not only their surface appearance but also their movement characteristics. Six simulations with the same general-purpose architecture…

  2. Science Concepts Young Children Learn through Water Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    Water is fascinating, fun, and multifaceted. Children can play with it endlessly. But play, for play's sake, is not water's only value (Crosser, 1994, Tovey, 1993). Indeed, water play is a compelling focus of study for young children (Chalufour & Worth, 2005). The concepts that young children learn from water play are essential for early childhood…

  3. Implementing Concept-Based Learning in a Large Undergraduate Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, David; Jutras, France

    2008-01-01

    An experiment explicitly introducing learning strategies to a large, first-year undergraduate cell biology course was undertaken to see whether awareness and use of strategies had a measurable impact on student performance. The construction of concept maps was selected as the strategy to be introduced because of an inherent coherence with a course…

  4. Reexamining the Role of Cognitive Conflict in Science Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sukjin; Scharmann, Lawrence C.; Noh, Taehee

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we defined and quantified the degree of cognitive conflict induced by a discrepant event from a cognitive perspective. Based on the scheme developed, we investigated the relationship between cognitive conflict and conceptual change, and the influences of students' cognitive characteristics on conflict in learning the concept of…

  5. Using Cognitive Tutor Software in Learning Linear Algebra Word Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kai-Ju

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of twelve 10th grade students using Cognitive Tutor, a math software program, to learn linear algebra word concept. The study's purpose was to examine whether students' mathematics performance as it is related to using Cognitive Tutor provided evidence to support Koedlinger's (2002) four instructional principles used…

  6. Transfer of Learning: Connecting Concepts during Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Raymond A.; Brown, Ryan A.

    2012-01-01

    A concern of many educators and managers is students' ability to transfer concepts and procedures learned in school to the work environment. When children are taught a skill, such as solving a mathematical problem, they often fail to recognize that their new skill can be used to solve a similar problem outside of school. In other cases, students…

  7. Reexamining the Role of Cognitive Conflict in Science Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sukjin; Scharmann, Lawrence C.; Noh, Taehee

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we defined and quantified the degree of cognitive conflict induced by a discrepant event from a cognitive perspective. Based on the scheme developed, we investigated the relationship between cognitive conflict and conceptual change, and the influences of students' cognitive characteristics on conflict in learning the concept of…

  8. Implementing Concept-Based Learning in a Large Undergraduate Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, David; Jutras, France

    2008-01-01

    An experiment explicitly introducing learning strategies to a large, first-year undergraduate cell biology course was undertaken to see whether awareness and use of strategies had a measurable impact on student performance. The construction of concept maps was selected as the strategy to be introduced because of an inherent coherence with a course…

  9. Family Concepts in Early Learning and Development Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Bridget A.; Sanchez, Claudia; Lee, Angela M.; Casillas, Nicole; Hansen, Caitlynn

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the use of concepts related to families, parents, and the home in 51 state-level early learning and development standards documents. Guidelines from six national family involvement, engagement, and school-partnership models were used to create the Family Involvement Models Analysis Chart (FIMAC), which served as…

  10. Relational Analysis of High School Students' Cognitive Self-Regulated Learning Strategies and Conceptions of Learning Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadi, Özlem

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between students' cognitive learning strategies and conceptions of learning biology. The two scales, "Cognitive Learning Strategies" and "Conceptions of Learning Biology", were revised and adapted to biology in order to measure the students' learning strategies and…

  11. Connecting Domains in Concept-Context Learning: A Model to Analyse Education Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koski, Marja-Ilona; Klapwijk, Remke; de Vries, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The use of context-concept education alongside existing approaches is valuable. In this article we introduce a three-domain model for concept-context learning that supports both the design process as well as the idea of concept learning. The model shows how practical and abstract knowledge should be combined to improve context-concept learning.…

  12. Interpreting concept learning in cognitive informatics and granular computing.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yiyu

    2009-08-01

    Cognitive informatics and granular computing are two emerging fields of study concerning information and knowledge processing. A central notion to this processing is information and knowledge granularity. Concepts, as the basic units of thought underlying human intelligence and communication, may play a fundamental role when integrating the results from the two fields in terms of information and knowledge coding, representation, communication, and processing. While cognitive informatics focuses on information processing in the abstract, in machines, and in the brain, granular computing models such processing at multiple levels of granularity. In this paper, we examine a conceptual framework for concept learning from the viewpoints of cognitive informatics and granular computing. Within the framework, we interpret concept learning based on a layered model of knowledge discovery.

  13. Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Learning to Read: Print Tuning in Beginning Readers Related to Word-Reading Fluency and Semantics but Not Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhard-Moscicka, Aleksandra K.; Jost, Lea B.; Raith, Margit; Maurer, Urs

    2015-01-01

    During reading acquisition children learn to recognize orthographic stimuli and link them to phonology and semantics. The present study investigated neurocognitive processes of learning to read after one year of schooling. We aimed to elucidate the cognitive processes underlying neural tuning for print that has been shown to play an important role…

  14. Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Learning to Read: Print Tuning in Beginning Readers Related to Word-Reading Fluency and Semantics but Not Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhard-Moscicka, Aleksandra K.; Jost, Lea B.; Raith, Margit; Maurer, Urs

    2015-01-01

    During reading acquisition children learn to recognize orthographic stimuli and link them to phonology and semantics. The present study investigated neurocognitive processes of learning to read after one year of schooling. We aimed to elucidate the cognitive processes underlying neural tuning for print that has been shown to play an important role…

  15. Virtual learning object and environment: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Pétala Tuani Candido de Oliveira; Bezerril, Manacés Dos Santos; Mariz, Camila Maria Santos; Fernandes, Maria Isabel Domingues; Martins, José Carlos Amado; Santos, Viviane Euzébia Pereira

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the concept of virtual learning object and environment according to Rodgers' evolutionary perspective. Descriptive study with a mixed approach, based on the stages proposed by Rodgers in his concept analysis method. Data collection occurred in August 2015 with the search of dissertations and theses in the Bank of Theses of the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel. Quantitative data were analyzed based on simple descriptive statistics and the concepts through lexicographic analysis with support of the IRAMUTEQ software. The sample was made up of 161 studies. The concept of "virtual learning environment" was presented in 99 (61.5%) studies, whereas the concept of "virtual learning object" was presented in only 15 (9.3%) studies. A virtual learning environment includes several and different types of virtual learning objects in a common pedagogical context. Analisar o conceito de objeto e de ambiente virtual de aprendizagem na perspectiva evolucionária de Rodgers. Estudo descritivo, de abordagem mista, realizado a partir das etapas propostas por Rodgers em seu modelo de análise conceitual. A coleta de dados ocorreu em agosto de 2015 com a busca de dissertações e teses no Banco de Teses e Dissertações da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior. Os dados quantitativos foram analisados a partir de estatística descritiva simples e os conceitos pela análise lexicográfica com suporte do IRAMUTEQ. A amostra é constituída de 161 estudos. O conceito de "ambiente virtual de aprendizagem" foi apresentado em 99 (61,5%) estudos, enquanto o de "objeto virtual de aprendizagem" em apenas 15 (9,3%). Concluiu-se que um ambiente virtual de aprendizagem reúne vários e diferentes tipos de objetos virtuais de aprendizagem em um contexto pedagógico comum.

  16. Same/Different Abstract Concept Learning by Archerfish (Toxotes chatareus)

    PubMed Central

    Newport, Cait; Wallis, Guy; Siebeck, Ulrike E.

    2015-01-01

    While several phylogenetically diverse species have proved capable of learning abstract concepts, previous attempts to teach fish have been unsuccessful. In this report, the ability of archerfish (Toxotes chatareus) to learn the concepts of sameness and difference using a simultaneous two-item discrimination task was tested. Six archerfish were trained to either select a pair of same or different stimuli which were presented simultaneously. Training consisted of a 2-phase approach. Training phase 1: the symbols in the same and different pair did not change, thereby allowing the fish to solve the test through direct association. The fish were trained consecutively with four different sets of stimuli to familiarize them with the general procedure before moving on to the next training phase. Training phase 2: six different symbols were used to form the same or different pairs. After acquisition, same/different concept learning was tested by presenting fish with six novel stimuli (transfer test). Five fish successfully completed the first training phase. Only one individual passed the second training phase, however, transfer performance was consistent with chance. This individual was given further training using 60 training exemplars but the individual was unable to reach the training criterion. We hypothesize that archerfish are able to solve a limited version of the same/different test by learning the response to each possible stimulus configuration or by developing a series of relatively simple choice contingencies. We conclude that the simultaneous two-item discrimination task we describe cannot be successfully used to test the concepts of same and different in archerfish. In addition, despite considerable effort training archerfish using several tests and training methods, there is still no evidence that fish can learn an abstract concept-based test. PMID:26599071

  17. Attaining Meaningful Learning of Concepts in Genetics and Ecology: An Examination of the Potency of the Concept-Mapping Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okebukola, Peter Akinsola

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the relationship of concept-mapping by students to the meaningful learning of genetics and ecological concepts. The implications of these results for teacher education in biology are addressed. (KR)

  18. Effects of acoustic and semantic contexts when learning to identify L2 phonemes in words and sentences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikuma, Yuko; Akahane-Yamada, Reiko

    2004-05-01

    Laboratory training experiment was conducted in order to examine the effect of acoustic and semantic contexts when learning second language phoneme perception. Fifty minimal pairs of English words contrasting in /r/ and /l/ were produced by native speakers of American English in three conditions; in isolation (WD), within semantically neutral carrier sentences (NS), and within semantically contextual carrier sentences (CS). Participants were native speakers of Japanese, and were divided into three groups; each was trained to identify /r/ and /l/ in one of above three conditions. In pretest, identification accuracy varied by condition in the order, NS

  19. Development of Category-based Induction and Semantic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Anna V.; Godwin, Karrie E.; Matlen, Bryan J.; Unger, Layla

    2015-01-01

    Category-based induction is a hallmark of mature cognition; however, little is known about its origins. This study evaluated the hypothesis that category-based induction is related to semantic development. Computational studies suggest that early on there is little differentiation among concepts, but learning and development lead to increased…

  20. Development of Category-based Induction and Semantic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Anna V.; Godwin, Karrie E.; Matlen, Bryan J.; Unger, Layla

    2015-01-01

    Category-based induction is a hallmark of mature cognition; however, little is known about its origins. This study evaluated the hypothesis that category-based induction is related to semantic development. Computational studies suggest that early on there is little differentiation among concepts, but learning and development lead to increased…

  1. Acquisition and Retention of STEM Concepts through Inquiry Based Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, Candice

    This study explores the integration of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) concepts through inquiry based learning. Students are exposed to a constructivist style learning environment where they create understanding for themselves. This way of learning lets students plan and justify their ideas and beliefs while discussing and examining the ideas of their classmates. Students are engaged in solving a scientific problem in a meaningful, inquiry-based manner through hypothesis testing, experimentation, and investigation. This mode of learning introduces students to real life, authentic science experiences within the confines of a typical classroom. The focus of the unit is for the students to create connections and understanding about geography and the globe in order to ultimately identify the exact latitude and longitude of 10 mystery sites. The students learn about latitude and longitude and apply their knowledge through a set of clues to determine where their Mystery Class is located. Journey North provides an internationally accessed game of hide-and-seek called Mystery Class Seasons Challenge. Throughout this challenge, over the course of eleven weeks, students will record, graph, interpret and analysis data and research to ultimate identify the location of ten mystery locations. Students will track seasonal changes in sunlight while investigating, examining and researching clues to find these ten secret sites around the world. My research was done to prove the success of students' ability to learn new mathematics, science, technology and engineering concepts through inquiry based design.

  2. Adaptation of Conceptions of Learning Science Questionnaire into Turkish and Science Teacher Candidates' Conceptions of Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahçivan, Eralp; Kapucu, Serkan

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (1) adapt an instrument "The Conceptions of Learning Science (COLS) questionnaire" into Turkish, and (2) to determine Turkish science teacher candidates' COLS. Adapting the instrument four steps were followed. Firstly, COLS questionnaire was translated into Turkish. Secondly, COLS questionnaire was…

  3. High school students' views of learning chemistry concepts with analogies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, Jeffrey A.

    Analogies are often used in teaching abstract chemistry concepts, however few studies are concerned with how students actually view learning with analogies. An eight-member focus group, consisting of high school students, described the process of learning with analogies and how aware they were of their own learning. The students attended four analogy presentations and completed written responses, attended focus groups, and participated in repeated individual interview sessions throughout this eight-week, emic, phenomenological study. This study utilized an interpretive, qualitative methodology using a constant comparative, inductive analysis design. Students from a suburban high school in the southeastern United States were selected by purposeful sampling involving a concepts pre-test and an analogy presentation used to determine an eight member focus group. The focus group meetings were videotaped and emergent, semi-structured individual interviews were audio taped, transcribed and coded. Personal student journals, field notes, and a reflective journal were used to triangulate the study. Open, axial, and selective coding were used for data analysis and interpretation. Students described the process of learning with analogies as being able to visually see connections or picture mental images of familiar and unfamiliar concepts. Students pointed out the significance of investigating analogy breakdowns and described accommodation of new information as either automatic, which according to students resulted in memorization and hard learning, or quite laborious, which resulted in understanding and soft learning. Results indicated that students gave themselves more permission to ask questions and be critical of the teaching they are experiencing when their views were given merit. Implications for teachers include insight on students' views of learning and students' self-awareness.

  4. Learning and coding of concepts in neural networks.

    PubMed

    Salu, Y

    1985-01-01

    Our environment consists of virtually an infinite number of scenarios in which we have to function. In order to respond properly to an incoming stimulus, the brain has first to analyze it, and to find out the basic familiar elements that are part of it. In other words, by using a library which contains a relatively small number of basic concepts, the brain analyzes the multitude of incoming events. Some of those basic concepts are innate, but many of them must be learned, in order to accommodate for the arbitrary environment around us. A classifying box is defined as the neural network that finds out the familiar concepts that are present in an incoming stimulus. Models for classifying boxes are introduced, and possible mechanisms by which they may establish their libraries of concepts are suggested, and then compared and evaluated by computer simulations.

  5. Professional Music Training and Novel Word Learning: From Faster Semantic Encoding to Longer-lasting Word Representations.

    PubMed

    Dittinger, Eva; Barbaroux, Mylène; D'Imperio, Mariapaola; Jäncke, Lutz; Elmer, Stefan; Besson, Mireille

    2016-10-01

    On the basis of previous results showing that music training positively influences different aspects of speech perception and cognition, the aim of this series of experiments was to test the hypothesis that adult professional musicians would learn the meaning of novel words through picture-word associations more efficiently than controls without music training (i.e., fewer errors and faster RTs). We also expected musicians to show faster changes in brain electrical activity than controls, in particular regarding the N400 component that develops with word learning. In line with these hypotheses, musicians outperformed controls in the most difficult semantic task. Moreover, although a frontally distributed N400 component developed in both groups of participants after only a few minutes of novel word learning, in musicians this frontal distribution rapidly shifted to parietal scalp sites, as typically found for the N400 elicited by known words. Finally, musicians showed evidence for better long-term memory for novel words 5 months after the main experimental session. Results are discussed in terms of cascading effects from enhanced perception to memory as well as in terms of multifaceted improvements of cognitive processing due to music training. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that music training influences semantic aspects of language processing in adults. These results open new perspectives for education in showing that early music training can facilitate later foreign language learning. Moreover, the design used in the present experiment can help to specify the stages of word learning that are impaired in children and adults with word learning difficulties.

  6. Semantic prosody and judgment.

    PubMed

    Hauser, David J; Schwarz, Norbert

    2016-07-01

    Some words tend to co-occur exclusively with a positive or negative context in natural language use, even though such valence patterns are not dictated by definitions or are part of the words' core meaning. These words contain semantic prosody, a subtle valenced meaning derived from co-occurrence in language. As language and thought are heavily intertwined, we hypothesized that semantic prosody can affect evaluative inferences about related ambiguous concepts. Participants inferred that an ambiguous medical outcome was more negative when it was caused, a verb with negative semantic prosody, than when it was produced, a synonymous verb with no semantic prosody (Studies 1a, 1b). Participants completed sentence fragments in a manner consistent with semantic prosody (Study 2), and semantic prosody affected various other judgments in line with evaluative inferences (estimates of an event's likelihood in Study 3). Finally, semantic prosody elicited both positive and negative evaluations of outcomes across a large set of semantically prosodic verbs (Study 4). Thus, semantic prosody can exert a strong influence on evaluative judgment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Enhancing Collaborative and Meaningful Language Learning through Concept Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cássia Veiga Marriott, Rita; Torres, Patrícia Lupion

    This chapter aims to investigate new ways of foreign-language teaching/learning via a study of how concept mapping can help develop a student's reading, writing and oral skills as part of a blended methodology for language teaching known as LAPLI (Laboratorio de Aprendizagem de LInguas: The Language Learning Lab). LAPLI is a student-centred and collaborative methodology which encourages students to challenge their limitations and expand their current knowledge whilst developing their linguistic and interpersonal skills. We explore the theories that underpin LAPLI and detail the 12 activities comprising its programme with specify reference to the use of “concept mapping”. An innovative table enabling a formative and summative assessment of the concept maps is formulated. Also presented are some of the qualitative and quantitative results achieved when this methodology was first implemented with a group of pre-service students studying for a degree in English and Portuguese languages at the Catholic University of Parana (PUCPR) in Brazil. The contribution of concept mapping and LAPLI to an understanding of language learning along with a consideration of the difficulties encountered in its implementation with student groups is discussed and suggestions made for future research.

  8. Enhancing Collaborative and Meaningful Language Learning Through Concept Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriott, Rita De Cássia Veiga; Torres, Patrícia Lupion

    This chapter aims to investigate new ways of foreign-language teaching/learning via a study of how concept mapping can help develop a student's reading, writing and oral skills as part of a blended methodology for language teaching known as LAPLI (Laboratorio de Aprendizagem de LInguas: The Language Learning Lab). LAPLI is a student-centred and collaborative methodology which encourages students to challenge their limitations and expand their current knowledge whilst developing their linguistic and interpersonal skills. We explore the theories that underpin LAPLI and detail the 12 activities comprising its programme with specify reference to the use of "concept mapping". An innovative table enabling a formative and summative assessment of the concept maps is formulated. Also presented are some of the qualitative and quantitative results achieved when this methodology was first implemented with a group of pre-service students studying for a degree in English and Portuguese languages at the Catholic University of Parana (PUCPR) in Brazil. The contribution of concept mapping and LAPLI to an under standing of language learning along with a consideration of the difficulties encountered in its implementation with student groups is discussed and suggestions made for future research.

  9. The role of corpus size and syntax in deriving lexico-semantic representations for a wide range of concepts.

    PubMed

    De Deyne, Simon; Verheyen, Steven; Storms, Gert

    2015-01-01

    One of the most significant recent advances in the study of semantic processing is the advent of models based on text and other corpora. In this study, we address what impact both the quantitative and qualitative properties of corpora have on mental representations derived from them. More precisely, we evaluate models with different linguistic and mental constraints on their ability to predict semantic relatedness between items from a vast range of domains and categories. We find that a model based on syntactic dependency relations captures significantly less of the variability for all kinds of words, regardless of the semantic relation between them or their abstractness. The largest difference was found for concrete nouns, which are commonly used to assess semantic processing. For both models we find that limited amounts of data suffice in order to obtain reliable predictions. Together, these findings suggest new constraints for the construction of mental models from corpora, both in terms of the corpus size and in terms of the linguistic properties that contribute to mental representations.

  10. The Relationship Between Responses to Science Concepts on a Semantic Differential Instrument and Achievement in Freshman Physics and Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Arthur Israel

    Students taking freshman physics and freshman chemistry at The State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNYAB) were administered a science-related semantic differential instrument. This same test was administered to physics and chemistry graduate students from SUNYAB and the University of Rochester. A scoring procedure was developed which…

  11. The Relationship Between Responses to Science Concepts on a Semantic Differential Instrument and Achievement in Freshman Physics and Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Arthur Israel

    Students taking freshman physics and freshman chemistry at The State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNYAB) were administered a science-related semantic differential instrument. This same test was administered to physics and chemistry graduate students from SUNYAB and the University of Rochester. A scoring procedure was developed which…

  12. Lexical selection in the semantically blocked cyclic naming task: the role of cognitive control and learning

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, Jason E.; Martin, Randi C.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of semantic interference in language production have provided evidence for a role of cognitive control mechanisms in regulating the activation of semantic competitors during naming. The present study investigated the relationship between individual differences in cognitive control abilities, for both younger and older adults, and the degree of semantic interference in a blocked cyclic naming task. We predicted that individuals with lower working memory capacity (as measured by word span), lesser ability to inhibit distracting responses (as measured by Stroop interference), and a lesser ability to resolve proactive interference (as measured by a recent negatives task) would show a greater increase in semantic interference in naming, with effects being larger for older adults. Instead, measures of cognitive control were found to relate to specific indices of semantic interference in the naming task, rather than overall degree of semantic interference, and few interactions with age were found, with younger and older adults performing similarly. The increase in naming latencies across naming trials within a cycle was negatively correlated with word span for both related and unrelated conditions, suggesting a strategy of narrowing response alternatives based upon memory for the set of item names. Evidence for a role of inhibition in response selection was obtained, as Stroop interference correlated positively with the change in naming latencies across cycles for the related, but not unrelated, condition. In contrast, recent negatives interference correlated negatively with the change in naming latencies across unrelated cycles, suggesting that individual differences in this tap the degree of strengthening of links in a lexical network based upon prior exposure. Results are discussed in terms of current models of lexical selection and consequences for word retrieval in more naturalistic production. PMID:24478675

  13. Millennial Students' Preferred Methods for Learning Concepts in Psychiatric Nursing.

    PubMed

    Garwood, Janet K

    2015-09-01

    The current longitudinal, descriptive, and correlational study explored which traditional teaching strategies can engage Millennial students and adequately prepare them for the ultimate test of nursing competence: the National Council Licensure Examination. The study comprised a convenience sample of 40 baccalaureate nursing students enrolled in a psychiatric nursing course. The students were exposed to a variety of traditional (e.g., PowerPoint(®)-guided lectures) and nontraditional (e.g., concept maps, group activities) teaching and learning strategies, and rated their effectiveness. The students' scores on the final examination demonstrated that student learning outcomes met or exceeded national benchmarks.

  14. Latent Semantic Indexing of medical diagnoses using UMLS semantic structures.

    PubMed Central

    Chute, C. G.; Yang, Y.; Evans, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    The relational files within the UMLS Metathesaurus contain rich semantic associations to main concepts. We invoked the technique of Latent Semantic Indexing to generate information matrices based on these relationships and created "semantic vectors" using singular value decomposition. Evaluations were made on the complete set and subsets of Metathesaurus main concepts with the semantic type "Disease or Syndrome." Real number matrices were created with main concepts, lexical variants, synonyms, and associated expressions. Ancestors, children, siblings, and related terms were added to alternative matrices, preserving the hierarchical direction of the relation as the imaginary component of a complex number. Preliminary evaluation suggests that this technique is robust. A major advantage is the exploitation of semantic features which derive from a statistical decomposition of UMLS structures, possibly reducing dependence on the tedious construction of semantic frames by humans. PMID:1807584

  15. Learning of Key Scientific Concepts in a Web-Based On-Campus Collaborative Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemm, Robert E.; Williams, Neil; Kavnoudias, Helen; Fritze, Paul; Stone, Nick

    The authors developed a collaborative learning environment (CLE) as a student-centered approach to assist students' understanding of difficult scientific concepts. Computer-facilitated investigative group projects were designed to enhance students' communication and reasoning skills, peer-learning, and peer-teaching. Projects were structured…

  16. Assessment of Integrated Learning: Suggested Application of Concept Mapping to Prior Learning Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popova-Gonci, Viktoria; Lamb, Monica C.

    2012-01-01

    Prior learning assessment (PLA) students enter academia with different types of concepts--some of them have been formally accepted and labeled by academia and others are informally formulated by students via independent and/or experiential learning. The critical goal of PLA practices is to assess an intricate combination of prior learning…

  17. Event-related EEG oscillations to semantically unrelated words in normal and learning disabled children.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Thalía; Harmony, Thalía; Mendoza, Omar; López-Alanís, Paula; Marroquín, José Luis; Otero, Gloria; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

    2012-10-01

    Learning disabilities (LD) are one of the most frequent problems for elementary school-aged children. In this paper, event-related EEG oscillations to semantically related and unrelated pairs of words were studied in a group of 18 children with LD not otherwise specified (LD-NOS) and in 16 children with normal academic achievement. We propose that EEG oscillations may be different in LD NOS children versus normal control children that may explain some of the deficits observed in the LD-NOS group. The EEGs were recorded using the 10/20 system. EEG segments were edited by visual inspection 1000ms before and after the stimulus, and only correct responses were considered in the analysis. Time-frequency (1-50Hz) topographic maps were obtained for the increases and decreases of power after the event with respect to the pre-stimulus average values. Significant differences between groups were observed in the behavioral responses. LD-NOS children show less number of correct responses and more omissions and false alarms than the control group. The event-induced EEG responses showed significant differences between groups. The control group showed greater power increases in the frequencies 1-6Hz than the LD-NOS group from 300 to 700ms. These differences were mainly observed in frontal regions, both to related and non-related words. This was interpreted as a deficit in attention, both to internal and external events, deficits in activation of working memory and deficits in encoding and memory retrieval in the LD-NOS children. Differences between groups were also observed in the suppression of alpha and beta rhythms in the occipital regions to related words in frequencies between 8 and 17Hz from 450 to 750ms. LD-NOS children showed shorter durations of the decreases in power than the control group. These results suggest also deficits in attention and memory retrieval. It may be concluded that LD-NOS children showed physiological differences from normal children that may explain

  18. Taking Responsibility for Learning Isn't Everything: A Case for Developing Tertiary Students' Conceptions of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Marcia

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed first-year students at the University of Western Sydney about their perceptions of responsibility for learning and conceptions of learning. Found that students held perceptions of personal responsibility for their learning, but that their conceptions of learning were essentially quantitative in nature and were at the lower levels of…

  19. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  20. Finding faults: analogical comparison supports spatial concept learning in geoscience.

    PubMed

    Jee, Benjamin D; Uttal, David H; Gentner, Dedre; Manduca, Cathy; Shipley, Thomas F; Sageman, Bradley

    2013-05-01

    A central issue in education is how to support the spatial thinking involved in learning science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We investigated whether and how the cognitive process of analogical comparison supports learning of a basic spatial concept in geoscience, fault. Because of the high variability in the appearance of faults, it may be difficult for students to learn the category-relevant spatial structure. There is abundant evidence that comparing analogous examples can help students gain insight into important category-defining features (Gentner in Cogn Sci 34(5):752-775, 2010). Further, comparing high-similarity pairs can be especially effective at revealing key differences (Sagi et al. 2012). Across three experiments, we tested whether comparison of visually similar contrasting examples would help students learn the fault concept. Our main findings were that participants performed better at identifying faults when they (1) compared contrasting (fault/no fault) cases versus viewing each case separately (Experiment 1), (2) compared similar as opposed to dissimilar contrasting cases early in learning (Experiment 2), and (3) viewed a contrasting pair of schematic block diagrams as opposed to a single block diagram of a fault as part of an instructional text (Experiment 3). These results suggest that comparison of visually similar contrasting cases helped distinguish category-relevant from category-irrelevant features for participants. When such comparisons occurred early in learning, participants were more likely to form an accurate conceptual representation. Thus, analogical comparison of images may provide one powerful way to enhance spatial learning in geoscience and other STEM disciplines.