Science.gov

Sample records for semantic information alters

  1. From Data to Semantic Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floridi, Luciano

    2003-06-01

    There is no consensus yet on the definition of semantic information. This paper contributes to the current debate by criticising and revising the Standard Definition of semantic Information (SDI) as meaningful data, in favour of the Dretske-Grice approach: meaningful and well-formed data constitute semantic information only if they also qualify as contingently truthful. After a brief introduction, SDI is criticised for providing necessary but insufficient conditions for the definition of semantic information. SDI is incorrect because truth-values do not supervene on semantic information, and misinformation (that is, false semantic information) is not a type of semantic information, but pseudo-information, that is not semantic information at all. This is shown by arguing that none of the reasons for interpreting misinformation as a type of semantic information is convincing, whilst there are compelling reasons to treat it as pseudo-information. As a consequence, SDI is revised to include a necessary truth-condition. The last section summarises the main results of the paper and indicates the important implications of the revised definition for the analysis of the deflationary theories of truth, the standard definition of knowledge and the classic, quantitative theory of semantic information.

  2. Information tables with neighborhood semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yiyu

    2000-04-01

    Information tables provide a convenient and useful tool for representing a set of objects using a group of attributes. This notion is enriched by introducing neighborhood systems on attribute values. The neighborhood systems represent the semantics relationships between, and knowledge about, attribute values. With added semantics, neighborhood based information tables may provide a more general framework for knowledge discovery, data mining, and information retrieval.

  3. [Semantic information. Internal language. Thinking].

    PubMed

    Azcoaga, J E

    1993-06-01

    Semantic information has reached an objective condition after a lengthy history of semantic inquiries that instrumental neurophysiological devices--such as event-related potentials, electroencephalographic spectral analysis, regional brain circulation, PET scan, deep brain electrodes, and other--have made easier. In turn, internal language, as screened according to Vigotsky's perspective, is considered a product of semantic information circulation understood as neurosemae interconnection. Finally, in normal adults, thinking processes are assumed to be made up by both sensoperceptive information (proprioceptive information included) and semantic information. Thus, an "extraverbal thinking" can be distinguished, whose activity is hardly describable in healthy adults but should be considered as a condition of non-educated deaf persons, and a "verbal thinking", or internal language, made up by semantic information.

  4. Semantic Tools in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinoff, Morris; Stone, Don C.

    This report discusses the problem of the meansings of words used in information retrieval systems, and shows how semantic tools can aid in the communication which takes place between indexers and searchers via index terms. After treating the differing use of semantic tools in different types of systems, two tools (classification tables and…

  5. Semantic processing in information retrieval.

    PubMed Central

    Rindflesch, T. C.; Aronson, A. R.

    1993-01-01

    Intuition suggests that one way to enhance the information retrieval process would be the use of phrases to characterize the contents of text. A number of researchers, however, have noted that phrases alone do not improve retrieval effectiveness. In this paper we briefly review the use of phrases in information retrieval and then suggest extensions to this paradigm using semantic information. We claim that semantic processing, which can be viewed as expressing relations between the concepts represented by phrases, will in fact enhance retrieval effectiveness. The availability of the UMLS domain model, which we exploit extensively, significantly contributes to the feasibility of this processing. PMID:8130547

  6. Exploiting semantic linkages among multiple sources for semantic information retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, JianQiang; Yang, Ji-Jiang; Liu, Chunchen; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Bo; Shi, Yuliang

    2014-07-01

    The vision of the Semantic Web is to build a global Web of machine-readable data to be consumed by intelligent applications. As the first step to make this vision come true, the initiative of linked open data has fostered many novel applications aimed at improving data accessibility in the public Web. Comparably, the enterprise environment is so different from the public Web that most potentially usable business information originates in an unstructured form (typically in free text), which poses a challenge for the adoption of semantic technologies in the enterprise environment. Considering that the business information in a company is highly specific and centred around a set of commonly used concepts, this paper describes a pilot study to migrate the concept of linked data into the development of a domain-specific application, i.e. the vehicle repair support system. The set of commonly used concepts, including the part name of a car and the phenomenon term on the car repairing, are employed to build the linkage between data and documents distributed among different sources, leading to the fusion of documents and data across source boundaries. Then, we describe the approaches of semantic information retrieval to consume these linkages for value creation for companies. The experiments on two real-world data sets show that the proposed approaches outperform the best baseline 6.3-10.8% and 6.4-11.1% in terms of top five and top 10 precisions, respectively. We believe that our pilot study can serve as an important reference for the development of similar semantic applications in an enterprise environment.

  7. Exploiting salient semantic analysis for information retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jing; Meng, Bo; Quan, Changqin; Tu, Xinhui

    2016-11-01

    Recently, many Wikipedia-based methods have been proposed to improve the performance of different natural language processing (NLP) tasks, such as semantic relatedness computation, text classification and information retrieval. Among these methods, salient semantic analysis (SSA) has been proven to be an effective way to generate conceptual representation for words or documents. However, its feasibility and effectiveness in information retrieval is mostly unknown. In this paper, we study how to efficiently use SSA to improve the information retrieval performance, and propose a SSA-based retrieval method under the language model framework. First, SSA model is adopted to build conceptual representations for documents and queries. Then, these conceptual representations and the bag-of-words (BOW) representations can be used in combination to estimate the language models of queries and documents. The proposed method is evaluated on several standard text retrieval conference (TREC) collections. Experiment results on standard TREC collections show the proposed models consistently outperform the existing Wikipedia-based retrieval methods.

  8. Semantic Preview Benefit in English: Individual Differences in the Extraction and Use of Parafoveal Semantic Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Although there is robust evidence that skilled readers of English extract and use orthographic and phonological information from the parafovea to facilitate word identification, semantic preview benefits have been elusive. We sought to establish whether individual differences in the extraction and/or use of parafoveal semantic information could…

  9. A Semantic Medical Multimedia Retrieval Approach Using Ontology Information Hiding

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Kehua; Zhang, Shigeng

    2013-01-01

    Searching useful information from unstructured medical multimedia data has been a difficult problem in information retrieval. This paper reports an effective semantic medical multimedia retrieval approach which can reflect the users' query intent. Firstly, semantic annotations will be given to the multimedia documents in the medical multimedia database. Secondly, the ontology that represented semantic information will be hidden in the head of the multimedia documents. The main innovations of this approach are cross-type retrieval support and semantic information preservation. Experimental results indicate a good precision and efficiency of our approach for medical multimedia retrieval in comparison with some traditional approaches. PMID:24082915

  10. A semantic medical multimedia retrieval approach using ontology information hiding.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kehua; Zhang, Shigeng

    2013-01-01

    Searching useful information from unstructured medical multimedia data has been a difficult problem in information retrieval. This paper reports an effective semantic medical multimedia retrieval approach which can reflect the users' query intent. Firstly, semantic annotations will be given to the multimedia documents in the medical multimedia database. Secondly, the ontology that represented semantic information will be hidden in the head of the multimedia documents. The main innovations of this approach are cross-type retrieval support and semantic information preservation. Experimental results indicate a good precision and efficiency of our approach for medical multimedia retrieval in comparison with some traditional approaches.

  11. Extracting Useful Semantic Information from Large Scale Corpora of Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Ray Padilla, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Extracting and representing semantic information from large scale corpora is at the crux of computer-assisted knowledge generation. Semantic information depends on collocation extraction methods, mathematical models used to represent distributional information, and weighting functions which transform the space. This dissertation provides a…

  12. Developing Visualization Techniques for Semantics-based Information Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.; Hall, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Information systems incorporating complex network structured information spaces with a semantic underpinning - such as hypermedia networks, semantic networks, topic maps, and concept maps - are being deployed to solve some of NASA s critical information management problems. This paper describes some of the human interaction and navigation problems associated with complex semantic information spaces and describes a set of new visual interface approaches to address these problems. A key strategy is to leverage semantic knowledge represented within these information spaces to construct abstractions and views that will be meaningful to the human user. Human-computer interaction methodologies will guide the development and evaluation of these approaches, which will benefit deployed NASA systems and also apply to information systems based on the emerging Semantic Web.

  13. Computation of Semantic Number from Morphological Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berent, Iris; Pinker, Steven; Tzelgov, Joseph; Bibi, Uri; Goldfarb, Liat

    2005-01-01

    The distinction between singular and plural enters into linguistic phenomena such as morphology, lexical semantics, and agreement and also must interface with perceptual and conceptual systems that assess numerosity in the world. Three experiments examine the computation of semantic number for singulars and plurals from the morphological…

  14. Information Semantic Tools for Coastal Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbha, S. S.; King, R. L.; Younan, N. H.; Rajender, S. K.; Bheemireddy, S.

    2007-12-01

    In a coastal disaster event, it is necessary to obtain information about water level (depth), winds, currents, waves, temperature-salinity stratification in real time and predictions of water level (12-24 hrs), storm surge (48-72 hours) in advance. It has been estimated that better preparation, response, and mitigation will reduce average costs of storm-related disasters by 10%. The dissemination of information that is time critical calls for systems that will facilitate quick assessment of the scenario from multiple perspectives. Sensor data are obtained from a multitude of distributed sensor networks. Our current work funded by Northern Gulf Institute (NGI) on Sensor Web tools for coastal buoys based on OGC sensor web enablement framework enables the use of real or near real time data derived from coastal sensor networks and dynamic selection and aggregation of multiple sensor systems, meteorological and oceanographic simulations and other decision support systems in a web services- based environment. In addition, we pursue the semantic web approaches to understand the context of the data, resolve the meaning, interpretation or usage of the same or related data and develop knowledge-based tools for access to the information sources. Observations from satellites provide a variety of measurements that are not otherwise available or affordable. However, the use of such valuable information in a rapid assessment scenario is hindered by the fact that it is cumbersome to explore huge image databases through manual or semi automated methods. The Rapid Image information mining (RIIM) tool that we developed for this purpose is demonstrated with imagery data from Landsat ETM+ of post Katrina hurricane.

  15. Semantic Web and Contextual Information: Semantic Network Analysis of Online Journalistic Texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Yon Soo

    This study examines why contextual information is important to actualize the idea of semantic web, based on a case study of a socio-political issue in South Korea. For this study, semantic network analyses were conducted regarding English-language based 62 blog posts and 101 news stories on the web. The results indicated the differences of the meaning structures between blog posts and professional journalism as well as between conservative journalism and progressive journalism. From the results, this study ascertains empirical validity of current concerns about the practical application of the new web technology, and discusses how the semantic web should be developed.

  16. Improving life sciences information retrieval using semantic web technology.

    PubMed

    Quan, Dennis

    2007-05-01

    The ability to retrieve relevant information is at the heart of every aspect of research and development in the life sciences industry. Information is often distributed across multiple systems and recorded in a way that makes it difficult to piece together the complete picture. Differences in data formats, naming schemes and network protocols amongst information sources, both public and private, must be overcome, and user interfaces not only need to be able to tap into these diverse information sources but must also assist users in filtering out extraneous information and highlighting the key relationships hidden within an aggregated set of information. The Semantic Web community has made great strides in proposing solutions to these problems, and many efforts are underway to apply Semantic Web techniques to the problem of information retrieval in the life sciences space. This article gives an overview of the principles underlying a Semantic Web-enabled information retrieval system: creating a unified abstraction for knowledge using the RDF semantic network model; designing semantic lenses that extract contextually relevant subsets of information; and assembling semantic lenses into powerful information displays. Furthermore, concrete examples of how these principles can be applied to life science problems including a scenario involving a drug discovery dashboard prototype called BioDash are provided.

  17. Deep Aesthetic Quality Assessment With Semantic Information.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yueying; He, Ran; Huang, Kaiqi

    2017-03-01

    Human beings often assess the aesthetic quality of an image coupled with the identification of the image's semantic content. This paper addresses the correlation issue between automatic aesthetic quality assessment and semantic recognition. We cast the assessment problem as the main task among a multi-task deep model, and argue that semantic recognition task offers the key to address this problem. Based on convolutional neural networks, we employ a single and simple multi-task framework to efficiently utilize the supervision of aesthetic and semantic labels. A correlation item between these two tasks is further introduced to the framework by incorporating the inter-task relationship learning. This item not only provides some useful insight about the correlation but also improves assessment accuracy of the aesthetic task. In particular, an effective strategy is developed to keep a balance between the two tasks, which facilitates to optimize the parameters of the framework. Extensive experiments on the challenging Aesthetic Visual Analysis dataset and Photo.net dataset validate the importance of semantic recognition in aesthetic quality assessment, and demonstrate that multitask deep models can discover an effective aesthetic representation to achieve the state-of-the-art results.

  18. Two theories of consciousness: Semantic pointer competition vs. information integration.

    PubMed

    Thagard, Paul; Stewart, Terrence C

    2014-11-01

    Consciousness results from three mechanisms: representation by firing patterns in neural populations, binding of representations into more complex representations called semantic pointers, and competition among semantic pointers to capture the most important aspects of an organism's current state. We contrast the semantic pointer competition (SPC) theory of consciousness with the hypothesis that consciousness is the capacity of a system to integrate information (IIT). We describe computer simulations to show that SPC surpasses IIT in providing better explanations of key aspects of consciousness: qualitative features, onset and cessation, shifts in experiences, differences in kinds across different organisms, unity and diversity, and storage and retrieval.

  19. Combinatorial Information Theoretical Measurement of the Semantic Significance of Semantic Graph Motifs

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Haglin, David J.; Holder, Larry

    2011-06-14

    Given an arbitrary semantic graph data set, perhaps one lacking in explicit ontological information, we wish to first identify its significant semantic structures, and then measure the extent of their significance. Casting a semantic graph dataset as an edge-labeled, directed graph, this task can be built on the ability to mine frequent {\\em labeled} subgraphs in edge-labeled, directed graphs. We begin by considering the fundamentals of the enumerative combinatorics of subgraph motif structures in edge-labeled directed graphs. We identify its frequent labeled, directed subgraph motif patterns, and measure the significance of the resulting motifs by the information gain relative to the expected value of the motif based on the empirical frequency distribution of the link types which compose them, assuming indpendence. We illustrate the method on a small test graph, and discuss results obtained for small linear motifs (link type bigrams and trigrams) in a larger graph structure.

  20. Altered semantic integration in autism beyond language: a cross-modal event-related potentials study.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Tatiane C; Valasek, Claudia A; Minati, Ludovico; Boggio, Paulo S

    2013-05-29

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by impaired communication, particularly pragmatic and semantic language, resulting in verbal comprehension deficits. Semantic processing in these conditions has been studied extensively, but mostly limited only to linguistic material. Emerging evidence, however, suggests that semantic integration deficits may extend beyond the verbal domain. Here, we explored cross-modal semantic integration using visual targets preceded by musical and linguistic cues. Particularly, we have recorded the event-related potentials to evaluate whether the N400 and late positive potential (LPP) components, two widely studied electrophysiological markers of semantic processing, are differently sensitive to congruence with respect to typically developing children. Seven ASD patients and seven neurotypical participants matched by age, education and intelligence quotient provided usable data. Neuroelectric activity was recorded in response to visual targets that were related or unrelated to a preceding spoken sentence or musical excerpt. The N400 was sensitive to semantic congruence in the controls but not the patients, whereas the LPP showed a complementary pattern. These results suggest that semantic processing in ASD children is also altered in the context of musical and visual stimuli, and point to a functional decoupling between the generators of the N400 and LPP, which may indicate delayed semantic processing. These novel findings underline the importance of exploring semantic integration across multiple modalities in ASDs and provide motivation for further investigation in large clinical samples.

  1. Semantic representations for collaborative, distributed scientific information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kantor, M.; Joslyn, C.; Kantor, M.

    1997-08-01

    It is vital for Los Alamos to respond to the challenge presented by the ongoing revolution in Information Science and Technology. Distributed Information Systems (DIS) are having a profound affect not only in science, but in society in general. In view of their increasing role in the management of scientific information, in national security and intelligence, and certainly as objects of scientific inquiry themselves, these DIS need to be designed and studied from a scientific perspective. The technological developments over the last ten years, the Internet and the World-Wide Web (www) in particular, have been breakthroughs, allowing for the construction of non-linear, hypertextually based, DIS. And yet most of these DIS are still constructed by hand, and have the properties and architectures of the prior paradigm based on books and libraries, with strictly hierarchical categorization designed with many hours of human effort. Our broader vision is based on an organismal model where DIS are adaptable and evolutionary, scalable, highly connected, high dimensional, resilient, and admitting to many complementary views and orderings. The key development necessary to support this view is the representation of semantic information in DIS. We propose a set of software developments and experiments which will both construct novel DIS with explicit semantic representations, and measure the semantic properties of existing DIS. For DIS design, we propose an architecture called Semantic Webs, where a binary multigraph representation relates a number of nodes according to a variety of semantic categories, each partially ordered. The ontological relations among the semantic categories allows a dynamic among them, and thus for the DIS to be self-modifying and adaptive, suggesting new links as a form of inference. These structures will be implemented as Java add-ons in existing browsers. Semantic categories will be represented as hypertext links, with type indicated by anchor color.

  2. Semantic reasoning with XML-based biomedical information models.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Martin J; Das, Amar

    2010-01-01

    The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is increasingly being used for biomedical data exchange. The parallel growth in the use of ontologies in biomedicine presents opportunities for combining the two technologies to leverage the semantic reasoning services provided by ontology-based tools. There are currently no standardized approaches for taking XML-encoded biomedical information models and representing and reasoning with them using ontologies. To address this shortcoming, we have developed a workflow and a suite of tools for transforming XML-based information models into domain ontologies encoded using OWL. In this study, we applied semantics reasoning methods to these ontologies to automatically generate domain-level inferences. We successfully used these methods to develop semantic reasoning methods for information models in the HIV and radiological image domains.

  3. Toward Semantic Web Infrastructure for Spatial FEATURES' Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabsheibani, R.; Ariannamazi, S.; Hakimpour, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Web and its capabilities can be employed as a tool for data and information integration if comprehensive datasets and appropriate technologies and standards enable the web with interpretation and easy alignment of data and information. Semantic Web along with the spatial functionalities enable the web to deal with the huge amount of data and information. The present study investigate the advantages and limitations of the Spatial Semantic Web and compare its capabilities with relational models in order to build a spatial data infrastructure. An architecture is proposed and a set of criteria is defined for the efficiency evaluation. The result demonstrate that when using the data with special characteristics such as schema dynamicity, sparse data or available relations between the features, the spatial semantic web and graph databases with spatial operations are preferable.

  4. Characterizing the semantic information loss between geospatial sensors and geospatial information systems (GIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik P.

    2011-06-01

    Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) collect, integrate, store, edit, analyze, share, and display geographic information. Naturally, GIS analysts rely on external data coming from disparate sensors to associate the sensor content (e.g. imagery) with relational databases. Inherently, these GIS sensors present differences in their data structures, labelling, ontologies, and resolution. Given different data structures, information may be lost in the transfer of information, alignment, and association of related context, which yields uncertainty in the meaning of the conveyed information. Ontology alignment typically consists of manual operations from users with different experiences and understandings and limited reporting is conducted in the quality of mappings. To assist the International Organization for Standards (ISO) in development of information quality assessment, we propose an approach using information theory for semantic uncertainty analysis. Information theory has widely been adopted in communications and provides uncertainty assessment for quality of service (QOS) analysis. Quality of information (QOI) or Information Quality (IQ) definitions for semantic assessment can be used to bridge the gap between ontology (semantic) uncertainty alignment and information theory (symbolic) analysis. Utilizing a measure of semantic information loss, analysts can improve the information fusion process, predict data needs, and appropriately understand the GIS product. This paper aims at developing a semantic information loss measure based on information theory relating GIS sensor processing uncertainties and GIS analyst syntactic associations. A maritime domain situational awareness example with waterway semantic labels is shown to demonstrate semantic information loss.

  5. Semantic overlay network for large-scale spatial information indexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yue; Cao, Kai; Qu, Tianshan; Wang, Zhongmin

    2013-08-01

    The increased demand for online services of spatial information poses new challenges to the combined filed of Computer Science and Geographic Information Science. Amongst others, these include fast indexing of spatial data in distributed networks. In this paper we propose a novel semantic overlay network for large-scale multi-dimensional spatial information indexing, called SON_LSII, which has a hybrid structure integrating a semantic quad-tree and Chord ring. The SON_LSII is a small world overlay network that achieves a very competitive trade-off between indexing efficiency and maintenance overhead. To create SON_LSII, we use an effective semantic clustering strategy that considers two aspects, i.e., the semantic of spatial information that peer holds in overlay network and physical network performances. Based on SON_LSII, a mapping method is used to reduce the multi-dimensional features into a single dimension and an efficient indexing algorithm is presented to support complex range queries of the spatial information with a massive number of concurrent users. The results from extensive experiments demonstrate that SON_LSII is superior to existing overlay networks in various respects, including scalability, maintenance, rate of indexing hits, indexing logical hops, and adaptability. Thus, the proposed SON_LSII can be used for large-scale spatial information indexing.

  6. How Visual and Semantic Information Influence Learning in Familiar Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goujon, Annabelle; Brockmole, James R.; Ehinger, Krista A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research using the contextual cuing paradigm has revealed both quantitative and qualitative differences in learning depending on whether repeated contexts are defined by letter arrays or real-world scenes. To clarify the relative contributions of visual features and semantic information likely to account for such differences, the typical…

  7. Semantic Information Modeling for Emerging Applications in Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Qunzhi; Natarajan, Sreedhar; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor

    2012-04-16

    Smart Grid modernizes power grid by integrating digital and information technologies. Millions of smart meters, intelligent appliances and communication infrastructures are under deployment allowing advanced IT applications to be developed to secure and manage power grid operations. Demand response (DR) is one such emerging application to optimize electricity demand by curtailing/shifting power load when peak load occurs. Existing DR approaches are mostly based on static plans such as pricing policies and load shedding schedules. However, improvements to power management applications rely on data emanating from existing and new information sources with the growth of Smart Grid information space. In particular, dynamic DR algorithms depend on information from smart meters that report interval-based power consumption measurement, HVAC systems that monitor buildings heat and humidity, and even weather forecast services. In order for emerging Smart Grid applications to take advantage of the diverse data influx, extensible information integration is required. In this paper, we develop an integrated Smart Grid information model using Semantic Web techniques and present case studies of using semantic information for dynamic DR. We show the semantic model facilitates information integration and knowledge representation for developing the next generation Smart Grid applications.

  8. Life, Information, Entropy, and Time: Vehicles for Semantic Inheritance.

    PubMed

    Crofts, Antony R

    2007-01-01

    Attempts to understand how information content can be included in an accounting of the energy flux of the biosphere have led to the conclusion that, in information transmission, one component, the semantic content, or "the meaning of the message," adds no thermodynamic burden over and above costs arising from coding, transmission and translation. In biology, semantic content has two major roles. For all life forms, the message of the genotype encoded in DNA specifies the phenotype, and hence the organism that is tested against the real world through the mechanisms of Darwinian evolution. For human beings, communication through language and similar abstractions provides an additional supra-phenotypic vehicle for semantic inheritance, which supports the cultural heritages around which civilizations revolve. The following three postulates provide the basis for discussion of a number of themes that demonstrate some important consequences. (i) Information transmission through either pathway has thermodynamic components associated with data storage and transmission. (ii) The semantic content adds no additional thermodynamic cost. (iii) For all semantic exchange, meaning is accessible only through translation and interpretation, and has a value only in context. (1) For both pathways of semantic inheritance, translational and copying machineries are imperfect. As a consequence both pathways are subject to mutation and to evolutionary pressure by selection. Recognition of semantic content as a common component allows an understanding of the relationship between genes and memes, and a reformulation of Universal Darwinism. (2) The emergent properties of life are dependent on a processing of semantic content. The translational steps allow amplification in complexity through combinatorial possibilities in space and time. Amplification depends on the increased potential for complexity opened by 3D interaction specificity of proteins, and on the selection of useful variants by

  9. Thoughts on the Semantics of "Information"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Louis S.

    1971-01-01

    SRI attempts to apply aerospace research results to biomedicine are revealing inadequacies of present information systems when information originates in different discipline from that of user. Author suggests catergorizing characteristics of originator, symbolic vehicle, coding process and user, with possible design of new systems as well. (PD)

  10. Improving semantic scene understanding using prior information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laddha, Ankit; Hebert, Martial

    2016-05-01

    Perception for ground robot mobility requires automatic generation of descriptions of the robot's surroundings from sensor input (cameras, LADARs, etc.). Effective techniques for scene understanding have been developed, but they are generally purely bottom-up in that they rely entirely on classifying features from the input data based on learned models. In fact, perception systems for ground robots have a lot of information at their disposal from knowledge about the domain and the task. For example, a robot in urban environments might have access to approximate maps that can guide the scene interpretation process. In this paper, we explore practical ways to combine such prior information with state of the art scene understanding approaches.

  11. Business Semantics Management Supports Government Innovation Information Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Grootel, Geert; Spyns, Peter; Christiaens, Stijn; Jörg, Brigitte

    The knowledge economy is one of the cornerstones of our society. Our economic prosperity and development is derived for a large part from technical knowledge. Knowledge unlocks innovation, which in turns spawns new products or services, thereby enabling further economic growth. Hence, an information system unlocking scientific technical knowledge is an important asset for government policy and strategic decisions by industry. In this paper it is explained how business semantics management and related tools are applied to realise the above mentioned endeavour.

  12. Document Filtering Using Semantic Information from a Machine Readable Dictionary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    of interest and the extraction of selected information from these documents for a large group of users. The DR-LINK system architecture is modular...in design, with six separate processing modules. These modules enhance the documents at every stage by various semantic enrichments which are used to...multiple words having the same meaning) and polysemy (one word having multiple meanings) problems which have plagued the use of natural language in

  13. Towards A Topological Framework for Integrating Semantic Information Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Robinson, Michael

    2014-09-07

    In this position paper we argue for the role that topological modeling principles can play in providing a framework for sensor integration. While used successfully in standard (quantitative) sensors, we are developing this methodology in new directions to make it appropriate specifically for semantic information sources, including keyterms, ontology terms, and other general Boolean, categorical, ordinal, and partially-ordered data types. We illustrate the basics of the methodology in an extended use case/example, and discuss path forward.

  14. Semantic information can facilitate covert face recognition in congenital prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Rivolta, Davide; Schmalzl, Laura; Coltheart, Max; Palermo, Romina

    2010-11-01

    People with congenital prosopagnosia have never developed the ability to accurately recognize faces. This single case investigation systematically investigates covert and overt face recognition in "C.," a 69 year-old woman with congenital prosopagnosia. Specifically, we: (a) describe the first assessment of covert face recognition in congenital prosopagnosia using multiple tasks; (b) show that semantic information can contribute to covert recognition; and (c) provide a theoretical explanation for the mechanisms underlying covert face recognition.

  15. Limning the Semantic Frontier of Informed Consent.

    PubMed

    Washington, Harriet A

    2016-09-01

    It is the researcher's responsibility to provide accurate, complete, and unbiased verbal and written information yet, as this essay discusses, challenges to meaningful research consent abound in the communication between researcher and subject. This discussion of these challenges is far from exhaustive, but it will flag some of the potholes that researchers must anticipate on the sometimes rocky road to eliciting meaningful consent. These include, but are not limited to, inadequate scientific literacy, poorly written consent forms, and even the deployment of scientific terms and seductive acronyms like CURE and MIRACL. Studies with acronyms, for example, enroll five times as many patients as those without, are more likely to be published by prestigious journals, and have higher Jadad methodologic quality scores although they are no more likely to conclude with positive findings. Other barriers to researcher-subject communication include: widely differing beliefs and customs, semiotics, socioeconomic status, iatrophobia, and dramatically different histories of treatment in the medical-research arena.

  16. From paragraph to graph: Latent semantic analysis for information visualization

    PubMed Central

    Landauer, Thomas K.; Laham, Darrell; Derr, Marcia

    2004-01-01

    Most techniques for relating textual information rely on intellectually created links such as author-chosen keywords and titles, authority indexing terms, or bibliographic citations. Similarity of the semantic content of whole documents, rather than just titles, abstracts, or overlap of keywords, offers an attractive alternative. Latent semantic analysis provides an effective dimension reduction method for the purpose that reflects synonymy and the sense of arbitrary word combinations. However, latent semantic analysis correlations with human text-to-text similarity judgments are often empirically highest at ≈300 dimensions. Thus, two- or three-dimensional visualizations are severely limited in what they can show, and the first and/or second automatically discovered principal component, or any three such for that matter, rarely capture all of the relations that might be of interest. It is our conjecture that linguistic meaning is intrinsically and irreducibly very high dimensional. Thus, some method to explore a high dimensional similarity space is needed. But the 2.7 × 107 projections and infinite rotations of, for example, a 300-dimensional pattern are impossible to examine. We suggest, however, that the use of a high dimensional dynamic viewer with an effective projection pursuit routine and user control, coupled with the exquisite abilities of the human visual system to extract information about objects and from moving patterns, can often succeed in discovering multiple revealing views that are missed by current computational algorithms. We show some examples of the use of latent semantic analysis to support such visualizations and offer views on future needs. PMID:15037748

  17. Examining the Hemispheric Distribution of Semantic Information Using Lateralised Priming of Familiar Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vladeanu, Matei; Bourne, Victoria J.

    2009-01-01

    The way in which the semantic information associated with people is organised in the brain is still unclear. Most evidence suggests either bilateral or left hemisphere lateralisation. In this paper we use a lateralised semantic priming paradigm to further examine this neuropsychological organisation. A clear semantic priming effect was found with…

  18. Semantic analysis based forms information retrieval and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saba, Tanzila; Alqahtani, Fatimah Ayidh

    2013-09-01

    Data entry forms are employed in all types of enterprises to collect hundreds of customer's information on daily basis. The information is filled manually by the customers. Hence, it is laborious and time consuming to use human operator to transfer these customers information into computers manually. Additionally, it is expensive and human errors might cause serious flaws. The automatic interpretation of scanned forms has facilitated many real applications from speed and accuracy point of view such as keywords spotting, sorting of postal addresses, script matching and writer identification. This research deals with different strategies to extract customer's information from these scanned forms, interpretation and classification. Accordingly, extracted information is segmented into characters for their classification and finally stored in the forms of records in databases for their further processing. This paper presents a detailed discussion of these semantic based analysis strategies for forms processing. Finally, new directions are also recommended for future research. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Semantic Predications for Complex Information Needs in Biomedical Literature

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Delroy; Kavuluru, Ramakanth; Bodenreider, Olivier; Mendes, Pablo N.; Sheth, Amit P.; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad

    2015-01-01

    Many complex information needs that arise in biomedical disciplines require exploring multiple documents in order to obtain information. While traditional information retrieval techniques that return a single ranked list of documents are quite common for such tasks, they may not always be adequate. The main issue is that ranked lists typically impose a significant burden on users to filter out irrelevant documents. Additionally, users must intuitively reformulate their search query when relevant documents have not been not highly ranked. Furthermore, even after interesting documents have been selected, very few mechanisms exist that enable document-to-document transitions. In this paper, we demonstrate the utility of assertions extracted from biomedical text (called semantic predications) to facilitate retrieving relevant documents for complex information needs. Our approach offers an alternative to query reformulation by establishing a framework for transitioning from one document to another. We evaluate this novel knowledge-driven approach using precision and recall metrics on the 2006 TREC Genomics Track. PMID:25699291

  20. How visual and semantic information influence learning in familiar contexts.

    PubMed

    Goujon, Annabelle; Brockmole, James R; Ehinger, Krista A

    2012-10-01

    Previous research using the contextual cuing paradigm has revealed both quantitative and qualitative differences in learning depending on whether repeated contexts are defined by letter arrays or real-world scenes. To clarify the relative contributions of visual features and semantic information likely to account for such differences, the typical contextual cuing procedure was adapted to use meaningless but nevertheless visually complex images. The data in reaction time and in eye movements show that, like scenes, such repeated contexts can trigger large, stable, and explicit cuing effects, and that those effects result from facilitated attentional guidance. Like simpler stimulus arrays, however, those effects were impaired by a sudden change of a repeating image's color scheme at the end of the learning phase (Experiment 1), or when the repeated images were presented in a different and unique color scheme across each presentation (Experiment 2). In both cases, search was driven by explicit memory. Collectively, these results suggest that semantic information is not required for conscious awareness of context-target covariation, but it plays a primary role in overcoming variability in specific features within familiar displays.

  1. Semantic Information Management Control of Mission Asset State Changes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    other being ontology instantiation ( OWL ). OWL can be seen as the semantic web equivalent of schemas to the standardized document object model. The real...unstructured relational fact defined without an OWL counterpart. Applying these observations to an operational, real world use case demonstrates the...semantically expressed via a set of indexers. The result of semantic processing is a semantic RDF/ OWL document that relates values for details

  2. Semantic interoperability between clinical and public health information systems for improving public health services.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Diego M; Blobel, Bernd G M E

    2007-01-01

    Improving public health services requires comprehensively integrating all services including medical, social, community, and public health ones. Therefore, developing integrated health information services has to start considering business process, rules and information semantics of involved domains. The paper proposes a business and information architecture for the specification of a future-proof national integrated system, concretely the requirements for semantic integration between public health surveillance and clinical information systems. The architecture is a semantically interoperable approach because it describes business process, rules and information semantics based on national policy documents and expressed in a standard language such us the Unified Modeling Language UML. Having the enterprise and information models formalized, semantically interoperable Health IT components/services development is supported.

  3. Horizontal Flow of Semantic and Phonological Information in Chinese Spoken Sentence Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jin-Chen; Yang, Yu-Fang

    2008-01-01

    A variant of the picture--word interference paradigm was used in three experiments to investigate the horizontal information flow of semantic and phonological information between nouns in spoken Mandarin Chinese sentences. Experiment 1 demonstrated that there is a semantic interference effect when the word in the second phrase (N3) and the first…

  4. EIIS: An Educational Information Intelligent Search Engine Supported by Semantic Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chang-Qin; Duan, Ru-Lin; Tang, Yong; Zhu, Zhi-Ting; Yan, Yong-Jian; Guo, Yu-Qing

    2011-01-01

    The semantic web brings a new opportunity for efficient information organization and search. To meet the special requirements of the educational field, this paper proposes an intelligent search engine enabled by educational semantic support service, where three kinds of searches are integrated into Educational Information Intelligent Search (EIIS)…

  5. Enabling task-based information prioritization via semantic web encodings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelis, James R.

    2016-05-01

    Modern Soldiers rely upon accurate and actionable information technology to achieve mission objectives. While increasingly rich sensor networks for Areas of Operation (AO) can offer many directions for aiding Soldiers, limitations are imposed by current tactical edge systems on the rate that content can be transmitted. Furthermore, mission tasks will often require very specific sets of information which may easily be drowned out by other content sources. Prior research on Quality and Value of Information (QoI/VoI) has aimed to define ways to prioritize information objects based on their intrinsic attributes (QoI) and perceived value to a consumer (VoI). As part of this effort, established ranking approaches for obtaining Subject Matter Expert (SME) recommendations, such as the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) have been considered. However, limited work has been done to tie Soldier context - such as descriptions of their mission and tasks - back to intrinsic attributes of information objects. As a first step toward addressing the above challenges, this work introduces an ontology-backed approach - rooted in Semantic Web publication practices - for expressing both AHP decision hierarchies and corresponding SME feedback. Following a short discussion on related QoI/VoI research, an ontology-based data structure is introduced for supporting evaluation of Information Objects, using AHP rankings designed to facilitate information object prioritization. Consistent with alternate AHP approaches, prioritization in this approach is based on pairwise comparisons between Information Objects with respect to established criteria, as well as on pairwise comparison of the criteria to assess their relative importance. The paper concludes with a discussion of both ongoing and future work.

  6. A study on heterogeneous distributed spatial information platform based on semantic Web services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shuang-yun; Yang, Kun; Xu, Quan-li; Huang, Bang-mei

    2008-10-01

    With the development of Semantic Web technology, the spatial information service based on ontology is an effective way for sharing and interoperation of heterogeneous information resources in the distributed network environment. This paper discusses spatial information sharing and interoperability in the Semantic Web Services architecture. Through using Ontology record spatial information in sharing knowledge system, explicit and formalization expresses the default and the concealment semantic information. It provides the prerequisite for spatial information sharing and interoperability; Through Semantic Web Services technology parses Ontology and intelligent buildings services under network environment, form a network of services. In order to realize the practical applications of spatial information sharing and interoperation in different brunches of CDC system, a prototype system for HIV/AIDS information sharing based on geo-ontology has also been developed by using the methods described above.

  7. Evaluating semantic metamemory: Retrospective confidence judgements on the information subtest.

    PubMed

    Ladowsky-Brooks, Ricki L

    2016-12-12

    The current research explored the potential value of adding a supplementary measure of metamemory to the Information subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Third Edition (WAIS-III in Study 1) or Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV in Study 2) in order to assess its relationship to other neuropsychological measures and to brain injury. After completing the Information subtest, neuropsychological examinees were asked to make retrospective confidence judgements (RCJ) by rating their answer certainty in the original order of item administration. In Study 1 (N = 52) and study 2 (N = 30), correct answers were rated with significantly more certainty than wrong answers (termed a "confidence gap"), and in both studies, higher confidence for wrong answers was significantly correlated with poorer performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (for categories completed r = -.58 in Study 1, and r = -.47 in Study 2; for perseverative errors r = .44 in Study 1, and r = .45 in Study 2). In both studies, a number of examinees with positive CT findings had a very small or reversed confidence gap. These findings suggest that semantic metamemory is sensitive to executive functioning and brain injury and should be assessed in the neuropsychological examination.

  8. Semantics-informed cartography: the case of Piemonte Geological Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piana, Fabrizio; Lombardo, Vincenzo; Mimmo, Dario; Giardino, Marco; Fubelli, Giandomenico

    2016-04-01

    In modern digital geological maps, namely those supported by a large geo-database and devoted to dynamical, interactive representation on WMS-WebGIS services, there is the need to provide, in an explicit form, the geological assumptions used for the design and compilation of the database of the Map, and to get a definition and/or adoption of semantic representation and taxonomies, in order to achieve a formal and interoperable representation of the geologic knowledge. These approaches are fundamental for the integration and harmonisation of geological information and services across cultural (e.g. different scientific disciplines) and/or physical barriers (e.g. administrative boundaries). Initiatives such as GeoScience Markup Language (last version is GeoSciML 4.0, 2015, http://www.geosciml.org) and the INSPIRE "Data Specification on Geology" http://inspire.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents/Data_Specifications/INSPIRE_DataSpecification_GE_v3.0rc3.pdf (an operative simplification of GeoSciML, last version is 3.0 rc3, 2013), as well as the recent terminological shepherding of the Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG) have been promoting information exchange of the geologic knowledge. Grounded on these standard vocabularies, schemas and data models, we provide a shared semantic classification of geological data referring to the study case of the synthetic digital geological map of the Piemonte region (NW Italy), named "GEOPiemonteMap", developed by the CNR Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Torino (CNR IGG TO) and hosted as a dynamical interactive map on the geoportal of ARPA Piemonte Environmental Agency. The Piemonte Geological Map is grounded on a regional-scale geo-database consisting of some hundreds of GeologicUnits whose thousands instances (Mapped Features, polygons geometry) widely occur in Piemonte region, and each one is bounded by GeologicStructures (Mapped Features, line geometry). GeologicUnits and GeologicStructures have been spatially

  9. Latent morpho-semantic analysis : multilingual information retrieval with character n-grams and mutual information.

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, Brett William; Chew, Peter A.; Abdelali, Ahmed

    2008-08-01

    We describe an entirely statistics-based, unsupervised, and language-independent approach to multilingual information retrieval, which we call Latent Morpho-Semantic Analysis (LMSA). LMSA overcomes some of the shortcomings of related previous approaches such as Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). LMSA has an important theoretical advantage over LSA: it combines well-known techniques in a novel way to break the terms of LSA down into units which correspond more closely to morphemes. Thus, it has a particular appeal for use with morphologically complex languages such as Arabic. We show through empirical results that the theoretical advantages of LMSA can translate into significant gains in precision in multilingual information retrieval tests. These gains are not matched either when a standard stemmer is used with LSA, or when terms are indiscriminately broken down into n-grams.

  10. Enhancing multilingual latent semantic analysis with term alignment information.

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, Peter A.; Bader, Brett William

    2008-08-01

    Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) is based on the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of a term-by-document matrix for identifying relationships among terms and documents from co-occurrence patterns. Among the multiple ways of computing the SVD of a rectangular matrix X, one approach is to compute the eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) of a square 2 x 2 composite matrix consisting of four blocks with X and XT in the off-diagonal blocks and zero matrices in the diagonal blocks. We point out that significant value can be added to LSA by filling in some of the values in the diagonal blocks (corresponding to explicit term-to-term or document-to-document associations) and computing a term-by-concept matrix from the EVD. For the case of multilingual LSA, we incorporate information on cross-language term alignments of the same sort used in Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). Since all elements of the proposed EVD-based approach can rely entirely on lexical statistics, hardly any price is paid for the improved empirical results. In particular, the approach, like LSA or SMT, can still be generalized to virtually any language(s); computation of the EVD takes similar resources to that of the SVD since all the blocks are sparse; and the results of EVD are just as economical as those of SVD.

  11. Early Stages of Sensory Processing, but Not Semantic Integration, Are Altered in Dyslexic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Patrícia B.; Ueki, Karen; Oliveira, Darlene G.; Boggio, Paulo S.; Macedo, Elizeu C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify which stages of language processing are impaired in individuals with dyslexia. For this, a visual-auditory crossmodal task with semantic judgment was used. The P100 potentials were chosen, related to visual processing and initial integration, and N400 potentials related to semantic processing. Based on visual-auditory crossmodal studies, it is understood that dyslexic individuals present impairments in the integration of these two types of tasks and impairments in processing spoken and musical auditory information. The present study sought to investigate and compare the performance of 32 adult participants (14 individuals with dyslexia), in semantic processing tasks in two situations with auditory stimuli: sentences and music, with integrated visual stimuli (pictures). From the analysis of the accuracy, both the sentence and the music blocks showed significant effects on the congruency variable, with both groups having higher scores for the incongruent items than for the congruent ones. Furthermore, there was also a group effect when the priming was music, with the dyslexic group showing an inferior performance to the control group, demonstrating greater impairments in processing when the priming was music. Regarding the reaction time variable, a group effect in music and sentence priming was found, with the dyslexic group being slower than the control group. The N400 and P100 components were analyzed. In items with judgment and music priming, a group effect was observed for the amplitude of the P100, with higher means produced by individuals with dyslexia, corroborating the literature that individuals with dyslexia have difficulties in early information processing. A congruency effect was observed in the items with music priming, with greater P100 amplitudes found in incongruous situations. Analyses of the N400 component showed the congruency effect for amplitude in both types of priming, with the mean amplitude for incongruent

  12. Semantic information extracting system for classification of radiological reports in radiology information system (RIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Liehang; Ling, Tonghui; Zhang, Jianguo

    2016-03-01

    Radiologists currently use a variety of terminologies and standards in most hospitals in China, and even there are multiple terminologies being used for different sections in one department. In this presentation, we introduce a medical semantic comprehension system (MedSCS) to extract semantic information about clinical findings and conclusion from free text radiology reports so that the reports can be classified correctly based on medical terms indexing standards such as Radlex or SONMED-CT. Our system (MedSCS) is based on both rule-based methods and statistics-based methods which improve the performance and the scalability of MedSCS. In order to evaluate the over all of the system and measure the accuracy of the outcomes, we developed computation methods to calculate the parameters of precision rate, recall rate, F-score and exact confidence interval.

  13. Semantic Web Technology for Mapping and Applying Clinical Functional Assessment Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-13-2-0010 TITLE: Semantic Web Technology for Mapping and Applying Clinical Functional Assessment Information PRINCIPAL...SUBTITLE Semantic Web Technology for Mapping and Applying Clinical 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-13-2-0010 Functional Assessment Information 5b. GRANT...International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). We developed the mechanisms to generate programmatically data-acquisition Web forms

  14. Integrating semantic web technologies and geospatial catalog services for geospatial information discovery and processing in cyberinfrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Peng; Gong, Jianya; Di, Liping; He, Lianlian; Wei, Yaxing

    2011-04-01

    Abstract A geospatial catalogue service provides a network-based meta-information repository and interface for advertising and discovering shared geospatial data and services. Descriptive information (i.e., metadata) for geospatial data and services is structured and organized in catalogue services. The approaches currently available for searching and using that information are often inadequate. Semantic Web technologies show promise for better discovery methods by exploiting the underlying semantics. Such development needs special attention from the Cyberinfrastructure perspective, so that the traditional focus on discovery of and access to geospatial data can be expanded to support the increased demand for processing of geospatial information and discovery of knowledge. Semantic descriptions for geospatial data, services, and geoprocessing service chains are structured, organized, and registered through extending elements in the ebXML Registry Information Model (ebRIM) of a geospatial catalogue service, which follows the interface specifications of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Catalogue Services for the Web (CSW). The process models for geoprocessing service chains, as a type of geospatial knowledge, are captured, registered, and discoverable. Semantics-enhanced discovery for geospatial data, services/service chains, and process models is described. Semantic search middleware that can support virtual data product materialization is developed for the geospatial catalogue service. The creation of such a semantics-enhanced geospatial catalogue service is important in meeting the demands for geospatial information discovery and analysis in Cyberinfrastructure.

  15. Adapting Semantic Natural Language Processing Technology to Address Information Overload in Influenza Epidemic Management.

    PubMed

    Keselman, Alla; Rosemblat, Graciela; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Jin, Honglan; Shin, Dongwook; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2010-12-01

    Explosion of disaster health information results in information overload among response professionals. The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of applying semantic natural language processing (NLP) technology to addressing this overload. The project characterizes concepts and relationships commonly used in disaster health-related documents on influenza pandemics, as the basis for adapting an existing semantic summarizer to the domain. Methods include human review and semantic NLP analysis of a set of relevant documents. This is followed by a pilot-test in which two information specialists use the adapted application for a realistic information seeking task. According to the results, the ontology of influenza epidemics management can be described via a manageable number of semantic relationships that involve concepts from a limited number of semantic types. Test users demonstrate several ways to engage with the application to obtain useful information. This suggests that existing semantic NLP algorithms can be adapted to support information summarization and visualization in influenza epidemics and other disaster health areas. However, additional research is needed in the areas of terminology development (as many relevant relationships and terms are not part of existing standardized vocabularies), NLP, and user interface design.

  16. A novel architecture for information retrieval system based on semantic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui

    2011-12-01

    Nowadays, the web has enabled an explosive growth of information sharing (there are currently over 4 billion pages covering most areas of human endeavor) so that the web has faced a new challenge of information overhead. The challenge that is now before us is not only to help people locating relevant information precisely but also to access and aggregate a variety of information from different resources automatically. Current web document are in human-oriented formats and they are suitable for the presentation, but machines cannot understand the meaning of document. To address this issue, Berners-Lee proposed a concept of semantic web. With semantic web technology, web information can be understood and processed by machine. It provides new possibilities for automatic web information processing. A main problem of semantic web information retrieval is that when these is not enough knowledge to such information retrieval system, the system will return to a large of no sense result to uses due to a huge amount of information results. In this paper, we present the architecture of information based on semantic web. In addiction, our systems employ the inference Engine to check whether the query should pose to Keyword-based Search Engine or should pose to the Semantic Search Engine.

  17. A Validation of Parafoveal Semantic Information Extraction in Reading Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Wei; Kliegl, Reinhold; Yan, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Parafoveal semantic processing has recently been well documented in reading Chinese sentences, presumably because of language-specific features. However, because of a large variation of fixation landing positions on pretarget words, some preview words actually were located in foveal vision when readers' eyes landed close to the end of the…

  18. Operationalizing Semantic Medline for meeting the information needs at point of care

    PubMed Central

    Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Li, Dingcheng; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-01-01

    Scientific literature is one of the popular resources for providing decision support at point of care. It is highly desirable to bring the most relevant literature to support the evidence-based clinical decision making process. Motivated by the recent advance in semantically enhanced information retrieval, we have developed a system, which aims to bring semantically enriched literature, Semantic Medline, to meet the information needs at point of care. This study reports our work towards operationalizing the system for real time use. We demonstrate that the migration of a relational database implementation to a NoSQL (Not only SQL) implementation significantly improves the performance and makes the use of Semantic Medline at point of care decision support possible. PMID:26306259

  19. Hybrid ontology for semantic information retrieval model using keyword matching indexing system.

    PubMed

    Uthayan, K R; Mala, G S Anandha

    2015-01-01

    Ontology is the process of growth and elucidation of concepts of an information domain being common for a group of users. Establishing ontology into information retrieval is a normal method to develop searching effects of relevant information users require. Keywords matching process with historical or information domain is significant in recent calculations for assisting the best match for specific input queries. This research presents a better querying mechanism for information retrieval which integrates the ontology queries with keyword search. The ontology-based query is changed into a primary order to predicate logic uncertainty which is used for routing the query to the appropriate servers. Matching algorithms characterize warm area of researches in computer science and artificial intelligence. In text matching, it is more dependable to study semantics model and query for conditions of semantic matching. This research develops the semantic matching results between input queries and information in ontology field. The contributed algorithm is a hybrid method that is based on matching extracted instances from the queries and information field. The queries and information domain is focused on semantic matching, to discover the best match and to progress the executive process. In conclusion, the hybrid ontology in semantic web is sufficient to retrieve the documents when compared to standard ontology.

  20. E-Government Goes Semantic Web: How Administrations Can Transform Their Information Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klischewski, Ralf; Ukena, Stefan

    E-government applications and services are built mainly on access to, retrieval of, integration of, and delivery of relevant information to citizens, businesses, and administrative users. In order to perform such information processing automatically through the Semantic Web,1 machine-readable2 enhancements of web resources are needed, based on the understanding of the content and context of the information in focus. While these enhancements are far from trivial to produce, administrations in their role of information and service providers so far find little guidance on how to migrate their web resources and enable a new quality of information processing; even research is still seeking best practices. Therefore, the underlying research question of this chapter is: what are the appropriate approaches which guide administrations in transforming their information processes toward the Semantic Web? In search for answers, this chapter analyzes the challenges and possible solutions from the perspective of administrations: (a) the reconstruction of the information processing in the e-government in terms of how semantic technologies must be employed to support information provision and consumption through the Semantic Web; (b) the required contribution to the transformation is compared to the capabilities and expectations of administrations; and (c) available experience with the steps of transformation are reviewed and discussed as to what extent they can be expected to successfully drive the e-government to the Semantic Web. This research builds on studying the case of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, where semantic technologies have been used within the frame of the Access-eGov3 project in order to semantically enhance electronic service interfaces with the aim of providing a new way of accessing and combining e-government services.

  1. Discovering biomedical semantic relations in PubMed queries for information retrieval and database curation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chung-Chi; Lu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Identifying relevant papers from the literature is a common task in biocuration. Most current biomedical literature search systems primarily rely on matching user keywords. Semantic search, on the other hand, seeks to improve search accuracy by understanding the entities and contextual relations in user keywords. However, past research has mostly focused on semantically identifying biological entities (e.g. chemicals, diseases and genes) with little effort on discovering semantic relations. In this work, we aim to discover biomedical semantic relations in PubMed queries in an automated and unsupervised fashion. Specifically, we focus on extracting and understanding the contextual information (or context patterns) that is used by PubMed users to represent semantic relations between entities such as 'CHEMICAL-1 compared to CHEMICAL-2' With the advances in automatic named entity recognition, we first tag entities in PubMed queries and then use tagged entities as knowledge to recognize pattern semantics. More specifically, we transform PubMed queries into context patterns involving participating entities, which are subsequently projected to latent topics via latent semantic analysis (LSA) to avoid the data sparseness and specificity issues. Finally, we mine semantically similar contextual patterns or semantic relations based on LSA topic distributions. Our two separate evaluation experiments of chemical-chemical (CC) and chemical-disease (CD) relations show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms a baseline method, which simply measures pattern semantics by similarity in participating entities. The highest performance achieved by our approach is nearly 0.9 and 0.85 respectively for the CC and CD task when compared against the ground truth in terms of normalized discounted cumulative gain (nDCG), a standard measure of ranking quality. These results suggest that our approach can effectively identify and return related semantic patterns in a ranked order

  2. Discovering biomedical semantic relations in PubMed queries for information retrieval and database curation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chung-Chi; Lu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Identifying relevant papers from the literature is a common task in biocuration. Most current biomedical literature search systems primarily rely on matching user keywords. Semantic search, on the other hand, seeks to improve search accuracy by understanding the entities and contextual relations in user keywords. However, past research has mostly focused on semantically identifying biological entities (e.g. chemicals, diseases and genes) with little effort on discovering semantic relations. In this work, we aim to discover biomedical semantic relations in PubMed queries in an automated and unsupervised fashion. Specifically, we focus on extracting and understanding the contextual information (or context patterns) that is used by PubMed users to represent semantic relations between entities such as ‘CHEMICAL-1 compared to CHEMICAL-2.’ With the advances in automatic named entity recognition, we first tag entities in PubMed queries and then use tagged entities as knowledge to recognize pattern semantics. More specifically, we transform PubMed queries into context patterns involving participating entities, which are subsequently projected to latent topics via latent semantic analysis (LSA) to avoid the data sparseness and specificity issues. Finally, we mine semantically similar contextual patterns or semantic relations based on LSA topic distributions. Our two separate evaluation experiments of chemical-chemical (CC) and chemical–disease (CD) relations show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms a baseline method, which simply measures pattern semantics by similarity in participating entities. The highest performance achieved by our approach is nearly 0.9 and 0.85 respectively for the CC and CD task when compared against the ground truth in terms of normalized discounted cumulative gain (nDCG), a standard measure of ranking quality. These results suggest that our approach can effectively identify and return related semantic patterns in a ranked

  3. Integration of Sentence-Level Semantic Information in Parafovea: Evidence from the RSVP-Flanker Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjia; Li, Nan; Wang, Xiaoyue; Wang, Suiping

    2015-01-01

    During text reading, the parafoveal word was usually presented between 2° and 5° from the point of fixation. Whether semantic information of parafoveal words can be processed during sentence reading is a critical and long-standing issue. Recently, studies using the RSVP-flanker paradigm have shown that the incongruent parafoveal word, presented as right flanker, elicited a more negative N400 compared with the congruent parafoveal word. This suggests that the semantic information of parafoveal words can be extracted and integrated during sentence reading, because the N400 effect is a classical index of semantic integration. However, as most previous studies did not control the word-pair congruency of the parafoveal and the foveal words that were presented in the critical triad, it is still unclear whether such integration happened at the sentence level or just at the word-pair level. The present study addressed this question by manipulating verbs in Chinese sentences to yield either a semantically congruent or semantically incongruent context for the critical noun. In particular, the interval between the critical nouns and verbs was controlled to be 4 or 5 characters. Thus, to detect the incongruence of the parafoveal noun, participants had to integrate it with the global sentential context. The results revealed that the N400 time-locked to the critical triads was more negative in incongruent than in congruent sentences, suggesting that parafoveal semantic information can be integrated at the sentence level during Chinese reading.

  4. Developmental changes in the neural influence of sublexical information on semantic processing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shu-Hui; Booth, James R; Chou, Tai-Li

    2015-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine the developmental changes in a group of normally developing children (aged 8-12) and adolescents (aged 13-16) during semantic processing. We manipulated association strength (i.e. a global reading unit) and semantic radical (i.e. a local reading unit) to explore the interaction of lexical and sublexical semantic information in making semantic judgments. In the semantic judgment task, two types of stimuli were used: visually-similar (i.e. shared a semantic radical) versus visually-dissimilar (i.e. did not share a semantic radical) character pairs. Participants were asked to indicate if two Chinese characters, arranged according to association strength, were related in meaning. The results showed greater developmental increases in activation in left angular gyrus (BA 39) in the visually-similar compared to the visually-dissimilar pairs for the strong association. There were also greater age-related increases in angular gyrus for the strong compared to weak association in the visually-similar pairs. Both of these results suggest that shared semantics at the sublexical level facilitates the integration of overlapping features at the lexical level in older children. In addition, there was a larger developmental increase in left posterior middle temporal gyrus (BA 21) for the weak compared to strong association in the visually-dissimilar pairs, suggesting conflicting sublexical information placed greater demands on access to lexical representations in the older children. All together, these results suggest that older children are more sensitive to sublexical information when processing lexical representations.

  5. More data trumps smarter algorithms: comparing pointwise mutual information with latent semantic analysis.

    PubMed

    Recchia, Gabriel; Jones, Michael N

    2009-08-01

    Computational models of lexical semantics, such as latent semantic analysis, can automatically generate semantic similarity measures between words from statistical redundancies in text. These measures are useful for experimental stimulus selection and for evaluating a model's cognitive plausibility as a mechanism that people might use to organize meaning in memory. Although humans are exposed to enormous quantities of speech, practical constraints limit the amount of data that many current computational models can learn from. We follow up on previous work evaluating a simple metric of pointwise mutual information. Controlling for confounds in previous work, we demonstrate that this metric benefits from training on extremely large amounts of data and correlates more closely with human semantic similarity ratings than do publicly available implementations of several more complex models. We also present a simple tool for building simple and scalable models from large corpora quickly and efficiently.

  6. How To Do Away with Semantic Pollution in Information Systems. Information Systems in Management Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazsonyi, Andrew

    1973-01-01

    There is a need for the patient establishment of the operational meanings of words and also for the introduction of new meanings by carefully climbing the semantic ladder in levels of abstraction without transgressing the semantic ceiling. (WM)

  7. Methods and apparatus for capture and storage of semantic information with sub-files in a parallel computing system

    DOEpatents

    Faibish, Sorin; Bent, John M; Tzelnic, Percy; Grider, Gary; Torres, Aaron

    2015-02-03

    Techniques are provided for storing files in a parallel computing system using sub-files with semantically meaningful boundaries. A method is provided for storing at least one file generated by a distributed application in a parallel computing system. The file comprises one or more of a complete file and a plurality of sub-files. The method comprises the steps of obtaining a user specification of semantic information related to the file; providing the semantic information as a data structure description to a data formatting library write function; and storing the semantic information related to the file with one or more of the sub-files in one or more storage nodes of the parallel computing system. The semantic information provides a description of data in the file. The sub-files can be replicated based on semantically meaningful boundaries.

  8. Encoding sequential information in semantic space models: comparing holographic reduced representation and random permutation.

    PubMed

    Recchia, Gabriel; Sahlgren, Magnus; Kanerva, Pentti; Jones, Michael N

    2015-01-01

    Circular convolution and random permutation have each been proposed as neurally plausible binding operators capable of encoding sequential information in semantic memory. We perform several controlled comparisons of circular convolution and random permutation as means of encoding paired associates as well as encoding sequential information. Random permutations outperformed convolution with respect to the number of paired associates that can be reliably stored in a single memory trace. Performance was equal on semantic tasks when using a small corpus, but random permutations were ultimately capable of achieving superior performance due to their higher scalability to large corpora. Finally, "noisy" permutations in which units are mapped to other units arbitrarily (no one-to-one mapping) perform nearly as well as true permutations. These findings increase the neurological plausibility of random permutations and highlight their utility in vector space models of semantics.

  9. Encoding Sequential Information in Semantic Space Models: Comparing Holographic Reduced Representation and Random Permutation

    PubMed Central

    Recchia, Gabriel; Sahlgren, Magnus; Kanerva, Pentti; Jones, Michael N.

    2015-01-01

    Circular convolution and random permutation have each been proposed as neurally plausible binding operators capable of encoding sequential information in semantic memory. We perform several controlled comparisons of circular convolution and random permutation as means of encoding paired associates as well as encoding sequential information. Random permutations outperformed convolution with respect to the number of paired associates that can be reliably stored in a single memory trace. Performance was equal on semantic tasks when using a small corpus, but random permutations were ultimately capable of achieving superior performance due to their higher scalability to large corpora. Finally, “noisy” permutations in which units are mapped to other units arbitrarily (no one-to-one mapping) perform nearly as well as true permutations. These findings increase the neurological plausibility of random permutations and highlight their utility in vector space models of semantics. PMID:25954306

  10. Visual Statistical Learning Based on the Perceptual and Semantic Information of Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otsuka, Sachio; Nishiyama, Megumi; Nakahara, Fumitaka; Kawaguchi, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Five experiments examined what is learned based on the perceptual and semantic information of objects in visual statistical learning (VSL). In the familiarization phase, participants viewed a sequence of line drawings and detected repetitions of various objects. In a subsequent test phase, they watched 2 test sequences (statistically related…

  11. Dynamic information processing states revealed through neurocognitive models of object semantics

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Recognising objects relies on highly dynamic, interactive brain networks to process multiple aspects of object information. To fully understand how different forms of information about objects are represented and processed in the brain requires a neurocognitive account of visual object recognition that combines a detailed cognitive model of semantic knowledge with a neurobiological model of visual object processing. Here we ask how specific cognitive factors are instantiated in our mental processes and how they dynamically evolve over time. We suggest that coarse semantic information, based on generic shared semantic knowledge, is rapidly extracted from visual inputs and is sufficient to drive rapid category decisions. Subsequent recurrent neural activity between the anterior temporal lobe and posterior fusiform supports the formation of object-specific semantic representations – a conjunctive process primarily driven by the perirhinal cortex. These object-specific representations require the integration of shared and distinguishing object properties and support the unique recognition of objects. We conclude that a valuable way of understanding the cognitive activity of the brain is though testing the relationship between specific cognitive measures and dynamic neural activity. This kind of approach allows us to move towards uncovering the information processing states of the brain and how they evolve over time. PMID:25745632

  12. Improving User Experience by Taking Advance of Semantic Information of Microformats on Municipal Websites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Rocío; Vera, Pablo; Estevez, Elsa; Giulianelli, Daniel; Welicki, León; Trigueros, Artemisa

    This research regards about the use of microformats as a tool to add semantic information to government web sites. The use of microformats allows the developer to add different resources such as maps, calendars, etc, in an easy way. The paper also shows a survey of the already existing microformats and which of them are useful to be applied to government web sites.

  13. WORD STATISTICS IN THE GENERATION OF SEMANTIC TOOLS FOR INFORMATION SYSTEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STONE, DON C.

    ONE OF THE PROBLEMS IN INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS OF TECHNICAL DOCUMENTS IS THE INTERPRETATION OF WORDS USED TO INDEX DOCUMENTS. SEMANTIC TOOLS, DEFINED AS CHANNELS FOR THE COMMUNICATION OF WORD MEANINGS BETWEEN TECHNICAL EXPERTS, DOCUMENT INDEXERS, AND SEARCHERS, PROVIDE ONE METHOD OF DEALING WITH THE PROBLEM OF MULTIPLE…

  14. Dissociative Contributions of Semantic and Lexical-Phonological Information to Immediate Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Ryoji

    2013-01-01

    Several neuropsychological studies have reported that patients with memory deficits exhibit a dissociation of effects attributed to semantic and lexical-phonological information in verbal working memory (e.g., Reilly, Martin, & Grossman, 2005; Romani & Martin, 1999). The present study reports on 3 experiments conducted with individuals without…

  15. On2broker: Semantic-Based Access to Information Sources at the WWW.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fensel, Dieter; Angele, Jurgen; Decker, Stefan; Erdmann, Michael; Schnurr, Hans-Peter; Staab, Steffen; Studer, Rudi; Witt, Andreas

    On2broker provides brokering services to improve access to heterogeneous, distributed, and semistructured information sources as they are presented in the World Wide Web. It relies on the use of ontologies to make explicit the semantics of Web pages. This paper discusses the general architecture and main components (i.e., query engine, information…

  16. Information content versus relational knowledge: semantic deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Aronoff, Justin M; Gonnerman, Laura M; Almor, Amit; Arunachalam, Sudha; Kempler, Daniel; Andersen, Elaine S

    2006-01-01

    Studies of semantic impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have yielded conflicting results, some finding evidence of considerable deficits, others finding that semantic knowledge is relatively intact. How do we reconcile findings from picture naming tasks that seem to indicate semantic impairment in AD with results from certain sorting tasks that suggest intact semantics? To investigate the basis of the contradictory results described above, we conducted a study using two types of tasks: (1) picture naming; and (2) board sorting. The board sorting task we used is a simultaneous similarity judgment task, in which participants are asked to place more similar concepts closer together and less similar ones farther apart. We compared the performance of AD patients on these two tasks, using a number of different analyses that yield very different patterns of results. Our results indicate that whether patients show impairment or not depends on both the nature of the task and the subsequent analysis chosen. Specifically, tasks and analyses that focus on relational knowledge (e.g., dog is more related to cat than to camel) lead to different conclusions than those based on specific information about individual items. These findings suggest that the board sorting method, when coupled with multiple analyses, provides a more complete picture of the underlying semantic deficit in AD than previous studies have shown.

  17. On-Line Acoustic and Semantic Interpretation of Talker Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.; Tumlin, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work demonstrates that listeners utilize talker-specific information in the speech signal to inform real-time language processing. However, there are multiple representational levels at which this may take place. Listeners might use acoustic cues in the speech signal to access the talker's identity and information about what they tend to…

  18. A Novel Software Architecture for the Provision of Context-Aware Semantic Transport Information

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Asier; Perallos, Asier; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Onieva, Enrique; Salaberria, Itziar; Masegosa, Antonio D.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of Intelligent Transportation Systems depends largely on the ability to integrate information from diverse sources and the suitability of this information for the specific user. This paper describes a new approach for the management and exchange of this information, related to multimodal transportation. A novel software architecture is presented, with particular emphasis on the design of the data model and the enablement of services for information retrieval, thereby obtaining a semantic model for the representation of transport information. The publication of transport data as semantic information is established through the development of a Multimodal Transport Ontology (MTO) and the design of a distributed architecture allowing dynamic integration of transport data. The advantages afforded by the proposed system due to the use of Linked Open Data and a distributed architecture are stated, comparing it with other existing solutions. The adequacy of the information generated in regard to the specific user’s context is also addressed. Finally, a working solution of a semantic trip planner using actual transport data and running on the proposed architecture is presented, as a demonstration and validation of the system. PMID:26016915

  19. Similar alterations in brain function for phonological and semantic processing to visual characters in Chinese dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Wang, Wenjing; You, Wenping; Li, Yi; Awati, Neha; Zhao, Xu; Booth, James R; Peng, Danling

    2012-07-01

    Dyslexia in alphabetic languages has been extensively investigated and suggests a central deficit in orthography to phonology mapping in the left hemisphere. Compared to dyslexia in alphabetic languages, the central deficit for Chinese dyslexia is still unclear. Because of the logographic nature of Chinese characters, some have suggested that Chinese dyslexia should have larger deficits in the semantic system. To investigate this, Chinese children with reading disability (RD) were compared to typically developing (TD) children using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on a rhyming judgment task and on a semantic association judgment task. RD children showed less activation for both tasks in right visual (BA18, 19) and left occipito-temporal cortex (BA 37), suggesting a deficit in visuo-orthographic processing. RD children also showed less activation for both tasks in left inferior frontal gyrus (BA44), which additionally showed significant correlations with activation of bilateral visuo-orthographic regions in the RD group, suggesting that the abnormalities in frontal cortex and in posterior visuo-orthographic regions may reflect a deficit in the connection between brain regions. Analyses failed to reveal larger differences between groups for the semantic compared to the rhyming task, suggesting that Chinese dyslexia is similarly impaired in the access to phonology and to semantics from the visual orthography.

  20. I See What You Mean: Theta Power Increases Are Involved in the Retrieval of Lexical Semantic Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaansen, Marcel C. M.; Oostenveld, Robert; Jensen, Ole; Hagoort, Peter

    2008-01-01

    An influential hypothesis regarding the neural basis of the mental lexicon is that semantic representations are neurally implemented as distributed networks carrying sensory, motor and/or more abstract functional information. This work investigates whether the semantic properties of words partly determine the topography of such networks. Subjects…

  1. Care episode retrieval: distributional semantic models for information retrieval in the clinical domain

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Patients' health related information is stored in electronic health records (EHRs) by health service providers. These records include sequential documentation of care episodes in the form of clinical notes. EHRs are used throughout the health care sector by professionals, administrators and patients, primarily for clinical purposes, but also for secondary purposes such as decision support and research. The vast amounts of information in EHR systems complicate information management and increase the risk of information overload. Therefore, clinicians and researchers need new tools to manage the information stored in the EHRs. A common use case is, given a - possibly unfinished - care episode, to retrieve the most similar care episodes among the records. This paper presents several methods for information retrieval, focusing on care episode retrieval, based on textual similarity, where similarity is measured through domain-specific modelling of the distributional semantics of words. Models include variants of random indexing and the semantic neural network model word2vec. Two novel methods are introduced that utilize the ICD-10 codes attached to care episodes to better induce domain-specificity in the semantic model. We report on experimental evaluation of care episode retrieval that circumvents the lack of human judgements regarding episode relevance. Results suggest that several of the methods proposed outperform a state-of-the art search engine (Lucene) on the retrieval task. PMID:26099735

  2. Care episode retrieval: distributional semantic models for information retrieval in the clinical domain.

    PubMed

    Moen, Hans; Ginter, Filip; Marsi, Erwin; Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Salakoski, Tapio; Salanterä, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    Patients' health related information is stored in electronic health records (EHRs) by health service providers. These records include sequential documentation of care episodes in the form of clinical notes. EHRs are used throughout the health care sector by professionals, administrators and patients, primarily for clinical purposes, but also for secondary purposes such as decision support and research. The vast amounts of information in EHR systems complicate information management and increase the risk of information overload. Therefore, clinicians and researchers need new tools to manage the information stored in the EHRs. A common use case is, given a--possibly unfinished--care episode, to retrieve the most similar care episodes among the records. This paper presents several methods for information retrieval, focusing on care episode retrieval, based on textual similarity, where similarity is measured through domain-specific modelling of the distributional semantics of words. Models include variants of random indexing and the semantic neural network model word2vec. Two novel methods are introduced that utilize the ICD-10 codes attached to care episodes to better induce domain-specificity in the semantic model. We report on experimental evaluation of care episode retrieval that circumvents the lack of human judgements regarding episode relevance. Results suggest that several of the methods proposed outperform a state-of-the art search engine (Lucene) on the retrieval task.

  3. The Construction of Semantic Memory: Grammar-Based Representations Learned from Relational Episodic Information

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Francesco P.; Pennartz, Cyriel M. A.

    2011-01-01

    After acquisition, memories underlie a process of consolidation, making them more resistant to interference and brain injury. Memory consolidation involves systems-level interactions, most importantly between the hippocampus and associated structures, which takes part in the initial encoding of memory, and the neocortex, which supports long-term storage. This dichotomy parallels the contrast between episodic memory (tied to the hippocampal formation), collecting an autobiographical stream of experiences, and semantic memory, a repertoire of facts and statistical regularities about the world, involving the neocortex at large. Experimental evidence points to a gradual transformation of memories, following encoding, from an episodic to a semantic character. This may require an exchange of information between different memory modules during inactive periods. We propose a theory for such interactions and for the formation of semantic memory, in which episodic memory is encoded as relational data. Semantic memory is modeled as a modified stochastic grammar, which learns to parse episodic configurations expressed as an association matrix. The grammar produces tree-like representations of episodes, describing the relationships between its main constituents at multiple levels of categorization, based on its current knowledge of world regularities. These regularities are learned by the grammar from episodic memory information, through an expectation-maximization procedure, analogous to the inside–outside algorithm for stochastic context-free grammars. We propose that a Monte-Carlo sampling version of this algorithm can be mapped on the dynamics of “sleep replay” of previously acquired information in the hippocampus and neocortex. We propose that the model can reproduce several properties of semantic memory such as decontextualization, top-down processing, and creation of schemata. PMID:21887143

  4. Bim-Gis Integrated Geospatial Information Model Using Semantic Web and Rdf Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hor, A.-H.; Jadidi, A.; Sohn, G.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, 3D virtual indoor/outdoor urban modelling becomes a key spatial information framework for many civil and engineering applications such as evacuation planning, emergency and facility management. For accomplishing such sophisticate decision tasks, there is a large demands for building multi-scale and multi-sourced 3D urban models. Currently, Building Information Model (BIM) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are broadly used as the modelling sources. However, data sharing and exchanging information between two modelling domains is still a huge challenge; while the syntactic or semantic approaches do not fully provide exchanging of rich semantic and geometric information of BIM into GIS or vice-versa. This paper proposes a novel approach for integrating BIM and GIS using semantic web technologies and Resources Description Framework (RDF) graphs. The novelty of the proposed solution comes from the benefits of integrating BIM and GIS technologies into one unified model, so-called Integrated Geospatial Information Model (IGIM). The proposed approach consists of three main modules: BIM-RDF and GIS-RDF graphs construction, integrating of two RDF graphs, and query of information through IGIM-RDF graph using SPARQL. The IGIM generates queries from both the BIM and GIS RDF graphs resulting a semantically integrated model with entities representing both BIM classes and GIS feature objects with respect to the target-client application. The linkage between BIM-RDF and GIS-RDF is achieved through SPARQL endpoints and defined by a query using set of datasets and entity classes with complementary properties, relationships and geometries. To validate the proposed approach and its performance, a case study was also tested using IGIM system design.

  5. Correlating information contents of gene ontology terms to infer semantic similarity of gene products.

    PubMed

    Gan, Mingxin

    2014-01-01

    Successful applications of the gene ontology to the inference of functional relationships between gene products in recent years have raised the need for computational methods to automatically calculate semantic similarity between gene products based on semantic similarity of gene ontology terms. Nevertheless, existing methods, though having been widely used in a variety of applications, may significantly overestimate semantic similarity between genes that are actually not functionally related, thereby yielding misleading results in applications. To overcome this limitation, we propose to represent a gene product as a vector that is composed of information contents of gene ontology terms annotated for the gene product, and we suggest calculating similarity between two gene products as the relatedness of their corresponding vectors using three measures: Pearson's correlation coefficient, cosine similarity, and the Jaccard index. We focus on the biological process domain of the gene ontology and annotations of yeast proteins to study the effectiveness of the proposed measures. Results show that semantic similarity scores calculated using the proposed measures are more consistent with known biological knowledge than those derived using a list of existing methods, suggesting the effectiveness of our method in characterizing functional relationships between gene products.

  6. Exploiting syntactic and semantics information for chemical–disease relation extraction

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huiwei; Deng, Huijie; Chen, Long; Yang, Yunlong; Jia, Chen; Huang, Degen

    2016-01-01

    Identifying chemical–disease relations (CDR) from biomedical literature could improve chemical safety and toxicity studies. This article proposes a novel syntactic and semantic information exploitation method for CDR extraction. The proposed method consists of a feature-based model, a tree kernel-based model and a neural network model. The feature-based model exploits lexical features, the tree kernel-based model captures syntactic structure features, and the neural network model generates semantic representations. The motivation of our method is to fully utilize the nice properties of the three models to explore diverse information for CDR extraction. Experiments on the BioCreative V CDR dataset show that the three models are all effective for CDR extraction, and their combination could further improve extraction performance. Database URL: http://www.biocreative.org/resources/corpora/biocreative-v-cdr-corpus/. PMID:27081156

  7. Exploiting syntactic and semantics information for chemical-disease relation extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huiwei; Deng, Huijie; Chen, Long; Yang, Yunlong; Jia, Chen; Huang, Degen

    2016-01-01

    Identifying chemical-disease relations (CDR) from biomedical literature could improve chemical safety and toxicity studies. This article proposes a novel syntactic and semantic information exploitation method for CDR extraction. The proposed method consists of a feature-based model, a tree kernel-based model and a neural network model. The feature-based model exploits lexical features, the tree kernel-based model captures syntactic structure features, and the neural network model generates semantic representations. The motivation of our method is to fully utilize the nice properties of the three models to explore diverse information for CDR extraction. Experiments on the BioCreative V CDR dataset show that the three models are all effective for CDR extraction, and their combination could further improve extraction performance.Database URL:http://www.biocreative.org/resources/corpora/biocreative-v-cdr-corpus/.

  8. Item and order information in semantic memory: students' retention of the "CU fight song" lyrics.

    PubMed

    Overstreet, Michael F; Healy, Alice F

    2011-02-01

    University of Colorado (CU) students were tested on memory for the "CU Fight Song" in order to examine serial position effects in semantic memory while controlling for familiarity across positions. In Experiment 1, students reconstructed the order of the nine lines of the song. Students with previous exposure to the song performed better and showed a more bowed serial position function than did students with no knowledge of the song. Experiment 2 added a task assessing memory of item information. One word was removed and replaced with a blank in each line, and an alternative word was offered as an option, along with the correct word. Students selected the word that fit into each blank and then reconstructed the order of the lines. There was a bow-shaped curve for order reconstruction, but not for item selection, which implies that the serial position function in semantic memory stems from order, rather than item, information.

  9. Information Content-Based Gene Ontology Semantic Similarity Approaches: Toward a Unified Framework Theory

    PubMed Central

    Mazandu, Gaston K.; Mulder, Nicola J.

    2013-01-01

    Several approaches have been proposed for computing term information content (IC) and semantic similarity scores within the gene ontology (GO) directed acyclic graph (DAG). These approaches contributed to improving protein analyses at the functional level. Considering the recent proliferation of these approaches, a unified theory in a well-defined mathematical framework is necessary in order to provide a theoretical basis for validating these approaches. We review the existing IC-based ontological similarity approaches developed in the context of biomedical and bioinformatics fields to propose a general framework and unified description of all these measures. We have conducted an experimental evaluation to assess the impact of IC approaches, different normalization models, and correction factors on the performance of a functional similarity metric. Results reveal that considering only parents or only children of terms when assessing information content or semantic similarity scores negatively impacts the approach under consideration. This study produces a unified framework for current and future GO semantic similarity measures and provides theoretical basics for comparing different approaches. The experimental evaluation of different approaches based on different term information content models paves the way towards a solution to the issue of scoring a term's specificity in the GO DAG. PMID:24078912

  10. Information content-based gene ontology semantic similarity approaches: toward a unified framework theory.

    PubMed

    Mazandu, Gaston K; Mulder, Nicola J

    2013-01-01

    Several approaches have been proposed for computing term information content (IC) and semantic similarity scores within the gene ontology (GO) directed acyclic graph (DAG). These approaches contributed to improving protein analyses at the functional level. Considering the recent proliferation of these approaches, a unified theory in a well-defined mathematical framework is necessary in order to provide a theoretical basis for validating these approaches. We review the existing IC-based ontological similarity approaches developed in the context of biomedical and bioinformatics fields to propose a general framework and unified description of all these measures. We have conducted an experimental evaluation to assess the impact of IC approaches, different normalization models, and correction factors on the performance of a functional similarity metric. Results reveal that considering only parents or only children of terms when assessing information content or semantic similarity scores negatively impacts the approach under consideration. This study produces a unified framework for current and future GO semantic similarity measures and provides theoretical basics for comparing different approaches. The experimental evaluation of different approaches based on different term information content models paves the way towards a solution to the issue of scoring a term's specificity in the GO DAG.

  11. The semantics of locative information in pictures and mental images.

    PubMed

    Just, M A; Carpenter, P A

    1975-11-01

    Three experiments examined how people compare sentences about spatial location to pictures and images. Previous investigations have found that people are faster at judging relative location when the description contains the word above or right than when it contains the word below or left. Expt I showed that this asymmetry persisted when the words were replaced by arrows, indicating that the effect is not specific to particular lexical items. Expt. II showed the asymmetry persisted even when the response latency did not iclude the time to encode the description, indicating that the asymmetry does not lie in the description-encoding stage. Finally, Expt. III investigated how people compare sentences to information from a previously memorized picture. In this situation, the usual asymmetry was not present. The three studies suggest that the asymmetry arises from the way descriptions influence the encoding of perceptual events. The results also show that the information encoded in a mental representation of a picture is ordered such that certain features can be access-d more quickly than others. However, the same features are equally quickly accessed in a picture that is physically present.

  12. Exploring information from the topology beneath the Gene Ontology terms to improve semantic similarity measures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Bo; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2016-07-15

    Measuring the similarity between pairs of biological entities is important in molecular biology. The introduction of Gene Ontology (GO) provides us with a promising approach to quantifying the semantic similarity between two genes or gene products. This kind of similarity measure is closely associated with the GO terms annotated to biological entities under consideration and the structure of the GO graph. However, previous works in this field mainly focused on the upper part of the graph, and seldom concerned about the lower part. In this study, we aim to explore information from the lower part of the GO graph for better semantic similarity. We proposed a framework to quantify the similarity measure beneath a term pair, which takes into account both the information two ancestral terms share and the probability that they co-occur with their common descendants. The effectiveness of our approach was evaluated against seven typical measurements on public platform CESSM, protein-protein interaction and gene expression datasets. Experimental results consistently show that the similarity derived from the lower part contributes to better semantic similarity measure. The promising features of our approach are the following: (1) it provides a mirror model to characterize the information two ancestral terms share with respect to their common descendant; (2) it quantifies the probability that two terms co-occur with their common descendant in an efficient way; and (3) our framework can effectively capture the similarity measure beneath two terms, which can serve as an add-on to improve traditional semantic similarity measure between two GO terms. The algorithm was implemented in Matlab and is freely available from http://ejl.org.cn/bio/GOBeneath/.

  13. A semantic model for multimodal data mining in healthcare information systems.

    PubMed

    Iakovidis, Dimitris; Smailis, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) are representative examples of multimodal/multisource data collections; including measurements, images and free texts. The diversity of such information sources and the increasing amounts of medical data produced by healthcare institutes annually, pose significant challenges in data mining. In this paper we present a novel semantic model that describes knowledge extracted from the lowest-level of a data mining process, where information is represented by multiple features i.e. measurements or numerical descriptors extracted from measurements, images, texts or other medical data, forming multidimensional feature spaces. Knowledge collected by manual annotation or extracted by unsupervised data mining from one or more feature spaces is modeled through generalized qualitative spatial semantics. This model enables a unified representation of knowledge across multimodal data repositories. It contributes to bridging the semantic gap, by enabling direct links between low-level features and higher-level concepts e.g. describing body parts, anatomies and pathological findings. The proposed model has been developed in web ontology language based on description logics (OWL-DL) and can be applied to a variety of data mining tasks in medical informatics. It utility is demonstrated for automatic annotation of medical data.

  14. Partial sleep deprivation does not alter processes involved in semantic word priming: event-related potential evidence.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Paniz; Muller-Gass, Alexandra; Campbell, Kenneth

    2015-03-01

    Sleep deprivation has generally been observed to have a detrimental effect on tasks that require sustained attention for successful performance. It might however be possible to counter these effects by altering cognitive strategies. A recent semantic word priming study indicated that subjects used an effortful predictive-expectancy search of semantic memory following normal sleep, but changed to an automatic, effortless strategy following total sleep deprivation. Partial sleep deprivation occurs much more frequently than total sleep deprivation. The present study therefore employed a similar priming task following either 4h of sleep or following normal sleep. The purpose of the study was to determine whether partial sleep deprivation would also lead to a shift in cognitive strategy to compensate for an inability to sustain attention and effortful processing necessary for using the predicative expectancy strategy. Sixteen subjects were presented with word pairs, a prime and a target that were either strongly semantically associated (cat...dog), weakly associated (cow...barn) or not associated (apple...road). The subject's task was to determine if the target word was semantically associated to the prime. A strong priming effect was observed in both conditions. RTs were slower, accuracy lower, and N400 larger to unassociated targets, independent of the amount of sleep. The overall N400 did not differ as a function of sleep. The scalp distribution of the N400 was also similar following both normal sleep and sleep loss. There was thus little evidence of a difference in the processing of the target stimulus as a function of the amount sleep. Similarly, ERPs in the period between the onset of the prime and the subsequent target also did not differ between the normal sleep and sleep loss conditions. In contrast to total sleep deprivation, subjects therefore appeared to use a common predictive expectancy strategy in both conditions. This strategy does however require an

  15. Intelligent Information Fusion in the Aviation Domain: A Semantic-Web based Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashish, Naveen; Goforth, Andre

    2005-01-01

    Information fusion from multiple sources is a critical requirement for System Wide Information Management in the National Airspace (NAS). NASA and the FAA envision creating an "integrated pool" of information originally coming from different sources, which users, intelligent agents and NAS decision support tools can tap into. In this paper we present the results of our initial investigations into the requirements and prototype development of such an integrated information pool for the NAS. We have attempted to ascertain key requirements for such an integrated pool based on a survey of DSS tools that will benefit from this integrated pool. We then advocate key technologies from computer science research areas such as the semantic web, information integration, and intelligent agents that we believe are well suited to achieving the envisioned system wide information management capabilities.

  16. New names for known things: on the association of novel word forms with existing semantic information.

    PubMed

    Dobel, Christian; Junghöfer, Markus; Breitenstein, Caterina; Klauke, Benedikt; Knecht, Stefan; Pantev, Christo; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2010-06-01

    The plasticity of the adult memory network for integrating novel word forms (lexemes) was investigated with whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG). We showed that spoken word forms of an (artificial) foreign language are integrated rapidly and successfully into existing lexical and conceptual memory networks. The new lexemes were learned in an untutored way, by pairing them frequently with one particular object (and thus meaning), and infrequently with 10 other objects (learned set). Other novel word forms were encountered just as often, but paired with many different objects (nonlearned set). Their impact on semantic memory was assessed with cross-modal priming, with novel word forms as primes and object pictures as targets. The MEG counterpart of the N400 (N400m) served as an indicator of a semantic (mis)match between words and pictures. Prior to learning, all novel words induced a pronounced N400m mismatch effect to the pictures. This component was strongly reduced after training for the learned novel lexemes only, and now closely resembled the brain's response to semantically related native-language words. This result cannot be explained by mere stimulus repetition or stimulus-stimulus association. Thus, learned novel words rapidly gained access to existing conceptual representations, as effectively as related native-language words. This association of novel lexemes and conceptual information happened fast and almost without effort. Neural networks mediating these integration processes were found within left temporal lobe, an area typically described as one of the main generators of the N400 response.

  17. Easing semantically enriched information retrieval-An interactive semi-automatic annotation system for medical documents.

    PubMed

    Gschwandtner, Theresia; Kaiser, Katharina; Martini, Patrick; Miksch, Silvia

    2010-06-01

    Mapping medical concepts from a terminology system to the concepts in the narrative text of a medical document is necessary to provide semantically accurate information for further processing steps. The MetaMap Transfer (MMTx) program is a semantic annotation system that generates a rough mapping of concepts from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus to free medical text, but this mapping still contains erroneous and ambiguous bits of information. Since manually correcting the mapping is an extremely cumbersome and time-consuming task, we have developed the MapFace editor.The editor provides a convenient way of navigating the annotated information gained from the MMTx output, and enables users to correct this information on both a conceptual and a syntactical level, and thus it greatly facilitates the handling of the MMTx program. Additionally, the editor provides enhanced visualization features to support the correct interpretation of medical concepts within the text. We paid special attention to ensure that the MapFace editor is an intuitive and convenient tool to work with. Therefore, we recently conducted a usability study in order to create a well founded background serving as a starting point for further improvement of the editor's usability.

  18. Easing semantically enriched information retrieval—An interactive semi-automatic annotation system for medical documents

    PubMed Central

    Gschwandtner, Theresia; Kaiser, Katharina; Martini, Patrick; Miksch, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Mapping medical concepts from a terminology system to the concepts in the narrative text of a medical document is necessary to provide semantically accurate information for further processing steps. The MetaMap Transfer (MMTx) program is a semantic annotation system that generates a rough mapping of concepts from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus to free medical text, but this mapping still contains erroneous and ambiguous bits of information. Since manually correcting the mapping is an extremely cumbersome and time-consuming task, we have developed the MapFace editor. The editor provides a convenient way of navigating the annotated information gained from the MMTx output, and enables users to correct this information on both a conceptual and a syntactical level, and thus it greatly facilitates the handling of the MMTx program. Additionally, the editor provides enhanced visualization features to support the correct interpretation of medical concepts within the text. We paid special attention to ensure that the MapFace editor is an intuitive and convenient tool to work with. Therefore, we recently conducted a usability study in order to create a well founded background serving as a starting point for further improvement of the editor’s usability. PMID:20582249

  19. The semantic representation of event information depends on the cue modality: an instance of meaning-based retrieval.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Kristina; Sikström, Sverker; Willander, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The semantic content, or the meaning, is the essence of autobiographical memories. In comparison to previous research, which has mainly focused on the phenomenological experience and the age distribution of retrieved events, the present study provides a novel view on the retrieval of event information by quantifying the information as semantic representations. We investigated the semantic representation of sensory cued autobiographical events and studied the modality hierarchy within the multimodal retrieval cues. The experiment comprised a cued recall task, where the participants were presented with visual, auditory, olfactory or multimodal retrieval cues and asked to recall autobiographical events. The results indicated that the three different unimodal retrieval cues generate significantly different semantic representations. Further, the auditory and the visual modalities contributed the most to the semantic representation of the multimodally retrieved events. Finally, the semantic representation of the multimodal condition could be described as a combination of the three unimodal conditions. In conclusion, these results suggest that the meaning of the retrieved event information depends on the modality of the retrieval cues.

  20. Extraction of spatio-temporal information of earthquake event based on semantic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Hong; Guo, Dan; Li, Huaiyuan

    2015-12-01

    In this paper a web information extraction method is presented which identifies a variety of thematic events utilizing the event knowledge framework derived from text training, and then further uses the syntactic analysis to extract the event key information. The method which combines the text semantic information and domain knowledge of the event makes the extraction of information people interested more accurate. In this paper, web based earthquake news extraction is taken as an example. The paper firstly briefs the overall approaches, and then details the key algorithm and experiments of seismic events extraction. Finally, this paper conducts accuracy analysis and evaluation experiments which demonstrate that the proposed method is a promising way of hot events mining.

  1. A decision support system for fusion of hard and soft sensor information based on probabilistic latent semantic analysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirkhodaie, Amir; Elangovan, Vinayak; Alkilani, Amjad; Habibi, Mohammad

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents an ongoing effort towards development of an intelligent Decision-Support System (iDSS) for fusion of information from multiple sources consisting of data from hard (physical sensors) and soft (textural sources. Primarily, this paper defines taxonomy of decision support systems for latent semantic data mining from heterogeneous data sources. A Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA) approach is proposed for latent semantic concepts search from heterogeneous data sources. An architectural model for generating semantic annotation of multi-modality sensors in a modified Transducer Markup Language (TML) is described. A method for TML messages fusion is discussed for alignment and integration of spatiotemporally correlated and associated physical sensory observations. Lastly, the experimental results which exploit fusion of soft/hard sensor sources with support of iDSS are discussed.

  2. The effects of shared information on semantic calculations in the gene ontology.

    PubMed

    Bible, Paul W; Sun, Hong-Wei; Morasso, Maria I; Loganantharaj, Rasiah; Wei, Lai

    2017-01-01

    The structured vocabulary that describes gene function, the gene ontology (GO), serves as a powerful tool in biological research. One application of GO in computational biology calculates semantic similarity between two concepts to make inferences about the functional similarity of genes. A class of term similarity algorithms explicitly calculates the shared information (SI) between concepts then substitutes this calculation into traditional term similarity measures such as Resnik, Lin, and Jiang-Conrath. Alternative SI approaches, when combined with ontology choice and term similarity type, lead to many gene-to-gene similarity measures. No thorough investigation has been made into the behavior, complexity, and performance of semantic methods derived from distinct SI approaches. We apply bootstrapping to compare the generalized performance of 57 gene-to-gene semantic measures across six benchmarks. Considering the number of measures, we additionally evaluate whether these methods can be leveraged through ensemble machine learning to improve prediction performance. Results showed that the choice of ontology type most strongly influenced performance across all evaluations. Combining measures into an ensemble classifier reduces cross-validation error beyond any individual measure for protein interaction prediction. This improvement resulted from information gained through the combination of ontology types as ensemble methods within each GO type offered no improvement. These results demonstrate that multiple SI measures can be leveraged for machine learning tasks such as automated gene function prediction by incorporating methods from across the ontologies. To facilitate future research in this area, we developed the GO Graph Tool Kit (GGTK), an open source C++ library with Python interface (github.com/paulbible/ggtk).

  3. Semantic similarity measurement between gene ontology terms based on exclusively inherited shared information.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Bo; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Quantifying the semantic similarities between pairs of terms in the Gene Ontology (GO) structure can help to explore the functional relationships between biological entities. A common approach to this problem is to measure the information they have in common based on the information content of their common ancestors. However, many studies have their limitations in measuring the information two GO terms share. This study presented a new measurement, exclusively inherited shared information (EISI) that captured the information shared by two terms based on an intuitive observation on the multiple inheritance relationships among the terms in the GO graph. EISI was derived from the information content of the exclusively inherited common ancestors (EICAs), which were screened from the common ancestors according to the attribute of their direct children. The effectiveness of EISI was evaluated against some state-of-the-art measurements on both artificial and real datasets, it produced more relevant results with experts' scores on the artificial dataset, and supported the prior knowledge of gene function in pathways on the Saccharomyces genome database (SGD). The promising features of EISI are the following: (1) it provides a more effective way to characterize the semantic relationship between two GO terms by taking into account multiple common ancestors related, and (2) can quickly detect all EICAs with time complexity of O(n), which is much more efficient than other methods based on disjunctive common ancestors. It is a promising alternative to multiple inheritance based methods for practical applications on large-scale dataset. The algorithm EISI was implemented in Matlab and is freely available from http://treaton.evai.pl/EISI/.

  4. A Left Cerebral Hemisphere's Superiority in Processing Spatial-Categorical Information in a Non-Verbal Semantic Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suegami, Takashi; Laeng, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that the left and right cerebral hemispheres (LH and RH) respectively process qualitative or "categorical" spatial relations and metric or "coordinate" spatial relations. However, categorical spatial information could be thought as divided into two types: semantically-coded and visuospatially-coded categorical information. We…

  5. HTML5 microdata as a semantic container for medical information exchange.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Eizen; Kobayashi, Shinji; Ishihara, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Achieving interoperability between clinical electronic medical records (EMR) systems and cloud computing systems is challenging because of the lack of a universal reference method as a standard for information exchange with a secure connection. Here we describe an information exchange scheme using HTML5 microdata, where the standard semantic container is an HTML document. We embed HL7 messages describing laboratory test results in the microdata. We also annotate items in the clinical research report with the microdata. We mapped the laboratory test result data into the clinical research report using an HL7 selector specified in the microdata. This scheme can provide secure cooperation between the cloud-based service and the EMR system.

  6. A trade-off between local and distributed information processing associated with remote episodic versus semantic memory.

    PubMed

    Heisz, Jennifer J; Vakorin, Vasily; Ross, Bernhard; Levine, Brian; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2014-01-01

    Episodic memory and semantic memory produce very different subjective experiences yet rely on overlapping networks of brain regions for processing. Traditional approaches for characterizing functional brain networks emphasize static states of function and thus are blind to the dynamic information processing within and across brain regions. This study used information theoretic measures of entropy to quantify changes in the complexity of the brain's response as measured by magnetoencephalography while participants listened to audio recordings describing past personal episodic and general semantic events. Personal episodic recordings evoked richer subjective mnemonic experiences and more complex brain responses than general semantic recordings. Critically, we observed a trade-off between the relative contribution of local versus distributed entropy, such that personal episodic recordings produced relatively more local entropy whereas general semantic recordings produced relatively more distributed entropy. Changes in the relative contributions of local and distributed entropy to the total complexity of the system provides a potential mechanism that allows the same network of brain regions to represent cognitive information as either specific episodes or more general semantic knowledge.

  7. Early and parallel processing of pragmatic and semantic information in speech acts: neurophysiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Egorova, Natalia; Shtyrov, Yury; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2013-01-01

    Although language is a tool for communication, most research in the neuroscience of language has focused on studying words and sentences, while little is known about the brain mechanisms of speech acts, or communicative functions, for which words and sentences are used as tools. Here the neural processing of two types of speech acts, Naming and Requesting, was addressed using the time-resolved event-related potential (ERP) technique. The brain responses for Naming and Request diverged as early as ~120 ms after the onset of the critical words, at the same time as, or even before, the earliest brain manifestations of semantic word properties could be detected. Request-evoked potentials were generally larger in amplitude than those for Naming. The use of identical words in closely matched settings for both speech acts rules out explanation of the difference in terms of phonological, lexical, semantic properties, or word expectancy. The cortical sources underlying the ERP enhancement for Requests were found in the fronto-central cortex, consistent with the activation of action knowledge, as well as in the right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), possibly reflecting additional implications of speech acts for social interaction and theory of mind. These results provide the first evidence for surprisingly early access to pragmatic and social interactive knowledge, which possibly occurs in parallel with other types of linguistic processing, and thus supports the near-simultaneous access to different subtypes of psycholinguistic information.

  8. Early and parallel processing of pragmatic and semantic information in speech acts: neurophysiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Egorova, Natalia; Shtyrov, Yury; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2013-01-01

    Although language is a tool for communication, most research in the neuroscience of language has focused on studying words and sentences, while little is known about the brain mechanisms of speech acts, or communicative functions, for which words and sentences are used as tools. Here the neural processing of two types of speech acts, Naming and Requesting, was addressed using the time-resolved event-related potential (ERP) technique. The brain responses for Naming and Request diverged as early as ~120 ms after the onset of the critical words, at the same time as, or even before, the earliest brain manifestations of semantic word properties could be detected. Request-evoked potentials were generally larger in amplitude than those for Naming. The use of identical words in closely matched settings for both speech acts rules out explanation of the difference in terms of phonological, lexical, semantic properties, or word expectancy. The cortical sources underlying the ERP enhancement for Requests were found in the fronto-central cortex, consistent with the activation of action knowledge, as well as in the right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), possibly reflecting additional implications of speech acts for social interaction and theory of mind. These results provide the first evidence for surprisingly early access to pragmatic and social interactive knowledge, which possibly occurs in parallel with other types of linguistic processing, and thus supports the near-simultaneous access to different subtypes of psycholinguistic information. PMID:23543248

  9. Semantic integration of audio-visual information of polyphonic characters in a sentence context: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Zhang, Gaoyan; Liu, Baolin

    2017-04-01

    In the Chinese language, a polyphone is a kind of special character that has more than one pronunciation, with each pronunciation corresponding to a different meaning. Here, we aimed to reveal the cognitive processing of audio-visual information integration of polyphones in a sentence context using the event-related potential (ERP) method. Sentences ending with polyphones were presented to subjects simultaneously in both an auditory and a visual modality. Four experimental conditions were set in which the visual presentations were the same, but the pronunciations of the polyphones were: the correct pronunciation; another pronunciation of the polyphone; a semantically appropriate pronunciation but not the pronunciation of the polyphone; or a semantically inappropriate pronunciation but also not the pronunciation of the polyphone. The behavioral results demonstrated significant differences in response accuracies when judging the semantic meanings of the audio-visual sentences, which reflected the different demands on cognitive resources. The ERP results showed that in the early stage, abnormal pronunciations were represented by the amplitude of the P200 component. Interestingly, because the phonological information mediated access to the lexical semantics, the amplitude and latency of the N400 component changed linearly across conditions, which may reflect the gradually increased semantic mismatch in the four conditions when integrating the auditory pronunciation with the visual information. Moreover, the amplitude of the late positive shift (LPS) showed a significant correlation with the behavioral response accuracies, demonstrating that the LPS component reveals the demand of cognitive resources for monitoring and resolving semantic conflicts when integrating the audio-visual information.

  10. A Semantic Graph Query Language

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I L

    2006-10-16

    Semantic graphs can be used to organize large amounts of information from a number of sources into one unified structure. A semantic query language provides a foundation for extracting information from the semantic graph. The graph query language described here provides a simple, powerful method for querying semantic graphs.

  11. Tailoring online information retrieval to user's needs based on a logical semantic approach to natural language processing and UMLS mapping.

    PubMed

    Kossman, Susan; Jones, Josette; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2007-10-11

    Depression can derail teenagers' lives and cause serious chronic health problems. Acquiring pertinent knowledge and skills supports care management, but retrieving appropriate information can be difficult. This poster presents a strategy to tailor online information to user attributes using a logical semantic approach to natural language processing (NLP) and mapping propositions to UMLS terms. This approach capitalizes on existing NLM resources and presents a potentially sustainable plan for meeting consumers and providers information needs.

  12. Missing semantic annotation in databases. The root cause for data integration and migration problems in information systems.

    PubMed

    Dugas, M

    2014-01-01

    Data integration is a well-known grand challenge in information systems. It is highly relevant in medicine because of the multitude of patient data sources. Semantic annotations of data items regarding concept and value domain, based on comprehensive terminologies can facilitate data integration and migration. Therefore it should be implemented in databases from the very beginning.

  13. Processing Coordinated Verb Phrases: The Relevance of Lexical-Semantic, Conceptual, and Contextual Information towards Establishing Verbal Parallelism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutunjian, Damon A.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the influence of lexical-semantic representations, conceptual similarity, and contextual fit on the processing of coordinated verb phrases. The study integrates information gleaned from current linguistic theory with current psycholinguistic approaches to examining the processing of coordinated verb phrases. It has…

  14. Differential Utilization of Syntactic and Semantic Information by Skilled and Less Skilled Readers in the Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willows, Dale M.; Ryan, Ellen Bouchard

    1981-01-01

    Matched pairs of skilled and less skilled readers read aloud material in cloze procedure format and printed in geometric transformations. Skilled readers made greater use of grammatical and contextual information. The stability of differences suggests that differential utilization of syntactic and semantic cues contributes to differences in…

  15. Differential Utilization of Syntactic and Semantic Information by Skilled and Less Skilled Readers in the Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Ellen Bouchard; Willows, Dale M.

    To assess the extent to which syntactic and semantic information guides the reading performance of skilled and less-skilled readers in the intermediate grades, a study was conducted involving 96 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students. The students were matched both within and across grade level on nonverbal IQ and within each grade level on age.…

  16. Wikipedia Information Flow Analysis Reveals the Scale-Free Architecture of the Semantic Space

    PubMed Central

    Masucci, Adolfo Paolo; Kalampokis, Alkiviadis; Eguíluz, Victor Martínez; Hernández-García, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we extract the topology of the semantic space in its encyclopedic acception, measuring the semantic flow between the different entries of the largest modern encyclopedia, Wikipedia, and thus creating a directed complex network of semantic flows. Notably at the percolation threshold the semantic space is characterised by scale-free behaviour at different levels of complexity and this relates the semantic space to a wide range of biological, social and linguistics phenomena. In particular we find that the cluster size distribution, representing the size of different semantic areas, is scale-free. Moreover the topology of the resulting semantic space is scale-free in the connectivity distribution and displays small-world properties. However its statistical properties do not allow a classical interpretation via a generative model based on a simple multiplicative process. After giving a detailed description and interpretation of the topological properties of the semantic space, we introduce a stochastic model of content-based network, based on a copy and mutation algorithm and on the Heaps' law, that is able to capture the main statistical properties of the analysed semantic space, including the Zipf's law for the word frequency distribution. PMID:21407801

  17. An adaptive semantic based mediation system for data interoperability among Health Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Khan, Wajahat Ali; Khattak, Asad Masood; Hussain, Maqbool; Amin, Muhammad Bilal; Afzal, Muhammad; Nugent, Christopher; Lee, Sungyoung

    2014-08-01

    Heterogeneity in the management of the complex medical data, obstructs the attainment of data level interoperability among Health Information Systems (HIS). This diversity is dependent on the compliance of HISs with different healthcare standards. Its solution demands a mediation system for the accurate interpretation of data in different heterogeneous formats for achieving data interoperability. We propose an adaptive AdapteR Interoperability ENgine mediation system called ARIEN, that arbitrates between HISs compliant to different healthcare standards for accurate and seamless information exchange to achieve data interoperability. ARIEN stores the semantic mapping information between different standards in the Mediation Bridge Ontology (MBO) using ontology matching techniques. These mappings are provided by our System for Parallel Heterogeneity (SPHeRe) matching system and Personalized-Detailed Clinical Model (P-DCM) approach to guarantee accuracy of mappings. The realization of the effectiveness of the mappings stored in the MBO is evaluation of the accuracy in transformation process among different standard formats. We evaluated our proposed system with the transformation process of medical records between Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) and Virtual Medical Record (vMR) standards. The transformation process achieved over 90 % of accuracy level in conversion process between CDA and vMR standards using pattern oriented approach from the MBO. The proposed mediation system improves the overall communication process between HISs. It provides an accurate and seamless medical information exchange to ensure data interoperability and timely healthcare services to patients.

  18. Nanochaos and quantum information for a physical theory of evolvable semantic automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoli, Salvatore

    2000-05-01

    The concept of "automaton" in its historical development, from the earlier attempts to mimic motions of men and animals to the recent ambitious goals of designing and building biomimetic, i.e., evolvable and self-reproducing machines, is very briefly outlined to stress the physical and logical differences between such conceptions and the main features through which we are able at present to identify and describe biosystems. It is argued that the merely "syntactic" aspect of information processing that is shared by all such approaches can hardly be considered biomimetic on the basis of evolutionary physics of biosystems and of their "semantic" and "pragmatic" information processing capabilities, that can stem from their structure-function (i.e., hardware-software) hierarchical dynamics from the nanometre (classical and quantum) up to the macroscopic (thermodynamic) level and make set-theoretic logic and Shannon-like information two stumbling blocks for a physical interpretation of life, evolution and biological intelligence. A classical and quantum nanoscale approach to the biophysical problem of describing the biosystems structure-function solidarity and its evolutionary properties beyond Gödelian and self-reference paradoxes is discussed as a path toward a physical theory of biomimetic evolvable automata which is based on nanochaos information processing through Hamiltonian and dissipative nonlinear dynamics, and on quantum coherence/entanglement. The envisaged nanostructured hierarchical "extralogical" and logical sequential architectures of such evolvable automata would be implemented through the emerging nanotechnological (nanoelectronic/supramolecular and nano-mechanical) miniaturization capabilities.

  19. Towards a Collaborative Knowledge Discovery System for Enriching Semantic Information about Risks of Geospatial Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grira, J.; Bédard, Y.; Roche, S.; Devillers, R.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research is to design and implement a knowledge discovery system that facilitates, using a web 2.0 collaborative approach, the identification of new risks of geospatial data misuse based on a contributed knowledge repository fed by application domain experts. [Context/Motivation] This research is motivated by the irregularity of risk analysis efforts and the poor semantic of the collected information about risks. In the context of risk analysis during geospatial database design, the knowledge about risks of geospatial data misuse is typically held by domain application experts. The collection and record of that knowledge are usually considered as optional activities. It is usually performed through face-to-face risk assessment meetings and reports. Such techniques end up by restricting the scope of risk analysis to a set of obvious risks usually already identified. Besides, little consideration is devoted to the storage of risk information in an appropriate format for automatic reasoning and new risk information discovery. As a consequence, many foreseeable risky aspects inherent to the data remain overlooked leading to ill-defined specification and faulty decisions. [Principal ideas/results] In this paper, we present a contributed knowledge discovery system that aims at enriching the semantic information about risks of geospatial data misuse in order to identify foreseeable risks. The proposed web-based system relies on a systematic and more active involvement of users in risk analysis. The approach consists of 1) providing an overview of the related work in the domains of risk analysis within the context of geospatial database design, 2) presenting an ontology-based knowledge discovery system that helps experts in risks identification based on an upper-level risk ontology and on a structured representation of the domain-specific knowledge and, 3) presenting the components of the proposed system architecture and how it may be implemented and used

  20. Detailed Clinical Models: Representing Knowledge, Data and Semantics in Healthcare Information Technology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This paper will present an overview of the developmental effort in harmonizing clinical knowledge modeling using the Detailed Clinical Models (DCMs), and will explain how it can contribute to the preservation of Electronic Health Records (EHR) data. Methods Clinical knowledge modeling is vital for the management and preservation of EHR and data. Such modeling provides common data elements and terminology binding with the intention of capturing and managing clinical information over time and location independent from technology. Any EHR data exchange without an agreed clinical knowledge modeling will potentially result in loss of information. Results Many attempts exist from the past to model clinical knowledge for the benefits of semantic interoperability using standardized data representation and common terminologies. The objective of each project is similar with respect to consistent representation of clinical data, using standardized terminologies, and an overall logical approach. However, the conceptual, logical, and the technical expressions are quite different in one clinical knowledge modeling approach versus another. There currently are synergies under the Clinical Information Modeling Initiative (CIMI) in order to create a harmonized reference model for clinical knowledge models. Conclusions The goal for the CIMI is to create a reference model and formalisms based on for instance the DCM (ISO/TS 13972), among other work. A global repository of DCMs may potentially be established in the future. PMID:25152829

  1. Reporting Device Observations for semantic interoperability of surgical devices and clinical information systems.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Björn; Ulrich, Hannes; Rehmann, Daniel; Kock, Ann-Kristin; Wrage, Jan-Hinrich; Ingenerf, Josef

    2015-08-01

    Service-oriented medical device architectures make the progress from interdisciplinary research projects to international standardisation: A new set of IEEE 11073 proposals shall pave the way to industry acceptance. This expected availability of device observations in a standardised representation enables secondary usage if interoperability with clinical information systems can be achieved. The Device Observation Reporter (DOR) described in this work is a gateway that connects these realms. After a user chooses a selection of signals from different devices in the digital operating room, the DOR records these semantically described values for a specified duration. Upon completion, the signals descriptions and values are transformed to Health Level Seven version 2 messages and sent to a hospital information system/electronic health record system within the clinical IT network. The successful integration of device data for documentation and usage in clinical information systems can further leverage the novel device communication standard proposals. Complementing these, an Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise profile will aid commercial implementers in achieving interoperability. Their solutions could incorporate clinical knowledge to autonomously select signal combinations and generate reports of diagnostic and interventional procedures, thus saving time and effort for surgical documentation.

  2. Identifying adverse drug event information in clinical notes with distributional semantic representations of context.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Aron; Kvist, Maria; Dalianis, Hercules; Duneld, Martin

    2015-10-01

    For the purpose of post-marketing drug safety surveillance, which has traditionally relied on the voluntary reporting of individual cases of adverse drug events (ADEs), other sources of information are now being explored, including electronic health records (EHRs), which give us access to enormous amounts of longitudinal observations of the treatment of patients and their drug use. Adverse drug events, which can be encoded in EHRs with certain diagnosis codes, are, however, heavily underreported. It is therefore important to develop capabilities to process, by means of computational methods, the more unstructured EHR data in the form of clinical notes, where clinicians may describe and reason around suspected ADEs. In this study, we report on the creation of an annotated corpus of Swedish health records for the purpose of learning to identify information pertaining to ADEs present in clinical notes. To this end, three key tasks are tackled: recognizing relevant named entities (disorders, symptoms, drugs), labeling attributes of the recognized entities (negation, speculation, temporality), and relationships between them (indication, adverse drug event). For each of the three tasks, leveraging models of distributional semantics - i.e., unsupervised methods that exploit co-occurrence information to model, typically in vector space, the meaning of words - and, in particular, combinations of such models, is shown to improve the predictive performance. The ability to make use of such unsupervised methods is critical when faced with large amounts of sparse and high-dimensional data, especially in domains where annotated resources are scarce.

  3. Using semantic information for processing negation and disjunction in logic programs

    SciTech Connect

    Gaasterland, T.; Lobo, J.

    1993-07-01

    There are many applications in which integrity constraints can play an important role. An example is the semantic query optimization method developed by Chakravarthy, Grant, and Minker for definite deductive databases. They use integrity constraints during query processing to prevent the exploration of search space that is bound to fail. In this paper, the authors generalize the semantic query optimization method to apply to negated atoms. The generalized method is referred to as semantic compilation. They show that semantic compilation provides an alternative search space for negative query literals. They also show how semantic compilation can be used to transform a disjunctive database with or without functions and denial constraints without negation into a new disjunctive database that complies with the integrity constraints.

  4. Using semantic information for processing negation and disjunction in logic programs

    SciTech Connect

    Gaasterland, T. ); Lobo, J. )

    1993-01-01

    There are many applications in which integrity constraints can play an important role. An example is the semantic query optimization method developed by Chakravarthy, Grant, and Minker for definite deductive databases. They use integrity constraints during query processing to prevent the exploration of search space that is bound to fail. In this paper, the authors generalize the semantic query optimization method to apply to negated atoms. The generalized method is referred to as semantic compilation. They show that semantic compilation provides an alternative search space for negative query literals. They also show how semantic compilation can be used to transform a disjunctive database with or without functions and denial constraints without negation into a new disjunctive database that complies with the integrity constraints.

  5. Altered structure-function relations of semantic processing in youths with high-functioning autism: a combined diffusion and functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yu-Chun; Chou, Tai-Li; Fan, Li-Ying; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

    2013-12-01

    Deficits in language and communication are among the core symptoms of autism, a common neurodevelopmental disorder with long-term impairment. Despite the striking nature of the autistic language impairment, knowledge about its corresponding alterations in the brain is still evolving. We hypothesized that the dual stream language network is altered in autism, and that this alteration could be revealed by changes in the relationships between microstructural integrity and functional activation. The study recruited 20 right-handed male youths with autism and 20 carefully matched individually, typically developing (TD) youths. Microstructural integrity of the left dorsal and left ventral pathways responsible for language processing and the functional activation of the connected brain regions were investigated by using diffusion spectrum imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging of a semantic task, respectively. Youths with autism had significantly poorer language function, and lower functional activation in left dorsal and left ventral regions of the language network, compared with TD youths. The TD group showed a significant correlation of the functional activation of the left dorsal region with microstructural integrity of the left ventral pathway, whereas the autism group showed a significant correlation of the functional activation of the left ventral region with microstructural integrity of the left dorsal pathway, and moreover verbal comprehension index was correlated with microstructural integrity of the left ventral pathway. These altered structure-function relationships in autism suggest possible involvement of the dual pathways in supporting deficient semantic processing.

  6. The chemical information ontology: provenance and disambiguation for chemical data on the biological semantic web.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Janna; Chepelev, Leonid; Willighagen, Egon; Adams, Nico; Steinbeck, Christoph; Dumontier, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cheminformatics is the application of informatics techniques to solve chemical problems in silico. There are many areas in biology where cheminformatics plays an important role in computational research, including metabolism, proteomics, and systems biology. One critical aspect in the application of cheminformatics in these fields is the accurate exchange of data, which is increasingly accomplished through the use of ontologies. Ontologies are formal representations of objects and their properties using a logic-based ontology language. Many such ontologies are currently being developed to represent objects across all the domains of science. Ontologies enable the definition, classification, and support for querying objects in a particular domain, enabling intelligent computer applications to be built which support the work of scientists both within the domain of interest and across interrelated neighbouring domains. Modern chemical research relies on computational techniques to filter and organise data to maximise research productivity. The objects which are manipulated in these algorithms and procedures, as well as the algorithms and procedures themselves, enjoy a kind of virtual life within computers. We will call these information entities. Here, we describe our work in developing an ontology of chemical information entities, with a primary focus on data-driven research and the integration of calculated properties (descriptors) of chemical entities within a semantic web context. Our ontology distinguishes algorithmic, or procedural information from declarative, or factual information, and renders of particular importance the annotation of provenance to calculated data. The Chemical Information Ontology is being developed as an open collaborative project. More details, together with a downloadable OWL file, are available at http://code.google.com/p/semanticchemistry/ (license: CC-BY-SA).

  7. Semantic World Modelling and Data Management in a 4d Forest Simulation and Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roßmann, J.; Hoppen, M.; Bücken, A.

    2013-08-01

    Various types of 3D simulation applications benefit from realistic forest models. They range from flight simulators for entertainment to harvester simulators for training and tree growth simulations for research and planning. Our 4D forest simulation and information system integrates the necessary methods for data extraction, modelling and management. Using modern methods of semantic world modelling, tree data can efficiently be extracted from remote sensing data. The derived forest models contain position, height, crown volume, type and diameter of each tree. This data is modelled using GML-based data models to assure compatibility and exchangeability. A flexible approach for database synchronization is used to manage the data and provide caching, persistence, a central communication hub for change distribution, and a versioning mechanism. Combining various simulation techniques and data versioning, the 4D forest simulation and information system can provide applications with "both directions" of the fourth dimension. Our paper outlines the current state, new developments, and integration of tree extraction, data modelling, and data management. It also shows several applications realized with the system.

  8. Quantifying the information in the long-range order of words: semantic structures and universal linguistic constraints.

    PubMed

    Montemurro, Marcelo A

    2014-06-01

    We review some recent progress on the characterisation of long-range patterns of word use in language using methods from information theory. In particular, two levels of structure in language are considered. The first level corresponds to the patterns of words usage over different contextual domains. A direct application of information theory to quantify the specificity of words across different sections of a linguistic sequence leads to a measure of semantic information. Moreover, a natural scale emerges that characterises the typical size of semantic structures. Since the information measure is made up of additive contributions from individual words, it is possible to rank the words according to their overall weight in the total information. This allows the extraction of keywords most relevant to the semantic content of the sequence without any prior knowledge of the language. The second level considered is the complex structure of correlations among words in linguistic sequences. The degree of order in language can be quantified by means of the entropy. Reliable estimates of the entropy were obtained from corpora of texts from several linguistic families by means of lossless compression algorithms. The value of the entropy fluctuates across different languages since it depends on linguistic organisation at various levels. However, when a measure of relative entropy that specifically quantifies the degree of word ordering in language is estimated, it presents an almost constant value over all the linguistic families studied. This suggests that the entropy of word ordering is a novel quantitative linguistic universal.

  9. Memory for the perceptual and semantic attributes of information in pure amnesic and severe closed-head injured patients.

    PubMed

    Carlesimo, Giovanni A; Bonanni, Rita; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2003-05-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that brain damaged patients with memory disorder are poorer at remembering the semantic than the perceptual attributes of information. Eight patients with memory impairment of different etiology and 24 patients with chronic consequences of severe closed-head injury were compared to similarly sized age- and literacy-matched normal control groups on recognition tests for the physical aspect and the semantic identity of words and pictures lists. In order to avoid interpretative problems deriving from different absolute levels of performance, study conditions were manipulated across subjects to obtain comparable accuracy on the perceptual recognition tests in the memory disordered and control groups. The results of the Picture Recognition test were consistent with the hypothesis. Indeed, having more time for the stimulus encoding, the two memory disordered groups performed at the same level as the normal subjects on the perceptual test but significantly lower on the semantic test. Instead, on the Word Recognition test, following study condition manipulation, patients and controls performed similarly on both the perceptual and the semantic tests. These data only partially support the hypothesis of the study; rather they suggest that in memory disordered patients there is a reduction of the advantage, exhibited by normal controls, of retrieving pictures over words (picture superiority effect).

  10. Semantic Specification of Data Type Information in the Deep Carbon Observatory Data Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, X.; Erickson, J. S.; West, P.; Zednik, S.; Fox, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    The global open data initiative is incubating a social-technical system that promotes both the culture and the practice of open data. Within such a system, data are going to be shared and reused across various boundaries, both physically and conceptually. Among the various metadata elements available for describing the shared data, data type information can provide clues for both users and machines on how to parse and use the data. Data types are often treated only as syntax of variables, such as integer, float, Boolean, character, and string, etc. Such declaration does not offer any domain specific meaning to the data types. Our intention is to let a data type include more meanings, such as who create the data type, the source standard that the data type derives from, the operations that can be done on datasets of that data type, and typical scientific domains, software programs and/or instruments that use the data type. We deployed semantic technologies to address this issue, and initial results have already been achieved in the Deep Carbon Observatory Data Portal.

  11. Local-Based Semantic Navigation on a Networked Representation of Information

    PubMed Central

    Capitán, José A.; Borge-Holthoefer, Javier; Gómez, Sergio; Martinez-Romo, Juan; Araujo, Lourdes; Cuesta, José A.; Arenas, Alex

    2012-01-01

    The size and complexity of actual networked systems hinders the access to a global knowledge of their structure. This fact pushes the problem of navigation to suboptimal solutions, one of them being the extraction of a coherent map of the topology on which navigation takes place. In this paper, we present a Markov chain based algorithm to tag networked terms according only to their topological features. The resulting tagging is used to compute similarity between terms, providing a map of the networked information. This map supports local-based navigation techniques driven by similarity. We compare the efficiency of the resulting paths according to their length compared to that of the shortest path. Additionally we claim that the path steps towards the destination are semantically coherent. To illustrate the algorithm performance we provide some results from the Simple English Wikipedia, which amounts to several thousand of pages. The simplest greedy strategy yields over an 80% of average success rate. Furthermore, the resulting content-coherent paths most often have a cost between one- and threefold compared to shortest-path lengths. PMID:22937081

  12. Methods and apparatus for multi-resolution replication of files in a parallel computing system using semantic information

    DOEpatents

    Faibish, Sorin; Bent, John M.; Tzelnic, Percy; Grider, Gary; Torres, Aaron

    2015-10-20

    Techniques are provided for storing files in a parallel computing system using different resolutions. A method is provided for storing at least one file generated by a distributed application in a parallel computing system. The file comprises one or more of a complete file and a sub-file. The method comprises the steps of obtaining semantic information related to the file; generating a plurality of replicas of the file with different resolutions based on the semantic information; and storing the file and the plurality of replicas of the file in one or more storage nodes of the parallel computing system. The different resolutions comprise, for example, a variable number of bits and/or a different sub-set of data elements from the file. A plurality of the sub-files can be merged to reproduce the file.

  13. From ontology selection and semantic web to an integrated information system for food-borne diseases and food safety.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xianghe; Peng, Yun; Meng, Jianghong; Ruzante, Juliana; Fratamico, Pina M; Huang, Lihan; Juneja, Vijay; Needleman, David S

    2011-01-01

    Several factors have hindered effective use of information and resources related to food safety due to inconsistency among semantically heterogeneous data resources, lack of knowledge on profiling of food-borne pathogens, and knowledge gaps among research communities, government risk assessors/managers, and end-users of the information. This paper discusses technical aspects in the establishment of a comprehensive food safety information system consisting of the following steps: (a) computational collection and compiling publicly available information, including published pathogen genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data; (b) development of ontology libraries on food-borne pathogens and design automatic algorithms with formal inference and fuzzy and probabilistic reasoning to address the consistency and accuracy of distributed information resources (e.g., PulseNet, FoodNet, OutbreakNet, PubMed, NCBI, EMBL, and other online genetic databases and information); (c) integration of collected pathogen profiling data, Foodrisk.org ( http://www.foodrisk.org ), PMP, Combase, and other relevant information into a user-friendly, searchable, "homogeneous" information system available to scientists in academia, the food industry, and government agencies; and (d) development of a computational model in semantic web for greater adaptability and robustness.

  14. Assessment of semantic similarity between proteins using information content and topological properties of the Gene Ontology graph.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Pritha; Basu, Subhadip; Kundu, Mahantapas

    2017-03-31

    The semantic similarity between two interacting proteins can be estimated by combining the similarity scores of the GO terms associated with the proteins. Greater number of similar GO annotations between two proteins indicates greater interaction affinity. Existing semantic similarity measures make use of the GO graph structure, the information content of GO terms, or a combination of both. In this paper, we present a hybrid approach which utilizes both the topological features of the GO graph and information contents of the GO terms. More specifically, we 1) consider a fuzzy clustering of the GO graph based on the level of association of the GO terms, 2) estimate the GO term memberships to each cluster center based on the respective shortest path lengths, and 3) assign weightage to GO term pairs on the basis of their dissimilarity with respect to the cluster centers. We test the performance of our semantic similarity measure against seven other previously published similarity measures using benchmark protein-protein interaction datasets of Homo sapiens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on sequence similarity, Pfam similarity, area under ROC curve and F1 measure.

  15. The Information Resources in Arcetri Astrophysics Observatory: Between Metadata and Semantic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baglioni, Roberto; Gasperini, Antonella

    It is becoming apparent that libraries are going to play a key role in the new W3C's (World Wide Web Consortium) paradigm for the semantic web. For this reason, the Arcetri library is investigating methods for publishing different kinds of electronic documents on the net and a way of enriching them with semantic metadata. For the first phase, we are focusing on the library catalogue; and, in a second phase, we will consider bibliographies, preprints, technical reports, web pages, archives of astronomical data, and photographic and historical archives.

  16. SEMANTIC INFORMATION EXTRACTION FROM MULTISPECTRAL GEOSPATIAL IMAGERY VIA A FLEXIBLE FRAMEWORK

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, Shaun Scott; Ferrell, Regina Kay; Cheriyadat, Anil M; Vatsavai, Raju; De, Soumya

    2010-01-01

    Identification and automatic labeling of facilities in high-resolution satellite images is a challenging task as the current thematic classification schemes and the low-level image features are not good enough to capture complex objects and their spatial relationships. In this paper we present a novel algorithm framework for automated semantic labeling of large image collections. The framework consists of various segmentation, feature extraction, vector quantization, and Latent Dirichlet Allocation modules. Initial experimental results show promise as well as the challenges in semantic classification technology development for nuclear proliferation monitoring.

  17. The Roles of Semantic and Phonological Information in Word Production: Evidence from Spanish-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennison, Shelia M.; Fernandez, Elaine C.; Bowers, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    The research investigated the roles of semantic and phonological processing in word production. Spanish-English bilingual individuals produced English target words when cued with definitions that were also written in English. When the correct word was not produced, a secondary task was performed in which participants rated the ease of…

  18. Use of Modality and Negation in Semantically-Informed Syntactic MT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    for combining MT and semantics (termed distillation) to answer the informa- tion needs of monolingual speakers using multilingual sources. Proper...Mining wiki resources for multilingual named entity recognition. 437 Computational Linguistics Volume 38, Number 2 In Proceedings of ACL-08: HLT, pages

  19. Stereotype Priming in Face Recognition: Interactions between Semantic and Visual Information in Face Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Peter J.; Lewis, Michael B.; Honey, R. C.

    2008-01-01

    The accuracy with which previously unfamiliar faces are recognised is increased by the presentation of a stereotype-congruent occupation label [Klatzky, R. L., Martin, G. L., & Kane, R. A. (1982a). "Semantic interpretation effects on memory for faces." "Memory & Cognition," 10, 195-206; Klatzky, R. L., Martin, G. L., & Kane, R. A. (1982b).…

  20. The Tug of War between Phonological, Semantic and Shape Information in Language-Mediated Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huettig, Falk; McQueen, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Experiments 1 and 2 examined the time-course of retrieval of phonological, visual-shape and semantic knowledge as Dutch participants listened to sentences and looked at displays of four pictures. Given a sentence with "beker," "beaker," for example, the display contained phonological (a beaver, "bever"), shape (a…

  1. Semantic Elaboration through Integration: Hints Both Facilitate and Inform the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Varga, Nicole L.; King, Jessica E.; Nolen, Ayla M.; White, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Semantic knowledge can be extended in a variety of ways, including self-generation of new facts through integration of separate yet related episodes. We sought to promote integration and self-generation by providing "hints" to help 6-year-olds (Experiment 1) and 4-year-olds (Experiment 2) see the relevance of separate episodes to one…

  2. Instructions to suppress semantic memory enhances or has no effect on P300 in a concealed information test (CIT).

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, J Peter; Ward, Anne; Drapekin, Jesse; Labkovsky, Elena; Tullman, Samuel

    2017-03-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which people can suppress semantic memory as indexed with the P300 ERP and the autobiographical implicit association test (aIAT). In EXP 1, participants (22) were run in a counterbalanced repeated measures study in both simply knowledgeable (SK) and knowledgeable with suppression (SP) conditions. A P300-based, concealed information test ("Complex Trial Protocol"; CTP) with a 50/50 Target/Nontarget (T/NT) ratio was given both with and without instructions to suppress semantic memories. The results showed increased P300s to probe name stimuli, reduced (but still high positive) aIAT d-scores, and increased simple reaction times to all stimuli used in ERP tests in the SP condition. EXP 2 was similar, but with SP and SK in two separate groups, and a 20/80 T/NT ratio. Again, ERP and aIAT results failed to show a suppression effect for semantic memory. The behavioral data suggest some task demand effects under suppression instructions, and that EXP 1 was more demanding than EXP 2.

  3. Facilitating Next Generation Science Collaboration: Respecting and Mediating Vocabularies with Information Model Driven Semantics in Ecosystems Assessments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, P.; Maffei, A.

    2012-04-01

    In Earth and space science, there is steady evolution away from isolated and single purpose data 'systems' toward systems of systems, data ecosystems, or data frameworks that provide access to highly heterogeneous data repositories. As a result, common informatics approaches are being sought for the development and implementation of newer architectures. One clear need is a repeatable method for modeling, implementing and evolving the information architectures. A newly funded U.S. initiative is developing and deploying integrated ecosystem assessment (IEA) capability for marine ecosystems using an information science and semantic technologies. The intention is to advance the capacity of an IEA to provide the foundation for synthesis and quantitative analysis of natural and socio-economic ecosystem information to support ecosystem-based management. The initiative is creating capacity to assess the impacts of changing climate on two large marine ecosystems: the northeast U.S. and the California Current. These assessments will be essential parts of the science-based decision-support tools used to develop adaptive management measures. Enhanced collaboration is required to achieve these goals: interaction and information sharing within and among diverse data providers, analysis tool developers and user groups that constitute the broader coastal and marine ecosystem science application community. This presentation outlines new component design approaches and sets of information model and semantic encodings for mediation.

  4. Developing A Web-based User Interface for Semantic Information Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrios, Daniel C.; Keller, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    While there are now a number of languages and frameworks that enable computer-based systems to search stored data semantically, the optimal design for effective user interfaces for such systems is still uncle ar. Such interfaces should mask unnecessary query detail from users, yet still allow them to build queries of arbitrary complexity without significant restrictions. We developed a user interface supporting s emantic query generation for Semanticorganizer, a tool used by scient ists and engineers at NASA to construct networks of knowledge and dat a. Through this interface users can select node types, node attribute s and node links to build ad-hoc semantic queries for searching the S emanticOrganizer network.

  5. Non-semantic contributions to "semantic" redundancy gain.

    PubMed

    Shepherdson, Peter; Miller, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Recently, two groups of researchers have reported redundancy gains (enhanced performance with multiple, redundant targets) in tasks requiring semantic categorization. Here we report two experiments aimed at determining whether the gains found by one of these groups resulted from some form of semantic coactivation. We asked undergraduate psychology students to complete choice RT tasks requiring the semantic categorization of visually presented words, and compared performance with redundant targets from the same semantic category to performance with redundant targets from different semantic categories. If the redundancy gains resulted from the combination of information at a semantic level, they should have been greater in the former than the latter situation. However, our results showed no significant differences in redundancy gain (for latency and accuracy) between same-category and different-category conditions, despite gains appearing in both conditions. Thus, we suggest that redundancy gain in the semantic categorization task may result entirely from statistical facilitation or combination of information at non-semantic levels.

  6. Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web.

    PubMed

    Splendiani, Andrea; Burger, Albert; Paschke, Adrian; Romano, Paolo; Marshall, M Scott

    2011-03-07

    The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial for the life sciences? Is biomedical information too complex to benefit from simple interlinked representations? What are the implications of adopting a new paradigm for knowledge representation? What are the incentives for the adoption of the Semantic Web, and who are the facilitators? Is there going to be a Semantic Web revolution in the life sciences?We report here a few reflections on these questions, following discussions at the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences) workshop series, of which this Journal of Biomedical Semantics special issue presents selected papers from the 2009 edition, held in Amsterdam on November 20th.

  7. Trusting Crowdsourced Geospatial Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodhue, P.; McNair, H.; Reitsma, F.

    2015-08-01

    The degree of trust one can place in information is one of the foremost limitations of crowdsourced geospatial information. As with the development of web technologies, the increased prevalence of semantics associated with geospatial information has increased accessibility and functionality. Semantics also provides an opportunity to extend indicators of trust for crowdsourced geospatial information that have largely focused on spatio-temporal and social aspects of that information. Comparing a feature's intrinsic and extrinsic properties to associated ontologies provides a means of semantically assessing the trustworthiness of crowdsourced geospatial information. The application of this approach to unconstrained semantic submissions then allows for a detailed assessment of the trust of these features whilst maintaining the descriptive thoroughness this mode of information submission affords. The resulting trust rating then becomes an attribute of the feature, providing not only an indication as to the trustworthiness of a specific feature but is able to be aggregated across multiple features to illustrate the overall trustworthiness of a dataset.

  8. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  9. GeoIRIS: Geospatial Information Retrieval and Indexing System-Content Mining, Semantics Modeling, and Complex Queries.

    PubMed

    Shyu, Chi-Ren; Klaric, Matt; Scott, Grant J; Barb, Adrian S; Davis, Curt H; Palaniappan, Kannappan

    2007-04-01

    Searching for relevant knowledge across heterogeneous geospatial databases requires an extensive knowledge of the semantic meaning of images, a keen eye for visual patterns, and efficient strategies for collecting and analyzing data with minimal human intervention. In this paper, we present our recently developed content-based multimodal Geospatial Information Retrieval and Indexing System (GeoIRIS) which includes automatic feature extraction, visual content mining from large-scale image databases, and high-dimensional database indexing for fast retrieval. Using these underpinnings, we have developed techniques for complex queries that merge information from heterogeneous geospatial databases, retrievals of objects based on shape and visual characteristics, analysis of multiobject relationships for the retrieval of objects in specific spatial configurations, and semantic models to link low-level image features with high-level visual descriptors. GeoIRIS brings this diverse set of technologies together into a coherent system with an aim of allowing image analysts to more rapidly identify relevant imagery. GeoIRIS is able to answer analysts' questions in seconds, such as "given a query image, show me database satellite images that have similar objects and spatial relationship that are within a certain radius of a landmark."

  10. The Influence of Information Structure on the Depth of Semantic Processing: How Focus and Pitch Accent Determine the Size of the N400 Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Bastiaansen, Marcel; Yang, Yufang; Hagoort, Peter

    2011-01-01

    To highlight relevant information in dialogues, both wh-question context and pitch accent in answers can be used, such that focused information gains more attention and is processed more elaborately. To evaluate the relative influence of context and pitch accent on the depth of semantic processing, we measured event-related potentials (ERPs) to…

  11. Activation of shape and semantic information during ambiguous homophone processing: eye tracking evidence from Hindi.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Siddharth

    2014-11-01

    In two visual world eye tracking studies, we examined the activation of subordinate meanings of ambiguous homophones in Hindi and particularly when the sentence context is biased towards the dominant meaning. Participants listened to sentences that were either neutral or biased towards the dominant meaning of the homophone and saw a display containing four pictures. In experiment 1, the display had a shape competitor of the subordinate meaning of the homophone in both neutral and biased conditions along with three unrelated distractors. Experiment 2 had semantic competitors of the subordinate meaning of the homophones along with three distractors. Proportion of fixations to different objects overtime suggested that participants activated the subordinate meanings and oriented their attention to the shape and semantic competitors even when the prior context was biased towards the dominant meaning. Overall, these data from Hindi provide further support to those models of lexical access that assume exhaustive access of both the meanings of an ambiguous homophone. These data suggest even a dominant bias does not eliminate the activation of perceptual and conceptual features of the subordinate meaning.

  12. The Semantic Distance Model of Relevance Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the Semantic Distance Model (SDM) of Relevance Assessment, a cognitive model of the relationship between semantic distance and relevance assessment. Discusses premises of the model such as the subjective nature of information and the metaphor of semantic distance. Empirical results illustrate the effects of semantic distance and semantic…

  13. BioTCM-SE: a semantic search engine for the information retrieval of modern biology and traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Chen, Huajun; Bi, Xuan; Gu, Peiqin; Chen, Jiaoyan; Wu, Zhaohui

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the functional mechanisms of the complex biological system as a whole is drawing more and more attention in global health care management. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), essentially different from Western Medicine (WM), is gaining increasing attention due to its emphasis on individual wellness and natural herbal medicine, which satisfies the goal of integrative medicine. However, with the explosive growth of biomedical data on the Web, biomedical researchers are now confronted with the problem of large-scale data analysis and data query. Besides that, biomedical data also has a wide coverage which usually comes from multiple heterogeneous data sources and has different taxonomies, making it hard to integrate and query the big biomedical data. Embedded with domain knowledge from different disciplines all regarding human biological systems, the heterogeneous data repositories are implicitly connected by human expert knowledge. Traditional search engines cannot provide accurate and comprehensive search results for the semantically associated knowledge since they only support keywords-based searches. In this paper, we present BioTCM-SE, a semantic search engine for the information retrieval of modern biology and TCM, which provides biologists with a comprehensive and accurate associated knowledge query platform to greatly facilitate the implicit knowledge discovery between WM and TCM.

  14. An evaluation of concept based latent semantic indexing for clinical information retrieval.

    PubMed Central

    Chute, C. G.; Yang, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) of surgical case report text using ICD-9-CM procedure codes and index terms was evaluated. The precision-recall performance of this two-step matrix retrieval process was compared with the SMART Document retrieval system, surface word matching, and humanly assigned procedure codes. Human coding performed best, two-step LSI did less well than surface matching or SMART. This evaluation suggests that concept-based LSI may be compromised by its two-stage nature and its dependence upon a robust term database linked to main concepts. However, the potential elegance of partial- credit concept matching merits the continued evaluation of LSI for clinical case retrieval. PMID:1482949

  15. What Klein's "Semantic Gradient" Does and Does Not Really Show: Decomposing Stroop Interference into Task and Informational Conflict Components.

    PubMed

    Levin, Yulia; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The present study suggests that the idea that Stroop interference originates from multiple components may gain theoretically from integrating two independent frameworks. The first framework is represented by the well-known notion of "semantic gradient" of interference and the second one is the distinction between two types of conflict - the task and the informational conflict - giving rise to the interference (MacLeod and MacDonald, 2000; Goldfarb and Henik, 2007). The proposed integration led to the conclusion that two (i.e., orthographic and lexical components) of the four theoretically distinct components represent task conflict, and the other two (i.e., indirect and direct informational conflict components) represent informational conflict. The four components were independently estimated in a series of experiments. The results confirmed the contribution of task conflict (estimated by a robust orthographic component) and of informational conflict (estimated by a strong direct informational conflict component) to Stroop interference. However, the performed critical review of the relevant literature (see General Discussion), as well as the results of the experiments reported, showed that the other two components expressing each type of conflict (i.e., the lexical component of task conflict and the indirect informational conflict) were small and unstable. The present analysis refines our knowledge of the origins of Stroop interference by providing evidence that each type of conflict has its major and minor contributions. The implications for cognitive control of an automatic reading process are also discussed.

  16. Semantator: semantic annotator for converting biomedical text to linked data.

    PubMed

    Tao, Cui; Song, Dezhao; Sharma, Deepak; Chute, Christopher G

    2013-10-01

    More than 80% of biomedical data is embedded in plain text. The unstructured nature of these text-based documents makes it challenging to easily browse and query the data of interest in them. One approach to facilitate browsing and querying biomedical text is to convert the plain text to a linked web of data, i.e., converting data originally in free text to structured formats with defined meta-level semantics. In this paper, we introduce Semantator (Semantic Annotator), a semantic-web-based environment for annotating data of interest in biomedical documents, browsing and querying the annotated data, and interactively refining annotation results if needed. Through Semantator, information of interest can be either annotated manually or semi-automatically using plug-in information extraction tools. The annotated results will be stored in RDF and can be queried using the SPARQL query language. In addition, semantic reasoners can be directly applied to the annotated data for consistency checking and knowledge inference. Semantator has been released online and was used by the biomedical ontology community who provided positive feedbacks. Our evaluation results indicated that (1) Semantator can perform the annotation functionalities as designed; (2) Semantator can be adopted in real applications in clinical and transactional research; and (3) the annotated results using Semantator can be easily used in Semantic-web-based reasoning tools for further inference.

  17. Semantic Sensor Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, A.; Henson, C.; Thirunarayan, K.

    2008-12-01

    Sensors are distributed across the globe leading to an avalanche of data about our environment. It is possible today to utilize networks of sensors to detect and identify a multitude of observations, from simple phenomena to complex events and situations. The lack of integration and communication between these networks, however, often isolates important data streams and intensifies the existing problem of too much data and not enough knowledge. With a view to addressing this problem, the Semantic Sensor Web (SSW) [1] proposes that sensor data be annotated with semantic metadata that will both increase interoperability and provide contextual information essential for situational knowledge. Kno.e.sis Center's approach to SSW is an evolutionary one. It adds semantic annotations to the existing standard sensor languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) defined by OGC. These annotations enhance primarily syntactic XML-based descriptions in OGC's SWE languages with microformats, and W3C's Semantic Web languages- RDF and OWL. In association with semantic annotation and semantic web capabilities including ontologies and rules, SSW supports interoperability, analysis and reasoning over heterogeneous multi-modal sensor data. In this presentation, we will also demonstrate a mashup with support for complex spatio-temporal-thematic queries [2] and semantic analysis that utilize semantic annotations, multiple ontologies and rules. It uses existing services (e.g., GoogleMap) and semantics enhanced SWE's Sensor Observation Service (SOS) over weather and road condition data from various sensors that are part of Ohio's transportation network. Our upcoming plans are to demonstrate end to end (heterogeneous sensor to application) semantics support and study scalability of SSW involving thousands of sensors to about a billion triples. Keywords: Semantic Sensor Web, Spatiotemporal thematic queries, Semantic Web Enablement, Sensor Observation Service [1] Amit Sheth, Cory Henson, Satya

  18. Exploiting Recurring Structure in a Semantic Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, Richard M.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing popularity of the Semantic Web, an increasing amount of information is becoming available in machine interpretable, semantically structured networks. Within these semantic networks are recurring structures that could be mined by existing or novel knowledge discovery methods. The mining of these semantic structures represents an interesting area that focuses on mining both for and from the Semantic Web, with surprising applicability to problems confronting the developers of Semantic Web applications. In this paper, we present representative examples of recurring structures and show how these structures could be used to increase the utility of a semantic repository deployed at NASA.

  19. Semantic search via concept annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkelberger, Kirk A.

    2007-04-01

    Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment wherein the microstructure of a material is altered, causing changes in its properties such as strength and hardness. We define concept annealing as a lexical, syntactic, and semantic expansion capability (the removal of defects and the internal stresses that cause term- and phrase-based search failure) coupled with a directed contraction capability (semantically-related terms, queries, and concepts nucleate and grow to replace those originally deformed by internal stresses). These two capabilities are tied together in a control loop mediated by the information retrieval precision and recall metrics coupled with intuition provided by the operator. The specific representations developed have been targeted at facilitating highly efficient and effective semantic indexing and searching. This new generation of Find capability enables additional processing (i.e. all-source tracking, relationship extraction, and total system resource management) at rates, precisions, and accuracies previously considered infeasible. In a recent experiment, an order magnitude reduction in time to actionable intelligence and nearly three orderss magnitude reduction in false alarm rate was achieved.

  20. The Case for Using Semantic Nets as a Convergence Format for Symbolic Information Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    situation of heterogeneity is a prerequisite to information fusion processes and algorithms. In general, Intelligence Information System designers are facing...Symbolic Information Fusion As for any system of equations, we need some constants to ground the system , and to bootstrap the solving process. Event... INFORMATION SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY PANEL SYMPOSIUM ON MILITARY DATA AND INFORMATION Prague October 21st 2003 Jean Rohmer Thales Communications France L e s i

  1. Progress in Spatial Analysis and Fusion of Remote Sensing Satellite Data for Generating High-Level Semantic Geo-Information in Support of GMES Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Anca; Vaduva, Corina; Bratasanu, Dragos; Nedelcu, Ion; Datcu, Mihai

    2010-12-01

    The scientific community is challenged today by more and more complex requirements coming from the users in a very attractive EO context created by GMES. Recent debates show that there is no common understanding or standardization of, for example, the land use land cover products and the way of presenting them to the user, although de-facto standards like CORINE (CLC) are already in use. CLC is the European standard for extracting and presenting land cover and land use information for monitoring and protecting the environment. All mapping methodologies are mostly manually assessed because there still are important difficulties in creating thematic maps of land cover using automatic classification methods. When coming to land use, the final products based on satellite image of classification methods do not contain exclusive mapping units but mixtures of heterogeneous land cover classes, as opposed to cartographic data that use rather a segmenting approach. This paper presents new approaches and innovative solutions for bridging the gap between the results of state-of-the-art automatic classification algorithms and high semantic human-defined terminology of cartographic data. Using a recent pure-spectral rule-based fully automatic classifier to define the basic 'vocabulary', we provide a hybrid method to automatically understand and describe semantic rules that link existent data according to different specifications (e.g. CLC 2000) with end-results of unsupervised computer information mining methods. Following an agreement between the learning model and the cartographic scale implied we exploited Latent Dirichlet Allocation model (LDA) to map heterogeneous pixels with similar intermediate-level semantic meaning into land cover classes of CLC. By discovering the set of semantic rules explaining the semantic classes in existent vector systems, we introduce the prototype of an interactive learning loop that uses the concept of direct semantics applied on satellite

  2. Parafoveal Processing in Silent and Oral Reading: Reading Mode Influences the Relative Weighting of Phonological and Semantic Information in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Jinger; Laubrock, Jochen; Yan, Ming

    2016-01-01

    We examined how reading mode (i.e., silent vs. oral reading) influences parafoveal semantic and phonological processing during the reading of Chinese sentences, using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm. In silent reading, we found in 2 experiments that reading times on target words were shortened with semantic previews in early and late…

  3. Improving data management and dissemination in web based information systems by semantic enrichment of descriptive data aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Steffen; Wehrmann, Thilo; Klinger, Verena; Schettler, Ingo; Huth, Juliane; Künzer, Claudia; Dech, Stefan

    2010-10-01

    The German-Vietnamese water-related information system for the Mekong Delta (WISDOM) project supports business processes in Integrated Water Resources Management in Vietnam. Multiple disciplines bring together earth and ground based observation themes, such as environmental monitoring, water management, demographics, economy, information technology, and infrastructural systems. This paper introduces the components of the web-based WISDOM system including data, logic and presentation tier. It focuses on the data models upon which the database management system is built, including techniques for tagging or linking metadata with the stored information. The model also uses ordered groupings of spatial, thematic and temporal reference objects to semantically tag datasets to enable fast data retrieval, such as finding all data in a specific administrative unit belonging to a specific theme. A spatial database extension is employed by the PostgreSQL database. This object-oriented database was chosen over a relational database to tag spatial objects to tabular data, improving the retrieval of census and observational data at regional, provincial, and local areas. While the spatial database hinders processing raster data, a "work-around" was built into WISDOM to permit efficient management of both raster and vector data. The data model also incorporates styling aspects of the spatial datasets through styled layer descriptions (SLD) and web mapping service (WMS) layer specifications, allowing retrieval of rendered maps. Metadata elements of the spatial data are based on the ISO19115 standard. XML structured information of the SLD and metadata are stored in an XML database. The data models and the data management system are robust for managing the large quantity of spatial objects, sensor observations, census and document data. The operational WISDOM information system prototype contains modules for data management, automatic data integration, and web services for data

  4. Information-computational system for storage, search and analytical processing of environmental datasets based on the Semantic Web technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, A.; Gordov, E.; Okladnikov, I.

    2009-04-01

    In this report the results of the work devoted to the development of working model of the software system for storage, semantically-enabled search and retrieval along with processing and visualization of environmental datasets containing results of meteorological and air pollution observations and mathematical climate modeling are presented. Specially designed metadata standard for machine-readable description of datasets related to meteorology, climate and atmospheric pollution transport domains is introduced as one of the key system components. To provide semantic interoperability the Resource Description Framework (RDF, http://www.w3.org/RDF/) technology means have been chosen for metadata description model realization in the form of RDF Schema. The final version of the RDF Schema is implemented on the base of widely used standards, such as Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (http://dublincore.org/), Directory Interchange Format (DIF, http://gcmd.gsfc.nasa.gov/User/difguide/difman.html), ISO 19139, etc. At present the system is available as a Web server (http://climate.risks.scert.ru/metadatabase/) based on the web-portal ATMOS engine [1] and is implementing dataset management functionality including SeRQL-based semantic search as well as statistical analysis and visualization of selected data archives [2,3]. The core of the system is Apache web server in conjunction with Tomcat Java Servlet Container (http://jakarta.apache.org/tomcat/) and Sesame Server (http://www.openrdf.org/) used as a database for RDF and RDF Schema. At present statistical analysis of meteorological and climatic data with subsequent visualization of results is implemented for such datasets as NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis, Reanalysis NCEP/DOE AMIP II, JMA/CRIEPI JRA-25, ECMWF ERA-40 and local measurements obtained from meteorological stations on the territory of Russia. This functionality is aimed primarily at finding of main characteristics of regional climate dynamics. The proposed system represents

  5. Topical Network of Breast Cancer Information in a Korean American Online Community: A Semantic Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Min Sook; Park, Hyejin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Health information-seeking and sharing online has become immensely intertwined with day-to-day information-seeking of US immigrants with health concerns. Despite the consistent recognition of unique health needs among different US immigrant communities, little is known about the distinctive patterns and extent of health information…

  6. Enlisting User Community Perspectives to Inform Development of a Semantic Web Application for Discovery of Cross-Institutional Research Information and Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, E. M.; Mayernik, M. S.; Boler, F. M.; Corson-Rikert, J.; Daniels, M. D.; Gross, M. B.; Khan, H.; Maull, K. E.; Rowan, L. R.; Stott, D.; Williams, S.; Krafft, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    Researchers seek information and data through a variety of avenues: published literature, search engines, repositories, colleagues, etc. In order to build a web application that leverages linked open data to enable multiple paths for information discovery, the EarthCollab project has surveyed two geoscience user communities to consider how researchers find and share scholarly output. EarthCollab, a cross-institutional, EarthCube funded project partnering UCAR, Cornell University, and UNAVCO, is employing the open-source semantic web software, VIVO, as the underlying technology to connect the people and resources of virtual research communities. This study will present an analysis of survey responses from members of the two case study communities: (1) the Bering Sea Project, an interdisciplinary field program whose data archive is hosted by NCAR's Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL), and (2) UNAVCO, a geodetic facility and consortium that supports diverse research projects informed by geodesy. The survey results illustrate the types of research products that respondents indicate should be discoverable within a digital platform and the current methods used to find publications, data, personnel, tools, and instrumentation. The responses showed that scientists rely heavily on general purpose search engines, such as Google, to find information, but that data center websites and the published literature were also critical sources for finding collaborators, data, and research tools.The survey participants also identify additional features of interest for an information platform such as search engine indexing, connection to institutional web pages, generation of bibliographies and CVs, and outward linking to social media. Through the survey, the user communities prioritized the type of information that is most important to display and describe their work within a research profile. The analysis of this survey will inform our further development of a platform that will

  7. Latent Semantic Indexing of medical diagnoses using UMLS semantic structures.

    PubMed Central

    Chute, C. G.; Yang, Y.; Evans, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    The relational files within the UMLS Metathesaurus contain rich semantic associations to main concepts. We invoked the technique of Latent Semantic Indexing to generate information matrices based on these relationships and created "semantic vectors" using singular value decomposition. Evaluations were made on the complete set and subsets of Metathesaurus main concepts with the semantic type "Disease or Syndrome." Real number matrices were created with main concepts, lexical variants, synonyms, and associated expressions. Ancestors, children, siblings, and related terms were added to alternative matrices, preserving the hierarchical direction of the relation as the imaginary component of a complex number. Preliminary evaluation suggests that this technique is robust. A major advantage is the exploitation of semantic features which derive from a statistical decomposition of UMLS structures, possibly reducing dependence on the tedious construction of semantic frames by humans. PMID:1807584

  8. From structure from motion to historical building information modeling: populating a semantic-aware library of architectural elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santagati, Cettina; Lo Turco, Massimiliano

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, we have witnessed a huge diffusion of building information modeling (BIM) approaches in the field of architectural design, although very little research has been undertaken to explore the value, criticalities, and advantages attributable to the application of these methodologies in the cultural heritage domain. Furthermore, the last developments in digital photogrammetry lead to the easy generation of reliable low-cost three-dimensional textured models that could be used in BIM platforms to create semantic-aware objects that could compose a specific library of historical architectural elements. In this case, the transfer between the point cloud and its corresponding parametric model is not so trivial and the level of geometrical abstraction could not be suitable with the scope of the BIM. The aim of this paper is to explore and retrace the milestone works on this crucial topic in order to identify the unsolved issues and to propose and test a unique and simple workflow practitioner centered and based on the use of the latest available solutions for point cloud managing into commercial BIM platforms.

  9. Further differentiating item and order information in semantic memory: students' recall of words from the "CU Fight Song", Harry Potter book titles, and Scooby Doo theme song.

    PubMed

    Overstreet, Michael F; Healy, Alice F; Neath, Ian

    2017-01-01

    University of Colorado (CU) students were tested for both order and item information in their semantic memory for the "CU Fight Song". Following an earlier study by Overstreet and Healy [(2011). Item and order information in semantic memory: Students' retention of the "CU fight song" lyrics. Memory & Cognition, 39, 251-259. doi: 10.3758/s13421-010-0018-3 ], a symmetrical bow-shaped serial position function (with both primacy and recency advantages) was found for reconstructing the order of the nine lines in the song, whereas a function with no primacy advantage was found for recalling a missing word from each line. This difference between order and item information was found even though students filled in missing words without any alternatives provided and missing words came from the beginning, middle, or end of each line. Similar results were found for CU students' recall of the sequence of Harry Potter book titles and the lyrics of the Scooby Doo theme song. These findings strengthen the claim that the pronounced serial position function in semantic memory occurs largely because of the retention of order, rather than item, information.

  10. An Ontological Approach to Developing Information Operations Applications for Use on the Semantic Web

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Advisor Peter Denning Chairman, Department of Computer Science Dan Boger Chairman, Information Sciences Department iv THIS PAGE...Class......................................................................65 Figure 25. DL Expressivity...standard ontology language OWL DL , and proposes a reasoning architecture for these two ontology languages. The key features of the author’s

  11. Semantic Web Technology for Mapping and Applying Clinical Functional Assessment Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    and developed a framework for structuring and using functional assessment information. Within this framework, we modeled as OWL ontologies...coding scheme will be described in a document and also modeled as an OWL ontology using the Protégé tool. In our original proposal, we hypothesized

  12. The Development of the Ability to Semantically Integrate Information in Speech and Iconic Gesture in Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekine, Kazuki; Sowden, Hannah; Kita, Sotaro

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether children's ability to integrate speech and gesture follows the pattern of a broader developmental shift between 3- and 5-year-old children (Ramscar & Gitcho, 2007) regarding the ability to process two pieces of information simultaneously. In Experiment 1, 3-year-olds, 5-year-olds, and adults were presented with either an…

  13. Can Semantic Information Be Transferred between Hemispheres in the Split-Brain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowecky, Marcia; Kingstone, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Data from experiments with split-brain patients, who have had their left and right hemispheres disconnected, suggests a remarkable specialization of function within each hemisphere. At the same time, these patients conduct their daily lives with great proficiency. This ability suggests that some information integral to coordinated function between…

  14. Contributions of Semantic and Facial Information to Perception of Nonsibilant Fricatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongman, Allard; Wang, Yue; Kim, Brian H.

    2003-01-01

    Most studies have been unable to identify reliable acoustic cues for the recognition of the English nonsibilant fricatives /f, v, [theta], [eth]/. The present study was designed to test the extent to which the perception of these fricatives by normal-hearing adults is based on other sources of information, namely, linguistic context and visual…

  15. Latent Semantic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumais, Susan T.

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA): (1) LSA overview; (2) applications of LSA, including information retrieval (IR), information filtering, cross-language retrieval, and other IR-related LSA applications; (3) modeling human memory, including the relationship of LSA to other…

  16. Semantic-Based Knowledge Management in E-Government: Modeling Attention for Proactive Information Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samiotis, Konstantinos; Stojanovic, Nenad

    E-government has become almost synonymous with a consumer-led revolution of government services inspired and made possible by the Internet. With technology being the least of the worries for government organizations nowadays, attention is shifting towards managing complexity as one of the basic antecedents of operational and decision-making inefficiency. Complexity has been traditionally preoccupying public administrations and owes its origins to several sources. Among them we encounter primarily the cross-functional nature and the degree of legal structuring of administrative work. Both of them have strong reliance to the underlying process and information infrastructure of public organizations. Managing public administration work thus implies managing its processes and information. Knowledge management (KM) and business process reengineering (BPR) have been deployed already by private organizations with success for the same purposes and certainly comprise improvement practices that are worthwhile investigating. Our contribution through this paper is on the utilization of KM for the e-government.

  17. Semantic Research for Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the need for semantic research in digital libraries to help overcome interoperability problems. Highlights include federal initiatives; semantic analysis; knowledge representations; human-computer interactions and information visualization; and the University of Illinois DLI (Digital Libraries Initiative) project through partnership with…

  18. Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deerwester, Scott; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes a new method for automatic indexing and retrieval called latent semantic indexing (LSI). Problems with matching query words with document words in term-based information retrieval systems are discussed, semantic structure is examined, singular value decomposition (SVD) is explained, and the mathematics underlying the SVD model is…

  19. The Development of the Ability to Semantically Integrate Information in Speech and Iconic Gesture in Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Kazuki; Sowden, Hannah; Kita, Sotaro

    2015-11-01

    We examined whether children's ability to integrate speech and gesture follows the pattern of a broader developmental shift between 3- and 5-year-old children (Ramscar & Gitcho, 2007) regarding the ability to process two pieces of information simultaneously. In Experiment 1, 3-year-olds, 5-year-olds, and adults were presented with either an iconic gesture or a spoken sentence or a combination of the two on a computer screen, and they were instructed to select a photograph that best matched the message. The 3-year-olds did not integrate information in speech and gesture, but 5-year-olds and adults did. In Experiment 2, 3-year-old children were presented with the same speech and gesture as in Experiment 1 that were produced live by an experimenter. When presented live, 3-year-olds could integrate speech and gesture. We concluded that development of the integration ability is a part of the broader developmental shift; however, live-presentation facilitates the nascent integration ability in 3-year-olds.

  20. Use of altered informed consent in pragmatic clinical research

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Ross E.; Beskow, Laura M.; Ford, Daniel E.; Lantos, John D.; McCall, Jonathan; Patrick-Lake, Bray; Pletcher, Mark J.; Rath, Brian; Schmidt, Hollie; Weinfurt, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    There are situations in which the requirement to obtain conventional written informed consent can impose significant or even insurmountable barriers to conducting pragmatic clinical research, including some comparative effectiveness studies and cluster-randomized trials. Although certain federal regulations governing research in the United States (45 CFR 46) define circumstances in which any of the required elements may be waived, the same standards apply regardless of whether any single element is to be waived or whether consent is to be waived in its entirety. Using the same threshold for a partial or complete waiver limits the options available to IRBs as they seek to optimize a consent process. In this article, we argue that new standards are necessary in order to enable important pragmatic clinical research while at the same time protecting patients’ rights and interests. PMID:26374677

  1. Use of altered informed consent in pragmatic clinical research.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Ross E; Beskow, Laura M; Ford, Daniel E; Lantos, John D; McCall, Jonathan; Patrick-Lake, Bray; Pletcher, Mark J; Rath, Brian; Schmidt, Hollie; Weinfurt, Kevin

    2015-10-01

    There are situations in which the requirement to obtain conventional written informed consent can impose significant or even insurmountable barriers to conducting pragmatic clinical research, including some comparative effectiveness studies and cluster-randomized trials. Although certain federal regulations governing research in the United States (45 CFR 46) define circumstances in which any of the required elements may be waived, the same standards apply regardless of whether any single element is to be waived or whether consent is to be waived in its entirety. Using the same threshold for a partial or complete waiver limits the options available to institutional review boards as they seek to optimize a consent process. In this article, we argue that new standards are necessary in order to enable important pragmatic clinical research while at the same time protecting patients' rights and interests.

  2. Automatic sorting of toxicological information into the IUCLID (International Uniform Chemical Information Database) endpoint-categories making use of the semantic search engine Go3R.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula G; Wächter, Thomas; Hareng, Lars; Wareing, Britta; Langsch, Angelika; Zschunke, Matthias; Alvers, Michael R; Landsiedel, Robert

    2014-06-01

    The knowledge-based search engine Go3R, www.Go3R.org, has been developed to assist scientists from industry and regulatory authorities in collecting comprehensive toxicological information with a special focus on identifying available alternatives to animal testing. The semantic search paradigm of Go3R makes use of expert knowledge on 3Rs methods and regulatory toxicology, laid down in the ontology, a network of concepts, terms, and synonyms, to recognize the contents of documents. Search results are automatically sorted into a dynamic table of contents presented alongside the list of documents retrieved. This table of contents allows the user to quickly filter the set of documents by topics of interest. Documents containing hazard information are automatically assigned to a user interface following the endpoint-specific IUCLID5 categorization scheme required, e.g. for REACH registration dossiers. For this purpose, complex endpoint-specific search queries were compiled and integrated into the search engine (based upon a gold standard of 310 references that had been assigned manually to the different endpoint categories). Go3R sorts 87% of the references concordantly into the respective IUCLID5 categories. Currently, Go3R searches in the 22 million documents available in the PubMed and TOXNET databases. However, it can be customized to search in other databases including in-house databanks.

  3. Examining Lateralized Semantic Access Using Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovseth, Kyle; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2010-01-01

    A divided visual field (DVF) experiment examined the semantic processing strategies employed by the cerebral hemispheres to determine if strategies observed with written word stimuli generalize to other media for communicating semantic information. We employed picture stimuli and vary the degree of semantic relatedness between the picture pairs.…

  4. Chinese Character Decoding: A Semantic Bias?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Clay; Bever, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The effects of semantic and phonetic radicals on Chinese character decoding were examined. Our results suggest that semantic and phonetic radicals are each available for access when a corresponding task emphasizes one or the other kind of radical. But in a more neutral lexical recognition task, the semantic radical is more informative. Semantic…

  5. Neural networks involved in learning lexical-semantic and syntactic information in a second language.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Jutta L; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Ono, Kentaro; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sadato, Norihiro; Nakamura, Akinori

    2014-01-01

    The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of language acquisition in a realistic learning environment. Japanese native speakers were trained in a miniature version of German prior to fMRI scanning. During scanning they listened to (1) familiar sentences, (2) sentences including a novel sentence structure, and (3) sentences containing a novel word while visual context provided referential information. Learning-related decreases of brain activation over time were found in a mainly left-hemispheric network comprising classical frontal and temporal language areas as well as parietal and subcortical regions and were largely overlapping for novel words and the novel sentence structure in initial stages of learning. Differences occurred at later stages of learning during which content-specific activation patterns in prefrontal, parietal and temporal cortices emerged. The results are taken as evidence for a domain-general network supporting the initial stages of language learning which dynamically adapts as learners become proficient.

  6. Neural networks involved in learning lexical-semantic and syntactic information in a second language

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Jutta L.; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Ono, Kentaro; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sadato, Norihiro; Nakamura, Akinori

    2014-01-01

    The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of language acquisition in a realistic learning environment. Japanese native speakers were trained in a miniature version of German prior to fMRI scanning. During scanning they listened to (1) familiar sentences, (2) sentences including a novel sentence structure, and (3) sentences containing a novel word while visual context provided referential information. Learning-related decreases of brain activation over time were found in a mainly left-hemispheric network comprising classical frontal and temporal language areas as well as parietal and subcortical regions and were largely overlapping for novel words and the novel sentence structure in initial stages of learning. Differences occurred at later stages of learning during which content-specific activation patterns in prefrontal, parietal and temporal cortices emerged. The results are taken as evidence for a domain-general network supporting the initial stages of language learning which dynamically adapts as learners become proficient. PMID:25400602

  7. Prioritizing PubMed articles for the Comparative Toxicogenomic Database utilizing semantic information.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun; Kim, Won; Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Lu, Zhiyong; Wilbur, W John

    2012-01-01

    The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) contains manually curated literature that describes chemical-gene interactions, chemical-disease relationships and gene-disease relationships. Finding articles containing this information is the first and an important step to assist manual curation efficiency. However, the complex nature of named entities and their relationships make it challenging to choose relevant articles. In this article, we introduce a machine learning framework for prioritizing CTD-relevant articles based on our prior system for the protein-protein interaction article classification task in BioCreative III. To address new challenges in the CTD task, we explore a new entity identification method for genes, chemicals and diseases. In addition, latent topics are analyzed and used as a feature type to overcome the small size of the training set. Applied to the BioCreative 2012 Triage dataset, our method achieved 0.8030 mean average precision (MAP) in the official runs, resulting in the top MAP system among participants. Integrated with PubTator, a Web interface for annotating biomedical literature, the proposed system also received a positive review from the CTD curation team.

  8. Semantic Web Research Trends and Directions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    social trust on the semantic web that builds upon the previous work to create end user applications that benefit from the semantic foundation. 2 Swoop...security, authentication, and privacy. However, the social component of trust is one that is both important and ideally suited for the Semantic Web. When the...Semantic Web-based social networks are augmented with trust information, it is possible to make computations over the values, and integrate the

  9. Altered neurovascular coupling during information-processing states.

    PubMed

    Jones, Myles; Devonshire, Ian M; Berwick, Jason; Martin, Chris; Redgrave, Peter; Mayhew, John

    2008-05-01

    Brain imaging techniques rely on changes in blood flow, volume and oxygenation to infer the loci and magnitude of changes in activity. Although progress has been made in understanding the link between stimulus-evoked neural activity and haemodynamics, the extent to which neurovascular-coupling relationships remain constant during different states of baseline cortical activity is poorly understood. Optical imaging spectroscopy, laser Doppler flowmetry and electrophysiology were used to measure haemodynamics and neural activity in the barrel cortex of anaesthetized rats. The responses to stimulation of the whisker pad were recorded during quiescence and cortical desynchronization produced by stimulation of the brainstem. Cortical desynchronization was accompanied by increases in baseline blood flow, volume and oxygenation. Haemodynamic responses to low-frequency whisker stimuli (1 Hz) were attenuated during arousal compared with that observed during quiescence. During arousal it was possible to increase stimulus-evoked haemodynamics by increasing the frequency of the stimulus. Neural responses to low-frequency stimuli were also attenuated but to a far lesser extent than the reduction in the accompanying haemodynamics. In contrast, neuronal activity evoked by high-frequency stimuli (40 Hz) was enhanced during arousal, but induced haemodynamic responses of a similar magnitude compared with that observed for the same high-frequency stimulus presented during quiescence. These data suggest that there may be differences in stimulus-evoked neural activity and accompanying haemodynamics during different information-processing states.

  10. Changes in events alter how people remember recent information.

    PubMed

    Swallow, Khena M; Barch, Deanna M; Head, Denise; Maley, Corey J; Holder, Derek; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2011-05-01

    Observers spontaneously segment larger activities into smaller events. For example, "washing a car" might be segmented into "scrubbing," "rinsing," and "drying" the car. This process, called event segmentation, separates "what is happening now? from "what just happened." In this study, we show that event segmentation predicts activity in the hippocampus when people access recent information. Participants watched narrative film and occasionally attempted to retrieve from memory objects that recently appeared in the film. The delay between object presentation and test was always 5 sec. Critically, for some of the objects, the event changed during the delay whereas for others the event continued. Using fMRI, we examined whether retrieval-related brain activity differed when the event changed during the delay. Brain regions involved in remembering past experiences over long periods, including the hippocampus, were more active during retrieval when the event changed during the delay. Thus, the way an object encountered just 5 sec ago is retrieved from memory appears to depend in part on what happened in those 5 sec. These data strongly suggest that the segmentation of ongoing activity into events is a control process that regulates when memory for events is updated.

  11. Comparing and Combining the Effectiveness of Latent Semantic Indexing and the Ordinary Vector Space Model for Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochbaum, Karen E.; Streeter, Lynn A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes experiments that compared a new method for automatically analyzing semantic structures in text by statistical means with the standard vector space model. Findings indicate that combining both methods improved performance over either alone. The effects of other experimental variables on retrieval performance (term weighting, suffix…

  12. Selective Short-Term Memory Deficits Arise from Impaired Domain-General Semantic Control Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Ehsan, Sheeba; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Semantic short-term memory (STM) patients have a reduced ability to retain semantic information over brief delays but perform well on other semantic tasks; this pattern suggests damage to a dedicated buffer for semantic information. Alternatively, these difficulties may arise from mild disruption to domain-general semantic processes that have…

  13. Introduction to geospatial semantics and technology workshop handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varanka, Dalia E.

    2012-01-01

    The workshop is a tutorial on introductory geospatial semantics with hands-on exercises using standard Web browsers. The workshop is divided into two sections, general semantics on the Web and specific examples of geospatial semantics using data from The National Map of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Open Ontology Repository. The general semantics section includes information and access to publicly available semantic archives. The specific session includes information on geospatial semantics with access to semantically enhanced data for hydrography, transportation, boundaries, and names. The Open Ontology Repository offers open-source ontologies for public use.

  14. Workspaces in the Semantic Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the recency and relatively limited adoption of Semantic Web technologies. practical issues related to technology scaling have received less attention than foundational issues. Nonetheless, these issues must be addressed if the Semantic Web is to realize its full potential. In particular, we concentrate on the lack of scoping methods that reduce the size of semantic information spaces so they are more efficient to work with and more relevant to an agent's needs. We provide some intuition to motivate the need for such reduced information spaces, called workspaces, give a formal definition, and suggest possible methods of deriving them.

  15. NASA and The Semantic Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashish, Naveen

    2005-01-01

    We provide an overview of several ongoing NASA endeavors based on concepts, systems, and technology from the Semantic Web arena. Indeed NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic Web Technology and we describe ongoing and completed R&D efforts for several applications ranging from collaborative systems to airspace information management to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and discovery systems at NASA.

  16. SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for Semantic Web Services

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol) is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP is the driving technology behind the Virtual Plant Information Network, an NSF-funded semantic w...

  17. Explaining semantic short-term memory deficits: Evidence for the critical role of semantic control

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with apparently selective short-term memory (STM) deficits for semantic information have played an important role in developing multi-store theories of STM and challenge the idea that verbal STM is supported by maintaining activation in the language system. We propose that semantic STM deficits are not as selective as previously thought and can occur as a result of mild disruption to semantic control processes, i.e., mechanisms that bias semantic processing towards task-relevant aspects of knowledge and away from irrelevant information. We tested three semantic STM patients with tasks that tapped four aspects of semantic control: (i) resolving ambiguity between word meanings, (ii) sensitivity to cues, (iii) ignoring irrelevant information and (iv) detecting weak semantic associations. All were impaired in conditions requiring more semantic control, irrespective of the STM demands of the task, suggesting a mild, but task-general, deficit in regulating semantic knowledge. This mild deficit has a disproportionate effect on STM tasks because they have high intrinsic control demands: in STM tasks, control is required to keep information active when it is no longer available in the environment and to manage competition between items held in memory simultaneously. By re-interpreting the core deficit in semantic STM patients in this way, we are able to explain their apparently selective impairment without the need for a specialised STM store. Instead, we argue that semantic STM patients occupy the mildest end of spectrum of semantic control disorders. PMID:21195105

  18. ERP evidence for the time course of graphic, phonological, and semantic information in Chinese meaning and pronunciation decisions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Perfetti, Charles A; Hart, Lesley

    2003-11-01

    Two words that varied in their relationship were presented sequentially to Chinese readers who made meaning and pronunciation decisions. In the meaning task, they decided whether the words had the same meaning. In the pronunciation task, they decided whether the words had the same pronunciation. In both tasks, the word pairs represented 1 of 4 relationships: graphically similar, homophonic, semantically related, or unrelated. Event related potentials (ERP) recordings made from the onset of the 2nd word suggested a temporal unfolding of graphic, phonological, and semantic effects. Specifically, graphically-related pairs produced a smaller P200 in the pronunciation task and a smaller N400 in the meaning task. Homophones produced reduced N400 component with bilateral sources in the meaning task.

  19. Generative Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagha, Karim Nazari

    2011-01-01

    Generative semantics is (or perhaps was) a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of…

  20. Processing lexical semantic and syntactic information in first and second language: fMRI evidence from German and Russian.

    PubMed

    Rüschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Fiebach, Christian J; Kempe, Vera; Friederici, Angela D

    2005-06-01

    We introduce two experiments that explored syntactic and semantic processing of spoken sentences by native and non-native speakers. In the first experiment, the neural substrates corresponding to detection of syntactic and semantic violations were determined in native speakers of two typologically different languages using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results show that the underlying neural response of participants to stimuli across different native languages is quite similar. In the second experiment, we investigated how non-native speakers of a language process the same stimuli presented in the first experiment. First, the results show a more similar pattern of increased activation between native and non-native speakers in response to semantic violations than to syntactic violations. Second, the non-native speakers were observed to employ specific portions of the frontotemporal language network differently from those employed by native speakers. These regions included the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), superior temporal gyrus (STG), and subcortical structures of the basal ganglia.

  1. Adopting Abstract Images for Semantic Scene Understanding.

    PubMed

    Zitnick, C Lawrence; Vedantam, Ramakrishna; Parikh, Devi

    2016-04-01

    Relating visual information to its linguistic semantic meaning remains an open and challenging area of research. The semantic meaning of images depends on the presence of objects, their attributes and their relations to other objects. But precisely characterizing this dependence requires extracting complex visual information from an image, which is in general a difficult and yet unsolved problem. In this paper, we propose studying semantic information in abstract images created from collections of clip art. Abstract images provide several advantages over real images. They allow for the direct study of how to infer high-level semantic information, since they remove the reliance on noisy low-level object, attribute and relation detectors, or the tedious hand-labeling of real images. Importantly, abstract images also allow the ability to generate sets of semantically similar scenes. Finding analogous sets of real images that are semantically similar would be nearly impossible. We create 1,002 sets of 10 semantically similar abstract images with corresponding written descriptions. We thoroughly analyze this dataset to discover semantically important features, the relations of words to visual features and methods for measuring semantic similarity. Finally, we study the relation between the saliency and memorability of objects and their semantic importance.

  2. Method and Apparatus Providing Deception and/or Altered Operation in an Information System Operating System

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Fred; Rogers, Deanna T.; Neagoe, Vicentiu

    2008-10-14

    A method and/or system and/or apparatus providing deception and/or execution alteration in an information system. In specific embodiments, deceptions and/or protections are provided by intercepting and/or modifying operation of one or more system calls of an operating system.

  3. Embedding of Semantic Predications.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Trevor; Widdows, Dominic

    2017-03-08

    This paper concerns the generation of distributed vector representations of biomedical concepts from structured knowledge, in the form of subject-relation-object triplets known as semantic predications. Specifically, we evaluate the extent to which a representational approach we have developed for this purpose previously, known as Predication-based Semantic Indexing (PSI), might benefit from insights gleaned from neural-probabilistic language models, which have enjoyed a surge in popularity in recent years as a means to generate distributed vector representations of terms from free text. To do so, we develop a novel neural-probabilistic approach to encoding predications, called Embedding of Semantic Predications (ESP), by adapting aspects of the Skipgram with Negative Sampling (SGNS) algorithm to this purpose. We compare ESP and PSI across a number of tasks including recovery of encoded information, estimation of semantic similarity and relatedness, and identification of potentially therapeutic and harmful relationships using both analogical retrieval and supervised learning. We find advantages for ESP in some, but not all of these tasks, revealing the contexts in which the additional computational work of neural-probabilistic modeling is justified.

  4. MeSH-Informed Enrichment Analysis and MeSH-Guided Semantic Similarity Among Functional Terms and Gene Products in Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Morota, Gota; Beissinger, Timothy M.; Peñagaricano, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical vocabularies and ontologies aid in recapitulating biological knowledge. The annotation of gene products is mainly accelerated by Gene Ontology (GO), and more recently by Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). Here, we report a suite of MeSH packages for chicken in Bioconductor, and illustrate some features of different MeSH-based analyses, including MeSH-informed enrichment analysis and MeSH-guided semantic similarity among terms and gene products, using two lists of chicken genes available in public repositories. The two published datasets that were employed represent (i) differentially expressed genes, and (ii) candidate genes under selective sweep or epistatic selection. The comparison of MeSH with GO overrepresentation analyses suggested not only that MeSH supports the findings obtained from GO analysis, but also that MeSH is able to further enrich the representation of biological knowledge and often provide more interpretable results. Based on the hierarchical structures of MeSH and GO, we computed semantic similarities among vocabularies, as well as semantic similarities among selected genes. These yielded the similarity levels between significant functional terms, and the annotation of each gene yielded the measures of gene similarity. Our findings show the benefits of using MeSH as an alternative choice of annotation in order to draw biological inferences from a list of genes of interest. We argue that the use of MeSH in conjunction with GO will be instrumental in facilitating the understanding of the genetic basis of complex traits. PMID:27261003

  5. SemanticOrganizer Brings Teams Together

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laufenberg, Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    SemanticOrganizer enables researchers in different locations to share, search for, and integrate data. Its customizable semantic links offer fast access to interrelated information. This knowledge management and information integration tool also supports real-time instrument data collection and collaborative image annotation.

  6. Social Networking on the Semantic Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finin, Tim; Ding, Li; Zhou, Lina; Joshi, Anupam

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to investigate the way that the semantic web is being used to represent and process social network information. Design/methodology/approach: The Swoogle semantic web search engine was used to construct several large data sets of Resource Description Framework (RDF) documents with social network information that were encoded using the…

  7. Neural substrates of semantic memory.

    PubMed

    Hart, John; Anand, Raksha; Zoccoli, Sandra; Maguire, Mandy; Gamino, Jacque; Tillman, Gail; King, Richard; Kraut, Michael A

    2007-09-01

    Semantic memory is described as the storage of knowledge, concepts, and information that is common and relatively consistent across individuals (e.g., memory of what is a cup). These memories are stored in multiple sensorimotor modalities and cognitive systems throughout the brain (e.g., how a cup is held and manipulated, the texture of a cup's surface, its shape, its function, that is related to beverages such as coffee, and so on). Our ability to engage in purposeful interactions with our environment is dependent on the ability to understand the meaning and significance of the objects and actions around us that are stored in semantic memory. Theories of the neural basis of the semantic memory of objects have produced sophisticated models that have incorporated to varying degrees the results of cognitive and neural investigations. The models are grouped into those that are (1) cognitive models, where the neural data are used to reveal dissociations in semantic memory after a brain lesion occurs; (2) models that incorporate both cognitive and neuroanatomical information; and (3) models that use cognitive, neuroanatomic, and neurophysiological data. This review highlights the advances and issues that have emerged from these models and points to future directions that provide opportunities to extend these models. The models of object memory generally describe how category and/or feature representations encode for object memory, and the semantic operations engaged in object processing. The incorporation of data derived from multiple modalities of investigation can lead to detailed neural specifications of semantic memory organization. The addition of neurophysiological data can potentially provide further elaboration of models to include semantic neural mechanisms. Future directions should incorporate available and newly developed techniques to better inform the neural underpinning of semantic memory models.

  8. Effects of the common cold on mood, psychomotor performance, the encoding of new information, speed of working memory and semantic processing.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew P

    2012-10-01

    Previous research has shown that people with the common cold report a more negative mood and psychomotor slowing. Recent research suggests that memory speed may also be impaired. This was examined in the study reported here. A prospective design was used and all participants (N=200; half male, half female; mean age 21 years, range 18-30 years) carried out a baseline session when healthy. The test battery involved mood rating, simple and choice reaction time, verbal reasoning and semantic processing. Volunteers returned when they developed an upper respiratory tract illness (URTI) and repeated the test battery. If they remained healthy they were recalled as a control. One hundred and eighty-nine participants completed the study and 48 developed URTIs and 141 were in the healthy control group. Symptoms and signs suggested that those who were ill had colds rather than influenza. The results showed that those with colds reported lower alertness, a more negative mood, and psychomotor slowing. They were also slower at encoding new information and slower on the verbal reasoning and semantic processing tasks. The magnitude of the mood changes associated with being ill were correlated with symptom severity. The performance changes were not correlated with symptom severity, sleep duration or mood changes. Further research is now needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the behavioral malaise associated with URTIs.

  9. Disclaimer labels on fashion magazine advertisements: Does timing of digital alteration information matter?

    PubMed

    Bury, Belinda; Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2016-08-30

    The study aimed to investigate whether a message informing readers about digital alteration read before exposure to thin ideal advertisements would enhance the effectiveness of disclaimer labels. Participants were 280 female undergraduate students who viewed eleven thin ideal fashion magazine advertisements. Half viewed the advertisements in their original format, and half viewed the same advertisements with a digital alteration disclaimer label. Prior to viewing the advertisements, participants read either a brief message informing them that advertisements are commonly digitally altered, or a control message. Irrespective of experimental condition, exposure to the thin ideal advertisements led to increased body dissatisfaction, with social comparison predicting this increase. Neither the disclaimer label nor the pre-exposure message, nor their combination, led to reductions in perceived realism, social comparison, or body dissatisfaction. However, trait appearance comparison moderated the effect of pre-exposure message on perceived realism, such that women high on trait appearance comparison in the digital alteration pre-exposure message condition rated the models as relatively more realistic than did women low on this trait. It was concluded that more research is needed to identify brief and easy-to-implement universal prevention strategies that can reduce the negative effects of thin ideal media imagery on women's body image.

  10. What Klein’s “Semantic Gradient” Does and Does Not Really Show: Decomposing Stroop Interference into Task and Informational Conflict Components

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Yulia; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The present study suggests that the idea that Stroop interference originates from multiple components may gain theoretically from integrating two independent frameworks. The first framework is represented by the well-known notion of “semantic gradient” of interference and the second one is the distinction between two types of conflict – the task and the informational conflict – giving rise to the interference (MacLeod and MacDonald, 2000; Goldfarb and Henik, 2007). The proposed integration led to the conclusion that two (i.e., orthographic and lexical components) of the four theoretically distinct components represent task conflict, and the other two (i.e., indirect and direct informational conflict components) represent informational conflict. The four components were independently estimated in a series of experiments. The results confirmed the contribution of task conflict (estimated by a robust orthographic component) and of informational conflict (estimated by a strong direct informational conflict component) to Stroop interference. However, the performed critical review of the relevant literature (see General Discussion), as well as the results of the experiments reported, showed that the other two components expressing each type of conflict (i.e., the lexical component of task conflict and the indirect informational conflict) were small and unstable. The present analysis refines our knowledge of the origins of Stroop interference by providing evidence that each type of conflict has its major and minor contributions. The implications for cognitive control of an automatic reading process are also discussed. PMID:26955363

  11. Genetic risk for Alzheimer’s disease alters the five-year trajectory of semantic memory activation in cognitively intact elders

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Stephen M.; Bonner-Jackson, Aaron; Nielson, Kristy A.; Seidenberg, Michael; Smith, J. Carson; Woodard, John L.; Durgerian, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Healthy aging is associated with cognitive declines typically accompanied by increased task-related brain activity in comparison to younger counterparts. The Scaffolding Theory of Aging and Cognition (STAC) (Park and Reuter-Lorenz, 2009; Reuter-Lorenz and Park, 2014) posits that compensatory brain processes are responsible for maintaining normal cognitive performance in older adults, despite accumulation of aging-related neural damage. Cross-sectional studies indicate that cognitively intact elders at genetic risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) demonstrate patterns of increased brain activity compared to low risk elders, suggesting that compensation represents an early response to AD-associated pathology. Whether this compensatory response persists or declines with the onset of cognitive impairment can only be addressed using a longitudinal design. The current prospective, 5-year longitudinal study examined brain activation in APOE ε4 carriers (N=24) and non-carriers (N=21). All participants, ages 65–85 and cognitively intact at study entry, underwent task-activated fMRI, structural MRI, and neuropsychological assessments at baseline, 18, and 57 months. fMRI activation was measured in response to a semantic memory task requiring participants to discriminate famous from non-famous names. Results indicated that the trajectory of change in brain activation while performing this semantic memory task differed between APOE ε4 carriers and non-carriers. The APOE ε4 group exhibited greater activation than the Low Risk group at baseline, but they subsequently showed a progressive decline in activation during the follow-up periods with corresponding emergence of episodic memory loss and hippocampal atrophy. In contrast, the non-carriers demonstrated a gradual increase in activation over the 5-year period. Our results are consistent with the STAC model by demonstrating that compensation varies with the severity of underlying neural damage and can be exhausted with the

  12. Semantic preview benefit during reading.

    PubMed

    Hohenstein, Sven; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word during the saccade to the preview (boundary paradigm). In the 1st experiment the preview word was semantically related or unrelated to the target. Fixation durations on the target were shorter for semantically related than unrelated previews, consistent with a semantic preview benefit. In the 2nd experiment, half the sentences were presented following the rules of German spelling (i.e., previews and targets were printed with an initial capital letter), and the other half were presented completely in lowercase. A semantic preview benefit was obtained under both conditions. In the 3rd experiment, we introduced 2 further preview conditions, an identical word and a pronounceable nonword, while also manipulating the text contrast. Whereas the contrast had negligible effects, fixation durations on the target were reliably different for all 4 types of preview. Semantic preview benefits were greater for pretarget fixations closer to the boundary (large preview space) and, although not as consistently, for long pretarget fixation durations (long preview time). The results constrain theoretical proposals about eye movement control in reading. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Preserved Musical Semantic Memory in Semantic Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Jessica; Koenig, Phyllis; Gunawardena, Delani; McMillan, Corey; Bonner, Michael; Grossman, Murray

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the scope of semantic impairment in semantic dementia. Design Case study. Setting Academic medical center. Patient A man with semantic dementia, as demonstrated by clinical, neuropsychological, and imaging studies. Main Outcome Measures Music performance and magnetic resonance imaging results. Results Despite profoundly impaired semantic memory for words and objects due to left temporal lobe atrophy, this semiprofessional musician was creative and expressive in demonstrating preserved musical knowledge. Conclusion Long-term representations of words and objects in semantic memory may be dissociated from meaningful knowledge in other domains, such as music. PMID:21320991

  14. Getting connected: Both associative and semantic links structure semantic memory for newly learned persons.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Holger; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether semantic memory for newly learned people is structured by visual co-occurrence, shared semantics, or both. Participants were trained with pairs of simultaneously presented (i.e., co-occurring) preexperimentally unfamiliar faces, which either did or did not share additionally provided semantic information (occupation, place of living, etc.). Semantic information could also be shared between faces that did not co-occur. A subsequent priming experiment revealed faster responses for both co-occurrence/no shared semantics and no co-occurrence/shared semantics conditions, than for an unrelated condition. Strikingly, priming was strongest in the co-occurrence/shared semantics condition, suggesting additive effects of these factors. Additional analysis of event-related brain potentials yielded priming in the N400 component only for combined effects of visual co-occurrence and shared semantics, with more positive amplitudes in this than in the unrelated condition. Overall, these findings suggest that both semantic relatedness and visual co-occurrence are important when novel information is integrated into person-related semantic memory.

  15. Generation of Infectious Poliovirus with Altered Genetic Information from Cloned cDNA.

    PubMed

    Bujaki, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The effect of specific genetic alterations on virus biology and phenotype can be studied by a great number of available assays. The following method describes the basic protocol to generate infectious poliovirus with altered genetic information from cloned cDNA in cultured cells.The example explained here involves generation of a recombinant poliovirus genome by simply replacing a portion of the 5' noncoding region with a synthetic gene by restriction cloning. The vector containing the full length poliovirus genome and the insert DNA with the known mutation(s) are cleaved for directional cloning, then ligated and transformed into competent bacteria. The recombinant plasmid DNA is then propagated in bacteria and transcribed to RNA in vitro before RNA transfection of cultured cells is performed. Finally, viral particles are recovered from the cell culture.

  16. Complex Semantic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, G. M.; Aguiar, M. S. F.; Carvalho, C. F.; Dantas, D. R.; Cunha, M. V.; Morais, J. H. M.; Pereira, H. B. B.; Miranda, J. G. V.

    Verbal language is a dynamic mental process. Ideas emerge by means of the selection of words from subjective and individual characteristics throughout the oral discourse. The goal of this work is to characterize the complex network of word associations that emerge from an oral discourse from a discourse topic. Because of that, concepts of associative incidence and fidelity have been elaborated and represented the probability of occurrence of pairs of words in the same sentence in the whole oral discourse. Semantic network of words associations were constructed, where the words are represented as nodes and the edges are created when the incidence-fidelity index between pairs of words exceeds a numerical limit (0.001). Twelve oral discourses were studied. The networks generated from these oral discourses present a typical behavior of complex networks and their indices were calculated and their topologies characterized. The indices of these networks obtained from each incidence-fidelity limit exhibit a critical value in which the semantic network has maximum conceptual information and minimum residual associations. Semantic networks generated by this incidence-fidelity limit depict a pattern of hierarchical classes that represent the different contexts used in the oral discourse.

  17. Learning the Semantics of Structured Data Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taheriyan, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Information sources such as relational databases, spreadsheets, XML, JSON, and Web APIs contain a tremendous amount of structured data, however, they rarely provide a semantic model to describe their contents. Semantic models of data sources capture the intended meaning of data sources by mapping them to the concepts and relationships defined by a…

  18. Elaborative Retrieval: Do Semantic Mediators Improve Memory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Melissa; Karpicke, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    The elaborative retrieval account of retrieval-based learning proposes that retrieval enhances retention because the retrieval process produces the generation of semantic mediators that link cues to target information. We tested 2 assumptions that form the basis of this account: that semantic mediators are more likely to be generated during…

  19. Semantics vs Pragmatics of a Compound Word

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smirnova, Elena A.; Biktemirova, Ella I.; Davletbaeva, Diana N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of correlation between semantic and pragmatic potential of a compound word, which functions in informal speech, and the mechanisms of secondary nomination, which realizes the potential of semantic-pragmatic features of colloquial compounds. The relevance and the choice of the research question is based on the…

  20. Social Semantics for an Effective Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, Sarah; Doane, Mike

    2012-01-01

    An evolution of the Semantic Web, the Social Semantic Web (s2w), facilitates knowledge sharing with "useful information based on human contributions, which gets better as more people participate." The s2w reaches beyond the search box to move us from a collection of hyperlinked facts, to meaningful, real time context. When focused through the lens of Enterprise Search, the Social Semantic Web facilitates the fluid transition of meaningful business information from the source to the user. It is the confluence of human thought and computer processing structured with the iterative application of taxonomies, folksonomies, ontologies, and metadata schemas. The importance and nuances of human interaction are often deemphasized when focusing on automatic generation of semantic markup, which results in dissatisfied users and unrealized return on investment. Users consistently qualify the value of information sets through the act of selection, making them the de facto stakeholders of the Social Semantic Web. Employers are the ultimate beneficiaries of s2w utilization with a better informed, more decisive workforce; one not achieved with an IT miracle technology, but by improved human-computer interactions. Johnson Space Center Taxonomist Sarah Berndt and Mike Doane, principal owner of Term Management, LLC discuss the planning, development, and maintenance stages for components of a semantic system while emphasizing the necessity of a Social Semantic Web for the Enterprise. Identification of risks and variables associated with layering the successful implementation of a semantic system are also modeled.

  1. A Semantic Web-based System for Managing Clinical Archetypes.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Breis, Jesualdo Tomas; Menarguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Martinez-Costa, Catalina; Fernandez-Breis, Eneko; Herrero-Sempere, Jose; Moner, David; Sanchez, Jesus; Valencia-Garcia, Rafael; Robles, Montserrat

    2008-01-01

    Archetypes facilitate the sharing of clinical knowledge and therefore are a basic tool for achieving interoperability between healthcare information systems. In this paper, a Semantic Web System for Managing Archetypes is presented. This system allows for the semantic annotation of archetypes, as well for performing semantic searches. The current system is capable of working with both ISO13606 and OpenEHR archetypes.

  2. An Educational Tool for Browsing the Semantic Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Sujin; Kim, Younghwan; Park, Seongbin

    2013-01-01

    The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web where information is represented in a machine processable way. It is not separate from the current Web and one of the confusions that novice users might have is where the Semantic Web is. In fact, users can easily encounter RDF documents that are components of the Semantic Web while they navigate…

  3. Famous face identification in temporal lobe epilepsy: support for a multimodal integration model of semantic memory.

    PubMed

    Drane, Daniel L; Ojemann, Jeffrey G; Phatak, Vaishali; Loring, David W; Gross, Robert E; Hebb, Adam O; Silbergeld, Daniel L; Miller, John W; Voets, Natalie L; Saindane, Amit M; Barsalou, Lawrence; Meador, Kimford J; Ojemann, George A; Tranel, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    This study aims to demonstrate that the left and right anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) perform critical but unique roles in famous face identification, with damage to either leading to differing deficit patterns reflecting decreased access to lexical or semantic concepts but not their degradation. Famous face identification was studied in 22 presurgical and 14 postsurgical temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients and 20 healthy comparison subjects using free recall and multiple choice (MC) paradigms. Right TLE patients exhibited presurgical deficits in famous face recognition, and postsurgical deficits in both famous face recognition and familiarity judgments. However, they did not exhibit any problems with naming before or after surgery. In contrast, left TLE patients demonstrated both pre- and postsurgical deficits in famous face naming but no significant deficits in recognition or familiarity. Double dissociations in performance between groups were alleviated by altering task demands. Postsurgical right TLE patients provided with MC options correctly identified greater than 70% of famous faces they initially rated as unfamiliar. Left TLE patients accurately chose the name for nearly all famous faces they recognized (based on their verbal description) but initially failed to name, although they tended to rapidly lose access to this name. We believe alterations in task demands activate alternative routes to semantic and lexical networks, demonstrating that unique pathways to such stored information exist, and suggesting a different role for each ATL in identifying visually presented famous faces. The right ATL appears to play a fundamental role in accessing semantic information from a visual route, with the left ATL serving to link semantic information to the language system to produce a specific name. These findings challenge several assumptions underlying amodal models of semantic memory, and provide support for the integrated multimodal theories of semantic memory

  4. Language networks associated with computerized semantic indices.

    PubMed

    Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Jones, David T; Knopman, David S

    2015-01-01

    Tests of generative semantic verbal fluency are widely used to study organization and representation of concepts in the human brain. Previous studies demonstrated that clustering and switching behavior during verbal fluency tasks is supported by multiple brain mechanisms associated with semantic memory and executive control. Previous work relied on manual assessments of semantic relatedness between words and grouping of words into semantic clusters. We investigated a computational linguistic approach to measuring the strength of semantic relatedness between words based on latent semantic analysis of word co-occurrences in a subset of a large online encyclopedia. We computed semantic clustering indices and compared them to brain network connectivity measures obtained with task-free fMRI in a sample consisting of healthy participants and those differentially affected by cognitive impairment. We found that semantic clustering indices were associated with brain network connectivity in distinct areas including fronto-temporal, fronto-parietal and fusiform gyrus regions. This study shows that computerized semantic indices complement traditional assessments of verbal fluency to provide a more complete account of the relationship between brain and verbal behavior involved organization and retrieval of lexical information from memory.

  5. SASL: A Semantic Annotation System for Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Pingpeng; Wang, Guoyin; Zhang, Qin; Jin, Hai

    Due to ambiguity, search engines for scientific literatures may not return right search results. One efficient solution to the problems is to automatically annotate literatures and attach the semantic information to them. Generally, semantic annotation requires identifying entities before attaching semantic information to them. However, due to abbreviation and other reasons, it is very difficult to identify entities correctly. The paper presents a Semantic Annotation System for Literature (SASL), which utilizes Wikipedia as knowledge base to annotate literatures. SASL mainly attaches semantic to terminology, academic institutions, conferences, and journals etc. Many of them are usually abbreviations, which induces ambiguity. Here, SASL uses regular expressions to extract the mapping between full name of entities and their abbreviation. Since full names of several entities may map to a single abbreviation, SASL introduces Hidden Markov Model to implement name disambiguation. Finally, the paper presents the experimental results, which confirm SASL a good performance.

  6. Simulating Expert Clinical Comprehension: Adapting Latent Semantic Analysis to Accurately Extract Clinical Concepts from Psychiatric Narrative

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Trevor; Blatter, Brett; Patel, Vimla

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive studies reveal that less-than-expert clinicians are less able to recognize meaningful patterns of data in clinical narratives. Accordingly, psychiatric residents early in training fail to attend to information that is relevant to diagnosis and the assessment of dangerousness. This manuscript presents cognitively motivated methodology for the simulation of expert ability to organize relevant findings supporting intermediate diagnostic hypotheses. Latent Semantic Analysis is used to generate a semantic space from which meaningful associations between psychiatric terms are derived. Diagnostically meaningful clusters are modeled as geometric structures within this space and compared to elements of psychiatric narrative text using semantic distance measures. A learning algorithm is defined that alters components of these geometric structures in response to labeled training data. Extraction and classification of relevant text segments is evaluated against expert annotation, with system-rater agreement approximating rater-rater agreement. A range of biomedical informatics applications for these methods are suggested. PMID:18455483

  7. D-Fussion: A Semantic Selective Disssemination of Information Service for the Research Community in Digital Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales-del-Castillo, Jose Manuel; Peis, Eduardo; Moreno, Juan Manuel; Herrera-Viedma, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper we propose a multi-agent Selective Dissemination of Information service to improve the research community's access to digital library resources. The service also provides a new recommendation approach to satisfy researchers' specific information requirements. Method: The service model is developed by jointly applying…

  8. Altered visual information processing systems in bipolar disorder: evidence from visual MMN and P3

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa, Toshihiko; Katsuki, Satomi; Kishimoto, Junji; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Ogata, Katsuya; Yamasaki, Takao; Ueno, Takefumi; Tobimatsu, Shozo; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3 are unique ERP components that provide objective indices of human cognitive functions such as short-term memory and prediction. Bipolar disorder (BD) is an endogenous psychiatric disorder characterized by extreme shifts in mood, energy, and ability to function socially. BD patients usually show cognitive dysfunction, and the goal of this study was to access their altered visual information processing via visual MMN (vMMN) and P3 using windmill pattern stimuli. Methods: Twenty patients with BD and 20 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and handedness participated in this study. Subjects were seated in front of a monitor and listened to a story via earphones. Two types of windmill patterns (standard and deviant) and white circle (target) stimuli were randomly presented on the monitor. All stimuli were presented in random order at 200-ms durations with an 800-ms inter-stimulus interval. Stimuli were presented at 80% (standard), 10% (deviant), and 10% (target) probabilities. The participants were instructed to attend to the story and press a button as soon as possible when the target stimuli were presented. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded throughout the experiment using 128-channel EEG equipment. vMMN was obtained by subtracting standard from deviant stimuli responses, and P3 was evoked from the target stimulus. Results: Mean reaction times for target stimuli in the BD group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Additionally, mean vMMN-amplitudes and peak P3-amplitudes were significantly lower in the BD group than in controls. Conclusions: Abnormal vMMN and P3 in patients indicate a deficit of visual information processing in BD, which is consistent with their increased reaction time to visual target stimuli. Significance: Both bottom-up and top-down visual information processing are likely altered in BD. PMID:23898256

  9. Semantic Fission through Dialect Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Michael D.

    The linguistic atlas projects have provided much information on the regional distribution of pronunciation, vocabulary, and syntax and have given important evidence for a greater understanding of problems involved in semantic change, particularly in pointing out transition areas where dialects become fused. In a study supplementary to that…

  10. The Semantic Web in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The semantic web or Web 3.0 makes information more meaningful to people by making it more understandable to machines. In this article, the author examines the implications of Web 3.0 for education. The author considers three areas of impact: knowledge construction, personal learning network maintenance, and personal educational administration.…

  11. Semantic Preview Benefit during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohenstein, Sven; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word…

  12. Language networks in semantic dementia.

    PubMed

    Agosta, Federica; Henry, Roland G; Migliaccio, Raffaella; Neuhaus, John; Miller, Bruce L; Dronkers, Nina F; Brambati, Simona M; Filippi, Massimo; Ogar, Jennifer M; Wilson, Stephen M; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in semantic dementia have been attributed to anterior temporal lobe grey matter damage; however, key aspects of the syndrome could be due to altered anatomical connectivity between language pathways involving the temporal lobe. The aim of this study was to investigate the left language-related cerebral pathways in semantic dementia using diffusion tensor imaging-based tractography and to combine the findings with cortical anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained during a reading activation task. The left inferior longitudinal fasciculus, arcuate fasciculus and fronto-parietal superior longitudinal fasciculus were tracked in five semantic dementia patients and eight healthy controls. The left uncinate fasciculus and the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum were also obtained for comparison with previous studies. From each tract, mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, as well as parallel and transverse diffusivities were obtained. Diffusion tensor imaging results were related to grey and white matter atrophy volume assessed by voxel-based morphometry and functional magnetic resonance imaging activations during a reading task. Semantic dementia patients had significantly higher mean diffusivity, parallel and transverse in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The arcuate and uncinate fasciculi demonstrated significantly higher mean diffusivity, parallel and transverse and significantly lower fractional anisotropy. The fronto-parietal superior longitudinal fasciculus was relatively spared, with a significant difference observed for transverse diffusivity and fractional anisotropy, only. In the corpus callosum, the genu showed lower fractional anisotropy compared with controls, while no difference was found in the splenium. The left parietal cortex did not show significant volume changes on voxel-based morphometry and demonstrated normal functional magnetic resonance imaging activation in response to reading items that

  13. Language networks in semantic dementia

    PubMed Central

    Agosta, Federica; Henry, Roland G.; Migliaccio, Raffaella; Neuhaus, John; Miller, Bruce L.; Dronkers, Nina F.; Brambati, Simona M.; Filippi, Massimo; Ogar, Jennifer M.; Wilson, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in semantic dementia have been attributed to anterior temporal lobe grey matter damage; however, key aspects of the syndrome could be due to altered anatomical connectivity between language pathways involving the temporal lobe. The aim of this study was to investigate the left language-related cerebral pathways in semantic dementia using diffusion tensor imaging-based tractography and to combine the findings with cortical anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained during a reading activation task. The left inferior longitudinal fasciculus, arcuate fasciculus and fronto-parietal superior longitudinal fasciculus were tracked in five semantic dementia patients and eight healthy controls. The left uncinate fasciculus and the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum were also obtained for comparison with previous studies. From each tract, mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, as well as parallel and transverse diffusivities were obtained. Diffusion tensor imaging results were related to grey and white matter atrophy volume assessed by voxel-based morphometry and functional magnetic resonance imaging activations during a reading task. Semantic dementia patients had significantly higher mean diffusivity, parallel and transverse in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The arcuate and uncinate fasciculi demonstrated significantly higher mean diffusivity, parallel and transverse and significantly lower fractional anisotropy. The fronto-parietal superior longitudinal fasciculus was relatively spared, with a significant difference observed for transverse diffusivity and fractional anisotropy, only. In the corpus callosum, the genu showed lower fractional anisotropy compared with controls, while no difference was found in the splenium. The left parietal cortex did not show significant volume changes on voxel-based morphometry and demonstrated normal functional magnetic resonance imaging activation in response to reading items that

  14. SemanticOrganizer: A Customizable Semantic Repository for Distributed NASA Project Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.; Berrios, Daniel C.; Carvalho, Robert E.; Hall, David R.; Rich, Stephen J.; Sturken, Ian B.; Swanson, Keith J.; Wolfe, Shawn R.

    2004-01-01

    SemanticOrganizer is a collaborative knowledge management system designed to support distributed NASA projects, including diverse teams of scientists, engineers, and accident investigators. The system provides a customizable, semantically structured information repository that stores work products relevant to multiple projects of differing types. SemanticOrganizer is one of the earliest and largest semantic web applications deployed at NASA to date, and has been used in diverse contexts ranging from the investigation of Space Shuttle Columbia's accident to the search for life on other planets. Although the underlying repository employs a single unified ontology, access control and ontology customization mechanisms make the repository contents appear different for each project team. This paper describes SemanticOrganizer, its customization facilities, and a sampling of its applications. The paper also summarizes some key lessons learned from building and fielding a successful semantic web application across a wide-ranging set of domains with diverse users.

  15. Semantic-Web Technology: Applications at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashish, Naveen

    2004-01-01

    We provide a description of work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on building system based on semantic-web concepts and technologies. NASA has been one of the early adopters of semantic-web technologies for practical applications. Indeed there are several ongoing 0 endeavors on building semantics based systems for use in diverse NASA domains ranging from collaborative scientific activity to accident and mishap investigation to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and integration to aviation safety decision support We provide a brief overview of many applications and ongoing work with the goal of informing the external community of these NASA endeavors.

  16. Approaching semantic interoperability in Health Level Seven

    PubMed Central

    Alschuler, Liora

    2010-01-01

    Semantic Interoperability’ is a driving objective behind many of Health Level Seven's standards. The objective in this paper is to take a step back, and consider what semantic interoperability means, assess whether or not it has been achieved, and, if not, determine what concrete next steps can be taken to get closer. A framework for measuring semantic interoperability is proposed, using a technique called the ‘Single Logical Information Model’ framework, which relies on an operational definition of semantic interoperability and an understanding that interoperability improves incrementally. Whether semantic interoperability tomorrow will enable one computer to talk to another, much as one person can talk to another person, is a matter for speculation. It is assumed, however, that what gets measured gets improved, and in that spirit this framework is offered as a means to improvement. PMID:21106995

  17. Explaining Semantic Short-Term Memory Deficits: Evidence for the Critical Role of Semantic Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with apparently selective short-term memory (STM) deficits for semantic information have played an important role in developing multi-store theories of STM and challenge the idea that verbal STM is supported by maintaining activation in the language system. We propose that semantic STM deficits are not as selective as previously thought…

  18. Semantics via Machine Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culhane, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

  19. SEMANTICS AND CRITICAL READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FLANIGAN, MICHAEL C.

    PROFICIENCY IN CRITICAL READING CAN BE ACCELERATED BY MAKING STUDENTS AWARE OF VARIOUS SEMANTIC DEVICES THAT HELP CLARIFY MEANINGS AND PURPOSES. EXCERPTS FROM THE ARTICLE "TEEN-AGE CORRUPTION" FROM THE NINTH-GRADE SEMANTICS UNIT WRITTEN BY THE PROJECT ENGLISH DEMONSTRATION CENTER AT EUCLID, OHIO, ARE USED TO ILLUSTRATE HOW SEMANTICS RELATE TO…

  20. Project Integration Architecture: Formulation of Semantic Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William Henry

    2005-01-01

    One of several key elements of the Project Integration Architecture (PIA) is the intention to formulate parameter objects which convey meaningful semantic information. In so doing, it is expected that a level of automation can be achieved in the consumption of information content by PIA-consuming clients outside the programmatic boundary of a presenting PIA-wrapped application. This paper discusses the steps that have been recently taken in formulating such semantically-meaningful parameters.

  1. From ontology selection and semantic web to the integrated information system of food-borne diseases and food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last three decades, the rapid explosion of information and resources on human food-borne diseases and food safety has provided the ability to rapidly determine and interpret the mechanisms of survival and pathogenesis of food-borne pathogens. However, several factors have hindered effective...

  2. Exploring the Relationship between Semantics and Space

    PubMed Central

    Turriziani, Patrizia; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Bonnì, Sonia; Koch, Giacomo; Smirni, Daniela; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The asymmetric distribution of human spatial attention has been repeatedly documented in both patients and healthy controls. Biases in the distribution of attention and/or in the mental representation of space may also affect some aspects of language processing. We investigated whether biases in attention and/or mental representation of space affect semantic representations. In particular, we investigated whether semantic judgments could be modulated by the location in space where the semantic information was presented and the role of the left and right parietal cortices in this task. Healthy subjects were presented with three pictures arranged horizontally (one middle and two outer pictures) of items belonging to the same semantic category. Subjects were asked to indicate the spatial position in which the semantic distance between the outer and middle pictures was smaller. Subjects systematically overestimated the semantic distance of items presented in the right side of space. We explored the neural correlates underpinning this bias using rTMS over the left and right parietal cortex. rTMS of the left parietal cortex selectively reduced this rightward bias. Our findings suggest the existence of an attentional and/or mental representational bias in semantic judgments, similar to that observed for the processing of space and numbers. Spatial manipulation of semantic material results in the activation of specialised attentional resources located in the left hemisphere. PMID:19396359

  3. Demonstrating the Qualitative Differences between Semantic Aphasia and Semantic Dementia: A Novel Exploration of Nonverbal Semantic Processing

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Krist A.; Garrard, Peter; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Eshan, Sheeba; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    Semantic dementia (SD) implicates the anterior temporal lobes (ATL) as a critical substrate for semantic memory. Multi-modal semantic impairment can also be a feature of post-stroke aphasia (referred to here as “semantic aphasia” or SA) where patients show impaired regulatory control accompanied by lesions to the frontal and/or temporo-parietal cortices, and thus the two patient groups demonstrate qualitatively different patterns of semantic impairment [1]. Previous comparisons of these two patient groups have tended to focus on verbal receptive tasks. Accordingly, this study investigated nonverbal receptive abilities via a comparison of reality decision judgements in SD and SA. Pictures of objects were presented alongside non-real distracters whose features were altered to make them more/less plausible for the semantic category. The results highlighted a number of critical differences between the two groups. Compared to SD patients, SA patients: (1) were relatively unimpaired on the two alternative forced choice (2AFC) decisions despite showing a comparable degree of semantic impairment on other assessments; (2) showed minimal effects of the plausibility manipulation; (3) were strongly influenced by variations in the regulatory requirements of tasks; and (4) exhibited a reversed effect of familiarity–i.e., better performance on less commonly encountered items. These results support a distinction between semantic impairments which arise from impaired regulatory processes (e.g., SA) versus those where degraded semantic knowledge is the causal factor (e.g., SD). SA patients performed relatively well because the task structure reduced the requirement for internally generated control. In contrast, SD patients performed poorly because their degraded knowledge did not allow the fine-grained distinctions required to complete the task. PMID:22713375

  4. LORD: a phenotype-genotype semantically integrated biomedical data tool to support rare disease diagnosis coding in health information systems.

    PubMed

    Choquet, Remy; Maaroufi, Meriem; Fonjallaz, Yannick; de Carrara, Albane; Vandenbussche, Pierre-Yves; Dhombres, Ferdinand; Landais, Paul

    Characterizing a rare disease diagnosis for a given patient is often made through expert's networks. It is a complex task that could evolve over time depending on the natural history of the disease and the evolution of the scientific knowledge. Most rare diseases have genetic causes and recent improvements of sequencing techniques contribute to the discovery of many new diseases every year. Diagnosis coding in the rare disease field requires data from multiple knowledge bases to be aggregated in order to offer the clinician a global information space from possible diagnosis to clinical signs (phenotypes) and known genetic mutations (genotype). Nowadays, the major barrier to the coding activity is the lack of consolidation of such information scattered in different thesaurus such as Orphanet, OMIM or HPO. The Linking Open data for Rare Diseases (LORD) web portal we developed stands as the first attempt to fill this gap by offering an integrated view of 8,400 rare diseases linked to more than 14,500 signs and 3,270 genes. The application provides a browsing feature to navigate through the relationships between diseases, signs and genes, and some Application Programming Interfaces to help its integration in health information systems in routine.

  5. LORD: a phenotype-genotype semantically integrated biomedical data tool to support rare disease diagnosis coding in health information systems

    PubMed Central

    Choquet, Remy; Maaroufi, Meriem; Fonjallaz, Yannick; de Carrara, Albane; Vandenbussche, Pierre-Yves; Dhombres, Ferdinand; Landais, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing a rare disease diagnosis for a given patient is often made through expert’s networks. It is a complex task that could evolve over time depending on the natural history of the disease and the evolution of the scientific knowledge. Most rare diseases have genetic causes and recent improvements of sequencing techniques contribute to the discovery of many new diseases every year. Diagnosis coding in the rare disease field requires data from multiple knowledge bases to be aggregated in order to offer the clinician a global information space from possible diagnosis to clinical signs (phenotypes) and known genetic mutations (genotype). Nowadays, the major barrier to the coding activity is the lack of consolidation of such information scattered in different thesaurus such as Orphanet, OMIM or HPO. The Linking Open data for Rare Diseases (LORD) web portal we developed stands as the first attempt to fill this gap by offering an integrated view of 8,400 rare diseases linked to more than 14,500 signs and 3,270 genes. The application provides a browsing feature to navigate through the relationships between diseases, signs and genes, and some Application Programming Interfaces to help its integration in health information systems in routine. PMID:26958175

  6. Semantic representation of consumer questions and physician answers.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Laura A; Soergel, Dagobert; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the underlying semantics of health consumers' questions and physicians' answers in order to analyze the semantic patterns within these texts. We manually identified semantic relationships within question-answer pairs from Ask-the-Doctor Web sites. Identification of the semantic relationship instances within the texts was based on the relationship classes and structure of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Semantic Network. We calculated the frequency of occurrence of each semantic relationship class, and conceptual graphs were generated, joining concepts together through the semantic relationships identified. We then analyzed whether representations of physician's answers exactly matched the form of the question representations. Lastly, we examined characteristics of the answer conceptual graphs. We identified 97 semantic relationship instances in the questions and 334 instances in the answers. The most frequently identified semantic relationship in both questions and answers was brings_about (causal). We found that the semantic relationship propositions identified in answers that most frequently contain a concept also expressed in the question were: brings_about, isa, co_occurs_with, diagnoses, and treats. Using extracted semantic relationships from real-life questions and answers can produce a valuable analysis of the characteristics of these texts. This can lead to clues for creating semantic-based retrieval techniques that guide users to further information. For example, we determined that both consumers and physicians often express causative relationships and these play a key role in leading to further related concepts.

  7. Distributed Semantic Overlay Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doulkeridis, Christos; Vlachou, Akrivi; Nørvåg, Kjetil; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    Semantic Overlay Networks (SONs) have been recently proposed as a way to organize content in peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. The main objective is to discover peers with similar content and then form thematically focused peer groups. Efficient content retrieval can be performed by having queries selectively forwarded only to relevant groups of peers to the query. As a result, less peers need to be contacted, in order to answer a query. In this context, the challenge is to generate SONs in a decentralized and distributed manner, as the centralized assembly of global information is not feasible. Different approaches for exploiting the generated SONs for content retrieval have been proposed in the literature, which are examined in this chapter, with a particular focus on SON interconnections for efficient search. Several applications, such as P2P document and image retrieval, can be deployed over generated SONs, motivating the need for distributed and truly scalable SON creation. Therefore, recently several research papers focus on SONs as stated in our comprehensive overview of related work in the field of semantic overlay networks. A classification of existing algorithms according to a set of qualitative criteria is also provided. In spite of the rich existing work in the field of SONs, several challenges have not been efficiently addressed yet, therefore, future promising research directions are pointed out and discussed at the end of this chapter.

  8. LEARNING SEMANTICS-ENHANCED LANGUAGE MODELS APPLIED TO UNSUEPRVISED WSD

    SciTech Connect

    VERSPOOR, KARIN; LIN, SHOU-DE

    2007-01-29

    An N-gram language model aims at capturing statistical syntactic word order information from corpora. Although the concept of language models has been applied extensively to handle a variety of NLP problems with reasonable success, the standard model does not incorporate semantic information, and consequently limits its applicability to semantic problems such as word sense disambiguation. We propose a framework that integrates semantic information into the language model schema, allowing a system to exploit both syntactic and semantic information to address NLP problems. Furthermore, acknowledging the limited availability of semantically annotated data, we discuss how the proposed model can be learned without annotated training examples. Finally, we report on a case study showing how the semantics-enhanced language model can be applied to unsupervised word sense disambiguation with promising results.

  9. Semantic Web Data Discovery of Earth Science Data at NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hegde, Mahabaleshwara; Strub, Richard F.; Lynnes, Christopher S.; Fang, Hongliang; Teng, William

    2008-01-01

    Mirador is a web interface for searching Earth Science data archived at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). Mirador provides keyword-based search and guided navigation for providing efficient search and access to Earth Science data. Mirador employs the power of Google's universal search technology for fast metadata keyword searches, augmented by additional capabilities such as event searches (e.g., hurricanes), searches based on location gazetteer, and data services like format converters and data sub-setters. The objective of guided data navigation is to present users with multiple guided navigation in Mirador is an ontology based on the Global Change Master directory (GCMD) Directory Interchange Format (DIF). Current implementation includes the project ontology covering various instruments and model data. Additional capabilities in the pipeline include Earth Science parameter and applications ontologies.

  10. Lexical and sublexical semantic preview benefits in Chinese reading.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming; Zhou, Wei; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2012-07-01

    Semantic processing from parafoveal words is an elusive phenomenon in alphabetic languages, but it has been demonstrated only for a restricted set of noncompound Chinese characters. Using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm, this experiment examined whether parafoveal lexical and sublexical semantic information was extracted from compound preview characters. Results generalized parafoveal semantic processing to this representative set of Chinese characters and extended the parafoveal processing to radical (sublexical) level semantic information extraction. Implications for notions of parafoveal information extraction during Chinese reading are discussed.

  11. Synaptic plasticity, neural circuits, and the emerging role of altered short-term information processing in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree, Gregg W.; Gogos, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity alters the strength of information flow between presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons and thus modifies the likelihood that action potentials in a presynaptic neuron will lead to an action potential in a postsynaptic neuron. As such, synaptic plasticity and pathological changes in synaptic plasticity impact the synaptic computation which controls the information flow through the neural microcircuits responsible for the complex information processing necessary to drive adaptive behaviors. As current theories of neuropsychiatric disease suggest that distinct dysfunctions in neural circuit performance may critically underlie the unique symptoms of these diseases, pathological alterations in synaptic plasticity mechanisms may be fundamental to the disease process. Here we consider mechanisms of both short-term and long-term plasticity of synaptic transmission and their possible roles in information processing by neural microcircuits in both health and disease. As paradigms of neuropsychiatric diseases with strongly implicated risk genes, we discuss the findings in schizophrenia and autism and consider the alterations in synaptic plasticity and network function observed in both human studies and genetic mouse models of these diseases. Together these studies have begun to point toward a likely dominant role of short-term synaptic plasticity alterations in schizophrenia while dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may be due to a combination of both short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity alterations. PMID:25505409

  12. Synaptic plasticity, neural circuits, and the emerging role of altered short-term information processing in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, Gregg W; Gogos, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity alters the strength of information flow between presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons and thus modifies the likelihood that action potentials in a presynaptic neuron will lead to an action potential in a postsynaptic neuron. As such, synaptic plasticity and pathological changes in synaptic plasticity impact the synaptic computation which controls the information flow through the neural microcircuits responsible for the complex information processing necessary to drive adaptive behaviors. As current theories of neuropsychiatric disease suggest that distinct dysfunctions in neural circuit performance may critically underlie the unique symptoms of these diseases, pathological alterations in synaptic plasticity mechanisms may be fundamental to the disease process. Here we consider mechanisms of both short-term and long-term plasticity of synaptic transmission and their possible roles in information processing by neural microcircuits in both health and disease. As paradigms of neuropsychiatric diseases with strongly implicated risk genes, we discuss the findings in schizophrenia and autism and consider the alterations in synaptic plasticity and network function observed in both human studies and genetic mouse models of these diseases. Together these studies have begun to point toward a likely dominant role of short-term synaptic plasticity alterations in schizophrenia while dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may be due to a combination of both short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity alterations.

  13. Prenatal androgen exposure alters girls' responses to information indicating gender-appropriate behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Melissa; Pasterski, Vickie; Spencer, Debra; Neufeld, Sharon; Patalay, Praveetha; Hindmarsh, Peter C.; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Acerini, Carlo L.

    2016-01-01

    Individual variability in human gender-related behaviour is influenced by many factors, including androgen exposure prenatally, as well as self-socialization and socialization by others postnatally. Many studies have looked at these types of influences in isolation, but little is known about how they work together. Here, we report that girls exposed to high concentrations of androgens prenatally, because they have the genetic condition congenital adrenal hyperplasia, show changes in processes related to self-socialization of gender-related behaviour. Specifically, they are less responsive than other girls to information that particular objects are for girls and they show reduced imitation of female models choosing particular objects. These findings suggest that prenatal androgen exposure may influence subsequent gender-related behaviours, including object (toy) choices, in part by changing processes involved in the self-socialization of gendered behaviour, rather than only by inducing permanent changes in the brain during early development. In addition, the findings suggest that some of the behavioural effects of prenatal androgen exposure might be subject to alteration by postnatal socialization processes. The findings also suggest a previously unknown influence of early androgen exposure on later processes involved in self-socialization of gender-related behaviour, and thus expand understanding of the developmental systems regulating human gender development. PMID:26833843

  14. An efficient system for selectively altering genetic information within mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Montiel-González, Maria Fernanda; Vallecillo-Viejo, Isabel C.; Rosenthal, Joshua J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Site-directed RNA editing (SDRE) is a strategy to precisely alter genetic information within mRNAs. By linking the catalytic domain of the RNA editing enzyme ADAR to an antisense guide RNA, specific adenosines can be converted to inosines, biological mimics for guanosine. Previously, we showed that a genetically encoded iteration of SDRE could target adenosines expressed in human cells, but not efficiently. Here we developed a reporter assay to quantify editing, and used it to improve our strategy. By enhancing the linkage between ADAR's catalytic domain and the guide RNA, and by introducing a mutation in the catalytic domain, the efficiency of converting a UAG premature termination codon (PTC) to tryptophan (UGG) was improved from ∼11 % to ∼70 %. Other PTCs were edited, but less efficiently. Numerous off-target edits were identified in the targeted mRNA, but not in randomly selected endogenous messages. Off-target edits could be eliminated by reducing the amount of guide RNA with a reduction in on-target editing. The catalytic rate of SDRE was compared with those for human ADARs on various substrates and found to be within an order of magnitude of most. These data underscore the promise of site-directed RNA editing as a therapeutic or experimental tool. PMID:27557710

  15. Prenatal androgen exposure alters girls' responses to information indicating gender-appropriate behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hines, Melissa; Pasterski, Vickie; Spencer, Debra; Neufeld, Sharon; Patalay, Praveetha; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L

    2016-02-19

    Individual variability in human gender-related behaviour is influenced by many factors, including androgen exposure prenatally, as well as self-socialization and socialization by others postnatally. Many studies have looked at these types of influences in isolation, but little is known about how they work together. Here, we report that girls exposed to high concentrations of androgens prenatally, because they have the genetic condition congenital adrenal hyperplasia, show changes in processes related to self-socialization of gender-related behaviour. Specifically, they are less responsive than other girls to information that particular objects are for girls and they show reduced imitation of female models choosing particular objects. These findings suggest that prenatal androgen exposure may influence subsequent gender-related behaviours, including object (toy) choices, in part by changing processes involved in the self-socialization of gendered behaviour, rather than only by inducing permanent changes in the brain during early development. In addition, the findings suggest that some of the behavioural effects of prenatal androgen exposure might be subject to alteration by postnatal socialization processes. The findings also suggest a previously unknown influence of early androgen exposure on later processes involved in self-socialization of gender-related behaviour, and thus expand understanding of the developmental systems regulating human gender development.

  16. Semantic Networks and Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate the need for social network metadata within semantic metadata. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys properties of social networks and the semantic web, suggests that social network analysis applies to semantic content, argues that semantic content is more searchable if social network metadata is merged with semantic web…

  17. Lexical Semantic Techniques for Corpus Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    work suggests how linguistic phenomena such as metonymy and polysemy might be exploitable for semantic tagging of lexical items. Unlike with purely...discover what kinds of knowledge can be reliably acquired through the use of these methods, exploiting, as they do, general linguis- tic knowledge...language. These devices and the associated dictionary make up a generative lexicon, where semantic information is distributed throughout the lexicon to

  18. Uncovering the Architecture of Action Semantics

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Christine E.; Buxbaum, Laurel J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite research suggesting that stored sensorimotor information about tool use is a component of the semantic representations of tools, little is known about the action features or organizing principles that underlie this knowledge. We used methods similar to those applied in other semantic domains to examine the “architecture” of action semantic knowledge. In Experiment 1, participants sorted photographs of tools into groups according to the similarity of their associated “use” actions and rated tools on dimensions related to action. The results suggest that the magnitude of arm movement, configuration of the hand, and manner of motion during tool use play a role in determining how tools cluster in action “semantic space”. In Experiment 2, we validated the architecture uncovered in Experiment 1 using an implicit semantic task for which tool use knowledge was not ostensibly relevant (blocked cyclic word-picture matching). Using stimuli from Experiment 1, we found that participants performed more poorly during blocks of trials containing tools used with similar versus unrelated actions, and the amount of semantic interference depended on the magnitude of action similarity among tools. Thus, the degree of featural overlap between tool use actions plays a role in determining the overall semantic similarity of tools. PMID:25045905

  19. Augmenting weak semantic cognitive maps with an "abstractness" dimension.

    PubMed

    Samsonovich, Alexei V; Ascoli, Giorgio A

    2013-01-01

    The emergent consensus on dimensional models of sentiment, appraisal, emotions, and values is on the semantics of the principal dimensions, typically interpreted as valence, arousal, and dominance. The notion of weak semantic maps was introduced recently as distribution of representations in abstract spaces that are not derived from human judgments, psychometrics, or any other a priori information about their semantics. Instead, they are defined entirely by binary semantic relations among representations, such as synonymy and antonymy. An interesting question concerns the ability of the antonymy-based semantic maps to capture all "universal" semantic dimensions. The present work shows that those narrow weak semantic maps are not complete in this sense and can be augmented with other semantic relations. Specifically, including hyponym-hypernym relations yields a new semantic dimension of the map labeled here "abstractness" (or ontological generality) that is not reducible to any dimensions represented by antonym pairs or to traditional affective space dimensions. It is expected that including other semantic relations (e.g., meronymy/holonymy) will also result in the addition of new semantic dimensions to the map. These findings have broad implications for automated quantitative evaluation of the meaning of text and may shed light on the nature of human subjective experience.

  20. Semantic framework for mapping object-oriented model to semantic web languages

    PubMed Central

    Ježek, Petr; Mouček, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework. PMID:25762923

  1. Semantic framework for mapping object-oriented model to semantic web languages.

    PubMed

    Ježek, Petr; Mouček, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework.

  2. Sharing Life-Altering Information: Development of Pediatric Hospital Guidelines and Team Training

    PubMed Central

    Frierdich, Sharon A.; Wish, Joel; Kilgore-Carlin, Joyce; Plotkin, Julie A.; Hoover-Regan, Margo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Despite parent and physician reports of inadequate skill development, there are few guidelines for training the pediatric care team in sharing life-altering information (SLAI), i.e., “breaking bad news.” The necessary skills for SLAI differ between pediatric and adult medical environments. Objectives: We set out to establish evidence-based guidelines and multidisciplinary team training for SLAI in pediatrics, and to demonstrate an improvement in immediate self-efficacy of training participants. Methods: A multidisciplinary task force, which included parent participation and feedback, and which received input from parents of patients in multiple pediatric subspecialties, crafted children's hospitalwide guidelines for SLAI. A one-hour training module on the guidelines was presented to several multidisciplinary pediatric team audiences; 159 voluntary pre- and post-presentation self-efficacy surveys were collected. Responses were analyzed by paired t-test (within groups) and ANOVA (between groups). Results: All evaluated groups of care team members reported significant improvements in self-efficacy among four learning objectives after the training. Medical trainees, newer physicians, and nonphysician (e.g., midlevel providers including nurses) team members reported the greatest improvements, regardless of whether they had received previous training in SLAI. Conclusions: We propose pediatric-focused SLAI guidelines based on a modified SPIKES protocol. Focus on patient- and family-centered, culturally sensitive pediatric practices should be the basis for development of training that can be periodically reinforced. Future comprehensive training will incorporate experiential learning. SLAI requires a skill set that benefits from lifelong learning. PMID:24971650

  3. Modeling Semantic and Structural Knowledge in Web Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juvina, Ion; van Oostendorp, Herre

    2008-01-01

    Research on cognitive modeling of information search and Web navigation emphasizes the importance of "information scent" (the relevance of semantic cues such as link labels and headings to a reader's goal; Pirolli & Card, 1999). This article shows that not only semantic but also structural knowledge is involved in navigating the Web…

  4. Ontology Reuse in Geoscience Semantic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayernik, M. S.; Gross, M. B.; Daniels, M. D.; Rowan, L. R.; Stott, D.; Maull, K. E.; Khan, H.; Corson-Rikert, J.

    2015-12-01

    The tension between local ontology development and wider ontology connections is fundamental to the Semantic web. It is often unclear, however, what the key decision points should be for new semantic web applications in deciding when to reuse existing ontologies and when to develop original ontologies. In addition, with the growth of semantic web ontologies and applications, new semantic web applications can struggle to efficiently and effectively identify and select ontologies to reuse. This presentation will describe the ontology comparison, selection, and consolidation effort within the EarthCollab project. UCAR, Cornell University, and UNAVCO are collaborating on the EarthCollab project to use semantic web technologies to enable the discovery of the research output from a diverse array of projects. The EarthCollab project is using the VIVO Semantic web software suite to increase discoverability of research information and data related to the following two geoscience-based communities: (1) the Bering Sea Project, an interdisciplinary field program whose data archive is hosted by NCAR's Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL), and (2) diverse research projects informed by geodesy through the UNAVCO geodetic facility and consortium. This presentation will outline of EarthCollab use cases, and provide an overview of key ontologies being used, including the VIVO-Integrated Semantic Framework (VIVO-ISF), Global Change Information System (GCIS), and Data Catalog (DCAT) ontologies. We will discuss issues related to bringing these ontologies together to provide a robust ontological structure to support the EarthCollab use cases. It is rare that a single pre-existing ontology meets all of a new application's needs. New projects need to stitch ontologies together in ways that fit into the broader semantic web ecosystem.

  5. Is more always better? Effects of semantic richness on lexical decision, speeded pronunciation, and semantic classification.

    PubMed

    Yap, Melvin J; Tan, Sarah E; Pexman, Penny M; Hargreaves, Ian S

    2011-08-01

    Evidence from large-scale studies (Pexman, Hargreaves, Siakaluk, Bodner, & Pope, 2008) suggests that semantic richness, a multidimensional construct reflecting the extent of variability in the information associated with a word's meaning, facilitates visual word recognition. Specifically, recognition is better for words that (1) have more semantic neighbors, (2) possess referents with more features, and (3) are associated with more contexts. The present study extends Pexman et al. (2008) by examining how two additional measures of semantic richness, number of senses and number of associates (Pexman, Hargreaves, Edwards, Henry, & Goodyear, 2007), influence lexical decision, speeded pronunciation, and semantic classification performance, after controlling for an array of lexical and semantic variables. We found that number of features and contexts consistently facilitated word recognition but that the effects of semantic neighborhood density and number of associates were less robust. Words with more senses also elicited faster lexical decisions but less accurate semantic classifications. These findings point to how the effects of different semantic dimensions are selectively and adaptively modulated by task-specific demands.

  6. A Collection of Features for Semantic Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Eliassi-Rad, T; Fodor, I K; Gallagher, B

    2007-05-02

    Semantic graphs are commonly used to represent data from one or more data sources. Such graphs extend traditional graphs by imposing types on both nodes and links. This type information defines permissible links among specified nodes and can be represented as a graph commonly referred to as an ontology or schema graph. Figure 1 depicts an ontology graph for data from National Association of Securities Dealers. Each node type and link type may also have a list of attributes. To capture the increased complexity of semantic graphs, concepts derived for standard graphs have to be extended. This document explains briefly features commonly used to characterize graphs, and their extensions to semantic graphs. This document is divided into two sections. Section 2 contains the feature descriptions for static graphs. Section 3 extends the features for semantic graphs that vary over time.

  7. A Reference Model for Semantic Peer-to-Peer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawlood-Yunis, Abdul-Rahman; Weiss, Michael; Santoro, Nicola

    Today’s information systems are highly networked and need to operate in a global world. With this comes the problem of semantic heterogeneity of information representations. Semantic peer-to- peer networks have been proposed as a solution to this problem. They are based around two components: a peer-to-peer infrastructure for information exchange between information system, and the use of ontologies to define application semantics. However, progress in this area is hampered by a lack of commonality between these approaches, which makes their comparison and translation into practical implementations difficult. In this paper, we describe a reference model for semantic peer-to-peer networks in an effort to remedy this problem. The reference model will (1) enable the establishment of a common terminology for describing semantic peer-to-peer networks, and (2) pave the way for an emerging standardized API that will promote information system interoperability.

  8. Semantic Lexicon Construction: Learning from Unlabeled Data via Spectral Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    SVD). In this paper, we generally call such SVD- based subspace construction spectral analysis. Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) (Deerwester et al...Richard Harshman. 1990. Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis. Journal of the Society for Information Science, 41:391–407. A. Dempster, N. Laird, and D...and Knowledge Management. Christos H. Papadimitriou, Prabhakar Raghavan, Hisao Tamaki, and Santosh Vempala. 2000. Latent Semantic Indexing: A

  9. The Semantic Learning Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicilia, Miguel-Angel; Lytras, Miltiadis D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is introducing the concept of a "semantic learning organization" (SLO) as an extension of the concept of "learning organization" in the technological domain. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes existing definitions and conceptualizations of both learning organizations and Semantic Web technology to develop…

  10. Aging and Semantic Activation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Darlene V.

    Three studies tested the theory that long term memory consists of a semantically organized network of concept nodes interconnected by leveled associations or relations, and that when a stimulus is processed, the corresponding concept node is assumed to be temporarily activated and this activation spreads to nearby semantically related nodes. In…

  11. The evolution of semantic systems.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    2004-05-01

    Semantic or cultural systems are sets of concepts connected by meaningful relationships, and they exhibit properties similar to those of populations of biological organisms. Drawing upon ideas from evolutionary biology and methods from information technology, this article explores the potential for research and engineering on the evolution of semantic systems. Such work in cultural genetics requires two things: (1) a rigorous but evolving taxonomic system to categorize cultural artifacts, elements, and clusters, and (2) a set of hypotheses about the processes that cause evolutionary change. This article illustrates systematic approaches to cultural taxonomy with data on the popular ideology of the space program, science fiction motion pictures, nanotechnology books, and nanotechnology research grants. It offers hypotheses derived from evolutionary and population biology that might be useful in explaining cultural evolution.

  12. Semantic Event Correlation Using Ontologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Thomas; Roth, Heinz; Rozsnyai, Szabolcs; Mordinyi, Richard; Biffl, Stefan

    Complex event processing (CEP) is a software architecture paradigm that aims at low latency, high throughput, and quick adaptability of applications for supporting and improving event-driven business processes. Events sensed in real time are the basic information units on which CEP applications operate and react in self-contained decision cycles based on defined processing logic and rules. Event correlation is necessary to relate events gathered from various sources for detecting patterns and situations of interest in the business context. Unfortunately, event correlation has been limited to syntactically identical attribute values instead of addressing semantically equivalent attribute meanings. Semantic equivalence is particularly relevant if events come from organizations that use different terminologies for common concepts.

  13. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  14. Enhancing medical database semantics.

    PubMed Central

    Leão, B. de F.; Pavan, A.

    1995-01-01

    Medical Databases deal with dynamic, heterogeneous and fuzzy data. The modeling of such complex domain demands powerful semantic data modeling methodologies. This paper describes GSM-Explorer a Case Tool that allows for the creation of relational databases using semantic data modeling techniques. GSM Explorer fully incorporates the Generic Semantic Data Model-GSM enabling knowledge engineers to model the application domain with the abstraction mechanisms of generalization/specialization, association and aggregation. The tool generates a structure that implements persistent database-objects through the automatic generation of customized SQL ANSI scripts that sustain the semantics defined in the higher lever. This paper emphasizes the system architecture and the mapping of the semantic model into relational tables. The present status of the project and its further developments are discussed in the Conclusions. PMID:8563288

  15. WSDRI-based Semantic Web Service Discovery Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xu; Xu, Yanli; Mao, Mingrong; Dong, Ming

    In the research of Web Service [1, 2], semantic information should be automatically discovered, selected and composed. These automations can make usage of Web Service easily. In this paper we propose a framework to facilitate the discovery of Web Service. In this framework, we use WSDRI (Web Service Discovery Information) to describe the semantic information. This framework which refers to client and Match Server is based on WSDRI. Then we evaluate the framework through the application on the internet to find that the framework is effective. Following this framework, it could be easy to discover the information of Web Service especially the semantic information.

  16. Semantics, Pragmatics, and the Nature of Semantic Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spewak, David Charles, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The primary concern of this dissertation is determining the distinction between semantics and pragmatics and how context sensitivity should be accommodated within a semantic theory. I approach the question over how to distinguish semantics from pragmatics from a new angle by investigating what the objects of a semantic theory are, namely…

  17. Preservation of Person-Specific Semantic Knowledge in Semantic Dementia: Does Direct Personal Experience Have a Specific Role?

    PubMed Central

    Péron, Julie A.; Piolino, Pascale; Moal-Boursiquot, Sandrine Le; Biseul, Isabelle; Leray, Emmanuelle; Bon, Laetitia; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis; Belliard, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Semantic dementia patients seem to have better knowledge of information linked to the self. More specifically, despite having severe semantic impairment, these patients show that they have more general information about the people they know personally by direct experience than they do about other individuals they know indirectly. However, the role of direct personal experience remains debated because of confounding factors such as frequency, recency of exposure, and affective relevance. We performed an exploratory study comparing the performance of five semantic dementia patients with that of 10 matched healthy controls on the recognition (familiarity judgment) and identification (biographic information recall) of personally familiar names vs. famous names. As expected, intergroup comparisons indicated a semantic breakdown in semantic dementia patients as compared with healthy controls. Moreover, unlike healthy controls, the semantic dementia patients recognized and identified personally familiar names better than they did famous names. This pattern of results suggests that direct personal experience indeed plays a specific role in the relative preservation of person-specific semantic meaning in semantic dementia. We discuss the role of direct personal experience on the preservation of semantic knowledge and the potential neurophysiological mechanisms underlying these processes. PMID:26635578

  18. Semantic Services for Wikipedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haofen; Penin, Thomas; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Qiaoling; Xue, Guirong; Yu, Yong

    Wikipedia, a killer application in Web 2.0, has embraced the power of collaborative editing to harness collective intelligence. It features many attractive characteristics, like entity-based link graph, abundant categorization and semi-structured layout, and can serve as an ideal data source to extract high quality and well-structured data. In this chapter, we first propose several solutions to extract knowledge from Wikipedia. We do not only consider information from the relational summaries of articles (infoboxes) but also semi-automatically extract it from the article text using the structured content available. Due to differences with information extraction from the Web, it is necessary to tackle new problems, like the lack of redundancy in Wikipedia that is dealt with by extending traditional machine learning algorithms to work with few labeled data. Furthermore, we also exploit the widespread categories as a complementary way to discover additional knowledge. Benefiting from both structured and textural information, we additionally provide a suggestion service for Wikipedia authoring. With the aim to facilitate semantic reuse, our proposal provides users with facilities such as link, categories and infobox content suggestions. The proposed enhancements can be applied to attract more contributors and lighten the burden of professional editors. Finally, we developed an enhanced search system, which can ease the process of exploiting Wikipedia. To provide a user-friendly interface, it extends the faceted search interface with relation navigation and let the user easily express his complex information needs in an interactive way. In order to achieve efficient query answering, it extends scalable IR engines to index and search both the textual and structured information with an integrated ranking support.

  19. Type-specific proactive interference in patients with semantic and phonological STM deficits.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lara; Olson, Andrew; Humphreys, Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Prior neuropsychological evidence suggests that semantic and phonological components of short-term memory (STM) are functionally and neurologically distinct. The current paper examines proactive interference (PI) from semantic and phonological information in two STM-impaired patients, DS (semantic STM deficit) and AK (phonological STM deficit). In Experiment 1 probe recognition tasks with open and closed sets of stimuli were used. Phonological PI was assessed using nonword items, and semantic and phonological PI was assessed using words. In Experiment 2 phonological and semantic PI was elicited by an item recognition probe test with stimuli that bore phonological and semantic relations to the probes. The data suggested heightened phonological PI for the semantic STM patient, and exaggerated effects of semantic PI in the phonological STM case. The findings are consistent with an account of extremely rapid decay of activated type-specific representations in cases of severely impaired phonological and semantic STM.

  20. Attention during natural vision warps semantic representation across the human brain.

    PubMed

    Çukur, Tolga; Nishimoto, Shinji; Huth, Alexander G; Gallant, Jack L

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about how attention changes the cortical representation of sensory information in humans. On the basis of neurophysiological evidence, we hypothesized that attention causes tuning changes to expand the representation of attended stimuli at the cost of unattended stimuli. To investigate this issue, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure how semantic representation changed during visual search for different object categories in natural movies. We found that many voxels across occipito-temporal and fronto-parietal cortex shifted their tuning toward the attended category. These tuning shifts expanded the representation of the attended category and of semantically related, but unattended, categories, and compressed the representation of categories that were semantically dissimilar to the target. Attentional warping of semantic representation occurred even when the attended category was not present in the movie; thus, the effect was not a target-detection artifact. These results suggest that attention dynamically alters visual representation to optimize processing of behaviorally relevant objects during natural vision.

  1. Anomia as a Marker of Distinct Semantic Memory Impairments in Alzheimer’s Disease and Semantic Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Jamie; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Antonucci, Sharon M.; Grossman, Murray

    2011-01-01

    Objective Many neurologically-constrained models of semantic memory have been informed by two primary temporal lobe pathologies: Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Semantic Dementia (SD). However, controversy persists regarding the nature of the semantic impairment associated with these patient populations. Some argue that AD presents as a disconnection syndrome in which linguistic impairment reflects difficulties in lexical or perceptual means of semantic access. In contrast, there is a wider consensus that SD reflects loss of core knowledge that underlies word and object meaning. Object naming provides a window into the integrity of semantic knowledge in these two populations. Method We examined naming accuracy, errors and the correlation of naming ability with neuropsychological measures (semantic ability, executive functioning, and working memory) in a large sample of patients with AD (n=36) and SD (n=21). Results Naming ability and naming errors differed between groups, as did neuropsychological predictors of naming ability. Despite a similar extent of baseline cognitive impairment, SD patients were more anomic than AD patients. Conclusions These results add to a growing body of literature supporting a dual impairment to semantic content and active semantic processing in AD, and confirm the fundamental deficit in semantic content in SD. We interpret these findings as supporting of a model of semantic memory premised upon dynamic interactivity between the process and content of conceptual knowledge. PMID:21443339

  2. Semantic Learning Modifies Perceptual Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisz, Jennifer J.; Shedden, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Face processing changes when a face is learned with personally relevant information. In a five-day learning paradigm, faces were presented with rich semantic stories that conveyed personal information about the faces. Event-related potentials were recorded before and after learning during a passive viewing task. When faces were novel, we observed…

  3. A Defense of Semantic Minimalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Su

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Minimalism is a position about the semantic content of declarative sentences, i.e., the content that is determined entirely by syntax. It is defined by the following two points: "Point 1": The semantic content is a complete/truth-conditional proposition. "Point 2": The semantic content is useful to a theory of…

  4. Semantic SenseLab: implementing the vision of the Semantic Web in neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Samwald, Matthias; Chen, Huajun; Ruttenberg, Alan; Lim, Ernest; Marenco, Luis; Miller, Perry; Shepherd, Gordon; Cheung, Kei-Hoi

    2011-01-01

    Summary Objective Integrative neuroscience research needs a scalable informatics framework that enables semantic integration of diverse types of neuroscience data. This paper describes the use of the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and other Semantic Web technologies for the representation and integration of molecular-level data provided by several of SenseLab suite of neuroscience databases. Methods Based on the original database structure, we semi-automatically translated the databases into OWL ontologies with manual addition of semantic enrichment. The SenseLab ontologies are extensively linked to other biomedical Semantic Web resources, including the Subcellular Anatomy Ontology, Brain Architecture Management System, the Gene Ontology, BIRNLex and UniProt. The SenseLab ontologies have also been mapped to the Basic Formal Ontology and Relation Ontology, which helps ease interoperability with many other existing and future biomedical ontologies for the Semantic Web. In addition, approaches to representing contradictory research statements are described. The SenseLab ontologies are designed for use on the Semantic Web that enables their integration into a growing collection of biomedical information resources. Conclusion We demonstrate that our approach can yield significant potential benefits and that the Semantic Web is rapidly becoming mature enough to realize its anticipated promises. The ontologies are available online at http://neuroweb.med.yale.edu/senselab/ PMID:20006477

  5. Multi-talker background and semantic priming effect

    PubMed Central

    Dekerle, Marie; Boulenger, Véronique; Hoen, Michel; Meunier, Fanny

    2014-01-01

    The reported studies have aimed to investigate whether informational masking in a multi-talker background relies on semantic interference between the background and target using an adapted semantic priming paradigm. In 3 experiments, participants were required to perform a lexical decision task on a target item embedded in backgrounds composed of 1–4 voices. These voices were Semantically Consistent (SC) voices (i.e., pronouncing words sharing semantic features with the target) or Semantically Inconsistent (SI) voices (i.e., pronouncing words semantically unrelated to each other and to the target). In the first experiment, backgrounds consisted of 1 or 2 SC voices. One and 2 SI voices were added in Experiments 2 and 3, respectively. The results showed a semantic priming effect only in the conditions where the number of SC voices was greater than the number of SI voices, suggesting that semantic priming depended on prime intelligibility and strategic processes. However, even if backgrounds were composed of 3 or 4 voices, reducing intelligibility, participants were able to recognize words from these backgrounds, although no semantic priming effect on the targets was observed. Overall this finding suggests that informational masking can occur at a semantic level if intelligibility is sufficient. Based on the Effortfulness Hypothesis, we also suggest that when there is an increased difficulty in extracting target signals (caused by a relatively high number of voices in the background), more cognitive resources were allocated to formal processes (i.e., acoustic and phonological), leading to a decrease in available resources for deeper semantic processing of background words, therefore preventing semantic priming from occurring. PMID:25400572

  6. Entropy, semantic relatedness and proximity.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Lance W; Sivley, Robert M

    2011-09-01

    Although word co-occurrences within a document have been demonstrated to be semantically useful, word interactions over a local range have been largely neglected by psychologists due to practical challenges. Shannon's (Bell Systems Technical Journal, 27, 379-423, 623-665, 1948) conceptualization of information theory suggests that these interactions should be useful for understanding communication. Computational advances make an examination of local word-word interactions possible for a large text corpus. We used Brants and Franz's (2006) dataset to generate conditional probabilities for 62,474 word pairs and entropy calculations for 9,917 words in Nelson, McEvoy, and Schreiber's (Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36, 402-407, 2004) free association norms. Semantic associativity correlated moderately with the probabilities and was stronger when the two words were not adjacent. The number of semantic associates for a word and the entropy of a word were also correlated. Finally, language entropy decreases from 11 bits for single words to 6 bits per word for four-word sequences. The probabilities and entropies discussed here are included in the supplemental materials for the article.

  7. The methodology of semantic analysis for extracting physical effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomenkova, M. A.; Kamaev, V. A.; Korobkin, D. M.; Fomenkov, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper represents new methodology of semantic analysis for physical effects extracting. This methodology is based on the Tuzov ontology that formally describes the Russian language. In this paper, semantic patterns were described to extract structural physical information in the form of physical effects. A new algorithm of text analysis was described.

  8. Lexical and Sublexical Semantic Preview Benefits in Chinese Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Ming; Zhou, Wei; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2012-01-01

    Semantic processing from parafoveal words is an elusive phenomenon in alphabetic languages, but it has been demonstrated only for a restricted set of noncompound Chinese characters. Using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm, this experiment examined whether parafoveal lexical and sublexical semantic information was extracted from compound…

  9. Semantic and Phonological Activation in First and Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hui-Wen

    2012-01-01

    No consensus has been reached on whether phonological information is activated in reading Chinese. Further, semantic activation has not been well-studied in the context of orthographic depth. To contribute to these issues, this dissertation investigated semantic and phonological activation in reading Chinese and English. This dissertation also…

  10. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified

    PubMed Central

    Ganis, Giorgio; Schendan, Haline E.

    2013-01-01

    Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT) try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a crime-related item (probe) by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) between this item and comparison items (irrelevants). Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as “memory detection,” little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addresses the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth) and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study). Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive complex (LPC) than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. These findings show that the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research. PMID:23355816

  11. Adventures in Semantic Publishing: Exemplar Semantic Enhancements of a Research Article

    PubMed Central

    Shotton, David; Portwin, Katie; Klyne, Graham; Miles, Alistair

    2009-01-01

    Scientific innovation depends on finding, integrating, and re-using the products of previous research. Here we explore how recent developments in Web technology, particularly those related to the publication of data and metadata, might assist that process by providing semantic enhancements to journal articles within the mainstream process of scholarly journal publishing. We exemplify this by describing semantic enhancements we have made to a recent biomedical research article taken from PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, providing enrichment to its content and increased access to datasets within it. These semantic enhancements include provision of live DOIs and hyperlinks; semantic markup of textual terms, with links to relevant third-party information resources; interactive figures; a re-orderable reference list; a document summary containing a study summary, a tag cloud, and a citation analysis; and two novel types of semantic enrichment: the first, a Supporting Claims Tooltip to permit “Citations in Context”, and the second, Tag Trees that bring together semantically related terms. In addition, we have published downloadable spreadsheets containing data from within tables and figures, have enriched these with provenance information, and have demonstrated various types of data fusion (mashups) with results from other research articles and with Google Maps. We have also published machine-readable RDF metadata both about the article and about the references it cites, for which we developed a Citation Typing Ontology, CiTO (http://purl.org/net/cito/). The enhanced article, which is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000228.x001, presents a compelling existence proof of the possibilities of semantic publication. We hope the showcase of examples and ideas it contains, described in this paper, will excite the imaginations of researchers and publishers, stimulating them to explore the possibilities of semantic publishing for their own research

  12. Adventures in semantic publishing: exemplar semantic enhancements of a research article.

    PubMed

    Shotton, David; Portwin, Katie; Klyne, Graham; Miles, Alistair

    2009-04-01

    Scientific innovation depends on finding, integrating, and re-using the products of previous research. Here we explore how recent developments in Web technology, particularly those related to the publication of data and metadata, might assist that process by providing semantic enhancements to journal articles within the mainstream process of scholarly journal publishing. We exemplify this by describing semantic enhancements we have made to a recent biomedical research article taken from PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, providing enrichment to its content and increased access to datasets within it. These semantic enhancements include provision of live DOIs and hyperlinks; semantic markup of textual terms, with links to relevant third-party information resources; interactive figures; a re-orderable reference list; a document summary containing a study summary, a tag cloud, and a citation analysis; and two novel types of semantic enrichment: the first, a Supporting Claims Tooltip to permit "Citations in Context", and the second, Tag Trees that bring together semantically related terms. In addition, we have published downloadable spreadsheets containing data from within tables and figures, have enriched these with provenance information, and have demonstrated various types of data fusion (mashups) with results from other research articles and with Google Maps. We have also published machine-readable RDF metadata both about the article and about the references it cites, for which we developed a Citation Typing Ontology, CiTO (http://purl.org/net/cito/). The enhanced article, which is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000228.x001, presents a compelling existence proof of the possibilities of semantic publication. We hope the showcase of examples and ideas it contains, described in this paper, will excite the imaginations of researchers and publishers, stimulating them to explore the possibilities of semantic publishing for their own research articles

  13. Enhanced semantic interpretability by healthcare standards profiling.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Diego M; Blobel, Bernd G M E

    2008-01-01

    Several current healthcare standards support semantic interoperability. These standards are far to be completely adopted in health information system development, however. The objective of this paper is to provide a method and necessary tooling for reusing healthcare standards by exploiting the extensibility mechanisms of UML, by that way supporting the development of semantically interoperable systems and components. The method identifies first the models and tasks in the software development process in which health care standards can be reused. Then, the selected standard is formalized as a UML profile. Finally that profile is applied to system models, annotating them with the standard semantics. The supporting tools are Eclipse-based UML modeling tools. The method is integrated into a comprehensive framework for health information systems development. The feasibility of the approach is exemplified by a scenario reusing HL7 RIM and DIMs specifications. The approach presented is also applicable for harmonizing different standard specifications.

  14. Remote semantic memory is impoverished in hippocampal amnesia.

    PubMed

    Klooster, Nathaniel B; Duff, Melissa C

    2015-12-01

    The necessity of the hippocampus for acquiring new semantic concepts is a topic of considerable debate. However, it is generally accepted that any role the hippocampus plays in semantic memory is time limited and that previously acquired information becomes independent of the hippocampus over time. This view, along with intact naming and word-definition matching performance in amnesia, has led to the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in patients with hippocampal amnesia. Motivated by perspectives of word learning as a protracted process where additional features and senses of a word are added over time, and by recent discoveries about the time course of hippocampal contributions to on-line relational processing, reconsolidation, and the flexible integration of information, we revisit the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in amnesia. Using measures of semantic richness and vocabulary depth from psycholinguistics and first and second language-learning studies, we examined how much information is associated with previously acquired, highly familiar words in a group of patients with bilateral hippocampal damage and amnesia. Relative to healthy demographically matched comparison participants and a group of brain-damaged comparison participants, the patients with hippocampal amnesia performed significantly worse on both productive and receptive measures of vocabulary depth and semantic richness. These findings suggest that remote semantic memory is impoverished in patients with hippocampal amnesia and that the hippocampus may play a role in the maintenance and updating of semantic memory beyond its initial acquisition.

  15. Remote semantic memory is impoverished in hippocampal amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Klooster, Nathaniel B.; Duff, Melissa C.

    2015-01-01

    The necessity of the hippocampus for acquiring new semantic concepts is a topic of considerable debate. However, it is generally accepted that any role the hippocampus plays in semantic memory is time limited and that previously acquired information becomes independent of the hippocampus over time. This view, along with intact naming and word-definition matching performance in amnesia, has led to the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in patients with hippocampal amnesia. Motivated by perspectives of word learning as a protracted process where additional features and senses of a word are added over time, and by recent discoveries about the time course of hippocampal contributions to on-line relational processing, reconsolidation, and the flexible integration of information, we revisit the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in amnesia. Using measures of semantic richness and vocabulary depth from psycholinguistics and first and second language-learning studies, we examined how much information is associated with previously acquired, highly familiar words in a group of patients with bilateral hippocampal damage and amnesia. Relative to healthy demographically matched comparison participants and a group of brain-damaged comparison participants, the patients with hippocampal amnesia performed significantly worse on both productive and receptive measures of vocabulary depth and semantic richness. These findings suggest that remote semantic memory is impoverished in patients with hippocampal amnesia and that the hippocampus may play a role in the maintenance and updating of semantic memory beyond its initial acquisition. PMID:26474741

  16. Contextual Semantic: A Context-aware Approach for Semantic Web Based Data Extraction from Scientific Articles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumlander, Deniss

    The paper explores whether the semantic context is good enough to cope with ever increasing number of available resources in different repositories including the web. Here a problem of identifying authors of scientific papers is used as an example. A set of problem still do arise in case we apply exclusively the semantic context. Fortunately contextual semantic can be used to derive more information required to separate ambiguous cases. Semantic tags, well-structured documents and available databases of articles do provide a possibility to be more context-aware. Under the context we use co-authors names, references and headers to extract key-words and identify the subject. The real complexity of the considering problem comes from the dynamical behaviour of authors as they can change the topic of the research in the next paper. As the final judge the paper proposes applying words usage patterns analysis. Final the contextual intelligence engine is described.

  17. Semantic-gap-oriented active learning for multilabel image annotation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jinhui; Zha, Zheng-Jun; Tao, Dacheng; Chua, Tat-Seng

    2012-04-01

    User interaction is an effective way to handle the semantic gap problem in image annotation. To minimize user effort in the interactions, many active learning methods were proposed. These methods treat the semantic concepts individually or correlatively. However, they still neglect the key motivation of user feedback: to tackle the semantic gap. The size of the semantic gap of each concept is an important factor that affects the performance of user feedback. User should pay more efforts to the concepts with large semantic gaps, and vice versa. In this paper, we propose a semantic-gap-oriented active learning method, which incorporates the semantic gap measure into the information-minimization-based sample selection strategy. The basic learning model used in the active learning framework is an extended multilabel version of the sparse-graph-based semisupervised learning method that incorporates the semantic correlation. Extensive experiments conducted on two benchmark image data sets demonstrated the importance of bringing the semantic gap measure into the active learning process.

  18. Somatotopic Semantic Priming and Prediction in the Motor System

    PubMed Central

    Grisoni, Luigi; Dreyer, Felix R.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-01-01

    The recognition of action-related sounds and words activates motor regions, reflecting the semantic grounding of these symbols in action information; in addition, motor cortex exerts causal influences on sound perception and language comprehension. However, proponents of classic symbolic theories still dispute the role of modality-preferential systems such as the motor cortex in the semantic processing of meaningful stimuli. To clarify whether the motor system carries semantic processes, we investigated neurophysiological indexes of semantic relationships between action-related sounds and words. Event-related potentials revealed that action-related words produced significantly larger stimulus-evoked (Mismatch Negativity-like) and predictive brain responses (Readiness Potentials) when presented in body-part-incongruent sound contexts (e.g., “kiss” in footstep sound context; “kick” in whistle context) than in body-part-congruent contexts, a pattern reminiscent of neurophysiological correlates of semantic priming. Cortical generators of the semantic relatedness effect were localized in areas traditionally associated with semantic memory, including left inferior frontal cortex and temporal pole, and, crucially, in motor areas, where body-part congruency of action sound–word relationships was indexed by a somatotopic pattern of activation. As our results show neurophysiological manifestations of action-semantic priming in the motor cortex, they prove semantic processing in the motor system and thus in a modality-preferential system of the human brain. PMID:26908635

  19. Somatotopic Semantic Priming and Prediction in the Motor System.

    PubMed

    Grisoni, Luigi; Dreyer, Felix R; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-05-01

    The recognition of action-related sounds and words activates motor regions, reflecting the semantic grounding of these symbols in action information; in addition, motor cortex exerts causal influences on sound perception and language comprehension. However, proponents of classic symbolic theories still dispute the role of modality-preferential systems such as the motor cortex in the semantic processing of meaningful stimuli. To clarify whether the motor system carries semantic processes, we investigated neurophysiological indexes of semantic relationships between action-related sounds and words. Event-related potentials revealed that action-related words produced significantly larger stimulus-evoked (Mismatch Negativity-like) and predictive brain responses (Readiness Potentials) when presented in body-part-incongruent sound contexts (e.g., "kiss" in footstep sound context; "kick" in whistle context) than in body-part-congruent contexts, a pattern reminiscent of neurophysiological correlates of semantic priming. Cortical generators of the semantic relatedness effect were localized in areas traditionally associated with semantic memory, including left inferior frontal cortex and temporal pole, and, crucially, in motor areas, where body-part congruency of action sound-word relationships was indexed by a somatotopic pattern of activation. As our results show neurophysiological manifestations of action-semantic priming in the motor cortex, they prove semantic processing in the motor system and thus in a modality-preferential system of the human brain.

  20. Semantic Visualization Mapping for Illustrative Volume Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautek, P.; Bruckner, S.; Gröller, M. E.

    2009-04-01

    Measured and simulated data is usually divided into several meaningful intervals that are relevant to the domain expert. Examples from medicine are the specific semantics for different measuring modalities. A PET scan of a brain measures brain activity. It shows regions of homogeneous activity that are labeled by experts with semantic values such as low brain activity or high brain activity. Diffusion MRI data provides information about the healthiness of tissue regions and is classified by experts with semantic values like healthy, diseased, or necrotic. Medical CT data encode the measured density values in Hounsfield units. Specific intervals of the Hounsfield scale refer to different tissue types like air, soft tissue, bone, contrast enhanced vessels, etc. However, the semantic parameters from expert domains are not necessarily used to describe a mapping between the volume attributes and visual appearance. Volume rendering techniques commonly map attributes of the underlying data on visual appearance via a transfer function. Transfer functions are a powerful tool to achieve various visualization mappings. The specification of transfer functions is a complex task. The user has to have expert knowledge about the underlying rendering technique to achieve the desired results. Especially the specification of higher-dimensional transfer functions is challenging. Common user interfaces provide methods to brush in two dimensions. While brushing is an intuitive method to select regions of interest or to specify features, user interfaces for higher-dimensions are more challenging and often non-intuitive. For seismic data the situation is even more difficult since the data typically consists of many more volumetric attributes than for example medical datasets. Scientific illustrators are experts in conveying information by visual means. They also make use of semantics in a natural way describing visual abstractions such as shading, tone, rendering style, saturation

  1. Controlled vocabularies and semantics in systems biology.

    PubMed

    Courtot, Mélanie; Juty, Nick; Knüpfer, Christian; Waltemath, Dagmar; Zhukova, Anna; Dräger, Andreas; Dumontier, Michel; Finney, Andrew; Golebiewski, Martin; Hastings, Janna; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah; Kell, Douglas B; Kerrien, Samuel; Lawson, James; Lister, Allyson; Lu, James; Machne, Rainer; Mendes, Pedro; Pocock, Matthew; Rodriguez, Nicolas; Villeger, Alice; Wilkinson, Darren J; Wimalaratne, Sarala; Laibe, Camille; Hucka, Michael; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2011-10-25

    The use of computational modeling to describe and analyze biological systems is at the heart of systems biology. Model structures, simulation descriptions and numerical results can be encoded in structured formats, but there is an increasing need to provide an additional semantic layer. Semantic information adds meaning to components of structured descriptions to help identify and interpret them unambiguously. Ontologies are one of the tools frequently used for this purpose. We describe here three ontologies created specifically to address the needs of the systems biology community. The Systems Biology Ontology (SBO) provides semantic information about the model components. The Kinetic Simulation Algorithm Ontology (KiSAO) supplies information about existing algorithms available for the simulation of systems biology models, their characterization and interrelationships. The Terminology for the Description of Dynamics (TEDDY) categorizes dynamical features of the simulation results and general systems behavior. The provision of semantic information extends a model's longevity and facilitates its reuse. It provides useful insight into the biology of modeled processes, and may be used to make informed decisions on subsequent simulation experiments.

  2. Relations between Short-term Memory Deficits, Semantic Processing, and Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Corinne M.; Martin, Randi C.; Martin, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous research has suggested separable short-term memory (STM) buffers for the maintenance of phonological and lexical-semantic information, as some patients with aphasia show better ability to retain semantic than phonological information and others show the reverse. Recently, researchers have proposed that deficits to the maintenance of semantic information in STM are related to executive control abilities. Aims The present study investigated the relationship of executive function abilities with semantic and phonological short-term memory (STM) and semantic processing in such patients, as some previous research has suggested that semantic STM deficits and semantic processing abilities are critically related to specific or general executive function deficits. Method and Procedures 20 patients with aphasia and STM deficits were tested on measures of short-term retention, semantic processing, and both complex and simple executive function tasks. Outcome and Results In correlational analyses, we found no relation between semantic STM and performance on simple or complex executive function tasks. In contrast, phonological STM was related to executive function performance in tasks that had a verbal component, suggesting that performance in some executive function tasks depends on maintaining or rehearsing phonological codes. Although semantic STM was not related to executive function ability, performance on semantic processing tasks was related to executive function, perhaps due to similar executive task requirements in both semantic processing and executive function tasks. Conclusions Implications for treatment and interpretations of executive deficits are discussed. PMID:22736889

  3. Expectation and expectoration: Information manipulation alters spitting volume, a common proxy for salivary flow.

    PubMed

    Running, Cordelia A; Hayes, John E

    2016-12-01

    Saliva is becoming an increasingly useful research material across multiple fields of inquiry, including biomedical, dental, psychological, nutritional, and food choice research. However, both the flow rate and protein composition of stimulated saliva differ as a function of the collection method. We hypothesized that the context in which a stimulus is presented to participants may alter salivation via top down cognitive effects and/or behavioral changes (i.e., spitting efficiency). We presented participants with one stimulus (commercially available green tea) in two distinct contexts, once where the tea was described as a food item ("tea") and once where it was described as a disgusting non-food item ("rabbit hair extract"). Saliva and the expectorated stimulus were collected following 15s of oral exposure in a crossover design with the identical stimulus presented in both contexts; saliva was also collected for 5min after stimulation while chewing a piece of wax. Participants also completed validated personality instruments to measure food involvement, sensation seeking, sensitivity to reward, and sensitivity to punishment. Our data suggest participants spat out more sample when told they received the 'non-food' stimulus compared to the 'food' stimulus, particularly when they were given the non-food stimulus first. Further, individuals who were higher in sensation seeking spat out more sample during the 'food' condition compared to individuals with lower sensation seeking scores, but this difference was absent in the 'non-food' condition. While consistent with a top down cognitive effect on salivary flow, we believe a greater motivation to spit out the 'non-food' stimulus is a more likely explanation. In either case, it is clear the context in which a stimulus is presented alters how much sample/saliva is expectorated, suggesting context needs to be carefully considered in future work on salivary flow.

  4. Semantic categorization precedes affective evaluation of visual scenes.

    PubMed

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyönä, Jukka; Calvo, Manuel G

    2010-05-01

    We compared the primacy of affective versus semantic categorization by using forced-choice saccadic and manual response tasks. Participants viewed paired emotional and neutral scenes involving humans or animals flashed rapidly in extrafoveal vision. Participants were instructed to categorize the targets by saccading toward the location occupied by a predefined target scene. The affective task involved saccading toward an unpleasant or pleasant scene, and the semantic task involved saccading toward a scene containing an animal. Both affective and semantic target scenes could be reliably categorized in less than 220 ms, but semantic categorization was always faster than affective categorization. This finding was replicated with singly, foveally presented scenes and manual responses. In comparison with foveal presentation, extrafoveal presentation slowed down the categorization of affective targets more than that of semantic targets. Exposure threshold for accurate categorization was lower for semantic information than for affective information. Superordinate-, basic-, and subordinate-level semantic categorizations were faster than affective evaluation. We conclude that affective analysis of scenes cannot bypass object recognition. Rather, semantic categorization precedes and is required for affective evaluation.

  5. User-centered semantic harmonization: a case study.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chunhua; Gennari, John H; Fridsma, Douglas B

    2007-06-01

    Semantic interoperability is one of the great challenges in biomedical informatics. Methods such as ontology alignment or use of metadata neither scale nor fundamentally alleviate semantic heterogeneity among information sources. In the context of the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid program, the Biomedical Research Integrated Domain Group (BRIDG) has been making an ambitious effort to harmonize existing information models for clinical research from a variety of sources and modeling agreed-upon semantics shared by the technical harmonization committee and the developers of these models. This paper provides some observations on this user-centered semantic harmonization effort and its inherent technical and social challenges. The authors also compare BRIDG with related efforts to achieve semantic interoperability in healthcare, including UMLS, InterMed, the Semantic Web, and the Ontology for Biomedical Investigations initiative. The BRIDG project demonstrates the feasibility of user-centered collaborative domain modeling as an approach to semantic harmonization, but also highlights a number of technology gaps in support of collaborative semantic harmonization that remain to be filled.

  6. A Semantic Constraint on Syntactic Parsing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Stephen; Coker, Pamela L.

    This research examines how semantic information influences syntactic parsing decisions during sentence processing. In the first experiment, subjects were presented lexical strings having syntactically identical surface structures but with two possible underlying structures: "The children taught by the Berlitz method," and "The…

  7. Hybrid Filtering in Semantic Query Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Hanjo

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation presents a hybrid filtering method and a case-based reasoning framework for enhancing the effectiveness of Web search. Web search may not reflect user needs, intent, context, and preferences, because today's keyword-based search is lacking semantic information to capture the user's context and intent in posing the search query.…

  8. Noetica: A Tool for Semantic Data Modelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhill, Stewart; Venkatesh, Svetha

    1998-01-01

    Discusses Noetica, a tool that uses a semantic network for structuring knowledge about concepts and the relationships between them. It differs from typical information systems in that the knowledge it represents is abstract, highly connected, and includes metaknowledge. Class hierarchy, visualization, and query tools are also discussed.…

  9. Natural speech reveals the semantic maps that tile human cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    Huth, Alexander G.; de Heer, Wendy A.; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Theunissen, Frédéric E.; Gallant, Jack L.

    2016-01-01

    The meaning of language is represented in regions of the cerebral cortex collectively known as the “semantic system”. However, little of the semantic system has been mapped comprehensively, and the semantic selectivity of most regions is unknown. Here we systematically map semantic selectivity across the cortex using voxel-wise modeling of fMRI data collected while subjects listened to hours of narrative stories. We show that the semantic system is organized into intricate patterns that appear consistent across individuals. We then use a novel generative model to create a detailed semantic atlas. Our results suggest that most areas within the semantic system represent information about specific semantic domains, or groups of related concepts, and our atlas shows which domains are represented in each area. This study demonstrates that data-driven methods—commonplace in studies of human neuroanatomy and functional connectivity—provide a powerful and efficient means for mapping functional representations in the brain. PMID:27121839

  10. Natural speech reveals the semantic maps that tile human cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Huth, Alexander G; de Heer, Wendy A; Griffiths, Thomas L; Theunissen, Frédéric E; Gallant, Jack L

    2016-04-28

    The meaning of language is represented in regions of the cerebral cortex collectively known as the 'semantic system'. However, little of the semantic system has been mapped comprehensively, and the semantic selectivity of most regions is unknown. Here we systematically map semantic selectivity across the cortex using voxel-wise modelling of functional MRI (fMRI) data collected while subjects listened to hours of narrative stories. We show that the semantic system is organized into intricate patterns that seem to be consistent across individuals. We then use a novel generative model to create a detailed semantic atlas. Our results suggest that most areas within the semantic system represent information about specific semantic domains, or groups of related concepts, and our atlas shows which domains are represented in each area. This study demonstrates that data-driven methods--commonplace in studies of human neuroanatomy and functional connectivity--provide a powerful and efficient means for mapping functional representations in the brain.

  11. Empirical Distributional Semantics: Methods and Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Trevor; Widdows, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, a range of methods have been developed that are able to learn human-like estimates of the semantic relatedness between terms from the way in which these terms are distributed in a corpus of unannotated natural language text. These methods have also been evaluated in a number of applications in the cognitive science, computational linguistics and the information retrieval literatures. In this paper, we review the available methodologies for derivation of semantic relatedness from free text, as well as their evaluation in a variety of biomedical and other applications. Recent methodological developments, and their applicability to several existing applications are also discussed. PMID:19232399

  12. Semantic segmentation of multispectral overhead imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Lakshman; Pope, Paul A.; Sentz, Kari

    2016-05-01

    Land cover classification uses multispectral pixel information to separate image regions into categories. Image segmentation seeks to separate image regions into objects and features based on spectral and spatial image properties. However, making sense of complex imagery typically requires identifying image regions that are often a heterogeneous mixture of categories and features that constitute functional semantic units such as industrial, residential, or commercial areas. This requires leveraging both spectral classification and spatial feature extraction synergistically to synthesize such complex but meaningful image units. We present an efficient graphical model for extracting such semantically cohesive regions. We employ an initial hierarchical segmentation of images into features represented as nodes of an attributed graph that represents feature properties as well as their adjacency relations with other features. This provides a framework to group spectrally and structurally diverse features, which are nevertheless semantically cohesive, based on user-driven identifications of features and their contextual relationships in the graph. We propose an efficient method to construct, store, and search an augmented graph that captures nonadjacent vicinity relationships of features. This graph can be used to query for semantic notional units consisting of ontologically diverse features by constraining it to specific query node types and their indicated/desired spatial interaction characteristics. User interaction with, and labeling of, initially segmented and categorized image feature graph can then be used to learn feature (node) and regional (subgraph) ontologies as constraints, and to identify other similar semantic units as connected components of the constraint-pruned augmented graph of a query image.

  13. Developmental changes in semantic knowledge organization.

    PubMed

    Unger, Layla; Fisher, Anna V; Nugent, Rebecca; Ventura, Samuel L; MacLellan, Christopher J

    2016-06-01

    Semantic knowledge is a crucial aspect of higher cognition. Theoretical accounts of semantic knowledge posit that relations between concepts provide organizational structure that converts information known about individual entities into an interconnected network in which concepts can be linked by many types of relations (e.g., taxonomic, thematic). The goal of the current research was to address several methodological shortcomings of prior studies on the development of semantic organization, by using a variant of the spatial arrangement method (SpAM) to collect graded judgments of relatedness for a set of entities that can be cross-classified into either taxonomic or thematic groups. In Experiment 1, we used the cross-classify SpAM (CC-SpAM) to obtain graded relatedness judgments and derive a representation of developmental changes in the organization of semantic knowledge. In Experiment 2, we validated the findings of Experiment 1 by using a more traditional pairwise similarity judgment paradigm. Across both experiments, we found that an early recognition of links between entities that are both taxonomically and thematically related preceded an increasing recognition of links based on a single type of relation. The utility of CC-SpAM for evaluating theoretical accounts of semantic development is discussed.

  14. SITRUS: Semantic Infrastructure for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bispo, Kalil A.; Rosa, Nelson S.; Cunha, Paulo R. F.

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are made up of nodes with limited resources, such as processing, bandwidth, memory and, most importantly, energy. For this reason, it is essential that WSNs always work to reduce the power consumption as much as possible in order to maximize its lifetime. In this context, this paper presents SITRUS (semantic infrastructure for wireless sensor networks), which aims to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes using ontologies. SITRUS consists of two major parts: a message-oriented middleware responsible for both an oriented message communication service and a reconfiguration service; and a semantic information processing module whose purpose is to generate a semantic database that provides the basis to decide whether a WSN node needs to be reconfigurated or not. In order to evaluate the proposed solution, we carried out an experimental evaluation to assess the power consumption and memory usage of WSN applications built atop SITRUS. PMID:26528974

  15. SITRUS: Semantic Infrastructure for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Bispo, Kalil A; Rosa, Nelson S; Cunha, Paulo R F

    2015-10-29

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are made up of nodes with limited resources, such as processing, bandwidth, memory and, most importantly, energy. For this reason, it is essential that WSNs always work to reduce the power consumption as much as possible in order to maximize its lifetime. In this context, this paper presents SITRUS (semantic infrastructure for wireless sensor networks), which aims to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes using ontologies. SITRUS consists of two major parts: a message-oriented middleware responsible for both an oriented message communication service and a reconfiguration service; and a semantic information processing module whose purpose is to generate a semantic database that provides the basis to decide whether a WSN node needs to be reconfigurated or not. In order to evaluate the proposed solution, we carried out an experimental evaluation to assess the power consumption and memory usage of WSN applications built atop SITRUS.

  16. The semantic richness of abstract concepts

    PubMed Central

    Recchia, Gabriel; Jones, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    We contrasted the predictive power of three measures of semantic richness—number of features (NFs), contextual dispersion (CD), and a novel measure of number of semantic neighbors (NSN)—for a large set of concrete and abstract concepts on lexical decision and naming tasks. NSN (but not NF) facilitated processing for abstract concepts, while NF (but not NSN) facilitated processing for the most concrete concepts, consistent with claims that linguistic information is more relevant for abstract concepts in early processing. Additionally, converging evidence from two datasets suggests that when NSN and CD are controlled for, the features that most facilitate processing are those associated with a concept's physical characteristics and real-world contexts. These results suggest that rich linguistic contexts (many semantic neighbors) facilitate early activation of abstract concepts, whereas concrete concepts benefit more from rich physical contexts (many associated objects and locations). PMID:23205008

  17. SemantEco: a semantically powered modular architecture for integrating distributed environmental and ecological data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, Evan W.; Seyed, Patrice; Wang, Ping; Fu, Linyun; Dein, F. Joshua; Bristol, R. Sky; McGuinness, Deborah L.

    2014-01-01

    We aim to inform the development of decision support tools for resource managers who need to examine large complex ecosystems and make recommendations in the face of many tradeoffs and conflicting drivers. We take a semantic technology approach, leveraging background ontologies and the growing body of linked open data. In previous work, we designed and implemented a semantically enabled environmental monitoring framework called SemantEco and used it to build a water quality portal named SemantAqua. Our previous system included foundational ontologies to support environmental regulation violations and relevant human health effects. In this work, we discuss SemantEco’s new architecture that supports modular extensions and makes it easier to support additional domains. Our enhanced framework includes foundational ontologies to support modeling of wildlife observation and wildlife health impacts, thereby enabling deeper and broader support for more holistically examining the effects of environmental pollution on ecosystems. We conclude with a discussion of how, through the application of semantic technologies, modular designs will make it easier for resource managers to bring in new sources of data to support more complex use cases.

  18. {Semantic metadata application for information resources systematization in water spectroscopy} A.Fazliev (1), A.Privezentsev (1), J.Tennyson (2) (1) Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS, Tomsk, Russia, (2) University College London, London, UK (faz@iao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazliev, A.

    2009-04-01

    The information and knowledge layers of information-computational system for water spectroscopy are described. Semantic metadata for all the tasks of domain information model that are the basis of the layers have been studied. The principle of semantic metadata determination and mechanisms of the usage during information systematization in molecular spectroscopy has been revealed. The software developed for the work with semantic metadata is described as well. Formation of domain model in the framework of Semantic Web is based on the use of explicit specification of its conceptualization or, in other words, its ontologies. Formation of conceptualization for molecular spectroscopy was described in Refs. 1, 2. In these works two chains of task are selected for zeroth approximation for knowledge domain description. These are direct tasks chain and inverse tasks chain. Solution schemes of these tasks defined approximation of data layer for knowledge domain conceptualization. Spectroscopy tasks solutions properties lead to a step-by-step extension of molecular spectroscopy conceptualization. Information layer of information system corresponds to this extension. An advantage of molecular spectroscopy model designed in a form of tasks chain is actualized in the fact that one can explicitly define data and metadata at each step of solution of these molecular spectroscopy chain tasks. Metadata structure (tasks solutions properties) in knowledge domain also has form of a chain in which input data and metadata of the previous task become metadata of the following tasks. The term metadata is used in its narrow sense: metadata are the properties of spectroscopy tasks solutions. Semantic metadata represented with the help of OWL 3 are formed automatically and they are individuals of classes (A-box). Unification of T-box and A-box is an ontology that can be processed with the help of inference engine. In this work we analyzed the formation of individuals of molecular spectroscopy

  19. A logical approach to semantic interoperability in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Bird, Linda; Brooks, Colleen; Cheong, Yu Chye; Tun, Nwe Ni

    2011-01-01

    Singapore is in the process of rolling out a number of national e-health initiatives, including the National Electronic Health Record (NEHR). A critical enabler in the journey towards semantic interoperability is a Logical Information Model (LIM) that harmonises the semantics of the information structure with the terminology. The Singapore LIM uses a combination of international standards, including ISO 13606-1 (a reference model for electronic health record communication), ISO 21090 (healthcare datatypes), and SNOMED CT (healthcare terminology). The LIM is accompanied by a logical design approach, used to generate interoperability artifacts, and incorporates mechanisms for achieving unidirectional and bidirectional semantic interoperability.

  20. c-Mantic: A Cytoscape plugin for Semantic Web

    EPA Science Inventory

    Semantic Web tools can streamline the process of storing, analyzing and sharing biological information. Visualization is important for communicating such complex biological relationships. Here we use the flexibility and speed of the Cytoscape platform to interactively visualize s...

  1. A choice-semantical approach to theoretical truth.

    PubMed

    Andreas, Holger; Schiemer, Georg

    2016-08-01

    A central topic in the logic of science concerns the proper semantic analysis of theoretical sentences, that is sentences containing theoretical terms. In this paper, we present a novel choice-semantical account of theoretical truth based on the epsilon-term definition of theoretical terms. Specifically, we develop two ways of specifying the truth conditions of theoretical statements in a choice functional semantics, each giving rise to a corresponding logic of such statements. In order to investigate the inferential strength of these logical systems, we provide a translation of each truth definition into a modal definition of theoretical truth. Based on this, we show that the stronger notion of choice-semantical truth captures more adequately our informal semantic understanding of scientific statements.

  2. Frame semantics-based study of verbs across medical genres.

    PubMed

    Wandji Tchami, Ornella; L'Homme, Marie-Claude; Grabar, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    The field of medicine gathers actors with different levels of expertise. These actors must interact, although their mutual understanding is not always completely successful. We propose to study corpora (with high and low levels of expertise) in order to observe their specificities. More specifically, we perform a contrastive analysis of verbs, and of the syntactic and semantic features of their participants, based on the Frame Semantics framework and the methodology implemented in FrameNet. In order to achieve this, we use an existing medical terminology to automatically annotate the semantics classes of participants of verbs, which we assume are indicative of semantics roles. Our results indicate that verbs show similar or very close semantics in some contexts, while in other contexts they behave differently. These results are important for studying the understanding of medical information by patients and for improving the communication between patients and medical doctors.

  3. Semantic Search of Web Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses semantic search of Web services using natural language processing. We first survey various existing approaches, focusing on the fact that the expensive costs of current semantic annotation frameworks result in limited use of semantic search for large scale applications. We then propose a vector space model based service…

  4. Nonthermal sensory input and altered human thermoregulation: effects of visual information depicting hot or cold environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takakura, Jun'ya; Nishimura, Takayuki; Choi, Damee; Egashira, Yuka; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2015-10-01

    A recent study showed that thermoregulatory-like cardiovascular responses can be invoked simply by exposure to visual information, even though the thermal environments are neutral and unchanged. However, it was not clear how such responses affect actual human body temperature regulation. We investigated whether such visually invoked physiological responses can substantively affect human core body temperature in a thermally challenging cold environment. Participants comprised 13 graduate or undergraduate students viewing different video images containing hot, cold, or no scenery, while room temperature was gradually lowered from 28 to 16 °C over 80 min. Rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, core to skin temperature gradient, and oxygen consumption were measured during the experiment. Rectal temperature was significantly lower when hot video images were presented compared to when control video images were presented. Oxygen consumption was comparable among all video images, but core to skin temperature gradient was significantly lower when hot video images were presented. This result suggests that visual information, even in the absence of thermal energy, can affect human thermodynamics and core body temperature.

  5. Nonthermal sensory input and altered human thermoregulation: effects of visual information depicting hot or cold environments.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Jun'ya; Nishimura, Takayuki; Choi, Damee; Egashira, Yuka; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2015-10-01

    A recent study showed that thermoregulatory-like cardiovascular responses can be invoked simply by exposure to visual information, even though the thermal environments are neutral and unchanged. However, it was not clear how such responses affect actual human body temperature regulation. We investigated whether such visually invoked physiological responses can substantively affect human core body temperature in a thermally challenging cold environment. Participants comprised 13 graduate or undergraduate students viewing different video images containing hot, cold, or no scenery, while room temperature was gradually lowered from 28 to 16 °C over 80 min. Rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, core to skin temperature gradient, and oxygen consumption were measured during the experiment. Rectal temperature was significantly lower when hot video images were presented compared to when control video images were presented. Oxygen consumption was comparable among all video images, but core to skin temperature gradient was significantly lower when hot video images were presented. This result suggests that visual information, even in the absence of thermal energy, can affect human thermodynamics and core body temperature.

  6. Semantic Processing Impairment in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Jaimes-Bautista, Amanda G.; Rodríguez-Camacho, Mario; Martínez-Juárez, Iris E.; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Yaneth

    2015-01-01

    The impairment in episodic memory system is the best-known cognitive deficit in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Recent studies have shown evidence of semantic disorders, but they have been less studied than episodic memory. The semantic dysfunction in TLE has various cognitive manifestations, such as the presence of language disorders characterized by defects in naming, verbal fluency, or remote semantic information retrieval, which affects the ability of patients to interact with their surroundings. This paper is a review of recent research about the consequences of TLE on semantic processing, considering neuropsychological, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging findings, as well as the functional role of the hippocampus in semantic processing. The evidence from these studies shows disturbance of semantic memory in patients with TLE and supports the theory of declarative memory of the hippocampus. Functional neuroimaging studies show an inefficient compensatory functional reorganization of semantic networks and electrophysiological studies show a lack of N400 effect that could indicate that the deficit in semantic processing in patients with TLE could be due to a failure in the mechanisms of automatic access to lexicon. PMID:26257956

  7. Knowledge of famous faces and names in semantic dementia.

    PubMed

    Snowden, J S; Thompson, J C; Neary, D

    2004-04-01

    Semantic dementia is a focal clinical syndrome, resulting from degeneration of the temporal lobes and characterized by progressive loss of conceptual knowledge about the world. Because of the highly circumscribed nature of the disorder it is a natural model for improving understanding of how semantic information is cerebrally represented. There is currently a lack of consensus. One view proposes the existence of modality specific meaning systems, in which visual and verbal information are stored separately. An opposing view assumes that information is represented by a unitary, amodal semantic system. The present study explores these alternatives in an examination of famous face and name knowledge in 15 patients with semantic dementia. The study of face recognition in patients with an established semantic disorder also permits an examination of the relationship between semantic dementia and the focal clinical syndrome of progressive prosopagnosia. The semantic dementia patients were profoundly impaired on both face and name identification and familiarity judgement tasks compared with amnesic patients with Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls. However, whereas the two reference groups performed better for names than faces, the semantic group showed the opposite pattern. This overall profile masked individual differences: semantic dementia patients with predominant left temporal lobe atrophy showed better recognition of names than faces, whereas patients with right temporal predominance showed the reverse pattern. Relative superiority for names or faces was mirrored by corresponding superiority for words or pictures on a standard semantic test. We interpret the findings as inconsistent with a unitary, amodal model of semantic memory. However, the data are not wholly compatible with a strict multiple system account. The data favour a model of semantic memory comprising a single interconnected network, with dedicated brain regions representing modality specific

  8. Medical document anonymization with a semantic lexicon.

    PubMed Central

    Ruch, P.; Baud, R. H.; Rassinoux, A. M.; Bouillon, P.; Robert, G.

    2000-01-01

    We present an original system for locating and removing personally-identifying information in patient records. In this experiment, anonymization is seen as a particular case of knowledge extraction. We use natural language processing tools provided by the MEDTAG framework: a semantic lexicon specialized in medicine, and a toolkit for word-sense and morpho-syntactic tagging. The system finds 98-99% of all personally-identifying information. PMID:11079980

  9. Methodology to develop and evaluate a semantic representation for NLP.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Jeannie Y; Harkema, Henk; Christensen, Lee M; Schleyer, Titus; Haug, Peter J; Chapman, Wendy W

    2009-11-14

    Natural language processing applications that extract information from text rely on semantic representations. The objective of this paper is to describe a methodology for creating a semantic representation for information that will be automatically extracted from textual clinical records. We illustrate two of the four steps of the methodology in this paper using the case study of encoding information from dictated dental exams: (1) develop an initial representation from a set of training documents and (2) iteratively evaluate and evolve the representation while developing annotation guidelines. Our approach for developing and evaluating a semantic representation is based on standard principles and approaches that are not dependent on any particular domain or type of semantic representation.

  10. Environmental Attitudes Semantic Differential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehne, Paul R.; Goulard, Cary J.

    This booklet is an evaluation instrument which utilizes semantic differential data to assess environmental attitudes. Twelve concepts are included: regulated access to beaches, urban planning, dune vegetation, wetlands, future cities, reclaiming wetlands for building development, city parks, commercial development of beaches, existing cities,…

  11. Semantically Grounded Briefings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    occurring relations. AeroText and consequently AeroDAML can be tailored to particular domains through training sessions with annotated corpuses...the complexities of semantic markup by using mnemonic names for URIs, hiding unnamed intermediate objects (represented by “ GenSym ” identifiers), and

  12. Semantic and Lexical Coherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahnestock, Jeanne

    Helping students understand coherence in terms of the lexical ties and semantic relations possible between clauses and sentences formalizes an area of writing instruction that has been somewhat vague before and makes the process of creating a coherent paragraph less mysterious. Many students do not have the intuitive knowledge base for absorbing…

  13. "Dyslexia": Toward Semantical Clarification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Anthony V.; Duffelmeyer, Fred

    A formulated definition of the term dyslexia is proposed in this paper in order to clarify the semantical confusion which exists among both specialists and the general public. Dyslexia is explained as a generic term for severe and puzzling reading disability, found to be both acute (where reading-age lags 25 percent or more below mental age) and…

  14. Semantic Web Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    many documents are not expressible in logica at all, and many in logic but not in N3. However, we are building a system for which a prime goal is the...demonstrate that conventional logica programming tools are efficent and straightforwradly adapted to semantic web work. • Jena RDF toolkit now accepts N3 as

  15. Bridging the semantic gap in sports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baoxin; Errico, James; Pan, Hao; Sezan, M. Ibrahim

    2003-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing current media management systems and the related applications is the so-called "semantic gap" between the rich meaning that a user desires and the shallowness of the content descriptions that are automatically extracted from the media. In this paper, we address the problem of bridging this gap in the sports domain. We propose a general framework for indexing and summarizing sports broadcast programs. The framework is based on a high-level model of sports broadcast video using the concept of an event, defined according to domain-specific knowledge for different types of sports. Within this general framework, we develop automatic event detection algorithms that are based on automatic analysis of the visual and aural signals in the media. We have successfully applied the event detection algorithms to different types of sports including American football, baseball, Japanese sumo wrestling, and soccer. Event modeling and detection contribute to the reduction of the semantic gap by providing rudimentary semantic information obtained through media analysis. We further propose a novel approach, which makes use of independently generated rich textual metadata, to fill the gap completely through synchronization of the information-laden textual data with the basic event segments. An MPEG-7 compliant prototype browsing system has been implemented to demonstrate semantic retrieval and summarization of sports video.

  16. Enabling Massive Scale Document Transformation for the Semantic Web: the Universal Parsing Agent

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, Mark A.; Cowley, Wendy E.; Cramer, Nick O.; Gibson, Alex G.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; Scott, Ryan T.; Tratz, Stephen C.

    2005-11-02

    The Universal Parsing Agent (UPA) is a document analysis and transformation program that supports massive scale conversion of information into forms suitable for the semantic web. UPA provides reusable tools to analyze text documents; identify and extract important information elements; enhance text with semantically descriptive tags; and output the information that is needed in the format and structure that is needed.

  17. Understanding human activity patterns based on space-time-semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Li, Songnian

    2016-11-01

    Understanding human activity patterns plays a key role in various applications in an urban environment, such as transportation planning and traffic forecasting, urban planning, public health and safety, and emergency response. Most existing studies in modeling human activity patterns mainly focus on spatiotemporal dimensions, which lacks consideration of underlying semantic context. In fact, what people do and discuss at some places, inferring what is happening at the places, cannot be simple neglected because it is the root of human mobility patterns. We believe that the geo-tagged semantic context, representing what individuals do and discuss at a place and a specific time, drives a formation of specific human activity pattern. In this paper, we aim to model human activity patterns not only based on space and time but also with consideration of associated semantics, and attempt to prove a hypothesis that similar mobility patterns may have different motivations. We develop a spatiotemporal-semantic model to quantitatively express human activity patterns based on topic models, leading to an analysis of space, time and semantics. A case study is conducted using Twitter data in Toronto based on our model. Through computing the similarities between users in terms of spatiotemporal pattern, semantic pattern and spatiotemporal-semantic pattern, we find that only a small number of users (2.72%) have very similar activity patterns, while the majority (87.14%) show different activity patterns (i.e., similar spatiotemporal patterns and different semantic patterns, similar semantic patterns and different spatiotemporal patterns, or different in both). The population of users that has very similar activity patterns is decreased by 56.41% after incorporating semantic information in the corresponding spatiotemporal patterns, which can quantitatively prove the hypothesis.

  18. Language and culture modulate online semantic processing.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Ceri; Kuipers, Jan R; Thierry, Guillaume; Lovett, Victoria; Turnbull, Oliver; Jones, Manon W

    2015-10-01

    Language has been shown to influence non-linguistic cognitive operations such as colour perception, object categorization and motion event perception. Here, we show that language also modulates higher level processing, such as semantic knowledge. Using event-related brain potentials, we show that highly fluent Welsh-English bilinguals require significantly less processing effort when reading sentences in Welsh which contain factually correct information about Wales, than when reading sentences containing the same information presented in English. Crucially, culturally irrelevant information was processed similarly in both Welsh and English. Our findings show that even in highly proficient bilinguals, language interacts with factors associated with personal identity, such as culture, to modulate online semantic processing.

  19. Broadly speaking: vocabulary in semantic dementia shifts towards general, semantically diverse words.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Paul; Meteyard, Lotte; Patterson, Karalyn

    2014-06-01

    One of the cardinal features of semantic dementia (SD) is a steady reduction in expressive vocabulary. We investigated the nature of this breakdown by assessing the psycholinguistic characteristics of words produced spontaneously by SD patients during an autobiographical memory interview. Speech was analysed with respect to frequency and imageability, and a recently-developed measure called semantic diversity. This measure quantifies the degree to which a word can be used in a broad range of different linguistic contexts. We used this measure in a formal exploration of the tendency for SD patients to replace specific terms with more vague and general words, on the assumption that more specific words are used in a more constrained set of contexts. Relative to healthy controls, patients were less likely to produce low-frequency, high-imageability words, and more likely to produce highly frequent, abstract words. These changes in the lexical-semantic landscape were related to semantic diversity: the highly frequent and abstract words most prevalent in the patients' speech were also the most semantically diverse. In fact, when the speech samples of healthy controls were artificially engineered such that low semantic diversity words (e.g., garage, spanner) were replaced with broader terms (e.g., place, thing), the characteristics of their speech production came to closely resemble that of SD patients. A similar simulation in which low-frequency words were replaced was less successful in replicating the patient data. These findings indicate systematic biases in the deterioration of lexical-semantic space in SD. As conceptual knowledge degrades, speech increasingly consists of general terms that can be applied in a broad range of linguistic contexts and convey less specific information.

  20. Towards Semantic Modelling of Business Processes for Networked Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furdík, Karol; Mach, Marián; Sabol, Tomáš

    The paper presents an approach to the semantic modelling and annotation of business processes and information resources, as it was designed within the FP7 ICT EU project SPIKE to support creation and maintenance of short-term business alliances and networked enterprises. A methodology for the development of the resource ontology, as a shareable knowledge model for semantic description of business processes, is proposed. Systematically collected user requirements, conceptual models implied by the selected implementation platform as well as available ontology resources and standards are employed in the ontology creation. The process of semantic annotation is described and illustrated using an example taken from a real application case.

  1. A Collaborative Semantic Web Layer to Enhance Legacy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliozzo, Alfio; Gangemi, Aldo; Presutti, Valentina; Cardillo, Elena; Daga, Enrico; Salvati, Alberto; Troiani, Gianluca

    This paper introduces a framework to add a semantic web layer to legacy organizational information, and describes its application to the use case provided by the Italian National Research Council (CNR) intraweb. Building on a traditional web-based view of information from different legacy databases, we have performed a semantic porting of data into a knowledge base, dependent on an OWL domain ontology. We have enriched the knowledge base by means of text mining techniques, in order to discover on-topic relations. Several reasoning techniques have been applied, in order to infer relevant implicit relationships. Finally, the ontology and the knowledge base have been deployed on a semantic wiki by means of the WikiFactory tool, which allows users to browse the ontology and the knowledge base, to introduce new relations, to revise wrong assertions in a collaborative way, and to perform semantic queries. In our experiments, we have been able to easily implement several functionalities, such as expert finding, by simply formulating ad-hoc queries from either an ontology editor or the semantic wiki interface. The result is an intelligent and collaborative front end, which allow users to add information, fill gaps, or revise existing information on a semantic basis, while keeping the knowledge base automatically updated.

  2. Incorporating Semantic Knowledge into Dynamic Data Processing for Smart Power Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Qunzhi; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor

    2012-11-15

    Semantic Web allows us to model and query time-invariant or slowly evolving knowledge using ontologies. Emerging applications in Cyber Physical Systems such as Smart Power Grids that require continuous information monitoring and integration present novel opportunities and challenges for Semantic Web technologies. Semantic Web is promising to model diverse Smart Grid domain knowledge for enhanced situation awareness and response by multi-disciplinary participants. However, current technology does pose a performance overhead for dynamic analysis of sensor measurements. In this paper, we combine semantic web and complex event processing for stream based semantic querying. We illustrate its adoption in the USC Campus Micro-Grid for detecting and enacting dynamic response strategies to peak power situations by diverse user roles. We also describe the semantic ontology and event query model that supports this. Further, we introduce and evaluate caching techniques to improve the response time for semantic event queries to meet our application needs and enable sustainable energy management.

  3. Predication-based semantic indexing: permutations as a means to encode predications in semantic space.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Trevor; Schvaneveldt, Roger W; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2009-11-14

    Corpus-derived distributional models of semantic distance between terms have proved useful in a number of applications. For both theoretical and practical reasons, it is desirable to extend these models to encode discrete concepts and the ways in which they are related to one another. In this paper, we present a novel vector space model that encodes semantic predications derived from MEDLINE by the SemRep system into a compact spatial representation. The associations captured by this method are of a different and complementary nature to those derived by traditional vector space models, and the encoding of predication types presents new possibilities for knowledge discovery and information retrieval.

  4. The emergence of semantic meaning in the ventral temporal pathway.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Thomas A; Simmons, Ryan A; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Slevc, L Robert

    2014-01-01

    In the ventral visual pathway, early visual areas encode light patterns on the retina in terms of image properties, for example, edges and color, whereas higher areas encode visual information in terms of objects and categories. At what point does semantic knowledge, as instantiated in human language, emerge? We examined this question by studying whether semantic similarity in language relates to the brain's organization of object representations in inferior temporal cortex (ITC), an area of the brain at the crux of several proposals describing how the brain might represent conceptual knowledge. Semantic relationships among words can be viewed as a geometrical structure with some pairs of words close in their meaning (e.g., man and boy) and other pairs more distant (e.g., man and tomato). ITC's representation of objects similarly can be viewed as a complex structure with some pairs of stimuli evoking similar patterns of activation (e.g., man and boy) and other pairs evoking very different patterns (e.g., man and tomato). In this study, we examined whether the geometry of visual object representations in ITC bears a correspondence to the geometry of semantic relationships between word labels used to describe the objects. We compared ITC's representation to semantic structure, evaluated by explicit ratings of semantic similarity and by five computational measures of semantic similarity. We show that the representational geometry of ITC-but not of earlier visual areas (V1)-is reflected both in explicit behavioral ratings of semantic similarity and also in measures of semantic similarity derived from word usage patterns in natural language. Our findings show that patterns of brain activity in ITC not only reflect the organization of visual information into objects but also represent objects in a format compatible with conceptual thought and language.

  5. Do You Read How I Read? Systematic Individual Differences in Semantic Reliance amongst Normal Readers

    PubMed Central

    Woollams, Anna M.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Madrid, Gaston; Patterson, Karalyn E.

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which meaning is involved in reading aloud has proven an area of longstanding debate, and current computational models differ on this dimension. The connectionist triangle model proposes that normal individuals rely on semantic information for correct reading of words with atypical spelling-sound relationships, but to varying degrees. This proposed individual difference would account for the varying stage of decline at which patients with semantic dementia first show the reading impairment known as surface dyslexia. Recent neuroimaging data has provided validation of this view, showing that individual differences in degree of semantic reliance during exception word reading predict the amount of activation in left anterior temporal regions associated with semantic processing. This study aimed to establish the cognitive correlates of individual differences in semantic reliance during exception word reading. Experiment 1 used a subgrouping approach with 32 participants and found larger imageability and semantic priming effects specifically for exception word reading amongst high relative to low semantic reliance readers. High semantic reliance readers also tended to read nonwords more slowly than low semantic reliance readers. A second experiment used a regression approach with 129 readers and confirmed the relationship of degree of semantic reliance both to imageability effects in exception word reading and speed of nonword reading. Further, while the performance of the higher semantic readers revealed no significant association with semantic processing tasks, there was a negative relationship with rhyme processing tasks. We therefore speculate that differences in phonological abilities may be responsible for varying degrees of semantic reliance in reading aloud. This proposal accords with the results of functional imaging showing that higher semantic reliance during exception word reading corresponds to lower activation in left pre-central gyrus, an

  6. Semantic Metrics for Object Oriented Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etzkorn, Lethe

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to research a new suite of object-oriented (OO) software metrics, called semantic metrics, that have the potential to help software engineers identify fragile, low quality code sections much earlier in the development cycle than is possible with traditional OO metrics. With earlier and better Fault detection, software maintenance will be less time consuming and expensive, and software reusability will be improved. Because it is less costly to correct faults found earlier than to correct faults found later in the software lifecycle, the overall cost of software development will be reduced. Semantic metrics can be derived from the knowledge base of a program understanding system. A program understanding system is designed to understand a software module. Once understanding is complete, the knowledge-base contains digested information about the software module. Various semantic metrics can be collected on the knowledge base. This new kind of metric measures domain complexity, or the relationship of the software to its application domain, rather than implementation complexity, which is what traditional software metrics measure. A semantic metric will thus map much more closely to qualities humans are interested in, such as cohesion and maintainability, than is possible using traditional metrics, that are calculated using only syntactic aspects of software.

  7. Semantic and Social Networks Comparison for the Haiti Earthquake Relief Operations from APAN Data Sources using Lexical Link Analysis (LLA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Semantic Analysis (LSA; (Dumais, Furnas, Landauer, Deerwester, & Harshman, 1988; Gorman, 2003; Letsche, 1997) and Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis...Dumais, S. T., Furnas, G. W., Landauer, T. K., Deerwester, S., & Harshman, R. (1988). Using latent semantic analysis to improve information retrieval...analysis/ Gorman, J. C., Foltz, P. W. Kiekel, P. A., Martin, M. A. & Cooke, N. J. (2003) Evaluation of Latent Semantic Analysis-based measures of

  8. Relating syntax and semantics: the syntactico-semantic lexicon of the system VIE-LANG

    SciTech Connect

    Steinacker, I.; Buchberger, E.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the structure and evaluation of the syntactico-semantic lexicon (SSL) of the German natural language understanding system VIE-LANG. VIE-LANG uses an si-net as internal representation. The SSL contains the rules according to which the mapping between net-structures and surface structures of a sentence is carried out. This information is structured in a way that it can be evaluated from two sides. The parser interprets it as production-rules that control the analysis. Syntactic and semantic features of the input sentence and evaluated and individuals are created in the semantic net. The generator uses the same rules to express selected net-structures in adequate natural language expressions. It is shown who both processes can make effective use of the SSL. The different possibilities for evaluating the SSL are explained and illustrated by examples. 12 references.

  9. Semantics of color in chromatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, Nikolai V.

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this investigation is to describe the semantics of color in chromatism (from the ancient Greek triune notion of <>: (1) color as ideal (Id- plan), psychic; (2) tint as physical, verbal; material (M- plan), physiological, syntonic (S-plan), and (3) emotion as their informative-energetic correlation). Being a new field of science, chromatism links humanitarian and natural subjects by means of interdiscipline investigation of a real (f-m) man living in a real (color) surrounding environment. According to the definition for <>, color may be considered to be the most universal notion, permitting to assume the unity of both a man and an environment. Due to this assumption, we may give models of human intellect.

  10. Semantics, ontologies and eScience for the geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitsma, Femke; Laxton, John; Ballard, Stuart; Kuhn, Werner; Abdelmoty, Alia

    2009-04-01

    Semantics, ontologies and eScience are key areas of research that aim to deal with the growing volume, number of sources and heterogeneity of geoscience data, information and knowledge. Following a workshop held at the eScience Institute in Edinburgh on the 7-9th of March 2008, this paper discusses some of the significant research topics and challenges for enhancing geospatial computing using semantic and grid technologies.

  11. Semantic Location Extraction from Crowdsourced Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koswatte, S.; Mcdougall, K.; Liu, X.

    2016-06-01

    Crowdsourced Data (CSD) has recently received increased attention in many application areas including disaster management. Convenience of production and use, data currency and abundancy are some of the key reasons for attracting this high interest. Conversely, quality issues like incompleteness, credibility and relevancy prevent the direct use of such data in important applications like disaster management. Moreover, location information availability of CSD is problematic as it remains very low in many crowd sourced platforms such as Twitter. Also, this recorded location is mostly related to the mobile device or user location and often does not represent the event location. In CSD, event location is discussed descriptively in the comments in addition to the recorded location (which is generated by means of mobile device's GPS or mobile communication network). This study attempts to semantically extract the CSD location information with the help of an ontological Gazetteer and other available resources. 2011 Queensland flood tweets and Ushahidi Crowd Map data were semantically analysed to extract the location information with the support of Queensland Gazetteer which is converted to an ontological gazetteer and a global gazetteer. Some preliminary results show that the use of ontologies and semantics can improve the accuracy of place name identification of CSD and the process of location information extraction.

  12. Semantic Neighborhood Effects for Abstract versus Concrete Words

    PubMed Central

    Danguecan, Ashley N.; Buchanan, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that semantic effects may be task-specific, and thus, that semantic representations are flexible and dynamic. Such findings are critical to the development of a comprehensive theory of semantic processing in visual word recognition, which should arguably account for how semantic effects may vary by task. It has been suggested that semantic effects are more directly examined using tasks that explicitly require meaning processing relative to those for which meaning processing is not necessary (e.g., lexical decision task). The purpose of the present study was to chart the processing of concrete versus abstract words in the context of a global co-occurrence variable, semantic neighborhood density (SND), by comparing word recognition response times (RTs) across four tasks varying in explicit semantic demands: standard lexical decision task (with non-pronounceable non-words), go/no-go lexical decision task (with pronounceable non-words), progressive demasking task, and sentence relatedness task. The same experimental stimulus set was used across experiments and consisted of 44 concrete and 44 abstract words, with half of these being low SND, and half being high SND. In this way, concreteness and SND were manipulated in a factorial design using a number of visual word recognition tasks. A consistent RT pattern emerged across tasks, in which SND effects were found for abstract (but not necessarily concrete) words. Ultimately, these findings highlight the importance of studying interactive effects in word recognition, and suggest that linguistic associative information is particularly important for abstract words. PMID:27458422

  13. Semantic similarity measure in biomedical domain leverage web search engine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Huang; Hsieh, Sheau-Ling; Weng, Yung-Ching; Chang, Wen-Yung; Lai, Feipei

    2010-01-01

    Semantic similarity measure plays an essential role in Information Retrieval and Natural Language Processing. In this paper we propose a page-count-based semantic similarity measure and apply it in biomedical domains. Previous researches in semantic web related applications have deployed various semantic similarity measures. Despite the usefulness of the measurements in those applications, measuring semantic similarity between two terms remains a challenge task. The proposed method exploits page counts returned by the Web Search Engine. We define various similarity scores for two given terms P and Q, using the page counts for querying P, Q and P AND Q. Moreover, we propose a novel approach to compute semantic similarity using lexico-syntactic patterns with page counts. These different similarity scores are integrated adapting support vector machines, to leverage the robustness of semantic similarity measures. Experimental results on two datasets achieve correlation coefficients of 0.798 on the dataset provided by A. Hliaoutakis, 0.705 on the dataset provide by T. Pedersen with physician scores and 0.496 on the dataset provided by T. Pedersen et al. with expert scores.

  14. Using semantics to enhance new word learning: an ERP investigation.

    PubMed

    Angwin, Anthony J; Phua, Bernadette; Copland, David A

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the addition of meaning (semantics) would enhance new word learning for novel objects, and whether it would influence the neurophysiological response to new words. Twenty-five young healthy adults underwent 4 days of training to learn the names of 80 novel objects. Half of the items were learnt under a 'semantic' condition, whereby the name consisted of a legal nonword and two adjectives denoting semantic attributes. The remaining items were learnt under a 'name' condition, whereby the name consisted of a legal nonword and two proper names. Participants demonstrated superior recognition of names in the semantic condition compared to the name condition during training sessions 1-3. On the 5th day, following training, ERPs were recorded whilst participants performed a picture-word judgement task including familiar items. Analysis of the results revealed an N400 for incongruent items in the semantic condition, whilst no ERP component was observed for the name condition. These findings suggest that items learnt with semantic information form stronger associations than those trained without semantics.

  15. Augmenting Weak Semantic Cognitive Maps with an “Abstractness” Dimension

    PubMed Central

    Samsonovich, Alexei V.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2013-01-01

    The emergent consensus on dimensional models of sentiment, appraisal, emotions, and values is on the semantics of the principal dimensions, typically interpreted as valence, arousal, and dominance. The notion of weak semantic maps was introduced recently as distribution of representations in abstract spaces that are not derived from human judgments, psychometrics, or any other a priori information about their semantics. Instead, they are defined entirely by binary semantic relations among representations, such as synonymy and antonymy. An interesting question concerns the ability of the antonymy-based semantic maps to capture all “universal” semantic dimensions. The present work shows that those narrow weak semantic maps are not complete in this sense and can be augmented with other semantic relations. Specifically, including hyponym-hypernym relations yields a new semantic dimension of the map labeled here “abstractness” (or ontological generality) that is not reducible to any dimensions represented by antonym pairs or to traditional affective space dimensions. It is expected that including other semantic relations (e.g., meronymy/holonymy) will also result in the addition of new semantic dimensions to the map. These findings have broad implications for automated quantitative evaluation of the meaning of text and may shed light on the nature of human subjective experience. PMID:23840200

  16. Semantics of the visual environment encoded in parahippocampal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Michael F.; Price, Amy Rose; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Grossman, Murray

    2016-01-01

    Semantic representations capture the statistics of experience and store this information in memory. A fundamental component of this memory system is knowledge of the visual environment, including knowledge of objects and their associations. Visual semantic information underlies a range of behaviors, from perceptual categorization to cognitive processes such as language and reasoning. Here we examine the neuroanatomic system that encodes visual semantics. Across three experiments, we found converging evidence indicating that knowledge of verbally mediated visual concepts relies on information encoded in a region of the ventral-medial temporal lobe centered on parahippocampal cortex. In an fMRI study, this region was strongly engaged by the processing of concepts relying on visual knowledge but not by concepts relying on other sensory modalities. In a study of patients with the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (semantic dementia), atrophy that encompassed this region was associated with a specific impairment in verbally mediated visual semantic knowledge. Finally, in a structural study of healthy adults from the fMRI experiment, gray matter density in this region related to individual variability in the processing of visual concepts. The anatomic location of these findings aligns with recent work linking the ventral-medial temporal lobe with high-level visual representation, contextual associations, and reasoning through imagination. Together this work suggests a critical role for parahippocampal cortex in linking the visual environment with knowledge systems in the human brain. PMID:26679216

  17. Semantics of the Visual Environment Encoded in Parahippocampal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Bonner, Michael F; Price, Amy Rose; Peelle, Jonathan E; Grossman, Murray

    2016-03-01

    Semantic representations capture the statistics of experience and store this information in memory. A fundamental component of this memory system is knowledge of the visual environment, including knowledge of objects and their associations. Visual semantic information underlies a range of behaviors, from perceptual categorization to cognitive processes such as language and reasoning. Here we examine the neuroanatomic system that encodes visual semantics. Across three experiments, we found converging evidence indicating that knowledge of verbally mediated visual concepts relies on information encoded in a region of the ventral-medial temporal lobe centered on parahippocampal cortex. In an fMRI study, this region was strongly engaged by the processing of concepts relying on visual knowledge but not by concepts relying on other sensory modalities. In a study of patients with the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (semantic dementia), atrophy that encompassed this region was associated with a specific impairment in verbally mediated visual semantic knowledge. Finally, in a structural study of healthy adults from the fMRI experiment, gray matter density in this region related to individual variability in the processing of visual concepts. The anatomic location of these findings aligns with recent work linking the ventral-medial temporal lobe with high-level visual representation, contextual associations, and reasoning through imagination. Together, this work suggests a critical role for parahippocampal cortex in linking the visual environment with knowledge systems in the human brain.

  18. Selective Audiovisual Semantic Integration Enabled by Feature-Selective Attention.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanqing; Long, Jinyi; Huang, Biao; Yu, Tianyou; Wu, Wei; Li, Peijun; Fang, Fang; Sun, Pei

    2016-01-13

    An audiovisual object may contain multiple semantic features, such as the gender and emotional features of the speaker. Feature-selective attention and audiovisual semantic integration are two brain functions involved in the recognition of audiovisual objects. Humans often selectively attend to one or several features while ignoring the other features of an audiovisual object. Meanwhile, the human brain integrates semantic information from the visual and auditory modalities. However, how these two brain functions correlate with each other remains to be elucidated. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we explored the neural mechanism by which feature-selective attention modulates audiovisual semantic integration. During the fMRI experiment, the subjects were presented with visual-only, auditory-only, or audiovisual dynamical facial stimuli and performed several feature-selective attention tasks. Our results revealed that a distribution of areas, including heteromodal areas and brain areas encoding attended features, may be involved in audiovisual semantic integration. Through feature-selective attention, the human brain may selectively integrate audiovisual semantic information from attended features by enhancing functional connectivity and thus regulating information flows from heteromodal areas to brain areas encoding the attended features.

  19. Taxonomy, Ontology and Semantics at Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, Sarah Ann

    2011-01-01

    At NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Chief Knowledge Officer has been developing the JSC Taxonomy to capitalize on the accomplishments of yesterday while maintaining the flexibility needed for the evolving information environment of today. A clear vision and scope for the semantic system is integral to its success. The vision for the JSC Taxonomy is to connect information stovepipes to present a unified view for information and knowledge across the Center, across organizations, and across decades. Semantic search at JSC means seemless integration of disparate information sets into a single interface. Ever increasing use, interest, and organizational participation mark successful integration and provide the framework for future application.

  20. Can group-based reassuring information alter low back pain behavior? A cluster-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Indahl, Aage; Andersen, Lars L.; Burton, Kim; Hertzum-Larsen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Background Low back pain (LBP) is common in the population and multifactorial in nature, often involving negative consequences. Reassuring information to improve coping is recommended for reducing the negative consequences of LBP. Adding a simple non-threatening explanation for the pain (temporary muscular dysfunction) has been successful at altering beliefs and behavior when delivered with other intervention elements. This study investigates the isolated effect of this specific information on future occupational behavior outcomes when delivered to the workforce. Design A cluster-randomized controlled trial. Methods Publically employed workers (n = 505) from 11 Danish municipality centers were randomized at center-level (cluster) to either intervention (two 1-hour group-based talks at the workplace) or control. The talks provided reassuring information together with a simple non-threatening explanation for LBP—the ‘functional-disturbance’-model. Data collections took place monthly over a 1-year period using text message tracking (SMS). Primary outcomes were self-reported days of cutting down usual activities and work participation. Secondary outcomes were self-reported back beliefs, work ability, number of healthcare visits, bothersomeness, restricted activity, use of pain medication, and sadness/depression. Results There was no between-group difference in the development of LBP during follow-up. Cumulative logistic regression analyses showed no between-group difference on days of cutting down activities, but increased odds for more days of work participation in the intervention group (OR = 1.83 95% CI: 1.08–3.12). Furthermore, the intervention group was more likely to report: higher work ability, reduced visits to healthcare professionals, lower bothersomeness, lower levels of sadness/depression, and positive back beliefs. Conclusion Reassuring information involving a simple non-threatening explanation for LBP significantly increased the odds for days of

  1. Mindfulness Training Alters Emotional Memory Recall Compared to Active Controls: Support for an Emotional Information Processing Model of Mindfulness

    PubMed Central

    Roberts-Wolfe, Douglas; Sacchet, Matthew D.; Hastings, Elizabeth; Roth, Harold; Britton, Willoughby

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: While mindfulness-based interventions have received widespread application in both clinical and non-clinical populations, the mechanism by which mindfulness meditation improves well-being remains elusive. One possibility is that mindfulness training alters the processing of emotional information, similar to prevailing cognitive models of depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mindfulness training on emotional information processing (i.e., memory) biases in relation to both clinical symptomatology and well-being in comparison to active control conditions. Methods: Fifty-eight university students (28 female, age = 20.1 ± 2.7 years) participated in either a 12-week course containing a “meditation laboratory” or an active control course with similar content or experiential practice laboratory format (music). Participants completed an emotional word recall task and self-report questionnaires of well-being and clinical symptoms before and after the 12-week course. Results: Meditators showed greater increases in positive word recall compared to controls [F(1, 56) = 6.6, p = 0.02]. The meditation group increased significantly more on measures of well-being [F(1, 56) = 6.6, p = 0.01], with a marginal decrease in depression and anxiety [F(1, 56) = 3.0, p = 0.09] compared to controls. Increased positive word recall was associated with increased psychological well-being (r = 0.31, p = 0.02) and decreased clinical symptoms (r = −0.29, p = 0.03). Conclusion: Mindfulness training was associated with greater improvements in processing efficiency for positively valenced stimuli than active control conditions. This change in emotional information processing was associated with improvements in psychological well-being and less depression and anxiety. These data suggest that mindfulness training may improve well-being via changes in emotional information processing. Future

  2. Redundancy in perceptual and linguistic experience: comparing feature-based and distributional models of semantic representation.

    PubMed

    Riordan, Brian; Jones, Michael N

    2011-04-01

    Since their inception, distributional models of semantics have been criticized as inadequate cognitive theories of human semantic learning and representation. A principal challenge is that the representations derived by distributional models are purely symbolic and are not grounded in perception and action; this challenge has led many to favor feature-based models of semantic representation. We argue that the amount of perceptual and other semantic information that can be learned from purely distributional statistics has been underappreciated. We compare the representations of three feature-based and nine distributional models using a semantic clustering task. Several distributional models demonstrated semantic clustering comparable with clustering-based on feature-based representations. Furthermore, when trained on child-directed speech, the same distributional models perform as well as sensorimotor-based feature representations of children's lexical semantic knowledge. These results suggest that, to a large extent, information relevant for extracting semantic categories is redundantly coded in perceptual and linguistic experience. Detailed analyses of the semantic clusters of the feature-based and distributional models also reveal that the models make use of complementary cues to semantic organization from the two data streams. Rather than conceptualizing feature-based and distributional models as competing theories, we argue that future focus should be on understanding the cognitive mechanisms humans use to integrate the two sources.

  3. Spatial Relation Predicates in Topographic Feature Semantics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varanka, Dalia E.; Caro, Holly K.

    2013-01-01

    Topographic data are designed and widely used for base maps of diverse applications, yet the power of these information sources largely relies on the interpretive skills of map readers and relational database expert users once the data are in map or geographic information system (GIS) form. Advances in geospatial semantic technology offer data model alternatives for explicating concepts and articulating complex data queries and statements. To understand and enrich the vocabulary of topographic feature properties for semantic technology, English language spatial relation predicates were analyzed in three standard topographic feature glossaries. The analytical approach drew from disciplinary concepts in geography, linguistics, and information science. Five major classes of spatial relation predicates were identified from the analysis; representations for most of these are not widely available. The classes are: part-whole (which are commonly modeled throughout semantic and linked-data networks), geometric, processes, human intention, and spatial prepositions. These are commonly found in the ‘real world’ and support the environmental science basis for digital topographical mapping. The spatial relation concepts are based on sets of relation terms presented in this chapter, though these lists are not prescriptive or exhaustive. The results of this study make explicit the concepts forming a broad set of spatial relation expressions, which in turn form the basis for expanding the range of possible queries for topographical data analysis and mapping.

  4. Semantics-based composition of EMBOSS services

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background More than in other domains the heterogeneous services world in bioinformatics demands for a methodology to classify and relate resources in a both human and machine accessible manner. The Semantic Web, which is meant to address exactly this challenge, is currently one of the most ambitious projects in computer science. Collective efforts within the community have already led to a basis of standards for semantic service descriptions and meta-information. In combination with process synthesis and planning methods, such knowledge about types and services can facilitate the automatic composition of workflows for particular research questions. Results In this study we apply the synthesis methodology that is available in the Bio-jETI workflow management framework for the semantics-based composition of EMBOSS services. EMBOSS (European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite) is a collection of 350 tools (March 2010) for various sequence analysis tasks, and thus a rich source of services and types that imply comprehensive domain models for planning and synthesis approaches. We use and compare two different setups of our EMBOSS synthesis domain: 1) a manually defined domain setup where an intuitive, high-level, semantically meaningful nomenclature is applied to describe the input/output behavior of the single EMBOSS tools and their classifications, and 2) a domain setup where this information has been automatically derived from the EMBOSS Ajax Command Definition (ACD) files and the EMBRACE Data and Methods ontology (EDAM). Our experiments demonstrate that these domain models in combination with our synthesis methodology greatly simplify working with the large, heterogeneous, and hence manually intractable EMBOSS collection. However, they also show that with the information that can be derived from the (current) ACD files and EDAM ontology alone, some essential connections between services can not be recognized. Conclusions Our results show that adequate domain

  5. Two cases of food aversion with semantic dementia

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Alexandra E.; Clark, Camilla N.; Hardy, Christopher J.; Fletcher, Phillip D.; Greene, John; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Warren, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Accounts of altered eating behavior in semantic dementia generally emphasize gluttony and abnormal food preferences. Here we describe two female patients with no past history of eating disorders who developed early prominent aversion to food in the context of an otherwise typical semantic dementia syndrome. One patient (aged 57) presented features in line with anorexia nervosa while the second patient (aged 58) presented with a syndrome more suggestive of bulimia nervosa. These cases add to the growing spectrum of apparently dichotomous behavior patterns in the frontotemporal dementias and illustrate a potentially under-recognized cause of eating disorders presenting in later life. PMID:26963051

  6. Learning document semantic representation with hybrid deep belief network.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Yin, Xu-Cheng; Li, Sujian; Yang, Mingyuan; Hao, Hong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    High-level abstraction, for example, semantic representation, is vital for document classification and retrieval. However, how to learn document semantic representation is still a topic open for discussion in information retrieval and natural language processing. In this paper, we propose a new Hybrid Deep Belief Network (HDBN) which uses Deep Boltzmann Machine (DBM) on the lower layers together with Deep Belief Network (DBN) on the upper layers. The advantage of DBM is that it employs undirected connection when training weight parameters which can be used to sample the states of nodes on each layer more successfully and it is also an effective way to remove noise from the different document representation type; the DBN can enhance extract abstract of the document in depth, making the model learn sufficient semantic representation. At the same time, we explore different input strategies for semantic distributed representation. Experimental results show that our model using the word embedding instead of single word has better performance.

  7. Shared neural processes support semantic control and action understanding.

    PubMed

    Davey, James; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Costigan, Alison; Murphy, Nik; Krieger-Redwood, Katya; Hallam, Glyn; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    Executive-semantic control and action understanding appear to recruit overlapping brain regions but existing evidence from neuroimaging meta-analyses and neuropsychology lacks spatial precision; we therefore manipulated difficulty and feature type (visual vs. action) in a single fMRI study. Harder judgements recruited an executive-semantic network encompassing medial and inferior frontal regions (including LIFG) and posterior temporal cortex (including pMTG). These regions partially overlapped with brain areas involved in action but not visual judgements. In LIFG, the peak responses to action and difficulty were spatially identical across participants, while these responses were overlapping yet spatially distinct in posterior temporal cortex. We propose that the co-activation of LIFG and pMTG allows the flexible retrieval of semantic information, appropriate to the current context; this might be necessary both for semantic control and understanding actions. Feature selection in difficult trials also recruited ventral occipital-temporal areas, not implicated in action understanding.

  8. Comparison of affective and semantic priming in different SOA.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhongqing; Qu, Yuhong; Xiao, Yanli; Wu, Qi; Xia, Likun; Li, Wenhui; Liu, Ying

    2016-11-01

    Researchers have been at odds on whether affective or semantic priming is faster or stronger. The present study selects a series of facial expression photos and words, which have definite emotional meaning or gender meaning, to set up experiment including both affective and semantic priming. The intensity of emotion and gender information in the prime as well as the strength of emotional or semantic (in gender) relationship between the prime and the target is matched. Three groups of participants are employed separately in our experiment varied with stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) as 50, 250 or 500 ms. The results show that the difference between two types of priming effect is revealed when the SOA is at 50 ms, in which the affective priming effect is presented when the prime has negative emotion. It indicates that SOA can affect the comparison between the affective and semantic priming, and the former takes the priority in the automatic processing level.

  9. Semantic Metadata for Heterogeneous Spatial Planning Documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaniak, A.; Kaczmarek, I.; Łukowicz, J.; Strzelecki, M.; Coetzee, S.; Paluszyński, W.

    2016-09-01

    Spatial planning documents contain information about the principles and rights of land use in different zones of a local authority. They are the basis for administrative decision making in support of sustainable development. In Poland these documents are published on the Web according to a prescribed non-extendable XML schema, designed for optimum presentation to humans in HTML web pages. There is no document standard, and limited functionality exists for adding references to external resources. The text in these documents is discoverable and searchable by general-purpose web search engines, but the semantics of the content cannot be discovered or queried. The spatial information in these documents is geographically referenced but not machine-readable. Major manual efforts are required to integrate such heterogeneous spatial planning documents from various local authorities for analysis, scenario planning and decision support. This article presents results of an implementation using machine-readable semantic metadata to identify relationships among regulations in the text, spatial objects in the drawings and links to external resources. A spatial planning ontology was used to annotate different sections of spatial planning documents with semantic metadata in the Resource Description Framework in Attributes (RDFa). The semantic interpretation of the content, links between document elements and links to external resources were embedded in XHTML pages. An example and use case from the spatial planning domain in Poland is presented to evaluate its efficiency and applicability. The solution enables the automated integration of spatial planning documents from multiple local authorities to assist decision makers with understanding and interpreting spatial planning information. The approach is equally applicable to legal documents from other countries and domains, such as cultural heritage and environmental management.

  10. X-Informatics: Practical Semantic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borne, K. D.

    2009-12-01

    The discipline of data science is merging with multiple science disciplines to form new X-informatics research disciplines. They are almost too numerous to name, but they include geoinformatics, bioinformatics, cheminformatics, biodiversity informatics, ecoinformatics, materials informatics, and the emerging discipline of astroinformatics. Within any X-informatics discipline, the information granules are unique to that discipline -- e.g., gene sequences in bio, the sky object in astro, and the spatial object in geo (such as points, lines, and polygons in the vector model, and pixels in the raster model). Nevertheless the goals are similar: transparent data re-use across subdisciplines and within education settings, information and data integration and fusion, personalization of user interactions with the data collection, semantic search and retrieval, and knowledge discovery. The implementation of an X-informatics framework enables these semantic e-science research goals. We describe the concepts, challenges, and new developments associated with the new discipline of astroinformatics, and how geoinformatics provides valuable lessons learned and a model for practical semantic science within a traditional science discipline through the accretion of data science methodologies (such as formal metadata creation, data models, data mining, information retrieval, knowledge engineering, provenance, taxonomies, and ontologies). The emerging concept of data-as-a-service (DaaS) builds upon the concept of smart data (or data DNA) for intelligent data management, automated workflows, and intelligent processing. Smart data, defined through X-informatics, enables several practical semantic science use cases, including self-discovery, data intelligence, automatic recommendations, relevance analysis, dimension reduction, feature selection, constraint-based mining, interdisciplinary data re-use, knowledge-sharing, data use in education, and more. We describe these concepts within the

  11. Towards a framework for developing semantic relatedness reference standards.

    PubMed

    Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Pedersen, Ted; McInnes, Bridget; Melton, Genevieve B; Ruggieri, Alexander; Chute, Christopher G

    2011-04-01

    Our objective is to develop a framework for creating reference standards for functional testing of computerized measures of semantic relatedness. Currently, research on computerized approaches to semantic relatedness between biomedical concepts relies on reference standards created for specific purposes using a variety of methods for their analysis. In most cases, these reference standards are not publicly available and the published information provided in manuscripts that evaluate computerized semantic relatedness measurement approaches is not sufficient to reproduce the results. Our proposed framework is based on the experiences of medical informatics and computational linguistics communities and addresses practical and theoretical issues with creating reference standards for semantic relatedness. We demonstrate the use of the framework on a pilot set of 101 medical term pairs rated for semantic relatedness by 13 medical coding experts. While the reliability of this particular reference standard is in the "moderate" range; we show that using clustering and factor analyses offers a data-driven approach to finding systematic differences among raters and identifying groups of potential outliers. We test two ontology-based measures of relatedness and provide both the reference standard containing individual ratings and the R program used to analyze the ratings as open-source. Currently, these resources are intended to be used to reproduce and compare results of studies involving computerized measures of semantic relatedness. Our framework may be extended to the development of reference standards in other research areas in medical informatics including automatic classification, information retrieval from medical records and vocabulary/ontology development.

  12. Semantic Knowledge for Famous Names in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Seidenberg, Michael; Guidotti, Leslie; Nielson, Kristy A.; Woodard, John L.; Durgerian, Sally; Zhang, Qi; Gander, Amelia; Antuono, Piero; Rao, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Person identification represents a unique category of semantic knowledge that is commonly impaired in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), but has received relatively little investigation in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The current study examined the retrieval of semantic knowledge for famous names from three time epochs (recent, remote, and enduring) in two participant groups; 23 aMCI patients and 23 healthy elderly controls. The aMCI group was less accurate and produced less semantic knowledge than controls for famous names. Names from the enduring period were recognized faster than both recent and remote names in both groups, and remote names were recognized more quickly than recent names. Episodic memory performance was correlated with greater semantic knowledge particularly for recent names. We suggest that the anterograde memory deficits in the aMCI group interferes with learning of recent famous names and as a result produces difficulties with updating and integrating new semantic information with previously stored information. The implications of these findings for characterizing semantic memory deficits in MCI are discussed. PMID:19128524

  13. Semantic web data warehousing for caGrid.

    PubMed

    McCusker, James P; Phillips, Joshua A; González Beltrán, Alejandra; Finkelstein, Anthony; Krauthammer, Michael

    2009-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is developing caGrid as a means for sharing cancer-related data and services. As more data sets become available on caGrid, we need effective ways of accessing and integrating this information. Although the data models exposed on caGrid are semantically well annotated, it is currently up to the caGrid client to infer relationships between the different models and their classes. In this paper, we present a Semantic Web-based data warehouse (Corvus) for creating relationships among caGrid models. This is accomplished through the transformation of semantically-annotated caBIG Unified Modeling Language (UML) information models into Web Ontology Language (OWL) ontologies that preserve those semantics. We demonstrate the validity of the approach by Semantic Extraction, Transformation and Loading (SETL) of data from two caGrid data sources, caTissue and caArray, as well as alignment and query of those sources in Corvus. We argue that semantic integration is necessary for integration of data from distributed web services and that Corvus is a useful way of accomplishing this. Our approach is generalizable and of broad utility to researchers facing similar integration challenges.

  14. Semantic knowledge for famous names in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Seidenberg, Michael; Guidotti, Leslie; Nielson, Kristy A; Woodard, John L; Durgerian, Sally; Zhang, Qi; Gander, Amelia; Antuono, Piero; Rao, Stephen M

    2009-01-01

    Person identification represents a unique category of semantic knowledge that is commonly impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but has received relatively little investigation in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The current study examined the retrieval of semantic knowledge for famous names from three time epochs (recent, remote, and enduring) in two participant groups: 23 amnestic MCI (aMCI) patients and 23 healthy elderly controls. The aMCI group was less accurate and produced less semantic knowledge than controls for famous names. Names from the enduring period were recognized faster than both recent and remote names in both groups, and remote names were recognized more quickly than recent names. Episodic memory performance was correlated with greater semantic knowledge particularly for recent names. We suggest that the anterograde memory deficits in the aMCI group interferes with learning of recent famous names and as a result produces difficulties with updating and integrating new semantic information with previously stored information. The implications of these findings for characterizing semantic memory deficits in MCI are discussed. (JINS, 2009, 15, 9-18.).

  15. The UMLS Semantic Network and the Semantic Web.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Vipul

    2003-01-01

    The Unified Medical Language System is an extensive source of biomedical knowledge developed and maintained by the US National Library of Medicine (NLM) and is being currently used in a wide variety of biomedical applications. The Semantic Network, a component of the UMLS is a structured description of core biomedical knowledge consisting of well defined semantic types and relationships between them. We investigate the expressiveness of DAML+OIL, a markup language proposed for ontologies on the Semantic Web, for representing the knowledge contained in the Semantic Network. Requirements specific to the Semantic Network, such as polymorphic relationships and blocking relationship inheritance are discussed and approaches to represent these in DAML+OIL are presented. Finally, conclusions are presented along with a discussion of ongoing and future work.

  16. Semantic-preload video model based on VOP coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianping; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Xiangjun

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, in order to reduce semantic gap which exists between high-level semantics and low-level features of video when the human understanding image or video, people mostly try the method of video annotation where in signal's downstream, namely further (again) attach labels to the content in video-database. Few people focus on the idea that: Use limited interaction and the means of comprehensive segmentation (including optical technologies) from the front-end of collection of video information (i.e. video camera), with video semantics analysis technology and corresponding concepts sets (i.e. ontology) which belong in a certain domain, as well as story shooting script and the task description of scene shooting etc; Apply different-level semantic descriptions to enrich the attributes of video object and the attributes of image region, then forms a new video model which is based on Video Object Plan (VOP) Coding. This model has potential intellectualized features, and carries a large amount of metadata, and embedded intermediate-level semantic concept into every object. This paper focuses on the latter, and presents a framework of a new video model. At present, this new video model is temporarily named "Video Model of Semantic-Preloaded or Semantic-Preload Video Model (simplified into VMoSP or SPVM)". This model mainly researches how to add labeling to video objects and image regions in real time, here video object and image region are usually used intermediate semantic labeling, and this work is placed on signal's upstream (i.e. video capture production stage). Because of the research needs, this paper also tries to analyses the hierarchic structure of video, and divides the hierarchic structure into nine hierarchy semantic levels, of course, this nine hierarchy only involved in video production process. In addition, the paper also point out that here semantic level tagging work (i.e. semantic preloading) only refers to the four middle-level semantic. All in

  17. Bridging the Gap between Linked Data and the Semantic Desktop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groza, Tudor; Drăgan, Laura; Handschuh, Siegfried; Decker, Stefan

    The exponential growth of the World Wide Web in the last decade brought an explosion in the information space, which has important consequences also in the area of scientific research. Finding relevant work in a particular field and exploring the links between publications is currently a cumbersome task. Similarly, on the desktop, managing the publications acquired over time can represent a real challenge. Extracting semantic metadata, exploring the linked data cloud and using the semantic desktop for managing personal information represent, in part, solutions for different aspects of the above mentioned issues. In this paper, we propose an innovative approach for bridging these three directions with the overall goal of alleviating the information overload problem burdening early stage researchers. Our application combines harmoniously document engineering-oriented automatic metadata extraction with information expansion and visualization based on linked data, while the resulting documents can be seamlessly integrated into the semantic desktop.

  18. Multimodal Semantic Analysis and Annotation for Basketball Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Song; Xu, Min; Yi, Haoran; Chia, Liang-Tien; Rajan, Deepu

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents a new multiple-modality method for extracting semantic information from basketball video. The visual, motion, and audio information are extracted from video to first generate some low-level video segmentation and classification. Domain knowledge is further exploited for detecting interesting events in the basketball video. For video, both visual and motion prediction information are utilized for shot and scene boundary detection algorithm; this will be followed by scene classification. For audio, audio keysounds are sets of specific audio sounds related to semantic events and a classification method based on hidden Markov model (HMM) is used for audio keysound identification. Subsequently, by analyzing the multimodal information, the positions of potential semantic events, such as "foul" and "shot at the basket," are located with additional domain knowledge. Finally, a video annotation is generated according to MPEG-7 multimedia description schemes (MDSs). Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Microbial profiling, neural network and semantic web: an integrated information system for human pathogen risk management, prevention and surveillance in food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is estimated that food-borne pathogens cause approximately 76 million cases of gastrointestinal illnesses, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,000 deaths in the United States annually. Genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic studies, particularly, genome sequencing projects are providing valuable inform...

  20. The Development of Strategies for the Assignment of Semantic Information to Unknown Lexemes in Text. Lenguas para Objetivos Especificas (Languages for Special Purposes), No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, Charles; Alvarez, Guadalupe

    An English for Special Purposes (ESP) course being developed aims to give the students a series of techniques to help them handle vocabulary in a text, and teach them strategies for identifying meaning in context. Traditional strategies, such as the study of morphology, use of grammatical information, and exercises in dictionary usage, are…

  1. Semantic Feature Distinctiveness and Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Lexical access is the process in which basic components of meaning in language, the lexical entries (words) are activated. This activation is based on the organization and representational structure of the lexical entries. Semantic features of words, which are the prominent semantic characteristics of a word concept, provide important information…

  2. Semantic Processing of Mathematical Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Vanessa K.; Wilson, Anna J.; Hamm, Jeff P.; Phillips, Nicola; Iwabuchi, Sarina J.; Corballis, Michael C.; Arzarello, Ferdinando; Thomas, Michael O. J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether or not university mathematics students semantically process gestures depicting mathematical functions (mathematical gestures) similarly to the way they process action gestures and sentences. Semantic processing was indexed by the N400 effect. Results: The N400 effect elicited by words primed with mathematical gestures…

  3. The semantic planetary data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Daniel; Kelly, Sean; Mattmann, Chris

    2005-01-01

    This paper will provide a brief overview of the PDS data model and the PDS catalog. It will then describe the implentation of the Semantic PDS including the development of the formal ontology, the generation of RDFS/XML and RDF/XML data sets, and the buiding of the semantic search application.

  4. Alter Ego. Drug and brain--information to prevent. Compared analysis of opinions, knowledge and habits among a multicentric sample of secondary school students about drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, M; Gentile, A; Langiano, E; De Vito, E; La Torre, G; Ricciardi, G

    2006-03-01

    Repression and control have been shown to be inadequate for drug addiction issues. Recent history, however has proved that information is one of the most effective measures against the spread of drugs. The wide range of drug circulation and the need for the spread of correct information on the effects of drugs in man, especially his brain, have led the Center for Scientific Culture Diffusion of Cassino University, to widen the scope of "Alter Ego. Drugs and the brain", a touring educational exhibition, which opened in 1994, by dedicating more attention to socially accepted drugs, such as alcohol and tobacco, and to new substances like ecstasy and similar drugs. Concurrently with the Alter Ego touring exhibition, a study was undertaken to obtain information on public awareness of the dangers of psychotropic drug abuse and to assess the effectiveness of the exhibition as an instrument of scientific information about drug addiction among its visitors, during its tour of over 60 Italian towns.

  5. Treatment for Anomia in Semantic Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Maya L.; Beeson, Pélagie M.; Rapcsak, Steven Z.

    2009-01-01

    Anomia is a striking and consistent clinical feature of semantic dementia (SD), a progressive aphasia syndrome associated with focal cortical atrophy of the anterior temporal lobes. Word retrieval deficits in patients with SD have been attributed to the loss of conceptual knowledge, resulting in an impairment referred to as semantic anomia. Whereas an abundance of research has been dedicated to treatment for anomia in individuals with focal brain damage due to stroke, considerably less work has been done regarding treatment for patients with progressive language decline. The purpose of this article is to review the available literature concerning the nature and treatment of anomia in individuals with SD. Several studies have shown that new lexical learning remains possible in these patients. However, newly learned information is likely to be constrained by the learning context, and increased reliance on perceptual and autobiographical contextual information may be necessary to provide critical support for new vocabulary acquisition. There is also evidence suggesting that treatment may slow the progression of anomia over time, even affording some protective benefit to lexical items that are not yet lost. However, treatment efforts are likely to be most beneficial at early stages of the disease, when residual semantic knowledge as. well as relatively spared episodic memory may support new learning. PMID:18348092

  6. GOOSE: semantic search on internet connected sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutte, Klamer; Bomhof, Freek; Burghouts, Gertjan; van Diggelen, Jurriaan; Hiemstra, Peter; van't Hof, Jaap; Kraaij, Wessel; Pasman, Huib; Smith, Arthur; Versloot, Corne; de Wit, Joost

    2013-05-01

    More and more sensors are getting Internet connected. Examples are cameras on cell phones, CCTV cameras for traffic control as well as dedicated security and defense sensor systems. Due to the steadily increasing data volume, human exploitation of all this sensor data is impossible for effective mission execution. Smart access to all sensor data acts as enabler for questions such as "Is there a person behind this building" or "Alert me when a vehicle approaches". The GOOSE concept has the ambition to provide the capability to search semantically for any relevant information within "all" (including imaging) sensor streams in the entire Internet of sensors. This is similar to the capability provided by presently available Internet search engines which enable the retrieval of information on "all" web pages on the Internet. In line with current Internet search engines any indexing services shall be utilized cross-domain. The two main challenge for GOOSE is the Semantic Gap and Scalability. The GOOSE architecture consists of five elements: (1) an online extraction of primitives on each sensor stream; (2) an indexing and search mechanism for these primitives; (3) a ontology based semantic matching module; (4) a top-down hypothesis verification mechanism and (5) a controlling man-machine interface. This paper reports on the initial GOOSE demonstrator, which consists of the MES multimedia analysis platform and the CORTEX action recognition module. It also provides an outlook into future GOOSE development.

  7. Mathematical logic in the human brain: semantics.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Roland M; Friederici, Angela D

    2013-01-01

    As a higher cognitive function in humans, mathematics is supported by parietal and prefrontal brain regions. Here, we give an integrative account of the role of the different brain systems in processing the semantics of mathematical logic from the perspective of macroscopic polysynaptic networks. By comparing algebraic and arithmetic expressions of identical underlying structure, we show how the different subparts of a fronto-parietal network are modulated by the semantic domain, over which the mathematical formulae are interpreted. Within this network, the prefrontal cortex represents a system that hosts three major components, namely, control, arithmetic-logic, and short-term memory. This prefrontal system operates on data fed to it by two other systems: a premotor-parietal top-down system that updates and transforms (external) data into an internal format, and a hippocampal bottom-up system that either detects novel information or serves as an access device to memory for previously acquired knowledge.

  8. Identifying bilingual semantic neural representations across languages

    PubMed Central

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Mason, Robert A.; Mitchell, Tom M.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study was to identify the neural representation of a noun's meaning in one language based on the neural representation of that same noun in another language. Machine learning methods were used to train classifiers to identify which individual noun bilingual participants were thinking about in one language based solely on their brain activation in the other language. The study shows reliable (p < .05) pattern-based classification accuracies for the classification of brain activity for nouns across languages. It also shows that the stable voxels used to classify the brain activation were located in areas associated with encoding information about semantic dimensions of the words in the study. The identification of the semantic trace of individual nouns from the pattern of cortical activity demonstrates the existence of a multi-voxel pattern of activation across the cortex for a single noun common to both languages in bilinguals. PMID:21978845

  9. Semantic Advertising for Web 3.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edward; Pan, Jeff Z.; Taylor, Stuart; Ren, Yuan; Jekjantuk, Nophadol; Zhao, Yuting

    Advertising on the World Wide Web is based around automatically matching web pages with appropriate advertisements, in the form of banner ads, interactive adverts, or text links. Traditionally this has been done by manual classification of pages, or more recently using information retrieval techniques to find the most important keywords from the page, and match these to keywords being used by adverts. In this paper, we propose a new model for online advertising, based around lightweight embedded semantics. This will improve the relevancy of adverts on the World Wide Web and help to kick-start the use of RDFa as a mechanism for adding lightweight semantic attributes to the Web. Furthermore, we propose a system architecture for the proposed new model, based on our scalable ontology reasoning infrastructure TrOWL.

  10. Mathematical Logic in the Human Brain: Semantics

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Roland M.; Friederici, Angela D.

    2013-01-01

    As a higher cognitive function in humans, mathematics is supported by parietal and prefrontal brain regions. Here, we give an integrative account of the role of the different brain systems in processing the semantics of mathematical logic from the perspective of macroscopic polysynaptic networks. By comparing algebraic and arithmetic expressions of identical underlying structure, we show how the different subparts of a fronto-parietal network are modulated by the semantic domain, over which the mathematical formulae are interpreted. Within this network, the prefrontal cortex represents a system that hosts three major components, namely, control, arithmetic-logic, and short-term memory. This prefrontal system operates on data fed to it by two other systems: a premotor-parietal top-down system that updates and transforms (external) data into an internal format, and a hippocampal bottom-up system that either detects novel information or serves as an access device to memory for previously acquired knowledge. PMID:23301101

  11. Interspecies semantic communication in two forest primates.

    PubMed Central

    Zuberbühler, K

    2000-01-01

    West African Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) and Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) frequently form mixed-species associations. Males of both species produce acoustically distinct alarm calls to crowned eagles (Stephanoaetus coronalus) and leopards (Panthera pardus), two of their main predators. Field playback experiments were conducted to investigate whether Diana monkeys respond to Campbell's alarm calls and whether they understand the calls' semantic content. Diana monkeys responded to playback of Campbell's leopard or eagle alarm calls as though the original predator were present. In a second experiment, Diana monkeys were primed with either Campbell's eagle or leopard alarm calls and then subsequently probed with the vocalizations of a crowned eagle or a leopard. Results showed that monkeys used the semantic information conveyed by the Campbell's alarm calls to predict the presence of a predator. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that non-human primates are able to use acoustic signals of diverse origin as labels for underlying mental representations. PMID:10821618

  12. Hierarchical abstract semantic model for image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhipeng; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Wei; Tang, Xianglong

    2015-09-01

    Semantic gap limits the performance of bag-of-visual-words. To deal with this problem, a hierarchical abstract semantics method that builds abstract semantic layers, generates semantic visual vocabularies, measures semantic gap, and constructs classifiers using the Adaboost strategy is proposed. First, abstract semantic layers are proposed to narrow the semantic gap between visual features and their interpretation. Then semantic visual words are extracted as features to train semantic classifiers. One popular form of measurement is used to quantify the semantic gap. The Adaboost training strategy is used to combine weak classifiers into strong ones to further improve performance. For a testing image, the category is estimated layer-by-layer. Corresponding abstract hierarchical structures for popular datasets, including Caltech-101 and MSRC, are proposed for evaluation. The experimental results show that the proposed method is capable of narrowing semantic gaps effectively and performs better than other categorization methods.

  13. Semantic Workflows and Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Y.

    2011-12-01

    While sharing and disseminating data is widely practiced across scientific communities, we have yet to recognize the importance of sharing and disseminating the analytic processes that leads to published data. Data retrieved from shared repositories and archives is often hard to interpret because we lack documentation about those processes: what models were used, what assumptions were made, what calibrations were carried out, etc. This process documentation is also key to aggregate data in a meaningful way, whether aggregating shared third party data or aggregating shared data with local sensor data collected by individual investigators. We suggest that augmenting published data with process documentation would greatly enhance our ability to find, reuse, interpret, and aggregate data and therefore have a significant impact in the utility of data repositories and archives. We will show that semantic workflows and provenance provide key technologies for capturing process documentation. Semantic workflows describe the kinds of data transformation and analysis steps used to create new data products, and can include useful constraints about why specific models were selected or parameters chosen. Provenance records can be used to publish workflow descriptions in standard formats that can be reused to enable verification and reproducibility of data products.

  14. A model-driven approach for representing clinical archetypes for Semantic Web environments.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Costa, Catalina; Menárguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás; Maldonado, José Alberto

    2009-02-01

    The life-long clinical information of any person supported by electronic means configures his Electronic Health Record (EHR). This information is usually distributed among several independent and heterogeneous systems that may be syntactically or semantically incompatible. There are currently different standards for representing and exchanging EHR information among different systems. In advanced EHR approaches, clinical information is represented by means of archetypes. Most of these approaches use the Archetype Definition Language (ADL) to specify archetypes. However, ADL has some drawbacks when attempting to perform semantic activities in Semantic Web environments. In this work, Semantic Web technologies are used to specify clinical archetypes for advanced EHR architectures. The advantages of using the Ontology Web Language (OWL) instead of ADL are described and discussed in this work. Moreover, a solution combining Semantic Web and Model-driven Engineering technologies is proposed to transform ADL into OWL for the CEN EN13606 EHR architecture.

  15. "Pre-Semantic" Cognition Revisited: Critical Differences between Semantic Aphasia and Semantic Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal "pre-semantic" tasks, e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are…

  16. Industrial application of semantic process mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espen Ingvaldsen, Jon; Atle Gulla, Jon

    2012-05-01

    Process mining relates to the extraction of non-trivial and useful information from information system event logs. It is a new research discipline that has evolved significantly since the early work on idealistic process logs. Over the last years, process mining prototypes have incorporated elements from semantics and data mining and targeted visualisation techniques that are more user-friendly to business experts and process owners. In this article, we present a framework for evaluating different aspects of enterprise process flows and address practical challenges of state-of-the-art industrial process mining. We also explore the inherent strengths of the technology for more efficient process optimisation.

  17. Semantic Web technologies for the big data in life sciences.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongyan; Yamaguchi, Atsuko

    2014-08-01

    The life sciences field is entering an era of big data with the breakthroughs of science and technology. More and more big data-related projects and activities are being performed in the world. Life sciences data generated by new technologies are continuing to grow in not only size but also variety and complexity, with great speed. To ensure that big data has a major influence in the life sciences, comprehensive data analysis across multiple data sources and even across disciplines is indispensable. The increasing volume of data and the heterogeneous, complex varieties of data are two principal issues mainly discussed in life science informatics. The ever-evolving next-generation Web, characterized as the Semantic Web, is an extension of the current Web, aiming to provide information for not only humans but also computers to semantically process large-scale data. The paper presents a survey of big data in life sciences, big data related projects and Semantic Web technologies. The paper introduces the main Semantic Web technologies and their current situation, and provides a detailed analysis of how Semantic Web technologies address the heterogeneous variety of life sciences big data. The paper helps to understand the role of Semantic Web technologies in the big data era and how they provide a promising solution for the big data in life sciences.

  18. Ontology alignment architecture for semantic sensor Web integration.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Susel; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan; Velasco, Juan R; Alarcos, Bernardo

    2013-09-18

    Sensor networks are a concept that has become very popular in data acquisition and processing for multiple applications in different fields such as industrial, medicine, home automation, environmental detection, etc. Today, with the proliferation of small communication devices with sensors that collect environmental data, semantic Web technologies are becoming closely related with sensor networks. The linking of elements from Semantic Web technologies with sensor networks has been called Semantic Sensor Web and has among its main features the use of ontologies. One of the key challenges of using ontologies in sensor networks is to provide mechanisms to integrate and exchange knowledge from heterogeneous sources (that is, dealing with semantic heterogeneity). Ontology alignment is the process of bringing ontologies into mutual agreement by the automatic discovery of mappings between related concepts. This paper presents a system for ontology alignment in the Semantic Sensor Web which uses fuzzy logic techniques to combine similarity measures between entities of different ontologies. The proposed approach focuses on two key elements: the terminological similarity, which takes into account the linguistic and semantic information of the context of the entity's names, and the structural similarity, based on both the internal and relational structure of the concepts. This work has been validated using sensor network ontologies and the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative (OAEI) tests. The results show that the proposed techniques outperform previous approaches in terms of precision and recall.

  19. Combinatorial semantics strengthens angular-anterior temporal coupling.

    PubMed

    Molinaro, Nicola; Paz-Alonso, Pedro M; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    The human semantic combinatorial system allows us to create a wide number of new meanings from a finite number of existing representations. The present study investigates the neural dynamics underlying the semantic processing of different conceptual constructions based on predictions from previous neuroanatomical models of the semantic processing network. In two experiments, participants read sentences for comprehension containing noun-adjective pairs in three different conditions: prototypical (Redundant), nonsense (Anomalous) and low-typical but composable (Contrastive). In Experiment 1 we examined the processing costs associated to reading these sentences and found a processing dissociation between Anomalous and Contrastive word pairs, compared to prototypical (Redundant) stimuli. In Experiment 2, functional connectivity results showed strong co-activation across conditions between inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (MTG), as well as between these two regions and middle frontal gyrus (MFG), anterior temporal cortex (ATC) and fusiform gyrus (FG), consistent with previous neuroanatomical models. Importantly, processing of low-typical (but composable) meanings relative to prototypical and anomalous constructions was associated with a stronger positive coupling between ATC and angular gyrus (AG). Our results underscore the critical role of IFG-MTG co-activation during semantic processing and how other relevant nodes within the semantic processing network come into play to handle visual-orthographic information, to maintain multiple lexical-semantic representations in working memory and to combine existing representations while creatively constructing meaning.

  20. Individual Differences in a Spatial-Semantic Virtual Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chaomei

    2000-01-01

    Presents two empirical case studies concerning the role of individual differences in searching through a spatial-semantic virtual environment. Discusses information visualization in information systems; cognitive factors, including associative memory, spatial ability, and visual memory; user satisfaction; and cognitive abilities and search…

  1. Semantic Elaboration: ERPs Reveal Rapid Transition from Novel to Known

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Jackson, Felicia L.

    2015-01-01

    Like language, semantic memory is productive: It extends itself through self-derivation of new information through logical processes such as analogy, deduction, and induction, for example. Though it is clear these productive processes occur, little is known about the time course over which newly self-derived information becomes incorporated into…

  2. Semantic Memory Redux: An Experimental Test of Hierarchical Category Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Gregory L.; Hampton, James A.; Milovanovic, Goran S.

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments investigated the classic issue in semantic memory of whether people organize categorical information in hierarchies and use inference to retrieve information from them, as proposed by Collins and Quillian (1969). Past evidence has focused on RT to confirm sentences such as "All birds are animals" or "Canaries breathe." However,…

  3. Neural changes associated with semantic processing in healthy aging despite intact behavioral performance.

    PubMed

    Lacombe, Jacinthe; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Grimault, Stephan; Pineault, Jessica; Joubert, Sven

    2015-10-01

    Semantic memory recruits an extensive neural network including the left inferior prefrontal cortex (IPC) and the left temporoparietal region, which are involved in semantic control processes, as well as the anterior temporal lobe region (ATL) which is considered to be involved in processing semantic information at a central level. However, little is known about the underlying neuronal integrity of the semantic network in normal aging. Young and older healthy adults carried out a semantic judgment task while their cortical activity was recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Despite equivalent behavioral performance, young adults activated the left IPC to a greater extent than older adults, while the latter group recruited the temporoparietal region bilaterally and the left ATL to a greater extent than younger adults. Results indicate that significant neuronal changes occur in normal aging, mainly in regions underlying semantic control processes, despite an apparent stability in performance at the behavioral level.

  4. Semantic Representation and Naming in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Karla K.; Friedman, Rena M.; Reilly, Renee M.; Newman, Robyn M.

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments examined children's semantic representations and semantic naming errors. Results suggested that functional and physical properties are core aspects of object representations in the semantic lexicon and that the degree of semantic knowledge makes words more or less vulnerable to retrieval failure. Discussion focuses on the dynamic…

  5. Mapping the Structure of Semantic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morais, Ana Sofia; Olsson, Henrik; Schooler, Lael J.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregating snippets from the semantic memories of many individuals may not yield a good map of an individual's semantic memory. The authors analyze the structure of semantic networks that they sampled from individuals through a new snowball sampling paradigm during approximately 6 weeks of 1-hr daily sessions. The semantic networks of individuals…

  6. Technique for information retrieval using enhanced latent semantic analysis generating rank approximation matrix by factorizing the weighted morpheme-by-document matrix

    DOEpatents

    Chew, Peter A; Bader, Brett W

    2012-10-16

    A technique for information retrieval includes parsing a corpus to identify a number of wordform instances within each document of the corpus. A weighted morpheme-by-document matrix is generated based at least in part on the number of wordform instances within each document of the corpus and based at least in part on a weighting function. The weighted morpheme-by-document matrix separately enumerates instances of stems and affixes. Additionally or alternatively, a term-by-term alignment matrix may be generated based at least in part on the number of wordform instances within each document of the corpus. At least one lower rank approximation matrix is generated by factorizing the weighted morpheme-by-document matrix and/or the term-by-term alignment matrix.

  7. ARGOS policy brief on semantic interoperability.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Dipak; Musen, Mark; Smith, Barry; Ceusters, Werner; De Moor, Georges

    2011-01-01

    Semantic interoperability is one of the priority themes of the ARGOS Trans-Atlantic Observatory. This topic represents a globally recognised challenge that must be addressed if electronic health records are to be shared among heterogeneous systems, and the information in them exploited to the maximum benefit of patients, professionals, health services, research, and industry. Progress in this multi-faceted challenge has been piecemeal, and valuable lessons have been learned, and approaches discovered, in Europe and in the US that can be shared and combined. Experts from both continents have met at three ARGOS workshops during 2010 and 2011 to share understanding of these issues and how they might be tackled collectively from both sides of the Atlantic. This policy brief summarises the problems and the reasons why they are important to tackle, and also why they are so difficult. It outlines the major areas of semantic innovation that exist and that are available to help address this challenge. It proposes a series of next steps that need to be championed on both sides of the Atlantic if further progress is to be made in sharing and analysing electronic health records meaningfully. Semantic interoperability requires the use of standards, not only for EHR data to be transferred and structurally mapped into a receiving repository, but also for the clinical content of the EHR to be interpreted in conformity with the original meanings intended by its authors. Wide-scale engagement with professional bodies, globally, is needed to develop these clinical information standards. Accurate and complete clinical documentation, faithful to the patient's situation, and interoperability between systems, require widespread and dependable access to published and maintained collections of coherent and quality-assured semantic resources, including models such as archetypes and templates that would (1) provide clinical context, (2) be mapped to interoperability standards for EHR data

  8. Neural Substrates of Semantic Prospection – Evidence from the Dementias

    PubMed Central

    Irish, Muireann; Eyre, Nadine; Dermody, Nadene; O’Callaghan, Claire; Hodges, John R.; Hornberger, Michael; Piguet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    lateralization effects depending on the type of information being simulated. Whereas episodic future thinking related to right hippocampal integrity, semantic future thinking was found to relate to left hippocampal integrity. Our findings support previous observations of significant MTL involvement for semantic forms of prospection and point to distinct neurocognitive mechanisms which must be functional to support future-oriented forms of thought across personal and non-personal contexts. PMID:27252632

  9. Learning semantic and visual similarity for endomicroscopy video retrieval.

    PubMed

    Andre, Barbara; Vercauteren, Tom; Buchner, Anna M; Wallace, Michael B; Ayache, Nicholas

    2012-06-01

    . In our resulting retrieval system, we decide to use visual signatures for perceived similarity learning and retrieval, and semantic signatures for the output of an additional information, expressed in the endoscopist own language, which provides a relevant semantic translation of the visual retrieval outputs.

  10. Neural Substrates of Semantic Prospection - Evidence from the Dementias.

    PubMed

    Irish, Muireann; Eyre, Nadine; Dermody, Nadene; O'Callaghan, Claire; Hodges, John R; Hornberger, Michael; Piguet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    lateralization effects depending on the type of information being simulated. Whereas episodic future thinking related to right hippocampal integrity, semantic future thinking was found to relate to left hippocampal integrity. Our findings support previous observations of significant MTL involvement for semantic forms of prospection and point to distinct neurocognitive mechanisms which must be functional to support future-oriented forms of thought across personal and non-personal contexts.

  11. Semantic memory recognition is supported by intrinsic recollection-like processes: "The butcher on the bus" revisited.

    PubMed

    Waidergoren, Shani; Segalowicz, Judith; Gilboa, Asaf

    2012-12-01

    Dual-process models suggest that recognition memory is independently supported by recollection and familiarity. Current theories attribute recollection solely to hippocampally mediated episodic memory (EM), and familiarity to both episodic and semantic memory (SM) supported by medial temporal lobe cortex (MTLC) and prefrontal cortex. We tested whether, contrary to this view, recollection-like processes also intrinsically support SM recognition and whether MTL structures are involved in their execution. A semantic process dissociation procedure (PDP) with famous and non-famous names was used in three experiments. Experiment 1 revealed that recollection-like processes in semantic memory were not associated with episodic memory for the public events, were predicted by performance on standard SM tasks and were independent of EM tasks, suggesting they are intrinsic to SM. Experiment 2 demonstrated the independence of the two process estimates by showing only familiarity was affected by shifting response criterion while only recollection estimates were significantly altered under divided-attention. Finally experiment 3 tested amnesic patients with varying degrees of hippocampal and MTLC damage. Despite normal overall fame recognition performance, recollection estimates were specifically affected by MTL damage. When damage was primarily hippocampal, only retrograde recollection estimates were reduced, while more extensive MTLC damage led to both retrograde and anterograde recollection deficits. We conclude that recognition of semantic information is supported by at least two independent processes akin to the ones that support EM recognition. Recollection-like processes are intrinsic to SM and likely do not reflect EM contribution to SM performance. Together with previous studies of recollection in remote memory, these data suggest that recollection is not a unitary phenomenon. In EM it involves autonoetic re-experiencing, and is supported by interaction of fronto

  12. Management Tool for Semantic Annotations in WSDL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissel-Dallier, Nicolas; Lorré, Jean-Pierre; Benaben, Frédérick

    Semantic Web Services add features to automate web services discovery and composition. A new standard called SAWSDL emerged recently as a W3C recommendation to add semantic annotations within web service descriptions (WSDL). In order to manipulate such information in Java program we need an XML parser. Two open-source libraries already exist (SAWSDL4J and Woden4SAWSDL) but they don't meet all our specific needs such as support for WSDL 1.1 and 2.0. This paper presents a new tool, called EasyWSDL, which is able to handle semantic annotations as well as to manage the full WSDL description thanks to a plug-in mechanism. This tool allows us to read/edit/create a WSDL description and related annotations thanks to a uniform API, in both 1.1 and 2.0 versions. This document compares these three libraries and presents its integration into Dragon the OW2 open-source SOA governance tool.

  13. Semantic Web for Manufacturing Web Services

    SciTech Connect

    Kulvatunyou, Boonserm; Ivezic, Nenad

    2002-06-01

    As markets become unexpectedly turbulent with a shortened product life cycle and a power shift towards buyers, the need for methods to rapidly and cost-effectively develop products, production facilities and supporting software is becoming urgent. The use of a virtual enterprise plays a vital role in surviving turbulent markets. However, its success requires reliable and large-scale interoperation among trading partners via a semantic web of trading partners' services whose properties, capabilities, and interfaces are encoded in an unambiguous as well as computer-understandable form. This paper demonstrates a promising approach to integration and interoperation between a design house and a manufacturer by developing semantic web services for business and engineering transactions. To this end, detailed activity and information flow diagrams are developed, in which the two trading partners exchange messages and documents. The properties and capabilities of the manufacturer sites are defined using DARPA Agent Markup Language (DAML) ontology definition language. The prototype development of semantic webs shows that enterprises can widely interoperate in an unambiguous and autonomous manner; hence, virtual enterprise is realizable at a low cost.

  14. High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.

    2011-06-02

    As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

  15. On the Grammar and Model-Theoretic Semantics of Children's Noun Phrases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick

    The paper shows informally how model-theoretical semantics may be used by a computer to give a straight-forward analysis of the meaning of children's language. This approach to semantics grows out of the main thrust of work in mathematical logic. It is discussed in the framework of generative grammar and is based on the application of the…

  16. Orthographic Learning in Learning to Spell: The Roles of Semantics and Type of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, Gene

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relevance of type of practice and presence of semantic representation for orthographic learning in learning to spell. A total of 36 students in Grade 2 (mean age = 7 years 10 months) were exposed to 10 novel nonwords, 5 of which were paired with semantic information. Half of the participants practiced reading these new…

  17. Implicit Word Learning Benefits from Semantic Richness: Electrophysiological and Behavioral Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabovsky, Milena; Sommer, Werner; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2012-01-01

    Words differ considerably in the amount of associated semantic information. Despite the crucial role of meaning in language, it is still unclear whether and how this variability modulates language learning. Here, we provide initial evidence demonstrating that implicit learning in repetition priming is influenced by the amount of semantic features…

  18. The Nature of Semantic Savings for Items Forgotten from Long-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Thomas O.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The kind of semantic information that facilitates relearning was investigated. The paradigm consisted of three stages: (1) learn a list of number-word pairs; (2) return for a retention test; and (3) relearn a new list of pairs that have various kinds of semantic relatedness to the originally learned pairs. (Author/CTM)

  19. Semantic Similarity of Labels and Inductive Generalization: Taking a Second Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Anna V.; Matlen, Bryan J.; Godwin, Karrie E.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research suggests that preschoolers can generalize object properties based on category information conveyed by semantically-similar labels. However, previous research did not control for co-occurrence probability of labels in natural speech. The current studies re-assessed children's generalization with semantically-similar labels.…

  20. Semantic and Morpho-Syntactic Priming in Auditory Word Recognition in Congenitally Blind Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roder, Brigitte; Demuth, Lisa; Streb, Judith; Rosler, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Used a semantic and morpho-syntactic priming paradigm to examine at which processing stage the advantage of blind adults may arise. Concludes that the faster speech comprehension skills of blind adults may originate from a more efficient perceptual analysis rather than from a more extended use of semantic or morpho-syntactic context information.…

  1. Visualizing Semantic Spaces and Author Co-citation Networks in Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chaomei

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development and application of visualization techniques for users to access and explore information in digital libraries effectively and intuitively. Salient semantic structures and citation patterns are extracted from several collections of documents using Latent Semantic Indexing and Pathfinder Network Scaling. Author cocitation…

  2. A Familiar Pattern? Semantic Memory Contributes to the Enhancement of Visuo-Spatial Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Leigh M.; Orme, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    In this study we quantify for the first time electrophysiological components associated with incorporating long-term semantic knowledge with visuo-spatial information using two variants of a traditional matrix patterns task. Results indicated that the matrix task with greater semantic content was associated with enhanced accuracy and RTs in a…

  3. Matching Alternative Addresses: a Semantic Web Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariannamazi, S.; Karimipour, F.; Hakimpour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI) provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature's literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  4. Low-temperature alteration of dredged volcanics from the Southern Chile Ridge: Additional information about early stages of seafloor weathering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pichler, T.; Ridley, W.I.; Nelson, E.

    1999-01-01

    A suite of submarine volcanic rocks from the Southern Chile Ridge has been examined in order to investigate the early stages of low temperature alteration. Alteration in these samples proceeded as follows: (1) Fe-staining on sample surface and along fractures, (2) filling of vesicles with secondary material, (3) breakdown of glassy matrix, (4) breakdown of microcrystalline matrix, and (5) breakdown and replacement of olivine. Plagioclase and pyroxene were sometimes found to be slightly altered along internal fissures. Secondary or alteration phases generally showed high K (3-5 wt.%), Fe (30-70 wt.%) and low Al ( Rb > K. During initial stages of alteration the behavior of some trace elements such as rare-earth elements (REE), Ba, Zr, Hf, Ta, Nb, and Mo are solely controlled by the precipitation of Mn-rich Fe-oxyhydroxides. The preferred incorporation of Ce into Mn-rich Fe-oxyhydroxides may be a principal factor explaining the Ce depletion in seawater. We conclude that the earliest stages of submarine weathering are controlled by Eh and pH gradients between the rock and seawater. In the absence of a buffer, oxidation of ferrous iron causes a decrease in solution pH.

  5. Right anterior temporal lobe dysfunction underlies theory of mind impairments in semantic dementia.

    PubMed

    Irish, Muireann; Hodges, John R; Piguet, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    Semantic dementia is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the amodal and profound loss of semantic knowledge attributable to the degeneration of the left anterior temporal lobe. Although traditionally conceptualized as a language disorder, patients with semantic dementia display significant alterations in behaviour and socioemotional functioning. Recent evidence points to an impaired capacity for theory of mind in predominantly left-lateralized cases of semantic dementia; however, it remains unclear to what extent semantic impairments contribute to these deficits. Further the neuroanatomical signature of such disturbance remains unknown. Here, we sought to determine the neural correlates of theory of mind performance in patients with left predominant semantic dementia (n=11), in contrast with disease-matched cases with behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (n=10) and Alzheimer's disease (n=10), and healthy older individuals (n=14) as control participants. Participants completed a simple cartoons task, in which they were required to describe physical and theory of mind scenarios. Irrespective of subscale, patients with semantic dementia exhibited marked impairments relative to control subjects; however, only theory of mind deficits persisted when we covaried for semantic comprehension. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed that atrophy in right anterior temporal lobe structures, including the right temporal fusiform cortex, right inferior temporal gyrus, bilateral temporal poles and amygdalae, correlated significantly with theory of mind impairments in the semantic dementia group. Our results point to the marked disruption of cognitive functions beyond the language domain in semantic dementia, not exclusively attributable to semantic processing impairments. The significant involvement of right anterior temporal structures suggests that with disease evolution, the encroachment of pathology into the contralateral hemisphere heralds the

  6. Does semantic redundancy gain result from multiple semantic priming?

    PubMed

    Schröter, Hannes; Bratzke, Daniel; Fiedler, Anja; Birngruber, Teresa

    2015-10-01

    Fiedler, Schröter, and Ulrich (2013) reported faster responses to a single written word when the semantic content of this word (e.g., "elephant") matched both targets (e.g., "animal", "gray") as compared to a single target (e.g., "animal", "brown"). This semantic redundancy gain was explained by statistical facilitation due to a race of independent memory retrieval processes. The present experiment addresses one alternative explanation, namely that semantic redundancy gain results from multiple pre-activation of words that match both targets. In different blocks of trials, participants performed a redundant-targets task and a lexical decision task. The targets of the redundant-targets task served as primes in the lexical decision task. Replicating the findings of Fiedler et al., a semantic redundancy gain was observed in the redundant-targets task. Crucially, however, there was no evidence of a multiple semantic priming effect in the lexical decision task. This result suggests that semantic redundancy gain cannot be explained by multiple pre-activation of words that match both targets.

  7. SAS- Semantic Annotation Service for Geoscience resources on the web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elag, M.; Kumar, P.; Marini, L.; Li, R.; Jiang, P.

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing need for increased integration across the data and model resources that are disseminated on the web to advance their reuse across different earth science applications. Meaningful reuse of resources requires semantic metadata to realize the semantic web vision for allowing pragmatic linkage and integration among resources. Semantic metadata associates standard metadata with resources to turn them into semantically-enabled resources on the web. However, the lack of a common standardized metadata framework as well as the uncoordinated use of metadata fields across different geo-information systems, has led to a situation in which standards and related Standard Names abound. To address this need, we have designed SAS to provide a bridge between the core ontologies required to annotate resources and information systems in order to enable queries and analysis over annotation from a single environment (web). SAS is one of the services that are provided by the Geosematnic framework, which is a decentralized semantic framework to support the integration between models and data and allow semantically heterogeneous to interact with minimum human intervention. Here we present the design of SAS and demonstrate its application for annotating data and models. First we describe how predicates and their attributes are extracted from standards and ingested in the knowledge-base of the Geosemantic framework. Then we illustrate the application of SAS in annotating data managed by SEAD and annotating simulation models that have web interface. SAS is a step in a broader approach to raise the quality of geoscience data and models that are published on the web and allow users to better search, access, and use of the existing resources based on standard vocabularies that are encoded and published using semantic technologies.

  8. Problem Solving with General Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, David

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)

  9. Nine Principles of Semantic Harmonization.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, James A; Van Speybroeck, Michel; Kalra, Dipak; Verbeeck, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    Medical data is routinely collected, stored and recorded across different institutions and in a range of different formats. Semantic harmonization is the process of collating this data into a singular consistent logical view, with many approaches to harmonizing both possible and valid. The broad scope of possibilities for undertaking semantic harmonization do lead however to the development of bespoke and ad-hoc systems; this is particularly the case when it comes to cohort data, the format of which is often specific to a cohort's area of focus. Guided by work we have undertaken in developing the 'EMIF Knowledge Object Library', a semantic harmonization framework underpinning the collation of pan-European Alzheimer's cohort data, we have developed a set of nine generic guiding principles for developing semantic harmonization frameworks, the application of which will establish a solid base for constructing similar frameworks.

  10. Nine Principles of Semantic Harmonization

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, James A.; Van Speybroeck, Michel; Kalra, Dipak; Verbeeck, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    Medical data is routinely collected, stored and recorded across different institutions and in a range of different formats. Semantic harmonization is the process of collating this data into a singular consistent logical view, with many approaches to harmonizing both possible and valid. The broad scope of possibilities for undertaking semantic harmonization do lead however to the development of bespoke and ad-hoc systems; this is particularly the case when it comes to cohort data, the format of which is often specific to a cohort’s area of focus. Guided by work we have undertaken in developing the ‘EMIF Knowledge Object Library’, a semantic harmonization framework underpinning the collation of pan-European Alzheimer’s cohort data, we have developed a set of nine generic guiding principles for developing semantic harmonization frameworks, the application of which will establish a solid base for constructing similar frameworks. PMID:28269840

  11. Distributed semantic networks and CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, James; Rodriguez, Tony

    1991-01-01

    Semantic networks of frames are commonly used as a method of reasoning in many problems. In most of these applications the semantic network exists as a single entity in a single process environment. Advances in workstation hardware provide support for more sophisticated applications involving multiple processes, interacting in a distributed environment. In these applications the semantic network may well be distributed over several concurrently executing tasks. This paper describes the design and implementation of a frame based, distributed semantic network in which frames are accessed both through C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) expert systems and procedural C++ language programs. The application area is a knowledge based, cooperative decision making model utilizing both rule based and procedural experts.

  12. Association and not semantic relationships elicit the N400 effect: electrophysiological evidence from an explicit language comprehension task.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Sinéad M; Donaldson, David I

    2008-01-01

    Language comprehension studies have identified the N400, an event-related potential (ERP) correlate of the processing of meaning, modulation of which is typically assumed to reflect the activation of semantic information. However, N400 studies of conscious language processing have not clearly distinguished between meaning derived from a semantic relationship and meaning extracted through association. We independently manipulated the presence of associative and semantic relationships while examining the N400 effect. Participants were asked to read and remember visually presented word pairs that shared an association (traffic-jam), an association+semantic relationship (lemon-orange), a semantic relationship alone (cereal-bread), or were unrelated (beard-tower). Modulation of the N400 (relative to unrelated word pairs) was observed for association and association+semantic word pairs but not for those that only shared a semantic relationship.

  13. MEDTAG: tag-like semantics for medical document indexing.

    PubMed

    Ruch, P; Wagner, J; Bouillon, P; Baud, R H; Rassinoux, A M; Scherrer, J R

    1999-01-01

    Medical documentation is central in health care, as it constitutes the main means of communication between care providers. However, there is a gap to bridge between storing information and extracting the relevant underlying knowledge. We believe natural language processing (NLP) is the best solution to handle such a large amount of textual information. In this paper we describe the construction of a semantic tagset for medical document indexing purposes. Rather than attempting to produce a home-made tagset, we decided to use, as far as possible, standard medicine resources. This step has led us to choose UMLS hierarchical classes as a basis for our tagset. We also show that semantic tagging is not only providing bases for disambiguisation between senses, but is also useful in the query expansion process of the retrieval system. We finally focus on assessing the results of the semantic tagger.

  14. Revisiting intracellular calcium signaling semantics.

    PubMed

    Haiech, Jacques; Audran, Emilie; Fève, Marie; Ranjeva, Raoul; Kilhoffer, Marie-Claude

    2011-12-01

    Cells use intracellular free calcium concentration changes for signaling. Signal encoding occurs through both spatial and temporal modulation of the free calcium concentration. The encoded message is detected by an ensemble of intracellular sensors forming the family of calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) which must faithfully translate the message using a new syntax that is recognized by the cell. The cell is home to a significant although limited number of genes coding for proteins involved in the signal encoding and decoding processes. In a cell, only a subset of this ensemble of genes is expressed, leading to a genetic regulation of the calcium signal pathways. Calmodulin (CaM), the most ubiquitous expressed intracellular calcium-binding protein, plays a major role in calcium signal translation. Similar to a hub, it is central to a large and finely tuned network, receiving information, integrating it and dispatching the cognate response. In this review, we examine the different steps starting with an external stimulus up to a cellular response, with special emphasis on CaM and the mechanism by which it decodes calcium signals and translates it into exquisitely coordinated cellular events. By this means, we will revisit the calcium signaling semantics, hoping that we will ease communication between scientists dealing with calcium signals in different biological systems and different domains.

  15. Semantic Interoperability on the Web

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    these agents would not be affected by presentation changes if the pages were available in XML, they would still break if the XML representation of the... these semantics into tools that are used to interpret or translate the XML documents, but software tools cannot acquire these semantics independently...mapping differences in naming conventions. As with natural language, XML DTDs have the problems of polysemy and synonymy. For example, the elements

  16. SCALEUS: Semantic Web Services Integration for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Sernadela, Pedro; González-Castro, Lorena; Oliveira, José Luís

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, we have witnessed an explosion of biological data resulting largely from the demands of life science research. The vast majority of these data are freely available via diverse bioinformatics platforms, including relational databases and conventional keyword search applications. This type of approach has achieved great results in the last few years, but proved to be unfeasible when information needs to be combined or shared among different and scattered sources. During recent years, many of these data distribution challenges have been solved with the adoption of semantic web. Despite the evident benefits of this technology, its adoption introduced new challenges related with the migration process, from existent systems to the semantic level. To facilitate this transition, we have developed Scaleus, a semantic web migration tool that can be deployed on top of traditional systems in order to bring knowledge, inference rules, and query federation to the existent data. Targeted at the biomedical domain, this web-based platform offers, in a single package, straightforward data integration and semantic web services that help developers and researchers in the creation process of new semantically enhanced information systems. SCALEUS is available as open source at http://bioinformatics-ua.github.io/scaleus/ .

  17. Ranking Biomedical Annotations with Annotator's Semantic Relevancy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical annotation is a common and affective artifact for researchers to discuss, show opinion, and share discoveries. It becomes increasing popular in many online research communities, and implies much useful information. Ranking biomedical annotations is a critical problem for data user to efficiently get information. As the annotator's knowledge about the annotated entity normally determines quality of the annotations, we evaluate the knowledge, that is, semantic relationship between them, in two ways. The first is extracting relational information from credible websites by mining association rules between an annotator and a biomedical entity. The second way is frequent pattern mining from historical annotations, which reveals common features of biomedical entities that an annotator can annotate with high quality. We propose a weighted and concept-extended RDF model to represent an annotator, a biomedical entity, and their background attributes and merge information from the two ways as the context of an annotator. Based on that, we present a method to rank the annotations by evaluating their correctness according to user's vote and the semantic relevancy between the annotator and the annotated entity. The experimental results show that the approach is applicable and efficient even when data set is large. PMID:24899918

  18. Ranking biomedical annotations with annotator's semantic relevancy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Aihua

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical annotation is a common and affective artifact for researchers to discuss, show opinion, and share discoveries. It becomes increasing popular in many online research communities, and implies much useful information. Ranking biomedical annotations is a critical problem for data user to efficiently get information. As the annotator's knowledge about the annotated entity normally determines quality of the annotations, we evaluate the knowledge, that is, semantic relationship between them, in two ways. The first is extracting relational information from credible websites by mining association rules between an annotator and a biomedical entity. The second way is frequent pattern mining from historical annotations, which reveals common features of biomedical entities that an annotator can annotate with high quality. We propose a weighted and concept-extended RDF model to represent an annotator, a biomedical entity, and their background attributes and merge information from the two ways as the context of an annotator. Based on that, we present a method to rank the annotations by evaluating their correctness according to user's vote and the semantic relevancy between the annotator and the annotated entity. The experimental results show that the approach is applicable and efficient even when data set is large.

  19. Distribution of Potential Hydrothermally Altered Rocks in Central Colorado Derived From Landsat Thematic Mapper Data: A Geographic Information System Data Set

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knepper, Daniel H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Central Colorado Mineral Resource Assessment Project, the digital image data for four Landsat Thematic Mapper scenes covering central Colorado between Wyoming and New Mexico were acquired and band ratios were calculated after masking pixels dominated by vegetation, snow, and terrain shadows. Ratio values were visually enhanced by contrast stretching, revealing only those areas with strong responses (high ratio values). A color-ratio composite mosaic was prepared for the four scenes so that the distribution of potentially hydrothermally altered rocks could be visually evaluated. To provide a more useful input to a Geographic Information System-based mineral resource assessment, the information contained in the color-ratio composite raster image mosaic was converted to vector-based polygons after thresholding to isolate the strongest ratio responses and spatial filtering to reduce vector complexity and isolate the largest occurrences of potentially hydrothermally altered rocks.

  20. The semantic and episodic subcomponents of famous person knowledge: dissociation in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Piolino, Pascale; Lamidey, Virginie; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2007-01-01

    Fifty-two subjects between ages 40 and 79 years were administered a questionnaire assessing their ability to recall semantic information about famous people from 4 different decades and to recollect its episodic source of acquisition together with autonoetic consciousness via the remember-know paradigm. In addition, they underwent a battery of standardized neuropsychological tests to assess episodic and semantic memory and executive functions. The analyses of age reveal differences for the episodic source score but no differences between age groups for the semantic scores within each decade. Regardless of the age of people, the analyses also show that semantic memory subcomponents of the famous person test are highly associated with each other as well as with the source component. The recall of semantic information on the famous person test relies on participants' semantic abilities, whereas the recall of its episodic source depends on their executive functions. The present findings confirm the existence of an episodic-semantic distinction in knowledge about famous people. They provide further evidence that personal source and semantic information are at once distinct and highly interactive within the framework of remote memory.

  1. Semantic profiles in mild cognitive impairment associated with Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases

    PubMed Central

    Guidi, Marco; Paciaroni, Lucia; Paolini, Susy; Scarpino, Osvaldo; Burn, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The temporal and the prefrontal cortices have different roles in semantic information processing: the temporal lobe is where knowledge is stored (Graham and Hodges, 1997), whereas the prefrontal cortex is more specifically involved in executive aspects of semantic processing. Relatively little is known about the semantic profiles of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). This observational study investigated naming and semantic questionnaire performances in three groups of subjects: 10 patients with the amnestic-type MCI prodrome of AD (aMCI), 10 patients with early-stage executive-type MCI in PD (MCI-PD), and 10 normal subjects. The MCI-PD subjects demonstrated inferior performances on a semantic questionnaire, whereas the aMCI group displayed modest difficulties in a naming task. These differences may be explained by topographical differences in pathological involvement. Since the frontal areas are more functionally impaired in PD, we hypothesize that the semantic deficit may be a consequence of a deficiency in control of semantic processing. On the other hand, the semantic deficit in aMCI may be related to a lexical-semantic storage dysfunction resulting from pathological involvement of the temporal lobe. PMID:26415783

  2. Semantic profiles in mild cognitive impairment associated with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

    PubMed

    Guidi, Marco; Paciaroni, Lucia; Paolini, Susy; Scarpino, Osvaldo; Burn, David J

    2015-01-01

    The temporal and the prefrontal cortices have different roles in semantic information processing: the temporal lobe is where knowledge is stored (Graham and Hodges, 1997), whereas the prefrontal cortex is more specifically involved in executive aspects of semantic processing. Relatively little is known about the semantic profiles of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). This observational study investigated naming and semantic questionnaire performances in three groups of subjects: 10 patients with the amnestic-type MCI prodrome of AD (aMCI), 10 patients with early-stage executive-type MCI in PD (MCI-PD), and 10 normal subjects. The MCI-PD subjects demonstrated inferior performances on a semantic questionnaire, whereas the aMCI group displayed modest difficulties in a naming task. These differences may be explained by topographical differences in pathological involvement. Since the frontal areas are more functionally impaired in PD, we hypothesize that the semantic deficit may be a consequence of a deficiency in control of semantic processing. On the other hand, the semantic deficit in aMCI may be related to a lexical-semantic storage dysfunction resulting from pathological involvement of the temporal lobe.

  3. Exploring and linking biomedical resources through multidimensional semantic spaces

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The semantic integration of biomedical resources is still a challenging issue which is required for effective information processing and data analysis. The availability of comprehensive knowledge resources such as biomedical ontologies and integrated thesauri greatly facilitates this integration effort by means of semantic annotation, which allows disparate data formats and contents to be expressed under a common semantic space. In this paper, we propose a multidimensional representation for such a semantic space, where dimensions regard the different perspectives in biomedical research (e.g., population, disease, anatomy and protein/genes). Results This paper presents a novel method for building multidimensional semantic spaces from semantically annotated biomedical data collections. This method consists of two main processes: knowledge and data normalization. The former one arranges the concepts provided by a reference knowledge resource (e.g., biomedical ontologies and thesauri) into a set of hierarchical dimensions for analysis purposes. The latter one reduces the annotation set associated to each collection item into a set of points of the multidimensional space. Additionally, we have developed a visual tool, called 3D-Browser, which implements OLAP-like operators over the generated multidimensional space. The method and the tool have been tested and evaluated in the context of the Health-e-Child (HeC) project. Automatic semantic annotation was applied to tag three collections of abstracts taken from PubMed, one for each target disease of the project, the Uniprot database, and the HeC patient record database. We adopted the UMLS Meta-thesaurus 2010AA as the reference knowledge resource. Conclusions Current knowledge resources and semantic-aware technology make possible the integration of biomedical resources. Such an integration is performed through semantic annotation of the intended biomedical data resources. This paper shows how these annotations

  4. Object-specific semantic coding in human perirhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Alex; Tyler, Lorraine K

    2014-04-02

    Category-specificity has been demonstrated in the human posterior ventral temporal cortex for a variety of object categories. Although object representations within the ventral visual pathway must be sufficiently rich and complex to support the recognition of individual objects, little is known about how specific objects are represented. Here, we used representational similarity analysis to determine what different kinds of object information are reflected in fMRI activation patterns and uncover the relationship between categorical and object-specific semantic representations. Our results show a gradient of informational specificity along the ventral stream from representations of image-based visual properties in early visual cortex, to categorical representations in the posterior ventral stream. A key finding showed that object-specific semantic information is uniquely represented in the perirhinal cortex, which was also increasingly engaged for objects that are more semantically confusable. These findings suggest a key role for the perirhinal cortex in representing and processing object-specific semantic information that is more critical for highly confusable objects. Our findings extend current distributed models by showing coarse dissociations between objects in posterior ventral cortex, and fine-grained distinctions between objects supported by the anterior medial temporal lobes, including the perirhinal cortex, which serve to integrate complex object information.

  5. Semantic elaboration: ERPs reveal rapid transition from novel to known.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Patricia J; Jackson, Felicia L

    2015-01-01

    Like language, semantic memory is productive: It extends itself through self-derivation of new information through logical processes such as analogy, deduction, and induction, for example. Though it is clear these productive processes occur, little is known about the time course over which newly self-derived information becomes incorporated into semantic knowledge. In the present research, we used event-related potentials to examine this dynamic process. Subjects were presented with separate but related facts that, when integrated with one another, supported generation of new information (Integration facts). After 2 400-ms presentations, P600 responses to Integration facts differed from responses to Novel facts and did not differ from responses to Well-known facts, suggesting that the newly self-derived information had been incorporated into the knowledge base. The finding of rapid transition from newly self-derived to well known helps explain the richness of semantic memory. By implication, it also may contribute to the absence of episodic information specifying when and where semantic contents were acquired.

  6. On updating problems in latent semantic indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, H.D.; Zha, H.

    1997-11-01

    The authors develop new SVD-updating algorithms for three types of updating problems arising from Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) for information retrieval to deal with rapidly changing text document collections. They also provide theoretical justification for using a reduced-dimension representation of the original document collection in the updating process. Numerical experiments using several standard text document collections show that the new algorithms give higher (interpolated) average precisions than the existing algorithms and the retrieval accuracy is comparable to that obtained using the complete document collection.

  7. On updating problems in latent semantic indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Zha, H.; Simon, H.D.

    1999-10-01

    The authors develop new SVD-updating algorithms for three types of updating problems arising from latent semantic indexing (LSI) for information retrieval to deal with rapidly changing text document collections. They also provide theoretical justification for using a reduced-dimension representation of the original document collection in the updating process. Numerical experiments using several standard text document collections show that the new algorithms give higher (interpolated) average precisions that the existing algorithms, and the retrieval accuracy is comparable to that obtained using the complete document collection.

  8. Enhancing clinical concept extraction with distributional semantics

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Trevor; Wu, Stephen; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2011-01-01

    experimented with different sliding window models and found the model with parameters that led to best performance in a preliminary sequence labeling task. The evaluation of this approach, performed against the i2b2/VA concept extraction corpus, showed that incorporating features based on the distribution of words across a large unannotated corpus significantly aids concept extraction. Compared to a supervised-only approach as a baseline, the micro-averaged f-measure for exact match increased from 80.3% to 82.3% and the micro-averaged f-measure based on inexact match increased from 89.7% to 91.3%. These improvements are highly significant according to the bootstrap resampling method and also considering the performance of other systems. Thus, distributional semantic features significantly improve the performance of concept extraction from clinical narratives by taking advantage of word distribution information obtained from unannotated data. PMID:22085698

  9. Semantic Information eXchange Architecture (SIXA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-31

    Correlator
and
Sensor
D
are
 highly
reliable,
3)
the
 relaibility 
of
A
and
B
is
unknown
or
less
than
reliable
nd
4)
C
 and
E
are
reliable.
 
 SIXA

  10. Secure Sensor Semantic Web and Information Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-25

    AIS) as a service in the cloud. The urgency of this need has been voiced as recently as April 2011 by NSA (National Security Agency) CIO (Chief...expressive enough to support many of the complex policies needed for AIS missions like those of the NSA and DoD. Second, to meet the scalability and...Kantarcioglu, Kevin W. Hamlen, Bhavani M. Thuraisingham: Measuring expertise and bias in cyber security using cognitive and neuroscience approaches. ISI 2013

  11. Towards Automatic Semantic Labelling of 3D City Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rook, M.; Biljecki, F.; Diakité, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    The lack of semantic information in many 3D city models is a considerable limiting factor in their use, as a lot of applications rely on semantics. Such information is not always available, since it is not collected at all times, it might be lost due to data transformation, or its lack may be caused by non-interoperability in data integration from other sources. This research is a first step in creating an automatic workflow that semantically labels plain 3D city model represented by a soup of polygons, with semantic and thematic information, as defined in the CityGML standard. The first step involves the reconstruction of the topology, which is used in a region growing algorithm that clusters upward facing adjacent triangles. Heuristic rules, embedded in a decision tree, are used to compute a likeliness score for these regions that either represent the ground (terrain) or a RoofSurface. Regions with a high likeliness score, to one of the two classes, are used to create a decision space, which is used in a support vector machine (SVM). Next, topological relations are utilised to select seeds that function as a start in a region growing algorithm, to create regions of triangles of other semantic classes. The topological relationships of the regions are used in the aggregation of the thematic building features. Finally, the level of detail is detected to generate the correct output in CityGML. The results show an accuracy between 85 % and 99 % in the automatic semantic labelling on four different test datasets. The paper is concluded by indicating problems and difficulties implying the next steps in the research.

  12. Beginning Readers Activate Semantics from Sub-Word Orthography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, Kate; Cocksey, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments assessed whether 7-year-old children activate semantic information from sub-word orthography. Children made category decisions to visually-presented words, some of which contained an embedded word (e.g., "hip" in s"hip"). In Experiment 1 children were slower and less accurate to classify words if they contained an embedded word…

  13. Semantic Facilitation on a Bilingual Lexical Decision Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palij, Michael

    The research reported here examines the influence of knowledge of two languages on the organization of semantic information in long-term memory. Eight English-French bilingual adults were presented pairs of letter strings and had to decide whether both strings were words. Half of the trials contained English-French word pairs which required a…

  14. E-Learning System Overview Based on Semantic Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsultanny, Yas A.

    2006-01-01

    The challenge of the semantic web is the provision of distributed information with well-defined meaning, understandable for different parties. e-Learning is efficient task relevant and just-in-time learning grown from the learning requirements of the new dynamically changing, distributed business world. In this paper we design an e-Learning system…

  15. Concept-based lexical-semantic unsupervised learning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, V. I.

    2014-09-01

    Concept learning is essential for automatic knowledge acquisition and consists in linking semantic and linguistic data together. In this work, a system of concept learning, which mimics to some extent human infant learning, is presented. This system performs visual and audial feature extraction and construction of concept database by maximizing of their mutual information. Experiments show 90% recognition rate of learnt concepts.

  16. Interaction between Phonological and Semantic Representations: Time Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Qi; Mirman, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Computational modeling and eye-tracking were used to investigate how phonological and semantic information interact to influence the time course of spoken word recognition. We extended our recent models (Chen & Mirman, 2012; Mirman, Britt, & Chen, 2013) to account for new evidence that competition among phonological neighbors influences…

  17. Semantic Control of Feature Extraction from Natural Scenes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the early stages of image analysis, visual cortex represents scenes as spatially organized maps of locally defined features (e.g., edge orientation). As image reconstruction unfolds and features are assembled into larger constructs, cortex attempts to recover semantic content for object recognition. It is conceivable that higher level representations may feed back onto early processes and retune their properties to align with the semantic structure projected by the scene; however, there is no clear evidence to either support or discard the applicability of this notion to the human visual system. Obtaining such evidence is challenging because low and higher level processes must be probed simultaneously within the same experimental paradigm. We developed a methodology that targets both levels of analysis by embedding low-level probes within natural scenes. Human observers were required to discriminate probe orientation while semantic interpretation of the scene was selectively disrupted via stimulus inversion or reversed playback. We characterized the orientation tuning properties of the perceptual process supporting probe discrimination; tuning was substantially reshaped by semantic manipulation, demonstrating that low-level feature detectors operate under partial control from higher level modules. The manner in which such control was exerted may be interpreted as a top-down predictive strategy whereby global semantic content guides and refines local image reconstruction. We exploit the novel information gained from data to develop mechanistic accounts of unexplained phenomena such as the classic face inversion effect. PMID:24501376

  18. Semantic control of feature extraction from natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Neri, Peter

    2014-02-05

    In the early stages of image analysis, visual cortex represents scenes as spatially organized maps of locally defined features (e.g., edge orientation). As image reconstruction unfolds and features are assembled into larger constructs, cortex attempts to recover semantic content for object recognition. It is conceivable that higher level representations may feed back onto early processes and retune their properties to align with the semantic structure projected by the scene; however, there is no clear evidence to either support or discard the applicability of this notion to the human visual system. Obtaining such evidence is challenging because low and higher level processes must be probed simultaneously within the same experimental paradigm. We developed a methodology that targets both levels of analysis by embedding low-level probes within natural scenes. Human observers were required to discriminate probe orientation while semantic interpretation of the scene was selectively disrupted via stimulus inversion or reversed playback. We characterized the orientation tuning properties of the perceptual process supporting probe discrimination; tuning was substantially reshaped by semantic manipulation, demonstrating that low-level feature detectors operate under partial control from higher level modules. The manner in which such control was exerted may be interpreted as a top-down predictive strategy whereby global semantic content guides and refines local image reconstruction. We exploit the novel information gained from data to develop mechanistic accounts of unexplained phenomena such as the classic face inversion effect.

  19. Semantically Enriching the Search System of a Music Digital Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Juan, Paloma; Iglesias, Carlos

    Traditional search systems are usually based on keywords, a very simple and convenient mechanism to express a need for information. This is the most popular way of searching the Web, although it is not always an easy task to accurately summarize a natural language query in a few keywords. Working with keywords means losing the context, which is the only thing that can help us deal with ambiguity. This is the biggest problem of keyword-based systems. Semantic Web technologies seem a perfect solution to this problem, since they make it possible to represent the semantics of a given domain. In this chapter, we present three projects, Harmos, Semusici and Cantiga, whose aim is to provide access to a music digital library. We will describe two search systems, a traditional one and a semantic one, developed in the context of these projects and compare them in terms of usability and effectiveness.

  20. Recognition of spoken words: semantic effects in lexical access.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Lee H; Vakoch, Douglas A; Seaman, Sean R

    2004-01-01

    Until recently most models of word recognition have assumed that semantic auditory naming effects come into play only after the identification of the word in question. What little evidence exists for early semantic effects in word recognition lexical decision has relied primarily on priming manipulations using the lexical decision task, and has used visual stimulus presentation. The current study uses semantics auditory stimulus presentation and multiple experimental tasks, and does not use priming. Response latencies for 100 common nouns were found to speech perception depend on perceptual dimensions identified by Osgood (1969): Evaluation, Potency, and Activity. In addition, the two-way interactions between these word recognition dimensions were significant. All effects were above and beyond the effects of concreteness, word length, frequency, onset phoneme characteristics, stress, and neighborhood density. Results are discussed against evidence from several areas of research suggesting a role of behaviorally important information in perception.

  1. Semantic acquisition without memories: evidence from transient global amnesia.

    PubMed

    Guillery, B; Desgranges, B; Katis, S; de la Sayette, V; Viader, F; Eustache, F

    2001-12-04

    Transient global amnesia (TGA), characterised by a profound anterograde amnesia, is a model of interest to study the acquisition of novel meanings independent of episodic functioning. Three patients were tested during a TGA attack, two in the early recovery phase and the third during the acute phase of TGA, with a semantic priming task involving a restructuring process of conceptual knowledge. During TGA, all patients demonstrated priming effects. Results obtained the day after the episode with the same task showed that these effects persisted at least one day. Episodic memory seems not to be critical for the formation of novel connections among unrelated semantic representations, in accordance with Tulving's model of memory, i.e. episodic memory is not necessary for the acquisition of semantic information.

  2. A DNA-based semantic fusion model for remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    Sun, Heng; Weng, Jian; Yu, Guangchuang; Massawe, Richard H

    2013-01-01

    Semantic technology plays a key role in various domains, from conversation understanding to algorithm analysis. As the most efficient semantic tool, ontology can represent, process and manage the widespread knowledge. Nowadays, many researchers use ontology to collect and organize data's semantic information in order to maximize research productivity. In this paper, we firstly describe our work on the development of a remote sensing data ontology, with a primary focus on semantic fusion-driven research for big data. Our ontology is made up of 1,264 concepts and 2,030 semantic relationships. However, the growth of big data is straining the capacities of current semantic fusion and reasoning practices. Considering the massive parallelism of DNA strands, we propose a novel DNA-based semantic fusion model. In this model, a parallel strategy is developed to encode the semantic information in DNA for a large volume of remote sensing data. The semantic information is read in a parallel and bit-wise manner and an individual bit is converted to a base. By doing so, a considerable amount of conversion time can be saved, i.e., the cluster-based multi-processes program can reduce the conversion time from 81,536 seconds to 4,937 seconds for 4.34 GB source data files. Moreover, the size of result file recording DNA sequences is 54.51 GB for parallel C program compared with 57.89 GB for sequential Perl. This shows that our parallel method can also reduce the DNA synthesis cost. In addition, data types are encoded in our model, which is a basis for building type system in our future DNA computer. Finally, we describe theoretically an algorithm for DNA-based semantic fusion. This algorithm enables the process of integration of the knowledge from disparate remote sensing data sources into a consistent, accurate, and complete representation. This process depends solely on ligation reaction and screening operations instead of the ontology.

  3. Towards a Framework for Developing Semantic Relatedness Reference Standards

    PubMed Central

    Pakhomov, Serguei V.S.; Pedersen, Ted; McInnes, Bridget; Melton, Genevieve B.; Ruggieri, Alexander; Chute, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Our objective is to develop a framework for creating reference standards for functional testing of computerized measures of semantic relatedness. Currently, research on computerized approaches to semantic relatedness between biomedical concepts relies on reference standards created for specific purposes using a variety of methods for their analysis. In most cases, these reference standards are not publicly available and the published information provided in manuscripts that evaluate computerized semantic relatedness measurement approaches is not sufficient to reproduce the results. Our proposed framework is based on the experiences of medical informatics and computational linguistics communities and addresses practical and theoretical issues with creating reference standards for semantic relatedness. We demonstrate the use of the framework on a pilot set of 101 medical term pairs rated for semantic relatedness by 13 medical coding experts. While the reliability of this particular reference standard is in the “moderate” range; we show that using clustering and factor analyses offers a data-driven approach to finding systematic differences among raters and identifying groups of potential outliers. We test two ontology-based measures of relatedness and provide both the reference standard containing individual ratings and the R program used to analyze the ratings as open-source. Currently, these resources are intended to be used to reproduce and compare results of studies involving computerized measures of semantic relatedness. Our framework may be extended to the development of reference standards in other research areas in medical informatics including automatic classification, information retrieval from medical records and vocabulary/ontology development. PMID:21044697

  4. Hydrologic Alterations from Climate Change Inform Assessment of Ecological Risk to Pacific Salmon in Bristol Bay, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Wobus, Cameron; Prucha, Robert; Albert, David; Woll, Christine; Loinaz, Maria; Jones, Russell

    2015-01-01

    We developed an integrated hydrologic model of the upper Nushagak and Kvichak watersheds in the Bristol Bay region of southwestern Alaska, a region under substantial development pressure from large-scale copper mining. We incorporated climate change scenarios into this model to evaluate how hydrologic regimes and stream temperatures might change in a future climate, and to summarize indicators of hydrologic alteration that are relevant to salmon habitat ecology and life history. Model simulations project substantial changes in mean winter flow, peak flow dates, and water temperature by 2100. In particular, we find that annual hydrographs will no longer be dominated by a single spring thaw event, but will instead be characterized by numerous high flow events throughout the winter. Stream temperatures increase in all future scenarios, although these temperature increases are moderated relative to air temperatures by cool baseflow inputs during the summer months. Projected changes to flow and stream temperature could influence salmon through alterations in the suitability of spawning gravels, changes in the duration of incubation, increased growth during juvenile stages, and increased exposure to chronic and acute temperature stress. These climate-modulated changes represent a shifting baseline in salmon habitat quality and quantity in the future, and an important consideration to adequately assess the types and magnitude of risks associated with proposed large-scale mining in the region. PMID:26645380

  5. Hydrologic Alterations from Climate Change Inform Assessment of Ecological Risk to Pacific Salmon in Bristol Bay, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Wobus, Cameron; Prucha, Robert; Albert, David; Woll, Christine; Loinaz, Maria; Jones, Russell; Travers, Constance

    2015-01-01

    We developed an integrated hydrologic model of the upper Nushagak and Kvichak watersheds in the Bristol Bay region of southwestern Alaska, a region under substantial development pressure from large-scale copper mining. We incorporated climate change scenarios into this model to evaluate how hydrologic regimes and stream temperatures might change in a future climate, and to summarize indicators of hydrologic alteration that are relevant to salmon habitat ecology and life history. Model simulations project substantial changes in mean winter flow, peak flow dates, and water temperature by 2100. In particular, we find that annual hydrographs will no longer be dominated by a single spring thaw event, but will instead be characterized by numerous high flow events throughout the winter. Stream temperatures increase in all future scenarios, although these temperature increases are moderated relative to air temperatures by cool baseflow inputs during the summer months. Projected changes to flow and stream temperature could influence salmon through alterations in the suitability of spawning gravels, changes in the duration of incubation, increased growth during juvenile stages, and increased exposure to chronic and acute temperature stress. These climate-modulated changes represent a shifting baseline in salmon habitat quality and quantity in the future, and an important consideration to adequately assess the types and magnitude of risks associated with proposed large-scale mining in the region.

  6. Web Image Re-Ranking UsingQuery-Specific Semantic Signatures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaogang; Qiu, Shi; Liu, Ke; Tang, Xiaoou

    2014-04-01

    Image re-ranking, as an effective way to improve the results of web-based image search, has been adopted by current commercial search engines such as Bing and Google. Given a query keyword, a pool of images are first retrieved based on textual information. By asking the user to select a query image from the pool, the remaining images are re-ranked based on their visual similarities with the query image. A major challenge is that the similarities of visual features do not well correlate with images' semantic meanings which interpret users' search intention. Recently people proposed to match images in a semantic space which used attributes or reference classes closely related to the semantic meanings of images as basis. However, learning a universal visual semantic space to characterize highly diverse images from the web is difficult and inefficient. In this paper, we propose a novel image re-ranking framework, which automatically offline learns different semantic spaces for different query keywords. The visual features of images are projected into their related semantic spaces to get semantic signatures. At the online stage, images are re-ranked by comparing their semantic signatures obtained from the semantic space specified by the query keyword. The proposed query-specific semantic signatures significantly improve both the accuracy and efficiency of image re-ranking. The original visual features of thousands of dimensions can be projected to the semantic signatures as short as 25 dimensions. Experimental results show that 25-40 percent relative improvement has been achieved on re-ranking precisions compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

  7. CNTRO: A Semantic Web Ontology for Temporal Relation Inferencing in Clinical Narratives.

    PubMed

    Tao, Cui; Wei, Wei-Qi; Solbrig, Harold R; Savova, Guergana; Chute, Christopher G

    2010-11-13

    Using Semantic-Web specifications to represent temporal information in clinical narratives is an important step for temporal reasoning and answering time-oriented queries. Existing temporal models are either not compatible with the powerful reasoning tools developed for the Semantic Web, or designed only for structured clinical data and therefore are not ready to be applied on natural-language-based clinical narrative reports directly. We have developed a Semantic-Web ontology which is called Clinical Narrative Temporal Relation ontology. Using this ontology, temporal information in clinical narratives can be represented as RDF (Resource Description Framework) triples. More temporal information and relations can then be inferred by Semantic-Web based reasoning tools. Experimental results show that this ontology can represent temporal information in real clinical narratives successfully.

  8. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    PubMed

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  9. Semantic processing of crowded stimuli?

    PubMed

    Huckauf, Anke; Knops, Andre; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Willmes, Klaus

    2008-11-01

    Effects of semantic processing of crowded characters were investigated using numbers as stimuli. In an identification task, typical spacing effects in crowding were replicated. Using the same stimuli in a magnitude comparison task, a smaller effect of spacing was observed as well as an effect of response congruency. These effects were replicated in a second experiment with varying stimulus-onset asynchronies. In addition, decreasing performance with increasing onset-asynchrony (so-called type-B masking) for incongruent flankers indicates semantic processing of target and flankers. The data show that semantic processing takes place even in crowded stimuli. This argues strongly against common accounts of crowding in terms of early stimulus-driven impairments of processing.

  10. Ontology Matching with Semantic Verification

    PubMed Central

    Jean-Mary, Yves R.; Shironoshita, E. Patrick; Kabuka, Mansur R.

    2009-01-01

    ASMOV (Automated Semantic Matching of Ontologies with Verification) is a novel algorithm that uses lexical and structural characteristics of two ontologies to iteratively calculate a similarity measure between them, derives an alignment, and then verifies it to ensure that it does not contain semantic inconsistencies. In this paper, we describe the ASMOV algorithm, and then present experimental results that measure its accuracy using the OAEI 2008 tests, and that evaluate its use with two different thesauri: WordNet, and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). These results show the increased accuracy obtained by combining lexical, structural and extensional matchers with semantic verification, and demonstrate the advantage of using a domain-specific thesaurus for the alignment of specialized ontologies. PMID:20186256

  11. Web Video Event Recognition by Semantic Analysis From Ubiquitous Documents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Litao; Yang, Yang; Huang, Zi; Wang, Peng; Song, Jingkuan; Shen, Heng Tao

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, the task of event recognition from videos has attracted increasing interest in multimedia area. While most of the existing research was mainly focused on exploring visual cues to handle relatively small-granular events, it is difficult to directly analyze video content without any prior knowledge. Therefore, synthesizing both the visual and semantic analysis is a natural way for video event understanding. In this paper, we study the problem of Web video event recognition, where Web videos often describe large-granular events and carry limited textual information. Key challenges include how to accurately represent event semantics from incomplete textual information and how to effectively explore the correlation between visual and textual cues for video event understanding. We propose a novel framework to perform complex event recognition from Web videos. In order to compensate the insufficient expressive power of visual cues, we construct an event knowledge base by deeply mining semantic information from ubiquitous Web documents. This event knowledge base is capable of describing each event with comprehensive semantics. By utilizing this base, the textual cues for a video can be significantly enriched. Furthermore, we introduce a two-view adaptive regression model, which explores the intrinsic correlation between the visual and textual cues of the videos to learn reliable classifiers. Extensive experiments on two real-world video data sets show the effectiveness of our proposed framework and prove that the event knowledge base indeed helps improve the performance of Web video event recognition.

  12. Web Video Event Recognition by Semantic Analysis from Ubiquitous Documents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Litao; Yang, Yang; Huang, Zi; Wang, Peng; Song, Jingkuan; Shen, Heng

    2016-09-27

    In recent years, the task of event recognition from videos has attracted increasing interest in multimedia area. While most of the existing research was mainly focused on exploring visual cues to handle relatively small-granular events, it is difficult to directly analyse video content without any prior knowledge. Therefore, synthesizing both the visual and semantic analysis is a natural way for video event understanding. In this paper, we study the problem of web video event recognition, where web videos often describe largegranular events and carry limited textual information. Key challenges include how to accurately represent event semantics from incomplete textual information and how to effectively explore the correlation between visual and textual cues for video event understanding. We propose a novel framework to perform complex event recognition from web videos. In order to compensate the insufficient expressive power of visual cues, we construct an event knowledge base by deeply mining semantic information from ubiquitous web documents. This event knowledge base is capable of describing each event with comprehensive semantics. By utilizing this base, the textual cues for a video can be significantly enriched. Furthermore, we introduce a two-view adaptive regression model which explores the intrinsic correlation between the visual and textual cues of the videos to learn reliable classifiers. Extensive experiments on two real-world video datasets show the effectiveness of our proposed framework and prove that the event knowledge base indeed helps improve the performance of web video event recognition.

  13. Bootstrapping to a Semantic Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Schwidder, Jens; Talbott, Tara; Myers, James D.

    2005-02-28

    The Scientific Annotation Middleware (SAM) is a set of components and services that enable researchers, applications, problem solving environments (PSE) and software agents to create metadata and annotations about data objects and document the semantic relationships between them. Developed starting in 2001, SAM allows applications to encode metadata within files or to manage metadata at the level of individual relationships as desired. SAM then provides mechanisms to expose metadata and relation¬ships encoded either way as WebDAV properties. In this paper, we report on work to further map this metadata into RDF and discuss the role of middleware such as SAM in bridging between traditional and semantic grid applications.

  14. Abstraction and natural language semantics.

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    According to the traditional view, a word prototypically denotes a class of objects sharing similar features, i.e. it results from an abstraction based on the detection of common properties in perceived entities. I explore here another idea: words result from abstraction of common premises in the rules governing our actions. I first argue that taking 'inference', instead of 'reference', as the basic issue in semantics does matter. I then discuss two phenomena that are, in my opinion, particularly difficult to analyse within the scope of traditional semantic theories: systematic polysemy and plurals. I conclude by a discussion of my approach, and by a summary of its main features. PMID:12903662

  15. Semantic Relatedness for Evaluation of Course Equivalencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Beibei

    2012-01-01

    Semantic relatedness, or its inverse, semantic distance, measures the degree of closeness between two pieces of text determined by their meaning. Related work typically measures semantics based on a sparse knowledge base such as WordNet or Cyc that requires intensive manual efforts to build and maintain. Other work is based on a corpus such as the…

  16. Semantic Weight and Verb Retrieval in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barde, Laura H. F.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Boronat, Consuelo B.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic aphasia may have difficulty with verb production in comparison to nouns. Additionally, they may have greater difficulty producing verbs that have fewer semantic components (i.e., are semantically "light") compared to verbs that have greater semantic weight. A connectionist verb-production model proposed by Gordon and…

  17. Metasemantics: On the Limits of Semantic Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, T.

    2009-01-01

    METASEMANTICS is a wake-up call for semantic theory: It reveals that some semantic questions have no adequate answer. (This is meant to be the "epistemic" point that certain semantic questions cannot be "settled"--not a metaphysical point about whether there is a fact-of-the-matter.) METASEMANTICS thus checks our default "optimism" that any…

  18. Retinal aging in the diurnal Chilean rodent (Octodon degus): histological, ultrastructural and neurochemical alterations of the vertical information processing pathway

    PubMed Central

    Szabadfi, Krisztina; Estrada, Cristina; Fernandez-Villalba, Emiliano; Tarragon, Ernesto; Setalo Jr., Gyorgy; Izura, Virginia; Reglodi, Dora; Tamas, Andrea; Gabriel, Robert; Herrero, Maria Trinidad

    2015-01-01

    The retina is sensitive to age-dependent degeneration. To find suitable animal models to understand and map this process has particular importance. The degu (Octodon degus) is a diurnal rodent with dichromatic color vision. Its retinal structure is similar to that in humans in many respects, therefore, it is well suited to study retinal aging. Histological, cell type-specific and ultrastructural alterations were examined in 6-, 12- and 36-months old degus. The characteristic layers of the retina were present at all ages, but slightly loosened tissue structure could be observed in 36-month-old animals both at light and electron microscopic levels. Elevated Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression was observed in Müller glial cells in aging retinas. The number of rod bipolar cells and the ganglion cells was reduced in the aging specimens, while that of cone bipolar cells remained unchanged. Other age-related differences were detected at ultrastructural level: alteration of the retinal pigment epithelium and degenerated photoreceptor cells were evident. Ribbon synapses were sparse and often differed in morphology from those in the young animals. These results support our hypothesis that (i) the rod pathway seems to be more sensitive than the cone pathway to age-related cell loss; (ii) structural changes in the basement membrane of pigment epithelial cells can be one of the early signs of degenerative processes; (iii) the loss of synaptic proteins especially from those of the ribbon synapses are characteristic; and (iv) the degu retina may be a suitable model for studying retinal aging. PMID:25954153

  19. Retinal aging in the diurnal Chilean rodent (Octodon degus): histological, ultrastructural and neurochemical alterations of the vertical information processing pathway.

    PubMed

    Szabadfi, Krisztina; Estrada, Cristina; Fernandez-Villalba, Emiliano; Tarragon, Ernesto; Setalo, Gyorgy; Izura, Virginia; Reglodi, Dora; Tamas, Andrea; Gabriel, Robert; Herrero, Maria Trinidad

    2015-01-01

    The retina is sensitive to age-dependent degeneration. To find suitable animal models to understand and map this process has particular importance. The degu (Octodon degus) is a diurnal rodent with dichromatic color vision. Its retinal structure is similar to that in humans in many respects, therefore, it is well suited to study retinal aging. Histological, cell type-specific and ultrastructural alterations were examined in 6-, 12- and 36-months old degus. The characteristic layers of the retina were present at all ages, but slightly loosened tissue structure could be observed in 36-month-old animals both at light and electron microscopic levels. Elevated Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression was observed in Müller glial cells in aging retinas. The number of rod bipolar cells and the ganglion cells was reduced in the aging specimens, while that of cone bipolar cells remained unchanged. Other age-related differences were detected at ultrastructural level: alteration of the retinal pigment epithelium and degenerated photoreceptor cells were evident. Ribbon synapses were sparse and often differed in morphology from those in the young animals. These results support our hypothesis that (i) the rod pathway seems to be more sensitive than the cone pathway to age-related cell loss; (ii) structural changes in the basement membrane of pigment epithelial cells can be one of the early signs of degenerative processes; (iii) the loss of synaptic proteins especially from those of the ribbon synapses are characteristic; and (iv) the degu retina may be a suitable model for studying retinal aging.

  20. Impairment of cognitive function and synaptic plasticity associated with alteration of information flow in theta and gamma oscillations in melamine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaxia; An, Lei; Mi, Xichao; Zhang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Changes of neural oscillations at a variety of physiological rhythms are effectively associated with cognitive performance. The present study investigated whether the directional indices of neural information flow (NIF) could be used to symbolize the synaptic plasticity impairment in hippocampal CA3-CA1 network in a rat model of melamine. Male Wistar rats were employed while melamine was administered at a dose of 300 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. Behavior was measured by the Morris water maze(MWM)test. Local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded before long-term potentiation (LTP) induction. Generalized partial directed coherence (gPDC) and phase-amplitude coupling conditional mutual information (PAC_CMI) were used to measure the unidirectional indices in both theta and low gamma oscillations (LG, ~ 30-50 Hz). Our results showed that melamine induced the cognition deficits consistent with the reduced LTP in CA1 area. Phase locking values (PLVs) showed that the synchronization between CA3 and CA1 in both theta and LG rhythms was reduced by melamine. In both theta and LG rhythms, unidirectional indices were significantly decreased in melamine treated rats while a similar variation trend was observed in LTP reduction, implying that the effects of melamine on cognitive impairment were possibly mediated via profound alterations of NIF on CA3-CA1 pathway in hippocampus. The results suggested that LFPs activities at these rhythms were most likely involved in determining the alterations of information flow in the hippocampal CA3-CA1 network, which might be associated with the alteration of synaptic transmission to some extent.

  1. Semantic-based sound retrieval by ERP in rapid serial auditory presentation paradigm.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; Cai, Bangyu; Xiao, Siyuan; Wang, Yiwen; Chen, Weidong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2013-01-01

    "Semantic gap" is the major bottleneck of semantic-based multimedia retrieval technique in the field of information retrieval. Studies have shown that robust semantic-based image retrieval can be achieved by single-trial visual evoked event related potential (ERP) detection. However, the question remains whether auditory evoked ERP can be utilized to achieve semantic-based sound retrieval. In this paper, we investigated this question in the rapid serial auditory presentation (RSAP) paradigm. Eight BCI-naïve participants were instructed to perform target detection in RSAP sequences with the vocalizations of 8 familiar animals as sound stimuli, and we compared ERP components and single-trial ERP classification performance between two conditions, the target was a predefined specific one, and the targets were different but belonged to the same semantic category (i.e., semantic-based sound retrieval). Although the amplitudes of ERP components (e.g., N2 and P3) and classification performance decreased a little due to the difficulty of the semantic-based sound retrieval tasks, the best two participants still achieved the area under the receive operating characteristic curve (AUC) of single-trial ERP detection more than 0.77. It suggested that semantic-based sound retrieval by auditory evoked ERP was potentially feasible.

  2. Evidence for semantic learning in profound amnesia: an investigation with patient H.M.

    PubMed

    O'Kane, Gail; Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Corkin, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    Until recently, it seemed unlikely that any semantic knowledge could be acquired following extensive bilateral damage to the medial temporal lobes (MTL). Although recent studies have demonstrated some semantic learning in amnesic patients, questions remain regarding the limits of this capacity and the extent to which it relies on those patients' residual MTL function. The present study examined whether detailed, semantic memory could be acquired by a patient with no functioning hippocampus. We used cued recall and forced-choice recognition tasks to investigate whether the patient H.M. had acquired knowledge of people who became famous after the onset of his amnesia. Results revealed that, with first names provided as cues, he was able to recall the corresponding famous last name for 12 of 35 postoperatively famous personalities. This number nearly doubled when semantic cues were added, suggesting that his knowledge of the names was not limited to perceptual information, but was incorporated in a semantic network capable of supporting explicit recall. In forced-choice recognition, H.M. discriminated 87% of postmorbid famous names from foils. Critically, he was able to provide uniquely identifying semantic facts for one-third of these recognized names, describing John Glenn, for example, as "the first rocketeer" and Lee Harvey Oswald as a man who "assassinated the president." Although H.M.'s semantic learning was clearly impaired, the results provide robust, unambiguous evidence that some new semantic learning can be supported by structures beyond the hippocampus proper.

  3. Learning contextualized semantics from co-occurring terms via a Siamese architecture.

    PubMed

    Sandouk, Ubai; Chen, Ke

    2016-04-01

    One of the biggest challenges in Multimedia information retrieval and understanding is to bridge the semantic gap by properly modeling concept semantics in context. The presence of out of vocabulary (OOV) concepts exacerbates this difficulty. To address the semantic gap issues, we formulate a problem on learning contextualized semantics from descriptive terms and propose a novel Siamese architecture to model the contextualized semantics from descriptive terms. By means of pattern aggregation and probabilistic topic models, our Siamese architecture captures contextualized semantics from the co-occurring descriptive terms via unsupervised learning, which leads to a concept embedding space of the terms in context. Furthermore, the co-occurring OOV concepts can be easily represented in the learnt concept embedding space. The main properties of the concept embedding space are demonstrated via visualization. Using various settings in semantic priming, we have carried out a thorough evaluation by comparing our approach to a number of state-of-the-art methods on six annotation corpora in different domains, i.e., MagTag5K, CAL500 and Million Song Dataset in the music domain as well as Corel5K, LabelMe and SUNDatabase in the image domain. Experimental results on semantic priming suggest that our approach outperforms those state-of-the-art methods considerably in various aspects.

  4. A semantic web framework to integrate cancer omics data with biological knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The RDF triple provides a simple linguistic means of describing limitless types of information. Triples can be flexibly combined into a unified data source we call a semantic model. Semantic models open new possibilities for the integration of variegated biological data. We use Semantic Web technology to explicate high throughput clinical data in the context of fundamental biological knowledge. We have extended Corvus, a data warehouse which provides a uniform interface to various forms of Omics data, by providing a SPARQL endpoint. With the querying and reasoning tools made possible by the Semantic Web, we were able to explore quantitative semantic models retrieved from Corvus in the light of systematic biological knowledge. Results For this paper, we merged semantic models containing genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic data from melanoma samples with two semantic models of functional data - one containing Gene Ontology (GO) data, the other, regulatory networks constructed from transcription factor binding information. These two semantic models were created in an ad hoc manner but support a common interface for integration with the quantitative semantic models. Such combined semantic models allow us to pose significant translational medicine questions. Here, we study the interplay between a cell's molecular state and its response to anti-cancer therapy by exploring the resistance of cancer cells to Decitabine, a demethylating agent. Conclusions We were able to generate a testable hypothesis to explain how Decitabine fights cancer - namely, that it targets apoptosis-related gene promoters predominantly in Decitabine-sensitive cell lines, thus conveying its cytotoxic effect by activating the apoptosis pathway. Our research provides a framework whereby similar hypotheses can be developed easily. PMID:22373303

  5. At the edge of semantic space: the breakdown of coherent concepts in semantic dementia is constrained by typicality and severity but not modality.

    PubMed

    Mayberry, Emily J; Sage, Karen; Ralph, Matthew A Lambon

    2011-09-01

    Hub-and-spoke models of semantic representation suggest that coherent concepts are formed from the integration of multiple, modality-specific information sources with additional modality-invariant representations-most likely stored in the ventrolateral anterior temporal lobe (vATL). As well as providing the necessary computational mechanisms for the complexities of feature integration, these modality-invariant representations also license a key aspect of semantic memory-semantic-based generalization. Semantic dementia allows us to investigate this aspect of conceptual knowledge because (a) the patients have a selective and progressive semantic degradation and (b) this is associated with profound ventrolateral ATL atrophy. Specifically, the boundaries between concepts become degraded in semantic dementia and, when tested using the appropriate materials, the patients make simultaneous under- and overgeneralization errors. We found that the rate of these errors were a function of typicality and pseudotypicality of the items as well as the severity of the patients' semantic impairment. Following the modality-invariant nature of the vATL hub representation, we also confirmed that the patients were impaired on both verbal- and picture-based versions of the same task.

  6. Scientific Knowledge Discovery in Complex Semantic Networks of Geophysical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, P.

    2012-04-01

    The vast majority of explorations of the Earth's systems are limited in their ability to effectively explore the most important (often most difficult) problems because they are forced to interconnect at the data-element, or syntactic, level rather than at a higher scientific, or semantic, level. Recent successes in the application of complex network theory and algorithms to climate data, raise expectations that more general graph-based approaches offer the opportunity for new discoveries. In the past ~ 5 years in the natural sciences there has substantial progress in providing both specialists and non-specialists the ability to describe in machine readable form, geophysical quantities and relations among them in meaningful and natural ways, effectively breaking the prior syntax barrier. The corresponding open-world semantics and reasoning provide higher-level interconnections. That is, semantics provided around the data structures, using semantically-equipped tools, and semantically aware interfaces between science application components allowing for discovery at the knowledge level. More recently, formal semantic approaches to continuous and aggregate physical processes are beginning to show promise and are soon likely to be ready to apply to geoscientific systems. To illustrate these opportunities, this presentation presents two application examples featuring domain vocabulary (ontology) and property relations (named and typed edges in the graphs). First, a climate knowledge discovery pilot encoding and exploration of CMIP5 catalog information with the eventual goal to encode and explore CMIP5 data. Second, a multi-stakeholder knowledge network for integrated assessments in marine ecosystems, where the data is highly inter-disciplinary.

  7. Project Integration Architecture: Formulation of Dimensionality in Semantic Parameters Outline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William Henry

    2005-01-01

    One of several key elements of the Project Integration Architecture (PIA) is the formulation of parameter objects which convey meaningful semantic information. The infusion of measurement dimensionality into such objects is an important part of that effort since it promises to automate the conversion of units between cooperating applications and, thereby, eliminate the mistakes that have occasionally beset other systems of information transport. This paper discusses the conceptualization of dimensionality developed as a result of that effort.

  8. Semantics, pragmatics, and formal thought disorders in people with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Salavera, Carlos; Puyuelo, Miguel; Antoñanzas, José L; Teruel, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to analyze how formal thought disorders (FTD) affect semantics and pragmatics in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: The sample comprised subjects with schizophrenia (n = 102) who met the criteria for the disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition Text Revision. In the research process, the following scales were used: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for psychopathology measurements; the Scale for the Assessment of Thought, Language, and Communication (TLC) for FTD, Word Accentuation Test (WAT), System for the Behavioral Evaluation of Social Skills (SECHS), the pragmatics section of the Objective Criteria Language Battery (BLOC-SR) and the verbal sections of the Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale (WAIS) III, for assessment of semantics and pragmatics. Results: The results in the semantics and pragmatics sections were inferior to the average values obtained in the general population. Our data demonstrated that the more serious the FTD, the worse the performances in the Verbal-WAIS tests (particularly in its vocabulary, similarities, and comprehension sections), SECHS, and BLOC-SR, indicating that FTD affects semantics and pragmatics, although the results of the WAT indicated good premorbid language skills. Conclusion: The principal conclusion we can draw from this study is the evidence that in schizophrenia the superior level of language structure seems to be compromised, and that this level is related to semantics and pragmatics; when there is an alteration in this level, symptoms of FTD appear, with a wide-ranging relationship between both language and FTD. The second conclusion is that the subject’s language is affected by the disorder and rules out the possibility of a previous verbal impairment. PMID:23430043

  9. The DebugIT core ontology: semantic integration of antibiotics resistance patterns.

    PubMed

    Schober, Daniel; Boeker, Martin; Bullenkamp, Jessica; Huszka, Csaba; Depraetere, Kristof; Teodoro, Douglas; Nadah, Nadia; Choquet, Remy; Daniel, Christel; Schulz, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Antibiotics resistance development poses a significant problem in today's hospital care. Massive amounts of clinical data are being collected and stored in proprietary and unconnected systems in heterogeneous format. The DebugIT EU project promises to make this data geographically and semantically interoperable for case-based knowledge analysis approaches aiming at the discovery of patterns that help to align antibiotics treatment schemes. The semantic glue for this endeavor is DCO, an application ontology that enables data miners to query distributed clinical information systems in a semantically rich and content driven manner. DCO will hence serve as the core component of the interoperability platform for the DebugIT project. Here we present DCO and an approach thet uses the semantic web query language SPARQL to bind and ontologically query hospital database content using DCO and information model mediators. We provide a query example that indicates that ontological querying over heterogeneous information models is feasible via SPARQL construct- and resource mapping queries.

  10. Using Semantic Web technologies to bridge the Language Gap between Academia and Industry in the Construction Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argüello, M.; El-Hasia, A.; Lees, M.

    Semantic Web technologies are emerging technologies which can considerably improve the information sharing process by overcoming the problems of current Web portals. Portals based on Semantic Web technologies represent the next generation of Web portals, however, before industry is willing to adopt Semantic Web technologies it is essential to demonstrate that Semantic Web portals are significantly better than Web portals. This paper focuses on a case study which compares the performance of a traditional Web portal using a keyword-based search engine and a Semantic Web portal using an ontology-based search engine. The empirical results of the comparison performed between these two search engines over an input data set of 100 data provides strong evidence of the tangible benefits of using Semantic Web technologies.

  11. Action representation: crosstalk between semantics and pragmatics.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Marc Jeannerod pioneered a representational approach to movement and action. In his approach, motor representations provide both, declarative knowledge about action and procedural knowledge for action (action semantics and action pragmatics, respectively). Recent evidence from language comprehension and action simulation supports the claim that action pragmatics and action semantics draw on common representational resources, thus challenging the traditional divide between declarative and procedural action knowledge. To account for these observations, three kinds of theoretical frameworks are discussed: (i) semantics is grounded in pragmatics, (ii) pragmatics is anchored in semantics, and (iii) pragmatics is part and parcel of semantics.

  12. Semantic Annotation of Computational Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, Peter; Mehrotra, Piyush

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology to specify machine-processable semantic descriptions of computational components to enable them to be shared and reused. A particular focus of this scheme is to enable automatic compositon of such components into simple work-flows.

  13. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    PubMed

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders.

  14. Incrementally Dissociating Syntax and Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Jonathan R.

    2010-01-01

    A basic challenge for research into the neurobiology of language is understanding how the brain combines words to make complex representations. Linguistic theory divides this task into several computations including syntactic structure building and semantic composition. The close relationship between these computations, however, poses a strong…

  15. Genres, Semantics, and Classroom Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, Jay

    1988-01-01

    Argues that competence in academic subjects depends on mastery of their specialized patterns of language use. These patterns are described in terms of: 1) the semantics underlying Halliday's functional linguistics and 2) the structural analysis of communication genres. A sample classroom episode illustrates relationships among semantic…

  16. A Note on Semantic Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Yoshio

    1989-01-01

    The notions of categorical selection (c-selection) and semantic selection (s-selection) as outlined in recent research on generative grammar are discussed. The first section addresses the type of selectional constraint imposed on English small clauses (e.g., "John considers [Mary smart]"). In the second section, it is suggested that the constraint…

  17. Taxonomic and Thematic Semantic Systems.

    PubMed

    Mirman, Daniel; Landrigan, Jon-Frederick; Britt, Allison E

    2017-03-23

    Object concepts are critical for nearly all aspects of human cognition, from perception tasks like object recognition, to understanding and producing language, to making meaningful actions. Concepts can have 2 very different kinds of relations: similarity relations based on shared features (e.g., dog-bear), which are called "taxonomic" relations, and contiguity relations based on co-occurrence in events or scenarios (e.g., dog-leash), which are called "thematic" relations. Here, we report a systematic review of experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience evidence of this distinction in the structure of semantic memory. We propose 2 principles that may drive the development of distinct taxonomic and thematic semantic systems: differences between which features determine taxonomic versus thematic relations, and differences in the processing required to extract taxonomic versus thematic relations. This review brings together distinct threads of behavioral, computational, and neuroscience research on semantic memory in support of a functional and neural dissociation, and defines a framework for future studies of semantic memory. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Colourful Semantics: A Clinical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolderson, Sarah; Dosanjh, Christine; Milligan, Claudine; Pring, Tim; Chiat, Shula

    2011-01-01

    Children with language difficulties often omit verbs and grammatical elements and fail to complete sentences. Bryan (1997) described "colourful semantics", a therapy she used to treat a 5-year-old boy. The therapy uses colour coding to highlight the predicate argument structure of sentences. This study further tested the therapy's…

  19. Semantic Segmentation of Aerial Images with AN Ensemble of Cnns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmanis, D.; Wegner, J. D.; Galliani, S.; Schindler, K.; Datcu, M.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes a deep learning approach to semantic segmentation of very high resolution (aerial) images. Deep neural architectures hold the promise of end-to-end learning from raw images, making heuristic feature design obsolete. Over the last decade this idea has seen a revival, and in recent years deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have emerged as the method of choice for a range of image interpretation tasks like visual recognition and object detection. Still, standard CNNs do not lend themselves to per-pixel semantic segmentation, mainly because one of their fundamental principles is to gradually aggregate information over larger and larger image regions, making it hard to disentangle contributions from different pixels. Very recently two extensions of the CNN framework have made it possible to trace the semantic information back to a precise pixel position: deconvolutional network layers undo the spatial downsampling, and Fully Convolution Networks (FCNs) modify the fully connected classification layers of the network in such a way that the location of individual activations remains explicit. We design a FCN which takes as input intensity and range data and, with the help of aggressive deconvolution and recycling of early network layers, converts them into a pixelwise classification at full resolution. We discuss design choices and intricacies of such a network, and demonstrate that an ensemble of several networks achieves excellent results on challenging data such as the ISPRS semantic labeling benchmark, using only the raw data as input.

  20. A health analytics semantic ETL service for obesity surveillance.

    PubMed

    Poulymenopoulou, M; Papakonstantinou, D; Malamateniou, F; Vassilacopoulos, G

    2015-01-01

    The increasingly large amount of data produced in healthcare (e.g. collected through health information systems such as electronic medical records - EMRs or collected through novel data sources such as personal health records - PHRs, social media, web resources) enable the creation of detailed records about people's health, sentiments and activities (e.g. physical activity, diet, sleep quality) that can be used in the public health area among others. However, despite the transformative potential of big data in public health surveillance there are several challenges in integrating big data. In this paper, the interoperability challenge is tackled and a semantic Extract Transform Load (ETL) service is proposed that seeks to semantically annotate big data to result into valuable data for analysis. This service is considered as part of a health analytics engine on the cloud that interacts with existing healthcare information exchange networks, like the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE), PHRs, sensors, mobile applications, and other web resources to retrieve patient health, behavioral and daily activity data. The semantic ETL service aims at semantically integrating big data for use by analytic mechanisms. An illustrative implementation of the service on big data which is potentially relevant to human obesity, enables using appropriate analytic techniques (e.g. machine learning, text mining) that are expected to assist in identifying patterns and contributing factors (e.g. genetic background, social, environmental) for this social phenomenon and, hence, drive health policy changes and promote healthy behaviors where residents live, work, learn, shop and play.