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Sample records for semiinsulating gaas irradiated

  1. Influence of electron irradiation on properties of semi-insulating GaAs detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šagátová, Andrea; Zaťko, Bohumír; Sedlačková, Katarína; Pavlovič, Márius; Nečas, Vladimír

    2015-03-01

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on electrical and spectrometric properties of semi-insulating (SI) GaAs detectors were studied. The electric properties were monitored by reverse and forward current-voltage characteristics. In general, a breakdown voltage decrease with the dose was observed. However, some samples showed a local increase in the breakdown voltage at doses between 5 and 10 kGy. The detector spectrometric properties (the charge collection efficiency (CCE), the energy resolution and the detection efficiency) were evaluated from measured spectra of the 241Am radionuclide gamma source before and after electron irradiation. The CCE and energy resolution showed minor changes after irradiation. The detection efficiency noticed an initial increase (up to a dose of 5 kGy) followed by a permanent decrease. At 30 kGy, the overall degradation of detector functionality was observed with all samples.

  2. Continuous wave terahertz radiation from antennas fabricated on C¹²-irradiated semi-insulating GaAs.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Prathmesh; Mendez-Aller, M; Singh, Abhishek; Pal, Sanjoy; Prabhu, S S; Nanal, Vandana; Pillay, R G; Döhler, G H; Preu, S

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate continuous wave (CW) terahertz generation from antennas fabricated on C12-irradiated semi-insulating (SI) GaAs substrates. The dark current drawn by the antennas fabricated on irradiated substrates is ∼3 to 4 orders of magnitude lower compared to antennas fabricated on un-irradiated substrates, while the photocurrents decrease by only ∼1.5 orders of magnitude. This can be attributed to the strong reduction of the carrier lifetime that is 2.5 orders of magnitude, with values around τ(rec)=0.2  ps. Reduced thermal heating allows for higher bias voltages to the irradiated antenna devices resulting in higher CW terahertz power, just slightly lower than that of low-temperature grown GaAs (LT GaAs)at similar excitation conditions.

  3. Continuous wave terahertz radiation from antennas fabricated on C¹²-irradiated semi-insulating GaAs.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Prathmesh; Mendez-Aller, M; Singh, Abhishek; Pal, Sanjoy; Prabhu, S S; Nanal, Vandana; Pillay, R G; Döhler, G H; Preu, S

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate continuous wave (CW) terahertz generation from antennas fabricated on C12-irradiated semi-insulating (SI) GaAs substrates. The dark current drawn by the antennas fabricated on irradiated substrates is ∼3 to 4 orders of magnitude lower compared to antennas fabricated on un-irradiated substrates, while the photocurrents decrease by only ∼1.5 orders of magnitude. This can be attributed to the strong reduction of the carrier lifetime that is 2.5 orders of magnitude, with values around τ(rec)=0.2  ps. Reduced thermal heating allows for higher bias voltages to the irradiated antenna devices resulting in higher CW terahertz power, just slightly lower than that of low-temperature grown GaAs (LT GaAs)at similar excitation conditions. PMID:26421576

  4. Characterisation of semi-insulating GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walukiewicz, W.; Pawlowicz, L.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    Hole and electron mobilities as functions of temperature and ionised impurity concentration are calculated for GaAs. It is shown that these calculations, when used to analyse electrical properties of semi-insulating GaAs, enable an assessment of the Fermi energy position and ionised impurity concentration to be made. In contrast to previous work, the analysis does not require any phenomenological assumptions.

  5. Deep levels in semi-insulating LEC GaAs before and after silicon implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Dindo, S.; Abdel-Motaleb, I.; Lowe, K.; Tang, W.; Young, L.

    1985-11-01

    The deep trapping levels present before ion implantation of silicon into the semi-insulating LEC GaAs starting material were investigated using optical transient current spectroscopy (OTCS). MESFET channel current deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) was used for the implanted material. With a silicon nitride layer used t encapsulate the GaAs for postimplantation annealing and with implantation directly into the GaAs, it was found tha of seven or more deep levels seen in the semi-insulating substrate prior to silicon implantation only the level believed to be EL12 remained. On implanting through a thin Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ encapsulating layer and annealing under Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/, only EL2 was found. With a silicon dioxide layer as an encapsulant, two traps remained and two apparently unreported levels appeared.

  6. 20 THz broadband generation using semi-insulating GaAs interdigitated photoconductive antennas.

    PubMed

    Hale, P J; Madeo, J; Chin, C; Dhillon, S S; Mangeney, J; Tignon, J; Dani, K M

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate broadband (20 THz), high electric field, terahertz generation using large area interdigitated antennas fabricated on semi-insulating GaAs. The bandwidth is characterized as a function of incident pulse duration (15-35 fs) and pump energy (2-30 nJ). Broadband spectroscopy of PTFE is shown. Numerical Drude-Lorentz simulations of the generated THz pulses are performed as a function of the excitation pulse duration, showing good agreement with the experimental data. PMID:25401668

  7. Microscopic modelling of semi-insulating GaAs detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cola, A.; Vasanelli, L.; Reggiani, L.; Cavallini, A.; Nava, F.

    1997-08-01

    We present a drift-diffusion model of semi-insulating n-GaAs detectors, taking into account the presence of hot-carrier dynamics, conduction band features and the kinetics of trapping and detrapping from deep and shallow centres. We provide unambiguous evidence of a field-enhanced capture cross section for EL2 and EL3 centres as conjectured by McGregor [1] for the case of EL2. This result is shown to be strictly correlated with the active thickness of the detector varying almost linearly with the applied voltage, in excellent agreement with recent experimental measurements performed with the Optical Beam-Induced Currents (OBIC) technique. Evidence of Poole-Frenkel effects at the highest applied voltages is provided by the current-voltage characteristics.

  8. EPR evidence for As interstitial-related defects in semi-insulating GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoffel, E.; Benchiguer, T.; Goltzené, A.; Schwab, C.; Guangyu, Wang; Ju, Wu

    1990-08-01

    We report the analysis of the residual paramagnetic structure appearing in semi-insulating GaAs after microwave saturation of the AsGa-related spectrum and most intense after preliminary plastic deformation of the material. It is separable into two similar and correlated central hyperfine partially resolved spectra of trigonal symmetry, both attributed to As interstitial-related defects. Some possibilities of suitable complexes, especially in the recent context of the EL2 identification with an As+Ga-Asi pair, are discussed.

  9. Gettering of donor impurities by V in GaAs and the growth of semi-insulating crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, K. Y.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    Vanadium added to the GaAs melt getters shallow donor impurities (Si and S) and decreases their concentration in the grown crystals. This gettering is driven by chemical reactions in the melt rather than in the solid. Employing V gettering, reproducibly semi-insulating GaAs were grown by horizontal Bridgman and liquid-encapsulated Czochralski techniques, although V did not introduce any midgap energy levels. The compensation mechanism in these crystals was controlled by the balance between the native midgap donor EL2 and residual shallow acceptors. Vanadium gettering contributed to the reduction of the concentration of shallow donors below the concentration of acceptors. The present findings clarify the long-standing controversy on the role of V in achieving semi-insulating GaAs.

  10. Effects of macroscopic inhomogeneities on electron mobility in semi-insulating GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walukiewicz, W.; Wang, L.; Pawlowicz, L. M.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that defect inhomogeneities of sizes larger than the electron mean free path are responsible for the low values and anomalous temperature dependence of the electron mobility in semi-insulating (SI) GaAs. The room-temperature electron mobility values below about 6000 sq cm/V s cannot be uniquely used for the determination of the concentration of ionized defects, since the contribution from inhomogeneities usually exceeds that from scattering by ionized impurities. The effects of the macroscopically inhomogeneous distribution of residual acceptors and the major deep donor EL2 diminish at elevated temperatures between 600 and 900 K, which offers a means for identification of inhomogeneities, and furthermore explains recently reported steplike mobility versus temperature behavior in SI-GaAs.

  11. Light controlled prebreakdown characteristics of a semi-insulating GaAs photoconductive switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiangrong, Ma; Wei, Shi; Weili, Ji; Hong, Xue

    2011-12-01

    A 4 mm gap semi-insulating (SI) GaAs photoconductive switch (PCSS) was triggered by a pulse laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm and a pulse energy of 0.5 mJ. In the experiment, when the bias field was 4 kV, the switch did not induce self-maintained discharge but worked in nonlinear (lock-on) mode. The phenomenon is analyzed as follows: an exciton effect contributes to photoconduction in the generation and dissociation of excitons. Collision ionization, avalanche multiplication and the exciton effect can supply carrier concentration and energy when an outside light source was removed. Under the combined influence of these factors, the SI-GaAs PCSS develops into self-maintained discharge rather than just in the light-controlled prebreakdown status. The characteristics of the filament affect the degree of damage to the switch.

  12. Conduction mechanisms on annealed semi-insulating GaAs samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, M. L.; Chaves, A. S.; Rubinger, R. M.; Chitta, V. A.; Ribeiro, G. M.; de Oliveira, A. G.

    2011-12-01

    We have measured electrical resistivity in the range of 100-500 K on six semi-insulating low-temperature grown molecular-beam epitaxy GaAs samples that were exposed to annealing treatment. Samples 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were annealed with temperatures of 350 °C, 400 °C, 450 °C, 500 °C and 550 °C, while sample 1 was not exposed to the annealing process. We used the differential activation energy method to precisely identify the temperature region where the different conduction regimes dominate, i.e. band conduction, nearest neighbor hopping and variable range hopping. We will also show that the change on the density of states in the impurity band caused by annealing significantly alters the conduction mechanisms present in those samples.

  13. GaAs detectors irradiated by low doses of electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šagátová, A.; Zat'ko, B.; Pavlovič, M.; Sedlačková, K.; Hybler, P.; Dubecký, F.; Nečas, V.

    2014-04-01

    Semi-insulating (SI) GaAs detectors were irradiated by 5 MeV electrons up to a dose of 69 kGy, in order to test their radiation hardness. The electric and spectrometric stability of detectors was examined as a function of the absorbed dose. Investigated detectors showed a very good detector radiation resistance within a dose up to 40 kGy followed by deterioration of some spectrometric and electric properties. However, the reverse current and the detector charge collection efficiency showed minimum changes with the overall applied doses. The obtained results will be used as a preliminary study for further radiation-hardness investigations of GaAs detectors against high energy electrons. This will complete our previous studies of GaAs detector radiation hardness against fast neutrons and γ-rays.

  14. Controlling chaos with magnetic field in semi-insulating GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, A. G. de; Ribeiro, G. M.; Moreira, M. V. B.; Gonzalez, J. C.; Silva, R. L. da; Rubinger, R. M.

    2007-10-15

    Chaos control has stimulated a large amount of work. We have studied the effect of an external parallel magnetic field on the low-frequency current oscillations observed on a molecular beam epitaxy GaAs sample grown at 265 deg. C, and we have shown that it can be efficiently used for chaos control. The study of the magnetoresistance indicates that the effect of the magnetic field on the charges of the hopping conduction mechanism induces changes in the low-frequency oscillations. Due to this, we have used the magnetic field to control chaos assessed through direct observation low-frequency oscillations, their attractors, and bifurcation diagrams. We also found that the magnetic field interferes indirectly with the Coulombian interaction between the free charges in the conduction band and the hopping carriers, as well as with the recombination mechanism of field enhanced trapping. Controlling the low-frequency oscillations in semi-insulating GaAs by means of an external magnetic field permits probing the interaction of the slow hopping carriers and the fast free carriers in the electric-field domains.

  15. EBIC spectroscopy - A new approach to microscale characterization of deep levels in semi-insulating GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C.-J.; Sun, Q.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    The microscale characterization of electronic defects in (SI) GaAs has been a challenging issue in connection with materials problems encountered in GaAs IC technology. The main obstacle which limits the applicability of high resolution electron beam methods such as Electron Beam-Induced Current (EBIC) and cathodoluminescence (CL) is the low concentration of free carriers in semiinsulating (SI) GaAs. The present paper provides a new photo-EBIC characterization approach which combines the spectroscopic advantages of optical methods with the high spatial resolution and scanning capability of EBIC. A scanning electron microscope modified for electronic characterization studies is shown schematically. The instrument can operate in the standard SEM mode, in the EBIC modes (including photo-EBIC and thermally stimulated EBIC /TS-EBIC/), and in the cathodo-luminescence (CL) and scanning modes. Attention is given to the use of CL, Photo-EBIC, and TS-EBIC techniques.

  16. On the optical evaluation of the EL2 deep level concentration in semi-insulating GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walukiewicz, W.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1983-01-01

    A practical procedure for the evaluation of the Fermi energy in semi-insulating (SI)GaAs from electrical measurements is presented. This procedure makes it possible to reliably extend the determination of the major deep level (EL2) concentration, by near-infrared absorption measurements, to SIGaAs. Employing this procedure, it is shown that the EL2 concentration in Czochralski-grown GaAs increases monotonically with increasing As/Ga ratio (throughout the conversion from SI n type to semiconducting p-type crystals) rather than abruptly as previously proposed.

  17. Emission characteristics of photoconductive antennas based on low-temperature-grown GaAs and semi-insulating GaAs.

    PubMed

    Tani, M; Matsuura, S; Sakai, K; Nakashima, S

    1997-10-20

    Terahertz radiation was generated with several designs of photoconductive antennas (three dipoles, a bow tie, and a coplanar strip line) fabricated on low-temperature-grown (LT) GaAs and semi-insulating (SI) GaAs, and the emission properties of the photoconductive antennas were compared with each other. The radiation spectrum of each antenna was characterized with the photoconductive sampling technique. The total radiation power was also measured by a bolometer for comparison of the relative radiation power. The radiation spectra of the LT-GaAs-based and SI-GaAs-based photoconductive antennas of the same design showed no significant difference. The pump-power dependencies of the radiation power showed saturation for higher pump intensities, which was more serious in SI-GaAs-based antennas than in LT-GaAs-based antennas. We attributed the origin of the saturation to the field screening of the photocarriers. PMID:18264312

  18. Study on the high-power semi-insulating GaAs PCSS with quantum well structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Chongbiao; Wang, Bo; Huang, Yupeng; Li, Xiqin; Li, Hongtao; Xiao, Jinshui

    2016-05-01

    A high-power semi-insulating GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) with quantum well structure was fabricated. The AlGaAs layer was deposited on the surface of the GaAs material, and the reflecting film and the antireflection film have been made on the surface of the GaAs and AlGaAs, respectively. When the prepared PCSS worked at a bias voltage of 9.8 kV and triggered by a laser pulse with an incident optical energy of 5.4 mJ, a wavelength of 1064 nm and an optical pulse width of 25 ns, the on-state resistance of the AlGaAs/GaAs PCSS was only 0.45 Ω, and the longevity of the AlGaAs/GaAs PCSS was larger than 106 shots. The results show that this structure reduces the on-state resistance and extends the longevity of the GaAs PCSS.

  19. Photocurrent spectra of semi-insulating GaAs M-S-M diodes: Role of the contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubecký, František; Oswald, Jiří; Kindl, Dobroslav; Hubík, Pavel; Dubecký, Matúš; Gombia, Enos; Šagátová, Andrea; Boháček, Pavol; Sekáčová, Mária; Nečas, Vladimír

    2016-04-01

    Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and photocurrent (PC) spectra (600-1000 nm) of the metal-semiconductor-metal (M-S-M) structures based on high-quality undoped semi-insulating (SI) GaAs with AuGeNi backside contact and different semitransparent top contacts (AuGeNi, Pt, Gd and Nd) are reported, and analysed with the help of a simple physical model. It is shown that the dominant peak in the PC spectra and the change of photocurrent sign can be explained by a presence of two Schottky-like barriers at the top and bottom surfaces. In addition, I-V and PC results show dependence on the bias and its polarity, and on the contact metal used. The possible origins of these effects are discussed.

  20. Current oscillations in semi-insulating GaAs associated with field-enhanced capture of electrons by the major deep donor EL2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaminska, M.; Parsey, J. M.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    Current oscillations thermally activated by the release of electrons from deep levels in undoped semiinsulating GaAs were observed for the first time. They were attributed to electric field-enhanced capture of electrons by the dominant deep donor EL2 (antisite AsGa defect). This enhanced capture is due to the configurational energy barrier of EL2, which is readily penetrated by hot electrons.

  1. Effect of the V{sub As}V{sub Ga} complex defect doping on properties of the semi-insulating GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Deming Qiao, Hongbo; Shi, Wei; Li, Enling

    2014-04-21

    The different position V{sub As}V{sub Ga} cluster defect doping in semi-insulating (SI) GaAs has been studied by first-principles calculation based on hybrid density functional theory. Our calculated results show that EL6 level is formed due to the V{sub As}V{sub Ga} complex defect, which is very close to the experimental result. It provides the explanation of the absorption of laser with the wavelength beyond in semi-insulating GaAs. The formation energy of V{sub As}V{sub Ga} complex defect is found to decrease from surface to interior gradually. The conduction band minima and valence band maxima of GaAs (001) surface with the V{sub As}V{sub Ga} complex defect are all located at Γ point, and some defect levels are produced in the forbidden band. In contrast, the conduction band minima and valence band maxima of GaAs with the interior V{sub As}V{sub Ga} complex defect are not located at the same k-point, so it might involve the change of momentum in the electron transition process. The research will help strengthen the understanding of photoelectronic properties and effectively guide the preparation of the SI-GaAs materials.

  2. Field effect on positron diffusion in semi-insulating GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, Y.Y.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Lynn, K.G.; Fung, S.; Beling, C.D.

    1996-07-01

    An energy-tunable monoenergetic positron beam was used to study positron diffusion in the space-charge region of an Au/GaAs(SI) (semi-insulating) Schottky contact, where the electric field reaches {approximately}10{sup 5} Vcm{sup {minus}1} by reverse biasing the diode. An analytical solution of the time-dependent positron drift-diffusion model under an electric field was obtained for the case of a semi-infinite body with a capturing boundary, and explains the experimental results well. A positron diffusion coefficient of 1.8{plus_minus}0.2 cm{sup 2}s{sup {minus}1}, and a positron mobility of 70{plus_minus}10 cm{sup 2}V{sup {minus}1}s{sup {minus}1} in GaAs(SI) at 300 K, were obtained independently. This result is consistent with the Einstein relation. The dependence of the positron current density at the Au/GaAs interface on the electric field shows that GaAs(SI) is a possible candidate for the fabrication of the field-assisted positron moderator. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  3. Optical characterization of semi-insulating GaAs - Determination of the Fermi energy, the concentraion of the midgap EL2 level and its occupancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagowski, J.; Bugajski, M.; Matsui, M.; Gatos, H. C.

    1987-01-01

    The key electronic characteristics of semiinsulating GaAs, i.e., the Fermi energy, concentration, and occupancy of the midgap donor EL2, and the net concentration of ionized acceptors can all be determined from high-resolution measurements of the EL2 intracenter absorption. The procedure is based on the measurement of zero-phonon line intensity before and after the complete transfer of EL2 to its metastable state followed by thermal recovery. The procedure is quantitative, involves no fitting parameters, and unlike existing methods, is applicable even when a significant part of the EL2 is ionized.

  4. Measured and computed performance of a microstrip filter composed of semi-insulating GaAs on a fused quartz substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Peter H.; Dengler, Robert J.; Oswald, John E.; Sheen, David M.; Ali, Sami M.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of a microstrip hammerhead filter that has been fabricated on an electrically thin layer of semiinsulating GaAs backed by a fused quartz substrate was measured and compared to results of a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FD-TD) program used to calculate the response of the filter both with and without the GaAs layer. The program, presented by Sheen et al. (1990), discretizes the entire structure and then simulates the propagation of a Gaussian pulse through the filter. The microstrip filter is intended for applications involving ultrathin lifted-off or etched-back GaAs containing both active devices and passive microstrip circuitry backed by a much thicker mechanically rigid low-loss, low-dielectric-constant substrate. The low-pass characteristics of the hammerhead filter with the intermediate GaAs layer are compared with those of the same filter on quartz alone. Both the measured and computed data show a significant shift in cutoff frequency (about 10 percent at the 3 dB points) for a GaAs layer that is 0.007 wavelengths thick at 4 GHz.

  5. AlGaAs/GaAs p-i-n photodiode/preamplifier monolithic photoreceiver integrated on a semi-insulating GaAs substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, O.; Hamaguchi, H.; Miura, S.; Makiuchi, M.; Nakai, K.; Horimatsu, H.; Sakurai, T.

    1985-05-01

    A fully monolithic photoreceiver circuit incorporating an AlGaAs/GaAs p-i-n photodiode and a GaAs field-effect transistor based transimpedance amplifier has been fabricated in the form of a horizontally integrated structure on a semi-insulating GaAs substrate. Parasitic capacitances of the circuit elements have been minimized in the present monolithic circuit, and a short rise and fall time of 1.0 ns, corresponding to an approximate -3 dB frequency of 300 MHz, has been demonstrated at the internal feedback resistance of 1.3 kΩ. Preliminary measurement of the noise characteristics of the present circuit has exhibited an encouraging value of the equivalent input noise current of 13 pA Hz-1/2 at 300 MHz.

  6. Carbon irradiated semi insulating GaAs for photoconductive terahertz pulse detection.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhishek; Pal, Sanjoy; Surdi, Harshad; Prabhu, S S; Mathimalar, S; Nanal, Vandana; Pillay, R G; Döhler, G H

    2015-03-01

    We report here a photoconductive material for THz detection with sub-picosecond carrier lifetime made by C(12) (Carbon) irradiation on commercially available semi-insulating (SI) GaAs. We are able to reduce the carrier lifetime of SI-GaAs down to sub-picosecond by irradiating it with various irradiation dosages of Carbon (C(12)) ions. With an increase of the irradiation dose from ~10(12) /cm(2) to ~10(15) /cm(2) the carrier lifetime of SI-GaAs monotonously decreases to 0.55 picosecond, whereas that of usual non-irradiated SI-GaAs is ~70 picosecond. This decreased carrier lifetime has resulted in a strong improvement in THz pulse detection compared with normal SI-GaAs. Improvement in signal to noise ratio as well as in detection bandwidth is observed. Carbon irradiated SI-GaAs appears to be an economical alternative to low temperature grown GaAs for fabrication of THz devices.

  7. Frequency and intensity dependence of the sub-band-gap features observed in the surface photovoltage spectrum of semi-insulating GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, T. K.; Kumar, Shailendra; Rustagi, K. C.

    2002-11-01

    Surface photovoltage spectroscopy studies on thick semi-insulating GaAs wafers are reported in the range 850-950 nm using the chopped light geometry. We observed some interesting sharp features in the sub-band-gap of SI-GaAs, which were reported recently [Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1715(2001); Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1835 (2002)]. In this article, we present the dependence of these features on the chopping frequency and the source intensity. The intensity variation in the above-band-gap region and for the A peak (898 nm) in the sub-band-gap region could be fitted with single component while it is necessary to consider more than one component to fit the data for the Q peak (887 nm) in the sub-band-gap region. A model consistent with the observed features is also proposed.

  8. The reverse mode of the photo activated charge domain in high field biased semi-insulating GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Guanghui; Shi, Wei

    2013-02-01

    The nonlinear accumulation of the photogenerated electrons in high field biased SI-GaAs has been defined as photo activated charge domain (PACD). The transient transport dynamics of the PACD is investigated. The result shows that the PACD, working as a reverse gun dipole domain when biased electric field much higher than 4 kV/cm, and the reverse mode of the PACD could dominate the electric field shielding by its main electric field ultrafast and exponential rising against the bias field. Such mechanisms could play an important role in GaAs THz antenna, GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch, and the other ultrafast GaAs devices.

  9. Semi-insulating GaAs detectors with HDPE layer for detection of fast neutrons from D-T nuclear reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagatova, Andrea; Zatko, Bohumir; Sedlackova, Katarina; Pavlovic, Marius; Necas, Vladimir; Fulop, Marko; Solar, Michael; Granja, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Bulk semi-insulating (SI) GaAs detectors optimized for fast-neutron detection were examined using mono-energetic neutrons. The detectors have an active area of 7.36 mm2 defined by a multi-pixel structure of a AuZn Schottky contact allowing a relatively high breakdown voltage (300 V) sufficient for full depletion of the detector structure. The Schottky contact is covered by a HDPE (high density polyethylene) conversion layer, where neutrons transfer their kinetic energy to hydrogen atoms through elastic nuclear collisions. The detectors were exposed to mono-energetic neutrons generated by a deuterium (D)-tritium (T) nuclear reaction at a Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons reached a kinetic energy of 16.8 MeV when deuterons were accelerated by 1 MV potential. The influence of the HDPE layer thickness on the detection efficiency of the fast neutrons was studied. The thickness of the conversion layer varied from 50 μm to 1300 μm. The increase of the HDPE layer thickness led to a higher detection efficiency due to higher conversion efficiency of the HDPE layer. The effect of the active detector thickness modified by the detector reverse bias voltage on the detection efficiency was also evaluated. By increasing the detector reverse voltage, the detector active volume expands to the depth and also to the sides, slightly increasing the neutron detection efficiency.

  10. GaAs detectors irradiated by electrons at different dose rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagatova, A.; Zatko, B.; Sedlackova, K.; Pavlovic, M.; Fulop, M.; Bohacek, P.; Necas, V.

    2014-12-01

    The radiation hardness of Semi-Insulating (SI) GaAs detectors against high-energy electrons was investigated. The detectors were irradiated by 5 MeV electrons. The influence of two irradiation parameters, the total absorbed dose (up to 24 kGy) and the applied dose rate (20, 40 and 80 kGy/h), on their spectrometric properties was studied. An 241Am gamma-ray source was used to evaluate the spectrometric properties. The applied dose has negatively affected the detector CCE (Charge Collection Efficiency) and has influenced also the energy resolution. Nevertheless, a global increase of detection efficiency with the dose was observed. Three different dose rates used during irradiation did not affect the CCE, but in the range of doses from 4 to 16 kGy an influence of the applied dose rate upon two other parameters was observed. With higher dose rates, a steeper increase in the detection efficiency and significant worsening of energy resolution were achieved.

  11. Semi-insulating GaAs and Au Schottky barrier photodetectors for near-infrared detection (1280 nm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusir, A. I.; Makableh, Y. F.; Manasreh, O.

    2015-08-01

    Schottky barriers formed between metal (Au) and semiconductor (GaAs) can be used to detect photons with energy lower than the bandgap of the semiconductor. In this study, photodetectors based on Schottky barriers were fabricated and characterized for the detection of light at wavelength of 1280 nm. The device structure consists of three gold fingers with 1.75 mm long and separated by 0.95 mm, creating an E shape while the middle finger is disconnected from the outer frame. When the device is biased, electric field is stretched between the middle finger and the two outermost electrodes. The device was characterized by measuring the current-voltage (I-V) curve at room temperature. This showed low dark current on the order of 10-10 A, while the photocurrent was higher than the dark current by four orders of magnitude. The detectivity of the device at room temperature was extracted from the I-V curve and estimated to be on the order of 5.3x1010 cm.Hz0.5/W at 5 V. The step response of the device was measured from time-resolved photocurrent curve at 5 V bias with multiple on/off cycles. From which the average recovery time was estimated to be 0.63 second when the photocurrent decreases by four orders of magnitude, and the average rise time was measured to be 0.897 second. Furthermore, the spectral response spectrum of the device exhibits a strong peak close to the optical communication wavelength (~1.3 μm), which is attributed to the internal photoemission of electrons above the Schottky barrier formed between Au and GaAs.

  12. Ion irradiation damage in n-type GaAs in comparison with its electron irradiation damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisen, F. H.; Bachem, K.; Klausman, E.; Koehler, K.; Haddad, R.

    1992-12-01

    In an effort to attain a better understanding of the nature of the defects introduced in GaAs by irradiating it with energetic light ions; electron or proton irradiated n-type GaAs samples, cut from the same layer grown by molecular-beam epitaxy, have been studied by deep level transient spectroscopy. By comparing the spectra, including the effects of high electric fields, and by using results for annealed samples, it is possible to determine which of the traps reported in electron irradiated GaAs, most of which are believed to be arsenic interstitial-vacancy pairs, are present in the proton irradiated material. The traps identified in proton irradiated GaAs include most of those found in electron irradiated material, either after irradiation or after irradiation and annealing. The results indicate that two of these traps are associated with defects which are more complex than simple interstitial-vacancy pairs. Two traps were found in proton irradiated material which have not been observed in electron irradiated GaAs. One of these is nearly as abundant as the prominent E3 center observed in electron irradiated GaAs and is probably also not a simple pair. The deep level transient spectroscopy peak for this trap is not clearly separated from that of E3 in proton irradiated GaAs. The other trap is probably associated with a particular impurity present in the MBE grown sample layers.

  13. A comparative study of heavily irradiated silicon and non irradiated SI LEC GaAs detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Biggeri, U.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.

    1998-06-01

    Silicon p{sup +}n junctions irradiated with neutron and proton fluences in the range 5 {times} 10{sup 11}--4 {times} 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}2} and non-irradiated Semi Insulating (SI) LEC GaAs Schottky barriers have been analyzed. In silicon the concentration N{sub t} of the main radiation-induced deep traps (Et {approx} 0.44--0.54 eV) is found to increase as N{sub t} {alpha} f achieving values up to 5 {times} 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}3} and a mobility saturation at 100 cm{sup 2}/Vs has been observed at the highest fluences. A quantitative comparison between heavily irradiated silicon and non-irradiated GaAs evidenced similar charge collection efficiencies, a quasi-intrinsic bulk and similar concentrations of deep defects. On this basis, a unique model, correlating the lattice disorder and the detector performance, is suggested.

  14. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy study on the growth modes of GaSb islands grown on a semi-insulating GaAs (001) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. H.; Lee, J. Y.; Noh, Y. G.; Kim, M. D.; Oh, J. E.

    2007-06-01

    The initial growth behaviors of GaSb on a GaAs substrate were studied using a high-resolution electron microscope (HRTEM). Four types of GaSb islands were observed by HRTEM. HRTEM micrographs showed that strain relaxation mechanisms were different in the four types of islands. Although 90° misfit dislocations relieve misfit strain in the islands, additional mechanisms are required to relax the remaining strain. The existence of elastic deformation near the surface related to dislocations and intermediate layers between GaSb and GaAs were demonstrated in island growths. Finally, the generation of planar defects to relieve strain was observed in a specific GaSb growth.

  15. Anomalous diffusion of Ga and As from semi-insulating GaAs substrate into MOCVD grown ZnO films as a function of annealing temperature and its effect on charge compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Pranab; Banerji, P.; Halder, Nripendra N.; Kundu, Souvik; Shripathi, T.; Gupta, M.

    2014-05-15

    The diffusion behavior of arsenic (As) and gallium (Ga) atoms from semi-insulating GaAs (SI-GaAs) into ZnO films upon post-growth annealing vis-à-vis the resulting charge compensation was investigated with the help of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The films, annealed at 600 ºC and 700 ºC showed p-type conductivity with a hole concentration of 1.1 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} and 2.8 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} respectively, whereas those annealed at 800 ºC showed n-type conductivity with a carrier concentration of 6.5 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3}. It is observed that at lower temperatures, large fraction of As atoms diffused from the SI-GaAs substrates into ZnO and formed acceptor related complex, (As{sub Zn}–2V{sub Zn}), by substituting Zn atoms (As{sub Zn}) and thereby creating two zinc vacancies (V{sub Zn}). Thus as-grown ZnO which was supposed to be n-type due to nonstoichiometric nature showed p-type behavior. On further increasing the annealing temperature to 800 ºC, Ga atoms diffused more than As atoms and substitute Zn atoms thereby forming shallow donor complex, Ga{sub Zn}. Electrons from donor levels then compensate the p-type carriers and the material reverts back to n-type. Thus the conversion of carrier type took place due to charge compensation between the donors and acceptors in ZnO and this compensation is the possible origin of anomalous conduction in wide band gap materials.

  16. Characterization of semi-insulating gallium arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakemore, John S.

    1993-11-01

    The project was established 18 Nov. 1992 to continue for 12 months. Its purpose has been electrical and optical characterization of samples from semi-insulating (SI) melt-grown crystals of gallium arsenide (GaAs). As a further definition of the project's purpose, the primary goal has been to assist NRL in assessing the properties of SI GaAs crystals grown at NRL by the vertical zone melt (VZM) method. A second aspect of this characterization work has involved samples from SI GaAs crystals grown by various commercial vendors including samples of pre-synthesized GaAs evaluated for its suitability as starting 'feedstock' for VZM growth. Measurements made at Western Washington University (WWU) under the terms of this project accord with a Statement of Work provided at the outset. These have included the following: (1) low-field dc electrical transport data for SI GaAs samples, as functions of temperature; (2) near-infrared (NIR) transmittance/absorption spectra of polished slabs, with data concerning the well-known EL2 defect determined from NIR absorption strength and spectral form; and (3) mid-IR data on absorption caused by carbon acceptors in SI GaAs.

  17. Origins of ion irradiation-induced Ga nanoparticle motion on GaAs surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, M.; Wu, J. H.; Chen, H. Y.; Thornton, K.; Goldman, R. S.; Sofferman, D. L.; Beskin, I.

    2013-08-12

    We have examined the origins of ion irradiation-induced nanoparticle (NP) motion. Focused-ion-beam irradiation of GaAs surfaces induces random walks of Ga NPs, which are biased in the direction opposite to that of ion beam scanning. Although the instantaneous NP velocities are constant, the NP drift velocities are dependent on the off-normal irradiation angle, likely due to a difference in surface non-stoichiometry induced by the irradiation angle dependence of the sputtering yield. It is hypothesized that the random walks are initiated by ion irradiation-induced thermal fluctuations, with biasing driven by anisotropic mass transport.

  18. Origins of ion irradiation-induced Ga nanoparticle motion on GaAs surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, M.; Wu, J. H.; Sofferman, D. L.; Beskin, I.; Chen, H. Y.; Thornton, K.; Goldman, R. S.

    2013-08-01

    We have examined the origins of ion irradiation-induced nanoparticle (NP) motion. Focused-ion-beam irradiation of GaAs surfaces induces random walks of Ga NPs, which are biased in the direction opposite to that of ion beam scanning. Although the instantaneous NP velocities are constant, the NP drift velocities are dependent on the off-normal irradiation angle, likely due to a difference in surface non-stoichiometry induced by the irradiation angle dependence of the sputtering yield. It is hypothesized that the random walks are initiated by ion irradiation-induced thermal fluctuations, with biasing driven by anisotropic mass transport.

  19. Study on Nonlinear Absorption Effect of Nanosecond Pulse Laser Irradiation for GaAs.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenjun; Liu, Zhongyang; Zhou, Haijiao

    2016-04-01

    In order to research nonlinear absorption effect of pulse laser irradiation for GaAs, a physical model of Gaussian distribution pulse laser irradiation for semiconductor material was established by software COMSOL Multiphysics. The thermal effects of semiconductor material GaAs was analyzed under irradiation of nanosecond pulse laser with wavelength of 1064 nm. The radial and transverse temperature distribution of semiconductor material GaAs was calculated under irradiation of nanosecond pulse laser with different power density by solving the thermal conduction equations. The contribution of one-photon absorption, two-photon absorption and free carrier absorption to temperature of GaAs material were discussed. The results show that when the pulse laser power density rises to 10(10) W/cm2, free carrier absorption played a leading role and it was more than that of one-photon absorption of material. The temperature contribution of two-photon absorption and free carrier absorption could be ignored at laser power density lower than 10(8) W/cm2. The result is basically consistent with relevant experiments, which shows that physical model constructed is valid. PMID:27451733

  20. Study on Nonlinear Absorption Effect of Nanosecond Pulse Laser Irradiation for GaAs.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenjun; Liu, Zhongyang; Zhou, Haijiao

    2016-04-01

    In order to research nonlinear absorption effect of pulse laser irradiation for GaAs, a physical model of Gaussian distribution pulse laser irradiation for semiconductor material was established by software COMSOL Multiphysics. The thermal effects of semiconductor material GaAs was analyzed under irradiation of nanosecond pulse laser with wavelength of 1064 nm. The radial and transverse temperature distribution of semiconductor material GaAs was calculated under irradiation of nanosecond pulse laser with different power density by solving the thermal conduction equations. The contribution of one-photon absorption, two-photon absorption and free carrier absorption to temperature of GaAs material were discussed. The results show that when the pulse laser power density rises to 10(10) W/cm2, free carrier absorption played a leading role and it was more than that of one-photon absorption of material. The temperature contribution of two-photon absorption and free carrier absorption could be ignored at laser power density lower than 10(8) W/cm2. The result is basically consistent with relevant experiments, which shows that physical model constructed is valid.

  1. Performance and temperature dependencies of proton irradiated n/p GaAs and n/p silicon cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The n/p homojunction GaAs cell is found to be more radiation resistant than p/nheteroface GaAs under 10 MeV proton irradiation. Both GaAs cell types outperform conventional silicon n/p cells under the same conditions. An increase temperature dependency of maximum power for the GaAs n/p cells is attributed largely to differences in Voc between the two GaAs cell types. These results and diffusion length considerations are consistent with the conclusion that p-type GaAs is more radiation resistant than n-type and therefore that the n/p configuration is possibly favored for use in the space radiation environment. However, it is concluded that additional work is required in order to choose between the two GaAs cell configurations.

  2. Thermal annealing of GaAs concentrator solar cells. [during electron irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, H. B.; Brinker, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    The thermal annealing of GaAs concentrator cells after electron irradiation is reported. Results are given for cells annealed at 150, 200, and 250 C. Isochronal annealing was done for 20 min intervals up to 350 C. For cells irradiated with electrons of energies between 0.7 and 2.3 MeV, the recovery decreases with increasing electron energy. Isothermal and isochronal annealing produce the same recovery. Cells irradiated to 3 x 10 to the 15th or 1 x 10 to the 16th e/sq cm recover to similar unannealed fractions. Significant annealing is seen starting at 150 C, although very long times are required.

  3. Photo-recovery of electron-irradiated GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meulenberg, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    The first long-term (3000 hours) UV testing of unirradiated and 1 MeV electron-irradiated GaAs solar cells, with multilayer-coated coverslides to reduce solar array operating temperature, has produced some unexpected and important results. Two results, independent of the coverslide coatings, are of particular importance in terms of the predictability of GaAs solar-array lifetime in space: ( 1) The GaAs/Ge solar cells used for this series of tests displayed a much higher radiation degradation than that predicted based on JPL Solar Cell Radiation Handbook data. Covered cells degraded more in Isc than did bare cells. Short-term illumination at 60 C did not produce significant recovery (-1%) of the radiation damage. (2) However, electron radiation damage to these GaAs solar celIs anneals at 40 C when exposed to approximately 1 sun AM0 UV light sources for extended periods. The effect appears to be roughly linear with time (-1% of lsc per 1000 UVSH), is large (greater than or equal to 3%), and has not yet saturated (at 3000 hours). This photo-recovery of radiation damage to GaAs solar cells is a new effect and potentially important to the spacecraft community. The figure compares the effects of extended UV on irradiated and unirradiated GaAs solar cells with INTELSAT-6 Si cells. The effect and its generality, the extent of and conditions for photo-recovery, and the implications of such recovery for missions in radiation environments have not yet been determined.

  4. Inverted thermal conversion - GaAs, a new alternative material for integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.; Kang, C. H.; Skowronski, M.; Ko, K. Y.

    1986-01-01

    A new type of GaAs is developed which exhibits inverted thermal conversion (ITC); i.e., it converts from conducting to semiinsulating upon annealing at about 850 C. In device fabrication, its low resistivity prior to high-temperature processing differentiates ITC GaAs from the standard semiinsulating GaAs. The ITC characteristics are obtained through control of the concentration of the midgap donor EL2 based on heat treatment and crystal-growth modification. Thus EL2 does not exist in the conducting state of ITC GaAs. Conversion to the semiinsulating state during 850 C annealing is caused by the formation of EL2.

  5. LEC GaAs for integrated circuit applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, C. G.; Chen, R. T.; Homes, D. E.; Asbeck, P. M.; Elliott, K. R.; Fairman, R. D.; Oliver, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Recent developments in liquid encapsulated Czochralski techniques for the growth of semiinsulating GaAs for integrated circuit applications have resulted in significant improvements in the quality and quantity of GaAs material suitable for device processing. The emergence of high performance GaAs integrated circuit technologies has accelerated the demand for high quality, large diameter semiinsulating GaAs substrates. The new device technologies, including digital integrated circuits, monolithic microwave integrated circuits and charge coupled devices have largely adopted direct ion implantation for the formation of doped layers. Ion implantation lends itself to good uniformity and reproducibility, high yield and low cost; however, this technique also places stringent demands on the quality of the semiinsulating GaAs substrates. Although significant progress was made in developing a viable planar ion implantation technology, the variability and poor quality of GaAs substrates have hindered progress in process development.

  6. Effect of semiconductor GaAs laser irradiation on pain perception in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkovic, N.; Manev, H.; Pericic, D.; Skala, K.; Jurin, M.; Persin, A.; Kubovic, M.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of subacute exposure (11 exposures within 16 days) of mice to the low power (GaAs) semiconductive laser-stimulated irradiation on pain perception was investigated. The pain perception was determined by the latency of foot-licking or jumping from the surface of a 53 degrees C hot plate. Repeated hot-plate testing resulted in shortening of latencies in both sham- and laser-irradiated mice. Laser treatment (wavelength, 905 nm; frequency, 256 Hz; irradiation time, 50 sec; pulse duration, 100 nsec; distance, 3 cm; peak irradiance, 50 W/cm2 in irradiated area; and total exposure, 0.41 mJ/cm2) induced further shortening of latencies, suggesting its stimulatory influence on pain perception. Administration of morphine (20 mg/kg) prolonged the latency of response to the hot plate in both sham- and laser-irradiated mice. This prolongation tended to be lesser in laser-irradiated animals. Further investigations are required to elucidate the mechanism of the observed effect of laser.

  7. Investigation of new semiinsulating behavior of III-V compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagowski, Jacek

    1990-01-01

    The investigation of defect interactions and properties related to semiinsulating behavior of III-V semiconductors resulted in about twenty original publications, six doctoral thesis, one masters thesis and numerous conference presentations. The studies of new compensation mechanisms involving transition metal impurities have defined direct effects associated with deep donor/acceptor levels acting as compensating centers. Electrical and optical properties of vanadium and titanium levels were determined in GaAs, InP and also in ternary compounds InGaAs. The experimental data provided basis for the verification of chemical trends and the VRBE method. They also defined compositional range for III-V mixed crystals whereby semiinsulating behavior can be achieved using transition elements deep levels and a suitable codoping with shallow donor/acceptor impurities.

  8. Effect of the Si-doped In0.49Ga0.51P barrier layer on the device performance of In0.4Ga0.6As MOSFETs grown on semi-insulating GaAs substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hu-Dong; Sun, Bing; Xue, Bai-Qing; Liu, Gui-Ming; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Sheng-Kai; Liu, Hong-Gang

    2013-07-01

    In0.4Ga0.6As channel metal—oxide—semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with and without an Si-doped In0.49Ga0.51P barrier layer grown on semi-insulating GaAs substrates have been investigated for the first time. Compared with the In0.4Ga0.6As MOSFETs without an In0.49Ga0.51P barrier layer, In0.4Ga0.6As MOSFETs with an In0.49Ga0.51P barrier layer show higher drive current, higher transconductance, lower gate leakage current, lower subthreshold swing, and higher effective channel mobility. These In0.4Ga0.6As MOSFETs (gate length 2 μm) with an In0.49Ga0.51P barrier layer exhibit a high drive current of 117 mA/mm, a high transconductance of 71.9 mS/mm, and a maximum effective channel mobility of 1266 cm2/(V·s).

  9. Effect of high dose γ-ray irradiation on GaAs p-i-n photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, V. K.; Khamari, Shailesh K.; Manwani, Sapna; Porwal, S.; Alexander, K.; Sharma, T. K.; Kher, S.; Oak, S. M.

    2015-06-01

    Metal organic vapor phase epitaxy grown GaAs p-i-n photodetector devices are fabricated and tested for the assessment of practical usage of the detector after the exposure to high radiation doses of γ-ray. Increased values of saturation current, ideality factor and leakage current after 360 kGy γ-ray irradiation confirm a substantial increase in the number of generation-recombination centers. It is further observed that the leakage current density, current per unit volume (Jv), increases linearly with the radiation fluence (Φ). The slope (α=ΔJv/ΔΦ) of the leakage current density versus γ-ray radiation fluences curve is two order less (4-5×10-l9 A/cm) for GaAs compared to Si (4-6×10-l7 A/cm). The lower value of α (radiation damage constant) confirms that GaAs is radiation harder than Si. Subsequently, it is also observed that the photo response of 360 kGy γ-ray irradiated GaAs device is reduced by ~50% due to the reduction of quantum efficiency by the radiation induced generation-recombination centers. The functionality of the irradiated sensor is verified by comparing the response of the pristine and irradiated detectors to the photoluminescence of semiconductor quantum well structures.

  10. Stability of the GaAs based Hall sensors irradiated by gamma quanta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradoboev, A. V.; Karlova, G. F.

    2015-04-01

    The present work is aimed at investigation of the stability of the GaAsbased Hall sensors (pickups) to irradiation by gamma quanta. The examined objects are the gallium arsenide based Hall sensors manufactured on thin active layers by the methods of vaporphase epitaxy (VPE), molecular beam epitaxy, and ion implantation. Our research methodology involves measurements of the volt-ampere characteristics (VACs) of all sensors for different values of the supply voltage polarity and electron concentration and mobility by the Van-der- Pau method as well as investigations of the noise properties of the sensors before and after irradiation. The sensors are irradiated by gamma quanta of Co60 at room temperature in the passive mode, that is, without imposition of an electrical bias. As a result of investigations, it is established that a part of the active layer of finite thickness adjoining the substrate plays an important role in the charge carrier transmission process depending on the concentration of deep-level centers in the substrate. Irradiation by high doses leads to degradation of VACs and increase in the spectral density of the sensor noise. Low gamma radiation doses have a stabilization effect on the sensors. Periodic relaxation processes are observed for a part of the structures manufactured by the VPE method. The assumption is made that they can be caused by the deep-level centersin GaAs.

  11. Performance and temperature dependencies of proton irradiated n/p and p/n GaAs and n/p silicon cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    n/p homojunction GaAs cells are found to be more radiation resistant than p/n heteroface GaAs under 10 MeV proton irradiation. Both GaAs cell types outperform conventional silicon n/p cells under the same conditions. An increased temperature dependency of maximum power for the GaAs n/p cells is attributed to differences in Voc between the two GaAs cell types. These results and diffusion length considerations are consistent with the conclusion that p-type GaAs is more radiation resistant than n-type and therefore that the n/p configuration is possibly favored for use in the space radiation environment. However, it is concluded that additional work is required in order to choose between the two GaAs cell configurations.

  12. Modelling of semiconductor diodes made of high defect concentration, irradiated, high resistivity and semi-insulating material: The capacitance voltage characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadoune, A.; Dehimi, L.; Sengouga, N.; McPherson, M.; Jones, B. K.

    2006-07-01

    Full modelling is reported of the capacitance of a long PIN semiconductor diode with a high concentration of generation-recombination (g-r) centres and different concentrations of deep traps. There are considerable differences from the textbook results given for normal lifetime diodes which have low concentrations of g-r centres. For a low density of g-r centres, the capacitance is the usual value. That is it decreases as V-1/2 with increasing reverse bias while it increases rapidly with increasing forward bias. For high density of g-r centres and in reverse bias a departure from this voltage dependence is observed, while in forward bias a negative capacitance appears. This agrees with experiment. From these results we present a physical understanding of the processes involved. There are specific applications of these results to radiation damaged devices, lifetime killed diodes and devices made from high resistance and semi-insulating materials, especially in the interpretation of the C- V curves to evaluate the fixed space charge density.

  13. Dielectric properties of semi-insulating silicon at microwave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupka, Jerzy; Kamiński, Paweł; Kozłowski, Roman; Surma, Barbara; Dierlamm, Alexander; Kwestarz, Michał

    2015-08-01

    The permittivity and dielectric loss tangent of high-purity silicon with semi-insulating properties achieved by the irradiation with 23-MeV protons have been measured at frequencies from 1 GHz to 15 GHz. The dielectric losses were separated from the conductor losses on the basis of the total loss tangent measurements versus frequency. The resistivity measurements of the material performed at radio frequencies (RF) by means of the capacitance spectroscopy method have shown the non-uniform resistivity distribution in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the semi-insulating wafer. The excellent agreement between the resistivity measurements results at RF and those obtained by using microwave methods have been achieved. It has been confirmed that high-purity, semi-insulating silicon is practically non-dispersive and possesses extremely low dielectric losses that are constant to within experimental errors in the frequency range from 1 GHz to 350 GHz. In this frequency range, the dielectric loss tangent of semi-insulating silicon is equal to 1.2 ×10-5 .

  14. Surface patterning of GaAs under irradiation with very heavy polyatomic Au ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, L.; Böttger, R.; Heinig, K.-H.; Facsko, S.; Pilz, W.

    2014-08-01

    Self-organization of surface patterns on GaAs under irradiation with heavy polyatomic Au ions has been observed. The patterns depend on the ion mass, and the substrate temperature as well as the incidence angle of the ions. At room temperature, under normal incidence the surface remains flat, whereas above 200 °C nanodroplets of Ga appear after irradiation with monatomic, biatomic as well as triatomic Au ions of kinetic energies in the range of 10-30 keV per atom. In the intermediate temperature range of 100-200 °C meander- and dot-like patterns form, which are not related to Ga excess. Under oblique ion incidence up to 45° from the surface normal, at room temperature the surface remains flat for mon- and polyatomic Au ions. For bi- and triatomic ions in the range of 60° ≤ α ≤ 70° ripple patterns have been found, which become shingle-like for α ≥ 80°, whereas the surface remains flat for monatomic ions.

  15. The semi-insulating GaAs-based particle detector at IEE SAS: first imaging results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmo, J.; Dubecký, F.; Zat'ko, B.; Boháček, P.; Sekáčová, M.; Kvitkovič, J.; Nečas, V.; Pelfer, P. G.

    2001-02-01

    A particle detector made of semi-insulating GaAs is used for preliminary study of X-ray imaging. A standard technology developed in our laboratory is applied to prepare this detector. The detector works at room temperature in the photon counting mode. Results show that the quality of images taken at chosen exposure range is limited only by the photonic noise from used X-ray source 241Am.

  16. GaAs 904-nm laser irradiation improves myofiber mass recovery during regeneration of skeletal muscle previously damaged by crotoxin.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lucila H; Silva, Meiricris T; Gutierrez, Rita M; Conte, Talita C; Toledo, Cláudio A; Aoki, Marcelo S; Liebano, Richard E; Miyabara, Elen H

    2012-09-01

    This work investigated the effect of gallium arsenide (GaAs) irradiation (power: 5 mW; intensity: 77.14 mW/cm(2), spot: 0.07 cm(2)) on regenerating skeletal muscles damaged by crotoxin (CTX). Male C57Bl6 mice were divided into six groups (n = 5 each): control, treated only with laser at doses of 1.5 J or 3 J, CTX-injured and, CTX-injured and treated with laser at doses of 1.5 J or 3 J. The injured groups received a CTX injection into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. After 3 days, TA muscles were submitted to GaAs irradiation at doses of 1.5 or 3 J (once a day, during 5 days) and were killed on the eighth day. Muscle histological sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) in order to determine the myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA), the previously injured muscle area (PIMA) and the area density of connective tissue. The gene expression of MyoD and myogenin was detected by real-time PCR. GaAs laser at a dose of 3 J, but not 1.5 J, significantly increased the CSA of regenerating myofibers and reduced the PIMA and the area density of intramuscular connective tissue of CTX-injured muscles. MyoD gene expression increased in the injured group treated with GaAs laser at a dose of 1.5 J. The CTX-injured, 3-J GaAs laser-treated, and the CTX-injured and treated with 3-J laser groups showed an increase in myogenin gene expression when compared to the control group. Our results suggest that GaAs laser treatment at a dose of 3 J improves skeletal muscle regeneration by accelerating the recovery of myofiber mass.

  17. Electro-optic imagery of high-voltage GaAs photoconductive switches

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, R.A.; Adams, J.C.; Capps, C.D.; Ferrier, S.G.; Krinsky, J.A. )

    1995-01-01

    The authors present electro-optic images of GaAs high-voltage photoconductive switches utilizing the electro-optic effect of the semi-insulating GaAs substrate. Experimental methodology for obtaining the images is described along with a self-calibrating data reduction algorithm. Use of the technique for observing fabrication defects is shown.

  18. Effects of laser irradiation on the self-assembly of MnAs nanoparticles in a GaAs matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Hai, Pham Nam; Nomura, Wataru; Yatsui, Takashi; Ohtsu, Motoichi; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2012-11-05

    We investigate the effects of laser irradiation on the self-assembly of MnAs nanoparticles during solid-phase decomposition in a GaAs matrix. It is found that laser irradiation suppresses the growth of MnAs nanoparticles from small to large size, and that the median diameter D{sub 1} in the size distribution of small MnAs nanoparticles depends on the incident photon energy E following D{sub 1} {approx} E{sup -1/5}. We explain this behavior by the desorption of Mn atoms on the MnAs nanoparticle surface due to resonant optical absorption, in which incident photons excite intersubband electronic transitions between the quantized energy levels in the MnAs nanoparticles.

  19. Defect engineering in GaAs using high energy light ion irradiation: Role of electronic energy loss

    SciTech Connect

    Kabiraj, D.; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2011-02-01

    We report on the application of high energy light ions (Li and O) irradiation for modification of defects, in particular, for annihilation of point defects using electronic energy loss in GaAs to minimize the defects produced by nuclear collisions. The high resolution x-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy have been used to monitor that no lattice damage or amorphization take place due to irradiating ions. The effects of irradiation on defects and their energy levels have been studied using thermally stimulated current spectroscopy. It has been observed that till an optimum irradiation fluence of 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} there is annihilation of native defects but further increase in irradiation fluence results in accumulation of defects, which scales with the nuclear energy loss process, indicating that the rate of defects produced by the binary collision process exceeds rate of defect annihilation. Defect annihilation due to electronic energy loss has been discussed on the basis of breaking of bonds and enhanced diffusivity of ionized native defects.

  20. Electrical performances of commercial GaN and GaAs based optoelectronics under neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauzi, D. Ahmad; Rashid, N. K. A. Md; Karim, J. Abdul; Zin, M. R. Mohamed; Hasbullah, N. F.; Sheik Fareed, O. A.

    2013-12-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate the effects of displacement damage caused by high energetic neutron particle towards the electrical performances of gallium arsenide (GaAs) and gallium nitride (GaN) p-n based diodes. The investigations are carried out through current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements using Keithley 4200 SCS. Two different commercial optoelectronics diodes; GaN on SiC light emitting diode (LED) and GaAs infrared emitting diode (IRED) were radiated with neutron using pneumatic transfer system (PTS) in the PUSPATI TRIGA Mark II research reactor under total neutron flux of 1×1012 neutron/cm2.s. Following the neutron exposure for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, the I-V forward bias and reverse bias leakage current increase for GaAs IREDs, but minimal changes were observed in the GaN LEDs. The C-V measurements revealed that the capacitance and carrier concentration of GaAs IREDs decrease with increasing radiation flux.

  1. Study of defects in GaAs by differential thermal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, H.; von Bardeleben, H.J.; Bourgoin, J.C.

    1987-10-01

    Differential thermal analysis is applied to the measurement of defect total energies in GaAs. First, the technique is used to determine the energy liberated in the recombination of an As vacancy-interstitial pair; the result, in agreement with the theoretical estimate of the energy stored in such defect, allows the demonstration of the validity of the technique as well as its limitations. Then, the technique is used to evaluate the introduction rate of such defects by electron irradiation in a semi-insulating material in which electrical techniques cannot be applied. Finally, a characterization of native defects is attempted; it shows that recombination of native vacancies, with interstitials liberated when the movement of ..cap alpha.. dislocations takes place, occurs around 450 /sup 0/C.

  2. Photoionization cross sections of E levels in electron-irradiated n-type GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Budnitskii, D.L.; Kirov, M.A.; Popova, E.A.

    1986-11-01

    The spectral change of the photoionization cross sections of E/sub 1/-E/sub 2/ levels and the low-energy part of the photoionization cross sections of E/sub 4/ and E/sub 5/ levels are determined. It has been shown that radiation defects with which these levels are associated are characterized be a strong lattice relaxation of magnitude approx. = 0.5 eV. The red absorption edge for these levels in p-type GaAs has been found to lie at photon energies greater than E/sub g/ (except, possibly, level E/sub 5/)

  3. Growth of silver nanowires on GaAs wafers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yugang

    2011-05-01

    Silver (Ag) nanowires with chemically clean surfaces have been directly grown on semi-insulating gallium arsenide (GaAs) wafers through a simple solution/solid interfacial reaction (SSIR) between the GaAs wafers themselves and aqueous solutions of silver nitrate (AgNO(3)) at room temperature. The success in synthesis of Ag nanowires mainly benefits from the low concentration of surface electrons in the semi-insulating GaAs wafers that can lead to the formation of a low-density of nuclei that facilitate their anisotropic growth into nanowires. The resulting Ag nanowires exhibit rough surfaces and reasonably good electric conductivity. These characteristics are beneficial to sensing applications based on single-nanowire surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and possible surface-adsorption-induced conductivity variation.

  4. Effects of electron and proton irradiations on n/p and p/n GaAs cells grown by MOCVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Irving; Swartz, Clifford K.; Hart, Russell E., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    State-of-the-art n/p and p/n heteroface GaAs cells, processed by metal organic chemical vapor deposition, were irradiated by 1 MeV electrons and 37 MeV protons and their performance determined as a function of fluence. It was found that the p/n cells were more radiation resistant than the n/p cells. The increased loss in the n/p cells was attributed to increases in series resistance and losses in the p-region resulting from the irradiation. The greater loss in fill factor observed for the n/p cells introduces the possibility that the presently observed superiority of the p/n cells may not be an intrinsic property of this configuration in GaAs.

  5. Annealing of GaAs solar cells damaged by electron irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, G. H.; Conway, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of thermal annealing of GaAlAs/GaAs solar cells damaged by 1 MeV electron irradiation are reported, and the magnitude of the short-circuit current recovery is discussed. The damaged cells are annealed in a vacuum at 200 C. A cell irradiated at 10 to the 13th power electrons per sq cm recovers all its lost short-circuit current after 15 hours of annealing. Possible application of the annealing process to solar cells in space is also considered.

  6. Recovery of shallow junction GaAs solar cells damaged by electron irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, G. H.; Conway, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Solar cells operated in space are subject to degradation from electron and proton radiation damage. It has been found that for deep junction p-GaAlAs/p-GaAs solar cells some of the electron radiation damage is removed by annealing the cells at 200 C. The reported investigation shows that shallow junction p-GaAlAs/p-GaAs/n-GaAs heteroface solar cells irradiated with 1 MeV electrons show a more complete recovery of short-circuit current than do the deep junction cells. The heteroface p-GaAlAs/p-GaAs/n-GaAs solar cells studied were fabricated using the etch-back epitaxy process.

  7. Optical and electrical characterization of surface passivated GaAs nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arab, Shermin; Chi, Chun Yung; Yao, Maoqing; Chang, Chia-Chi; Dapkus, P. Daniel; Cronin, Stephen B.

    2014-02-01

    GaAs nanostructures are used in different optoelectronic applications including solar cells, LEDs and fast electronics. Although GaAs shows outstanding optical properties, it suffers from surface states and consequently high surface recombination velocity. The surface depletion effects lead to semi-insulating behaviors in GaAs devices. Passivation of GaAs nanostructures (AlGaAs or ionic liquid) lead to surface stability and improvement in optoelectronic properties. We provide a systematic study to compare the optical and electrical improvement after passivation (AlGaAs or ionic liquid) of GaAs nanostructure including nanowires and nanosheets. Both room temperature and low temperature photoluminescent (PL) spectra indicate increase in optical activity of GaAs nanostructures after passivation. Electron beam induced current (EBIC) measurements reveal the diffusion length of carries in different GaAs nanostructures.

  8. Microscopic determination of stress distribution in GaAs grown at low temperature on GaAs (100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; Tanaka, M.; Ishikawa, A.; Teriauchi, M.

    1991-01-01

    A microscopic strain distribution across commensurate interfaces between GaAs layers grown on semi-insulating GaAs substrates was observed by means of convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) and large angle convergent beam methods (LACBED). Strain relaxation at a specific distance from the interface was observed in these layers without formation of misfit dislocations. It was proposed that specific point defects distributed close to the interface can explain the asymmetric broadening of high-order Laue zone (HOLZ) lines in the CBED patterns.

  9. Characteristics of GaAs with inverted thermal conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, C. H.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1987-01-01

    GaAs crystals exhibiting inverted thermal conversion (ITC) of resistivity were investigated in conjunction with standard semiinsulating (SI) GaAs regarding characteristics important in device processing. It was established that dislocation density and Si implant activation are unaffected by transformation to the ITC state. However, in ITC GaAs the controlled increase of the EL2 (native midgap donor) concentration during annealing makes it possible to attain resistivities one order of magnitude greater (e.g., about 10 to the 9th ohm cm of 300 K) than those attained in standard SI GaAs (e.g., 10 to the 7th-10 to the 8th ohm cm).

  10. Passive Q-switching of diode-pumped Yb:YAG microchip laser with ion-implanted GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yonggang; Ma, Xiaoyu; Zhong, Bin; Wang, Desong; Zhang, Qiulin; Feng, Baohua

    2004-01-01

    We reported a passive Q-switched diode laser pumped Yb:YAG microchip laser with an ion-implanted semi-insulating GaAs wafer. The wafer was implanted with 400-keV As^(+) in the concentration of 10^(16) ions/cm^(2). To decrease the non-saturable loss, we annealed the ion-implanted GaAs at 500 oC for 5 minutes and coated both sides of the ion-implanted GaAs with antireflection (AR) and highreflection (HR) films, respectively. Using GaAs wafer as an absorber and an output coupler, we obtained 52-ns pulse duration of single pulse.

  11. Infrared absorption properties of the EL2 and the isolated As/sub Ga/ defects in neutron-transmutation-doped GaAs: Generation of an EL2-like defect

    SciTech Connect

    Manasreh, M.O.; Fischer, D.W.

    1989-02-15

    The EL2 and the isolated As/sub Ga/ antisite defects in neutron-transmutation-doped (NTD) GaAs were studied by using the infrared (ir) absorption technique concurrent with thermal annealing. The results show that irradiation with low thermal-neutron doses partially decomposes the EL2 complex in semi-insulating (si) GaAs grown by the liquid-encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) growth technique. On the other hand, a small amount of EL2 is generated in as-grown Ga-rich undoped p-type LEC GaAs. The EL2 defect in low-dose thermal-neutron-irradiated samples (both si and p-type) was found to be stable up to 850 /sup 0/C. High neutron-irradiation doses, however, completely annihilate EL2 but generate a different EL2-like defect (DL2). The DL2 defect is observed after annealing the high-dose NTD samples for 6 min at 600 /sup 0/C. The DL2 concentration is observed to be larger than that of EL2 in as-grown LEC si GaAs by a factor of 2.3 or higher. The photoquenching and thermal recovery properties of DL2 and EL2 defects are identical. However, the DL2 defect does not exhibit the same thermal stability or the zero-phonon line of the EL2 defect. Thermal annealing kinetics shows that DL2 is composed of three point defects. The residual absorption (unquenchable component) after photoquenching the EL2 (DL2) defect is interpreted as the photoionization of the isolated As/sub Ga/ antisite.

  12. Oxygen in GaAs - Direct and indirect effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Skowronski, M.; Pawlowicz, L.; Lagowski, J.

    1984-01-01

    Oxygen has profound effects on the key electronic properties and point defects of GaAs crystals. Thus, when added in the growth system, it decreases the free electron concentration and enhances the concentration of deep donors in the resulting crystals. Both of these effects are highly beneficial for achieving semi-insulating material and have been utilized for that purpose. They have been attributed to the tendency of oxygen to getter silicon impurities during crystal growth. Only recently, it has been found that oxygen in GaAs introduces also a midgap level, ELO, with essentially the same activation energy as EL2 but with four times greater electron capture cross section. The present report reassesses the electrical and optical properties of the midgap levels in GaAs crystals grown by the horizontal Bridgman (HB) and the Czochralski-LEC techniques. Emphasis is placed on the identification of the specific effects of ELO.

  13. Studies of Nonradiative Recombination Centers in GaAs and InP*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuzemen, S.; Liang, Difei; Ucer, K. B.; Williams, R. T.

    2001-03-01

    The "reverse contrast" recombination center in semi-insulating GaAs, so named because of its anti-correlation with EL2 defects in spatial mapping, has been attributed to As-vacancy centers.^1 Several details of the nature of its optical transitions and of its spatial distribution are among questions open to experimental investigation. We report experiments on spectroscopy and spatial mapping of defects in semi-insulating GaAs and Fe-doped InP. *ST acknowledges the CIES for support as a Fulbright Scholar at WFU. The research at WFU is supported by NSF grant DMR-9732023. Confocal microscopy in cooperation with K. Grant and the MicroMed Facility of WFU. 1. C. Le Berre, C. Corbel, R. Mih, M. R. Brozel, S. Tüzemen, S. Kuisma, K. Saarinen, P. Hautojarvi, and R. Fornari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2354 (1995).

  14. Approximation of HRPITS results for SI GaAs by large scale support vector machine algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowski, Stanisław; Wojdan, Konrad; Szymański, Zbigniew; Kozłowski, Roman

    2006-10-01

    For the first time large-scale support vector machine algorithms are used to extraction defect parameters in semi-insulating (SI) GaAs from high resolution photoinduced transient spectroscopy experiment. By smart decomposition of the data set the SVNTorch algorithm enabled to obtain good approximation of analyzed correlation surface by a parsimonious model (with small number of support vector). The extracted parameters of deep level defect centers from SVM approximation are of good quality as compared to the reference data.

  15. Spatial resolution and nature of defects produced by low-energy proton irradiation of GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kachare, R.; Anspaugh, B. E.

    1986-01-01

    AlGaAs/GaAs solar cells with about 0.5-micron-thick Al(0.85)Ga(0.15)As window layers were irradiated using isotropic and normal incidence protons having energies between 50 and 500 keV with fluences up to 1 x 10 to the 12th protons/sq cm. Although the projected range for these protons varies from 0 to more than 4.5 microns, the recombination losses due to the irradiation-induced defects were observed to be maximum in the vicinity of the AlGaAs/GaAs interface and the space-charge region irrespective of the proton energy. This was found by analyzing spectral response measurements. The results are explained by using a model in which the interaction of as-grown dislocations with irradiation-induced point defects is considered.

  16. Electric field perturbation due to impurities in GaAs through single electron transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, S.

    2009-11-01

    The present work shows the presence of inevitable impurities in the semi-insulating GaAs domains when one is developing a single electron transistor (SET) and alters the quantization mechanism of single electron tunneling through the island. It is also indicated that these impurities decrease the amount of energy required to change the number of electrons on the island, which leads to a drastic reduction of SET quality. A theoretical model has been presented for elucidating the I- V characteristics of GaAs nano-crystals. It is found that this proposed model fits well the experimental data.

  17. Ohmic contacts to GaAs for high-temperature device applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. T., Jr.; Christou, A.; Giuliani, J. F.; Dietrich, H. B.

    1981-01-01

    Ohmic contacts to n-type GaAs were developed for high temperature device applications up to 300 C. Refractory metallizations were used with epitaxial Ge layers to form the contacts: TiW/Ge/GaAs, Ta/Ge/GaAs, Mo/Ge/GaAs, and Ni/Ge/GaAs. Contacts with high dose Si or Se ion implantation of the Ge/GaAs interface were also investigated. The contacts were fabricated on epitaxial GaAs layer grown on N+ or semi-insulating GaAs substrates. Ohmic contact was formed by both thermal annealing (at temperatures up to 700 C) and laser annealing (pulsed Ruby). Examination of the Ge/GaAs interface revealed Ge migration into GaAs to form an N+ doping layer. The specific contact resistances of specimens annealed by both methods are given.

  18. Mesoscopic homogenization of semi-insulating GaAs by two-step post growth annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, B.; Jurisch, M.; Koehler, A.; Reinhold, T.; Weinert, B.; Kissinger, G.

    1996-12-31

    Mesoscopic homogenization of the electrical properties of s.i. LEC-GaAs is commonly realized by thermal treatment of the crystals including the steps of dissolution of arsenic precipitates, homogenization of excess As and re-precipitation by creating a controlled supersaturation. Caused by the inhomogeneous distribution of dislocations and the corresponding cellular structure along and across LEC-grown crystals a proper choice of the time-temperature program is necessary to minimize fluctuations of mesoscopic homogeneity. A modified two-step ingot annealing process is demonstrated to ensure the homogeneous distribution of mesoscopic homogeneity.

  19. Optical absorption and photocurrent enhancement in semi-insulating gallium arsenide by femtosecond laser pulse surface microstructuring.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhen-Yu; Song, Zhi-Qiang; Shi, Wang-Zhou; Zhao, Quan-Zhong

    2014-05-19

    We observe an enhancement of optical absorption and photocurrent from semi-insulating gallium arsenide (SI-GaAs) irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses. The SI-GaAs wafer is treated by a regeneratively amplified Ti: Sapphire laser of 120 fs laser pulse at 800 nm wavelength. The laser ablation induced 0.74 μm periodic ripples, and its optical absorption-edge is shifted to a longer wavelength. Meanwhile, the steady photocurrent of irradiated SI-GaAs is found to enhance 50%. The electrical properties of samples are calibrated by van der Pauw method. It is found that femtosecond laser ablation causes a microscale anti-reflection coating surface which enhances the absorption and photoconductivity.

  20. Defect studies in one MeV electron irradiated GaAs and in Al/sub x Ga/sub l-x As P-N junction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, S. S.; Wang, W. L.; Loo, R. Y.; Rahilly, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy reveals that the main electron traps for one-MeV electron irradiated GaAs cells are E9c)-0.31, E(c)-0.90 eV, and the main hole trap is due to the level. Electron trap density was found to vary from 3/tens-trillion ccm for 2/one quadrillion cm 3/3.7 quadrillion cm for 21 sextillion cm electron fluence for electron fluence; a similar result was also obtained for the hole trap density. As for the grown-in defects in the Al(x)Ga(1-x)As p-n junciton cells, only two electron traps with energies of E(c)-0.20 and E(c)-0.34 eV were observed in samples with x = 0.17, and none was found for x 0.05. Auger analysis on the Al(x)Ga(1-x) As window layer of the GaAs solar cell showed a large amount of oxygen and carbon contaminants near the surface of the AlGaAs epilayer. Thermal annealing experiment performed at 250 C for up to 100 min. showed a reduction in the density of both electron traps.

  1. Photodetectors based on carbon nanotubes deposited by using a spray technique on semi-insulating gallium arsenide.

    PubMed

    Melisi, Domenico; Nitti, Maria Angela; Valentini, Marco; Valentini, Antonio; Ligonzo, Teresa; De Pascali, Giuseppe; Ambrico, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a spray technique is used to perform low temperature deposition of multi-wall carbon nanotubes on semi-insulating gallium arsenide in order to obtain photodectors. A dispersion of nanotube powder in non-polar 1,2-dichloroethane is used as starting material. The morphological properties of the deposited films has been analysed by means of electron microscopy, in scanning and transmission mode. Detectors with different layouts have been prepared and current-voltage characteristics have been recorded in the dark and under irradiation with light in the range from ultraviolet to near infrared. The device spectral efficiency obtained from the electrical characterization is finally reported and an improvement of the photodetector behavior due to the nanotubes is presented and discussed.

  2. Crystal growth of completely dislocation-free and striation-free GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohda, H.; Yamada, K.; Nakanishi, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Osaka, J.

    1985-06-01

    Completely dislocation-free and striation-free, semi-insulating GaAs crystals with 50 mm diameter were grown by means of the newly developed Czochralski process. These crytals were obtained by combining the following techniques: (1) A dislocation-free seed crystal is used to eliminate grown-in dislocations; (2) the fully encapsulated Czochralski (FEC) method is applied in combination with indium doping to suppress stress-induced dislocations; and (3) a vertical magnetic-field is applied to homogenize the distribution of doped indium.

  3. A thermal ionization model for the sustaining phase of lock-on in GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Hjalmarson, H.P.; Zutavern, F.J.; Loubriel, G.M.; Buttram, M.T.; Baca, A.G.; Romero, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal ionization of electrons and holes is proposed as an explanation for the sustained phase of lock-on in semi-insulating GaAs. In this mechanism, thermal ionization leads to a current instability which drives the formation of current filaments. The model predicts bistable states: either a highly conductive on-state or weakly conductive off-state. The model predicts that a transition from the off-state to a filamentary-current on-state can be triggered by illumination in agreement with experiments using photoexcitation.

  4. Index grating lifetime in photorefractive GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Partovi, Afshin

    1988-01-01

    The index grating lifetime in liquid encapsulated Czochralski-grown undoped semi-insulating GaAs was measured using a beam coupling technique. The largest lifetime measure was about 8 s under a read beam intensity of 0.7 mW/sq cm with the grating periodicity being 0.63 microns. The measured value decreases to milliseconds as the read beam intensity and the grating periodicity increase to about 10 mW/sq cm and 4 microns, respectively. This range of grating lifetime in this material is adequate for its use in real-time spatial light modulators, reconfigurable beam steering devices, and dynamic memory elements, for optical computing. In addition, the results suggest that the lifetime is sensitive to residual imperfections in the crystal.

  5. The Study of Femtosecond Laser Irradiation on GaAs Solar Cells With TiO2/SiO2 Anti-Reflection Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Yinqun; Shi, Zhiguo; Wu, Wenhui; Chen, Ruifang; Rong, Zhen; Ye, Yunxia; Liu, Haixia

    Femtosecond laser ablation on GaAs solar cells for space power has been investigated. In particular, we studied the effects of laser energy and laser number on the ablation of solar cells. Furthermore, the morphologies and microstructure of ablation were characterized by the non-contact optical profilometer and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The photovoltaic properties were tested by the volt ampere characteristic test system. The abaltion threshold of the TiO2/SiO2 anti-reflection film of GaAs solar cells was obtained from the linear fit of the dependence of the square diameter of the ablated area with the natural logarithm of the femtosecond laser pulse energy, the resulting threshold of the laser fluence is about 0.31J/cm2, and the corresponding energy is 5.4uJ. The ablation depth showed nonlinear dependence of energy. With the fixed energy 6uJ and the increasing laser number, the damage degree increases obviously. Furthermore, the electric properties also suffer a certain degradation. Among all the evaluated electric properties, the photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) degraded remarkably.

  6. InAs growth and development of defect microstructure on GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandekar, A. A.; Suryanarayanan, G.; Babcock, S. E.; Kuech, T. F.

    2005-02-01

    Epitaxially deposited thin films of InAs on semi-insulating GaAs substrates are commonly used for high-speed electronic devices. Large (7%) lattice mismatch between InAs and GaAs leads to Stranski-Krastanov growth mode with formation of 3D islands. The effect of growth temperature in MOVPE deposition, on InAs crystal microstructure was studied. The origin of multiple tilting of the InAs crystal lattice observed for the high temperature growths was investigated in detail. The microstructure of uncoalesced InAs islands was determined using X-ray diffraction rocking curve scans and backscattered electron Kikuchi pattern crystal orientation imaging. Misoriented grains are formed within uncoalesced InAs islands at an early stage during the growth.

  7. GaAs Solar Cell Radiation Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.

    1996-01-01

    The handbook discusses the history of GaAs solar cell development, presents equations useful for working with GaAs solar cells, describes commonly used instrumentation techniques for assessing radiation effects in solar cells and fundamental processes occurring in solar cells exposed to ionizing radiation, and explains why radiation decreases the electrical performance of solar cells. Three basic elements required to perform solar array degradation calculations: degradation data for GaAs solar cells after irradiation with 1 MeV electrons at normal incidence; relative damage coefficients for omnidirectional electron and proton exposure; and the definition of the space radiation environment for the orbit of interest, are developed and used to perform a solar array degradation calculation.

  8. Advanced BCD technology with vertical DMOS based on a semi-insulation structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kui, Ma; Xinghua, Fu; Jiexin, Lin; Fashun, Yang

    2016-07-01

    A new semi-insulation structure in which one isolated island is connected to the substrate was proposed. Based on this semi-insulation structure, an advanced BCD technology which can integrate a vertical device without extra internal interconnection structure was presented. The manufacturing of the new semi-insulation structure employed multi-epitaxy and selectively multi-doping. Isolated islands are insulated with the substrate by reverse-biased PN junctions. Adjacent isolated islands are insulated by isolation wall or deep dielectric trenches. The proposed semi-insulation structure and devices fixed in it were simulated through two-dimensional numerical computer simulators. Based on the new BCD technology, a smart power integrated circuit was designed and fabricated. The simulated and tested results of Vertical DMOS, MOSFETs, BJTs, resistors and diodes indicated that the proposed semi-insulation structure is reasonable and the advanced BCD technology is validated. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61464002), the Science and Technology Fund of Guizhou Province (No. Qian Ke He J Zi [2014]2066), and the Dr. Fund of Guizhou University (No. Gui Da Ren Ji He Zi (2013)20Hao).

  9. Transient radiation effects in GaAs devices: Bulk conduction and channel modulation phenomena in D-MESFET, E-JFET, AND n/sup +/-SI-n/sup +/ structures

    SciTech Connect

    Flesner, L.D.

    1984-12-01

    Transient radiation effects in GaAs devices have been studied using localized electron-beam pulses. Distinct response mechanisms are described and compared for different device structures of similar dimension, fabricated by ion-implantation into undoped semi-insulating GaAs substrates. An n-channel transient conduction increase with non-exponential recovery and millisecond time scale is quantitatively analyzed using a phenomenological model which incorporates the photovoltaic effect and charge separation at the channel-substrate junction. Good agreement is found using reasonable values for junction capacitance and recombination current. Slow emission of trapped positive charge from deep levels is not required to explain the observed recovery dynamics.

  10. Specific features of the photoconductivity of semi-insulating cadmium telluride

    SciTech Connect

    Golubyatnikov, V. A.; Grigor’ev, F. I.; Lysenko, A. P. Strogankova, N. I.; Shadov, M. B.; Belov, A. G.

    2014-12-15

    The effect of local illumination providing a high level of free-carrier injection on the conductivity of a sample of semi-insulating cadmium telluride and on the properties of ohmic contacts to the sample is studied. It is found that, irrespective of the illumination region, the contact resistance of ohmic contacts decreases and the concentration of majority carriers in the sample grows in proportion to the illumination intensity. It is shown that inherent heterogeneities in crystals of semi-insulating semiconductors can be studied by scanning with a light probe.

  11. Photoluminescence fatigue and inhomogeneous line broadening in semi-insulating Tl6SeI4 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostina, S. S.; Peters, J. A.; Lin, W.; Chen, P.; Liu, Z.; Wang, P. L.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Wessels, B. W.

    2016-06-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) properties of semi-insulating Tl6SeI4 have been investigated. A broad emission band centered at 1.63 ± 0.02 eV was observed in all samples. The PL emission band is excitonic in nature and is tentatively attributed to a bound exciton emission. PL fatigue (a reduction in PL intensity under prolonged laser excitation) was always observed. The amount of PL fatigue depended on excitation power and temperature. PL fatigue kinetics are described by a stretched exponential with nominal lifetimes in the 10–265 s range. The recovery of the PL occurred within a few seconds of light cessation. The magnitude of PL fatigue in different samples correlated with inhomogeneous line broadening of the 1.63 eV emission band, such that broader bands exhibited more fatigue. An additional luminescence band centered at 1.78 eV was observed which increased in intensity under prolonged laser irradiation. The fatigue phenomenon is tentatively attributed to two mechanisms—the formation of photo-induced defects and the formation of quasi-stable particles. Both of these mechanisms introduce additional radiative and non-radiative recombination channels that lead to a decrease in the PL intensity under prolonged laser irradiation. Since inhomogeneous line broadening and PL fatigue are related to the concentration of defects or impurities, the measurement of these two parameters is an effective method to screen sample quality.

  12. Photoluminescence fatigue and inhomogeneous line broadening in semi-insulating Tl6SeI4 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostina, S. S.; Peters, J. A.; Lin, W.; Chen, P.; Liu, Z.; Wang, P. L.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Wessels, B. W.

    2016-06-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) properties of semi-insulating Tl6SeI4 have been investigated. A broad emission band centered at 1.63 ± 0.02 eV was observed in all samples. The PL emission band is excitonic in nature and is tentatively attributed to a bound exciton emission. PL fatigue (a reduction in PL intensity under prolonged laser excitation) was always observed. The amount of PL fatigue depended on excitation power and temperature. PL fatigue kinetics are described by a stretched exponential with nominal lifetimes in the 10-265 s range. The recovery of the PL occurred within a few seconds of light cessation. The magnitude of PL fatigue in different samples correlated with inhomogeneous line broadening of the 1.63 eV emission band, such that broader bands exhibited more fatigue. An additional luminescence band centered at 1.78 eV was observed which increased in intensity under prolonged laser irradiation. The fatigue phenomenon is tentatively attributed to two mechanisms—the formation of photo-induced defects and the formation of quasi-stable particles. Both of these mechanisms introduce additional radiative and non-radiative recombination channels that lead to a decrease in the PL intensity under prolonged laser irradiation. Since inhomogeneous line broadening and PL fatigue are related to the concentration of defects or impurities, the measurement of these two parameters is an effective method to screen sample quality.

  13. Characterization of production GaAs solar cells for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.

    1988-01-01

    The electrical performance of GaAs solar cells was characterized as a function of irradiation with protons and electrons with the underlying goal of producing solar cells suitable for use in space. Proton energies used varied between 50 keV and 10 MeV, and damage coefficients were derived for liquid phase epitaxy GaAs solar cells. Electron energies varied between 0.7 and 2.4 MeV. Cells from recent production runs were characterized as a function of electron and proton irradiation. These same cells were also characterized as a function of solar intensity and operating temperature, both before and after the electron irradiations. The long term stability of GaAs cells during photon exposure was examined. Some cells were found to degrade with photon exposure and some did not. Calibration standards were made for GaAs/Ge solar cells by flight on a high altitude balloon.

  14. Study of electronic properties in proton- and electron-irradiated GaAlAs and GaAs solar cell materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, S. S.

    1978-01-01

    Diagnostical measurement techniques such as dark I-V, C-V, the thermally insulated capacitance, and the deep level transient spectroscopy methods were employed to study defect properties in the proton-irradiated n-GaAs materials. Defect energy levels, thermal emission rates, and capture cross sections of electrons as well as trap densities were deduced from these measurements and the results are presented. Correlations between the measured defect parameters and the dark I-V characteristics of the n-GaAs Schottky barrier diodes are also discussed. Defect energy levels (i.e., electron traps) determined are also compared with published data in order to identify their physical origins.

  15. EL2 and related defects in GaAs - Challenges and pitfalls. [microdefect introducing a deep donor level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1985-01-01

    The incorporation process of nonequilibrium vacancies in melt-grown GaAs is strongly complicated by deviations from stoichiometry and the presence of two sublattices. Many of the microdefects originating in these vacancies and their interactions introduce energy levels (shallow and deep) within the energy gap. The direct identification of the chemical or structural signature of these defects and its direct correlation to their electronic behavior is not generally possible. It is necessary, therefore, to rely on indirect methods and phenomenological models and deal with the associated pitfalls. EL2, a microdefect introducing a deep donor level, has been in the limelight in recent years because it is believed to be responsible for the semi-insulating behavior of undoped GaAs. Although much progress has been made towards understanding its origin and nature, some relevant questions remain unanswered. An attempt is made to assess the present status of understanding of EL2 in the light of most recent results.

  16. Histometric evaluation of the healing of the dental alveolus in rats after irradiation with a low-powered GaA1As laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizarelli, Rosane F. Z.; Lamano-Carvalho, Tereza L.; Brentegani, Luis G.

    1999-05-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate histometrically the effect of the irradiation with semiconductor diode GaAlAs 790 nm low-powered laser in the chronology of alveolar repair of rats. Lasers of low intensity possesses an eminently analgesic, anti-inflammatory and bioestimulant effect, producing an increase of the local micro-circulation and in the speed of healing. Groups of five animals had their upper right incisors extracted under anesthesia and the mucous sutured; three groups received 1.5 J/cm2 of irradiation immediately after the extraction with laser for sweeping on the operated area. After that, the animals were sacrificed in the periods of 7, 14 and 21 days after the dental extraction. The material was decalcified and processed for inclusion in paraffin. Longitudinal sections of 7 micrometers in the alveolus were made and stained with HE. The histometric analysis was performed with the Merz grid, and 2000 points were counted in each cervical, middle and apical thirds of the alveolus, assessing the percentage of the bone tissue. The result shows that low-powered intensity laser produced acceleration in osseous formation (10%) in some periods.

  17. High-Resistivity Semi-insulating AlSb on GaAs Substrates Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, E. I.; Addamane, S.; Shima, D. M.; Balakrishnan, G.; Hecht, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Thin-film structures containing AlSb were grown using solid-source molecular beam epitaxy and characterized for material quality, carrier transport optimization, and room-temperature radiation detection response. Few surface defects were observed, including screw dislocations resulting from shear strain between lattice-mismatched layers. Strain was also indicated by broadening of the AlSb peak in x-ray diffraction measurements. Threading dislocations and interfacial misfit dislocations were seen with transmission electron microscopy imaging. Doping of the AlSb layer was introduced during growth using GaTe and Be to determine the effect on Hall transport properties. Hall mobility and resistivity were largest for undoped AlSb samples, at 3000 cm2/V s and 106 Ω cm, respectively, and increased doping levels progressively degraded these values. To test for radiation response, p-type/intrinsic/ n-type (PIN) diode structures were grown using undoped AlSb on n-GaAs substrates, with p-GaSb cap layers to protect the AlSb from oxidation. Alpha-particle radiation detection was achieved and spectra were produced for 241Am, 252Cf, and 239Pu sources. Reducing the detector surface area increased the pulse height observed, as expected based on voltage-capacitance relationships for diodes.

  18. Measuring Carrier Lifetime in GaAs by Luminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Roos, O.

    1986-01-01

    Luminescence proposed as nondestructive technique for measuring Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination lifetime GaAs. Sample irradiated, and luminescence escapes through surface. Measurement requires no mechanical or electrical contact with sample. No ohmic contacts or p/n junctions needed. Sample not scrapped after tested.

  19. Origin and reduction of impurities at GaAs epitaxial layer-substrate interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanber, H.; Yang, H. T.; Zielinski, T.; Whelan, J. M.

    1988-09-01

    Surface cleaning techniques used for semi-insulating GaAs substrates prior to epitaxial growth can have an important and sometimes detrimental effect on the quality and characteristics of epitaxial layers that are grown on them. We observe that a HF rinse followed by a 5:1:1 H 2SO 4:H 2O 2:H 2O etch and H 2O rinse drastically reduced the maximum concentrations and total amount of both SIMS detected S and Si for MOCVD grown GaAs undoped epitaxial layers. Subsequent final HCl and H 2O reduced the S interfacial residues to the SIMS detection limit. Total amounts of residual Si are estimated to be equivalent to 10 -2 to 10 -3 monolayers. Residual S is less. Alternately the S residue can be comparable reduced by a HF rinse followed by a NH 4OH:H 2O 2:H 2O etch and H 2O rinse. Hot aqueous HCl removes S but not Si residues. The Si residue is not electrically active and most likely exists as islands of SiO 2. The relative significance of the impurity residues is most pronounced for halide VPE, smaller for MBE and least for MOCVD grown GaAs epitaxial layers.

  20. GaAs surface cleaning by thermal oxidation and sublimation in molecular-beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Junji; Nanbu, Kazuo; Ishikawa, Tomonori; Kondo, Kazuo

    1988-01-01

    GaAs surface cleaning by thermal oxidation and sublimation prior to molecular-beam-epitaxial growth has been investigated as a means of reducing the carrier depletion at the substrate and epitaxial layer interface. The carrier depletion between the substrate and epitaxial films, measured by a C-V carrier profiling technique, was shown to decrease significantly with an increase in the thickness of the thermal oxidation. The concentration of carbon contamination near the substrate-epitaxial interface was measured using secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The carbon concentration correlated very well with the carrier depletion. Therefore, the main origin of the carrier depletion is believed to be the carbon concentration of the initial growth surface. Based on these results, the thermal oxidation and sublimation of a semi-insulating GaAs substrate was successfully applied to improve the mobility and sheet concentration of the two-dimensional electron gas in selectively doped GaAs/N-Al0.3Ga0.7As heterostructures with very thin GaAs buffer layers.

  1. Identification of As-vacancy complexes in Zn-diffused GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Elsayed, M.; Krause-Rehberg, R.; Korff, B.; Richter, S.; Leipner, H. S.

    2013-03-07

    We have used positron annihilation spectroscopy to study the introduction of point defects in Zn-diffused semi-insulating GaAs. The diffusion was performed by annealing the samples for 2 h at 950 Degree-Sign C. The samples were etched in steps of 7 {mu}m. Both Doppler broadening using slow positron beam and lifetime spectroscopy studies were performed after each etching step. Both techniques showed the existence of vacancy-type defects in a layer of about 45 {mu}m. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements illustrated the presence of Zn at high level in the sample almost up to the same depth. Vacancy-like defects as well as shallow positron traps were observed by lifetime measurements. We distinguish two kinds of defects: As vacancy belongs to defect complex, bound to most likely one Zn atom incorporated on Ga sublattice, and negative-ion-type positron traps. Zn acceptors explained the observation of shallow traps. The effect of Zn was evidenced by probing GaAs samples annealed under similar conditions but without Zn treatment. A defect-free bulk lifetime value is detected in this sample. Moreover, our positron annihilation spectroscopy measurements demonstrate that Zn diffusion in GaAs system is governed by kick-out mechanism.

  2. X-ray imaging using a 320 x 240 hybrid GaAs pixel detector

    SciTech Connect

    Irsigler, R.; Andersson, J.; Alverbro, J.

    1999-06-01

    The authors present room temperature measurements on 200 {micro}m thick GaAs pixel detectors, which were hybridized to silicon readout circuits. The whole detector array contains 320 x 240 square shaped pixel with a pitch of 38 {micro}m and is based on semi-insulating liquid-encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) GaAs material. After fabricating and dicing, the detector chips were indium bump flip chip bonded to CMOS readout circuits based on charge integration and finally evaluated. This readout chip was originally designed for the readout of flip chip bonded infrared detectors, but appears to be suitable for X-ray applications as well. A bias voltage between 50 V and 100 V was sufficient to operate the detector at room temperature. The detector array did respond to x-ray radiation by an increase in current due to production of electron hole pairs by the ionization processes. Images of various objects and slit patterns were acquired by using a standard X-ray source for dental imaging. The new X-ray hybrid detector was analyzed with respect to its imaging properties. Due to the high absorption coefficient for X-rays in GaAs and the small pixel size, the sensor shows a high modulation transfer function up to the Nyquist frequency.

  3. A numerical model of GaAs MESFET's including energy balance for microwave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoganathan, S.; Banerjee, S.; Itoh, T.; Shichijo, H.; El-Ghazaly, S.

    1991-07-01

    A novel decoupled solver has been developed that allows larger time steps than conventional decoupled Gummel algorithms and is less central processing unit (CPU) memory and time intensive than coupled Newton solvers. The order in which the quasi-hydrodynamic equations are solved exploits the large difference between the energy relaxation time, (typically 0.5 ps), and the dielectric relaxation time, tau(d) (10 fs). The new decoupled scheme is numerically stable for time steps as large as 20 x tau(d). This makes it possible to reduce Cray Y-MP CPU times by 5-7 times compared to those required by conventional Gummel algorithms. This algorithm allows efficient analysis of GaAs MESFETs to study phenomena such as carrier heating near the drain, Gunn domain formation, and carrier injection into the semi-insulating substrate.

  4. Ga nanoparticle-enhanced photoluminescence of GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, M.; Al-Heji, A. A.; Jeon, S.; Wu, J. H.; Lee, J.-E.; Saucer, T. W.; Zhao, L.; Sih, V.; Katzenstein, A. L.; Sofferman, D. L.; Goldman, R. S.

    2013-09-02

    We have examined the influence of surface Ga nanoparticles (NPs) on the enhancement of GaAs photoluminescence (PL) efficiency. We have utilized off-normal focused-ion-beam irradiation of GaAs surfaces to fabricate close-packed Ga NP arrays. The enhancement in PL efficiency is inversely proportional to the Ga NP diameter. The maximum PL enhancement occurs for the Ga NP diameter predicted to maximize the incident electromagnetic (EM) field enhancement. The PL enhancement is driven by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-induced enhancement of the incident EM field which overwhelms the SPR-induced suppression of the light emission.

  5. Magnetron Sputtered Gold Contacts on N-gaas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buonaquisti, A. D.; Matson, R. J.; Russell, P. E.; Holloway, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    Direct current planar magnetron sputtering was used to deposit gold Schottky barrier electrical contacts on n-type GaAs of varying doping densities. The electrical character of the contact was determined from current voltage and electron beam induced voltage data. Without reducing the surface concentration of carbon and oxide, the contacts were found to be rectifying. There is evidence that energetic neutral particles reflected from the magnetron target strike the GaAs and cause interfacial damage similar to that observed for ion sputtering. Particle irradiation of the surface during contact deposition is discussed.

  6. Resonant photodiffractive four-wave mixing in semi-insulating GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells.

    PubMed

    Glass, A M; Nolte, D D; Olson, D H; Doran, G E; Chemla, D S; Knox, W H

    1990-03-01

    We have performed photodiffractive four-wave mixing in semi-insulating multiple GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells at a wavelength of 0.83 microm. The quantum wells were made semi-insulating by proton implantation, which introduces defects that are available to trap and store charge during holographic recording. The experiments demonstrate how photodiffractive behavior using the large resonant nonlinearities of quantum-confined excitons yields highly sensitive material for optical image processing. When pump powers of 1 mW/cm(2) are used, the measured sensitivity is 2 orders of magnitude greater than that of bulk, nonresonant photorefractive semiconductors.

  7. A comparative study of micropipe decoration and counting in conductive and semi-insulating silicon carbide wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Jianwei; Park, Seung-Ho; Chung, Gilyong; Loboda, Mark

    2005-10-01

    Micropipes are considered to be one of the most serious defects in silicon carbide (SiC) wafers affecting device yield. Developing a method to count and map micropipes accurately has been a challenging task. In this study, the different etching behavior of conductive and semi-insulating wafers in molten potassium oxide (KOH) is compared. Micropipes and closed-core screw dislocations exhibit different morphology after etching and can be easily distinguished with a polishing process. Based on a new sample preparation procedure and a digital imaging technique, a novel method of efficiently and reliably mapping and counting micropipes in both conductive and semi-insulating SiC wafers is developed.

  8. Schottky junctions on semi-insulating LEC gallium arsenide for X- and {gamma}-ray spectrometers operated at and below room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Bertuccio, G.; Pullia, A. |; Canali, C. |; Nava, F. |; Lanzieri

    1997-04-01

    This work deals with the study of a Schottky junction used as an X- and {gamma}-ray detector in a spectrometer operated in the temperature range from {minus}30 C to +22 C. The device, fabricated on liquid encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) semi-insulating Gallium Arsenide, is designed with a noninjecting ohmic contact which allows biasing voltages up to 550 V. At room temperature (22 C) the energy resolution is found to be relatively poor (15.5-keV full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) at 59.5 keV) due to the large junction reverse current, whose density is within the typical values for Schottky junctions on SI LEC GaAs. By cooling of the detector to {minus}30 C, the noise of the reverse current is drastically lowered, thus achieving electronic noise levels around 160--180 rms electrons. At 500-V bias, the {sup 241}Am spectrum has been resolved down to an energy of 4 keV with charge collection efficiency of cce = 97% and a resolution of about 2-keV FWHM for the Np L lines and 2.4-keV FWHM for the 59.5-keV {gamma} photons. The linearity of the detector has been measured to be better than {+-}0.6% within the explored energy range (14--59 keV). From the experimental spectra, it has been analyzed how either the electronic noise or the trapping of the signal charge contribute to the energy resolution of the spectrometer. The result is that despite the high measured cce, the trapping gives a contribution higher than 1.5 keV FWHM for the 59.5-keV spectral line. A comparison between the experimental results and Monte Carlo simulations, based on the Hecht model of charge trapping in detectors, is shown to give a satisfactory justification of the observed phenomena.

  9. Longevity improvement of optically activated, high gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches

    SciTech Connect

    MAR,ALAN; LOUBRIEL,GUILLERMO M.; ZUTAVERN,FRED J.; O'MALLEY,MARTIN W.; HELGESON,WESLEY D.; BROWN,DARWIN JAMES; HJALMARSON,HAROLD P.; BACA,ALBERT G.

    2000-03-02

    The longevity of high gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) has been extended to over 100 million pulses at 23A, and over 100 pulses at 1kA. This is achieved by improving the ohmic contacts by doping the semi-insulating GaAs underneath the metal, and by achieving a more uniform distribution of contact wear across the entire switch by distributing the trigger light to form multiple filaments. This paper will compare various approaches to doping the contacts, including ion implantation, thermal diffusion, and epitaxial growth. The device characterization also includes examination of the filament behavior using open-shutter, infra-red imaging during high gain switching. These techniques provide information on the filament carrier densities as well as the influence that the different contact structures and trigger light distributions have on the distribution of the current in the devices. This information is guiding the continuing refinement of contact structures and geometries for further improvements in switch longevity.

  10. EL2 and related defects in GaAs - Challenges and pitfalls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1985-01-01

    The incorporation process of nonequilibrium vacancies in melt-grown GaAs is strongly complicated by deviations from stoichiometry, and the presence of two sublattices. Many of the microdefects originating in these vacancies and their interactions introduce energy levels (shallow and deep) within the energy gap. The direct identification of the chemical or structural signature of these defects and its direct correlation to their electronic behavior is not generally possible. It is therefore necessary to rely on indirect methods and phenomenological models and be confronted with the associated pitfalls. EL2, a microdefect introducing a deep donor level, has been in the limelight in recent years because it is believed to be responsible for the semi-insulating behavior of undoped GaAs. Although much progress has been made towards understanding its origin and nature, some relevant questions remain unanswered. An attempt is made to assess the present status of understanding of EL2 in the light of the most recent results.

  11. Low-temperature growth of GaSb epilayers on GaAs (001) by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benyahia, D.; Kubiszyn, Ł.; Michalczewski, K.; KĘbŁOwski, , A.; Martyniuk, P.; Piotrowski, J.; Rogalski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-intentionally doped GaSb epilayers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on highly mismatched semi-insulating GaAs substrate (001) with 2 offcut towards [110]. The effects of substrate temperature and the Sb/Gaflux ratio on the crystalline quality, surface morphology and electrical properties were investigated by Nomarski optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Hall measurements, respectively. Besides, differential Hall was used to investigate the hole concentration behaviour along the GaSb epilayer. It is found that the crystal quality, electrical properties and surface morphology are markedly dependent on the growth temperature and the group V/III flux ratio. Under the optimized parameters, we demonstrate a low hole concentration at very low growth temperature. Unfortunately, the layers grown at low temperature are characterized by wide FWHM and low Hall mobility.

  12. Low-temperature growth of GaSb epilayers on GaAs (001) by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benyahia, D.; Kubiszyn, Ł.; Michalczewski, K.; Kębłowski, A.; Martyniuk, P.; Piotrowski, J.; Rogalski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-intentionally doped GaSb epilayers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on highly mismatched semi-insulating GaAs substrate (001) with 2 offcut towards [110]. The effects of substrate temperature and the Sb/Ga flux ratio on the crystalline quality, surface morphology and electrical properties were investigated by Nomarski optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Hall measurements, respectively. Besides, differential Hall was used to investigate the hole concentration behaviour along the GaSb epilayer. It is found that the crystal quality, electrical properties and surface morphology are markedly dependent on the growth temperature and the group V/III flux ratio. Under the optimized parameters, we demonstrate a low hole concentration at very low growth temperature. Unfortunately, the layers grown at low temperature are characterized by wide FWHM and low Hall mobility.

  13. Evolution of ion-induced nanoparticle arrays on GaAs surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, M.; Al-Heji, A. A.; Shende, O.; Huang, S.; Jeon, S.; Goldman, R. S.; Beskin, I.

    2014-05-05

    We have examined the evolution of irradiation-induced Ga nanoparticle (NP) arrays on GaAs surfaces. Focused-ion-beam irradiation of pre-patterned GaAs surfaces induces monotonic increases in the NP volume and aspect ratio up to a saturation ion dose, independent of NP location within the array. Beyond the saturation ion dose, the NP volume continues to increase monotonically while the NP aspect ratio decreases monotonically. In addition, the NP volumes (aspect ratios) are highest (lowest) for the corner NPs. We discuss the relative influences of bulk and surface diffusion on the evolution of Ga NP arrays.

  14. Mechanisms of the passage of dark currents through Cd(Zn)Te semi-insulating crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklyarchuk, V.; Fochuk, P.; Rarenko, I.; Zakharuk, Z.; Sklyarchuk, O.; Nykoniuk, Ye.; Rybka, A.; Kutny, V.; Bolotnikov, A. E.; James, R. B.

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the passage of dark currents through semi-insulating crystals of Cd(Zn)Te with weak n-type conductivity that are used widely as detectors of ionizing radiation. The crystals were grown from a tellurium solution melt at 800 оС by the zone-melting method, in which a polycrystalline rod in a quartz ampoule was moved through a zone heater at a rate of 2 mm per day. The synthesis of the rod was carried out at ~1150 оС. We determined the important electro-physical parameters of this semiconductor, using techniques based on a parallel study of the temperature dependence of current-voltage characteristics in both the ohmic and the space-charge-limited current regions. We established in these crystals the relationship between the energy levels and the concentrations of deep-level impurity states, responsible for dark conductivity and their usefulness as detectors.

  15. Semi-insulating behaviour of self-assembled tin(IV)corrole nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Woormileela; Kumar, Mohit; Garai, Antara; Purohit, Chandra Shekhar; Som, Tapobrata; Kar, Sanjib

    2014-09-01

    Three novel tin(iv)corrole complexes have been prepared and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques including single crystal X-ray structural analysis. Packing diagrams of the tin(iv)corroles revealed that corrolato-tin(iv)-chloride molecules are interconnected by intermolecular C-HCl hydrogen bonding interactions. HCl distances are 2.848 Å, 3.051 Å, and 2.915 Å, respectively, for the complexes. In addition, the C-HCl angles are 119.72°, 144.70°, and 147.08°, respectively, for the complexes. It was also observed that in one of the three synthesized complexes dimers were formed, while in the other two cases 1D infinite polymer chains were formed. Well-defined and nicely organized three-dimensional hollow nanospheres (SEM images on silicon wafers) with diameters of ca. 676 nm and 661 nm are obtained in the complexes, forming 1D polymer chains. By applying a thin layer of tin(iv)corrole nanospheres to an ITO surface (AFM height images of ITO films; ∼200 nm in height), a device was fabricated with the following composition: Ag/ITO-coated glass/tin(iv)corrole nanospheres/ITO-coated glass/Ag. The resistivity (ρ) of the nanostructured film was calculated to be ∼2.4 × 10(8) Ω cm, which falls in the range of semi-insulating semiconductors. CAFM current maps at 10 V bias show bright spots with a 10-20 pA intensity and indicate that the nanospheres (∼250 nm in diameter) are the electron-conducting pathway in the device. The semi-insulating behavior arises from the non-facile electron transfer in the HOMOs of the tin(iv)corrole nanospheres.

  16. Selective-area epitaxial growth of GaAs in deep dielectric windows using molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loke, W. K.; Yoon, S. F.; Zheng, H. Q.

    2001-01-01

    An improved selective-area epitaxial growth process for GaAs in deep dielectric windows (DDWs) is reported. The growth was carried out on (100)-oriented semi-insulating (SI) GaAs substrate at ˜520°C by solid source molecular beam epitaxy (SSMBE) using a valved arsenic cracker source. Dielectric stacks with 10 periods of alternating silicon nitride (2000 Å) and silicon dioxide (1000 Å) layers were deposited using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) for the formation of deep (3 μm) dielectric windows. The alternating dielectric layer stack has been shown to be of greater stability than a single dielectric layer for the purpose of forming the DDW. A process of fabricating the DDW structures, which eliminates the possible contamination at the growth area during photoresist patterning and removing, and subsequent etching of the DDW, has resulted in improved epitaxial layer quality. Micro-Raman spectroscopy measurements showed a significant increase in the longitudinal-optic (LO) to transverse-optic (TO) signal intensity ratio ( ILO/TO) from ˜4.0 to ˜16.0 of the first-order Raman line of GaAs. Supporting evidence from low-temperature (4 K) photoluminescence (PL) showed a reduction in intensity of the conduction band to neutral carbon acceptor (e-C°) emission by a factor of 4.5. This suggests lower levels of carbon contamination originating from the improved fabrication process of the DDW. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed smoother surface morphology of the GaAs inside the DDW area. These results have important implications on the process of MBE regrowth for optoelectronics integration.

  17. A study on the photoresponses in GaAs n-channel optical detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, C. J.; Klein, H.-J.; Beneking, H.

    1982-09-01

    The behavior of photocarriers in a GaAs planar n-channel device as an optical detector is studied. Computer simulations show that space charges of those photogenerated carriers give rise to a high-gain and high-speed amplification mechanism which results in Gunn oscillations at intense irradiations. Experiments have confirmed these oscillations. The observed results agree with theoretical computations.

  18. Small signal model parameters analysis of GaN and GaAs based HEMTs over temperature for microwave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alim, Mohammad A.; Rezazadeh, Ali A.; Gaquiere, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Thermal and small-signal model parameters analysis have been carried out on 0.5 μm × (2 × 100 μm) AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT grown on semi-insulating GaAs substrate and 0.25 μm × (2 × 100 μm) AlGaN/GaN HEMT grown on SiC substrate. Two different technologies are investigated in order to establish a detailed understanding of their capabilities in terms of frequency and temperature using on-wafer S-parameter measurement over the temperature range from -40 to 150 °C up to 50 GHz. The equivalent circuit parameters as well as their temperature-dependent behavior of the two technologies were analyzed and discussed for the first time. The principle elevation or degradation of transistor parameters with temperature demonstrates the great potential of GaN device for high frequency and high temperature applications. The result provides some valuable insights for future design optimizations of advanced GaN and a comparison of this with the GaAs technology.

  19. Thermal annealing of GaAs concentrator solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, H. B.; Brinker, David J.

    1991-01-01

    Isochronal and isothermal annealing tests were performed on GaAs concentrator cells which were irradiated with electrons of various energies to fluences up to 1 x 10(exp 16) e/sq cm. The results include: (1) For cells irradiated with electrons from 0.7 to 2.3 MeV, recovery decreases with increasing electron energy. (2) As determined by the un-annealed fractions, isothermal and isochronal annealing produce the same recovery. Also, cells irradiated to 3 x 10(exp 15) or 1 x 10(exp 16) e/sq cm recover to similar un-annealed fractions. (3) Some significant annealing is being seen at 150 C although very long times are required.

  20. Electrical and structural properties of semi-insulating polycrystalline silicon thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, S.; Campisano, S. U.; Baroetto, F.

    1993-05-01

    Semi-insulating polycrystalline silicon layers with oxygen concentrations ranging from 2 up to 30 at. % O have been prepared by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition. After deposition, the samples were annealed at 920 °C for 30 min. Grain-size distributions, high- and low-frequency dielectric constants were measured, respectively, by transmission-electron microscopy, capacitance, and optical measurements as a function of the oxygen content. The average grain radius decreases with the oxygen content from 15 up to 2.5 nm. The current-voltage characteristics have been measured as a function of temperature in the range 80-450 K and under applied transverse electric fields up to ~=106 V/cm. In weak-transverse-field conditions, the current density as a function of temperature shows two thermally activated regions at low and high temperatures, with activation energies of ~=0.14 and ~=0.54 eV, respectively. The application of transverse electric fields of the order of ~=106 V/cm produces a current enhancement depending upon field intensity, temperature, and oxygen content. The results have been modeled by assuming thermionic emission, tunneling, and Frenkel generation in a long series of Schottky barriers formed at the boundary of the adjacent grains. The best-fit values of the model parameters indicate that for 30 at. % O a continuous SiO2 shell, two monolayers thick, surrounds each grain. For lower oxygen contents this shell is discontinuous and the carrier transport parameters change considerably.

  1. Periodic surface structure bifurcation induced by ultrafast laser generated point defect diffusion in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abere, Michael J.; Torralva, Ben; Yalisove, Steven M.

    2016-04-01

    The formation of high spatial frequency laser induced periodic surface structures (HSFL) with period <0.3 λ in GaAs after irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses in air is studied. We have identified a point defect generation mechanism that operates in a specific range of fluences in semiconductors between the band-gap closure and ultrafast-melt thresholds that produces vacancy/interstitial pairs. Stress relaxation, via diffusing defects, forms the 350-400 nm tall and ˜90 nm wide structures through a bifurcation process of lower spatial frequency surface structures. The resulting HSFL are predominately epitaxial single crystals and retain the original GaAs stoichiometry.

  2. A GaAs monolithic low-noise broad-band amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, J. A.; Weidlich, H. P.; Pettenpaul, E.; Petz, F. A.; Huber, J.

    1981-12-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, and performance of GaAs monolithic low-noise broad-band amplifiers intended for broadcast receiver antenna amplifier, IF amplifier, and instrumentation applications. The process technology includes the use of Czochralski-grown semiinsulating substrates, localized implantation of ohmic and FET channel regions, and silicon nitride for passivation and MIM capacitors. The amplifiers employ shunt feedback to obtain input matching and flat broad-band response. One amplifier provides a gain of 24 dB, bandwidth of 930 MHz, and noise figure of 5.0 dB. A second amplifier provides a gain of 17 dB, bandwidth of 1400 MHz, and noise figure of 5.6 dB. Input and output VSWR's are typically less than 2:1 and the third-order intercept points are 28 and 32 dB, respectively. Improved noise figure and intercept point can be achieved by the use of external RF chokes.

  3. Breakover mechanism of GaAs photoconductive switch triggering spark gap for high power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Liqiang; Shi, Wei; Feng, Qingqing

    2011-11-01

    A spark gap (SG) triggered by a semi-insulating GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) is presented. Currents as high as 5.6 kA have been generated using the combined switch, which is excited by a laser pulse with energy of 1.8 mJ and under a bias of 4 kV. Based on the transferred-electron effect and gas streamer theory, the breakover characteristics of the combined switch are analyzed. The photoexcited carrier density in the PCSS is calculated. The calculation and analysis indicate that the PCSS breakover is caused by nucleation of the photoactivated avalanching charge domain. It is shown that the high output current is generated by the discharge of a high-energy gas streamer induced by the strong local electric field distortion or by overvoltage of the SG resulting from quenching of the avalanching domain, and periodic oscillation of the current is caused by interaction between the gas streamer and the charge domain. The cycle of the current oscillation is determined by the rise time of the triggering electric pulse generated by the PCSS, the pulse transmission time between the PCSS and the SG, and the streamer transit time in the SG.

  4. Auger electron spectroscopy analysis of the first stages of thermally stimulated oxidation of GaAs(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passeggi, M. C. G.; Vaquila, I.; Ferrón, J.

    1998-05-01

    The first stages (exposures <10 4 L) of thermally stimulated oxidation of GaAs(100) have been studied using Auger electron spectroscopy and principal component analysis. We compare the GaAs oxidation processes taking place at high (700 K) and room temperatures, and during simultaneous electron bombardment and oxygen exposure. We found that while at room temperature, GaAs oxidizes via a one-phase process involving the simultaneous oxidation of Ga and As, the high temperature process is characterized by the presence of two different GaAs oxide phases. The first phase involves the simultaneous oxidation of Ga and As while in the second, only Ga oxides are formed. On the other hand, under simultaneous oxygen exposure and electron irradiation, two different oxide phases appear, both of them exhibiting the same features of the room temperature process, i.e., the simultaneous oxidation of Ga and As.

  5. Resonant Transport in Nb/gaas/algaas/gaas Microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giazotto, F.; Pingue, P.; Beltram, F.; Lazzarino, M.; Orani, D.; Rubini, S.; Franciosi, A.

    2003-03-01

    Resonant transport in a hybrid semiconductor-superconductor microstructure grown by MBE on GaAs in presented. This structure experimentally realizes the prototype system originally proposed by de Gennes and Saint-James in 1963 in all-metal structures. A low temperature single peak superimposed to the characteristic Andreev-dominated subgap conductance represents the mark of such resonant behavior. Random matrix theory of quantum transport was employed in order to analyze the observed magnetotransport properties and ballistic effects were included by directly solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations.

  6. Final report on LDRD project 105967 : exploring the increase in GaAs photodiode responsivity with increased neutron fluence.

    SciTech Connect

    Blansett, Ethan L.; Geib, Kent Martin; Cich, Michael Joseph; Wrobel, Theodore Frank; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Fleming, Robert M.; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Wrobel, Diana L.

    2008-01-01

    A previous LDRD studying radiation hardened optoelectronic components for space-based applications led to the result that increased neutron irradiation from a fast-burst reactor caused increased responsivity in GaAs photodiodes up to a total fluence of 4.4 x 10{sup 13} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (1 MeV Eq., Si). The silicon photodiodes experienced significant degradation. Scientific literature shows that neutrons can both cause defects as well as potentially remove defects in an annealing-like process in GaAs. Though there has been some modeling that suggests how fabrication and radiation-induced defects can migrate to surfaces and interfaces in GaAs and lead to an ordering effect, it is important to consider how these processes affect the performance of devices, such as the basic GaAs p-i-n photodiode. In this LDRD, we manufactured GaAs photodiodes at the MESA facility, irradiated them with electrons and neutrons at the White Sands Missile Range Linac and Fast Burst Reactor, and performed measurements to show the effect of irradiation on dark current, responsivity and high-speed bandwidth.

  7. GaAs solar cell development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knechtli, R. C.; Kamath, S.; Loo, R.

    1977-01-01

    The motivation for developing GaAs solar cells is based on their superior efficiency when compared to silicon cells, their lower degradation with increasing temperature, and the expectation for better resistance to space radiation damage. The AMO efficiency of GaAs solar cells was calculated. A key consideration in the HRL technology is the production of GaAs cells of large area (greater than 4 sg cm) at a reasonable cost without sacrificing efficiency. An essential requirement for the successful fabrication of such cells is the ability to grow epitaxially a uniform layer of high quality GaAs (buffer layer) on state-of-the-art GaAs substrates, and to grow on this buffer layer the required than layer of (AlGa)As. A modified infinite melt liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) growth technique is detailed.

  8. The remote electron beam-induced current analysis of grain boundaries in semiconducting and semi-insulating materials.

    PubMed

    Holt, D B

    2000-01-01

    When no charge collecting p-n junction or Schottky barrier is present in the specimen, but two contacts are applied, conductive mode scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations known as remote electron beam-induced current (REBIC) can be made. It was described as "remote" EBIC because the contacts to the specimen can lie at macroscopic distances from the beam impact point. In recent years, REBIC has been found to be useful not only for studies of grain boundaries in semiconducting silicon and germanium, but also in semi-insulating materials such as the wider bandgap II-VI compounds and electroceramic materials like varistor ZnO and positive temperature coefficient resistor (PTCR) BaTiO3. The principles of this method are outlined. Accounts are given of the five forms of charge collection and resistive contrast that appear at grain boundaries (GBs) in REBIC micrographs. These are (1) terraced contrast due to high resistivity boundary layers, (2) peak and trough (PAT) contrast due to charge on the boundary, (3) reversible contrast seen only under external voltage bias due to the beta-conductive effect in a low conductivity boundary layer, (4) dark contrast due to enhanced recombination, and (5) bright contrast apparently due to reduced recombination. For comparison, the results of the extensive EBIC studies of GBs in Si and Ge are first outlined and then the results of recent REBIC grain boundary studies in both semiconducting and semi-insulating materials are reviewed.

  9. Comparison of various GaAs materials used for gamma-ray pulses characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Foulon, F.; Bergonzo, P.; Pochet, T.

    1996-06-01

    Gallium arsenide resistive photoconductors are widely used for the characterization of picosecond radiation pulses. They are used to measure both the intensity and the temporal shape of the pulse. The authors have investigated the influence of the physical and electrical properties of high resistivity GaAs crystals (LEC, VGF) supplied by various manufacturers on the detector response to fast visible and gamma-ray pulses. The detectors characteristics : response time and sensitivity, were tested both before and after pre-irradiation with fission neutron as integrated doses in the range 5 {times} 10{sup 14} to 1 {times} 10{sup 16} neutrons/cm{sup 2}. The original GaAs material properties were found to have a significant influence on the neutron pre-irradiated photoconductor response times and sensitivities for integrated doses up to 1 {times} 10{sup 15} neutrons/cm{sup 2}.

  10. Measured Propagation Characteristics of Coplanar Waveguide on Semi-Insulating 4H-SiC Through 800 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Downey, Alan N.; Freeman, Jon C.; Schwartz, Zachary D.

    2003-01-01

    Wireless sensors for high temperature industrial applications and jet engines require RF transmission lines and RF integrated circuits (RFICs) on wide bandgap semiconductors such as SiC. In this paper, the complex propagation constant of coplanar waveguide fabricated on semiinsulating 4H-SiC has been measured through 813 K. It is shown that the attenuation increases 3.4 dB/cm at 50 GHz as the SiC temperature is increased from 300 K to 813 K. Above 500 K, the major contribution to loss is the decrease in SiC resistivity. The effective permittivity of the same line increases by approximately 5 percent at microwave frequencies and 20 percent at 1 GHz.

  11. The electrical properties of 60 keV zinc ions implanted into semi-insulating gallium arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littlejohn, M. A.; Anikara, R.

    1972-01-01

    The electrical behavior of zinc ions implanted into chromium-doped semiinsulating gallium arsenide was investigated by measurements of the sheet resistivity and Hall effect. Room temperature implantations were performed using fluence values from 10 to the 12th to 10 to the 15th power/sq cm at 60 keV. The samples were annealed for 30 minutes in a nitrogen atmosphere up to 800 C in steps of 200 C and the effect of this annealing on the Hall effect and sheet resistivity was studied at room temperature using the Van der Pauw technique. The temperature dependence of sheet resistivity and mobility was measured from liquid nitrogen temperature to room temperature. Finally, a measurement of the implanted profile was obtained using a layer removal technique combined with the Hall effect and sheet resistivity measurements.

  12. Characterization of the semi-insulating properties of AlHfO3.5 for power devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alandia, B. S.; Huanca, D. R.; Christiano, V.; dos Santos Filho, S. G.

    2015-03-01

    Physical and electrical characterization of hafnium aluminates gate dielectrics was carried out to investigate their semi-insulating characteristics as passivating layer for power devices. The deposited films were annealed in pure nitrogen to simulate the thermal budget during a conventional CMOS processing. C-V measurements were performed having as a result a high-frequency behavior of the flat band voltage (VFB) and values greater than or equal to zero. On the other hand, the leakage phenomenon was modeled with a simplified electrical model using a leakage admittance YC whose influence was predominant at the accumulation region. Using X-ray reflectometry (XRR), the average thickness obtained was 15.5nm and a leakage process was inferred to occur for AlHfO3.5 due to the observed phase separation and crystallization that occurs after annealing in pure N2.

  13. Some optical and electron microscope comparative studies of excimer laser-assisted and nonassisted molecular-beam epitaxically grown thin GaAs films on Si

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lao, Pudong; Tang, Wade C.; Rajkumar, K. C.; Guha, S.; Madhukar, A.; Liu, J. K.; Grunthaner, F. J.

    1990-01-01

    The quality of GaAs thin films grown via MBE under pulsed excimer laser irradiation on Si substrates is examined in both laser-irradiated and nonirradiated areas using Raman scattering, Rayleigh scattering, and by photoluminescence (PL), as a function of temperature, and by TEM. The temperature dependence of the PL and Raman peak positions indicates the presence of compressive stress in the thin GaAs films in both laser-irradiated and nonirradiated areas. This indicates incomplete homogeneous strain relaxation by dislocations at the growth temperature. The residual compressive strain at the growth temperature is large enough such that even with the introduction of tensile strain arising from the difference in thermal expansion coefficients of GaAs and Si, a compressive strain is still present at room temperature for these thin GaAs/Si films.

  14. Subnanosecond, high voltage photoconductive switching in GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Druce, R.L.; Pocha, M.D.; Griffin, K.L. ); O'Bannon, B.J. )

    1990-01-01

    We are conducting research on the switching properties of photoconductive materials to explore their potential for generating high-power microwaves (HPM) and for high rep-rate switching. We have investigated the performance of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) in linear mode (the conductivity of the device follows the optical pulse) as well as an avalanche-like mode (the optical pulse only controls switch closing). Operating in the linear mode, we have observed switch closing times of less than 200 ps with a 100 ps duration laser pulse and opening times of less than 400 ps at several kV/cm fields using neutron irradiated GaAs. In avalanche and lock-on modes, high fields are switched with lower laser pulse energies, resulting in higher efficiencies; but with measurable switching delay and jitter. We are currently investigating both large area (1 cm{sup 2}) and small area (<1 mm{sup 2}) switches illuminated by AlGaAs laser diodes at 900 nm and Nd:YAG lasers at 1.06 {mu}m.

  15. NMR Investigation of Optical Polarization of Nuclear Spins in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paravastu, Anant; Hayes, Sophia; Schwickert, Birgit; Reimer, Jeffrey; Dinh, Long; Balooch, Mehdi

    2003-03-01

    Light-induced nuclear spin alignments have been measured in GaAs as a function of photon energy, irradiation time, and sample temperature using NMR spectroscopy at 9.4 Tesla and 10 to 50 K. Significant optical enhancements were observed at a range of photon energies, starting just below the band gap and persisting through 100 meV above the gap. Irradiation above the band gap resulted in thermally activated NMR signal enhancements while sub band gap irradiation did not. Short and long irradiation time dependencies revealed insights into the nature of cross relaxation between electronic nuclear spins, contradicting mechanisms based on either localized electron-nuclear contact at defect sites or cross relaxation between nuclei and free electrons. We propose that the presence of a mobile or delocalized enabling electronic species characterized by a long electron-nuclear correlation time, such as an exciton, is necessary in any mechanism which explains the data.

  16. Ultra-Thin-Film GaAs Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, K. L.; Shin, B. K.; Yeh, Y. C. M.; Stirn, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Process based on organo-metallic chemical vapor deposition (OM/CVD) of trimethyl gallium with arsine forms economical ultrathin GaAs epitaxial films. Process has higher potential for low manufacturing cost and large-scale production compared with more-conventional halide CVD and liquid-phase epitaxy processes. By reducing thickness of GaAs and substituting low-cost substrate for single-crystal GaAs wafer, process would make GaAs solar cells commercially more attractive.

  17. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1979-01-01

    The optimization of space processing of GaAs is described. The detailed compositional, structural, and electronic characterization of GaAs on a macro- and microscale and the relationships between growth parameters and the properties of GaAs are among the factors discussed. The key parameters limiting device performance are assessed.

  18. Photoluminescence of Mn+ doped GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huiying; Qu, Shengchun; Liao, Shuzhi; Zhang, Fasheng; Liu, Junpeng; Wang, Zhanguo

    2010-10-01

    Photoluminescence is one of the most useful techniques to obtain information about optoelectronic properties and defect structures of materials. In this work, the room-temperature and low temperature photoluminescence of Mn-doped GaAs were investigated, respectively. Mn-doped GaAs structure materials were prepared by Mn+ ion implantation at room temperature into GaAs. The implanted samples were subsequently annealed at various temperatures under N2 atmosphere to recrystallize the samples and remove implant damage. A strong peak was found for the sample annealed at 950 °C for 5 s. Transitions near 0.989 eV (1254 nm), 1.155 eV (1074 nm) and 1.329 eV (933 nm) were identified and formation of these emissions was analyzed for all prepared samples. This structure material could have myriad applications, including information storage, magnet-optical properties and energy level engineering.

  19. Effect of GaAs native oxide upon the surface morphology during GaAs MBE growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageev, O. A.; Solodovnik, M. S.; Balakirev, S. V.; Mikhaylin, I. A.; Eremenko, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    The GaAs native oxide effect upon the surface morphology of the GaAs epitaxial layer was studied with taking into account the main growth parameters of MBE technology: substrate temperature, effective As4/Ga flux ratio and growth rate. The MBE modes of atomically smooth and rough surfaces and surfaces with Ga droplet array formation were determined. The possibility of the obtaining of GaAs nanowires via GaAs native oxide layer was shown.

  20. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of fast neutron-generated defects in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goltzene, A.; Meyer, B.; Schwab, C.; Greenbaum, S. G.; Wagner, R. J.; Kennedy, T. A.

    1984-12-01

    A series of fast neutron-irradiated GaAs samples (neutron fluence range of 2×1015-2.5×1017 cm-2) has been investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The EPR spectra at 9 GHz exhibit a broad (˜1 kG) Lorentzian singlet at g≊2.09 superimposed on the AsGa quadruplet. The singlet intensity scales linearly with neutron fluence as does that of the quadruplet. The presence of this new defect has not been reported in as-grown GaAs known to have large concentrations of AsGa defects. EPR measurements at 35, 159, and 337 GHz indicate that the singlet linewidth increases with the microwave frequency.

  1. GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch

    DOEpatents

    Loubriel, Guillermo M.; Baca, Albert G.; Zutavern, Fred J.

    1998-01-01

    A high gain, optically triggered, photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) implemented in GaAs as a reverse-biased pin structure with a passivation layer above the intrinsic GaAs substrate in the gap between the two electrodes of the device. The reverse-biased configuration in combination with the addition of the passivation layer greatly reduces surface current leakage that has been a problem for prior PCSS devices and enables employment of the much less expensive and more reliable DC charging systems instead of the pulsed charging systems that needed to be used with prior PCSS devices.

  2. GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch

    DOEpatents

    Loubriel, G.M.; Baca, A.G.; Zutavern, F.J.

    1998-09-08

    A high gain, optically triggered, photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) implemented in GaAs as a reverse-biased pin structure with a passivation layer above the intrinsic GaAs substrate in the gap between the two electrodes of the device is disclosed. The reverse-biased configuration in combination with the addition of the passivation layer greatly reduces surface current leakage that has been a problem for prior PCSS devices and enables employment of the much less expensive and more reliable DC charging systems instead of the pulsed charging systems that needed to be used with prior PCSS devices. 5 figs.

  3. A I-V analysis of irradiated Gallium Arsenide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heulenberg, A.; Maurer, R. H.; Kinnison, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    A computer program was used to analyze the illuminated I-V characteristics of four sets of gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells irradiated with 1-MeV electrons and 10-MeV protons. It was concluded that junction regions (J sub r) dominate nearly all GaAs cells tested, except for irradiated Mitsubishi cells, which appear to have a different doping profile. Irradiation maintains or increases the dominance by J sub r. Proton irradiation increases J sub r more than does electron irradiation. The U.S. cells were optimized for beginning of life (BOL) and the Japanese for end of life (EOL). I-V analysis indicates ways of improving both the BOL and EOL performance of GaAs solar cells.

  4. Au impact on GaAs epitaxial growth on GaAs (111)B substrates in molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Zhi-Gang; Lu, Zhen-Yu; Xu, Hong-Yi; Guo, Ya-Nan; Sun, Wen; Zhang, Zhi; Yang, Lei; Chen, Ping-Ping; Lu, Wei; Zou, Jin

    2013-02-01

    GaAs growth behaviour under the presence of Au nanoparticles on GaAs {111}B substrate is investigated using electron microscopy. It has been found that, during annealing, enhanced Ga surface diffusion towards Au nanoparticles leads to the GaAs epitaxial growth into {113}B faceted triangular pyramids under Au nanoparticles, governed by the thermodynamic growth, while during conventional GaAs growth, growth kinetics dominates, resulting in the flatted triangular pyramids at high temperature and the epitaxial nanowires growth at relatively low temperature. This study provides an insight of Au nanoparticle impact on GaAs growth, which is critical for understanding the formation mechanisms of semiconductor nanowires.

  5. Surface and coordination chemistry related to GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keys, Andrea

    The vapor phase structures of Al(tBU)3 and Ga(tBU)3 have been investigated by gas phase electron diffraction and consist of planar three-coordinate monomers. Salient structural parameters (ra) include: Al-C = 2.005(3) A, Ga-C = 2.034(2) A. The geometries are controlled by inter-ligand interactions. The electron diffraction structures are compared to those determined by ab initio calculations for M(tBU)3 (M = Al, Ga, In). To understand the most suitable linkages for the surface of GaAs, model compounds were synthesized by reacting Ga(tBU)3 and [tBu2Ga(mu-Cl]2 with one molar equivalent of varying ligands. The synthesized compounds include chlorides, benzenethiolate, dithiocarbamates, carboxylates, amides, benzohydroxamate, and phenylphosphonate. The Ga ⋯ Ga and Ga-ligand interatomic distances for these compounds, as well as Group 15 and 16 donor bridging ligands, are compared to the values for the surface of GaAs and cubic-GaS in order to determine their suitability as linkage groups for self-assembled monolayers. The most suitable linkages were determined to be benzenethiol and phenylphophonic acid, and these were used to grow self-assembled monolayers on {100} GaAs. Carboxylic acid was also used, to determine the success of the organometallic model compounds in predicting the suitability of ligands for surface reaction. Self-assembled monolayers were also grown on Al2O3, using carboxylic acids and phenylphosphonic acids as the surface linkages. Metallo-organic chemical vapor deposition was performed using single-source precursors ( tBU)2Ga(S2CNR2). The tert -butyl gallium bis-dialkyl-dithiocarbamate compounds, (tBu)Ga(S2CNR2)2, are formed as minor products via ligand disproportionation reactions. Gallium sulfide (GaS) thin films have been grown at 375-425°C by atmospheric pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition using compounds (tBu) 2Ga(S2CNMe2) and (tBu)2Ga(S 2CNEt2) as single source precursors. Polycrystalline samples of the chalcogenides InSe, In2Se3

  6. GaAs Solar Cell Radiation Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.

    1996-01-01

    History of GaAs solar cell development is provided. Photovoltaic equations are described along with instrumentation techniques for measuring solar cells. Radiation effects in solar cells, electrical performance, and spacecraft flight data for solar cells are discussed. The space radiation environment and solar array degradation calculations are addressed.

  7. GaAs optoelectronic neuron arrays.

    PubMed

    Lin, S; Grot, A; Luo, J; Psaltis, D

    1993-03-10

    A simple optoelectronic circuit integrated monolithically in GaAs to implement sigmoidal neuron responses is presented. The circuit integrates a light-emitting diode with one or two transistors and one or two photodetectors. The design considerations for building arrays with densities of up to 10(4) cm(-2) are discussed.

  8. GaAs optoelectronic neuron arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Steven; Grot, Annette; Luo, Jiafu; Psaltis, Demetri

    1993-01-01

    A simple optoelectronic circuit integrated monolithically in GaAs to implement sigmoidal neuron responses is presented. The circuit integrates a light-emitting diode with one or two transistors and one or two photodetectors. The design considerations for building arrays with densities of up to 10,000/sq cm are discussed.

  9. Acoustic Wave Chemical Microsensors in GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Albert G. Baca; Edwin J. Heller; Gregory C. Frye-Mason; John L. Reno; Richard Kottenstette; Stephen A. Casalnuovo; Susan L. Hietala; Vincent M. Hietala

    1998-09-20

    High sensitivity acoustic wave chemical microsensors are being developed on GaAs substrates. These devices take advantage of the piezoelectric properties of GaAs as well as its mature microelectronics fabrication technology and nascent micromachining technology. The design, fabrication, and response of GaAs SAW chemical microsensors are reported. Functional integrated GaAs SAW oscillators, suitable for chemical sensing, have been produced. The integrated oscillator requires 20 mA at 3 VK, operates at frequencies up to 500 MHz, and occupies approximately 2 mmz. Discrete GaAs sensor components, including IC amplifiers, SAW delay lines, and IC phase comparators have been fabricated and tested. A temperature compensation scheme has been developed that overcomes the large temperature dependence of GaAs acoustic wave devices. Packaging issues related to bonding miniature flow channels directly to the GaAs substrates have been resolved. Micromachining techniques for fabricating FPW and TSM microsensors on thin GaAs membranes are presented and GaAs FPW delay line performance is described. These devices have potentially higher sensitivity than existing GaAs and quartz SAW sensors.

  10. Space qualification of UV and IR reflecting coverslides for GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meulenberg, Andrew

    1996-01-01

    As part of the space qualification effort for blue-red reflecting coverslides designed for use with GaAs solar cells, the first long-term (3000 hours) UV testing of unirradiated and 1 MeV electron-irradiated GaAs solar cells, with 4 types of multilayer-coated coverslides to reduce operating temperature, has produced some unexpected results. Important conclusions from this study, which includes two parallel tests, are as follows: (1) All of the GaAs solar cells with multilayer-coated coverslides display UV degradation. The laboratory data, extrapolated to 10 years in orbit, point to a significant loss mechanism from a combination of absorption and a reduction in optical match in such coatings from this portion of the space environment; (2) The effects of contamination in a vacuum system, on the measured degradation in solar-cell short-circuit current during a UV test, depend upon the type of coverslide coatings present on the coverslide surfaces. This has implications for both coated coverslides and optical solar reflectors (OSR's) in space; and (3) Because of the observed trends in this test and uncertainties in the extrapolation of data for multilayer coated coverslides, the use of any multilayer-coated coverslides for extended missions (greater than 1 year) cannot be recommended without prior flight testing.

  11. Intrinsic radiation tolerance of ultra-thin GaAs solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirst, L. C.; Yakes, M. K.; Warner, J. H.; Bennett, M. F.; Schmieder, K. J.; Walters, R. J.; Jenkins, P. P.

    2016-07-01

    Radiation tolerance is a critical performance criterion of photovoltaic devices for space power applications. In this paper we demonstrate the intrinsic radiation tolerance of an ultra-thin solar cell geometry. Device characteristics of GaAs solar cells with absorber layer thicknesses 80 nm and 800 nm were compared before and after 3 MeV proton irradiation. Both cells showed a similar degradation in Voc with increasing fluence; however, the 80 nm cell showed no degradation in Isc for fluences up to 1014 p+ cm-2. For the same exposure, the Isc of the 800 nm cell had severely degraded leaving a remaining factor of 0.26.

  12. GaAs shallow-homojunction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, J. C. C.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating space resistant, high efficiency, light weight, low cost GaAs shallow homojunction solar cells for space application is investigated. The material preparation of ultrathin GaAs single crystal layers, and the fabrication of efficient GaAs solar cells on bulk GaAs substrates are discussed. Considerable progress was made in both areas, and conversion efficiency about 16% AMO was obtained using anodic oxide as a single layer antireflection coating. A computer design shows that even better cells can be obtained with double layer antireflection coating. Ultrathin, high efficiency solar cells were obtained from GaAs films prepared by the CLEFT process, with conversion efficiency as high as 17% at AMI from a 10 micrometers thick GaAs film. A organometallic CVD was designed and constructed.

  13. Eight-Bit-Slice GaAs General Processor Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, John; Gauthier, Robert V.

    1989-01-01

    Novel GaAs 8-bit slice enables quick and efficient implementation of variety of fast GaAs digital systems ranging from central processing units of computers to special-purpose processors for communications and signal-processing applications. With GaAs 8-bit slice, designers quickly configure and test hearts of many digital systems that demand fast complex arithmetic, fast and sufficient register storage, efficient multiplexing and routing of data words, and ease of control.

  14. Development of GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnally, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    This is the second quarterly technical report on a program, the goal of which is to achieve high efficiency GaAs solar cells. Analysis was concerned with providing design information for use in experimentally determining optimum solar cell process parameters. The first quarterly report contained the results of those design calculations. Using those results as a guide, experimental work was initiated to determine optimum cell process parameters. The initial results on this phase of the program are reported.

  15. Piezoelectric field in strained GaAs.

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Weng Wah; Wieczorek, Sebastian Maciej

    2005-11-01

    This report describes an investigation of the piezoelectric field in strained bulk GaAs. The bound charge distribution is calculated and suitable electrode configurations are proposed for (1) uniaxial and (2) biaxial strain. The screening of the piezoelectric field is studied for different impurity concentrations and sample lengths. Electric current due to the piezoelectric field is calculated for the cases of (1) fixed strain and (2) strain varying in time at a constant rate.

  16. Deep level defects in proton radiated GaAs grown on metamorphic SiGe/Si substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, M.; Andre, C. L.; Walters, R. J.; Messenger, S. R.; Warner, J. H.; Lorentzen, J. R.; Pitera, A. J.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Ringel, S. A.

    2006-08-01

    The effect of 2 MeV proton radiation on the introduction of deep levels in GaAs grown on compositionally graded SiGe/Si substrates was investigated using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Systematic comparisons were made with identical layers grown on both GaAs and Ge substrates to directly assess the influence of threading dislocations on radiation-related deep levels for both n-type and p-type GaAs. DLTS revealed that for p{sup +}n structures, proton irradiation generates electron traps at E{sub c}-0.14 eV, E{sub c}-0.25 eV, E{sub c}-0.54 eV, and E{sub c}-0.72 eV in the n-GaAs base, and, for n{sup +}p structures, radiation-induced hole traps appear at E{sub v}+0.18 eV, E{sub v}+0.23 eV, E{sub v}+0.27 eV, and E{sub v}+0.77 eV in the p-type GaAs base, irrespective of substrate choice for both polarities. The primary influence of substituting SiGe/Si substrates for conventional GaAs and Ge substrates is on the introduction rates of the individual traps as a function of proton radiation fluence. Substantially reduced concentrations are found for each radiation-induced hole trap observed in p-type GaAs, as well as for the E{sub c}-0.54 eV trap in n-GaAs for samples on SiGe/Si, as a function of proton fluence. Calculated trap introduction rates reveal reductions by as much as {approx}40% for certain hole traps in p-GaAs grown on SiGe/Si. This increased radiation tolerance for GaAs grown on SiGe/Si is attributed to interactions between the low density ({approx}10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}) of residual dislocations within the metamorphic GaAs/SiGe/Si structure and the radiation-induced point defects. Nevertheless, the fact that the impact of dislocations on radiation tolerance is far more dramatic for n{sup +}p GaAs structures compared to p{sup +}n structures, may have implications on future III-V/Si space solar cell design optimization, since end-of-life versus beginning-of-life differences are critical factors for power profiling in high radiation environments.

  17. Surface-modified GaAs terahertz plasmon emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmo, J.; Strasser, G.; Muller, T.; Bratschitsch, R.; Unterrainer, K.

    2002-07-01

    We studied the THz emission from n-GaAs plasmon emitters modified by low-temperature-grown (LT) GaAs surface layers. The THz emission is increased since the LT GaAs pins the Fermi level at a midgap position, increasing the surface depletion field. For a THz emitter with a 70-nm-thick LT GaAs layer we observe without external fields a THz emission intensity of 140 nW. In addition, the long-term performance of the modified emitters is improved by the LT GaAs surface layer.

  18. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1984-01-01

    The crystal growth, device processing and device related properties and phenomena of GaAs are investigated. Our GaAs research evolves about these key thrust areas. The overall program combines: (1) studies of crystal growth on novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor materials (i.e., GaAs and related compounds); (2) investigation and correlation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro- and microscale; (3) investigation of electronic properties and phenomena controlling device applications and device performance. The ground based program is developed which would insure successful experimentation with and eventually processing of GaAs in a near zero gravity environment.

  19. High efficiency, low cost thin GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, J. C. C.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating space-resistant, high efficiency, light-weight, low-cost GaAs shallow-homojunction solar cells for space application is demonstrated. This program addressed the optimal preparation of ultrathin GaAs single-crystal layers by AsCl3-GaAs-H2 and OMCVD process. Considerable progress has been made in both areas. Detailed studies on the AsCl3 process showed high-quality GaAs thin layers can be routinely grown. Later overgrowth of GaAs by OMCVD has been also observed and thin FaAs films were obtained from this process.

  20. Electric field distributions in CdZnTe due to reduced temperature and x-ray irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sellin, P. J.; Prekas, G.; Franc, J.; Grill, R.

    2010-03-29

    Real-time Pockels imaging is performed on semi-insulating CdZnTe to measure the electric field profile in the material bulk. In steady-state room temperature conditions the measured electric field profile is uniform, consistent with a low space charge concentration. At temperatures <270 K a significant nonuniform electric field profile is observed, which we explain in terms of temperature-induced band bending at the metal-semiconductor interface, causing the formation of positive space charge in the bulk. Similar electric field distortion effects are observed when room temperature CdZnTe is irradiated by x-rays, causing a high rate of photoinduced charge injection.

  1. Panel fabrication utilizing GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the GaAs solar cells for space applications is described. The activities in the fabrication of GaAs solar panels are outlined. Panels were fabricated while introducing improved quality control, soldering laydown and testing procedures. These panels include LIPS II, San Marco Satellite, and a low concentration panel for Rockwells' evaluation. The panels and their present status are discussed.

  2. Defect studies in low-temperature-grown GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, D.E.

    1992-11-01

    High content of excess As is incorporated in GaAs grown by low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy (LTMBE). The excess As exists primarily as As antisite defects AsGa and a lesser extent of gallium vacancies V[sub Ga]. The neutral AsGa-related defects were measured by infrared absorption at 1[mu]m. Gallium vacancies, V[sub Ga], was investigated by slow positron annihilation. Dependence of defect contents on doping was studied by Si and Be dopants. No free carriers are generated by n-type or p-type doping up to 10[sup 19] cm[sup [minus]3] Si or Be. Raman data indicate Be occupies Ga substitutional sites but Si atom is not substitutional. Si induces more As[sub Ga] in the layer. As As[sub Ga] increases, photoquenchable As[sub Ga] decreases. Fraction of photoquenchable defects correlates to defects within 3 nearest neighbor separations disrupting the metastability. Annealing reduces neutral As[sub Ga] content around 500C, similar to irradiation damaged and plastically deformed Ga[sub As], as opposed to bulk grown GaAs in which As[sub Ga]-related defects are stable up to 1100C. The lower temperature defect removal is due to V[sub Ga] enhanced diffusion of As[sub Ga] to As precipitates. The supersaturated V[sub GA] and also decreases during annealing. Annealing kinetics for As[sub Ga]-related defects gives 2.0 [plus minus] 0.3 eV and 1.5 [plus minus] 0.3 eV migration enthalpies for the As[sub Ga] and V[sub Ga]. This represents the difference between Ga and As atoms hopping into the vacancy. The non-photoquenchable As[sub Ga]-related defects anneal with an activation energy of 1.1 [plus minus] 0.3eV. Be acceptors can be activated by 800C annealing. Temperature difference between defect annealing and Be activation formation of As[sub Ga]-Be[sub Ga] pairs. Si donors can only be partially activated.

  3. Defect studies in low-temperature-grown GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, D.E.

    1992-11-01

    High content of excess As is incorporated in GaAs grown by low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy (LTMBE). The excess As exists primarily as As antisite defects AsGa and a lesser extent of gallium vacancies V{sub Ga}. The neutral AsGa-related defects were measured by infrared absorption at 1{mu}m. Gallium vacancies, V{sub Ga}, was investigated by slow positron annihilation. Dependence of defect contents on doping was studied by Si and Be dopants. No free carriers are generated by n-type or p-type doping up to 10{sup 19} cm{sup {minus}3} Si or Be. Raman data indicate Be occupies Ga substitutional sites but Si atom is not substitutional. Si induces more As{sub Ga} in the layer. As As{sub Ga} increases, photoquenchable As{sub Ga} decreases. Fraction of photoquenchable defects correlates to defects within 3 nearest neighbor separations disrupting the metastability. Annealing reduces neutral As{sub Ga} content around 500C, similar to irradiation damaged and plastically deformed Ga{sub As}, as opposed to bulk grown GaAs in which As{sub Ga}-related defects are stable up to 1100C. The lower temperature defect removal is due to V{sub Ga} enhanced diffusion of As{sub Ga} to As precipitates. The supersaturated V{sub GA} and also decreases during annealing. Annealing kinetics for As{sub Ga}-related defects gives 2.0 {plus_minus} 0.3 eV and 1.5 {plus_minus} 0.3 eV migration enthalpies for the As{sub Ga} and V{sub Ga}. This represents the difference between Ga and As atoms hopping into the vacancy. The non-photoquenchable As{sub Ga}-related defects anneal with an activation energy of 1.1 {plus_minus} 0.3eV. Be acceptors can be activated by 800C annealing. Temperature difference between defect annealing and Be activation formation of As{sub Ga}-Be{sub Ga} pairs. Si donors can only be partially activated.

  4. Peeled film GaAs solar cell development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, D. M.; Thomas, R. D.; Bailey, S. G.; Brinker, D. J.; Deangelo, F. L.

    1990-01-01

    Thin-film, single-crystal gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells could exhibit a specific power approaching 700 W/kg including coverglass. A simple process has been described whereby epitaxial GaAs layers are peeled from a reusable substrate. This process takes advantage of the extreme selectivity of the etching rate of aluminum arsenide (AlAs) over GaAs in dilute hydrofluoric acid. The feasibility of using the peeled film technique to fabricate high-efficiency, low-mass GaAs solar cells is presently demonstrated. A peeled film GaAs solar cell was successfully produced. The device, although fractured and missing the aluminum gallium arsenide window and antireflective coating, had a Voc of 874 mV and a fill factor of 68 percent under AM0 illumination.

  5. Ion implanted GaAs microwave FET's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, S. S.; Blockley, E. G.; Dawsey, J. R.; Foreman, B. J.; Woodward, J.; Ball, G.; Beard, S. J.; Gaskell, J. M.; Allenson, M. B.

    1988-06-01

    The combination of ion implantation and photolithographic patterning techniques was applied to the fabrication of GaAs microwave FETs to provide a large number of devices having consistently predictable dc and high frequency characteristics. To validate the accuracy and repeatability of the high frequency device parameters, an X-band microwave circuit was designed and realized. The performance of this circuit, a buffered amplifier, is very close to the design specification. The availability of a large number of reproducible, well-characterized transistors enabled work to commence on the development of a large signal model for FETs. Work in this area is also described.

  6. Au impact on GaAs epitaxial growth on GaAs (111){sub B} substrates in molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Zhi-Gang; Xu, Hong-Yi; Guo, Ya-Nan; Sun, Wen; Zhang, Zhi; Yang, Lei; Lu, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Ping-Ping; Lu, Wei; Zou, Jin

    2013-02-11

    GaAs growth behaviour under the presence of Au nanoparticles on GaAs {l_brace}111{r_brace}{sub B} substrate is investigated using electron microscopy. It has been found that, during annealing, enhanced Ga surface diffusion towards Au nanoparticles leads to the GaAs epitaxial growth into {l_brace}113{r_brace}{sub B} faceted triangular pyramids under Au nanoparticles, governed by the thermodynamic growth, while during conventional GaAs growth, growth kinetics dominates, resulting in the flatted triangular pyramids at high temperature and the epitaxial nanowires growth at relatively low temperature. This study provides an insight of Au nanoparticle impact on GaAs growth, which is critical for understanding the formation mechanisms of semiconductor nanowires.

  7. N/P GaAs concentrator solar cells with an improved grid and bushbar contact design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desalvo, G. C.; Mueller, E. H.; Barnett, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    The major requirements for a solar cell used in space applications are high efficiency at AMO irradiance and resistance to high energy radiation. Gallium arsenide, with a band gap of 1.43 eV, is one of the most efficient sunlight to electricity converters (25%) when the the simple diode model is used to calculate efficiencies at AMO irradiance, GaAs solar cells are more radiation resistant than silicon solar cells and the N/P GaAs device has been reported to be more radiation resistant than similar P/N solar cells. This higher resistance is probably due to the fact that only 37% of the current is generated in the top N layer of the N/P cell compared to 69% in the top layer of a P/N solar cell. This top layer of the cell is most affected by radiation. It has also been theoretically calculated that the optimized N/P device will prove to have a higher efficiency than a similar P/N device. The use of a GaP window layer on a GaAs solar cell will avoid many of the inherent problems normally associated with a GaAlAs window while still proving good passivation of the GaAs surface. An optimized circular grid design for solar cell concentrators has been shown which incorporates a multi-layer metallization scheme. This multi-layer design allows for a greater current carrying capacity for a unit area of shading, which results in a better output efficiency.

  8. GaAs VLSI for aerospace electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larue, G.; Chan, P.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced aerospace electronics systems require high-speed, low-power, radiation-hard, digital components for signal processing, control, and communication applications. GaAs VLSI devices provide a number of advantages over silicon devices including higher carrier velocities, ability to integrate with high performance optical devices, and high-resistivity substrates that provide very short gate delays, good isolation, and tolerance to many forms of radiation. However, III-V technologies also have disadvantages, such as lower yield compared to silicon MOS technology. Achieving very large scale integration (VLSI) is particularly important for fast complex systems. At very short gate delays (less than 100 ps), chip-to-chip interconnects severely degrade circuit clock rates. Complex systems, therefore, benefit greatly when as many gates as possible are placed on a single chip. To fully exploit the advantages of GaAs circuits, attention must be focused on achieving high integration levels by reducing power dissipation, reducing the number of devices per logic function, and providing circuit designs that are more tolerant to process and environmental variations. In addition, adequate noise margin must be maintained to ensure a practical yield.

  9. Implantation of carbon in GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Moll, A.J.

    1992-03-01

    Carbon implanted into GaAs and thermally annealed typically exhibits very low (<3%) electrical activity. It has been demonstrated that the electrical activity of C can be significantly enhanced by co-implantation with Ga. Improved activation may result from either additional damage of the crystal lattice or from stoichiometric changes, forcing the C atoms onto As sites. To determine the relative importance of each of these effects, I have undertaken a systematic study of carbon activation in GaAs. A range of co-implants have been used: group III (B, Ga), group V (N, P, As) and noble gases (Ar, Kr). The damage introduced to the substrate will depend on the mass of the ion implanted. The group III and group V co-implants will affect the crystal stoichiometry. The results indicate that both lattice damage and crystal stoichiometry are important for high electrical activity of C. Increasing the damage will increase the activation due to the increased number of As vacancies but maximum activation can be obtained only by a co-implant which not only damages the lattice but also forces the C to occupy an As site.

  10. The development of integrated chemical microsensors in GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    CASALNUOVO,STEPHEN A.; ASON,GREGORY CHARLES; HELLER,EDWIN J.; HIETALA,VINCENT M.; BACA,ALBERT G.; HIETALA,S.L.

    1999-11-01

    Monolithic, integrated acoustic wave chemical microsensors are being developed on gallium arsenide (GaAs) substrates. With this approach, arrays of microsensors and the high frequency electronic components needed to operate them reside on a single substrate, increasing the range of detectable analytes, reducing overall system size, minimizing systematic errors, and simplifying assembly and packaging. GaAs is employed because it is both piezoelectric, a property required to produce the acoustic wave devices, and a semiconductor with a mature microelectronics fabrication technology. Many aspects of integrated GaAs chemical sensors have been investigated, including: surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors; monolithic SAW delay line oscillators; GaAs application specific integrated circuits (ASIC) for sensor operation; a hybrid sensor array utilizing these ASICS; and the fully monolithic, integrated SAW array. Details of the design, fabrication, and performance of these devices are discussed. In addition, the ability to produce heteroepitaxial layers of GaAs and aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) makes possible micromachined membrane sensors with improved sensitivity compared to conventional SAW sensors. Micromachining techniques for fabricating flexural plate wave (FPW) and thickness shear mode (TSM) microsensors on thin GaAs membranes are presented and GaAs FPW delay line and TSM resonator performance is described.

  11. Analysis of high field effects on the steady-state current-voltage response of semi-insulating 4H-SiC for photoconductive switch applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tiskumara, R.; Joshi, R. P. Mauch, D.; Dickens, J. C.; Neuber, A. A.

    2015-09-07

    A model-based analysis of the steady-state, current-voltage response of semi-insulating 4H-SiC is carried out to probe the internal mechanisms, focusing on electric field driven effects. Relevant physical processes, such as multiple defects, repulsive potential barriers to electron trapping, band-to-trap impact ionization, and field-dependent detrapping, are comprehensively included. Results of our model match the available experimental data fairly well over orders of magnitude variation in the current density. A number of important parameters are also extracted in the process through comparisons with available data. Finally, based on our analysis, the possible presence of holes in the samples can be discounted up to applied fields as high as ∼275 kV/cm.

  12. Measured Attenuation of Coplanar Waveguide on 6H, p-type SiC and High Purity Semi-Insulating 4H SiC through 800 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.; Schwartz, Zachary D.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Downey, Alan N.

    2004-01-01

    Wireless sensors for high temperature applications such as oil drilling and mining, automobiles, and jet engine performance monitoring require circuits built on wide bandgap semiconductors. In this paper, the characteristics of microwave transmission lines on 4H-High Purity Semi-Insulating SiC and 6H, p-type SiC is presented as a function of temperature and frequency. It is shown that the attenuation of 6H, p-type substrates is too high for microwave circuits, large leakage current will flow through the substrate, and that unusual attenuation characteristics are due to trapping in the SiC. The 4H-HPSI SiC is shown to have low attenuation and leakage currents over the entire temperature range.

  13. High temperature annealing effects on deep-level defects in a high purity semi-insulating 4H-SiC substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Iwamoto, Naoya Azarov, Alexander; Svensson, Bengt G.; Ohshima, Takeshi; Moe, Anne Marie M.

    2015-07-28

    Effects of high-temperature annealing on deep-level defects in a high-purity semi-insulating 4H silicon carbide substrate have been studied by employing current-voltage, capacitance-voltage, junction spectroscopy, and chemical impurity analysis measurements. Secondary ion mass spectrometry data reveal that the substrate contains boron with concentration in the mid 10{sup 15 }cm{sup −3} range, while other impurities including nitrogen, aluminum, titanium, vanadium and chromium are below their detection limits (typically ∼10{sup 14 }cm{sup −3}). Schottky barrier diodes fabricated on substrates annealed at 1400–1700 °C exhibit metal/p-type semiconductor behavior with a current rectification of up to 8 orders of magnitude at bias voltages of ±3 V. With increasing annealing temperature, the series resistance of the Schottky barrier diodes decreases, and the net acceptor concentration in the substrates increases approaching the chemical boron content. Admittance spectroscopy results unveil the presence of shallow boron acceptors and deep-level defects with levels in lower half of the bandgap. After the 1400 °C annealing, the boron acceptor still remains strongly compensated at room temperature by deep donor-like levels located close to mid-gap. However, the latter decrease in concentration with increasing annealing temperature and after 1700 °C, the boron acceptor is essentially uncompensated. Hence, the deep donors are decisive for the semi-insulating properties of the substrates, and their thermal evolution limits the thermal budget for device processing. The origin of the deep donors is not well-established, but substantial evidence supporting an assignment to carbon vacancies is presented.

  14. High temperature annealing effects on deep-level defects in a high purity semi-insulating 4H-SiC substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Naoya; Azarov, Alexander; Ohshima, Takeshi; Moe, Anne Marie M.; Svensson, Bengt G.

    2015-07-01

    Effects of high-temperature annealing on deep-level defects in a high-purity semi-insulating 4H silicon carbide substrate have been studied by employing current-voltage, capacitance-voltage, junction spectroscopy, and chemical impurity analysis measurements. Secondary ion mass spectrometry data reveal that the substrate contains boron with concentration in the mid 1015 cm-3 range, while other impurities including nitrogen, aluminum, titanium, vanadium and chromium are below their detection limits (typically ˜1014 cm-3). Schottky barrier diodes fabricated on substrates annealed at 1400-1700 °C exhibit metal/p-type semiconductor behavior with a current rectification of up to 8 orders of magnitude at bias voltages of ±3 V. With increasing annealing temperature, the series resistance of the Schottky barrier diodes decreases, and the net acceptor concentration in the substrates increases approaching the chemical boron content. Admittance spectroscopy results unveil the presence of shallow boron acceptors and deep-level defects with levels in lower half of the bandgap. After the 1400 °C annealing, the boron acceptor still remains strongly compensated at room temperature by deep donor-like levels located close to mid-gap. However, the latter decrease in concentration with increasing annealing temperature and after 1700 °C, the boron acceptor is essentially uncompensated. Hence, the deep donors are decisive for the semi-insulating properties of the substrates, and their thermal evolution limits the thermal budget for device processing. The origin of the deep donors is not well-established, but substantial evidence supporting an assignment to carbon vacancies is presented.

  15. Field dependent emission rates in radiation damaged GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, R. M.; Myers, S. M.; Wampler, W. R.; Lang, D. V.; Seager, C. H.; Campbell, J. M.

    2014-07-07

    We have measured the temperature and field dependence of emission rates from five traps in electron damaged GaAs. Four of the traps have previously been identified as radiation defects. One of the traps, seen in higher doped diodes, has not been previously identified. We have fit the data to a multiphonon emission theory that allows recombination in GaAs to be characterized over a broad range of temperature and electric field. These results demonstrate an efficient method to calculate field-dependent emission rates in GaAs.

  16. Photocurrent Spectroscopy of Single Wurtzite GaAs Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D. C.; Ahtapodov, L.; Boe, A. B.; Moses, A. F.; Dheeraj, D. L.; Fimland, B. O.; Weman, H.; Choi, J. W.; Ji, H.; Kim, G. T.

    2011-12-23

    Photocurrent of single wurtzite GaAs nanowires grown by Au-assisted molecular beam epitaxy is measured at room and low temperature (10 K). At room temperature a high photo-response with more than two orders of magnitude increase of current is observed. The wavelength dependence of the photocurrent shows a sharp change near the zinc blende GaAs band gap. The absence of the free exciton peak in the low temperature photocurrent spectrum, and problems related to determining the exact position of the energy bandgap of wurtzite GaAs from the observed data are discussed.

  17. Temperature-Programmed Scattering (TPS) Study on Reactivity Difference of GaAs and GaAs Oxide Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Masahiro; Yoshida, Seikoh; Yamada, Chikashi

    1993-10-01

    The reactivity of GaAs and GaAs oxide surfaces to trimethylgallium (TMG) was studied by temperature-programmed scattering (TPS) through the energy accommodation coefficient (EAC). The substrate temperature was increased at a constant rate while the scattered TMG was being measured under a constant flux of TMG supplied to the substrate by a cryo-shrouded quadrupole mass spectrometer. Since the detection efficiency of the spectrometer is inversely proportional to the translational velocity of scattered TMG, the observed intensity variation represents the change in translational velocity of reflected TMG during the temperature increase. The variation of the signal intensities was least-squares analyzed to yield the EAC, which is a measure of the surface reactivity. The thus-obtained reactivity of photo-oxidized GaAs to TMG is smaller than that of dark-oxidized GaAs, which is even smaller than that of a bare GaAs surface. This difference in the reactivity is discussed in relation to the mechanism of selective area growth of GaAs using GaAs oxide as a mask.

  18. GaAs VLSI technology and circuit elements for DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkelson, James M.

    1990-10-01

    Recent progress in digital GaAs circuit performance and complexity is presented to demonstrate the current capabilities of GaAs components. High density GaAs process technology and circuit design techniques are described and critical issues for achieving favorable complexity speed power and cost tradeoffs are reviewed. Some DSP building blocks are described to provide examples of what types of DSP systems could be implemented with present GaAs technology. DIGITAL GaAs CIRCUIT CAPABILITIES In the past few years the capabilities of digital GaAs circuits have dramatically increased to the VLSI level. Major gains in circuit complexity and power-delay products have been achieved by the use of silicon-like process technologies and simple circuit topologies. The very high speed and low power consumption of digital GaAs VLSI circuits have made GaAs a desirable alternative to high performance silicon in hardware intensive high speed system applications. An example of the performance and integration complexity available with GaAs VLSI circuits is the 64x64 crosspoint switch shown in figure 1. This switch which is the most complex GaAs circuit currently available is designed on a 30 gate GaAs gate array. It operates at 200 MHz and dissipates only 8 watts of power. The reasons for increasing the level of integration of GaAs circuits are similar to the reasons for the continued increase of silicon circuit complexity. The market factors driving GaAs VLSI are system design methodology system cost power and reliability. System designers are hesitant or unwilling to go backwards to previous design techniques and lower levels of integration. A more highly integrated system in a lower performance technology can often approach the performance of a system in a higher performance technology at a lower level of integration. Higher levels of integration also lower the system component count which reduces the system cost size and power consumption while improving the system reliability

  19. Localized corrosion of GaAs surfaces and formation of porous GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Schmuki, P.; Vitus, C.M.; Isaacs, H.S.; Fraser, J.; Graham, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    The present work deals with pitting corrosion of p- and n-type GaAs (100). Pit growth can be electrochemically initiated on both conduction types in chloride-containing solutions and leads after extended periods of time to the formation of a porous GaAs structure. In the case of p-type material, localized corrosion is only observed if a passivating film is present on the surface, otherwise -- e.g. in acidic solutions -- the material suffers from a uniform attack (electropolishing) which is independent of the anion present. In contrast, pitting corrosion of n-type material can be triggered independent of the presence of an oxide film. This is explained in terms of the different current limiting factor for the differently doped materials (oxide film in the case of the p- and a space charge layer in the case of the n-GaAs). The porous structure was characterized by SEM, EDX and AES, and consists mainly of GaAs. From scratch experiments it is clear that the pit initiation process is strongly influenced by surface defects. For n-type material, AFM investigations show that light induced roughening of the order of several hundred nm occurs under non-passivating conditions. This nm- scale roughening however does not affect the pitting process.

  20. GaAs Films Prepared by RF-Magnetron Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    L.H. Ouyang; D.L. Rode; T. Zulkifli; B. Abraham-Shrauner; N. Lewis; M.R. Freeman

    2001-08-01

    The authors reported on the optical absorption, adhesion, and microstructure of RF-magnetron sputtered films of hydrogenated amorphous and microcrystalline GaAs films for the 1 to 25 {micro}m infrared wavelength rate. Sputtering parameters which were varied include sputtering power, temperature and pressure, and hydrogen sputtering-gas concentration. TEM results show a sharp transition from purely amorphous GaAs to a mixture of microcrystalline GaAs in an amorphous matrix at 34 {+-} 2 C. By optimizing the sputtering parameters, the optical absorption coefficient can be decreased below 100 cm{sup -1} for wavelengths greater than about 1.25 {micro}m. These results represent the lowest reported values of optical absorption for sputtered films of GaAs directly measured by spectrophotometry for the near-infrared wavelength region.

  1. GaAs monolithic RF modules for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauley, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Monolithic GaAs UHF components for use in SARSAT Emergency Distress beacons are under development by Microwave Monolithics, Inc., Simi Valley, CA. The components include a bi-phase modulator, driver amplifier, and a 5 watt power amplifier.

  2. Interfacial Ga-As suboxide: Structural and electronic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Colleoni, Davide Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2015-07-20

    The structural and electronic properties of Ga-As suboxide representative of the transition region at the GaAs/oxide interface are studied through density functional calculations. Two amorphous models generated by quenches from the melt are taken under consideration. The absence of As–O bonds indicates that the structure is a mixture of GaAs and Ga-oxide, in accordance with photoemission experiments. The band edges of the models are found to be closely aligned to those of GaAs. The simulation of charging and discharging processes leads to the identification of an As-related defect with an energy level at ∼0.7 eV above the GaAs valence band maximum, in good agreement with the experimental density of interface states.

  3. Crystal Growth of Device Quality Gaas in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    The GaAs research evolves about these key thrust areas. The overall program combines: (1) studies of crystal growth on novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor material (i.e., GaAs and related compounds); (2) investigation and correlation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro- and microscale; and (3) investigation of electronic properties and phenomena controlling device applications and device performance. This effort is aimed at the essential ground-based program which would insure successful experimentation with and eventually processing of GaAs in near zero gravity environment. It is believed that this program addresses in a unique way materials engineering aspects which bear directly on the future exploitation of the potential of GaAs and related materials in device and systems applications.

  4. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1983-01-01

    GaAs device technology has recently reached a new phase of rapid advancement, made possible by the improvement of the quality of GaAs bulk crystals. At the same time, the transition to the next generation of GaAs integrated circuits and optoelectronic systems for commercial and government applications hinges on new quantum steps in three interrelated areas: crystal growth, device processing and device-related properties and phenomena. Special emphasis is placed on the establishment of quantitative relationships among crystal growth parameters-material properties-electronic properties and device applications. The overall program combines studies of crystal growth on novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor material (i.e., GaAs and related compounds); investigation and correlation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro- and microscale; and investigation of electronic properties and phenomena controlling device applications and device performance.

  5. Ultrafast spectroscopy of GaAs under magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Mycek, M.A.; Siegner, U.; Glutsch, S.

    1995-03-01

    Surprising and novel results are obtained for both the linear and the nonlinear optical response of GaAs under magnetic field. Using a variety of spectroscopic techniques, we measure field dependent effects due to Coulomb correlation.

  6. GaAs solar cells for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, E. J.; Walker, G. H.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    GaAs solar cells offer substantial advantages for space photovoltaic power over Si solar cells in the areas of efficiency, elevated temperature operation, and radiation damage stability. A mission cost comparison is made for GaAs and Si solar cells. For Si cell arrays, the total mission cost is found to be a minimum for a solar concentration of 2.9. For GaAs, modes of operation and construction are investigated. Modes having lower mission costs than the minimum Si mission cost are defined. These include higher concentrations, lightweight cells, and simultaneous power generation and annealing. The technological progress necessary for GaAs to operate in these modes is identified.

  7. Interfacial Ga-As suboxide: Structural and electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colleoni, Davide; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The structural and electronic properties of Ga-As suboxide representative of the transition region at the GaAs/oxide interface are studied through density functional calculations. Two amorphous models generated by quenches from the melt are taken under consideration. The absence of As-O bonds indicates that the structure is a mixture of GaAs and Ga-oxide, in accordance with photoemission experiments. The band edges of the models are found to be closely aligned to those of GaAs. The simulation of charging and discharging processes leads to the identification of an As-related defect with an energy level at ˜0.7 eV above the GaAs valence band maximum, in good agreement with the experimental density of interface states.

  8. GaAs Hall devices produced by local ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettenpaul, E.; Huber, J.; Weidlich, H.; Flossmann, W.; von Borcke, U.

    1981-08-01

    GaAs Hall devices were produced by complete planar technology using two selective silicon ion implantation steps. The fundamental characteristics of these devices with respect to reproducible implantation dose and geometry of cross-shaped elements are obtained both by experiment and calculation. The prominent properties of the GaAs Hall elements presented are high sensitivity and linearity, small temperature dependence of sensitivity and resistance, and low residual voltage.

  9. Novel GAA mutations in patients with Pompe disease.

    PubMed

    Turaça, Lauro Thiago; de Faria, Douglas Oliveira Soares; Kyosen, Sandra Obikawa; Teixeira, Valber Dias; Motta, Fabiana Louise; Pessoa, Juliana Gilbert; Rodrigues E Silva, Marina; de Almeida, Sandro Soares; D'Almeida, Vânia; Munoz Rojas, Maria Verônica; Martins, Ana Maria; Pesquero, João Bosco

    2015-04-25

    Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive disorder linked to GAA gene that leads to a multi-system intralysosomal accumulation of glycogen. Mutation identification in the GAA gene can be very important for early diagnosis, correlation between genotype-phenotype and therapeutic intervention. For this purpose, peripheral blood from 57 individuals susceptible to Pompe disease was collected and all exons of GAA gene were amplified; the sequences and the mutations were analyzed in silico to predict possible impact on the structure and function of the human protein. In this study, 46 individuals presented 33 alterations in the GAA gene sequence, among which five (c.547-67C>G, c.547-39T>G, p.R437H, p.L641V and p.L705P) have not been previously described in the literature. The alterations in the coding region included 15 missense mutations, three nonsense mutations and one deletion. One insertion and other 13 single base changes were found in the non-coding region. The mutation p.G611D was found in homozygosis in a one-year-old child, who presented low levels of GAA activity, hypotonia and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Two patients presented the new mutation p.L705P in association with c.-32-13T>G. They had low levels of GAA activity and developed late onset Pompe disease. In our study, we observed alterations in the GAA gene originating from Asians, African-Americans and Caucasians, highlighting the high heterogeneity of the Brazilian population. Considering that Pompe disease studies are not very common in Brazil, this study will help to better understand the potential pathogenic role of each change in the GAA gene. Furthermore, a precise and early molecular analysis improves genetic counseling besides allowing for a more efficient treatment in potential candidates.

  10. Detection Properties of Thin-Film Slot-Antenna-Coupled GaAs Schottky Barrier Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Kosuke; Tachiki, Takashi; Uchida, Takashi; Furuya, Takashi; Idehara, Toshitaka; Yasuoka, Yoshizumi

    2009-08-01

    GaAs Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) coupled with a thin-film slot antenna were fabricated using a microfabrication technique, and video detection and mixing properties were investigated at 94 GHz. In the video detection, the bias voltage dependence of detected voltage showed almost the same variation with the calculated value derived from the theory of square-law detection. It was confirmed that detected voltage was obtained from the nonlinearity of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of the device. A Si extended hemispherical lens was coupled to the device to improve device responsivity. The increase in detected voltage was 22.2 dB upon using a lens with a radius of 10 mm, and a noise equivalent irradiance (NEI) of 1.2×10-10 W/(cm2·Hz1/2) was obtained. In the mixing, IF signals were observed up to a harmonic number of 7 using the thin-film GaAs SBD.

  11. Surface Science Analysis of GaAs Photocathodes Following Sustained Electron Beam Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Shutthanandan, V.; Zhu, Zihua; Stutzman, Marcy L.; Hannon, Fay; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Hess, Wayne P.

    2012-06-12

    Degradation of the photocathode materials employed in photoinjectors represents a challenge for sustained operation of nuclear physics accelerators and high power Free Electron Lasers (FEL). Several photocathode degradation processes are suspected, including defect formation by ion back bombardment, photochemistry of surface adsorbed species and irradiation-induced surface defect formation. To better understand the mechanisms of photocathode degradation, we have conducted surface and bulk analysis studies of two GaAs photocathodes removed from the FEL photoinjector after delivering electron beam for a few years. The analysis techniques include Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). In addition, strained super-lattice GaAs photocathode samples, removed from the CEBAF photoinjector were analyzed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and SIMS. This analysis of photocathode degradation during nominal photoinjector operating conditions represents first steps towards developing robust new photocathode designs necessary for generating sub-micron emittance electron beams required for both fourth generation light sources and intense polarized CW electron beams for nuclear and high energy physics facilities.

  12. A GaAs pixel detectors-based digital mammographic system: Performances and imaging tests results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annovazzi, A.; Amendolia, S. R.; Bigongiari, A.; Bisogni, M. G.; Catarsi, F.; Cesqui, F.; Cetronio, A.; Colombo, F.; Delogu, P.; Fantacci, M. E.; Gilberti, A.; Lanzieri, C.; Lavagna, S.; Novelli, M.; Passuello, G.; Paternoster, G.; Pieracci, M.; Poletti, M.; Quattrocchi, M.; Rosso, V.; Stefanini, A.; Testa, A.; Venturelli, L.

    2007-06-01

    The prototype presented in this paper is based on GaAs pixel detectors read-out by the PCC/MEDIPIX I circuit. The active area of a sensor is about 1 cm 2 therefore to cover the typical irradiation field used in mammography (18×24 cm 2), 18 GaAs detection units have been organized in two staggered rows of nine chips each and moved by a stepper motor in the orthogonal direction. The system is integrated in a mammographic equipment which comprehends the X-ray tube, the bias and data acquisition systems and the PC-based control system. The prototype has been developed in the framework of the Integrated Mammographic Imaging (IMI) project, an industrial research activity aiming to develop innovative instrumentation for morphologic and functional imaging. The project has been supported by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) and by five Italian High Tech companies, Alenia Marconi Systems (AMS), CAEN, Gilardoni, LABEN and Poli.Hi.Tech., in collaboration with the universities of Ferrara, Roma "La Sapienza", Pisa and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). In this paper, we report on the electrical characterization and the first imaging test results of the digital mammographic system. To assess the imaging capability of such a detector we have built a phantom, which simulates the breast tissue with malignancies. The radiographs of the phantom, obtained by delivering an entrance dose of 4.8 mGy, have shown particulars with a measured contrast below 1%.

  13. Formation of self-assembled Ga-rich droplet chains on GaAs (100) patterned by focused ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukourinkova, Sabina D.; Benamara, Mourad; Ware, Morgan E.; Wang, Zhiming M.; Salamo, Gregory J.

    2016-09-01

    Controlled positioning and ordering of uniform self-assembled droplets on a patterned GaAs (100) substrate is demonstrated using a Ga+ focused ion beam. The arrangement of the droplets into an array of droplet chains is induced by changes in the surface morphology during irradiation as a function of sputtering time. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy reveals that the droplets are Ga-rich. The patterned surface may be of interest for plasmonic studies and may find application as a template for site-specific epitaxial growth of unstrained quantum dot chains utilizing local droplet etching and droplet epitaxy techniques.

  14. Radiation effects at cryogenic temperatures in Si-JEFT, GaAs MESFET, and MOSFET devices

    SciTech Connect

    Citterio, M.; Rescia, S.; Radeka, V.

    1995-12-01

    Front-end electronics for liquid ionization chamber calorimetry at hadron collider experiments may be exposed to substantial levels of ionizing radiation and neutron fluences in a cryogenic environment. Measurements of devices built with rad-hard technologies have shown that devices able to operate in these conditions exist. Several families of devices (Si-JFET`s, rad-hard MOSFET`s, and GaAs MESFET`s) have been irradiated and tested at a stable cryogenic temperature up to doses of 55 Mrad of ionizing radiation and up to neutron fluences of 4 {times} 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}. Radiation effects on dc characteristics and on noise will be presented.

  15. Spectroscopy of GaAs quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    West, L.C.

    1985-07-01

    A new type of optical dipole transition in GaAs quantum wells has been observed. The dipole occurs between two envelope states of the conduction band electron wavefunction, and is called a quantum well envelope state transition (QWEST). The QWEST is observed by infrared absorption in three different samples with quantum well thicknesses 65, 82, and 92 A and resonant energies of 152, 121, and 108 MeV, respectively. The oscillator strength is found to have values of over 12, in good agreement with prediction. The linewidths are seen as narrow as 10 MeV at room temperature and 7 MeV at low temperature, thus proving a narrow line resonance can indeed occur between transitions of free electrons. Techniques for the proper growth of these quantum well samples to enable observation of the QWEST have also been found using (AlGa)As compounds. This QWEST is considered to be an ideal material for an all optical digital computer. The QWEST can be made frequency matched to the inexpensive Carbon Dioxide laser with an infrared wavelength of 10 microns. The nonlinearity and fast relaxation time of the QWEST indicate a logic element with a subpicosecond switch time can be built in the near future, with a power level which will eventually be limited only by the noise from a lack of quanta to above approximately 10 microwatts. 64 refs., 35 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Terahertz pulse detection by the GaAs Schottky diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laperashvili, Tina; Kvitsiani, Orest; Imerlishvili, Ilia; Laperashvili, David

    2010-06-01

    We present the results of experimental studies of physical properties of the detection process of GaAs Schottky diodes for terahertz frequency radiation. The development of technology in the THz frequency band has a rapid progress recently. Considered as an extension of the microwave and millimeter wave bands, the THz frequency offers greater communication bandwidth than is available at microwave frequencies. The Schottky barrier contact has an important role in the operation of many GaAs devices. GaAs Schottky diodes have been the primary nonlinear device used in millimeter and sub millimeter wave detectors and receivers. GaAs Schottky diodes are especially interesting due to their high mobility transport characteristics, which allows for a large reduction of the resistance-capacitance (RC) time constant and thermal noise. In This work are investigated the electrical and photoelectric properties of GaAs Schottky diodes. Samples were obtained by deposition of different metals (Au, Ni, Pt, Pd, Fe, In, Ga, Al) on semiconductor. For fabrication metal-semiconductor (MS) structures is used original method of metal electrodepositing. In this method electrochemical etching of semiconductor surface occurs just before deposition of metal from the solution, which contains etching material and metal ions together. For that, semiconductor surface cleaning processes and metal deposition carries out in the same technological process. In the experiments as the electrolyte was used aqueous solution of chlorides. Metal deposition was carried out at room temperature.

  17. Nondestructive tribochemistry-assisted nanofabrication on GaAs surface

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chenfei; Li, Xiaoying; Dong, Hanshan; Yu, Bingjun; Wang, Zhiming; Qian, Linmao

    2015-01-01

    A tribochemistry-assisted method has been developed for nondestructive surface nanofabrication on GaAs. Without any applied electric field and post etching, hollow nanostructures can be directly fabricated on GaAs surfaces by sliding a SiO2 microsphere under an ultralow contact pressure in humid air. TEM observation on the cross-section of the fabricated area shows that there is no appreciable plastic deformation under a 4 nm groove, confirming that GaAs can be removed without destruction. Further analysis suggests that the fabrication relies on the tribochemistry with the participation of vapor in humid air. It is proposed that the formation and breakage of GaAs-O-Si bonding bridges are responsible for the removal of GaAs material during the sliding process. As a nondestructive and conductivity-independent method, it will open up new opportunities to fabricate defect-free and well-ordered nucleation positions for quantum dots on GaAs surfaces. PMID:25761910

  18. Low power laser irradiation does not affect the generation of signals in a sensory receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Lundeberg, T.; Zhou, J.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of low power Helium-Neon (He-Ne) and Gallium-Arsenide (Ga-As) laser on the slowly adapting crustacean stretch receptor was studied. The results showed that low power laser irradiation did not affect the membrane potential of the stretch receptor. These results are discussed in relation to the use of low power laser irradiation on the skin overlaying acupuncture points in treatment of pain syndrome.

  19. Plasma Deposited SiO2 for Planar Self-Aligned Gate Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors on Semi-Insulating InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabory, Charles N.; Young, Paul G.; Smith, Edwyn D.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    1994-01-01

    Metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) field effect transistors were fabricated on InP substrates using a planar self-aligned gate process. A 700-1000 A gate insulator of Si02 doped with phosphorus was deposited by a direct plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 400 mTorr, 275 C, 5 W, and power density of 8.5 MW/sq cm. High frequency capacitance-voltage measurements were taken on MIS capacitors which have been subjected to a 700 C anneal and an interface state density of lxl0(exp 11)/eV/cq cm was found. Current-voltage measurements of the capacitors show a breakdown voltage of 107 V/cm and a insulator resistivity of 10(exp 14) omega cm. Transistors were fabricated on semi-insulating InP using a standard planar self-aligned gate process in which the gate insulator was subjected to an ion implantation activation anneal of 700 C. MIS field effect transistors gave a maximum extrinsic transconductance of 23 mS/mm for a gate length of 3 microns. The drain current drift saturated at 87.5% of the initial current, while reaching to within 1% of the saturated value after only 1x10(exp 3). This is the first reported viable planar InP self-aligned gate transistor process reported to date.

  20. Atomic hydrogen cleaning of GaAS Photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    M. Poelker; J. Price; C. Sinclair

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that surface contaminants on semiconductors can be removed when samples are exposed to atomic hydrogen. Atomic H reacts with oxides and carbides on the surface, forming compounds that are liberated and subsequently pumped away. Experiments at Jefferson lab with bulk GaAs in a low-voltage ultra-high vacuum H cleaning chamber have resulted in the production of photocathodes with high photoelectron yield (i.e., quantum efficiency) and long lifetime. A small, portable H cleaning apparatus also has been constructed to successfully clean GaAs samples that are later removed from the vacuum apparatus, transported through air and installed in a high-voltage laser-driven spin-polarized electron source. These results indicate that this method is a versatile and robust alternative to conventional wet chemical etching procedures usually employed to clean bulk GaAs.

  1. Humidity effects on tribochemical removal of GaAs surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bingjun; Gao, Jian; Jin, Chenning; Xiao, Chen; Wu, Jiang; Liu, Huiyun; Jiang, Shulan; Chen, Lei; Qian, Linmao

    2016-06-01

    Defect-free tribochemical removal of gallium arsenide (GaAs) was demonstrated in vacuum, dry air, and various humidity environments by scratching with a SiO2 tip. The removal depth increases with increasing relative humidity (1-90%), and reaches its maximum value in water. A perfect crystal matrix without defects was observed in the cross section of the scratched groove using a transmission electron microscope. A model based on reactive tip scratching-induced oxidation, water solubility of debris, and adhesion effect was proposed to interpret tribochemical removal of GaAs surface. This study provides new insights into defect-free and site-controlled nanofabrication of GaAs.

  2. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1985-01-01

    The present program has been aimed at solving the fundamental and technological problems associated with Crystal Growth of Device Quality in Space. The initial stage of the program was devoted strictly to ground-based research. The unsolved problems associated with the growth of bulk GaAs in the presence of gravitational forces were explored. Reliable chemical, structural and electronic characterization methods were developed which would permit the direct relation of the salient materials parameters (particularly those affected by zero gravity conditions) to the electronic characteristics of single crystal GaAs, in turn to device performance. These relationships are essential for the development of optimum approaches and techniques. It was concluded that the findings on elemental semiconductors Ge and Si regarding crystal growth, segregation, chemical composition, defect interactions, and materials properties-electronic properties relationships are not necessarily applicable to GaAs (and to other semiconductor compounds). In many instances totally unexpected relationships were found to prevail.

  3. A GaAs phononic crystal with shallow noncylindrical holes.

    PubMed

    Petrus, Joseph A; Mathew, Reuble; Stotz, James A H

    2014-02-01

    A square lattice of shallow, noncylindrical holes in GaAs is shown to act as a phononic crystal (PnC) reflector. The holes are produced by wet-etching a GaAs substrate using a citric acid:H2O2 etching procedure and a photolithographed array pattern. Although nonuniform and asymmetric etch rates limit the depth and shape of the phononic crystal holes, the matrix acts as a PnC, as demonstrated by insertion loss measurements together with interferometric imaging of surface acoustic waves propagating on the GaAs surface. The measured vertical displacement induced by surface phonons compares favorably with finite-difference time-domain simulations of a PnC with rounded-square holes.

  4. High efficiency thin-film GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwerdling, S.; Wang, K. L.; Yeh, Y. C. M.

    1981-01-01

    The paper demonstrates the feasibility of producing high-efficiency GaAs solar cells with high power-to-weight ratios by organic metallic chemical vapor deposition (OM-CVD) growth of thin epi-layers on suitable substrates. An AM1 conversion efficiency of 18% (14% AM0), or 17% (13% AM0) with a 5% grid coverage is achieved for a single-crystal GaAs n(+)/p cell grown by OM-CVD on a Ge wafer. Thin GaAs epi-layers OM-CVD grown can be fabricated with good crystallographic quality using a Si-substrate on which a thin Ge epi-interlayer is first deposited by CVD from GeH4 and processed for improved surface morphology

  5. Interface demarcation in GaAs by current pulsing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthiesen, D. H.; Kafalas, J. A.; Duchene, G. A.; Bellows, A. H.

    1990-01-01

    GTE Laboratories is currently conducting a program to investigate the effect of convection in the melt on the properties of bulk grown gallium arsenide (GaAs). In addition to extensive ground based experimentation, a Get Away Special growth system has been developed to grow two GaAs crystals aboard the Space Shuttle, each with a one inch diameter. In order to perform a complete segregation analysis of the crystals grown in space, it is necessary to measure the interface shape and growth rate as well as the spatial distribution of the selenium dopant. The techniques for interface demarcation in selenium doped GaAs by current pulsing have been developed at GTE Laboratories and successful interface demarcation has been achieved for current pulses ranging from 20 to 90 amps, in both single crystal and polycrystalline regions.

  6. Microwave GaAs Integrated Circuits On Quartz Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Peter H.; Mehdi, Imran; Wilson, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    Integrated circuits for use in detecting electromagnetic radiation at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths constructed by bonding GaAs-based integrated circuits onto quartz-substrate-based stripline circuits. Approach offers combined advantages of high-speed semiconductor active devices made only on epitaxially deposited GaAs substrates with low-dielectric-loss, mechanically rugged quartz substrates. Other potential applications include integration of antenna elements with active devices, using carrier substrates other than quartz to meet particular requirements using lifted-off GaAs layer in membrane configuration with quartz substrate supporting edges only, and using lift-off technique to fabricate ultrathin discrete devices diced separately and inserted into predefined larger circuits. In different device concept, quartz substrate utilized as transparent support for GaAs devices excited from back side by optical radiation.

  7. High efficiency thin-film GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Several oxidation techniques are discussed which have been found to increase the open circuit (V sub oc) of metal-GaAs Schottky barrier solar cells, the oxide chemistry, attempts to measure surface state parameters, the evolving characteristics of the solar cell as background contamination (has been decreased, but not eliminated), results of focused Nd/YAG laser beam recrystallization of Ge films evaporated onto tungsten, and studies of AMOS solar cells fabricated on sliced polycrystalline GaAs wafers. Also discussed are projected materials availability and costs for GaAs thin-film solar cells.

  8. MBE Growth of GaAs Whiskers on Si Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell Andrews, Aaron

    2010-01-04

    We present the growth of GaAs nanowhiskers by molecular beam epitaxy on Si (111) nanowires grown by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition. The whiskers grow in the wurtzite phase, along the [0001] direction, on the {l_brace}112{r_brace} facets of the Si nanowire, forming a star-like six-fold radial symmetry. The photoluminescence shows a 30 meV blue shift with respect to bulk GaAs, additionally a GaAs/AlAs core-shell heterostructure shows increased luminescence.

  9. Simple intrinsic defects in GaAs : numerical supplement.

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2012-04-01

    This Report presents numerical tables summarizing properties of intrinsic defects in gallium arsenide, GaAs, as computed by density functional theory. This Report serves as a numerical supplement to the results published in: P.A. Schultz and O.A. von Lilienfeld, 'Simple intrinsic defects in GaAs', Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci Eng., Vol. 17, 084007 (2009), and intended for use as reference tables for a defect physics package in device models. The numerical results for density functional theory calculations of properties of simple intrinsic defects in gallium arsenide are presented.

  10. ICP etching of GaAs via hole contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Shul, R.J.; Baca, A.G.; Briggs, R.D.; McClellan, G.B.; Pearton, S.J.; Constantine, C.

    1996-09-01

    Deep etching of GaAs is a critical process step required for many device applications including fabrication of through-substrate via holes for monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs). Use of high-density plasmas, including inductively coupled plasmas (ICP), offers an alternative approach to etching vias as compared to more conventional parallel plate reactive ion etch systems. This paper reports ICP etching of GaAs vias at etch rates of about 5.3 {mu}m/min with via profiles ranging from highly anistropic to conical.

  11. Defect interactions in GaAs single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1984-01-01

    The two-sublattice structural configuration of GaAs and deviations from stoichiometry render the generation and interaction of electrically active point defects (and point defect complexes) critically important for device applications and very complex. Of the defect-induced energy levels, those lying deep into the energy band are very effective lifetime ""killers". The level 0.82 eV below the condition band, commonly referred to as EL2, is a major deep level, particularly in melt-grown GaAs. This level is associated with an antisite defect complex (AsGa - VAS). Possible mechanisms of its formation and its annihilation were further developed.

  12. Nuclear spin warm up in bulk n -GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotur, M.; Dzhioev, R. I.; Vladimirova, M.; Jouault, B.; Korenev, V. L.; Kavokin, K. V.

    2016-08-01

    We show that the spin-lattice relaxation in n -type insulating GaAs is dramatically accelerated at low magnetic fields. The origin of this effect, which cannot be explained in terms of well-known diffusion-limited hyperfine relaxation, is found in the quadrupole relaxation, induced by fluctuating donor charges. Therefore, quadrupole relaxation, which governs low field nuclear spin relaxation in semiconductor quantum dots, but was so far supposed to be harmless to bulk nuclei spins in the absence of optical pumping, can be studied and harnessed in the much simpler model environment of n -GaAs bulk crystal.

  13. Crystal growth of GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.; Pawlowicz, L. M.; Dabkowski, F.; Li, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that stoichiometry variations in the GaAs melt during growth constitute the most critical parameter regarding defect formations and their interactions; this defect structure determines all relevant characteristics of GaAs. Convection in the melt leads to stoichiometric variations. Growth in axial magnetic fields reduces convection and permits the study of defect structure. In order to control stoichiometry in space and to accommodate expansion during solidification, a partially confined configuration was developed. A triangular prism is employed to contain the growth melt. This configuration permits the presence of the desired vapor phase in contact with the melt for controlling the melt stoichiometry.

  14. Electronic contribution to friction on GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Applied Science and Technology Graduate Group, UC Berkeley; Dept. of Materials Sciences and Engineering, UC Berkeley; Salmeron, Miquel; Qi, Yabing; Park, J.Y.; Hendriksen, B.L.M.; Ogletree, D.F.; Salmeron, Miquel

    2008-04-15

    The electronic contribution to friction at semiconductor surfaces was investigated by using a Pt-coated tip with 50nm radius in an atomic force microscope sliding against an n-type GaAs(100) substrate. The GaAs surface was covered by an approximately 1 nm thick oxide layer. Charge accumulation or depletion was induced by the application of forward or reverse bias voltages. We observed a substantial increase in friction force in accumulation (forward bias) with respect to depletion (reverse bias). We propose a model based on the force exerted by the trapped charges that quantitatively explains the experimental observations of excess friction.

  15. Epitaxial EuO thin films on GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, A. G.; Ciraldo, J.; Wong, J. J. I.; Li Yan; Han Wei; Lin Tao; Shi, J.; Kawakami, R. K.; Mack, S.; Awschalom, D. D.

    2010-09-13

    We demonstrate the epitaxial growth of EuO on GaAs by reactive molecular beam epitaxy. Thin films are grown in an adsorption-controlled regime with the aid of an MgO diffusion barrier. Despite the large lattice mismatch, it is shown that EuO grows well on MgO(001) with excellent magnetic properties. Epitaxy on GaAs is cube-on-cube and longitudinal magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements demonstrate a large Kerr rotation of 0.57 deg., a significant remanent magnetization, and a Curie temperature of 69 K.

  16. Peeled film GaAs solar cells for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, D. M.; Deangelo, F. L.; Thomas, R. D.; Bailey, S. G.; Landis, G. A.; Brinker, D. J.; Fatemi, N. S.

    1990-01-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) peeled film solar cells were fabricated, by Organo-Metallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (OMVPE), incorporating an aluminum arsenide (AlAs) parting layer between the device structure and the GaAs substrate. This layer was selectively removed by etching in dilute hydrofloric (HF) acid to release the epitaxial film. Test devices exhibit high series resistance due to insufficient back contact area. A new design is presented which uses a coverglass superstrate for structural support and incorporates a coplanar back contact design. Devices based on this design should have a specific power approaching 700 W/Kg.

  17. High gain single GaAs nanowire photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao

    2013-08-01

    An undoped single GaAs nanowire (NW) photodetector based on a metal-semiconductor-metal Schottky diode structure is fabricated by a focused ion beam method. The photoconductive gain of the device reaches 20 000 at low laser excitation. Bias-dependence of gain proves that the surface contributes more to the gain at higher bias because of an increased surface charge region. The spectral response demonstrates not only the band-edge absorption profile of the single GaAs NW, but also the existence of leaky-mode resonance.

  18. Surface structure of GaAs with adsorbed Te

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, R. D.; Austin, R. F.

    1986-10-01

    The surface structures that result from the adsorption of Te on (100) GaAs have been shown to affect the orientation of CdTe films on GaAs. Two structures are described here. A low-temperature (6×1) surface leads to (100) film growth. At 580 °C, a new surface results which is characterized by ordering along directions 60° from [011¯] and [01¯1], and leads to (111) growth of CdTe. Both surface structure and the interaction of the group II element with the surface are believed to be important in determining the orientation of the film.

  19. Raman scattering study of (GaAs)1-x(Si2)x alloys epitaxially grown on GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, A. G.; Navarro-Contreras, H.; Vidal, M. A.

    2001-11-01

    (GaAs)1-x(Si2)x metastable alloys grown on (001), (110), (112), and (111) GaAs substrates, with Si fractions in the range 0⩽x⩽0.43, were studied by Raman scattering. Two modes near the LO and TO modes of GaAs, besides two local modes associated either with Si-As or Si-Ga and Si-Si bonds, are observed in the Raman spectra. The ratio of integrated intensities of TO-like and LO-like modes (ITO/ILO) is used to evaluate the short range order. It is observed that the zinc blende to diamond transition reported in the literature for these alloys does not influence the Si fraction dependence of the short range order.

  20. Inversion-mode GaAs wave-shaped field-effect transistor on GaAs (100) substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jingyun; Si, Mengwei; Wu, Heng; Ye, Peide D.; Lou, Xiabing; Gordon, Roy G.; Shao, Jiayi; Manfra, Michael J.

    2015-02-16

    Inversion-mode GaAs wave-shaped metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (WaveFETs) are demonstrated using atomic-layer epitaxy of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} as gate dielectric on (111)A nano-facets formed on a GaAs (100) substrate. The wave-shaped nano-facets, which are desirable for the device on-state and off-state performance, are realized by lithographic patterning and anisotropic wet etching with optimized geometry. A well-behaved 1 μm gate length GaAs WaveFET shows a maximum drain current of 64 mA/mm, a subthreshold swing of 135 mV/dec, and an I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF} ratio of greater than 10{sup 7}.

  1. Structure of high-index GaAs surfaces - the discovery of the stable GaAs(2511) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, K.; Geelhaar, L.; Márquez, J.

    We present a brief overview of surface structures of high-index GaAs surfaces, putting emphasis on recent progress in our own laboratory. By adapting a commercial scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to our molecular beam epitaxy and ultra high vacuum analysis chamber system, we have been able to atomically resolve the GaAs( {1} {1} {3})B(8 ×1), (114)Aα2(2×1), (137), (3715), and (2511) surface structures. In cooperation with P. Kratzer and M. Scheffler from the Theory Department of the Fritz-Haber Institute we determined the structure of some of these surfaces by comparing total-energy calculations and STM image simulations with the atomically resolved STM images. We present the results for the {112}, {113}, and {114} surfaces. Then we describe what led us to proceed into the inner parts of the stereographic triangle and to discover the hitherto unknown stable GaAs(2511) surface.

  2. GaAs on Si as a substrate for microwave and millimeter-wave monolithic integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksun, M. I.; Morkoc, H.

    1988-01-01

    The effective dielectric constant, characteristic impedance, and dielectric loss of a shielded microstrip line manufactured on namely GaAs, Si, and GaAs/Si are calculated. Dielectric loss versus frequency for the GaAs and Si substrates are shown. The same parameters for GaAs/Si substrate were plotted for two different resistivities of the GaAs overlay material, and for each of three different GaAs overlayer thicknesses. The measurements covered the 10-100-GHz frequency range. Depending on the thickness, results show that high-resistivity GaAs epitaxial layers on Si substrates having moderate resistivities reduce the dielectric loss.

  3. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) island growth under SiO(2) nanodisks patterned on GaAs substrates.

    PubMed

    Tjahjana, Liliana; Wang, Benzhong; Tanoto, Hendrix; Chua, Soo-Jin; Yoon, Soon Fatt

    2010-05-14

    We report a growth phenomenon where uniform gallium arsenide (GaAs) islands were found to grow underneath an ordered array of SiO(2) nanodisks on a GaAs(100) substrate. Each island eventually grows into a pyramidal shape resulting in the toppling of the supported SiO(2) nanodisk. This phenomenon occurred consistently for each nanodisk across a large patterned area of approximately 50 x 50 microm(2) (with nanodisks of 210 nm diameter and 280 nm spacing). The growth mechanism is attributed to a combination of 'catalytic' growth and facet formation.

  4. Present status of GaAs. [including space processing and solid state applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.; Jastrzebski, L.

    1979-01-01

    An extensive literature survey on GaAs was carried out for the period December 31, 1970, to December 31, 1977. The increasing interest in GaAs device structures increased steadily during that period. The leading research and development centers and the specific areas of interest were identified. A workshop on GaAs was held in November 1977 to assess the present status of melt-grown GaAs and the existing needs for reliable chemical, structural, and electronic characterization methods. It was concluded that the present available bulk GaAs crystals are of poor quality and that GaAs technology is lagging demonstrated or potentially feasible GaAs devices and systems.

  5. Effects of 915 nm GaAs diode laser on mitochondria of human dermal fibroblasts: analysis with confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Belletti, Silvana; Uggeri, Jacopo; Mergoni, Giovanni; Vescovi, Paolo; Merigo, Elisabetta; Fornaini, Carlo; Nammour, Samir; Manfredi, Maddalena; Gatti, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is widely used in tissue regeneration and pain therapy. Mitochondria are supposed to be one of the main cellular targets, due to the presence of cytochrome C oxidase as photo-acceptor. Laser stimulation could influence mitochondria metabolism affecting mainly transmembrane mitochondrial potential (Δψm). The aim of our study is to evaluate "in vitro" the early mitochondrial response after irradiation with a 915 GaAs laser. Since some evidences suggest that cellular response to LLLT can be differently modulated by the mode of irradiation, we would like to evaluate whether there are changes in the mitochondrial potential linked to the use of the laser treatments applied with continuous wave (CW) in respect to those applied with pulsed wave (PW). In this study, we analyzed effects of irradiation with a 915-nm GaAs diode laser on human dermal fibroblast. We compared effects of irradiation applied with either CW or PW at different fluences 45-15-5 J/cm(2) on Δψm. Laser scanning microscopy (LSM) was used in living cells to detect ROS (reactive oxygen species) using calcein AM and real-time changes of and Δψm following distribution of the potentiometric probe tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM). At higher doses (45-15 J/cm(2)), fibroblasts showed a dose-dependent decrement of Δψm in either the modalities employed, with higher amplitudes in CW-treated cells. This behavior is transient and not followed by any sign of toxicity, even if reactive oxygen species generation was observed. At 5 J/cm(2), CW irradiation determined a little decrease (5%) of the baseline level of Δψm, while opposite behavior was shown when cells were irradiated with PW, with a 10% increment. Our results suggest that different responses observed at cellular level with low doses of irradiation, could be at the basis of efficacy of LLLT in clinical application, performed with PW rather than CW modalities.

  6. Effects of incident short wavelength (UV) light on the morphology of MBE grown GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaton, Daniel A.; Sanders, Charlotte; Alberi, Kirstin

    2014-03-01

    The exploration of novel semiconductor materials increasingly relies on growth techniques that operate far from equilibrium in order to overcome thermodynamic limitations to synthesis. As one example, low temperature molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) offers a pathway to enhance substitutional dopant incorporation over surface segregation but adatom mobility suffers as a consequence and leads to higher concentrations of lattice defects. We explore the use of external stimuli, namely incident UV light, as a means to influence adatom kinetics; UV light is absorbed in the first few atomic layers of the as-growing epitaxial film and the effects of the incident radiation predominantly effect only the surface adatoms. GaAs homoepitaxy by MBE is studied as a model case as a function of illumination conditions under broadband Xe and KrF excimer laser irradiation. In-situ reflective high energy electron diffraction analysis paired with ex-situ atomic force microscopy measurements yields insight into the effects of photon irradiation on surface adatom mobility, morphology and smoothing processes. This work was supported by the DOE Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences under contract DE-AC36-08GO28308.

  7. GaAs Photovoltaics on Polycrystalline Ge Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, David M.; Pal, AnnaMaria T.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.; Wolford, David S.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Smith, Mark A.; Scheiman, David; Jenkins, Phillip P.; McElroy Bruce

    2007-01-01

    High efficiency III-V multijunction solar cells deposited on metal foil or even polymer substrates can provide tremendous advantages in mass and stowage, particularly for planetary missions. As a first step towards that goal, poly-crystalline p/i/n GaAs solar cells are under development on polycrystalline Ge substrates. Organo Metallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (OMVPE) parameters for pre-growth bake, nucleation and deposition have been examined. Single junction p/i/n GaAs photovoltaic devices, incorporating InGaP front and back window layers, have been grown and processed. Device performance has shown a dependence upon the thickness of a GaAs buffer layer deposited between the Ge substrate and the active device structure. A thick (2 m) GaAs buffer provides for both increased average device performance as well as reduced sensitivity to variations in grain size and orientation. Illumination under IR light (lambda > 1 micron), the cells showed a Voc, demonstrating the presence of an unintended photoactive junction at the GaAs/Ge interface. The presence of this junction limited the efficiency to approx.13% (estimated with an anti-refection coating) due to the current mismatch and lack of tunnel junction interconnect.

  8. Advances in GaAs bistable optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, J. L.; Tarng, S. S.; Gibbs, H. M.; Tai, K.; Weinberger, D. A.; Gossard, A. C.; McCall, S. L.; Passner, A.; Venkatesan, T. N. C.; Weigmann, W.

    1984-01-01

    Bistable optical devices (BOD's) using GaAs as the nonlinear medium are viable candidators for the achievement of fast ( ns), room temperature, low-power (mw), externally controllable optical switches which are easily fabricated and operated. Advances were made in all of these areas and efforts are in progress to improve performances in ways that are simultaneously compatible.

  9. The 20 GHz power GaAs FET development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandell, M.

    1986-01-01

    The development of power Field Effect Transistors (FET) operating in the 20 GHz frequency band is described. The major efforts include GaAs FET device development (both 1 W and 2 W devices), and the development of an amplifier module using these devices.

  10. ZnSe Films in GaAs Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kachare, Ram H.

    1987-01-01

    ZnSe increases efficiency and conserves material. Two proposed uses of zinc selenide films promise to boost performance and reduce cost of gallium arsenide solar cells. Accordingly ZnSe serves as surface-passivation layer and as sacrificial layer enabling repeated use of costly GaAs substrate in fabrication.

  11. Processing and characterization of epitaxial GaAs radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Peltola, T.; Arsenovich, T.; Gädda, A.; Härkönen, J.; Junkes, A.; Karadzhinova, A.; Kostamo, P.; Lipsanen, H.; Luukka, P.; Mattila, M.; Nenonen, S.; Riekkinen, T.; Tuominen, E.; Winkler, A.

    2015-10-01

    GaAs devices have relatively high atomic numbers (Z=31, 33) and thus extend the X-ray absorption edge beyond that of Si (Z=14) devices. In this study, radiation detectors were processed on GaAs substrates with 110 - 130 μm thick epitaxial absorption volume. Thick undoped and heavily doped p+ epitaxial layers were grown using a custom-made horizontal Chloride Vapor Phase Epitaxy (CVPE) reactor, the growth rate of which was about 10 μm / h. The GaAs p+/i/n+ detectors were characterized by Capacitance Voltage (CV), Current Voltage (IV), Transient Current Technique (TCT) and Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements. The full depletion voltage (Vfd) of the detectors with 110 μm epi-layer thickness is in the range of 8-15 V and the leakage current density is about 10 nA/cm2. The signal transit time determined by TCT is about 5 ns when the bias voltage is well above the value that produces the peak saturation drift velocity of electrons in GaAs at a given thickness. Numerical simulations with an appropriate defect model agree with the experimental results.

  12. High purity, low dislocation GaAs single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, R. T.; Holmes, D. E.; Kirkpatrick, C. G.

    1983-01-01

    Liquid encapsulated Czochralski crystal growth techniques for producing undoped, high resistivity, low dislocation material suitable for device applications is described. Technique development resulted in reduction of dislocation densities in 3 inch GaAs crystals. Control over the melt stoichiometry was determined to be of critical importance for the reduction of twinning and polycrystallinity during growth.

  13. Quantum interference control of electrical currents in GaAs microstructures: physics and spectroscopic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternemann, E.; Jostmeier, T.; Ruppert, C.; Thunich, S.; Duc, H. T.; Podzimski, R.; Meier, T.; Betz, M.

    2016-02-01

    We present a comprehensive study of coherently controlled charge currents in electrically contacted GaAs microdevices. Currents are generated all-optically by phase-related femtosecond ω /2ω pulse pairs and are often linked to the third-order optical nonlinearity χ ^{(3)}(0;ω ,ω ,-2ω ). Here, we first focus on elevated irradiances where absorption saturation and ultimately the onset of Rabi oscillations contribute to the optical response. In particular, we identify clear departures of the injected current from the χ ^{(3)}-expectation {d}J/{d}t ∝ E_ω ^2 E_{2ω }. Theoretical simulations for the coherently controlled current based on the semiconductor Bloch equations agree well with the experimental trends. We then move on to investigate spectroscopic applications of the quantum interference control technique. In particular, we implement a versatile scheme to analyze the phase structure of femtosecond pulses. It relies on phase-sensitive χ ^{(3)}-current injection driven by two time-delayed portions of the ω/2ω pulse pair. Most strikingly, the group velocity dispersions of both the ω and 2ω components can be unambiguously determined from a simple Fourier transform of the resulting current interferogram. Finally, we aim to use femtosecond ω /2ω pulse pairs to demonstrate a theoretically proposed scheme for all-optical current detection in thin GaAs membranes. However, we find the signal to be superimposed by second harmonic generation related to the electric field inducing the current. As a result, the currents' signature cannot be unambiguously identified.

  14. Comparison of semi-insulating InAlAs and InP:Fe for InP-based buried-heterostructure QCLs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Y. V.; Aleksandrova, A.; Elagin, M.; Kischkat, J.; Kurlov, S. S.; Monastyrskyi, G.; Hellemann, J.; Golovynskyi, S. L.; Dacenko, O. I.; Kondratenko, S. V.; Tarasov, G. G.; Semtsiv, M. P.; Masselink, W. T.

    2015-09-01

    In a previous work [Flores et al., J. Cryst. Growth 398 (2014) 40] [3] we demonstrated the advantages of using a thin InAlAs spacer layer in the fabrication of buried-heterostructure quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs), as it improves the morphology of the interface between the laser core and the InP:Fe lateral cladding. In this paper we investigate aspects of InAlAs, which are relevant for its role as insulating lateral cladding of the laser sidewalls: carrier traps, electrical resistivity, and functionality as a sole lateral cladding. We find that a thin InAlAs spacer layer not only improves the regrowth interface morphology, but also eliminates interface-related shallow electronic states, thus improving the electrical resistivity of the interface. We further find that bulk InAlAs grown by gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy as well as InP:Fe are semi-insulating at room temperature, with specific resistivities of 3 ×107 Ω cm and 2 ×108 Ω cm, respectively. Both materials have also a high thermal activation energy for electrical conductivity (0.79 eV and 0.68 eV, respectively). In order to compare the performance of InP:Fe and InAlAs as a lateral cladding, lasers were fabricated from the same QCL wafer with differing stripe insulation materials. The resulting lasers differ mainly by the lateral insulation material: SiO2, InP:Fe (with InAlAs spacer), and pure InAlAs. All devices show a similar performance and similar temperature dependence, indicating insulating properties of InAlAs adequate for application in lateral regrowth of buried-heterostructure QCLs.

  15. Towards semi-insulating InGaAsP/InP layers by post-growth processing using Fe ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekecs, André; Chicoine, Martin; Ilahi, Bouraoui; Schiettekatte, François; Charette, Paul G.; Arès, Richard

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we report on an effective post-growth processing technique for developing semi-insulating (SI) photonic thin films absorbing in 1.3 µm. For that purpose, we examined a 1 µm thick unintentionally n-doped In0.72Ga0.28As0.61P0.39 epilayer (0.95 eV bandgap) modified by multiple-energy MeV Fe ion implantation. Fe was chosen as a deep-level impurity. The ion beam processing was performed at room temperature, followed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 800 °C for 15 s. We investigated the impact of ion fluence on electrical properties by Hall effect measurements. Channelling Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements were carried out to evaluate crystal quality after each fabrication step. Beyond the onset of amorphization, when the total Fe fluence was more than 4.8 × 1013 cm-2, the implanted InGaAsP layer showed evidence of a poor recrystallization after RTA, and its isolation was impaired. Maximum resistivity values were achieved below the onset of amorphization where annealing reduced ion de-channelling and recovered damage-induced strain. With a total Fe fluence of 1.6 × 1013 cm-2, the electrical resistivity and Hall mobility reached values of 1.4 × 104 Ω cm and 4 × 102 cm2 V-1 s-1. These results add important insights on the optimization of this process for the development of InP-based SI photoconductive films.

  16. LPE growth of GaAs1-xSbx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendvay, E.; Görög, T.; Tóth, A. L.

    1981-06-01

    Single and multilayer ternary GaAs1±xSb x and quaternary AlyGa 1±yAs 1±xSb x systems were grown by LPE onto (100)GaAs substrates, investigating the As-rich side of the phase diagram. The composition of solid phase was investigated by microprobe analysis. Two major observations have been made; (a) GaAs1± xSb x epitaxial layers grown by the usual LPE techniques in the solid composition range of x ≤ 0.1 and above 750°C show mirror like surfaces and practically homogeneous composition. (b) GaAs1±xSb x layers produced by LPE, cooling the system down below this temperature show the presence at least two regions; one rich in As, the other in Sb. Owing to the dislocation network originating as a consequence of the misfit, the surfaces of these layers consists of <110> aligned ridges and elements with cubic symmetry. The formation of Sb-rich (generally GaSb) layer is independent of the melt composition. Its presence was proved by microprobe analysis as well as by optical measurements. Similar observations were made on AlyGa 1± yAs 1± xSb x layers. For the quaternary the critical temperature, in agreement with previously published value, was found to be 715°C. Undoped GaAs1±xSb x layers showed p-type conduction with ϱ 10 -2 Ω cm, p = 5× 10 17-2×10 18 cm -3 and room temperature hole mobility of 260-280 cm 2 V -1 s -1.

  17. alloy lattice-matched to GaAs: a first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaoyang; Li, Dechun; Zhao, Shengzhi; Li, Guiqiu; Yang, Kejian

    2014-10-01

    First-principles calculations based on density functional theory have been performed for the quaternary GaAs1- x- y N x Bi y alloy lattice-matched to GaAs. Using the state-of-the-art computational method with the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) hybrid functional, electronic, and optical properties were obtained, including band structures, density of states (DOSs), dielectric function, absorption coefficient, refractive index, energy loss function, and reflectivity. It is found that the lattice constant of GaAs1- x- y N x Bi y alloy with y/ x =1.718 can match to GaAs. With the incorporation of N and Bi into GaAs, the band gap of GaAs1- x- y N x Bi y becomes small and remains direct. The calculated optical properties indicate that GaAs1- x- y N x Bi y has higher optical efficiency as it has less energy loss than GaAs. In addition, it is also found that the electronic and optical properties of GaAs1- x- y N x Bi y alloy can be further controlled by tuning the N and Bi compositions in this alloy. These results suggest promising applications of GaAs1- x- y N x Bi y quaternary alloys in optoelectronic devices.

  18. Spectroscopy of defects induced by ohmic contact preparation in LEC GaAs particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Castaldini, A.; Cavallini, A.; Canali, C.; Nava, F.

    1996-12-01

    Semi-insulating LEC gallium arsenide particle detectors were realized with differently manufactured ohmic contacts to improve their performances and possibly avoid injection effects often experienced when the detectors work in full depletion conditions. I-V and C-V measurements on Schottky structures were carried out. Photo-induced current transient spectroscopy and also photo-deep level transient spectroscopy investigations, performed on both planar and Schottky structures, identified electron and hole traps. Detector performances were correlated to defects action.

  19. Observation and Measurement of Temperature Rise and Distribution on GaAs Photo-cathode Wafer with a 532nm Drive Laser and a Thermal Imaging Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Shukui Zhang, Stephen Benson, Carlos Hernandez-Garcia

    2011-03-01

    Significant temperature rise and gradient are observed from a GaAs photo-cathode wafer irradiated at various power levels with over 20W laser power at 532nm wavelength. The laser power absorption and dissipated thermal distribution are measured. The result shows a clear indication that proper removal of laser induced heat from the cathode needs to be considered seriously when designing a high average current or low quantum efficiency photo-cathode electron gun. The measurement method presented here provides a useful way to obtain information about both temperature and thermal profiles, it also applies to cathode heating study with other heating devices such as electrical heaters.

  20. Evaluation of the minority carrier diffusion length and surface-recombination velocity in GaAs p/n solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakimzadeh, Roshanak; Moeller, Hans J.; Bailey, Sheila

    1991-01-01

    The minority carrier diffusion length (Lp) and the surface recombination velocity (Vs) were measured as a function of distance (x) from the p-n junction in GaAs p/n concentrator solar cells. The measured Vs values were used in a theoretical expression for the normalized electron-beam-induced current. A fitting procedure was then used to fit this expression with experimental values to obtain Lp. The results show that both Vs and Lp vary with x. Lp measured in irradiated cells showed a marked reduction. These values were compared to those measured previously which did not account for Vs.

  1. Studies of molecular-beam epitaxy growth of GaAs on porous Si substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mii, Y. J.; Kao, Y. C.; Wu, B. J.; Wang, K. L.; Lin, T. L.; Liu, J. K.

    1988-01-01

    GaAs has been grown on porous Si directly and on Si buffer layer-porous Si substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy. In the case of GaAs growth on porous Si, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the dominant defects in GaAs layers grown on porous Si are microtwins and stacking faults, which originate from the GaAs/porous Si interface. GaAs is found to penetrate into the porous Si layers. By using a thin Si buffer layer (50 nm), GaAs penetration diminishes and the density of microtwins and stacking faults is largely reduced and localized at the GaAs/Si buffer interface. However, there is a high density of threading dislocations remaining. Both Si (100) aligned and four degree tilted substrates have been examined in this study. TEM results show no observable effect of the tilted substrates on the quality of the GaAs epitaxial layer.

  2. Optical detectors for GaAs MMIC integration: Technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claspy, P. C.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1989-01-01

    Fiber optic links are being considered to transmit digital and analog signals in phased array antenna feed networks in space communications systems. The radiating elements in these arrays will be GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC's) in numbers ranging from a few hundred to several thousand. If such optical interconnects are to be practical it appears essential that the associated components, including detectors, be monolithically integrated on the same chip as the microwave circuitry. The general issue of monolithic integration of microwave and optoelectronic components is addressed from the point of view of fabrication technology and compatibility. Particular attention is given to the fabrication technology of various types of GaAs optical detectors that are designed to operate at a wavelength of 830 nm.

  3. Oxygen-enhanced wet thermal oxidation of GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauters, J. F.; Fenlon, R. E.; Seibert, C. S.; Yuan, W.; Plunkett, J. S. B.; Li, J.; Hall, D. C.

    2011-10-01

    An oxygen-enhanced wet thermal oxidation process is used to grow smooth, uniform, insulating native oxides of GaAs. At 420 °C, a maximum linear growth rate of 4.8 nm/min is observed for oxidation in water vapor with 2000 ppm O2 added relative to the N2 carrier gas, with growth ceasing by 7000 ppm. Films as thick as 800 nm with surface roughness as low as 0.2 nm are demonstrated. In fabricated metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors, a 412 nm thick native oxide film exhibits a factor of ˜2700 reduction in leakage current density at 1 V relative to a direct metal (Au:Ti) to GaAs contact.

  4. Thick sodium overlayers on GaAs(110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemann, Martina; Scheffler, Matthias

    1994-02-01

    We report density-functional theory calculations of the electronic structure, total energy, and forces for the Na adsorption on GaAs(110) using the local-density approximation of the exchange-correlation functional and ab initio pseudopotentials. Results are presented for coverages ranging from one adatom per substrate surface cell up to the thick overlayer limit. The atomic and electronic structure of the substrate is locally changed by the sodium adsorption on GaAs(110), depending on the coverage. In particular, we analyze the wave-function character of the states at the Fermi level, how it changes with sodium coverage, and we identify the formation of metal induced gap states (MIGS) at the interface. These MIGS are found to have mostly Ga dangling-bond character for all coverages. The calculated values of the p-type Schottky barrier and of the variation of photothreshold as a function of coverage are in good agreement with experimental data.

  5. Time domain optical susceptibility of intrinsic GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, M. E.; Miragliotta, J. A.; Joseph, R. I.

    2002-06-01

    Intrinsic GaAs optical constant values are well known as functions of frequency (10 000-65 000 cm-1 or 1.24-8.06 eV) and temperature (22-754 K). Room-temperature far-infrared optical constant data also exist as a function of frequency, and are representable by a classical oscillator model. In this article, the frequency-domain, temperature-dependent intrinsic dielectric function of GaAs has been Fourier transformed to obtain an analytical, closed-form representation of the time-domain susceptibility. Results from these expressions are consistent with the temporal characteristics of electronic transitions impeded by elastic scattering, which are in the femtosecond regime. The closed form nature of these expressions makes them well suited for finite difference time domain simulations of waveguides, optoelectronic devices, and microwave devices.

  6. Cryogenic measurements of aerojet GaAs n-JFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, John H.; Weber, Theodore T.

    1993-01-01

    The spectral noise characteristics of Aerojet gallium arsenide (GaAs) junction field effect transistors (JFET's) have been investigated down to liquid-helium temperatures. Noise characterization was performed with the field effect transistor (FET) in the floating-gate mode, in the grounded-gate mode to determine the lowest noise readings possible, and with an extrinsic silicon photodetector at various detector bias voltages to determine optimum operating conditions. The measurements indicate that the Aerojet GaAs JFET is a quiet and stable device at liquid helium temperatures. Hence, it can be considered a readout line driver or infrared detector preamplifier as well as a host of other cryogenic applications. Its noise performance is superior to silicon (Si) metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET's) operating at liquid helium temperatures, and is equal to the best Si n channel junction field effect transistor (n-JFET's) operating at 300 K.

  7. Testing a GaAs cathode in SRF gun

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, E.; Kewisch, J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Rao, T.; Wu, Q.; Holmes, D.

    2011-03-28

    RF electron guns with a strained superlattice GaAs cathode are expected to generate polarized electron beams of higher brightness and lower emittance than do DC guns, due to their higher field gradient at the cathode's surface and lower cathode temperature. We plan to install a bulk GaAs:Cs in a SRF gun to evaluate the performance of both the gun and the cathode in this environment. The status of this project is: In our 1.3 GHz 1/2 cell SRF gun, the vacuum can be maintained at nearly 10{sup -12} Torr because of cryo-pumping at 2K. With conventional activation of bulk GaAs, we obtained a QE of 10% at 532 nm, with lifetime of more than 3 days in the preparation chamber and have shown that it can survive in transport from the preparation chamber to the gun. The beam line has been assembled and we are exploring the best conditions for baking the cathode under vacuum. We report here the progress of our test of the GaAs cathode in the SRF gun. Future particle accelerators, such as eRHIC and the ILC require high-brightness, high-current polarized electrons. Strained superlattice GaAs:Cs has been shown to be an efficient cathode for producing polarized electrons. Activation of GaAs with Cs,O(F) lowers the electron affinity and makes it energetically possible for all the electrons, excited into the conduction band that drift or diffuse to the emission surface, to escape into the vacuum. Presently, all operating polarized electron sources, such as the CEBAF, are DC guns. In these devices, the excellent ultra-high vacuum extends the lifetime of the cathode. However, the low field gradient on the photocathode's emission surface of the DC guns limits the beam quality. The higher accelerating gradients, possible in the RF guns, generate a far better beam. Until recently, most RF guns operated at room temperature, limiting the vacuum to {approx}10{sup -9} Torr. This destroys the GaAs's NEA surface. The SRF guns combine the excellent vacuum conditions of DC guns and the high

  8. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1986-01-01

    It was established that the findings on elemental semiconductors Ge and Si regarding crystal growth, segregation, chemical composition, defect interactions, and materials properties-electronic properties relationships are not necessarily applicable to GaAs (and to other semiconductor compounds). In many instances totally unexpected relationships were found to prevail. It was further established that in compound semiconductors with a volatile constituent, control of stoichiometry is far more critical than any other crystal growth parameter. It was also shown that, due to suppression of nonstoichiometric fluctuations, the advantages of space for growth of semiconductor compounds extend far beyond those observed in elemental semiconductors. A novel configuration was discovered for partial confinement of GaAs melt in space which overcomes the two major problems associated with growth of semiconductors in total confinement. They are volume expansion during solidification and control of pressure of the volatile constituent. These problems are discussed in detail.

  9. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, Harry C.; Lagowski, Jacek

    1989-01-01

    The program on Crystal Growth of Device Quality GaAs in Space was initiated in 1977. The initial stage covering 1977 to 1984 was devoted strictly to ground-based research. By 1985 the program had evolved into its next logical stage aimed at space growth experiments; however, since the Challenger disaster, the program has been maintained as a ground-based program awaiting activation of experimentation in space. The overall prgram has produced some 80 original scientific publications on GaAs crystal growth, crystal characterization, and new approaches to space processing. Publication completed in the last three years are listed. Their key results are outlined and discussed in the twelve publications included as part of the report.

  10. Single Material Band Gap Engineering in GaAs Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Spirkoska, D.; Abstreiter, G.; Efros, A.; Conesa-Boj, S.; Morante, J. R.; Arbiol, J.; Fontcuberta i Morral, A.

    2011-12-23

    The structural and optical properties of GaAs nanowire with mixed zinc-blende/wurtzite structure are presented. High resolution transmission electron microscopy indicates the presence of a variety of shorter and longer segments of zinc-blende or wurtzite crystal phases. Sharp photoluminescence lines are observed with emission energies tuned from 1.515 eV down to 1.43 eV. The downward shift of the emission peaks can be understood by carrier confinement at the wurtzite/zinc-blende heterojunction, in quantum wells and in random short period superlattices existent in these nanowires, assuming the theoretical staggered band-offset between wurtzite and zinc-blende GaAs.

  11. GaAs solar cells for laser power beaming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Larry C.; Dunham, Glen; Huber, Daniel A.; Addis, F. William; Anheier, Norman; Coomes, E. P.

    1991-01-01

    Efforts to develop GaAs solar cells for coupling to laser beams in the wavelength range of 800 to 840 nm are described. This work was motivated primarily by interests in space-tp-space power beaming applications. In particular, the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories is conducting studies of the utilization of power beaming for several future space missions. Modeling calculations of GaAs cell performance were carried out using PC-1D to determine an appropriate design for a p/n cell structure. Epitaxial wafers were grown by MOCVD and cells fabricated at WSU Tri-Cities. Under simulated conditions, an efficiency of 53 percent was achieved for a cell coupled to 806 nm light at 400 mW/sq cm.

  12. Experimental examination of gaas dissolution in in-p melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolkhovityanov, Yu. B.; Bolkhovityanova, R. I.; Chikichev, S. I.

    1983-05-01

    The “solubility” of GaAs crystals in quaternary In-Ga-As-P liquids (X{Ga/I} = X{As/I}) has been studied experi-mentally at 770°C using seed-dissolution technique. The location of the true liquidus isotherm has been established independently by means of the direct vi-sual observation technique. Comparison between the two data sets indicates that the first method can be successfully used only for those In-Ga-As-P melt compositions which have the corresponding solid InxGa1-xAsyP1-y alloys nearly lattice-matched to the GaAs substrate. In other cases the results obtained by this method are totally misleading although in-teresting as they are. The phenomenon of “catastro-phic” substrate erosion is investigated. The results of the present study are interpreted within the conceptual framework developed previously.

  13. Formation and properties of porous GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Schmuki, P.; Lockwood, D.J.; Fraser, J.W.; Graham, M.J.; Isaacs, H.S.

    1996-06-01

    Porous structures on n-type GaAs (100) can be grown electrochemically in chloride-containing solutions. Crystallographic etching of the sample is a precursor stage of the attack. Polarization curves reveal the existanece of a critical onset potential for por formation (PFP). PFP is strongly dependent on the doping level of the sample and presence of surface defects. Good agreement between PFP and breakdown voltage of the space charge layer is found. Surface analysis by EDX, AES, and XPS show that the porous structure consists mainly of GaAs and that anion uptake in the structure can only observed after attackhas been initiated. Photoluminescence measurements reveal (under certain conditions) visible light emission from the porous structure.

  14. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagowski, J.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical efforts in the development of crystal growth approaches, effective techniques for electronic characterization on a macro and microscale, and in the discovery of phenomena and processes relevant to GaAs device applications are reported. The growth of electron trap-free bulk GaAS with extremely low density of dislocations is described. In electroepitaxy, growth configuration which eliminates the substrate back-contact was developed. This configuration can be extended to the simultaneous growth on many substrates with a thin solution layer sandwiched between any two of them. The significant reduction of Joule heating effects in the configuration made it possible to realize the in situ measurement of the layer thickness and the growth velocity. Utilizing the advantages of electroepitaxy in achieving abrupt acceleration (or deceleration) of the growth it was shown that recombination centers are formed as a result of growth acceleration.

  15. The GaAs solar cell research and development programs of the Air Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masloski, K. T.

    1980-01-01

    The compound GaAs is of interest for space application photovoltaics due to its inherent advantages over silicon. Higher efficiencies, superior radiation hardness, and a greater temperature resistance are the major advantages of GaAs over Si. Air Force programs look for ways of maximizing these advantages while minimizing disadvantages such as higher costs and weights. Four programs in GaAs photovoltaics are described and each program is discussed in terms of its objective, approach and status.

  16. Tissue irradiator

    DOEpatents

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-12-16

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in- vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood- carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170.

  17. Epitaxial Fe on free-standing GaAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mingze; Darbandi, Ali; Majumder, Sarmita; Watkins, Simon; Kavanagh, Karen

    2016-07-01

    Epitaxial Fe contacts have been fabricated onto the top half of free-standing, Te-doped GaAs nanowires (NWs) via electrodeposition. Electrical isolation from the substrate via a polymeric layer enabled the measurement of electrical transport through individual wires. Using a fixed probe within a scanning electron microscope, an average metal-semiconductor diode barrier height of 0.69 ± 0.03 eV (ideality factor 1.48 ± 0.02) was found.

  18. Solar heating of GaAs nanowire solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2015-11-30

    We use a coupled thermal-optical approach to model the operating temperature rise in GaAs nanowire solar cells. We find that despite more highly concentrated light absorption and lower thermal conductivity, the overall temperature rise in a nanowire structure is no higher than in a planar structure. Moreover, coating the nanowires with a transparent polymer can increase the radiative cooling power by 2.2 times, lowering the operating temperature by nearly 7 K. PMID:26698787

  19. GaAs Optoelectronic Integrated-Circuit Neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Steven H.; Kim, Jae H.; Psaltis, Demetri

    1992-01-01

    Monolithic GaAs optoelectronic integrated circuits developed for use as artificial neurons. Neural-network computer contains planar arrays of optoelectronic neurons, and variable synaptic connections between neurons effected by diffraction of light from volume hologram in photorefractive material. Basic principles of neural-network computers explained more fully in "Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits For Neural Networks" (NPO-17652). In present circuits, devices replaced by metal/semiconductor field effect transistors (MESFET's), which consume less power.

  20. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cell modeling studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Various models were constructed which will allow for the variation of system components. Computer studies were then performed using the models constructed in order to study the effects of various system changes. In particular, GaAs and Si flat plate solar power arrays were studied and compared. Series and shunt resistance models were constructed. Models for the chemical kinetics of the annealing process were prepared. For all models constructed, various parametric studies were performed.

  1. On the dissolution properties of GaAs in Ga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, M. C.; Moynahan, A. H.

    1977-01-01

    The dissolution of GaAs in Ga was studied to determine the nature and cause of faceting effects. Ga was allowed to dissolve single crystalline faces under isothermal conditions. Of the crystalline planes with low number indices, only the (100) surface showed a direct correlation of dissolution sites to dislocations. The type of dissolution experienced depended on temperature, and there were three distinct types of behavior.

  2. Incommensurate phase of Te adsorbed on (001) GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibert, J.; Saminadayar, K.; Tatarenko, S.; Gobil, Y.

    1989-06-01

    Occurrence of commensurate and incommensurate phases is reported for adsorption of Te on Ga-rich (001) GaAs surfaces. The Te coverage is measured directly through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the incommensurate phase is studied in detail as a function of Te coverage; two regimes are demonstrated, one at low coverage where Te is mainly bound to Ga, and another one at high coverage where Te mainly bound to As is also present.

  3. A high-speed GaAs MESFET optical controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claspy, P. C.; Bhasin, K. B.; Richard, M.; Bendett, M.; Gustafson, G.

    1989-01-01

    Optical interconnects are being considered for control signal distribution in phased array antennas. A packaged hybrid GaAs optical controller with a 1:16 demultiplexed output that is suitable for this application is described. The controller, which was fabricated using enhancement/depletion mode MESFET technology, operates at demultiplexer-limited input data rates up to 305 Mb/s and requires less than 200 microW optical input power.

  4. Characterization of Semi-Insulating Polycrystalline Silicon: the Influence of the Structural Properties of Sipos Films on the Electrical Properties of Their Interfaces with Crystalline Silicon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunson, Kevin Michael

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Semi-Insulating POlycrystalline Silicon SIPOS layers containing a wide range of oxygen concentrations have been deposited using a low pressure chemical vapour deposition reactor. Physical analysis techniques such as Rutherford backscattering, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy have been brought to bear on the question of the structure of these films. A conceptual model based on percolation theory is presented to explain the observations. The 51 at. % oxygen SIPOS-silicon heterojunction has been characterized using admittance measurements in both the voltage and frequency domain. The form of the equivalent parallel conductance of the interface states, for both as-deposited and 900^circ C annealed SIPOS-silicon junctions, is found to be described adequately by Nicollian's statistical model (Bell. Syst. Tech. J. Vol 46(6), p 1055; 1967). Preier's competing tunnelling model (Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol 10(12), p 361; 1967) is shown to be conceptually in error when describing interface state response, but possible modifications to the model are discussed at length. For the as-deposited material the calculated density of localised states at the SIPOS-silicon interface exhibits a U-shaped continuum with densities of ~eq6 times 10^{10} cm^{-2} eV^ {-1} near mid-gap rising to ~eq 6 times 10^ {11} cm^{-2} eV^{-1} at the band edges. In addition to the interface state contributions in the equivalent parallel conductance a second resonance is detected which has been identified as being due to trapping states in the p-silicon depletion region. A quantitative estimate of the density of these bulk states is presented. After annealing the junction at 900^circ C the interface state density not only increased by approximately one order of magnitude, but also a discrete interface state peak appeared on the background continuum at an energy of ~eq0.1 eV below the conduction band edge. The barrier

  5. Ab initio study of hot electrons in GaAs.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Marco; Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Ong, Chin Shen; Neaton, Jeffrey B; Louie, Steven G

    2015-04-28

    Hot carrier dynamics critically impacts the performance of electronic, optoelectronic, photovoltaic, and plasmonic devices. Hot carriers lose energy over nanometer lengths and picosecond timescales and thus are challenging to study experimentally, whereas calculations of hot carrier dynamics are cumbersome and dominated by empirical approaches. In this work, we present ab initio calculations of hot electrons in gallium arsenide (GaAs) using density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory. Our computed electron-phonon relaxation times at the onset of the Γ, L, and X valleys are in excellent agreement with ultrafast optical experiments and show that the ultrafast (tens of femtoseconds) hot electron decay times observed experimentally arise from electron-phonon scattering. This result is an important advance to resolve a controversy on hot electron cooling in GaAs. We further find that, contrary to common notions, all optical and acoustic modes contribute substantially to electron-phonon scattering, with a dominant contribution from transverse acoustic modes. This work provides definitive microscopic insight into hot electrons in GaAs and enables accurate ab initio computation of hot carriers in advanced materials.

  6. Sb-Stabilized GaAs(100) Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanabrook, B. V.; Whitman, L. J.; Bennett, B. R.

    1997-03-01

    Recently, there has been considerable speculation about the structure of Sb-terminated GaAs(100) surfaces.(Esser et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4402 (1996)) (Moriarty et al., Phys. Rev. B53, R16148 (1996)) In addition to the previously studied (2x4) reconstruction, we also investigate the more Sb-rich (2x8) reconstruction with in situ RHEED and STM. The (2x8) Sb-terminated surface was prepared by exposing a well-ordered MBE-grown As-terminated (2x4) GaAs (100) surface to Sb. The Sb-terminated (2x4) reconstruction can be formed by heating the (2x8) reconstruction in the absence of Sb flux. The STM images of the (2x8) reconstruction exhibit a complex multilayer structure with a significant dependence on bias. In contrast, the (2x4) reconstruction appears somewhat simpler and suggests that the two As-dimers on the GaAs surface have been replaced by either 1 or 2 Sb dimers. Possible models for each of these novel reconstructions will be presented.

  7. Improved performance of GaAs radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Nava, F.; Vanni, P.; Bertuccio, G.

    1996-12-31

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) offers an attractive choice for room temperature X- and {gamma}-ray detectors. However performance of SI LEC bulk GaAs detectors is at present limited by the short carrier lifetime and by the diode breakdown occurring as soon as the electric field reaches the back ohmic contact. We have shown that ohmic contacts based on ion implantation allowed us to go far beyond the bias voltage necessary to achieve a fully active detector. However the conventional thermal treatments (850 {degrees}C, 30 s) required to anneal the damage induced by ion implantation strongly reduces the electron lifetime in the detector. Alenia has developed two improved processes (RA and RB) which avoid high temperature annealing and the consequent electron lifetime reduction. With the new detectors, in pixel (200x200 {mu}m{sup 2}) configuration, a charge collection efficiency (cce) of 90 % for 59.5 keV X-rays and a FWHM of 3.35 keV has been achieved at room temperature. These features, thickness, applied voltage, cce and FWRM are suitable for application of GaAs pixel detectors in medical imaging. Results obtained with of particles and X-rays at different temperatures and in a wide range of applied bias in detectors made with standard, implantated and improved processes are presented, compared and discussed.

  8. Preparation and characterization of pulse electrodeposited GaAs films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, K. R.; Trivedi, D. C.

    2006-04-01

    GaAs is a III-V compound possessing high mobility and a direct band gap of 1.43 eV, making it a very suitable candidate for photovoltaic applications. Thin GaAs films were prepared by plating an aqueous solution containing GaCl3 and As2O3 at a pH of 2 and at room temperature. The current density was kept at 50 mA cm-2 and the duty cycle was varied in the range 10-50%. The films were deposited on titanium, nickel and tin oxide coated glass substrates. Films exhibited polycrystalline nature with peaks corresponding to single-phase GaAs. Optical absorption measurements indicated a direct band gap of 1.40 eV. Atomic force microscope measurements indicated uniform coverage with large crystallites for the films deposited at higher duty cycles. Photoelectrochemical cells were made using the films as photoelectrodes and graphite as counter electrode in 1 M polysulphide electrolyte. At 60 mW cm-2 illumination, an open-circuit voltage of 0.5 V and a short-circuit current density of 5.0 mA cm-2 were observed for the films deposited at a duty cycle of 50%.

  9. Ab initio study of hot electrons in GaAs

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Marco; Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Ong, Chin Shen; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Louie, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Hot carrier dynamics critically impacts the performance of electronic, optoelectronic, photovoltaic, and plasmonic devices. Hot carriers lose energy over nanometer lengths and picosecond timescales and thus are challenging to study experimentally, whereas calculations of hot carrier dynamics are cumbersome and dominated by empirical approaches. In this work, we present ab initio calculations of hot electrons in gallium arsenide (GaAs) using density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory. Our computed electron–phonon relaxation times at the onset of the Γ, L, and X valleys are in excellent agreement with ultrafast optical experiments and show that the ultrafast (tens of femtoseconds) hot electron decay times observed experimentally arise from electron–phonon scattering. This result is an important advance to resolve a controversy on hot electron cooling in GaAs. We further find that, contrary to common notions, all optical and acoustic modes contribute substantially to electron–phonon scattering, with a dominant contribution from transverse acoustic modes. This work provides definitive microscopic insight into hot electrons in GaAs and enables accurate ab initio computation of hot carriers in advanced materials. PMID:25870287

  10. Intense laser field effects on p-d exchange interaction in single manganese doped GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira Moura, Fabio; Qu Fanyao; Gargano, Ricardo

    2011-11-01

    We have developed a comprehensive theory about optical control of p - d exchange interaction between spins of hole and Mn{sup 2+} in single-manganese doped GaAs material irradiated by a monochromatic, linearly polarized, intense pulsed laser field (PLF) under nonresonant conditions. The p - d exchange interaction leads to formation of magnetic polaron. While the PLF induces a dressed acceptor Coulomb potential, which transforms single center problem into the one with two virtual positively charged centers, resembling hydrogen molecule ion (H{sub 2}{sup +}). The dichotomy of hole wave functions, determined by the laser-intensity, affects strongly the p - d exchange interaction as well as binding energy of magnetic polaron. Increasing the laser intensity reduces the magnetic polaron binding energy. At larger excitation intensity, the magnetic polaron can be completely dissolved.

  11. GAA triplet-repeats cause nucleosome depletion in the human genome.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongyu; Xing, Yongqiang; Liu, Guoqing; Chen, Ping; Zhao, Xiujuan; Li, Guohong; Cai, Lu

    2015-08-01

    Although there have been many investigations into how trinucleotide repeats affect nucleosome formation and local chromatin structure, the nucleosome positioning of GAA triplet-repeats in the human genome has remained elusive. In this work, the nucleosome occupancy around GAA triplet-repeats across the human genome was computed statistically. The results showed a nucleosome-depleted region in the vicinity of GAA triplet-repeats in activated and resting CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, the A-tract was frequently adjacent to the upstream region of GAA triplet-repeats and could enhance the depletion surrounding GAA triplet-repeats. In vitro chromatin reconstitution assays with GAA-containing plasmids also demonstrated that the inserted GAA triplet-repeats destabilized the ability of recombinant plasmids to assemble nucleosomes. Our results suggested that GAA triplet-repeats have lower affinity to histones and can change local nucleosome positioning. These findings may be helpful for understanding the mechanism of Friedreich's ataxia, which is associated with GAA triplet-repeats at the chromatin level.

  12. Recovery of gallium and arsenic from GaAs wafer manufacturing slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Jadvar, R.; McCoy, B.J. ); Ford, B.; Galt, J. )

    1991-11-01

    Lapping and polishing slurries from the gallium arsenide (GaAs) wafer manufacturing process were used to develop simple and inexpensive methods for separation and recovery of valuable gallium and toxic arsenic. The lapping slurry, containing GaAs, glycerol, alumina, iron oxide, and water, is treated by a process involving water addition, dissolution of GaAs, mixing, sedimentation, decantation, and evaporation. The polishing slurry, containing GaAs, silica, sodium bicarbonate, sodium hypochlorite and water, is treated simply by a repetitive cycle of adding water, mixing, settling, decanting, and evaporating. After treatment, the slurries contain less than 5 ppm of dissolved arsenic and are considered non-hazardous.

  13. GaAs thin films and methods of making and using the same

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Shannon; Ritenour, Andrew; Boucher, Jason; Greenaway, Ann

    2016-06-14

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of methods for making GaAs thin films, such as photovoltaic GaAs thin films. The methods disclosed herein utilize sources, precursors, and reagents that do not produce (or require) toxic gas and that are readily available and relatively low in cost. In some embodiments, the methods are readily scalable for industrial applications and can provide GaAs thin films having properties that are at least comparable to or potentially superior to GaAs films obtained from conventional methods.

  14. Irradiation subassembly

    DOEpatents

    Seim, O.S.; Filewicz, E.C.; Hutter, E.

    1973-10-23

    An irradiation subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which includes a bundle of slender elongated irradiation -capsules or fuel elements enclosed by a coolant tube and having yieldable retaining liner between the irradiation capsules and the coolant tube. For a hexagonal bundle surrounded by a hexagonal tube the yieldable retaining liner may consist either of six segments corresponding to the six sides of the tube or three angular segments each corresponding in two adjacent sides of the tube. The sides of adjacent segments abut and are so cut that metal-tometal contact is retained when the volume enclosed by the retaining liner is varied and Springs are provided for urging the segments toward the center of the tube to hold the capsules in a closely packed configuration. (Official Gazette)

  15. Laser biostimulation (Ne-He and Ga-As) effects as compared to the conventional therapy in several pelvic inflammatory diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antipa, Ciprian; Dona, Dumitru; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.; Crisan, Nicolae; Constantinescu, Camelia

    1993-05-01

    We studied the effects of the very low-power Gallium-Arsenic infrared semiconductor laser and low-power Helium-Neon laser irradiation, single or in combination, compared to the placebo and conventional therapy on the recovery of 118 female patients from our hospital with the diagnosis of chronic pelvic inflammatory disorders. Laser biostimulation therapy proved to be significantly more efficient as compared with placebo or conventional therapy. The most efficient of all kinds of irradiations was the combination between He-Ne and Ga-As (laserpuncture and scanning). After laser treatments we didn't find any significant local genital changes both at the bimanual examination (except provoked pain), and at the echographical examination. Soft and very low-power laser therapy can be a useful alternative to the conventional treatments for pelvic inflammatory diseases.

  16. Diffused P+-N solar cells in bulk GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borrego, J. M.; Ghandhi, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    Recently melt grown GaAs, made by liquid encapsulation techniques, has become available. This material is of sufficiently good quality to allow the fabrication of solar cells by direct diffusion. Results obtained with p(+)/n junction solar cells made by zinc diffusion are described. The quality of bulk GaAs for this application is evaluated.

  17. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Operation under current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... provisions of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2) to the particular circumstances of the present GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia... General Agency operations not related to the current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program, NSA Order 35 (OPR-2... lieu of those appearing in sections 3 and 4 of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2). Continental United States ports...

  18. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Operation under current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... provisions of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2) to the particular circumstances of the present GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia... General Agency operations not related to the current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program, NSA Order 35 (OPR-2... lieu of those appearing in sections 3 and 4 of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2). Continental United States ports...

  19. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Operation under current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... provisions of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2) to the particular circumstances of the present GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia... General Agency operations not related to the current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program, NSA Order 35 (OPR-2... lieu of those appearing in sections 3 and 4 of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2). Continental United States ports...

  20. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Operation under current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... provisions of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2) to the particular circumstances of the present GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia... General Agency operations not related to the current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program, NSA Order 35 (OPR-2... lieu of those appearing in sections 3 and 4 of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2). Continental United States ports...

  1. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Operation under current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... provisions of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2) to the particular circumstances of the present GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia... General Agency operations not related to the current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program, NSA Order 35 (OPR-2... lieu of those appearing in sections 3 and 4 of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2). Continental United States ports...

  2. Electrical and Optical Properties of ZnO Films Grown on GaAs Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuldashev, Shavkat U.; Panin, Gennady N.; Choi, Sung Woo; Yalishev, Vadim Sh.; Nosova, Ludmila A.; Ryu, Min Ki; Lee, Sanghern; Jang, Min Su; Chung, Kwan Soo; Kang, Tae Won

    2003-06-01

    Undoped ZnO films were deposited on GaAs substrates by conventional rf magnetron sputtering technique. After thermal annealing at temperatures of 500°C and higher for 20 min, the Hall coefficient of ZnO films on GaAs substrate becomes positive. The long-time annealing of 550 min at a temperature of 400°C also converts the sign of the Hall coefficient to positive. X-ray microanalysis shows that the diffusion of Zn atoms into the GaAs substrate and Ga atoms from the GaAs substrate into the ZnO film during thermal annealing occurs. The results of Hall measurements were analyzed by using the two-layer model of conductivity. It was shown that the positive sign of the Hall coefficient for the annealed ZnO film on the GaAs substrate is due to p-type conductivity of the GaAs substrate as a result of the diffusion of the Zn atoms from ZnO film into the GaAs substrate. With increasing annealing temperature or annealing time the ZnO films become more n-type due to the diffusion of Ga atoms from the GaAs substrate into the ZnO film.

  3. Electrical performance of conducting polymer (SPAN) grown on GaAs with different substrate orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameel, D. A.; Aziz, M.; Felix, J. F.; Al Saqri, N.; Taylor, D.; Albalawi, H.; Alghamdi, H.; Al Mashary, F.; Henini, M.

    2016-11-01

    This article reports the effect of n-type GaAs substrate orientation, namely (100), (311)A and (311)B, on the electrical properties of sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN)/GaAs heterojunction devices. In addition, the inhomogeneity of the interface between various GaAs substrates and SPAN is investigated in terms of barrier height and ideality factor by performing I-V measurements at different temperatures (20-420 K). The I-V results indicate that the value of the rectification ratio (IF/IR) at 0.5 V is higher for SPAN/(311)B GaAs samples than for SPAN/(100) GaAs and SPAN/(311)A GaAs samples. Moreover, the barrier height decreases and the ideality factor increases with decreasing temperature for all three heterostructure devices. The high value of mean barrier Φbarb of SPAN/(311)B (calculated from the plots of Φb 0 as a function of 1/2kT) confirms that the GaAs substrate orientation results in an increase of barrier homogeneities. Furthermore, the C-V characteristics were obtained at room temperature. The C-V measurements showed that the carrier distributions at the interface and away from the interface in high index (311) GaAs orientations are more uniform and have better barrier homogeneity than those grown on the conventional (100) GaAs substrates.

  4. Implementation and Performance of GaAs Digital Signal Processing ASICs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, William D.; Buchanan, Jeffrey R.; Burke, Gary R.; Chow, Terrance W.; Graham, J. Scott; Kowalski, James E.; Lam, Barbara; Siavoshi, Fardad; Thompson, Matthew S.; Johnson, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of performing high speed digital signal processing in GaAs gate array technology has been demonstrated with the successful implementation of a VLSI communications chip set for NASA's Deep Space Network. This paper describes the techniques developed to solve some of the technology and implementation problems associated with large scale integration of GaAs gate arrays.

  5. Irradiated foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... it reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes, and to control insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

  6. Empirical-Statistics Analysis for Zero-Failure GaAs MMICs Life Testing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zheng-Liang; Yu, Fa-Xin; Zhang, Shu-Ting; Luo, Hao; Wang, Ping-Hui; Zheng, Yao

    GaAs MMICs (Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits) reliability is a critical part of the overall reliability of the thermal solution in semiconductor devices. With MMICs reliability improved, GaAs MMICs failure rates will reach levels which are impractical to measure with conventional methods in the near future. This letter proposes a methodology to predict the GaAs MMICs reliability by combining empirical and statistical methods based on zero-failure GaAs MMICs life testing data. Besides, we investigate the effect of accelerated factors on MMICs degradation and make a comparison between the Weibull and lognormal distributions. The method has been used in the reliability evaluation of GaAs MMICs successfully.

  7. Stalled DNA Replication Forks at the Endogenous GAA Repeats Drive Repeat Expansion in Friedreich's Ataxia Cells.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Jeannine; Bhalla, Angela D; Butler, Jill Sergesketter; Puckett, James W; Dervan, Peter B; Rosenwaks, Zev; Napierala, Marek

    2016-08-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is caused by the expansion of GAA repeats located in the Frataxin (FXN) gene. The GAA repeats continue to expand in FRDA patients, aggravating symptoms and contributing to disease progression. The mechanism leading to repeat expansion and decreased FXN transcription remains unclear. Using single-molecule analysis of replicated DNA, we detected that expanded GAA repeats present a substantial obstacle for the replication machinery at the FXN locus in FRDA cells. Furthermore, aberrant origin activation and lack of a proper stress response to rescue the stalled forks in FRDA cells cause an increase in 3'-5' progressing forks, which could enhance repeat expansion and hinder FXN transcription by head-on collision with RNA polymerases. Treatment of FRDA cells with GAA-specific polyamides rescues DNA replication fork stalling and alleviates expansion of the GAA repeats, implicating DNA triplexes as a replication impediment and suggesting that fork stalling might be a therapeutic target for FRDA.

  8. A study of binding biotinylated nano-beads to the surface of (001) GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ximing; Moumanis, Khalid; Dubowski, Jan J.; Frost, Eric H.

    2006-02-01

    We have investigated the deposition of biotinylated nano-beads on the surface of GaAs. The deposition procedure involved either direct coating of (001) GaAs with nano-beads, or binding the nano-beads with avidin immobilized on the surface of (001) GaAs through the interface of biotin and the NH II terminal group of 11-amino-1-undecanethiol (HS(CH II) 11NH II). The efficiency of binding was tested by washing the samples in a solution of a commercial detergent and by subjecting them to a deionized water ultrasonic bath. The results indicate that nano-beads deposited directly on the surface of (001) GaAs withstand the detergent washing test but they are easily removed by ultrasonic washing. In contrast, the nano-beads attached to (001) GaAs through the avidin-biotin-thiol interface survive the ultrasonic washing tests.

  9. Improvement of interface electronic properties of GaF 3/GaAs MIS structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricard, H.; Aizawa, K.; Ishiwara, H.

    The interface electronic properties of GaF 3/GaAs structures are investigated for three different deposition procedures, the GaF 3 films have been deposited on n-type GaAs epitaxial layers without breaking the vacuum, or after being exposed to air, or after being treated in (NH 4) 2S 1 solution. It has been found from low-temperature C-V measurements in MIS diodes that a real modulation of the Fermi level in the forbidden band gap of GaAs occurs only when the GaAs epitaxial layer is treated in the sulfur solution and annealed at an optimum temperature prior to deposition of GaF 3. The unpinning mechanism is also discussed in conjunction with the simplified model for sulfur-treated GaAs surfaces.

  10. Stalled DNA Replication Forks at the Endogenous GAA Repeats Drive Repeat Expansion in Friedreich's Ataxia Cells.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Jeannine; Bhalla, Angela D; Butler, Jill Sergesketter; Puckett, James W; Dervan, Peter B; Rosenwaks, Zev; Napierala, Marek

    2016-08-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is caused by the expansion of GAA repeats located in the Frataxin (FXN) gene. The GAA repeats continue to expand in FRDA patients, aggravating symptoms and contributing to disease progression. The mechanism leading to repeat expansion and decreased FXN transcription remains unclear. Using single-molecule analysis of replicated DNA, we detected that expanded GAA repeats present a substantial obstacle for the replication machinery at the FXN locus in FRDA cells. Furthermore, aberrant origin activation and lack of a proper stress response to rescue the stalled forks in FRDA cells cause an increase in 3'-5' progressing forks, which could enhance repeat expansion and hinder FXN transcription by head-on collision with RNA polymerases. Treatment of FRDA cells with GAA-specific polyamides rescues DNA replication fork stalling and alleviates expansion of the GAA repeats, implicating DNA triplexes as a replication impediment and suggesting that fork stalling might be a therapeutic target for FRDA. PMID:27425605

  11. Microwave characteristics of an optically controlled GaAs MESFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, H.

    1983-07-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of microwave characteristics of a GaAs MESFET under optically direct-controlled conditions. The gain, drain current, and S-parameters were measured under various optical conditions in the frequency region from 3.0 GHz to 8.0 GHz., and it was found that they can be controlled by varying the incident light intensity in the same manner as when varying the gate bias voltage. As applications of this phenomenon, optical/microwave transformers and an optically switched amplifiers were investigated.

  12. High speed GaAs static RAM technology and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundgren, R. E.; Waldner, M.

    A design and analysis study of potential high-speed GaAs MESFET memory circuits was performed. The results show that a 1-kbit static RAM having a 1-ns access time is feasible using low-power enhancement-mode MESFETs to realize static flip-flop memory cells; power dissipation would be 5 microwatts per cell. To achieve maximum memory speed, the control and drive circuitry incorporates depletion-mode devices throughout; total power dissipation would be about 1 W. Details of the memory design and analysis are presented.

  13. Quantum effects in electron beam pumped GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Yahia, M. E.; Azzouz, I. M.; Moslem, W. M.

    2013-08-19

    Propagation of waves in nano-sized GaAs semiconductor induced by electron beam are investigated. A dispersion relation is derived by using quantum hydrodynamics equations including the electrons and holes quantum recoil effects, exchange-correlation potentials, and degenerate pressures. It is found that the propagating modes are instable and strongly depend on the electron beam parameters, as well as the quantum recoil effects and degenerate pressures. The instability region shrinks with the increase of the semiconductor number density. The instability arises because of the energetic electron beam produces electron-hole pairs, which do not keep in phase with the electrostatic potential arising from the pair plasma.

  14. Hydrogen Effects on GaAs Device Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayali, Sammy A.

    1996-01-01

    GaAs and InP devices in hermetically sealed packages have been observed to exhibit unacceptable degradation in both RF and DC characteristics. This degradation has been observed to occur at temperatures as low as 125oC. The source of the degradation has been linked to hydrogen gas that has been absorbed in the package's metals (Kovar, plating, etc.) and converted into atomic hydrogen within the Pt or Pd metallization of the gate structure. Subsequently, atomic hydrogen diffuses into the channel region of the FET structure and neutralizes the Si donors, resulting in a degradation of the device characteristics.

  15. Activation modeling of Si implanted GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apiwatwaja, R.; Gwilliam, R.; Wilson, R.; Sealy, B. J.

    1997-02-01

    The total concentration of ionized impurities in silicon implanted GaAs was estimated from carrier concentration and mobility values obtained by Hall effect measurements together with published compensations. We have demonstrated that the calculated profiles (ND++NA-) are in good agreement with that of the silicon atomic distributions obtained by secondary-ion-mass spectroscopy. We have observed that a large concentration of gallium vacancies are injected into the sample during a 900 °C anneal for 1000 s using a Si3N4 cap.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulations of displacement cascades in GaAs.

    SciTech Connect

    Foiles, Stephen Martin

    2010-04-01

    The quantification of the production of primary defects via displacement cascades is an important ingredient in the prediction of the influence of radiation on the performance of electronic components in radiation environments. Molecular dynamics simulations of displacement cascades are performed for GaAs The interatomic interactions are described using a recently proposed Bond Order Potential, and a simple model of electronic stopping is incorporated. The production of point defects is quantified as a function of recoil energy and recoil species. Correlations in the point defects are examined. There are a large number of anti-site defects nearest-neighbor pairs as well as di-vacancies and larger order vacancy clusters. Radiation damage and ion implantation in materials have been studied via molecular dynamics for many years. A significant challenge in these simulations is the detailed identification and quantification of the primary defect production. For the present case of a compound semiconductor, GaAs, there are a larger number of possible point defects compared to elemental materials; two types of vacancies, two types of interstitials and antisite defects. This is further complicated by the fact that, in addition to the formation of point defects, amorphous zones may also be created. The goal of the current work is to quantify the production of primary defects in GaAs due to radiation exposures. This information will be used as part of an effort to predict the influence of radiation environments on the performance of electronic components and circuits. The data provide the initial state for continuum-level analysis of the temporal evolution of defect populations. For this initial state, it is important to know both the number of the various point defects that may be produced as well as the initial spatial correlations between the primary defects. The molecular dynamics simulations employ a recently developed Bond Order Potential (BOP) for GaAs. The analysis

  17. Photoconductivity spectra of nanodimensional structures on c-Si and GaAs substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udovitskaya, Ruslana S.; Kondratenko, Sergey V.; Vakulenko, Oleg V.

    2005-08-01

    the spectrum in short-wave area (1,5-2,1 μm) specifies that the speed of a surface recombination is equal to zero. For the structure nanodimensional Ge/ c-S i, otherwice, significant hole in this area was observed at the room temperature. So, samples had the large speed of surface recombination. To observe the contribution of nonequilibrium charge carriers to the photoconductivity of structure nanodimensional Ge/c-Si it is necessary to cool down to Τ < 100 K. The intersubband transitions can occur in nanodimensional Ge at such temperatures. So, it is necessary to expect observation of a photosensitivity in the infrared, which corresponds energy of these transitions. It is possible to explain photosensitivity of nanostructures by existence of interzoned transitions in nanodimension Ge. The spectral dependence of photosensitivity of structure nanodimension Ge/c-Si in IR- of area is received. Analysis of received results have shown that the spectrum Al0.2Ga0.8As/In0.1Ga0.9As/GaAs differs from standard GaAs photodiode by wider spectral sensitivity range owing to creation of nanodimensional layers Al0.2Ga0.8As/In0.1Ga0.9As on the GaAs substrate. It gives the possibility to detect optical irradiation.

  18. High-efficiency GaAs solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Knechtli, R.C.; Loo, R.Y.

    1984-05-01

    An updated review of the state of the art in the development of GaAs solar cells is provided, with emphasis on AlGaAs-GaAs cells suitable for space applications. A set of theoretically derived characteristics is given for this type of solar cell. Comparison of measured performance with theory shows excellent agreement. Data on the effects of radiation damage (high-energy electrons, protons, and neutrons) is also integrated into a form useful for evaluation purposes. Techniques for fabricating (AlGa)As-GaAs solar cells in quantities large enough for practical applications are discussed and are shown to have been demonstrated. The possibility of extending these techniques to the fabrication of very thin low-weight cells for space applications is also considered. Finally, the results obtained to date in the development of GaAs solar cells for applications requiring concentrated sunlight are reviewed, for terrestrial as well as for space applications. As a milestone toward the practical application of AlGaAs-GaAs solar cells in space systems, a brief account is provided on the development status of small experimental AlGaAs-GaAs solar-cell panels for specific space flights.

  19. Sn-seeded GaAs nanowires grown by MOVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Rong; Vainorius, Neimantas; Jacobsson, Daniel; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Lehmann, Sebastian; Dick, Kimberly A.

    2016-05-01

    It has previously been reported that in situ formed Sn nanoparticles can successfully initiate GaAs nanowire growth with a self-assembled radial p-n junction composed of a Sn-doped n-type core and a C-doped p-type shell. In this paper, we investigate the effect of fundamental growth parameters on the morphology and crystal structure of Sn-seeded GaAs nanowires. We show that growth can be achieved in a broad temperature window by changing the TMGa precursor flow simultaneously with decreasing temperature to prevent nanowire kinking at low temperatures. We find that changes in the supply of both AsH3 and TMGa can lead to nanowire kinking and that the formation of twin planes is closely related to a low V/III ratio. From PL results, we observe an increase of the average luminescence energy induced by heavy doping which shifts the Fermi level into the conduction band. Furthermore, the doping level of Sn and C is dependent on both the temperature and the V/III ratio. These results indicate that using Sn as the seed particle for nanowire growth is quite different from traditionally used Au in for example growth conditions and resulting nanowire properties. Thus, it is very interesting to explore alternative metal seed particles with controllable introduction of other impurities.

  20. GaAs photocathodes for low light level imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, J. P.; Guittard, P.; Hallais, J.; Piaget, C.

    1981-10-01

    The use of high efficiency GaAs transmission mode photocathodes in image tubes is an achievement which has been made possible thanks to the improvement of material technology and vacuum technology. As background into the description of the material technology, the device characteristics are used for the definition of the material criteria. Possible epitaxial structures and growth methods which have been studied for the preparation of the material are reviewed with emphasis on the GaAs/(Al,Ga)As/ transparent window type of structure. Recent progress in MOVPE shows that this technique is now capable of growing high quality GaAs(Al,Ga)As double heterostructures suitable for photocathode fabrication. The assessment of p-type GaAs active layers shows electron diffusion lengths of 5 to 7 μm for a doping level of 1 × 10 19cm-3 with neglectible interface recombination. Reproduvibility of the results and further development of MOVPE for large scale growth of photocathode materials is discussed.

  1. Sn-seeded GaAs nanowires grown by MOVPE.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rong; Vainorius, Neimantas; Jacobsson, Daniel; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Lehmann, Sebastian; Dick, Kimberly A

    2016-05-27

    It has previously been reported that in situ formed Sn nanoparticles can successfully initiate GaAs nanowire growth with a self-assembled radial p-n junction composed of a Sn-doped n-type core and a C-doped p-type shell. In this paper, we investigate the effect of fundamental growth parameters on the morphology and crystal structure of Sn-seeded GaAs nanowires. We show that growth can be achieved in a broad temperature window by changing the TMGa precursor flow simultaneously with decreasing temperature to prevent nanowire kinking at low temperatures. We find that changes in the supply of both AsH3 and TMGa can lead to nanowire kinking and that the formation of twin planes is closely related to a low V/III ratio. From PL results, we observe an increase of the average luminescence energy induced by heavy doping which shifts the Fermi level into the conduction band. Furthermore, the doping level of Sn and C is dependent on both the temperature and the V/III ratio. These results indicate that using Sn as the seed particle for nanowire growth is quite different from traditionally used Au in for example growth conditions and resulting nanowire properties. Thus, it is very interesting to explore alternative metal seed particles with controllable introduction of other impurities. PMID:27087548

  2. Sol-gel derived ? thin films on GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arscott, S.; Smith, N.; Kurchania, R.; Milne, S. J.; Miles, R. E.

    1998-02-01

    Sol-gel derived thin films of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) have been fabricated on a platinized GaAs substrate using a propane-1,3-diol based sol-gel route. PZT can be used as the piezoelectric component in bulk acoustic wave devices for monolithic microwave integrated circuit applications. A 100 nm silicon nitride buffer layer was deposited onto the GaAs by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition in order to prevent gallium and arsenic outdiffusion during film fabrication. Rapid thermal processing (RTP) techniques were employed to decompose thermally the sol-gel layer to PZT in a further effort to minimize problems of gallium and arsenic outdiffusion. Adhesion between the bottom electrode and substrate was found to improve when an intermediate titanium layer deposited between the platinum and silicon nitride was oxidized prior to deposition of the platinum electrode. A crystalline PZT film was produced on the 0268-1242/13/2/016/img9 substrate configuration by firing the sol-gel coating at 0268-1242/13/2/016/img10C for 10 s using RTP. A single deposition of sol resulted in a film having a thickness of 0268-1242/13/2/016/img11. Ferroelectric hysteresis measurements yielded average values of remanant polarization and coercive field of 0268-1242/13/2/016/img12 and 0268-1242/13/2/016/img13 respectively.

  3. Image processing using Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Warner H.

    1989-01-01

    The need to increase the information return from space-borne imaging systems has increased in the past decade. The use of multi-spectral data has resulted in the need for finer spatial resolution and greater spectral coverage. Onboard signal processing will be necessary in order to utilize the available Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) communication channel at high efficiency. A generally recognized approach to the increased efficiency of channel usage is through data compression techniques. The compression technique implemented is a differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) scheme with a non-uniform quantizer. The need to advance the state-of-the-art of onboard processing was recognized and a GaAs integrated circuit technology was chosen. An Adaptive Programmable Processor (APP) chip set was developed which is based on an 8-bit slice general processor. The reason for choosing the compression technique for the Multi-spectral Linear Array (MLA) instrument is described. Also a description is given of the GaAs integrated circuit chip set which will demonstrate that data compression can be performed onboard in real time at data rate in the order of 500 Mb/s.

  4. High-efficiency nanostructured window GaAs solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Dong; Kang, Yangsen; Huo, Yijie; Chen, Yusi; Cui, Yi; Harris, James S

    2013-10-01

    Nanostructures have been widely used in solar cells due to their extraordinary optical properties. In most nanostructured cells, high short circuit current has been obtained due to enhanced light absorption. However, most of them suffer from lowered open circuit voltage and fill factor. One of the main challenges is formation of good junction and electrical contact. In particular, nanostructures in GaAs only have shown unsatisfactory performances (below 5% in energy conversion efficiency) which cannot match their ideal material properties and the record photovoltaic performances in industry. Here we demonstrate a completely new design for nanostructured solar cells that combines nanostructured window layer, metal mesa bar contact with small area, high quality planar junction. In this way, we not only keep the advanced optical properties of nanostructures such as broadband and wide angle antireflection, but also minimize its negative impact on electrical properties. High light absorption, efficient carrier collection, leakage elimination, and good lateral conductance can be simultaneously obtained. A nanostructured window cell using GaAs junction and AlGaAs nanocone window demonstrates 17% energy conversion efficiency and 0.982 V high open circuit voltage.

  5. Thermal stress cycling of GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janousek, B. K.; Francis, R. W.; Wendt, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    A thermal cycling experiment was performed on GaAs solar cells to establish the electrical and structural integrity of these cells under the temperature conditions of a simulated low-Earth orbit of 3-year duration. Thirty single junction GaAs cells were obtained and tests were performed to establish the beginning-of-life characteristics of these cells. The tests consisted of cell I-V power output curves, from which were obtained short-circuit current, open circuit voltage, fill factor, and cell efficiency, and optical micrographs, spectral response, and ion microprobe mass analysis (IMMA) depth profiles on both the front surfaces and the front metallic contacts of the cells. Following 5,000 thermal cycles, the performance of the cells was reexamined in addition to any factors which might contribute to performance degradation. It is established that, after 5,000 thermal cycles, the cells retain their power output with no loss of structural integrity or change in physical appearance.

  6. Sn-seeded GaAs nanowires grown by MOVPE.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rong; Vainorius, Neimantas; Jacobsson, Daniel; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Lehmann, Sebastian; Dick, Kimberly A

    2016-05-27

    It has previously been reported that in situ formed Sn nanoparticles can successfully initiate GaAs nanowire growth with a self-assembled radial p-n junction composed of a Sn-doped n-type core and a C-doped p-type shell. In this paper, we investigate the effect of fundamental growth parameters on the morphology and crystal structure of Sn-seeded GaAs nanowires. We show that growth can be achieved in a broad temperature window by changing the TMGa precursor flow simultaneously with decreasing temperature to prevent nanowire kinking at low temperatures. We find that changes in the supply of both AsH3 and TMGa can lead to nanowire kinking and that the formation of twin planes is closely related to a low V/III ratio. From PL results, we observe an increase of the average luminescence energy induced by heavy doping which shifts the Fermi level into the conduction band. Furthermore, the doping level of Sn and C is dependent on both the temperature and the V/III ratio. These results indicate that using Sn as the seed particle for nanowire growth is quite different from traditionally used Au in for example growth conditions and resulting nanowire properties. Thus, it is very interesting to explore alternative metal seed particles with controllable introduction of other impurities.

  7. 28 percent efficient GaAs concentrator solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macmillan, H. F.; Hamaker, H. C.; Kaminar, N. R.; Kuryla, M. S.; Ladle Ristow, M.

    1988-01-01

    AlGaAs/GaAs heteroface solar concentrator cells which exhibit efficiencies in excess of 27 percent at high solar concentrations (over 400 suns, AM1.5D, 100 mW/sq cm) have been fabricated with both n/p and p/n configurations. The best n/p cell achieved an efficiency of 28.1 percent around 400 suns, and the best p/n cell achieved an efficiency of 27.5 percent around 1000 suns. The high performance of these GaAs concentrator cells compared to earlier high-efficiency cells was due to improved control of the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth conditions and improved cell fabrication procedures (gridline definition and edge passivation). The design parameters of the solar cell structures and optimized grid pattern were determined with a realistic computer modeling program. An evaluation of the device characteristics and a discussion of future GaAs concentrator cell development are presented.

  8. GaAs clean up studied with synchrotron radiation photoemission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallarida, Massimo; Adelmann, Christoph; Delabie, Annelies; van Elshocht, Sven; Caymax, Matty; Schmeisser, Dieter

    2012-12-01

    In this contribution we describe the chemical changes at the surface of GaAs upon adsorption of tri-methyl-aluminum (TMA). TMA is used to grow Al2O3 with atomic layer deposition (ALD) usually using H2O as oxygen source. Recently, it was pointed out that the adsorption of TMA on various III-V surfaces reduces the native oxide, allowing the growth of an abrupt III-V/High-K interface with reduced density of defects. Synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy (SR-PES) is a powerful method to characterize surfaces and interfaces of many materials, as it is capable to determine their chemical composition as well as the electronic properties. We performed in-situ SR-PES measurements after exposing a GaAs surface to TMA pulses at about 250°C. Upon using the possibility of tuning the incident photon energy we compared the Ga3d spectra at 41 eV, 71 eV, 91 eV and 121 eV, as well as the As3d at 71 eV and 91 eV. Finally, we show that using SR-PES allows a further understanding of the surface composition, which is usually not accessible with other techniques.

  9. Step-step interactions on GaAs (110) nanopatterns

    SciTech Connect

    Galiana, B.; Benedicto, M.; Tejedor, P.

    2013-01-14

    The step-step interactions on vicinal GaAs (110) surface patterns have been extracted from the quantitative analysis of the terrace width distribution (TWD). We have specifically studied the interactions in near-equilibrium faceting and kinetics-driven step bunching and meandering formed by spontaneous self-organization or through the modification of GaAs growth kinetics by atomic hydrogen. We show that the experimental TWDs determined from atomic force microscopy measurements can be accurately described by a weighed sum of a generalized Wigner distribution and several Gaussians. The results of our calculations indicate that straight facets are formed during high temperature homoepitaxy due to attractive interactions between [110] steps. At low temperatures, steady state attractive interactions in [110] step bunches are preceded by a transition regime dominated by entropic and energetic repulsions between meandering [11n]-type steps (n {>=} 2), whose population density exceeds that of the [110] bunched steps. In addition, it has been found that atomic H reduces the attractive interactions between [110] bunched steps and enhances entropic and dipole-induced energetic repulsions between H-terminated [11n] steps through the inhibition of As-As bond formation at step edges. Our analysis has evidenced a correlation between the value of the adjustable parameter that accounts in our model for the specific weight of the secondary peaks in the TWD ({beta}) and the extent of transverse meandering on the vicinal surface.

  10. Preparation of pulse plated GaAs films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, K. R.; Trivedi, D. C.

    2006-07-01

    Thin GaAs films were prepared by pulse plating from an aqueous solution containing 0.20 M GaCl3 and 0.15 M As2O3 at a pH of 2 and at room temperature. The current density was kept as 50 mA cm-2 the duty cycle was varied in the range 10 50%. The films were deposited on titanium, nickel and tin oxide coated glass substrates. Films exhibited polycrystalline nature with peaks corresponding to single phase GaAs. Optical absorption measurements indicated a direct band gap of 1.40 eV. Photoelectrochemical cells were made using the films as photoelectrodes and graphite as counter electrode in 1 M polysulphide electrolyte. At 60 mW cm-2 illumination, an open circuit voltage of 0.5 V and a short circuit current density of 5.0 mA cm-2 were observed for the films deposited at a duty cycle of 50%.

  11. Phase Transformation in Radially Merged Wurtzite GaAs Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    III–V Nanowires (NWs) grown with metal–organic chemical vapor deposition commonly show a polytypic crystal structure, allowing growth of structures not found in the bulk counterpart. In this paper we studied the radial overgrowth of pure wurtzite (WZ) GaAs nanowires and characterized the samples with high resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) to reveal the crystal structure of the grown material. In particular, we investigated what happens when adjacent WZ NWs radially merge with each other by analyzing the evolution of XRD peaks for different amounts of radial overgrowth and merging. By preparing cross-sectional lamella samples we also analyzed the local crystal structure of partly merged NWs by transmission electron microscopy. Once individual NWs start to merge, the crystal structure of the merged segments is transformed progressively from initial pure WZ to a mixed WZ/ZB structure. The merging process is then modeled using a simple combinatorial approach, which predicts that merging of two or more WZ NWs will result in a mixed crystal structure containing WZ, ZB, and 4H. The existence large and relaxed segments of 4H structure within the merged NWs was confirmed by XRD, allowing us to accurately determine the lattice parameters of GaAs 4H. We compare the measured WZ and 4H unit cells with an ideal tetrahedron and find that both the polytypes are elongated in the c-axis and compressed in the a-axis compared to the geometrically converted cubic ZB unit cell. PMID:26494983

  12. Raman-scattering and optical studies of argon-etched GaAs surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, G.F.; Zallen, R. ); Epp, J.M.; Dillard, J.G. )

    1991-04-15

    We have studied the structual damage in low-energy argon-ion-bombarded (ion-etched) GaAs using Raman scattering and ultraviolet reflectivity. When combined with post-bombardment sequential chemical etching, the Raman results reveal a graded depth profile of the damage layer, with a nearly linear damage dropoff with depth. The total damage-layer thickness is about 600 A for high-fluence bombardment with 3.89-keV Ar{sup +} ions. The spectral effects produced by argon etching are very different from those produced by high-energy ion implantation. The longitudinal-optic Raman line seen for argon-etched GaAs is not shifted and broadened as in ion-implanted GaAs. More striking are the results of the reflectivity measurements. For argon-etched GaAs, the electronic interband peaks are both broadened and strongly red shifted relative to the crystal peaks; for ion-implanted GaAs, only the broadening occurs. Distinct nanocrystals, which account for the effects seen in ion-implanted GaAs, are evidently absent in argon-etched GaAs. Instead, the damage layer caused by argon etching appears to be characterized by a very high density of point defects, which previous work suggests may be arsenic vacancies.

  13. Computational study of the Effect of Sulfur Passivation on GaAs Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ted; Laghuvamarapu, Ramesh; Yan, Liang; You, Wei; Huffaker, Diana; Ratsch, Christian

    2013-03-01

    We report DFT calculations that study the effect of sulfur passivation ((NH4)2 S and octanethiol) on GaAs surfaces. Sulfur passivation of GaAs solar cells is an area of interest, as it improves the I-V characteristics of heterojunctions by decreasing the density of surface states. We elucidate the fundamental mechanism of sulfur passivation on GaAs by showing how the sulfur species react with different reconstructed GaAs (100) and (111B) surfaces. Using state of the art hybrid functionals to calculate band structures and density of states, we find that a reconstructed GaAs surface does not have mid-gap surface states. Therefore, we show that sulfur passivation does not reduce surface states on reconstructed surfaces. We also study arsenic vacancies and adatoms on these surfaces to determine the energies of creating these imperfections. They lead to mid-gap surface states that are shown to be energetically plausible in certain GaAs surface reconstruction. We study the most energetically favorable surface reconstructions with As vacancies and show how sulfur passivation plays a role in removing surface states. These results will guide in the selection of passivating agents for GaAs solar cells and lead to a better understanding of such systems. We appreciate the support of the NSF, Grant Number: DMR-1125931

  14. Ribbon growth of single crystal GaAs for solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, T. A.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mazelsky, R.

    1981-11-01

    This report describes the results of a 3-year effort to develop GaAs dendritic web for high-efficiency solar cells. A unique GaAs ribbon growth system was developed by applying dentritic-web growth techniques to a liquid-encapsulated GaAs system. Computerized thermal modelling and experimental modification produced a thermal geometry from which 48 GaAs webs were grown. These crystals had a multidendrite and/or faceted morphology rather than typical web morphology. Crystal quality improved as thermal geometry, growth techniques, dendrite seeds, and melt chemistry were optimized during the course of the program; however, conventional web morphology was not achieved. Analyses of chemical modification, crystal-growth characteristics, and orientation relationships suggest that inherent materials properties of GaAs produce a typical web morphology under conventional web-growth conditions. Consequently, a simple transfer of Si web growth technology to our GaAs system was inadequate for the growth of high quality GaAs web.

  15. Relationship between planar GaAs nanowire growth direction and substrate orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowdy, Ryan S.; Walko, Donald A.; Li, Xiuling

    2013-01-01

    Planar GaAs nanowires are epitaxially grown on GaAs substrates of various orientations, via the Au-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid mechanism using metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The nanowire geometry and growth direction are examined using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microdiffraction. A hypothesis relating the planar nanowire growth direction to the surface projections of <111> B crystal directions is proposed. GaAs planar nanowire growth on vicinal substrates is performed to test this hypothesis. Good agreement between the experimental results and the projection model is found.

  16. Arsenic ambient conditions preventing surface degradation of GaAs during capless annealing at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, C. H.; Kondo, K.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in surface morphology and composition caused by capless annealing of GaAs were studied as a function of annealing temperature, T(GaAs), and the ambient arsenic pressure controlled by the temperature, T(As), of an arsenic source in the annealing ampul. It was established that any degradation of the GaAs surface morphology could be completely prevented, providing that T(As) was more than about 0.315T(GaAs) + 227 C. This empirical relationship is valid up to the melting point temperature of GaAs (1238 C), and it may be useful in some device-processing steps.

  17. Sulfur-mediated palladium catalyst immobilized on a GaAs surface

    SciTech Connect

    Shimoda, M.; Konishi, T.; Nishiwaki, N.; Yamashita, Y.; Yoshikawa, H.

    2012-06-15

    We present a hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study on the preparation process of palladium catalyst immobilized on an S-terminated GaAs(100) surface. It is revealed that Pd(II) species are reduced on the GaAs surface and yield Pd nanoparticles during the process of Pd immobilization and the subsequent heat treatment. A comparison with the results on GaAs without S-termination suggests that the reduction of Pd is promoted by hydroxy groups during the Pd immobilization and by S during the heat treatment.

  18. The electronic and optical properties of quaternary GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y alloy lattice-matched to GaAs: a first-principles study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    First-principles calculations based on density functional theory have been performed for the quaternary GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y alloy lattice-matched to GaAs. Using the state-of-the-art computational method with the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) hybrid functional, electronic, and optical properties were obtained, including band structures, density of states (DOSs), dielectric function, absorption coefficient, refractive index, energy loss function, and reflectivity. It is found that the lattice constant of GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y alloy with y/x =1.718 can match to GaAs. With the incorporation of N and Bi into GaAs, the band gap of GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y becomes small and remains direct. The calculated optical properties indicate that GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y has higher optical efficiency as it has less energy loss than GaAs. In addition, it is also found that the electronic and optical properties of GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y alloy can be further controlled by tuning the N and Bi compositions in this alloy. These results suggest promising applications of GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y quaternary alloys in optoelectronic devices. PMID:25337061

  19. The electronic and optical properties of quaternary GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y alloy lattice-matched to GaAs: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoyang; Li, Dechun; Zhao, Shengzhi; Li, Guiqiu; Yang, Kejian

    2014-01-01

    First-principles calculations based on density functional theory have been performed for the quaternary GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y alloy lattice-matched to GaAs. Using the state-of-the-art computational method with the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) hybrid functional, electronic, and optical properties were obtained, including band structures, density of states (DOSs), dielectric function, absorption coefficient, refractive index, energy loss function, and reflectivity. It is found that the lattice constant of GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y alloy with y/x =1.718 can match to GaAs. With the incorporation of N and Bi into GaAs, the band gap of GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y becomes small and remains direct. The calculated optical properties indicate that GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y has higher optical efficiency as it has less energy loss than GaAs. In addition, it is also found that the electronic and optical properties of GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y alloy can be further controlled by tuning the N and Bi compositions in this alloy. These results suggest promising applications of GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y quaternary alloys in optoelectronic devices.

  20. Effect of high energy proton irradiation on InAs/GaAs quantum dots: Enhancement of photoluminescence efficiency (up to {approx}7 times) with minimum spectral signature shift

    SciTech Connect

    Sreekumar, R.; Mandal, A.; Gupta, S.K.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2011-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Authors demonstrate enhancement in photoluminescence efficiency (7 times) in single layer InAs/GaAs quantum dots using proton irradiation without any post-annealing treatment via either varying proton energy (a) or fluence (b). The increase in PL efficiency is explained by a proposed model before (c) and after irradiation (d). Highlights: {yields} Proton irradiation improved PL efficiency in InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). {yields} Proton irradiation favoured defect and strain annihilation in InAs/GaAs QDs. {yields} Reduction in defects/non-radiative recombination improved PL efficiency. {yields} Protons could be used to improve PL efficiency without spectral shift. {yields} QD based devices will be benefited by this technique to improve device performance. -- Abstract: We demonstrate 7-fold increase of photoluminescence efficiency in GaAs/(InAs/GaAs) quantum dot hetero-structure, employing high energy proton irradiation, without any post-annealing treatment. Protons of energy 3-5 MeV with fluence in the range (1.2-7.04) x 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2} were used for irradiation. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed crystalline quality of the GaAs cap layer improves on proton irradiation. Photoluminescence study conducted at low temperature and low laser excitation density proved the presence of non-radiative recombination centers in the system which gets eliminated on proton irradiation. Shift in photoluminescence emission towards higher wavelength upon irradiation substantiated the reduction in strain field existed between GaAs cap layer and InAs/GaAs quantum dots. The enhancement in PL efficiency is thus attributed to the annihilation of defects/non-radiative recombination centers present in GaAs cap layer as well as in InAs/GaAs quantum dots induced by proton irradiation.

  1. Antireflection coatings for GaAs solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexieva, Z. I.; Nenova, Z. S.; Bakardjieva, V. S.; Milanova, M. M.; Dikov, Hr M.

    2010-04-01

    A double-layer structure of Al2O3 over ZrO2 film is studied. Minimization of the average weighted reflectance is carried out to optimize the thickness of the two layers in the antireflection coating. An optimal value of 2.17% for the weighted average reflection is estimated. The optimal thicknesses of the layers are 49 nm for the bottom and 45 nm for the top layer. Low temperature spin coating technique is used to deposit ZrO2 and Al2O3 films from sol gel solutions on polished silicon wafers, GaAs multilayer heterostructures and AlGaAs/GaAs solar cells. The density of the short-circuit photocurrent increases from 25 mA.cm-2 for solar cells without an antireflection coating to 36 mA.cm-2 for those with a double layer coating.

  2. The binding energies of a bulged GaAs nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, A.; Estabar, Th.; Safarpour, Gh.; Moradi, M.

    2014-12-01

    As it is well-known the electronic structure of the semiconductor nanostructures are so sensitive to alteration of confinement while the nanostructure morphology often determines the confinement. Accordingly existence of a bulge on the wire surface will affect the features of the nanowire. In the present work we consider an on-center hydrogenic donor impurity in a GaAs nanowire with bulge. The ground and first excited states energy levels as well as their binding energies are calculated as functions of bulge and nanowire radius. It is found that both the energy levels and binding energies are strongly influenced by the bulge size for ultrafine nanowires. For large wire radii the effects of bulge existence is trivial and the electronic properties of the system approach to those of the simple nanowire.

  3. Morphology of thermal oxide layers on GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beserman, R.; Schwarz, S. A.; Hwang, D. M.; Chen, C. Y.

    1991-08-01

    The oxidation process of pure GaAs has been studied with use of several complementary experimental techniques: Raman scattering, electrical conductivity, transmission electron microscopy, and secondary-ion mass spectrometry. The morphology of the oxide layer and the oxide-GaAs interface evolve as a function of oxidation time. A high density of well-oriented As microcrystallites penetrates into the substrate, forming a conductive interfacial layer in the early stages of the oxidation process. After longer oxidation times, when the Raman As intensity and the interfacial conductivity are reduced, As is distributed into the oxide layer, forming crystallites that are no longer well oriented. Simultaneously, the crystalline gallium oxide breaks up to into microcrystallites that could provide channels for the outdiffusion of As. From the experimental evidence, we deduce that the interfacial density of crystalline As is reduced for long oxidation times.

  4. High gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches: Switch longevity

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, G.M.; Zutavern, F.J.; Mar, A.

    1998-07-01

    Optically activated, high gain GaAs switches are being tested for many different pulsed power applications that require long lifetime (longevity). The switches have p and n contact metallization (with intentional or unintentional dopants) configured in such a way as to produce p-i-n or n-i-n switches. The longevity of the switches is determined by circuit parameters and by the ability of the contacts to resist erosion. This paper will describe how the switches performed in test-beds designed to measure switch longevity. The best longevity was achieved with switches made with diffused contacts, achieving over 50 million pulses at 10 A and over 2 million pulses at 80 A.

  5. Effect of illumination uniformity on GaAs photoconductive switches

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, W.R.; Mu, L. . Lab. for Laser Energetics)

    1994-12-01

    The dynamic behavior of a GaAs photoconductive switch was studied with an electro-optic imaging system during the first 2 ns after optical illumination. The switch behavior changed as a function of the spatial distribution of the optical illumination. Symmetric and asymmetric illumination schemes were investigated experimentally with their electro-optic imaging system. The electric fields were significantly enhanced in the regions of low photo-carrier density. Approximately 1 ns after illumination the simple longitudinal variation of the electric field gave way to nonuniform transverse structure. The experimental results were modeled by treating the switch as an integral part of a transmission line consisting of discrete elements. The experimental results matched the predictions of the transmission-line model in terms of the electric-field enhancements and efficiency.

  6. Adsorption of Te on GaAs(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobil, Y.; Cibert, J.; Saminadayar, K.; Tatarenko, S.

    1989-04-01

    We present a diagram of the GaAs-Te surface, precursor of the molecular beam epitaxy of CdTe on GaAs(100), as a function of As/Ga stoichiometry and Te coverage. In particular, three new GaAs-Te superstructures are reported: (2 × 1), "Te-poor" (6 × 1) and a (∗ × 3) incommensurate phase. Conditions of formation of the different surfaces are detailed and these surfaces are characterized using reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). On these surfaces, tellurium can be adsorbed on different sites: the Te3d {5}/{2} XPS line reveals three components located at 573.0, 572.6 and 572.1 eV which we attribute to Te mainly bound to As, to Ga and to adsorbed Te respectively, the relative population of these states depending on the precursor surface.

  7. XPS and AFM Study of GaAs Surface Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras-Guerrero, R.; Wallace, R. M.; Aguirre-Francisco, S.; Herrera-Gomez, A.; Lopez-Lopez, M.

    2008-11-13

    Obtaining smooth and atomically clean surfaces is an important step in the preparation of a surface for device manufacturing. In this work different processes are evaluated for cleaning a GaAs surface. A good surface cleaning treatment is that which provides a high level of uniformity and controllability of the surface. Different techniques are useful as cleaning treatments depending on the growth process to be used. The goal is to remove the oxygen and carbon contaminants and then form a thin oxide film to protect the surface, which is easy to remove later with thermal desorption mechanism like molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) with minimal impact to the surface. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were used to characterize the structure of the surface, the composition, as well as detect oxygen and carbon contaminant on the GaAs surface. This study consists in two parts. The first part the surface was subjected to different chemical treatments. The chemical solutions were: (a)H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:H{sub 2}O{sub 2}:H{sub 2}O(4:1:100), (b) HCl: H{sub 2}O(1:3), (c)NH{sub 4}OH 29%. The treatments (a) and (b) reduced the oxygen on the surface. Treatment (c) reduces carbon contamination. In the second part we made MOS devices on the surfaces treated. They were characterized by CV and IV electrical measurements. They show frequency dispersion.

  8. A first principles study of the lattice stability of diamond-structure semiconductors under intense laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Shiquan; Zhao Jianling; Cheng Xinlu

    2013-01-14

    Using density-functional linear-response theory, we calculated the phonon dispersion curves for the diamond structural elemental semiconductors of Ge, C and zinc-blende structure semiconductors of GaAs, InSb at different electronic temperatures. We found that the transverse-acoustic phonon frequencies of C and Ge become imaginary as the electron temperature is elevated, which means the lattices of C and Ge become unstable under intense laser irradiation. These results are very similar with previous theoretical and experimental results for Si. For GaAs and InSb, not only can be obtained the similar results for their transverse-acoustic modes, but also their LO-TO splitting gradually decreases as the electronic temperature is increased. It means that the electronic excitation weakens the strength of the ionicity of ionic crystal under intense laser irradiation.

  9. High-power question - Will diamonds be the next GaAs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manz, Barry

    1988-05-01

    It is shown that, due to the outstanding properties of diamond material, diamond technology offers much promise for microwave power generation. For example, diamond exhibits high dielectric breakdown voltage (10 to the 7th V, 50 times that of conventional semiconductors such as GaAs), high thermal conductivity (20 W/cm per C, which is about four times that of Cu), a low dielectric constant (5.5, half that of GaAs), and high saturated carrier velocity (2.7 times that of GaAs, Si, or InP). Moreover, unlike GaAs, Si, or InP, the saturated carrier velocity of diamond maintains its high rate in electric fields of increasing intensity. However, the process of growing pure thin-film material is still at experimental stages. The approaches used in growing diamond by the laboratories in the U.S, USSR, and Japan are discussed.

  10. Fracture strength of GaAs solar cells as a function of manufacturing process steps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Leipold, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    Fracture of single crystal GaAs substrate during the solar cell processing is an important factor in solar cell yield and cost. Fracture mechanics technique was utilized to evaluate cell cracking characteristics and changes in fracture strength of GaAs solar cells in a present state-of-the-art of manufacturing process for GaAs solar cells from wafer to complete cell of a typical production line. Considerable change in the fracture strength of GaAs solar cells as a function of cell processing was found. The strength data were described by Weibull statistical analysis and can be interpreted with the change of flaw distribution of each of the manufacturing process steps.

  11. Consideration of velocity saturation in the design of GaAs varactor diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, Thomas W.; Peatman, William C. B.; Zimmermann, Ruediger; Zimmermann, Ralph

    1993-01-01

    The design of GaAs Schottky barrier varactor diodes is reconsidered in light of the recent discovery of velocity saturation effects in these devices. Experimental data is presented which confirms that improved multiplier performance can be achieved.

  12. GaAs monolithic R.F. modules for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauley, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Monolithic GaAs UHF components for use in SARSAT Emergency Distress beacons are under development by Microwave Monolithics, Inc., Simi Valley, CA. The components include a bi-phase modulator, driver amplifier, and a 5 watt power amplifier.

  13. Direct Observation of the E_ Resonant State in GaAs1-xBix

    SciTech Connect

    Alberi, Kirstin; Beaton, Daniel A.; Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2015-12-15

    Bismuth-derived resonant states with T2 symmetry are detected in the valence band of GaAs1-xBix using electromodulated reflectance. A doublet is located 42 meV below the valence band edge of GaAs that is split by local strain around isolated Bi impurity atoms. A transition associated with a singlet is also observed just above the GaAs spin orbit split-off band. These states move deeper into the valence band with increasing Bi concentration but at a much slower rate than the well-known giant upward movement of the valence band edge in GaAs1-xBix. Our results provide key new insights for clarifying the mechanisms by which isovalent impurities alter the bandstructure of the host semiconductor.

  14. First principles study of bismuth alloying effects in GaAs saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Li, Dechun; Yang, Ming; Zhao, Shengzhi; Cai, Yongqing; Feng, Yuanping

    2012-05-01

    First principles hybrid functional calculations have been carried out to study electronic properties of GaAs with Bi alloying effects. It is found that the doping of Bi into GaAs reduces the bandgap due to the intraband level repulsions between Bi induced states and host states, and the Bi-related impurity states originate from the hybridization of Bi-6p and its nearest As-4p orbitals. With the increase of Bi concentration in GaAs, the bandgap decreases monotonously. The calculated optical properties of the undoped and Bi-doped GaAs are similar except the shift toward lower energy of absorption edge and main absorption peaks with Bi doping. These results suggest a promising application of GaBi(x)As(1-x) alloy as semiconductor saturable absorber in Q-switched or mode-locked laser.

  15. Free-standing GaAs nanowires growth on ITO glass by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, D.; Tang, X. H.; Olivier, A.; Li, X. Q.

    2015-04-01

    GaAs nanowires (NWs) are directly grown on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD), using Au nanoparticles (NPs) as catalyst. By functionalization of the ITO glass and optimization of the Au NPs deposition time, the Au NPs area density deposited on the ITO glass reaches 92 NP μm-2. Uniform and free-standing GaAs NWs without kinking or worm-shape defects have been grown at 430 °C. More than 96% of the NWs have tilt angles larger than 45° with respect of the substrate. The effects of the growth temperature and the Au NPs size on the GaAs NWs growth rate, the NW diameter, and tapering effect are investigated. These results of GaAs NWs growth are the essential step for understanding III-V NWs integration on transparent conductive oxide coated low cost substrate and developing high efficiencyhybrid solar cells.

  16. Accelerated life testing and temperature dependence of device characteristics in GaAs CHFET devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallegos, M.; Leon, R.; Vu, D. T.; Okuno, J.; Johnson, A. S.

    2002-01-01

    Accelerated life testing of GaAs complementary heterojunction field effect transistors (CHFET) was carried out. Temperature dependence of single and synchronous rectifier CHFET device characteristics were also obtained.

  17. Epitaxial thin film GaAs solar cells using OM-CVD techniques. [Organometallics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.; Wang, K. L.; Yeh, Y. C. M.

    1981-01-01

    A new approach has been initiated at JPL to fabricate thin-film, high efficiency GaAs solar cells on low-cost, single-crystal Si substrates having a thin CVD interlayer of Ge to minimize the lattice and thermal expansion mismatch. For initial experiments, n(+)/p GaAs cells were grown by OM-CVD on single-crystal GaAs and Ge wafers. Details of the growths and performance results will be presented. Subsequently, a combined epitaxial structure of OM-CVD GaAs on a strongly adherent Ge interlayer on (100) Si was grown. This is the first report of the successful growth of this composite structure. Low module costs projected by JPL SAMICS methodology calculations and the potential for 400-600W/kg space solar arrays will be discussed.

  18. Inversion of spin dependent photocurrent at Fe3O4/modulation doped GaAs heterointerfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirahata, Y.; Wada, E.; Itoh, M.; Taniyama, T.

    2011-04-01

    We demonstrate inversion of the spin dependent photocurrent across an Fe3O4/modulation doped GaAs interface under optical spin orientation condition. The spin dependent photocurrent for fully epitaxial Fe3O4/GaAs and Fe/GaAs interfaces clearly show the opposite magnetic field dependence, where the spin filtering efficiency for the Fe3O4/GaAs decreases with increasing magnetic field. The results clearly indicate that the spin polarization of the Fe3O4 layer has the opposite sign to that of Fe at the Fermi energy, consistent with theoretical predictions, and the result is a consequence of the atomically flat Fe3O4/GaAs interface we obtained.

  19. Performance analysis of undoped cylindrical gate all around (GAA) MOSFET at subthreshold regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, B.; Pradhan, K. P.; Dash, S.; Mishra, G. P.; Sahu, P. K.; Mohapatra, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    In this work the sensitivity of process parameters like channel length (L), channel thickness (tSi), and gate work function (φM) on various performance metrics of an undoped cylindrical gate all around (GAA) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) are systematically analyzed. Undoped GAA MOSFET is a radical invention as it introduces a new direction for transistor scaling. In conventional MOSFET, generally the channel doping concentration is very high to provide high on-state current, but in contrary it causes random dopant fluctuation and threshold voltage variation. So, the undoped nature of GAA MOSFET solves the above complications. Hence, we have analyzed the electrical characteristics as well as the analog/RF performances of undoped GAA MOSFET through Sentaurus device simulator.

  20. Growth and characterization of molecular beam epitaxial GaAs layers on porous silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. L.; Liu, J. K.; Sadwick, L.; Wang, K. L.; Kao, Y. C.

    1987-01-01

    GaAs layers have been grown on porous silicon (PS) substrates with good crystallinity by molecular beam epitaxy. In spite of the surface irregularity of PS substrates, no surface morphology deterioration was observed on epitaxial GaAs overlayers. A 10-percent Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy minimum channeling yield for GaAs-on-PS layers as compared to 16 percent for GaAs-on-Si layers grown under the same condition indicates a possible improvement of crystallinity when GaAs is grown on PS. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the dominant defects in the GaAs-on-PS layers are microtwins and stacking faults, which originate from the GaAs/PS interface. GaAs is found to penetrate into the PS layers. n-type GaAs/p-type PS heterojunction diodes were fabricated with good rectifying characteristics.

  1. Neuropathology in respiratory-related motoneurons in young Pompe (Gaa(-/-)) mice.

    PubMed

    Turner, Sara M F; Hoyt, Aaron K; ElMallah, Mai K; Falk, Darin J; Byrne, Barry J; Fuller, David D

    2016-06-15

    Respiratory and/or lingual dysfunction are among the first motor symptoms in Pompe disease, a disorder resulting from absence or dysfunction of the lysosomal enzyme acid α-glucosidase (GAA). Here, we histologically evaluated the medulla, cervical and thoracic spinal cords in 6 weeks old asymptomatic Pompe (Gaa(-/-)) mice to determine if neuropathology in respiratory motor regions has an early onset. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining indicated glycogen accumulation was exclusively occurring in Gaa(-/-) hypoglossal, mid-cervical and upper thoracic motoneurons. Markers of DNA damage (Tunel) and ongoing apoptosis (Cleaved Caspase 3) did not co-localize with PAS staining, but were prominent in a medullary region which included the nucleus tractus solitarius, and also in the thoracic spinal dorsal horn. We conclude that respiratory-related motoneurons are particularly susceptible to GAA deficiency and that neuronal glycogen accumulation and neurodegeneration may occur independently in early stage disease. The data support early therapeutic intervention in Pompe disease. PMID:26921786

  2. Enhancing optical absorption in InP and GaAs utilizing profile etching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Fatemi, Navid S.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    The current state of profile etching in GaAs and InP is summarized, including data on novel geometries attainable as a function of etchant temperature, composition, and rate; substrate orientation; carrier concentration; and oxide thickness between substrate and photoresist. V-grooved solar cells were manufactured with both GaAs and InP, and the improved optical absorption was demonstrated. Preferred parameters for various applications are listed and discussed.

  3. New dynamic FET logic and serial memory circuits for VLSI GaAs technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldin, A. G.

    1991-01-01

    The complexity of GaAs field effect transistor (FET) very large scale integration (VLSI) circuits is limited by the maximum power dissipation while the uniformity of the device parameters determines the functional yield. In this work, digital GaAs FET circuits are presented that eliminate the DC power dissipation and reduce the area to 50% of that of the conventional static circuits. Its larger tolerance to device parameter variations results in higher functional yield.

  4. Molecular beam epitaxial growth and structural characterization of ZnS on (001) GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benz, R. G., II; Huang, P. C.; Stock, S. R.; Summers, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of surface nucleation processes on the quality of ZnS layers grown on (001) GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy is reported. Reflection high energy electron diffraction indicated that nucleation at high temperatures produced more planar surfaces than nucleation at low temperatures, but the crystalline quality as assessed by X-ray double crystal diffractometry is relatively independent of nucleation temperature. A critical factor in layer quality was the initial roughness of the GaAs surfaces.

  5. Basic mechanisms study for MIS solar cell structures on GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonash, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    The solar cell structure examined is the MIS configuration on (n) GaAs. The metal room temperature oxide/(n) GaAs materials system was studied. Metals with electronegativities varying from 2.4 (Au) to 1.5 (Al) were used as the upper electrode. The thinnest metallization that did not interfere with the measurement techniques (by introducing essentially transmission line series resistance problems across a device) was used. Photovoltaic response was not optimized.

  6. Ferromagnetic GaAs structures with single Mn delta-layer fabricated using laser deposition.

    PubMed

    Danilov, Yuri A; Vikhrova, Olga V; Kudrin, Alexey V; Zvonkov, Boris N

    2012-06-01

    The new technique combining metal-organic chemical vapor epitaxy with laser ablation of solid targets was used for fabrication of ferromagnetic GaAs structures with single Mn delta-doped layer. The structures demonstrated anomalous Hall effect, planar Hall effect, negative and anisotropic magnetoresistance in temperature range of 10-35 K. In GaAs structures with only single Mn delta-layer (without additional 2D hole gas channel or quantum well) ferromagnetism was observed for the first time.

  7. Possibility of incongruous interface behavior of In on GaAs(110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, K. K.; Lindau, I.

    1985-11-01

    Photoemission spectroscopy has been used to study the Schottky-barrier formation of In on n- and p-type GaAs(110) interfaces. Our result is different from that reported by R. R. Daniels et al. [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2(2), 831 (1984)]. It is suggested that this incongruous behavior of In on GaAs(110) is due to the kinetics of interface defect formation. Various experimental details which may affect the kinetics are also discussed.

  8. Electron transfer and capture dynamics in ZnSe quantum wells grown on GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Dongol, A.; Wagner, H. P.

    2013-12-04

    We investigate the transfer and capture dynamics of electrons in phase coherent photorefractive ZnSe quantum wells grown on GaAs using degenerate three-beam four-wave-mixing. The measurements reveal electron capture times by the quantum well in the order of several tens of picoseconds and a transit time of approximately 5 picoseconds from the GaAs substrate through the ZnMgSe barrier.

  9. High quality superconducting NbN thin films on GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsili, Francesco; Gaggero, Alessandro; Li, Lianhe H.; Surrente, Alessandro; Leoni, Roberto; Lévy, Francis; Fiore, Andrea

    2009-09-01

    A very promising way to increase the detection efficiency of nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs) consists in integrating them with advanced optical structures such as distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) and optical waveguides. This requires transferring the challenging SSPD technology from the usual substrates, i.e. sapphire and MgO, to an optical substrate like GaAs, on which DBRs and waveguides can be easily obtained. Therefore, we optimized the deposition process of few-nm thick superconducting NbN films on GaAs and AlAs/GaAs-based DBRs at low temperatures (substrate temperature TS = 400 °C), in order to prevent As evaporation. NbN films ranging from 150 to 3 nm in thickness were then deposited on single-crystal MgO, GaAs, MgO-buffered GaAs and DBRs by current-controlled DC magnetron sputtering (planar, circular, balanced configuration) of Nb in an Ar+N2 plasma. 5.5 nm thick NbN films on GaAs exhibit TC = 10.7 K, ΔTC = 1.1 K and RRR = 0.7. The growth of such high quality thin NbN films on GaAs and DBRs has never been reported before.

  10. Enhanced light absorption in GaAs solar cells with internal Bragg reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, S. P.; Vernon, S. M.; Sanfacon, M. M.; Mastrovito, A.

    The use of epitaxial multilayer dielectric mirrors (Bragg reflectors) as back-surface reflectors in thin-film GaAs solar cells on GaAs and silicon substrates is investigated. Al0.3Ga0.9As/Al0.85Ga0.15As Bragg reflectors were grown by low-pressure MOCVD on GaAs substrates and shown to exhibit near-ideal optical reflectance and structural perfection. Thin GaAs solar cells grown on Bragg reflectors showed increases in short-circuit current (0.5 to 1.0 mA/sq cm) and efficiency (0.7 percentage points) relative to cells without back reflectors. Efficiencies of 24.7 percent at one sun AM1.5 were measured for GaAs cells only 2 microns thick on Bragg reflectors. In addition to the optical enhancements, Bragg reflectors also appear to improve the defect structure of GaAs-on-Si solar cells. This approach should lead to improved efficiency for GaAs-on-Si solar cells and improved radiation resistance on GaAs cells.

  11. Investigation of the optical and electrical properties of p-type porous GaAs structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghrouni, H.; Missaoui, A.; Hannachi, R.; Beji, L.

    2013-12-01

    Porous GaAs layers have been formed by electrochemical anodic etching of (1 0 0) heavily doped p-type GaAs substrate in a HF:C2H5OH solution. The surface morphology of porous GaAs has been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Nano-structural nature of the porous layer has been demonstrated by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and confirmed by AFM. An estimation of the main size of the GaAs crystallites obtained from effective mass theory and based on PL data was close to the lowest value obtained from the AFM results. The porous p-GaAs samples are characterised by spectroscopic ellipsometry and modulation spectroscopy techniques. The objective of this study is to determine the porosity, refractive index, and thickness. The porosity of GaAs determined by atomic force microscopy confirmed by the value obtained from the spectroscopic ellipsometry. In fact the current-voltage I(V) characteristics of metal-semiconductor Au/p-GaAs are investigated and compared with Au/p-porous GaAs structures. From the forward bias I(V) characteristics of these devices, the main electrical parameters such as ideality factor, barrier height, and series resistance have been determined.

  12. Antireflective disordered subwavelength structure on GaAs using spin-coated Ag ink mask.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Chan Il; Kwon, Ji Hye; Jang, Sung Jun; Lee, Yong Tak

    2012-08-13

    We present a simple, cost-effective, large scale fabrication technique for antireflective disordered subwavelength structures (d-SWSs) on GaAs substrate by Ag etch masks formed using spin-coated Ag ink and subsequent inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching process. The antireflection characteristics of GaAs d-SWSs rely on their geometric profiles, which were controlled by adjusting the distribution of Ag etch masks via changing the concentration of Ag atoms and the sintering temperature of Ag ink as well as the ICP etching conditions. The fabricated GaAs d-SWSs drastically reduced the reflection loss compared to that of bulk GaAs (>30%) in the wavelength range of 300-870 nm. The most desirable GaAs d-SWSs for practical solar cell applications exhibited a solar-weighted reflectance (SWR) of 2.12%, which is much lower than that of bulk GaAs (38.6%), and its incident angle-dependent SWR was also investigated.

  13. Progress towards high efficiency polycrystalline thin-film GaAs AMOS solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Y. C. M.; Ernest, F. P.; Stirn, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    Results of Ge film recrystallization using focused laser beams and GaAs film growth on such layers in the making of high efficiency thin-film AMOS solar cells are discussed. Since a conversion efficiency of 14% was obtained for an AMOS cell fabricated on sliced bulk polycrystalline GaAs, high efficiency cells are being developed by chemically vapor-depositing GaAs films on previously recrystallized evaporated Ge films to minimize the grain boundary (GB) effects. Schottky barrier solar cells made on sliced polycrystalline GaAs wafers were studied to investigate the effects of grain boundaries on cell properties and the potential efficiency of GaAs thin-film cells. Ge film recrystallization and the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of the 2 to 3 micron thick GaAs films are described. AMOS solar cells with 100 Angstrom thick Ag metallization were made on CVD GaAs/recrystallized Ge/W substrates with an energy conversion efficiency of 8%.

  14. Deficiency of RecA-dependent RecFOR and RecBCD pathways causes increased instability of the (GAA*TTC)n sequence when GAA is the lagging strand template.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Laura M; Chutake, Yogesh K; Rindler, Paul M; Bidichandani, Sanjay I

    2007-01-01

    The most common mutation in Friedreich ataxia is an expanded (GAA*TTC)n sequence, which is highly unstable in human somatic cells and in the germline. The mechanisms responsible for this genetic instability are poorly understood. We previously showed that cloned (GAA*TTC)n sequences replicated in Escherichia coli are more unstable when GAA is the lagging strand template, suggesting erroneous lagging strand synthesis as the likely mechanism for the genetic instability. Here we show that the increase in genetic instability when GAA serves as the lagging strand template is seen in RecA-deficient but not RecA-proficient strains. We also found the same orientation-dependent increase in instability in a RecA+ temperature-sensitive E. coli SSB mutant strain (ssb-1). Since stalling of replication is known to occur within the (GAA*TTC)n sequence when GAA is the lagging strand template, we hypothesized that genetic stability of the (GAA*TTC)n sequence may require efficient RecA-dependent recombinational restart of stalled replication forks. Consistent with this hypothesis, we noted significantly increased instability when GAA was the lagging strand template in strains that were deficient in components of the RecFOR and RecBCD pathways. Our data implicate defective processing of stalled replication forks as a mechanism for genetic instability of the (GAA*TTC)n sequence. PMID:17932052

  15. Electronic properties of deep-level defects in proton irradiated AlGaAs-GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, S. S.

    1981-01-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy and capacitance voltage techniques as well as analysis of the forward current voltage (I-V) characteristics and SEM-EIC data were carried out for proton irradiated GaAs solar cells over a wide range of proton energies and proton fluences. Defect and recombination parameters such as defect energy levels and density, carrier capture cross sections and lifetimes as well as diffusion lengths in the undoped n-GaAs LPE layers were determined. Good correlation between these defect parameters and solar cell performance parameters was obtained for GaAs solar cells irradiated by 200 and 290 KeV protons. It was found that 200 to 290 KeV protons will produce the most defects and damages to the GaAs solar cell structure used. The influence of the low temperature (200 to 400 C) periodic thermal annealing on the deep level defects and the performance of the 200 KeV proton irradiated cells is discussed.

  16. Study of strain boundary conditions and GaAs buffer sizes in InGaAs quantum dots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oyafuso, F.; Klimeck, G.; Boykin, T. B.; Bowen, R. C.; Allmen, P. von

    2003-01-01

    NEMO 3-D has been developed for the simulation of electronic structure in self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots on GaAs substrates. Typical self-assembled quantum dots in that material system contain about 0.5 to 1 million atoms. Effects of strain by the surrounding GaAs buffer modify the electronic structure inside the quantum dot significantly and a large GaAs buffer must be included in the strain and electronic structure.

  17. Aging and detergent washing effects of the surface of (001) and (110) GaAs passivated with hexadecanethiol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moumanis, Kh.; Ding, X.; Dubowski, J. J.; Frost, E. H.

    2006-08-01

    We report on aging and detergent washing effects in GaAs wafers passivated with hexadecanethiol (HDT) [HS(CH2)15CH3]. The evolution of the photoluminescence (PL) signal from GaAs was measured at room temperature as a function of time, up to 1000h, for thiolated (001) GaAs that was solvent cleaned and etched using standard procedures, and for thiolated (110) GaAs that was obtained by cleaving in air. For 2h of thiolation time, the decay of the PL signal from (001) GaAs and (110) GaAs could be fitted, respectively, with double and single exponential functions. This indicates that at least two different types of non-adiative recombination centers (NRRC) form on the (001) surface. The overall density of surface states formed on (110) GaAs is significantly lower than those on (001) GaAs. A single exponential decay of the PL signal has been observed for 18h thiolated samples. The strong increase of the PL signal after detergent washing of (001) GaAs suggests that this treatment is effective in removal of some of the NRRC. The 19-fold enhancement of the PL signal, in comparison to that of the oxidized sample, has been obtained using the sample that, following the etching and detergent washing procedures, was thiolated with HDT.

  18. Effects of trigger laser pulse width on the jitter time of GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Gui, Huaimeng; Zhang, Lin; Ma, Cheng; Li, Mengxia; Xu, Ming; Wang, Luyi

    2013-07-01

    The effects of trigger laser pulse width on the jitter time of a GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) is investigated in the experiment. The laser is split into two optical beams by a cross grating to excite two 3 mm gap GaAs PCSSs in parallel at the same time. This work reveals that the jitter time of the GaAs PCSS is reduced as the trigger laser pulse width decreases. Our results overcome a significant obstacle that hinders the testing and theory of GaAs PCSSs in high-time-precision synchronous control.

  19. GaAs Substrates for High-Power Diode Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Georg; Berwian, Patrick; Buhrig, Eberhard; Weinert, Berndt

    GaAs substrate crystals with low dislocation density (Etch-Pit Density (EPD) < 500,^-2) and Si-doping ( ~10^18,^-3) are required for the epitaxial production of high-power diode-lasers. Large-size wafers (= 3 mathrm{in} -> >=3,) are needed for reducing the manufacturing costs. These requirements can be fulfilled by the Vertical Bridgman (VB) and Vertical Gradient Freeze (VGF) techniques. For that purpose we have developed proper VB/VGF furnaces and optimized the thermal as well as the physico-chemical process conditions. This was strongly supported by extensive numerical process simulation. The modeling of the VGF furnaces and processes was made by using a new computer code called CrysVUN++, which was recently developed in the Crystal Growth Laboratory in Erlangen.GaAs crystals with diameters of 2 and 3in were grown in pyrolytic Boron Nitride (pBN) crucibles having a small-diameter seed section and a conical part. Boric oxide was used to fully encapsulate the crystal and the melt. An initial silicon content in the GaAs melt of c (melt) = 3 x10^19,^-3 has to be used in order to achieve a carrier concentration of n = (0.8- 2) x10^18,^-3, which is the substrate specification of the device manufacturer of the diode-laser. The EPD could be reduced to values between 500,^-2 and 50,^-2 with a Si-doping level of 8 x10^17 to 1 x10^18,^-3. Even the 3in wafers have rather large dislocation-free areas. The lowest EPDs ( <100,^-2) are achieved for long seed wells of the crucible.

  20. Use of Irradiated Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1985-01-01

    The safety of irradiated foods is reviewed. Guidelines and regulations for processing irradiated foods are considered. The radiolytic products formed in food when it is irradiated and its wholesomeness is discussed. It is concluded that food irradiation processing is not a panacea for all problems in food processing but when properly used will serve the space station well.

  1. Differential etching behavior between semi-insulating and n-doped 4H-SiC in high-density SF{sub 6}/O{sub 2} inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Naoya

    2009-05-15

    The author investigated the etching characteristics of semi-insulating (SI) and n-doped (n-) 4H-SiC substrates at a high etch rate of about 2 {mu}m/min using high-density SF{sub 6}/O{sub 2} inductively coupled plasma. The etch rate of SI-SiC was found to be lower than that of n-SiC, and the etching profile of SI-SiC showed retrograde features with a larger sidewall angle and a rounder etched bottom compared to n-SiC. These characteristics are attributed to the difference in wafer heating and negative charging of the sidewall during plasma etching between both substrates. The temperature of n-SiC increases by radiative heating from the high-density plasma during etching because of the higher free-carrier absorption compared to SI-SiC. Furthermore, the negative charge buildup at the sidewall of SI-SiC becomes stronger because of the lower electrical conductivity compared to n-SiC.

  2. Detection of irradiated liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shengchu, Qi; Jilan, Wu; Rongyao, Yuan

    D-2,3-butanediol is formed by irradiation processes in irradiated liquors. This radiolytic product is not formed in unirradiated liquors and its presence can therefore be used to identify whether a liquor has been irradiated or not. The relation meso/dl≈1 for 2,3-butanediol and the amount present in irradiated liquors may therefore be used as an indication of the dose used in the irradiation.

  3. Effects of radiation of InP cells epitaxially grown on Si and GaAs substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Brinker, D. J.; Wilt, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    The properties of heteroepitaxial InP cells were determined both before and after 10-MeV proton irradiations. Numerical values, obtained for the diffusion and recombination components of the reverse saturation currents, were found to be consistent with the distribution of dislocations. The radiation resistance of the heteroepitaxial cells was significantly greater than that observed for n/p homoepitaxial InP cells. The carrier removal rate, obtained by C-V measurements, was 1800/cm for 10-MeV protons compared with 2.2/cm for 1-MeV electrons. The high carrier removal rate was found to have no significant effect on the cell's series resistance. It was concluded that the heteroepitaxial cell performance is dominated by the high dislocation density attributable to lattice constant mismatch. Although the efficiencies of the present cells are low, the recent achievement of 13.7 percent AM0 efficiencies using a GaAs substrate demonstrates the marked improvement that can be attained using more appropriate transition layers.

  4. Modeling and design of a capacitive microwave power sensor for X-band applications based on GaAs technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yan; Liao, Xiaoping

    2012-05-01

    In the work, modeling and design of a capacitive microwave power sensor employing the MEMS plate with clamped-clamped and free-free edges are presented. A novel analytical model of the sensor is established in detail. Through the function of mode shapes presented, the natural frequency can be solved by the Rayleigh-Ritz method. And based on the generalized coordinate introduced, the displacement of the plate with the irradiation of microwave power can be solved. Furthermore, the sensitivity for the power is also derived. Then the detailed consideration of the design and simulation of the microwave characteristic of the sensor are also presented. The linearly graded ground planar in the coplanar waveguide is employed to avoid step discontinuity. The fabrication process is compatible with GaAs MMIC technology completely, also described in detail. The measurement of the proposed sensor indicates a sensitivity of 7.2 fF W-1 and superior return and insertion losses (S11 and S21), less than -22.16 dB and -0.25 dB, respectively, up to 12 GHz, suggesting that it can be available for microwave power detecting in the X-band frequency range.

  5. A New GaAs Laser Radar for Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. T.; Stoliar, A. P.

    1973-01-01

    A special GaAs lidar using fiber coupled diode lasers was constructed for the purpose of measuring the extinction coefficient distribution within a large atmospheric volume at a rate compatible with atmospheric kinematics. The technique is based on taking backscatter signature ratios over spatial increments after the returns are normalized by pulse integration. Essential aspects of the lidar design are beam pulse power, repetition rate, detection system dynamic range and decay linearity. It was necessary to preclude the possibility of eye hazard under any operating conditions, including directly viewing the emitting aperture at close distance with a night-adapted eye. The electronic signal processing and control circuits were built to allow versatile operations. Extinction coefficient measurements were made in fog and clouds using a low-power laboratory version of the lidar, demonstrating feasibility. Data are presented showing range squared corrected backscatter profiles converted to extinction coefficient profiles, temporal signal fluctuations, and solar induced background noise. These results aided in the design of the lidar which is described. Functional tests of this lidar and the implications relevant to the design of a prototype model are discussed. This work was jointly sponsored by Sperry Rand Corporation under its Independent Research and Development program; the Air Force Avionics Laboratory, Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio; and the Naval Ammunition Depot, Crane, Indiana.

  6. GaAs quantum dot solar cell under concentrated radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sablon, K.; Little, J. W.; Hier, H.; Li, Y.; Mitin, V.; Vagidov, N.; Sergeev, A.

    2015-08-17

    Effects of concentrated solar radiation on photovoltaic performance are investigated in well-developed GaAs quantum dot (QD) solar cells with 1-Sun efficiencies of 18%–19%. In these devices, the conversion processes are enhanced by nanoscale potential barriers and/or AlGaAs atomically thin barriers around QDs, which prevent photoelectron capture to QDs. Under concentrated radiation, the short circuit current increases proportionally to the concentration and the open circuit voltage shows the logarithmic increase. In the range up to hundred Suns, the contributions of QDs to the photocurrent are proportional to the light concentration. The ideality factors of 1.1–1.3 found from the V{sub OC}-Sun characteristics demonstrate effective suppression of recombination processes in barrier-separated QDs. The conversion efficiency shows the wide maximum in the range of 40–90 Suns and reaches 21.6%. Detailed analysis of I-V-Sun characteristics shows that at low intensities, the series resistance decreases inversely proportional to the concentration and, at ∼40 Suns, reaches the plateau determined mainly by the front contact resistance. Improvement of contact resistance would increase efficiency to above 24% at thousand Suns.

  7. Fine structure of the Mn acceptor in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainov, I. V.; Debus, J.; Averkiev, N. S.; Dimitriev, G. S.; Sapega, V. F.; Lähderanta, E.

    2016-06-01

    We reveal the electronic level structure of the Mn acceptor, which consists of a valence-band hole bound to an Mn2 + ion, in presence of applied uniaxial stress and an external magnetic field in bulk GaAs. Resonant spin-flip Raman scattering is used to measure the g factor of the AMn0 center in the ground and excited states with the total angular momenta F =1 and F =2 and characterize the optical selection rules of the spin-flip transitions between these Mn-acceptor states. We determine the random stress fields near the Mn acceptor, the constant of the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction between the valence-band holes and the electrons of the inner Mn2 + shell as well as the deformation potential for the exchange energy. The p -d exchange energy, in particular, decreases significantly with increasing compressive stress. By combining the experimental Raman study with the developed theoretical model on the scattering efficiency, in which also the random local and external uniaxial stresses and magnetic field are considered, the fine structure of the Mn acceptor is determined in full detail.

  8. Planar GaAs diodes for THz frequency mixing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, William L.; Crowe, Thomas W.; Mattauch, Robert J.; Dossal, Hasan

    1992-01-01

    Schottky barrier diodes for terahertz applications are typically fabricated as a micron to sub-micron circular anode metallization on GaAs which is contacted with a sharp wire (whisker). This structure has the benefits of the simplicity of the fabrication of the diode chip, the minimal shunt capacitance of the whisker contact and the ability of the whisker wire to couple energy to the diode. However, whisker-contacted diodes are costly to assembly and difficult to qualify for space applications. Also, complex receiver systems which require many diodes are difficult to assemble. The objective of this paper is to discuss the advantages of planar Schottky diodes for high frequency receiver applications and to summarize the problems of advancing the planar technology to the terahertz frequency range. Section 2 will discuss the structure, fabrication and performance of state-of-the-art planar Schottky diodes. In Section 3 the problems of designing and fabricating planar diodes for terahertz frequency operation are discussed along with a number of viable solutions. Section 4 summarizes the need for further research and cooperation between diode designers and RF engineers.

  9. Droplet-mediated formation of embedded GaAs nanowires in MBE GaAs(1-x)Bi(x) films.

    PubMed

    Wood, Adam W; Collar, Kristen; Li, Jincheng; Brown, April S; Babcock, Susan E

    2016-03-18

    We have examined the morphology and composition of embedded nanowires that can be formed during molecular beam epitaxy of GaAs(1-x)Bi(x) using high angle annular dark field ('Z-contrast') imaging in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. Samples were grown in Ga-rich growth conditions on a stationary GaAs substrate. Ga-rich droplets are observed on the surface with lateral trails extending from the droplet in the [110] direction. Cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy of the film reveals epitaxial nanowire structures of composition ∼GaAs embedded in the GaAs(1-x)Bi(x) epitaxial layers. These nanowires extend from a surface droplet to the substrate at a shallow angle of inclination (∼4°). They typically are 4 μm long and have a lens-shaped cross section with major and minor axes dimensions of 800 and 120 nm. The top surface of the nanowires exhibits a linear trace in longitudinal cross-section, across which the composition change from ∼GaAs to GaAs(1-x)Bi(x) appears abrupt. The bottom surfaces of the nanowires appear wavy and the composition change appears to be graded over ∼25 nm. The droplets have phase separated into Ga- and Bi-rich components. A qualitative model is proposed in which Bi is gettered into Ga droplets, leaving Bi depleted nanowires in the wakes of the droplets as they migrate in one direction across the surface during GaAs(1-x)Bi(x) film growth.

  10. GaAs laser treatment of bilateral eyelid ptosis due to complication of botulinum toxin type A injection.

    PubMed

    Majlesi, Gholamreza

    2008-10-01

    The widespread use of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) for aesthetic procedures in recent years has brought about some unwanted side effects that, though they are self-limited, cause inconvenience for patients. Injection of this paralytic toxin inactivates target muscle(s) for many months and unwanted facial movements will thus be prevented. Spreading of the toxin beyond the target muscles sometimes involves muscles necessary for other facial movements, such as the levator palpebrae, inactivation of which causes upper eyelid ptosis. Mild cases resolve after 2-3 wk, but in severe cases the complication may last as long as the cosmetic results persist (3-4 mo), and until now there has been no medical intervention to accelerate healing. In an effort to achieve more rapid recovery from eyelid ptosis due to overdose of BTX-A in the glabella, laser therapy was used in a 46-year-old woman with bilateral eyelid ptosis (partial on the right side and complete on the left) 12 d after injection. A GaAs laser was used and the protocol consisted of irradiation of three points on the upper lid just above the levator, and one point on the corrugator muscle on each side in contact mode, with three sessions per week (wavelength 890 nm, peak power 94 W, output power 28 mW, pulse duration 200 ns, spot size 3 mm, pulse repetition rate 3000 Hz, duration of irradiation 40 sec per point, energy per point 1.1 J, total energy per session 8.8 J, dose 16 J/cm2). The result was complete recovery from ptosis after 10 sessions, but the cosmetic results persisted for several months. It appears that if this procedure has similar results in other case series, it will be an effective therapeutic option to treat this complication.

  11. Piezobirefringence effect in GaAs disks subjected to diametrical compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Aloke K.; Ajmera, Pratul K.; Huner, Burke

    1989-06-01

    In this communication, the simulated piezobirefringent images for a diametrically compressed GaAs disk are compared with those obtained experimentally. The values of the piezo-optic coefficients used in these simulations are derived from the elasto-optic coefficients and the stiffness constants for GaAs. The behavior of the stress-optic coefficient C for GaAs is also investigated. For (100)-oriented GaAs, the calculated value of C is found to vary with position for a given load and also found to depend on the orientation of the loading axis with respect to the principal crystal direction chosen to be <010> in this work. The calculated values of C for this case range from 0.8 to 2.6×10-12 cm2 /dyn. However, for (111)-oriented GaAs, no such dependence is observed and C is a constant with a calculated value of 1.94×10-12 cm2 /dyn.

  12. n-Type Doping of Vapor-Liquid-Solid Grown GaAs Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutsche, Christoph; Lysov, Andrey; Regolin, Ingo; Blekker, Kai; Prost, Werner; Tegude, Franz-Josef

    2011-12-01

    In this letter, n-type doping of GaAs nanowires grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy in the vapor-liquid-solid growth mode on (111)B GaAs substrates is reported. A low growth temperature of 400°C is adjusted in order to exclude shell growth. The impact of doping precursors on the morphology of GaAs nanowires was investigated. Tetraethyl tin as doping precursor enables heavily n-type doped GaAs nanowires in a relatively small process window while no doping effect could be found for ditertiarybutylsilane. Electrical measurements carried out on single nanowires reveal an axially non-uniform doping profile. Within a number of wires from the same run, the donor concentrations N D of GaAs nanowires are found to vary from 7 × 1017 cm-3 to 2 × 1018 cm-3. The n-type conductivity is proven by the transfer characteristics of fabricated nanowire metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor devices.

  13. Ab initio structural and vibrational properties of GaAs diamondoids and nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulsattar, Mudar Ahmed; Hussein, Mohammed T.; Hameed, Hadeel Ali

    2014-12-01

    Gallium arsenide diamondoids structural and vibrational properties are investigated using density functional theory at the PBE/6-31(d) level and basis including polarization functions. Variation of energy gap as these diamondoids increase in size is seen to follow confinement theory for diamondoids having nearly equiaxed dimensions. Density of energy states transforms from nearly single levels to band structure as we reach larger diamondoids. Bonds of surface hydrogen with As atoms are relatively localized and shorter than that bonded to Ga atoms. Ga-As bonds have a distribution range of values due to surface reconstruction and effect of bonding to hydrogen atoms. Experimental bulk Ga-As bond length (2.45 Å) is within this distribution range. Tetrahedral and dihedral angles approach values of bulk as we go to higher diamondoids. Optical-phonon energy of larger diamondoids stabilizes at 0.037 eV (297 cm-1) compared to experimental 0.035 eV (285.2 cm-1). Ga-As force constant reaches 1.7 mDyne/Å which is comparable to Ga-Ge force constant (1.74 mDyne/Å). Hydrogen related vibrations are nearly constant and serve as a fingerprint of GaAs diamondoids while Ga-As vibrations vary with size of diamondoids.

  14. n-Type Doping of Vapor-Liquid-Solid Grown GaAs Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Gutsche, Christoph; Lysov, Andrey; Regolin, Ingo; Blekker, Kai; Prost, Werner; Tegude, Franz-Josef

    2011-12-01

    In this letter, n-type doping of GaAs nanowires grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy in the vapor-liquid-solid growth mode on (111)B GaAs substrates is reported. A low growth temperature of 400°C is adjusted in order to exclude shell growth. The impact of doping precursors on the morphology of GaAs nanowires was investigated. Tetraethyl tin as doping precursor enables heavily n-type doped GaAs nanowires in a relatively small process window while no doping effect could be found for ditertiarybutylsilane. Electrical measurements carried out on single nanowires reveal an axially non-uniform doping profile. Within a number of wires from the same run, the donor concentrations ND of GaAs nanowires are found to vary from 7 × 10(17) cm(-3) to 2 × 10(18) cm(-3). The n-type conductivity is proven by the transfer characteristics of fabricated nanowire metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor devices.

  15. High Performance Ultrathin GaAs Solar Cells Enabled with Heterogeneously Integrated Dielectric Periodic Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kwong, Anthony; Jung, Daehwan; Faucher, Joseph; Biswas, Roshni; Shen, Lang; Kang, Dongseok; Lee, Minjoo Larry; Yoon, Jongseung

    2015-10-27

    Due to their favorable materials properties including direct bandgap and high electron mobilities, epitaxially grown III-V compound semiconductors such as gallium arsenide (GaAs) provide unmatched performance over silicon in solar energy harvesting. Nonetheless, their large-scale deployment in terrestrial photovoltaics remains challenging mainly due to the high cost of growing device quality epitaxial materials. In this regard, reducing the thickness of constituent active materials under appropriate light management schemes is a conceptually viable option to lower the cost of GaAs solar cells. Here, we present a type of high efficiency, ultrathin GaAs solar cell that incorporates bifacial photon management enabled by techniques of transfer printing to maximize the absorption and photovoltaic performance without compromising the optimized electronic configuration of planar devices. Nanoimprint lithography and dry etching of titanium dioxide (TiO2) deposited directly on the window layer of GaAs solar cells formed hexagonal arrays of nanoscale posts that serve as lossless photonic nanostructures for antireflection, diffraction, and light trapping in conjunction with a co-integrated rear-surface reflector. Systematic studies on optical and electrical properties and photovoltaic performance in experiments, as well as numerical modeling, quantitatively describe the optimal design rules for ultrathin, nanostructured GaAs solar cells and their integrated modules.

  16. High-efficiency thin-film GaAs solar cells, phase2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Y. C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Thin GaAs epi-layers with good crystallographic quality were grown using a (100) Si-substrate on which a thin Ge epi-interlayer was grown by CVD from germane. Both antireflection-coated metal oxide semiconductor (AMOS) and n(+)/p homojunction structures were studied. The AMOS cells were fabricated on undoped-GaAs epi-layers deposited on bulk poly-Ge substrates using organo-metallic CVD film-growth, with the best achieved AM1 conversion efficiency being 9.1%. Both p-type and n(+)-type GaAs growth were optimized using 50 ppm dimethyl zinc and 1% hydrogen sulfide, respectively. A direct GaAs deposition method in fabricating ultra-thin top layer, epitaxial n(+)/p shallow homojunction solar cells on (100) GaAs substrates (without anodic thinning) was developed to produce large area (1 sq/cm) cells, with 19.4% AM1 conversion efficiency achieved. Additionally, an AM1 conversion efficiency of 18.4% (17.5% with 5% grid coverage) was achieved for a single crystal GaAs n(+)/p cell grown by OM-CVD on a Ge wafer.

  17. GaAs Blocked-Impurity-Band Detectors for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Cardozo, Benjamin Lewin

    2004-01-01

    High-purity and doped GaAs films have been grown by Liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) for development of a blocked impurity band (BIB) detector for far-infrared radiation. The film growth process developed has resulted in the capability to grow GaAs with a net active impurity concentration below 1 x 1013 cm-3, ideal for the blocking layer of the BIB detector. The growth of n-type LPE GaAs films with donor concentrations below the metal-insulator transition, as required for the absorbing layer of a BIB detector, has been achieved. The control of the donor concentration, however, was found to be insufficient for detector production. The growth by LPE of a high-purity film onto a commercially grown vapor-phase epitaxial (VPE) n-type GaAs doped absorbing layer resulted in a BIB device that showed a significant reduction in the low-temperature dark current compared to the absorbing layer only. Extended optical response was not detected, most likely due to the high compensation of the commercially grown GaAs absorbing layer, which restricts the depletion width of the device.

  18. Development of a 1K x 1K GaAs QWIP Far IR Imaging Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, M.; Choi, K.; Goldberg, A.; La, A.; Gunapala, S.

    2003-01-01

    In the on-going evolution of GaAs Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIPs) we have developed a 1,024 x 1,024 (1K x1K), 8.4-9 microns infrared focal plane array (FPA). This 1 megapixel detector array is a hybrid using the Rockwell TCM 8050 silicon readout integrated circuit (ROIC) bump bonded to a GaAs QWIP array fabricated jointly by engineers at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Army Research Laboratory (ARL). The finished hybrid is thinned at the Jet Propulsion Lab. Prior to this development the largest format array was a 512 x 640 FPA. We have integrated the 1K x 1K array into an imaging camera system and performed tests over the 40K-90K temperature range achieving BLIP performance at an operating temperature of 76K (f/2 camera system). The GaAs array is relatively easy to fabricate once the superlattice structure of the quantum wells has been defined and grown. The overall arrays costs are currently dominated by the costs associated with the silicon readout since the GaAs array fabrication is based on high yield, well-established GaAs processing capabilities. In this paper we will present the first results of our 1K x 1K QWIP array development including fabrication methodology, test data and our imaging results.

  19. Measurement of electron beam polarization produced by photoemission from bulk GaAs using twisted light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayburn, Nathan; Dreiling, Joan; McCarter, James; Ryan, Dominic; Poelker, Matt; Gay, Timothy

    2012-06-01

    GaAs photocathodes produce spin polarized electron beams when illuminated with circularly polarized light with photon energy approximately equal to the bandgap energy [1, 2]. A typical polarization value obtained with bulk GaAs and conventional circularly polarized light is 35%. This study investigated the spin polarization of electron beams emitted from GaAs illuminated with ``twisted light,'' an expression that describes a beam of light having orbital angular momentum (OAM). In the experiment, 790nm laser light was focused to a near diffraction-limited spot size on the surface of the GaAs photocathode to determine if OAM might couple to valence band electron spin mediated by the GaAs lattice. Our polarization measurements using a compact retarding-field micro-Mott polarimeter [3] have established an upper bound on the polarization of the emitted electron beam of 2.5%. [4pt] [1] D.T. Pierce, F. Meier, P. Zurcher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26 670 (1975).[0pt] [2] C.K. Sinclair, et al., PRSTAB 10 023501 (2007).[0pt] [3] J.L. McCarter, M.L. Stutzman, K.W. Trantham, T.G. Anderson, A.M. Cook, and T.J. Gay Nucl. Instrum. and Meth. A (2010).

  20. Highly efficient single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cell on flexible substrate

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sunghyun; Kim, Kangho; Kim, Youngjo; Heo, Junseok; Lee, Jaejin

    2016-01-01

    There has been much interest in developing a thin-film solar cell because it is lightweight and flexible. The GaAs thin-film solar cell is a top contender in the thin-film solar cell market in that it has a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to that of other thin-film solar cells. There are two common structures for the GaAs solar cell: n (emitter)-on-p (base) and p-on-n. The former performs better due to its high collection efficiency because the electron diffusion length of the p-type base region is much longer than the hole diffusion length of the n-type base region. However, it has been limited to fabricate highly efficient n-on-p single-junction GaAs thin film solar cell on a flexible substrate due to technical obstacles. We investigated a simple and fast epitaxial lift-off (ELO) method that uses a stress originating from a Cr/Au bilayer on a 125-μm-thick flexible substrate. A metal combination of AuBe/Pt/Au is employed as a new p-type ohmic contact with which an n-on-p single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cell on flexible substrate was successfully fabricated. The PCE of the fabricated single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cells reached 22.08% under air mass 1.5 global illumination. PMID:27435899

  1. Ab initio structural and vibrational properties of GaAs diamondoids and nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Abdulsattar, Mudar Ahmed; Hussein, Mohammed T.; Hameed, Hadeel Ali

    2014-12-15

    Gallium arsenide diamondoids structural and vibrational properties are investigated using density functional theory at the PBE/6-31(d) level and basis including polarization functions. Variation of energy gap as these diamondoids increase in size is seen to follow confinement theory for diamondoids having nearly equiaxed dimensions. Density of energy states transforms from nearly single levels to band structure as we reach larger diamondoids. Bonds of surface hydrogen with As atoms are relatively localized and shorter than that bonded to Ga atoms. Ga-As bonds have a distribution range of values due to surface reconstruction and effect of bonding to hydrogen atoms. Experimental bulk Ga-As bond length (2.45 Å) is within this distribution range. Tetrahedral and dihedral angles approach values of bulk as we go to higher diamondoids. Optical-phonon energy of larger diamondoids stabilizes at 0.037 eV (297 cm{sup -1}) compared to experimental 0.035 eV (285.2 cm{sup -1}). Ga-As force constant reaches 1.7 mDyne/Å which is comparable to Ga-Ge force constant (1.74 mDyne/Å). Hydrogen related vibrations are nearly constant and serve as a fingerprint of GaAs diamondoids while Ga-As vibrations vary with size of diamondoids.

  2. Highly efficient single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cell on flexible substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Sunghyun; Kim, Kangho; Kim, Youngjo; Heo, Junseok; Lee, Jaejin

    2016-07-01

    There has been much interest in developing a thin-film solar cell because it is lightweight and flexible. The GaAs thin-film solar cell is a top contender in the thin-film solar cell market in that it has a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to that of other thin-film solar cells. There are two common structures for the GaAs solar cell: n (emitter)-on-p (base) and p-on-n. The former performs better due to its high collection efficiency because the electron diffusion length of the p-type base region is much longer than the hole diffusion length of the n-type base region. However, it has been limited to fabricate highly efficient n-on-p single-junction GaAs thin film solar cell on a flexible substrate due to technical obstacles. We investigated a simple and fast epitaxial lift-off (ELO) method that uses a stress originating from a Cr/Au bilayer on a 125-μm-thick flexible substrate. A metal combination of AuBe/Pt/Au is employed as a new p-type ohmic contact with which an n-on-p single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cell on flexible substrate was successfully fabricated. The PCE of the fabricated single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cells reached 22.08% under air mass 1.5 global illumination.

  3. Highly efficient single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cell on flexible substrate.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sunghyun; Kim, Kangho; Kim, Youngjo; Heo, Junseok; Lee, Jaejin

    2016-07-20

    There has been much interest in developing a thin-film solar cell because it is lightweight and flexible. The GaAs thin-film solar cell is a top contender in the thin-film solar cell market in that it has a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to that of other thin-film solar cells. There are two common structures for the GaAs solar cell: n (emitter)-on-p (base) and p-on-n. The former performs better due to its high collection efficiency because the electron diffusion length of the p-type base region is much longer than the hole diffusion length of the n-type base region. However, it has been limited to fabricate highly efficient n-on-p single-junction GaAs thin film solar cell on a flexible substrate due to technical obstacles. We investigated a simple and fast epitaxial lift-off (ELO) method that uses a stress originating from a Cr/Au bilayer on a 125-μm-thick flexible substrate. A metal combination of AuBe/Pt/Au is employed as a new p-type ohmic contact with which an n-on-p single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cell on flexible substrate was successfully fabricated. The PCE of the fabricated single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cells reached 22.08% under air mass 1.5 global illumination.

  4. Acute electrophysiological effect of pulsed gallium-arsenide low-energy laser irradiation on isolated frog sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Cömelekoğlu, U; Bagiş, S; Büyükakilli, B; Sahin, G; Erdoğan, C; Kanik, A

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the acute electrophysiological effects of low-energy pulsed laser irradiation on isolated frog sciatic nerve measured by extracellular recording technique. A pulsed gallium-arsenide (GaAs) laser (wavelength: 904 nm, pulse duration 220 ns, peak power per pulse: 27W, spot size: 0.28 cm(2), total applied energy density: 0.005-2.5J/cm(2)) was used for the experiment. Sixty isolated nerves were divided into six groups (n=10), each of which received a different laser dose. In each group, action potentials were recorded before laser irradiation which served as the control data. The extracellular action potentials were recorded for each combination of 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 13 and 15 minutes of irradiation time and 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 repetition frequency by using a BIOPAC MP 100 Acquisition System Version 3.5.7 (Santa Barbara, USA). Action potential amplitude, area, duration and conduction velocity were measured. Statistical evaluation was performed using repeated measures variance analysis by SPSS 9.0. There were no statistically significant differences for action potential amplitude, area and conduction velocity among the laser groups and control data (p>0.05). The study showed that low-energy GaAs irradiation at 4-128 Hz repetition frequencies administered for irradiation times of 1-15 min generates no effect on action potential amplitude, area, duration and conduction velocity in isolated frog sciatic nerve.

  5. Passive Q-switching with GaAs or Bi-doped GaAs saturable absorber in Tm:LuAG laser operating at 2μm wavelength.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lin; Li, Dechun; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Li, Xiangyang; Wang, Reng; Liu, Ji

    2015-06-15

    We report the first demonstration of a diode pumped passively Q-switched Tm:LuAG laser near 2μm wavelength with Bi-doped or undoped GaAs wafer as saturable absorber. For Bi-doped GaAs saturable absorber, stable Q-switched pulses with duration of 63.3ns under a repetition rate of 132.7 kHz and pulse energy of 5.51μJ are generated. In comparison to the passively Q-switched laser with undoped GaAs saturable absorber, the laser with Bi-doped GaAs can produce shorter pulses and higher peak power at almost the same incident pump power. The results suggest that Bi-doped GaAs can be an attractive candidate of saturable absorber for Q-switched laser near 2μm wavelength.

  6. Micro-Photoluminescence Characterization of Low Density Droplet GaAs Quantum Dots for Single Photon Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, S.-K.; Song, J. D.; Lim, J. Y.; Choi, W. J.; Han, I. K.; Lee, J. I.; Bounouar, S.; Donatini, F.; Dang, L. S.; Poizat, J. P.

    2011-12-23

    The GaAs quantum dots in AlGaAs barriers were grown by droplet epitaxy, emitting around 700 nm in wavelength which is compatible with low cost Si based detectors. The excitation power dependent and time resolved micro-photoluminescence measurements identified optical characteristics of exciton and biexciton states which are attributed to good quantum confinements in GaAs QDs.

  7. GaSb thermophotovoltaic cells grown on GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy using interfacial misfit arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Juang, Bor-Chau Laghumavarapu, Ramesh B.; Foggo, Brandon J.; Lin, Andrew; Simmonds, Paul J.; Liang, Baolai; Huffaker, Diana L.

    2015-03-16

    There exists a long-term need for foreign substrates on which to grow GaSb-based optoelectronic devices. We address this need by using interfacial misfit arrays to grow GaSb-based thermophotovoltaic cells directly on GaAs (001) substrates and demonstrate promising performance. We compare these cells to control devices grown on GaSb substrates to assess device properties and material quality. The room temperature dark current densities show similar characteristics for both cells on GaAs and on GaSb. Under solar simulation the cells on GaAs exhibit an open-circuit voltage of 0.121 V and a short-circuit current density of 15.5 mA/cm{sup 2}. In addition, the cells on GaAs substrates maintain 10% difference in spectral response to those of the control cells over a large range of wavelengths. While the cells on GaSb substrates in general offer better performance than the cells on GaAs substrates, the cost-savings and scalability offered by GaAs substrates could potentially outweigh the reduction in performance. By further optimizing GaSb buffer growth on GaAs substrates, Sb-based compound semiconductors grown on GaAs substrates with similar performance to devices grown directly on GaSb substrates could be realized.

  8. Interpolative modeling of GaAs FET S-parameter data bases for use in Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, L.; Purviance, J.

    1992-01-01

    A statistical interpolation technique is presented for modeling GaAs FET S-parameter measurements for use in the statistical analysis and design of circuits. This is accomplished by interpolating among the measurements in a GaAs FET S-parameter data base in a statistically valid manner.

  9. Strain effect of multilayer FeN structure on GaAs substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Ji, Nian; Lauter, Valeria; Ambaye, Hailemariam; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2013-05-01

    Overly doped FeN multilayer structure on GaAs substrate was fabricated. After the post-annealing process, FeN martensite in each Fe/FeN layer formed partially chemically ordered Fe16N2, which was observed by X-ray diffraction. To detect the saturation magnetization (Ms) depth profile, polarized neutron reflectivity was conducted. Fe/FeN layer showed a significant improvement of Ms for each layer compared to Ms of Fe. More importantly, different FeN layers showed different Ms according to the physical distance to the substrate GaAs. The most enhanced Ms (exceeding the limit of Fe65Co35 Ms) observed at the bottom part of the film, consistent with previous reports, should be attributed to the lattice strain by GaAs substrate. In order to detect the lattice constant, In-plane X-ray Diffraction was done and a large in-plane lattice constant was determined.

  10. Visible-light electroluminescence in Mn-doped GaAs light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam Hai, Pham; Maruo, Daiki; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2014-03-01

    We observed visible-light electroluminescence (EL) due to d-d transitions in light-emitting diodes with Mn-doped GaAs layers (here, referred to as GaAs:Mn). Besides the band-gap emission of GaAs, the EL spectra show two peaks at 1.89 eV and 2.16 eV, which are exactly the same as 4A2(4F) → 4T1(4G) and 4T1(4G) → 6A1(6S) transitions of Mn atoms doped in ZnS. The temperature dependence and the current-density dependence are consistent with the characteristics of d-d transitions. We explain the observed EL spectra by the p-d hybridized orbitals of the Mn d electrons in GaAs.

  11. GaAs Core/SrTiO3 Shell Nanowires Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Guan, X; Becdelievre, J; Meunier, B; Benali, A; Saint-Girons, G; Bachelet, R; Regreny, P; Botella, C; Grenet, G; Blanchard, N P; Jaurand, X; Silly, M G; Sirotti, F; Chauvin, N; Gendry, M; Penuelas, J

    2016-04-13

    We have studied the growth of a SrTiO3 shell on self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires grown by vapor-liquid-solid assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111) substrates. To control the growth of the SrTiO3 shell, the GaAs nanowires were protected using an arsenic capping/decapping procedure in order to prevent uncontrolled oxidation and/or contamination of the nanowire facets. Reflection high energy electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were performed to determine the structural, chemical, and morphological properties of the heterostructured nanowires. Using adapted oxide growth conditions, it is shown that most of the perovskite structure SrTiO3 shell appears to be oriented with respect to the GaAs lattice. These results are promising for achieving one-dimensional epitaxial semiconductor core/functional oxide shell nanostructures. PMID:27008537

  12. Nanoscale footprints of self-running gallium droplets on GaAs surface.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang; Wang, Zhiming M; Li, Alvason Z; Benamara, Mourad; Li, Shibin; Salamo, Gregory J

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the nanoscale footprints of self-driven liquid gallium droplet movement on a GaAs (001) surface will be presented and analyzed. The nanoscale footprints of a primary droplet trail and ordered secondary droplets along primary droplet trails are observed on the GaAs surface. A well ordered nanoterrace from the trail is left behind by a running droplet. In addition, collision events between two running droplets are investigated. The exposed fresh surface after a collision demonstrates a superior evaporation property. Based on the observation of droplet evolution at different stages as well as nanoscale footprints, a schematic diagram of droplet evolution is outlined in an attempt to understand the phenomenon of stick-slip droplet motion on the GaAs surface. The present study adds another piece of work to obtain the physical picture of a stick-slip self-driven mechanism in nanoscale, bridging nano and micro systems.

  13. Recombination dynamics in aerotaxy-grown Zn-doped GaAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Yang, Fangfang; Messing, Maria E.; Mergenthaler, Kilian; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Deppert, Knut; Samuelson, Lars; Magnusson, Martin H.; Yartsev, Arkady

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we have investigated the dynamics of photo-generated charge carriers in a series of aerotaxy-grown GaAs nanowires (NWs) with different levels of Zn doping. Time-resolved photo-induced luminescence and transient absorption have been employed to investigate radiative (band edge transition) and non-radiative charge recombination processes, respectively. We find that the photo-luminescence (PL) lifetime of intrinsic GaAs NWs is significantly increased after growing an AlGaAs shell over them, indicating that an AlGaAs shell can effectively passivate the surface of aerotaxy-grown GaAs NWs. We observe that PL decay time as well as PL intensity decrease with increasing Zn doping, which can be attributed to thermally activated electron trapping with the trap density increased due to the Zn doping level.

  14. Nitride surface passivation of GaAs nanowires: impact on surface state density.

    PubMed

    Alekseev, Prokhor A; Dunaevskiy, Mikhail S; Ulin, Vladimir P; Lvova, Tatiana V; Filatov, Dmitriy O; Nezhdanov, Alexey V; Mashin, Aleksander I; Berkovits, Vladimir L

    2015-01-14

    Surface nitridation by hydrazine-sulfide solution, which is known to produce surface passivation of GaAs crystals, was applied to GaAs nanowires (NWs). We studied the effect of nitridation on conductivity and microphotoluminescence (μ-PL) of individual GaAs NWs using conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) and confocal luminescent microscopy (CLM), respectively. Nitridation is found to produce an essential increase in the NW conductivity and the μ-PL intensity as well evidence of surface passivation. Estimations show that the nitride passivation reduces the surface state density by a factor of 6, which is of the same order as that found for GaAs/AlGaAs nanowires. The effects of the nitride passivation are also stable under atmospheric ambient conditions for six months.

  15. GaAs Core/SrTiO3 Shell Nanowires Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Guan, X; Becdelievre, J; Meunier, B; Benali, A; Saint-Girons, G; Bachelet, R; Regreny, P; Botella, C; Grenet, G; Blanchard, N P; Jaurand, X; Silly, M G; Sirotti, F; Chauvin, N; Gendry, M; Penuelas, J

    2016-04-13

    We have studied the growth of a SrTiO3 shell on self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires grown by vapor-liquid-solid assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111) substrates. To control the growth of the SrTiO3 shell, the GaAs nanowires were protected using an arsenic capping/decapping procedure in order to prevent uncontrolled oxidation and/or contamination of the nanowire facets. Reflection high energy electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were performed to determine the structural, chemical, and morphological properties of the heterostructured nanowires. Using adapted oxide growth conditions, it is shown that most of the perovskite structure SrTiO3 shell appears to be oriented with respect to the GaAs lattice. These results are promising for achieving one-dimensional epitaxial semiconductor core/functional oxide shell nanostructures.

  16. A modified horizontal Bridgman technique without arsenic zone for growth of GaAs crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T. P.; Guo, Y. D.; Huang, T. S.

    1989-03-01

    A modified two temperature zone horizontal Bridgman system without arsenic zone has been developed for the growth of GaAs single crystal. In this process, a short quartz ampoule, which was just long enough for sealing off the boat, was used. With a short quartz ampoule and a large charge of polycrystalline GaAs, the arsenic loss due to the dissociation of the melt was very small. The sticking between the boat and the crystal was eliminated; therefore, the crystal yield was greatly enhanced. The possible reasons for the elimination of the boat sticking and the stoichiometry control in this process are discussed. High quality Si-doped GaAs crystals with 2 inches in diameter and 30 cm in length have been routinely grown. The optoelectronic devices fabricated with these wafers showed better performance than commercial products.

  17. The chemistry of O in reduction processes of the GaAs native oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuberes, M. T.; Sacedon, J. L.

    1992-05-01

    We present an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study of the interfacial chemical reactions during the total reduction of a 5 Å thick GaAs native oxide layer accomplished in two separate stages. First, the As2O3 has been selectively reduced by annealing the oxidized surface at increasing temperatures. In the second stage, the reduction of the Ga oxides has been completed at room temperature by Si deposition. The total amount of O at the GaAs interface remains constant during both processes. During the As2O3 thermal reduction, the analysis of the Ga2p{3}/{2} and Ga LMM spectra shows that, depending on the annealing temperature, GaOx (x < {3}/{2}) or Ga2O3 growth occurs. The Si promoted of the Ga oxides results in the formation of Si oxides of different stoichiometry at the GaAs surface.

  18. Zinc blende GaAs films grown on wurtzite GaN/sapphire templates

    SciTech Connect

    Chaldyshev, V.V.; Nielsen, B.; Mendez, E.E.; Musikhin, Yu.G.; Bert, N.A.; Ma, Zh.; Holden, Todd

    2005-03-28

    1-{mu}m-thick zinc-blende GaAs (111) films were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on wurtzite GaN/sapphire (0001) templates. In spite of a {approx}20% lattice mismatch, epitaxial growth was realized, so that the GaAs films showed good adhesion and their surface had a larger mirror-like area with an average surface roughness of 10 nm. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a flat and abrupt epitaxial GaAs/GaN interface with some nanocavities and a large number of dislocations. Reasonably good crystalline quality of the GaAs films was confirmed by Raman characterization. Spectroscopic ellipsometry showed sharp interference fringes and characteristic parameters in the range of 0.75-5.3 eV. Photoluminescence study revealed extended band tails and dominance of non-radiative carrier recombination.

  19. Vibrational, electronic and structural properties of wurtzite GaAs nanowires under hydrostatic pressure

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Chen, Xiao-Jia; Zhang, Jian-Bo; Li, Xin-Hua; Wang, Yu-Qi; Goncharov, Alexander F.

    2014-01-01

    The structural, vibrational, and electronic properties of GaAs nanowires have been studied in the metastable wurtzite phase via Resonant Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements in diamond anvil cells under hydrostatic conditions between 0 and 23 GPa. The direct band gap E0 and the crystal field split-off gap E0 + Δ of wurtzite GaAs increase with pressure and their values become close to those of zinc-blende GaAs at 5 GPa, while being reported slightly larger at lower pressures. Above 21 GPa, a complete structural transition from the wurtzite to an orthorhombic phase is observed in both Raman and X-ray diffraction experiments. PMID:25253566

  20. Frequency-tunable continuous-wave terahertz sources based on GaAs plasmonic photomixers

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shang-Hua; Jarrahi, Mona

    2015-09-28

    We present frequency-tunable, continuous-wave terahertz sources based on GaAs plasmonic photomixers, which offer high terahertz radiation power levels at 50% radiation duty cycle. The use of plasmonic contact electrodes enhances photomixer quantum efficiency while maintaining its ultrafast operation by concentrating a large number of photocarriers in close proximity to the device contact electrodes. Additionally, the relatively high thermal conductivity and high resistivity of GaAs allow operation under high optical pump power levels and long duty cycles without reaching the thermal breakdown limit of the photomixer. We experimentally demonstrate continuous-wave terahertz radiation with a radiation frequency tuning range of more than 2 THz and a record-high radiation power of 17 μW at 1 THz through plasmonic photomixers fabricated on a low temperature grown GaAs substrate at 50% radiation duty cycle.

  1. Selective thermal terahertz emission from GaAs and AlGaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Požela, K. Širmulis, E.; Kašalynas, I.; Šilėnas, A.; Požela, J.; Jucienė, V.

    2014-09-01

    The selective thermally stimulated terahertz (THz) radiation emission from GaAs and AlGaAs alloys are experimentally observed at frequencies of coupled oscillations of free electron plasma and different branches of interface AlGaAs optical phonons. The effect of strong absorption of incident radiation with large oblique angle (26°) by heated GaAs and AlGaAs is revealed. The coherent THz radiation emission with the frequency of 7.6 THz from the heated high conductivity GaAs (n = 4 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}) layer is observed. The results are highly relevant to application in optoelectronic THz devices.

  2. Gallium loading of gold seed for high yield of patterned GaAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Boulanger, J. P.; Chia, A. C. E.; LaPierre, R. R.

    2014-08-25

    A method is presented for maximizing the yield and crystal phase purity of vertically aligned Au-assisted GaAs nanowires grown with an SiO{sub x} selective area epitaxy mask on GaAs (111)B substrates. The nanowires were grown by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method in a gas source molecular beam epitaxy system. During annealing, Au VLS seeds will alloy with the underlying GaAs substrate and collect beneath the SiO{sub x} mask layer. This behavior is detrimental to obtaining vertically aligned, epitaxial nanowire growth. To circumvent this issue, Au droplets were pre-filled with Ga assuring vertical yields in excess of 99%.

  3. Free carrier induced spectral shift for GaAs filled metallic hole arrays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyu; Xiang, Bin; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor; Brueck, S R J

    2012-03-26

    For a GaAs filled metallic hole array on a pre-epi GaAs substrate, the free carriers, generated by three-photon absorption (3PA) assisted by strongly enhanced local fields, reduce the refractive index of GaAs in ~200-nm thick active area through band filling and free carrier absorption. Therefore, the surface plasma wave (SPW) resonance, and the related second harmonic (SH) spectrum blue shifts with increasing fluence; For the plasmonic structure on a substrate with surface defects, free carrier recombination dominates. The band gap emission spectral peak wavelength decreases 10-nm with increasing fluence, showing the transition from nonradiative-, at low excitation, to bimolecular-recombination at high carrier concentrations.

  4. Optical techniques to feed and control GaAs MMIC modules for phased array antenna applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Anzic, G.; Kunath, R. R.; Connolly, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    A complex signal distribution system is required to feed and control GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) for phased array antenna applications above 20 GHz. Each MMIC module will require one or more RF lines, one or more bias voltage lines, and digital lines to provide a minimum of 10 bits of combined phase and gain control information. In a closely spaced array, the routing of these multiple lines presents difficult topology problems as well as a high probability of signal interference. To overcome GaAs MMIC phased array signal distribution problems optical fibers interconnected to monolithically integrated optical components with GaAs MMIC array elements are proposed as a solution. System architecture considerations using optical fibers are described. The analog and digital optical links to respectively feed and control MMIC elements are analyzed. It is concluded that a fiber optic network will reduce weight and complexity, and increase reliability and performance, but higher power will be required.

  5. Bismuth-induced phase control of GaAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Zhenyu; Chen, Pingping E-mail: luwei@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Shi, Suixing; Yao, Luchi; Zhou, Xiaohao; Lu, Wei E-mail: luwei@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Zhang, Zhi; Zhou, Chen; Zou, Jin

    2014-10-20

    In this work, the crystal structure of GaAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy has been tailored only by bismuth without changing the growth temperature and V/III flux ratio. The introduction of bismuth can lead to the formation of zinc-blende GaAs nanowires, while the removal of bismuth changes the structure into a 4H polytypism before it turns back to the wurtzite phase eventually. The theoretical calculation shows that it is the steadiest for bismuth to adsorb on the GaAs(111){sub B} surface compared to the liquid gold catalyst surface and the interface between the gold catalyst droplet and the nanowire, and these adsorbed bismuth could decrease the diffusion length of adsorbed Ga and hence the supersaturation of Ga in the gold catalyst droplet.

  6. A GaAs DETECTOR FOR DARK MATTER AND SOLAR NEUTRINO RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    T. BOWLES; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    The ability to produce large GaAs crystals with the requisite electronic properties to be fabricated into charged particle and photon detectors would provide a detector medium that would find numerous applications in both applied and fundamental research. Various applications would likely include x-ray detectors on satellites, environmental monitoring, medical imaging, bore hole mining spectroscopy, searches for dark matter, and solar neutrino research. We have carried out the development of GaAs detectors using two commercial crystal growing techniques. We have shown it should be able to grow detectors with 20 cm{sup 2} area and a depletion depth of 1 mm. Detectors of this size would find immediate applications in high-resolution, room temperature, low energy gamma ray measurements. We have also arrived at an understanding of the limitations of the common techniques used to grow GaAs and have determined that it should be possible to produce larger detectors using proprietary methods.

  7. Tensile GaAs(111) quantum dashes with tunable luminescence below the bulk bandgap

    SciTech Connect

    Yerino, Christopher D. Jung, Daehwan; Lee, Minjoo Larry; Simmonds, Paul J.; Liang, Baolai; Dorogan, Vitaliy G.; Ware, Morgan E.; Mazur, Yuriy I.; Salamo, Gregory J.; Huffaker, Diana L.

    2014-08-18

    Strain-based band engineering in quantum dots and dashes has been predominantly limited to compressively strained systems. However, tensile strain strongly reduces the bandgaps of nanostructures, enabling nanostructures to emit light at lower energies than they could under compressive strain. We demonstrate the self-assembled growth of dislocation-free GaAs quantum dashes on an InP(111)B substrate, using a 3.8% tensile lattice-mismatch. Due to the high tensile strain, the GaAs quantum dashes luminesce at 110–240 meV below the bandgap of bulk GaAs. The emission energy is readily tuned by adjusting the size of the quantum dashes via deposition thickness. Tensile self-assembly creates new opportunities for engineering the band alignment, band structure, and optical properties of epitaxial nanostructures.

  8. Growth of GaAs crystals from the melt in a partially confined configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, Harry C.; Lagowski, Jacek

    1988-01-01

    The experimental approach was directed along two main goals: (1) the implementation of an approach to melt growth in a partially confined configuration; and (2) the investigation of point defect interaction and electronic characteristics as related to thermal treatment following solidification and stoichiometry. Significant progress was made along both fronts. Crystal growth of GaAs in triangular ampuls was already carried out successfully and consistent with the model. In fact, pronounced surface tension phenomena which cannot be observed in ordinary confinement system were identified and should premit the assessment of Maragoni effects prior to space processing. Regarding thermal treatment, it was discovered that the rate of cooling from elevated temperatures is primarily responsible for a whole class of defect interactions affecting the electronic characteristics of GaAs and that stoichiometry plays a critical role in the quality of GaAs.

  9. Monolithic optical integrated control circuitry for GaAs MMIC-based phased arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Ponchak, G. E.; Kascak, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC's) show promise in phased-array antenna applications for future space communications systems. Their efficient usage will depend on the control of amplitude and phase signals for each MMIC element in the phased array and in the low-loss radiofrequency feed. For a phased array contining several MMIC elements a complex system is required to control and feed each element. The characteristics of GaAs MMIC's for 20/30-GHz phased-array systems are discussed. The optical/MMIC interface and the desired characteristics of optical integrated circuits (OIC's) for such an interface are described. Anticipated fabrication considerations for eventual full monolithic integration of optical integrated circuits with MMIC's on a GaAs substrate are presented.

  10. Initial adsorption of Cr atoms on GaAs(0 0 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagyu, Kazuma; Komamiya, Daisuke; Yoshino, Junji

    2011-01-01

    Cr-adsorbed GaAs(0 0 1)-c(4×4)α surfaces were investigated in view of a preparatory stage before studying the growth of zincblende CrAs. Cr was adsorbed on a GaAs(001)-c(4×4)α surface at 200 °C followed by annealing for 2 min. Cr adsorbed surface was investigated with scanning tunneling microscopy at 80 K. Single Cr atom was identified after the classification of Cr dots grown on the surface. The results have suggested that a Cr atom adsorbs on a site between three Ga-As dimers. After further adsorption of Cr, the surface is covered by dots which are higher than a step height of the substrate.

  11. Study of the initial stages of growth of CdTe on (001)GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mar, H. A.; Salansky, N.; Chee, K. T.

    1984-05-01

    The initial stages of growth of CdTe on (001) GaAs have been studied using Auger electron spectroscopy and reflection high-energy electron techniques. At the growth temperature of 225 °C tellurium atoms are observed to be adsorbed to a thickness of one to two monolayers on a thermally cleaned GaAs substrate. However, cadmium atoms are adsorbed only when tellurium atoms are present. An analysis of the Auger electron spectra and the reflection high-energy electron diffraction patterns taken at intervals during the initial growth of CdTe films from a CdTe compound source indicates that growth takes place first by the deposition of one to two monolayers of tellurium. This is followed by the nucleation and growth of CdTe crystallites which increase in size and coalesce to form a single crystal of CdTe with a (111) CdTe ∥ (001) GaAs orientation.

  12. Nanoscale Footprints of Self-Running Gallium Droplets on GaAs Surface

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiang; Wang, Zhiming M.; Li, Alvason Z.; Benamara, Mourad; Li, Shibin; Salamo, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the nanoscale footprints of self-driven liquid gallium droplet movement on a GaAs (001) surface will be presented and analyzed. The nanoscale footprints of a primary droplet trail and ordered secondary droplets along primary droplet trails are observed on the GaAs surface. A well ordered nanoterrace from the trail is left behind by a running droplet. In addition, collision events between two running droplets are investigated. The exposed fresh surface after a collision demonstrates a superior evaporation property. Based on the observation of droplet evolution at different stages as well as nanoscale footprints, a schematic diagram of droplet evolution is outlined in an attempt to understand the phenomenon of stick-slip droplet motion on the GaAs surface. The present study adds another piece of work to obtain the physical picture of a stick-slip self-driven mechanism in nanoscale, bridging nano and micro systems. PMID:21673965

  13. The ZnSe(110) puzzle - Comparison with GaAs(110)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, C. B.; Paton, A.; Kahn, A.; Tu, D.-W.

    1984-01-01

    The surface structure of monocrystalline ZnSe(110) and of 4-5-nm-thick ZnSe(110) layers epitaxially grown on GaAs(110) is investigated by means of elastic LEED and AES; the results are analyzed using the computer programs and R-factor methods of Duke et al. (1981 and 1983), presented in graphs and tables, and compared to those for GaAs(110). Significant differences are attributed to bond-length-conserving outward rotation of Se and inward rotation of Zn in the top layer, with an angle of 4 deg between the actual plane of the cation-anion chain and the truncated bulk surface. The R intensities measured for ZnSe(110) and GaAs(110) are given as Rx = 0.22 and RI = 0.21 and Rx = 0.24 and RI = 0.16, respectively.

  14. Basic properties of GaAs oxide generated by scanning probe microscope tip-induced nano-oxidation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Yoshitaka; Iuchi, Yoshimasa; Kawabe, Mitsuo; Harris, James S.

    2000-07-01

    The basic properties of GaAs oxide generated by atomic force microscope (AFM) tip-induced nano-oxidation process have been investigated. The chemical analysis of the AFM tip-generated GaAs oxide was performed by using scanning microprobe x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the main constituents of GaAs anodic oxide were determined to be Ga2O3 and As2O3. The electrical characterization showed that the electron transport across a GaAs oxide nanodot of ˜5.7 nm thickness, from a doped n+-Si tip into the n+-GaAs substrate follows the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling mechanism over a range of applied bias. Further, the tip-generated GaAs oxide nanodots were found to withstand moderate thermal treatments, but some volume reduction was observed.

  15. Theory of Spin Hall Effect in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Hans-Andreas

    2006-03-01

    In the spin Hall effect, an electric current in a system with spin-orbit coupling induces a transverse spin current which leads to non-equilibrium spin accumulation near sample boundaries. Generating and manipulating non-equilibrium spin magnetization by electric fields is one of the most desirable goals of semiconductor spintronics, because electric fields have potentialities for accessing individual spins at nanometer scales. In this talk, I review the different spin-orbit coupling mechanisms in direct gap semiconductors and the implications of these mechanisms for the spin Hall effect. In particular, we recently developed a theory that accounts for spin-orbit coupling at charged impurities. This coupling leads to extrinsic spin currents that contain skew scattering and side jump contribution [1]. Applying our theory to bulk n-GaAs, without any free parameters, we find spin currents that are in reasonable agreement with recent experiments by Kato et al. [2]. Also, such contributions are important for p-doped GaAs. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in the presence of anisotropic impurity scattering, and found that, somewhat surprisingly, an electrical field can lead to a bulk magnetization component perpendicular to both the spin-orbit field and an external magnetic field. These works have been done in collaboration with B.I. Halperin, E.I. Rashba, and A.A. Burkov. [1] H.-A. Engel, B.I. Halperin, and E.I. Rashba, Phys. Rev.Lett. 95, 166605 (2005). [2] Y.K. Kato, R.C. Myers, A.C. Gossard, and D.D. Awschalom, Science 306, 1910 (2004).

  16. From synchrotron radiation to I-V measurements of GaAs schottky barrier formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicer, W. E.; Cao, R.; Miyano, K.; Kendelewicz, T.; Lindau, I.; Weber, E.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Newman, N.

    1990-01-01

    Through the use of synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and related techniques, we have gained detailed knowledge of Fermi level pinning, interfacial chemistry and disruption of GaAs for coverages up to several monolayers (ML). A link has been made between these data and that in the thick layer regime (hundreds of ML), which characterizes practical Schottky diodes. PES results for thin layers deposited at room temperature (RT) and low temperatures of about 80 K (LT) as well as thick films deposited at RT and annealed to higher temperatures are considered. At LT where GaAs disruption is minimized for thin films, metal-induced gap states seem to dominate the Fermi level pinning process except where GaAs metal reactions are strong. For RT thin and thick films, the effects of defects must be considered, and the advanced unified defect model (AUDM) is applied. In the AUDM the key defects are identified as the AsGa (double donor with levels at 0.75 and 0.5 eV above the valence band maximum) and the GaAs antisite (double acceptor) with the AsGa normally dominating due to the excess As which characterizes LEC GaAs crystals. The literature is reviewed and a number of phenomena are explained in terms of this model including the Fermi level position on MBE grown GaAs observed by Svensson et al. and the anomolously high Schottky barrier height (SBH) of thick Ga on n-GaAs observed by several groups. By performing electrical, TEM, and chemical studies of thick diodes and by evaluating the changes upon thermal annealing of diodes it is found that the AUDM successfully predicts the increase or decrease of barrier height on annealing.

  17. Production of nanometer-size GaAs nanocristals by nanosecond laser ablation in liquid.

    PubMed

    Abderrafi, Kamal; Jiménez, Ernesto; Ben, Teresa; Molina, Sergio I; Ibáñez, Rafael; Chirvony, Vladimir; Martínez-Pastor, Juan P

    2012-08-01

    This paper reports the formation and characterization of spherical GaAs quantum dots obtained by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation in a liquid (ethanol or methanol). The produced bare GaAs nanoparticles demonstrate rather narrow size distribution which depends on the applied laser power density (from 4.25 to 13.9 J/cm2 in our experiments) and is as low as 2.5 nm for the highest power used. The absolute value of the average diameter also decreases significantly, from 13.7 to 8.7 nm, as the laser power increases in this interval. Due to the narrow nanoparticle size dispersion achieved at the highest laser powers two absorption band edges are clearly distinguishable at about 1.72 and 3.15 eV which are ascribed to E0 and E1 effective optical transitions, respectively. A comparison of the energies with those known for bulk GaAs allows one to conclude that an average diameter of the investigated GaAs nanoparticles is close to 10 nm, i.e., they are quantum dots. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images show that the bare GaAs nanoparticles are nanocrystalline, but many of them exhibit single/multiple twin boundary defects or even polycrystallinity. The formation of the GaAs crystalline core capped with a SiO2 shell was demonstrated by HRTEM and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Effective band edges can be better distinguished in SiO2 capped nanoparticles than in bare ones, In both cases the band edges are correlated with size quantum confinement effect.

  18. Involvement of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Galacturonate Tripartite ATP-Independent Periplasmic (TRAP) Transporter GaaPQM in Virulence Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinlei

    2015-01-01

    Monosaccharides capable of serving as nutrients for the soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens are also inducers of the vir regulon present in the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid of this plant pathogen. One such monosaccharide is galacturonate, the predominant monomer of pectin found in plant cell walls. This ligand is recognized by the periplasmic sugar binding protein ChvE, which interacts with the VirA histidine kinase that controls vir gene expression. Although ChvE is also a member of the ChvE-MmsAB ABC transporter involved in the utilization of many neutral sugars, it is not involved in galacturonate utilization. In this study, a putative tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic (TRAP) transporter, GaaPQM, is shown to be essential for the utilization of galacturonic acid; we show that residue R169 in the predicted sugar binding site of the GaaP is required for activity. The gene upstream of gaaPQM (gaaR) encodes a member of the GntR family of regulators. GaaR is shown to repress the expression of gaaPQM, and the repression is relieved in the presence of the substrate for GaaPQM. Moreover, GaaR is shown to bind putative promoter regions in the sequences required for galacturonic acid utilization. Finally, A. tumefaciens strains carrying a deletion of gaaPQM are more sensitive to galacturonate as an inducer of vir gene expression, while the overexpression of gaaPQM results in strains being less sensitive to this vir inducer. This supports a model in which transporter activity is crucial in ensuring that vir gene expression occurs only at sites of high ligand concentration, such as those at a plant wound site. PMID:26637603

  19. Low temperature growth and electrical characterization of insulators for GaAs MISFETS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borrego, J. M.; Ghandhi, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    Progress in the low temperature growth of oxides and layers on GaAs and the detailed electrical characterization of these oxides is reported. A plasma anodization system was designed, assembled, and put into operation. A measurement system was assembled for determining capacitance and conductance as a function of gate voltage for frequencies in the range from 1 Hz to 1 MHz. Initial measurements were carried out in Si-SiO2 capacitors in order to test the system and in GaAs MIS capacitors abricated using liquid anodization.

  20. Thermal roughening of GaAs surface by dislocation-induced step-flow sublimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhundov, I. O.; Kazantsev, D. M.; Kozhuhov, A. S.; Alperovich, V. L.

    2016-08-01

    The thermal roughening of epitaxial GaAs film surface is studied under anneals at temperatures 700-775 °C in the presence of a saturated Ga-As melt. Surface roughening consists in the formation of spiral “inverted pyramids” on the initially flat surface due to the step-flow sublimation induced by screw dislocations. The observed roughening indicates that, despite the presence of As and Ga vapors provided by the melt, the annealing conditions are shifted from equilibrium towards sublimation.

  1. Phase and gain control of GaAs MMIC transmit-receive modules by optical means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herczfeld, P. R.; Daryoush, A.; Jemison, W.; Rosen, Arye; Paolella, A.

    The authors report on the optical phase and gain control of GaAs microwave monolithic integrated-circuit (MMIC) transmit-receive modules with applications for active phased-array antennas. Phase shifts of 45 degrees were obtained with 50 mW of optical power, and amplifier gain was controlled 15 dB with 250 mW of light intensity. It is concluded that this approach can be extended to the millimeter wave range, is compatible with GaAs MMICs, has potential for fast response, is cost effective, and is compatible with parallel optical processing.

  2. Behavior of Cu and Zn Impurities on GaAs Wafer Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibaya, Hiroshi

    1995-08-01

    Surface Cu and Zn contamination levels of intentionally contaminated GaAs wafers were measured by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). Cu and Zn are both major metallic impurities on GaAs wafer surfaces, but their adsorption behaviors in an organic base solution were quite different. Surface concentration of Cu was much higher than that of Zn when concentrations of Cu and Zn in the organic base solution were the same. Cleaning effects of running deionized water rinse in an ultrasonic bath (U-RDIW) were also studied. Surface concentrations of Cu and Zn were drastically reduced by U-RDIW rinse.

  3. Biexciton emission from single isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen pairs in GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Takamiya, Kengo; Fukushima, Toshiyuki; Yagi, Shuhei; Hijikata, Yasuto; Yaguchi, Hiroyuki; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Yoshita, Masahiro; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Kuboya, Shigeyuki; Onabe, Kentaro; Katayama, Ryuji

    2013-12-04

    We have studied photoluminescence (PL) from individual isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen (NN) pairs in GaAs. Sharp emission lines due to exciton and biexciton were observed from individual isoelectronic traps in nitrogen atomic-layer doped (ALD) GaAs. The binding energy of biexciton bound to individual isoelectronic traps was approximately 8 meV. Both the exciton and biexciton luminescence lines show completely random polarization and no fine-structure splitting. These results are desirable to the application to the quantum cryptography used in the field of quantum information technology.

  4. Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaggero, A.; Nejad, S. Jahanmiri; Marsili, F.; Mattioli, F.; Leoni, R.; Bitauld, D.; Sahin, D.; Hamhuis, G. J.; Nötzel, R.; Sanjines, R.; Fiore, A.

    2010-10-01

    We demonstrate efficient nanowire superconducting single photon detectors (SSPDs) based on NbN thin films grown on GaAs. NbN films ranging from 3 to 5 nm in thickness have been deposited by dc magnetron sputtering on GaAs substrates at 350 °C. These films show superconducting properties comparable to similar films grown on sapphire and MgO. In order to demonstrate the potential for monolithic integration, SSPDs were fabricated and measured on GaAs/AlAs Bragg mirrors, showing a clear cavity enhancement, with a peak quantum efficiency of 18.3% at λ =1300 nm and T=4.2 K.

  5. Direct detection of Tritium and Carbon-14 beta particles with GaAs photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, A. M.; Lees, J. E.; Bassford, D. J.

    2012-09-01

    New measurements are reported which show beta particles emitted from 3H and 14C sources being directly detected with GaAs mesa photodiodes without use of scintillators. Spectra accumulated with GaAs diodes which were originally developed for X-ray spectroscopy are presented which show that individual beta particles from these sources can be counted and the energy they deposit in the detector measured. Potential longer term applications of this technology as it is developed further and improved include space missions, autoradiography, monitoring tritium produced by fusion reactors and nuclear decommissioning.

  6. Single crystal and polycrystalline GaAs solar cells using AMOS technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.; Yeh, Y. C. M.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of current technology for fabricating single AMOS (antireflection-coated metal oxide semiconductor) solar cells, with attention given to thermal, plasma, and anodic oxidation, native oxide stripping, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results. Some preliminary results are presented on the chemistry and electrical characterization of such cells, and the characteristics of cells fabricated on sliced polycrystalline GaAs wafers are examined. Consideration is also given to the recrystallization of evaporated Ge films for use as low-cost substrates for polycrystalline GaAs solar cells.

  7. Observation of the DX center in Pb-doped GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willke, U.; Maude, D. K.; Sallese, J. M.; Fille, M. L.; el Jani, B.; Gibart, P.; Portal, J. C.

    1993-06-01

    Pb in GaAs introduces a DX center-like (metastable) defect level that is (229±16) meV above the Γ-conduction-band edge, in a similar energetic position to the Si and Sn related DX centers in GaAs. The persistent photoconductivity effect quenches at approximately 50 K, indicating that the barrier to capture for the Pb and Sn dopants are similar. Despite the quite different atomic parameters of the Pb atom compared with the Sn atom, no significant chemical shifts have been found.

  8. Resonant behaviour of GaAs LO phonons in a GaAs-AlAs superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shulin; T, A. Gant; M, Delaney; M, V. Klein; J, Klem; H, Morkoc

    1988-03-01

    Resonant Raman scattering from GaAs LO phonons in a 59Å GaAs/20Å AlAs superlattice was studied. The relevant intersubband energies were determined. The results suggest that all of the exciton transitions from the hole subbands HH1, LH1, HH2, HH3, LH2 and HH4 to the electron subbands CB1 and CB2 in the energy region covered by our incident dye laser were observed and a justificative analysis may involve effects due to valence band mixing and to 3D electronic miniband structure.

  9. A comparison of GaAs and Si hybrid solar power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, J. H.; Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    An analytical comparison of energy output from various silicon and gallium arsenide hybrid solar power systems, producing electric power and also thermal power for heating or cooling, is made. System performance indices in terms of capital cost, peak power, total power output, and electric power were evaluated. Limiting values for annual energy production from GaAs and Si solar concentrator systems were estimated to be 2 cents and 6.8 cents per kWh for GaAs concentrator systems and between 2.5 cents and 11 cents per kWh for Si concentrator systems.

  10. Schottky barrier measurements on individual GaAs nanowires by X-ray photoemission microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Mario, Lorenzo; Turchini, Stefano; Zamborlini, Giovanni; Feyer, Vitaly; Tian, Lin; Schneider, Claus M.; Rubini, Silvia; Martelli, Faustino

    2016-11-01

    We present measurements of the Schottky barrier height on individual GaAs nanowires by means of x-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (XPEEM). Values of 0.73 and 0.51 eV, averaged over the entire wires, were measured on Cu-covered n-doped and p-doped GaAs nanowires, respectively, in agreement with results obtained on bulk material. Our measurements show that XPEEM can become a feasible and reliable investigation tool of interface formation at the nanoscale and pave the way towards the study of size-dependent effects on semiconductor-based structures.

  11. Some Aspects of the RHEED Behavior of Low-Temperature GaAs Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Nemcsics, A.

    2005-11-15

    The reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) behavior manifested during MBE growth on a GaAs(001) surface under low-temperature (LT) growth conditions is examined in this study. RHEED and its intensity oscillations during LT GaAs growth exhibit some particular behavior. The intensity, phase, and decay of the oscillations depend on the beam equivalent pressure (BEP) ratio and substrate temperature, etc. Here, the intensity dependence of RHEED behavior on the BEP ratio, substrate temperature, and excess of As content in the layer are examined. The change in the decay constant of the RHEED oscillations is also discussed.

  12. Fabrication of p(+)-n junction GaAs solar cells by a novel method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghandhi, S. K.; Mathur, G.; Rode, H.; Borrego, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A novel method for making p(+)-n diffused junction GaAs solar cells, with the formation of a diffusion source, an anti-reflective coating, and a protective cover glass in a single chemical-vapor deposition operation is discussed. Consideration is given to device fabrication and to solar-cell characteristics. The advantages of the technique are that the number of process steps is kept to an absolute minimum, the fabrication procedure is low-cost, and the GaAs surface is protected during the entire operation.

  13. Ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} epitaxial layers on GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Louahadj, L.; Le Bourdais, D.; Agnus, G.; Pillard, V.; Lecoeur, P.; Largeau, L.; Mazet, L.; Bachelet, R.; Regreny, P.; Dubourdieu, C.; Gautier, B.; Saint-Girons, G.; Albertini, D.

    2013-11-18

    Ferroelectric epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT) layers were grown by pulsed laser deposition on SrTiO{sub 3}/GaAs templates fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy. The templates present an excellent structural quality and the SrTiO{sub 3}/GaAs is abrupt at the atomic scale. The PZT layers contain a- and c-domains, as shown by X-Ray diffraction analyses. Piezoforce microscopy experiments and macroscopic electrical characterizations indicate that PZT is ferroelectric. A relative dielectric permittivity of 164 is extracted from these measurements.

  14. 6 to 18 GHz GaAs FET/MMIC amplifiers provide 1 W saturated output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bybokas, Jim

    1987-05-01

    The paper describes the construction and performance characteristics of three amplifiers that combine GaAs FETs, GaAs MMICs, and thin-film hybrid construction and can provide more than 1 W of saturated output power over the 6 to 18 GHz frequency range. These amplifiers feature minimum gains of 26, 34, and 42 dB and noise figures of 13, 10, and 9 dB, respectively, and are specified for operation over the 0 to +50 C temperature range. Amplifier block diagram is included.

  15. 64-Gbit/s GaAs integrated DANE receiver/laser driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wei-Heng; Mu, Jinghui; Heins, Mitchell D.; Feng, Milton; Kim, Jongwoo; McCallum, David S.; Stone, Richard V.; Guilfoyle, Peter S.

    1997-04-01

    Optical interconnects provide wide bandwidth, lowloss, and high fanout as compared to those for traditional electrical interconnects. In the past years many high performance optoelectronic circuits have been demonstrated. However, most of them require complicated process and exotic devices. To make optical interconnects in real system and commercial use, circuits utilizing manufacturable, robust, and low-cost technology have to be realized. Ion implanted GaAs MESFETs provide great promise due to their simplicity in manufacturing and their high speed performance. The optical characteristics of GaAs materials also make this technology favorable in realizing low-cost, high-performance OEICs.

  16. The LDA+U calculation of electronic band structure of GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahuguna, B. P.; Sharma, R. O.; Saini, L. K.

    2016-05-01

    We present the electronic band structure of bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs) using first principle approach. A series of calculations has been performed by applying norm-conserving pseudopotentials and ultrasoft non-norm-conserving pseudopotentials within the density functional theory. These calculations yield too small band gap as compare to experiment. Thus, we use semiemperical approach called local density approximation plus the multi-orbital mean-field Hubbard model (LDA+U), which is quite effective in order to describe the band gap of GaAs.

  17. Dual-loss modulated Nd:GGG laser with Cr4+:YAG and GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Junpeng; Zhao, Jia; Li, Yufei; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Qiao, Wenchao; Li, Tao; Chu, Hongwei

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate a diode-pumped dual-loss passively Q-switched and mode-locked (DP-QML) Nd:GGG laser by simultaneously employing Cr4+:YAG and GaAs as saturable absorbers. In comparison with single passively Q-switched and mode-locked (SP-QML) Nd:GGG laser with the Cr4+:YAG or GaAs, the maximum pulse width compression and the highest peak power improvement are 76.8% and 18.5 times in DP-QML laser, with the value of 67 ns and 2.9 kW, respectively.

  18. Ferromagnetic GaMnAs grown on (110) faced GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Wurstbauer, Ursula; Sperl, Matthias; Soda, Marcello; Neumaier, Daniel; Schuh, Dieter; Bayreuther, Guenther; Zweck, Josef; Wegscheider, Werner

    2008-03-10

    Thin Ga{sub 0.94}Mn{sub 0.06}As layers have been grown by low temperature molecular beam epitaxy on (110) GaAs substrates and on [110] and [-110] oriented GaAs cleaved edges. The Curie temperatures T{sub C} for the as-grown samples ranges from 46 to 80 K. After annealing at low temperatures T{sub C} increases up to 115 K. In addition, magnetic anisotropies determined by superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry and magnetotransport measurements are reported.

  19. Modeling the effect of deep impurity ionization on GaAs photoconductive switches

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, J.H.; Khanaka, G.H.; Druce, R.L.; Pocha, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    The ionization coefficient of deep traps in GaAs is determined from a gas breakdown model together with the recent experimental data obtained at LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) and Boeing. Using this coefficient in our nonlinear device transport code, we have investigated theoretically the nonlinear switching phenomena in GaAs devices. The results obtained from our investigations show that if we take into consideration the effect of the field ionization of the deep traps, we can show how the Lock-On'' phenomena could occur in the device.

  20. InGaAs quantum dot molecules around self-assembled GaAs nanomound templates

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J. H.; Wang, Zh. M.; Strom, N. W.; Mazur, Yu. I.; Salamo, G. J.

    2006-11-13

    Several distinctive self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot molecules (QDMs) are studied. The QDMs self-assemble around nanoscale-sized GaAs moundlike templates fabricated by droplet homoepitaxy. Depending on the specific InAs monolayer coverage, the number of QDs per GaAs mound ranges from two to six (bi-QDMs to hexa-QDMs). The Ga contribution from the mounds is analyzed in determining the morphologies of the QDMs, with respect to the InAs coverages ranging between 0.8 and 2.4 ML. Optical characterization shows that the resulting nanostructures are high-quality nanocrystals.

  1. Magnetic and chemical aspects of Cr-based films grown on GaAs(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosca, D. H.; de Camargo, P. C.; Guimarães, J. L.; Schreiner, W. H.; de Oliveira, A. J. A.; Souza, P. E. N.; Eddrief, M.; Etgens, V. H.

    2005-11-01

    We have investigated the magnetic and chemical properties of very thin films of Cr, CrAs, and arsenized Cr, grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (001), using x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and SQUID magnetometry. The substrate was kept at 200 °C in an As-rich environment for incoming Cr atoms at the GaAs surface. Gallium segregation and the chemical reactivity between Ga and Cr have negligible contribution to the formation of different thin films. A clear ferromagnetic response, even at room temperature, suggests the formation of a very thin buried interfacial layer during the growth process.

  2. Second harmonic generation in photonic crystal cavities in (111)-oriented GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, Sonia Radulaski, Marina; Vučković, Jelena; Biermann, Klaus

    2013-11-18

    We demonstrate second harmonic generation at telecommunications wavelengths in photonic crystal cavities in (111)-oriented GaAs. We fabricate 30 photonic crystal structures in both (111)- and (100)-oriented GaAs and observe an increase in generated second harmonic power in the (111) orientation, with the mean power increased by a factor of 3, although there is a large scatter in the measured values. We discuss possible reasons for this increase, in particular, the reduced two photon absorption for transverse electric modes in (111) orientation, as well as a potential increase due to improved mode overlap.

  3. A thermochemical model of radiation damage and annealing applied to GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, E. J.; Walker, G. H.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Calculations of the equilibrium conditions for continuous radiation damage and thermal annealing are reported. The calculations are based on a thermochemical model developed to analyze the incorporation of point imperfections in GaAs, and modified by introducing the radiation to produce native lattice defects rather than high-temperature and arsenic atmospheric pressure. The concentration of a set of defects, including vacancies, divacancies, and impurity vacancy complexes, are calculated as a function of temperature. Minority carrier lifetimes, short circuit current, and efficiency are deduced for a range of equilibrium temperatures. The results indicate that GaAs solar cells could have a mission life which is not greatly limited by radiation damage.

  4. Arsenic volatilization of GaAs photocathode at low temperature during thermal cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Shi, Feng; Miao, Zhuang; Gao, Xiang; Cheng, Hong-chang; Niu, Sen; Wang, Long; Chen, Chang

    2014-09-01

    The gallium arsenide (GaAs) photocathode was generally cleaned by radiant heating, direct heating, ion bombardment annealing, and so on. In this paper, the radiant heating method, namely thermal cleaning method, was adopted for GaAs photocathode surface purification. Using this method could obtain an atomic clean surface, ensure the integrity of the GaAs surface lattice, and guarantee the uniformity of surface cleaning effect at the same time. But because the accurate measurement of the GaAs photocathode surface temperature in the vacuum system was very difficult, the residual gas analyzer (RGA) was used in this experiment to monitor the residual gas composition in ultrahigh vacuum during the thermal cleaning process and determine the thermal cleaning temperature by the partial pressure curves of As and Ga. It was found that the first peaks of As and Ga elements both appeared after heating about one hour, accompanied with H2O, N2/CO, CO2 and other common gas. According to partial pressure curves of H2O, N2/CO, CO2 and the heating time, it could be judged that the temperature at that time was not high, which should be under 150°C.After thermal cleaning experiment of three GaAs photocathodes, it was found that the peak value of As partial pressure at low temperature was generally within 10-11mbar~10-10mbar, and the peak value was at 10-10mbar at high temperature. Sometimes it was appeared that the peak value of As partial pressure at low temperature was even higher than the peak value at high temperature. The As volatilization phenomenon occurred at low temperature indicated that the elemental As exist on the GaAs photocathode surface or near surface after the chemical etching process, and the As could volatilize from GaAs photocathode at low temperature in the beginning of thermal cleaning. This research has guiding significance for further understanding the thermal cleaning mechanism of GaAs photocathode and improving the thermal cleaning technology.

  5. Studies on charge collection and transport properties on semi-insulating materials in the presence of a non-uniform electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanichelli, Massimiliano; Pavesi, Maura; Marchini, Laura; Zappettini, Andrea

    2012-07-01

    II-VI semiconductors obtain a real interest in the scientific community for their wide applications in several fields: from optoelectronic and solar cell technology to applications as radiation detectors. The charge collection efficiency (C.C.E.) - i.e. the ratio between the photo-generated charge and the charge collected by the electrodes - is closely related both to the material transport properties and to the internal electric field. It could be exploited to study the transport parameters of these materials and the electric field profile inside the devices under irradiation. Under opportune conditions, C.C.E., as a function of applied bias, should follow Hecht or Many's equation, depending on the penetration length of incident radiation. A central requirement in both these models is a uniform internal electric field but in real devices this condition is seldom satisfied due to the presence of spatial charge, as demonstrated by Pockels measurements and bad photocurrent curve fitting. The authors, starting from the Ramo-Shockley theorem and assuming a linear shape of the electric field, present a new model to describe the C.C.E. as a function of applied bias, with the mobility life-time product μτ and the field slope as parameters. This model, with respect to the previous ones, gives information also about the internal electric field profile and, despite its simplicity, it seems to be a good approximation in several cases, as shown by the experimental analyses reported here.

  6. Commercial food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Black, E.F.; Libby, L.M.

    1983-06-01

    Food irradiation is discussed. Irradiation exposes food to gamma rays from a cobalt-60 or a cesium-137 source, or to high-energy electrons emitted by an electron accelerator. A major advantage is that food can be packaged either before or after treatment. FDA regulations with regard to irradiation are discussed. Comments on an 'Advance Notice' on irradiation, published by the FDA in 1981 are summarized.

  7. Low-temperature-grown GaAs enhanced wet thermal oxidation of Al0.98Ga0.02As

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, H.; Chiu, Y. J.; Hu, E.

    1998-11-01

    The effects of incorporating low-temperature-grown GaAs (LT GaAs) into the layer structure of Al0.98Ga0.02As/GaAs are studied. Results show that the structures containing a 300 nm layer of LT GaAs have faster oxidation rates and lower oxidation temperatures compared to reference samples without the LT GaAs layer. This letter will discuss the mechanisms involved in the oxidation rate increase, attributed to the LT GaAs enhancing the transport of As species during the oxidation process.

  8. Passively Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:GGG laser with a Bi-doped GaAs saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wen; Li, Dechun; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Li, Xiangyang; Qiao, Hui; Liu, Ji

    2014-06-16

    A simultaneously passively Q-switched and mode-locked (QML) Nd:GGG laser using a Bi-doped GaAs wafer as saturable absorber is accomplished for the first time. The Bi-doped GaAs wafer is fabricated by ion implantation and subsequent annealing. In comparison to the passively QML laser with GaAs, the QML laser with Bi-doped GaAs can generate more stable pulses with 99% modulation depth. The experiment results indicate that the Bi-doped GaAs could be an excellent saturable absorber for diode-pumped QML lasers.

  9. Passively Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:GGG laser with a Bi-doped GaAs saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wen; Li, Dechun; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Li, Xiangyang; Qiao, Hui; Liu, Ji

    2014-06-16

    A simultaneously passively Q-switched and mode-locked (QML) Nd:GGG laser using a Bi-doped GaAs wafer as saturable absorber is accomplished for the first time. The Bi-doped GaAs wafer is fabricated by ion implantation and subsequent annealing. In comparison to the passively QML laser with GaAs, the QML laser with Bi-doped GaAs can generate more stable pulses with 99% modulation depth. The experiment results indicate that the Bi-doped GaAs could be an excellent saturable absorber for diode-pumped QML lasers. PMID:24977576

  10. Diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GGG laser with a Bi-doped GaAs semiconductor saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Wen; Li, Dechun; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Li, Xiangyang; Qiao, Hui; Liu, Ji

    2014-12-01

    Passive Q-switching of a diode-pumped Nd:GGG laser is demonstrated using Bi-doped GaAs as saturable absorber. The Bi-doped GaAs wafer is fabricated by ion implantation and subsequent annealing. Compared with the Q-switched laser by undoped GaAs semiconductor saturable absorber, the laser with Bi-doped GaAs as saturable absorber can produce higher output power, shorter pulses, higher single pulse energies and higher peak powers. These results suggest that Bi-doped GaAs can be a promising new candidate of semiconductor saturable absorber in Q-switched laser.

  11. Electron Radiation Damage of (alga) As-gaas Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loo, R.; Kamath, G. S.; Knechtli, R.

    1979-01-01

    Solar cells (2 cm by 2 cm (AlGa) As-GaAs cells) were fabricated and then subjected to irradiation at normal incidence by electrons. The influence of junction depth and n-type buffer layer doping level on the cell's resistance to radiation damage was investigated. The study shows that (1) a 0.3 micrometer deep junction results in lower damage to the cells than does a 0.5 micrometer junction, and (2) lowering the n buffer layer doping density does not improve the radiation resistance of the cell. Rather, lowering the doping density decreases the solar cell's open circuit voltage. Some preliminary thermal annealing experiments in vacuum were performed on the (AlGa)As-GaAs solar cells damaged by 1-MeV electron irradiation. The results show that cell performance can be expected to partially recover at 200 C with more rapid and complete recovery occurring at higher temperature. For a 0.5hr anneal at 400 C, 90% of the initial power is recovered. The characteristics of the (AlGa)As-GaAs cells both before and after irradiation are described.

  12. First-principles predictions of electronic properties of GaAs1-x-yPyBix and GaAs1-x-yPyBix-based heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Guangfu; Forghani, Kamran; Kuech, Thomas F.; Morgan, Dane

    2016-09-01

    Significant efficiency droop is a major concern for light-emitting diodes and laser diodes operating at high current density. Recent study has suggested that heavily Bi-alloyed GaAs can decrease the non-radiative Auger recombination and therefore alleviate the efficiency droop. Using density functional theory, we studied a newly fabricated quaternary alloy, GaAs1-x-yPyBix, which can host significant amounts of Bi, through calculations of its band gap, spin-orbit splitting, and band offsets with GaAs. We found that the band gap changes of GaAs1-x-yPyBix relative to GaAs are determined mainly by the local structural changes around P and Bi atoms rather than their electronic structure differences. To obtain alloy with lower Auger recombination than GaAs bulk, we identified the necessary constraints on the compositions of P and Bi. Finally, we demonstrated that GaAs/GaAs1-x-yPyBix heterojunctions with potentially low Auger recombination can exhibit small lattice mismatch and large enough band offsets for strong carrier confinement. This work shows that the electronic properties of GaAs1-x-yPyBix are potentially suitable for high-power infrared light-emitting diodes and laser diodes with improved efficiency.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of GaAs/A1GaAs quantum-well lasers using thermally oxidized A1GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homan, Otte J.; Epler, John E.; Patterson, Bruce D.; Lehmann, Hans W.

    1994-07-01

    Aluminum-oxide thermally grown into high Al-concentration AlxGa1-xAs layers has recently been studied extensively. The material shows electrical and optical properties that make it useful in a semiconductor laser fabrication process where it can provide electrical isolation and optical guiding, as well as simplify the fabrication and integration process considerably. We use this thermal oxide to produce GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor lasers that can be integrated with other devices. The GaAs cap- layer is masked with photoresist and the exposed GaAs areas are etched away, leaving a GaAs oxidation mask on the AlGaAs upper cladding layer. Using N2 carrier gas saturated with H2O vapor, the uncovered Al0.8Ga0.2As material is converted into a stable aluminum-oxide at temperatures around 450 degree(s)C. Due to the near-isotropic oxidation an `ellipsoidal' diffusion front is created, which is in strong contrast to the well-known mesa cross-section in conventional dry-etched ridge-waveguides but is more similar to e.g. wet-etched buried heterostruture lasers.

  14. Origin and enhancement of the 1.3 μm luminescence from GaAs treated by ion-implantation and flash lamp annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Kun; Prucnal, S.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Zhou, Shengqiang

    2013-09-01

    GaAs and GaAs based materials have outstanding optoelectronic properties and are widely used as light emitting media in devices. Many approaches have been applied to GaAs to generate luminescence at 0.88, 1.30, and 1.55 μm which are transmission windows of optical fibers. In this paper, we present the photoluminescence at 1.30 μm from deep level defects in GaAs treated by ion-implantation and flash lamp annealing (FLA). Such emission, which exhibits superior temperature stability, can be obtained from FLA treated virgin GaAs as well as doped GaAs. Indium-doping in GaAs can greatly enhance the luminescence. By photoluminescence, Raman measurements, and positron annihilation spectroscopy, we conclude that the origin of the 1.30 μm emission is from transitions between the VAs-donor and X-acceptor pairs.

  15. Indium-doped GaAs: Investigation of deep traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurenti, J. P.; Wolter, K.; Roentgen, P.; Seibert, K.; Kurz, H.; Camassel, J.

    1989-03-01

    The effect of indium incorporation on the concentration of deep traps in a series of GaAs epitaxial layers has been investigated by performing quantitative photoluminescence (PL) and capacitance [deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS)] spectroscopic studies. All samples were epitaxial layers of n-type GaAs:In, grown by organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy (OMVPE) on liquid-encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) -grown GaAs:Cr substrates. The calibrated indium concentration ranged between 0 and 6.5×1019 atoms cm-3, which is about 0.3% in alloy composition. We have investigated (i) the bands associated with chromium in both the epitaxial layers and the original substrates; (ii) a large recombination band, associated with an unidentified (D-VGa) complex, at about 1.2 eV; and (iii) the DLTS signal associated with the well-known deep trap EL2. We find the following. First, there is a one-to-one correspondence between the PL intensity associated with Cr2+, at 0.84 eV, and the D-VGa signal at 1.2 eV. This is true for both the epitaxial layers and the original substrates and suggests identification of the unknown donor participating in the D-VGa complex as Cr4+. Second, we find all PL intensities to decrease with increasing indium concentration, while the concentration and depth profile of EL2 are not affected. In contrast to the near-band-edge PL intensity, which increased with increasing indium content, there is a drop by about 1 order of magnitude for all chromium-related features when going from indium-free to about 0.3% indium-rich sample. Moreover, there is a one-to-one correspondence between the increase in the near-band-edge PL intensity and the decrease in the chromium-related signals. This establishes, on a fully experimental basis, the relative roles played by indium and chromium in our epitaxial samples: both compete to incorporate on gallium sites in the strain field of neighboring vacancies but, because of a higher incorporation rate, increasing the indium

  16. Effect of GaAs Laser at 904 nm in the Pain Threshold in Tibia and Tolerance in Deltoid Evaluated by Pressure Algometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Luiz G. P.; Sato, Sidney K.; Silveira, Landulfo; Aimbire, Flávio; Moreira, Leonardo M.; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.

    2011-08-01

    The use of LLLT in pain relief is a controversial issue in Physiotherapy, with the efficacy of LLLT associated to pain relief still requiring significant study. Objective. This work focuses on the evaluation of the effect of low power GaAs laser at 904 nm in pressure pain threshold and tolerance in tibia and deltoid muscle, respectively. A total of 17 subjects were divided in two groups: active and sham laser. Measurements were taken before and after laser irradiation in healthy individuals using a pressure algometry, first verifying the viability of algometry to evaluate the pain threshold and tolerance inter individuals and comparing the differences of right and left sides in the same patients, and finally evaluating the pain threshold and tolerance before and after a single laser application. Laser energy density was of 4.0 J/cm2 with power density of 137 mW/cm2. Comparing algometry values of active laser group and the sham group, the pain tolerance in the deltoid muscle did not change among groups after laser irradiation, while it was also encountered a statistically significant difference in the pain threshold in tibia when comparing the laser active and sham laser (p<0.05). It was found that the active laser was effective in maintaining the pain threshold in tibia. The effective laser action in raising the pain threshold in tibia upon healthy individuals can suggest that the laser could be applied not only as curative but also with preventive purpose.

  17. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY: GaAs surface wet cleaning by a novel treatment in revolving ultrasonic atomization solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaijin, Li; Liming, Hu; Ye, Wang; Ye, Yang; Hangyu, Peng; Jinlong, Zhang; Li, Qin; Yun, Liu; Lijun, Wang

    2010-03-01

    A novel process for the wet cleaning of GaAs surface is presented. It is designed for technological simplicity and minimum damage generated within the GaAs surface. It combines GaAs cleaning with three conditions consisting of (1) removal of thermodynamically unstable species and (2) surface oxide layers must be completely removed after thermal cleaning, and (3) a smooth surface must be provided. Revolving ultrasonic atomization technology is adopted in the cleaning process. At first impurity removal is achieved by organic solvents; second NH4OH:H2O2:H2O = 1:1:10 solution and HCl: H2O2:H2O = 1:1:20 solution in succession to etch a very thin GaAs layer, the goal of the step is removing metallic contaminants and forming a very thin oxidation layer on the GaAs wafer surface; NH4OH:H2O = 1:5 solution is used as the removed oxide layers in the end. The effectiveness of the process is demonstrated by the operation of the GaAs wafer. Characterization of the oxide composition was carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Metal-contamination and surface morphology was observed by a total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and atomic force microscope. The research results show that the cleaned surface is without contamination or metal contamination. Also, the GaAs substrates surface is very smooth for epitaxial growth using the rotary ultrasonic atomization technology.

  18. Defects and annealing studies in 1-Me electron irradiated (AlGa)As-GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, S. S.; Wang, W. L.; Loo, R. Y.; Rahilly, W. P.

    1982-01-01

    The deep-level defects and recombination mechanisms in the one-MeV electron irradiated (AlGa)As-GaAs solar cells under various irradiation and annealing conditions are discussed. Deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and capacitance-voltage (CV) techniques were used to determine the defect and recombination parameters such as energy levels and defect density, carrier capture cross sections and lifetimes for both electron and hole traps as well as hole diffusion lengths in these electron irradiated GaAs solar cells. GaAs solar cells used in this study were prepared by the infinite solution melt liquid phase epitaxial (LPE) technique at Hughes Research Lab., with (Al0.9Ga0.1)-As window layer, Be-diffused p-GaAs layer on Sn-doped n-GaAs or undoped n-GaAs active layer grown on n(+)-GaAs substrate. Mesa structure with area of 5.86x1000 sq cm was fabricated. Three different irradiation and annealing experiments were performed on these solar cells.

  19. Measurement of Young's modulus of GaAs nanowires growing obliquely on a substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, P. A. Dunaevskii, M. S.; Stovpyaga, A. V.; Lepsa, M.; Titkov, A. N.

    2012-05-15

    A convenient and fast method for measuring Young's modulus of semiconductor nanowires obliquely standing on the growth substrate is presented. In this method, the nanowire is elastically bent under the force exerted by the probe of an atomic-force microscope, and the load-unload dependences for the bending of the probe cantilever are recorded. Next, these curves are used to find the bending stiffness of the tilted nanowires, after which, taking into account the nanowire dimensions, Young's modulus is obtained. The implementation of this method is demonstrated for tilted GaAs nanowires growing on a GaAs (111) substrate. Young's modulus is determined by applying finite-element analysis to the problem of the stationary elastic bending of a nanowire taking into account the actual nanowire shape and faceting. It proves that a fairly accurate estimate of Young's modulus can be obtained even if the nanowire shape is approximated by a circular cylinder with a single cross-sectional area. The values of Young's modulus obtained for GaAs nanowires of cubic lattice symmetry are 2 to 3 times smaller than its value for bulk GaAs. This difference is attributed to the presence of stacking faults in the central part of the nanowires.

  20. Growth of (111) GaAs on (111) Si using molecular-beam epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, G.; Liu, J.; Grunthaner, F.; Katz, J.; Morkoc, H.

    1988-01-01

    (111) GaAs layers have been grown epitaxially on (111) Si wafers, both on-axis as well as 3-deg off-axis towards the 1 -1 0 direction, using molecular-beam epitaxy. The grown layers have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy.

  1. Internal Photoemission and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Studies of Sulfur-Passivated GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kenji; Ikoma, Hideaki

    1993-02-01

    Internal photoemission and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) measurements were performed to investigate the effect of sulfur passivation on the GaAs surface and the degradation of the GaAs surface exposed to air ambient after the passivation. The reverse bias dependence of the Schottky barrier height was very small in the as-sulfur-treated sample and was mainly explained by the image force lowering effect. However, it increased as this sample was exposed to air, indicating an increase in the interface state density. The XPS studies showed that both the Ga and As oxides were hardly observed in the sulfur-passivated samples. This indicates that sulfur passivation strongly suppresses oxidation of GaAs. However, a small amount of elemental arsenic was observed with a trace of the As suboxides (such as AsO) after exposure to air and it increased as the exposure time was increased. These results were probably correlated with the increase in the bias dependence of the Schottky barrier height in samples exposed to air after the passivation. Thermal oxidation of GaAs was found to be retarded by sulfur passivation until oxidation time was about 10 min at 300°C. A possible model of suppression of oxidation by sulfur passivation was also discussed.

  2. A new structure for comparing surface passivation materials of GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desalvo, Gregory C.; Barnett, Allen M.

    1989-01-01

    The surface recombination velocity (S sub rec) for bare GaAs is typically as high as 10 to the 6th power to 10 to the 7th power cm/sec, which dramatically lowers the efficiency of GaAs solar cells. Early attempts to circumvent this problem by making an ultra thin junction (xj less than .1 micron) proved unsuccessful when compared to lowering S sub rec by surface passivation. Present day GaAs solar cells use an GaAlAs window layer to passivate the top surface. The advantages of GaAlAs in surface passivation are its high bandgap energy and lattice matching to GaAs. Although GaAlAs is successful in reducing the surface recombination velocity, it has other inherent problems of chemical instability (Al readily oxidizes) and ohmic contact formation. The search for new, more stable window layer materials requires a means to compare their surface passivation ability. Therefore, a device structure is needed to easily test the performance of different passivating candidates. Such a test device is described.

  3. Langley program of GaAs solar cells. [emphasizing energy conversion efficiency and radiation resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    A brief overview of the development of GaAs solar cell technology is provided. An 18 to 20 percent AMO efficiency, stability under radiation and elevated-temperature operation, and high power-to-weight ratio are among the factors studied. Cell cost and availability are also examined.

  4. Electrophilic surface sites as precondition for the chemisorption of pyrrole on GaAs(001) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bruhn, Thomas; Fimland, Bjørn-Ove; Vogt, Patrick

    2015-03-14

    We report how the presence of electrophilic surface sites influences the adsorption mechanism of pyrrole on GaAs(001) surfaces. For this purpose, we have investigated the adsorption behavior of pyrrole on different GaAs(001) reconstructions with different stoichiometries and thus different surface chemistries. The interfaces were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and by reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy in a spectral range between 1.5 and 5 eV. On the As-rich c(4 × 4) reconstruction that exhibits only nucleophilic surface sites, pyrrole was found to physisorb on the surface without any significant modification of the structural and electronic properties of the surface. On the Ga-rich GaAs(001)-(4 × 2)/(6 × 6) reconstructions which exhibit nucleophilic as well as electrophilic surface sites, pyrrole was found to form stable covalent bonds mainly to the electrophilic (charge deficient) Ga atoms of the surface. These results clearly demonstrate that the existence of electrophilic surface sites is a crucial precondition for the chemisorption of pyrrole on GaAs(001) surfaces.

  5. Heat flow model for pulsed laser melting and rapid solidification of ion implanted GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taeseok; Pillai, Manoj R.; Aziz, Michael J.; Scarpulla, Michael A.; Dubon, Oscar D.; Yu, Kin M.; Beeman, Jeffrey W.; Ridgway, Mark C.

    2010-07-01

    In order to further understand the pulsed-laser melting (PLM) of Mn and N implanted GaAs, which we have used to synthesize thin films of the ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga1-xMnxAs and the highly mismatched alloy GaNxAs1-x, we have simulated PLM of amorphous (a-) and crystalline (c-) GaAs. We present a numerical solution to the one-dimensional heat equation, accounting for phase-dependent reflectivity, optical skin depth, and latent heat, and a temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and specific heat. By comparing the simulations with experimental time-resolved reflectivity and melt depth versus laser fluence, we identify a set of thermophysical and optical properties for the crystalline, amorphous, and liquid phases of GaAs that give reasonable agreement between experiment and simulation. This work resulted in the estimation of thermal conductivity, melting temperature and latent heat of fusion of a-GaAs of 0.008 W/cm K at 300 K, 1350 K, and 2650 J/cm3, respectively. These materials properties also allow the prediction of the solidification velocity of crystalline and ion-amorphized GaAs.

  6. Generation of terahertz radiation in ordered arrays of GaAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Trukhin, V. N.; Mustafin, I. A.; Bouravleuv, A. D.; Cirlin, G. E.; Kakko, J. P.; Huhtio, T.; Lipsanen, H.

    2015-06-22

    THz generation under excitation by ultrashort optical pulses in ordered arrays of GaAs nanowires is reported. It was found that the efficiency of THz radiation generation increases due to the resonant leaky mode excitation in nanowires. The maximum value of the THz field is achieved when the distance between the nanowires is of the order of the wavelength of exciting light.

  7. On the cascade capture of electrons at donors in GaAs quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Aleshkin, V. Ya.

    2015-09-15

    The impact parameter for the cascade capture of electrons at a charged donor in a GaAs quantum well is calculated. A simple approximate analytical expression for the impact parameter is suggested. The temperature dependence of the impact parameter for the case of electron scattering by the piezoelectric potential of acoustic phonons is determined.

  8. Micro structuration of gaas surface by wet etching: towards a specific surface behavior.

    PubMed

    Bienaime, Alex; Elie-Caille, Celine; Leblois, Therese

    2012-08-01

    Resonant microelectromechanical systems are promising devices for real time and highly sensitive measurements. The sensitivity of such sensors to additional mass loadings which can be increased thanks to the miniaturisation of devices is of prime importance for biological applications. The miniaturisation of structures passes through a photolithographic process and wet chemical etching. So, this paper presents new results on the anisotropic chemical etching of the gallium arsenide (GaAs) crystal used for this application, in several solutions. This paper focuses on the micro/nanostructuration of the sensing surface to increase the sensor sensitivity. Indeed, this active surface will be biofunctionalized to operate in biological liquid media in view of biomolecules detection. Several experimental conditions of etching bath composition, concentration and temperature were examined to obtain a large variety of geometrical surfaces topographies and roughness. According to the orientation dependence of the chemical etching process, the experiments were also performed on various GaAs crystal plates. The bath 1 H3PO4:9 H2O2:1 H2O appeared to be particularly adapted to the fabrication of the GaAs microstructured membrane: indeed, the bath is highly stable, anisotropic, and, as a function of temperature, it allows the production of a large variety of GaAs surface topographies.

  9. Enhanced charge recombination due to surfaces and twin defects in GaAs nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Evan; Sheng, Chunyang; Nakano, Aiichiro; Shimamura, Kohei; Shimojo, Fuyuki

    2015-02-07

    Power conversion efficiency of gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowire (NW) solar cells is severely limited by enhanced charge recombination (CR) at sidewall surfaces, but its atomistic mechanisms are not well understood. In addition, GaAs NWs usually contain a high density of twin defects that form a twin superlattice, but its effects on CR dynamics are largely unknown. Here, quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations reveal the existence of an intrinsic type-II heterostructure at the (110) GaAs surface. Nonadiabatic quantum molecular dynamics (NAQMD) simulations show that the resulting staggered band alignment causes a photoexcited electron in the bulk to rapidly transfer to the surface. We have found orders-of-magnitude enhancement of the CR rate at the surface compared with the bulk value. Furthermore, QMD and NAQMD simulations show unique surface electronic states at alternating (111)A and (111)B sidewall surfaces of a twinned [111]-oriented GaAs NW, which act as effective CR centers. The calculated large surface recombination velocity quantitatively explains recent experimental observations and provides microscopic understanding of the underlying CR processes.

  10. The temporal dynamics of impurity photoconductivity in quantum wells in GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Aleshkin, V. Ya. E-mail: aleshkin@ipm.sci-nnov.ru

    2015-10-15

    A theory of cascade capture at charged donors in quantum wells (QWs) is developed without using the Fokker-Planck approximation, which is not valid in QWs. The time dependences of impurity photoconductivity and photoelectron concentration in GaAs QWs are determined. The cascade capture time as a function of the charge donor concentration is calculated.

  11. High-Performance GaAs Nanowire Solar Cells for Flexible and Transparent Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Han, Ning; Yang, Zai-xing; Wang, Fengyun; Dong, Guofa; Yip, SenPo; Liang, Xiaoguang; Hung, Tak Fu; Chen, Yunfa; Ho, Johnny C

    2015-09-16

    Among many available photovoltaic technologies at present, gallium arsenide (GaAs) is one of the recognized leaders for performance and reliability; however, it is still a great challenge to achieve cost-effective GaAs solar cells for smart systems such as transparent and flexible photovoltaics. In this study, highly crystalline long GaAs nanowires (NWs) with minimal crystal defects are synthesized economically by chemical vapor deposition and configured into novel Schottky photovoltaic structures by simply using asymmetric Au-Al contacts. Without any doping profiles such as p-n junction and complicated coaxial junction structures, the single NW Schottky device shows a record high apparent energy conversion efficiency of 16% under air mass 1.5 global illumination by normalizing to the projection area of the NW. The corresponding photovoltaic output can be further enhanced by connecting individual cells in series and in parallel as well as by fabricating NW array solar cells via contact printing showing an overall efficiency of 1.6%. Importantly, these Schottky cells can be easily integrated on the glass and plastic substrates for transparent and flexible photovoltaics, which explicitly demonstrate the outstanding versatility and promising perspective of these GaAs NW Schottky photovoltaics for next-generation smart solar energy harvesting devices.

  12. The role of proximity caps during the annealing of UV-ozone oxidized GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S. C.; Biesinger, M. C.; LaPierre, R. R.; Kruse, P.

    2007-06-01

    This study provides a deeper insight into the chemistry and physics of the common engineering practice of using a proximity cap, while annealing compound semiconductors such as GaAs. We have studied the cases of a GaAs proximity cap, a Si proximity cap, and no proximity cap. Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, it has been found that annealing increases the gallium to arsenic ratio in the oxide layer in all cases. During the annealing of UV-ozone oxidized GaAs, it has been observed that GaAs proximity caps also serve as a sacrificial layer to accelerate the desorption of oxide species. In all cases surface deterioration due to pit formation has been observed, and the depth of pits is found to depend on the effective role played by the capping material. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis provides additional evidence that pits mainly consist of elemental As and gallium oxide, with most of the elemental As situated at the pit-substrate interface. Deposition of a thin layer of gold and subsequent annealing to 500 deg. C for 300 s under different capping conditions shows the use of a proximate cap to be practically insignificant in annealing Au deposited films.

  13. An observation of direct-gap electroluminescence in GaAs structures with Ge quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Aleshkin, V. Ya.; Dikareva, N. V.; Dubinov, A. A.; Zvonkov, B. N.; Kudryavtsev, K. E.; Nekorkin, S. M.

    2015-02-15

    A light-emitting diode structure based on GaAs with eight narrow Ge quantum wells is grown by laser sputtering. An electroluminescence line polarized predominately in the plane parallel to the constituent layers of the structure is revealed. The line corresponds to the direct optical transitions in momentum space in the Ge quantum wells.

  14. Modified energetics and growth kinetics on H-terminated GaAs (110)

    SciTech Connect

    Galiana, B.; Benedicto, M.; Díez-Merino, L.; Tejedor, P.; Lorbek, S.; Hlawacek, G.; Teichert, C.

    2013-10-28

    Atomic hydrogen modification of the surface energy of GaAs (110) epilayers, grown at high temperatures from molecular beams of Ga and As{sub 4}, has been investigated by friction force microscopy (FFM). The reduction of the friction force observed with longer exposures to the H beam has been correlated with the lowering of the surface energy originated by the progressive de-relaxation of the GaAs (110) surface occurring upon H chemisorption. Our results indicate that the H-terminated GaAs (110) epilayers are more stable than the As-stabilized ones, with the minimum surface energy value of 31 meV/Å{sup 2} measured for the fully hydrogenated surface. A significant reduction of the Ga diffusion length on the H-terminated surface irrespective of H coverage has been calculated from the FFM data, consistent with the layer-by-layer growth mode and the greater As incorporation coefficient determined from real-time reflection high-energy electron diffraction studies. Arsenic incorporation through direct dissociative chemisorption of single As{sub 4} molecules mediated by H on the GaAs (110) surface has been proposed as the most likely explanation for the changes in surface kinetics observed.

  15. DFT algorithms for bit-serial GaAs array processor architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, Gary B.

    1988-01-01

    Systems and Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) has developed an innovative array processor architecture for computing Fourier transforms and other commonly used signal processing algorithms. This architecture is designed to extract the highest possible array performance from state-of-the-art GaAs technology. SPEC's architectural design includes a high performance RISC processor implemented in GaAs, along with a Floating Point Coprocessor and a unique Array Communications Coprocessor, also implemented in GaAs technology. Together, these data processors represent the latest in technology, both from an architectural and implementation viewpoint. SPEC has examined numerous algorithms and parallel processing architectures to determine the optimum array processor architecture. SPEC has developed an array processor architecture with integral communications ability to provide maximum node connectivity. The Array Communications Coprocessor embeds communications operations directly in the core of the processor architecture. A Floating Point Coprocessor architecture has been defined that utilizes Bit-Serial arithmetic units, operating at very high frequency, to perform floating point operations. These Bit-Serial devices reduce the device integration level and complexity to a level compatible with state-of-the-art GaAs device technology.

  16. SEU of complementary GaAs static RAMs due to heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuleeg, R.; Notthoff, J. K.; Nichols, D. K.

    1984-01-01

    The first measurement of single event upset (SEU) for complementary GaAs static RAMs caused by heavy ions is reported. Upset cross-sections of the circuits for 28 MeV oxygen ions are reported as well as the linear energy transfer (LET) threshold established by using 170 MeV oxygen ions at various angles of beam incidence.

  17. Hot photoluminescence and valence band warping in GaAs and InP crytals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, M. A.; Karlik, I. Ya.; Merkulov, I. A.; Mirlin, D. N.; Sapega, V. F.

    1988-03-01

    The investigations of hot photoluminescence are shown to be a powerful technique for determination of band parameters (Luttinger parameters) of A 3B 5 compounds. The experiment and calculations are carried out for GaAs and InP crystals.

  18. Reuse of GaAs substrates for epitaxial lift-off by employing protection layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyusang; Zimmerman, Jeramy D.; Xiao, Xin; Sun, Kai; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2012-02-01

    We demonstrate repeated use of GaAs wafers for multiple growths by employing lattice-matched epitaxial protection layers to preserve the wafer surface in its original condition following their etch removal after growth. The protection layers provide a regrowth surface that eliminates the need for repolishing prior to subsequent growth. Between growths, the protection layers are removed by wet chemical etching. The resulting surface quality is examined using atomic force microscope and energy dispersive spectrometry. We show that the surface roughness, chemical composition, morphology, and electronic properties of the GaAs surface after protection-layer removal are comparable to that of the original substrate surface. We show that p-n junction GaAs solar cells grown on original and reused wafers have nearly identical performance with power conversion efficiencies of ˜23%, under simulated 1 sun illumination, AM1.5 G. The high power conversion efficiency of GaAs solar cells combined with reduced costs associated with multiple parent wafer reuses promise cost competitiveness with incumbent solar cell technologies.

  19. Thermal oxidation of In/sub 2/S/sub 3//GaAs structures

    SciTech Connect

    Mittova, Ya.; Pukhova, V.V.

    1986-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of indium sulfide, deposited on the surface of GaAs, on the process of oxidation of gallium arsenide, as well as on the composition and some properties of the oxide layers formed.

  20. A comparison of GaAs and Si hybrid solar power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, J. H.; Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Five different hybrid solar power systems using silicon solar cells to produce thermal and electric power are modeled and compared with a hybrid system using a GaAs cell. Among the indices determined are capital cost per unit electric power plus mechanical power, annual cost per unit electric energy, and annual cost per unit electric plus mechanical work. Current costs are taken to be $35,000/sq m for GaAs cells with an efficiency of 15% and $1000/sq m for Si cells with an efficiency of 10%. It is shown that hybrid systems can be competitive with existing methods of practical energy conversion. Limiting values for annual costs of Si and GaAs cells are calculated to be 10.3 cents/kWh and 6.8 cents/kWh, respectively. Results for both systems indicate that for a given flow rate there is an optimal operating condition for minimum cost photovoltaic output. For Si cell costs of $50/sq m optimal performance can be achieved at concentrations of about 10; for GaAs cells costing 1000/sq m, optimal performance can be obtained at concentrations of around 100. High concentration hybrid systems offer a distinct cost advantage over flat systems.

  1. Formation of a pn junction on an anisotropically etched GaAs surface using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, R. P.; Bailey, S. G.; Mazaris, G. A.; Williams, W. D.

    1986-01-01

    A continuous p-type GaAs epilayer has been deposited on an n-type sawtooth GaAs surface using MOCVD. A wet chemical etching process was used to expose the intersecting (111)Ga and (-1 -1 1)Ga planes with 6-micron periodicity. Charge-collection microscopy was used to verify the presence of the pn junction thus formed and to measure its depth. The ultimate goal of this work is to fabricate a V-groove GaAs cell with improved absorptivity, high short-circuit current, and tolerance to particle radiation.

  2. Carbon, oxygen, boron, hydrogen and nitrogen in the LEC growth of SI GaAs: a thermochemical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korb, J.; Flade, T.; Jurisch, M.; Köhler, A.; Reinhold, Th; Weinert, B.

    1999-03-01

    The ChemSage code [Eriksson and Hack, Metall. Trans. B 12 (1990) 1013] to minimize the total Gibbs free energy was used to calculate phase equilibria in the complex thermochemical system representing LEC GaAs crystal growth which comprises the growth atmosphere, the liquid boron oxide, the GaAs melt and solid phases including the GaAs crystal. The behaviour of C, B, O, N and H in the crystal growth melt at 1509.42 K is investigated in dependence on relevant technological parameters.

  3. Monolithic integration of optical grade GaAs on Si (001) substrates deeply patterned at a micron scale

    SciTech Connect

    Bietti, Sergio; Scaccabarozzi, Andrea; Bonera, Emiliano; Miglio, Leo; Sanguinetti, Stefano; Frigeri, Cesare; Falub, Claudiu V.; Känel, Hans von

    2013-12-23

    Dense arrays of micrometric crystals, with areal filling up to 93%, are obtained by depositing GaAs in a mask-less molecular beam epitaxy process onto Si substrates. The substrates are patterned into tall, micron sized pillars. Faceted high aspect ratio GaAs crystals are achieved by tuning the Ga adatom for short surface diffusion lengths. The crystals exhibit bulk-like optical quality due to defect termination at the sidewalls. Simultaneously, the thermal strain induced by different thermal expansion parameters of GaAs and Si is fully relieved. This opens the route to thick film applications without crack formation and wafer bowing.

  4. A search for spin-polarized photoemission from GaAs using light with orbital angular momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan Clayburn, James McCarter, Joan Dreiling, Bernard Poelker, Dominic Ryan, Timothy Gay

    2013-01-01

    Laser light with photon energy near the bandgap of GaAs and with different amounts of orbital angular momentum was used to produce photoemission from unstrained GaAs. The degree of electron spin polarization was measured using a micro-Mott polarimeter and found to be consistent with zero with an upper limit of ~3% for light with up to ±5{bar h} of orbital angular momentum. In contrast, the degree of spin polarization was 32.32 ± 1.35% using circularly-polarized laser light at the same wavelength, which is typical of bulk GaAs.

  5. XPS investigation on vacuum thermal desorption of UV/ozone treated GaAs(100) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossu, G.; Ingo, G. M.; Mattogno, G.; Padeletti, G.; Proietti, G. M.

    In order to prepare suitable surfaces for molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), sacrificial thin oxide layers on HCl etched GaAs(100) surfaces were grown by both air and UV/ozone exposure. Passive films were subsequently removed by vacuum thermal desorption to achieve surfaces that were smooth and clean on an atomic scale. The evolution of the surface chemical composition, as a function of vacuum desorption temperature, has been studied by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS results have evidenced for air and UV/ozone exposed GaAs(100) surfaces a relationship between desorption temperature and surface chemical composition; indeed, the oxide removal is temperature dependent and sequentially selective as follows: As 2O 3. AsO and Ga 2O 3. Furthermore, XPS results have shown that air-grown films have a chemical composition and thermal desorption behaviour different from UV/ozone treated materials. Indeed, these latter have an As 2O 3/Ga 2O 3 and an unoxidized As/Ga ratio close to unity for as grown and thermal treated at 580°C surfaces, respectively. By contrast, air-exposed GaAs(100) materials are Ga 2O 3-enriched and after vacuum thermal desorption treatments have never a stoichiometric composition(As (GaAs)/Ga (GaAs)= 1). Furthermore UV/ozone treated GaAs(100) surfaces subjected to a vacuum thermal treatment at 580°C, have a troublesome organic contamination level below XPS detectability, whereas from air-exposed surfaces, carbon is not completely thermally removable

  6. From synchrotron radiation to I-V measurements of GaAs schottky barrier formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicer, W. E.; Cao, R.; Miyano, K.; Kendelewicz, T.; Lindau, I.; Weber, E.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Newman, N.

    1989-11-01

    Through the use of synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and related techniques, we have gained detailed knowledge of Fermi level pinning, interfacial chemistry and disruption of GaAs for coverages up to several monolayers (ML). A link has been made between these data and that in the thick layer regime (hundreds of ML), which characterizes practical Schottky diodes. PES results for thin layers deposited at room temperature (RT) and low temperatures of about 80 K (LT) as well as thick films deposited at RT and annealed to higher temperatures are considered. At LT where GaAs disruption is minimized for thin films, metal-induced gap states seem to dominate the Fermi level pinning process except where GaAs metal reactions are strong. For RT thin and thick films, the effects of defects must be considered, and the advanced unified defect model (AUDM) is applied. In the AUDM the key defects are identified as the As Ga (double donor with levels at 0.75 and 0.5 eV above the valence band maximum) and the Ga As antisite (double acceptor) with the As Ga normally dominating due to the excess As which characterizes LEC GaAs crystals. The literature is reviewed and a number of phenomena are explained in terms of this model including the Fermi level position on MBE grown GaAs observed by Svensson et al. and the anomolously high Schottky barrier height (SBH) of thick Ga on n-GaAs observed by several groups. By performing electrical, TEM, and chemical studies of thick diodes and by evaluating the changes upon thermal annealing of diodes it is found that the AUDM successfully predicts the increase or decrease of barrier height on annealing.

  7. Surface science analysis of GaAs photocathodes following sustained electron beam delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos Hernandez-Garcia, Fay Hannon, Marcy Stutzman, V. Shutthanandan, Z. Zhu, M. Nandasri, S. V. Kuchibhatla, S. Thevuthasan, W. P. Hess

    2012-06-01

    Degradation of the photocathode materials employed in photoinjectors represents a challenge for sustained operation of nuclear physics accelerators and high power Free Electron Lasers (FEL). Photocathode quantum efficiency (QE) degradation is due to residual gasses in the electron source vacuum system being ionized and accelerated back to the photocathode. These investigations are a first attempt to characterize the nature of the photocathode degradation, and employ multiple surface and bulk analysis techniques to investigate damage mechanisms including sputtering of the Cs-oxidant surface monolayer, other surface chemistry effects, and ion implantation. Surface and bulk analysis studies were conducted on two GaAs photocathodes, which were removed from the JLab FEL DC photoemission gun after delivering electron beam, and two control samples. The analysis techniques include Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). In addition, two high-polarization strained superlattice GaAs photocathode samples, one removed from the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) photoinjector and one unused, were also analyzed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and SIMS. It was found that heat cleaning the FEL GaAs wafer introduces surface roughness, which seems to be reduced by prolonged use. The bulk GaAs samples retained a fairly well organized crystalline structure after delivering beam but shows evidence of Cs depletion on the surface. Within the precision of the SIMS and RBS measurements the data showed no indication of hydrogen implantation or lattice damage from ion back bombardment in the bulk GaAs wafers. In contrast, SIMS and TEM measurements of the strained superlattice photocathode show clear crystal damage in the wafer from ion back bombardment.

  8. Effects of low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) at different wavelengths and doses on oxidative stress and fibrogenesis parameters in an animal model of wound healing.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Paulo Cesar Lock; Silva, Luciano A; Freitas, Tiago P; Latini, Alexandra; Pinho, Ricardo A

    2011-01-01

    Gallium-arsenide (GaAs) and helium-neon (HeNe) lasers are the most commonly used low-energy lasers in physiotherapy for promoting wound healing and pain modulation. The aim of this study was investigate the effect of low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) at different wavelengths and doses on oxidative stress and fibrogenesis parameters in an animal model of wound healing. The animals were randomly divided into five groups (n=6): Controls (skin injured animals without local or systemic treatment), skin injury treated with HeNe 1 J/cm(2) (two seg); skin injury treated with HeNe 3 J/cm(2) (six seg); skin injury treated with GaAs 1 J/cm(2) (three seg); skin injury treated with GaAs 3 J/cm(2) (nine seg). A single circular wound measuring 8 mm in diameter was surgically created on the back of the animal. The rats were irradiated at 2, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after skin injury. The parameters, namely hydroxyproline content, activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and lipid (TBARS) and protein oxidation (carbonyl groups) measurements were assessed. In addition, wound size regression was also analyzed. The results showed an improvement in the wound healing reflected by the reduction in wound size and increased collagen synthesis. Moreover, a significant reduction in TBARS levels, carbonyl content, and SOD and CAT activities were observed after laser irradiation, particularly with the treatments HeNe laser 1 and 3 J/cm(2) dose and GaAs 3 J/cm(2) dose. The data strongly indicate that LPLI therapy is efficient in accelerating the skin wound healing process after wounding, probably by reducing the inflammatory phase and inducing collagen synthesis.

  9. Optical and Surface Characteristics of Mg-Doped GaAs Nanocrystalline Thin Film Deposited by Thermionic Vacuum Arc Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pat, Suat; Özen, Soner; Şenay, Volkan; Korkmaz, Şadan

    2016-08-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is the most promising p-type dopant for gallium arsenide (GaAs) semiconductor technology. Mg-doped GaAs nanocrystalline thin film has been deposited at room temperature by the thermionic vacuum arc technique, a rapid deposition method for production of doped GaAs material. The microstructure and surface and optical properties of the deposited sample were investigated by x-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, and interferometry. The crystalline direction of the deposited sample was determined to be (220) plane and (331) plane at 44.53° and 72.30°, respectively. The Mg-doped GaAs nanocrystalline sample showed high transmittance.

  10. Selective metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth of high quality GaAs on Si(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, W. Pena, V.; Merckling, C.; Waldron, N.; Collaert, N.; Caymax, M.; Vancoille, E.; Barla, K.; Thean, A.; Eyben, P.; Date, L.; Bao, X.; Sanchez, E.; Vandervorst, W.

    2014-08-11

    High quality GaAs is selectively grown in 40 nm width Shallow Trench Isolation patterned structures. The patterned wafers have a V-shape Si (111) surface obtained by Tetramethylammonium hydroxide etching. By employing a SiCoNi™ pre-epi clean and two-step growth procedure (low temperature buffer and high temperature main layer), defects are effectively confined at the trench bottom, leaving a dislocation-free GaAs layer at the upper part. The high crystal quality is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Scanning spreading resistance microscopy indicates a high resistance of GaAs. The process conditions and GaAs material quality are highly compatible with Si technology platform.

  11. High power cascaded mid-infrared InAs/GaSb light emitting diodes on mismatched GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Provence, S. R. Ricker, R.; Aytac, Y.; Boggess, T. F.; Prineas, J. P.

    2015-09-28

    InAs/GaSb mid-wave, cascaded superlattice light emitting diodes are found to give higher radiance when epitaxially grown on mismatched GaAs substrates compared to lattice-matched GaSb substrates. Peak radiances of 0.69 W/cm{sup 2}-sr and 1.06 W/cm{sup 2}-sr for the 100 × 100 μm{sup 2} GaSb and GaAs-based devices, respectively, were measured at 77 K. Measurement of the recombination coefficients shows the shorter Shockley-Read-Hall recombination lifetime as misfit dislocations for growth on GaAs degrade the quantum efficiency only at low current injection. The improved performance on GaAs was found to be due to the higher transparency and improved thermal properties of the GaAs substrate.

  12. Selective-area growth of heavily n-doped GaAs nanostubs on Si(001) by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yoon Jung; Simmonds, Paul J.; Beekley, Brett; Goorsky, Mark S.; Woo, Jason C. S.

    2016-04-01

    Using an aspect ratio trapping technique, we demonstrate molecular beam epitaxy of GaAs nanostubs on Si(001) substrates. Nanoholes in a SiO2 mask act as a template for GaAs-on-Si selective-area growth (SAG) of nanostubs 120 nm tall and ≤100 nm in diameter. We investigate the influence of growth parameters including substrate temperature and growth rate on SAG. Optimizing these parameters results in complete selectivity with GaAs growth only on the exposed Si(001). Due to the confined-geometry, strain and defects in the GaAs nanostubs are restricted in lateral dimensions, and surface energy is further minimized. We assess the electrical properties of the selectively grown GaAs nanostubs by fabricating heterogeneous p+-Si/n+-GaAs p-n diodes.

  13. Threading dislocations in GaAs epitaxial layers on various thickness Ge buffers on 300 mm Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogumilowicz, Y.; Hartmann, J. M.; Rochat, N.; Salaun, A.; Martin, M.; Bassani, F.; Baron, T.; David, S.; Bao, X.-Y.; Sanchez, E.

    2016-11-01

    We have grown GaAs epitaxial layers on Ge buffers, themselves on Si (001) substrates, using an Applied Materials 300 mm metal organic chemical vapor deposition tool. We varied the Ge buffer thickness between 0.36 and 1.38 μm and studied the properties of a 0.27 μm thick GaAs layer on top. We found that increasing the Ge buffer thickness yielded smoother GaAs films with an rms surface roughness as low as 0.5 nm obtained on a 5×5 μm2 area. The bow of the substrate increased following a linear law with the epitaxial stack thickness up to 240 μm for a 1.65 μm stack. We have also characterized the threading dislocations present in the GaAs layers using X-ray diffraction and cathodoluminescence. Increasing the Ge buffer thickness resulted in lower threading dislocation densities, enabling us to obtain anti-phase boundary - free GaAs films with a threading dislocation density as low as 3×107 cm-2. In addition, atomic force microscopy surface topology measurements showed the presence of pits in the GaAs layers whose density agreed well with other threading dislocation density assessments. It thus seems that threading dislocations can in certain cases induce some growth rate variations, making them visible in as-grown GaAs films. Using thicker Ge buffers results in smoother films with less threading dislocations, with the side effect of increasing the bow on the wafer. If bow is not an issue, this is a practical approach to improve the GaAs (on Ge buffer) on silicon quality.

  14. Analysis of defects in GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy on high index GaAs substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Bouzazi, Boussairi; Kojima, Nobuaki; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2013-09-27

    The lattice defects in GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy on GaAs 311B and GaAs 10A toward [110] were characterized and discussed by using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and on the basis of temperature dependence of the junction capacitances (C{sub J}). In one hand, GaAsN films grown on GaAs 311B and GaAs 10A showed n-type and p-type conductivities, respectively although the similar and simultaneous growth conditions. This result is indeed in contrast to the common known effect of N concentration on the type of conductivity, since the surface 311B showed a significant improvement in the incorporation of N. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of C{sub J} has shown that GaAs 311B limits the formation of N-H defects. In the other hand, the energy states in the forbidden gap of GaAsN were obtained. Six electron traps, E1 to E6, were observed in the DLTS spectrum of GaAsN grown on GaAs 311B, with apparent activation energies of 0.02, 0.14, 0.16, 0.33, 0.48, and 0.74 eV below the bottom edge of the conduction band, respectively. In addition, four hole traps, H1 to H4, were observed in the DLTS spectrum of GaAsN grown on GaAs 10A, with energy depths of 0.13, 0.20, 0.39, and 0.52 eV above the valence band maximum of the alloy, respectively. Hence, the surface morphology of the GaAs substrate was found to play a key factor role in clarifying the electrical properties of GaAsN grown by CBE.

  15. Supercontinuum generation from 2 to 20 μm in GaAs pumped by picosecond CO₂ laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Pigeon, J J; Tochitsky, S Ya; Gong, C; Joshi, C

    2014-06-01

    We report on the generation of supercontinuum radiation from 2 to 20 μm in a 67 mm long GaAs crystal pumped by a train of 3 ps CO2 laser pulses. Temporal measurements indicate that sub-picosecond pulse splitting is involved in the production of such wide-bandwidth radiation in GaAs. The results show that the observed spectral broadening is heavily influenced by four-wave mixing and stimulated Raman scattering.

  16. Scaling behavior of GaAs and GaMnAs quantum rings grown by droplet epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Placidi, E.; Arciprete, F.; Balzarotti, A.; Patella, F.

    2012-10-01

    The transition from the liquid phase of Ga droplets to the formation of GaAs and GaMnAs quantum rings has been studied as a function of temperature. We show that different aggregation processes involve the GaAs (GaMnAs) island and the droplet formation. Furthermore, the aspect ratio of the islands exhibits an anomalous scaling law related to a tendency to aggregate in the vertical direction.

  17. Investigation of pre-structured GaAs surfaces for subsequent site-selective InAs quantum dot growth.

    PubMed

    Helfrich, Mathieu; Gröger, Roland; Förste, Alexander; Litvinov, Dimitri; Gerthsen, Dagmar; Schimmel, Thomas; Schaadt, Daniel M

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated pre-structured (100) GaAs sample surfaces with respect to subsequent site-selective quantum dot growth. Defects occurring in the GaAs buffer layer grown after pre-structuring are attributed to insufficient cleaning of the samples prior to regrowth. Successive cleaning steps were analyzed and optimized. A UV-ozone cleaning is performed at the end of sample preparation in order to get rid of remaining organic contamination.

  18. Growth of single GaAs nanowhiskers on the tip of a tungsten needle and their electrical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Golubok, A. O.; Samsonenko, Yu. B.; Mukhin, I. S. Buravlev, A. D.; Cirlin, G. E.

    2011-08-15

    A method for the formation of single GaAs semiconductor nanowhiskers and their assemblies on the tip of a chemically etched tungsten needle by molecular-beam epitaxy is proposed. The focused-ionbeam technique was used to separate a single nanowhisker. Electronic properties of single nanowhiskers were studied by elastic tunneling spectroscopy in ultrahigh vacuum. The band gap and the doping level of GaAs whiskers were determined using the current-voltage characteristics obtained from these measurements.

  19. First-principles calculations for the structural and electronic properties of GaAs1-xPx nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Rezek; Katırcıoğlu, Şenay

    2016-09-01

    Structural stability and electronic properties of GaAs1-xPx (0.0≤x≤1.0) nanowires (NWs) in zinc-blende (ZB) (˜5≤ diameter ≤˜21Å) and wurtzite (WZ) (˜5≤diameter≤˜29Å) phases are investigated by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). GaAs (x=0.0) and GaP (x=1.0) compound NWs in WZ phase are found energetically more stable than in ZB structural ones. In the case of GaAs1-xPx alloy NWs, the energetically favorable phase is found size and composition dependent. All the presented NWs have semiconductor characteristics. The quantum size effect is clearly demonstrated for all GaAs1-xPx (0.0≤x≤1.0) NWs. The band gaps of ZB and WZ structural GaAs compound NWs with ˜10≤ diameter ≤˜21Å and ˜5≤diameter≤˜29Å, respectively are enlarged by the addition of concentrations of phosphorus for obtaining GaAs1-xPx NWs proportional to the x values around 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75.

  20. Spin-Resolved Electronic Structure of Ultrathin Epitaxial Fe Films on Vicinal and Singular GaAs(100) Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, S A; Waddill, G D; Spangenberg, M; Seddon, E A; Neal, J; Shen, T; Tobin, J G

    2003-03-10

    Recently there has been considerable interest in the study of spin injection at ferromagnetic semiconductor heterojunctions and ferromagnetic metal--semiconductor contacts. Studies of ntype semiconductors have demonstrated spin-coherent transport over large distances5 and the persistence of spin coherence over a sizeable time scale. Clearly such investigations have been stimulated by the potential of the development of ''spintronics'', electronic devices utilizing the information of the electron spin states. To understand and improve the magnetic properties of ultrathin Fe films on GaAs has been the aim of many research groups over recent years. The interest in this system has both technological and fundamental scientific motivations. Technologically, Fe on GaAs may serve to realize spin electronic devices. From a fundamental science point of view, Fe on GaAs serves as a prototype for studies of the interplay between the crystalline structure and morphology of an ultrathin film, its electronic structure and the long range magnetic order it exhibits. Furthermore, it is well known that an oxidized Cs layer on GaAs substantially alters the work-function of the GaAs surface, which plays a very important role in the application of GaAs as a spin polarized electron source.