Science.gov

Sample records for semantic concept learning

  1. A robotic framework for semantic concept learning.

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, Kevin M.; Levinson, Stephen E.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2004-09-01

    This report describes work carried out under a Sandia National Laboratories Excellence in Engineering Fellowship in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Our research group (at UIUC) is developing a intelligent robot, and attempting to teach it language. While there are many aspects of this research, for the purposes of this report the most important are the following ideas. Language is primarily based on semantics, not syntax. To truly learn meaning, the language engine must be part of an embodied intelligent system, one capable of using associative learning to form concepts from the perception of experiences in the world, and further capable of manipulating those concepts symbolically. In the work described here, we explore the use of hidden Markov models (HMMs) in this capacity. HMMs are capable of automatically learning and extracting the underlying structure of continuous-valued inputs and representing that structure in the states of the model. These states can then be treated as symbolic representations of the inputs. We describe a composite model consisting of a cascade of HMMs that can be embedded in a small mobile robot and used to learn correlations among sensory inputs to create symbolic concepts. These symbols can then be manipulated linguistically and used for decision making. This is the project final report for the University Collaboration LDRD project, 'A Robotic Framework for Semantic Concept Learning'.

  2. The Semantic Learning Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicilia, Miguel-Angel; Lytras, Miltiadis D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is introducing the concept of a "semantic learning organization" (SLO) as an extension of the concept of "learning organization" in the technological domain. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes existing definitions and conceptualizations of both learning organizations and Semantic Web technology to develop…

  3. Semantic Features, Perceptual Expectations, and Frequency as Factors in the Learning of Polar Spatial Adjective Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunckley, Candida J. Lutes; Radtke, Robert C.

    Two semantic theories of word learning, a perceptual complexity hypothesis (H. Clark, 1970) and a quantitative complexity hypothesis (E. Clark, 1972) were tested by teaching 24 preschoolers and 16 college students CVC labels for five polar spatial adjective concepts having single word representations in English, and for three having no direct…

  4. Behavioral semantics of learning and crossmodal processing in auditory cortex: the semantic processor concept.

    PubMed

    Scheich, Henning; Brechmann, André; Brosch, Michael; Budinger, Eike; Ohl, Frank W; Selezneva, Elena; Stark, Holger; Tischmeyer, Wolfgang; Wetzel, Wolfram

    2011-01-01

    Two phenomena of auditory cortex activity have recently attracted attention, namely that the primary field can show different types of learning-related changes of sound representation and that during learning even this early auditory cortex is under strong multimodal influence. Based on neuronal recordings in animal auditory cortex during instrumental tasks, in this review we put forward the hypothesis that these two phenomena serve to derive the task-specific meaning of sounds by associative learning. To understand the implications of this tenet, it is helpful to realize how a behavioral meaning is usually derived for novel environmental sounds. For this purpose, associations with other sensory, e.g. visual, information are mandatory to develop a connection between a sound and its behaviorally relevant cause and/or the context of sound occurrence. This makes it plausible that in instrumental tasks various non-auditory sensory and procedural contingencies of sound generation become co-represented by neuronal firing in auditory cortex. Information related to reward or to avoidance of discomfort during task learning, that is essentially non-auditory, is also co-represented. The reinforcement influence points to the dopaminergic internal reward system, the local role of which for memory consolidation in auditory cortex is well-established. Thus, during a trial of task performance, the neuronal responses to the sounds are embedded in a sequence of representations of such non-auditory information. The embedded auditory responses show task-related modulations of auditory responses falling into types that correspond to three basic logical classifications that may be performed with a perceptual item, i.e. from simple detection to discrimination, and categorization. This hierarchy of classifications determine the semantic "same-different" relationships among sounds. Different cognitive classifications appear to be a consequence of learning task and lead to a recruitment of

  5. Using Wikipedia to learn semantic feature representations of concrete concepts in neuroimaging experiments

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Francisco; Botvinick, Matthew; Detre, Greg

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we show that a corpus of a few thousand Wikipedia articles about concrete or visualizable concepts can be used to produce a low-dimensional semantic feature representation of those concepts. The purpose of such a representation is to serve as a model of the mental context of a subject during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments. A recent study [19] showed that it was possible to predict fMRI data acquired while subjects thought about a concrete concept, given a representation of those concepts in terms of semantic features obtained with human supervision. We use topic models on our corpus to learn semantic features from text in an unsupervised manner, and show that those features can outperform those in [19] in demanding 12-way and 60-way classification tasks. We also show that these features can be used to uncover similarity relations in brain activation for different concepts which parallel those relations in behavioral data from human subjects. PMID:23243317

  6. Enhancing clinical concept extraction with distributional semantics

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Trevor; Wu, Stephen; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2011-01-01

    Extracting concepts (such as drugs, symptoms, and diagnoses) from clinical narratives constitutes a basic enabling technology to unlock the knowledge within and support more advanced reasoning applications such as diagnosis explanation, disease progression modeling, and intelligent analysis of the effectiveness of treatment. The recent release of annotated training sets of de-identified clinical narratives has contributed to the development and refinement of concept extraction methods. However, as the annotation process is labor-intensive, training data are necessarily limited in the concepts and concept patterns covered, which impacts the performance of supervised machine learning applications trained with these data. This paper proposes an approach to minimize this limitation by combining supervised machine learning with empirical learning of semantic relatedness from the distribution of the relevant words in additional unannotated text. The approach uses a sequential discriminative classifier (Conditional Random Fields) to extract the mentions of medical problems, treatments and tests from clinical narratives. It takes advantage of all Medline abstracts indexed as being of the publication type “clinical trials” to estimate the relatedness between words in the i2b2/VA training and testing corpora. In addition to the traditional features such as dictionary matching, pattern matching and part-of-speech tags, we also used as a feature words that appear in similar contexts to the word in question (that is, words that have a similar vector representation measured with the commonly used cosine metric, where vector representations are derived using methods of distributional semantics). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort exploring the use of distributional semantics, the semantics derived empirically from unannotated text often using vector space models, for a sequence classification task such as concept extraction. Therefore, we first

  7. Enhancing clinical concept extraction with distributional semantics.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Cohen, Trevor; Wu, Stephen; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2012-02-01

    Extracting concepts (such as drugs, symptoms, and diagnoses) from clinical narratives constitutes a basic enabling technology to unlock the knowledge within and support more advanced reasoning applications such as diagnosis explanation, disease progression modeling, and intelligent analysis of the effectiveness of treatment. The recent release of annotated training sets of de-identified clinical narratives has contributed to the development and refinement of concept extraction methods. However, as the annotation process is labor-intensive, training data are necessarily limited in the concepts and concept patterns covered, which impacts the performance of supervised machine learning applications trained with these data. This paper proposes an approach to minimize this limitation by combining supervised machine learning with empirical learning of semantic relatedness from the distribution of the relevant words in additional unannotated text. The approach uses a sequential discriminative classifier (Conditional Random Fields) to extract the mentions of medical problems, treatments and tests from clinical narratives. It takes advantage of all Medline abstracts indexed as being of the publication type "clinical trials" to estimate the relatedness between words in the i2b2/VA training and testing corpora. In addition to the traditional features such as dictionary matching, pattern matching and part-of-speech tags, we also used as a feature words that appear in similar contexts to the word in question (that is, words that have a similar vector representation measured with the commonly used cosine metric, where vector representations are derived using methods of distributional semantics). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort exploring the use of distributional semantics, the semantics derived empirically from unannotated text often using vector space models, for a sequence classification task such as concept extraction. Therefore, we first experimented

  8. Enhancing clinical concept extraction with distributional semantics.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Cohen, Trevor; Wu, Stephen; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2012-02-01

    Extracting concepts (such as drugs, symptoms, and diagnoses) from clinical narratives constitutes a basic enabling technology to unlock the knowledge within and support more advanced reasoning applications such as diagnosis explanation, disease progression modeling, and intelligent analysis of the effectiveness of treatment. The recent release of annotated training sets of de-identified clinical narratives has contributed to the development and refinement of concept extraction methods. However, as the annotation process is labor-intensive, training data are necessarily limited in the concepts and concept patterns covered, which impacts the performance of supervised machine learning applications trained with these data. This paper proposes an approach to minimize this limitation by combining supervised machine learning with empirical learning of semantic relatedness from the distribution of the relevant words in additional unannotated text. The approach uses a sequential discriminative classifier (Conditional Random Fields) to extract the mentions of medical problems, treatments and tests from clinical narratives. It takes advantage of all Medline abstracts indexed as being of the publication type "clinical trials" to estimate the relatedness between words in the i2b2/VA training and testing corpora. In addition to the traditional features such as dictionary matching, pattern matching and part-of-speech tags, we also used as a feature words that appear in similar contexts to the word in question (that is, words that have a similar vector representation measured with the commonly used cosine metric, where vector representations are derived using methods of distributional semantics). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort exploring the use of distributional semantics, the semantics derived empirically from unannotated text often using vector space models, for a sequence classification task such as concept extraction. Therefore, we first experimented

  9. The semantic richness of abstract concepts

    PubMed Central

    Recchia, Gabriel; Jones, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    We contrasted the predictive power of three measures of semantic richness—number of features (NFs), contextual dispersion (CD), and a novel measure of number of semantic neighbors (NSN)—for a large set of concrete and abstract concepts on lexical decision and naming tasks. NSN (but not NF) facilitated processing for abstract concepts, while NF (but not NSN) facilitated processing for the most concrete concepts, consistent with claims that linguistic information is more relevant for abstract concepts in early processing. Additionally, converging evidence from two datasets suggests that when NSN and CD are controlled for, the features that most facilitate processing are those associated with a concept's physical characteristics and real-world contexts. These results suggest that rich linguistic contexts (many semantic neighbors) facilitate early activation of abstract concepts, whereas concrete concepts benefit more from rich physical contexts (many associated objects and locations). PMID:23205008

  10. Preserved semantic learning in an amnesic patient.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Pat; Gerhand, Simon

    2002-02-01

    A case study is reported of an amnesic patient (KN), who displayed an ability to learn a substantial body of new visual and verbal semantic concepts, despite having a severe deficit in episodic memory. In two experiments, using an errorless learning paradigm, he was able to perform at a level close to that of his wife, who served as a control subject. When recall of material was retested after a delay of several months, during which time there were no further learning sessions, his retention was at least as good as, if not better, than that of his wife. This is taken as further evidence for the dissociation of semantic and episodic processes in amnesia. It also provides further evidence for the role of "errorless learning" in efficient acquisition of new facts in amnesia. PMID:11999333

  11. E-Learning for Depth in the Semantic Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafrir, Uri; Etkind, Masha

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we describe concept parsing algorithms, a novel semantic analysis methodology at the core of a new pedagogy that focuses learners attention on deep comprehension of the conceptual content of learned material. Two new e-learning tools are described in some detail: interactive concept discovery learning and meaning equivalence…

  12. Shared Features Dominate Semantic Richness Effects for Concrete Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grondin, Ray; Lupker, Stephen J.; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    When asked to list semantic features for concrete concepts, participants list many features for some concepts and few for others. Concepts with many semantic features are processed faster in lexical and semantic decision tasks [Pexman, P. M., Lupker, S. J., & Hino, Y. (2002). "The impact of feedback semantics in visual word recognition:…

  13. CONCEPT LEARNING AND CONCEPT TEACHING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GLASER, ROBERT

    REVIEWED ARE THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF CONCEPT LEARNING AS THEY RELATE TO CONCEPT TEACHING. AN ANALYSIS IS MADE OF THE NATURE OF CONCEPT LEARNING AS IT IS STUDIED IN THE PSYCHOLOGIST'S LABORATORY, INCLUDING THE NATURE OF CONCEPT TASKS AS THEY APPEAR IN SUBJECT MATTER LEARNING. THE PRIMARY KINDS OF CONCEPT LEARNING SITUATIONS, INCLUDING THE…

  14. Implicit Learning of Semantic Preferences of Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of semantic implicit learning in language have only examined learning grammatical form-meaning connections in which learning could have been supported by prior linguistic knowledge. In this study we target the domain of verb meaning, specifically semantic preferences regarding novel verbs (e.g., the preference for a novel verb to…

  15. LEARNING SEMANTICS-ENHANCED LANGUAGE MODELS APPLIED TO UNSUEPRVISED WSD

    SciTech Connect

    VERSPOOR, KARIN; LIN, SHOU-DE

    2007-01-29

    An N-gram language model aims at capturing statistical syntactic word order information from corpora. Although the concept of language models has been applied extensively to handle a variety of NLP problems with reasonable success, the standard model does not incorporate semantic information, and consequently limits its applicability to semantic problems such as word sense disambiguation. We propose a framework that integrates semantic information into the language model schema, allowing a system to exploit both syntactic and semantic information to address NLP problems. Furthermore, acknowledging the limited availability of semantically annotated data, we discuss how the proposed model can be learned without annotated training examples. Finally, we report on a case study showing how the semantics-enhanced language model can be applied to unsupervised word sense disambiguation with promising results.

  16. Representations for Semantic Learning Webs: Semantic Web Technology in Learning Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzbor, M.; Stutt, A.; Motta, E.; Collins, T.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work on applying semantic technologies to learning has concentrated on providing novel means of accessing and making use of learning objects. However, this is unnecessarily limiting: semantic technologies will make it possible to develop a range of educational Semantic Web services, such as interpretation, structure-visualization, support…

  17. Semantic e-Learning: Next Generation of e-Learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinos, Markellos; Penelope, Markellou; Giannis, Koutsonikos; Aglaia, Liopa-Tsakalidi

    Semantic e-learning aspires to be the next generation of e-learning, since the understanding of learning materials and knowledge semantics allows their advanced representation, manipulation, sharing, exchange and reuse and ultimately promote efficient online experiences for users. In this context, the paper firstly explores some fundamental Semantic Web technologies and then discusses current and potential applications of these technologies in e-learning domain, namely, Semantic portals, Semantic search, personalization, recommendation systems, social software and Web 2.0 tools. Finally, it highlights future research directions and open issues of the field.

  18. Modeling Spatial Dependencies and Semantic Concepts in Data Mining

    SciTech Connect

    Vatsavai, Raju

    2012-01-01

    Data mining is the process of discovering new patterns and relationships in large datasets. However, several studies have shown that general data mining techniques often fail to extract meaningful patterns and relationships from the spatial data owing to the violation of fundamental geospatial principles. In this tutorial, we introduce basic principles behind explicit modeling of spatial and semantic concepts in data mining. In particular, we focus on modeling these concepts in the widely used classification, clustering, and prediction algorithms. Classification is the process of learning a structure or model (from user given inputs) and applying the known model to the new data. Clustering is the process of discovering groups and structures in the data that are ``similar,'' without applying any known structures in the data. Prediction is the process of finding a function that models (explains) the data with least error. One common assumption among all these methods is that the data is independent and identically distributed. Such assumptions do not hold well in spatial data, where spatial dependency and spatial heterogeneity are a norm. In addition, spatial semantics are often ignored by the data mining algorithms. In this tutorial we cover recent advances in explicitly modeling of spatial dependencies and semantic concepts in data mining.

  19. Learning the Semantics of Structured Data Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taheriyan, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Information sources such as relational databases, spreadsheets, XML, JSON, and Web APIs contain a tremendous amount of structured data, however, they rarely provide a semantic model to describe their contents. Semantic models of data sources capture the intended meaning of data sources by mapping them to the concepts and relationships defined by a…

  20. Semantic Learning Modifies Perceptual Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisz, Jennifer J.; Shedden, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Face processing changes when a face is learned with personally relevant information. In a five-day learning paradigm, faces were presented with rich semantic stories that conveyed personal information about the faces. Event-related potentials were recorded before and after learning during a passive viewing task. When faces were novel, we observed…

  1. Learning semantic and visual similarity for endomicroscopy video retrieval.

    PubMed

    Andre, Barbara; Vercauteren, Tom; Buchner, Anna M; Wallace, Michael B; Ayache, Nicholas

    2012-06-01

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is a valuable computer vision technique which is increasingly being applied in the medical community for diagnosis support. However, traditional CBIR systems only deliver visual outputs, i.e., images having a similar appearance to the query, which is not directly interpretable by the physicians. Our objective is to provide a system for endomicroscopy video retrieval which delivers both visual and semantic outputs that are consistent with each other. In a previous study, we developed an adapted bag-of-visual-words method for endomicroscopy retrieval, called "Dense-Sift," that computes a visual signature for each video. In this paper, we present a novel approach to complement visual similarity learning with semantic knowledge extraction, in the field of in vivo endomicroscopy. We first leverage a semantic ground truth based on eight binary concepts, in order to transform these visual signatures into semantic signatures that reflect how much the presence of each semantic concept is expressed by the visual words describing the videos. Using cross-validation, we demonstrate that, in terms of semantic detection, our intuitive Fisher-based method transforming visual-word histograms into semantic estimations outperforms support vector machine (SVM) methods with statistical significance. In a second step, we propose to improve retrieval relevance by learning an adjusted similarity distance from a perceived similarity ground truth. As a result, our distance learning method allows to statistically improve the correlation with the perceived similarity. We also demonstrate that, in terms of perceived similarity, the recall performance of the semantic signatures is close to that of visual signatures and significantly better than those of several state-of-the-art CBIR methods. The semantic signatures are thus able to communicate high-level medical knowledge while being consistent with the low-level visual signatures and much shorter than them

  2. Semantic E-Learning: Synthesising Fantasies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytras, Miltiadis; Naeve, Ambjorn

    2006-01-01

    When the subject of scientific analysis is learning, the research needs to be anchored in various nonmonolithic pillars. Several disciplines require a common ground of convergence. An objective observer of the domain can easily conclude that semantic e-learning brings together the three different worlds of learners, pedagogues and technologists.…

  3. Collaborative E-Learning Using Semantic Course Blog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Lai-Chen; Yeh, Ching-Long

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative e-learning delivers many enhancements to e-learning technology; it enables students to collaborate with each other and improves their learning efficiency. Semantic blog combines semantic Web and blog technology that users can import, export, view, navigate, and query the blog. We developed a semantic course blog for collaborative…

  4. An Intelligent Semantic E-Learning Framework Using Context-Aware Semantic Web Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Weihong; Webster, David; Wood, Dawn; Ishaya, Tanko

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments of e-learning specifications such as Learning Object Metadata (LOM), Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM), Learning Design and other pedagogy research in semantic e-learning have shown a trend of applying innovative computational techniques, especially Semantic Web technologies, to promote existing content-focused…

  5. Learning contextualized semantics from co-occurring terms via a Siamese architecture.

    PubMed

    Sandouk, Ubai; Chen, Ke

    2016-04-01

    One of the biggest challenges in Multimedia information retrieval and understanding is to bridge the semantic gap by properly modeling concept semantics in context. The presence of out of vocabulary (OOV) concepts exacerbates this difficulty. To address the semantic gap issues, we formulate a problem on learning contextualized semantics from descriptive terms and propose a novel Siamese architecture to model the contextualized semantics from descriptive terms. By means of pattern aggregation and probabilistic topic models, our Siamese architecture captures contextualized semantics from the co-occurring descriptive terms via unsupervised learning, which leads to a concept embedding space of the terms in context. Furthermore, the co-occurring OOV concepts can be easily represented in the learnt concept embedding space. The main properties of the concept embedding space are demonstrated via visualization. Using various settings in semantic priming, we have carried out a thorough evaluation by comparing our approach to a number of state-of-the-art methods on six annotation corpora in different domains, i.e., MagTag5K, CAL500 and Million Song Dataset in the music domain as well as Corel5K, LabelMe and SUNDatabase in the image domain. Experimental results on semantic priming suggest that our approach outperforms those state-of-the-art methods considerably in various aspects.

  6. Shared Features Dominate Semantic Richness Effects for Concrete Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Grondin, Ray; Lupker, Stephen J.; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    When asked to list semantic features for concrete concepts, participants list many features for some concepts and few for others. Concepts with many semantic features are processed faster in lexical and semantic decision tasks (Pexman, Holyk, & Monfils, 2003; Pexman, Lupker, & Hino, 2002). Using both lexical and concreteness decision tasks, we provided further insight into these number-of-features (NoF) effects. We began by replicating the effect using a larger and better controlled set of items. We then investigated the relationship between NoF and feature distinctiveness and found that features shared by numerous concrete concepts such as facilitate decisions to a greater extent than do distinctive features such as . Finally, we showed that NoF effects are carried by shared visual form and surface, encyclopedic, tactile, and taste knowledge. We propose a decision-making account of these results, rather than one based on the computation of word meaning. PMID:20046224

  7. Measure Transformer Semantics for Bayesian Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgström, Johannes; Gordon, Andrew D.; Greenberg, Michael; Margetson, James; van Gael, Jurgen

    The Bayesian approach to machine learning amounts to inferring posterior distributions of random variables from a probabilistic model of how the variables are related (that is, a prior distribution) and a set of observations of variables. There is a trend in machine learning towards expressing Bayesian models as probabilistic programs. As a foundation for this kind of programming, we propose a core functional calculus with primitives for sampling prior distributions and observing variables. We define combinators for measure transformers, based on theorems in measure theory, and use these to give a rigorous semantics to our core calculus. The original features of our semantics include its support for discrete, continuous, and hybrid measures, and, in particular, for observations of zero-probability events. We compile our core language to a small imperative language that has a straightforward semantics via factor graphs, data structures that enable many efficient inference algorithms. We use an existing inference engine for efficient approximate inference of posterior marginal distributions, treating thousands of observations per second for large instances of realistic models.

  8. Semantic Variability Predicts Neural Variability of Object Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Musz, Elizabeth; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    The prevailing approach to the neuroscientific study of concepts is to characterize the neural pattern evoked by a given concept, averaging over any variation that might occur upon multiple retrieval attempts (e.g., across time, tasks, or people). This approach— which diverges substantially from approaches to studying conceptual processing with other methods—treats all variation as noise. Here, our goal is to determine whether variation in neural patterns evoked by semantic retrieval of a given concept is more than just measurement error, and instead reflects variation arising from contextual variability. We measured each concept’s diversity of semantic contexts (“SV”) by analyzing its word frequency and co-occurrence statistics in large text corpora. To measure neural variability, we conducted an fMRI study and sampled neural activity associated with each concept when it appeared in three separate, randomized contexts. We predicted that concepts with low SV would exhibit uniform activation patterns across stimulus presentations, whereas concepts with high SV would exhibit more dynamic representations over time. We observed that a concept’s SV score predicted its corresponding neural variability. This finding supports a flexible, distributed organization of semantic memory, where a concept’s meaning and its neural activity patterns both continuously vary across contexts. PMID:25462197

  9. Case-Based Learning, Pedagogical Innovation, and Semantic Web Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Garcia, A.; Morris, S.; Tscholl, M.; Tracy, F.; Carmichael, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of Semantic Web technologies to support teaching and learning in a variety of higher education settings in which some form of case-based learning is the pedagogy of choice. It draws on the empirical work of a major three year research and development project in the United Kingdom: "Ensemble: Semantic Technologies…

  10. Concept-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schill, Bethany; Howell, Linda

    2011-01-01

    A major part of developing concept-based instruction is the use of an overarching idea to provide a conceptual lens through which students view the content of a particular subject. By using a conceptual lens to focus learning, students think at a much deeper level about the content and its facts (Erickson 2007). Therefore, the authors collaborated…

  11. Learning Statistical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akram, Muhammad; Siddiqui, Asim Jamal; Yasmeen, Farah

    2004-01-01

    In order to learn the concept of statistical techniques one needs to run real experiments that generate reliable data. In practice, the data from some well-defined process or system is very costly and time consuming. It is difficult to run real experiments during the teaching period in the university. To overcome these difficulties, statisticians…

  12. Semantic advantage for learning new phonological form representations.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Erin; Astle, Duncan E; Rastle, Kathleen

    2015-04-01

    Learning a new word requires discrimination between a novel sequence of sounds and similar known words. We investigated whether semantic information facilitates the acquisition of new phonological representations in adults and whether this learning enhancement is modulated by overnight consolidation. Participants learned novel spoken words either consistently associated with a visual referent or with no consistent meaning. An auditory oddball task tested discrimination of these newly learned phonological forms from known words. The MMN, an electrophysiological measure of auditory discrimination, was only elicited for words learned with a consistent semantic association. Immediately after training, this semantic benefit on auditory discrimination was linked to explicit learning of the associations, where participants with greater semantic learning exhibited a larger MMN. However, although the semantic-associated words continued to show greater auditory discrimination than nonassociated words after consolidation, the MMN was no longer related to performance in learning the semantic associations. We suggest that the provision of semantic systematicity directly impacts upon the development of new phonological representations and that a period of offline consolidation may promote the abstraction of these representations. PMID:25269110

  13. Competencies in Organizational E-Learning: Concepts and Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicilia, Miguel-Angel, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Competencies in Organizational E-Learning: Concepts and Tools" provides a comprehensive view of the way competencies can be used to drive organizational e-learning, including the main conceptual elements, competency gap analysis, advanced related computing topics, the application of semantic Web technologies, and the integration of competencies…

  14. E-Learning System Overview Based on Semantic Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsultanny, Yas A.

    2006-01-01

    The challenge of the semantic web is the provision of distributed information with well-defined meaning, understandable for different parties. e-Learning is efficient task relevant and just-in-time learning grown from the learning requirements of the new dynamically changing, distributed business world. In this paper we design an e-Learning system…

  15. Priming semantic concepts affects the dynamics of aesthetic appreciation.

    PubMed

    Faerber, Stella J; Leder, Helmut; Gerger, Gernot; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2010-10-01

    Aesthetic appreciation (AA) plays an important role for purchase decisions, for the appreciation of art and even for the selection of potential mates. It is known that AA is highly reliable in single assessments, but over longer periods of time dynamic changes of AA may occur. We measured AA as a construct derived from the literature through attractiveness, arousal, interestingness, valence, boredom and innovativeness. By means of the semantic network theory we investigated how the priming of AA-relevant semantic concepts impacts the dynamics of AA of unfamiliar product designs (car interiors) that are known to be susceptible to triggering such effects. When participants were primed for innovativeness, strong dynamics were observed, especially when the priming involved additional AA-relevant dimensions. This underlines the relevance of priming of specific semantic networks not only for the cognitive processing of visual material in terms of selective perception or specific representation, but also for the affective-cognitive processing in terms of the dynamics of aesthetic processing.

  16. RuleML-Based Learning Object Interoperability on the Semantic Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biletskiy, Yevgen; Boley, Harold; Ranganathan, Girish R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The present paper aims to describe an approach for building the Semantic Web rules for interoperation between heterogeneous learning objects, namely course outlines from different universities, and one of the rule uses: identifying (in)compatibilities between course descriptions. Design/methodology/approach: As proof of concept, a rule…

  17. Social Concepts and Judgments: A Semantic Differential Analysis of the Concepts Feminist, Man, and Woman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, W. David; Sydie, R. A.; Stratkotter, Rainer

    2003-01-01

    Male and female participants (N = 274) made judgments about the social concepts of "feminist," "man," and "woman" on 63 semantic differential items. Factor analysis identified three basic dimensions termed evaluative, potency, and activity as well as two secondary factors called expressiveness and sexuality. Results for the evaluative dimension…

  18. Procedural learning of semantic categorization in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Anlló, Eva M; Ingrand, Pierre; Neau, Jean-Philippe; Gil, Roger

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the procedural learning of semantic categorization in 29 patients with non-demented Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated whether the PD group was able to develop semantic skill, using a cognitive procedural task developed in our laboratory, applying a manual and serial reaction time paradigm to semantic categorization. The PD group showed similar scores to those of the control group on semantic categorization. Both groups showed reaction time reduction over the semantic procedural task, but the PD group produced longer reaction times than the control subjects. Contrary to our prediction, we observed an improvement in semantic categorization reaction times with practice, even with new verbal material for the PD patients to categorize despite their motor impairments and executive deficits. By contrast, we found a significant negative correlation between axial motor signs and the ratio of semantic procedural learning, but not for lateral motor signs. The present results support the notion that non-demented PD patients may be capable of acquiring comparable semantic skill to those of the control group. PMID:25502765

  19. Semantic Priming for Coordinate Distant Concepts in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perri, R.; Zannino, G. D.; Caltagirone, C.; Carlesimo, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic priming paradigms have been used to investigate semantic knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While priming effects produced by prime-target pairs with associative relatedness reflect processes at both lexical and semantic levels, priming effects produced by words that are semantically related but not associated should…

  20. Concept Learning through Image Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cifuentes, Lauren; Yi-Chuan, Jane Hsieh

    This study explored computer-based image processing as a study strategy for middle school students' science concept learning. Specifically, the research examined the effects of computer graphics generation on science concept learning and the impact of using computer graphics to show interrelationships among concepts during study time. The 87…

  1. Concept Representation Reflects Multimodal Abstraction: A Framework for Embodied Semantics.

    PubMed

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Binder, Jeffrey R; Desai, Rutvik H; Pendl, Suzanne L; Humphries, Colin J; Gross, William L; Conant, Lisa L; Seidenberg, Mark S

    2016-05-01

    Recent research indicates that sensory and motor cortical areas play a significant role in the neural representation of concepts. However, little is known about the overall architecture of this representational system, including the role played by higher level areas that integrate different types of sensory and motor information. The present study addressed this issue by investigating the simultaneous contributions of multiple sensory-motor modalities to semantic word processing. With a multivariate fMRI design, we examined activation associated with 5 sensory-motor attributes--color, shape, visual motion, sound, and manipulation--for 900 words. Regions responsive to each attribute were identified using independent ratings of the attributes' relevance to the meaning of each word. The results indicate that these aspects of conceptual knowledge are encoded in multimodal and higher level unimodal areas involved in processing the corresponding types of information during perception and action, in agreement with embodied theories of semantics. They also reveal a hierarchical system of abstracted sensory-motor representations incorporating a major division between object interaction and object perception processes. PMID:25750259

  2. Supervised learning of semantic classes for image annotation and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Gustavo; Chan, Antoni B; Moreno, Pedro J; Vasconcelos, Nuno

    2007-03-01

    A probabilistic formulation for semantic image annotation and retrieval is proposed. Annotation and retrieval are posed as classification problems where each class is defined as the group of database images labeled with a common semantic label. It is shown that, by establishing this one-to-one correspondence between semantic labels and semantic classes, a minimum probability of error annotation and retrieval are feasible with algorithms that are 1) conceptually simple, 2) computationally efficient, and 3) do not require prior semantic segmentation of training images. In particular, images are represented as bags of localized feature vectors, a mixture density estimated for each image, and the mixtures associated with all images annotated with a common semantic label pooled into a density estimate for the corresponding semantic class. This pooling is justified by a multiple instance learning argument and performed efficiently with a hierarchical extension of expectation-maximization. The benefits of the supervised formulation over the more complex, and currently popular, joint modeling of semantic label and visual feature distributions are illustrated through theoretical arguments and extensive experiments. The supervised formulation is shown to achieve higher accuracy than various previously published methods at a fraction of their computational cost. Finally, the proposed method is shown to be fairly robust to parameter tuning.

  3. Learning Document Semantic Representation with Hybrid Deep Belief Network

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yan; Yin, Xu-Cheng; Li, Sujian; Yang, Mingyuan; Hao, Hong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    High-level abstraction, for example, semantic representation, is vital for document classification and retrieval. However, how to learn document semantic representation is still a topic open for discussion in information retrieval and natural language processing. In this paper, we propose a new Hybrid Deep Belief Network (HDBN) which uses Deep Boltzmann Machine (DBM) on the lower layers together with Deep Belief Network (DBN) on the upper layers. The advantage of DBM is that it employs undirected connection when training weight parameters which can be used to sample the states of nodes on each layer more successfully and it is also an effective way to remove noise from the different document representation type; the DBN can enhance extract abstract of the document in depth, making the model learn sufficient semantic representation. At the same time, we explore different input strategies for semantic distributed representation. Experimental results show that our model using the word embedding instead of single word has better performance. PMID:25878657

  4. Using semantics to enhance new word learning: an ERP investigation.

    PubMed

    Angwin, Anthony J; Phua, Bernadette; Copland, David A

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the addition of meaning (semantics) would enhance new word learning for novel objects, and whether it would influence the neurophysiological response to new words. Twenty-five young healthy adults underwent 4 days of training to learn the names of 80 novel objects. Half of the items were learnt under a 'semantic' condition, whereby the name consisted of a legal nonword and two adjectives denoting semantic attributes. The remaining items were learnt under a 'name' condition, whereby the name consisted of a legal nonword and two proper names. Participants demonstrated superior recognition of names in the semantic condition compared to the name condition during training sessions 1-3. On the 5th day, following training, ERPs were recorded whilst participants performed a picture-word judgement task including familiar items. Analysis of the results revealed an N400 for incongruent items in the semantic condition, whilst no ERP component was observed for the name condition. These findings suggest that items learnt with semantic information form stronger associations than those trained without semantics.

  5. Verbal Memory and Semantic Organization of Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polychroni, Fotini; Economou, Alexandra; Printezi, Anna; Koutlidi, Ifigeneia

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the verbal learning performance and the semantic organization used by Greek reading-disabled readers as compared to a control group using a list-learning task. The sample consisted of 45 elementary school children with reading difficulties and 45 comparison children matched for age and gender. Tests of reading ability,…

  6. Poset ontologies and concept lattices as semantic hierarchies

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, C.

    2004-01-01

    We describe some aspects of our research in relational knowledge discovery and combinatorial scientific computing, with special emphasis on the relation to the research portfolio of the conceptual structures community. We have recently been developing a combinatorial approach to the management and analysis of large ontologies such as the Gene Ontology (GO). Our approach depends on casting the GO as a labeled partially ordered set (poset), and then using scores based on pseudo-distance measures which we have developed to categorize lists of labels (in the case of the GO, genes and gene products) concerning their clustering and depth within the GO. We hold that such taxonomic semantic hierarchies serve as the core conceptual structures underlying all ontological databases, and through this work we have developed a number of what we believe to be both fundamental and novel ideas about treating such large posets as data objects, in particular the nature of distance in such structures, and the nature of level as an interval-valued property. After laying out this basic framework, we can then bring these ideas to a particular kind of poset, namely the concept lattice. Considering a concept lattice as a poset, we are then prepared to develop techniques for anomaly detection in relational data by measuring the relative level of concepts vs. their cardinalities.

  7. Concept-oriented indexing of video databases: toward semantic sensitive retrieval and browsing.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianping; Luo, Hangzai; Elmagarmid, Ahmed K

    2004-07-01

    Digital video now plays an important role in medical education, health care, telemedicine and other medical applications. Several content-based video retrieval (CBVR) systems have been proposed in the past, but they still suffer from the following challenging problems: semantic gap, semantic video concept modeling, semantic video classification, and concept-oriented video database indexing and access. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to make some advances toward the final goal to solve these problems. Specifically, the framework includes: 1) a semantic-sensitive video content representation framework by using principal video shots to enhance the quality of features; 2) semantic video concept interpretation by using flexible mixture model to bridge the semantic gap; 3) a novel semantic video-classifier training framework by integrating feature selection, parameter estimation, and model selection seamlessly in a single algorithm; and 4) a concept-oriented video database organization technique through a certain domain-dependent concept hierarchy to enable semantic-sensitive video retrieval and browsing.

  8. Semantics boosts syntax in artificial grammar learning tasks with recursion.

    PubMed

    Fedor, Anna; Varga, Máté; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2012-05-01

    Center-embedded recursion (CER) in natural language is exemplified by sentences such as "The malt that the rat ate lay in the house." Parsing center-embedded structures is in the focus of attention because this could be one of the cognitive capacities that make humans distinct from all other animals. The ability to parse CER is usually tested by means of artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks, during which participants have to infer the rule from a set of artificial sentences. One of the surprising results of previous AGL experiments is that learning CER is not as easy as had been thought. We hypothesized that because artificial sentences lack semantic content, semantics could help humans learn the syntax of center-embedded sentences. To test this, we composed sentences from 4 vocabularies of different degrees of semantic content due to 3 factors (familiarity, meaning of words, and semantic relationship between words). According to our results, these factors have no effect one by one but they make learning significantly faster when combined. This leads to the assumption that there were different mechanisms at work when CER was parsed in natural and in artificial languages. This finding questions the suitability of AGL tasks with artificial vocabularies for studying the learning and processing of linguistic CER.

  9. German norms for semantic typicality, age of acquisition, and concept familiarity.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Astrid; Gemballa, Teresa; Ruppin, Steffie; Wartenburger, Isabell

    2012-06-01

    The present study introduces the first substantial German database with norms for semantic typicality, age of acquisition, and concept familiarity for 824 exemplars of 11 semantic categories, including four natural (ANIMALS, BIRDS, FRUITS,: and VEGETABLES: ) and five man-made (CLOTHING, FURNITURE, VEHICLES, TOOLS: , and MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS: ) categories, as well as PROFESSIONS: and SPORTS: . Each category exemplar in the database was collected empirically in an exemplar generation study. For each category exemplar, norms for semantic typicality, estimated age of acquisition, and concept familiarity were gathered in three different rating studies. Reliability data and additional analyses on effects of semantic category and intercorrelations between age of acquisition, semantic typicality, concept familiarity, word length, and word frequency are provided. Overall, the data show high inter- and intrastudy reliabilities, providing a new resource tool for designing experiments with German word materials. The full database is available in the supplementary material of this file and also at www.psychonomic.org/archive . PMID:22190280

  10. Concept-Based Retrieval of Hypermedia Information: From Term Indexing to Semantic Hyperindexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arents, Hans C.; Bogaerts, Walter F. L.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses and examines two approaches to concept-based retrieval of hypermedia information that improve a user's ability to navigate large systems--term indexing with semantically coupled thesauri and semantic hyperindexing. Visualization of index structures is discussed, and an example, the Cube of Contents retrieval model for the "Active Library…

  11. Semantic Processing of Living and Nonliving Concepts across the Cerebral Hemispheres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilgrim, L.K.; Moss, H.E.; Tyler, L.K.

    2005-01-01

    Studies of patients with category-specific semantic deficits suggest that the right and left cerebral hemispheres may be differently involved in the processing of living and nonliving domains concepts. In this study, we investigate whether there are hemisphere differences in the semantic processing of these domains in healthy volunteers. Based on…

  12. Does Learning to Count Involve a Semantic Induction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Kathryn; Eng, Kortney; Barner, David

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, when children learn to correctly count sets, they make a semantic induction about the meanings of their number words. We tested the logical understanding of number words in 84 children that were classified as "cardinal-principle knowers" by the criteria set forth by Wynn (1992). Results show that these children often…

  13. How Visual and Semantic Information Influence Learning in Familiar Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goujon, Annabelle; Brockmole, James R.; Ehinger, Krista A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research using the contextual cuing paradigm has revealed both quantitative and qualitative differences in learning depending on whether repeated contexts are defined by letter arrays or real-world scenes. To clarify the relative contributions of visual features and semantic information likely to account for such differences, the typical…

  14. Semantic Services in e-Learning: An Argumentation Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreale, Emanuela; Vargas-Vera, Maria

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines an e-Learning services architecture offering semantic-based services to students and tutors, in particular ways to browse and obtain information through web services. Services could include registration, authentication, tutoring systems, smart question answering for students' queries, automated marking systems and a student…

  15. Semantic annotation of biological concepts interplaying microbial cellular responses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Automated extraction systems have become a time saving necessity in Systems Biology. Considerable human effort is needed to model, analyse and simulate biological networks. Thus, one of the challenges posed to Biomedical Text Mining tools is that of learning to recognise a wide variety of biological concepts with different functional roles to assist in these processes. Results Here, we present a novel corpus concerning the integrated cellular responses to nutrient starvation in the model-organism Escherichia coli. Our corpus is a unique resource in that it annotates biomedical concepts that play a functional role in expression, regulation and metabolism. Namely, it includes annotations for genetic information carriers (genes and DNA, RNA molecules), proteins (transcription factors, enzymes and transporters), small metabolites, physiological states and laboratory techniques. The corpus consists of 130 full-text papers with a total of 59043 annotations for 3649 different biomedical concepts; the two dominant classes are genes (highest number of unique concepts) and compounds (most frequently annotated concepts), whereas other important cellular concepts such as proteins account for no more than 10% of the annotated concepts. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, a corpus that details such a wide range of biological concepts has never been presented to the text mining community. The inter-annotator agreement statistics provide evidence of the importance of a consolidated background when dealing with such complex descriptions, the ambiguities naturally arising from the terminology and their impact for modelling purposes. Availability is granted for the full-text corpora of 130 freely accessible documents, the annotation scheme and the annotation guidelines. Also, we include a corpus of 340 abstracts. PMID:22122862

  16. Concept Model on Topological Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ae, Tadashi; Kioi, Kazumasa

    2010-11-01

    We discuss a new model for concept based on topological learning, where the learning process on the neural network is represented by mathematical topology. The topological learning of neural networks is summarized by a quotient of input space and the hierarchical step induces a tree where each node corresponds to a quotient. In general, the concept acquisition is a difficult problem, but the emotion for a subject is represented by providing the questions to a person. Therefore, a kind of concept is captured by such data and the answer sheet can be mapped into a topology consisting of trees. In this paper, we will discuss a way of mapping the emotional concept to a topological learning model.

  17. Learning Our Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laverty, Megan J.

    2009-01-01

    Richard Stanley Peters appreciates the centrality of concepts for everyday life, however, he fails to recognize their pedagogical dimension. He distinguishes concepts employed at the first-order (our ordinary language-use) from second-order conceptual clarification (conducted exclusively by academically trained philosophers). This distinction…

  18. The Concept of Developmental Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William

    Cognitive developmental learning is a concept expressing the hypothesis that learning has a continuing, cumulative, and transformational function in the development of intelligence. Two important questions are, "How much do we know about methods?" and "What classes of knowledge and abilities should we develop?" An analysis of past investigations,…

  19. Intelligent Discovery for Learning Objects Using Semantic Web Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, I-Ching

    2012-01-01

    The concept of learning objects has been applied in the e-learning field to promote the accessibility, reusability, and interoperability of learning content. Learning Object Metadata (LOM) was developed to achieve these goals by describing learning objects in order to provide meaningful metadata. Unfortunately, the conventional LOM lacks the…

  20. The Effect of Semantic Set Size on Word Learning by Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storkel, Holly L.; Adlof, Suzanne M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to determine whether semantic set size, a measure of the number of semantic neighbors, influenced word learning, and whether the influence of semantic set size was broad, showing effects on multiple measures both during and after learning. Method: Thirty-six preschool children were exposed to 10 nonobjects, varying in…

  1. A Learning Content Authoring Approach Based on Semantic Technologies and Social Networking: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesic, Sasa; Gasevic, Dragan; Jazayeri, Mehdi; Landoni, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Semantic web technologies have been applied to many aspects of learning content authoring including semantic annotation, semantic search, dynamic assembly, and personalization of learning content. At the same time, social networking services have started to play an important role in the authoring process by supporting authors' collaborative…

  2. Learning to use scientific concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Gordon

    2008-07-01

    In responding to the research on conceptual change, this article attempts to make two points. First, scientific concepts are not possessed by individuals; rather, they are part of a culture's resources, which individuals learn to use for their own or for group purposes. Second, particular concepts are most effectively mastered when the learner is deeply engaged in solving a problem for which they function as effective semiotic tools in achieving a solution. On these grounds, it is argued that the mastering of scientific concepts is best achieved through learning to use them in motivated inquiry.

  3. Analysis of the semantic representations of living and nonliving concepts: A normative study.

    PubMed

    Zannino, Gian Daniele; Perri, Roberta; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni A

    2006-01-01

    Current feature-based semantic memory models assume that the semantic representations of concepts differ systematically across living and nonliving categories and that such differences account for the emergence of category-specific semantic deficits in brain-damaged people. To assess some of the different models' main assumptions about structural differences at the semantic feature level in the two major semantic domains, we administrated a feature-listing task to normal young volunteers on 64 concepts drawn from living and nonliving semantic categories. We investigated whether feature correlation, a variable with a crucial role in the emergence of category-specific deficits, should be computed as a concept-dependent or as a concept-independent measure, and we chose the former. We also addressed the issue of a psychological counterpart of feature production frequency. Finally, we analysed the database obtained from the feature-listing tasks, looked at cross-domain differences for correlation, feature frequency, distinctiveness, and feature type, and discussed the implications of these findings for current semantic memory models. PMID:21049342

  4. Acquiring concepts and features of novel words by two types of learning: direct mapping and inference.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Yufang

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the semantic representation of novel words learnt in two conditions: directly mapping a novel word to a concept (Direct mapping: DM) and inferring the concept from provided features (Inferred learning: IF). A condition where no definite concept could be inferred (No basic-level meaning: NM) served as a baseline. The semantic representation of the novel word was assessed via a semantic-relatedness judgment task. In this task, the learned novel word served as a prime, while the corresponding concept, an unlearned feature of the concept, and an unrelated word served as targets. ERP responses to the targets, primed by the novel words in the three learning conditions, were compared. For the corresponding concept, smaller N400s were elicited in the DM and IF conditions than in the NM condition, indicating that the concept could be obtained in both learning conditions. However, for the unlearned feature, the targets in the IF condition produced an N400 effect while in the DM condition elicited an LPC effect relative to the NM learning condition. No ERP difference was observed among the three learning conditions for the unrelated words. The results indicate that conditions of learning affect the semantic representation of novel word, and that the unlearned feature was only activated by the novel word in the IF learning condition.

  5. Enabling Creative Learning Design through Semantic Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlton, Patricia; Magoulas, George; Laurillard, Diana

    2012-01-01

    The paper advocates an approach to learning design that considers it as creating digital artefacts that can be extended, modified and used for different purposes. This is realised through an "act becoming artefact" cycle, where users' actions in the authors' software environment, named Learning Designer, are automatically interpreted on the basis…

  6. Transforming Selected Concepts into Dimensions in Latent Semantic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmos, Ricardo; Jorge-Botana, Guillermo; León, José Antonio; Escudero, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a new approach for transforming the latent representation derived from a Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) space into one where dimensions have nonlatent meanings. These meanings are based on lexical descriptors, which are selected by the LSA user. The authors present three analyses that provide examples of the utility of this…

  7. A Literature-Based Assessment of Concept Pairs as a Measure of Semantic Relatedness

    PubMed Central

    Workman, T. Elizabeth; Rosemblat, Graciela; Fiszman, Marcelo; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    The semantic relatedness between two concepts, according to human perception, is domain-rooted and reflects prior knowledge. We developed a new method for semantic relatedness assessment that reflects human judgment, utilizing semantic predications extracted from PubMed citations by SemRep. We compared the new method to other approaches utilizing path-based, statistical, and context vector methods, using a gold standard for evaluation. The new method outperformed all others, except one variation of the context vector technique. These findings have implications in several natural language processing applications, such as serendipitous knowledge discovery. PMID:24551423

  8. Semantic Indexing of Medical Learning Objects: Medical Students' Usage of a Semantic Network

    PubMed Central

    Gießler, Paul; Ohnesorge-Radtke, Ursula; Spreckelsen, Cord

    2015-01-01

    Background The Semantically Annotated Media (SAM) project aims to provide a flexible platform for searching, browsing, and indexing medical learning objects (MLOs) based on a semantic network derived from established classification systems. Primarily, SAM supports the Aachen emedia skills lab, but SAM is ready for indexing distributed content and the Simple Knowledge Organizing System standard provides a means for easily upgrading or even exchanging SAM’s semantic network. There is a lack of research addressing the usability of MLO indexes or search portals like SAM and the user behavior with such platforms. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the usability of SAM by investigating characteristic user behavior of medical students accessing MLOs via SAM. Methods In this study, we chose a mixed-methods approach. Lean usability testing was combined with usability inspection by having the participants complete four typical usage scenarios before filling out a questionnaire. The questionnaire was based on the IsoMetrics usability inventory. Direct user interaction with SAM (mouse clicks and pages accessed) was logged. Results The study analyzed the typical usage patterns and habits of students using a semantic network for accessing MLOs. Four scenarios capturing characteristics of typical tasks to be solved by using SAM yielded high ratings of usability items and showed good results concerning the consistency of indexing by different users. Long-tail phenomena emerge as they are typical for a collaborative Web 2.0 platform. Suitable but nonetheless rarely used keywords were assigned to MLOs by some users. Conclusions It is possible to develop a Web-based tool with high usability and acceptance for indexing and retrieval of MLOs. SAM can be applied to indexing multicentered repositories of MLOs collaboratively. PMID:27731860

  9. Semantic Annotation of Ubiquitous Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weal, M. J.; Michaelides, D. T.; Page, K.; De Roure, D. C.; Monger, E.; Gobbi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Skills-based learning environments are used to promote the acquisition of practical skills as well as decision making, communication, and problem solving. It is important to provide feedback to the students from these sessions and observations of their actions may inform the assessment process and help researchers to better understand the learning…

  10. Concept Map Engineering: Methods and Tools Based on the Semantic Relation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Minkyu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a better understanding of technologies that use natural language as the basis for concept map construction. In particular, this study focuses on the semantic relation (SR) approach to drawing rich and authentic concept maps that reflect students' internal representations of a problem situation. The…

  11. Learning Styles: Concepts and Evidence.

    PubMed

    Pashler, Harold; McDaniel, Mark; Rohrer, Doug; Bjork, Robert

    2008-12-01

    The term "learning styles" refers to the concept that individuals differ in regard to what mode of instruction or study is most effective for them. Proponents of learning-style assessment contend that optimal instruction requires diagnosing individuals' learning style and tailoring instruction accordingly. Assessments of learning style typically ask people to evaluate what sort of information presentation they prefer (e.g., words versus pictures versus speech) and/or what kind of mental activity they find most engaging or congenial (e.g., analysis versus listening), although assessment instruments are extremely diverse. The most common-but not the only-hypothesis about the instructional relevance of learning styles is the meshing hypothesis, according to which instruction is best provided in a format that matches the preferences of the learner (e.g., for a "visual learner," emphasizing visual presentation of information). The learning-styles view has acquired great influence within the education field, and is frequently encountered at levels ranging from kindergarten to graduate school. There is a thriving industry devoted to publishing learning-styles tests and guidebooks for teachers, and many organizations offer professional development workshops for teachers and educators built around the concept of learning styles. The authors of the present review were charged with determining whether these practices are supported by scientific evidence. We concluded that any credible validation of learning-styles-based instruction requires robust documentation of a very particular type of experimental finding with several necessary criteria. First, students must be divided into groups on the basis of their learning styles, and then students from each group must be randomly assigned to receive one of multiple instructional methods. Next, students must then sit for a final test that is the same for all students. Finally, in order to demonstrate that optimal learning requires

  12. Episodic Representations Support Early Semantic Learning: Evidence from Midazolam Induced Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Paul; Hirshman, Elliot; Zamani, Shane; Hsu, John; Berrigan, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Current controversy exists regarding the role of episodic representations in the formation of long-term semantic memories. Using the drug "midazolam" to induce temporary amnesia we tested participants' memories for newly learned facts in a semantic cue condition or an episodic and semantic cue condition. Following midazolam administration, memory…

  13. Aging and semantic cueing during learning and retention of verbal episodic information.

    PubMed

    Woo, Ellen; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of semantic cues provided at encoding and during retention for older adults' memory. For the California Verbal Learning Test-II, participants received semantic or nonsemantic cues that were varied across groups at encoding and during the retention interval. Provision of a semantic cue at encoding led to greater semantic clustering at learning, but not increased recall performance. Providing a semantic cue during the retention interval led to better delayed free recall and greater semantic clustering. No group differences in recall or semantic clustering were found at delayed cued recall. The current findings suggest that semantic cues can be beneficial for recalling unstructured information when administered during the retention interval. PMID:18923945

  14. Designing Collaborative E-Learning Environments Based upon Semantic Wiki: From Design Models to Application Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yanyan; Dong, Mingkai; Huang, Ronghuai

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge society requires life-long learning and flexible learning environment that enables fast, just-in-time and relevant learning, aiding the development of communities of knowledge, linking learners and practitioners with experts. Based upon semantic wiki, a combination of wiki and Semantic Web technology, this paper designs and develops…

  15. Knowledge represented using RDF semantic network in the concept of semantic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukasova, A.; Vajgl, M.; Zacek, M.

    2016-06-01

    The RDF(S) model has been declared as the basic model to capture knowledge of the semantic web. It provides a common and flexible way to decompose composed knowledge to elementary statements, which can be represented by RDF triples or by RDF graph vectors. From the logical point of view, elements of knowledge can be expressed using at most binary predicates, which can be converted to RDF-triples or graph vectors. However, it is not able to capture implicit knowledge representable by logical formulas. This contribution shows how existing approaches (semantic networks and clausal form logic) can be combined together with RDF to obtain RDF-compatible system with ability to represent implicit knowledge and inference over knowledge base.

  16. Harmonisation of the Educational Concept "Learning Outcome" in the Lithuanian Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pukelis, Kestutis; Smetona, Antanas

    2011-01-01

    In this article, an example of translation of the English term "learning outcome" into the Lithuanian system of educational terms is used to discuss semantic peculiarities of translating professional terms. Consistency of a concept signifier and content of a concept, as well as their tune with already existing systems of educational terms are…

  17. Dynamics of activation of semantically similar concepts during spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Mirman, Daniel; Magnuson, James S

    2009-10-01

    Semantic similarity effects provide critical insight into the organization of semantic knowledge and the nature of semantic processing. In the present study, we examined the dynamics of semantic similarity effects by using the visual world eyetracking paradigm. Four objects were shown on a computer monitor, and participants were instructed to click on a named object, during which time their gaze position was recorded. The likelihood of fixating competitor objects was predicted by the degree of semantic similarity to the target concept. We found reliable, graded competition that depended on degree of target-competitor similarity, even for distantly related items for which priming has not been found in previous priming studies. Time course measures revealed a consistently earlier fixation peak for near semantic neighbors relative to targets. Computational investigations with an attractor dynamical model, a spreading activation model, and a decision model revealed that a combination of excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms is required to obtain such peak timing, providing new constraints on models of semantic processing. PMID:19744941

  18. Constructivism, the so-called semantic learning theories, and situated cognition versus the psychological learning theories.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Juan José; Rodríguez Moneo, María

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, the perspective of situated cognition, which gave rise both to the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning and has probably become the most representative standpoint of constructivism, is examined. We consider the claim of situated cognition to provide alternative explanations of the learning phenomenon to those of psychology and, especially, to those of the symbolic perspective, currently predominant in cognitive psychology. The level of analysis of situated cognition (i.e., global interactive systems) is considered an inappropriate approach to the problem of learning. From our analysis, it is concluded that the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning which originated in situated cognition can hardly be considered alternatives to the psychological learning theories, and they are unlikely to add anything of interest to the learning theory or to contribute to the improvement of our knowledge about the learning phenomenon.

  19. Some reflections on Rosen's conceptions of semantics and finality.

    PubMed

    Goudsmit, Arno L

    2007-10-01

    The present contribution departs from Rosen's idea that the semantics of a natural language cannot be fully reduced to syntactical rules. In the first place, this surplus value can be found in the relational organization of living beings as well as in intuitive observational descriptions of them. Second, to recognize meaning and to ascribe sense and intentionality to a living being, we observers take recourse to the notion of finality, which is considered here as the upshot of a bifurcation between logical levels of processes. Finally, a particular class of geometrical constructions is proposed as a domain in which the origination of such bifurcations can be visualized. PMID:17955468

  20. Learning Semantic Tags from Big Data for Clinical Text Representation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanpeng; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-01-01

    In clinical text mining, it is one of the biggest challenges to represent medical terminologies and n-gram terms in sparse medical reports using either supervised or unsupervised methods. Addressing this issue, we propose a novel method for word and n-gram representation at semantic level. We first represent each word by its distance with a set of reference features calculated by reference distance estimator (RDE) learned from labeled and unlabeled data, and then generate new features using simple techniques of discretization, random sampling and merging. The new features are a set of binary rules that can be interpreted as semantic tags derived from word and n-grams. We show that the new features significantly outperform classical bag-of-words and n-grams in the task of heart disease risk factor extraction in i2b2 2014 challenge. It is promising to see that semantics tags can be used to replace the original text entirely with even better prediction performance as well as derive new rules beyond lexical level.

  1. ASSOCIATIVE CONCEPT LEARNING IN ANIMALS

    PubMed Central

    Zentall, Thomas R.; Wasserman, Edward A.; Urcuioli, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Nonhuman animals show evidence for three types of concept learning: perceptual or similarity-based in which objects/stimuli are categorized based on physical similarity; relational in which one object/stimulus is categorized relative to another (e.g., same/different); and associative in which arbitrary stimuli become interchangeable with one another by virtue of a common association with another stimulus, outcome, or response. In this article, we focus on various methods for establishing associative concepts in nonhuman animals and evaluate data documenting the development of associative classes of stimuli. We also examine the nature of the common within-class representation of samples that have been associated with the same reinforced comparison response (i.e., many-to-one matching) by describing manipulations for distinguishing possible representations. Associative concepts provide one foundation for human language such that spoken and written words and the objects they represent become members of a class of interchangeable stimuli. The mechanisms of associative concept learning and the behavioral flexibility it allows, however, are also evident in the adaptive behaviors of animals lacking language. PMID:24170540

  2. Associative concept learning in animals.

    PubMed

    Zentall, Thomas R; Wasserman, Edward A; Urcuioli, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Nonhuman animals show evidence for three types of concept learning: perceptual or similarity-based in which objects/stimuli are categorized based on physical similarity; relational in which one object/stimulus is categorized relative to another (e.g., same/different); and associative in which arbitrary stimuli become interchangeable with one another by virtue of a common association with another stimulus, outcome, or response. In this article, we focus on various methods for establishing associative concepts in nonhuman animals and evaluate data documenting the development of associative classes of stimuli. We also examine the nature of the common within-class representation of samples that have been associated with the same reinforced comparison response (i.e., many-to-one matching) by describing manipulations for distinguishing possible representations. Associative concepts provide one foundation for human language such that spoken and written words and the objects they represent become members of a class of interchangeable stimuli. The mechanisms of associative concept learning and the behavioral flexibility it allows, however, are also evident in the adaptive behaviors of animals lacking language.

  3. Semantic processing of living and nonliving concepts across the cerebral hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Pilgrim, L K; Moss, H E; Tyler, L K

    2005-07-01

    Studies of patients with category-specific semantic deficits suggest that the right and left cerebral hemispheres may be differently involved in the processing of living and nonliving domains concepts. In this study, we investigate whether there are hemisphere differences in the semantic processing of these domains in healthy volunteers. Based on the neuropsychological findings, we predicted a disadvantage for nonliving compared to living concepts in the right hemisphere. Our prediction was supported, in that semantic decisions to nonliving concepts were significantly slower and more error-prone when presented to the right hemisphere. In contrast there were no hemisphere differences for living concepts. These findings are consistent with either differential representation or processing of concepts across right and left hemispheres. However, we also found a disadvantage for nonliving things compared to living things in the left hemisphere, which is not consistent with a simple representation account. We discuss these findings in terms of qualitatively different semantic processing in right and left hemispheres within the framework of a distributed model of conceptual representation. PMID:15896386

  4. Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytras, Miltiadis, Ed.; Naeve, Ambjorn, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    In the context of Knowledge Society, the convergence of knowledge and learning management is a critical milestone. "Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective" provides state-of-the art knowledge through a balanced theoretical and technological discussion. The semantic web perspective…

  5. Implicit Word Learning Benefits from Semantic Richness: Electrophysiological and Behavioral Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabovsky, Milena; Sommer, Werner; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2012-01-01

    Words differ considerably in the amount of associated semantic information. Despite the crucial role of meaning in language, it is still unclear whether and how this variability modulates language learning. Here, we provide initial evidence demonstrating that implicit learning in repetition priming is influenced by the amount of semantic features…

  6. Hypermedia-Assisted Instruction and Second Language Learning: A Semantic-Network-Based Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Min

    This literature review examines a hypermedia learning environment from a semantic network basis and the application of such an environment to second language learning. (A semantic network is defined as a conceptual representation of knowledge in human memory). The discussion is organized under the following headings and subheadings: (1) Advantages…

  7. Semantic Differential Factor Structure Stability Across Subject, Concept, and Time Differences.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, L; Rosenbaum, W; McGinnies, E

    1971-10-01

    Semantic differential ratings by 90 students at the University of Maryland toward 6 political concepts were obtained before and after the 1964 Presidential Election. When the repsonses of Johnson and Goldwater supporters ere combined in a single factor analysis, 2 factors were extracted. These are described as the evaluative factor and a dynamism factor. PMID:26825242

  8. An Approach to Formalizing Ontology Driven Semantic Integration: Concepts, Dimensions and Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Wenlong

    2012-01-01

    The ontology approach has been accepted as a very promising approach to semantic integration today. However, because of the diversity of focuses and its various connections to other research domains, the core concepts, theoretical and technical approaches, and research areas of this domain still remain unclear. Such ambiguity makes it difficult to…

  9. Adaptive Semantic and Social Web-based learning and assessment environment for the STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaie, Hassan; Atchison, Chris; Sunderraman, Rajshekhar

    2014-05-01

    We are building a cloud- and Semantic Web-based personalized, adaptive learning environment for the STEM fields that integrates and leverages Social Web technologies to allow instructors and authors of learning material to collaborate in semi-automatic development and update of their common domain and task ontologies and building their learning resources. The semi-automatic ontology learning and development minimize issues related to the design and maintenance of domain ontologies by knowledge engineers who do not have any knowledge of the domain. The social web component of the personal adaptive system will allow individual and group learners to interact with each other and discuss their own learning experience and understanding of course material, and resolve issues related to their class assignments. The adaptive system will be capable of representing key knowledge concepts in different ways and difficulty levels based on learners' differences, and lead to different understanding of the same STEM content by different learners. It will adapt specific pedagogical strategies to individual learners based on their characteristics, cognition, and preferences, allow authors to assemble remotely accessed learning material into courses, and provide facilities for instructors to assess (in real time) the perception of students of course material, monitor their progress in the learning process, and generate timely feedback based on their understanding or misconceptions. The system applies a set of ontologies that structure the learning process, with multiple user friendly Web interfaces. These include the learning ontology (models learning objects, educational resources, and learning goal); context ontology (supports adaptive strategy by detecting student situation), domain ontology (structures concepts and context), learner ontology (models student profile, preferences, and behavior), task ontologies, technological ontology (defines devices and places that surround the

  10. Evaluation of unsupervised semantic mapping of natural language with Leximancer concept mapping.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew E; Humphreys, Michael S

    2006-05-01

    The Leximancer system is a relatively new method for transforming lexical co-occurrence information from natural language into semantic patterns in a nunsupervised manner. It employs two stages of co-occurrence information extraction-semantic and relational-using a different algorithm for each stage. The algorithms used are statistical, but they employ nonlinear dynamics and machine learning. This article is an attempt to validate the output of Leximancer, using a set of evaluation criteria taken from content analysis that are appropriate for knowledge discovery tasks. PMID:16956103

  11. Clustering WHO-ART terms using semantic distance and machine learning algorithms.

    PubMed

    Iavindrasana, Jimison; Bousquet, Cedric; Degoulet, Patrice; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2006-01-01

    WHO-ART was developed by the WHO collaborating centre for international drug monitoring in order to code adverse drug reactions. We assume that computation of semantic distance between WHO-ART terms may be an efficient way to group related medical conditions in the WHO database in order to improve signal detection. Our objective was to develop a method for clustering WHO-ART terms according to some proximity of their meanings. Our material comprises 758 WHO-ART terms. A formal definition was acquired for each term as a list of elementary concepts belonging to SNOMED international axes and characterized by modifier terms in some cases. Clustering was implemented as a terminology service on a J2EE server. Two different unsupervised machine learning algorithms (KMeans, Pvclust) clustered WHO-ART terms according to a semantic distance operator previously described. Pvclust grouped 51% of WHO-ART terms. K-Means grouped 100% of WHO-ART terms but 25% clusters were heterogeneous with k = 180 clusters and 6% clusters were heterogeneous with k = 32 clusters. Clustering algorithms associated to semantic distance could suggest potential groupings of WHO-ART terms that need validation according to the user's requirements.

  12. SOLE: Applying Semantics and Social Web to Support Technology Enhanced Learning in Software Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Jiménez-López, Diego; García-Crespo, Ángel; Blanco-Iglesias, Borja

    eLearning educative processes are a challenge for educative institutions and education professionals. In an environment in which learning resources are being produced, catalogued and stored using innovative ways, SOLE provides a platform in which exam questions can be produced supported by Web 2.0 tools, catalogued and labeled via semantic web and stored and distributed using eLearning standards. This paper presents, SOLE, a social network of exam questions sharing particularized for Software Engineering domain, based on semantics and built using semantic web and eLearning standards, such as IMS Question and Test Interoperability specification 2.1.

  13. Effects of Semantic Web Based Learning on Pre-Service Teachers' ICT Learning Achievement and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karalar, Halit; Korucu, Agah Tugrul

    2016-01-01

    Although the Semantic Web offers many opportunities for learners, effects of it in the classroom is not well known. Therefore, in this study explanations have been stated as how the learning objects defined by means of using the terminology in a developed ontology and kept in objects repository should be presented to learners with the aim of…

  14. Simulating Expert Clinical Comprehension: Adapting Latent Semantic Analysis to Accurately Extract Clinical Concepts from Psychiatric Narrative

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Trevor; Blatter, Brett; Patel, Vimla

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive studies reveal that less-than-expert clinicians are less able to recognize meaningful patterns of data in clinical narratives. Accordingly, psychiatric residents early in training fail to attend to information that is relevant to diagnosis and the assessment of dangerousness. This manuscript presents cognitively motivated methodology for the simulation of expert ability to organize relevant findings supporting intermediate diagnostic hypotheses. Latent Semantic Analysis is used to generate a semantic space from which meaningful associations between psychiatric terms are derived. Diagnostically meaningful clusters are modeled as geometric structures within this space and compared to elements of psychiatric narrative text using semantic distance measures. A learning algorithm is defined that alters components of these geometric structures in response to labeled training data. Extraction and classification of relevant text segments is evaluated against expert annotation, with system-rater agreement approximating rater-rater agreement. A range of biomedical informatics applications for these methods are suggested. PMID:18455483

  15. Concepts as Semantic Pointers: A Framework and Computational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blouw, Peter; Solodkin, Eugene; Thagard, Paul; Eliasmith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The reconciliation of theories of concepts based on prototypes, exemplars, and theory-like structures is a longstanding problem in cognitive science. In response to this problem, researchers have recently tended to adopt either hybrid theories that combine various kinds of representational structure, or eliminative theories that replace concepts…

  16. A semantic image retrieval approach between visual features and medical concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin; Liang, Hong; Yang, Guangda; Feng, Yaoyu; Lv, Meichao

    2009-07-01

    In the medical domain, digital images are produced in ever-increasing quantities, which offer great opportunities for diagnostics, therapy and training. So how to manage these data and utilize them effectively and efficiently possess significant technical challenges. Thus, the technique of Content-based Medical Image Retrieval (CBMIR) emerges as the times require. However, current CBMIR is not sufficient to capture the semantic content of images. Accordingly, in this paper, an innovative approach for medical image knowledge representation and retrieval is proposed by focusing on the mapping modeling between visual feature and semantic concept. Firstly, the low-level fusion visual features are extracted based on statistical features. Secondly, a set of disjoint semantic tokens with appearance in medical images is selected to define a Visual and Medical Vocabulary. Thirdly, to narrow down the semantic gap and increase the retrieval efficiency, we investigate support vector machine (SVM) to associate low-level visual image features with their highlevel semantic. Experiments are conducted with a medical image DB consisting of 300 diverse medical images obtained from the Hei Longjiang Province Hospital. And the comparison of the retrieval results shows that the approach proposed in this paper is effective.

  17. From Distributional Semantics to Conceptual Spaces: A Novel Computational Method for Concept Creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, Stephen; Agres, Kat; Purver, Matthew; Wiggins, Geraint A.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the relationship between lexical spaces and contextually-defined conceptual spaces, offering applications to creative concept discovery. We define a computational method for discovering members of concepts based on semantic spaces: starting with a standard distributional model derived from corpus co-occurrence statistics, we dynamically select characteristic dimensions associated with seed terms, and thus a subspace of terms defining the related concept. This approach performs as well as, and in some cases better than, leading distributional semantic models on a WordNet-based concept discovery task, while also providing a model of concepts as convex regions within a space with interpretable dimensions. In particular, it performs well on more specific, contextualized concepts; to investigate this we therefore move beyond WordNet to a set of human empirical studies, in which we compare output against human responses on a membership task for novel concepts. Finally, a separate panel of judges rate both model output and human responses, showing similar ratings in many cases, and some commonalities and divergences which reveal interesting issues for computational concept discovery.

  18. Motor knowledge is one dimension for concept organization: further evidence from a Chinese semantic dementia case.

    PubMed

    Lin, Nan; Guo, Qihao; Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao

    2011-11-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have indicated that motor knowledge is one potential dimension along which concepts are organized. Here we present further direct evidence for the effects of motor knowledge in accounting for categorical patterns across object domains (living vs. nonliving) and grammatical domains (nouns vs. verbs), as well as the integrity of other modality-specific knowledge (e.g., visual). We present a Chinese case, XRK, who suffered from semantic dementia with left temporal lobe atrophy. In naming and comprehension tasks, he performed better at nonliving items than at living items, and better at verbs than at nouns. Critically, multiple regression method revealed that these two categorical effects could be both accounted for by the charade rating, a continuous measurement of the significance of motor knowledge for a concept or a semantic feature. Furthermore, charade rating also predicted his performances on the generation frequency of semantic features of various modalities. These findings consolidate the significance of motor knowledge in conceptual organization and further highlights the interactions between different types of semantic knowledge. PMID:20701959

  19. Autobiographically significant concepts: more episodic than semantic in nature? An electrophysiological investigation of overlapping types of memory.

    PubMed

    Renoult, Louis; Davidson, Patrick S R; Schmitz, Erika; Park, Lillian; Campbell, Kenneth; Moscovitch, Morris; Levine, Brian

    2015-01-01

    A common assertion is that semantic memory emerges from episodic memory, shedding the distinctive contexts associated with episodes over time and/or repeated instances. Some semantic concepts, however, may retain their episodic origins or acquire episodic information during life experiences. The current study examined this hypothesis by investigating the ERP correlates of autobiographically significant (AS) concepts, that is, semantic concepts that are associated with vivid episodic memories. We inferred the contribution of semantic and episodic memory to AS concepts using the amplitudes of the N400 and late positive component, respectively. We compared famous names that easily brought to mind episodic memories (high AS names) against equally famous names that did not bring such recollections to mind (low AS names) on a semantic task (fame judgment) and an episodic task (recognition memory). Compared with low AS names, high AS names were associated with increased amplitude of the late positive component in both tasks. Moreover, in the recognition task, this effect of AS was highly correlated with recognition confidence. In contrast, the N400 component did not differentiate the high versus low AS names but, instead, was related to the amount of general knowledge participants had regarding each name. These results suggest that semantic concepts high in AS, such as famous names, have an episodic component and are associated with similar brain processes to those that are engaged by episodic memory. Studying AS concepts may provide unique insights into how episodic and semantic memory interact.

  20. Brain, Language, and New Concepts of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Leslie A.

    1981-01-01

    New understandings of the human brain can be used to make quantum jumps in achieved learning. Sweeping changes need to be made in school organization, learning concepts, settings, and techniques. (Author/MLF)

  1. Collaborative Concept Mapping in a Web-Based Learning Environment: A Pedagogic Experience in Architectural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrazo, Leandro; Vidal, Jordi

    2002-01-01

    Describes a pedagogical work, carried out within a school of architecture, using a Web-based learning environment to support collaborative understanding of texts on architectural theory. Explains the use of concept maps, creation of a critical vocabulary, exploration of semantic spaces, and knowledge discovery through navigation. (Author/LRW)

  2. Implicit Learning of Semantic Category Sequences: Response-Independent Acquisition of Abstract Sequential Regularities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goschke, Thomas; Bolte, Annette

    2007-01-01

    Through the use of a new serial naming task, the authors investigated implicit learning of repeating sequences of abstract semantic categories. Participants named objects (e.g., table, shirt) appearing in random order. Unbeknownst to them, the semantic categories of the objects (e.g., furniture, clothing) followed a repeating sequence.…

  3. A Comparison of Semantic- and Mnemonic-Based Vocabulary-Learning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Joel R; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compares the vocabulary learning effectiveness of the mnemonic keyword method and two semantic-based approaches (semantic mapping and contextual analysis). Concludes, among other things, that the keyword method is superior to the other two strategies with respect to students' ability to recall word definitions. (FL)

  4. The Role of Self-Teaching in Learning Orthographic and Semantic Aspects of New Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Jessie; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Pimperton, Hannah; Nation, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how children learn the meaning (semantics) and spelling patterns (orthography) of novel words encountered in story context. English-speaking children (N = 88) aged 7 to 8 years read 8 stories and each story contained 1 novel word repeated 4 times. Semantic cues were provided by the story context such that children could infer…

  5. Exploiting Semantic Annotations and Q-Learning for Constructing an Efficient Hierarchy/Graph Texts Organization

    PubMed Central

    El-Said, Asmaa M.; Eldesoky, Ali I.; Arafat, Hesham A.

    2015-01-01

    Tremendous growth in the number of textual documents has produced daily requirements for effective development to explore, analyze, and discover knowledge from these textual documents. Conventional text mining and managing systems mainly use the presence or absence of key words to discover and analyze useful information from textual documents. However, simple word counts and frequency distributions of term appearances do not capture the meaning behind the words, which results in limiting the ability to mine the texts. This paper proposes an efficient methodology for constructing hierarchy/graph-based texts organization and representation scheme based on semantic annotation and Q-learning. This methodology is based on semantic notions to represent the text in documents, to infer unknown dependencies and relationships among concepts in a text, to measure the relatedness between text documents, and to apply mining processes using the representation and the relatedness measure. The representation scheme reflects the existing relationships among concepts and facilitates accurate relatedness measurements that result in a better mining performance. An extensive experimental evaluation is conducted on real datasets from various domains, indicating the importance of the proposed approach. PMID:25685832

  6. Exploiting semantic annotations and Q-learning for constructing an efficient hierarchy/graph texts organization.

    PubMed

    El-Said, Asmaa M; Eldesoky, Ali I; Arafat, Hesham A

    2015-01-01

    Tremendous growth in the number of textual documents has produced daily requirements for effective development to explore, analyze, and discover knowledge from these textual documents. Conventional text mining and managing systems mainly use the presence or absence of key words to discover and analyze useful information from textual documents. However, simple word counts and frequency distributions of term appearances do not capture the meaning behind the words, which results in limiting the ability to mine the texts. This paper proposes an efficient methodology for constructing hierarchy/graph-based texts organization and representation scheme based on semantic annotation and Q-learning. This methodology is based on semantic notions to represent the text in documents, to infer unknown dependencies and relationships among concepts in a text, to measure the relatedness between text documents, and to apply mining processes using the representation and the relatedness measure. The representation scheme reflects the existing relationships among concepts and facilitates accurate relatedness measurements that result in a better mining performance. An extensive experimental evaluation is conducted on real datasets from various domains, indicating the importance of the proposed approach.

  7. Semantics guide infants' vowel learning: Computational and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Ter Schure, S M M; Junge, C M M; Boersma, P P G

    2016-05-01

    In their first year, infants' perceptual abilities zoom in on only those speech sound contrasts that are relevant for their language. Infants' lexicons do not yet contain sufficient minimal pairs to explain this phonetic categorization process. Therefore, researchers suggested a bottom-up learning mechanism: infants create categories aligned with the frequency distributions of sounds in their input. Recent evidence shows that this bottom-up mechanism may be complemented by the semantic context in which speech sounds occur, such as simultaneously present objects. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether discrimination of a non-native vowel contrast improves when sounds from the contrast were paired consistently or randomly with two distinct visually presented objects, while the distribution of speech tokens suggested a single broad category. This was assessed in two ways: computationally, namely in a neural network simulation, and experimentally, namely in a group of 8-month-old infants. The neural network, trained with a large set of sound-meaning pairs, revealed that two categories emerge only if sounds are consistently paired with objects. A group of 49 real 8-month-old infants did not immediately show sensitivity to the pairing condition; a later test at 18 months with some of the same infants, however, showed that this sensitivity at 8 months interacted with their vocabulary size at 18 months. This interaction can be explained by the idea that infants with larger future vocabularies are more positively influenced by consistent training (and/or more negatively influenced by inconsistent training) than infants with smaller future vocabularies. This suggests that consistent pairing with distinct visual objects can help infants to discriminate speech sounds even when the auditory information does not signal a distinction. Together our results give computational as well as experimental support for the idea that semantic context plays a role in disambiguating

  8. A semi-automatic semantic method for mapping SNOMED CT concepts to VCM Icons.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Tsopra, Rosy; Venot, Alain; Duclos, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    VCM (Visualization of Concept in Medicine) is an iconic language for representing key medical concepts by icons. However, the use of this language with reference terminologies, such as SNOMED CT, will require the mapping of its icons to the terms of these terminologies. Here, we present and evaluate a semi-automatic semantic method for the mapping of SNOMED CT concepts to VCM icons. Both SNOMED CT and VCM are compositional in nature; SNOMED CT is expressed in description logic and VCM semantics are formalized in an OWL ontology. The proposed method involves the manual mapping of a limited number of underlying concepts from the VCM ontology, followed by automatic generation of the rest of the mapping. We applied this method to the clinical findings of the SNOMED CT CORE subset, and 100 randomly-selected mappings were evaluated by three experts. The results obtained were promising, with 82 of the SNOMED CT concepts correctly linked to VCM icons according to the experts. Most of the errors were easy to fix.

  9. A framework of Chinese semantic text mining based on ontology learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Feng; Hu, Feng

    2011-12-01

    Text mining and ontology learning can be effectively employed to acquire the Chinese semantic information. This paper explores a framework of semantic text mining based on ontology learning to find the potential semantic knowledge from the immensity text information on the Internet. This framework consists of four parts: Data Acquisition, Feature Extraction, Ontology Construction, and Text Knowledge Pattern Discovery. Then the framework is applied into an actual case to try to find out the valuable information, and even to assist the consumers with selecting proper products. The results show that this framework is reasonable and effective.

  10. A framework of Chinese semantic text mining based on ontology learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-feng; Hu, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Text mining and ontology learning can be effectively employed to acquire the Chinese semantic information. This paper explores a framework of semantic text mining based on ontology learning to find the potential semantic knowledge from the immensity text information on the Internet. This framework consists of four parts: Data Acquisition, Feature Extraction, Ontology Construction, and Text Knowledge Pattern Discovery. Then the framework is applied into an actual case to try to find out the valuable information, and even to assist the consumers with selecting proper products. The results show that this framework is reasonable and effective.

  11. Computing semantic similarity between biomedical concepts using new information content approach.

    PubMed

    Ben Aouicha, Mohamed; Hadj Taieb, Mohamed Ali

    2016-02-01

    The exploitation of heterogeneous clinical sources and healthcare records is fundamental in clinical and translational research. The determination of semantic similarity between word pairs is an important component of text understanding that enables the processing and structuring of textual resources. Some of these measures have been adapted to the biomedical field by incorporating domain information extracted from clinical data or from medical ontologies such as MeSH. This study focuses on Information Content (IC) based measures that exploit the topological parameters of the taxonomy to express the semantics of a concept. A new intrinsic IC computing method based on the taxonomical parameters of the ancestors' subgraph is then assigned to a biomedical concept into the "is a" hierarchy. Moreover, we present a study of the topological parameters through the MeSH taxonomy. This study treats the semantic interpretation and the different ways of expressing the parameters of depth and the descendants' subgraph. Using MeSH as an input ontology, the accuracy of our proposal is evaluated and compared against other IC-based measures according to several widely-used benchmarks of biomedical terms. The correlation between the results obtained for the evaluated measure using the proposed approach and those from the ratings of human' experts shows that our proposal outperforms the previous measures. PMID:26707454

  12. Computing semantic similarity between biomedical concepts using new information content approach.

    PubMed

    Ben Aouicha, Mohamed; Hadj Taieb, Mohamed Ali

    2016-02-01

    The exploitation of heterogeneous clinical sources and healthcare records is fundamental in clinical and translational research. The determination of semantic similarity between word pairs is an important component of text understanding that enables the processing and structuring of textual resources. Some of these measures have been adapted to the biomedical field by incorporating domain information extracted from clinical data or from medical ontologies such as MeSH. This study focuses on Information Content (IC) based measures that exploit the topological parameters of the taxonomy to express the semantics of a concept. A new intrinsic IC computing method based on the taxonomical parameters of the ancestors' subgraph is then assigned to a biomedical concept into the "is a" hierarchy. Moreover, we present a study of the topological parameters through the MeSH taxonomy. This study treats the semantic interpretation and the different ways of expressing the parameters of depth and the descendants' subgraph. Using MeSH as an input ontology, the accuracy of our proposal is evaluated and compared against other IC-based measures according to several widely-used benchmarks of biomedical terms. The correlation between the results obtained for the evaluated measure using the proposed approach and those from the ratings of human' experts shows that our proposal outperforms the previous measures.

  13. Student Conceptions of Peer-Assisted Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Yvonne; Benson, Robyn; Brack, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a programme in which peer-assisted learning (PAL) was combined with case-based learning (CBL) in a second-year radiologic biology unit of study. Our aim is to explore evidence of whether PAL supported the development of qualitative conceptions of learning. The programme involved students in small PAL groups preparing and…

  14. Influences of Concept Mapping and Learning Styles on Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taricani, Ellen

    Concept mapping is a technique for visually representing the structure of information, concepts, and the relationships between them. Concept maps are useful tools that help students learn about how they structure knowledge while supporting the process of knowledge construction or metaknowledge. This paper discusses the effect of concept mapping…

  15. Semantic Mistakes and Didactic Difficulties in Teaching the "Amount of Substance" Concept: A Useful Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekdag, Bulent; Azizoglu, Nursen

    2013-01-01

    Textbooks still have the distinction of being the most dominant teaching tool in science teaching. The manner in which a scientific concept is expressed in a textbook is of importance in the in-depth learning process of that concept. With this in mind, problems with expressing the "amount of substance" concept were reviewed in 15 chemistry…

  16. Concept indexing and expansion for social multimedia websites based on semantic processing and graph analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Po-Chuan; Chen, Bo-Wei; Chang, Hangbae

    2016-07-01

    This study presents a human-centric technique for social video expansion based on semantic processing and graph analysis. The objective is to increase metadata of an online video and to explore related information, thereby facilitating user browsing activities. To analyze the semantic meaning of a video, shots and scenes are firstly extracted from the video on the server side. Subsequently, this study uses annotations along with ConceptNet to establish the underlying framework. Detailed metadata, including visual objects and audio events among the predefined categories, are indexed by using the proposed method. Furthermore, relevant online media associated with each category are also analyzed to enrich the existing content. With the above-mentioned information, users can easily browse and search the content according to the link analysis and its complementary knowledge. Experiments on a video dataset are conducted for evaluation. The results show that our system can achieve satisfactory performance, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed idea.

  17. Structure at every scale: A semantic network account of the similarities between unrelated concepts.

    PubMed

    De Deyne, Simon; Navarro, Daniel J; Perfors, Amy; Storms, Gert

    2016-09-01

    Similarity plays an important role in organizing the semantic system. However, given that similarity cannot be defined on purely logical grounds, it is important to understand how people perceive similarities between different entities. Despite this, the vast majority of studies focus on measuring similarity between very closely related items. When considering concepts that are very weakly related, little is known. In this article, we present 4 experiments showing that there are reliable and systematic patterns in how people evaluate the similarities between very dissimilar entities. We present a semantic network account of these similarities showing that a spreading activation mechanism defined over a word association network naturally makes correct predictions about weak similarities, whereas, though simpler, models based on direct neighbors between word pairs derived using the same network cannot. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27560855

  18. Structure at every scale: A semantic network account of the similarities between unrelated concepts.

    PubMed

    De Deyne, Simon; Navarro, Daniel J; Perfors, Amy; Storms, Gert

    2016-09-01

    Similarity plays an important role in organizing the semantic system. However, given that similarity cannot be defined on purely logical grounds, it is important to understand how people perceive similarities between different entities. Despite this, the vast majority of studies focus on measuring similarity between very closely related items. When considering concepts that are very weakly related, little is known. In this article, we present 4 experiments showing that there are reliable and systematic patterns in how people evaluate the similarities between very dissimilar entities. We present a semantic network account of these similarities showing that a spreading activation mechanism defined over a word association network naturally makes correct predictions about weak similarities, whereas, though simpler, models based on direct neighbors between word pairs derived using the same network cannot. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. The influence of consistency, frequency, and semantics on learning to read: an artificial orthography paradigm.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J S H; Plunkett, Kim; Nation, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments explored learning, generalization, and the influence of semantics on orthographic processing in an artificial language. In Experiment 1, 16 adults learned to read 36 novel words written in novel characters. Posttraining, participants discriminated trained from untrained items and generalized to novel items, demonstrating extraction of individual character sounds. Frequency and consistency effects in learning and generalization showed that participants were sensitive to the statistics of their learning environment. In Experiment 2, 32 participants were preexposed to the sounds of all items (lexical phonology) and to novel definitions for half of these items (semantics). Preexposure to either lexical phonology or semantics boosted the early stages of orthographic learning relative to Experiment 1. By the end of training, facilitation was restricted to the semantic condition and to items containing low-frequency inconsistent vowels. Preexposure reduced generalization, suggesting that enhanced item-specific learning was achieved at the expense of character-sound abstraction. The authors' novel paradigm provides a new tool to explore orthographic learning. Although the present findings support the idea that semantic knowledge supports word reading processes, they also suggest that item-specific phonological knowledge is important in the early stages of learning to read.

  20. Extracting semantic lexicons from discharge summaries using machine learning and the C-Value method.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Min; Denny, Josh C; Tang, Buzhou; Cao, Hongxin; Xu, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Semantic lexicons that link words and phrases to specific semantic types such as diseases are valuable assets for clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems. Although terminological terms with predefined semantic types can be generated easily from existing knowledge bases such as the Unified Medical Language Systems (UMLS), they are often limited and do not have good coverage for narrative clinical text. In this study, we developed a method for building semantic lexicons from clinical corpus. It extracts candidate semantic terms using a conditional random field (CRF) classifier and then selects terms using the C-Value algorithm. We applied the method to a corpus containing 10 years of discharge summaries from Vanderbilt University Hospital (VUH) and extracted 44,957 new terms for three semantic groups: Problem, Treatment, and Test. A manual analysis of 200 randomly selected terms not found in the UMLS demonstrated that 59% of them were meaningful new clinical concepts and 25% were lexical variants of exiting concepts in the UMLS. Furthermore, we compared the effectiveness of corpus-derived and UMLS-derived semantic lexicons in the concept extraction task of the 2010 i2b2 clinical NLP challenge. Our results showed that the classifier with corpus-derived semantic lexicons as features achieved a better performance (F-score 82.52%) than that with UMLS-derived semantic lexicons as features (F-score 82.04%). We conclude that such corpus-based methods are effective for generating semantic lexicons, which may improve named entity recognition tasks and may aid in augmenting synonymy within existing terminologies.

  1. Extracting Semantic Lexicons from Discharge Summaries using Machine Learning and the C-Value Method

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Min; Denny, Josh C.; Tang, Buzhou; Cao, Hongxin; Xu, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Semantic lexicons that link words and phrases to specific semantic types such as diseases are valuable assets for clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems. Although terminological terms with predefined semantic types can be generated easily from existing knowledge bases such as the Unified Medical Language Systems (UMLS), they are often limited and do not have good coverage for narrative clinical text. In this study, we developed a method for building semantic lexicons from clinical corpus. It extracts candidate semantic terms using a conditional random field (CRF) classifier and then selects terms using the C-Value algorithm. We applied the method to a corpus containing 10 years of discharge summaries from Vanderbilt University Hospital (VUH) and extracted 44,957 new terms for three semantic groups: Problem, Treatment, and Test. A manual analysis of 200 randomly selected terms not found in the UMLS demonstrated that 59% of them were meaningful new clinical concepts and 25% were lexical variants of exiting concepts in the UMLS. Furthermore, we compared the effectiveness of corpus-derived and UMLS-derived semantic lexicons in the concept extraction task of the 2010 i2b2 clinical NLP challenge. Our results showed that the classifier with corpus-derived semantic lexicons as features achieved a better performance (F-score 82.52%) than that with UMLS-derived semantic lexicons as features (F-score 82.04%). We conclude that such corpus-based methods are effective for generating semantic lexicons, which may improve named entity recognition tasks and may aid in augmenting synonymy within existing terminologies. PMID:23304311

  2. Retrieval speeds context fluctuation: why semantic generation enhances later learning but hinders prior learning.

    PubMed

    Divis, Kristin M; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2014-10-01

    In recent work, retrieval has been shown to enhance memory for events following that retrieval. In this set of experiments, we examined the effects of interleaved semantic retrieval on both previous and future learning within a multilist learning paradigm. Interleaved retrieval led to enhanced memory for lists learned following retrieval. In contrast, memory was impaired for lists learned prior to retrieval (Experiment 1). These results are consistent with recent work in multilist learning, directed forgetting, and list-before-last retrieval, all of which indicate a crucial role for retrieval in enhancing mental list segregation. This pattern of results follows clearly from a theoretical perspective in which retrieval drives internal contextual change and in which contextual overlap between study and test promotes better memory. Consistent with that perspective, a 15-min delay before the final test eliminated both effects (Experiment 2). Experiment 2 replicated the results of Experiment 1 with materials and assessments more appropriate for educational settings: Interleaved semantic retrieval led learners to be more able to answer questions correctly about texts studied after a retrieval event but less able to do so for texts studied earlier. PMID:24917050

  3. A Hybrid Knowledge-Based and Data-Driven Approach to Identifying Semantically Similar Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Pivovarov, Rimma; Elhadad, Noémie

    2012-01-01

    An open research question when leveraging ontological knowledge is when to treat different concepts separately from each other and when to aggregate them. For instance, concepts for the terms "paroxysmal cough" and "nocturnal cough" might be aggregated in a kidney disease study, but should be left separate in a pneumonia study. Determining whether two concepts are similar enough to be aggregated can help build better datasets for data mining purposes and avoid signal dilution. Quantifying the similarity among concepts is a difficult task, however, in part because such similarity is context-dependent. We propose a comprehensive method, which computes a similarity score for a concept pair by combining data-driven and ontology-driven knowledge. We demonstrate our method on concepts from SNOMED-CT and on a corpus of clinical notes of patients with chronic kidney disease. By combining information from usage patterns in clinical notes and from ontological structure, the method can prune out concepts that are simply related from those which are semantically similar. When evaluated against a list of concept pairs annotated for similarity, our method reaches an AUC (area under the curve) of 92%. PMID:22289420

  4. The neural correlates of semantic richness: evidence from an fMRI study of word learning.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Roberto A; Göbel, Silke M; Hymers, Mark; Ellis, Andrew W

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the neural correlates of concrete nouns with either many or few semantic features. A group of 21 participants underwent two days of training and were then asked to categorize 40 newly learned words and a set of matched familiar words as living or nonliving in an MRI scanner. Our results showed that the most reliable effects of semantic richness were located in the left angular gyrus (AG) and middle temporal gyrus (MTG), where activation was higher for semantically rich than poor words. Other areas showing the same pattern included bilateral precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus. Our findings support the view that AG and anterior MTG, as part of the multimodal network, play a significant role in representing and integrating semantic features from different input modalities. We propose that activation in bilateral precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus reflects interplay between AG and episodic memory systems during semantic retrieval. PMID:25797097

  5. Concept Learning in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William

    1965-01-01

    Because disadvantaged children have usually experienced sensory-cognitive deprivation or distortion, it is necessary to discover ways to offset this deficit. A program is being conducted to learn to what degree the introduction of systematic programing, while motivation techniques are retained, can reorient essentially noncognitive learning styles…

  6. [Learning in online education: analysis of concept].

    PubMed

    de Holanda, Viviane Rolim; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag

    2013-01-01

    This work aimed at clarifying the concept learning in online education, expressed by the literature in the area of health. It is a study of analysis of concept, based on the Evolutionary Model, being highlighted attributes, background, consequents and substitute terms. Learning in the context of online education is characterized by a dynamic and continuous process of active construction of knowledge and acquisition of skills, with physical separation between students and teachers. Among the background events discussed stood out: interest and motivation in learning; dedication and time self-management; and interaction and communication tools. The main evident consequents were: student's autonomy; independent and active study; and construction of own knowledge. The prevailing substitute terms were collaborative learning and self-learning. The understanding of the concept can contribute to its implementation in nursing teaching activities in virtual environments. PMID:23887791

  7. [Learning in online education: analysis of concept].

    PubMed

    de Holanda, Viviane Rolim; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag

    2013-01-01

    This work aimed at clarifying the concept learning in online education, expressed by the literature in the area of health. It is a study of analysis of concept, based on the Evolutionary Model, being highlighted attributes, background, consequents and substitute terms. Learning in the context of online education is characterized by a dynamic and continuous process of active construction of knowledge and acquisition of skills, with physical separation between students and teachers. Among the background events discussed stood out: interest and motivation in learning; dedication and time self-management; and interaction and communication tools. The main evident consequents were: student's autonomy; independent and active study; and construction of own knowledge. The prevailing substitute terms were collaborative learning and self-learning. The understanding of the concept can contribute to its implementation in nursing teaching activities in virtual environments.

  8. Integration of nursing assessment concepts into the medical entities dictionary using the LOINC semantic structure as a terminology model.

    PubMed

    Cieslowski, B J; Wajngurt, D; Cimino, J J; Bakken, S

    2001-01-01

    Recent investigations have tested the applicability of various terminology models for the representing nursing concepts including those related to nursing diagnoses, nursing interventions, and standardized nursing assessments as a prerequisite for building a reference terminology that supports the nursing domain. We used the semantic structure of Clinical LOINC (Logical Observations, Identifiers, Names, and Codes) as a reference terminology model to support the integration of standardized assessment terms from two nursing terminologies into the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED), the concept-oriented, metadata dictionary at New York Presbyterian Hospital. Although the LOINC semantic structure was used previously to represent laboratory terms in the MED, selected hierarchies and semantic slots required revisions in order to incorporate the nursing assessment concepts. This project was an initial step in integrating nursing assessment concepts into the MED in a manner consistent with evolving standards for reference terminology models. Moreover, the revisions provide the foundation for adding other types of standardized assessments to the MED.

  9. Recommendation of standardized health learning contents using archetypes and semantic web technologies.

    PubMed

    Legaz-García, María del Carmen; Martínez-Costa, Catalina; Menárguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás

    2012-01-01

    Linking Electronic Healthcare Records (EHR) content to educational materials has been considered a key international recommendation to enable clinical engagement and to promote patient safety. This would suggest citizens to access reliable information available on the web and to guide them properly. In this paper, we describe an approach in that direction, based on the use of dual model EHR standards and standardized educational contents. The recommendation method will be based on the semantic coverage of the learning content repository for a particular archetype, which will be calculated by applying semantic web technologies like ontologies and semantic annotations.

  10. Recommendation of standardized health learning contents using archetypes and semantic web technologies.

    PubMed

    Legaz-García, María del Carmen; Martínez-Costa, Catalina; Menárguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás

    2012-01-01

    Linking Electronic Healthcare Records (EHR) content to educational materials has been considered a key international recommendation to enable clinical engagement and to promote patient safety. This would suggest citizens to access reliable information available on the web and to guide them properly. In this paper, we describe an approach in that direction, based on the use of dual model EHR standards and standardized educational contents. The recommendation method will be based on the semantic coverage of the learning content repository for a particular archetype, which will be calculated by applying semantic web technologies like ontologies and semantic annotations. PMID:22874336

  11. Recalling semantic information about newly learned faces and voices.

    PubMed

    Barsics, Catherine; Brédart, Serge

    2012-07-01

    Several findings showed that semantic information is more likely to be retrieved from recognised faces than from recognised voices. Earlier experiments, which investigated the recall of biographical information following person recognition, used stimuli that were pre-experimentally familiar to the participants, such as famous people's voices and faces. We propose an alternative method to compare the participants' ability to associate semantic information with faces and voices. The present experiments allowed a very strict control of frequency of exposure to pre-experimentally unfamiliar faces and voices and ensured the absence of identity clues in the spoken extracts. In Experiment 1 semantic information was retrieved from the presentation of a name. In Experiment 2 semantic and lexical information was retrieved from faces and/or voices. A memory advantage for faces over voices was again observed.

  12. Picture Chunking Effects in Concept Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furukawa, James M.; Sunshine, Phyllis M.

    Thirty-three second graders participated in a study to discover the value of teaching concepts using picture attribute chunking (PAC). It was hypothesized that PAC would yield superior concept learning performances compared to a picture attribute list (PAL) treatment and a word-alone treatment. The children, selected on the basis of a pretest that…

  13. Mapping Concepts for Learning and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Jenny L.; Custer, Rodney L.; Dixon, Raymond A.

    2012-01-01

    Although it is helpful to identify a list of concepts to categorize and communicate the big ideas of engineering, it is important to determine how best to incorporate them into instruction. Concept mapping is a well-established learning and assessment tool that can be used by technology and engineering teachers. Maps can trace levels of…

  14. Children's Learning of Geometrical Concepts Through Logo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noss, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Exploratory study aimed to investigate elements of geometrical concepts that children learn through Logo programing. A test designed to assess three components of length and angle was administered to 84 children who had learned Logo for one year and 92 who had not. Data indicated a positive effect of Logo work on some items, but not all.…

  15. Context and Concepts in Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaldemark, Jimmy

    2013-01-01

    This reflective paper discusses the contextual and situated character of concepts in mobile learning. It aims at challenging current conceptualizations of mobile learning by utilizing ideas from pragmatist and socio-cultural perspectives. This challenge includes a framework that embraces a distinction between interactional and transactional…

  16. The Influence of Consistency, Frequency, and Semantics on Learning to Read: An Artificial Orthography Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, J. S. H.; Plunkett, Kim; Nation, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments explored learning, generalization, and the influence of semantics on orthographic processing in an artificial language. In Experiment 1, 16 adults learned to read 36 novel words written in novel characters. Posttraining, participants discriminated trained from untrained items and generalized to novel items, demonstrating extraction…

  17. A Semantic-Oriented Approach for Organizing and Developing Annotation for E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brut, Mihaela M.; Sedes, Florence; Dumitrescu, Stefan D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a solution to extend the IEEE LOM standard with ontology-based semantic annotations for efficient use of learning objects outside Learning Management Systems. The data model corresponding to this approach is first presented. The proposed indexing technique for this model development in order to acquire a better annotation of…

  18. A Metadata Model for E-Learning Coordination through Semantic Web Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elci, Atilla

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on a study aiming to develop a metadata model for e-learning coordination based on semantic web languages. A survey of e-learning modes are done initially in order to identify content such as phases, activities, data schema, rules and relations, etc. relevant for a coordination model. In this respect, the study looks into the…

  19. The Role of Children's Phonological and Semantic Knowledge in Learning to Read Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duff, Fiona J.; Hulme, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The effect of phonology and semantics on word learning in 5- and 6-year-old children was explored. In Experiment 1, children learned to read words varying in spelling-sound consistency and imageability. Consistency affected performance on early trials, whereas imageability affected performance on later trials. Individual differences among children…

  20. Perceptual learning of contrast discrimination under roving: the role of semantic sequence in stimulus tagging.

    PubMed

    Cong, Lin-Juan; Zhang, Jun-Yun

    2014-11-03

    Perceptual learning may occur when multiple contrasts are practiced in a fixed, but not in a roving (random), temporal sequence. However, learning may escape roving disruption when each contrast is assigned a letter tag (i.e., A, B, C, D). Because these letter tags carry not only stimulus identity information, but also semantic sequence information, here we investigated whether the semantic sequence information is necessary for learning of tagged contrasts under the roving condition. We found that assigning number tags (i.e., 1, 2, 3, 4), which also contained both identity and semantic sequence information, to four roving contrasts enabled significant learning of discrimination of each contrast, confirming previous data. However, learning became insignificant when the contrast tags were replaced with Greek letters that were familiar to our Chinese observers except their sequence or Chinese characters that carried no sequence information. In addition, assigning orientation tags, which carried no sequence information either, to roving contrasts was ineffective as well because learning occurred only with sequenced but not roving contrasts. These results suggest that semantic sequence information is necessary for stimulus tagging to effectively enable perceptual learning of multiple contrast discrimination under roving.

  1. "Clicking through" or Learning Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stidwell, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The author has developed an innovative science website resource that also shows how engineers use science. As well as addressing scientific facts and concepts, the resource also engages children in the process of scientific enquiry, using graph tools and data interpretation. Part of the resource helps children to understand that much of what they…

  2. Learning multiple distributed prototypes of semantic categories for named entity recognition.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Aron

    2015-01-01

    The scarcity of large labelled datasets comprising clinical text that can be exploited within the paradigm of supervised machine learning creates barriers for the secondary use of data from electronic health records. It is therefore important to develop capabilities to leverage the large amounts of unlabelled data that, indeed, tend to be readily available. One technique utilises distributional semantics to create word representations in a wholly unsupervised manner and uses existing training data to learn prototypical representations of predefined semantic categories. Features describing whether a given word belongs to a certain category are then provided to the learning algorithm. It has been shown that using multiple distributional semantic models, each employing a different word order strategy, can lead to enhanced predictive performance. Here, another hyperparameter is also varied--the size of the context window--and an experimental investigation shows that this leads to further performance gains.

  3. Learning multiple distributed prototypes of semantic categories for named entity recognition.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Aron

    2015-01-01

    The scarcity of large labelled datasets comprising clinical text that can be exploited within the paradigm of supervised machine learning creates barriers for the secondary use of data from electronic health records. It is therefore important to develop capabilities to leverage the large amounts of unlabelled data that, indeed, tend to be readily available. One technique utilises distributional semantics to create word representations in a wholly unsupervised manner and uses existing training data to learn prototypical representations of predefined semantic categories. Features describing whether a given word belongs to a certain category are then provided to the learning algorithm. It has been shown that using multiple distributional semantic models, each employing a different word order strategy, can lead to enhanced predictive performance. Here, another hyperparameter is also varied--the size of the context window--and an experimental investigation shows that this leads to further performance gains. PMID:26547986

  4. Do semantic contextual cues facilitate transfer learning from video in toddlers?

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Laura; Moser, Alecia; Grenell, Amanda; Dickerson, Kelly; Yao, Qianwen; Gerhardstein, Peter; Barr, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Young children typically demonstrate a transfer deficit, learning less from video than live presentations. Semantically meaningful context has been demonstrated to enhance learning in young children. We examined the effect of a semantically meaningful context on toddlers' imitation performance. Two- and 2.5-year-olds participated in a puzzle imitation task to examine learning from either a live or televised model. The model demonstrated how to assemble a three-piece puzzle to make a fish or a boat, with the puzzle demonstration occurring against a semantically meaningful background context (ocean) or a yellow background (no context). Participants in the video condition performed significantly worse than participants in the live condition, demonstrating the typical transfer deficit effect. While the context helped improve overall levels of imitation, especially for the boat puzzle, only individual differences in the ability to self-generate a stimulus label were associated with a reduction in the transfer deficit. PMID:26029131

  5. Apples are not the only fruit: the effects of concept typicality on semantic representation in the anterior temporal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Woollams, Anna M.

    2012-01-01

    Intuitively, an apple seems a fairly good example of a fruit, whereas an avocado seems less so. The extent to which an exemplar is representative of its category, referred to here as concept typicality, has long been thought to be a key dimension determining semantic representation. Concept typicality is, however, correlated with a number of other variables, in particular age of acquisition (AoA) and name frequency. Consideration of picture naming accuracy from a large case-series of semantic dementia (SD) patients demonstrated strong effects of concept typicality that were maximal in the moderately impaired patients, over and above the impact of AoA and name frequency. Induction of a temporary virtual lesion to the left anterior temporal lobe, the region most commonly affected in SD, via repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation produced an enhanced effect of concept typicality in the picture naming of normal participants, but did not affect the magnitude of the AoA or name frequency effects. These results indicate that concept typicality exerts its influence on semantic representations themselves, as opposed to the strength of connections outside the semantic system. To date, there has been little direct exploration of the dimension of concept typicality within connectionist models of intact and impaired conceptual representation, and these findings provide a target for future computational simulation. PMID:22529789

  6. Navigation as a New Form of Search for Agricultural Learning Resources in Semantic Repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cano, Ramiro; Abián, Alberto; Mena, Elena

    Education is essential when it comes to raise public awareness on the environmental and economic benefits of organic agriculture and agroecology (OA & AE). Organic.Edunet, an EU funded project, aims at providing a freely-available portal where learning contents on OA & AE can be published and accessed through specialized technologies. This paper describes a novel mechanism for providing semantic capabilities (such as semantic navigational queries) to an arbitrary set of agricultural learning resources, in the context of the Organic.Edunet initiative.

  7. Learning computer science concepts with Scratch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerbaum-Salant, Orni; Armoni, Michal; (Moti) Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2013-09-01

    Scratch is a visual programming environment that is widely used by young people. We investigated if Scratch can be used to teach concepts of computer science (CS). We developed learning materials for middle-school students that were designed according to the constructionist philosophy of Scratch and evaluated them in a few schools during two years. Tests were constructed based upon a novel combination of the revised Bloom taxonomy and the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome taxonomy. These instruments were augmented with qualitative tools, such as observations and interviews. The results showed that students could successfully learn important concepts of CS, although there were problems with some concepts such as repeated execution, variables, and concurrency. We believe that these problems can be overcome by modifications to the teaching process that we suggest.

  8. A Proof-of-Concept for Semantically Interoperable Federation of IoT Experimentation Facilities.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Jorge; Sanchez, Luis; Gomez, David; Elsaleh, Tarek; Steinke, Ronald; Cirillo, Flavio

    2016-06-29

    The Internet-of-Things (IoT) is unanimously identified as one of the main pillars of future smart scenarios. The potential of IoT technologies and deployments has been already demonstrated in a number of different application areas, including transport, energy, safety and healthcare. However, despite the growing number of IoT deployments, the majority of IoT applications tend to be self-contained, thereby forming application silos. A lightweight data centric integration and combination of these silos presents several challenges that still need to be addressed. Indeed, the ability to combine and synthesize data streams and services from diverse IoT platforms and testbeds, holds the promise to increase the potentiality of smart applications in terms of size, scope and targeted business context. In this article, a proof-of-concept implementation that federates two different IoT experimentation facilities by means of semantic-based technologies will be described. The specification and design of the implemented system and information models will be described together with the practical details of the developments carried out and its integration with the existing IoT platforms supporting the aforementioned testbeds. Overall, the system described in this paper demonstrates that it is possible to open new horizons in the development of IoT applications and experiments at a global scale, that transcend the (silo) boundaries of individual deployments, based on the semantic interconnection and interoperability of diverse IoT platforms and testbeds.

  9. A Proof-of-Concept for Semantically Interoperable Federation of IoT Experimentation Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, Jorge; Sanchez, Luis; Gomez, David; Elsaleh, Tarek; Steinke, Ronald; Cirillo, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    The Internet-of-Things (IoT) is unanimously identified as one of the main pillars of future smart scenarios. The potential of IoT technologies and deployments has been already demonstrated in a number of different application areas, including transport, energy, safety and healthcare. However, despite the growing number of IoT deployments, the majority of IoT applications tend to be self-contained, thereby forming application silos. A lightweight data centric integration and combination of these silos presents several challenges that still need to be addressed. Indeed, the ability to combine and synthesize data streams and services from diverse IoT platforms and testbeds, holds the promise to increase the potentiality of smart applications in terms of size, scope and targeted business context. In this article, a proof-of-concept implementation that federates two different IoT experimentation facilities by means of semantic-based technologies will be described. The specification and design of the implemented system and information models will be described together with the practical details of the developments carried out and its integration with the existing IoT platforms supporting the aforementioned testbeds. Overall, the system described in this paper demonstrates that it is possible to open new horizons in the development of IoT applications and experiments at a global scale, that transcend the (silo) boundaries of individual deployments, based on the semantic interconnection and interoperability of diverse IoT platforms and testbeds. PMID:27367695

  10. A Proof-of-Concept for Semantically Interoperable Federation of IoT Experimentation Facilities.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Jorge; Sanchez, Luis; Gomez, David; Elsaleh, Tarek; Steinke, Ronald; Cirillo, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    The Internet-of-Things (IoT) is unanimously identified as one of the main pillars of future smart scenarios. The potential of IoT technologies and deployments has been already demonstrated in a number of different application areas, including transport, energy, safety and healthcare. However, despite the growing number of IoT deployments, the majority of IoT applications tend to be self-contained, thereby forming application silos. A lightweight data centric integration and combination of these silos presents several challenges that still need to be addressed. Indeed, the ability to combine and synthesize data streams and services from diverse IoT platforms and testbeds, holds the promise to increase the potentiality of smart applications in terms of size, scope and targeted business context. In this article, a proof-of-concept implementation that federates two different IoT experimentation facilities by means of semantic-based technologies will be described. The specification and design of the implemented system and information models will be described together with the practical details of the developments carried out and its integration with the existing IoT platforms supporting the aforementioned testbeds. Overall, the system described in this paper demonstrates that it is possible to open new horizons in the development of IoT applications and experiments at a global scale, that transcend the (silo) boundaries of individual deployments, based on the semantic interconnection and interoperability of diverse IoT platforms and testbeds. PMID:27367695

  11. A Concept Transformation Learning Model for Architectural Design Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yun-Wu; Weng, Kuo-Hua; Young, Li-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Generally, in the foundation course of architectural design, much emphasis is placed on teaching of the basic design skills without focusing on teaching students to apply the basic design concepts in their architectural designs or promoting students' own creativity. Therefore, this study aims to propose a concept transformation learning model to…

  12. Actively learning human gaze shifting paths for semantics-aware photo cropping.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luming; Gao, Yue; Ji, Rongrong; Xia, Yingjie; Dai, Qionghai; Li, Xuelong

    2014-05-01

    Photo cropping is a widely used tool in printing industry, photography, and cinematography. Conventional cropping models suffer from the following three challenges. First, the deemphasized role of semantic contents that are many times more important than low-level features in photo aesthetics. Second, the absence of a sequential ordering in the existing models. In contrast, humans look at semantically important regions sequentially when viewing a photo. Third, the difficulty of leveraging inputs from multiple users. Experience from multiple users is particularly critical in cropping as photo assessment is quite a subjective task. To address these challenges, this paper proposes semantics-aware photo cropping, which crops a photo by simulating the process of humans sequentially perceiving semantically important regions of a photo. We first project the local features (graphlets in this paper) onto the semantic space, which is constructed based on the category information of the training photos. An efficient learning algorithm is then derived to sequentially select semantically representative graphlets of a photo, and the selecting process can be interpreted by a path, which simulates humans actively perceiving semantics in a photo. Furthermore, we learn a prior distribution of such active graphlet paths from training photos that are marked as aesthetically pleasing by multiple users. The learned priors enforce the corresponding active graphlet path of a test photo to be maximally similar to those from the training photos. Experimental results show that: 1) the active graphlet path accurately predicts human gaze shifting, and thus is more indicative for photo aesthetics than conventional saliency maps and 2) the cropped photos produced by our approach outperform its competitors in both qualitative and quantitative comparisons.

  13. Actively learning human gaze shifting paths for semantics-aware photo cropping.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luming; Gao, Yue; Ji, Rongrong; Xia, Yingjie; Dai, Qionghai; Li, Xuelong

    2014-05-01

    Photo cropping is a widely used tool in printing industry, photography, and cinematography. Conventional cropping models suffer from the following three challenges. First, the deemphasized role of semantic contents that are many times more important than low-level features in photo aesthetics. Second, the absence of a sequential ordering in the existing models. In contrast, humans look at semantically important regions sequentially when viewing a photo. Third, the difficulty of leveraging inputs from multiple users. Experience from multiple users is particularly critical in cropping as photo assessment is quite a subjective task. To address these challenges, this paper proposes semantics-aware photo cropping, which crops a photo by simulating the process of humans sequentially perceiving semantically important regions of a photo. We first project the local features (graphlets in this paper) onto the semantic space, which is constructed based on the category information of the training photos. An efficient learning algorithm is then derived to sequentially select semantically representative graphlets of a photo, and the selecting process can be interpreted by a path, which simulates humans actively perceiving semantics in a photo. Furthermore, we learn a prior distribution of such active graphlet paths from training photos that are marked as aesthetically pleasing by multiple users. The learned priors enforce the corresponding active graphlet path of a test photo to be maximally similar to those from the training photos. Experimental results show that: 1) the active graphlet path accurately predicts human gaze shifting, and thus is more indicative for photo aesthetics than conventional saliency maps and 2) the cropped photos produced by our approach outperform its competitors in both qualitative and quantitative comparisons. PMID:24723578

  14. Vocabulary relearning in semantic dementia: Positive and negative consequences of increasing variability in the learning experience.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Paul; Clarke, Natasha; Jones, Roy W; Noonan, Krist A

    2015-09-01

    Anomia therapy typically aims to improve patients' communication ability through targeted practice in naming a set of particular items. For such interventions to be of maximum benefit, the use of trained (or relearned) vocabulary must generalise from the therapy setting into novel situations. We investigated relearning in three patients with semantic dementia, a condition that has been associated with poor generalisation of relearned vocabulary. We tested two manipulations designed to improve generalisation of relearned words by introducing greater variation into the learning experience. In the first study, we found that trained items were retained more successfully when they were presented in a variety of different sequences during learning. In the second study, we found that training items using a range of different pictured exemplars improved the patients' ability to generalise words to novel instances of the same object. However, in one patient this came at the cost of inappropriate over-generalisations, in which trained words were incorrectly used to name semantically or visually similar objects. We propose that more variable learning experiences benefit patients because they shift responsibility for learning away from the inflexible hippocampal learning system and towards the semantic system. The success of this approach therefore depends critically on the integrity of the semantic representations of the items being trained. Patients with naming impairments in the context of relatively mild comprehension deficits are most likely to benefit from this approach, while avoiding the negative consequences of over-generalisation.

  15. Vocabulary relearning in semantic dementia: Positive and negative consequences of increasing variability in the learning experience

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Paul; Clarke, Natasha; Jones, Roy W.; Noonan, Krist A.

    2015-01-01

    Anomia therapy typically aims to improve patients' communication ability through targeted practice in naming a set of particular items. For such interventions to be of maximum benefit, the use of trained (or relearned) vocabulary must generalise from the therapy setting into novel situations. We investigated relearning in three patients with semantic dementia, a condition that has been associated with poor generalisation of relearned vocabulary. We tested two manipulations designed to improve generalisation of relearned words by introducing greater variation into the learning experience. In the first study, we found that trained items were retained more successfully when they were presented in a variety of different sequences during learning. In the second study, we found that training items using a range of different pictured exemplars improved the patients' ability to generalise words to novel instances of the same object. However, in one patient this came at the cost of inappropriate over-generalisations, in which trained words were incorrectly used to name semantically or visually similar objects. We propose that more variable learning experiences benefit patients because they shift responsibility for learning away from the inflexible hippocampal learning system and towards the semantic system. The success of this approach therefore depends critically on the integrity of the semantic representations of the items being trained. Patients with naming impairments in the context of relatively mild comprehension deficits are most likely to benefit from this approach, while avoiding the negative consequences of over-generalisation. PMID:25585251

  16. New Semantic Learning in Patients With Large Medial Temporal Lobe Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bayley, P.J.; O'Reilly, R.C.; Curran, T.; Squire, L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Two patients with large lesions of the medial temporal lobe were given four tests of semantic knowledge that could only have been acquired after the onset of their amnesia. In contrast to previous studies of postmorbid semantic learning, correct answers could be based on a simple, nonspecific sense of familiarity about single words, faces, or objects. According to recent computational models (for example, Norman and O'Reilly (2003) Psychol Rev 110:611–646), this characteristic should be optimal for detecting the kind of semantic learning that might be supported directly by the neocortex. Both patients exhibited some capacity for new learning, albeit at a level substantially below control performances. Notably, the correct answers appeared to reflect declarative memory. It was not the case that the correct answers simply popped out in some automatic way in the absence of any additional knowledge about the items. Rather, the few correct choices made by the patients tended to be accompanied by additional information about the chosen items, and the available knowledge appeared to be similar qualitatively to the kind of factual knowledge that healthy individuals gradually acquire over the years. The results are consistent with the idea that neocortical structures outside the medial temporal lobe are able to support some semantic learning, albeit to a very limited extent. Alternatively, the small amount of learning detected in the present study could depend on tissue within the posterior medial temporal lobe that remains intact in both patients. PMID:18306299

  17. Context-Adaptive Learning Designs by Using Semantic Web Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietze, Stefan; Gugliotta, Alessio; Domingue, John

    2007-01-01

    IMS Learning Design (IMS-LD) is a promising technology aimed at supporting learning processes. IMS-LD packages contain the learning process metadata as well as the learning resources. However, the allocation of resources--whether data or services--within the learning design is done manually at design-time on the basis of the subjective appraisals…

  18. A formal concept analysis and semantic query expansion cooperation to refine health outcomes of interest

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are frequently used by clinicians and researchers to search for, extract, and analyze groups of patients by defining Health Outcome of Interests (HOI). The definition of an HOI is generally considered a complex and time consuming task for health care professionals. Methods In our clinical note-based pharmacovigilance research, we often operate upon potentially hundreds of ontologies at once, expand query inputs, and we also increase the search space over clinical text as well as structured data. Such a method implies to specify an initial set of seed concepts, which are based on concept unique identifiers. This paper presents a novel method based on Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) and Semantic Query Expansion (SQE) to assist the end-user in defining their seed queries and in refining the expanded search space that it encompasses. Results We evaluate our method over a gold-standard corpus from the 2008 i2b2 Obesity Challenge. This experimentation emphasizes positive results for sensitivity and specificity measures. Our new approach provides better recall with high precision of the obtained results. The most promising aspect of this approach consists in the discovery of positive results not present our Obesity NLP reference set. Conclusions Together with a Web graphical user interface, our FCA and SQE cooperation end up being an efficient approach for refining health outcome of interest using plain terms. We consider that this approach can be extended to support other domains such as cohort building tools. PMID:26043839

  19. Animated and Static Concept Maps Enhance Learning from Spoken Narration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adesope, Olusola O.; Nesbit, John C.

    2013-01-01

    An animated concept map represents verbal information in a node-link diagram that changes over time. The goals of the experiment were to evaluate the instructional effects of presenting an animated concept map concurrently with semantically equivalent spoken narration. The study used a 2 x 2 factorial design in which an animation factor (animated…

  20. Learning Computer Science Concepts with Scratch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meerbaum-Salant, Orni; Armoni, Michal; Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2013-01-01

    Scratch is a visual programming environment that is widely used by young people. We investigated if Scratch can be used to teach concepts of computer science (CS). We developed learning materials for middle-school students that were designed according to the constructionist philosophy of Scratch and evaluated them in a few schools during two…

  1. Expert Concept Mapping Study on Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borner, Dirk; Glahn, Christian; Stoyanov, Slavi; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The present paper introduces concept mapping as a structured participative conceptualization approach to identify clusters of ideas and opinions generated by experts within the domain of mobile learning. Utilizing this approach, the paper aims to contribute to a definition of key domain characteristics by identifying the main educational…

  2. Role of Concept Cartoons in Chemistry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Shilna, V.

    2013-01-01

    Cartoons are valuable aids that prompt interest and foster genuine student engagement in the classroom. Cartoons are part of a much larger effort to introduce rare and amusing activities to boost learning and student participation. Concept cartoons are visual tools composed of three or more characters' proposing ideas, discussing or thinking…

  3. Timely Diagnostic Feedback for Database Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng; Chuang, Yuh-Shy

    2013-01-01

    To efficiently learn database concepts, this work adopts association rules to provide diagnostic feedback for drawing an Entity-Relationship Diagram (ERD). Using association rules and Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) techniques, this work implements a novel Web-based Timely Diagnosis System (WTDS), which provides timely diagnostic feedback…

  4. Learning Disabled: Number Concepts, Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.

    Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials--the bibliography covers 62 materials for teaching number concepts to learning disabled students at the primary grades. Entries are presented in order of NIMIS accession number and…

  5. Testing the Statistical Learning of Spelling Patterns by Manipulating Semantic and Orthographic Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, S. Helene; Leung, Dilys

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the diverging predictions of recent theories of children's learning of spelling regularities. We asked younger (Grades 1 and 2) and older (Grades 3 and 4) elementary school-aged children to choose the correct endings for words that varied in their morphological structure. We tested the impacts of semantic frequency by…

  6. Investigating Orthographic and Semantic Aspects of Word Learning in Poor Comprehenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Jessie; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Nation, Kate

    2008-01-01

    This study compared orthographic and semantic aspects of word learning in children who differed in reading comprehension skill. Poor comprehenders and controls matched for age (9-10 years), nonverbal ability and decoding skill were trained to pronounce 20 visually presented nonwords, 10 in a consistent way and 10 in an inconsistent way. They then…

  7. Contribution of Prior Semantic Knowledge to New Episodic Learning in Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Irene P.; Alexander, Michael P.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether prior semantic knowledge would enhance episodic learning in amnesia. Subjects studied prices that are either congruent or incongruent with prior price knowledge for grocery and household items and then performed a forced-choice recognition test for the studied prices. Consistent with a previous report, healthy controls'…

  8. Semantic Search of Tools for Collaborative Learning with the Ontoolsearch System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vega-Gorgojo, Guillermo; Bote-Lorenzo, Miguel L.; Asensio-Perez, Juan I.; Gomez-Sanchez, Eduardo; Dimitriadis, Yannis A.; Jorrin-Abellan, Ivan M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces Ontoolsearch, a new search system that can be employed by educators in order to find suitable tools for supporting collaborative learning settings. Current tool search facilities commonly allow simple keyword searches, limiting the accuracy of obtained results. In contrast, Ontoolsearch supports semantic querying of tool…

  9. Semantic Web-Driven LMS Architecture towards a Holistic Learning Process Model Focused on Personalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerkiri, Tania

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive presentation is here made on the modular architecture of an e-learning platform with a distinctive emphasis on content personalization, combining advantages from semantic web technology, collaborative filtering and recommendation systems. Modules of this architecture handle information about both the domain-specific didactic…

  10. Event-Related EEG Oscillations to Semantically Unrelated Words in Normal and Learning Disabled Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Thalia; Harmony, Thalia; Mendoza, Omar; Lopez-Alanis, Paula; Marroquin, Jose Luis; Otero, Gloria; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

    2012-01-01

    Learning disabilities (LD) are one of the most frequent problems for elementary school-aged children. In this paper, event-related EEG oscillations to semantically related and unrelated pairs of words were studied in a group of 18 children with LD not otherwise specified (LD-NOS) and in 16 children with normal academic achievement. We propose that…

  11. VastMM-Tag: Semantic Indexing and Browsing of Videos for E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Mitchell J.

    2012-01-01

    Quickly accessing the contents of a video is challenging for users, particularly for unstructured video, which contains no intentional shot boundaries, no chapters, and no apparent edited format. We approach this problem in the domain of lecture videos though the use of machine learning, to gather semantic information about the videos; and through…

  12. Contribution of prior semantic knowledge to new episodic learning in amnesia.

    PubMed

    Kan, Irene P; Alexander, Michael P; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2009-05-01

    We evaluated whether prior semantic knowledge would enhance episodic learning in amnesia. Subjects studied prices that are either congruent or incongruent with prior price knowledge for grocery and household items and then performed a forced-choice recognition test for the studied prices. Consistent with a previous report, healthy controls' performance was enhanced by price knowledge congruency; however, only a subset of amnesic patients experienced the same benefit. Whereas patients with relatively intact semantic systems, as measured by an anatomical measure (i.e., lesion involvement of anterior and lateral temporal lobes), experienced a significant congruency benefit, patients with compromised semantic systems did not experience a congruency benefit. Our findings suggest that when prior knowledge structures are intact, they can support acquisition of new episodic information by providing frameworks into which such information can be incorporated.

  13. Problem-Based Learning Supported by Semantic Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Esther; Gracia, Jorge; Corcho, Oscar; Noble, Richard A.; Gómez-Pérez, Asunción

    2015-01-01

    Problem-based learning has been applied over the last three decades to a diverse range of learning environments. In this educational approach, different problems are posed to the learners so that they can develop different solutions while learning about the problem domain. When applied to conceptual modelling, and particularly to Qualitative…

  14. What Is Learned when Concept Learning Fails?--A Theory of Restricted-Domain Relational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Anthony A.; Lickteig, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    Two matching-to-sample (MTS) and four same/different (S/D) experiments employed tests to distinguish between item-specific learning and relational learning. One MTS experiment showed item-specific learning when concept learning failed (i.e., no novel-stimulus transfer). Another MTS experiment showed item-specific learning when pigeons'…

  15. Dual Scaling Analysis of Chinese Students' Conceptions of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, John; Chan, Carol

    2003-01-01

    Using a descriptive quantitative methodology for categorical data analysis, investigates whether Chinese students' conceptions of learning included memorization. Explains that the University of Hong Kong students (n=25) ranked six conceptions of learning. Includes references. (CMK)

  16. Lifelong learning: Established concepts and evolving values

    PubMed Central

    Talati, Jamsheer Jehangir

    2014-01-01

    Objective To summarise the concepts critical for understanding the content and value of lifelong learning (LL). Methods Ideas generated by personal experience were combined with those of philosophers, social scientists, educational institutions, governments and UNESCO, to facilitate an understanding of the importance of the basic concepts of LL. Results Autopoietic, continuous, self-determined, informal, vicarious, biographical, lifelong reflexive learning, from and for society, when supported by self-chosen formal courses, can build capacities and portable skills that allow useful responses to challenges and society’s new structures of governance. The need for LL is driven by challenges. LL flows continuously in pursuit of one agenda, which could either be citizenship, as is conventional, or as this article proposes, health. LL cannot be wholly centred on vocation. Continuous medical education and continuous professional development, important in their own right, cannot supply all that is needed. LL aids society with its learning, and it requires an awareness of the environment and structures of society. It is heavily vicarious, draws on formal learning and relies for effectiveness on reflection, self-assessment and personal shaping of views of the world from different perspectives. Conclusion Health is critical to rational thought and peace, and determines society’s capacity to govern itself, and improve its health. LL should be reshaped to focus on health not citizenship. Therefore, embedding learning in society and environment is critical. Each urologist must develop an understanding of the numerous concepts in LL, of which ‘biographicisation’ is the seed that will promote innovative strategies. PMID:26019932

  17. Relearning in Semantic Dementia Reflects Contributions from Both Medial Temporal Lobe Episodic and Degraded Neocortical Semantic Systems: Evidence in Support of the Complementary Learning Systems Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayberry, Emily J.; Sage, Karen; Ehsan, Sheeba; Ralph, Matthew A. Lambon

    2011-01-01

    When relearning words, patients with semantic dementia (SD) exhibit a characteristic rigidity, including a failure to generalise names to untrained exemplars of trained concepts. This has been attributed to an over-reliance on the medial temporal region which captures information in sparse, non-overlapping and therefore rigid representations. The…

  18. An Enhanced Personal Learning Environment Using Social Semantic Web Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halimi, Khaled; Seridi-Bouchelaghem, Hassina; Faron-Zucker, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Compared with learning in classrooms, classical e-learning systems are less adaptive and once a system that supports a particular strategy has been designed and implemented, it is less likely to change according to student's interactions and preferences. Remote educational systems should be developed to ensure as much as necessary the…

  19. Evaluating Learning Objects across Boundaries: The Semantics of Localization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jerry Z.; Nesbit, John C.; Richards, Griff

    2006-01-01

    Learning object repositories and evaluation tools have the potential to serve as sites for interaction among different cultures and communities of practice. This article outlines Web-based learning object evaluation tools that we have developed, describes our current efforts to extend those tools to a wider range of user communities, and considers…

  20. Improving EFL Writing through Study of Semantic Concepts in Formulaic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenck, Andrew D.; Choi, Wonkyung

    2015-01-01

    Within Asian EFL contexts such as South Korea, large class sizes, poor sources of input and an overreliance on the Grammar-Translation Method may negatively impact semantic and pragmatic development of writing content. Since formulaic language is imbued with syntactic, semantic and pragmatic linguistic features, it represents an ideal means to…

  1. Concept Maps for Evaluating Learning of Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shallcross, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Concept maps are used to assess student and cohort learning of sustainable development. The concept maps of 732 first-year engineering students were individually analyzed to detect patterns of learning and areas that were not well understood. Students were given 20 minutes each to prepare a concept map of at least 20 concepts using paper and pen.…

  2. The New Challenges for E-learning: The Educational Semantic Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aroyo, Lora; Dicheva, Darina

    2004-01-01

    The big question for many researchers in the area of educational systems now is what is the next step in the evolution of e-learning? Are we finally moving from a scattered intelligence to a coherent space of collaborative intelligence? How close we are to the vision of the Educational Semantic Web and what do we need to do in order to realize it?…

  3. The construction of semantic memory: grammar-based representations learned from relational episodic information.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Francesco P; Pennartz, Cyriel M A

    2011-01-01

    After acquisition, memories underlie a process of consolidation, making them more resistant to interference and brain injury. Memory consolidation involves systems-level interactions, most importantly between the hippocampus and associated structures, which takes part in the initial encoding of memory, and the neocortex, which supports long-term storage. This dichotomy parallels the contrast between episodic memory (tied to the hippocampal formation), collecting an autobiographical stream of experiences, and semantic memory, a repertoire of facts and statistical regularities about the world, involving the neocortex at large. Experimental evidence points to a gradual transformation of memories, following encoding, from an episodic to a semantic character. This may require an exchange of information between different memory modules during inactive periods. We propose a theory for such interactions and for the formation of semantic memory, in which episodic memory is encoded as relational data. Semantic memory is modeled as a modified stochastic grammar, which learns to parse episodic configurations expressed as an association matrix. The grammar produces tree-like representations of episodes, describing the relationships between its main constituents at multiple levels of categorization, based on its current knowledge of world regularities. These regularities are learned by the grammar from episodic memory information, through an expectation-maximization procedure, analogous to the inside-outside algorithm for stochastic context-free grammars. We propose that a Monte-Carlo sampling version of this algorithm can be mapped on the dynamics of "sleep replay" of previously acquired information in the hippocampus and neocortex. We propose that the model can reproduce several properties of semantic memory such as decontextualization, top-down processing, and creation of schemata.

  4. The Construction of Semantic Memory: Grammar-Based Representations Learned from Relational Episodic Information

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Francesco P.; Pennartz, Cyriel M. A.

    2011-01-01

    After acquisition, memories underlie a process of consolidation, making them more resistant to interference and brain injury. Memory consolidation involves systems-level interactions, most importantly between the hippocampus and associated structures, which takes part in the initial encoding of memory, and the neocortex, which supports long-term storage. This dichotomy parallels the contrast between episodic memory (tied to the hippocampal formation), collecting an autobiographical stream of experiences, and semantic memory, a repertoire of facts and statistical regularities about the world, involving the neocortex at large. Experimental evidence points to a gradual transformation of memories, following encoding, from an episodic to a semantic character. This may require an exchange of information between different memory modules during inactive periods. We propose a theory for such interactions and for the formation of semantic memory, in which episodic memory is encoded as relational data. Semantic memory is modeled as a modified stochastic grammar, which learns to parse episodic configurations expressed as an association matrix. The grammar produces tree-like representations of episodes, describing the relationships between its main constituents at multiple levels of categorization, based on its current knowledge of world regularities. These regularities are learned by the grammar from episodic memory information, through an expectation-maximization procedure, analogous to the inside–outside algorithm for stochastic context-free grammars. We propose that a Monte-Carlo sampling version of this algorithm can be mapped on the dynamics of “sleep replay” of previously acquired information in the hippocampus and neocortex. We propose that the model can reproduce several properties of semantic memory such as decontextualization, top-down processing, and creation of schemata. PMID:21887143

  5. Strengthening concept learning by repeated testing

    PubMed Central

    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola; Jonsson, Bert; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology key-concepts in an educational context. The testing effect was examined immediately after practice, after 18 days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 83). The results revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, demonstrating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and the long-term. In addition, the effect of repeated testing was beneficial for students irrespectively of working memory capacity. It is argued that teaching methods involving repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system. PMID:24313425

  6. Strengthening concept learning by repeated testing.

    PubMed

    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola; Jonsson, Bert; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology key-concepts in an educational context. The testing effect was examined immediately after practice, after 18 days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 83). The results revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, demonstrating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and the long-term. In addition, the effect of repeated testing was beneficial for students irrespectively of working memory capacity. It is argued that teaching methods involving repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system.

  7. Toward a Semantic Forum for Active Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yanyan; Dong, Mingkai; Huang, Ronghuai

    2009-01-01

    Online discussion forums provide open workspace allowing learners to share information, exchange ideas, address problems and discuss on specific themes. But the substantial impediment to its promotion as effective e-learning facility lies in the continuously increasing messages but with discrete and incoherent structure as well as the loosely-tied…

  8. Semantic Linking of Learning Object Repositories to DBpedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lama, Manuel; Vidal, Juan C.; Otero-Garcia, Estefania; Bugarin, Alberto; Barro, Senen

    2012-01-01

    Large-sized repositories of learning objects (LOs) are difficult to create and also to maintain. In this paper we propose a way to reduce this drawback by improving the classification mechanisms of the LO repositories. Specifically, we present a solution to automate the LO classification of the Universia repository, a collection of more than 15…

  9. Data mining learning bootstrap through semantic thumbnail analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiato, Sebastiano; Farinella, Giovanni Maria; Giuffrida, Giovanni; Tribulato, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    The rapid increase of technological innovations in the mobile phone industry induces the research community to develop new and advanced systems to optimize services offered by mobile phones operators (telcos) to maximize their effectiveness and improve their business. Data mining algorithms can run over data produced by mobile phones usage (e.g. image, video, text and logs files) to discover user's preferences and predict the most likely (to be purchased) offer for each individual customer. One of the main challenges is the reduction of the learning time and cost of these automatic tasks. In this paper we discuss an experiment where a commercial offer is composed by a small picture augmented with a short text describing the offer itself. Each customer's purchase is properly logged with all relevant information. Upon arrival of new items we need to learn who the best customers (prospects) for each item are, that is, the ones most likely to be interested in purchasing that specific item. Such learning activity is time consuming and, in our specific case, is not applicable given the large number of new items arriving every day. Basically, given the current customer base we are not able to learn on all new items. Thus, we need somehow to select among those new items to identify the best candidates. We do so by using a joint analysis between visual features and text to estimate how good each new item could be, that is, whether or not is worth to learn on it. Preliminary results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach to improve classical data mining techniques.

  10. Learning style preference and student aptitude for concept maps.

    PubMed

    Kostovich, Carol T; Poradzisz, Michele; Wood, Karen; O'Brien, Karen L

    2007-05-01

    Acknowledging that individuals' preferences for learning vary, faculty in an undergraduate nursing program questioned whether a student's learning style is an indicator of aptitude in developing concept maps. The purpose of this research was to describe the relationship between nursing students' learning style preference and aptitude for concept maps. The sample included 120 undergraduate students enrolled in the adult health nursing course. Students created one concept map and completed two instruments: the Learning Style Survey and the Concept Map Survey. Data included Learning Style Survey scores, grade for the concept map, and grade for the adult health course. No significant difference was found between learning style preference and concept map grades. Thematic analysis of the qualitative survey data yielded further insight into students' preferences for creating concept maps.

  11. A Programme for Semantics; Semantics and Its Critics; Semantics Shamantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Laurence; Harris, Roy

    1990-01-01

    In a statement-response-reply format, a proposition concerning the study of semantics is made and debated in three papers by two authors. In the first paper, it is proposed that semantics is not the study of the concept of meaning, but rather a neurolinguistic issue, despite the fact that semantics is linked to context. It is argued that semantic…

  12. Mining e-Learning Domain Concept Map from Academic Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Nian-Shing; Kinshuk; Wei, Chun-Wang; Chen, Hong-Jhe

    2008-01-01

    Recent researches have demonstrated the importance of concept map and its versatile applications especially in e-Learning. For example, while designing adaptive learning materials, designers need to refer to the concept map of a subject domain. Moreover, concept maps can show the whole picture and core knowledge about a subject domain. Research…

  13. How Effective Is Example Generation for Learning Declarative Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Katherine A.; Dunlosky, John

    2016-01-01

    Declarative concepts (i.e., key terms and corresponding definitions for abstract concepts) represent foundational knowledge that students learn in many content domains. Thus, investigating techniques to enhance concept learning is of critical importance. Various theoretical accounts support the expectation that example generation will serve this…

  14. Learning from Concept Mapping and Hypertext: An Eye Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amadieu, Franck; Salmerón, Ladislao; Cegarra, Julien; Paubel, Pierre-Vincent; Lemarié, Julie; Chevalier, Aline

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prior domain knowledge and learning sequences on learning with concept mapping and hypertext. Participants either made a concept map in a first step and then read the hypertext's contents combined with concept mapping (high activating condition), or they read the hypertext's contents first and then made a concept…

  15. Concept-based learning of personalized prescribing

    PubMed Central

    Rissmann, Robert; Dubois, Eline A; Franson, Kari L; Cohen, Adam F

    2012-01-01

    The variability of drug response in different patients can be caused by various factors including age, change in renal function, co-medication and genotype. Traditionally, these personal variables are considered by clinicians prior to issuing a prescription. This paper provides an overview of a process to individualize prescribing for a patient with an emphasis on how to train (learning) clinicians in skillful rational prescribing. For this purpose the 6STEP methodology, a concept-based learning strategy to achieve a structured therapeutic plan, has been introduced. In contrast to older educational approaches which focused primarily on the drugs or the process of prescribing, the 6STEP is a patient-centred method resulting in individualized therapy. The six interlinked steps provide the (training) prescriber with a structured framework that facilitates a rationalized therapeutic decision by focusing on the individual patient parameters that influence drug response. Educational tools for rational prescribing involve understanding of basic and clinical pharmacological principles, practicing to write 6STEP therapeutic plans, learning from feedback sessions on these plans and actively obtaining up to date information on drugs and therapeutic standards from online resources. PMID:22420749

  16. Conception of Learning Outcomes in the Bloom's Taxonomy Affective Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickiene, Izabela

    2010-01-01

    The article raises a problematic issue regarding an insufficient base of the conception of learning outcomes in the Bloom's taxonomy affective domain. The search for solutions introduces the conception of teaching and learning in the affective domain as well as presents validity criteria of learning outcomes in the affective domain. The…

  17. Effects of Variation and Prior Knowledge on Abstract Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braithwaite, David W.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Learning abstract concepts through concrete examples may promote learning at the cost of inhibiting transfer. The present study investigated one approach to solving this problem: systematically varying superficial features of the examples. Participants learned to solve problems involving a mathematical concept by studying either superficially…

  18. Linking descriptive geology and quantitative machine learning through an ontology of lithological concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J. F.; Huber, R.; Robertson, J.; Cox, S. J. D.; Woodcock, R.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the recent explosion of quantitative geological data, geology remains a fundamentally qualitative science. Numerical data only constitute a certain part of data collection in the geosciences. In many cases, geological observations are compiled as text into reports and annotations on drill cores, thin sections or drawings of outcrops. The observations are classified into concepts such as lithology, stratigraphy, geological structure, etc. These descriptions are semantically rich and are generally supported by more quantitative observations using geochemical analyses, XRD, hyperspectral scanning, etc, but the goal is geological semantics. In practice it has been difficult to bring the different observations together due to differing perception or granularity of classification in human observation, or the partial observation of only some characteristics using quantitative sensors. In the past years many geological classification schemas have been transferred into ontologies and vocabularies, formalized using RDF and OWL, and published through SPARQL endpoints. Several lithological ontologies were compiled by stratigraphy.net and published through a SPARQL endpoint. This work is complemented by the development of a Python API to integrate this vocabulary into Python-based text mining applications. The applications for the lithological vocabulary and Python API are automated semantic tagging of geochemical data and descriptions of drill cores, machine learning of geochemical compositions that are diagnostic for lithological classifications, and text mining for lithological concepts in reports and geological literature. This combination of applications can be used to identify anomalies in databases, where composition and lithological classification do not match. It can also be used to identify lithological concepts in the literature and infer quantitative values. The resulting semantic tagging opens new possibilities for linking these diverse sources of data.

  19. Using Online Concept Mapping with Peer Learning to Enhance Concept Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Shujen L.; Chang, Yegmin

    2008-01-01

    This study used an online concept mapping activity (CMA) featuring peer learning to enhance learning achievement in concept application. Ninety-seven graduate students participated in this study. The students who participated in the online CMA could later apply the concepts with significantly higher performance and greater fidelity than those who…

  20. Concept learning set-size functions for Clark's nutcrackers.

    PubMed

    Wright, Anthony A; Magnotti, John F; Katz, Jeffrey S; Leonard, Kevin; Kelly, Debbie M

    2016-01-01

    Same/Different abstract-concept learning by Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) was tested with novel stimuli following learning of training set expansion (8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, and 1024 picture items). The resulting set-size function was compared to those from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and pigeons (Columba livia). Nutcrackers showed partial concept learning following initial eight-item set learning, unlike the other species (Magnotti, Katz, Wright, & Kelly, 2015). The mean function for the nutcrackers' novel-stimulus transfer increased linearly as a function of the logarithm of training set size, which intersected its baseline function at the 128-item set size. Thus, nutcrackers on average achieved full concept learning (i.e., transfer statistically equivalent to baseline performance) somewhere between set sizes of 64 to 128 items, similar to full concept learning by monkeys. Pigeons required a somewhat larger training set (256 items) for full concept learning, but results from other experiments (initial training and transfer with 32- and 64-item set sizes) suggested carryover effects with smaller set sizes may have artificially prolonged the pigeon's full concept learning. We find it remarkable that these diverse species with very different neural architectures can fully learn this same/different abstract concept, and (at least under some conditions) do so with roughly similar sets sizes (64-128 items) and numbers of training exemplars, despite initial concept learning advantages (nutcrackers), learning disadvantages (pigeons), or increasing baselines (monkeys).

  1. Threshold Concepts and Conceptions: Student Learning in Introductory Management Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, April L.; Gilmore, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how insights from the broader education literature on threshold concepts and conceptions can be applied to improve the teaching of undergraduate introductory management courses. The authors propose that these courses are underpinned by the threshold conception, or "underlying game," that management is a practice informed by…

  2. Design of Learning Objects for Concept Learning: Effects of Multimedia Learning Principles and an Instructional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Thomas K. F.; Churchill, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Literature suggests using multimedia learning principles in the design of instructional material. However, these principles may not be sufficient for the design of learning objects for concept learning in mathematics. This paper reports on an experimental study that investigated the effects of an instructional approach, which includes two teaching…

  3. How semantic biases in simple adjacencies affect learning a complex structure with non-adjacencies in AGL: a statistical account

    PubMed Central

    Poletiek, Fenna H.; Lai, Jun

    2012-01-01

    A major theoretical debate in language acquisition research regards the learnability of hierarchical structures. The artificial grammar learning methodology is increasingly influential in approaching this question. Studies using an artificial centre-embedded AnBn grammar without semantics draw conflicting conclusions. This study investigates the facilitating effect of distributional biases in simple AB adjacencies in the input sample—caused in natural languages, among others, by semantic biases—on learning a centre-embedded structure. A mathematical simulation of the linguistic input and the learning, comparing various distributional biases in AB pairs, suggests that strong distributional biases might help us to grasp the complex AnBn hierarchical structure in a later stage. This theoretical investigation might contribute to our understanding of how distributional features of the input—including those caused by semantic variation—help learning complex structures in natural languages. PMID:22688639

  4. Learning from others: children's construction of concepts.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Susan A

    2009-01-01

    Much of children's knowledge is derived not from their direct experiences with the environment but rather from the input of others. However, until recently, the focus in studies of concept development was primarily on children's knowledge, with relatively little attention paid to the nature of the input. The past 10 years have seen an important shift in focus. This article reviews this approach, by examining the nature of the input and the nature of the learner, to shed light on early conceptual learning. These findings argue against the simple notion that conceptual development is either supplied by the environment or innately specified, and instead demonstrate how the two work together. The implications for how children reconcile competing belief systems are also discussed.

  5. The Influence of Prosodic Stress Patterns and Semantic Depth on Novel Word Learning in Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladfelter, Allison; Goffman, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of prosodic stress patterns and semantic depth on word learning. Twelve preschool-aged children with typically developing speech and language skills participated in a word learning task. Novel words with either a trochaic or iambic prosodic pattern were embedded in one of two learning…

  6. Microeconomic Concepts Students Should Learn before Intermediate Macroeconomics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salemi, Michael K.

    1996-01-01

    Identifies four microeconomic concepts students should learn before entering the study of intermediate macroeconomics. Included are relative prices, general versus partial equilibrium, constrained optimization, and the nature of production concepts. Recommends making intermediate microeconomics a prerequisite for intermediate macroeconomics. (MJP)

  7. Concept of coherence of learning physical optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Elisa M.; Jaen, Mirta; de Cudmani, Leonor C.

    1995-10-01

    The aim of the actual paper is to enhance achievements of the text 'Optica Fisica Basica: estructurada alrededor del concepto de coherencia luminosa' (in English 'Basic Physical Optics centered in the concept of coherence'). We consider that this book is a very worth tool when one has to learn or to teach some fundamental concepts of physical optics. It is well known that the topics of physical optics present not easy understanding for students. Even more they also present some difficulties for the teachers when they have to introduce them to the class. First, we think that different phenomena like diffraction and polarization could be well understood if the starting point is a deep comprehension of the concept of interference of light and, associated with this, the fundamental and nothing intuitive concept of coherence of the light. In the reference text the authors propose the use of expression 'stable interference pattern of no uniform intensity' instead of 'pattern of interference' and 'average pattern of uniform untested' instead of 'lack of interference' to make reference that light always interfere but just under restrictive conditions it can be got temporal and spatial stability of the pattern. Another idea we want to stand out is that the ability to observe a 'stable interference pattern of no uniform intensity' is associated not only with the coherence of the source but also with the dimensions of the experimental system and with the temporal and spatial characteristics of the detector used - human eye, photographic film, etc. The proposal is well support by quantitative relations. With an alternate model: a train of waves with a finite length of coherence, it is possible to get range of validity of models, to decide when a source could be considered a 'point' or 'monochromatic' or 'remote', an 'infinite' wave or a train of waves, etc. Using this concept it is possible to achieve a better understanding of phenomena like the polarization of light. Here, it

  8. The Knowledge Arena: A Learning Environment That Underpins Concept Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAleese, Ray; Grabinger, Scott; Fisher, Kathleen

    This paper uses a theoretical framework for concept mapping as an instance of a learning environment - the knowledge arena - and examines it against an existing framework for active learning called REAL (Rich Environment for Active Learning). The paper is intended to help in the understanding of environments for learning. Section 1 defines a…

  9. The Development of the Conceptions of Learning Management Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Hung-Ming; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire (called the Conceptions of Learning Management [COLM] inventory) to assess students' six categories of learning management (i.e. the learning of management), including learning management as "memorizing," "testing,'" "applying," "gaining higher…

  10. A Critique of the Learning Concept in Political Socialization Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas J.; Scioli, Frank P., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The omission of the learning concept has resulted from a methodological approach which emphasizes what people have learned and not how they learned. A specific research strategy based upon operant learning theory principles as applied to the acquisition of verbal behavior is suggested. (Author)

  11. Learning new vocabulary during childhood: effects of semantic training on lexical consolidation and integration.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Lisa; Weighall, Anna; Gaskell, Gareth

    2013-11-01

    Research suggests that word learning is an extended process, with offline consolidation crucial for the strengthening of new lexical representations and their integration with existing lexical knowledge (as measured by engagement in lexical competition). This supports a dual memory systems account, in which new information is initially sparsely encoded separately from existing knowledge and integrated with long-term memory over time. However, previous studies of this type exploited unnatural learning contexts, involving fictitious words in the absence of word meaning. In this study, 5- to 9-year-old children learned real science words (e.g., hippocampus) with or without semantic information. Children in both groups were slower to detect pauses in familiar competitor words (e.g., hippopotamus) relative to control words 24h after training but not immediately, confirming that offline consolidation is required before new words are integrated with the lexicon and engage in lexical competition. Children recalled more new words 24h after training than immediately (with similar improvements shown for the recall and recognition of new word meanings); however, children who were exposed to the meanings during training showed further improvements in recall after 1 week and outperformed children who were not exposed to meanings. These findings support the dual memory systems account of vocabulary acquisition and suggest that the association of a new phonological form with semantic information is critical for the development of stable lexical representations. PMID:23981272

  12. Concept Mapping Using Cmap Tools to Enhance Meaningful Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañas, Alberto J.; Novak, Joseph D.

    Concept maps are graphical tools that have been used in all facets of education and training for organizing and representing knowledge. When learners build concept maps, meaningful learning is facilitated. Computer-based concept mapping software such as CmapTools have further extended the use of concept mapping and greatly enhanced the potential of the tool, facilitating the implementation of a concept map-centered learning environment. In this chapter, we briefly present concept mapping and its theoretical foundation, and illustrate how it can lead to an improved learning environment when it is combined with CmapTools and the Internet. We present the nationwide “Proyecto Conéctate al Conocimiento” in Panama as an example of how concept mapping, together with technology, can be adopted by hundreds of schools as a means to enhance meaningful learning.

  13. The dark side of incremental learning: A model of cumulative semantic interference during lexical access in speech production

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheim, Gary M.; Dell, Gary S.; Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2010-01-01

    Naming a picture of a dog primes the subsequent naming of a picture of a dog (repetition priming) and interferes with the subsequent naming of a picture of a cat (semantic interference). Behavioral studies suggest that these effects derive from persistent changes in the way that words are activated and selected for production, and some have claimed that the findings are only understandable by positing a competitive mechanism for lexical selection. We present a simple model of lexical retrieval in speech production that applies error-driven learning to its lexical activation network. This model naturally produces repetition priming and semantic interference effects. It predicts the major findings from several published experiments, demonstrating that these effects may arise from incremental learning. Furthermore, analysis of the model suggests that competition during lexical selection is not necessary for semantic interference if the learning process is itself competitive. PMID:19854436

  14. A New Semantic List Learning Task to Probe Functioning of the Papez Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Schallmo, Michael-Paul; Kassel, Michelle T.; Weisenbach, Sara L.; Walker, Sara J.; Guidotti-Breting, Leslie M.; Rao, Julia A.; Hazlett, Kathleen E.; Considine, Ciaran M.; Sethi, Gurpriya; Vats, Naalti; Pecina, Marta; Welsh, Robert C.; Starkman, Monica N.; Giordani, Bruno; Langenecker, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction List learning tasks are powerful clinical tools for studying memory, yet have been relatively underutilized within the functional imaging literature. This limits understanding of regions such as the Papez circuit which support memory performance in healthy, non-demented adults. Method The current study characterized list learning performance in 40 adults who completed a Semantic List Learning Task (SLLT) with a Brown-Peterson manipulation during functional MRI (fMRI). Cued recall with semantic cues, and recognition memory were assessed after imaging. Internal reliability and convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated. Results Subjects averaged 38% accuracy in recall (62% for recognition), with primacy but no recency effects observed. Validity and reliability were demonstrated by showing that the SLLT was correlated with the California Verbal Learning test (CVLT), but not with executive functioning tests, and high intraclass correlation coefficient across lists for recall (.91). fMRI measurements during Encoding (vs. Silent Rehearsal) revealed significant activation in bilateral hippocampus, parahippocampus, and bilateral anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Post-hoc analyses showed increased activation in anterior and middle hippocampus, subgenual cingulate, and mammillary bodies specific to Encoding. In addition, increasing age was positively associated with increased activation in a diffuse network, particularly frontal cortex and specific Papez regions for correctly recalled words. Gender differences were specific to left inferior and superior frontal cortex. Conclusions This is a clinically relevant list learning task that can be used in studies of groups for which the Papez circuit is damaged or disrupted, in mixed or crossover studies at imaging and clinical sites. PMID:26313512

  15. Curriculum Conceptions of Open Learning: Theory, Intention and Student Experience in the Australian Open Learning Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Helen Margaret

    This thesis seeks to clarify the meaning of the open learning concept by examining it in alternative ways--as an element of social theory, as an intended curriculum, and as a perceived student learning experience. The three curriculum conceptions of open learning are applied to the Australian Open Learning Iniative. Students' curriculum…

  16. Semantic characteristics of NLP-extracted concepts in clinical notes vs. biomedical literature.

    PubMed

    Wu, Stephen; Liu, Hongfang

    2011-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) has become crucial in unlocking information stored in free text, from both clinical notes and biomedical literature. Clinical notes convey clinical information related to individual patient health care, while biomedical literature communicates scientific findings. This work focuses on semantic characterization of texts at an enterprise scale, comparing and contrasting the two domains and their NLP approaches. We analyzed the empirical distributional characteristics of NLP-discovered named entities in Mayo Clinic clinical notes from 2001-2010, and in the 2011 MetaMapped Medline Baseline. We give qualitative and quantitative measures of domain similarity and point to the feasibility of transferring resources and techniques. An important by-product for this study is the development of a weighted ontology for each domain, which gives distributional semantic information that may be used to improve NLP applications.

  17. The advantage of errorless learning for the acquisition of new concepts' labels in alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Pitel, Anne-Lise; Perruchet, Pierre; Vabret, François; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis; Beaunieux, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous findings revealed that the acquisition of new semantic concepts’ labels was impaired in uncomplicated alcoholic patients. The use of errorless learning may therefore allow them to improve learning performance. However, the flexibility of the new knowledge and the memory processes involved in errorless learning remain unclear. Methods New concepts’ labels acquisition was examined in 15 alcoholic patients and 15 control participants in an errorless learning condition compared with 19 alcoholic patients and 19 control subjects in a trial-and-error learning condition. The flexibility of the new information was evaluated using different photos from those used in the learning sessions but representing the same concepts. All the participants carried out an additional explicit memory task and an implicit memory task was also performed by subjects in the errorless learning condition. Results The alcoholic group in the errorless condition differed significantly from the alcoholic group in the trial-and-error one but did not differ from the two control groups. There was no significant difference between results in the learning test and the flexibility task. Finally, in the alcoholic group, naming score in the learning test was correlated with the explicit memory score but not with the implicit memory one. Conclusions Thanks to errorless learning, alcoholics improved their abilities to learn new concepts’ labels. Moreover, new knowledge acquired with errorless learning was flexible. The errorless learning advantage may rely on explicit memory processes rather than on implicit ones in these alcohol-dependent patients presenting only mild-to-moderate deficits of explicit memory capacities. PMID:19627642

  18. From bird to sparrow: Learning-induced modulations in fine-grained semantic discrimination.

    PubMed

    De Meo, Rosanna; Bourquin, Nathalie M-P; Knebel, Jean-François; Murray, Micah M; Clarke, Stephanie

    2015-09-01

    Recognition of environmental sounds is believed to proceed through discrimination steps from broad to more narrow categories. Very little is known about the neural processes that underlie fine-grained discrimination within narrow categories or about their plasticity in relation to newly acquired expertise. We investigated how the cortical representation of birdsongs is modulated by brief training to recognize individual species. During a 60-minute session, participants learned to recognize a set of birdsongs; they improved significantly their performance for trained (T) but not control species (C), which were counterbalanced across participants. Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) were recorded during pre- and post-training sessions. Pre vs. post changes in AEPs were significantly different between T and C i) at 206-232ms post stimulus onset within a cluster on the anterior part of the left superior temporal gyrus; ii) at 246-291ms in the left middle frontal gyrus; and iii) 512-545ms in the left middle temporal gyrus as well as bilaterally in the cingulate cortex. All effects were driven by weaker activity for T than C species. Thus, expertise in discriminating T species modulated early stages of semantic processing, during and immediately after the time window that sustains the discrimination between human vs. animal vocalizations. Moreover, the training-induced plasticity is reflected by the sharpening of a left lateralized semantic network, including the anterior part of the temporal convexity and the frontal cortex. Training to identify birdsongs influenced, however, also the processing of C species, but at a much later stage. Correct discrimination of untrained sounds seems to require an additional step which results from lower-level features analysis such as apperception. We therefore suggest that the access to objects within an auditory semantic category is different and depends on subject's level of expertise. More specifically, correct intra

  19. From bird to sparrow: Learning-induced modulations in fine-grained semantic discrimination.

    PubMed

    De Meo, Rosanna; Bourquin, Nathalie M-P; Knebel, Jean-François; Murray, Micah M; Clarke, Stephanie

    2015-09-01

    Recognition of environmental sounds is believed to proceed through discrimination steps from broad to more narrow categories. Very little is known about the neural processes that underlie fine-grained discrimination within narrow categories or about their plasticity in relation to newly acquired expertise. We investigated how the cortical representation of birdsongs is modulated by brief training to recognize individual species. During a 60-minute session, participants learned to recognize a set of birdsongs; they improved significantly their performance for trained (T) but not control species (C), which were counterbalanced across participants. Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) were recorded during pre- and post-training sessions. Pre vs. post changes in AEPs were significantly different between T and C i) at 206-232ms post stimulus onset within a cluster on the anterior part of the left superior temporal gyrus; ii) at 246-291ms in the left middle frontal gyrus; and iii) 512-545ms in the left middle temporal gyrus as well as bilaterally in the cingulate cortex. All effects were driven by weaker activity for T than C species. Thus, expertise in discriminating T species modulated early stages of semantic processing, during and immediately after the time window that sustains the discrimination between human vs. animal vocalizations. Moreover, the training-induced plasticity is reflected by the sharpening of a left lateralized semantic network, including the anterior part of the temporal convexity and the frontal cortex. Training to identify birdsongs influenced, however, also the processing of C species, but at a much later stage. Correct discrimination of untrained sounds seems to require an additional step which results from lower-level features analysis such as apperception. We therefore suggest that the access to objects within an auditory semantic category is different and depends on subject's level of expertise. More specifically, correct intra

  20. Development of Preschoolers' Learning, Retention, and Generalization of Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Judith A.; Perlmutter, Marion

    This study, which indicates that both age and variation in training affect children's concept formation, provides a basis for explaining the effect of age. Sixty-four 4- and 5-year-olds learned three novel concepts (animal-like, plant-like, and machine-like). Subjects were presented with either four different examples of each concept (multiple…

  1. Superior abstract-concept learning by Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana)

    PubMed Central

    Magnotti, John F.; Katz, Jeffrey S.; Wright, Anthony A.; Kelly, Debbie M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to learn abstract relational concepts is fundamental to higher level cognition. In contrast to item-specific concepts (e.g. pictures containing trees versus pictures containing cars), abstract relational concepts are not bound to particular stimulus features, but instead involve the relationship between stimuli and therefore may be extrapolated to novel stimuli. Previous research investigating the same/different abstract concept has suggested that primates might be specially adapted to extract relations among items and would require fewer exemplars of a rule to learn an abstract concept than non-primate species. We assessed abstract-concept learning in an avian species, Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana), using a small number of exemplars (eight pairs of the same rule, and 56 pairs of the different rule) identical to that previously used to compare rhesus monkeys, capuchin monkeys and pigeons. Nutcrackers as a group (N = 9) showed more novel stimulus transfer than any previous species tested with this small number of exemplars. Two nutcrackers showed full concept learning and four more showed transfer considerably above chance performance, indicating partial concept learning. These results show that the Clark's nutcracker, a corvid species well known for its amazing feats of spatial memory, learns the same/different abstract concept better than any non-human species (including non-human primates) yet tested on this same task. PMID:25972399

  2. Superior abstract-concept learning by Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana).

    PubMed

    Magnotti, John F; Katz, Jeffrey S; Wright, Anthony A; Kelly, Debbie M

    2015-05-01

    The ability to learn abstract relational concepts is fundamental to higher level cognition. In contrast to item-specific concepts (e.g. pictures containing trees versus pictures containing cars), abstract relational concepts are not bound to particular stimulus features, but instead involve the relationship between stimuli and therefore may be extrapolated to novel stimuli. Previous research investigating the same/different abstract concept has suggested that primates might be specially adapted to extract relations among items and would require fewer exemplars of a rule to learn an abstract concept than non-primate species. We assessed abstract-concept learning in an avian species, Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana), using a small number of exemplars (eight pairs of the same rule, and 56 pairs of the different rule) identical to that previously used to compare rhesus monkeys, capuchin monkeys and pigeons. Nutcrackers as a group (N = 9) showed more novel stimulus transfer than any previous species tested with this small number of exemplars. Two nutcrackers showed full concept learning and four more showed transfer considerably above chance performance, indicating partial concept learning. These results show that the Clark's nutcracker, a corvid species well known for its amazing feats of spatial memory, learns the same/different abstract concept better than any non-human species (including non-human primates) yet tested on this same task.

  3. The Effect of the Superordinate Concept and Presentation Form of Examples on Concept Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranzijn, Frederick J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes research with Dutch secondary school students that studied the effects of the presentation of more general (superordinate) concepts on the attainment of basic concepts, and the effects of two different forms of example presentation on concept learning. Computer based instruction and interactive video used in the study are described. (18…

  4. The self concept of the adolescent with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, B S; Gaier, E L

    1977-01-01

    The Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory (CSEI) was administered to 23 Ss diagnosed to have learning disabilities, and normally achieving seventh graders (N = 70) to investigate: a) whether differences exist between the self-esteem of the adolescent with learning disabilities and the normally achieving adolescent, b) the dimensions of self concept in which these differences occur, and c) the relationship between self concept and the number of years in the special classroom for the adolescent with learning disabilities. The data were fitted to a 2 X 2 (ability X school) fixed effects non-orthogonal multivariate analysis of variance model. A significant difference (p less than .05) in "social self-peer" self concept favoring the "normally" achieving S's was found. A trend was evidenced for more negative "general self" and "school-academic" self concepts for the learning disabilities sample. Number of years in the special class did not appear associated with self concept as measured by the CSEI.

  5. Concept Mapping as a Learning Tool in Occupational Therapy Education.

    PubMed

    Grice, Kimatha

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes concept mapping and its use as a teaching and learning tool in an entry level occupational therapy program. In order for students to demonstrate their mastery of the concepts associated with a particular topic or body of knowledge, assignments involving concept maps were developed and used in two courses in an entry level occupational therapy program. Students were then surveyed about their perceptions and attitudes regarding the assignments. Students found the process of creating concept maps valuable to their learning of the content and the majority also enjoyed the process as a learning activity. The use of concept mapping as a way to encourage independent, individualized, and student-centered learning is discussed. PMID:26914229

  6. Concept Mapping as a Learning Tool in Occupational Therapy Education.

    PubMed

    Grice, Kimatha

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes concept mapping and its use as a teaching and learning tool in an entry level occupational therapy program. In order for students to demonstrate their mastery of the concepts associated with a particular topic or body of knowledge, assignments involving concept maps were developed and used in two courses in an entry level occupational therapy program. Students were then surveyed about their perceptions and attitudes regarding the assignments. Students found the process of creating concept maps valuable to their learning of the content and the majority also enjoyed the process as a learning activity. The use of concept mapping as a way to encourage independent, individualized, and student-centered learning is discussed.

  7. Human-level concept learning through probabilistic program induction.

    PubMed

    Lake, Brenden M; Salakhutdinov, Ruslan; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2015-12-11

    People learning new concepts can often generalize successfully from just a single example, yet machine learning algorithms typically require tens or hundreds of examples to perform with similar accuracy. People can also use learned concepts in richer ways than conventional algorithms-for action, imagination, and explanation. We present a computational model that captures these human learning abilities for a large class of simple visual concepts: handwritten characters from the world's alphabets. The model represents concepts as simple programs that best explain observed examples under a Bayesian criterion. On a challenging one-shot classification task, the model achieves human-level performance while outperforming recent deep learning approaches. We also present several "visual Turing tests" probing the model's creative generalization abilities, which in many cases are indistinguishable from human behavior. PMID:26659050

  8. Human-level concept learning through probabilistic program induction.

    PubMed

    Lake, Brenden M; Salakhutdinov, Ruslan; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2015-12-11

    People learning new concepts can often generalize successfully from just a single example, yet machine learning algorithms typically require tens or hundreds of examples to perform with similar accuracy. People can also use learned concepts in richer ways than conventional algorithms-for action, imagination, and explanation. We present a computational model that captures these human learning abilities for a large class of simple visual concepts: handwritten characters from the world's alphabets. The model represents concepts as simple programs that best explain observed examples under a Bayesian criterion. On a challenging one-shot classification task, the model achieves human-level performance while outperforming recent deep learning approaches. We also present several "visual Turing tests" probing the model's creative generalization abilities, which in many cases are indistinguishable from human behavior.

  9. Deep Learning through Concept-Based Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donham, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Learning in the library should present opportunities to enrich student learning activities to address concerns of interest and cognitive complexity, but these must be tasks that call for in-depth analysis--not merely gathering facts. Library learning experiences need to demand enough of students to keep them interested and also need to be…

  10. Ideal versus School Learning: Analyzing Israeli Secondary School Students' Conceptions of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadar, Linor

    2009-01-01

    This study explored 130 secondary school students' conceptions of learning using an open-ended task, analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Students' reality of learning comprised two separate spheres, ideal learning and school learning, which rarely interacted. Generally, students commented more about school than ideal learning. Factor…

  11. What's in a Word? Concept mapping: a graphical tool to reinforce learning of epidemiological concepts.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Anita

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiology is founded on central concepts and principles, essential for conducting, reporting and critically assessing epidemiological studies. Definitions of the many concepts used in the field can be found in textbooks and via the Dictionary of Epidemiology. However, central epidemiological concepts are labelled and used in multiple ways, leading to potential misunderstanding when communicating in different fora. The aim here is to describe collaborative concept mapping, and illustrate how it can be used in teaching and learning epidemiology. Concept mapping is a cognitive technique that is widely used in the education of medical and allied health professions as a tool for critical thinking, and to assimilate new knowledge, but it is still under-utilised in epidemiology. A specific concept map is defined by the aim and question in focus; it is thus framed by a context. The concept map is constructed using a set of concepts (nodes) that are linked with arrows or lines (links). Words and phrases (connective terms) are used to explain relationships between the concepts linked. Different domains can be interconnected by linking concepts in different areas (cross-links). The underlying structure of knowledge is often complex, and consequently concept maps can be constructed using different topological features. Here we provide an illustrative example of concept mapping, based on a set of 'basic' concepts introduced in a doctoral course in epidemiology. In summary, concept mapping is a compelling, active learning tool, which can promote shared deeper knowledge of concepts and their complex interconnections, thereby facilitating a better understanding of epidemiological research.

  12. GenieTutor: A Computer Assisted Second-Language Learning System Based on Semantic and Grammar Correctness Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Oh-Woog; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, Young-Kil; Lee, Yunkeun

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a Dialog-Based Computer-Assisted second-Language Learning (DB-CALL) system using semantic and grammar correctness evaluations and the results of its experiment. While the system dialogues with English learners about a given topic, it automatically evaluates the grammar and content properness of their English utterances, then…

  13. Integrating Concept Mapping and the Learning Cycle To Teach Diffusion and Osmosis Concepts to High School Biology Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Arthur L.; Kelly, Paul V.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the effectiveness of concept mapping, the learning cycle, expository instruction, and a combination of concept mapping/learning cycle in promoting conceptual understanding of diffusion and osmosis. Concludes that the concept mapping/learning cycle and concept mapping treatment groups significantly outperformed the expository treatment…

  14. Facilitating Image Search With a Scalable and Compact Semantic Mapping.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Li, Weisheng; Liu, Dong; Ni, Bingbing; Shen, Jialie; Yan, Shuicheng

    2015-08-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach to facilitating image search based on a compact semantic embedding. A novel method is developed to explicitly map concepts and image contents into a unified latent semantic space for the representation of semantic concept prototypes. Then, a linear embedding matrix is learned that maps images into the semantic space, such that each image is closer to its relevant concept prototype than other prototypes. In our approach, the semantic concepts equated with query keywords and the images mapped into the vicinity of the prototype are retrieved by our scheme. In addition, a computationally efficient method is introduced to incorporate new semantic concept prototypes into the semantic space by updating the embedding matrix. This novelty improves the scalability of the method and allows it to be applied to dynamic image repositories. Therefore, the proposed approach not only narrows semantic gap but also supports an efficient image search process. We have carried out extensive experiments on various cross-modality image search tasks over three widely-used benchmark image datasets. Results demonstrate the superior effectiveness, efficiency, and scalability of our proposed approach.

  15. Lessons learned in the generation of biomedical research datasets using Semantic Open Data technologies.

    PubMed

    Legaz-García, María del Carmen; Miñarro-Giménez, José Antonio; Menárguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical research usually requires combining large volumes of data from multiple heterogeneous sources. Such heterogeneity makes difficult not only the generation of research-oriented dataset but also its exploitation. In recent years, the Open Data paradigm has proposed new ways for making data available in ways that sharing and integration are facilitated. Open Data approaches may pursue the generation of content readable only by humans and by both humans and machines, which are the ones of interest in our work. The Semantic Web provides a natural technological space for data integration and exploitation and offers a range of technologies for generating not only Open Datasets but also Linked Datasets, that is, open datasets linked to other open datasets. According to the Berners-Lee's classification, each open dataset can be given a rating between one and five stars attending to can be given to each dataset. In the last years, we have developed and applied our SWIT tool, which automates the generation of semantic datasets from heterogeneous data sources. SWIT produces four stars datasets, given that fifth one can be obtained by being the dataset linked from external ones. In this paper, we describe how we have applied the tool in two projects related to health care records and orthology data, as well as the major lessons learned from such efforts.

  16. Semantic networks of English.

    PubMed

    Miller, G A; Fellbaum, C

    1991-12-01

    Principles of lexical semantics developed in the course of building an on-line lexical database are discussed. The approach is relational rather than componential. The fundamental semantic relation is synonymy, which is required in order to define the lexicalized concepts that words can be used to express. Other semantic relations between these concepts are then described. No single set of semantic relations or organizational structure is adequate for the entire lexicon: nouns, adjectives, and verbs each have their own semantic relations and their own organization determined by the role they must play in the construction of linguistic messages.

  17. An Exploratory Study of Situated Conceptions of Learning and Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trigwell, Keith; Ashwin, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a study designed to test whether situated conceptions of learning can be measured using questionnaires, and the relations between these aspects of students' awareness, their awareness of other environmental variables, and their learning outcomes. A situated conception of learning is one that is evoked and adopted by students…

  18. Matching-to-sample abstract-concept learning by pigeons.

    PubMed

    Bodily, Kent D; Katz, Jeffrey S; Wright, Anthony A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract concepts--rules that transcend training stimuli--have been argued to be unique to some species. Pigeons, a focus of much concept-learning research, were tested for learning a matching-to-sample abstract concept. Five pigeons were trained with three cartoon stimuli. Pigeons pecked a sample 10 times and then chose which of two simultaneously presented comparison stimuli matched the sample. After acquisition, abstract-concept learning was tested by presenting novel cartoons on 12 out of 96 trials for 4 consecutive sessions. A cycle of doubling the training set followed by retraining and novel-testing was repeated eight times, increasing the set size from 3 to 768 items. Transfer performance improved from chance (i.e., no abstract-concept learning) to a level equivalent to baseline performance (>80%) and was similar to an equivalent function for same/different abstract-concept learning. Analyses assessed the possibility that item-specific choice strategies accounted for acquisition and transfer performance. These analyses converged to rule out item-specific strategies at all but the smallest set-sizes (3-24 items). Ruling out these possibilities adds to the evidence that pigeons learned the relational abstract concept of matching-to-sample.

  19. Minimization of Boolean complexity in human concept learning.

    PubMed

    Feldman, J

    2000-10-01

    One of the unsolved problems in the field of human concept learning concerns the factors that determine the subjective difficulty of concepts: why are some concepts psychologically simple and easy to learn, while others seem difficult, complex or incoherent? This question was much studied in the 1960s but was never answered, and more recent characterizations of concepts as prototypes rather than logical rules leave it unsolved. Here I investigate this question in the domain of Boolean concepts (categories defined by logical rules). A series of experiments measured the subjective difficulty of a wide range of logical varieties of concepts (41 mathematically distinct types in six families--a far wider range than has been tested previously). The data reveal a surprisingly simple empirical 'law': the subjective difficulty of a concept is directly proportional to its Boolean complexity (the length of the shortest logically equivalent propositional formula)--that is, to its logical incompressibility. PMID:11034211

  20. Introducing Machine Learning Concepts with WEKA.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tony C; Frank, Eibe

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents an introduction to data mining with machine learning. It gives an overview of various types of machine learning, along with some examples. It explains how to download, install, and run the WEKA data mining toolkit on a simple data set, then proceeds to explain how one might approach a bioinformatics problem. Finally, it includes a brief summary of machine learning algorithms for other types of data mining problems, and provides suggestions about where to find additional information.

  1. Meaningful learning: theoretical support for concept-based teaching.

    PubMed

    Getha-Eby, Teresa J; Beery, Theresa; Xu, Yin; O'Brien, Beth A

    2014-09-01

    Novice nurses’ inability to transfer classroom knowledge to the bedside has been implicated in adverse patient outcomes, including death. Concept-based teaching is a pedagogy found to improve knowledge transfer. Concept-based teaching emanates from a constructivist paradigm of teaching and learning and can be implemented most effectively when the underlying theory and principles are applied. Ausubel’s theory of meaningful learning and its construct of substantive knowledge integration provides a model to help educators to understand, implement, and evaluate concept-based teaching. Contemporary findings from the fields of cognitive psychology, human development, and neurobiology provide empirical evidence of the relationship between concept-based teaching, meaningful learning, and knowledge transfer. This article describes constructivist principles and meaningful learning as they apply to nursing pedagogy.

  2. Threshold Concepts, Systems and Learning for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandri, Orana Jade

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for understanding the role that systems theory might play in education for sustainability (EfS). It offers a sketch and critique of Land and Meyer's notion of a "threshold concept", to argue that seeing systems as a threshold concept for sustainability is useful for understanding the processes of…

  3. Fast and accurate semantic annotation of bioassays exploiting a hybrid of machine learning and user confirmation

    PubMed Central

    Bunin, Barry A.; Litterman, Nadia K.; Schürer, Stephan C.; Visser, Ubbo

    2014-01-01

    Bioinformatics and computer aided drug design rely on the curation of a large number of protocols for biological assays that measure the ability of potential drugs to achieve a therapeutic effect. These assay protocols are generally published by scientists in the form of plain text, which needs to be more precisely annotated in order to be useful to software methods. We have developed a pragmatic approach to describing assays according to the semantic definitions of the BioAssay Ontology (BAO) project, using a hybrid of machine learning based on natural language processing, and a simplified user interface designed to help scientists curate their data with minimum effort. We have carried out this work based on the premise that pure machine learning is insufficiently accurate, and that expecting scientists to find the time to annotate their protocols manually is unrealistic. By combining these approaches, we have created an effective prototype for which annotation of bioassay text within the domain of the training set can be accomplished very quickly. Well-trained annotations require single-click user approval, while annotations from outside the training set domain can be identified using the search feature of a well-designed user interface, and subsequently used to improve the underlying models. By drastically reducing the time required for scientists to annotate their assays, we can realistically advocate for semantic annotation to become a standard part of the publication process. Once even a small proportion of the public body of bioassay data is marked up, bioinformatics researchers can begin to construct sophisticated and useful searching and analysis algorithms that will provide a diverse and powerful set of tools for drug discovery researchers. PMID:25165633

  4. Fast and accurate semantic annotation of bioassays exploiting a hybrid of machine learning and user confirmation.

    PubMed

    Clark, Alex M; Bunin, Barry A; Litterman, Nadia K; Schürer, Stephan C; Visser, Ubbo

    2014-01-01

    Bioinformatics and computer aided drug design rely on the curation of a large number of protocols for biological assays that measure the ability of potential drugs to achieve a therapeutic effect. These assay protocols are generally published by scientists in the form of plain text, which needs to be more precisely annotated in order to be useful to software methods. We have developed a pragmatic approach to describing assays according to the semantic definitions of the BioAssay Ontology (BAO) project, using a hybrid of machine learning based on natural language processing, and a simplified user interface designed to help scientists curate their data with minimum effort. We have carried out this work based on the premise that pure machine learning is insufficiently accurate, and that expecting scientists to find the time to annotate their protocols manually is unrealistic. By combining these approaches, we have created an effective prototype for which annotation of bioassay text within the domain of the training set can be accomplished very quickly. Well-trained annotations require single-click user approval, while annotations from outside the training set domain can be identified using the search feature of a well-designed user interface, and subsequently used to improve the underlying models. By drastically reducing the time required for scientists to annotate their assays, we can realistically advocate for semantic annotation to become a standard part of the publication process. Once even a small proportion of the public body of bioassay data is marked up, bioinformatics researchers can begin to construct sophisticated and useful searching and analysis algorithms that will provide a diverse and powerful set of tools for drug discovery researchers. PMID:25165633

  5. Situated Language Learning: Concept, Significance and Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdallah, Mahmoud M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is a shift in language learning from the "acquisition" metaphor to the "participation" metaphor. This involves viewing learners as active constructors of knowledge who can collaborate together to create meaningful language learning situations and contextualised practices. Thus, this worksheet aims at exploring…

  6. Semantic Domain-Specific Functional Integration for Action-Related vs. Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghio, Marta; Tettamanti, Marco

    2010-01-01

    A central topic in cognitive neuroscience concerns the representation of concepts and the specific neural mechanisms that mediate conceptual knowledge. Recently proposed modal theories assert that concepts are grounded on the integration of multimodal, distributed representations. The aim of the present work is to complement the available…

  7. Latent Semantic Analysis As a Tool for Learner Positioning in Learning Networks for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter; van Rosmalen, Peter; Brouns, Francis; Vogten, Hubert; Koper, Rob; Tattersall, Colin

    2004-01-01

    As we move towards distributed, self-organised learning networks for lifelong learning to which multiple providers contribute content, there is a need to develop new techniques to determine where learners can be positioned in these networks. Positioning requires us to map characteristics of the learner onto characteristics of learning materials…

  8. The Impact of Second Language Learning on Semantic and Nonsemantic First Language Reading

    PubMed Central

    Nosarti, Chiara; Mechelli, Andrea; Green, David W.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between orthography (spelling) and phonology (speech sounds) varies across alphabetic languages. Consequently, learning to read a second alphabetic language, that uses the same letters as the first, increases the phonological associations that can be linked to the same orthographic units. In subjects with English as their first language, previous functional imaging studies have reported increased left ventral prefrontal activation for reading words with spellings that are inconsistent with their orthographic neighbors (e.g., PINT) compared with words that are consistent with their orthographic neighbors (e.g., SHIP). Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 17 Italian–English and 13 English–Italian bilinguals, we demonstrate that left ventral prefrontal activation for first language reading increases with second language vocabulary knowledge. This suggests that learning a second alphabetic language changes the way that words are read in the first alphabetic language. Specifically, first language reading is more reliant on both lexical/semantic and nonlexical processing when new orthographic to phonological mappings are introduced by second language learning. Our observations were in a context that required participants to switch between languages. They motivate future fMRI studies to test whether first language reading is also altered in contexts when the second language is not in use. PMID:19478033

  9. The impact of second language learning on semantic and nonsemantic first language reading.

    PubMed

    Nosarti, Chiara; Mechelli, Andrea; Green, David W; Price, Cathy J

    2010-02-01

    The relationship between orthography (spelling) and phonology (speech sounds) varies across alphabetic languages. Consequently, learning to read a second alphabetic language, that uses the same letters as the first, increases the phonological associations that can be linked to the same orthographic units. In subjects with English as their first language, previous functional imaging studies have reported increased left ventral prefrontal activation for reading words with spellings that are inconsistent with their orthographic neighbors (e.g., PINT) compared with words that are consistent with their orthographic neighbors (e.g., SHIP). Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 17 Italian-English and 13 English-Italian bilinguals, we demonstrate that left ventral prefrontal activation for first language reading increases with second language vocabulary knowledge. This suggests that learning a second alphabetic language changes the way that words are read in the first alphabetic language. Specifically, first language reading is more reliant on both lexical/semantic and nonlexical processing when new orthographic to phonological mappings are introduced by second language learning. Our observations were in a context that required participants to switch between languages. They motivate future fMRI studies to test whether first language reading is also altered in contexts when the second language is not in use.

  10. Conceptualizing and Describing Teachers' Learning of Pedagogical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González, María José; Gómez, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a model to explore how teachers learn pedagogical concepts in teacher education programs that expect them to become competent in lesson planning. In this context, we view pedagogical concepts as conceptual and methodological tools that help teachers to design a lesson plan on a topic, implement this lesson plan and assess…

  11. The Twisting Path of Concept Development in Learning to Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smagorinsky, Peter; Cook, Leslie Susan; Johnson, Tara Star

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that teacher education programs should emphasize pedagogical concepts that interweave theory and practice so that preservice teachers learn consistent, unified approaches to teaching, noting that the theory-practice dichotomy lacks the richness of Vygotsky's notion of concepts and recommending that teacher educators strive to teach…

  12. Conceptions of Efficiency: Applications in Learning and Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Bobby; Schraw, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to clarify conceptions, definitions, and applications of learning and problem-solving efficiency. Conceptions of efficiency vary within the field of educational psychology, and there is little consensus as to how to define, measure, and interpret the efficiency construct. We compare three diverse models that differ…

  13. Conceptions of Programming: A Study into Learning To Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Shirley

    This paper reports the results of a phenomenographic study which focused on identifying and describing the conceptions of programming and related phenomena of about 120 computer science and computer engineering students learning to program. The report begins by tracing developments in the students' conceptions of programming and its parts, and…

  14. Productive Failure in Learning the Concept of Variance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapur, Manu

    2012-01-01

    In a study with ninth-grade mathematics students on learning the concept of variance, students experienced either direct instruction (DI) or productive failure (PF), wherein they were first asked to generate a quantitative index for variance without any guidance before receiving DI on the concept. Whereas DI students relied only on the canonical…

  15. Factors Related to Students' Learning of Biomechanics Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, ChengTu; Smith, Jeremy D.; Bohne, Michael; Knudson, Duane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate and expand a previous study to identify the factors that affect students' learning of biomechanical concepts. Students were recruited from three universities (N = 149) located in the central and western regions of the United States. Data from 142 students completing the Biomechanics Concept Inventory…

  16. Testing a Conception of How School Leadership Influences Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithwood, Kenneth; Patten, Sarah; Jantzi, Doris

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This article describes and reports the results of testing a new conception of how leadership influences student learning ("The Four Paths"). Framework: Leadership influence is conceptualized as flowing along four paths (Rational, Emotions, Organizational, and Family) toward student learning. Each path is populated by multiple variables…

  17. Learning the Electric Field Concept as Oriented Research Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furio, C.; Guisasola, J.; Almudi, J. M.; Ceberio, M.

    2003-01-01

    This work is grounded in a constructivistic conception of the learning of science, more particularly on the model known as teaching-learning as oriented research. In accordance with this theoretical basis we have developed an empirical research project to investigate the teaching of electrostatics in high schools. The designs developed have…

  18. Conceptions of and Approaches to Learning through Online Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yu-Fang; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated junior college students' conceptions of and approaches to learning via online peer assessment (PA) using a phenomenographic approach. Participants were 163 college students. Students were asked to accomplish a given learning task via an online PA system. Of the participants, 62 were interviewed after the activity.…

  19. Learning Essential Terms and Concepts in Statistics and Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Pam; Smith, Adam; Middledorp, Jenny; Karpin, Anne; Sin, Samantha; Kilgore, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a terminological approach to the teaching and learning of fundamental concepts in foundation tertiary units in Statistics and Accounting, using an online dictionary-style resource (TermFinder) with customised "termbanks" for each discipline. Designed for independent learning, the termbanks support inquiring students…

  20. Threshold Concepts: Impacts on Teaching and Learning at Tertiary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Mira; Harlow, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This project explored teaching and learning of hard-to-learn threshold concepts in first-year English, an electrical engineering course, leadership courses, and in doctoral writing. The project was envisioned to produce disciplinary case studies that lecturers could use to reflect on and refine their curriculum and pedagogy, thereby contributing…

  1. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  2. Collocation, Semantic Prosody, and Near Synonymy: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Richard; McEnery, Tony

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the collocational behaviour and semantic prosody of near synonyms from a cross-linguistic perspective. The importance of these concepts to language learning is well recognized. Yet while collocation and semantic prosody have recently attracted much interest from researchers studying the English language, there has been little…

  3. Categorization, concept learning, and behavior analysis: an introduction.

    PubMed Central

    Zentall, Thomas R; Galizio, Mark; Critchfied, Thomas S

    2002-01-01

    Categorization and concept learning encompass some of the most important aspects of behavior, but historically they have not been central topics in the experimental analysis of behavior. To introduce this special issue of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (JEAB), we define key terms; distinguish between the study of concepts and the study of concept learning; describe three types of concept learning characterized by the stimulus classes they yield; and briefly identify several other themes (e.g., quantitative modeling and ties to language) that appear in the literature. As the special issue demonstrates, a surprising amount and diversity of work is being conducted that either represents a behavior-analytic perspective or can inform or constructively challenge this perspective. PMID:12507002

  4. Concept-Based Word Learning in Human Infants.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Csibra, Gergely

    2015-08-01

    Whether infants initially learn object labels by mapping them onto similarity-defining perceptual features or onto concepts of object kinds remains under debate. We addressed this question by attempting to teach infants words for behaviorally defined action roles. In a series of experiments, we found that 14-month-olds could rapidly learn a label for the role played by the chaser in a chasing scenario, even when the different instances of chasers did not share perceptual features. Furthermore, when infants could choose, they preferred to interpret a novel label as expressing the agent's role within the observed interaction rather than as being associated with the agent's appearance. These results demonstrate that infants can learn labels as easily (or even more easily) for concepts identified by abstract behavioral characteristics as for objects identified by perceptual features. Thus, at early stages of word learning, infants already expect that novel words express concepts. PMID:26195636

  5. What's in a Word? Concept mapping: a graphical tool to reinforce learning of epidemiological concepts.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Anita

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiology is founded on central concepts and principles, essential for conducting, reporting and critically assessing epidemiological studies. Definitions of the many concepts used in the field can be found in textbooks and via the Dictionary of Epidemiology. However, central epidemiological concepts are labelled and used in multiple ways, leading to potential misunderstanding when communicating in different fora. The aim here is to describe collaborative concept mapping, and illustrate how it can be used in teaching and learning epidemiology. Concept mapping is a cognitive technique that is widely used in the education of medical and allied health professions as a tool for critical thinking, and to assimilate new knowledge, but it is still under-utilised in epidemiology. A specific concept map is defined by the aim and question in focus; it is thus framed by a context. The concept map is constructed using a set of concepts (nodes) that are linked with arrows or lines (links). Words and phrases (connective terms) are used to explain relationships between the concepts linked. Different domains can be interconnected by linking concepts in different areas (cross-links). The underlying structure of knowledge is often complex, and consequently concept maps can be constructed using different topological features. Here we provide an illustrative example of concept mapping, based on a set of 'basic' concepts introduced in a doctoral course in epidemiology. In summary, concept mapping is a compelling, active learning tool, which can promote shared deeper knowledge of concepts and their complex interconnections, thereby facilitating a better understanding of epidemiological research. PMID:25987721

  6. How Do Young Children Learn Geometric Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohe, Pia

    Twenty children (ages 5 and 6) from each of seven cultural groups (Caucasian, Black, Jewish, Puerto Rican, Chinese, Korean-American and native Korean) were given a copying task of 21 geometric shapes to test the cultural invariancy of Piaget's topological-projective-Euclidean concept acquisition sequence. All subjects were either middle or lower…

  7. Workplace Judgement and Conceptions of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Paul

    2001-01-01

    The standard paradigm of learning--isolated in individual minds, expressed verbally, propositional--distorts the role of judgment. An emerging paradigm based on Dewey and Wittgenstein recognizes the role of action and exercise of judgment; positions knowledge in individuals, teams, and organizations; and includes propositional, cognitive,…

  8. Curious Conceptions: Learning to Be Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Trish

    2007-01-01

    The ageing of the population in western societies has aroused great concern and interest in recent years as the so-called "baby-boomers" begin to retire, leaving a seemingly depleted workforce. Society and the individuals within it learn the "truths" of being aged or old through the normalizing of gerontological, demographic and economic…

  9. Learning Low-Dimensional Representations of Medical Concepts.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngduck; Chiu, Chill Yi-I; Sontag, David

    2016-01-01

    We show how to learn low-dimensional representations (embeddings) of a wide range of concepts in medicine, including diseases (e.g., ICD9 codes), medications, procedures, and laboratory tests. We expect that these embeddings will be useful across medical informatics for tasks such as cohort selection and patient summarization. These embeddings are learned using a technique called neural language modeling from the natural language processing community. However, rather than learning the embeddings solely from text, we show how to learn the embeddings from claims data, which is widely available both to providers and to payers. We also show that with a simple algorithmic adjustment, it is possible to learn medical concept embeddings in a privacy preserving manner from co-occurrence counts derived from clinical narratives. Finally, we establish a methodological framework, arising from standard medical ontologies such as UMLS, NDF-RT, and CCS, to further investigate the embeddings and precisely characterize their quantitative properties. PMID:27570647

  10. Introducing the concept of learning styles in rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Verschuren, Olaf; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; van Heugten, Caroline

    2010-07-01

    A major focus of rehabilitation is that of optimizing patients' activities. Learning and teaching are key elements in this respect, but raise important questions: what do rehabilitation professionals know with respect to learning and teaching, what do they do, and what do they need? This paper discusses the issue of learning and teaching in rehabilitation practice, and introduces the concept of learning styles. This concept, new in the field of rehabilitation, but well-known in other areas, is presumed to benefit both patients and professionals, as it allows teaching strategies to be matched to individual patients. As a consequence, the process of learning may be more efficient and optimizing activities may be more effective.

  11. Learning Low-Dimensional Representations of Medical Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Youngduck; Chiu, Chill Yi-I; Sontag, David

    2016-01-01

    We show how to learn low-dimensional representations (embeddings) of a wide range of concepts in medicine, including diseases (e.g., ICD9 codes), medications, procedures, and laboratory tests. We expect that these embeddings will be useful across medical informatics for tasks such as cohort selection and patient summarization. These embeddings are learned using a technique called neural language modeling from the natural language processing community. However, rather than learning the embeddings solely from text, we show how to learn the embeddings from claims data, which is widely available both to providers and to payers. We also show that with a simple algorithmic adjustment, it is possible to learn medical concept embeddings in a privacy preserving manner from co-occurrence counts derived from clinical narratives. Finally, we establish a methodological framework, arising from standard medical ontologies such as UMLS, NDF-RT, and CCS, to further investigate the embeddings and precisely characterize their quantitative properties. PMID:27570647

  12. Incremental learning of concept drift in nonstationary environments.

    PubMed

    Elwell, Ryan; Polikar, Robi

    2011-10-01

    We introduce an ensemble of classifiers-based approach for incremental learning of concept drift, characterized by nonstationary environments (NSEs), where the underlying data distributions change over time. The proposed algorithm, named Learn(++). NSE, learns from consecutive batches of data without making any assumptions on the nature or rate of drift; it can learn from such environments that experience constant or variable rate of drift, addition or deletion of concept classes, as well as cyclical drift. The algorithm learns incrementally, as other members of the Learn(++) family of algorithms, that is, without requiring access to previously seen data. Learn(++). NSE trains one new classifier for each batch of data it receives, and combines these classifiers using a dynamically weighted majority voting. The novelty of the approach is in determining the voting weights, based on each classifier's time-adjusted accuracy on current and past environments. This approach allows the algorithm to recognize, and act accordingly, to the changes in underlying data distributions, as well as to a possible reoccurrence of an earlier distribution. We evaluate the algorithm on several synthetic datasets designed to simulate a variety of nonstationary environments, as well as a real-world weather prediction dataset. Comparisons with several other approaches are also included. Results indicate that Learn(++). NSE can track the changing environments very closely, regardless of the type of concept drift. To allow future use, comparison and benchmarking by interested researchers, we also release our data used in this paper.

  13. Thematic knowledge, artifact concepts, and the left posterior temporal lobe: Where action and object semantics converge.

    PubMed

    Kalénine, Solène; Buxbaum, Laurel J

    2016-09-01

    Converging evidence supports the existence of functionally and neuroanatomically distinct taxonomic (similarity-based; e.g., hammer-screwdriver) and thematic (event-based; e.g., hammer-nail) semantic systems. Processing of thematic relations between objects has been shown to selectively recruit the left posterior temporoparietal cortex. Similar posterior regions have also been shown to be critical for knowledge of relationships between actions and manipulable human-made objects (artifacts). Based on the hypothesis that thematic relationships for artifacts rely, at least in part, on action relationships, we assessed the prediction that the same regions of the left posterior temporoparietal cortex would be critical for conceptual processing of artifact-related actions and thematic relations for artifacts. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated processing of taxonomic and thematic relations for artifacts and natural objects as well as artifact action knowledge (gesture recognition) abilities in a large sample of 48 stroke patients with a range of lesion foci in the left hemisphere. Like control participants, patients identified thematic relations faster than taxonomic relations for artifacts, whereas they identified taxonomic relations faster than thematic relations for natural objects. Moreover, response times (RTs) for identifying thematic relations for artifacts selectively predicted performance in gesture recognition. Whole brain Voxel-based Lesion-Symptom Mapping (VLSM) analyses and Region of Interest (ROI) regression analyses further demonstrated that lesions to the left posterior temporal cortex, overlapping with LTO and visual motion area hMT+, were associated both with relatively slower RTs in identifying thematic relations for artifacts and poorer artifact action knowledge in patients. These findings provide novel insights into the functional role of left posterior temporal cortex in thematic knowledge, and suggest that the close association between thematic

  14. Motor Knowledge Is One Dimension for Concept Organization: Further Evidence from a Chinese Semantic Dementia Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Nan; Guo, Qihao; Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have indicated that motor knowledge is one potential dimension along which concepts are organized. Here we present further direct evidence for the effects of motor knowledge in accounting for categorical patterns across object domains (living vs. nonliving) and grammatical domains (nouns vs. verbs), as…

  15. Astro Concepts: Learning Underlying Physics Principles in Conceptual Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzolini, Margaret; Halls, Bronwyn

    2000-08-01

    Astro Concepts is a project within Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne developing browser-based software modules on Optical Telescopes, Nebulae and Binary Stars. The modules are designed to enhance students' understanding of basic physics concepts, which underlie introductory-level conceptual astronomy courses. When complete, the Astro Concepts modules will be available for use in university courses in introductory astronomy, introductory physics teaching, secondary teaching and online astronomy education. The strategy outlined here is to obtain a reasonable level of understanding of the necessary physics concepts by presenting them embedded in relevant and interesting astronomy contexts, and by the use of an engaging educational approach requiring active learning by the student.

  16. Learning for School Leadership: Using Concept Mapping to Explore Learning from Everyday Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pegg, Ann Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This study explores concepts of learning used by leaders, focusing on learning for leadership through day-to-day workplace experiences. The participants were drawn from the senior management team within a school, the chair of governors of the school and the local authority school improvement advisor. Concept mapping was used as a participatory…

  17. Promoting Students' Learning of Air Pressure Concepts: The Interrelationship of Teaching Approaches and Student Learning Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    She, Hsiao-Ching

    2005-01-01

    The author explored the potential to promote students' understanding of difficult science concepts through an examination of the inter-relationships among the teachers' instructional approach, students' learning preference styles, and their levels of learning process. The concept "air pressure," which requires an understanding of invisible,…

  18. The Analysis of High School Students' Conceptions of Learning in Different Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadi, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether or not conceptions of learning diverge in different science domains by identifying high school students' conceptions of learning in physics, chemistry and biology. The Conceptions of Learning Science (COLS) questionnaire was adapted for physics (Conceptions of Learning Physics, COLP), chemistry…

  19. Undergraduate students' earth science learning: relationships among conceptions, approaches, and learning self-efficacy in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Kuan-Ming; Lee, Min-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2016-06-01

    In the area of science education research, studies have attempted to investigate conceptions of learning, approaches to learning, and self-efficacy, mainly focusing on science in general or on specific subjects such as biology, physics, and chemistry. However, few empirical studies have probed students' earth science learning. This study aimed to explore the relationships among undergraduates' conceptions of, approaches to, and self-efficacy for learning earth science by adopting the structural equation modeling technique. A total of 268 Taiwanese undergraduates (144 females) participated in this study. Three instruments were modified to assess the students' conceptions of, approaches to, and self-efficacy for learning earth science. The results indicated that students' conceptions of learning made a significant contribution to their approaches to learning, which were consequently correlated with their learning self-efficacy. More specifically, students with stronger agreement that learning earth science involves applying the knowledge and skills learned to unknown problems were prone to possess higher confidence in learning earth science. Moreover, students viewing earth science learning as understanding earth science knowledge were more likely to adopt meaningful strategies to learn earth science, and hence expressed a higher sense of self-efficacy. Based on the results, practical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  20. Kindergarteners' concept development in science and literacy learning through Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffit, Char Adelia

    The notion that "real work" is somehow different from authentic and engaging discovery is troublesome. (Passman, 2001, p.196) This qualitative case study examined science concept and literacy learning along with engagement of the students in a Kindergarten class in which science and literacy instruction was integrated through Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI). CORI is an instructional framework created to increase reading engagement by teaching reading comprehension strategies along with science concepts (Guthrie, et al., 1996). This study explored CORI at the Kindergarten level to examine how this curriculum framework engaged young learners in science concept and literacy learning. The study was grounded in the belief that concept learning can be engaging and motivating (Csikszentmihalyi, 1978). Data analysis resulted in five metaphors that show how the students took on multiple identities while engaged in learning concepts during CORI. Students took on the following identities: learner as docent, learner as explorer, learner as researcher, learner as author, and learner as expert. Prior to this study, the lowest grade level that CORI had been researched was 3rd grade. The present study examined the benefits of utilizing CORI with early literacy at the Kindergarten level and contributes to the body of CORI research demonstrating the potential of utilizing CORI at lower grade levels.

  1. Reciprocity as a Threshold Concept for Faculty Who Are Learning to Teach with Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Barbara; Clayton, Patti H.

    2012-01-01

    Requiring and fostering shifts in perspective, practice, and identity, the counter-normative pedagogy of service-learning can be challenging for faculty to learn. Meyer and Land's (2003, 2005) work on threshold concepts may enhance understanding of the troublesome yet transformative nature of learning to collaborate reciprocally with students and…

  2. Undergraduate Students' Earth Science Learning: Relationships among Conceptions, Approaches, and Learning Self-Efficacy in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Kuan-Ming; Lee, Min-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2016-01-01

    In the area of science education research, studies have attempted to investigate conceptions of learning, approaches to learning, and self-efficacy, mainly focusing on science in general or on specific subjects such as biology, physics, and chemistry. However, few empirical studies have probed students' earth science learning. This study aimed to…

  3. Non-Formal Learning: Clarification of the Concept and Its Application in Music Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, On Nei Annie

    2011-01-01

    The concept of non-formal learning, which falls outside the categories of informal and formal learning, has not been as widely discussed, especially in the music education literature. In order to bridge this gap and to provide supplementary framework to the discussion of informal and formal learning, therefore, this paper will first summarize…

  4. Cosmic Concepts: A Video Series for Scaffolded Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Summers, Frank; Maple, John

    2016-01-01

    Scaffolding is widely considered to be an essential element of effective teaching and is used to help bridge knowledge gaps for learners. Scaffolding is especially important for distance-learning programs and computer-based learning environments. Preliminary studies are showing that when students learn about complex topics within computer-based learning environments without scaffolding, they fail to gain a conceptual understanding of the topic. As a result, researchers have begun to emphasize the importance of scaffolding for web-based as well as in-person instruction.To support scaffolded teaching practices and techniques, while addressing the needs of life-long learners, we have created the Cosmic Concepts video series. The series consists of short, one-topic videos that address scientific concepts with a special emphasis on those that traditionally cause confusion or are layered with misconceptions. Each video focuses on one idea at a time and provides a clear explanation of phenomena that is succinct enough for on-demand reference usage by all types of learners. Likewise, the videos can be used by educators to scaffold the scientific concepts behind astronomical images, or can be sequenced together to create well-structured pathways for presenting deeper and more layered ideas. This approach is critical for communicating information about astronomical discoveries that are often dense with unfamiliar concepts, complex ideas, and highly technical details. Additionally, learning tools in video formats support multi-sensory presentation approaches that can make astronomy more accessible to a variety of learners.

  5. Semantics for E-Learning: An Advanced Knowledge Management Oriented Metadata Schema for Learning Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytras, Miltiadis D.

    The research described in this paper is concentrated on the demand for high quality interchangeable knowledge objects capable of supporting dynamic learning initiatives. The general metadata models (Dublin Core, IMS, LOM, SCORM) for knowledge objects enrichment are reviewed and a critique is provided in order to claim the importance of the…

  6. Machine learning approaches to diagnosis and laterality effects in semantic dementia discourse

    PubMed Central

    Garrard, Peter; Rentoumi, Vassiliki; Gesierich, Benno; Miller, Bruce; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Advances in automatic text classification have been necessitated by the rapid increase in the availability of digital documents. Machine learning (ML) algorithms can ‘learn’ from data: for instance a ML system can be trained on a set of features derived from written texts belonging to known categories, and learn to distinguish between them. Such a trained system can then be used to classify unseen texts. In this paper, we explore the potential of the technique to classify transcribed speech samples along clinical dimensions, using vocabulary data alone. We report the accuracy with which two related ML algorithms [naive Bayes Gaussian (NBG) and naive Bayes multinomial (NBM)] categorized picture descriptions produced by: 32 semantic dementia (SD) patients versus 10 healthy, age-matched controls; and SD patients with left- (n = 21) versus right-predominant (n = 11) patterns of temporal lobe atrophy. We used information gain (IG) to identify the vocabulary features that were most informative to each of these two distinctions. In the SD versus control classification task, both algorithms achieved accuracies of greater than 90%. In the right- versus left-temporal lobe predominant classification, NBM achieved a high level of accuracy (88%), but this was achieved by both NBM and NBG when the features used in the training set were restricted to those with high values of IG. The most informative features for the patient versus control task were low frequency content words, generic terms and components of metanarrative statements. For the right versus left task the number of informative lexical features was too small to support any specific inferences. An enriched feature set, including values derived from Quantitative Production Analysis (QPA) may shed further light on this little understood distinction. PMID:23876449

  7. Decreased Fronto-Limbic Activation and Disrupted Semantic-Cued List Learning in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kassel, Michelle T.; Rao, Julia A.; Walker, Sara J.; Briceño, Emily M.; Gabriel, Laura B.; Weldon, Anne L.; Avery, Erich T.; Haase, Brennan D.; Peciña, Marta; Considine, Ciaran M.; Noll, Douglas C.; Bieliauskas, Linas A.; Starkman, Monica N.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Welsh, Robert C.; Giordani, Bruno; Weisenbach, Sara L.; Langenecker, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) demonstrate poorer learning and memory skills relative to never-depressed comparisons (NDC). Previous studies report decreased volume and disrupted function of frontal lobes and hippocampi in MDD during memory challenge. However, it has been difficult to dissociate contributions of short-term memory and executive functioning to memory difficulties from those that might be attributable to long-term memory deficits. Method Adult males (MDD, n=19; NDC, n=22) and females (MDD, n=23; NDC, n=19) performed the Semantic List Learning Task (SLLT) during fMRI. The SLLT Encoding condition consists of 15 lists, each containing 14 words. After each list, a Distractor condition occurs, followed by cued Silent Rehearsal instructions. Post-scan recall and recognition were collected. Groups were compared using block (Encoding-Silent Rehearsal) and event-related (Words Recalled) models. Results MDD displayed lower recall relative to NDC. NDC displayed greater activation in several temporal, frontal, and parietal regions, for both Encoding-Silent Rehearsal and the Words Recalled analyses. Groups also differed in activation patterns in regions of the Papez circuit in planned analyses. The majority of activation differences were not related to performance, presence of medications, presence of comorbid anxiety disorder, or decreased gray matter volume in MDD. Conclusions Adults with MDD exhibit memory difficulties during a task designed to reduce the contribution of individual variability from short-term memory and executive functioning processes, parallel with decreased activation in memory and executive functioning circuits. Ecologically valid long-term memory tasks are imperative for uncovering neural correlates of memory performance deficits in adults with MDD. PMID:26831638

  8. Bow Your Head in Shame, or, Hold Your Head Up with Pride: Semantic Processing of Self-Esteem Concepts Orients Attention Vertically

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, J. Eric T.; Lam, Timothy K.; Chasteen, Alison L.; Pratt, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Embodied cognition holds that abstract concepts are grounded in perceptual-motor simulations. If a given embodied metaphor maps onto a spatial representation, then thinking of that concept should bias the allocation of attention. In this study, we used positive and negative self-esteem words to examine two properties of conceptual cueing. First, we tested the orientation-specificity hypothesis, which predicts that conceptual cues should selectively activate certain spatial axes (in this case, valenced self-esteem concepts should activate vertical space), instead of any spatial continuum. Second, we tested whether conceptual cueing requires semantic processing, or if it can be achieved with shallow visual processing of the cue words. Participants viewed centrally presented words consisting of high or low self-esteem traits (e.g., brave, timid) before detecting a target above or below the cue in the vertical condition, or on the left or right of the word in the horizontal condition. Participants were faster to detect targets when their location was compatible with the valence of the word cues, but only in the vertical condition. Moreover, this effect was observed when participants processed the semantics of the word, but not when processing its orthography. The results show that conceptual cueing by spatial metaphors is orientation-specific, and that an explicit consideration of the word cues’ semantics is required for conceptual cueing to occur. PMID:26368276

  9. Effect of congenital blindness on the semantic representation of some everyday concepts.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Andrew C; Gleitman, Lila R; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2007-05-15

    This study explores how the lack of first-hand experience with color, as a result of congenital blindness, affects implicit judgments about "higher-order" concepts, such as "fruits and vegetables" (FV), but not others, such as "household items" (HHI). We demonstrate how the differential diagnosticity of color across our test categories interacts with visual experience to produce, in effect, a category-specific difference in implicit similarity. Implicit pair-wise similarity judgments were collected by using an odd-man-out triad task. Pair-wise similarities for both FV and for HHI were derived from this task and were compared by using cluster analysis and regression analyses. Color was found to be a significant component in the structure of implicit similarity for FV for sighted participants but not for blind participants; and this pattern remained even when the analysis was restricted to blind participants who had good explicit color knowledge of the stimulus items. There was also no evidence that either subject group used color knowledge in making decisions about HHI, nor was there an indication of any qualitative differences between blind and sighted subjects' judgments on HHI.

  10. Science Concepts Young Children Learn through Water Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    Water is fascinating, fun, and multifaceted. Children can play with it endlessly. But play, for play's sake, is not water's only value (Crosser, 1994, Tovey, 1993). Indeed, water play is a compelling focus of study for young children (Chalufour & Worth, 2005). The concepts that young children learn from water play are essential for early childhood…

  11. Incidental Learning of Geospatial Concepts across Grade Levels: Map Overlay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battersby, Sarah E.; Golledge, Reginald G.; Marsh, Meredith J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors evaluate map overlay, a concept central to geospatial thinking, to determine how it is naively and technically understood, as well as to identify when it is leaner innately. The evaluation is supported by results from studies at three grade levels to show the progression of incidentally learned geospatial knowledge as…

  12. The Molar Concept: A Piagetian-Oriented Learning Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.; Perry, Constance M.

    1983-01-01

    The Mole Concept is a learning cycle (patterned after University of Nebraska-Lincoln's ADAPT model) for the chemical unit "mole." Discusses objectives and activities involved in each phase of the cycle: exploration, invention, and application. Indicates the cycle is superior to traditional lecture-demonstration for teaching the abstract mole…

  13. Implementing Concept-Based Learning in a Large Undergraduate Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, David; Jutras, France

    2008-01-01

    An experiment explicitly introducing learning strategies to a large, first-year undergraduate cell biology course was undertaken to see whether awareness and use of strategies had a measurable impact on student performance. The construction of concept maps was selected as the strategy to be introduced because of an inherent coherence with a course…

  14. Difficulties in Learning the Concept of Electric Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furio, C.; Guisasola, J.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes students' main difficulties in learning the concept of electric field. Briefly describes the main conceptual profiles within which electric interactions can be interpreted and concludes that most students have difficulty using the idea of electric field. Contains 28 references. (DDR)

  15. Instance, Cue, and Dimension Learning in Concept Shift Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, Joan L.; Panda, Kailas C.

    Experiment I was designed to demonstrate that young children fail to abstract the positive cue as the relevant stimulus event in a restricted concept-learning task. Sixteen kindergarten and 16 fourth grade subjects were trained to criterion on a Kendler-type task, whereupon each subject was presented a pair of new instances which contrasted only…

  16. Reexamining the Role of Cognitive Conflict in Science Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sukjin; Scharmann, Lawrence C.; Noh, Taehee

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we defined and quantified the degree of cognitive conflict induced by a discrepant event from a cognitive perspective. Based on the scheme developed, we investigated the relationship between cognitive conflict and conceptual change, and the influences of students' cognitive characteristics on conflict in learning the concept of…

  17. Blended University Teaching Using Virtual Learning Environments: Conceptions and Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lameras, Petros; Levy, Philippa; Paraskakis, Iraklis; Webber, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a phenomenographic investigation into blended university teaching using virtual learning environments (VLEs). Interviews with 25 Computer Science teachers in Greek universities illuminated a spectrum of teachers' conceptions and approaches from "teacher-focused and content-oriented", through "student-focused and…

  18. Using Cognitive Tutor Software in Learning Linear Algebra Word Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kai-Ju

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of twelve 10th grade students using Cognitive Tutor, a math software program, to learn linear algebra word concept. The study's purpose was to examine whether students' mathematics performance as it is related to using Cognitive Tutor provided evidence to support Koedlinger's (2002) four instructional principles used…

  19. The Force Concept Inventory: A Tool for Monitoring Student Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savinainen, Antti; Scott, Philip

    2002-01-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) is a multiple-choice test designed to monitor students' understanding of force and related kinematics. Reviews the development of the FCI, outlines its structure, and reviews findings from its implementation. Makes the case for the FCI as a powerful tool for improving both learning and teaching of mechanics.…

  20. Learning Problems Related to the Concept of Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradamante, Francesca; Michelini, Marisa; Stefanel, Alberto

    The concept of field has formed itself through a process of elaboration of concepts both on the historical level, and on that of mathematic formalism (integral or differential approach, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism), and in the relationship between mathematics and physics. In didactic tradition it is used as an example of the formalised analogical process. Its phenomenological aspects and its characteristics of time and space are only partially described for the various types of field, mixing the descriptive and interpretative levels. In this review we select some of the main teaching-learning problems and student's diffculties with learning the concept of field, that many researches have stressed, such as: the concept of field and its representation by lines of force, the difference between field and force, the connection between field and its sources, the concept of the field's superposition and the interpretation of mathematical formulas, the application of the third principle of dynamics, the motion of the field's characteristic particles in the field itself. We consider the field in static situations, because these learning problems are fundamental and basic for when we will pass to dynamic situations (electromagnetic field).

  1. Kindergarteners' Concept Development in Science and Literacy Learning through Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffit, Char Adelia

    2013-01-01

    The notion that "real work" is somehow different from authentic and engaging discovery is troublesome. (Passman, 2001, p.196). This qualitative case study examined science concept and literacy learning along with engagement of the students in a Kindergarten class in which science and literacy instruction was integrated through…

  2. Interpreting concept learning in cognitive informatics and granular computing.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yiyu

    2009-08-01

    Cognitive informatics and granular computing are two emerging fields of study concerning information and knowledge processing. A central notion to this processing is information and knowledge granularity. Concepts, as the basic units of thought underlying human intelligence and communication, may play a fundamental role when integrating the results from the two fields in terms of information and knowledge coding, representation, communication, and processing. While cognitive informatics focuses on information processing in the abstract, in machines, and in the brain, granular computing models such processing at multiple levels of granularity. In this paper, we examine a conceptual framework for concept learning from the viewpoints of cognitive informatics and granular computing. Within the framework, we interpret concept learning based on a layered model of knowledge discovery.

  3. Remote semantic memory is impoverished in hippocampal amnesia.

    PubMed

    Klooster, Nathaniel B; Duff, Melissa C

    2015-12-01

    The necessity of the hippocampus for acquiring new semantic concepts is a topic of considerable debate. However, it is generally accepted that any role the hippocampus plays in semantic memory is time limited and that previously acquired information becomes independent of the hippocampus over time. This view, along with intact naming and word-definition matching performance in amnesia, has led to the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in patients with hippocampal amnesia. Motivated by perspectives of word learning as a protracted process where additional features and senses of a word are added over time, and by recent discoveries about the time course of hippocampal contributions to on-line relational processing, reconsolidation, and the flexible integration of information, we revisit the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in amnesia. Using measures of semantic richness and vocabulary depth from psycholinguistics and first and second language-learning studies, we examined how much information is associated with previously acquired, highly familiar words in a group of patients with bilateral hippocampal damage and amnesia. Relative to healthy demographically matched comparison participants and a group of brain-damaged comparison participants, the patients with hippocampal amnesia performed significantly worse on both productive and receptive measures of vocabulary depth and semantic richness. These findings suggest that remote semantic memory is impoverished in patients with hippocampal amnesia and that the hippocampus may play a role in the maintenance and updating of semantic memory beyond its initial acquisition. PMID:26474741

  4. Remote semantic memory is impoverished in hippocampal amnesia.

    PubMed

    Klooster, Nathaniel B; Duff, Melissa C

    2015-12-01

    The necessity of the hippocampus for acquiring new semantic concepts is a topic of considerable debate. However, it is generally accepted that any role the hippocampus plays in semantic memory is time limited and that previously acquired information becomes independent of the hippocampus over time. This view, along with intact naming and word-definition matching performance in amnesia, has led to the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in patients with hippocampal amnesia. Motivated by perspectives of word learning as a protracted process where additional features and senses of a word are added over time, and by recent discoveries about the time course of hippocampal contributions to on-line relational processing, reconsolidation, and the flexible integration of information, we revisit the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in amnesia. Using measures of semantic richness and vocabulary depth from psycholinguistics and first and second language-learning studies, we examined how much information is associated with previously acquired, highly familiar words in a group of patients with bilateral hippocampal damage and amnesia. Relative to healthy demographically matched comparison participants and a group of brain-damaged comparison participants, the patients with hippocampal amnesia performed significantly worse on both productive and receptive measures of vocabulary depth and semantic richness. These findings suggest that remote semantic memory is impoverished in patients with hippocampal amnesia and that the hippocampus may play a role in the maintenance and updating of semantic memory beyond its initial acquisition.

  5. Same/Different Abstract Concept Learning by Archerfish (Toxotes chatareus)

    PubMed Central

    Newport, Cait; Wallis, Guy; Siebeck, Ulrike E.

    2015-01-01

    While several phylogenetically diverse species have proved capable of learning abstract concepts, previous attempts to teach fish have been unsuccessful. In this report, the ability of archerfish (Toxotes chatareus) to learn the concepts of sameness and difference using a simultaneous two-item discrimination task was tested. Six archerfish were trained to either select a pair of same or different stimuli which were presented simultaneously. Training consisted of a 2-phase approach. Training phase 1: the symbols in the same and different pair did not change, thereby allowing the fish to solve the test through direct association. The fish were trained consecutively with four different sets of stimuli to familiarize them with the general procedure before moving on to the next training phase. Training phase 2: six different symbols were used to form the same or different pairs. After acquisition, same/different concept learning was tested by presenting fish with six novel stimuli (transfer test). Five fish successfully completed the first training phase. Only one individual passed the second training phase, however, transfer performance was consistent with chance. This individual was given further training using 60 training exemplars but the individual was unable to reach the training criterion. We hypothesize that archerfish are able to solve a limited version of the same/different test by learning the response to each possible stimulus configuration or by developing a series of relatively simple choice contingencies. We conclude that the simultaneous two-item discrimination task we describe cannot be successfully used to test the concepts of same and different in archerfish. In addition, despite considerable effort training archerfish using several tests and training methods, there is still no evidence that fish can learn an abstract concept-based test. PMID:26599071

  6. Same/Different Abstract Concept Learning by Archerfish (Toxotes chatareus).

    PubMed

    Newport, Cait; Wallis, Guy; Siebeck, Ulrike E

    2015-01-01

    While several phylogenetically diverse species have proved capable of learning abstract concepts, previous attempts to teach fish have been unsuccessful. In this report, the ability of archerfish (Toxotes chatareus) to learn the concepts of sameness and difference using a simultaneous two-item discrimination task was tested. Six archerfish were trained to either select a pair of same or different stimuli which were presented simultaneously. Training consisted of a 2-phase approach. Training phase 1: the symbols in the same and different pair did not change, thereby allowing the fish to solve the test through direct association. The fish were trained consecutively with four different sets of stimuli to familiarize them with the general procedure before moving on to the next training phase. Training phase 2: six different symbols were used to form the same or different pairs. After acquisition, same/different concept learning was tested by presenting fish with six novel stimuli (transfer test). Five fish successfully completed the first training phase. Only one individual passed the second training phase, however, transfer performance was consistent with chance. This individual was given further training using 60 training exemplars but the individual was unable to reach the training criterion. We hypothesize that archerfish are able to solve a limited version of the same/different test by learning the response to each possible stimulus configuration or by developing a series of relatively simple choice contingencies. We conclude that the simultaneous two-item discrimination task we describe cannot be successfully used to test the concepts of same and different in archerfish. In addition, despite considerable effort training archerfish using several tests and training methods, there is still no evidence that fish can learn an abstract concept-based test.

  7. The semantic pathfinder: using an authoring metaphor for generic multimedia indexing.

    PubMed

    Snoek, Cees G M; Worring, Marcel; Geusebroek, Jan-Mark; Koelma, Dennis C; Seinstra, Frank J; Smeulders, Arnold W M

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the semantic pathfinder architecture for generic indexing of multimedia archives. The semantic pathfinder extracts semantic concepts from video by exploring different paths through three consecutive analysis steps, which we derive from the observation that produced video is the result of an authoring-driven process. We exploit this authoring metaphor for machine-driven understanding. The pathfinder starts with the content analysis step. In this analysis step, we follow a data-driven approach of indexing semantics. The style analysis step is the second analysis step. Here, we tackle the indexing problem by viewing a video from the perspective of production. Finally, in the context analysis step, we view semantics in context. The virtue of the semantic pathfinder is its ability to learn the best path of analysis steps on a per-concept basis. To show the generality of this novel indexing approach, we develop detectors for a lexicon of 32 concepts and we evaluate the semantic pathfinder against the 2004 NIST TRECVID video retrieval benchmark, using a news archive of 64 hours. Top ranking performance in the semantic concept detection task indicates the merit of the semantic pathfinder for generic indexing of multimedia archives. PMID:16986547

  8. The semantic pathfinder: using an authoring metaphor for generic multimedia indexing.

    PubMed

    Snoek, Cees G M; Worring, Marcel; Geusebroek, Jan-Mark; Koelma, Dennis C; Seinstra, Frank J; Smeulders, Arnold W M

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the semantic pathfinder architecture for generic indexing of multimedia archives. The semantic pathfinder extracts semantic concepts from video by exploring different paths through three consecutive analysis steps, which we derive from the observation that produced video is the result of an authoring-driven process. We exploit this authoring metaphor for machine-driven understanding. The pathfinder starts with the content analysis step. In this analysis step, we follow a data-driven approach of indexing semantics. The style analysis step is the second analysis step. Here, we tackle the indexing problem by viewing a video from the perspective of production. Finally, in the context analysis step, we view semantics in context. The virtue of the semantic pathfinder is its ability to learn the best path of analysis steps on a per-concept basis. To show the generality of this novel indexing approach, we develop detectors for a lexicon of 32 concepts and we evaluate the semantic pathfinder against the 2004 NIST TRECVID video retrieval benchmark, using a news archive of 64 hours. Top ranking performance in the semantic concept detection task indicates the merit of the semantic pathfinder for generic indexing of multimedia archives.

  9. Adaptation of Conceptions of Learning Science Questionnaire into Turkish and Science Teacher Candidates' Conceptions of Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahçivan, Eralp; Kapucu, Serkan

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (1) adapt an instrument "The Conceptions of Learning Science (COLS) questionnaire" into Turkish, and (2) to determine Turkish science teacher candidates' COLS. Adapting the instrument four steps were followed. Firstly, COLS questionnaire was translated into Turkish. Secondly, COLS questionnaire was…

  10. Attaining Meaningful Learning of Concepts in Genetics and Ecology: An Examination of the Potency of the Concept-Mapping Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okebukola, Peter Akinsola

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the relationship of concept-mapping by students to the meaningful learning of genetics and ecological concepts. The implications of these results for teacher education in biology are addressed. (KR)

  11. Enhancing Collaborative and Meaningful Language Learning Through Concept Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriott, Rita De Cássia Veiga; Torres, Patrícia Lupion

    This chapter aims to investigate new ways of foreign-language teaching/learning via a study of how concept mapping can help develop a student's reading, writing and oral skills as part of a blended methodology for language teaching known as LAPLI (Laboratorio de Aprendizagem de LInguas: The Language Learning Lab). LAPLI is a student-centred and collaborative methodology which encourages students to challenge their limitations and expand their current knowledge whilst developing their linguistic and interpersonal skills. We explore the theories that underpin LAPLI and detail the 12 activities comprising its programme with specify reference to the use of "concept mapping". An innovative table enabling a formative and summative assessment of the concept maps is formulated. Also presented are some of the qualitative and quantitative results achieved when this methodology was first implemented with a group of pre-service students studying for a degree in English and Portuguese languages at the Catholic University of Parana (PUCPR) in Brazil. The contribution of concept mapping and LAPLI to an under standing of language learning along with a consideration of the difficulties encountered in its implementation with student groups is discussed and suggestions made for future research.

  12. Enhancing Collaborative and Meaningful Language Learning through Concept Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cássia Veiga Marriott, Rita; Torres, Patrícia Lupion

    This chapter aims to investigate new ways of foreign-language teaching/learning via a study of how concept mapping can help develop a student's reading, writing and oral skills as part of a blended methodology for language teaching known as LAPLI (Laboratorio de Aprendizagem de LInguas: The Language Learning Lab). LAPLI is a student-centred and collaborative methodology which encourages students to challenge their limitations and expand their current knowledge whilst developing their linguistic and interpersonal skills. We explore the theories that underpin LAPLI and detail the 12 activities comprising its programme with specify reference to the use of “concept mapping”. An innovative table enabling a formative and summative assessment of the concept maps is formulated. Also presented are some of the qualitative and quantitative results achieved when this methodology was first implemented with a group of pre-service students studying for a degree in English and Portuguese languages at the Catholic University of Parana (PUCPR) in Brazil. The contribution of concept mapping and LAPLI to an understanding of language learning along with a consideration of the difficulties encountered in its implementation with student groups is discussed and suggestions made for future research.

  13. Musical and verbal semantic memory: two distinct neural networks?

    PubMed

    Groussard, M; Viader, F; Hubert, V; Landeau, B; Abbas, A; Desgranges, B; Eustache, F; Platel, H

    2010-02-01

    Semantic memory has been investigated in numerous neuroimaging and clinical studies, most of which have used verbal or visual, but only very seldom, musical material. Clinical studies have suggested that there is a relative neural independence between verbal and musical semantic memory. In the present study, "musical semantic memory" is defined as memory for "well-known" melodies without any knowledge of the spatial or temporal circumstances of learning, while "verbal semantic memory" corresponds to general knowledge about concepts, again without any knowledge of the spatial or temporal circumstances of learning. Our aim was to compare the neural substrates of musical and verbal semantic memory by administering the same type of task in each modality. We used high-resolution PET H(2)O(15) to observe 11 young subjects performing two main tasks: (1) a musical semantic memory task, where the subjects heard the first part of familiar melodies and had to decide whether the second part they heard matched the first, and (2) a verbal semantic memory task with the same design, but where the material consisted of well-known expressions or proverbs. The musical semantic memory condition activated the superior temporal area and inferior and middle frontal areas in the left hemisphere and the inferior frontal area in the right hemisphere. The verbal semantic memory condition activated the middle temporal region in the left hemisphere and the cerebellum in the right hemisphere. We found that the verbal and musical semantic processes activated a common network extending throughout the left temporal neocortex. In addition, there was a material-dependent topographical preference within this network, with predominantly anterior activation during musical tasks and predominantly posterior activation during semantic verbal tasks. PMID:19854279

  14. Facilitating Mainstreaming through a School-Wide Study Skills Program and Semantic Feature Analysis: An Interactive Teaching Strategy for Facilitating Learning from Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gayle; Bos, Candace S.

    1987-01-01

    Two articles look at effective practices with the learning disabled. The first, "Facilitating Mainstreaming through a School-Wide Study Skills Program" (Gayle Smith), stresses one skill each month. "Semantic Feature Analysis: An Interactive Teaching Strategy for Facilitating Learning from Text" (Candace Bos and Patricia Anders) offers a method for…

  15. Assessment of Integrated Learning: Suggested Application of Concept Mapping to Prior Learning Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popova-Gonci, Viktoria; Lamb, Monica C.

    2012-01-01

    Prior learning assessment (PLA) students enter academia with different types of concepts--some of them have been formally accepted and labeled by academia and others are informally formulated by students via independent and/or experiential learning. The critical goal of PLA practices is to assess an intricate combination of prior learning…

  16. Semantic Webs and Study Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, John J.; Rabideau, Debra K.

    1995-01-01

    Principles for ensuring effective use of semantic webbing in meeting study skill needs of students with learning problems are noted. Important study skills are listed, along with suggested semantic web topics for which subordinate ideas may be developed. Two semantic webs are presented, illustrating the study skills of multiple choice test-taking…

  17. Validation of a learning hierarchy for the mole concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Alan K.; Kass, Heidi; Cornish, Alan G.

    Three psychometric methods for validating learning hierarchies are applied to one data set derived from responses of grade 10 chemistry students to items representing the skills in a hypothesized hierarchy for the mole concept. Two methods which considered skills in pairs, namely the test of inclusion by White and Clark and the ordering-theoretic method by Airaisian and Bart produced generally similar results. The third method, by Dayton and Mac-ready, considered the hierarchy as a whole and produced clearer distinctions between alternative hierarchies than the first two methods. The hierarchy derived from this analysis was supported by a test for transfer of learning from subordinate to superordinate skills.

  18. Millennial Students' Preferred Methods for Learning Concepts in Psychiatric Nursing.

    PubMed

    Garwood, Janet K

    2015-09-01

    The current longitudinal, descriptive, and correlational study explored which traditional teaching strategies can engage Millennial students and adequately prepare them for the ultimate test of nursing competence: the National Council Licensure Examination. The study comprised a convenience sample of 40 baccalaureate nursing students enrolled in a psychiatric nursing course. The students were exposed to a variety of traditional (e.g., PowerPoint(®)-guided lectures) and nontraditional (e.g., concept maps, group activities) teaching and learning strategies, and rated their effectiveness. The students' scores on the final examination demonstrated that student learning outcomes met or exceeded national benchmarks. PMID:26375856

  19. Professional Music Training and Novel Word Learning: From Faster Semantic Encoding to Longer-lasting Word Representations.

    PubMed

    Dittinger, Eva; Barbaroux, Mylène; D'Imperio, Mariapaola; Jäncke, Lutz; Elmer, Stefan; Besson, Mireille

    2016-10-01

    On the basis of previous results showing that music training positively influences different aspects of speech perception and cognition, the aim of this series of experiments was to test the hypothesis that adult professional musicians would learn the meaning of novel words through picture-word associations more efficiently than controls without music training (i.e., fewer errors and faster RTs). We also expected musicians to show faster changes in brain electrical activity than controls, in particular regarding the N400 component that develops with word learning. In line with these hypotheses, musicians outperformed controls in the most difficult semantic task. Moreover, although a frontally distributed N400 component developed in both groups of participants after only a few minutes of novel word learning, in musicians this frontal distribution rapidly shifted to parietal scalp sites, as typically found for the N400 elicited by known words. Finally, musicians showed evidence for better long-term memory for novel words 5 months after the main experimental session. Results are discussed in terms of cascading effects from enhanced perception to memory as well as in terms of multifaceted improvements of cognitive processing due to music training. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that music training influences semantic aspects of language processing in adults. These results open new perspectives for education in showing that early music training can facilitate later foreign language learning. Moreover, the design used in the present experiment can help to specify the stages of word learning that are impaired in children and adults with word learning difficulties.

  20. Professional Music Training and Novel Word Learning: From Faster Semantic Encoding to Longer-lasting Word Representations.

    PubMed

    Dittinger, Eva; Barbaroux, Mylène; D'Imperio, Mariapaola; Jäncke, Lutz; Elmer, Stefan; Besson, Mireille

    2016-10-01

    On the basis of previous results showing that music training positively influences different aspects of speech perception and cognition, the aim of this series of experiments was to test the hypothesis that adult professional musicians would learn the meaning of novel words through picture-word associations more efficiently than controls without music training (i.e., fewer errors and faster RTs). We also expected musicians to show faster changes in brain electrical activity than controls, in particular regarding the N400 component that develops with word learning. In line with these hypotheses, musicians outperformed controls in the most difficult semantic task. Moreover, although a frontally distributed N400 component developed in both groups of participants after only a few minutes of novel word learning, in musicians this frontal distribution rapidly shifted to parietal scalp sites, as typically found for the N400 elicited by known words. Finally, musicians showed evidence for better long-term memory for novel words 5 months after the main experimental session. Results are discussed in terms of cascading effects from enhanced perception to memory as well as in terms of multifaceted improvements of cognitive processing due to music training. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that music training influences semantic aspects of language processing in adults. These results open new perspectives for education in showing that early music training can facilitate later foreign language learning. Moreover, the design used in the present experiment can help to specify the stages of word learning that are impaired in children and adults with word learning difficulties. PMID:27315272

  1. Finding faults: analogical comparison supports spatial concept learning in geoscience.

    PubMed

    Jee, Benjamin D; Uttal, David H; Gentner, Dedre; Manduca, Cathy; Shipley, Thomas F; Sageman, Bradley

    2013-05-01

    A central issue in education is how to support the spatial thinking involved in learning science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We investigated whether and how the cognitive process of analogical comparison supports learning of a basic spatial concept in geoscience, fault. Because of the high variability in the appearance of faults, it may be difficult for students to learn the category-relevant spatial structure. There is abundant evidence that comparing analogous examples can help students gain insight into important category-defining features (Gentner in Cogn Sci 34(5):752-775, 2010). Further, comparing high-similarity pairs can be especially effective at revealing key differences (Sagi et al. 2012). Across three experiments, we tested whether comparison of visually similar contrasting examples would help students learn the fault concept. Our main findings were that participants performed better at identifying faults when they (1) compared contrasting (fault/no fault) cases versus viewing each case separately (Experiment 1), (2) compared similar as opposed to dissimilar contrasting cases early in learning (Experiment 2), and (3) viewed a contrasting pair of schematic block diagrams as opposed to a single block diagram of a fault as part of an instructional text (Experiment 3). These results suggest that comparison of visually similar contrasting cases helped distinguish category-relevant from category-irrelevant features for participants. When such comparisons occurred early in learning, participants were more likely to form an accurate conceptual representation. Thus, analogical comparison of images may provide one powerful way to enhance spatial learning in geoscience and other STEM disciplines. PMID:23436210

  2. Finding faults: analogical comparison supports spatial concept learning in geoscience.

    PubMed

    Jee, Benjamin D; Uttal, David H; Gentner, Dedre; Manduca, Cathy; Shipley, Thomas F; Sageman, Bradley

    2013-05-01

    A central issue in education is how to support the spatial thinking involved in learning science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We investigated whether and how the cognitive process of analogical comparison supports learning of a basic spatial concept in geoscience, fault. Because of the high variability in the appearance of faults, it may be difficult for students to learn the category-relevant spatial structure. There is abundant evidence that comparing analogous examples can help students gain insight into important category-defining features (Gentner in Cogn Sci 34(5):752-775, 2010). Further, comparing high-similarity pairs can be especially effective at revealing key differences (Sagi et al. 2012). Across three experiments, we tested whether comparison of visually similar contrasting examples would help students learn the fault concept. Our main findings were that participants performed better at identifying faults when they (1) compared contrasting (fault/no fault) cases versus viewing each case separately (Experiment 1), (2) compared similar as opposed to dissimilar contrasting cases early in learning (Experiment 2), and (3) viewed a contrasting pair of schematic block diagrams as opposed to a single block diagram of a fault as part of an instructional text (Experiment 3). These results suggest that comparison of visually similar contrasting cases helped distinguish category-relevant from category-irrelevant features for participants. When such comparisons occurred early in learning, participants were more likely to form an accurate conceptual representation. Thus, analogical comparison of images may provide one powerful way to enhance spatial learning in geoscience and other STEM disciplines.

  3. How the brain learns how few are "many": An fMRI study of the flexibility of quantifier semantics.

    PubMed

    Heim, Stefan; McMillan, Corey T; Clark, Robin; Baehr, Laura; Ternes, Kylie; Olm, Christopher; Min, Nam Eun; Grossman, Murray

    2016-01-15

    Previous work has shown that the meaning of a quantifier such as "many" or "few" depends in part on quantity. However, the meaning of a quantifier may vary depending on the context, e.g. in the case of common entities such as "many ants" (perhaps several thousands) compared to endangered species such as "many pandas" (perhaps a dozen). In a recent study (Heim et al., 2015 Front. Psychol.) we demonstrated that the relative meaning of "many" and "few" may be changed experimentally. In a truth value judgment task, displays with 40% of circles in a named color initially had a low probability of being labeled "many". After a training phase, the likelihood of acceptance 40% as "many" increased. Moreover, the semantic learning effect also generalized to the related quantifier "few" which had not been mentioned in the training phase. Thus, fewer 40% arrays were considered "few." In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that this semantic adaptation effect was supported by cytoarchitectonic Brodmann area (BA) 45 in Broca's region which may contribute to semantic evaluation in the context of language and quantification. In an event-related fMRI study, 17 healthy volunteers performed the same paradigm as in the previous behavioral study. We found a relative signal increase when comparing the critical, trained proportion to untrained proportions. This specific effect was found in left BA 45 for the trained quantifier "many", and in left BA 44 for both quantifiers, reflecting the semantic adjustment for the untrained but related quantifier "few." These findings demonstrate the neural basis for processing the flexible meaning of a quantifier, and illustrate the neuroanatomical structures that contribute to variable meanings that can be associated with a word when used in different contexts. PMID:26481678

  4. How the brain learns how few are "many": An fMRI study of the flexibility of quantifier semantics.

    PubMed

    Heim, Stefan; McMillan, Corey T; Clark, Robin; Baehr, Laura; Ternes, Kylie; Olm, Christopher; Min, Nam Eun; Grossman, Murray

    2016-01-15

    Previous work has shown that the meaning of a quantifier such as "many" or "few" depends in part on quantity. However, the meaning of a quantifier may vary depending on the context, e.g. in the case of common entities such as "many ants" (perhaps several thousands) compared to endangered species such as "many pandas" (perhaps a dozen). In a recent study (Heim et al., 2015 Front. Psychol.) we demonstrated that the relative meaning of "many" and "few" may be changed experimentally. In a truth value judgment task, displays with 40% of circles in a named color initially had a low probability of being labeled "many". After a training phase, the likelihood of acceptance 40% as "many" increased. Moreover, the semantic learning effect also generalized to the related quantifier "few" which had not been mentioned in the training phase. Thus, fewer 40% arrays were considered "few." In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that this semantic adaptation effect was supported by cytoarchitectonic Brodmann area (BA) 45 in Broca's region which may contribute to semantic evaluation in the context of language and quantification. In an event-related fMRI study, 17 healthy volunteers performed the same paradigm as in the previous behavioral study. We found a relative signal increase when comparing the critical, trained proportion to untrained proportions. This specific effect was found in left BA 45 for the trained quantifier "many", and in left BA 44 for both quantifiers, reflecting the semantic adjustment for the untrained but related quantifier "few." These findings demonstrate the neural basis for processing the flexible meaning of a quantifier, and illustrate the neuroanatomical structures that contribute to variable meanings that can be associated with a word when used in different contexts.

  5. The Effects of the Construction of Learning Materials on Concept Learning from Text in Students: Sequence and Hierarchical Structure of Learning Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsuki, Toru; Fushimi, Yohji

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the effects of learning material construction on concept learning while aiming for students to acquire the basic concepts of electricity and magnetism. Reports that concept learning of electricity and magnetism is influenced by the hierarchical structure of learning materials, not by sequence. (Contains 14 references.) (Author/YDS)

  6. Implementing concept-based learning in a large undergraduate classroom.

    PubMed

    Morse, David; Jutras, France

    2008-01-01

    An experiment explicitly introducing learning strategies to a large, first-year undergraduate cell biology course was undertaken to see whether awareness and use of strategies had a measurable impact on student performance. The construction of concept maps was selected as the strategy to be introduced because of an inherent coherence with a course structured by concepts. Data were collected over three different semesters of an introductory cell biology course, all teaching similar course material with the same professor and all evaluated using similar examinations. The first group, used as a control, did not construct concept maps, the second group constructed individual concept maps, and the third group first constructed individual maps then validated their maps in small teams to provide peer feedback about the individual maps. Assessment of the experiment involved student performance on the final exam, anonymous polls of student perceptions, failure rate, and retention of information at the start of the following year. The main conclusion drawn is that concept maps without feedback have no significant effect on student performance, whereas concept maps with feedback produced a measurable increase in student problem-solving performance and a decrease in failure rates.

  7. Implementing Concept-based Learning in a Large Undergraduate Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Jutras, France

    2008-01-01

    An experiment explicitly introducing learning strategies to a large, first-year undergraduate cell biology course was undertaken to see whether awareness and use of strategies had a measurable impact on student performance. The construction of concept maps was selected as the strategy to be introduced because of an inherent coherence with a course structured by concepts. Data were collected over three different semesters of an introductory cell biology course, all teaching similar course material with the same professor and all evaluated using similar examinations. The first group, used as a control, did not construct concept maps, the second group constructed individual concept maps, and the third group first constructed individual maps then validated their maps in small teams to provide peer feedback about the individual maps. Assessment of the experiment involved student performance on the final exam, anonymous polls of student perceptions, failure rate, and retention of information at the start of the following year. The main conclusion drawn is that concept maps without feedback have no significant effect on student performance, whereas concept maps with feedback produced a measurable increase in student problem-solving performance and a decrease in failure rates. PMID:18519616

  8. Lexical selection in the semantically blocked cyclic naming task: the role of cognitive control and learning

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, Jason E.; Martin, Randi C.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of semantic interference in language production have provided evidence for a role of cognitive control mechanisms in regulating the activation of semantic competitors during naming. The present study investigated the relationship between individual differences in cognitive control abilities, for both younger and older adults, and the degree of semantic interference in a blocked cyclic naming task. We predicted that individuals with lower working memory capacity (as measured by word span), lesser ability to inhibit distracting responses (as measured by Stroop interference), and a lesser ability to resolve proactive interference (as measured by a recent negatives task) would show a greater increase in semantic interference in naming, with effects being larger for older adults. Instead, measures of cognitive control were found to relate to specific indices of semantic interference in the naming task, rather than overall degree of semantic interference, and few interactions with age were found, with younger and older adults performing similarly. The increase in naming latencies across naming trials within a cycle was negatively correlated with word span for both related and unrelated conditions, suggesting a strategy of narrowing response alternatives based upon memory for the set of item names. Evidence for a role of inhibition in response selection was obtained, as Stroop interference correlated positively with the change in naming latencies across cycles for the related, but not unrelated, condition. In contrast, recent negatives interference correlated negatively with the change in naming latencies across unrelated cycles, suggesting that individual differences in this tap the degree of strengthening of links in a lexical network based upon prior exposure. Results are discussed in terms of current models of lexical selection and consequences for word retrieval in more naturalistic production. PMID:24478675

  9. Development of Category-based Induction and Semantic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Anna V.; Godwin, Karrie E.; Matlen, Bryan J.; Unger, Layla

    2015-01-01

    Category-based induction is a hallmark of mature cognition; however, little is known about its origins. This study evaluated the hypothesis that category-based induction is related to semantic development. Computational studies suggest that early on there is little differentiation among concepts, but learning and development lead to increased…

  10. The Effects of a Concept Map-Based Support Tool on Simulation-Based Inquiry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagemans, Mieke G.; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Ton

    2013-01-01

    Students often need support to optimize their learning in inquiry learning environments. In 2 studies, we investigated the effects of adding concept-map-based support to a simulation-based inquiry environment on kinematics. The concept map displayed the main domain concepts and their relations, while dynamic color coding of the concepts displayed…

  11. Impaired ranking of semantic attributes in dementia.

    PubMed

    Grober, E; Buschke, H; Kawas, C; Fuld, P

    1985-11-01

    The present work explored the loss of semantic attributes that is said to occur in dementia. In the first two experiments, subjects had to select attributes that went with concepts like airplane and church. The finding that demented subjects maintained high levels of accuracy when selecting attributes suggested that the semantic content of their concepts was relatively well preserved. The organization of the content was explored in a third experiment by having subjects order attributes according to their relative importance in defining concepts. While demented subjects performed better than chance, they did not rank attributes as well as healthy aged subjects, suggesting a disruption in organization whereby the importance of central attributes is reduced. The hypothesized disruption in organization is viewed in relation to the learning and memory deficit that is the hallmark of the dementias.

  12. Conceptions of Learning: An Exploratory Study in the Context of Marketing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuksel, Ulku; Sutton-Brady, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates marketing three phenomena. First authors examine student's approaches to studying and learning, then they explore their conceptions of learning, and they finally delve into teacher's perceptions of student's learning. Authors recast the conceptions of learning literature in which they classify simplifiers, accountants,…

  13. Cross-domain active learning for video concept detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huan; Li, Chao; Shi, Yuan; Xiong, Zhang; Hauptmann, Alexander G.

    2011-08-01

    As video data from a variety of different domains (e.g., news, documentaries, entertainment) have distinctive data distributions, cross-domain video concept detection becomes an important task, in which one can reuse the labeled data of one domain to benefit the learning task in another domain with insufficient labeled data. In this paper, we approach this problem by proposing a cross-domain active learning method which iteratively queries labels of the most informative samples in the target domain. Traditional active learning assumes that the training (source domain) and test data (target domain) are from the same distribution. However, it may fail when the two domains have different distributions because querying informative samples according to a base learner that initially learned from source domain may no longer be helpful for the target domain. In our paper, we use the Gaussian random field model as the base learner which has the advantage of exploring the distributions in both domains, and adopt uncertainty sampling as the query strategy. Additionally, we present an instance weighting trick to accelerate the adaptability of the base learner, and develop an efficient model updating method which can significantly speed up the active learning process. Experimental results on TRECVID collections highlight the effectiveness.

  14. The Relationship Between Responses to Science Concepts on a Semantic Differential Instrument and Achievement in Freshman Physics and Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Arthur Israel

    Students taking freshman physics and freshman chemistry at The State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNYAB) were administered a science-related semantic differential instrument. This same test was administered to physics and chemistry graduate students from SUNYAB and the University of Rochester. A scoring procedure was developed which…

  15. Learning Innovative Maternal Instinct: Activity Designing Semantic Factors of Alcohol Modification in Rural Communities of Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yodmongkol, Pitipong; Jaimung, Thunyaporn; Chakpitak, Nopasit; Sureephong, Pradorn

    2014-01-01

    At present, Thailand is confronting a serious problem of alcohol drinking behavior which needs to be solved urgently. This research aimed to identify the semantic factors on alcohol drinking behavior and to use maternal instinct driving for housewives as village health volunteers in rural communities, Thailand. Two methods were implemented as the…

  16. Spelling Performance and Semantic Understanding of Compound Words by Greek Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsesmeli, Styliani N.; Koutselaki, Despoina

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the spelling performance and the semantic understanding of compound words by 103 Greek primary school children (first through sixth grade). The experimental group comprised of 25 children with spelling difficulties and compared with a control group of 78 children of typical development. Children were asked to spell…

  17. Reasoning and Ontologies for Personalized E-Learning in the Semantic Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henze, Nicola; Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    The challenge of the semantic web is the provision of distributed information with well-defined meaning, understandable for different parties. Particularly, applications should be able to provide individually optimized access to information by taking the individual needs and requirements of the users into account. In this paper we propose a…

  18. Developmental Differences in the Effects of Phonological, Lexical and Semantic Variables on Word Learning by Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storkel, Holly L.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of phonological (i.e. individual sounds), lexical (i.e. whole-word forms) and semantic (i.e. meaning) characteristics on the words known by infants age 1;4 to 2;6 was examined, using an existing database (Dale & Fenson, 1996). For each noun, word frequency, two phonological (i.e. positional segment average, biphone average), two…

  19. A Mathematical Analysis of Semantic Maps, with Theoretical and Applied Implications for Blended Learning Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Michael; David, Hyerle; Byrne, Roxanne; Tran, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a mathematical (Boolean) analysis a set of cognitive maps called Thinking Maps[R], based on Albert Upton's semantic principles developed in his seminal works, Design for Thinking (1961) and Creative Analysis (1961). Albert Upton can be seen as a brilliant thinker who was before his time or after his time depending on the future of…

  20. The Effectiveness of Concept Maps in Teaching Physics Concepts Applied to Engineering Education: Experimental Comparison of the Amount of Learning Achieved with and without Concept Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Guadalupe; Perez, Angel Luis; Suero, Maria Isabel; Pardo, Pedro J.

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to quantify the effectiveness of concept maps in learning physics in engineering degrees. The following research question was posed: What was the difference in learning results from the use of concept maps to study a particular topic in an engineering course? The study design was quasi-experimental and used a post-test as a…

  1. The comparative effect of individually-generated vs. collaboratively-generated computer-based concept mapping on science concept learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, So Young

    Using a quasi-experimental design, the researcher investigated the comparative effects of individually-generated and collaboratively-generated computer-based concept mapping on middle school science concept learning. Qualitative data were analyzed to explain quantitative findings. One hundred sixty-one students (74 boys and 87 girls) in eight, seventh grade science classes at a middle school in Southeast Texas completed the entire study. Using prior science performance scores to assure equivalence of student achievement across groups, the researcher assigned the teacher's classes to one of the three experimental groups. The independent variable, group, consisted of three levels: 40 students in a control group, 59 students trained to individually generate concept maps on computers, and 62 students trained to collaboratively generate concept maps on computers. The dependent variables were science concept learning as demonstrated by comprehension test scores, and quality of concept maps created by students in experimental groups as demonstrated by rubric scores. Students in the experimental groups received concept mapping training and used their newly acquired concept mapping skills to individually or collaboratively construct computer-based concept maps during study time. The control group, the individually-generated concept mapping group, and the collaboratively-generated concept mapping group had equivalent learning experiences for 50 minutes during five days, excepting that students in a control group worked independently without concept mapping activities, students in the individual group worked individually to construct concept maps, and students in the collaborative group worked collaboratively to construct concept maps during their study time. Both collaboratively and individually generated computer-based concept mapping had a positive effect on seventh grade middle school science concept learning but neither strategy was more effective than the other. However

  2. Concepts first-A small group approach to physics learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautreau, Ronald; Novemsky, Lisa

    1997-05-01

    Since 1991, we have been using Alan Van Heuvelen's Overview, Case Study: Physics (OCS physics) methodology in introductory physics courses at New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) with remarkable success. With the OCS method, physics concepts are presented first, with no mathematics. Only after the concepts are understood is math brought into the picture at the appropriate level. In addition, much of the learning is accomplished with students working together in small groups of three or four. In these collaborative settings, students actively engage each other in the learning process, working on specially designed small group problems, while the instructor acts as a facilitator of the on-going learning. We present various comparisons showing the effectiveness of OCS instruction over traditional teaching. In particular, since the introduction of OCS physics into NJIT's summer Educational Opportunity Program (EOP), which involves mostly minority students, EOP students have significantly outperformed non-EOP students in their fall physics courses. Interviews with students and observations of videotapes suggest that "second teaching" takes place in small groups following "first teaching" by the instructor. Second teaching is interpreted on the basis of ideas developed by Vygotsky.

  3. Comparison of the traditional recall-based versus a new list-based method for computing semantic clustering on the California Verbal Learning Test: evidence from Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Delis, Dean C; Fine, Eric M; Stricker, John L; Houston, Wes S; Wetter, Spencer R; Cobell, Krystal; Jacobson, Mark W; Salmon, David P; Bondi, Mark W

    2010-01-01

    For over 50 years, cognitive psychologists and neuropsychologists have relied almost exclusively on a method for computing semantic clustering on list-learning tasks (recall-based formula) that was derived from an outdated assumption about how learning occurs. A new procedure for computing semantic clustering (list-based formula) was developed for the CVLT-II to correct the shortcomings of the traditional method. In the present study we compared the clinical utility of the traditional recall-based method versus the new list-based method using results from the original CVLT administered to 87 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 86 matched normal control participants. Logistic regression and score distribution analyses indicated that the new list-based method enhances the detection of differences in semantic-clustering ability between the groups.

  4. The effects of experimentally induced changes in self-concept on associative learning.

    PubMed

    Muller, D; Spuhler, R

    1976-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that self-concept influences ability to learn. This experiment systematically manipulated the self-concepts of learners regarding their abilities to learn a foreign language and measured their subsequent learning of a synthetic foreign language vocabulary list. Eleven Ss were randomly assigned to each of three groups: self-concept raised, self-concept lowered, control. Ss were college freshman who were not enrolled in a foreign language course or had not previously taken more than one semester of a foreign language. Self-concepts were measured as self-description of ability to learn a foreign language. Self-concepts were raised or lowered by providing false scores on a foreign language aptitude test. Learning was measured as performance on a paired-associates task utilizing random shapes and CVCs. Ss with lowered self-concepts learned more slowly than control Ss or Ss with raised self-concepts.

  5. Concept learning by retarded children: a comparison of three discrimination learning procedures.

    PubMed

    Aeschleman, S R; Higgins, A F

    1982-12-01

    The effectiveness of stimulus delay and stimulus fading procedures was compared with differential reinforcement only in training developmentally delayed children on a concept learning task. Twenty-four children were randomly assigned to one of the three treatment conditions. All three experimental conditions contained five discrimination programmes, each designed to teach the child to discriminate one pair of exemplars from the target concepts bottle and jar. Following successful completion of one training programme, a concept acquisition probe was administered to determine whether the target concepts had been engendered. Alternate presentations of successively different training programmes and concept acquisition probes were continued until the subject passed the probe, failed to complete a training programme, or completed all five training programmes. Five 'stimulus fading' subjects, three 'stimulus delay' subjects, and four 'reinforcement only' subjects learned the concepts. All children who learned to discriminate one pair of exemplars displayed conceptual behaviour after training on two or fewer pairs of exemplars. It was suggested that the absence of pronounced differences between conditions may have been due to the complexity of the task or the type of prompts employed.

  6. How Active Learning Affects Student Understanding of Concepts in Electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcher, John; Dori, Judy; Breslow, Lori

    2009-05-01

    We discuss the effects of the learning environment of the MIT TEAL project on student cognitive and affective outcomes in introductory electromagnetism. Our assessment included examining student conceptual understanding before and after studying electromagnetism in a media-rich environment. We developed pre-and posttests consisting of conceptual questions from standardized tests, as well as questions designed to assess the effect of visualizations and experiments. The research population consisted of 811 undergraduate students, consisting of small-and a large-scale experimental group and control group. The active learning students improved their conceptual understanding of the subject matter to a significantly higher extent than their control group peers. A subsequent longitudinal study indicates that the long-term effect of the TEAL course on student retention of concepts was significantly stronger than that of the traditional course.

  7. The time course of implicit and explicit concept learning.

    PubMed

    Ziori, Eleni; Dienes, Zoltán

    2012-03-01

    The present experiment investigated the development of implicit and explicit knowledge during concept learning. According to Cleeremans and Jiménez (2002), the content of a representation can be conscious only when the representation is of a sufficiently good quality; on this theory, increasing explicit and decreasing implicit knowledge might be expected with training. The view that implicit knowledge arises from compilation of explicit knowledge makes the opposite prediction. The present research tested these possibilities using subjective measures based on confidence ratings. One group of participants was presented with blocks of category exemplars that activated prior knowledge, whereas another group was presented with blocks of categories that did not elicit any useful prior knowledge. The results showed that, irrespective of the knowledge group participants were allocated to, explicit knowledge increased over the course of learning, whereas implicit knowledge either stayed the same or decreased, consistent with Cleeremans and Jiménez's prediction.

  8. Learning as They Write: An Assignment to Explain Physics Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinney, Julie; Hademenos, George

    2009-05-01

    Cross-curricular secondary instructional strategies exist in many different forms and can be applied to any two or more curricular disciplines. Most importantly, these strategies have been proven to be effective in improving learning and comprehension of important concepts across all curricular fields involved in the activity.1-7 There is no instructional strategy as applicable and as important to secondary students in all classes, particularly English Language Learners (ELLs),8,9 as the implementation of writing into a curricular discipline.

  9. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  10. How concepts are encoded in the human brain: A modality independent, category-based cortical organization of semantic knowledge.

    PubMed

    Handjaras, Giacomo; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Leo, Andrea; Lenci, Alessandro; Cecchetti, Luca; Cosottini, Mirco; Marotta, Giovanna; Pietrini, Pietro

    2016-07-15

    How conceptual knowledge is represented in the human brain remains to be determined. To address the differential role of low-level sensory-based and high-level abstract features in semantic processing, we combined behavioral studies of linguistic production and brain activity measures by functional magnetic resonance imaging in sighted and congenitally blind individuals while they performed a property-generation task with concrete nouns from eight categories, presented through visual and/or auditory modalities. Patterns of neural activity within a large semantic cortical network that comprised parahippocampal, lateral occipital, temporo-parieto-occipital and inferior parietal cortices correlated with linguistic production and were independent both from the modality of stimulus presentation (either visual or auditory) and the (lack of) visual experience. In contrast, selected modality-dependent differences were observed only when the analysis was limited to the individual regions within the semantic cortical network. We conclude that conceptual knowledge in the human brain relies on a distributed, modality-independent cortical representation that integrates the partial category and modality specific information retained at a regional level. PMID:27132545

  11. How concepts are encoded in the human brain: A modality independent, category-based cortical organization of semantic knowledge.

    PubMed

    Handjaras, Giacomo; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Leo, Andrea; Lenci, Alessandro; Cecchetti, Luca; Cosottini, Mirco; Marotta, Giovanna; Pietrini, Pietro

    2016-07-15

    How conceptual knowledge is represented in the human brain remains to be determined. To address the differential role of low-level sensory-based and high-level abstract features in semantic processing, we combined behavioral studies of linguistic production and brain activity measures by functional magnetic resonance imaging in sighted and congenitally blind individuals while they performed a property-generation task with concrete nouns from eight categories, presented through visual and/or auditory modalities. Patterns of neural activity within a large semantic cortical network that comprised parahippocampal, lateral occipital, temporo-parieto-occipital and inferior parietal cortices correlated with linguistic production and were independent both from the modality of stimulus presentation (either visual or auditory) and the (lack of) visual experience. In contrast, selected modality-dependent differences were observed only when the analysis was limited to the individual regions within the semantic cortical network. We conclude that conceptual knowledge in the human brain relies on a distributed, modality-independent cortical representation that integrates the partial category and modality specific information retained at a regional level.

  12. Effects of aging on value-directed modulation of semantic network activity during verbal learning.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Michael S; Rissman, Jesse; Suthana, Nanthia A; Castel, Alan D; Knowlton, Barbara J

    2016-01-15

    While impairments in memory recall are apparent in aging, older adults show a remarkably preserved ability to selectively remember information deemed valuable. Here, we use fMRI to compare brain activation in healthy older and younger adults during encoding of high and low value words to determine whether there are differences in how older adults achieve value-directed memory selectivity. We find that memory selectivity in older adults is associated with value-related changes in activation during word presentation in left hemisphere regions that are involved in semantic processing, similar to young adults. However, highly selective young adults show a relatively greater increase in semantic network activity during encoding of high-value items, whereas highly selective older adults show relatively diminished activity during encoding of low-value items. Additionally, only younger adults showed value-related increases in activity in semantic and reward processing regions during presentation of the value cue preceding each to-be-remembered word. Young adults therefore respond to cue value more proactively than do older adults, yet the magnitude of value-related differences in cue period brain activity did not predict individual differences in memory selectivity. Thus, our data also show that age-related reductions in prestimulus activity do not always lead to inefficient performance. PMID:26244278

  13. Learning through the Soul: Concepts Relating to Learning and Knowledge in the Mayan Cultures of Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Describes the central concept of Mayan culture, the possession of the soul, or ch'ulel, in the process of forming a knowledgeable person. Soul acquisition is important to becoming the ideal person, and to the educational formation of future generations. Looks at the role language plays in culture as memory, thought formation, and learning process.…

  14. Correlation of Students' Brain Types to Their Conceptions of Learning Science and Approaches to Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jiyeon; Jeon, Dongryul

    2015-01-01

    The systemizing and empathizing brain type represent two contrasted students' characteristics. The present study investigated differences in the conceptions and approaches to learning science between the systemizing and empathizing brain type students. The instruments are questionnaires on the systematizing and empathizing, questionnaires on the…

  15. Reframing the Concept of Reflection: Consciousness, Experiential Learning, and Reflective Learning Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordi, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The concept of reflection is common to a range of learning theories and therefore carries various meanings and differing significance. Within theories of adult education, reflection is predominantly conceptualized as the rational analytical process through which human beings extract knowledge from their experience. This article critiques this…

  16. Explorers of the Universe: Metacognitive Tools for Learning Science Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, Marino C.

    1998-01-01

    Much of school learning consists of rote memorization of facts with little emphasis on meaningful interpretations. Knowledge construction is reduced to factual knowledge production with little regard for critical thinking, problem solving, or clarifying misconceptions. An important role of a middle and secondary teacher when teaching science is to aid students' ability to reflect upon what they know about a given topic and make available strategies that will enhance their understanding of text and science experiments. Developing metacognition, the ability to monitor one's own knowledge about a topic of study and to activate appropriate strategies, enhances students' learning when faced with reading, writing and problem solving situations. Two instructional strategies that can involve students in developing metacognitive awareness are hierarchical concept mapping, and Vee diagrams. Concept maps enable students to organize their ideas and reveal visually these ideas to others. A Vee diagram is a structured visual means of relating the methodological aspects of an activity to its underlying conceptual aspect in ways that aid learners in meaningful understanding of scientific investigations.

  17. Differential outcomes facilitate same/different concept learning.

    PubMed

    Schmidtke, Kelly A; Katz, Jeffrey S; Wright, Anthony A

    2010-05-01

    Commonly recognized, the training procedure one employs often affects the results they obtain. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that abstract-concept learning is affected by employing a differential-outcomes procedure. The differential-outcome effect has been shown to occur for item-specific strategies but has not been established for relational strategies. To test whether different-outcome expectancies can facilitate a relational strategy, eight pigeons were trained and tested in a two-item same/different task with pictures. After pecking an upper picture, they pecked a lower picture if the pictures were the same or a white rectangle if the pictures were different. Two groups of pigeons were rewarded with either different outcomes (sounds and food amounts) or same outcomes. Both groups were trained to criterion with successively larger picture sets (8-1,024 items) and were transfer tested with novel pictures following each acquisition. With the smallest training sets, neither group showed any novel-stimulus transfer. But after acquiring the task with 32 pictures, the different-outcomes group responded more accurately to novel pictures than the same-outcome group. As the training set-size increased, both groups' transfer performance converged and became equivalent to training performance. These results show for the first time that training with different outcomes facilitates abstract-concept learning.

  18. Self-Regulated Workplace Learning: A Pedagogical Framework and Semantic Web-Based Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siadaty, Melody; Gasevic, Dragan; Jovanovic, Jelena; Pata, Kai; Milikic, Nikola; Holocher-Ertl, Teresa; Jeremic, Zoran; Ali, Liaqat; Giljanovic, Aleksandar; Hatala, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Self-regulated learning processes have a potential to enhance the motivation of knowledge workers to take part in learning and reflection about learning, and thus contribute to the resolution of an important research challenge in workplace learning. An equally important research challenge for the successful completion of each step of a…

  19. Personalized Learning Objects Recommendation Based on the Semantic-Aware Discovery and the Learner Preference Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tzone I; Tsai, Kun Hua; Lee, Ming Che; Chiu, Ti Kai

    2007-01-01

    With vigorous development of the Internet, especially the web page interaction technology, distant E-learning has become more and more realistic and popular. Digital courses may consist of many learning units or learning objects and, currently, many learning objects are created according to SCORM standard. It can be seen that, in the near future,…

  20. Designing a Semantic Bliki System to Support Different Types of Knowledge and Adaptive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shiu-Li; Yang, Chia-Wei

    2009-01-01

    Though blogs and wikis have been used to support knowledge management and e-learning, existing blogs and wikis cannot support different types of knowledge and adaptive learning. A case in point, types of knowledge vary greatly in category and viewpoints. Additionally, adaptive learning is crucial to improving one's learning performance. This study…

  1. Concept Map Structure, Gender and Teaching Methods: An Investigation of Students' Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstner, Sabine; Bogner, Franz X.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study deals with the application of concept mapping to the teaching and learning of a science topic with secondary school students in Germany. Purpose: The main research questions were: (1) Do different teaching approaches affect concept map structure or students' learning success? (2) Is the structure of concept maps influenced…

  2. Transformative Learning and Concepts of the Self: Insights from Immigrant and Intercultural Journeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This article examines Canadian immigrant and intercultural learning as an insightful context for examining transformative learning. Theories of intercultural communication are explored, particularly the concept of transculturality and Bhabha's concept of "Third Space". Various concepts of the self are also compared, particularly two…

  3. Learning the Attachment Theory with the CM-ED Concept Map Editor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueda, U.; Arruarte, A.; Elorriaga, J. A.; Herran, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study carried out at the University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU with the aim of evaluating the CM-ED (concept map editor) with social education students. Concept mapping is a widely accepted technique that promotes meaningful learning. Graphically representing concepts of the learning domain and relationships between them…

  4. Learning Outcomes as a Key Concept in Policy Documents throughout Policy Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prøitz, Tine Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Learning outcomes can be considered to be a key concept in a changing education policy landscape, enhancing aspects such as benchmarking and competition. Issues relating to concepts of performance have a long history of debate within the field of education. Today, the concept of learning outcomes has become central in education policy development,…

  5. The Power of Examples: Illustrative Examples Enhance Conceptual Learning of Declarative Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Katherine A.; Thomas, Ruthann C.; Jacoby, Larry L.

    2015-01-01

    Declarative concepts (i.e., key terms with short definitions of the abstract concepts denoted by those terms) are a common kind of information that students are expected to learn in many domains. A common pedagogical approach for supporting learning of declarative concepts involves presenting students with concrete examples that illustrate how the…

  6. A Mutually Facilitative Relationship between Learning Names and Learning Concepts in Preschool Children: The Case of Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Deborah G. Kemler; O'Neil, Kelly A.; Asher, Yvonne M.

    2008-01-01

    Two studies investigated the relationship between learning names and learning concepts in preschool children. More specifically, we focused on the relationship between learning the names and learning the intended functions of artifacts, given that the intended function of an artifact is generally thought to constitute core conceptual information…

  7. Using a Learning Cycle to Deepen Chinese Primary Students' Concept Learning of the "Phases of the Moon"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jing

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the internal conditions of students' concept learning and builds a learning cycle' based on the "phases of the Moon" (MP) to, deepen students' understanding. The learning cycle of MP developed in this study includes three basic learning links, which are: cognitive conflict, abstraction and generalization, and…

  8. Conceptions of Self-Directed Learning: Theoretical and Conceptual Considerations. LOS, Learning Organized Self-Directed Researchgroup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straka, Gerald A., Ed.

    This book consists of 15 papers addressing issues and conceptions of self-directed learning. The following are included: "Self-Directed Learning as a Political Idea" (Stephen D. Brookfield); "Social Influences on Individual Commitment to Self-Directed Learning at Work" (Alan J. Brown); "Goals of Self-Learning" (Rosemary S. Caffarella); "From…

  9. Adults' Perceptions of Concept Learning Outcomes: An Initial Study and Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Brent G.; Tessmer, Martin

    This paper reports on an empirical study of educators' perceptions of learning concepts, reviews the cognitive learning literature, and argues for an expanded view of conceptual knowledge and its role in education and training. The report begins with discussions of changing views of concept learning and declarative and procedural components of…

  10. The Effect of a Constructivist Learning Environment on the Limit Concept among Mathematics Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukova-Guzel, Esra

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design a constructivist learning environment that helps learning the limit concept. The study is a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research. The control and the experimental groups were chosen from the students attending a calculus course. Worksheets were used to assess students' learning of the limit concept.…

  11. Effective Self-Regulated Science Learning through Multimedia-Enriched Skeleton Concept Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maree, Ton J.; van Bruggen, Jan M.; Jochems, Wim M. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study combines work on concept mapping with scripted collaborative learning. Purpose: The objective was to examine the effects of self-regulated science learning through scripting students' argumentative interactions during collaborative "multimedia-enriched skeleton concept mapping" on meaningful science learning and retention.…

  12. Semantic facilitation in bilingual first language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Bilson, Samuel; Yoshida, Hanako; Tran, Crystal D; Woods, Elizabeth A; Hills, Thomas T

    2015-07-01

    Bilingual first language learners face unique challenges that may influence the rate and order of early word learning relative to monolinguals. A comparison of the productive vocabularies of 435 children between the ages of 6 months and 7 years-181 of which were bilingual English learners-found that monolinguals learned both English words and all-language concepts faster than bilinguals. However, bilinguals showed an enhancement of an effect previously found in monolinguals-the preference for learning words with more associative cues. Though both monolinguals and bilinguals were best fit by a similar model of word learning, semantic network structure and growth indicated that the two groups were learning English words in a different order. Further, in comparison with a model of two-monolinguals-in-one-mind, bilinguals overproduced translational equivalents. Our results support an emergent account of bilingual first language acquisition, where learning a word in one language facilitates its acquisition in a second language.

  13. Word learning does not end at fast-mapping: evolution of verb meanings through reorganization of an entire semantic domain.

    PubMed

    Saji, Noburo; Imai, Mutsumi; Saalbach, Henrik; Zhang, Yuping; Shu, Hua; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the process through which children sort out the relations among verbs belonging to the same semantic domain. Using a set of Chinese verbs denoting a range of action events that are labeled by carrying or holding in English as a test case, we looked at how Chinese-speaking 3-, 5-, and 7-year-olds and adults apply 13 different verbs to a range of carrying/holding events. We asked how children learning Chinese originally divide and label the semantic space in this domain, how they discover the boundaries between different words, and how the meanings of verbs in the domain as a whole evolve toward the representations of adults. We also addressed the question of what factors make verb meaning acquisition easy or hard. Results showed that the pattern of children's verb use is largely different from that of adults and that it takes a long time for children to be able to use all verbs in this domain in the way adults do. We also found that children start to use broad-covering and frequent verbs the earliest, but use of these verbs tends to converge on adult use more slowly because children could not use these verbs as adults did until they had identified boundaries between these verbs and other near-synonyms with more specific meanings. This research highlights the importance of systematic investigation of words that belong to the same domain as a whole, examining how word meanings in a domain develop as parts of a connected system, instead of examining each word on its own: learning the meaning of a verb invites restructuring of the meanings of related, neighboring verbs.

  14. Word learning does not end at fast-mapping: evolution of verb meanings through reorganization of an entire semantic domain.

    PubMed

    Saji, Noburo; Imai, Mutsumi; Saalbach, Henrik; Zhang, Yuping; Shu, Hua; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the process through which children sort out the relations among verbs belonging to the same semantic domain. Using a set of Chinese verbs denoting a range of action events that are labeled by carrying or holding in English as a test case, we looked at how Chinese-speaking 3-, 5-, and 7-year-olds and adults apply 13 different verbs to a range of carrying/holding events. We asked how children learning Chinese originally divide and label the semantic space in this domain, how they discover the boundaries between different words, and how the meanings of verbs in the domain as a whole evolve toward the representations of adults. We also addressed the question of what factors make verb meaning acquisition easy or hard. Results showed that the pattern of children's verb use is largely different from that of adults and that it takes a long time for children to be able to use all verbs in this domain in the way adults do. We also found that children start to use broad-covering and frequent verbs the earliest, but use of these verbs tends to converge on adult use more slowly because children could not use these verbs as adults did until they had identified boundaries between these verbs and other near-synonyms with more specific meanings. This research highlights the importance of systematic investigation of words that belong to the same domain as a whole, examining how word meanings in a domain develop as parts of a connected system, instead of examining each word on its own: learning the meaning of a verb invites restructuring of the meanings of related, neighboring verbs. PMID:21074145

  15. Phonological and Semantic Knowledge Are Causal Influences on Learning to Read Words in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lulin; Duff, Fiona J.; Hulme, Charles

    2015-01-01

    We report a training study that assesses whether teaching the pronunciation and meaning of spoken words improves Chinese children's subsequent attempts to learn to read the words. Teaching the pronunciations of words helps children to learn to read those same words, and teaching the pronunciations and meanings improves learning still further.…

  16. The Social Semantic Web in Intelligent Learning Environments: State of the Art and Future Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jovanovic, Jelena; Gasevic, Dragan; Torniai, Carlo; Bateman, Scott; Hatala, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Today's technology-enhanced learning practices cater to students and teachers who use many different learning tools and environments and are used to a paradigm of interaction derived from open, ubiquitous, and socially oriented services. In this context, a crucial issue for education systems in general, and for Intelligent Learning Environments…

  17. LEARNING FROM OTHERS: CHILDREN’S CONSTRUCTION OF CONCEPTS

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Much of children’s knowledge is derived not from their direct experiences with the environment but rather from the input of others. However, until recently, the focus in studies of concept development was primarily on children’s knowledge, with relatively little attention paid to the nature of the input. The last 10 years have seen an important shift in focus. This chapter reviews this approach, by examining the nature of the input, and the nature of the learner, to shed light on early conceptual learning. These findings argue against the simple notion that conceptual development is either supplied by the environment or innately specified, and instead demonstrate how the two work together. The implications for how children reconcile competing belief systems are also discussed. PMID:18631027

  18. Student learning with concept mapping of care plans in community-based education.

    PubMed

    Hinck, Susan M; Webb, Patricia; Sims-Giddens, Susan; Helton, Caroline; Hope, Kathryn L; Utley, Rose; Savinske, Deborah; Fahey, Elizabeth M; Yarbrough, Sue

    2006-01-01

    Concept mapping, a learning strategy used to understand key concepts and relationships between concepts, has been suggested as a method to plan and evaluate nursing care. The purpose of this study was to empirically test the effectiveness of concept mapping for student learning and the students' satisfaction with the strategy. A quasi-experimental pre- and posttest design was used to examine the content of concept maps of care plans constructed by junior-level baccalaureate students (n = 23) at the beginning and end of a community-based mental health course. Additionally, students completed a questionnaire to self-evaluate their learning and report their satisfaction with concept mapping. Findings indicated that concept mapping significantly improved students' abilities to see patterns and relationships to plan and evaluate nursing care, and most students (21/23) expressed satisfaction in using the strategy. This study supported concept mapping as an additional learning strategy and has extended knowledge in community-based nursing education.

  19. Concept Mapping as a Learning Tool for the Employment Relations Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Canas, Ricardo; Ruiz-Palomino, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Concept mapping is a technique to represent relationships between concepts that can help students to improve their meaningful learning. Using the cognitive theories proposed by Ausubel (1968), concept maps can help instructors and students to enhance their logical thinking and study skills by revealing connections among concepts that can simplify…

  20. Further evidence for feature correlations in semantic memory.

    PubMed

    McRae, K; Cree, G S; Westmacott, R; de Sa, V R

    1999-12-01

    The role of feature correlations in semantic memory is a central issue in conceptual representation. In two versions of the feature verification task, participants were faster to verify that a feature (< is juicy >) is part of a concept (grapefruit) if it is strongly rather than weakly intercorrelated with the other features of that concept. Contrasting interactions between feature correlations and SOA were found when the concept versus the feature was presented first. An attractor network model of word meaning that naturally learns and uses feature correlations predicted those interactions. This research provides further evidence that semantic memory includes implicitly learned statistical knowledge of feature relationships, in contrast to theories such as spreading activation networks, in which feature correlations play no role.

  1. Insights from Classifying Visual Concepts with Multiple Kernel Learning

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Alexander; Nakajima, Shinichi; Kloft, Marius; Müller, Christina; Samek, Wojciech; Brefeld, Ulf; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Kawanabe, Motoaki

    2012-01-01

    Combining information from various image features has become a standard technique in concept recognition tasks. However, the optimal way of fusing the resulting kernel functions is usually unknown in practical applications. Multiple kernel learning (MKL) techniques allow to determine an optimal linear combination of such similarity matrices. Classical approaches to MKL promote sparse mixtures. Unfortunately, 1-norm regularized MKL variants are often observed to be outperformed by an unweighted sum kernel. The main contributions of this paper are the following: we apply a recently developed non-sparse MKL variant to state-of-the-art concept recognition tasks from the application domain of computer vision. We provide insights on benefits and limits of non-sparse MKL and compare it against its direct competitors, the sum-kernel SVM and sparse MKL. We report empirical results for the PASCAL VOC 2009 Classification and ImageCLEF2010 Photo Annotation challenge data sets. Data sets (kernel matrices) as well as further information are available at http://doc.ml.tu-berlin.de/image_mkl/(Accessed 2012 Jun 25). PMID:22936970

  2. The Impact of the Flipped Classroom on Mathematics Concept Learning in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhagat, Kaushal Kumar; Chang, Cheng-Nan; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the flipped classroom learning environment on learner's learning achievement and motivation, as well as to investigate the effects of flipped classrooms on learners with different achievement levels in learning mathematics concepts. The learning achievement and motivation were measured by the…

  3. Improving Student Understanding of Lipids Concepts in a Biochemistry Course Using Test-Enhanced Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Savannah; Hernick, Marcy

    2015-01-01

    Test-enhanced learning has successfully been used as a means to enhance learning and promote knowledge retention in students. We have examined whether this approach could be used in a biochemistry course to enhance student learning about lipids-related concepts. Students were provided access to two optional learning modules with questions related…

  4. Surgical and nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Learned and unlearned concepts.

    PubMed

    Heitz-Mayfield, Lisa J A; Lang, Niklaus P

    2013-06-01

    This review aims to highlight concepts relating to nonsurgical and surgical periodontal therapy, which have been learned and unlearned over the past few decades. A number of treatment procedures, such as gingival curettage and aggressive removal of contaminated root cementum, have been unlearned. Advances in technology have resulted in the introduction of a range of new methods for use in nonsurgical periodontal therapy, including machine-driven instruments, lasers, antimicrobial photodynamic therapy and local antimicrobial-delivery devices. However, these methods have not been shown to offer significant benefits over and above nonsurgical debridement using hand instruments. The method of debridement is therefore largely dependent on the preferences of the operator and the patient. Recent evidence indicates that specific systemic antimicrobials may be indicated for use as adjuncts to nonsurgical debridement in patients with advanced disease. Full-mouth disinfection protocols have been proven to be a relevant treatment option. We have learned that while nonsurgical and surgical methods result in similar long-term treatment outcomes, surgical therapy results in greater probing-depth reduction and clinical attachment gain in initially deep pockets. The surgical technique chosen seems to have limited influence upon changes in clinical attachment gain. What has not changed is the importance of thorough mechanical debridement and optimal plaque control for successful nonsurgical and surgical periodontal therapy.

  5. The Learning-College Library Concept: The Role of the Community College Library in a Learning-College Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Leslie Anne

    2005-01-01

    This study examines college libraries so as to determine whether or not they have successfully adapted to reforms at their colleges, based on Terry O'Banion's concept of the learning-college. Although numerous studies exist documenting the transformation of community colleges to the learning-college concept, few empirical studies have clarified…

  6. Attitudes to concept maps as a teaching/learning activity in undergraduate health professional education: influence of preferred learning style.

    PubMed

    Laight, David W

    2004-05-01

    Concept maps that integrate and relate concepts in a nonlinear fashion are widely accepted as an educational tool that can underpin meaningful learning in medical education. However, student take-up may be affected by a number of cognitive and non-cognitive influences. In the present study, student attitudes to pre-prepared concept maps introduced in Stage 2 conjoint MPharm and BSc Pharmacology lectures were examined in relation to preferred learning styles according to the Felder-Silverman model. There was no statistically significant influence of dichotomous learning style dimension (sensing/intuitive; visual/verbal; active/reflector; sequential/global) on the self-reported utility of such concept maps to learning. However, when strength of preference was analysed within each dimension, moderate/strong verbal learners were found to be significantly less likely to self-report concept maps as useful relative to mild verbal learners. With this important exception, these data now suggest that student attitudes to concept maps are broadly not influenced by preferred learning styles and furthermore highlight the potential of concept maps to address a variety of different learning styles and thereby facilitate 'teaching to all types'. Concept maps could therefore potentially assist motivation, engagement and deep learning in medical and biomedical science education when used as a supplement to more traditional teaching/learning activities.

  7. Generative Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Margaret

    The first section of this paper deals with the attempts within the framework of transformational grammar to make semantics a systematic part of linguistic description, and outlines the characteristics of the generative semantics position. The second section takes a critical look at generative semantics in its later manifestations, and makes a case…

  8. Lexical Units and the Learning of a Foreign Language Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogaards, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the concept of lexical unit as proposed by Cruse (1986) in the context of second language vocabulary learning to replace the notion of "word." Defines the concept in terms of lexical semantics and applies it to the task of learning a second language. Describes studies in which the learning of different types of lexical units is…

  9. A Semantic Web-Based Authoring Tool to Facilitate the Planning of Collaborative Learning Scenarios Compliant with Learning Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isotani, Seiji; Mizoguchi, Riichiro; Isotani, Sadao; Capeli, Olimpio M.; Isotani, Naoko; de Albuquerque, Antonio R. P. L.; Bittencourt, Ig. I.; Jaques, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    When the goal of group activities is to support long-term learning, the task of designing well-thought-out collaborative learning (CL) scenarios is an important key to success. To help students adequately acquire and develop their knowledge and skills, a teacher can plan a scenario that increases the probability for learning to occur. Such a…

  10. Differential Resting State Connectivity Patterns and Impaired Semantically Cued List Learning Test Performance in Early Course Remitted MDD

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Julia A.; Jenkins, Lisanne M.; Hymen, Erica; Feigon, Maia; Weisenbach, Sara L.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Langenecker, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is a well-known association between memory impairment and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Additionally, recent studies are also showing resting-state (rs) fMRI abnormalities in active and remitted MDD. However, no studies to date have examined both resting state connectivity and memory performance in early course remitted MDD, nor the relationship between connectivity and semantically-cued episodic memory. Method Resting state MRI (rsMRI) data from two 3.0 Tesla GE scanners were collected from 34 unmedicated young adults with remitted MDD (rMDD) and 23 healthy controls (HCs) between 18–23 years of age using bilateral seeds in the hippocampus. Participants also completed a semantically-cued list-learning test and their performance was correlated with hippocampal seed-based rsMRI. Regression models were also used to predict connectivity patterns from memory performance. Results After correcting for sex, rMDD performed worse than HCs on the total number of words recalled and recognized. rMDD demonstrated significant in-network hypoactivation between the hippocampus and multiple fronto-temporal regions, and multiple extra-network hyperconnectivities between the hippocampus and fronto-parietal regions when compared to HCs. Memory performance negatively predicted connectivity in HCs and positively predicted connectivity in rMDD. Conclusions Even when individuals with a history of MDD are no longer displaying active depressive symptoms, they continue to demonstrate worse memory performance, disruptions in hippocampal connectivity, and a differential relationship between episodic memory and hippocampal connectivity. PMID:26888619

  11. Event-related brain potentials during a semantic priming task in children with learning disabilities not otherwise specified.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Thalía; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Prieto-Corona, Belén; Rodríguez-Camacho, Mario; Reynoso-Alcántara, Vicenta

    2014-01-01

    Learning disabilities (LDs) are the most common psychiatric disorders in children. LDs are classified either as "Specific" or "Learning Disorder Not Otherwise Specified". An important hypothesis suggests a failure in general domain process (i.e., attention) that explains global academic deficiencies. The aim of this study was to evaluate event-related potential (ERP) patterns of LD Not Otherwise Specified children with respect to a control group. Forty-one children (8-10.6 years old) participated and performed a semantic judgment priming task while ERPs were recorded. Twenty-one LD children had significantly lower scores in all academic skills (reading, writing and arithmetic) than twenty controls. Different ERP patterns were observed for each group. Control group showed smaller amplitudes of an anterior P200 for unrelated than related word pairs. This P200 effect was followed by a significant early N400a effect (greater amplitudes for unrelated than related word pairs; 350-550 ms) with a right topographical distribution. By contrast, LD Not Otherwise Specified group did not show a P200 effect or a significant N400a effect. This evidence suggests that LD Not Otherwise Specified children might be deficient in reading, writing and arithmetic domains because of their sluggish shifting of attention to process the incoming information.

  12. Event-Related Brain Potentials during a Semantic Priming Task in Children with Learning Disabilities Not Otherwise Specified

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Thalía; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Prieto-Corona, Belén; Rodríguez-Camacho, Mario; Reynoso-Alcántara, Vicenta

    2014-01-01

    Learning disabilities (LDs) are the most common psychiatric disorders in children. LDs are classified either as “Specific” or “Learning Disorder Not Otherwise Specified”. An important hypothesis suggests a failure in general domain process (i.e., attention) that explains global academic deficiencies. The aim of this study was to evaluate event-related potential (ERP) patterns of LD Not Otherwise Specified children with respect to a control group. Forty-one children (8−10.6 years old) participated and performed a semantic judgment priming task while ERPs were recorded. Twenty-one LD children had significantly lower scores in all academic skills (reading, writing and arithmetic) than twenty controls. Different ERP patterns were observed for each group. Control group showed smaller amplitudes of an anterior P200 for unrelated than related word pairs. This P200 effect was followed by a significant early N400a effect (greater amplitudes for unrelated than related word pairs; 350–550 ms) with a right topographical distribution. By contrast, LD Not Otherwise Specified group did not show a P200 effect or a significant N400a effect. This evidence suggests that LD Not Otherwise Specified children might be deficient in reading, writing and arithmetic domains because of their sluggish shifting of attention to process the incoming information. PMID:25144188

  13. Lexical and semantic representations in the acquisition of L2 cognate and non-cognate words: evidence from two learning methods in children.

    PubMed

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Soares, Ana Paula; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa; Lima, Cátia

    2012-08-01

    How bilinguals represent words in two languages and which mechanisms are responsible for second language acquisition are important questions in the bilingual and vocabulary acquisition literature. This study aims to analyse the effect of two learning methods (picture- vs. word-based method) and two types of words (cognates and non-cognates) in early stages of children's L2 acquisition. Forty-eight native speakers of European Portuguese, all sixth graders (mean age = 10.87 years; SD= 0.85), participated in the study. None of them had prior knowledge of Basque (the L2 in this study). After a learning phase in which L2 words were learned either by a picture- or a word-based method, children were tested in a backward-word translation recognition task at two times (immediately vs. one week later). Results showed that the participants made more errors when rejecting semantically related than semantically unrelated words as correct translations (semantic interference effect). The magnitude of this effect was higher in the delayed test condition regardless of the learning method. Moreover, the overall performance of participants from the word-based method was better than the performance of participants from the picture-word method. Results were discussed concerning the most significant bilingual lexical processing models.

  14. Lexical and semantic representations in the acquisition of L2 cognate and non-cognate words: evidence from two learning methods in children.

    PubMed

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Soares, Ana Paula; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa; Lima, Cátia

    2012-08-01

    How bilinguals represent words in two languages and which mechanisms are responsible for second language acquisition are important questions in the bilingual and vocabulary acquisition literature. This study aims to analyse the effect of two learning methods (picture- vs. word-based method) and two types of words (cognates and non-cognates) in early stages of children's L2 acquisition. Forty-eight native speakers of European Portuguese, all sixth graders (mean age = 10.87 years; SD= 0.85), participated in the study. None of them had prior knowledge of Basque (the L2 in this study). After a learning phase in which L2 words were learned either by a picture- or a word-based method, children were tested in a backward-word translation recognition task at two times (immediately vs. one week later). Results showed that the participants made more errors when rejecting semantically related than semantically unrelated words as correct translations (semantic interference effect). The magnitude of this effect was higher in the delayed test condition regardless of the learning method. Moreover, the overall performance of participants from the word-based method was better than the performance of participants from the picture-word method. Results were discussed concerning the most significant bilingual lexical processing models. PMID:22804703

  15. Mining Concept Maps to Understand University Students' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Jin Soung; Cho, Moon-Heum

    2012-01-01

    Concept maps, visual representations of knowledge, are used in an educational context as a way to represent students' knowledge, and identify mental models of students; however there is a limitation of using concept mapping due to its difficulty to evaluate the concept maps. A concept map has a complex structure which is composed of concepts and…

  16. Informal and Implicit Learning: Concepts, Communalities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straka, Gerald A.

    2009-01-01

    Informal learning and its validation has become a major issue in European and national education policy, raising the following questions. May learning be constituent for political action? Is learning the focus of validation? Is informality a feature of learning? Is implicit learning solely related to informality? To give answers, a general…

  17. A Practical Ontology Query Expansion Algorithm for Semantic-Aware Learning Objects Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ming-Che; Tsai, Kun Hua; Wang, Tzone I.

    2008-01-01

    Following the rapid development of Internet, particularly web page interaction technology, distant e-learning has become increasingly realistic and popular. To solve the problems associated with sharing and reusing teaching materials in different e-learning systems, several standard formats, including SCORM, IMS, LOM, and AICC, etc., recently have…

  18. High School Students' Approaches to Learning Physics with Relationship to Epistemic Views on Physics and Conceptions of Learning Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiou, Guo-Li; Lee, Min-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: Knowing how students learn physics is a central goal of physics education. The major purpose of this study is to examine the strength of the predictive power of students' epistemic views and conceptions of learning in terms of their approaches to learning in physics. Sample, design and method: A total of 279 Taiwanese high…

  19. Examining High-School Students' Preferences toward Learning Environments, Personal Beliefs and Concept Learning in Web-Based Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Fang-Ying; Chang, Cheng-Chieh

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to explore three kinds of personal affective traits among high-school students and their effects on web-based concept learning. The affective traits include personal preferences about web-based learning environments, personal epistemological beliefs, and beliefs about web-based learning. One hundred 11th graders…

  20. Predicting Semantic Descriptions from Medical Images with Convolutional Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Schlegl, Thomas; Waldstein, Sebastian M; Vogl, Wolf-Dieter; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Langs, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Learning representative computational models from medical imaging data requires large training data sets. Often, voxel-level annotation is unfeasible for sufficient amounts of data. An alternative to manual annotation, is to use the enormous amount of knowledge encoded in imaging data and corresponding reports generated during clinical routine. Weakly supervised learning approaches can link volume-level labels to image content but suffer from the typical label distributions in medical imaging data where only a small part consists of clinically relevant abnormal structures. In this paper we propose to use a semantic representation of clinical reports as a learning target that is predicted from imaging data by a convolutional neural network. We demonstrate how we can learn accurate voxel-level classifiers based on weak volume-level semantic descriptions on a set of 157 optical coherence tomography (OCT) volumes. We specifically show how semantic information increases classification accuracy for intraretinal cystoid fluid (IRC), subretinal fluid (SRF) and normal retinal tissue, and how the learning algorithm links semantic concepts to image content and geometry.

  1. Semantic Feature Distinctiveness and Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Lexical access is the process in which basic components of meaning in language, the lexical entries (words) are activated. This activation is based on the organization and representational structure of the lexical entries. Semantic features of words, which are the prominent semantic characteristics of a word concept, provide important information…

  2. Generalization hypothesis of abstract-concept learning: learning strategies and related issues in Macaca mulatta, Cebus apella, and Columba livia.

    PubMed

    Wright, Anthony A; Katz, Jeffrey S

    2007-11-01

    The generalization hypothesis of abstract-concept learning was tested with a meta-analysis of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and pigeons (Columba livia) learning a same/different (S/D) task with expanding training sets. The generalization hypothesis states that as the number of training items increases, generalization from the training pairs will increase and could explain the subjects' accurate novel-stimulus transfer. By contrast, concept learning is learning the relationship between each pair of items; with more training items subjects learn more exemplars of the rule and transfer better. Having to learn the stimulus pairs (the generalization hypothesis) would require more training as the set size increases, whereas learning the concept might require less training because subjects would be learning an abstract rule. The results strongly support concept or rule learning despite severely relaxing the generalization-hypothesis parameters. Thus, generalization was not a factor in the transfer from these experiments, adding to the evidence that these subjects were learning the S/D abstract concept.

  3. The Conceptions of Learning Science for Science-Mathematics Groups and Literature-Mathematics Groups in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadi, Ozlem; Lee, Min-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Background: The conceptions of learning have a deep effect on the learning process, and accordingly on learning outcomes. Some researchers emphasize that conceptions of learning are domain-dependent and there should be more research in different domains (e.g. science, literature) to enhance students' understanding of conceptions of learning…

  4. Secondary School Students' Conceptions of Learning and Their Relationship to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Elizabeth R.; Brown, Gavin T. L.; Irving, S. Earl

    2010-01-01

    Conceptions of learning were investigated in three studies. Study 1 piloted a modified version of Purdie and Hattie's (2002) Conceptions of Learning Inventory (COLI-I) with 236 secondary students. Multilog analysis was used to remove items with poor measurement characteristics. Study 2 used a nationally representative sample of 701 New Zealand…

  5. Developing iPad-Based Physics Simulations That Can Help People Learn Newtonian Physics Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Young-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study are: (1) to develop iPad-based computer simulations called iSimPhysics that can help people learn Newtonian physics concepts; and (2) to assess its educational benefits and pedagogical usefulness. To facilitate learning, iSimPhysics visualizes abstract physics concepts, and allows for conducting a series of computer…

  6. Conceptions of Memorizing and Understanding in Learning, and Self-Efficacy Held by University Biology Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tzu-Chiang; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to explore Taiwanese university students' conceptions of learning biology as memorizing or as understanding, and their self-efficacy. To this end, two questionnaires were utilized to survey 293 Taiwanese university students with biology-related majors. A questionnaire for measuring students' conceptions of memorizing and understanding was validated through an exploratory factor analysis of participants' responses. As for the questionnaire regarding the students' biology learning self-efficacy (BLSE), an exploratory factor analysis revealed a total of four factors including higher-order cognitive skills (BLSE-HC), everyday application (BLSE-EA), science communication (BLSE-SC), and practical works (BLSE-PW). The results of the cluster analysis according to the participants' conceptions of learning biology indicated that students in the two major clusters either viewed learning biology as understanding or possessed mixed-conceptions of memorizing and understanding. The students in the third cluster mainly focused on memorizing in their learning while the students in the fourth cluster showed less agreement with both conceptions of memorizing and understanding. This study further revealed that the conception of learning as understanding was positively associated with the BLSE of university students with biology-related majors. However, the conception of learning as memorizing may foster students' BLSE only when such a notion co-exists with the conception of learning with understanding.

  7. Conceptions of Effective Teaching and Perceived Use of Computer Technologies in Active Learning Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebre, Engida; Saroyan, Alenoush; Aulls, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined professors' conceptions of effective teaching in the context of a course they were teaching in active learning classrooms and how the conceptions related to the perceived role and use of computers in their teaching. We interviewed 13 professors who were teaching in active learning classrooms in winter 2011 in a large research…

  8. Conception of Learning and Motivation of Spanish Psychology Undergraduates in Different Academic Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabanaque, Samuel; Martinez-Fernandez, J. Reinaldo

    2009-01-01

    Three conceptions of learning (rote, interpretative and constructive), and two aspects of motivation (level and value of motivation) were identified in 258 Spanish psychology undergraduates classified in three different academic levels (initial, intermediate and final course). Results about conceptions of learning showed final-course students are…

  9. Measuring Student Learning Using Initial and Final Concept Test in an STEM Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaw, Autar; Yalcin, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Effective assessment is a cornerstone in measuring student learning in higher education. For a course in Numerical Methods, a concept test was used as an assessment tool to measure student learning and its improvement during the course. The concept test comprised 16 multiple choice questions and was given in the beginning and end of the class for…

  10. Concept Development in Learning Physics: The Case of Electric Current and Voltage Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koponen, Ismo T.; Huttunen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In learning conceptual knowledge in physics, a common problem is the development and differentiation of concepts in the learning process. An important part of this development process is the re-organisation or re-structuring process in which students' conceptual knowledge and concepts change. This study proposes a new view of concept…

  11. Integrating Knowledge Management into Organisational Learning: A Review of Concepts and Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pun, Kit Fai; Nathai-Balkissoon, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to review the concepts and constructs of some common models and frameworks advocated for knowledge management (KM) and organisational learning (OL) in literature. It sets forth a critical enquiry towards the integration of KM and OL practices and their relationship with the concepts of the learning organisation (LO) and…

  12. Effects of Learning with Gesture on Children's Understanding of a New Language Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Elizabeth M.; James, Karin H.

    2015-01-01

    Asking children to gesture while being taught a concept facilitates their learning. Here, we investigated whether children benefitted equally from producing gestures that reflected speech (speech-gesture matches) versus gestures that complemented speech (speech-gesture mismatches), when learning the concept of palindromes. As in previous studies,…

  13. Model and Observer Learning of Low, Medium, and High Level Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Richard T.; And Others

    Low (conjunctive), medium (disjunctive), and high (biconditional) level concept attainment problems were used to assess whether high level versus low and/or medium difficulty concept rules yield less positive transfer for observers than models. Direct learning and transfer of models was compared with vicarious learning and transfer of observers.…

  14. Learning Relative Motion Concepts in Immersive and Non-Immersive Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozhevnikov, Michael; Gurlitt, Johannes; Kozhevnikov, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the current study is to understand which unique features of an immersive virtual reality environment have the potential to improve learning relative motion concepts. Thirty-seven undergraduate students learned relative motion concepts using computer simulation either in immersive virtual environment (IVE) or non-immersive desktop…

  15. Conceptions and Practices in Teaching and Learning: Implications for the Evaluation of Teaching Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerihun, Zenawi; Beishuizen, Jos; Van Os, Willem

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted in two public universities in Ethiopia to assess the impact of conceptions of teaching and learning on the evaluation of teaching quality. Students' and teachers' approaches to teaching and learning and their conceptions of the meaning of teaching have been examined. Results indicated that both teachers and students…

  16. Supporting the Learning Process with Collaborative Concept Mapping Using Computer-based Communication Tools and Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Simone, Christina; Schmid, Richard F.; McEwen, Laura A.

    2001-01-01

    Studied the effects of a combination of student collaboration, concept mapping, and electronic technologies with 26 students in a graduate level learning theories class. Findings suggest that concept mapping and collaborative learning techniques complement each other, and that students found the combined approach useful. (SLD)

  17. Changing Conceptions of Teaching: A Four-Year Learning Journey for Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Annie Y. N.; Tang, Sylvia Y. F.; Cheng, May M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding student teachers' development of conceptions of teaching and learning is critical for teacher educators. Drawing from the findings of a four-year longitudinal study in Hong Kong, this paper examines the trajectories of the student teachers' changing conceptions of teaching and learning approaches throughout their undergraduate…

  18. The Self-Concept of the Learning Disabled Adolescent: Mainstreamed versus Self-Contained Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svec, Henry

    To investigate self-concept, 50 learning disabled adolescents from a regular high school who were receiving resource room assistance were given the Situation Specific Subject Competence Test for self-concept. Their scores were compared with 50 learning disabled adolescents from a self-contained program. The adolescents from the self-contained…

  19. Rational-Emotive Education, Self-Concept, and Locus of Control among Learning-Disabled Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omizo, Michael M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated effects of a rational-emotive education (REE) program on learning-disabled adolescents' (N=60) self-concept and locus of control. Results suggest that the REE intervention strategy is an effective approach to helping learning-disabled adolescents enhance some aspects of self-concept and develop a more internal locus of control…

  20. Comment on "Retrieval practice produces more learning than elaborative studying with concept mapping".

    PubMed

    Mintzes, Joel J; Canas, Alberto; Coffey, John; Gorman, James; Gurley, Laine; Hoffman, Robert; McGuire, Saundra Y; Miller, Norma; Moon, Brian; Trifone, James; Wandersee, James H

    2011-10-28

    Karpicke and Blunt (Reports, 11 February 2011, p. 772) reported that retrieval practice produces greater gains in learning than elaborative studying with concept mapping and concluded that this strategy is a powerful way to promote meaningful learning of complex concepts commonly found in science education. We question their findings on methodological and epistemological grounds.

  1. Analyzing the Relationship between Learning Styles and Basic Concept Knowledge Level of Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balat, Gülden Uyanik

    2014-01-01

    Most basic concepts are acquired during preschool period. There are studies indicating that the basic concept knowledge of children is related to language development, cognitive development, academic achievement and intelligence. The relationship between learning behaviors (sometime called learning or cognitive styles) and a child academic success…

  2. Proving or Improving Science Learning? Understanding High School Students' Conceptions of Science Assessment in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Min-Hsien; Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Classroom assessment is a critical aspect of teaching and learning. In this paper, Taiwanese high school students' conceptions of science assessment and the relationship between their conceptions of science assessment and of science learning were investigated. The study used both qualitative and quantitative methods. First, 60 students were…

  3. The Role of Cognitive Organizers in the Facilitation of Concept Learning in Elementary School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Richard William

    Studied was the effect of advance organizers, as defined by Ausubel, on the learning of concepts in science. Sixth grade classes studied two sequences of major concept-centered learning tasks developed by the investigator. The first had 12 lessons about energy forms and transformations; the second had five about photosynthesis and respiration as…

  4. A Study on Contingency Learning in Introductory Physics Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaife, Thomas M.

    Instructors of physics often use examples to illustrate new or complex physical concepts to students. For any particular concept, there are an infinite number of examples, thus presenting instructors with a difficult question whenever they wish to use one in their teaching: which example will most effectively illustrate the concept so that student learning is maximized? The choice is typically made by an intuitive assumption about which exact example will result in the most lucid illustration and the greatest student improvement. By questioning 583 students in four experiments, I examined a more principled approach to example selection. By controlling the manner in which physical dimensions vary, the parameter space of each concept can be divided into a discrete number of example categories. The effects of training with members of each of category was explored in two different physical contexts: projectile motion and torque. In the first context, students were shown two trajectories and asked to determine which represented the longer time of flight. Height, range, and time of flight were the physical dimensions that were used to categorize the examples. In the second context, students were shown a balance-scale with loads of differing masses placed at differing positions along either side of the balance-arm. Mass, lever-arm length, and torque were the physical dimensions used to categorize these examples. For both contexts, examples were chosen so that one or two independent dimensions were varied. After receiving training with examples from specific categories, students were tested with questions from all question categories. Successful training or instruction can be measured either as producing correct, expert-like behavior (as observed through answers to the questions) or as explicitly instilling an understanding of the underlying rule that governs a physical phenomenon. A student's behavior might not be consistent with their explicit rule, so following the

  5. X-Informatics: Practical Semantic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borne, K. D.

    2009-12-01

    The discipline of data science is merging with multiple science disciplines to form new X-informatics research disciplines. They are almost too numerous to name, but they include geoinformatics, bioinformatics, cheminformatics, biodiversity informatics, ecoinformatics, materials informatics, and the emerging discipline of astroinformatics. Within any X-informatics discipline, the information granules are unique to that discipline -- e.g., gene sequences in bio, the sky object in astro, and the spatial object in geo (such as points, lines, and polygons in the vector model, and pixels in the raster model). Nevertheless the goals are similar: transparent data re-use across subdisciplines and within education settings, information and data integration and fusion, personalization of user interactions with the data collection, semantic search and retrieval, and knowledge discovery. The implementation of an X-informatics framework enables these semantic e-science research goals. We describe the concepts, challenges, and new developments associated with the new discipline of astroinformatics, and how geoinformatics provides valuable lessons learned and a model for practical semantic science within a traditional science discipline through the accretion of data science methodologies (such as formal metadata creation, data models, data mining, information retrieval, knowledge engineering, provenance, taxonomies, and ontologies). The emerging concept of data-as-a-service (DaaS) builds upon the concept of smart data (or data DNA) for intelligent data management, automated workflows, and intelligent processing. Smart data, defined through X-informatics, enables several practical semantic science use cases, including self-discovery, data intelligence, automatic recommendations, relevance analysis, dimension reduction, feature selection, constraint-based mining, interdisciplinary data re-use, knowledge-sharing, data use in education, and more. We describe these concepts within the

  6. Meta-cognitive online sequential extreme learning machine for imbalanced and concept-drifting data classification.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Bilal; Lin, Zhiping

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a meta-cognitive online sequential extreme learning machine (MOS-ELM) is proposed for class imbalance and concept drift learning. In MOS-ELM, meta-cognition is used to self-regulate the learning by selecting suitable learning strategies for class imbalance and concept drift problems. MOS-ELM is the first sequential learning method to alleviate the imbalance problem for both binary class and multi-class data streams with concept drift. In MOS-ELM, a new adaptive window approach is proposed for concept drift learning. A single output update equation is also proposed which unifies various application specific OS-ELM methods. The performance of MOS-ELM is evaluated under different conditions and compared with methods each specific to some of the conditions. On most of the datasets in comparison, MOS-ELM outperforms the competing methods.

  7. How Have Concepts of Informal Learning Developed over Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carliner, Saul

    2013-01-01

    Although the current interest in informal learning seems recent, performance improvement professionals have long had an interest in informal learning-the ways that people learn outside of formal structures. The earliest forms of learning for work were informal, including de facto and formal apprenticeship programs and the "school of…

  8. The Role of Sleep Spindles and Slow-Wave Activity in Integrating New Information in Semantic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Lewis, Penelope A.

    2013-01-01

    Assimilating new information into existing knowledge is a fundamental part of consolidating new memories and allowing them to guide behavior optimally and is vital for conceptual knowledge (semantic memory), which is accrued over many years. Sleep is important for memory consolidation, but its impact upon assimilation of new information into existing semantic knowledge has received minimal examination. Here, we examined the integration process by training human participants on novel words with meanings that fell into densely or sparsely populated areas of semantic memory in two separate sessions. Overnight sleep was polysomnographically monitored after each training session and recall was tested immediately after training, after a night of sleep, and 1 week later. Results showed that participants learned equal numbers of both word types, thus equating amount and difficulty of learning across the conditions. Measures of word recognition speed showed a disadvantage for novel words in dense semantic neighborhoods, presumably due to interference from many semantically related concepts, suggesting that the novel words had been successfully integrated into semantic memory. Most critically, semantic neighborhood density influenced sleep architecture, with participants exhibiting more sleep spindles and slow-wave activity after learning the sparse compared with the dense neighborhood words. These findings provide the first evidence that spindles and slow-wave activity mediate integration of new information into existing semantic networks. PMID:24068804

  9. Learning word meanings by instruction

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, K.

    1996-12-31

    We develop techniques for learning the meanings of unknown words in context. Working within a compositional semantics framework, we write down equations in which a sentence`s meaning is some combination function of the meaning of its words. When one of the words is unknown, we ask for a paraphrase of the sentence. We then compute the meaning of the unknown word by inverting parts of the semantic combination function. This technique can be used to learn word-concept mappings, decomposed meanings, and mappings between syntactic and semantic roles. It works for all parts of speech.

  10. Neural networks involved in learning lexical-semantic and syntactic information in a second language.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Jutta L; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Ono, Kentaro; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sadato, Norihiro; Nakamura, Akinori

    2014-01-01

    The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of language acquisition in a realistic learning environment. Japanese native speakers were trained in a miniature version of German prior to fMRI scanning. During scanning they listened to (1) familiar sentences, (2) sentences including a novel sentence structure, and (3) sentences containing a novel word while visual context provided referential information. Learning-related decreases of brain activation over time were found in a mainly left-hemispheric network comprising classical frontal and temporal language areas as well as parietal and subcortical regions and were largely overlapping for novel words and the novel sentence structure in initial stages of learning. Differences occurred at later stages of learning during which content-specific activation patterns in prefrontal, parietal and temporal cortices emerged. The results are taken as evidence for a domain-general network supporting the initial stages of language learning which dynamically adapts as learners become proficient.

  11. Neural networks involved in learning lexical-semantic and syntactic information in a second language

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Jutta L.; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Ono, Kentaro; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sadato, Norihiro; Nakamura, Akinori

    2014-01-01

    The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of language acquisition in a realistic learning environment. Japanese native speakers were trained in a miniature version of German prior to fMRI scanning. During scanning they listened to (1) familiar sentences, (2) sentences including a novel sentence structure, and (3) sentences containing a novel word while visual context provided referential information. Learning-related decreases of brain activation over time were found in a mainly left-hemispheric network comprising classical frontal and temporal language areas as well as parietal and subcortical regions and were largely overlapping for novel words and the novel sentence structure in initial stages of learning. Differences occurred at later stages of learning during which content-specific activation patterns in prefrontal, parietal and temporal cortices emerged. The results are taken as evidence for a domain-general network supporting the initial stages of language learning which dynamically adapts as learners become proficient. PMID:25400602

  12. The Effects of Integrating Computer-Based Concept Mapping for Physics Learning in Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Cheng-Chieh; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Shih, Chang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    It generally is accepted that concept mapping has a noticeable impact on learning. But literatures show the use of concept mapping is not benefit all learners. The present study explored the effects of incorporating computer-based concept mapping in physics instruction. A total of 61 9th-grade students participated in this study. By using a…

  13. University Students' and Teachers' Conceptions of Teaching and Learning in the Biosciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virtanen, Viivi; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In this study we compare university teachers' and first-year students' conceptions of teaching and learning at the Faculty of Environmental and Biological Sciences. The conceptions were analysed using data from open-ended questionnaires. The results showed that at the beginning of studies the gap between teachers' and students' conceptions of…

  14. Concept Development in Learning Physics: The Case of Electric Current and Voltage Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koponen, Ismo T.; Huttunen, Laura

    2013-09-01

    In learning conceptual knowledge in physics, a common problem is the development and differentiation of concepts in the learning process. An important part of this development process is the re-organisation or re-structuring process in which students' conceptual knowledge and concepts change. This study proposes a new view of concept development with explicit attention given to concept development from the level of knowledge-as-pieces to the level of knowledge-as-theory. The proposed new picture is based on the view that concepts are complex constructs essentially embedded in a larger system of knowledge. Three closely connected aspects require our attention: (1) conceptions of concepts, (2) conceptions of knowledge systems, and finally, (3) conceptions of the process of change. The potential advantages of this prospective are demonstrated through the re-analysis of the concept development in the well-known case of electric current and voltage. The results show that in the concept development process, both causal knowledge and coherence of the knowledge system play crucial roles. Finally, the study points out how the theoretical position proposed here directly impacts conceptions of learning and instruction as well as what solutions are sought for problems in learning—or even what is considered a problem or success in learning.

  15. Changing Concepts in Activity: Descriptive and Design Studies of Consequential Learning in Conceptual Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Rogers; Jurow, A. Susan

    2015-01-01

    Concepts and conceptual change have been studied extensively as phenomena of individual thinking and action, but changing circumstances of social or cultural groups using concepts are treated as external conditions. We describe research on consequential learning in conceptual practices, where concepts include representational infrastructure that…

  16. Effects of Concept Mapping Strategy on Learning Performance in Business and Economics Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiou, Chei-Chang

    2009-01-01

    A concept map (CM) is a hierarchically arranged, graphic representation of the relationships among concepts. Concept mapping (CMING) is the process of constructing a CM. This paper examines whether a CMING strategy can be useful in helping students to improve their learning performance in a business and economics statistics course. A single…

  17. Learning, Creating, and Using Knowledge: Concept Maps as Facilitative Tools in Schools and Corporations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Joseph Donald

    As illustrated by a concept map in chapter 1, this book discusses three concepts: (1) the nature of knowledge, its capture, creation, and use; (2) the nature of human learning; and (3) a theory of education tying together the first two concepts. Chapter 2 discusses the need for a theory of education to resolve numerous questions, issues, and…

  18. Effects of Multidimensional Concept Maps on Fourth Graders' Learning in Web-Based Computer Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hwa-Shan; Chiou, Chei-Chang; Chiang, Heien-Kun; Lai, Sung-Hsi; Huang, Chiun-Yen; Chou, Yin-Yu

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the effect of multidimensional concept mapping instruction on students' learning performance in a web-based computer course. The subjects consisted of 103 fourth graders from an elementary school in central Taiwan. They were divided into three groups: multidimensional concept map (MCM) instruction group, Novak concept map (NCM)…

  19. A Study of Prospective Primary Teachers' Conceptions of Teaching and Learning School Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrantes, Manuel; Blanco, Lorenzo J.

    2006-01-01

    There are two basic guiding referents in the present investigation: the teaching and learning of school-level geometry (basic concepts of Euclidian geometry and measure) and the analysis of the conceptions of prospective primary teachers in Spain. The work assumes that such conceptions appear and develop during school years, and that consequently,…

  20. Why Do Athletes Drink Sports Drinks? A Learning Cycle to Explore the Concept of Osmosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsen, Brook; Marek, Edmund A.

    2010-01-01

    Why does an athlete reach for a sports drink after a tough game or practice? The learning cycle presented in this article helps students answer this question. Learning cycles (Marek 2009) are designed to guide students through direct experiences with a particular concept. In this article, students learn about "osmosis," or the moving of water into…

  1. A Case Study in Master Planning the Learning Landscape Hub Concepts for the University at Buffalo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugdale, Shirley; Torino, Roger; Felix, Elliot

    2009-01-01

    This case study describes concepts for three types of learning spaces that grew out of a Learning Landscape planning process. The process was part of a master plan study for the three campuses of the University at Buffalo. It involved research into user needs and aspirations about future pedagogy, development of learning space strategy,…

  2. College Students' Conceptions of Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning: A Phenomenographic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Pei-Shan; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Hwang, Gwo-Haur

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore students' conceptions of context-aware ubiquitous learning (u-learning). The students participated in a u-learning exercise using PDAs equipped with RFID readers. The data were collected from individual interviews with each of the students by a trained researcher, and the responses of the interviewees were…

  3. Micro Processes of Learning: Exploring the Interplay between Conceptions, Meanings and Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderberg, Elsie; Alvegard, Christer; Svensson, Lennart; Johansson, Thorsten

    2009-01-01

    The article describes qualitative variation in micro processes of learning, focusing the dynamic interplay between conceptions, expressions and meanings of expressions in students' learning in higher education. The intentional-expressive approach employed is an alternative approach to the function of language use in learning processes. In the…

  4. Leap of Faith: Take the Plunge into a 21st-Century Conception of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmuda, Allison

    2009-01-01

    A 21st-century conception of learning is much more than adopting new skills and integrating them into the curriculum or purchasing new technologies and placing them in classrooms--it is the fundamental shift from a teacher-centered learning environment to a student-centered one. Being an educator in a 21st-century learning environment is a…

  5. Regulation during Cooperative and Collaborative Learning: A Theory-Based Review of Terms and Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoor, Cornelia; Narciss, Susanne; Körndle, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the terms and concepts that have been used for describing regulation of learning during cooperative and collaborative learning and suggests differentiating them on the basis of which parts of a regulatory feedback loop model are being shared. During cooperative and collaborative learning, not only self-regulation but also the…

  6. The Use of Engineering Design Concept for Computer Programming Course: A Model of Blended Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tritrakan, Kasame; Kidrakarn, Pachoen; Asanok, Manit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop a learning model which blends factors from learning environment and engineering design concept for learning in computer programming course. The usage of the model was also analyzed. This study presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of the model. The research methodology is divided into three…

  7. Learning in the Liminal Space: A Semiotic Approach to Threshold Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, Ray; Rattray, Julie; Vivian, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The threshold concepts approach to student learning and curriculum design now informs an empirical research base comprising over 170 disciplinary and professional contexts. It draws extensively on the notion of troublesomeness in a "liminal" space of learning. The latter is a transformative state in the process of learning in which there…

  8. Realist Ontology and Natural Processes: A Semantic Tool to Analyze the Presentation of the Osmosis Concept in Science Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinelli Barria, Michele; Morales, Cecilia; Merino, Cristian; Quiroz, Waldo

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we developed an ontological tool, based on the scientific realism of Mario Bunge, for the analysis of the presentation of natural processes in science textbooks. This tool was applied to analyze the presentation of the concept of osmosis in 16 chemistry and biology books at different educational levels. The results showed that more…

  9. Measurement of Learning Process by Semantic Annotation Technique on Bloom's Taxonomy Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanchinda, Jirawit; Yodmongkol, Pitipong; Chakpitak, Nopasit

    2016-01-01

    A lack of science and technology knowledge understanding of most rural people who had the highest education at elementary education level more than others level is unsuccessfully transferred appropriate technology knowledge for rural sustainable development. This study provides the measurement of the learning process by on Bloom's Taxonomy…

  10. Automatic Evaluation for E-Learning Using Latent Semantic Analysis: A Use Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrus, Mireia; Costa-jussa, Marta R.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment in education allows for obtaining, organizing, and presenting information about how much and how well the student is learning. The current paper aims at analysing and discussing some of the most state-of-the-art assessment systems in education. Later, this work presents a specific use case developed for the Universitat Oberta de…

  11. Exploring the Nature of Disciplinary Teaching and Learning Using Legitimation Code Theory Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarence, Sherran

    2016-01-01

    Teaching and learning is a growing field of research and practice globally, and increasing investments are being made in developing academics as teachers. An inability to adequately account for disciplinary knowledge can lead to academic development inputs that are unable to fully address the needs of students, educators, or disciplines…

  12. Development to Learning: Semantic Shifts in Professional Autonomy and School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Michael; Hedberg, John G.; O'Sullivan, Kerry-Ann; Howe, Cathie

    2015-01-01

    In the digital age, technology is playing an important role in changing the nature of professionalism. Newer forms of "professional learning" stand in contrast to more traditional forms of "professional development." The shifting paradigm has implications for school leaders in all contexts. This study sought to qualitatively…

  13. The Effect of Semantic Density and Sound Density on Early Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahni, Sarah Devi

    2010-01-01

    Early lexical acquisition is affected by biases and constraints within learners, but also by patterns and statistical regularities within a learner's environment. Much of the previous work examining the effect of statistical regularities on word learning has been directed at phonological regularities. Particularly, research has focused on the…

  14. Environmental Attitudes Semantic Differential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehne, Paul R.; Goulard, Cary J.

    This booklet is an evaluation instrument which utilizes semantic differential data to assess environmental attitudes. Twelve concepts are included: regulated access to beaches, urban planning, dune vegetation, wetlands, future cities, reclaiming wetlands for building development, city parks, commercial development of beaches, existing cities,…

  15. Semantic home video categorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Hyun-Seok; Lee, Young Bok; De Neve, Wesley; Ro, Yong Man

    2009-02-01

    Nowadays, a strong need exists for the efficient organization of an increasing amount of home video content. To create an efficient system for the management of home video content, it is required to categorize home video content in a semantic way. So far, a significant amount of research has already been dedicated to semantic video categorization. However, conventional categorization approaches often rely on unnecessary concepts and complicated algorithms that are not suited in the context of home video categorization. To overcome the aforementioned problem, this paper proposes a novel home video categorization method that adopts semantic home photo categorization. To use home photo categorization in the context of home video, we segment video content into shots and extract key frames that represent each shot. To extract the semantics from key frames, we divide each key frame into ten local regions and extract lowlevel features. Based on the low level features extracted for each local region, we can predict the semantics of a particular key frame. To verify the usefulness of the proposed home video categorization method, experiments were performed with home video sequences, labeled by concepts part of the MPEG-7 VCE2 dataset. To verify the usefulness of the proposed home video categorization method, experiments were performed with 70 home video sequences. For the home video sequences used, the proposed system produced a recall of 77% and an accuracy of 78%.

  16. A Study on Contingency Learning in Introductory Physics Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaife, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Instructors of physics often use examples to illustrate new or complex physical concepts to students. For any particular concept, there are an infinite number of examples, thus presenting instructors with a difficult question whenever they wish to use one in their teaching: which example will most effectively illustrate the concept so that student…

  17. Verb Production during Action Naming in Semantic Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meligne, D.; Fossard, M.; Belliard, S.; Moreaud, O.; Duvignau, K.; Demonet, J.-F.

    2011-01-01

    In contrast with widely documented deficits of semantic knowledge relating to object concepts and the corresponding nouns in semantic dementia (SD), little is known about action semantics and verb production in SD. The degradation of action semantic knowledge was studied in 5 patients with SD compared with 17 matched control participants in an…

  18. Virtual Field Sites: Losses and Gains in Authenticity with Semantic Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litherland, Kate; Stott, Tim A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigate the potential of semantic web technologies to enhance "Virtual Fieldwork" resources and learning activities in the Geosciences. They consider the difficulties inherent in the concept of Virtual Fieldwork and how these might be reconciled with the desire to provide students with "authentic" tools for knowledge construction…

  19. Relying on procedural memory to enhance independence in daily living activities: Smartphone use in a case of semantic dementia.

    PubMed

    Bier, N; Brambati, S; Macoir, J; Paquette, G; Schmitz, X; Belleville, S; Faucher, C; Joubert, S

    2015-01-01

    Relying on procedural memory is a promising approach for interventions that address the cognitive difficulties found in semantic dementia. The aim of this study was to determine if procedural memory could be used to optimise learning of relevant smartphone functions in MH, a 55-year-old man with semantic dementia. The impact of learning to use specific smartphone applications, which display concepts and their semantic characteristics, on relearning useful significant concepts, was also explored in MH. This patient, who showed no deficits in procedural learning on a serial reaction time paradigm, was able to learn manipulations related to 15 smartphone functions although, because of his deficit in word comprehension, he generally needed verbal cues to clarify which functions he was asked to perform. Six months after the end of the intervention, he was still using 8 of the 15 functions regularly. However, repeated exposure to concepts through the use of two applications did not improve naming or retrieval of semantic attributes. This study showed the potential of relying on procedural memory to optimise learning of new technologies in the ecological rehabilitation of semantic dementia.

  20. Three Problems with the Connectivist Conception of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarà, M.; Barberà, E.

    2014-01-01

    Connectivism, which has been argued to be a new learning theory, has emerged in the field of online learning during the last decade. On the World Wide Web at least, connectivism promises to establish learning spaces similar to those that Ivan Illich imagined in "Deschooling Society", through so-called massive online open courses (MOOCs).…

  1. Constructing a semantic predication gold standard from the biomedical literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Semantic relations increasingly underpin biomedical text mining and knowledge discovery applications. The success of such practical applications crucially depends on the quality of extracted relations, which can be assessed against a gold standard reference. Most such references in biomedical text mining focus on narrow subdomains and adopt different semantic representations, rendering them difficult to use for benchmarking independently developed relation extraction systems. In this article, we present a multi-phase gold standard annotation study, in which we annotated 500 sentences randomly selected from MEDLINE abstracts on a wide range of biomedical topics with 1371 semantic predications. The UMLS Metathesaurus served as the main source for conceptual information and the UMLS Semantic Network for relational information. We measured interannotator agreement and analyzed the annotations closely to identify some of the challenges in annotating biomedical text with relations based on an ontology or a terminology. Results We obtain fair to moderate interannotator agreement in the practice phase (0.378-0.475). With improved guidelines and additional semantic equivalence criteria, the agreement increases by 12% (0.415 to 0.536) in the main annotation phase. In addition, we find that agreement increases to 0.688 when the agreement calculation is limited to those predications that are based only on the explicitly provided UMLS concepts and relations. Conclusions While interannotator agreement in the practice phase confirms that conceptual annotation is a challenging task, the increasing agreement in the main annotation phase points out that an acceptable level of agreement can be achieved in multiple iterations, by setting stricter guidelines and establishing semantic equivalence criteria. Mapping text to ontological concepts emerges as the main challenge in conceptual annotation. Annotating predications involving biomolecular entities and processes is

  2. A Graduate Course on Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: Influences on Conceptions of Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leger, Andrew B.; Fostaty Young, Sue

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of a graduate course on teaching and learning on graduate teaching assistants' conceptions of teaching and on the teaching philosophy statements that arose from those conceptions. Effects are interpreted from three perspectives: 1) course facilitators' reports of their perceptions of course…

  3. A Systemic View of the Learning and Differentiation of Scientific Concepts: The Case of Electric Current and Voltage Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koponen, Ismo T.; Kokkonen, Tommi

    2014-01-01

    In learning conceptual knowledge in physics, a common problem is the incompleteness of a learning process, where students' personal, often undifferentiated concepts take on more scientific and differentiated form. With regard to such concept learning and differentiation, this study proposes a systemic view in which concepts are considered as…

  4. Predicting Turkish Preservice Elementary Teachers' Orientations to Teaching Science with Epistemological Beliefs, Learning Conceptions, and Learning Approaches in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Elif Adibelli; Deniz, Hasan; Topçu, Mustafa Sami

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated to what extent Turkish preservice elementary teachers' orientations to teaching science could be explained by their epistemological beliefs, conceptions of learning, and approaches to learning science. The sample included 157 Turkish preservice elementary teachers. The four instruments used in the study were School…

  5. Self-Regulated Learning Strategies of Engineering College Students While Learning Electric Circuit Concepts with Enhanced Guided Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawanto, Oenardi; Santoso, Harry

    2013-01-01

    The current study evaluated engineering college students' self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies while learning electric circuit concepts using enhanced guided notes (EGN). Our goal was to describe how students exercise SRL strategies and how their grade performance changes after using EGN. Two research questions guided the study: (1) To what…

  6. Scientific Epistemic Beliefs, Conceptions of Learning Science and Self-Efficacy of Learning Science among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chin-Chung; Ho, Hsin Ning Jessie; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Lin, Hung-Ming

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among Taiwanese high school students' scientific epistemic beliefs, conceptions of learning science, and self-efficacy of learning science. The questionnaire responses gathered from 377 high school students in Taiwan were utilized to elicit such relationships. The analysis of the structural equation model…

  7. Blended Learning in Vocational Education: Teachers' Conceptions of Blended Learning and Their Approaches to Teaching and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Casey, Grant; Bachfischer, Agnieszka; Goodyear, Peter; Ellis, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents research exploring teachers' experiences of using blended learning in vocational education. Teachers involved in designing and teaching using blended learning from a major Australian vocational education provider participated in the study. They received open-ended questionnaires asking to describe their conceptions of blended…

  8. The Effects of Problem-Based Active Learning in Science Education on Students' Academic Achievement, Attitude and Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinoglu, Orhan; Tandogan, Ruhan Özkardes

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of problem-based active learning in science education on students' academic achievement and concept learning. In the study, both quantitative and qualitative research methods were utilized. Quantitative data were obtained via the pre/post-test, treatment-control groups test model. Qualitative data…

  9. Mediated Learning Experience and Concept Maps: A Pedagogical Tool for Achieving Meaningful Learning in Medical Physiology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Hilda Leonor; Palencia, Alberto Pardo; Umana, Luis Alfredo; Galindo, Leonor; Villafrade M., Luz Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Even though comprehension of human physiology is crucial in the clinical setting, students frequently learn part of this subject using rote memory and then are unable to transfer knowledge to other contexts or to solve clinical problems. This study evaluated the impact of articulating the concept map strategy with the mediated learning experience…

  10. Semantic service-oriented architecture for range operation: evolving the role of semantics in the enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Richard; Bimson, Kent; Hyle, Richard; Thiebauth, Richard

    2009-05-01

    The Knowledge Management Framework (KMF) of the US Air Force 45th Space Wing's Knowledge Management Initiative (KMI) is a semantic service-oriented architecture that provides Eastern Range stakeholders with a semantically unified, web-based view of distributed range information-a Single Integrated Range Picture-through a virtual, federated, ontology-based enterprise model. Design time activities include the creation of physical data services and mapping of those physical data services to logical data services corresponding to the concepts described in an OWLDL[ 1] ontology. The physical data services aggregate and normalize information stored within federated relational databases and XML[2] files. Runtime activities are managed through a single web service providing methods for ontology discovery, ontology inspection and retrieval of concept instances from federated data sources. We present lessons learned and the technology currently under development to support ontology-driven EII, reasoning, and search. We finish by discussing how these lessons have reshaped our thinking about the role of semantics in enriching information to make it more meaningful for stakeholders, and the impact of these new concepts on our evolving KMF architecture.

  11. An Experiment in Scientific Code Semantic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns a procedure that analyzes aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. This procedure involves taking a user's existing code, adding semantic declarations for some primitive variables, and parsing this annotated code using multiple, distributed expert parsers. These semantic parser are designed to recognize formulae in different disciplines including physical and mathematical formulae and geometrical position in a numerical scheme. The parsers will automatically recognize and document some static, semantic concepts and locate some program semantic errors. Results are shown for a subroutine test case and a collection of combustion code routines. This ability to locate some semantic errors and document semantic concepts in scientific and engineering code should reduce the time, risk, and effort of developing and using these codes.

  12. Learning Portals: Analyzing Threshold Concept Theory for LIS Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Virginia M.; Weedman, Judith; Bruce, Christine S.; Edwards, Sylvia L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the theoretical framework of threshold concepts and its potential for LIS education. Threshold concepts are key ideas, often troublesome and counterintuitive, that are critical to profound understanding of a domain. Once understood, they allow mastery of significant aspects of the domain, opening up new, previously inaccessible…

  13. A Framework of Active Learning by Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wang-Kun; Wang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a student-centered teaching model based on concept mapping and problem-solving. The concept map is used as a tool to develop curriculum and evaluate teaching performance. Case-based teaching was implemented on the course of building energy conservation. The results of this study, which include teaching plans, evaluation tools,…

  14. Teaching Method and Effect on Learning Piagetian Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiderski, David J.; Amadio, Dean M.

    2013-01-01

    Instructors of psychology typically use a variety of methods to teach concepts. The present double-blind experiment is intended to determine the effectiveness of popular television clips as exemplars of Piagetian concepts compared to verbal descriptions of the same exemplars among a sample of 86 undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory…

  15. Weight, Mass, and Gravity: Threshold Concepts in Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar, Varda; Brosh, Yaffa; Sneider, Cary

    2016-01-01

    Threshold concepts are essential ideas about the natural world that present either a barrier or a gateway to a deep understanding of science. Weight, mass, and gravity are threshold concepts that underpin students' abilities to understand important ideas in all fields of science, embodied in the performance expectations in the Next Generation…

  16. Concept mapping: reducing clinical care plan paperwork and increasing learning.

    PubMed

    Schuster, P M

    2000-01-01

    The author describes how concept maps were used in place of nursing care plans to reduce care planning paperwork in fundamentals and medical-surgical clinical courses in acute care facilities. In addition to less paperwork, clinical concept mapping enhances students' critical thinking skills and clinical reasoning because students and faculty can clearly and succinctly visualize priorities and identify relationships in clinical patient data.

  17. "Variation in Student Learning" as a Threshold Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Jan H. F.

    2012-01-01

    The Threshold Concepts Framework acts as a catalyst in faculty development activities, energising and provoking discussion by faculty about their own courses in their own disciplines, and often leading to the discovery of transformational concepts that occasion epistemic and ontological shifts in their students. The present study focuses on…

  18. Threshold Concepts as Focal Points for Supporting Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Katy; Tracy, Frances; Johnstone, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The Plant Sciences Pedagogy Project conducted research into undergraduate teaching and learning in the Department of Plant Sciences at the University of Cambridge and has translated the research findings into interventions to improve support for student learning. A key research objective for the project was to investigate how teachers within the…

  19. Transformative Learning and Online Education: Aesthetics, Dimensions and Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuzer, T. Volkan, Ed.; Kurubacak, Gulsun, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding how to prepare transformative learning sessions and courses and design an environment for prospective online learners is a critical, as it facilitates the transfer of information, knowledge and learning from theoretical forms to real life experiences. This book provides an understanding and comprehension of aesthetics and its…

  20. Mobilising Concepts: Intellectual Technologies in the Ordering of Learning Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Lifelong learning and a learning society are important planks of European Union (EU) policy. Drawing upon the work of Foucault and Rose, this article examines some of the intellectual technologies that are deployed in the ordering of these policy goals. It argues that research is one such technology and examines EU Framework Projects to explore…

  1. Mobile English Vocabulary Learning Based on Concept-Mapping Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Pei-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous researchers in education recognize that vocabulary is essential in foreign language learning. However, students often encounter vocabulary that is difficult to remember. Providing effective vocabulary learning strategies is therefore more valuable than teaching students a large amount of vocabulary. The purpose of this study was to…

  2. Should We Teach Semantic Prosody Awareness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Iain

    2012-01-01

    While considerable attention has been paid to collocation, and the development of the collocational competence of L2 learners in recent years, very little has been said about a related concept in teaching journals, namely semantic prosody, and L2 learner awareness of this phenomenon. In this paper the concept of semantic prosody is introduced, and…

  3. A Semantic Analysis Method for Scientific and Engineering Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a procedure to statically analyze aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. The analysis involves adding semantic declarations to a user's code and parsing this semantic knowledge with the original code using multiple expert parsers. These semantic parsers are designed to recognize formulae in different disciplines including physical and mathematical formulae and geometrical position in a numerical scheme. In practice, a user would submit code with semantic declarations of primitive variables to the analysis procedure, and its semantic parsers would automatically recognize and document some static, semantic concepts and locate some program semantic errors. A prototype implementation of this analysis procedure is demonstrated. Further, the relationship between the fundamental algebraic manipulations of equations and the parsing of expressions is explained. This ability to locate some semantic errors and document semantic concepts in scientific and engineering code should reduce the time, risk, and effort of developing and using these codes.

  4. Mediated learning experience and concept maps: a pedagogical tool for achieving meaningful learning in medical physiology students.

    PubMed

    González, Hilda Leonor; Palencia, Alberto Pardo; Umaña, Luis Alfredo; Galindo, Leonor; Villafrade M, Luz Adriana

    2008-12-01

    Even though comprehension of human physiology is crucial in the clinical setting, students frequently learn part of this subject using rote memory and then are unable to transfer knowledge to other contexts or to solve clinical problems. This study evaluated the impact of articulating the concept map strategy with the mediated learning experience on meaningful learning during the cardiovascular module of a medical physiology course at Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga. This research was based on the ideas of David Ausubel (meaningful learning), Joseph Novak (concept maps), and Reuven Feuerstein (mediated learning experience). Students were randomly allocated to either an intervention group (mediated learning experience articulated with concept mapping) or a control group (traditional methodology). The intervention group constructed concept maps related to cardiovascular physiology and used them to solve problems related to this subject. The control group attended traditional discussion sessions and problem-solving sessions. All students were evaluated with two types of exams: problem-solving and multiple-choice exams. The intervention group performed significantly better on the problem-solving exams, but the difference was not significant in the multiple-choice exam. It was concluded that intervention promoted meaningful learning that allowed the students to transfer this knowledge to solve problems. The implemented strategy had a greater impact on the students who came into the study with the lowest cognitive competence, possibly because they were empowered by the intervention.

  5. Applications of the Concept Tree and Rational Set Generator for Coordinate Concept Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Marcy P.; Tessmer, Martin

    Two studies were conducted to extend the application and explore the parameters of the concept tree and rational set generator instructional design techniques. The first study was conducted with high school English students. Results indicated that students who studied the concept tree performed no differently on the classification tests than…

  6. An investigation of Taiwanese high school students' science learning self-efficacy in relation to their conceptions of learning science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-11-01

    Background: Past studies have shown significant associations between students' conceptions of learning science and their science learning self-efficacy. However, in most of the studies, students' science learning self-efficacy has often been measured by a singular scale. Purpose: Extending the findings of these studies, the present study adopted a multi-dimensional instrument to assess Taiwanese high school students' science learning self-efficacy and investigate the relationships with their conceptions of learning science. Sample: A total of 488 Taiwanese high school students (265 male and 223 female) were invited to participate in this survey. Design and method: All the participants responded to the Conceptions of Learning Science (COLS) questionnaire regarding 'Memorizing', 'Testing', 'Calculating and practicing', 'Increase of knowledge', 'Applying' and 'Understanding and seeing in a new way' and the Science Learning Self-Efficacy (SLSE) instrument, including 'Conceptual understanding', 'Higher-Order cognitive skills', 'Practical work', 'Everyday application' and 'Science communication'. Results: The path analysis results derived from the structural equation modeling method indicated that, of all five SLSE dimensions, the 'Understanding and seeing in a new way' COLS displayed as a positive predictor, while the 'Testing' COLS was a significant negative predictor. The 'Applying' COLS item can only positively contribute to the SLSE dimensions of 'Higher-Order thinking skills', 'Everyday application' and 'Science Communication'. Conclusions: In general, students in strong agreement with learning science as understanding and seeing in a new way or the application of learned scientific knowledge are prone to possess higher confidence in learning science. However, students who consider learning science in terms of preparing for tests and examinations tend to hold lower science learning self-efficacy.

  7. Content-based histopathology image retrieval using a kernel-based semantic annotation framework.

    PubMed

    Caicedo, Juan C; González, Fabio A; Romero, Eduardo

    2011-08-01

    Large amounts of histology images are captured and archived in pathology departments due to the ever expanding use of digital microscopy. The ability to manage and access these collections of digital images is regarded as a key component of next generation medical imaging systems. This paper addresses the problem of retrieving histopathology images from a large collection using an example image as query. The proposed approach automatically annotates the images in the collection, as well as the query images, with high-level semantic concepts. This semantic representation delivers an improved retrieval performance providing more meaningful results. We model the problem of automatic image annotation using kernel methods, resulting in a unified framework that includes: (1) multiple features for image representation, (2) a feature integration and selection mechanism (3) and an automatic semantic image annotation strategy. An extensive experimental evaluation demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed framework to build meaningful image representations for learning and useful semantic annotations for image retrieval.

  8. The Understanding of "Concept Study" in Teachers' Professional Learning: A Lived Experience of Complexity Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    This paper used narrative to present the author's understanding process of "concept study" in teachers' professional learning. The understanding process was advanced by several questions emerging from the preparation of doing "concept study". Thus, the several questions and their solutions became the threads of the narrative.…

  9. Conceptions of Memorizing and Understanding in Learning, and Self-Efficacy Held by University Biology Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tzu-Chiang; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore Taiwanese university students' conceptions of learning biology as memorizing or as understanding, and their self-efficacy. To this end, two questionnaires were utilized to survey 293 Taiwanese university students with biology-related majors. A questionnaire for measuring students' conceptions of memorizing and…

  10. Incorporating Learning Motivation and Self-Concept in Mathematical Communicative Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagukguk, Waminton

    2016-01-01

    This research is trying to determine of the mathematical concepts, instead by integrating the learning motivation (X[subscript 1]) and self-concept (X[subscript 2]) can contribute to the mathematical communicative ability (Y). The test instruments showed the following results: (1) simple regressive equation Y on X[subscript 1] was Y = 32.891 +…

  11. A Teaching Sequence for Learning the Concept of Chemical Equilibrium in Secondary School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghirardi, Marco; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Claudio; Regis, Alberto; Roletto, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    A novel didactic sequence is proposed for the teaching of chemical equilibrium. This teaching sequence takes into account the historical and epistemological evolution of the concept, the alternative conceptions and learning difficulties highlighted by teaching science and research in education, and the need to focus on both the students'…

  12. Concept Mapping in the Humanities to Facilitate Reflection: Externalizing the Relationship between Public and Personal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandiko, Camille; Hay, David; Weller, Saranne

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses how mapping techniques were used in university teaching in a humanities subject. The use of concept mapping was expanded as a pedagogical tool, with a focus on reflective learning processes. Data were collected through a longitudinal study of concept mapping in a university-level Classics course. This was used to explore how…

  13. A Grounded Theory Approach: Conceptions of Understanding in Engineering Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khiat, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Mathematics is of utmost importance in engineering courses but studies on engineering students' conceptions of understanding in mathematics learning are found lacking in the literature. Therefore, this research attempts to address the above issue by answering the research question: "What are engineering students' conceptions of understanding in…

  14. Fostering Self-Concept and Interest for Statistics through Specific Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sproesser, Ute; Engel, Joachim; Kuntze, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Supporting motivational variables such as self-concept or interest is an important goal of schooling as they relate to learning and achievement. In this study, we investigated whether specific interest and self-concept related to the domains of statistics and mathematics can be fostered through a four-lesson intervention focusing on statistics.…

  15. Does Constructivist Approach Applicable through Concept Maps to Achieve Meaningful Learning in Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jena, Ananta Kumar

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with the application of constructivist approach through individual and cooperative modes of spider and hierarchical concept maps to achieve meaningful learning on science concepts (e.g. acids, bases & salts, physical and chemical changes). The main research questions were: Q (1): is there any difference in individual and…

  16. Development and Evaluation of Computerized Problem-based Learning Cases Emphasizing Basic Sciences Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abate, Marie A.; Meyer-Stout, Paula J.; Stamatakis, Mary K.; Gannett, Peter M.; Dunsworth, Teresa S.; Nardi, Anne H.

    2000-01-01

    Describes development and evaluation of eight computerized problem-based learning (PBL) cases in medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutics concepts. Case versions either incorporated concept maps emphasizing key ideas or did not. Student performance on quizzes did not differ between the different case versions and was similar to that of students who…

  17. Students' Understanding of the Function-Derivative Relationship When Learning Economic Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariza, Angel; Llinares, Salvador; Valls, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterise students' understanding of the function-derivative relationship when learning economic concepts. To this end, we use a fuzzy metric (Chang 1968) to identify the development of economic concept understanding that is defined by the function-derivative relationship. The results indicate that the understanding…

  18. The Effectiveness of Concept Mapping and Retrieval Practice as Learning Strategies in an Undergraduate Physiology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdo, Joseph; O'Dwyer, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Concept mapping and retrieval practice are both educational methods that have separately been reported to provide significant benefits for learning in diverse settings. Concept mapping involves diagramming a hierarchical representation of relationships between distinct pieces of information, whereas retrieval practice involves retrieving…

  19. Music Performance Teachers' Conceptions about Learning and Instruction: A Descriptive Study of Spanish Piano Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bautista, Alfredo; Echeverria, Ma Del Puy Perez; Pozo, J. Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    There has been little research into the conceptions music performance teachers have about learning and instruction, by either psychological or educational researchers. The main aim of this study was to describe the conceptions of 45 Spanish piano teachers from music conservatories, by analysing their differences according to the variable "Years of…

  20. Study on Correlation of English Pronunciation Self-Concept to English Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Xin; Zhang, Shengqi; Li, Yucong; Zhao, Miqiang

    2013-01-01

    English pronunciation self-concept is formed in the process of pronunciation learning, which refers to the learners' self-conception and assessment of one's English pronunciation proficiency and pronunciation (Gimson, A. C. 1980). This paper reports an investigation on 237 non-English major college students into the relationship between English…