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Sample records for sensitive multiplex rna

  1. Anti-DNA:RNA antibodies and silicon photonic microring resonators: increased sensitivity for multiplexed microRNA detection.

    PubMed

    Qavi, Abraham J; Kindt, Jared T; Gleeson, Martin A; Bailey, Ryan C

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we present a method for the sensitive detection of microRNAs (miRNAs) utilizing an antibody that specifically recognizes DNA:RNA heteroduplexes and a silicon photonic microring resonator array transduction platform. Microring resonator arrays are covalently functionalized with DNA capture probes that are complementary to solution phase miRNA targets. Following hybridization on the sensor, the anti-DNA:RNA antibody is introduced and binds selectively to the heteroduplexes, giving a larger signal than the original miRNA hybridization due to the increased mass of the antibody, as compared to the 22-mer oligoribonucleotide. Furthermore, the secondary recognition step is performed in neat buffer solution and at relatively higher antibody concentrations, facilitating the detection of miRNAs of interest. The intrinsic sensitivity of the microring resonator platform coupled with the amplification provided by the anti-DNA:RNA antibodies allows for the detection of microRNAs at concentrations as low as 10 pM (350 amol). The simplicity and sequence generality of this amplification method position it as a promising tool for high-throughput, multiplexed miRNA analysis as well as a range of other RNA based detection applications.

  2. CEL-Seq2: sensitive highly-multiplexed single-cell RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Hashimshony, Tamar; Senderovich, Naftalie; Avital, Gal; Klochendler, Agnes; de Leeuw, Yaron; Anavy, Leon; Gennert, Dave; Li, Shuqiang; Livak, Kenneth J; Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Dor, Yuval; Regev, Aviv; Yanai, Itai

    2016-04-28

    Single-cell transcriptomics requires a method that is sensitive, accurate, and reproducible. Here, we present CEL-Seq2, a modified version of our CEL-Seq method, with threefold higher sensitivity, lower costs, and less hands-on time. We implemented CEL-Seq2 on Fluidigm's C1 system, providing its first single-cell, on-chip barcoding method, and we detected gene expression changes accompanying the progression through the cell cycle in mouse fibroblast cells. We also compare with Smart-Seq to demonstrate CEL-Seq2's increased sensitivity relative to other available methods. Collectively, the improvements make CEL-Seq2 uniquely suited to single-cell RNA-Seq analysis in terms of economics, resolution, and ease of use.

  3. Sensitive detection of SARS coronavirus RNA by a novel asymmetric multiplex nested RT-PCR amplification coupled with oligonucleotide microarray hybridization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-wei; Zhou, Yi-ming; Zhang, Yan; Guo, Yong; Tao, Sheng-ce; Li, Ze; Zhang, Qiong; Cheng, Jing

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a sensitive method for the detection of specific genes simultaneously. First, DNA was amplified by a novel asymmetric multiplex PCR with universal primer(s). Second, the 6-carboxytetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA)-labeled PCR products were hybridized specifically with oligonucleotide microarrays. Finally, matched duplexes were detected by using a laser-induced fluorescence scanner. The usefulness of this method was illustrated by analyzing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus RNA. The detection limit was 10(0) copies/microL. The results of the asymmetric multiplex nested reverse transcription-PCR were in agreement with the results of the microarray hybridization; no hybridization signal was lost as happened with applicons from symmetric amplifications. This reliable method can be used to the identification of other microorganisms, screening of genetic diseases, and other applications.

  4. Multiplexed RNA trafficking in oligodendrocytes and neurons.

    PubMed

    Carson, John H; Gao, Yuanzheng; Tatavarty, Vedakumar; Levin, Mikhail K; Korza, George; Francone, Victor P; Kosturko, Linda D; Maggipinto, Michael J; Barbarese, Elisa

    2008-08-01

    In oligodendrocytes and neurons genetic information is transmitted from the nucleus to dendrites in the form of RNA granules. Here we describe how transport of multiple different RNA molecules in individual granules is analogous to the process of multiplexing in telecommunications. In both cases multiple messages are combined into a composite signal for transmission on a single carrier. Multiplexing provides a mechanism to coordinate local expression of ensembles of genes in myelin in oligodendrocytes and at synapses in neurons.

  5. Development of Highly Sensitive and Specific mRNA Multiplex System (XCYR1) for Forensic Human Body Fluids and Tissues Identification

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Xie, Jianhui; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Huaigu; Ping, Yuan; Chen, Liankang; Gu, Lihua; Hu, Wei; Bi, Gang; Ge, Jianye; Chen, Xin; Zhao, Ziqin

    2014-01-01

    The identification of human body fluids or tissues through mRNA-based profiling is very useful for forensic investigations. Previous studies have shown mRNA biomarkers are effective to identify the origin of biological samples. In this study, we selected 16 tissue specific biomarkers to evaluate their specificities and sensitivities for human body fluids and tissues identification, including porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD), hemoglobin beta (HBB) and Glycophorin A (GLY) for circulatory blood, protamine 2 (PRM2) and transglutaminase 4 (TGM4) for semen, mucin 4 (MUC4) and human beta defensin 1(HBD1) for vaginal secretion, matrix metalloproteinases 7 and 11 (MMP7 and MMP11) for menstrual blood, keratin 4(KRT4) for oral mucosa, loricrin (LOR) and cystatin 6 (CST6) for skin, histatin 3(HTN3) for saliva, statherin (STATH) for nasal secretion, dermcidin (DCD) for sweat and uromodulin (UMOD) for urine. The above mentioned ten common forensic body fluids or tissues were used in the evaluation. Based on the evaluation, a reverse transcription (RT) PCR multiplex assay, XCYR1, which includes 12 biomarkers (i.e., HBB, GLY, HTN3, PRM2, KRT4, MMP11, MUC4, DCD, UMOD, MMP7, TGM4, and STATH) and 2 housekeeping genes [i.e., glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and 18SrRNA], was developed. This assay was further validated with real casework samples and mock samples (with both single source and mixture) and it was approved that XCYR1 is effective to identify common body fluids or tissues (i.e., circulatory blood, saliva, semen, vaginal secretion, menstrual blood, oral mucosa, nasal secretion, sweat and urine) in forensic casework samples. PMID:24991806

  6. Development of highly sensitive and specific mRNA multiplex system (XCYR1) for forensic human body fluids and tissues identification.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Xie, Jianhui; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Huaigu; Ping, Yuan; Chen, Liankang; Gu, Lihua; Hu, Wei; Bi, Gang; Ge, Jianye; Chen, Xin; Zhao, Ziqin

    2014-01-01

    The identification of human body fluids or tissues through mRNA-based profiling is very useful for forensic investigations. Previous studies have shown mRNA biomarkers are effective to identify the origin of biological samples. In this study, we selected 16 tissue specific biomarkers to evaluate their specificities and sensitivities for human body fluids and tissues identification, including porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD), hemoglobin beta (HBB) and Glycophorin A (GLY) for circulatory blood, protamine 2 (PRM2) and transglutaminase 4 (TGM4) for semen, mucin 4 (MUC4) and human beta defensin 1(HBD1) for vaginal secretion, matrix metalloproteinases 7 and 11 (MMP7 and MMP11) for menstrual blood, keratin 4(KRT4) for oral mucosa, loricrin (LOR) and cystatin 6 (CST6) for skin, histatin 3(HTN3) for saliva, statherin (STATH) for nasal secretion, dermcidin (DCD) for sweat and uromodulin (UMOD) for urine. The above mentioned ten common forensic body fluids or tissues were used in the evaluation. Based on the evaluation, a reverse transcription (RT) PCR multiplex assay, XCYR1, which includes 12 biomarkers (i.e., HBB, GLY, HTN3, PRM2, KRT4, MMP11, MUC4, DCD, UMOD, MMP7, TGM4, and STATH) and 2 housekeeping genes [i.e., glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and 18SrRNA], was developed. This assay was further validated with real casework samples and mock samples (with both single source and mixture) and it was approved that XCYR1 is effective to identify common body fluids or tissues (i.e., circulatory blood, saliva, semen, vaginal secretion, menstrual blood, oral mucosa, nasal secretion, sweat and urine) in forensic casework samples.

  7. Multiplexed miRNA northern blots via hybridization chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Schwarzkopf, Maayan; Pierce, Niles A

    2016-09-06

    Northern blots enable detection of a target RNA of interest in a biological sample using standard benchtop equipment. miRNAs are the most challenging targets as they must be detected with a single short nucleic acid probe. With existing approaches, it is cumbersome to perform multiplexed blots in which several RNAs are detected simultaneously, impeding the study of interacting regulatory elements. Here, we address this shortcoming by demonstrating multiplexed northern blotting based on the mechanism of hybridization chain reaction (HCR). With this approach, nucleic acid probes complementary to RNA targets trigger chain reactions in which fluorophore-labeled DNA hairpins self-assemble into tethered fluorescent amplification polymers. The programmability of HCR allows multiple amplifiers to operate simultaneously and independently within a blot, enabling straightforward multiplexing. We demonstrate simultaneous detection of three endogenous miRNAs in total RNA extracted from 293T and HeLa cells. For a given target, HCR signal scales linearly with target abundance, enabling relative and absolute quantitation. Using non-radioactive HCR, sensitive and selective miRNA detection is achieved using 2'OMe-RNA probes. The HCR northern blot protocol takes ∼1.5 days independent of the number of target RNAs.

  8. Development of multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of six swine DNA and RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-Gang; Chen, Guang-Da; Huang, Yong; Ding, Li; Li, Zhao-Cai; Chang, Ching-Dong; Wang, Chi-Young; Tong, De-Wen; Liu, Hung-Jen

    2012-07-01

    Uniplex and multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR protocols were developed and evaluated subsequently for its effectiveness in detecting simultaneously single and mixed infections in swine. Specific primers for three DNA viruses and three RNA viruses, including classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine pseudorabies virus (PRV) and porcine parvovirus (PPV) were used for testing procedure. A single nucleic acid extraction protocol was adopted for the simultaneous extraction of both RNA and DNA viruses. The multiplex PCR consisted with two-step procedure which included reverse transcription of RNA virus and multiplex PCR of viral cDNA and DNA. The multiplex PCR assay was shown to be sensitive detecting at least 450pg of viral genomic DNA or RNA from a mixture of six viruses in a reaction. The assay was also highly specific in detecting one or more of the same viruses in various combinations in specimens. Thirty clinical samples and aborted fetuses collected from 4- to 12-week-old piglets were detected among 39 samples tested by both uniplex and multiplex PCR, showing highly identification. Because of the sensitivity and specificity, the multiplex PCR is a useful approach for clinical diagnosis of mixed infections of DNA and RNA viruses in swine.

  9. Detection of nine respiratory RNA viruses using three multiplex RT-PCR assays incorporating a novel RNA internal control transcript.

    PubMed

    Auburn, Helen; Zuckerman, Mark; Broughton, Simon; Greenough, Anne; Smith, Melvyn

    2011-09-01

    Real-time PCR is a significant improvement over viral isolation and immunofluorescence for routinely detecting respiratory viruses. We developed three real-time internally controlled multiplex RT-PCR assays for detecting nine respiratory viruses. An internal control transcript consisting of a chimeric plasmid was synthesised and incorporated into each multiplex to monitor amplification efficiency, including inhibition. Each multiplex assay was developed on the Rotor-Gene 3000 and evaluated using RNA extracts from 126 nasopharyngeal aspirates from 112 pre-term infants. All 44/126 (35%) samples positive by immunofluorescence were confirmed by multiplex RT-PCR. Additionally, respiratory syncytial virus RNA was detected in 5 samples, influenza A virus RNA in 2 samples and thirteen (10%) dual infections by multiplex RT-PCR were noted. Inclusion of the RNA internal control did not affect the amplification efficiency of the target sequences and only 2 of 1256 (0.2%) samples tested over a 12 month period were inhibitory. Together with the improved sensitivity of the internally controlled multiplex RT-PCR assays over the older technology and the ability to detect co-infections, the internal control monitored the efficiency of both the RT and PCR steps and indicated inhibition, saving time and costs on running duplicate samples with a "spiked" inhibition control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantifying RNA allelic ratios by microfluidic multiplex PCR and sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Xin; Ramaswami, Gokul; Smith, Kevin S; Turecki, Gustavo; Montgomery, Stephen B; Li, Jin Billy

    2014-01-01

    We developed a targeted RNA sequencing method that couples microfluidics-based multiplex PCR and deep sequencing (mmPCR-seq) to uniformly and simultaneously amplify up to 960 loci in 48 samples independently of their gene expression levels and to accurately and cost-effectively measure allelic ratios even for low-quantity or low-quality RNA samples. We applied mmPCR-seq to RNA editing and allele-specific expression studies. mmPCR-seq complements RNA-seq for studying allelic variations in the transcriptome.

  11. Multiplexed nanoflares: mRNA detection in live cells.

    PubMed

    Prigodich, Andrew E; Randeria, Pratik S; Briley, William E; Kim, Nathaniel J; Daniel, Weston L; Giljohann, David A; Mirkin, Chad A

    2012-02-21

    We report the development of the multiplexed nanoflare, a nanoparticle agent that is capable of simultaneously detecting two distinct mRNA targets inside a living cell. These probes are spherical nucleic acid (SNA) gold nanoparticle (Au NP) conjugates consisting of densely packed and highly oriented oligonucleotide sequences, many of which are hybridized to a reporter with a distinct fluorophore label and each complementary to its corresponding mRNA target. When multiplexed nanoflares are exposed to their targets, they provide a sequence specific signal in both extra- and intracellular environments. Importantly, one of the targets can be used as an internal control, improving detection by accounting for cell-to-cell variations in nanoparticle uptake and background. Compared to single-component nanoflares, these structures allow one to determine more precisely relative mRNA levels in individual cells, improving cell sorting and quantification.

  12. A highly sensitive and multiplexed method for focused transcript analysis.

    PubMed

    Kataja, Kari; Satokari, Reetta M; Arvas, Mikko; Takkinen, Kristiina; Söderlund, Hans

    2006-10-01

    We describe a novel, multiplexed method for focused transcript analysis of tens to hundreds of genes. In this method TRAC (transcript analysis with aid of affinity capture) mRNA targets, a set of amplifiable detection probes of distinct sizes and biotinylated oligo(dT) capture probe are hybridized in solution. The formed sandwich hybrids are collected on magnetic streptavidin-coated microparticles and washed. The hybridized probes are eluted, optionally amplified by a PCR using a universal primer pair and detected with laser-induced fluorescence and capillary electrophoresis. The probes were designed by using a computer program developed for the purpose. The TRAC method was adapted to 96-well format by utilizing an automated magnetic particle processor. Here we demonstrate a simultaneous analysis of 18 Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcripts from two experimental conditions and show a comparison with a qPCR system. The sensitivity of the method is significantly increased by the PCR amplification of the hybridized and eluted probes. Our data demonstrate a bias-free use of at least 16 cycles of PCR amplification to increase probe signal, allowing transcript analysis from 2.5 ng of the total mRNA sample. The method is fast and simple and avoids cDNA conversion. These qualifications make it a potential, new means for routine analysis and a complementing method for microarrays and high density chips.

  13. Exact simulation and sensitivity analysis of multiplexing networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandler, J. W.; Daijavad, S.; Zhang, Q.-J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to the simulation and sensitivity analysis of multiplexing networks. All computations are performed efficiently, utilizing the concept of forward and reverse analysis, which is elegant and effective in cascaded circuit analysis. Formulas are derived for such responses as input or output reflection coefficient, common port and channel output port return losses, insertion loss, gain slope, and group delay. Exact sensitivities with respect to all variables of interest, including frequency, are evaluated. The fundamental assumption is that the transmission matrices for the individual components of the network and their sensitivities with respect to possible variables inside them are available. An explicit algorithm is provided describing the details of the computational aspects of the theory. The formulas are applied to the optimal design of practical contiguous or noncontiguous band multiplexers consisting of multicavity filters distributed along a waveguide manifold. An example of optimizing a practical 12-channel, 12-GHz contiguous band multiplexer without dummy channels, which is the state-of-the-art structure used as the output multiplexer in satellite transponders, is presented.

  14. Spatially resolved, highly multiplexed RNA profiling in single cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kok Hao; Boettiger, Alistair N.; Moffitt, Jeffrey R.; Wang, Siyuan; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the expression profile and spatial landscape of the transcriptome in individual cells is essential for understanding the rich repertoire of cellular behaviors. Here we report multiplexed error-robust fluorescence in situ hybridization (MERFISH), a single-molecule imaging approach that allows the copy numbers and spatial localizations of thousands of RNA species to be determined in single cells. Using error-robust encoding schemes to combat single-molecule labeling and detection errors, we demonstrated the imaging of 100 – 1000 unique RNA species in hundreds of individual cells. Correlation analysis of the ~104 – 106 pairs of genes allowed us to constrain gene regulatory networks, predict novel functions for many unannotated genes, and identify distinct spatial distribution patterns of RNAs that correlate with properties of the encoded proteins. PMID:25858977

  15. Ultrasensitive multiplexed microRNA quantification on encoded gel microparticles using rolling circle amplification.

    PubMed

    Chapin, Stephen C; Doyle, Patrick S

    2011-09-15

    There is great demand for flexible biomolecule analysis platforms that can precisely quantify very low levels of multiple targets directly in complex biological samples. Herein we demonstrate multiplexed quantification of microRNAs (miRNAs) on encoded hydrogel microparticles with subfemtomolar sensitivity and single-molecule reporting resolution. Rolling circle amplification (RCA) of a universal adapter sequence that is ligated to all miRNA targets captured on gel-embedded probes provides the ability to label each target with multiple fluorescent reporters and eliminates the possibility of amplification bias. The high degree of sensitivity achieved by the RCA scheme and the resistance to fouling afforded by the use of gel particles are leveraged to directly detect miRNA in small quantities of unprocessed human serum samples without the need for RNA extraction or target-amplification steps. This versatility has powerful implications for the development of rapid, noninvasive diagnostic assays.

  16. Simultaneous detection of RNA and DNA targets based on multiplex isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Dobnik, David; Morisset, Dany; Lenarčič, Rok; Ravnikar, Maja

    2014-04-02

    The detection of pathogenic microorganisms present in food, feed, plant, and other samples is important for providing safe food as well as for preventing the spread of microbes. The genome of pathogens is made of DNA or RNA, therefore a multiplex diagnostics tool would ideally be able to amplify and detect both RNA and DNA targets in parallel. With this goal we have developed an isothermal nucleic acid sequence based amplification [NASBA] implemented microarray analysis (NAIMA) procedure, suitable for the simultaneous multiplex amplification of RNA and DNA targets, coupled with the detection on ArrayTubes. The method is demonstrated to be very sensitive and specific for the detection of two economically important quarantine plant pathogens of potato, the potato spindle tuber viroid (RNA target) and Ralstonia solanacearum (DNA target). Because of its isothermal amplification and simple detection equipment, the method is also applicable for on-site analyses. NAIMA can be used in any domain where there is the need to detect RNA and DNA targets simultaneously.

  17. Multisite comparison of high-sensitivity multiplex cytokine assays.

    PubMed

    Breen, Elizabeth Crabb; Reynolds, Sandra M; Cox, Christopher; Jacobson, Lisa P; Magpantay, Larry; Mulder, Candice B; Dibben, Oliver; Margolick, Joseph B; Bream, Jay H; Sambrano, Elise; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Borrow, Persephone; Landay, Alan L; Rinaldo, Charles R; Norris, Philip J

    2011-08-01

    The concentrations of cytokines in human serum and plasma can provide valuable information about in vivo immune status, but low concentrations often require high-sensitivity assays to permit detection. The recent development of multiplex assays, which can measure multiple cytokines in one small sample, holds great promise, especially for studies in which limited volumes of stored serum or plasma are available. Four high-sensitivity cytokine multiplex assays on a Luminex (Bio-Rad, BioSource, Linco) or electrochemiluminescence (Meso Scale Discovery) platform were evaluated for their ability to detect circulating concentrations of 13 cytokines, as well as for laboratory and lot variability. Assays were performed in six different laboratories utilizing archived serum from HIV-uninfected and -infected subjects from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) and commercial plasma samples spanning initial HIV viremia. In a majority of serum samples, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha were detectable with at least three kits, while IL-1β was clearly detected with only one kit. No single multiplex panel detected all cytokines, and there were highly significant differences (P < 0.001) between laboratories and/or lots with all kits. Nevertheless, the kits generally detected similar patterns of cytokine perturbation during primary HIV viremia. This multisite comparison suggests that current multiplex assays vary in their ability to measure serum and/or plasma concentrations of cytokines and may not be sufficiently reproducible for repeated determinations over a long-term study or in multiple laboratories but may be useful for longitudinal studies in which relative, rather than absolute, changes in cytokines are important.

  18. Multiplex single-cell quantification of rare RNA transcripts from protoplasts in a model plant system.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Ulhas S; Schulz, Burkhard; Irudayaraj, Joseph M K

    2017-06-01

    Here we demonstrate multiplex and simultaneous detection of four different rare RNA species from plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and gold nanoprobes at single-cell resolution. We show the applicability of nanoparticle-based Raman spectroscopic sensor to study intracellular RNA copies. First, we demonstrate that gold-nanoparticles decorated with Raman probes and carrying specific nucleic acid probe sequences can be uptaken by the protoplasts. We confirm the internalization of gold nanoprobes by transmission electron microscopy, inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and fluorescence imaging. Second, we show the utility of a SERS platform to monitor individual alternatively spliced (AS) variants and miRNA copies within single cells. Finally, the distinctive spectral features of Raman-active dyes were exploited for multiplex analysis of AtPTB2, AtDCL2, miR156a and miR172a. Furthermore, single-cell studies were validated by in vitro quantification and evaluation of nanotoxicity of gold probes. Raman tag functionalized gold nanosensors yielded an approach for the tracking of rare RNAs within the protoplasts. The SERS-based approach for quantification of RNAs has the capability to be a highly sensitive, accurate and discerning method for single-cell studies including AS variants quantification and rare miRNA detection in specific plant species. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Development of a mRNA profiling multiplex for the inference of organ tissues.

    PubMed

    Lindenbergh, Alexander; van den Berge, Margreet; Oostra, Roelof-Jan; Cleypool, Cindy; Bruggink, Annette; Kloosterman, Ate; Sijen, Titia

    2013-09-01

    Forensic characterisation of organ tissue generally occurs through histological and immunological assays of limited sensitivity. Here, we explore an alternative approach and examine a total of 41 candidate mRNA markers for their ability to differentiate between brain, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, heart, kidney and skin. Various selection rounds are applied involving 85 organ tissues (36 excised autopsy specimens and 49 frozen tissue sections, with at least ten specimens for each organ type), 20 commercially available RNAs from different human tissues and at least two specimens of blood, saliva, semen, vaginal mucosa, menstrual secretion or touch samples. Finally, 14 markers are regarded tissue-specific and included in an endpoint RT-PCR multiplex together with one general muscle, one blood and one housekeeping marker. This 17-plex is successfully used to analyse a blind test set of 20 specimens including mixtures, and samples derived from stabbing of organ tissues. With the blind test set samples, it is shown that an earlier described interpretation strategy for RNA cell typing results [1] is also effective for tissue inference. As organ-typing is embedded in a procedure of combined DNA/RNA extraction and analysis, both donor and organ type information is derived from the same sample. Some autopsy specimens presented DNA profiles characteristic for degraded DNA. Nevertheless, the organ-typing multiplex could generate full RNA profiles, which is probably due to small sizes of the amplicons. This assay provides a novel tool for analysis of samples from violent crimes.

  20. High sensitivity RNA pseudoknot prediction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaolu; Ali, Hesham

    2007-01-01

    Most ab initio pseudoknot predicting methods provide very few folding scenarios for a given RNA sequence and have low sensitivities. RNA researchers, in many cases, would rather sacrifice the specificity for a much higher sensitivity for pseudoknot detection. In this study, we introduce the Pseudoknot Local Motif Model and Dynamic Partner Sequence Stacking (PLMM_DPSS) algorithm which predicts all PLM model pseudoknots within an RNA sequence in a neighboring-region-interference-free fashion. The PLM model is derived from the existing Pseudobase entries. The innovative DPSS approach calculates the optimally lowest stacking energy between two partner sequences. Combined with the Mfold, PLMM_DPSS can also be used in predicting complicated pseudoknots. The test results of PLMM_DPSS, PKNOTS, iterated loop matching, pknotsRG and HotKnots with Pseudobase sequences have shown that PLMM_DPSS is the most sensitive among the five methods. PLMM_DPSS also provides manageable pseudoknot folding scenarios for further structure determination.

  1. Multiplexed analysis of fixed tissue RNA using Ligation in situ Hybridization.

    PubMed

    Credle, Joel J; Itoh, Christopher Y; Yuan, Tiezheng; Sharma, Rajni; Scott, Erick R; Workman, Rachael E; Fan, Yunfan; Housseau, Franck; Llosa, Nicolas J; Bell, W Robert; Miller, Heather; Zhang, Sean X; Timp, Winston; Larman, H Benjamin

    2017-08-21

    Clinical tissues are prepared for histological analysis and long-term storage via formalin fixation and paraffin embedding (FFPE). The FFPE process results in fragmentation and chemical modification of RNA, rendering it less suitable for analysis by techniques that rely on reverse transcription (RT) such as RT-qPCR and RNA-Seq. Here we describe a broadly applicable technique called 'Ligation in situ Hybridization' ('LISH'), which is an alternative methodology for the analysis of FFPE RNA. LISH utilizes the T4 RNA Ligase 2 to efficiently join adjacent chimeric RNA-DNA probe pairs hybridized in situ on fixed RNA target sequences. Subsequent treatment with RNase H releases RNA-templated ligation products into solution for downstream analysis. We demonstrate several unique advantages of LISH-based assays using patient-derived FFPE tissue. These include >100-plex capability, compatibility with common histochemical stains and suitability for analysis of decade-old materials and exceedingly small microdissected tissue fragments. High-throughput DNA sequencing modalities, including single molecule sequencing, can be used to analyze ligation products from complex panels of LISH probes ('LISH-seq'), which can be amplified efficiently and with negligible bias. LISH analysis of FFPE RNA is a novel methodology with broad applications that range from multiplexed gene expression analysis to the sensitive detection of infectious organisms. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. RNA Imaging with Multiplexed Error Robust Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Jeffrey R.; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of both the copy number and spatial distribution of large fractions of the transcriptome in single-cells could revolutionize our understanding of a variety of cellular and tissue behaviors in both healthy and diseased states. Single-molecule Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (smFISH)—an approach where individual RNAs are labeled with fluorescent probes and imaged in their native cellular and tissue context—provides both the copy number and spatial context of RNAs but has been limited in the number of RNA species that can be measured simultaneously. Here we describe Multiplexed Error Robust Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (MERFISH), a massively parallelized form of smFISH that can image and identify hundreds to thousands of different RNA species simultaneously with high accuracy in individual cells in their native spatial context. We provide detailed protocols on all aspects of MERFISH, including probe design, data collection, and data analysis to allow interested laboratories to perform MERFISH measurements themselves. PMID:27241748

  3. Development of multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection and differentiation of six DNA and RNA viruses from clinical samples of sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    He, Ya-Peng; Zhang, Qi; Fu, Ming-Zhe; Xu, Xin-Gang

    2017-05-01

    Multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR protocols were developed and subsequently evaluated for its effectiveness in detecting simultaneously single and mixed infections in sheep and goats. Specific primers for three DNA viruses and three RNA viruses, including foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV), Bluetongue virus (BTV), peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), sheeppox virus (SPPV), goatpox virus (GTPV) and orf virus (ORFV) were used for testing procedure. A single nucleic acid extraction protocol was adopted for the simultaneous extraction of both RNA and DNA viruses. The multiplex PCR consisted with two-step procedure which included reverse transcription of RNA virus and multiplex PCR of viral cDNA and DNA. The multiplex PCR assay was shown to be sensitive because it could detect at least 100pg of viral genomic DNA or RNA from a mixture of six viruses in a reaction. The assay was also highly specific in detecting one or more of the same viruses in various combinations in specimens. Thirty seven clinical samples collected from sheep and goats were detected among forty three samples tested by both uniplex and multiplex PCR, showing highly identification. As results of the sensitivity and specificity, the multiplex PCR is a useful approach for clinical diagnosis of mixed infections of DNA and RNA viruses in sheep and goats with a reaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. RNA imaging. Spatially resolved, highly multiplexed RNA profiling in single cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kok Hao; Boettiger, Alistair N; Moffitt, Jeffrey R; Wang, Siyuan; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2015-04-24

    Knowledge of the expression profile and spatial landscape of the transcriptome in individual cells is essential for understanding the rich repertoire of cellular behaviors. Here, we report multiplexed error-robust fluorescence in situ hybridization (MERFISH), a single-molecule imaging approach that allows the copy numbers and spatial localizations of thousands of RNA species to be determined in single cells. Using error-robust encoding schemes to combat single-molecule labeling and detection errors, we demonstrated the imaging of 100 to 1000 distinct RNA species in hundreds of individual cells. Correlation analysis of the ~10(4) to 10(6) pairs of genes allowed us to constrain gene regulatory networks, predict novel functions for many unannotated genes, and identify distinct spatial distribution patterns of RNAs that correlate with properties of the encoded proteins.

  5. Multiplex CRISPR/Cas9-based genome engineering enhanced by Drosha-mediated sgRNA-shRNA structure.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qiang; Xu, Kun; Xing, Jiani; Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Xin; Wei, Zehui; Ren, Chonghua; Liu, Zhongtian; Shao, Simin; Zhang, Zhiying

    2016-12-12

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system has recently been developed into a powerful genome-editing technology, as it requires only two key components (Cas9 protein and sgRNA) to function and further enables multiplex genome targeting and homology-directed repair (HDR) based precise genome editing in a wide variety of organisms. Here, we report a novel and interesting strategy by using the Drosha-mediated sgRNA-shRNA structure to direct Cas9 for multiplex genome targeting and precise genome editing. For multiplex genome targeting assay, we achieved more than 9% simultaneous mutant efficiency for 3 genomic loci among the puromycin-selected cell clones. By introducing the shRNA against DNA ligase IV gene (LIG4) into the sgRNA-shRNA construct, the HDR-based precise genome editing efficiency was improved as more than 2-fold. Our works provide a useful tool for multiplex and precise genome modifying in mammalian cells.

  6. Multiplex CRISPR/Cas9-based genome engineering enhanced by Drosha-mediated sgRNA-shRNA structure

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qiang; Xu, Kun; Xing, Jiani; Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Xin; Wei, Zehui; Ren, Chonghua; Liu, Zhongtian; Shao, Simin; Zhang, Zhiying

    2016-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system has recently been developed into a powerful genome-editing technology, as it requires only two key components (Cas9 protein and sgRNA) to function and further enables multiplex genome targeting and homology-directed repair (HDR) based precise genome editing in a wide variety of organisms. Here, we report a novel and interesting strategy by using the Drosha-mediated sgRNA-shRNA structure to direct Cas9 for multiplex genome targeting and precise genome editing. For multiplex genome targeting assay, we achieved more than 9% simultaneous mutant efficiency for 3 genomic loci among the puromycin-selected cell clones. By introducing the shRNA against DNA ligase IV gene (LIG4) into the sgRNA-shRNA construct, the HDR-based precise genome editing efficiency was improved as more than 2-fold. Our works provide a useful tool for multiplex and precise genome modifying in mammalian cells. PMID:27941919

  7. Developed and evaluated a multiplex mRNA profiling system for body fluid identification in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Song, Feng; Luo, Haibo; Hou, Yiping

    2015-10-01

    In forensic casework, identification the cellular origin from a biological sample is crucial to the case investigation and reconstruction in crime scene. DNA/RNA co-extraction for STR typing and human body fluids identification has been proposed as an efficient and comprehensive assay for forensic analysis. Several cell-specific messenger RNA (mRNA) markers for identification of the body fluids have been proposed by previous studies. In this study, a novel multiplex mRNA profiling system included 19 markers was developed and performed by reverse transcription endpoint polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The multiplex combined 3 housekeeping gene markers and 16 cell-specific markers that have been used to identify five types of human body fluids: peripheral blood, semen, saliva, vaginal secretions and menstrual blood. The specificity, sensitivity, stability and detectability of the mixture were explored in our study. Majority of the cell-specific mRNA markers showed high specificity, although cross-reactivity was observed sporadically. Specific profiling for per body fluid was obtained. Moreover, the interpretation guidelines for inference of body fluid types were performed according to the A. Lindenbergh et al. The scoring guidelines can be applied to any RNA multiplex, which was based on six different scoring categories (observed, observed and fits, sporadically observed and fits, not observed, sporadically observed, not reliable, and non-specific due to high input). The simultaneous extraction of DNA showed positive full or partial profiling results of all samples. It demonstrated that the approach of combined STR-profiling and RNA profiling was suitable and reliable to detect the donor and origin of human body fluids in Chinese Han population.

  8. On-chip synthesis of RNA aptamer microarrays for multiplexed protein biosensing with SPR imaging measurements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yulin; Nakamoto, Kohei; Niwa, Osamu; Corn, Robert M

    2012-06-05

    Microarrays of RNA aptamers are fabricated in a one-step, multiplexed enzymatic synthesis on gold thin films in a microfluidic format and then employed in the detection of protein biomarkers with surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) measurements. Single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) oligonucleotides are transcribed on-chip from double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) templates attached to microarray elements (denoted as generator elements) by the surface transcription reaction of T7 RNA polymerase. As they are synthesized, the ssRNA oligonucleotides diffuse in the microfluidic channel and are quickly captured by hybridization adsorption onto adjacent single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) microarray elements (denoted as detector elements) that contain a sequence complementary to 5'-end of the ssRNA. The RNA aptamers attached to these detector elements are subsequently used in SPRI measurements for the bioaffinity detection of protein biomarkers. The microfluidic generator-detector element format permits the simultaneous fabrication of multiple ssRNA oligonucleotides with different capture sequences that can hybridize simultaneously to distinct detector elements and thus create a multiplexed aptamer microarray. In an initial set of demonstration experiments, SPRI measurements are used to monitor the bioaffinity adsorption of human thrombin (hTh) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) proteins onto RNA aptamer microarrays fabricated in situ with this on-chip RNA polymerase synthesis methodology. Additional SPRI measurements of the hydrolysis and desorption of the surface-bound ssRNA aptamers with a surface RNase H are used to verify the capture of ssRNA with RNA-DNA surface hybridization onto the detector elements. The on-chip RNA synthesis described here is an elegant, one-step multiplexed methodology for the rapid and contamination-free fabrication of RNA aptamer microarrays for protein biosensing with SPRI.

  9. Highly sensitive and multiplexed platforms for allergy diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monroe, Margo R.

    Allergy is a disorder of the immune system caused by an immune response to otherwise harmless environmental allergens. Currently 20% of the US population is allergic and 90% of pediatric patients and 60% of adult patients with asthma have allergies. These percentages have increased by 18.5% in the past decade, with predicted similar trends for the future. Here we design sensitive, multiplexed platforms to detect allergen-specific IgE using the Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS) for various clinical settings. A microarray platform for allergy diagnosis allows for testing of specific IgE sensitivity to a multitude of allergens, while requiring only small volumes of patient blood sample. However, conventional fluorescent microarray technology is limited by i) the variation of probe immobilization, which hinders the ability to make quantitative, assertive, and statistically relevant conclusions necessary in immunodiagnostics and ii) the use of fluorophore labels, which is not suitable for some clinical applications due to the tendency of fluorophores to stick to blood particulates and require daily calibration methods. This calibrated fluorescence enhancement (CaFE) method integrates the low magnification modality of IRIS with enhanced fluorescence sensing in order to directly correlate immobilized probe (major allergens) density to allergen-specific IgE in patient serum. However, this platform only operates in processed serum samples, which is not ideal for point of care testing. Thus, a high magnification modality of IRIS was adapted as an alternative allergy diagnostic platform to automatically discriminate and size single nanoparticles bound to specific IgE in unprocessed, characterized human blood and serum samples. These features make IRIS an ideal candidate for clinical and diagnostic applications, such a POC testing. The high magnification (nanoparticle counting) modality in conjunction with low magnification of IRIS in a combined instrument

  10. A nucleic acid strand displacement system for the multiplexed detection of tuberculosis-specific mRNA using quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliddon, H. D.; Howes, P. D.; Kaforou, M.; Levin, M.; Stevens, M. M.

    2016-05-01

    The development of rapid, robust and high performance point-of-care diagnostics relies on the advancement and combination of various areas of research. We have developed an assay for the detection of multiple mRNA molecules that combines DNA nanotechnology with fluorescent nanomaterials. The core switching mechanism is toehold-mediated strand displacement. We have used fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) as signal transducers in this assay, as they bring many benefits including bright fluorescence and multiplexing abilities. The resulting assay is capable of multiplexed detection of long RNA targets against a high concentration of background non-target RNA, with high sensitivity and specificity and limits of detection in the nanomolar range using only a standard laboratory plate reader. We demonstrate the utility of our QD-based system for the detection of two genes selected from a microarray-derived tuberculosis-specific gene expression signature. Levels of up- and downregulated gene transcripts comprising this signature can be combined to give a disease risk score, making the signature more amenable for use as a diagnostic marker. Our QD-based approach to detect these transcripts could pave the way for novel diagnostic assays for tuberculosis.The development of rapid, robust and high performance point-of-care diagnostics relies on the advancement and combination of various areas of research. We have developed an assay for the detection of multiple mRNA molecules that combines DNA nanotechnology with fluorescent nanomaterials. The core switching mechanism is toehold-mediated strand displacement. We have used fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) as signal transducers in this assay, as they bring many benefits including bright fluorescence and multiplexing abilities. The resulting assay is capable of multiplexed detection of long RNA targets against a high concentration of background non-target RNA, with high sensitivity and specificity and limits of detection in the nanomolar

  11. Multiplexed miRNA Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Renwick, Neil; Cekan, Pavol; Bognanni, Claudia; Tuschl, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Multiplexed miRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (miRNA FISH) is an advanced method for visualizing differentially expressed miRNAs, together with other reference RNAs, in archival tissues. Some miRNAs are excellent disease biomarkers due to their abundance and cell-type specificity. However, these short RNA molecules are difficult to visualize due to loss by diffusion, probe mishybridization, and signal detection and signal amplification issues. Here, we describe a reliable and adjustable method for visualizing and normalizing miRNA signals in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections. PMID:25218385

  12. Multiplexed miRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Neil; Cekan, Pavol; Bognanni, Claudia; Tuschl, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Multiplexed miRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (miRNA FISH) is an advanced method for visualizing differentially expressed miRNAs, together with other reference RNAs, in archival tissues. Some miRNAs are excellent disease biomarkers due to their abundance and cell-type specificity. However, these short RNA molecules are difficult to visualize due to loss by diffusion, probe mishybridization, and signal detection and signal amplification issues. Here, we describe a reliable and adjustable method for visualizing and normalizing miRNA signals in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections.

  13. Quantifying RNA allelic ratios by microfluidics-based multiplex PCR and deep sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Xin; Ramaswami, Gokul; Smith, Kevin S; Turecki, Gustavo; Montgomery, Stephen B; Li, Jin Billy

    2013-01-01

    We developed a targeted RNA sequencing method that couples microfluidics-based multiplex PCR and deep sequencing (mmPCR-seq) to uniformly and simultaneously amplify up to 960 loci in 48 samples independently of their gene expression levels, and accurately and cost-effectively measure allelic ratios even for low-quantity or low-quality RNA samples. We applied mmPCR-seq to RNA editing and allele-specific expression studies. mmPCR-seq complements RNA-seq and provides a highly desirable solution for future applications. PMID:24270603

  14. Automated RNA Extraction and Purification for Multiplexed Pathogen Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bruzek, Amy K.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2005-01-01

    Pathogen detection has become an extremely important part of our nation?s defense in this post 9/11 world where the threat of bioterrorist attacks are a grim reality. When a biological attack takes place, response time is critical. The faster the biothreat is assessed, the faster countermeasures can be put in place to protect the health of the general public. Today some of the most widely used methods for detecting pathogens are either time consuming or not reliable [1]. Therefore, a method that can detect multiple pathogens that is inherently reliable, rapid, automated and field portable is needed. To that end, we are developing automated fluidics systems for the recovery, cleanup, and direct labeling of community RNA from suspect environmental samples. The advantage of using RNA for detection is that there are multiple copies of mRNA in a cell, whereas there are normally only one or two copies of DNA [2]. Because there are multiple copies of mRNA in a cell for highly expressed genes, no amplification of the genetic material may be necessary, and thus rapid and direct detection of only a few cells may be possible [3]. This report outlines the development of both manual and automated methods for the extraction and purification of mRNA. The methods were evaluated using cell lysates from Escherichia coli 25922 (nonpathogenic), Salmonella typhimurium (pathogenic), and Shigella spp (pathogenic). Automated RNA purification was achieved using a custom sequential injection fluidics system consisting of a syringe pump, a multi-port valve and a magnetic capture cell. mRNA was captured using silica coated superparamagnetic beads that were trapped in the tubing by a rare earth magnet. RNA was detected by gel electrophoresis and/or by hybridization of the RNA to microarrays. The versatility of the fluidics systems and the ability to automate these systems allows for quick and easy processing of samples and eliminates the need for an experienced operator.

  15. Multiplex RT-PCR detection of Cucumber mosaic virus subgroups and Tobamoviruses infecting Tomato using 18S rRNA as an internal control.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoning; Gu, Hao; Wang, Xiaoming; Chen, Jishuang; Zhu, Weimin

    2011-06-01

    A multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol was developed for simultaneous detection and discrimination of subgroups of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), including its satellite RNA, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), using 18S rRNA as an internal control. Species- and subgroups-specific primers designed to differentiate CMV subgroups I and II, ToMV and TMV, were assessed using the cDNA clones of viral genomes, CMV satellite RNA and 18S rRNA gene from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) or tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum). Using total RNA extracted from artificial mixture of tomato leaf tissues infected by each virus, the reaction components and cycling parameters were optimized and a multiplex RT-PCR procedure was established. Six fragments of 704, 593, 512, 421, 385, 255 bp, specific to CMV subgroup II, CMV subgroup I, ToMV, TMV, satellite RNA and 18S rRNA, respectively, were simultaneously amplified. The sensitivity of the multiplex RT-PCR method for detecting CMV was 100 times higher than that of double-antibody sandwich-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). This method was successfully used for field detection. Among 141 samples collected from East China through tomato growth seasons, 106 single infections with one of the above isolates were detected and 13 mixed infections were found. The results showed the potential use of this method for investigating the epidemiology of viral diseases infecting tomato.

  16. miRge - A Multiplexed Method of Processing Small RNA-Seq Data to Determine MicroRNA Entropy

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jason R.; Gupta, Simone; Weng, Lien-Chun; Ashton, John M.; Cornish, Toby C.; Pandey, Akhilesh; Halushka, Marc K.

    2015-01-01

    Small RNA RNA-seq for microRNAs (miRNAs) is a rapidly developing field where opportunities still exist to create better bioinformatics tools to process these large datasets and generate new, useful analyses. We built miRge to be a fast, smart small RNA-seq solution to process samples in a highly multiplexed fashion. miRge employs a Bayesian alignment approach, whereby reads are sequentially aligned against customized mature miRNA, hairpin miRNA, noncoding RNA and mRNA sequence libraries. miRNAs are summarized at the level of raw reads in addition to reads per million (RPM). Reads for all other RNA species (tRNA, rRNA, snoRNA, mRNA) are provided, which is useful for identifying potential contaminants and optimizing small RNA purification strategies. miRge was designed to optimally identify miRNA isomiRs and employs an entropy based statistical measurement to identify differential production of isomiRs. This allowed us to identify decreasing entropy in isomiRs as stem cells mature into retinal pigment epithelial cells. Conversely, we show that pancreatic tumor miRNAs have similar entropy to matched normal pancreatic tissues. In a head-to-head comparison with other miRNA analysis tools (miRExpress 2.0, sRNAbench, omiRAs, miRDeep2, Chimira, UEA small RNA Workbench), miRge was faster (4 to 32-fold) and was among the top-two methods in maximally aligning miRNAs reads per sample. Moreover, miRge has no inherent limits to its multiplexing. miRge was capable of simultaneously analyzing 100 small RNA-Seq samples in 52 minutes, providing an integrated analysis of miRNA expression across all samples. As miRge was designed for analysis of single as well as multiple samples, miRge is an ideal tool for high and low-throughput users. miRge is freely available at http://atlas.pathology.jhu.edu/baras/miRge.html. PMID:26571139

  17. miRge - A Multiplexed Method of Processing Small RNA-Seq Data to Determine MicroRNA Entropy.

    PubMed

    Baras, Alexander S; Mitchell, Christopher J; Myers, Jason R; Gupta, Simone; Weng, Lien-Chun; Ashton, John M; Cornish, Toby C; Pandey, Akhilesh; Halushka, Marc K

    2015-01-01

    Small RNA RNA-seq for microRNAs (miRNAs) is a rapidly developing field where opportunities still exist to create better bioinformatics tools to process these large datasets and generate new, useful analyses. We built miRge to be a fast, smart small RNA-seq solution to process samples in a highly multiplexed fashion. miRge employs a Bayesian alignment approach, whereby reads are sequentially aligned against customized mature miRNA, hairpin miRNA, noncoding RNA and mRNA sequence libraries. miRNAs are summarized at the level of raw reads in addition to reads per million (RPM). Reads for all other RNA species (tRNA, rRNA, snoRNA, mRNA) are provided, which is useful for identifying potential contaminants and optimizing small RNA purification strategies. miRge was designed to optimally identify miRNA isomiRs and employs an entropy based statistical measurement to identify differential production of isomiRs. This allowed us to identify decreasing entropy in isomiRs as stem cells mature into retinal pigment epithelial cells. Conversely, we show that pancreatic tumor miRNAs have similar entropy to matched normal pancreatic tissues. In a head-to-head comparison with other miRNA analysis tools (miRExpress 2.0, sRNAbench, omiRAs, miRDeep2, Chimira, UEA small RNA Workbench), miRge was faster (4 to 32-fold) and was among the top-two methods in maximally aligning miRNAs reads per sample. Moreover, miRge has no inherent limits to its multiplexing. miRge was capable of simultaneously analyzing 100 small RNA-Seq samples in 52 minutes, providing an integrated analysis of miRNA expression across all samples. As miRge was designed for analysis of single as well as multiple samples, miRge is an ideal tool for high and low-throughput users. miRge is freely available at http://atlas.pathology.jhu.edu/baras/miRge.html.

  18. SERS-based inverse molecular sentinel (iMS) nanoprobes for multiplexed detection of microRNA cancer biomarkers in biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Bridget M.; Wang, Hsin-Neng; Fales, Andrew M.; Bowie, Michelle L.; Seewaldt, Victoria L.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2017-02-01

    The development of sensitive and selective biosensing techniques is of great interest for clinical diagnostics. Here, we describe the development and application of a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing technology, referred to as "inverse Molecular Sentinel (iMS)" nanoprobes, for the detection of nucleic acid biomarkers in biological samples. This iMS nanoprobe involves the use of plasmonic-active nanostars as the sensing platform for a homogenous assay for multiplexed detection of nucleic acid biomarkers, including DNA, RNA and microRNA (miRNA). The "OFF-to-ON" signal switch is based on a non-enzymatic strand-displacement process and the conformational change of stem-loop (hairpin) oligonucleotide probes upon target binding. Here, we demonstrate the development of iMS nanoprobes for the detection of DNA sequences as well as a modified design of the nanoprobe for the detection of short (22-nt) microRNA sequences. The application of iMS nanoprobes to detect miRNAs in real biological samples was performed with total small RNA extracted from breast cancer cell lines. The multiplex capability of the iMS technique was demonstrated using a mixture of the two differently labeled nanoprobes to detect miR-21 and miR-34a miRNA biomarkers for breast cancer. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of applying the iMS technique for multiplexed detection of nucleic acid biomarkers, including short miRNAs molecules.

  19. A multiplex (m)RNA-profiling system for the forensic identification of body fluids and contact traces.

    PubMed

    Lindenbergh, Alexander; de Pagter, Mirjam; Ramdayal, Geeta; Visser, Mijke; Zubakov, Dmitry; Kayser, Manfred; Sijen, Titia

    2012-09-01

    In current forensic practice, information about the possible biological origin of forensic traces is mostly determined using protein-based presumptive testing. Recently, messenger RNA-profiling has emerged as an alternative strategy to examine the biological origin. Here we describe the development of a single multiplex mRNA-based system for the discrimination of the most common forensic body fluids as well as skin cells. A DNA/RNA co-isolation protocol was established that results in DNA yields equivalent to our standard in-house validated DNA extraction procedure which uses silica-based columns. An endpoint RT-PCR assay was developed that simultaneously amplifies 19 (m)RNA markers. This multiplex assay analyses three housekeeping, three blood, two saliva, two semen, two menstrual secretion, two vaginal mucosa, three general mucosa and two skin markers. The assay has good sensitivity as full RNA profiles for blood, semen and saliva were obtained when using ≥0.05 μL body fluid starting material whereas full DNA profiles were obtained with ≥0.1 μL. We investigated the specificity of the markers by analysing 15 different sets of each type of body fluid and skin with each set consisting of 8 individuals. Since skin markers have not been incorporated in multiplex endpoint PCR assays previously, we analysed these markers in more detail. Interestingly, both skin markers gave a positive result in samplings of the hands, feet, back and lips but negative in tongue samplings. Positive identification (regarding both DNA- and RNA-profiling) was obtained for specimens stored for many years, e.g. blood (28 years-old), semen (28 years-old), saliva (6 years-old), skin (10 years-old) and menstrual secretion (4 years-old). The described approach of combined DNA- and RNA-profiling of body fluids and contact traces assists in the interpretation of forensic stains by providing information about not only the donor(s) that contributed to the stain but also by indicating which cell

  20. Specific multiplex analysis of pathogens using a direct 16S rRNA hybridization in microarray system.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Byeong Hee; Shin, Hwa Hui; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2012-06-05

    For the rapid multiplex analysis of pathogens, 16S rRNAs from cell lysates were directly applied onto a DNA microarray at room temperature (RT) for RNA-DNA hybridization. To eliminate the labeling step, seven fluorescent-labeled detector probes were cohybridized with 16S rRNA targets and adjacent specific capture probes. We found that eight pathogens were successfully discriminated by the 16S rRNA-based direct method, which showed greater specificity than the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-labeled method due to chaperone and distance effects. A new specificity criterion for a perfect match between RNA and DNA was suggested to be 21-41% dissimilarity using correlation analysis between the mismatch and the sequence according to the guanine-cytosine (GC) percentage or the distribution of mismatches. Six categories of food matrix (egg, meat, milk, rice, vegetable, and mixed) were also tested, and the target pathogen was successfully discriminated within statistically significant levels. Finally, we found that the intrinsic abundance of 16S rRNA molecules successfully substituted PCR-based amplification with a low limit of detection of 10-10(3) cells mL(-1) and a high quantitative linear correlation. Collectively, our suggested 16S rRNA-based direct method enables the highly sensitive, specific, and quantitative analysis of selected pathogens at RT within 2 h, even in food samples.

  1. Simultaneous detection of groundnut rosette assistor virus (GRAV), groundnut rosette virus (GRV) and satellite RNA (satRNA) in groundnuts using multiplex RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Anitha, S; Monyo, E S; Okori, P

    2014-11-01

    Groundnut rosette disease (GRD) is the most devastating disease of groundnuts in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by synergistic interactions between viruses and virus-like pathogens: groundnut rosette assistor virus (GRAV), groundnut rosette virus (GRV) and a satellite RNA (satRNA). The multi-pathogenic nature of GRD requires efficient diagnostic systems for plant breeding and pathology work. Currently, TAS-ELISA and RT-PCR are used to detect all three pathogens. This approach is time-consuming, expensive and not easily amenable to high throughput. A multiplex PCR-based approach was developed to detect all three pathogens at once, reducing diagnostics costs and time by two thirds. The technique is highly robust and amenable to high throughput, with sensitivity and specificity values of 88 % and 100 %, respectively. The positive predictive value for the technique is 100 %, and the negative predictive value is 90.6 %.

  2. Terbium complex to quantum dot Förster resonance energy transfer for homogeneous and multiplexed microRNA assay (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Xue; Hildebrandt, Niko

    2016-03-01

    The importance of microRNA (miRNA) dysregulation in the development and progression of diseases has made these short-length nucleic acids to next generation biomarkers. Tb-to-QD Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) has several unique advantages over organic dye-based FRET systems for biomolecular sensing. Large Förster distances (6-11 nm) offer much high FRET efficiencies, exceptionally long Tb excited-state lifetimes (ms) enable time-gated detection void of autofluorecence background, and the narrow, symmetric, and tunable emission bands of QDs provide unrivaled potential for multiplexing. Here we report a rapid and homogeneous method to sensitively detect three different miRNAs (hsa-miR-20a-5p, hsa-miR-20b-5p, and hsa-miR-21-5p) from a single 150 µL sample based on multiplexed FRET between a luminescent Lumi4-Tb complex and three different QDs. The biosensing approach exploits both base pairing and stacking. Careful design and optimization of sequence lengths and orientations of the QD and Tb-DNA conjugates was performed to provide maximum selectivity and sensitivity for all three miRNA biomarkers. The assays work at room temperature and were designed for their application on a KRYPTOR diagnostic plate reader system.Only 30 min of sample incubation and 7.5 s of measurement are required to obtain ca. 1 nM (subpicomol) detection limits. We also demonstrate precise multiplexed measurements of these miRNAs at different and varying concentrations and the feasibility of adapting the technology to point-of-care testing (POCT) in buffer containing 10% serum. Our assay does not only demonstrate an important milestone for the integration of quantum dots to multiplexed clinical diagnostics but also a unique rapid miRNA detection technology that is complimentary to the rather complicated high-throughput and high-sensitivity approaches that are established today.

  3. A HaloTag-Based Small Molecule Microarray Screening Methodology with Increased Sensitivity and Multiplex Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Noblin, Devin J.; Page, Charlotte M.; Tae, Hyun Seop; Gareiss, Peter C.; Schneekloth, John S.; Crews, Craig M.

    2013-01-01

    Small Molecule Microarrays (SMMs) represent a general platform for screening small molecule–protein interactions independent of functional inhibition of target proteins. In an effort to increase the scope and utility of SMMs, we have modified the SMM screening methodology to increase assay sensitivity and facilitate multiplex screening. Fusing target proteins to the HaloTag protein allows us to covalently prelabel fusion proteins with fluorophores, leading to increased assay sensitivity and an ability to conduct multiplex screens. We use the interaction between FKBP12 and two ligands, rapamycin and ARIAD’s “bumpxs” ligand, to show that the HaloTag-based SMM screening methodology significantly increases assay sensitivity. Additionally, using wild type FKBP12 and the FKBP12 F36V mutant, we show that prelabeling various protein isoforms with different fluorophores allows us to conduct multiplex screens and identify ligands to a specific isoform. Finally, we show this multiplex screening technique is capable of identifying ligands selective for a specific PTP1B isoform using a 20,000 compound screening deck. PMID:23013033

  4. Sensitivity of mRNA Translation.

    PubMed

    Poker, Gilad; Margaliot, Michael; Tuller, Tamir

    2015-08-04

    Using the dynamic mean-field approximation of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP), we investigate the effect of small changes in the initiation, elongation, and termination rates along the mRNA strand on the steady-state protein translation rate. We show that the sensitivity of mRNA translation is equal to the sensitivity of the maximal eigenvalue of a symmetric, nonnegative, tridiagonal, and irreducible matrix. This leads to new analytical results as well as efficient numerical schemes that are applicable for large-scale models. Our results show that in the usual endogenous case, when initiation is more rate-limiting than elongation, the sensitivity of the translation rate to small mutations rapidly increases towards the 5' end of the ORF. When the initiation rate is high, as may be the case for highly expressed and/or heterologous optimized genes, the maximal sensitivity is with respect to the elongation rates at the middle of the mRNA strand. We also show that the maximal possible effect of a small increase/decrease in any of the rates along the mRNA is an increase/decrease of the same magnitude in the translation rate. These results are in agreement with previous molecular evolutionary and synthetic biology experimental studies.

  5. Sensitivity of mRNA Translation

    PubMed Central

    Poker, Gilad; Margaliot, Michael; Tuller, Tamir

    2015-01-01

    Using the dynamic mean-field approximation of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP), we investigate the effect of small changes in the initiation, elongation, and termination rates along the mRNA strand on the steady-state protein translation rate. We show that the sensitivity of mRNA translation is equal to the sensitivity of the maximal eigenvalue of a symmetric, nonnegative, tridiagonal, and irreducible matrix. This leads to new analytical results as well as efficient numerical schemes that are applicable for large-scale models. Our results show that in the usual endogenous case, when initiation is more rate-limiting than elongation, the sensitivity of the translation rate to small mutations rapidly increases towards the 5′ end of the ORF. When the initiation rate is high, as may be the case for highly expressed and/or heterologous optimized genes, the maximal sensitivity is with respect to the elongation rates at the middle of the mRNA strand. We also show that the maximal possible effect of a small increase/decrease in any of the rates along the mRNA is an increase/decrease of the same magnitude in the translation rate. These results are in agreement with previous molecular evolutionary and synthetic biology experimental studies. PMID:26238363

  6. Multiplex qRT-PCR for the Detection of Western Equine Encephalomyelitis, St. Louis Encephalitis, and West Nile Viral RNA in Mosquito Pools (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Brault, Aaron C.; Fang, Ying; Reisen, William K.

    2015-01-01

    Following the introduction of West Nile virus into California during the summer of 2003, public health and vector control programs expanded surveillance efforts and were in need of diagnostics capable of rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of arbovirus infections of mosquitoes to inform decision support for intervention. Development of a multiplex TaqMan or real-time semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay in which three virus specific primer–probe sets were used in the same reaction is described herein for the detection of western equine encephalomyelitis, St. Louis encephalitis and West Nile viral RNA. Laboratory validation and field data from 10 transmission seasons are reported. The comparative sensitivity and specificity of this multiplex assay to singleplex RT-PCR as well as an antigen detection (rapid analyte measurement platform) and standard plaque assays indicate this assay to be rapid and useful in providing mosquito infection data to estimate outbreak risk. PMID:26334826

  7. Multiplex qRT-PCR for the Detection of Western Equine Encephalomyelitis, St. Louis Encephalitis, and West Nile Viral RNA in Mosquito Pools (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Brault, Aaron C; Fang, Ying; Reisen, William K

    2015-05-01

    Following the introduction of West Nile virus into California during the summer of 2003, public health and vector control programs expanded surveillance efforts and were in need of diagnostics capable of rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of arbovirus infections of mosquitoes to inform decision support for intervention. Development of a multiplex TaqMan or real-time semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay in which three virus specific primer-probe sets were used in the same reaction is described herein for the detection of western equine encephalomyelitis, St. Louis encephalitis and West Nile viral RNA. Laboratory validation and field data from 10 transmission seasons are reported. The comparative sensitivity and specificity of this multiplex assay to singleplex RT-PCR as well as an antigen detection (rapid analyte measurement platform) and standard plaque assays indicate this assay to be rapid and useful in providing mosquito infection data to estimate outbreak risk.

  8. Sensitive multiplex detection of serological liver cancer biomarkers using SERS-active photonic crystal fiber probe.

    PubMed

    Dinish, U S; Balasundaram, Ghayathri; Chang, Young Tae; Olivo, Malini

    2014-11-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy possesses the most promising advantage of multiplex detection for biosensing applications, which is achieved due to the narrow 'fingerprint' Raman spectra from the analyte molecules. We developed an ultrasensitive platform for the multiplex detection of cancer biomarkers by combining the SERS technique with a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF). Axially aligned air channels inside the HCPCF provide an excellent platform for optical sensing using SERS. In addition to the flexibility of optical fibers, HCPCF provides better light confinement and a larger interaction length for the guided light and the analyte, resulting in an improvement in sensitivity to detect low concentrations of bioanalytes in extremely low sample volumes. Herein, for the first time, we demonstrate the sensitive multiplex detection of biomarkers immobilized inside the HCPCF using antibody-conjugated SERS-active nanoparticles (SERS nanotags). As a proof-of-concept for targeted multiplex detection, initially we carried out the sensing of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) biomarker in oral squamous carcinoma cell lysate using three different SERS nanotags. Subsequently, we also achieved simultaneous detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) biomarkers-alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) secreted in the supernatant from Hep3b cancer cell line. Using a SERS-HCPCF sensing platform, we could successfully demonstrate the multiplex detection in an extremely low sample volume of ∼20 nL. In future, this study may lead to sensitive biosensing platform for the low concentration detection of biomarkers in an extremely low sample volume of body fluids to achieve early diagnosis of multiple diseases. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

  9. Multiplexed analysis of chromosome conformation at vastly improved sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Davies, James O.J.; Telenius, Jelena M.; McGowan, Simon; Roberts, Nigel A.; Taylor, Stephen; Higgs, Douglas R.; Hughes, Jim R.

    2015-01-01

    Since methods for analysing chromosome conformation in mammalian cells are either low resolution or low throughput and are technically challenging they are not widely used outside of specialised laboratories. We have re-designed the Capture-C method producing a new approach, called next generation (NG) Capture-C. This produces unprecedented levels of sensitivity and reproducibility and can be used to analyse many genetic loci and samples simultaneously. Importantly, high-resolution data can be produced on as few as 100,000 cells and SNPs can be used to generate allele specific tracks. The method is straightforward to perform and should therefore greatly facilitate the task of linking SNPs identified by genome wide association studies with the genes they influence. The complete and detailed protocol presented here, with new publicly available tools for library design and data analysis, will allow most laboratories to analyse chromatin conformation at levels of sensitivity and throughput that were previously impossible. PMID:26595209

  10. Nanogold bioconjugates for direct and sensitive multiplexed immunosensing.

    PubMed

    Dobosz, P; Morais, S; Puchades, R; Maquieira, A

    2015-07-15

    The use of nanogold bioconjugates for direct detection of the antibody-antigen immunoreaction is addressed. The integration of gold nanoparticles tracers as signal generators in microarray immunosensing and compact disc detection technique show important advantages to reach sensitive, selective, high throughput, reliable and cost-effective assays. For that, a thorough study of the performances of the size of spherical nanogold particles and coating density was developed. The size of the nanoparticle determines the optimal antibody dilution, being the smaller particles the best performing ones. Enhancement effect of lower size is also studied. The gold labeling method do not affects the recognition capability of the labeled proteins. As a proof of concept, the nanoconjugates were used for the simultaneous and direct determination of small molecules. Employing nanogold bioconjugates as recognition labels resulted in robust and reliable assays, reaching a sensitivity of 0.03 and 1.3μg/L for sulfasalazine and atrazine, respectively. This shows that the use of nanogold bioconjugates for direct immunosensing is very competitive, achieving highly sensitive and reproducible assays (RSD<10%). This approach would simultaneously determine both small and large molecular size targets, in different formats, using the same detection mode what paves the way for many other applications in different scenarios.

  11. Multiplex mRNA profiling for the identification of body fluids.

    PubMed

    Juusola, Jane; Ballantyne, Jack

    2005-08-11

    We report the development of a multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method for the definitive identification of the body fluids that are commonly encountered in forensic casework analysis, namely blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions. Using selected genes that we have identified as being expressed in a tissue-specific manner we have developed a multiplex RT-PCR assay which is composed of eight body fluid-specific genes and that is optimized for the detection of blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions as single or mixed stains. The genes include beta-spectrin (SPTB) and porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) for blood, statherin (STATH) and histatin 3 (HTN3) for saliva, protamine 1 (PRM1) and protamine 2 (PRM2) for semen, and human beta-defensin 1 (HBD-1) and mucin 4 (MUC4) for vaginal secretions. The known or presumed functions of these genes suggest an extremely restricted pattern of gene expression, which is a basic requirement for incorporation into a tissue-specific assay. The methodology is based upon gene expression profiling analysis in which the body fluid-specific genes are identified by detecting the presence of appropriate mRNA species using capillary electrophoresis/laser induced fluorescence. An mRNA-based approach, such as the multiplex RT-PCR method described in the present work, allows for the facile identification of the tissue components present in a body fluid stain and could supplant the battery of serological and biochemical tests currently employed in the forensic serology laboratory.

  12. RNA Imaging with Multiplexed Error-Robust Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (MERFISH).

    PubMed

    Moffitt, J R; Zhuang, X

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of both the copy number and spatial distribution of large fractions of the transcriptome in single cells could revolutionize our understanding of a variety of cellular and tissue behaviors in both healthy and diseased states. Single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH)-an approach where individual RNAs are labeled with fluorescent probes and imaged in their native cellular and tissue context-provides both the copy number and spatial context of RNAs but has been limited in the number of RNA species that can be measured simultaneously. Here, we describe multiplexed error-robust fluorescence in situ hybridization (MERFISH), a massively parallelized form of smFISH that can image and identify hundreds to thousands of different RNA species simultaneously with high accuracy in individual cells in their native spatial context. We provide detailed protocols on all aspects of MERFISH, including probe design, data collection, and data analysis to allow interested laboratories to perform MERFISH measurements themselves.

  13. DeepSAGE: higher sensitivity and multiplexing of samples using a simpler experimental protocol.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann

    2008-01-01

    Combining serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) with pyrophosphatase-based ultra-high-throughput DNA sequencing provides increased sensitivity and cost-effective gene expression profiling. The combined techniques obviate the formation and cloning of concatemers and the tedious picking and preparation of sequence templates from bacterial clones that are necessary with SAGE alone. Furthermore, multiplexing of samples or replicates of analysis is included in the experimental design.

  14. A Multiplex Assay to Measure RNA Transcripts of Prostate Cancer in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Quek, Sue-Ing; Ho, Melissa E.; Loprieno, Michelle A.; Ellis, William J.; Elliott, Nathan; Liu, Alvin Y.

    2012-01-01

    The serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test has a high false positive rate. As a single marker, PSA provides limited diagnostic information. A multi-marker test capable of detecting not only tumors but also the potentially lethal ones provides an unmet clinical need. Using the nanoString nCounter gene expression system, a 20-gene multiplex test was developed based on digital gene counting of RNA transcripts in urine as a means to detect prostate cancer. In this test, voided urine is centrifuged to pellet cells and the purified RNA is amplified for hybridization to preselected probesets. Amplification of test cell line RNA appeared not to introduce significant bias, and the counts matched well with gene abundance levels as measured by DNA microarrays. For data analysis, the individual counts were compared to that of β2 microglobulin, a housekeeping gene. Urine samples of 5 pre-operative cases and 2 non-cancer were analyzed. Pathology information was then retrieved. Signals for a majority of the genes were low for non-cancer and low Gleason scores, and 6/6 known prostate cancer markers were positive in the cases. One case of Gleason 4+5 showed, in contrast, strong signals for all cancer-associated markers, including CD24. One non-cancer also showed signals for all 6 cancer markers, and this man might harbor an undiagnosed cancer. This multiplex test assaying a natural waste product can potentially be used for screening, early cancer detection and patient stratification. Diagnostic information is gained from the RNA signatures that are associated with cell types of prostate tumors. PMID:23029164

  15. Extraction of high-quality bacterial RNA from infected leaf tissue for bacterial in planta gene expression analysis by multiplexed fluorescent Northern hybridization.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Alexander; Weingart, Helge; Ullrich, Matthias S

    2008-03-01

    Plant pathogenic bacteria possess a large number of genes that allow them to grow and cause disease on plants. In planta gene expression analysis is important to understand the impact of these genes on bacterial virulence. A new mRNA-based approach using multiplexed Northern hybridization was developed. High-quality bacterial and plant total RNA was successfully isolated from leaf tissue infiltrated with Pseudomonas syringae. The procedure employs a new extraction buffer formulation containing glycine, sodium dodecylsulphate, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, high-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol and beta-mercaptoethanol. Cell lysis and classical acid-phenol extraction steps followed by LiCl precipitation yielded large amounts of total RNA of high purity and integrity. Multiplexing of DIG and chemically fluorescently labelled RNA probes was developed and expression data were normalized using the 23S rRNA gene as reference. The method was validated by studying in planta expression of the P. syringae genes mucD, cmaA, cfl, corR, corS and corP comprising a selection of highly expressed biosynthetic and low-expressed regulatory genes. The method was assessed regarding its sensitivity and might by useful for studying a variety of plant-microbe interactions.

  16. A novel technology for multiplex gene expression analysis directly from whole blood samples stabilized at ambient temperature using an RNA-stabilizing buffer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang Hee; Abedi, Majid; Liu, Yenbou; Panuganti, Sree; Flores, Francisco; Shah, Kevin R; Catterall, Hannah; Morampudi, Krishna S; Terbrueggen, Robert

    2015-03-01

    We describe a novel method, based on target-dependent chemical ligation of probes, which simplifies the multiplexed quantitation of gene expression from blood samples by eliminating the RNA purification step. Gene expression from seven genes was evaluated over a range of sample inputs (16.7 to 0.25 μL of whole blood in serial dilutions) from three healthy donors. Mean CVs were ≤11% for five technical replicates for whole blood inputs ≥2.1 μL. The method showed a limit of detection of 300 copies of RNA by using titration of in vitro transcripts for four genes. Gene expression measured on stabilized blood samples was highly correlated (Spearman rank correlation method, ρ = 0.80) to gene expression results obtained with RNA isolated from matched samples (three donors, five technical replicates). Gene expression changes determined with seven radiation-responsive genes on six healthy donor blood samples before and after ex vivo irradiation were highly correlated (ρ = 0.93) to those measured with a TaqMan quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay on RNA purified from matched samples. Thus, this method is reproducible, sensitive, and correlated to quantitative real-time RT-PCR and may be used to streamline the multiplex gene expression analysis of large numbers of stabilized blood samples without RNA purification. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of multiplex PCR for Rapid and sensitive detection of human papillomaviruses in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Zandnia, Fateme; Doosti, Abbas; Mokhtari-Farsani, Abbas; Kardi, Mohammad Taghi; Movafagh, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Reffering to an increase in cervical cancer in the recent years, rapid, sensitive and economical detection of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) as causative agents of cervical cancer is important. The traditional methods for the detection of HPVs in cervical cancer, such as pap smear, suffer from limitation and PCR has a potential to overcome the limitaitons. The purpose of present research work was to identify the five important strains of HPV (16, 18, 31, 33 and 45) simultaneously by Multiplex PCR application. Study was done on 100 cervical lesions of women. DNA was extracted from specimens by a genomic DNA purification kit. A 5-plex PCR was developed for the simultaneous detection of major HPV. Five pair of new primers was designed for detection of HPV 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 by Multiplex PCR. Among the 100 evaluated samples, 82 were found positive to HPVs. In the meantime the highest rate of infection was for HPV 16. Also 30 of HPV positive samples had infections with two or more HPV types. Multiplex PCR assay used in present study can provide a rapid, sensitive and economical method for detection of viral infections and is applicable to small volumes of vaginal samples.

  18. Visualization and tracking of tumour extracellular vesicle delivery and RNA translation using multiplexed reporters

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Charles P.; Kim, Edward Y.; Badr, Christian E.; Weissleder, Ralph; Mempel, Thorsten R.; Tannous, Bakhos A.; Breakefield, Xandra O.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate spatiotemporal assessment of extracellular vesicle (EV) delivery and cargo RNA translation requires specific and robust live-cell imaging technologies. Here we engineer optical reporters to label multiple EV populations for visualization and tracking of tumour EV release, uptake and exchange between cell populations both in culture and in vivo. Enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) and tandem dimer Tomato (tdTomato) were fused at NH2-termini with a palmitoylation signal (PalmGFP, PalmtdTomato) for EV membrane labelling. To monitor EV-RNA cargo, transcripts encoding PalmtdTomato were tagged with MS2 RNA binding sequences and detected by co-expression of bacteriophage MS2 coat protein fused with EGFP. By multiplexing fluorescent and bioluminescent EV membrane reporters, we reveal the rapid dynamics of both EV uptake and translation of EV-delivered cargo mRNAs in cancer cells that occurred within 1-hour post-horizontal transfer between cells. These studies confirm that EV-mediated communication is dynamic and multidirectional between cells with delivery of functional mRNA. PMID:25967391

  19. Superior Multiplexing Capacity of PlexPrimers Enables Sensitive and Specific Detection of SNPs and Clustered Mutations in qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Lit Yeen; Walker, Samantha Michelle; Lonergan, Tina; Lima, Nicole Elizabeth; Todd, Alison Velyian

    2017-01-01

    Background Whilst qPCR provides an extremely powerful tool for genetic analysis, some applications such as multiplexing variant alleles (eg SNPs, point mutations or deletions), remain challenging using current primer/probe systems. The novel design features of PlexPrimers allow sensitive, multiplexed analysis of variant alleles even when these are tightly clustered. Method PlexPrimers were combined with PlexZymes in qPCR assays for the detection of SNPs in human absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) genes; clustered mutations in the 23S rRNA gene which confer antibiotic resistance to Mycoplasma genitalium; and deletions within the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene. Results The combination of PlexPrimers and PlexZymes allowed robust multiplexing of targets which resulted in 100% concordance with results obtained using hydrolysis probe kits for 14 SNPs in the ADME genes. A 7-plex qPCR assay targeting M. genitalium, 5 clustered mutations associated with macrolide resistance and an internal control, allowed efficient amplification of all targets, with all 5 mutations detected in a single channel. Finally, the strategy was employed to analyse common EGFR mutants with high sensitivity, detecting deletions present at only 0.01%. Conclusion PlexPrime is a novel technology for the detection of genetic variants. Unlike previous strategies, the combination of PlexPrimers with PlexZymes enables both allele-specific detection and allele-specific amplification in qPCR. The study demonstrated highly sensitive and specific detection of mutations and SNPs, and superior multiplexing capacity. The ability to multiplex clustered genetic variants reduces the time to result providing more actionable information. PMID:28114309

  20. Giant magnetoresistive sensor array for sensitive and specific multiplexed food allergen detection.

    PubMed

    Ng, Elaine; Nadeau, Kari C; Wang, Shan X

    2016-06-15

    Current common allergen detection methods, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and dip-stick methods, do not provide adequate levels of sensitivity and specificity for at-risk allergic patients. A method for performing highly sensitive and specific detection of multiple food allergens is thus imperative as food allergies are becoming increasingly recognized as a major healthcare concern, affecting an estimated 4% of the total population. We demonstrate first instance of sensitive and specific multiplexed detection of major peanut allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, and wheat allergen Gliadin using giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensor arrays. Commercialized ELISA kits for Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 report limits of detection (LODs) at 31.5 ng/mL and 0.2 ng/mL, respectively. In addition, the 96-well-based ELISA developed in-house for Gliadin was found to have a LOD of 40 ng/mL. Our multiplexed GMR-based assay demonstrates the ability to perform all three assays on the same chip specifically and with sensitivities at LODs about an order of magnitude lower than those of 96-well-based ELISAs. LODs of GMR-based assays developed for Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Gliadin were 7.0 ng/mL, 0.2 ng/mL, and 1.5 ng/mL, respectively, with little to no cross-reactivity. These LODs are clinically important as some patients could react strongly against such low allergen levels. Given the limitations of current industrial detection technology, multiplexed GMR-based assays provide a method for highly sensitive and specific simultaneous detection of any combination of food-product allergens, thus protecting allergic patients from life-threatening events, including anaphylaxis, by unintentional consumption.

  1. Multisite Comparison of High-Sensitivity Multiplex Cytokine Assays▿†

    PubMed Central

    Breen, Elizabeth Crabb; Reynolds, Sandra M.; Cox, Christopher; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Magpantay, Larry; Mulder, Candice B.; Dibben, Oliver; Margolick, Joseph B.; Bream, Jay H.; Sambrano, Elise; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Borrow, Persephone; Landay, Alan L.; Rinaldo, Charles R.; Norris, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of cytokines in human serum and plasma can provide valuable information about in vivo immune status, but low concentrations often require high-sensitivity assays to permit detection. The recent development of multiplex assays, which can measure multiple cytokines in one small sample, holds great promise, especially for studies in which limited volumes of stored serum or plasma are available. Four high-sensitivity cytokine multiplex assays on a Luminex (Bio-Rad, BioSource, Linco) or electrochemiluminescence (Meso Scale Discovery) platform were evaluated for their ability to detect circulating concentrations of 13 cytokines, as well as for laboratory and lot variability. Assays were performed in six different laboratories utilizing archived serum from HIV-uninfected and -infected subjects from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) and commercial plasma samples spanning initial HIV viremia. In a majority of serum samples, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha were detectable with at least three kits, while IL-1β was clearly detected with only one kit. No single multiplex panel detected all cytokines, and there were highly significant differences (P < 0.001) between laboratories and/or lots with all kits. Nevertheless, the kits generally detected similar patterns of cytokine perturbation during primary HIV viremia. This multisite comparison suggests that current multiplex assays vary in their ability to measure serum and/or plasma concentrations of cytokines and may not be sufficiently reproducible for repeated determinations over a long-term study or in multiple laboratories but may be useful for longitudinal studies in which relative, rather than absolute, changes in cytokines are important. PMID:21697338

  2. Targeted RNA-Sequencing with Competitive Multiplex-PCR Amplicon Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Blomquist, Thomas M.; Crawford, Erin L.; Lovett, Jennie L.; Yeo, Jiyoun; Stanoszek, Lauren M.; Levin, Albert; Li, Jia; Lu, Mei; Shi, Leming; Muldrew, Kenneth; Willey, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Whole transcriptome RNA-sequencing is a powerful tool, but is costly and yields complex data sets that limit its utility in molecular diagnostic testing. A targeted quantitative RNA-sequencing method that is reproducible and reduces the number of sequencing reads required to measure transcripts over the full range of expression would be better suited to diagnostic testing. Toward this goal, we developed a competitive multiplex PCR-based amplicon sequencing library preparation method that a) targets only the sequences of interest and b) controls for inter-target variation in PCR amplification during library preparation by measuring each transcript native template relative to a known number of synthetic competitive template internal standard copies. To determine the utility of this method, we intentionally selected PCR conditions that would cause transcript amplification products (amplicons) to converge toward equimolar concentrations (normalization) during library preparation. We then tested whether this approach would enable accurate and reproducible quantification of each transcript across multiple library preparations, and at the same time reduce (through normalization) total sequencing reads required for quantification of transcript targets across a large range of expression. We demonstrate excellent reproducibility (R2 = 0.997) with 97% accuracy to detect 2-fold change using External RNA Controls Consortium (ERCC) reference materials; high inter-day, inter-site and inter-library concordance (R2 = 0.97–0.99) using FDA Sequencing Quality Control (SEQC) reference materials; and cross-platform concordance with both TaqMan qPCR (R2 = 0.96) and whole transcriptome RNA-sequencing following “traditional” library preparation using Illumina NGS kits (R2 = 0.94). Using this method, sequencing reads required to accurately quantify more than 100 targeted transcripts expressed over a 107-fold range was reduced more than 10,000-fold, from 2.3×109 to 1

  3. Multiplexed efficient on-chip sample preparation and sensitive amplification-free detection of Ebola virus.

    PubMed

    Du, K; Cai, H; Park, M; Wall, T A; Stott, M A; Alfson, K J; Griffiths, A; Carrion, R; Patterson, J L; Hawkins, A R; Schmidt, H; Mathies, R A

    2017-05-15

    An automated microfluidic sample preparation multiplexer (SPM) has been developed and evaluated for Ebola virus detection. Metered air bubbles controlled by microvalves are used to improve bead-solution mixing thereby enhancing the hybridization of the target Ebola virus RNA with capture probes bound to the beads. The method uses thermally stable 4-formyl benzamide functionalized (4FB) magnetic beads rather than streptavidin coated beads with a high density of capture probes to improve the target capture efficiency. Exploiting an on-chip concentration protocol in the SPM and the single molecule detection capability of the antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW) biosensor chip, a detection limit of 0.021pfu/mL for clinical samples is achieved without target amplification. This RNA target capture efficiency is two orders of magnitude higher than previous results using streptavidin beads and the limit of detection (LOD) improves 10×. The wide dynamic range of this technique covers the whole clinically applicable concentration range. In addition, the current sample preparation time is ~1h which is eight times faster than previous work. This multiplexed, miniaturized sample preparation microdevice establishes a key technology that intended to develop next generation point-of-care (POC) detection system.

  4. DeepSAGE--digital transcriptomics with high sensitivity, simple experimental protocol and multiplexing of samples.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Kåre L; Høgh, Annabeth Laursen; Emmersen, Jeppe

    2006-01-01

    Digital transcriptomics with pyrophosphatase based ultra-high throughput DNA sequencing of di-tags provides high sensitivity and cost-effective gene expression profiling. Sample preparation and handling are greatly simplified compared to Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE). We compare DeepSAGE and LongSAGE data and demonstrate greater power of detection and multiplexing of samples derived from potato. The transcript analysis revealed a great abundance of up-regulated potato transcripts associated with stress in dormant potatoes compared to harvest. Importantly, many transcripts were detected that cannot be matched to known genes, but is likely to be part of the abiotic stress-response in potato.

  5. Multiplexed microRNA detection by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ruei-Min; Chang, Yu-Sun; Chen, Shu-Jen; Chen, Jian-Hung; Chen, Hua-Chien; Chang, Po-Ling

    2011-05-06

    In this study, we developed a novel assay that simultaneously detects multiple miRNAs (microRNAs) within a single capillary by combining a tandem adenosine-tailed DNA bridge-assisted splinted ligation with denaturing capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence. This proposed method not only represents a significant improvement in resolution but also allows for the detection of multiple miRNAs within a single capillary based on the length differences of specified target bridge DNA. The assay's linear range covers three orders of magnitude (1.0 nM to 1.0 pM) with a limit of detection (S/N=3) as low as 190 fM (2.5 zmol). Five miRNAs of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were also detected in EBV-infected nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells, while they did not appear in non-virus infected cells. Moreover, the electropherogram indicated that the screening of isomiRs (isomer of miRNA) of BART2 by CE-LIF is feasible by our proposed method. The developed electrophoresis-based method for miRNA detection is fast, amplification-free, multiplexed and cost-effective, making it potentially applicable to large-scale screening of isomiRs.

  6. High sensitive photonic crystal multiplexed biosensor array using H0 sandwiched cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arafa, Safia; Bouchemat, Mohamed; Bouchemat, Touraya; Benmerkhi, Ahlem

    2017-03-01

    We theoretically investigate a high sensitive photonic crystal integrated biosensor array structure which is potentially used for label-free multiplexed sensing. The proposed device consists of an array of three sandwiched H0 cavities patterned above silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate; each cavity has been designed for different cavity spacing and different resonant wavelength. Results obtained by performing finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations, indicate that the response of each detection unit shifts independently in terms of refractive index variations. The optimized design makes possible the combination of sensing as a function of location, as well as a function of time in the same platform. A refractive index sensitivity of 520nm/RIU and a quality factor over 104 are both achieved with an accompanied crosstalk of less than -26 dB. In addition, the device presents an improved detection limit (DL) of 1.24.10-6 RIU and a wide measurement range. These features make the designed device a promising element for performing label-free multiplexed detection in monolithic substrate for medical diagnostics and environmental monitoring.

  7. Single-step multiplex RT-PCR for simultaneous and colourimetric detection of six RNA viruses in olive trees.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, E; Olmos, A; Martínez, M C; Gorris, M T; Cambra, M

    2001-07-01

    A single-step multiplex RT-PCR was developed for the simultaneous and colourimetric detection of six RNA viruses (Cucumber mosaic virus, Cherry leaf roll virus, strawberry latent ringspot virus, Arabis mosaic virus, Olive latent-1 virus and Olive latent-2 virus) which infect olive trees. Six compatible primer set for one-step RT-PCR amplification in a single closed-tube and 3' digoxigenin labelled probes were designed in optimal, specific and conserved regions. The method has been assessed with 195 Spanish field olive trees, suggesting that approximately 1.5% of the tested material was infected by Cucumber mosaic virus and 0.5% by Cherry leaf roll virus. This method saves time and reagent costs compared with monospecific RT-PCR which needs several reactions for the same number of tests. Using colourimetric detection, it is possible to analyse many samples, it increases sensitivity 10-fold, and whilst facilitating the interpretation of results, it avoids the use of gels and the toxic ethidium bromide. The method could be used routinely for sanitary and certification programmes.

  8. Multiplexed detection of viral infections using rapid in situ RNA analysis on a chip.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Sydney M; Joshi, Rohan P; Chambers, Benjamin S; Sterken, David; Biaesch, Andrew G; Gabrieli, David J; Li, Yang; Feemster, Kristen A; Hensley, Scott E; Issadore, David; Raj, Arjun

    2015-08-07

    Viral infections are a major cause of human disease, but many require molecular assays for conclusive diagnosis. Current assays typically rely on RT-PCR or ELISA; however, these tests often have limited speed, sensitivity or specificity. Here, we demonstrate that rapid RNA FISH is a viable alternative method that could improve upon these limitations. We describe a platform beginning with software to generate RNA FISH probes both for distinguishing related strains of virus (even those different by a single base) and for capturing large numbers of strains simultaneously. Next, we present a simple fluidic device for reliably performing RNA FISH assays in an automated fashion. Finally, we describe an automated image processing pipeline to robustly identify uninfected and infected samples. Together, our results establish RNA FISH as a methodology with potential for viral point-of-care diagnostics.

  9. Multiplexed detection of viral infections using rapid in-situ RNA analysis on a chip

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Sydney M.; Joshi, Rohan P.; Chambers, Benjamin S.; Sterken, David; Biaesch, Andrew G.; Gabrieli, David J.; Li, Yang; Feemster, Kristen A.; Hensley, Scott E.; Issadore, David; Raj, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    Viral infections are a major cause of human disease, but many require molecular assays for conclusive diagnosis. Current assays typically rely on RT-PCR or ELISA; however, these tests often have limited speed, sensitivity or specificity. Here, we demonstrate that rapid RNA FISH is a viable alternative method that could improve upon these limitations. We describe a platform beginning with software to generate RNA FISH probes both for distinguishing related strains of virus (even those different by a single base) and for capturing large numbers of strains simultaneously. Next, we present a simple fluidic device for reliably performing RNA FISH assays in an automated fashion. Finally, we describe an automated image processing pipeline to robustly identify uninfected and infected samples. Together, our results establish RNA FISH as a methodology with potential for viral point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:26113495

  10. Sensitive and specific miRNA detection method using SplintR Ligase.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jingmin; Vaud, Sophie; Zhelkovsky, Alexander M; Posfai, Janos; McReynolds, Larry A

    2016-07-27

    We describe a simple, specific and sensitive microRNA (miRNA) detection method that utilizes Chlorella virus DNA ligase (SplintR(®) Ligase). This two-step method involves ligation of adjacent DNA oligonucleotides hybridized to a miRNA followed by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). SplintR Ligase is 100X faster than either T4 DNA Ligase or T4 RNA Ligase 2 for RNA splinted DNA ligation. Only a 4-6 bp overlap between a DNA probe and miRNA was required for efficient ligation by SplintR Ligase. This property allows more flexibility in designing miRNA-specific ligation probes than methods that use reverse transcriptase for cDNA synthesis of miRNA. The qPCR SplintR ligation assay is sensitive; it can detect a few thousand molecules of miR-122. For miR-122 detection the SplintR qPCR assay, using a FAM labeled double quenched DNA probe, was at least 40× more sensitive than the TaqMan assay. The SplintR method, when coupled with NextGen sequencing, allowed multiplex detection of miRNAs from brain, kidney, testis and liver. The SplintR qPCR assay is specific; individual let-7 miRNAs that differ by one nucleotide are detected. The rapid kinetics and ability to ligate DNA probes hybridized to RNA with short complementary sequences makes SplintR Ligase a useful enzyme for miRNA detection. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Sensitive and specific miRNA detection method using SplintR Ligase

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jingmin; Vaud, Sophie; Zhelkovsky, Alexander M.; Posfai, Janos; McReynolds, Larry A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a simple, specific and sensitive microRNA (miRNA) detection method that utilizes Chlorella virus DNA ligase (SplintR® Ligase). This two-step method involves ligation of adjacent DNA oligonucleotides hybridized to a miRNA followed by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). SplintR Ligase is 100X faster than either T4 DNA Ligase or T4 RNA Ligase 2 for RNA splinted DNA ligation. Only a 4–6 bp overlap between a DNA probe and miRNA was required for efficient ligation by SplintR Ligase. This property allows more flexibility in designing miRNA-specific ligation probes than methods that use reverse transcriptase for cDNA synthesis of miRNA. The qPCR SplintR ligation assay is sensitive; it can detect a few thousand molecules of miR-122. For miR-122 detection the SplintR qPCR assay, using a FAM labeled double quenched DNA probe, was at least 40× more sensitive than the TaqMan assay. The SplintR method, when coupled with NextGen sequencing, allowed multiplex detection of miRNAs from brain, kidney, testis and liver. The SplintR qPCR assay is specific; individual let-7 miRNAs that differ by one nucleotide are detected. The rapid kinetics and ability to ligate DNA probes hybridized to RNA with short complementary sequences makes SplintR Ligase a useful enzyme for miRNA detection. PMID:27154271

  12. Advancing forensic RNA typing: On non-target secretions, a nasal mucosa marker, a differential co-extraction protocol and the sensitivity of DNA and RNA profiling.

    PubMed

    van den Berge, Margreet; Bhoelai, Bryan; Harteveld, Joyce; Matai, Anuska; Sijen, Titia

    2016-01-01

    The forensic identification of human body fluids and tissues by means of messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling is a long studied methodology that is increasingly applied to casework samples. Previously, we have described an mRNA multiplex system that targets blood, saliva, semen, menstrual secretion, vaginal mucosa and skin (Lindenbergh et al. and van den Berge et al.). In this study we consider various topics to improve this mRNA profiling system or its use and adapt the method accordingly. Bodily secretions that may be encountered at a crime scene whilst not targeted by the multiplex-id est nasal mucosa, sweat, tears, faeces and urine-were examined for false positive signals. The results prompted us to identify a nasal mucosa marker that allows the discrimination of nasal mucosa from saliva or vaginal mucosa and nosebleed blood from peripheral blood. An updated version of the multiplex was prepared to which the nasal mucosa marker was added and in which markers for semen, vaginal mucosa and blood were replaced. Lactobacillus markers were regarded unsuitable as replacement for vaginal mucosa mRNA markers because of background signals on penile swabs that appeared devoid of female DNA. Furthermore, we provide approaches to deal with highly unbalanced mixtures. First, a differential extraction protocol was incorporated into a co-extraction protocol to allow DNA and RNA analysis of separated non-sperm and sperm fractions. In a second approach, besides the standard multiplex, a customized multiplex is used which excludes markers for prevailing cell types. This allows the use of lower cDNA inputs for the prevailing cell types and higher inputs for cell types that appear masked. Additionally, we assessed the relation between the percentage of alleles or markers detected in DNA or RNA profiles when decreasing sample amounts are analysed. While blood, saliva, semen and menstrual secretion show the trend that DNA profiling is more sensitive than RNA profiling, the reverse is seen

  13. In situ amplification of intracellular microRNA with MNAzyme nanodevices for multiplexed imaging, logic operation, and controlled drug release.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Penghui; He, Zhimei; Wang, Chen; Chen, Jiangning; Zhao, Jingjing; Zhu, Xuena; Li, Chen-Zhong; Min, Qianhao; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2015-01-27

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), as key regulators in gene expression networks, have participated in many biological processes, including cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis, indicative of potential diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets. To tackle the low abundance of miRNAs in a single cell, we have developed programmable nanodevices with MNAzymes to realize stringent recognition and in situ amplification of intracellular miRNAs for multiplexed detection and controlled drug release. As a proof of concept, miR-21 and miR-145, respectively up- and down-expressed in most tumor tissues, were selected as endogenous cancer indicators and therapy triggers to test the efficacy of the photothermal nanodevices. The sequence programmability and specificity of MNAzyme motifs enabled the fluorescent turn-on probes not only to sensitively profile the distributions of miR-21/miR-145 in cell lysates of HeLa, HL-60, and NIH 3T3 (9632/0, 14147/0, 2047/421 copies per cell, respectively) but also to visualize trace amounts of miRNAs in a single cell, allowing logic operation for graded cancer risk assessment and dynamic monitoring of therapy response by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Furthermore, through general molecular design, the MNAzyme motifs could serve as three-dimensional gatekeepers to lock the doxorubicin inside the nanocarriers. The drug nanocarriers were exclusively internalized into the target tumor cells via aptamer-guided recognition and reopened by the endogenous miRNAs, where the drug release rates could be spatial-temporally controlled by the modulation of miRNA expression. Integrated with miRNA profiling techniques, the designed nanodevices can provide general strategy for disease diagnosis, prognosis, and combination treatment with chemotherapy and gene therapy.

  14. Multiplexed identification of blood-borne bacterial pathogens by use of a novel 16S rRNA gene PCR-ligase detection reaction-capillary electrophoresis assay.

    PubMed

    Pingle, Maneesh R; Granger, Kathleen; Feinberg, Philip; Shatsky, Rebecca; Sterling, Bram; Rundell, Mark; Spitzer, Eric; Larone, Davise; Golightly, Linnie; Barany, Francis

    2007-06-01

    We have developed a novel high-throughput PCR-ligase detection reaction-capillary electrophoresis (PCR-LDR-CE) assay for the multiplexed identification of 20 blood-borne pathogens (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Neisseria meningitidis, Bacteroides fragilis, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, and Brucella abortus), the last four of which are biothreat agents. The method relies on the amplification of two regions within the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, using universal PCR primers and querying the identity of specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the amplified regions in a subsequent LDR. The ligation products vary in color and size and are separated by CE. Each organism generates a specific pattern of ligation products, which can be used to distinguish the pathogens using an automated software program we developed for that purpose. The assay has been verified on 315 clinical isolates and demonstrated a detection sensitivity of 98%. Additionally, 484 seeded blood cultures were tested, with a detection sensitivity of 97.7%. The ability to identify geographically variant strains of the organisms was determined by testing 132 isolates obtained from across the United States. In summary, the PCR-LDR-CE assay can successfully identify, in a multiplexed fashion, a panel of 20 blood-borne pathogens with high sensitivity and specificity.

  15. Simultaneous detection of the seven main tomato-infecting RNA viruses by two multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions.

    PubMed

    Panno, Stefano; Davino, Salvatore; Rubio, Luis; Rangel, Ezequiel; Davino, Mario; García-Hernández, Jorge; Olmos, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus, Tomato mosaic virus, Tomato chlorosis virus, Pepino mosaic virus, Torrado tomato virus and Tomato infectious chlorosis virus cause serious damage and significant economic losses in tomato crops worldwide. The early detection of these pathogens is essential for preventing the viruses from spreading and improving their control. In this study, a procedure based on two multiplex RT-PCRs was developed for the sensitive and reliable detection of these seven viruses. Serial dilutions of positive controls were analysed by this methodology, and the results were compared with those obtained by ELISA and singleplex versions of RT-PCR. The multiplex and singleplex RT-PCR assays were able to detect specific targets at the same dilution and were 100 times more sensitive than ELISA. The multiplex versions were able to detect composite samples containing different concentrations of specific targets at ratios from 1:1 to 1:1000. In addition, 45 symptomatic tomato samples collected in different tomato-growing areas of Sicily (Italy) were analysed by multiplex RT-PCR, singleplex RT-PCR and commercially available ELISA tests. Similar results were obtained using the RT-PCR techniques, with a higher sensitivity than ELISA, revealing a common occurrence of mixed infections and confirming the presence of these seven virus species in Italy.

  16. Highly Multiplexed RNA Aptamer Selection using a Microplate-based Microcolumn Device

    PubMed Central

    Reinholt, Sarah J.; Ozer, Abdullah; Lis, John T.; Craighead, Harold G.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a multiplexed RNA aptamer selection to 19 different targets simultaneously using a microcolumn-based device, MEDUSA (Microplate-based Enrichment Device Used for the Selection of Aptamers), as well as a modified selection process, that significantly reduce the time and reagents needed for selections. We exploited MEDUSA’s reconfigurable design between parallel and serially-connected microcolumns to enable the use of just 2 aliquots of starting library, and its 96-well microplate compatibility to enable the continued use of high-throughput techniques in downstream processes. Our modified selection protocol allowed us to perform the equivalent of a 10-cycle selection in the time it takes for 4 traditional selection cycles. Several aptamers were discovered with nanomolar dissociation constants. Furthermore, aptamers were identified that not only bound with high affinity, but also acted as inhibitors to significantly reduce the activity of their target protein, mouse decapping exoribonuclease (DXO). The aptamers resisted DXO’s exoribonuclease activity, and in studies monitoring DXO’s degradation of a 30-nucleotide substrate, less than 1 μM of aptamer demonstrated significant inhibition of DXO activity. This aptamer selection method using MEDUSA helps to overcome some of the major challenges with traditional aptamer selections, and provides a platform for high-throughput selections that lends itself to process automation. PMID:27432610

  17. Multiplex shRNA Screening of Germ Cell Development by in Vivo Transfection of Mouse Testis

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Nicholas R. Y.; Usmani, Abul R.; Yin, Yan; Ma, Liang; Conrad, Donald F.

    2016-01-01

    Spermatozoa are one of the few mammalian cell types that cannot be fully derived in vitro, severely limiting the application of modern genomic techniques to study germ cell biology. The current gold standard approach of characterizing single-gene knockout mice is slow as generation of each mutant line can take 6–9 months. Here, we describe an in vivo approach to rapid functional screening of germline genes based on a new nonsurgical, nonviral in vivo transfection method to deliver nucleic acids into testicular germ cells. By coupling multiplex transfection of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) constructs with pooled amplicon sequencing as a readout, we were able to screen many genes for spermatogenesis function in a quick and inexpensive experiment. We transfected nine mouse testes with a pilot pool of RNA interference (RNAi) against well-characterized genes to show that this system is highly reproducible and accurate. With a false negative rate of 18% and a false positive rate of 12%, this method has similar performance as other RNAi screens in the well-described Drosophila model system. In a separate experiment, we screened 26 uncharacterized genes computationally predicted to be essential for spermatogenesis and found numerous candidates for follow-up studies. Finally, as a control experiment, we performed a long-term selection screen in neuronal N2a cells, sampling shRNA frequencies at five sequential time points. By characterizing the effect of both libraries on N2a cells, we show that our screening results from testis are tissue-specific. Our calculations indicate that the current implementation of this approach could be used to screen thousands of protein-coding genes simultaneously in a single mouse testis. The experimental protocols and analysis scripts provided will enable other groups to use this procedure to study diverse aspects of germ cell biology ranging from epigenetics to cell physiology. This approach also has great promise as an applied tool for

  18. A multiplexed miRNA and transgene expression platform for simultaneous repression and expression of protein coding sequences.

    PubMed

    Seyhan, Attila A

    2016-01-01

    Knockdown of single or multiple gene targets by RNA interference (RNAi) is necessary to overcome escape mutants or isoform redundancy. It is also necessary to use multiple RNAi reagents to knockdown multiple targets. It is also desirable to express a transgene or positive regulatory elements and inhibit a target gene in a coordinated fashion. This study reports a flexible multiplexed RNAi and transgene platform using endogenous intronic primary microRNAs (pri-miRNAs) as a scaffold located in the green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a model for any functional transgene. The multiplexed intronic miRNA - GFP transgene platform was designed to co-express multiple small RNAs within the polycistronic cluster from a Pol II promoter at more moderate levels to reduce potential vector toxicity. The native intronic miRNAs are co-transcribed with a precursor GFP mRNA as a single transcript and presumably cleaved out of the precursor-(pre) mRNA by the RNA splicing machinery, spliceosome. The spliced intron with miRNA hairpins will be further processed into mature miRNAs or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) capable of triggering RNAi effects, while the ligated exons become a mature messenger RNA for the translation of the functional GFP protein. Data show that this approach led to robust RNAi-mediated silencing of multiple Renilla Luciferase (R-Luc)-tagged target genes and coordinated expression of functional GFP from a single transcript in transiently transfected HeLa cells. The results demonstrated that this design facilitates the coordinated expression of all mature miRNAs either as individual miRNAs or as multiple miRNAs and the associated protein. The data suggest that, it is possible to simultaneously deliver multiple negative (miRNA or shRNA) and positive (transgene) regulatory elements. Because many cellular processes require simultaneous repression and activation of downstream pathways, this approach offers a platform technology to achieve that dual manipulation efficiently

  19. Analysis of sensitivity and rapid hybridization of a multiplexed Microbial Detection Microarray

    DOE PAGES

    Thissen, James B.; McLoughlin, Kevin; Gardner, Shea; ...

    2014-06-01

    Microarrays have proven to be useful in rapid detection of many viruses and bacteria. Pathogen detection microarrays have been used to diagnose viral and bacterial infections in clinical samples and to evaluate the safety of biological drug materials. A multiplexed version of the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA) was developed and evaluated with minimum detectable concentrations for pure unamplified DNA viruses, along with mixtures of viral and bacterial DNA subjected to different whole genome amplification protocols. In addition the performance of the array was tested when hybridization time was reduced from 17 h to 1 h. The LLMDA wasmore » able to detect unamplified vaccinia virus DNA at a concentration of 14 fM, or 100,000 genome copies in 12 μL of sample. With amplification, positive identification was made with only 100 genome copies of input material. When tested against human stool samples from patients with acute gastroenteritis, the microarray detected common gastroenteritis viral and bacterial infections such as rotavirus and E. coli. Accurate detection was found but with a 4-fold drop in sensitivity for a 1 h compared to a 17 h hybridization. The array detected 2 ng (equivalent concentration of 15.6 fM) of labeled DNA from a virus with 1 h hybridization without any amplification, and was able to identify the components of a mixture of viruses and bacteria at species and in some cases strain level resolution. Sensitivity improved by three orders of magnitude with random whole genome amplification prior to hybridization; for instance, the array detected a DNA virus with only 20 fg or 100 genome copies as input. This multiplexed microarray is an efficient tool to analyze clinical and environmental samples for the presence of multiple viral and bacterial pathogens rapidly.« less

  20. Analysis of sensitivity and rapid hybridization of a multiplexed Microbial Detection Microarray

    SciTech Connect

    Thissen, James B.; McLoughlin, Kevin; Gardner, Shea; Gu, Pauline; Mabery, Shalini; Slezak, Tom; Jaing, Crystal

    2014-06-01

    Microarrays have proven to be useful in rapid detection of many viruses and bacteria. Pathogen detection microarrays have been used to diagnose viral and bacterial infections in clinical samples and to evaluate the safety of biological drug materials. A multiplexed version of the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA) was developed and evaluated with minimum detectable concentrations for pure unamplified DNA viruses, along with mixtures of viral and bacterial DNA subjected to different whole genome amplification protocols. In addition the performance of the array was tested when hybridization time was reduced from 17 h to 1 h. The LLMDA was able to detect unamplified vaccinia virus DNA at a concentration of 14 fM, or 100,000 genome copies in 12 μL of sample. With amplification, positive identification was made with only 100 genome copies of input material. When tested against human stool samples from patients with acute gastroenteritis, the microarray detected common gastroenteritis viral and bacterial infections such as rotavirus and E. coli. Accurate detection was found but with a 4-fold drop in sensitivity for a 1 h compared to a 17 h hybridization. The array detected 2 ng (equivalent concentration of 15.6 fM) of labeled DNA from a virus with 1 h hybridization without any amplification, and was able to identify the components of a mixture of viruses and bacteria at species and in some cases strain level resolution. Sensitivity improved by three orders of magnitude with random whole genome amplification prior to hybridization; for instance, the array detected a DNA virus with only 20 fg or 100 genome copies as input. This multiplexed microarray is an efficient tool to analyze clinical and environmental samples for the presence of multiple viral and bacterial pathogens rapidly.

  1. Analysis of sensitivity and rapid hybridization of a multiplexed Microbial Detection Microarray.

    PubMed

    Thissen, James B; McLoughlin, Kevin; Gardner, Shea; Gu, Pauline; Mabery, Shalini; Slezak, Tom; Jaing, Crystal

    2014-06-01

    Microarrays have proven to be useful in rapid detection of many viruses and bacteria. Pathogen detection microarrays have been used to diagnose viral and bacterial infections in clinical samples and to evaluate the safety of biological drug materials. A multiplexed version of the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA) was developed and evaluated with minimum detectable concentrations for pure unamplified DNA viruses, along with mixtures of viral and bacterial DNA subjected to different whole genome amplification protocols. In addition the performance of the array was tested when hybridization time was reduced from 17 h to 1h. The LLMDA was able to detect unamplified vaccinia virus DNA at a concentration of 14 fM, or 100,000 genome copies in 12 μL of sample. With amplification, positive identification was made with only 100 genome copies of input material. When tested against human stool samples from patients with acute gastroenteritis, the microarray detected common gastroenteritis viral and bacterial infections such as rotavirus and E. coli. Accurate detection was found but with a 4-fold drop in sensitivity for a 1h compared to a 17 h hybridization. The array detected 2 ng (equivalent concentration of 15.6 fM) of labeled DNA from a virus with 1h hybridization without any amplification, and was able to identify the components of a mixture of viruses and bacteria at species and in some cases strain level resolution. Sensitivity improved by three orders of magnitude with random whole genome amplification prior to hybridization; for instance, the array detected a DNA virus with only 20 fg or 100 genome copies as input. This multiplexed microarray is an efficient tool to analyze clinical and environmental samples for the presence of multiple viral and bacterial pathogens rapidly.

  2. Rapid and Sensitive PCR-Dipstick DNA Chromatography for Multiplex Analysis of the Oral Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Niwa, Kousuke; Kawase, Mitsuo; Tanner, Anne C. R.; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    A complex of species has been associated with dental caries under the ecological hypothesis. This study aimed to develop a rapid, sensitive PCR-dipstick DNA chromatography assay that could be read by eye for multiplex and semiquantitative analysis of plaque bacteria. Parallel oligonucleotides were immobilized on a dipstick strip for multiplex analysis of target DNA sequences of the caries-associated bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Scardovia wiggsiae, Actinomyces species, and Veillonella parvula. Streptavidin-coated blue-colored latex microspheres were to generate signal. Target DNA amplicons with an oligonucleotide-tagged terminus and a biotinylated terminus were coupled with latex beads through a streptavidin-biotin interaction and then hybridized with complementary oligonucleotides on the strip. The accumulation of captured latex beads on the test and control lines produced blue bands, enabling visual detection with the naked eye. The PCR-dipstick DNA chromatography detected quantities as low as 100 pg of DNA amplicons and demonstrated 10- to 1000-fold higher sensitivity than PCR-agarose gel electrophoresis, depending on the target bacterial species. Semiquantification of bacteria was performed by obtaining a series of chromatograms using serial 10-fold dilution of PCR-amplified DNA extracted from dental plaque samples. The assay time was less than 3 h. The semiquantification procedure revealed the relative amounts of each test species in dental plaque samples, indicating that this disposable device has great potential in analysis of microbial composition in the oral cavity and intestinal tract, as well as in point-of-care diagnosis of microbiota-associated diseases. PMID:25485279

  3. Effect of serum content and diluent selection on assay sensitivity and signal intensity in multiplex bead-based immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Pfleger, Christian; Schloot, Nanette; ter Veld, Frank

    2008-01-01

    In the Luminex multiplexed immunoassay system, complex samples such as human serum are diluted to minimize disturbing matrix effects with a specific diluent. This diluent has to imitate the sample matrix to allow interpolation and has to provide optimal cytokine-antibody binding for all cytokines. Because diluents influence multiplex immunoassay results, this paper explores several methods to determine the quality of a chosen diluent. Two commercially available diluents, DY997 and RD6 from R&D Systems, were compared in a 19-plex immunoassay setup from Luminex. Using diluent DY997, multiplex signal intensity was reduced by 55% when spiked samples (chemokines and cytokines at 100 pg/mL) contained 50% v/v human serum, compared to samples containing 25% v/v. When using diluent RD6, signal intensity was reduced by 20% when samples contained 50% v/v human serum, compared to 25% v/v human serum. Diluent DY997 showed decreasing multiplex assay sensitivity with increasing protein concentrations, but not as low as in the presence of 50% v/v human serum. In a 19-plex setup, this paper describes signal intensity, assay sensitivity and background signal levels in relation to the total volume-fraction of serum and protein concentration. For the determination of cytokines in serum samples with the multiplexed system Luminex the diluent RD6 seems more appropriate than the diluent DY997.

  4. Tobacco smoke exposure and multiplexed immunoglobulin E sensitization in children: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yao, T-C; Chang, S-W; Hua, M-C; Liao, S-L; Tsai, M-H; Lai, S-H; Tseng, Y-L; Yeh, K-W; Tsai, H-J; Huang, J-L

    2016-01-01

    Although there is evidence that exposure to tobacco smoke is harmful to children's respiratory health, the effects of tobacco smoke exposure on the regulation of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated immune responses to specific allergens remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between objectively assessed tobacco smoke exposure and specific IgE profiles for a broad spectrum of allergens in a population setting. Children aged 5-18 years (N = 1315) were assessed using serum cotinine measurement and microarray-based multiplexed detection of specific IgE against 40 allergens. Serum cotinine levels were positively associated with sensitization to foods (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.95; 95% CI: 1.59-15.34), cockroaches (AOR = 3.77; 95% CI: 1.49-9.51), and pollen (AOR = 2.84; 95% CI: 1.20-6.73) while the association was borderline significant for animals (AOR = 2.53; 95% CI: 0.92-6.93). No associations were found for sensitization against mites, mold, and latex. When considering the degree of allergic sensitization, serum cotinine levels were positively correlated to the number of sensitization to cockroaches (P = 0.004), pollen (P = 0.006), and foods (P < 0.001), with statistically significant positive dose-response relationships (all P < 0.01). Similar results were observed when summing up specific IgE concentrations for the aforementioned allergen categories. The association between tobacco smoke exposure and IgE sensitization to environmental allergens varies for different allergens among children. This study demonstrates that elevated serum cotinine levels are significantly associated with IgE sensitization to cockroaches, grass pollen, and certain foods, with potential dose-dependent relationships. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Engineered nanoconstructs for the multiplexed and sensitive detection of high-risk pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Youngmin; Kim, Ji-Eun; Jeong, Yoon; Lee, Kwan Hong; Hwang, Jangsun; Hong, Jongwook; Park, Hansoo; Choi, Jonghoon

    2016-01-01

    Many countries categorize the causative agents of severe infectious diseases as high-risk pathogens. Given their extreme infectivity and potential to be used as biological weapons, a rapid and sensitive method for detection of high-risk pathogens (e.g., Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, and Vaccinia virus) is highly desirable. Here, we report the construction of a novel detection platform comprising two units: (1) magnetic beads separately conjugated with multiple capturing antibodies against four different high-risk pathogens for simple and rapid isolation, and (2) genetically engineered apoferritin nanoparticles conjugated with multiple quantum dots and detection antibodies against four different high-risk pathogens for signal amplification. For each high-risk pathogen, we demonstrated at least 10-fold increase in sensitivity compared to traditional lateral flow devices that utilize enzyme-based detection methods. Multiplexed detection of high-risk pathogens in a sample was also successful by using the nanoconstructs harboring the dye molecules with fluorescence at different wavelengths. We ultimately envision the use of this novel nanoprobe detection platform in future applications that require highly sensitive on-site detection of high-risk pathogens.

  6. Applied genomics: data mining reveals species-specific malaria diagnostic targets more sensitive than 18S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Demas, Allison; Oberstaller, Jenna; DeBarry, Jeremy; Lucchi, Naomi W; Srinivasamoorthy, Ganesh; Sumari, Deborah; Kabanywanyi, Abdunoor M; Villegas, Leopoldo; Escalante, Ananias A; Kachur, S Patrick; Barnwell, John W; Peterson, David S; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Kissinger, Jessica C

    2011-07-01

    Accurate and rapid diagnosis of malaria infections is crucial for implementing species-appropriate treatment and saving lives. Molecular diagnostic tools are the most accurate and sensitive method of detecting Plasmodium, differentiating between Plasmodium species, and detecting subclinical infections. Despite available whole-genome sequence data for Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, the majority of PCR-based methods still rely on the 18S rRNA gene targets. Historically, this gene has served as the best target for diagnostic assays. However, it is limited in its ability to detect mixed infections in multiplex assay platforms without the use of nested PCR. New diagnostic targets are needed. Ideal targets will be species specific, highly sensitive, and amenable to both single-step and multiplex PCRs. We have mined the genomes of P. falciparum and P. vivax to identify species-specific, repetitive sequences that serve as new PCR targets for the detection of malaria. We show that these targets (Pvr47 and Pfr364) exist in 14 to 41 copies and are more sensitive than 18S rRNA when utilized in a single-step PCR. Parasites are routinely detected at levels of 1 to 10 parasites/μl. The reaction can be multiplexed to detect both species in a single reaction. We have examined 7 P. falciparum strains and 91 P. falciparum clinical isolates from Tanzania and 10 P. vivax strains and 96 P. vivax clinical isolates from Venezuela, and we have verified a sensitivity and specificity of ∼100% for both targets compared with a nested 18S rRNA approach. We show that bioinformatics approaches can be successfully applied to identify novel diagnostic targets and improve molecular methods for pathogen detection. These novel targets provide a powerful alternative molecular diagnostic method for the detection of P. falciparum and P. vivax in conventional or multiplex PCR platforms.

  7. Lateral shifting sensitivity of a ground glass for holographic encryption and multiplexing using phase conjugate readout algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ching-Cherng; Su, Wei-Chia; Wang, Bor; Chiou, Arthur E. T.

    2001-05-01

    An encryption-selectable holographic storage algorithm with use of random phase encoding and angular multiplexing is proposed and demonstrated. The pattern for storage can be encrypted and multiplexed with use of a ground glass, which is also used to decrypt the pattern. A phase conjugation of the reference beam is used to generate phase conjugate waves of the stored patterns. The lateral shifting sensitivity of the ground glass used to decrypt the information is theoretically analyzed and is compared with experimental measurement. The shifting tolerance for various ground glasses under imperfection phase reconstruction in the decryption processing is studied.

  8. High sensitive immunoassay for multiplex mycotoxin detection with photonic crystal microsphere suspension array.

    PubMed

    Deng, Guozhe; Xu, Kun; Sun, Yue; Chen, Yu; Zheng, Tiesong; Li, Jianlin

    2013-03-05

    A novel, sensitive, and high throughput competitive immunoassay for multiplex mycotoxins was established by immobilizing the artificial antigens (Ags) of mycotoxins on the surfaces of three kinds of silica photonic crystal microsphere (SPCM) suspension arrays. The SPCMs were encoded by their reflectance peak positions. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1), and citrinin (CIT) spiked in the cereals were extracted, and the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled antibodies (Abs) of these mycotoxins were added into the centrifuge tube which contained the SPCMs of the modified artificial antigens (Ags). The fluorescence signal was collected by an array fluorescent scanner. The limit of detection (LOD) was as low as 0.5, 1, and 0.8 pg/mL for AFB1, FB1, and CIT, respectively. The new method provided a wide linear detection range from 0.001 to 10, 0.001 to 10, and 0.001 to 1 ng/mL for AFB1, FB1, and CIT, respectively. The mean recovery rates are in range of 74.7 ± 4.0% to 127.9 ± 4.4% for the three mycotoxins in corn, peanuts, and wheat. The developed method for mycotoxins was used to assay the AFB1, FB1, and CIT level in 10 naturally contaminated cereal samples, and the results of detection were in agreement with that of a classic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. This method saves a large amount of reagents (10 μL volume) and detection time (<3 h) for multiplex mycotoxin assay.

  9. Rapid, sensitive and real-time multiplexing platform for the analysis of protein and nucleic-acid biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Falconnet, Didier; She, Joseph; Tornay, Raphaël; Leimgruber, Elisa; Bernasconi, David; Lagopoulos, Lucienne; Renaud, Philippe; Demierre, Nicolas; van den Bogaard, Patrick

    2015-02-03

    We describe a multiplexing technology, named Evalution, based on novel digitally encoded microparticles in microfluidic channels. Quantitative multiplexing is becoming increasingly important for research and routine clinical diagnostics, but fast, easy-to-use, flexible and highly reproducible technologies are needed to leverage the advantages of multiplexing. The presented technology has been tailored to ensure (i) short assay times and high reproducibility thanks to reaction-limited binding regime, (ii) dynamic control of assay conditions and real-time binding monitoring allowing optimization of multiple parameters within a single assay run, (iii) compatibility with various immunoassay formats such as coflowing the samples and detection antibodies simultaneously and hence simplifying workflows, (iv) analyte quantification based on initial binding rates leading to increased system dynamic range and (v) high sensitivity via enhanced fluorescence collection. These key features are demonstrated with assays for proteins and nucleic acids showing the versatility of this technology.

  10. Targeted Deposition of Antibodies on a Multiplex CMOS Microarray and Optimization of a Sensitive Immunoassay Using Electrochemical Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-19

    sandwich immunoassay used a capture Ab adsorbed to the Ppy and a reporter Ab labeled for fluorescence detection or ECD, and results from these methods of...Targeted Deposition of Antibodies on a Multiplex CMOS Microarray and Optimization of a Sensitive Immunoassay Using Electrochemical Detection John...Sensitive Immunoassay Using Electrochemical Detection 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  11. CEL-Seq: single-cell RNA-Seq by multiplexed linear amplification.

    PubMed

    Hashimshony, Tamar; Wagner, Florian; Sher, Noa; Yanai, Itai

    2012-09-27

    High-throughput sequencing has allowed for unprecedented detail in gene expression analyses, yet its efficient application to single cells is challenged by the small starting amounts of RNA. We have developed CEL-Seq, a method for overcoming this limitation by barcoding and pooling samples before linearly amplifying mRNA with the use of one round of in vitro transcription. We show that CEL-Seq gives more reproducible, linear, and sensitive results than a PCR-based amplification method. We demonstrate the power of this method by studying early C. elegans embryonic development at single-cell resolution. Differential distribution of transcripts between sister cells is seen as early as the two-cell stage embryo, and zygotic expression in the somatic cell lineages is enriched for transcription factors. The robust transcriptome quantifications enabled by CEL-Seq will be useful for transcriptomic analyses of complex tissues containing populations of diverse cell types.

  12. Genome-wide mRNA profiling and multiplex quantitative RT-PCR for forensic body fluid identification.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Min; Park, Seong-Yeon; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Kang, Tae-Wook; Park, Jong-Lyul; Woo, Kwang-Man; Kim, Jong-Sik; Lee, Han-Chul; Kim, Seon-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    In forensic science, identifying a tissue where a forensic specimen was originated is one of the principal challenges. Messenger RNA (mRNA) profile clearly reveals tissue-specific gene expression patterns that many attempts have been made to use RNA for forensic tissue identification. To systematically investigate the body-fluid-specific expression of mRNAs and find novel mRNA markers for forensic body fluid identification, we performed DNA microarray experiment with 24 Korean body fluid samples. Shannon entropy and Q-values were calculated for each gene, and 137 body-fluid-specific candidate genes were selected. By applying more stringent criteria, we further selected 28 candidate genes and validated them by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. As a result, we suggest a novel combination of four body-fluid-specific mRNA makers: PPBP for blood, FDCSP for saliva, MSMB for semen and MSLN for vaginal secretion. Multiplex qRT-PCR assay was designed using the four mRNA markers and DNA/RNA co-extraction method was tested for forensic use. This study will provide a thorough examination of body-fluid-specifically expressed mRNAs, which will enlarge the possibility of practical use of RNA for forensic purpose.

  13. Respiratory virus multiplex RT-PCR assay sensitivities and influence factors in hospitalized children with lower respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jikui; Ma, Zhuoya; Huang, Wenbo; Li, Chengrong; Wang, Heping; Zheng, Yuejie; Zhou, Rong; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2013-04-01

    Multiplex RT-PCR assays have been widely used tools for detection and differentiation of a panel of respiratory viral pathogens. In this study, we evaluated the Qiagen ResPlex II V2.0 kit and explored factors influencing its sensitivity. Nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) specimens were prospectively collected from pediatric inpatients with lower respiratory tract infections at the time of admission in the Shenzhen Children's Hospital from May 2009 to April 2010. Total nucleic acids were extracted using the EZ1 system (Qiagen, Germany) and 17 respiratory viruses and genotypes including influenza A virus (FluA), FluB, parainfluenza virus 1 (PIV1), PIV2, PIV3, PIV4, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), rhinoviruses (RhV), enteroviruses (EnV), human bocaviruses (hBoV), adenoviruses (AdV), four coronaviruses (229E, OC43, NL63 and HKU1), and FluA 2009 pandemic H1N1(H1N1-p) were detected and identified by the ResPlex II kit. In parallel, 16 real-time TaqMan quantitative RT-PCR assays were used to quantitatively detect each virus except for RhV. Influenza and parainfluenza viral cultures were also performed. Among the total 438 NPS specimens collected during the study period, one or more viral pathogens were detected in 274 (62.6%) and 201(45.9%) specimens by monoplex TaqMan RT-PCR and multiplex ResPlex, respectively. When results from monoplex PCR or cell culture were used as the reference standard, the multiplex PCR possessed specificities of 92.9-100.0%. The sensitivity of multiplex PCR for PIV3, hMPV, PIV1 and BoV were 73.1%, 70%, 66.7% and 55.6%, respectively, while low sensitivities (11.1%-40.0%) were observed for FluA, EnV, OC43, RSV and H1N1. Among the seven viruses/genotypes detected with higher frequencies, multiplex PCR sensitivities were correlated significantly with viral loads determined by the TaqMan RT-PCR in FluA, H1N1-p and RSV (p=0.011-0.000). The Qiagen ResPlex II multiplex RT-PCR kit possesses excellent specificity for simultaneous

  14. Quantitative Evaluation of Sensitivity and Selectivity of Multiplex NanoSPR Biosensor Assays

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chenxu; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    A new functionalization procedure was developed to replace cyltrimethylammoniumbromide coating on gold nanorods (GNRs) fabricated through seed-mediated growth with chemically active alkanethiols; antibodies were then attached to the GNRs to yield gold nanorod molecular probes (GNrMPs). The functionalization procedure was shown to minimize nonspecific binding. Multiplex sensing was demonstrated for three targets (goat anti-human IgG, goat anti-rabbit IgG, and goat anti-mouse IgG) through the distinct response of the plasmon spectra of GNrMPs to binding events. Quantification of the plasmonic binding events and estimation of ligand binding kinetics tethered to these nanoscale structures was also demonstrated through a mathematical approach. Evaluation of the experimental and theoretical data yields an affinity constant Ka = 1.34 × 107 M−1, which was in agreement with the IgG-antiIgG binding affinity reported in the literature. The GNrMP sensors were found to be highly specific and sensitive with the dynamic response in the range between 10−9 M and 10−6 M. The limit of detection of GNrMPs was found to be in the low nanomolar range, and is a function of the binding affinity: for a higher probe-target affinity pair, the limit of detection can be expected to reach femto molar levels. This technique can play a key role in developing tunable sensors for sensitive and precise monitoring of biological interactions. PMID:17660314

  15. Development of a multiplex PCR assay based on the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer for the detection and identification of rodent Pasteurellaceae.

    PubMed

    Benga, Laurentiu; Benten, W Peter M; Engelhardt, Eva; Bleich, André; Gougoula, Christina; Sager, Martin

    2013-11-01

    The rodents Pasteurellaceae have to be excluded from the specified pathogen free experimental animal facilities. Despite the biological and economic importance of Pasteurellaceae in relation to experimental animals just a few molecular based methods are available for their detection and identification. The aim of the present investigation was to develop a multiplex PCR assay allowing detection of all rodent Pasteurellaceae and identification of [Pasteurella] pneumotropica biotype Jawetz, [P.] pneumotropica biotype Heyl and [Actinobacillus] muris, as the most prevalent members of the group. For this, a Pasteurellaceae common forward primer located on the 16S rRNA gene was used in conjunction with four different reverse primers specific for [P.] pneumotropica biotype Jawetz, [P.] pneumotropica biotype Heyl, [A.] muris and a common reverse primer for all rodent Pasteurellaceae, all targeting the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. The performance characteristics of the assay were tested against 125 Pasteurellaceae isolates belonging to eleven different species and including 34 strains of [P.] pneumotropica biotype Jawetz, 44 strains of [P.] pneumotropica biotype Heyl and 37 strains of [A.] muris. Additionally, eight other mouse associated bacterial species which could pose a diagnostic problem were included. The assay showed 100% sensitivity and specificity. Identification of the clinical isolates was validated by ITS profiling and when necessary by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This multiplex PCR represents the first molecular tool able to detect and differentiate in a single assay among the Pasteurellaceae found in laboratory mouse and may become a reliable alternative to the present diagnostic methods. © 2013.

  16. Simultaneous and Sensitive Detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV) Drug Resistant Genotypes by Multiplex Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Giovanina M.; Marushchak, Tatyana A.; Koth, Andrew; Vaz, Louise E.; Dross, Sandra E.; Beck, Ingrid A.; Frenkel, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) is a highly specific and relatively simple method to detect point mutations encoding HIV-1 drug-resistance, which can detect mutants comprising ≥2–5% of the viral population. Nevirapine (NVP), tenofovir (TDF) and lamivudine (3TC) are antiretroviral drugs (ARV) used worldwide for treatment of HIV infection and prevention of mother-to-child-transmission. Adapting the OLA to detect multiple mutations associated with HIV resistance to these ARV simultaneously would provide an efficient tool to monitor drug resistance in resource-limited settings. Known proportions of mutant and wild-type plasmids were used to optimize a multiplex OLA for detection of K103N, Y181C, K65R, and M184V in HIV subtypes B and C, and V106M and G190A in subtype C. Simultaneous detection of two mutations was impaired if probes annealed to overlapping regions of the viral template, but was sensitive to ≥2–5% when testing codons using non-overlapping probes. PCR products from HIV-subtype B and C-infected individuals were tested by multiplex-OLA and compared to results of single-codon OLA. Multiplex-OLA detected mutations at codon pairs 103/181, 106/190 and 65/184 reliably when compared to singleplex-OLA in clinical specimens. The multiplex-OLA is sensitive and specific and reduces the cost of screening for NVP, TDF and/or 3TC resistance. PMID:23660583

  17. Multiplexed and programmable regulation of gene networks with an integrated RNA and CRISPR/Cas toolkit in human cells.

    PubMed

    Nissim, Lior; Perli, Samuel D; Fridkin, Alexandra; Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Lu, Timothy K

    2014-05-22

    RNA-based regulation and CRISPR/Cas transcription factors (CRISPR-TFs) have the potential to be integrated for the tunable modulation of gene networks. A major limitation of this methodology is that guide RNAs (gRNAs) for CRISPR-TFs can only be expressed from RNA polymerase III promoters in human cells, limiting their use for conditional gene regulation. We present new strategies that enable expression of functional gRNAs from RNA polymerase II promoters and multiplexed production of proteins and gRNAs from a single transcript in human cells. We use multiple RNA regulatory strategies, including RNA-triple-helix structures, introns, microRNAs, and ribozymes, with Cas9-based CRISPR-TFs and Cas6/Csy4-based RNA processing. Using these tools, we efficiently modulate endogenous promoters and implement tunable synthetic circuits, including multistage cascades and RNA-dependent networks that can be rewired with Csy4 to achieve complex behaviors. This toolkit can be used for programming scalable gene circuits and perturbing endogenous networks for biology, therapeutic, and synthetic biology applications.

  18. In vivo mutagenesis of miRNA gene families using a scalable multiplexed CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease system

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Anand; Hill-Teran, Guillermina; Moro, Albertomaria; Ristori, Emma; Kasper, Dionna M.; A. Roden, Christine; Lu, Jun; Nicoli, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    A large number of microRNAs (miRNAs) are grouped into families derived from the same phylogenetic ancestors. miRNAs within a family often share the same physiological functions despite differences in their primary sequences, secondary structures, or chromosomal locations. Consequently, the generation of animal models to analyze the activity of miRNA families is extremely challenging. Using zebrafish as a model system, we successfully provide experimental evidence that a large number of miRNAs can be simultaneously mutated to abrogate the activity of an entire miRNA family. We show that injection of the Cas9 nuclease and two, four, ten, and up to twenty-four multiplexed single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) can induce mutations in 90% of the miRNA genomic sequences analyzed. We performed a survey of these 45 mutations in 10 miRNA genes, analyzing the impact of our mutagenesis strategy on the processing of each miRNA both computationally and in vivo. Our results offer an effective approach to mutate and study the activity of miRNA families and pave the way for further analysis on the function of complex miRNA families in higher multicellular organisms. PMID:27572667

  19. Development of a Multiplex PCR Method for Detection of the Genes Encoding 16S rRNA, Coagulase, Methicillin Resistance and Enterotoxins in Staphylococcus aureus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A multiplex PCR method was developed for simultaneous detection of the genes encoding methicillin resistance (mecA), staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B and C (sea, seb and sec), coagulase (coa) and 16S rRNA. The primers for amplification of the 16S rRNA gene were specific for Staphylococcus spp., and ...

  20. High-efficiency CRISPR/Cas9 multiplex gene editing using the glycine tRNA-processing system-based strategy in maize.

    PubMed

    Qi, Weiwei; Zhu, Tong; Tian, Zhongrui; Li, Chaobin; Zhang, Wei; Song, Rentao

    2016-08-11

    CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing strategy has been applied to a variety of species and the tRNA-processing system has been used to compact multiple gRNAs into one synthetic gene for manipulating multiple genes in rice. We optimized and introduced the multiplex gene editing strategy based on the tRNA-processing system into maize. Maize glycine-tRNA was selected to design multiple tRNA-gRNA units for the simultaneous production of numerous gRNAs under the control of one maize U6 promoter. We designed three gRNAs for simplex editing and three multiple tRNA-gRNA units for multiplex editing. The results indicate that this system not only increased the number of targeted sites but also enhanced mutagenesis efficiency in maize. Additionally, we propose an advanced sequence selection of gRNA spacers for relatively more efficient and accurate chromosomal fragment deletion, which is important for complete abolishment of gene function especially long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Our results also indicated that up to four tRNA-gRNA units in one expression cassette design can still work in maize. The examples reported here demonstrate the utility of the tRNA-processing system-based strategy as an efficient multiplex genome editing tool to enhance maize genetic research and breeding.

  1. Sensitive Detection of Thirteen Bacterial Vaginosis-Associated Agents Using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Malaguti, Natália; Bahls, Larissa Danielle; Uchimura, Nelson Shozo; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by a polymicrobial proliferation of anaerobic bacteria and depletion of lactobacilli, which are components of natural vaginal microbiota. Currently, there are limited conventional methods for BV diagnosis, and these methods are time-consuming, expensive, and rarely allow for the detection of more than one agent simultaneously. Therefore, we conceived and validated a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) assay for the simultaneous screening of thirteen bacterial vaginosis-associated agents (BV-AAs) related to symptomatic BV: Gardnerella vaginalis, Mobiluncus curtisii, Mobiluncus mulieris, Bacteroides fragilis, Mycoplasma hominis, Atopobium vaginae, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Megasphaera type I, Clostridia-like bacteria vaginosis-associated bacteria (BVABs) 1, 2, and 3, Sneathia sanguinegens, and Mycoplasma genitalium. The overall validation parameters of M-PCR compared to single PCR (sPCR) were extremely high, including agreement of 99.1% and sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values of 100.0%, negative predictive value of 97.0%, accuracy of 99.3%, and agreement with Nugent results of 100.0%. The prevalence of BV-AAs was very high (72.6%), and simultaneous agents were detected in 53.0%, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the M-PCR assay. Therefore, the M-PCR assay has great potential to impact BV diagnostic methods in vaginal samples and diminish associated complications in the near future.

  2. High sensitivity automated multiplexed immunoassays using photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence microfluidic system.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yafang; Tang, Tiantian; Xu, Haisheng; Zhu, Chenqi; Cunningham, Brian T

    2015-11-15

    We demonstrate a platform that integrates photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence (PCEF) detection of a surface-based microspot fluorescent assay with a microfluidic cartridge to achieve simultaneous goals of high analytic sensitivity (single digit pg/mL), high selectivity, low sample volume, and assay automation. The PC surface, designed to provide optical resonances for the excitation wavelength and emission wavelength of Cyanines 5 (Cy5), was used to amplify the fluorescence signal intensity measured from a multiplexed biomarker microarray. The assay system is comprised of a plastic microfluidic cartridge for holding the PC and an assay automation system that provides a leak-free fluid interface during introduction of a sequence of fluids under computer control. Through the use of the assay automation system and the PC embedded within the microfluidic cartridge, we demonstrate pg/mL-level limits of detection by performing representative biomarker assays for interleukin 3 (IL3) and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α). The results are consistent with limits of detection achieved without the use of the microfluidic device with the exception that coefficients of variability from spot-to-spot are substantially lower than those obtained by performing assays with manual manipulation of assay liquids. The system's capabilities are compatible with the goal of diagnostic instruments for point-of-care settings.

  3. High Sensitivity Automated Multiplexed Immunoassays Using Photonic Crystal Enhanced Fluorescence Microfluidic System

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yafang; Tang, Tiantian; Xu, Haisheng; Zhu, Chenqi; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a platform that integrates photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence (PCEF) detection of a surface-based microspot fluorescent assay with a microfluidic cartridge to achieve simultaneous goals of high analytic sensitivity (single digit pg/mL), high selectivity, low sample volume, and assay automation. The PC surface, designed to provide optical resonances for the excitation wavelength and emission wavelength of Cyanines 5 (Cy5), was used to amplify the fluorescence signal intensity measured from a multiplexed biomarker microarray. The assay system is comprised of a plastic microfluidic cartridge for holding the PC and an assay automation system that provides a leak-free fluid interface during introduction of a sequence of fluids under computer control. Through the use of the assay automation system and the PC embedded within the microfluidic cartridge, we demonstrate pg/mL-level limits of detection by performing representative biomarker assays for interleukin 3 (IL3) and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α). The results are consistent with limits of detection achieved without the use of the microfluidic device with the exception that coefficients of variability from spot-to-spot are substantially lower than those obtained by performing assays with manual manipulation of assay liquids. The system’s capabilities are compatible with the goal of diagnostic instruments for point-of-care settings. PMID:26043313

  4. A multiplexed TOF and DOI capable PET detector using a binary position sensitive network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniosek, M. F.; Cates, J. W.; Levin, C. S.

    2016-11-01

    Time of flight (TOF) and depth of interaction (DOI) capabilities can significantly enhance the quality and uniformity of positron emission tomography (PET) images. Many proposed TOF/DOI PET detectors require complex readout systems using additional photosensors, active cooling, or waveform sampling. This work describes a high performance, low complexity, room temperature TOF/DOI PET module. The module uses multiplexed timing channels to significantly reduce the electronic readout complexity of the PET detector while maintaining excellent timing, energy, and position resolution. DOI was determined using a two layer light sharing scintillation crystal array with a novel binary position sensitive network. A 20 mm effective thickness LYSO crystal array with four 3 mm  ×  3 mm silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) read out by a single timing channel, one energy channel and two position channels achieved a full width half maximum (FWHM) coincidence time resolution of 180  ±  2 ps with 10 mm of DOI resolution and 11% energy resolution. With sixteen 3 mm  ×  3 mm SiPMs read out by a single timing channel, one energy channel and four position channels a coincidence time resolution 204  ±  1 ps was achieved with 10 mm of DOI resolution and 15% energy resolution. The methods presented here could significantly simplify the construction of high performance TOF/DOI PET detectors.

  5. A multiplexed TOF and DOI capable PET detector using a binary position sensitive network.

    PubMed

    Bieniosek, M F; Cates, J W; Levin, C S

    2016-11-07

    Time of flight (TOF) and depth of interaction (DOI) capabilities can significantly enhance the quality and uniformity of positron emission tomography (PET) images. Many proposed TOF/DOI PET detectors require complex readout systems using additional photosensors, active cooling, or waveform sampling. This work describes a high performance, low complexity, room temperature TOF/DOI PET module. The module uses multiplexed timing channels to significantly reduce the electronic readout complexity of the PET detector while maintaining excellent timing, energy, and position resolution. DOI was determined using a two layer light sharing scintillation crystal array with a novel binary position sensitive network. A 20 mm effective thickness LYSO crystal array with four 3 mm  ×  3 mm silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) read out by a single timing channel, one energy channel and two position channels achieved a full width half maximum (FWHM) coincidence time resolution of 180  ±  2 ps with 10 mm of DOI resolution and 11% energy resolution. With sixteen 3 mm  ×  3 mm SiPMs read out by a single timing channel, one energy channel and four position channels a coincidence time resolution 204  ±  1 ps was achieved with 10 mm of DOI resolution and 15% energy resolution. The methods presented here could significantly simplify the construction of high performance TOF/DOI PET detectors.

  6. Family of enhanced photoacoustic imaging agents for high-sensitivity and multiplexing studies in living mice.

    PubMed

    de la Zerda, Adam; Bodapati, Sunil; Teed, Robert; May, Salomón Y; Tabakman, Scott M; Liu, Zhuang; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Dai, Hongjie; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2012-06-26

    Photoacoustic imaging is a unique modality that overcomes to a great extent the resolution and depth limitations of optical imaging while maintaining relatively high contrast. However, since many diseases will not manifest an endogenous photoacoustic contrast, it is essential to develop exogenous photoacoustic contrast agents that can target diseased tissue(s). Here we present a family of novel photoacoustic contrast agents that are based on the binding of small optical dyes to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT-dye). We synthesized five different SWNT-dye contrast agents using different optical dyes, creating five "flavors" of SWNT-dye nanoparticles. In particular, SWNTs that were coated with either QSY(21) (SWNT-QSY) or indocyanine green (SWNT-ICG) exhibited over 100-times higher photoacoustic contrast in living animals compared to plain SWNTs, leading to subnanomolar sensitivities. We then conjugated the SWNT-dye conjugates with cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp peptides to molecularly target the α(v)β(3) integrin, which is associated with tumor angiogenesis. Intravenous administration of these tumor-targeted imaging agents to tumor-bearing mice showed significantly higher photoacoustic signal in the tumor than in mice injected with the untargeted contrast agent. Finally, we were able to spectrally separate the photoacoustic signals of SWNT-QSY and SWNT-ICG in living animals injected subcutaneously with both particles in the same location, opening the possibility for multiplexing in vivo studies.

  7. Sensitive Detection of Thirteen Bacterial Vaginosis-Associated Agents Using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Malaguti, Natália; Bahls, Larissa Danielle; Uchimura, Nelson Shozo; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by a polymicrobial proliferation of anaerobic bacteria and depletion of lactobacilli, which are components of natural vaginal microbiota. Currently, there are limited conventional methods for BV diagnosis, and these methods are time-consuming, expensive, and rarely allow for the detection of more than one agent simultaneously. Therefore, we conceived and validated a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) assay for the simultaneous screening of thirteen bacterial vaginosis-associated agents (BV-AAs) related to symptomatic BV: Gardnerella vaginalis, Mobiluncus curtisii, Mobiluncus mulieris, Bacteroides fragilis, Mycoplasma hominis, Atopobium vaginae, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Megasphaera type I, Clostridia-like bacteria vaginosis-associated bacteria (BVABs) 1, 2, and 3, Sneathia sanguinegens, and Mycoplasma genitalium. The overall validation parameters of M-PCR compared to single PCR (sPCR) were extremely high, including agreement of 99.1% and sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values of 100.0%, negative predictive value of 97.0%, accuracy of 99.3%, and agreement with Nugent results of 100.0%. The prevalence of BV-AAs was very high (72.6%), and simultaneous agents were detected in 53.0%, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the M-PCR assay. Therefore, the M-PCR assay has great potential to impact BV diagnostic methods in vaginal samples and diminish associated complications in the near future. PMID:26078959

  8. Evaluating Robustness and Sensitivity of the NanoString Technologies nCounter Platform to Enable Multiplexed Gene Expression Analysis of Clinical Samples.

    PubMed

    Veldman-Jones, Margaret H; Brant, Roz; Rooney, Claire; Geh, Catherine; Emery, Hollie; Harbron, Chris G; Wappett, Mark; Sharpe, Alan; Dymond, Michael; Barrett, J Carl; Harrington, Elizabeth A; Marshall, Gayle

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of clinical trial specimens such as formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue for molecular mechanisms of disease progression or drug response is often challenging and limited to a few markers at a time. This has led to the increasing importance of highly multiplexed assays that enable profiling of many biomarkers within a single assay. Methods for gene expression analysis have undergone major advances in biomedical research, but obtaining a robust dataset from low-quality RNA samples, such as those isolated from FFPE tissue, remains a challenge. Here, we provide a detailed evaluation of the NanoString Technologies nCounter platform, which provides a direct digital readout of up to 800 mRNA targets simultaneously. We tested this system by examining a broad set of human clinical tissues for a range of technical variables, including sensitivity and limit of detection to varying RNA quantity and quality, reagent performance over time, variability between instruments, the impact of the number of fields of view sampled, and differences between probe sequence locations and overlapping genes across CodeSets. This study demonstrates that Nanostring offers several key advantages, including sensitivity, reproducibility, technical robustness, and utility for clinical application.

  9. A sensitive multiplex real-time PCR panel for rapid diagnosis of viruses associated with porcine respiratory and reproductive disorders.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haigang; Rao, Pinbin; Jiang, Yonghou; Opriessnig, Tanja; Yang, Zongqi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a multiplex real-time PCR panel using TaqMan probes for the detection and differentiation of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus North American type (PRRSV-NA), pseudorabies virus (PRV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine parvovirus type 1 (PPV1) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Specific primer and probe combinations for PCV2, PRRSV, PRV, CSFV, PPV1 and JEV were selected within the conserved region of each viral genome. The multiplex real-time PCR panel which was run in two separate tubes was capable of specific detection of the six selected pig viruses, without cross-reactions with other non-targeted pig viruses. The detection limit of the assays was 10 copies/μL for PCV2, PRV, CSFV and PRRSV and 100 copies/μL for PPV and JEV. The two-tube multiplex real-time PCR panel showed 99.2% concordance with conventional PCR assays on 118 field samples. Overall, the multiplex real-time PCR panel provides a fast, specific, and sensitive diagnostic tool for detection of multiple viral pathogens in pigs and will be useful not only for diagnostics, or ecological, epidemiological and pathogenesis studies, but also for investigating host/virus or virus/virus interactions, particularly during coinfections.

  10. Supramolecular spectrally encoded microgels with double strand probes for absolute and direct miRNA fluorescence detection at high sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Causa, Filippo; Aliberti, Anna; Cusano, Angela M; Battista, Edmondo; Netti, Paolo A

    2015-02-11

    We present novel microgels as a particle-based suspension array for direct and absolute microRNA (miRNA) detection. The microgels feature a flexible molecular architecture, antifouling properties, and enhanced sensitivity with a large dynamic range of detection. Specifically, they possess a core-shell molecular architecture with two different fluorescent dyes for multiplex spectral analyses and are endowed with a fluorescent probe for miRNA detection. Encoding and detection fluorescence signals are distinguishable by nonoverlapping emission spectra. Tunable fluorescence probe conjugation and emission confinement on single microgels allow for ultrasensitive miRNA detection. Indeed, the suspension array has high selectivity and sensitivity with absolute quantification, a detection limit of 10(-15) M, a dynamic range from 10(-9) to 10(-15) M, and higher accuracy than qRT-PCR. The antifouling properties of the microgels also permit the direct measurement of miRNAs in serum, without sample pretreatment or target amplification. A multiplexed assay has been tested for a set of miRNAs chosen as cancer biomarkers.

  11. Highly multiplex and sensitive SNP genotyping method using a three-color fluorescence-labeled ligase detection reaction coupled with conformation-sensitive CE.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woong; Jung, Gyoo Yeol

    2017-02-01

    For the development of clinically useful genotyping methods for SNPs, accuracy, simplicity, sensitivity, and cost-effectiveness are the most important criteria. Among the methods currently being developed for SNP genotyping technology, the ligation-dependent method is considered the simplest for clinical diagnosis. However, sensitivity is not guaranteed by the ligation reaction alone, and analysis of multiple targets is limited by the detection method. Although CE is an attractive alternative to error-prone hybridization-based detection, the multiplex assay process is complicated because of the size-based DNA separation principle. In this study, we employed the ligase detection reaction coupled with high-resolution CE-SSCP to develop an accurate, sensitive, and simple multiplex genotyping method. Ligase detection reaction could amplify ligated products through recurrence of denaturation and ligation reaction, and SSCP could separate these products according to each different structure conformation without size variation. Thus, simple and sensitive SNP analysis can be performed using this method involving the use of similar-sized probes, without complex probe design steps. We found that this method could not only accurately discriminate base mismatches but also quantitatively detect 37 SNPs of the tp53 gene, which are used as targets in multiplex analysis, using three-color fluorescence-labeled probes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Simultaneous and sensitive detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) drug resistant genotypes by multiplex oligonucleotide ligation assay.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Giovanina M; Vlaskin, Tatyana A; Koth, Andrew; Vaz, Louise E; Dross, Sandra E; Beck, Ingrid A; Frenkel, Lisa M

    2013-09-01

    Oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) is a highly specific and relatively simple method to detect point mutations encoding HIV-1 drug-resistance, which can detect mutants comprising ≥2-5% of the viral population. Nevirapine (NVP), tenofovir (TDF) and lamivudine (3TC) are antiretroviral (ARV) drugs used worldwide for treatment of HIV infection and prevention of mother-to-child-transmission. Adapting the OLA to detect multiple mutations associated with HIV resistance to these ARV simultaneously would provide an efficient tool to monitor drug resistance in resource-limited settings. Known proportions of mutant and wild-type plasmids were used to optimize a multiplex OLA for detection of K103N, Y181C, K65R, and M184V in HIV subtypes B and C, and V106M and G190A in subtype C. Simultaneous detection of two mutations was impaired if probes annealed to overlapping regions of the viral template, but was sensitive to ≥2-5% when testing codons using non-overlapping probes. PCR products from HIV-subtype B- and C-infected individuals were tested by multiplex-OLA and compared to results of single-codon OLA. Multiplex-OLA detected mutations at codon pairs 103/181, 106/190 and 65/184 reliably when compared to singleplex-OLA in clinical specimens. The multiplex-OLA is sensitive and specific and reduces the cost of screening for NVP, TDF and/or 3TC resistance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of Multiplexed 16S rRNA Microbial Population Surveys Using Illumina MiSeq Platform (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    ScienceCinema

    Tremblay, Julien [DOE JGI

    2016-07-12

    Julien Tremblay from DOE JGI presents "Evaluation of Multiplexed 16S rRNA Microbial Population Surveys Using Illumina MiSeq Platorm" at the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting held in June, 2012 in Santa Fe, NM.

  14. Evaluation of Multiplexed 16S rRNA Microbial Population Surveys Using Illumina MiSeq Platform (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, Julien

    2012-06-01

    Julien Tremblay from DOE JGI presents "Evaluation of Multiplexed 16S rRNA Microbial Population Surveys Using Illumina MiSeq Platorm" at the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting held in June, 2012 in Santa Fe, NM.

  15. Multiplexed quantification of bacterial 16S rRNA by solution hybridization with oligonucleotide probes and affinity capture.

    PubMed

    Satokari, Reetta M; Kataja, Kari; Söderlund, Hans

    2005-07-01

    Multiplexed and quantitative analysis of nucleic acid sequences in complex mixtures is essential in various applications of microbiological research. We have developed a method based on solution hybridization between biotinylated nucleic acid targets and multiple fluorophore-labeled oligonucleotide probes of distinct sizes. The biotin-nucleic acid-probe complexes are captured on magnetic streptavidin-coated microparticles and washed. The hybridized probes are eluted and their identity and quantity are determined by capillary electrophoresis. The signal intensities of the recorded probes correspond to the amount of target nucleic acid in the mixture, and the size indicates the target. Based on this principle and 16S rRNA-specific oligonucleotide probes, we set up an application for the relative quantification of different groups of clostridia and related organisms in a mixed bacterial population. The lower detection limit is 0.05 ng of total RNA and the linear range of measurement is 10(2). The method allowed accurate and highly repeatable quantification of the proportion of clostridia in human feces. Further, we discuss other applications of the method such as quantitative transcriptional analysis of eukaryotic microorganisms, which can be performed without conversion of mRNA to cDNA.

  16. Using gene expression from urine sediment to diagnose prostate cancer: development of a new multiplex mRNA urine test and validation of current biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Mengual, Lourdes; Lozano, Juan José; Ingelmo-Torres, Mercedes; Izquierdo, Laura; Musquera, Mireia; Ribal, María José; Alcaraz, Antonio

    2016-02-09

    Additional accurate non-invasive biomarkers are needed in the clinical setting to improve prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis. Here we have developed a new and improved multiplex mRNA urine test to detect prostate cancer (PCa). Furthermore, we have validated the PCA3 urinary transcript and some panels of urinary transcripts previously reported as useful diagnostic biomarkers for PCa in our cohort. Post-prostatic massage urine samples were prospectively collected from PCa patients and controls. Expression levels of 42 target genes selected from our previous studies and from the literature were studied in 224 post-prostatic massage urine sediments by quantitative PCR. Univariate logistic regression was used to identify individual PCa predictors. A variable selection method was used to develop a multiplex biomarker model. Discrimination was measured by ROC curve AUC for both, our model and the previously published biomarkers. Seven of the 42 genes evaluated (PCA3, ELF3, HIST1H2BG, MYO6, GALNT3, PHF12 and GDF15) were found to be independent predictors for discriminating patients with PCa from controls. We developed a four-gene expression signature (HIST1H2BG, SPP1, ELF3 and PCA3) with a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 67% (AUC = 0.763) for discriminating between tumor and control urines. The accuracy of PCA3 and previously reported panels of biomarkers is roughly maintained in our cohort. Our four-gene expression signature outperforms PCA3 as well as previously reported panels of biomarkers to predict PCa risk. This study suggests that a urinary biomarker panel could improve PCa detection. However, the accuracy of the panels of urinary transcripts developed to date, including our signature, is not high enough to warrant using them routinely in a clinical setting.

  17. siRNA Delivery by Stimuli-Sensitive Nanocarriers

    PubMed Central

    Salzano, Giuseppina; Costa, Daniel F.; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2016-01-01

    Since its discovery in late 1990s, small interfering RNA (siRNA) has become a significant biopharmaceutical research tool and a powerful option for the treatment of different human diseases based on altered gene-expression. Despite promising data from many pre-clinical studies, concrete hurdles still need to be overcome to bring therapeutic siRNAs in clinic. The design of stimuli-sensitive nanopreparations for gene therapy is a lively area of the current research. Compared to conventional systems for siRNA delivery, this type of platform can respond to local stimuli that are characteristics of the pathological area of interest, allowing the release of nucleic acids at the desired site. Acidic pH, abnormal levels of enzymes, altered redox potential and magnetic field are examples of stimuli exploited in the design of stimuli-sensitive nanoparticles. In this review, we discuss on recent stimuli-sensitive strategies for siRNA delivery and we highlight on the potential of combining multiple stimuli-sensitive strategies in the same nano-platform for a better therapeutic outcome. PMID:26486143

  18. Increasing the frequency response of direct-detection phase-sensitive OTDR by using frequency division multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guangyao; Fan, Xinyu; Liu, Qingwen; He, Zuyuan

    2017-04-01

    The frequency division multiplexing (FDM) technique is firstly introduced into a direct-detection phase-sensitive OTDR to improve the distributed fiber acoustic sensing performance by using a frequency step sweeping laser source and a dual probe pulse scheme. By using FDM technique, a 40 kHz sampling rate to vibration is realized with a 10 km measurement range, which implies the tradeoff between the frequency response and the measurement range is broken. In experiment, a 6 kHz vibration is successfully measured.

  19. Automated Methods for Multiplexed Pathogen Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Straub, Tim M.; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Quinonez-Diaz, Maria D.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.; Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Grate, Jay W.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2005-09-01

    Detection of pathogenic microorganisms in environmental samples is a difficult process. Concentration of the organisms of interest also co-concentrates inhibitors of many end-point detection methods, notably, nucleic acid methods. In addition, sensitive, highly multiplexed pathogen detection continues to be problematic. The primary function of the BEADS (Biodetection Enabling Analyte Delivery System) platform is the automated concentration and purification of target analytes from interfering substances, often present in these samples, via a renewable surface column. In one version of BEADS, automated immunomagnetic separation (IMS) is used to separate cells from their samples. Captured cells are transferred to a flow-through thermal cycler where PCR, using labeled primers, is performed. PCR products are then detected by hybridization to a DNA suspension array. In another version of BEADS, cell lysis is performed, and community RNA is purified and directly labeled. Multiplexed detection is accomplished by direct hybridization of the RNA to a planar microarray. The integrated IMS/PCR version of BEADS can successfully purify and amplify 10 E. coli O157:H7 cells from river water samples. Multiplexed PCR assays for the simultaneous detection of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Shigella on bead suspension arrays was demonstrated for the detection of as few as 100 cells for each organism. Results for the RNA version of BEADS are also showing promising results. Automation yields highly purified RNA, suitable for multiplexed detection on microarrays, with microarray detection specificity equivalent to PCR. Both versions of the BEADS platform show great promise for automated pathogen detection from environmental samples. Highly multiplexed pathogen detection using PCR continues to be problematic, but may be required for trace detection in large volume samples. The RNA approach solves the issues of highly multiplexed PCR and provides ''live vs. dead'' capabilities. However

  20. Automated methods for multiplexed pathogen detection.

    PubMed

    Straub, Timothy M; Dockendorff, Brian P; Quiñonez-Díaz, Maria D; Valdez, Catherine O; Shutthanandan, Janani I; Tarasevich, Barbara J; Grate, Jay W; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J

    2005-09-01

    Detection of pathogenic microorganisms in environmental samples is a difficult process. Concentration of the organisms of interest also co-concentrates inhibitors of many end-point detection methods, notably, nucleic acid methods. In addition, sensitive, highly multiplexed pathogen detection continues to be problematic. The primary function of the BEADS (Biodetection Enabling Analyte Delivery System) platform is the automated concentration and purification of target analytes from interfering substances, often present in these samples, via a renewable surface column. In one version of BEADS, automated immunomagnetic separation (IMS) is used to separate cells from their samples. Captured cells are transferred to a flow-through thermal cycler where PCR, using labeled primers, is performed. PCR products are then detected by hybridization to a DNA suspension array. In another version of BEADS, cell lysis is performed, and community RNA is purified and directly labeled. Multiplexed detection is accomplished by direct hybridization of the RNA to a planar microarray. The integrated IMS/PCR version of BEADS can successfully purify and amplify 10 E. coli O157:H7 cells from river water samples. Multiplexed PCR assays for the simultaneous detection of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Shigella on bead suspension arrays was demonstrated for the detection of as few as 100 cells for each organism. Results for the RNA version of BEADS are also showing promising results. Automation yields highly purified RNA, suitable for multiplexed detection on microarrays, with microarray detection specificity equivalent to PCR. Both versions of the BEADS platform show great promise for automated pathogen detection from environmental samples. Highly multiplexed pathogen detection using PCR continues to be problematic, but may be required for trace detection in large volume samples. The RNA approach solves the issues of highly multiplexed PCR and provides "live vs. dead" capabilities. However

  1. Rapid and inexpensive body fluid identification by RNA profiling-based multiplex High Resolution Melt (HRM) analysis.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Positive identification of the nature of biological material present on evidentiary items can be crucial for understanding the circumstances surrounding a crime. However, traditional protein-based methods do not permit the identification of all body fluids and tissues, and thus molecular based strategies for the conclusive identification of all forensically relevant biological fluids and tissues need to be developed. Messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling is an example of such a molecular-based approach. Current mRNA body fluid identification assays involve capillary electrophoresis (CE) or quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) platforms, each with its own limitations. Both platforms require the use of expensive fluorescently labeled primers or probes. CE-based assays require separate amplification and detection steps thus increasing the analysis time. For qRT-PCR assays, only 3-4 markers can be included in a single reaction since each requires a different fluorescent dye. To simplify mRNA profiling assays, and reduce the time and cost of analysis, we have developed single- and multiplex body fluid High Resolution Melt (HRM) assays for the identification of common forensically relevant biological fluids and tissues. The incorporated biomarkers include IL19 (vaginal secretions), IL1F7 (skin), ALAS2 (blood), MMP10 (menstrual blood), HTN3 (saliva) and TGM4 (semen).  The HRM assays require only unlabeled PCR primers and a single saturating intercalating fluorescent dye (Eva Green). Each body-fluid-specific marker can easily be identified by the presence of a distinct melt peak. Usually, HRM assays are used to detect variants or isoforms for a single gene target. However, we have uniquely developed duplex and triplex HRM assays to permit the simultaneous detection of multiple targets per reaction. Here we describe the development and initial performance evaluation of the developed HRM assays. The results demonstrate the potential use of HRM assays for rapid, and relatively inexpensive

  2. Rapid and inexpensive body fluid identification by RNA profiling-based multiplex High Resolution Melt (HRM) analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Erin K.; Ballantyne, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Positive identification of the nature of biological material present on evidentiary items can be crucial for understanding the circumstances surrounding a crime. However, traditional protein-based methods do not permit the identification of all body fluids and tissues, and thus molecular based strategies for the conclusive identification of all forensically relevant biological fluids and tissues need to be developed. Messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling is an example of such a molecular-based approach. Current mRNA body fluid identification assays involve capillary electrophoresis (CE) or quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) platforms, each with its own limitations. Both platforms require the use of expensive fluorescently labeled primers or probes. CE-based assays require separate amplification and detection steps thus increasing the analysis time. For qRT-PCR assays, only 3-4 markers can be included in a single reaction since each requires a different fluorescent dye. To simplify mRNA profiling assays, and reduce the time and cost of analysis, we have developed single- and multiplex body fluid High Resolution Melt (HRM) assays for the identification of common forensically relevant biological fluids and tissues. The incorporated biomarkers include IL19 (vaginal secretions), IL1F7 (skin), ALAS2 (blood), MMP10 (menstrual blood), HTN3 (saliva) and TGM4 (semen).  The HRM assays require only unlabeled PCR primers and a single saturating intercalating fluorescent dye (Eva Green). Each body-fluid-specific marker can easily be identified by the presence of a distinct melt peak. Usually, HRM assays are used to detect variants or isoforms for a single gene target. However, we have uniquely developed duplex and triplex HRM assays to permit the simultaneous detection of multiple targets per reaction. Here we describe the development and initial performance evaluation of the developed HRM assays. The results demonstrate the potential use of HRM assays for rapid, and relatively inexpensive

  3. Multiplex enrichment quantitative PCR (ME-qPCR): a high-throughput, highly sensitive detection method for GMO identification.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wei; Zhu, Pengyu; Wei, Shuang; Zhixin, Du; Wang, Chenguang; Wu, Xiyang; Li, Feiwu; Zhu, Shuifang

    2017-04-01

    Among all of the high-throughput detection methods, PCR-based methodologies are regarded as the most cost-efficient and feasible methodologies compared with the next-generation sequencing or ChIP-based methods. However, the PCR-based methods can only achieve multiplex detection up to 15-plex due to limitations imposed by the multiplex primer interactions. The detection throughput cannot meet the demands of high-throughput detection, such as SNP or gene expression analysis. Therefore, in our study, we have developed a new high-throughput PCR-based detection method, multiplex enrichment quantitative PCR (ME-qPCR), which is a combination of qPCR and nested PCR. The GMO content detection results in our study showed that ME-qPCR could achieve high-throughput detection up to 26-plex. Compared to the original qPCR, the Ct values of ME-qPCR were lower for the same group, which showed that ME-qPCR sensitivity is higher than the original qPCR. The absolute limit of detection for ME-qPCR could achieve levels as low as a single copy of the plant genome. Moreover, the specificity results showed that no cross-amplification occurred for irrelevant GMO events. After evaluation of all of the parameters, a practical evaluation was performed with different foods. The more stable amplification results, compared to qPCR, showed that ME-qPCR was suitable for GMO detection in foods. In conclusion, ME-qPCR achieved sensitive, high-throughput GMO detection in complex substrates, such as crops or food samples. In the future, ME-qPCR-based GMO content identification may positively impact SNP analysis or multiplex gene expression of food or agricultural samples. Graphical abstract For the first-step amplification, four primers (A, B, C, and D) have been added into the reaction volume. In this manner, four kinds of amplicons have been generated. All of these four amplicons could be regarded as the target of second-step PCR. For the second-step amplification, three parallels have been taken for

  4. Multiplex Real-Time qPCR Assay for Simultaneous and Sensitive Detection of Phytoplasmas in Sesame Plants and Insect Vectors.

    PubMed

    Ikten, Cengiz; Ustun, Rustem; Catal, Mursel; Yol, Engin; Uzun, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Phyllody, a destructive and economically important disease worldwide caused by phytoplasma infections, is characterized by the abnormal development of floral structures into stunted leafy parts and contributes to serious losses in crop plants, including sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Accurate identification, differentiation, and quantification of phyllody-causing phytoplasmas are essential for effective management of this plant disease and for selection of resistant sesame varieties. In this study, a diagnostic multiplex qPCR assay was developed using TaqMan® chemistry based on detection of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of phytoplasmas and the 18S ribosomal gene of sesame. Phytoplasma and sesame specific primers and probes labeled with different fluorescent dyes were used for simultaneous amplification of 16SrII and 16SrIX phytoplasmas in a single tube. The multiplex real-time qPCR assay allowed accurate detection, differentiation, and quantification of 16SrII and 16SrIX groups in 109 sesame plant and 92 insect vector samples tested. The assay was found to have a detection sensitivity of 1.8 x 102 and 1.6 x 102 DNA copies for absolute quantification of 16SrII and 16SrIX group phytoplasmas, respectively. Relative quantification was effective and reliable for determination of phyllody phytoplasma DNA amounts normalized to sesame DNA in infected plant tissues. The development of this qPCR assay provides a method for the rapid measurement of infection loads to identify resistance levels of sesame genotypes against phyllody phytoplasma disease.

  5. Multiplex Real-Time qPCR Assay for Simultaneous and Sensitive Detection of Phytoplasmas in Sesame Plants and Insect Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Ikten, Cengiz; Ustun, Rustem; Catal, Mursel; Yol, Engin; Uzun, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Phyllody, a destructive and economically important disease worldwide caused by phytoplasma infections, is characterized by the abnormal development of floral structures into stunted leafy parts and contributes to serious losses in crop plants, including sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Accurate identification, differentiation, and quantification of phyllody-causing phytoplasmas are essential for effective management of this plant disease and for selection of resistant sesame varieties. In this study, a diagnostic multiplex qPCR assay was developed using TaqMan® chemistry based on detection of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of phytoplasmas and the 18S ribosomal gene of sesame. Phytoplasma and sesame specific primers and probes labeled with different fluorescent dyes were used for simultaneous amplification of 16SrII and 16SrIX phytoplasmas in a single tube. The multiplex real-time qPCR assay allowed accurate detection, differentiation, and quantification of 16SrII and 16SrIX groups in 109 sesame plant and 92 insect vector samples tested. The assay was found to have a detection sensitivity of 1.8 x 102 and 1.6 x 102 DNA copies for absolute quantification of 16SrII and 16SrIX group phytoplasmas, respectively. Relative quantification was effective and reliable for determination of phyllody phytoplasma DNA amounts normalized to sesame DNA in infected plant tissues. The development of this qPCR assay provides a method for the rapid measurement of infection loads to identify resistance levels of sesame genotypes against phyllody phytoplasma disease. PMID:27195795

  6. Development of high sensitivity eight-element multiplexed fiber laser acoustic pressure hydrophone array and interrogation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Sun, Zhihui; Zhang, Xiaolei; Li, Shujuan; Song, Zhiqiang; Wang, Meng; Guo, Jian; Ni, Jiasheng; Wang, Chang; Peng, Gangding; Xu, Xiangang

    2017-09-01

    Fiber laser hydrophones have got widespread concerns due to the unique advantages and broad application prospects. In this paper, the research results of the eight-element multiplexed fiber laser acoustic pressure array and the interrogation system are introduced, containing low-noise distributed feedback fiber laser (DFB-FL) fabrication, sensitivity enhancement packaging, and interferometric signal demodulation. The frequency response range of the system is 10Hz-10kHz, the laser frequency acoustic pressure sensitivity reaches 115 dB re Hz/Pa, and the equivalent noise acoustic pressure is less than 60μPa/Hz1/2. The dynamic range of the system is greater than 120 dB.

  7. Multiplex bioimaging of piRNA molecular pathway-regulated theragnostic effects in a single breast cancer cell using a piRNA molecular beacon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youn Jung; Moon, Sung Ung; Park, Min Geun; Jung, Woon Yong; Park, Yong Keun; Song, Sung Kyu; Ryu, Je Gyu; Lee, Yong Seung; Heo, Hye Jung; Gu, Ha Na; Cho, Su Jeong; Ali, Bahy A; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Lee, Ilkyun; Kim, Soonhag

    2016-09-01

    Recently, PIWI-interacting small non-coding RNAs (piRNAs) have emerged as novel cancer biomarkers candidate because of their high expression level in various cancer types and role in the control of tumor suppressor genes. In this study, a novel breast cancer theragnostics probe based on a single system targeting the piRNA-36026 (piR-36026) molecular pathway was developed using a piR-36026 molecular beacon (MB). The piR-36026 MB successfully visualized endogenous piR-36026 biogenesis, which is highly expressed in MCF7 cells (a human breast cancer cell line), and simultaneously inhibited piR-36026-mediated cancer progression in vitro and in vivo. We discovered two tumor suppressor proteins, SERPINA1 and LRAT, that were directly regulated as endogenous piR-36026 target genes in MCF7 cells. Furthermore, multiplex bioimaging of a single MCF7 cell following treatment with piR-36026 MB clearly visualized the direct molecular interaction of piRNA-36026 with SERPINA1 or LRAT and subsequent molecular therapeutic responses including caspase-3 and PI in the nucleus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High-Sensitivity and High-Efficiency Detection of DNA Hydroxymethylation in Genomic DNA by Multiplexing Electrochemical Biosensing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shixing; Dou, Yanzhi; Zhao, Zhihan; Li, Fuwu; Su, Jing; Fan, Chunhai; Song, Shiping

    2016-04-05

    DNA hydroxymethylation (5-hmC) is a kind of new epigenetic modification, which plays key roles in DNA demethylation, genomic reprogramming, and the gene expression in mammals. For further exploring the functions of 5-hmC, it is necessary to develop sensitive and selective methods for detecting 5-hmC. Herein, we developed a novel multiplexing electrochemical (MEC) biosensor for 5-hmC detection based on the glycosylation modification of 5-hmC and enzymatic signal amplification. The 5-hmC was first glycosylated by T4 β-glucosyltransferase and then oxidated by sodium periodate. The resulting glucosyl-modified 5-hmC (5-ghmC) was incubated with ARP-biotin and was bound to avidin-HRP. The 5-hmC can be detected at the subnanogram level. Finally, we performed 5-hmC detection for mouse tissue samples and cancer cell lines. The limit of detection of the MEC biosensor is 20 times lower than that of commercial kits based on optical meaurement. Also, the biosensor presented high detection specificity because the chemical reaction for 5-hmC modification can not happen at any other unhydroxymethylated nucleic acid bases. Importantly, benefited by its multiplexing capacity, the developed MEC biosensor showed excellent high efficiency, which was time-saving and cost less.

  9. Multiplex-PCR as a rapid and sensitive method for identification of meat species in Halal-meat Products.

    PubMed

    Alikord, Mahsa; Keramat, Javad; Kadivar, Mahdi; Momtaz, Hassan; Eshtiaghi, Mohammad Naghi; Rad, Aziz Homayouni

    2017-01-13

    Species identification and authentication in meat products are important subjects for ensuring the health of consumers. The multiplex-PCR amplification and species-specific primer set were used for identification of horse, donkey, pig and other ruminants in raw and processed meat products. Oligonucleotid primers were designed for amplification of species-specific mitochondrial DNA sequences of each species and samples were prepared from binary meat mixtures. The results showed that meat species were accurately determined in all combinations by multiplex-PCR, and the sensitivity of this method was 0.001 ng, rendering this technique open to and suitable for use for industrial meat products. It is concluded more fraud is seen in lower percentage industrial meat products than in higher percentage ones. There was also more fraud found in processed products than in raw ones. This rapid and useful test is recommended for quality control firms for exercising more rigorous controls over industrial meat products, for the benefit of target consumers.

  10. Room temperature multiplexed gas sensing using chemical-sensitive 3.5-nm-thin silicon transistors

    PubMed Central

    Fahad, Hossain Mohammad; Shiraki, Hiroshi; Amani, Matin; Zhang, Chuchu; Hebbar, Vivek Srinivas; Gao, Wei; Ota, Hiroki; Hettick, Mark; Kiriya, Daisuke; Chen, Yu-Ze; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Javey, Ali

    2017-01-01

    There is great interest in developing a low-power gas sensing technology that can sensitively and selectively quantify the chemical composition of a target atmosphere. Nanomaterials have emerged as extremely promising candidates for this technology due to their inherent low-dimensional nature and high surface-to-volume ratio. Among these, nanoscale silicon is of great interest because pristine silicon is largely inert on its own in the context of gas sensing, unless functionalized with an appropriate gas-sensitive material. We report a chemical-sensitive field-effect transistor (CS-FET) platform based on 3.5-nm-thin silicon channel transistors. Using industry-compatible processing techniques, the conventional electrically active gate stack is replaced by an ultrathin chemical-sensitive layer that is electrically nonconducting and coupled to the 3.5-nm-thin silicon channel. We demonstrate a low-power, sensitive, and selective multiplexed gas sensing technology using this platform by detecting H2S, H2, and NO2 at room temperature for environment, health, and safety in the oil and gas industry, offering significant advantages over existing technology. Moreover, the system described here can be readily integrated with mobile electronics for distributed sensor networks in environmental pollution mapping and personal air-quality monitors. PMID:28378017

  11. Individually addressable microelectrode arrays fabricated with gold-coated pencil graphite particles for multiplexed and high sensitive impedance immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Wang, Hua; Nie, Jinfang; Zhang, Yuwei; Shen, Guoli; Yu, Ruqin

    2009-09-15

    A renewable, site-selective immobilization platform of microelectrode array (MEA) for multiplexed immunoassays has been initially developed using pencil graphite particles coated with gold layers as microelectrodes. The graphite particles available on the common pencil were utilized for directing the electro-deposition of gold layers with uniform microstructures which displayed a well-defined sigmoidal voltammetric response. In the concept-of-proof experiments, the resulting MEA platform was modified with functionalized monolayer, on which anti-human IgG antibodies could be stably immobilized in a site-selective way through binding chemistry to selectively capture human IgG antigens from the sample media. The subsequent introduction of anti-human IgG antibodies conjugated with 15 nm electro-active gold nanoparticles to recognize the captured IgG proteins resulted in a significant decrease in the interfacial electron-transfer resistance. High sensitive electrochemical quantification by gold nanoparticle-amplified impedance responses could thus be achieved. Experimental results show that the developed MEA sensor can allow for the detection of human IgG with wide linear range (0.05-100 ng ml(-1)) and sensitivity over 10(3) larger than that of the conventional, bulk gold electrode. The rapid regeneration of the used MEA platform can additionally be realized by a simple electrochemical treatment. The high selectivity of four individually addressable MEA platforms for multiple antigens in a single sample has been further demonstrated in the multiplexed immunoassay experiments. Such a site-selective immobilization strategy of MEA platform may open a new door towards the development of various simple, sensitive, cost-effective, and reusable biological sensors and biochips.

  12. Specific and sensitive mRNA biomarkers for the identification of skin in 'touch DNA' evidence.

    PubMed

    Hanson, E; Haas, C; Jucker, R; Ballantyne, J

    2012-09-01

    to successfully detect and identify skin using as little as 5-25 pg of input total RNA from skin and, significantly, in swabs of human skin and various touched objects. One of the markers, LCE1C, is particularly highly sensitive and was detected in the majority of skin samples tested including touched objects. We have been successful in incorporating the five skin biomarkers into two multiplex systems. Although further work is needed to optimize the assay for routine casework, the initial studies demonstrate that a molecular-based characterization of the biological material recovered from touch samples is possible.

  13. Dynamic Time Multiplexing Fabrication of Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals for Increased Wavelength Sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontecchio, Adam K. (Inventor); Rai, Kashma (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Described herein is a new holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) medium with broadband reflective properties, and a new technique for fabrication of broadband HPDLC mediums. The new technique involves dynamic variation of the holography setup during HPDLC formation, enabling the broadening of the HPDLC medium's wavelength response. Dynamic variation of the holography setup may include the rotation and/or translation of one or more motorized stages, allowing for time and spatial, or angular, multiplexing through variation of the incident angles of one or more laser beams on a pre-polymer mixture during manufacture. An HPDLC medium manufactured using these techniques exhibits improved optical response by reflecting a broadband spectrum of wavelengths. A new broadband holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin film polymeric mirror stack with electrically-switchable beam steering capability is disclosed. XXXX Described herein is a new holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) medium with broadband reflective properties, and a new technique for fabrication of broadband 10 HPDLC mediums. The new technique involves dynamic variation of the holography setup during HPDLC formation, enabling the broadening of the HPDLC medium's wavelength response. Dynamic variation of the holography setup may include the rotation and/or translation of one or more 15 motorized stages, allowing for time and spatial, or angular, multiplexing through variation of the incident angles of one or more laser beams on a pre-polymer mixture during manufacture. An HPDLC medium manufactured using these techniques exhibits improved optical response by reflecting 20 a broadband spectrum of wavelengths. A new broadband holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin film polymeric mirror stack with electrically switchable beam steering capability is disclosed.

  14. Graphene-based high-efficiency surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active platform for sensitive and multiplex DNA detection.

    PubMed

    He, Shijiang; Liu, Keng-Ku; Su, Shao; Yan, Juan; Mao, Xiuhai; Wang, Dongfang; He, Yao; Li, Lain-Jong; Song, Shiping; Fan, Chunhai

    2012-05-15

    We have developed a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active substrate based on gold nanoparticle-decorated chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-growth graphene and used it for multiplexing detection of DNA. Due to the combination of gold nanoparticles and graphene, the Raman signals of dye were dramatically enhanced by this novel substrate. With the gold nanoparticles, DNA capture probes could be easily assembled on the surface of graphene films which have a drawback to directly immobilize DNA. This platform exhibits extraordinarily high sensitivity and excellent specificity for DNA detection. A detection limit as low as 10 pM is obtained. Importantly, two different DNA targets could be detected simultaneously on the same substrate just using one light source.

  15. A multiplex TaqMan qPCR assay for sensitive and rapid detection of phytoplasmas infecting Rubus species

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Erika; Reineke, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Rubus stunt is an economically important disease in the production of raspberries, blackberries, and loganberries. A fast, sensitive, and reliable diagnosis of phytoplasmas, the causal agent of the disease, is of prime importance to stop its spread by vegetative propagation and by insect vectors. Therefore, multiplex qPCR assays using TaqMan probes with different kinds of fluorophores in one reaction were developed, allowing the detection of phytoplasmas in general as well as a more specific detection of phytoplasmas belonging to group 16SrV and host DNA (either plant or insect). This assay now provides a practical tool for the screening of motherplants and monitoring the presence and distribution of phytoplasmas in Rubus plants of different geographic origins, cultivars, and cultivation systems, as well as in putative insect vectors like leafhoppers. PMID:28545043

  16. A multiplex TaqMan qPCR assay for sensitive and rapid detection of phytoplasmas infecting Rubus species.

    PubMed

    Linck, Holger; Krüger, Erika; Reineke, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Rubus stunt is an economically important disease in the production of raspberries, blackberries, and loganberries. A fast, sensitive, and reliable diagnosis of phytoplasmas, the causal agent of the disease, is of prime importance to stop its spread by vegetative propagation and by insect vectors. Therefore, multiplex qPCR assays using TaqMan probes with different kinds of fluorophores in one reaction were developed, allowing the detection of phytoplasmas in general as well as a more specific detection of phytoplasmas belonging to group 16SrV and host DNA (either plant or insect). This assay now provides a practical tool for the screening of motherplants and monitoring the presence and distribution of phytoplasmas in Rubus plants of different geographic origins, cultivars, and cultivation systems, as well as in putative insect vectors like leafhoppers.

  17. A sensitive and a rapid multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the identification of Candida species in concentrated oral rinse specimens in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Asanga; Weerasekera, Manjula; Gunasekara, Chinthika; Dilhari, Ayomi; Bulugahapitiya, Uditha; Fernando, Neluka

    2017-03-01

    Oral candidiasis is being frequently recognized in patients with diabetes, and is associated with multiple pathogens including Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis. The aim of this study was to evaluate a usefulness of a Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction as a rapid diagnostic tool for identification of four oral Candida pathogens in patients with diabetes. A multiplex PCR was optimized to identify four Candida species in concentrated oral rinse samples. Common reverse primer, ITS4 and four species-specific forward primers targeting ITS1 and ITS2 regions of yeast genome were used. Species-specific single amplicon were detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. Performance efficacy of multiplex PCR was compared with phenotypic identification. Out of 100 oral rinse samples, 72 were culture positive and of these 43 were at risk of oral Candida infection (>600cfu/ml). Multiple Candida species including C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis were identified in 22 samples which had risk of oral Candida infection. In total, 85 patients were positive for Candida by multiplex PCR and of them 49 had multiple Candida species. All 43 colonized specimens were also positive by multiplex PCR. C. albicans was the most predominant organism (75/85) followed by C. parapsilosis (47/85), C. tropicalis (17/85) and C. glabrata (6/85). In specimens with multiple species, the two most common organisms were C. albicans and C. parapsilosis. Multiplex PCR yielded a sensitivity of 10 Candida cells/ml of oral rinse sample. Multiplex PCR is found to be rapid, sensitive and specific than phenotypic identification methods in discriminating multiple Candida species in oral rinse specimens.

  18. Targeted Deposition of Antibodies on a Multiplex CMOS Microarray and Optimization of a Sensitive Immunoassay Using Electrochemical Detection

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, John; Yazvenko, Nina; Peyvan, Kia; Maurer, Karl; Taitt, Chris R.; Lyon, Wanda; Danley, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Background The CombiMatrix ElectraSense® microarray is a highly multiplex, complementary metal oxide semiconductor with 12,544 electrodes that are individually addressable. This platform is commercially available as a custom DNA microarray; and, in this configuration, it has also been used to tether antibodies (Abs) specifically on electrodes using complementary DNA sequences conjugated to the Abs. Methodology/Principal Findings An empirical method is described for developing and optimizing immunoassays on the CombiMatrix ElectraSense® microarray based upon targeted deposition of polypyrrole (Ppy) and capture Ab. This process was automated using instrumentation that can selectively apply a potential or current to individual electrodes and also measure current generated at the electrodes by an enzyme-enhanced electrochemical (ECD) reaction. By designating groups of electrodes on the array for different Ppy deposition conditions, we determined that the sensitivity and specificity of a sandwich immunoassay for staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is influenced by the application of different voltages or currents and the application time. The sandwich immunoassay used a capture Ab adsorbed to the Ppy and a reporter Ab labeled for fluorescence detection or ECD, and results from these methods of detection were different. Conclusions/Significance Using Ppy deposition conditions for optimum results, the lower limit of detection for SEB using the ECD assay was between 0.003 and 0.01 pg/ml, which represents an order of magnitude improvement over a conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. In the absence of understanding the variables and complexities that affect assay performance, this highly multiplexed electrode array provided a rapid, high throughput, and empirical approach for developing a sensitive immunoassay. PMID:20333309

  19. Multiplexing immunoassays for cytokine detection in the serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: lack of sensitivity and interference by rheumatoid factor.

    PubMed

    Churchman, Sarah M; Geiler, Janina; Parmar, Rekha; Horner, Elizabeth A; Church, Leigh D; Emery, Paul; Buch, Maya H; McDermott, Michael F; Ponchel, Frederique

    2012-01-01

    Accurately measuring cytokines in clinical material remains an important challenge in the development of biomarkers. Enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISAs) are considered 'gold standard'; however, their use is limited by the relatively large sample volume required for multiple analyte testing. Several alternatives (including membrane or bead-ELISA) have been developed particularly to enable multiplexing. Concerns were raised regarding their use in rheumatology due to interference by heterophilic antibodies, notably rheumatoid factor (RF). In this report, we compared several multiplex assays using serum from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with respect to the presence of residual RF following attempted removal employing commonly used procedures. Healthy control and RF-positive/negative RA sera were used to compare 4 multiplex assays with ELISA: bead-based 'Luminex' immunoassay, cytometric bead assays (CBAs), membrane-based and Mosaic™ ELISAs. Sera were tested following Ig blockade (mixed species serum) or removal (using PEG6000 or sepharose-L). Ig removal was only partially efficient and residual RF was detected in most sera. RF had no impact on cytokine measurement by ELISA. In single and multiplex Luminex, cytokine levels associated with false positive results correlated directly with RF titres. Following Ig-blockade/removal, these relationship remained suggesting false positivity was still associated with the presence of residual RF. Conversely, detection of cytokines in multiplex membrane-based or Mosaic- ELISA were not affected by the presence of RF; however, levels of cytokines readily detected by ELISA were often below the detection threshold of these assays. CBA assays were also low on sensitivity but unaffected by RF. False positivity, due to the presence of heterophilic antibodies, mainly affected Luminex assays. Other assays however remained limited in their sensitivity. Multiplexing of cytokine measurement remains a challenge, particularly in

  20. Quantitative and sensitive RNA based detection of Bacillus spores

    PubMed Central

    Osmekhina, Ekaterina; Shvetsova, Antonina; Ruottinen, Maria; Neubauer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The fast and reliable detection of bacterial spores is of great importance and still remains a challenge. Here we describe a direct RNA-based diagnostic method for the specific detection of viable bacterial spores which does not depends on an enzymatic amplification step and therefore is directly appropriate for quantification. The procedure includes the following steps: (i) heat activation of spores, (ii) germination and enrichment cultivation, (iii) cell lysis, and (iv) analysis of 16S rRNA in crude cell lysates using a sandwich hybridization assay. The sensitivity of the method is dependent on the cultivation time and the detection limit; it is possible to detect 10 spores per ml when the RNA analysis is performed after 6 h of enrichment cultivation. At spore concentrations above 106 spores per ml the cultivation time can be shortened to 30 min. Total analysis times are in the range of 2–8 h depending on the spore concentration in samples. The developed procedure is optimized at the example of Bacillus subtilis spores but should be applicable to other organisms. The new method can easily be modified for other target RNAs and is suitable for specific detection of spores from known groups of organisms. PMID:24653718

  1. Nano metal-organic framework (NMOF)-based strategies for multiplexed microRNA detection in solution and living cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yafeng; Han, Jianyu; Xue, Peng; Xu, Rong; Kang, Yuejun

    2015-01-01

    MiRNAs are an emerging type of biomarker for diagnostics and prognostics. A reliable sensing strategy that can monitor miRNA expression in living cancer cells would be critical in view of its extensive advantages for fundamental research related to miRNA-associated bioprocesses and biomedical applications. Conventional miRNA sensing methods include northern blot, microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR. However, none of them is able to monitor miRNA levels expressed in living cancer cells in a real-time fashion. Some fluorescennt biosensors developed recently from carbon nanomaterials, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphene oxide (GO), and carbon nanoparticles, have been successfully used for assaying miRNA in vitro; however the preparation processes are often expensive, complicated and time-consuming, which have motivated the research on other substitute and novel materials. Herein we present a novel sensing strategy based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes labeled with fluorophores and conjugated with an NMOF vehicle to monitor multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells. The NMOF works as a fluorescence quencher of the labelled PNA that is firmly bound with the metal center. In the presence of a target miRNA, PNA is hybridized and released from the NMOF leading to the recovery of fluorescence. This miRNA sensor not only enables the quantitative and highly specific detection of multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells, but it also allows the precise and in situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal changes of miRNA expression.MiRNAs are an emerging type of biomarker for diagnostics and prognostics. A reliable sensing strategy that can monitor miRNA expression in living cancer cells would be critical in view of its extensive advantages for fundamental research related to miRNA-associated bioprocesses and biomedical applications. Conventional miRNA sensing methods include northern blot, microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR. However, none of

  2. Nano metal-organic framework (NMOF)-based strategies for multiplexed microRNA detection in solution and living cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yafeng; Han, Jianyu; Xue, Peng; Xu, Rong; Kang, Yuejun

    2015-02-07

    MiRNAs are an emerging type of biomarker for diagnostics and prognostics. A reliable sensing strategy that can monitor miRNA expression in living cancer cells would be critical in view of its extensive advantages for fundamental research related to miRNA-associated bioprocesses and biomedical applications. Conventional miRNA sensing methods include northern blot, microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR. However, none of them is able to monitor miRNA levels expressed in living cancer cells in a real-time fashion. Some fluorescennt biosensors developed recently from carbon nanomaterials, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphene oxide (GO), and carbon nanoparticles, have been successfully used for assaying miRNA in vitro; however the preparation processes are often expensive, complicated and time-consuming, which have motivated the research on other substitute and novel materials. Herein we present a novel sensing strategy based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes labeled with fluorophores and conjugated with an NMOF vehicle to monitor multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells. The NMOF works as a fluorescence quencher of the labelled PNA that is firmly bound with the metal center. In the presence of a target miRNA, PNA is hybridized and released from the NMOF leading to the recovery of fluorescence. This miRNA sensor not only enables the quantitative and highly specific detection of multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells, but it also allows the precise and in situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal changes of miRNA expression.

  3. Targeting single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the 18S rRNA gene to differentiate Cyclospora species from Eimeria species by multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Orlandi, Palmer A; Carter, Laurenda; Brinker, Anna Marie; da Silva, Alexandre J; Chu, Dan-My; Lampel, Keith A; Monday, Steven R

    2003-08-01

    Cyclospora cayetanensis is a coccidian parasite that causes protracted diarrheal illness in humans. C. cayetanensis is the only species of this genus thus far associated with human illness, although Cyclospora species from other primates have been named. The current method to detect the parasite uses a nested PCR assay to amplify a 294-bp region of the small subunit rRNA gene, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) or DNA sequence analysis. Since the amplicons generated from C. cayetanensis and Eimeria species are the same size, the latter step is required to distinguish between these different species. The current PCR-RFLP protocol, however, cannot distinguish between C. cayetanensis and these new isolates. The differential identification of such pathogenic and nonpathogenic parasites is essential in assessing the risks to human health from microorganisms that may be potential contaminants in food and water sources. Therefore, to expand the utility of PCR to detect and identify these parasites in a multiplex assay, a series of genus- and species-specific forward primers were designed that are able to distinguish sites of limited sequence heterogeneity in the target gene. The most effective of these unique primers were those that identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the 3' end of the primer. Under more stringent annealing and elongation conditions, these SNP primers were able to differentiate between C. cayetanensis, nonhuman primate species of Cyclospora, and Eimeria species. As a diagnostic tool, the SNP PCR protocol described here presents a more rapid and sensitive alternative to the currently available PCR-RFLP detection method. In addition, the specificity of these diagnostic primers removes the uncertainty that can be associated with analyses of foods or environmental sources suspected of harboring potential human parasitic pathogens.

  4. Multiplexed, Quantitative Workflow for Sensitive Biomarker Discovery in Plasma Yields Novel Candidates for Early Myocardial Injury*

    PubMed Central

    Keshishian, Hasmik; Burgess, Michael W.; Gillette, Michael A.; Mertins, Philipp; Clauser, Karl R.; Mani, D. R.; Kuhn, Eric W.; Farrell, Laurie A.; Gerszten, Robert E.; Carr, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a novel plasma protein analysis platform with optimized sample preparation, chromatography, and MS analysis protocols. The workflow, which utilizes chemical isobaric mass tag labeling for relative quantification of plasma proteins, achieves far greater depth of proteome detection and quantification while simultaneously having increased sample throughput than prior methods. We applied the new workflow to a time series of plasma samples from patients undergoing a therapeutic, “planned” myocardial infarction for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a unique human model in which each person serves as their own biologic control. Over 5300 proteins were confidently identified in our experiments with an average of 4600 proteins identified per sample (with two or more distinct peptides identified per protein) using iTRAQ four-plex labeling. Nearly 3400 proteins were quantified in common across all 16 patient samples. Compared with a previously published label-free approach, the new method quantified almost fivefold more proteins/sample and provided a six- to nine-fold increase in sample analysis throughput. Moreover, this study provides the largest high-confidence plasma proteome dataset available to date. The reliability of relative quantification was also greatly improved relative to the label-free approach, with measured iTRAQ ratios and temporal trends correlating well with results from a 23-plex immunoMRM (iMRM) assay containing a subset of the candidate proteins applied to the same patient samples. The functional importance of improved detection and quantification was reflected in a markedly expanded list of significantly regulated proteins that provided many new candidate biomarker proteins. Preliminary evaluation of plasma sample labeling with TMT six-plex and ten-plex reagents suggests that even further increases in multiplexing of plasma analysis are practically achievable without significant losses in depth of detection relative to iTRAQ four

  5. Multiplexed immunoglobulin E sensitization in relation to exhaled nitric oxide in a population sample of children.

    PubMed

    Yao, T-C; Tsai, H-J; Tu, Y-L; Chang, S-W; Hua, M-C; Liao, S-L; Tsai, M-H; Chiu, C-Y; Lai, S-H; Yeh, K-W; Huang, J-L

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) profile for 40 allergens using a novel microarray technique (BioIC) and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in a population sample of 1321 children. Significant positive associations were found between FeNO and sensitization to mites (P < 0.001), animals (P = 0.001), cockroaches (P < 0.001), and foods (P = 0.042), and furthermore, between FeNO and the number of sensitizations (all P < 0.05) or the sum of specific IgE (all P ≤ 0.01) against the aforementioned allergen categories. Specifically, sensitization to the following allergens was significantly related to higher FeNO: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farina, Blomia tropicalis, cat, German cockroach, Oriental cockroach, codfish, crab, shrimp, and cheese (all P ≤ 0.01). In conclusion, IgE sensitization to mites, pets, cockroaches, seafood, and cheese, respectively, is significantly associated with elevated FeNO levels in a dose-dependent fashion in children. Our results provide new evidence that sensitization to certain food allergens may contribute to prompt inflammation in the airways.

  6. Simultaneous identification of three highly pathogenic Eimeria species in rabbits using a multiplex PCR diagnostic assay based on ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 fragments.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wenchao; Wang, Wenlong; Wang, Tianqi; Suo, Xun; Qian, Weifeng; Wang, Shuai; Fan, Di

    2013-03-31

    Eimeria stiedai, E. intestinalis, and E. flavescens are highly pathogenic in rabbits, especially rabbits younger than 3 months. In this study, the complete ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 sequences of six rabbit Eimeria species, E. stiedai, E. intestinalis, E. flavescens, E. media, E. magna, and E. irresidua, were cloned with universal primers for the genus Eimeria and genomic DNA of LY and KF isolates as templates. These results revealed that both ITS1 and ITS2 sequences were specific to each Eimeria species in rabbits. A specific and sensitive multiplex PCR diagnostic assay based on polymorphic sites of ITS1 and ITS2 was developed and used to identify the three highly pathogenic species from rabbits, E. stiedai, E. intestinalis, and E. flavescens. Our findings provide a powerful tool for the clinical differentiation of highly pathogenic Eimeria species in rabbits and the study of the population genetics of rabbit coccidia.

  7. Identification of Sensitive Serum microRNA Biomarkers for Radiation Biodosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Naduparambil Korah; Cooley, James V.; Yee, Tamara N.; Jacob, Jidhin; Alder, Hansjuerg; Wickramasinghe, Priyankara; Maclean, Kirsteen H.; Chakravarti, Arnab

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation through environmental, occupational or a nuclear reactor accident such as the recent Fukushima Daiichi incident often results in major consequences to human health. The injury caused by radiation can manifest as acute radiation syndromes within weeks in organs with proliferating cells such as hematopoietic and gastrointestinal systems. Cancers, fibrosis and degenerative diseases are also reported in organs with differentiated cells, months or years later. Studies conducted on atom bomb survivors, nuclear reactor workers and animal models have shown a direct correlation of these effects with the absorbed dose. Physical dosimeters and the available radio-responsive biologics in body fluids, whose responses are rather indirect, have limitations to accurately evaluate the extent of post exposure damage. We have used an amplification-free, hybridization based quantitative assay utilizing the nCounter multiplex platform developed by nanoString Technologies to compare the levels of over 600 miRNAs in serum from mice irradiated at a range of 1 to 12 Gy at 24 and 48 hr time points. Development of a novel normalization strategy using multiple spike-in oligonucleotides allowed accurate measurement of radiation dose and time dependent changes in serum miRNAs. The response of several evolutionarily conserved miRNAs abundant in serum, were found to be robust and sensitive in the dose range relevant for medical triage and in patients who receive total body radiation as preparative regimen for bone marrow transplantation. Notably, miRNA-150, abundant in lymphocytes, exhibited a dose and time dependent decrease in serum, which we propose as a sensitive marker indicative of lymphocyte depletion and bone marrow damage. Our study has identified several markers useful for evaluation of an individual’s response by minimally invasive methods, relevant to triage in case of a radiation accident and evaluation of toxicity and response during and after

  8. Multiplex digital colour-coded barcode technology on RNA extracted from routine cytological samples of patients with non-small cell lung cancer: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sgariglia, Roberta; Pisapia, Pasquale; Nacchio, Mariantonia; De Luca, Caterina; Pepe, Francesco; Russo, Maria; Bellevicine, Claudio; Troncone, Giancarlo; Malapelle, Umberto

    2017-04-06

    In the advanced stages of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), molecular testing is often performed on archival cytological smears. The nCounter system (NanoString Technologies) is a new promising multiplex digital colour-coded barcode technology. However, its feasibility to evaluate the RNA expression of clinical relevant biomarkers on routine cytological smears is still uncertain. To this end, RNA was extracted from 12 NSCLC routine stained cytological smears, and nCounter analysis performed by using a 48-gene panel. Overall, 11/12 (92%) of the smears were adequate for the secondary analysis, fulfilling the quality check parameter analysis of nSolver software. This pilot study shows that RNA nCounter analysis is feasible on routine cytological smears preparing the field for the implementation of this technology in the routine setting.

  9. A highly sensitive target-primed rolling circle amplification (TPRCA) method for fluorescent in situ hybridization detection of microRNA in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jia; Zhang, Liang-Liang; Liu, Si-Jia; Yu, Ru-Qin; Chu, Xia

    2014-02-04

    The ability to detect spatial and temporal microRNA (miRNA) distribution at the single-cell level is essential for understanding the biological roles of miRNAs and miRNA-associated gene regulatory networks. We report for the first time the development of a target-primed RCA (TPRCA) strategy for highly sensitive and selective in situ visualization of miRNA expression patterns at the single-cell level. This strategy uses a circular DNA as the probe for in situ hybridization (ISH) with the target miRNA molecules, and the free 3' terminus of miRNA then initiates an in situ RCA reaction to generate a long tandem repeated sequence with thousands of complementary segments. After hybridization with fluorescent detection probes, target miRNA molecules can be visualized with ultrahigh sensitivity. Because the RCA reaction can only be initiated by the free 3' end of target miRNA, the developed strategy offers the advantage over existing ISH methods in eliminating the interference from precursor miRNA or mRNA. This strategy is demonstrated to show high sensitivity and selectivity for the detection of miR-222 expression levels in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells and hepatocyte L02 cells. Moreover, the developed TPRCA-based ISH strategy is successfully applied to multiplexed detection using two-color fluorescent probes for two miRNAs that are differentially expressed in the two cell lines. The results reveal that the developed strategy may have great potential for in situ miRNA expression analysis for basic research and clinical diagnostics.

  10. Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Hai Zou, Yi; Yang, Chun-Ju; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Wang, Zheng; Tang, Naimei; Chen, Ray T.; Fan, Donglei

    2015-03-23

    A method for the dense integration of high sensitivity photonic crystal (PC) waveguide based biosensors is proposed and experimentally demonstrated on a silicon platform. By connecting an additional PC waveguide filter to a PC microcavity sensor in series, a transmission passband is created, containing the resonances of the PC microcavity for sensing purpose. With proper engineering of the passband, multiple high sensitivity PC microcavity sensors can be integrated into microarrays and be interrogated simultaneously between a single input and a single output port. The concept was demonstrated with a 2-channel L55 PC biosensor array containing PC waveguide filters. The experiment showed that the sensors on both channels can be monitored simultaneously from a single output spectrum. Less than 3 dB extra loss for the additional PC waveguide filter is observed.

  11. Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hai; Zou, Yi; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Yang, Chun-Ju; Wang, Zheng; Tang, Naimei; Fan, Donglei; Chen, Ray T.

    2015-03-01

    A method for the dense integration of high sensitivity photonic crystal (PC) waveguide based biosensors is proposed and experimentally demonstrated on a silicon platform. By connecting an additional PC waveguide filter to a PC microcavity sensor in series, a transmission passband is created, containing the resonances of the PC microcavity for sensing purpose. With proper engineering of the passband, multiple high sensitivity PC microcavity sensors can be integrated into microarrays and be interrogated simultaneously between a single input and a single output port. The concept was demonstrated with a 2-channel L55 PC biosensor array containing PC waveguide filters. The experiment showed that the sensors on both channels can be monitored simultaneously from a single output spectrum. Less than 3 dB extra loss for the additional PC waveguide filter is observed.

  12. High-sensitivity high-throughput chip based biosensor array for multiplexed detection of heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hai; Tang, Naimei; Jairo, Grace A.; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Blake, Diane A.; Chen, Ray T.

    2016-03-01

    Heavy metal ions released into the environment from industrial processes lead to various health hazards. We propose an on-chip label-free detection approach that allows high-sensitivity and high-throughput detection of heavy metals. The sensing device consists of 2-dimensional photonic crystal microcavities that are combined by multimode interferometer to form a sensor array. We experimentally demonstrate the detection of cadmium-chelate conjugate with concentration as low as 5 parts-per-billion (ppb).

  13. Sensitive simultaneous detection of seven sexually transmitted agents in semen by multiplex-PCR and of HPV by single PCR.

    PubMed

    Gimenes, Fabrícia; Medina, Fabiana Soares; Abreu, André Luelsdorf Pimenta de; Irie, Mary Mayumi Taguti; Esquiçati, Isis Baroni; Malagutti, Natália; Vasconcellos, Vinícius Rodrigo Bulla; Discacciati, Michele Garcia; Bonini, Marcelo Gialluisi; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) may impair sperm parameters and functions thereby promoting male infertility. To date limited molecular studies were conducted to evaluate the frequency and type of such infections in semen Thus, we aimed at conceiving and validating a multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of the following STD pathogens in semen: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, Herpes virus simplex (HSV) -1 and -2, and Treponema pallidum; We also investigated the potential usefulness of this M-PCR assay in screening programs for semen pathogens. In addition, we aimed: to detect human Papillomavirus (HPV) and genotypes by single PCR (sPCR) in the same semen samples; to determine the prevalence of the seven STDs, HPV and co-infections; to assess the possibility that these infections affect semen parameters and thus fertility. The overall validation parameters of M-PCR were extremely high including agreement (99.2%), sensitivity (100.00%), specificity (99.70%), positive (96.40%) and negative predictive values (100.00%) and accuracy (99.80%). The prevalence of STDs was very high (55.3%). Furthermore, associations were observed between STDs and changes in semen parameters, highlighting the importance of STD detection in semen. Thus, this M-PCR assay has great potential for application in semen screening programs for pathogens in infertility and STD clinics and in sperm banks.

  14. Sensitive and Specific Detection of Staphylococcal Epidermolysins A and B in Broth Cultures by Flow Cytometry-Assisted Multiplex Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Joubert, Olivier; Keller, Daniel; Pinck, Anne; Monteil, Henri; Prévost, Gilles

    2005-01-01

    Two of the most common bacterial skin infections of young infants and children are bullous impetigo due to Staphylococcus aureus and its more acute form, staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. Epidermolysin A (ETA), ETB and, possibly, ETD are responsible for these diseases, which may appear as epidemics in pediatric patients. We tested the reliability of a flow cytometry-assisted multiplex immunoassay (Bio-Plex system) for the detection of ETA and ETB. The Bio-Plex system was found to be highly specific and highly sensitive for toxin concentrations of between 2 and 80,000 pg/ml. The results of this assay were 100% identical to the results of a PCR-based method. We demonstrated that this test did not generate any cross-reactions with ETD-producing isolates. The level of detection of ETB by this test differed according to culture conditions and from isolate to isolate; these results must be taken into account for diagnostic purposes. PMID:15750064

  15. Sensitive Simultaneous Detection of Seven Sexually Transmitted Agents in Semen by Multiplex-PCR and of HPV by Single PCR

    PubMed Central

    de Abreu, André Luelsdorf Pimenta; Irie, Mary Mayumi Taguti; Esquiçati, Isis Baroni; Malagutti, Natália; Vasconcellos, Vinícius Rodrigo Bulla; Discacciati, Michele Garcia; Bonini, Marcelo Gialluisi; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) may impair sperm parameters and functions thereby promoting male infertility. To date limited molecular studies were conducted to evaluate the frequency and type of such infections in semen Thus, we aimed at conceiving and validating a multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of the following STD pathogens in semen: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, Herpes virus simplex (HSV) −1 and −2, and Treponema pallidum; We also investigated the potential usefulness of this M-PCR assay in screening programs for semen pathogens. In addition, we aimed: to detect human Papillomavirus (HPV) and genotypes by single PCR (sPCR) in the same semen samples; to determine the prevalence of the seven STDs, HPV and co-infections; to assess the possibility that these infections affect semen parameters and thus fertility. The overall validation parameters of M-PCR were extremely high including agreement (99.2%), sensitivity (100.00%), specificity (99.70%), positive (96.40%) and negative predictive values (100.00%) and accuracy (99.80%). The prevalence of STDs was very high (55.3%). Furthermore, associations were observed between STDs and changes in semen parameters, highlighting the importance of STD detection in semen. Thus, this M-PCR assay has great potential for application in semen screening programs for pathogens in infertility and STD clinics and in sperm banks. PMID:24921247

  16. An integrated chip for rapid, sensitive, and multiplexed detection of cardiac biomarkers from fingerprick blood.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Jun; Luo, Zhan Hong Henry; Huang, Min Joon; Ang, Jun'an Jason; Kang, Tae Goo; Ji, Hongmiao

    2011-10-15

    Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of death among adults worldwide. Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a first test when a patient suffering from chest pain sees a doctor, however, it is lack of the required sensitivity. Standard assays to detect cardiac biomarkers, like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are sensitive, but suffer from important sample and reagent consumption in large-scale studies. Moreover they are performed in central laboratories of clinics and hospitals and take a long time, which is highly incompatible with the quick decisions needed to save a heart attack patient. Herein, we describe an integrated chip allowing rapid, sensitive, and simultaneous analysis of three cardiac biomarkers in fingerprick blood. The integrated chip is composed of a filtration chip for plasma separation from blood and a silicon nanowire (SiNW) array sensor chip for protein detection. These two chips are fabricated separately and bonded to form a single unit after alignment. The integrated chip is capable of reducing the dead volume of the sample by eliminating the tubing between the two chips. After the plasma is filtrated by the filtration chip, the SiNW sensor, spotted with three different antibodies, enabled us to detect three cardiac biomarkers, troponin T (cTnT), creatine kinase MM (CK-MM) and creatine kinase MB (CK-MB), simultaneously. The integrated chip is able to attain a low detection limit of 1 pg/ml for the three cardiac biomarkers from 2 μl blood in 45 min. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sensitive and specific detection of miRNA using an isothermal exponential amplification method using fluorescence-labeled LNA/DNA chimera primers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun-Fu; Zhao, Na; Xu, Han-Qing; Xia, Han; Wei, Kun; Fu, Wei-Ling; Huang, Qing

    2016-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are currently considered as potential biomarkers for various human diseases. In the present study, miRNA-triggered real-time fluorescent isothermal reaction with exponential amplification (ReFIRE) with or without Thermus aquaticus MutS (Taq MutS) was developed to analyze miRNAs using DNA polymerase, a nicking endonuclease, and fluorescently labeled primers. In the absence of Taq MutS, the ReFIRE system permitted the detection of 100 ymol of targeted miRNA in 80 min. However, this system enabled limited differentiation between homologous miRNA family members. Upon addition of Taq MutS to the ReFIRE system, non-specific amplification generated from the mishybridization between primers and primer dimers or primers and the template duplex was eliminated. The addition of Taq MutS enabled the ultrasensitive detection of as little as 10 ymol of targeted miRNAs in 50 min, which corresponds to less than 10 copies of miRNAs in a total volume of 20 μl. Additionally, the assay exhibited a dynamic range of up to 12 orders of magnitude. The ReFIRE system also showed high specificity, enabling differentiation between homologous miRNA family members exhibiting only single-base differences. The sensitivity, specificity, and dynamic range associated with this system were greater than most currently available miRNA isothermal amplification assays. Moreover, when target-specific primers were labeled with different fluorescent reporters, multiplex analysis was easily performed in a single tube, permitting accurate normalization of miRNA expression. This simple, fast, ultrasensitive, highly specific, and easy-to-multiplex method could significantly contribute to research investigations pertaining to the biological roles of miRNA, as well as clinical diagnosis of various diseases that involve miRNA disruptions. Graphical Abstract The principle of ReFIRE system.

  18. Electrochemistry-based Approaches to Low Cost, High Sensitivity, Automated, Multiplexed Protein Immunoassays for Cancer Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Chandra K.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Otieno, Brunah A.; Tang, Chi; Malla, Spundana; Krause, Colleen E.; Rusling, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection and reliable diagnostics are keys to effectively design cancer therapies with better prognoses. Simultaneous detection of panels of biomarker proteins holds great promise as a general tool for reliable cancer diagnostics. A major challenge in designing such a panel is to decide upon a coherent group of biomarkers which have higher specificity for a given type of cancer. The second big challenge is to develop test devices to measure these biomarkers quantitatively with high sensitivity and specificity, such that there are no interferences from the complex serum or tissue matrices. Lastly, integrating all these tests into a technology that doesn’t require exclusive training to operate, and can be used at point-of-care (POC) is another potential bottleneck in futuristic cancer diagnostics. In this article, we review electrochemistry-based tools and technologies developed and/or used in our laboratories to construct low-cost microfluidic protein arrays for highly sensitive detection of the panel of cancer-specific biomarkers with high specificity and at the same time have the potential to be translated into a POC. PMID:26525998

  19. Electrochemistry-based approaches to low cost, high sensitivity, automated, multiplexed protein immunoassays for cancer diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Chandra K; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Otieno, Brunah A; Tang, Chi; Malla, Spundana; Krause, Colleen E; Rusling, James F

    2016-01-21

    Early detection and reliable diagnostics are keys to effectively design cancer therapies with better prognoses. The simultaneous detection of panels of biomarker proteins holds great promise as a general tool for reliable cancer diagnostics. A major challenge in designing such a panel is to decide upon a coherent group of biomarkers which have higher specificity for a given type of cancer. The second big challenge is to develop test devices to measure these biomarkers quantitatively with high sensitivity and specificity, such that there are no interferences from the complex serum or tissue matrices. Lastly, integrating all these tests into a technology that does not require exclusive training to operate, and can be used at point-of-care (POC) is another potential bottleneck in futuristic cancer diagnostics. In this article, we review electrochemistry-based tools and technologies developed and/or used in our laboratories to construct low-cost microfluidic protein arrays for the highly sensitive detection of a panel of cancer-specific biomarkers with high specificity which at the same time has the potential to be translated into POC applications.

  20. Novel identification of biofluids using a multiplex methylation sensitive restriction enzyme-PCR system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Chih; Tsai, Li-Chin; Lee, James Chun-I; Su, Chih-Wen; Tzen, Jason Tze-Cheng; Linacre, Adrian; Hsieh, Hsing-Mei

    2016-11-01

    The identification of a specific body fluid encountered in a forensic investigation can give crucial information. This identification can be aided by methylation profiles based on selected markers specific to a range of biofluids. In this study, the open database of Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip was searched for markers specific for semen, vaginal fluids, saliva, venous blood and menstrual blood. A total of 8 biofluid-specific methylated markers and 2 control markers were combined into a 10-plex methylation sensitive restriction enzyme-PCR (MSRE-PCR) system. Based upon the analysis of 100 DNA samples from these 5 biofluid types, unambiguous results were obtained to identify the body fluid from which it originated. Validation studies of the developed 10-plex MSRE-PCR included sensitivity, reproducibility and mixed body fluids. Co-amplification of the established MSRE-PCR system and the microsatellite loci in AmpFlSTR(®) MiniFiler™ PCR Amplification Kit was performed to generate both the methylation profile for biofluid type and the miniSTR profile. This allowed human identification and the identification of the body fluid type to be performed in a single reaction. The results of this study displayed the applicability of this 10-plex MSRE-PCR system in forensic science.

  1. Quenching of Unincorporated Amplification Signal Reporters in Reverse-Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Enabling Bright, Single-Step, Closed-Tube, and Multiplexed Detection of RNA Viruses.

    PubMed

    Ball, Cameron S; Light, Yooli K; Koh, Chung-Yan; Wheeler, Sarah S; Coffey, Lark L; Meagher, Robert J

    2016-04-05

    Reverse-transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) has frequently been proposed as an enabling technology for simplified diagnostic tests for RNA viruses. However, common detection techniques used for LAMP and RT-LAMP have drawbacks, including poor discrimination capability, inability to multiplex targets, high rates of false positives, and (in some cases) the requirement of opening reaction tubes postamplification. Here, we present a simple technique that allows closed-tube, target-specific detection, based on inclusion of a dye-labeled primer that is incorporated into a target-specific amplicon if the target is present. A short, complementary quencher hybridizes to unincorporated primer upon cooling down at the end of the reaction, thereby quenching fluorescence of any unincorporated primer. Our technique, which we term QUASR (for quenching of unincorporated amplification signal reporters, read "quasar"), does not significantly reduce the amplification efficiency or sensitivity of RT-LAMP. Equipped with a simple LED excitation source and a colored plastic gel filter, the naked eye or a camera can easily discriminate between positive and negative QUASR reactions, which produce a difference in signal of approximately 10:1 without background subtraction. We demonstrate that QUASR detection is compatible with complex sample matrices such as human blood, using a novel LAMP primer set for bacteriophage MS2 (a model RNA virus particle). Furthermore, we demonstrate single-tube duplex detection of West Nile virus (WNV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) RNA.

  2. Quenching of unincorporated amplification signal reporters in reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification enabling bright, single-step, closed-tube, and multiplexed detection of RNA viruses

    DOE PAGES

    Ball, Cameron S.; Light, Yooli K.; Koh, Chung -Yan; ...

    2016-03-16

    Reverse-transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) has frequently been proposed as an enabling technology for simplified diagnostic tests for RNA viruses. However, common detection techniques used for LAMP and RT-LAMP have drawbacks, including poor discrimination capability, inability to multiplex targets, high rates of false positives, and (in some cases) the requirement of opening reaction tubes postamplification. Here, we present a simple technique that allows closed-tube, target-specific detection, based on inclusion of a dye-labeled primer that is incorporated into a target-specific amplicon if the target is present. A short, complementary quencher hybridizes to unincorporated primer upon cooling down at the end of themore » reaction, thereby quenching fluorescence of any unincorporated primer. Our technique, which we term QUASR (for quenching of unincorporated amplification signal reporters, read “quasar”), does not significantly reduce the amplification efficiency or sensitivity of RT-LAMP. Equipped with a simple LED excitation source and a colored plastic gel filter, the naked eye or a camera can easily discriminate between positive and negative QUASR reactions, which produce a difference in signal of approximately 10:1 without background subtraction. We demonstrate that QUASR detection is compatible with complex sample matrices such as human blood, using a novel LAMP primer set for bacteriophage MS2 (a model RNA virus particle). As a result, we demonstrate single-tube duplex detection of West Nile virus (WNV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) RNA.« less

  3. Microfluidic based multiplex qRT-PCR identifies diagnostic and prognostic microRNA signatures in sera of prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Moltzahn, Felix; Olshen, Adam B.; Baehner, Lauren; Peek, Andrew; Fong, Lawrence; Stöppler, Hubert; Simko, Jeffry; Hilton, Joan F.; Carroll, Peter; Blelloch, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Recent prostate specific antigen (PSA) based screening trials indicate an urgent need for novel and non-invasive biomarker identification strategies to improve the prediction of prostate cancer behavior. Non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) in the serum and plasma have been shown to have potential as non-invasive markers for physiological and pathological conditions. To identify serum miRNAs that diagnose and correlate with prognosis of prostate cancer, we developed a multiplex quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) method involving purification of multiplex PCR products followed by uniplex analysis on a microfluidics chip to evaluate 384 human miRNAs. Using Dgcr8 and Dicer knockout (small RNA - deficient) mouse ES cells (mESC) as the benchmark, we confirmed the validity of our technique, while uncovering a significant lack of accuracy in previously published methods. Profiling 48 sera from healthy men and untreated prostate cancer patients with differing CAPRA (Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment) scores, we identified miRNA signatures that allow to diagnose cancer patients and correlate with prognosis. These serum signatures include oncogenic and tumor suppressive miRNAs suggesting functional roles in prostate cancer progression. PMID:21098088

  4. High-specificity single-tube multiplex genotyping using Ribo-PAP PCR, tag primers, alkali cleavage of RNA/DNA chimeras and MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Mauger, Florence; Gelfand, David H; Gupta, Amar; Bodepudi, Veeraiah; Will, Stephen G; Bauer, Keith; Myers, Thomas W; Gut, Ivo G

    2013-01-01

    Here, we describe a high-throughput, single-tube, allele-specific ribonucleotide analog pyrophosphorolysis-activated polymerization (ribo-PAP) PCR multiplex genotyping and resequencing method. An RNA/DNA chimeric PCR product is generated using genomic DNA as starting template, a panel of allele-selective 5'-tagged primers, a reverse primer, one nucleotide in the ribo-form (90-100%), the other nucleotides in the deoxy-form, a DNA polymerase capable of incorporating ribonucleotides, a suitable buffer and thermal cycling. The RNA/DNA chimeric PCR products are fragmented by treatment with alkali and analyzed by mass spectrometry. All allele-selective primers have a 5' repetitive motif where each repeat unit has a unique, distinct mass upon reverse copying and alkali fragmentation. The mass of the complement repeat fragment or flag identifies the primer or primers that were recruited in the ribo-PAP PCR. The method readily identifies homozygous and heterozygous positions in simplex or duplex ribo-PAP PCR. Many different tags can be analyzed simultaneously. The assay can genotype several SNPs in a single tube. It thus constitutes the simplest genotyping protocol with multiplex analysis. This novel genotyping and resequencing protocol was applied to different genomic loci: NOS1 and H19 in 30 individuals in simplex ribo-PAP PCR and at two SLCO1B1 loci in 95 individuals in duplex ribo-PAP PCR.

  5. Sets of RNA Repeated Tags and Hybridization-Sensitive Fluorescent Probes for Distinct Images of RNA in a Living Cell

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Takeshi; Ikeda, Shuji; Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki; Yuki, Mizue; Okamoto, Akimitsu

    2010-01-01

    Background Imaging the behavior of RNA in a living cell is a powerful means for understanding RNA functions and acquiring spatiotemporal information in a single cell. For more distinct RNA imaging in a living cell, a more effective chemical method to fluorescently label RNA is now required. In addition, development of the technology labeling with different colors for different RNA would make it easier to analyze plural RNA strands expressing in a cell. Methodology/Principal Findings Tag technology for RNA imaging in a living cell has been developed based on the unique chemical functions of exciton-controlled hybridization-sensitive oligonucleotide (ECHO) probes. Repetitions of selected 18-nucleotide RNA tags were incorporated into the mRNA 3′-UTR. Pairs with complementary ECHO probes exhibited hybridization-sensitive fluorescence emission for the mRNA expressed in a living cell. The mRNA in a nucleus was detected clearly as fluorescent puncta, and the images of the expression of two mRNAs were obtained independently and simultaneously with two orthogonal tag–probe pairs. Conclusions/Significance A compact and repeated label has been developed for RNA imaging in a living cell, based on the photochemistry of ECHO probes. The pairs of an 18-nt RNA tag and the complementary ECHO probes are highly thermostable, sequence-specifically emissive, and orthogonal to each other. The nucleotide length necessary for one tag sequence is much shorter compared with conventional tag technologies, resulting in easy preparation of the tag sequences with a larger number of repeats for more distinct RNA imaging. PMID:20885944

  6. Rapid and Sensitive Multiplex Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei-Specific Antibodies in Melioidosis Patients Based on a Protein Microarray Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Christian; Dunachie, Susanna J.; Müller, Elke; Kohler, Anne; Jenjaroen, Kemajittra; Teparrukkul, Prapit; Baier, Vico; Ehricht, Ralf; Steinmetz, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Background The environmental bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei causes the infectious disease melioidosis with a high case-fatality rate in tropical and subtropical regions. Direct pathogen detection can be difficult, and therefore an indirect serological test which might aid early diagnosis is desirable. However, current tests for antibodies against B. pseudomallei, including the reference indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA), lack sensitivity, specificity and standardization. Consequently, serological tests currently do not play a role in the diagnosis of melioidosis in endemic areas. Recently, a number of promising diagnostic antigens have been identified, but a standardized, easy-to-perform clinical laboratory test for sensitive multiplex detection of antibodies against B. pseudomallei is still lacking. Methods and Principal Findings In this study, we developed and validated a protein microarray which can be used in a standard 96-well format. Our array contains 20 recombinant and purified B. pseudomallei proteins, previously identified as serodiagnostic candidates in melioidosis. In total, we analyzed 196 sera and plasmas from melioidosis patients from northeast Thailand and 210 negative controls from melioidosis-endemic and non-endemic regions. Our protein array clearly discriminated between sera from melioidosis patients and controls with a specificity of 97%. Importantly, the array showed a higher sensitivity than did the IHA in melioidosis patients upon admission (cut-off IHA titer ≥1:160: IHA 57.3%, protein array: 86.7%; p = 0.0001). Testing of sera from single patients at 0, 12 and 52 weeks post-admission revealed that protein antigens induce either a short- or long-term antibody response. Conclusions Our protein array provides a standardized, rapid, easy-to-perform test for the detection of B. pseudomallei-specific antibody patterns. Thus, this system has the potential to improve the serodiagnosis of melioidosis in clinical settings. Moreover, our

  7. High sensitive micro-displacement intensity fiber sensor by using a multiwavelength erbium doped fiber ring laser based on optical add-drop multiplexers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Herrera, R. A.; Leandro, D.; Lopez-Amo, M.

    2014-05-01

    In this work, a wavelength division multiplexed fiber ring laser, based on optical add-drop multiplexers to interconnect intensity sensors has been experimentally demonstrated. Three different laser lines were obtained simultaneously all with an optical signal to noise ratio higher than 30dB. This proposed configuration is based on commercial devices and is adapted to the ITU channels normative. By using this configuration each sensor was associated with a different wavelength directly offered by each OADM and a reference wavelength was also included in order to distinguish between power variations induced by the transducer or to detect a fiber failure. This sensor system has been experimentally verified by using microbending sensors obtaining experimental slope sensitivity as good as -0.327dB/μm.

  8. Simultaneous Detection of Multiplex-Amplified Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA, Hepatitis C Virus RNA, and Hepatitis B Virus DNA Using a Flow Cytometer Microsphere-Based Hybridization Assay

    PubMed Central

    Defoort, J.-P.; Martin, M.; Casano, B.; Prato, S.; Camilla, C.; Fert, V.

    2000-01-01

    The feasibility of performing a multiplex assay for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNAs and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA is demonstrated. This assay is based (i) on the coamplification of a 142-bp fragment from the gag region of the HIV-1 genome and a 142-bp HIV-1 quantitation standard fragment, a 244-bp fragment from the 5′ noncoding region of the HCV genome, and a 104-bp fragment from the pre-C and C gene regions of the HBV genome, using three sets of specific primers; (ii) on the capacity of these four biotinylated PCR products to hybridize to their specific oligonucleotide probe-coated microspheres; and (iii) on the ability of the flow cytometer to discriminate between distinct fluorescent-microsphere categories. Absence of cross-hybridization between the unrelated oligonucleotide probes and PCR products generated by the multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and the highly sensitive detection method allowed us to assess unambiguously the HIV-1 viral load and the infectious status of 35 serologically well-established clinical samples and 20 seronegative blood donor plasma samples tested. The results indicate that multiplex RT-PCR and flow cytometer microsphere-based hybridization assays, when combined, provide a rapid, sensitive, and specific method for the quantitation and detection of the major viral agents of infectious diseases in a single plasma sample. PMID:10698998

  9. A low-cost library construction protocol and data analysis pipeline for Illumina-based strand-specific multiplex RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Si, Yaqing; Dedow, Lauren K; Shao, Ying; Liu, Peng; Brutnell, Thomas P

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of NextGen sequencing technology has generated much interest in the exploration of transcriptomes. Currently, Illumina Inc. (San Diego, CA) provides one of the most widely utilized sequencing platforms for gene expression analysis. While Illumina reagents and protocols perform adequately in RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), alternative reagents and protocols promise a higher throughput at a much lower cost. We have developed a low-cost and robust protocol to produce Illumina-compatible (GAIIx and HiSeq2000 platforms) RNA-seq libraries by combining several recent improvements. First, we designed balanced adapter sequences for multiplexing of samples; second, dUTP incorporation in 2(nd) strand synthesis was used to enforce strand-specificity; third, we simplified RNA purification, fragmentation and library size-selection steps thus drastically reducing the time and increasing throughput of library construction; fourth, we included an RNA spike-in control for validation and normalization purposes. To streamline informatics analysis for the community, we established a pipeline within the iPlant Collaborative. These scripts are easily customized to meet specific research needs and improve on existing informatics and statistical treatments of RNA-seq data. In particular, we apply significance tests for determining differential gene expression and intron retention events. To demonstrate the potential of both the library-construction protocol and data-analysis pipeline, we characterized the transcriptome of the rice leaf. Our data supports novel gene models and can be used to improve current rice genome annotation. Additionally, using the rice transcriptome data, we compared different methods of calculating gene expression and discuss the advantages of a strand-specific approach to detect bona-fide anti-sense transcripts and to detect intron retention events. Our results demonstrate the potential of this low cost and robust method for RNA-seq library construction and

  10. mCAL: A New Approach for Versatile Multiplex Action of Cas9 Using One sgRNA and Loci Flanked by a Programmed Target Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Finnigan, Gregory C.; Thorner, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing exploiting CRISPR/Cas9 has been adopted widely in academia and in the biotechnology industry to manipulate DNA sequences in diverse organisms. Molecular engineering of Cas9 itself and its guide RNA, and the strategies for using them, have increased efficiency, optimized specificity, reduced inappropriate off-target effects, and introduced modifications for performing other functions (transcriptional regulation, high-resolution imaging, protein recruitment, and high-throughput screening). Moreover, Cas9 has the ability to multiplex, i.e., to act at different genomic targets within the same nucleus. Currently, however, introducing concurrent changes at multiple loci involves: (i) identification of appropriate genomic sites, especially the availability of suitable PAM sequences; (ii) the design, construction, and expression of multiple sgRNA directed against those sites; (iii) potential difficulties in altering essential genes; and (iv) lingering concerns about “off-target” effects. We have devised a new approach that circumvents these drawbacks, as we demonstrate here using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. First, any gene(s) of interest are flanked upstream and downstream with a single unique target sequence that does not normally exist in the genome. Thereafter, expression of one sgRNA and cotransformation with appropriate PCR fragments permits concomitant Cas9-mediated alteration of multiple genes (both essential and nonessential). The system we developed also allows for maintenance of the integrated, inducible Cas9-expression cassette or its simultaneous scarless excision. Our scheme—dubbed mCAL for “Multiplexing of Cas9 at Artificial Loci”—can be applied to any organism in which the CRISPR/Cas9 methodology is currently being utilized. In principle, it can be applied to install synthetic sequences into the genome, to generate genomic libraries, and to program strains or cell lines so that they can be conveniently (and repeatedly

  11. Simultaneous detection and identification of four cherry viruses by two step multiplex RT-PCR with an internal control of plant nad5 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Noorani, Md Salik; Awasthi, Prachi; Sharma, Maheshwar Prasad; Ram, Raja; Zaidi, Aijaz Asgar; Hallan, Vipin

    2013-10-01

    A multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) was developed and standardized for the simultaneous detection of four cherry viruses: Cherry virus A (CVA, Genus; Capillovirus), Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV, unassigned species of the Betaflexiviridae), Little cherry virus 1 (LChV-1, Genus; Closterovirus) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV, Genus; Ilarvirus) with nad5 as plant internal control. A reliable and quick method for total plant RNA extraction from pome and stone fruit trees was also developed. To minimize primer dimer formation, a single antisense primer for CVA and CNRMV was used. A mixture of random hexamer and oligo (dT) primer was used for cDNA synthesis, which was highly suited and economic for multiplexing. All four viruses were detected successfully by mRT-PCR in artificially created viral RNA mixture and field samples of sweet cherry. The identity of the viruses was confirmed by sequencing. The assay could detect above viruses in diluted cDNA (10(-4)) and RNA (10(-3), except PNRSV which was detected only till ten times lesser dilution). The developed mRT-PCR will not only be useful for the detection of viruses from single or multiple infections of sweet cherry plants but also for other stone and pome fruits. The developed method will be therefore quite helpful for virus indexing, plant quarantine and certification programs. This is the first report for the simultaneous detection of four cherry viruses by mRT-PCR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Empower multiplex cell and tissue-specific CRISPR-mediated gene manipulation with self-cleaving ribozymes and tRNA

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Zhao, Lixia; Gao, Yandi; Xu, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system has emerged in recent years as a highly efficient RNA-guided gene manipulation platform. Simultaneous editing or transcriptional activation/suppression of different genes becomes feasible with the co-delivery of multiple guide RNAs (gRNAs). Here, we report that multiple gRNAs linked with self-cleaving ribozymes and/or tRNA could be simultaneously expressed from a single U6 promoter to exert genome editing of dystrophin and myosin binding protein C3 in human and mouse cells. Moreover, this strategy allows the expression of multiple gRNAs for synergistic transcription activation of follistatin when used with catalytically inactive dCas9-VP64 or dCas9-p300core fusions. Finally, the gRNAs linked by the self-cleaving ribozymes and tRNA could be expressed from RNA polymerase type II (pol II) promoters such as generic CMV and muscle/heart-specific MHCK7. This is particularly useful for in vivo applications when the packaging capacity of recombinant adeno-associated virus is limited while tissue-specific delivery of gRNAs and Cas9 is desired. Taken together, this study provides a novel strategy to enable tissue-specific expression of more than one gRNAs for multiplex gene editing from a single pol II promoter. PMID:27799472

  13. Antagonistic functions between the RNA chaperone Hfq and an sRNA regulate sensitivity to the antibiotic colicin

    PubMed Central

    Salvail, Hubert; Caron, Marie-Pier; Bélanger, Justine; Massé, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The RNA chaperone Hfq is a key regulator of the function of small RNAs (sRNAs). Hfq has been shown to facilitate sRNAs binding to target mRNAs and to directly regulate translation through the action of sRNAs. Here, we present evidence that Hfq acts as the repressor of cirA mRNA translation in the absence of sRNA. Hfq binding to cirA prevents translation initiation, which correlates with cirA mRNA instability. In contrast, RyhB pairing to cirA mRNA promotes changes in RNA structure that displace Hfq, thereby allowing efficient translation as well as mRNA stabilization. Because CirA is a receptor for the antibiotic colicin Ia, in addition to acting as an Fur (Ferric Uptake Regulator)-regulated siderophore transporter, translational activation of cirA mRNA by RyhB promotes colicin sensitivity under conditions of iron starvation. Altogether, these results indicate that Fur and RyhB modulate an unexpected feed-forward loop mechanism related to iron physiology and colicin sensitivity. PMID:24065131

  14. Rapid and sensitive detection of 68 unique varicella zoster virus gene transcripts in five multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Maria A.; Gilden, Don; Shade, Ted; Gao, Bifeng; Cohrs, Randall J.

    2010-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) becomes latent in ganglionic neurons along the entire neuraxis. Although all predicted VZV open reading frames (ORFs) have been detected by macroarray and microarray analysis in virus-infected cells in culture where virus gene expression is abundant, array technology does not detect all VZV gene transcripts in latently-infected human ganglia, where the abundance of ganglionic RNA is low and VZV gene transcription is highly variable. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the GenomeLab Genetic Analysis System (GeXPS), transcripts mapping to all 68 predicted unique VZV ORFs were detected in VZV-infected MeWo cells. Oligonucleotide primers contained both VZV- and cell-specific sequences linked to universal DNA sequences such that PCR amplification products were of predetermined sizes. Amplification products were resolved by capillary gel electrophoresis and detected by fluorescence spectrophotometry. Serial dilutions of total RNA extracted from VZV-infected MeWo cells were analyzed in parallel by GeXPS multiplex RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. GeXPS technology detected as few as 20 copies of VZV gene-specific transcripts. Only five multiplex RT-PCR assays were needed to analyze the entire VZV transcriptome. This technology will allow rapid analysis of all VZV genes transcribed during latency in human ganglia. PMID:19109999

  15. Interleaved EPI Based fMRI Improved by Multiplexed Sensitivity Encoding (MUSE) and Simultaneous Multi-Band Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hing-Chiu; Gaur, Pooja; Chou, Ying-hui; Chu, Mei-Lan; Chen, Nan-kuei

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive and powerful imaging tool for detecting brain activities. The majority of fMRI studies are performed with single-shot echo-planar imaging (EPI) due to its high temporal resolution. Recent studies have demonstrated that, by increasing the spatial-resolution of fMRI, previously unidentified neuronal networks can be measured. However, it is challenging to improve the spatial resolution of conventional single-shot EPI based fMRI. Although multi-shot interleaved EPI is superior to single-shot EPI in terms of the improved spatial-resolution, reduced geometric distortions, and sharper point spread function (PSF), interleaved EPI based fMRI has two main limitations: 1) the imaging throughput is lower in interleaved EPI; 2) the magnitude and phase signal variations among EPI segments (due to physiological noise, subject motion, and B0 drift) are translated to significant in-plane aliasing artifact across the field of view (FOV). Here we report a method that integrates multiple approaches to address the technical limitations of interleaved EPI-based fMRI. Firstly, the multiplexed sensitivity-encoding (MUSE) post-processing algorithm is used to suppress in-plane aliasing artifacts resulting from time-domain signal instabilities during dynamic scans. Secondly, a simultaneous multi-band interleaved EPI pulse sequence, with a controlled aliasing scheme incorporated, is implemented to increase the imaging throughput. Thirdly, the MUSE algorithm is then generalized to accommodate fMRI data obtained with our multi-band interleaved EPI pulse sequence, suppressing both in-plane and through-plane aliasing artifacts. The blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal detectability and the scan throughput can be significantly improved for interleaved EPI-based fMRI. Our human fMRI data obtained from 3 Tesla systems demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed methods. It is expected that future fMRI studies requiring high

  16. Detection of Genes Modifying Sensitivity to Proteasome Inhibitors Using a shRNA Library in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    backbone of the primary miR-30 microRNA14. We have produced and sequence -verified more than 200,000 shRNAs covering almost all of the predicted...the complement of these sequences . One can assess cellular response to different treatments 5 by comparing barcode representations of cell...Barcode sequences were determined for the human shRNA library, and custom, multiplex format microarrays were prepared that contained both barcode

  17. An isothermal electrochemical biosensor for the sensitive detection of microRNA based on a catalytic hairpin assembly and supersandwich amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Wang, Qing; Yang, Xiaohai; Wang, Kemin; Li, Qing; Li, Zhiping; Gao, Lei; Nie, Wenyan; Zheng, Yan

    2017-01-16

    A novel isothermal electrochemical biosensor was proposed for the sensitive detection of microRNA (miRNA) based on the ingenious combination of the target-catalyzed hairpin assembly (CHA) and supersandwich amplification strategies. Since miRNA-221 has been reported to be overexpressed in cancers and has been a potentially useful biomarker for the diagnosis of the related diseases, miRNA-221 was chosen as a model target miRNA. The target miRNA-221 triggered a toehold strand displacement assembly of the two hairpin substrates, which led to the cyclicality of the target miRNA and the CHA products. Subsequently, the CHA products hybridized with a capture probe on the electrode and the exposed stem of the CHA products was further used to propagate the supersandwich. After this, the signal probe was modified with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to form a supersandwich multiplex HRP-DNA label, which could achieve an amplified electrochemical signal. Using the isothermal dual signal amplification strategies, miRNA-221 as low as 0.6 pM (3σ) could be detected. In addition, this biosensor showed high selectivity and could discriminate miRNA-221 from the homologous miRNAs. Note that human miRNA from cancer cells could also be detected and the results were in excellent agreement with those obtained using qRT-PCR. Given that the biosensor avoided the introduction of nanoparticles, the limitation of using the nanoparticles was overcome. The proposed biosensor has great potential for broad applications in the field of clinical analysis.

  18. A novel lab-on-chip platform with integrated solid phase PCR and Supercritical Angle Fluorescence (SAF) microlens array for highly sensitive and multiplexed pathogen detection.

    PubMed

    Hung, Tran Quang; Chin, Wai Hoe; Sun, Yi; Wolff, Anders; Bang, Dang Duong

    2017-04-15

    Solid-phase PCR (SP-PCR) has become increasingly popular for molecular diagnosis and there have been a few attempts to incorporate SP-PCR into lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices. However, their applicability for on-line diagnosis is hindered by the lack of sensitive and portable on-chip optical detection technology. In this paper, we addressed this challenge by combining the SP-PCR with super critical angle fluorescence (SAF) microlens array embedded in a microchip. We fabricated miniaturized SAF microlens array as part of a microfluidic chamber in thermoplastic material and performed multiplexed SP-PCR directly on top of the SAF microlens array. Attribute to the high fluorescence collection efficiency of the SAF microlens array, the SP-PCR assay on the LOC platform demonstrated a high sensitivity of 1.6 copies/µL, comparable to off-chip detection using conventional laser scanner. The combination of SP-PCR and SAF microlens array allows for on-chip highly sensitive and multiplexed pathogen detection with low-cost and compact optical components. The LOC platform would be widely used as a high-throughput biosensor to analyze food, clinical and environmental samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Computer assisted multiplex sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Church, G.M.

    1992-08-01

    The objectives of this project are automation and optimization of multiplex sequencing. This year we have integrated direct transfer electrophoresis, automated multiplex hybridizations and automated film reading and applied this toward sequencing of three contiguous E. coli cosmids. Primers for the directed dideoxy sequence walking and sequence confirmation steps were synthesized with a 15 base tag complimentary to an alkaline phosphatase conjugate. A higher throughput synthesis device is well along in testing as are new automated hybridization devices. We have developed software for automatically annotating ORFs and databases of precise termini of proteis and RNA.

  20. Sensitive, Specific Complementary - Strand Optical Detection of Viral RNA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    sensing. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES RNA, enterovirii, biosensor, evanscent waves, refractometry , 31 phase detection, complementary strand...the investigator(s) adhered to the CDC-NIH Guide for Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories. (,- u r,’ Dt Table of Contents Overview...Nonetheless, the physical basis of the Georgia Tech signal is T ( u 20 30 40 50 identical to ours. They have also developed a single-stranded,Time (minutes

  1. Integrative mRNA-microRNA analyses reveal novel interactions related to insulin sensitivity in human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Tyler J; Walton, R Grace; Finlin, Brian; Zhu, Beibei; Unal, Resat; Rasouli, Neda; Peterson, Charlotte A; Kern, Philip A

    2016-02-01

    Adipose tissue has profound effects on whole-body insulin sensitivity. However, the underlying biological processes are quite complex and likely multifactorial. For instance, the adipose transcriptome is posttranscriptionally modulated by microRNAs, but the relationship between microRNAs and insulin sensitivity in humans remains to be determined. To this end, we utilized an integrative mRNA-microRNA microarray approach to identify putative molecular interactions that regulate the transcriptome in subcutaneous adipose tissue of insulin-sensitive (IS) and insulin-resistant (IR) individuals. Using the NanoString nCounter Human v1 microRNA Expression Assay, we show that 17 microRNAs are differentially expressed in IR vs. IS. Of these, 16 microRNAs (94%) are downregulated in IR vs. IS, including miR-26b, miR-30b, and miR-145. Using Agilent Human Whole Genome arrays, we identified genes that were predicted targets of miR-26b, miR-30b, and miR-145 and were upregulated in IR subjects. This analysis produced ADAM22, MYO5A, LOX, and GM2A as predicted gene targets of these microRNAs. We then validated that miR-145 and miR-30b regulate these mRNAs in differentiated human adipose stem cells. We suggest that use of bioinformatic integration of mRNA and microRNA arrays yields verifiable mRNA-microRNA pairs that are associated with insulin resistance and can be validated in vitro.

  2. Detection of Babesia microti parasites by highly sensitive 18S rRNA reverse transcription PCR.

    PubMed

    Hanron, Amelia E; Billman, Zachary P; Seilie, Annette M; Chang, Ming; Murphy, Sean C

    2017-03-01

    Babesia are increasingly appreciated as a cause of transfusion-transmitted infection. Sensitive methods are needed to screen blood products. We report herein that B. microti 18S rRNA is over 1,000-fold more abundant than its coding genes, making reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) much more sensitive than PCR. Babesia 18S rRNA may be useful for screening the blood supply. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Empower multiplex cell and tissue-specific CRISPR-mediated gene manipulation with self-cleaving ribozymes and tRNA.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Zhao, Lixia; Gao, Yandi; Xu, Jing; Han, Renzhi

    2017-03-17

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system has emerged in recent years as a highly efficient RNA-guided gene manipulation platform. Simultaneous editing or transcriptional activation/suppression of different genes becomes feasible with the co-delivery of multiple guide RNAs (gRNAs). Here, we report that multiple gRNAs linked with self-cleaving ribozymes and/or tRNA could be simultaneously expressed from a single U6 promoter to exert genome editing of dystrophin and myosin binding protein C3 in human and mouse cells. Moreover, this strategy allows the expression of multiple gRNAs for synergistic transcription activation of follistatin when used with catalytically inactive dCas9-VP64 or dCas9-p300core fusions. Finally, the gRNAs linked by the self-cleaving ribozymes and tRNA could be expressed from RNA polymerase type II (pol II) promoters such as generic CMV and muscle/heart-specific MHCK7. This is particularly useful for in vivo applications when the packaging capacity of recombinant adeno-associated virus is limited while tissue-specific delivery of gRNAs and Cas9 is desired. Taken together, this study provides a novel strategy to enable tissue-specific expression of more than one gRNAs for multiplex gene editing from a single pol II promoter. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Mutation profiling of tumor DNA from plasma and tumor tissue of colorectal cancer patients with a novel, high-sensitivity multiplexed mutation detection platform.

    PubMed

    Kidess, Evelyn; Heirich, Kyra; Wiggin, Matthew; Vysotskaia, Valentina; Visser, Brendan C; Marziali, Andre; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Norton, Jeffrey A; Lee, Mark; Jeffrey, Stefanie S; Poultsides, George A

    2015-02-10

    Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) holds promise as a non-invasive means for tumor monitoring in solid malignancies. Assays with high sensitivity and multiplexed analysis of mutations are needed to enable broad application. We developed a new assay based on sequence-specific synchronous coefficient of drag alteration (SCODA) technology, which enriches for mutant DNA to achieve high sensitivity and specificity. This assay was applied to plasma and tumor tissue from non-metastatic and metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, including patients undergoing surgical resection for CRC liver metastases. Across multiple characterization experiments, the assay demonstrated a limit of detection of 0.001% (1 molecule in 100,000) for the majority of the 46 mutations in the panel. In CRC patient samples (n=38), detected mutations were concordant in tissue and plasma for 93% of metastatic patients versus 54% of non-metastatic patients. For three patients, ctDNA identified additional mutations not detected in tumor tissue. In patients undergoing liver metastatectomy, ctDNA anticipated tumor recurrence earlier than carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) value or imaging. The multiplexed SCODA mutation enrichment and detection method can be applied to mutation profiling and quantitation of ctDNA, and is likely to have particular utility in the metastatic setting, including patients undergoing metastatectomy.

  5. Increased miRNA-22 expression sensitizes esophageal squamous cell carcinoma to irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-chun; Zhang, Zhu-Bo; Wang, Yue-Ying; Wu, Hong-Ying; Li, De-Guan; Meng, Ai-Min; Fan, Fei-Yue

    2013-01-01

    miRNA-22 was previously reported to be a tumor suppressor. The aim of this study was to explore the expression and function of miRNA-22 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Expression of miRNA-22 in 100 ESCC tissues was examined by q-PCR. The correlation between miRNA-22 level and clinicopathological features was analyzed using SPSS16.0 statistical software. Moreover, the effect of miRNA-22 expression on radiosensitivity of ESCC cells was examined. miRNA-22 expression decreased in ESCC tissues, and statistical analyses showed that the expression of miRNA-22 was associated with the stage of clinical classification. No correlation was found between miRNA-22 expression and the overall survival of ESCC patients. However, significant positive correlation was found between miRNA-22 expression and the survival of patients who received radiotherapy (P < 0.05). Increased expression of miRNA-22 sensitized ESCC cells to γ-ray radiation and promoted the apoptosis of ESCC cells induced by γ-ray radiation. Increased expression level of miRNA-22 had effects on Rad51 expression after irradiation. These results demonstrate for the first time that decreased miRNA-22 expression correlates with increased radiotherapy resistance of ESCC, and that this effect is mediated, at least in part, by the Rad51 pathway. PMID:23188185

  6. Structure-seq2: sensitive and accurate genome-wide profiling of RNA structure in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ritchey, Laura E; Su, Zhao; Tang, Yin; Tack, David C; Assmann, Sarah M; Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2017-08-21

    RNA serves many functions in biology such as splicing, temperature sensing, and innate immunity. These functions are often determined by the structure of RNA. There is thus a pressing need to understand RNA structure and how it changes during diverse biological processes both in vivo and genome-wide. Here, we present Structure-seq2, which provides nucleotide-resolution RNA structural information in vivo and genome-wide. This optimized version of our original Structure-seq method increases sensitivity by at least 4-fold and improves data quality by minimizing formation of a deleterious by-product, reducing ligation bias, and improving read coverage. We also present a variation of Structure-seq2 in which a biotinylated nucleotide is incorporated during reverse transcription, which greatly facilitates the protocol by eliminating two PAGE purification steps. We benchmark Structure-seq2 on both mRNA and rRNA structure in rice (Oryza sativa). We demonstrate that Structure-seq2 can lead to new biological insights. Our Structure-seq2 datasets uncover hidden breaks in chloroplast rRNA and identify a previously unreported N1-methyladenosine (m1A) in a nuclear-encoded Oryza sativa rRNA. Overall, Structure-seq2 is a rapid, sensitive, and unbiased method to probe RNA in vivo and genome-wide that facilitates new insights into RNA biology. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Multicolor Gold-Silver Nano-Mushrooms as Ready-to-Use SERS Probes for Ultrasensitive and Multiplex DNA/miRNA Detection.

    PubMed

    Su, Jing; Wang, Dongfang; Nörbel, Lena; Shen, Jianlei; Zhao, Zhihan; Dou, Yanzhi; Peng, Tianhuan; Shi, Jiye; Mathur, Sanjay; Fan, Chunhai; Song, Shiping

    2017-02-21

    Uniform silver-containing metal nanostructures with strong and stable surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals hold great promise for developing ultrasensitive probes for biodetection. Nevertheless, the direct synthesis of such ready-to-use nanoprobes remains extremely challenging. Herein we report a DNA-mediated gold-silver nanomushroom with interior nanogaps directly synthesized and used for multiplex and simultaneous SERS detection of various DNA and RNA targets. The DNA involved in the nanostructures can act as not only gap DNA (mediated DNA) but also probe DNA (hybridized DNA), and DNA's involvement enables the nanostructures to have the inherent ability to recognize DNA and RNA targets. Importantly, we were the first to establish a new method for the generation of multicolor SERS probes using two different strategies. First Raman-labeled alkanethiol probe DNA was assembled on gold nanoparticles, and second, thiol-containing Raman reporters were coassembled with the probe DNA. The ready-to-use probes also give great potential to develop ultrasensitive detection methods for various biological molecules.

  8. Microgels for multiplex and direct fluorescence detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Causa, Filippo; Aliberti, Anna; Cusano, Angela M.; Battista, Edmondo; Netti, Paolo A.

    2015-05-01

    Blood borne oligonucleotides fragments contain useful clinical information whose detection and monitoring represent the new frontier in liquid biopsy as they can transform the current diagnosis procedure. For instance, recent studies have identified a new class of circulating biomarkers such as s miRNAs, and demonstrated that changes in their concentration are closely associated with the development of cancer and other pathologies. However, direct detection of miRNAs in body fluids is particularly challenging and demands high sensitivity -concentration range between atto to femtomolarspecificity, and multiplexing Here we report on engineered multifunctional microgels and innovative probe design for a direct and multiplex detection of relevant clinical miRNAs in fluorescence by single particle assay. Polyethyleneglycol-based microgels have a coreshell architecture with two spectrally encoded fluorescent dyes for multiplex analyses and are endowed with fluorescent probes for miRNA detection. Encoding and detection fluorescence signals are distinguishable by not overlapping emission spectra. Tuneable fluorescence probe conjugation and corresponding emission confinement on single microgel allows for enhanced target detection. Such suspension array has indeed high selectivity and sensitivity with a detection limit of 10-15 M and a dynamic range from 10-9 to 10-15 M. We believe that sensitivity in the fM concentration range, signal background minimization, multiplexed capability and direct measurement of such microgels will translate into diagnostic benefits opening up new roots toward liquid biopsy in the context of point-of-care testing through an easy and fast detection of sensitive diagnostic biomarkers directly in serum.

  9. Purification of sea-urchin RNA polymerase II. Characterization by template requirements and sensitivity to inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ballario, P; Di Mauro, E; Giuliani, C; Pedone, F

    1980-04-01

    The purification of RNA polymerase II from gastrulae of Paracentrotus lividus is described. The enzyme obtained is homogeneous as judged by electrophoresis under non-denaturing conditions. It is able to transcribe both native high-Mr P. lividus DNA and Psammechinus miliaris h22 histone DNA, although single-stranded and nicked DNAs are better templates. P. lividus RNA polymerase II forms with homologous native DNA stable binary complexes that are able to initiate RNA chains after exposure to heparin. Heparin-resistant complexes do not form on nicks of DNA molecules. Sensitivity of sea-urchin RNA polymerase II to rifamycin derivatives and alpha-amanitin has been determined.

  10. A combinatorial approach to the repertoire of RNA kissing motifs; towards multiplex detection by switching hairpin aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Guillaume; Dausse, Eric; Goux, Emma; Fiore, Emmanuelle; Peyrin, Eric; Ravelet, Corinne; Toulmé, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Loop–loop (also known as kissing) interactions between RNA hairpins are involved in several mechanisms in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes such as the regulation of the plasmid copy number or the dimerization of retroviral genomes. The stability of kissing complexes relies on loop parameters (base composition, sequence and size) and base combination at the loop–loop helix - stem junctions. In order to identify kissing partners that could be used as regulatory elements or building blocks of RNA scaffolds, we analysed a pool of 5.2 × 106 RNA hairpins with randomized loops. We identified more than 50 pairs of kissing RNA hairpins. Two kissing motifs, 5′CCNY and 5′RYRY, generate highly stable complexes with KDs in the low nanomolar range. Such motifs were introduced in the apical loop of hairpin aptamers that switch between unfolded and folded state upon binding to their cognate target molecule, hence their name aptaswitch. The aptaswitch–ligand complex is specifically recognized by a second RNA hairpin named aptakiss through loop–loop interaction. Taking advantage of our kissing motif repertoire we engineered aptaswitch–aptakiss modules for purine derivatives, namely adenosine, GTP and theophylline and demonstrated that these molecules can be specifically and simultaneously detected by surface plasmon resonance or by fluorescence anisotropy. PMID:27067541

  11. Efficient CRISPR-Mediated Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing in a Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Using Multiplexed crRNA Expression.

    PubMed

    Zebec, Ziga; Zink, Isabelle Anna; Kerou, Melina; Schleper, Christa

    2016-10-13

    CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)-mediated RNA degradation is catalyzed by a type III system in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus Earlier work demonstrated that the system can be engineered to target specifically mRNA of an endogenous host reporter gene, namely the β-galactosidase in S. solfataricus Here, we investigated the effect of single and multiple spacers targeting the mRNA of a second reporter gene, α-amylase, at the same, and at different, locations respectively, using a minimal CRISPR (miniCR) locus supplied on a viral shuttle vector. The use of increasing numbers of spacers reduced mRNA levels at progressively higher levels, with three crRNAs (CRISPR RNAs) leading to ∼ 70-80% reduction, and five spacers resulting in an α-amylase gene knockdown of > 90% measured on both mRNA and protein activity levels. Our results indicate that this technology can be used to increase or modulate gene knockdown for efficient post-transcriptional gene silencing in hyperthermophilic archaea, and potentially also in other organisms.

  12. A combinatorial approach to the repertoire of RNA kissing motifs; towards multiplex detection by switching hairpin aptamers.

    PubMed

    Durand, Guillaume; Dausse, Eric; Goux, Emma; Fiore, Emmanuelle; Peyrin, Eric; Ravelet, Corinne; Toulmé, Jean-Jacques

    2016-05-19

    Loop-loop (also known as kissing) interactions between RNA hairpins are involved in several mechanisms in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes such as the regulation of the plasmid copy number or the dimerization of retroviral genomes. The stability of kissing complexes relies on loop parameters (base composition, sequence and size) and base combination at the loop-loop helix - stem junctions. In order to identify kissing partners that could be used as regulatory elements or building blocks of RNA scaffolds, we analysed a pool of 5.2 × 10(6) RNA hairpins with randomized loops. We identified more than 50 pairs of kissing RNA hairpins. Two kissing motifs, 5'CCNY and 5'RYRY, generate highly stable complexes with KDs in the low nanomolar range. Such motifs were introduced in the apical loop of hairpin aptamers that switch between unfolded and folded state upon binding to their cognate target molecule, hence their name aptaswitch. The aptaswitch-ligand complex is specifically recognized by a second RNA hairpin named aptakiss through loop-loop interaction. Taking advantage of our kissing motif repertoire we engineered aptaswitch-aptakiss modules for purine derivatives, namely adenosine, GTP and theophylline and demonstrated that these molecules can be specifically and simultaneously detected by surface plasmon resonance or by fluorescence anisotropy. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Efficient CRISPR-Mediated Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing in a Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Using Multiplexed crRNA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zebec, Ziga; Zink, Isabelle Anna; Kerou, Melina; Schleper, Christa

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)-mediated RNA degradation is catalyzed by a type III system in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. Earlier work demonstrated that the system can be engineered to target specifically mRNA of an endogenous host reporter gene, namely the β-galactosidase in S. solfataricus. Here, we investigated the effect of single and multiple spacers targeting the mRNA of a second reporter gene, α-amylase, at the same, and at different, locations respectively, using a minimal CRISPR (miniCR) locus supplied on a viral shuttle vector. The use of increasing numbers of spacers reduced mRNA levels at progressively higher levels, with three crRNAs (CRISPR RNAs) leading to ∼ 70–80% reduction, and five spacers resulting in an α-amylase gene knockdown of > 90% measured on both mRNA and protein activity levels. Our results indicate that this technology can be used to increase or modulate gene knockdown for efficient post-transcriptional gene silencing in hyperthermophilic archaea, and potentially also in other organisms. PMID:27507792

  14. Simultaneous measurement of MMP9 and TIMP1 mRNA in human non small cell lung cancers by multiplex real time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Simi, Lisa; Andreani, Matteo; Davini, Federico; Janni, Alberto; Pazzagli, Mario; Serio, Mario; Orlando, Claudio

    2004-08-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis is strictly maintained by a coordinated balance between the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their specific inhibitors (TIMPs). Our study was focused on the simultaneous measurement of the expression profile of MMP9 mRNA and its principal inhibitor, TIMP-1, in 100 non small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and in corresponding adjacent non malignant tissues. The measurement was performed with a multiplex quantitative RT-PCR assay based on TaqMan assay, using two probes labelled with different fluorocromes. We found that both MMP9 and TIMP-1 mRNAs were significantly higher in NSCLC (P < 0.0001) in comparison to corresponding controls as well as the MMP9/TIMP-1 ratio (P = 0.014). MMP9 and TIMP-1 mRNA expression was highly correlated in cancer samples (r = 0.73, P < 0.0001). The analysis in the two main histotypes revealed a significant increase of MMP9 mRNA in adenocarcinomas in comparison to normal tissues (P = 0.006) but not in squamous cell carcinomas, while TIMP-1 mRNA showed a significative increase both in adenocarcinomas and in squamous cell carcinoma samples (P = 0.02 and 0.01, respectively). Both MMP9 and TIMP-1 mRNAs were significantly correlated to lymphnode invasion and cancer stage. Survival analysis revealed that high levels of expression of MMP9 mRNA, but not of TIMP-1, were significantly associated to an unfavourable outcome in NSCLC patients in toto (P = 0.017). In addition our results showed that high levels of MMP9 expression are of independent prognostic impact in operable NSCLC. Our data seem to demonstrate a simultaneous and coordinated up-regulation of MMP9 and TIMP-1 expression at the mRNA level in NSCLC, even if this phenomenon seems variable according to the histotype. In addition, the increase of MMP9/TIMP-1 ratio may reflect an unbalance of their production in affected tissues. The increased expression of the two mRNAs, even not necessarily equate their enzymatic activities, seems to

  15. mCAL: A New Approach for Versatile Multiplex Action of Cas9 Using One sgRNA and Loci Flanked by a Programmed Target Sequence.

    PubMed

    Finnigan, Gregory C; Thorner, Jeremy

    2016-07-07

    Genome editing exploiting CRISPR/Cas9 has been adopted widely in academia and in the biotechnology industry to manipulate DNA sequences in diverse organisms. Molecular engineering of Cas9 itself and its guide RNA, and the strategies for using them, have increased efficiency, optimized specificity, reduced inappropriate off-target effects, and introduced modifications for performing other functions (transcriptional regulation, high-resolution imaging, protein recruitment, and high-throughput screening). Moreover, Cas9 has the ability to multiplex, i.e., to act at different genomic targets within the same nucleus. Currently, however, introducing concurrent changes at multiple loci involves: (i) identification of appropriate genomic sites, especially the availability of suitable PAM sequences; (ii) the design, construction, and expression of multiple sgRNA directed against those sites; (iii) potential difficulties in altering essential genes; and (iv) lingering concerns about "off-target" effects. We have devised a new approach that circumvents these drawbacks, as we demonstrate here using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae First, any gene(s) of interest are flanked upstream and downstream with a single unique target sequence that does not normally exist in the genome. Thereafter, expression of one sgRNA and cotransformation with appropriate PCR fragments permits concomitant Cas9-mediated alteration of multiple genes (both essential and nonessential). The system we developed also allows for maintenance of the integrated, inducible Cas9-expression cassette or its simultaneous scarless excision. Our scheme-dubbed mCAL for " M: ultiplexing of C: as9 at A: rtificial L: oci"-can be applied to any organism in which the CRISPR/Cas9 methodology is currently being utilized. In principle, it can be applied to install synthetic sequences into the genome, to generate genomic libraries, and to program strains or cell lines so that they can be conveniently (and repeatedly

  16. Thermo-sensitive nanoparticles for triggered release of siRNA.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zheng; Cheng, Qiang; Jiang, Qian; Deng, Liandong; Liang, Zicai; Dong, Anjie

    2015-01-01

    Efficient delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) is crucially required for cancer gene therapy. Herein, a thermo-sensitive copolymer with a simple structure, poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate-b-poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (mPEG-b-PNIPAM) was developed. A novel kind of thermo-sensitive nanoparticles (DENPs) was constructed for the cold-shock triggered release of siRNA by double emulsion-solvent evaporation method using mPEG-b-PNIPAM and a cationic lipid, 3β [N-(N', N'-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl] cholesterol [DC-Chol]. DENPs were observed by transmission electron microscopy and dynamical light scattering before and after 'cold shock' treatment. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of siRNA in DENPs, which was measured by fluorescence spectrophotometer was 96.8% while it was significantly reduced to be 23.2% when DC-Chol was absent. DENPs/siRNA NPs exhibited a thermo-sensitive siRNA release character that the cumulatively released amount of siRNA from cold shock was approximately 2.2 folds higher after 7 days. In vitro luciferase silencing experiments indicated that DENPs showed potent gene silencing efficacy in HeLa-Luc cells (HeLa cells steadily expressed luciferase), which was further enhanced by a cold shock. Furthermore, MTT assay showed that cell viability with DENPs/siRNA up to 200 nM remained above 80%. We also observed that most of siRNA was accumulated in kidney mediated by DENPs instead of liver and spleen in vivo experiments. Thus, DENPs as a cold shock responsive quick release model for siRNA or hydrophilic macromolecules delivery provide a new way to nanocarrier design and clinic therapy.

  17. A sensitive and specific multiplex PCR approach for sex identification of ursine and tremarctine bears suitable for non-invasive samples.

    PubMed

    Bidon, Tobias; Frosch, Christiane; Eiken, Hans G; Kutschera, Verena E; Hagen, Snorre B; Aarnes, Siv G; Fain, Steven R; Janke, Axel; Hailer, Frank

    2013-05-01

    We report a new approach for molecular sex identification of extant Ursinae and Tremarctinae bears. Two Y-specific fragments (SMCY and 318.2) and one X-specific fragment (ZFX) are amplified in a multiplex PCR, yielding a double test for male-specific amplification and an internal positive control. The primers were designed and tested to be bear-specific, thereby minimizing the risk of cross-amplification in other species including humans. The high sensitivity and small amplicon sizes (100, 124, 160 base pairs) facilitate analysis of non-invasively obtained DNA material. DNA from tissue and blood as well as from 30 non-invasively collected hair and faeces yielded clear and easily interpretable results. The fragments were detected both by standard gel electrophoresis and automated capillary electrophoresis.

  18. Characterizing a novel and sensitive method to measure dsRNA in soil.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Joshua R; Zapata, Fatima; Dubelman, Samuel; Mueller, Geoffrey M; Jensen, Peter D; Levine, Steven L

    2016-10-01

    Performing environmental assessments for double-stranded RNA-based agricultural products require the development of sensitive and selective methods to measure biodegradation rates of dsRNAs. We developed and characterized a novel analytical procedure that uses a molecular hybridization assay (QuantiGene(®)) to accurately measure dsRNA extracted from diverse soils. In this report, we utilize this method to demonstrate that two dsRNAs with distinct size, structure, and sequence degrade rapidly in soil with indistinguishable kinetics.

  19. Facile semi-automated forensic body fluid identification by multiplex solution hybridization of NanoString® barcode probes to specific mRNA targets.

    PubMed

    Danaher, Patrick; White, Robin Lynn; Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack

    2015-01-01

    A DNA profile from the perpetrator does not reveal, per se, the circumstances by which it was transferred. Body fluid identification by mRNA profiling may allow extraction of contextual 'activity level' information from forensic samples. Here we describe the development of a prototype multiplex digital gene expression (DGE) method for forensic body fluid/tissue identification based upon solution hybridization of color-coded NanoString(®) probes to 23 mRNA targets. The method identifies peripheral blood, semen, saliva, vaginal secretions, menstrual blood and skin. We showed that a simple 5 min room temperature cellular lysis protocol gave equivalent results to standard RNA isolation from the same source material, greatly enhancing the ease-of-use of this method in forensic sample processing. We first describe a model for gene expression in a sample from a single body fluid and then extend that model to mixtures of body fluids. We then describe calculation of maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of body fluid quantities in a sample, and we describe the use of likelihood ratios to test for the presence of each body fluid in a sample. Known single source samples of blood, semen, vaginal secretions, menstrual blood and skin all demonstrated the expected tissue-specific gene expression for at least two of the chosen biomarkers. Saliva samples were more problematic, with their previously identified characteristic genes exhibiting poor specificity. Nonetheless the most specific saliva biomarker, HTN3, was expressed at a higher level in saliva than in any of the other tissues. Crucially, our algorithm produced zero false positives across this study's 89 unique samples. As a preliminary indication of the ability of the method to discern admixtures of body fluids, five mixtures were prepared. The identities of the component fluids were evident from the gene expression profiles of four of the five mixtures. Further optimization of the biomarker 'CodeSet' will be required

  20. Comparison of rpoB gene sequencing, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, gyrB multiplex PCR, and the VITEK2 system for identification of Acinetobacter clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Jung; Jang, Sook Jin; Li, Xue Min; Park, Geon; Kook, Joong-Ki; Kim, Min Jung; Chang, Young-Hyo; Shin, Jong Hee; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kim, Dong-Min; Kang, Seong-Ho; Moon, Dae-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Since accurate identification of species is necessary for proper treatment of Acinetobacter infections, we compared the performances of 4 bacterial identification methods using 167 Acinetobacter clinical isolates to identify the best identification method. To secure more non-baumannii Acinetobacter (NBA) strains as target strains, we first identified Acinetobacter baumannii in a total of 495 Acinetobacter clinical isolates identified using the VITEK 2 system. Because 371 of 495 strains were identified as A. baumannii using gyrB multiplex 1 PCR and blaOXA51-like PCR, we performed rpoB gene sequencing and 16S rRNA gene sequencing on remaining 124 strains belonging to NBA and 52 strains of A. baumannii. For identification of Acinetobacter at the species level, the accuracy rates of rpoB gene sequencing, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, gyrB multiplex PCR, and the VITEK 2 were 98.2%, 93.4%, 77.2%, and 35.9%, respectively. The gyrB multiplex PCR seems to be very useful for the detection of ACB complex because its concordance rates to the final identification of strains of ACB complex were 100%. Both the rpoB gene sequencing and the 16S rRNA gene sequencing may be useful in identifying Acinetobacter. © 2013.

  1. Sensitive and Selective Detection of HIV-1 RRE RNA Using Vertical Silicon Nanowire Electrode Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehyung; Hong, Min-Ho; Han, Sanghun; Na, Jukwan; Kim, Ilsoo; Kwon, Yong-Joon; Lim, Yong-beom; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, HIV-1 Rev response element (RRE) RNA was detected via an Au-coated vertical silicon nanowire electrode array (VSNEA). The VSNEA was fabricated by combining bottom-up and top-down approaches and then immobilized by artificial peptides for the recognition of HIV-1 RRE. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis was used to measure the electrochemical response of the peptide-immobilized VSNEA to the concentration and types of HIV-1 RRE RNA. DPV peaks showed linearity to the concentration of RNA with a detection limit down to 1.513 fM. It also showed the clear different peaks to the mutated HIV-1 RRE RNA. The high sensitivity and selectivity of VSNEA for the detection of HIV-1 RRE RNA may be attributed to the high surface-to-volume ratio and total overlap diffusion mode of ions of the one-dimensional nanowire electrodes.

  2. Temperature-sensitive RNA polymerase II mutations in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    PubMed Central

    Ingles, C. James

    1978-01-01

    Mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell lines temperature-sensitive (TS) for growth and containing TS mutations in RNA polymerase II (nucleosidetriphosphate:RNA nucleotidyltransferase, EC 2.7.7.6) have been isolated. Wild-type cells were treated with the mutagen N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and a population of cells possessing mutations in RNA polymerase II was initially selected by isolating α-amanitin-resistant clones at 34°. Of 168 such α-amanitin-resistant isolates screened for temperature sensitivity, nine were TS for growth at 39.5°. By examining the behavior of the α-amanitin resistance of these TS cell lines in somatic cell hybrids, the TS mutation in a number of them was shown to be in RNA polymerase II. Hybrid cells obtained by the fusion of the TS and α-amanitin-resistant cells with cells possessing α-amanitin-sensitive polymerase II grew at both 34° and 39.5°; the TS mutations were recessive. At 34° all the hybrids were α-amanitin-resistant and possessed a mixture of α-amanitin-resistant and sensitive polymerase II. At 39.5° the α-amanitin-resistant polymerase II activities in hybrids of four of the TS cell lines were lost; these four lines were α-amanitin-sensitive and possessed only α-amanitin-sensitive polymerase II. Temperature-insensitive revertants of two of these mutants were isolated. Reversion of the TS phenotype for mutants TsAmaR-1 and TsAmaR-8 was accompanied by an alteration in the level of α-amanitin resistance of the RNA polymerase II activities in the revertant cells. Together these data provide convincing evidence that TS mutations in RNA polymerase II can be coselected with α-amanitin resistance. PMID:272657

  3. Label-Free Isothermal Amplification Assay for Specific and Highly Sensitive Colorimetric miRNA Detection

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new method for the detection of miRNA in biological samples. This technology is based on the isothermal nicking enzyme amplification reaction and subsequent hybridization of the amplification product with gold nanoparticles and magnetic microparticles (barcode system) to achieve naked-eye colorimetric detection. This platform was used to detect a specific miRNA (miRNA-10b) associated with breast cancer, and attomolar sensitivity was demonstrated. The assay was validated in cell culture lysates from breast cancer cells and in serum from a mouse model of breast cancer. PMID:27713932

  4. Highly sensitive and ultrafast read mapping for RNA-seq analysis

    PubMed Central

    Medina, I.; Tárraga, J.; Martínez, H.; Barrachina, S.; Castillo, M. I.; Paschall, J.; Salavert-Torres, J.; Blanquer-Espert, I.; Hernández-García, V.; Quintana-Ortí, E. S.; Dopazo, J.

    2016-01-01

    As sequencing technologies progress, the amount of data produced grows exponentially, shifting the bottleneck of discovery towards the data analysis phase. In particular, currently available mapping solutions for RNA-seq leave room for improvement in terms of sensitivity and performance, hindering an efficient analysis of transcriptomes by massive sequencing. Here, we present an innovative approach that combines re-engineering, optimization and parallelization. This solution results in a significant increase of mapping sensitivity over a wide range of read lengths and substantial shorter runtimes when compared with current RNA-seq mapping methods available. PMID:26740642

  5. Highly sensitive and ultrafast read mapping for RNA-seq analysis.

    PubMed

    Medina, I; Tárraga, J; Martínez, H; Barrachina, S; Castillo, M I; Paschall, J; Salavert-Torres, J; Blanquer-Espert, I; Hernández-García, V; Quintana-Ortí, E S; Dopazo, J

    2016-04-01

    As sequencing technologies progress, the amount of data produced grows exponentially, shifting the bottleneck of discovery towards the data analysis phase. In particular, currently available mapping solutions for RNA-seq leave room for improvement in terms of sensitivity and performance, hindering an efficient analysis of transcriptomes by massive sequencing. Here, we present an innovative approach that combines re-engineering, optimization and parallelization. This solution results in a significant increase of mapping sensitivity over a wide range of read lengths and substantial shorter runtimes when compared with current RNA-seq mapping methods available.

  6. Detection of high-risk mucosal human papillomavirus DNA in human specimens by a novel and sensitive multiplex PCR method combined with DNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Gheit, Tarik; Tommasino, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological and functional studies have clearly demonstrated that certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) from the genus alpha of the HPV phylogenetic tree, referred to as high-risk (HR) types, are the etiological cause of cervical cancer. Several methods for HPV detection and typing have been developed, and their importance in clinical and epidemiological studies has been well demonstrated. However, comparative studies have shown that several assays have different sensitivities for the detection of specific HPV types, particularly in the case of multiple infections. In this chapter, we describe a novel one-shot method for the detection and typing of 19 mucosal HR HPV types (types 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 70, 73, and 82). The assay combines the advantages of the multiplex PCR methods, i.e., high sensitivity and the possibility to perform multiple amplifications in a single reaction, with an array primer extension (APEX) assay. The latter method offers the benefits of Sanger dideoxy sequencing with the high-throughput potential of the microarray. Initial studies have revealed that the assay is very sensitive in detecting multiple HPV infections.

  7. High sensitivity measurement of NO, NO2 and NH3 using MIR-QCL and time division multiplexing WMS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiang; Yang, Chenguang; Hu, Mai; Xu, Zhenyu; Fan, Xueli; Wei, Min; Yao, Lu; He, Yabai; Kan, Ruifeng

    2016-10-01

    A compact system based on mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL) operated in room temperature was developed for the simultaneous monitoring of NO, NO2 and NH3 in the air. Laser beams of three QCLs with central wavelength located at 1900 cm-1, 1600 cm-1, 1103.4 cm-1 were coupled to pass through the 60m long gas cell together. With the technology of time division multiplexing, wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) signals of three lasers can be detected at adjacent scan process. The real-time second harmonic analysis was implemented to achieve simultaneous detection of NO, NO2 and NH3. A minimum detection limit (MDL) of 0.2ppb for NO, 0.12ppb for NO2 and 0.1ppb for NH3 with an optimum integration time around 100 seconds can be achieved for this setup. An ambient monitoring of three gasses during 5 hours was performed to inspect the local air quality.

  8. Microgravity validation of a novel system for RNA isolation and multiplex quantitative real time PCR analysis of gene expression on the International Space Station

    PubMed Central

    Boone, Travis D.; Tran, Luan; Blaber, Elizabeth A.; Brown, Mark; Chin, Matthew; Chinn, Tori; Cohen, Jacob; Doebler, Robert; Hoang, Dzung; Hyde, Elizabeth; Lera, Matthew; Luzod, Louie T.; Mallinson, Mark; Marcu, Oana; Mohamedaly, Youssef; Ricco, Antonio J.; Rubins, Kathleen; Sgarlato, Gregory D.; Talavera, Rafael O.; Tong, Peter; Uribe, Eddie; Williams, Jeffrey; Wu, Diana; Yousuf, Rukhsana; Richey, Charles S.; Schonfeld, Julie

    2017-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) National Laboratory is dedicated to studying the effects of space on life and physical systems, and to developing new science and technologies for space exploration. A key aspect of achieving these goals is to operate the ISS National Lab more like an Earth-based laboratory, conducting complex end-to-end experimentation, not limited to simple microgravity exposure. Towards that end NASA developed a novel suite of molecular biology laboratory tools, reagents, and methods, named WetLab-2, uniquely designed to operate in microgravity, and to process biological samples for real-time gene expression analysis on-orbit. This includes a novel fluidic RNA Sample Preparation Module and fluid transfer devices, all-in-one lyophilized PCR assays, centrifuge, and a real-time PCR thermal cycler. Here we describe the results from the WetLab-2 validation experiments conducted in microgravity during ISS increment 47/SPX-8. Specifically, quantitative PCR was performed on a concentration series of DNA calibration standards, and Reverse Transcriptase-quantitative PCR was conducted on RNA extracted and purified on-orbit from frozen Escherichia coli and mouse liver tissue. Cycle threshold (Ct) values and PCR efficiencies obtained on-orbit from DNA standards were similar to Earth (1 g) controls. Also, on-orbit multiplex analysis of gene expression from bacterial cells and mammalian tissue RNA samples was successfully conducted in about 3 h, with data transmitted within 2 h of experiment completion. Thermal cycling in microgravity resulted in the trapping of gas bubbles inside septa cap assay tubes, causing small but measurable increases in Ct curve noise and variability. Bubble formation was successfully suppressed in a rapid follow-up on-orbit experiment using standard caps to pressurize PCR tubes and reduce gas release during heating cycles. The WetLab-2 facility now provides a novel operational on-orbit research capability for molecular biology and

  9. Microgravity validation of a novel system for RNA isolation and multiplex quantitative real time PCR analysis of gene expression on the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Parra, Macarena; Jung, Jimmy; Boone, Travis D; Tran, Luan; Blaber, Elizabeth A; Brown, Mark; Chin, Matthew; Chinn, Tori; Cohen, Jacob; Doebler, Robert; Hoang, Dzung; Hyde, Elizabeth; Lera, Matthew; Luzod, Louie T; Mallinson, Mark; Marcu, Oana; Mohamedaly, Youssef; Ricco, Antonio J; Rubins, Kathleen; Sgarlato, Gregory D; Talavera, Rafael O; Tong, Peter; Uribe, Eddie; Williams, Jeffrey; Wu, Diana; Yousuf, Rukhsana; Richey, Charles S; Schonfeld, Julie; Almeida, Eduardo A C

    2017-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) National Laboratory is dedicated to studying the effects of space on life and physical systems, and to developing new science and technologies for space exploration. A key aspect of achieving these goals is to operate the ISS National Lab more like an Earth-based laboratory, conducting complex end-to-end experimentation, not limited to simple microgravity exposure. Towards that end NASA developed a novel suite of molecular biology laboratory tools, reagents, and methods, named WetLab-2, uniquely designed to operate in microgravity, and to process biological samples for real-time gene expression analysis on-orbit. This includes a novel fluidic RNA Sample Preparation Module and fluid transfer devices, all-in-one lyophilized PCR assays, centrifuge, and a real-time PCR thermal cycler. Here we describe the results from the WetLab-2 validation experiments conducted in microgravity during ISS increment 47/SPX-8. Specifically, quantitative PCR was performed on a concentration series of DNA calibration standards, and Reverse Transcriptase-quantitative PCR was conducted on RNA extracted and purified on-orbit from frozen Escherichia coli and mouse liver tissue. Cycle threshold (Ct) values and PCR efficiencies obtained on-orbit from DNA standards were similar to Earth (1 g) controls. Also, on-orbit multiplex analysis of gene expression from bacterial cells and mammalian tissue RNA samples was successfully conducted in about 3 h, with data transmitted within 2 h of experiment completion. Thermal cycling in microgravity resulted in the trapping of gas bubbles inside septa cap assay tubes, causing small but measurable increases in Ct curve noise and variability. Bubble formation was successfully suppressed in a rapid follow-up on-orbit experiment using standard caps to pressurize PCR tubes and reduce gas release during heating cycles. The WetLab-2 facility now provides a novel operational on-orbit research capability for molecular biology and

  10. Rapid Diagnosis of Leptospirosis by Multiplex PCR

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Siti Aminah; Sandai, Doblin Anak; Musa, Suzana; Hoe, Chee Hock; Riadzi, Mehdi; Lau, Kwok Leong; Tang, Thean Hock

    2012-01-01

    Background: Traditionally, the most common diagnostic approach used for diagnosing leptospirosis was the demonstration of immune-seroconversion in acute and convalescent patient serum samples. Recently, a variety of molecular techniques, including conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), have been developed for the specific detection of pathogenic bacteria from the genus Leptospira. PCR is a sensitive, specific, and rapid technique that has been successfully used to detect several microorganisms; including those of clinical significance. Methods: In this study, we developed a multiplex PCR (mPCR) assay for detecting Leptospira’s DNA. The mPCR assay detects both the 16S rRNA gene and the major outer membrane lipoprotein gene, which is known as LipL32. Representative serovars were tested from 10 species of Leptospira and 23 other species of bacteria. Results: A positive result was obtained from all leptospiral serovars. The amplification sensitivity for the multiplex assay was 21.8 pg and 1 × 103 leptospires/ml. This mPCR assay has the potential to facilitate a rapid and sensitive diagnosis for acute leptospirosis. Conclusion: The mPCR assay developed in this study can be used for the early detection of leptospirosis. The LipL32 gene could also serve as another target to aid in the efficient detection of leptospiral infection because using 2 sets of primers in mPCR increases the sensitivity and specificity of the test. PMID:23610544

  11. Increased sensitivity to protein synthesis inhibitors in cells lacking tmRNA.

    PubMed Central

    de la Cruz, J; Vioque, A

    2001-01-01

    tmRNA (also known as SsrA or 10Sa RNA) is involved in a trans-translation reaction that contributes to the recycling of stalled ribosomes at the 3' end of an mRNA lacking a stop codon or at an internal mRNA cluster of rare codons. Inactivation of the ssrA gene in most bacteria results in viable cells bearing subtle phenotypes, such as temperature-sensitive growth. Herein, we report on the functional characterization of the ssrA gene in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803. Deletion of the ssrA gene in Synechocystis resulted in viable cells with a growth rate identical to wild-type cells. However, null ssrA cells (deltassrA) were not viable in the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitors chloramphenicol, lincomycin, spiramycin, tylosin, erythromycin, and spectinomycin at low doses that do not significantly affect the growth of wild-type cells. Sensitivity of deltassrA cells similar to wild-type cells was observed with kasugamycin, fusidic acid, thiostrepton, and puromycin. Antibiotics unrelated to protein synthesis, such as ampicillin or rifampicin, had no differential effect on the deltassrA strain. Furthermore, deletion of the ssrA gene is sufficient to impair global protein synthesis when chloramphenicol is added at sublethal concentrations for the wild-type strain. These results indicate that ribosomes stalled by some protein synthesis inhibitors can be recycled by tmRNA. In addition, this suggests that the first elongation cycle with tmRNA, which incorporates a noncoded alanine on the growing peptide chain, may have mechanistic differences with the normal elongation cycles that bypasses the block produced by these specific antibiotics. tmRNA inactivation could be an useful therapeutic target to increase the sensitivity of pathogenic bacteria against antibiotics. PMID:11780628

  12. MicroRNA-221 and -222 Regulate Radiation Sensitivity by Targeting the PTEN Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Chunzhi; Kang Chunsheng; Wang Ping; Cao Yongzhen; Lv Zhonghong; Yu Shizhu; Wang Guangxiu; Zhang Anling; Jia Zhifan; Han Lei; Yang Chunying; Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Teh, Bin S.; Xu Bo; Pu Peiyu

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs inhibiting expression of numerous target genes by posttranscriptional regulation. miRNA-221 and miRNA-222 (miRNA-221/-222) expression is elevated in radioresistant tumor cell lines; however, it is not known whether and how miRNAs control cellular responses to ionizing irradiation. Methods and Materials: We used bioinformatic analyses, luciferase reporter assay, and genetic knockdown and biochemical assays to characterize the regulation pathways of miRNA-221/-222 in response to radiation treatment. Results: We identified the PTEN gene as a target of miRNA-221/-222. Furthermore, we found that knocking down miRNA-221/-222 by antisense oligonucleotides upregulated PTEN expression. Upregulated PTEN expression suppressed AKT activity and increased radiation-induced apoptosis, resulting in enhancement of radiosensitivity in tumor cells. Conclusions: miRNA-221/-222 control radiation sensitivity by regulating the PTEN/AKT pathway and can be explored as novel targets for radiosensitization.

  13. A robust multi-shot scan strategy for high-resolution diffusion weighted MRI enabled by multiplexed sensitivity-encoding (MUSE).

    PubMed

    Chen, Nan-Kuei; Guidon, Arnaud; Chang, Hing-Chiu; Song, Allen W

    2013-05-15

    Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) data have been mostly acquired with single-shot echo-planar imaging (EPI) to minimize motion induced artifacts. The spatial resolution, however, is inherently limited in single-shot EPI, even when the parallel imaging (usually at an acceleration factor of 2) is incorporated. Multi-shot acquisition strategies could potentially achieve higher spatial resolution and fidelity, but they are generally susceptible to motion-induced phase errors among excitations that are exacerbated by diffusion sensitizing gradients, rendering the reconstructed images unusable. It has been shown that shot-to-shot phase variations may be corrected using navigator echoes, but at the cost of imaging throughput. To address these challenges, a novel and robust multi-shot DWI technique, termed multiplexed sensitivity-encoding (MUSE), is developed here to reliably and inherently correct nonlinear shot-to-shot phase variations without the use of navigator echoes. The performance of the MUSE technique is confirmed experimentally in healthy adult volunteers on 3Tesla MRI systems. This newly developed technique should prove highly valuable for mapping brain structures and connectivities at high spatial resolution for neuroscience studies.

  14. A robust multi-shot scan strategy for high-resolution diffusion weighted MRI enabled by multiplexed sensitivity-encoding (MUSE)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Nan-kuei; Guidon, Arnaud; Chang, Hing-Chiu; Song, Allen W.

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) data have been mostly acquired with single-shot echo-planar imaging (EPI) to minimize motion induced artifacts. The spatial resolution, however, is inherently limited in single-shot EPI, even when the parallel imaging (usually at an acceleration factor of 2) is incorporated. Multi-shot acquisition strategies could potentially achieve higher spatial resolution and fidelity, but they are generally susceptible to motion-induced phase errors among excitations that are exacerbated by diffusion sensitizing gradients, rendering the reconstructed images unusable. It has been shown that shot-to-shot phase variations may be corrected using navigator echoes, but at the cost of imaging throughput. To address these challenges, a novel and robust multi-shot DWI technique, termed multiplexed sensitivity-encoding (MUSE), is developed here to reliably and inherently correct nonlinear shot-to-shot phase variations without the use of navigator echoes. The performance of the MUSE technique is confirmed experimentally in healthy adult volunteers on 3 Tesla MRI systems. This newly developed technique should prove highly valuable for mapping brain structures and connectivities at high spatial resolution for neuroscience studies. PMID:23370063

  15. GABAergic mRNA expression is upregulated in the prefrontal cortex of rats sensitized to methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Wearne, Travis A; Parker, Lindsay M; Franklin, Jane L; Goodchild, Ann K; Cornish, Jennifer L

    2016-01-15

    Inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated neurotransmission plays an important role in the regulation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), with increasing evidence suggesting that dysfunctional GABAergic processing of the PFC may underlie certain deficits reported across psychotic disorders. Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant that induces chronic psychosis in a subset of users, with repeat administration producing a progressively increased vulnerability to psychotic relapse following subsequent drug administration (sensitization). The aim here was to investigate changes to GABAergic mRNA expression in the PFC of rats sensitized to METH using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12) underwent repeated methamphetamine (intraperitoneal (i.p.) or saline injections for 7 days. Following 14 days of withdrawal, rats were challenged with acute methamphetamine (1mg/kg i.p.) and RNA was isolated from the PFC to compare the relative mRNA expression of a range of GABA enzymes, transporters and receptors subunits. METH challenge resulted in a significant sensitized behavioral (locomotor) response in METH pre-treated animals compared with saline pre-treated controls. The mRNAs of transporters (GAT1 and GAT3), ionotropic GABAA receptor subunits (α3 and β1), together with the metabotropic GABAB1 receptor, were upregulated in the PFC of sensitized rats compared with saline controls. These findings indicate that GABAergic mRNA expression is significantly altered at the pre and postsynaptic level following sensitization to METH, with sensitization resulting in the transcriptional upregulation of several inhibitory genes. These changes likely have significant consequences on GABA-mediated neurotransmission in the PFC and may underlie certain symptoms conserved across psychotic disorders, such as executive dysfunction.

  16. Poliovirus RNA polymerase: in vitro enzymatic activities, fidelity of replication, and characterization of a temperature-sensitive RNA-negative mutant

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, M.A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The in vitro activities of the purified poliovirus RNA polymerase were investigated in this study. The polymerase was shown to be a strict RNA dependent RNA polymerase. It only copied RNA templates but used either a DNA or RNA primer to initiate RNA synthesis. Partially purified polymerase has some DNA polymerase activities. Additional purification of the enzyme and studies with a mutant poliovirus RNA polymerase indicated that the DNA polymerase activities were due to a cellular polymerase. The fidelity of RNA replication in vitro by the purified poliovirus RNA polymerase was studied by measuring the rate of misincorporation of noncomplementary ribonucleotide monophosphates on synthetic homopolymeric RNA templates. The results showed that the ratio of noncomplementary to complementary ribonucleotides incorporated was 1-5 x 10/sup -3/. The viral polymerase of a poliovirus temperature sensitive RNA-negative mutant, Ts 10, was isolated. This study confirmed that the mutant was viable 33/sup 0/, but was RNA negative at 39/sup 0/. Characterization of the Ts 10 polymerase showed it was significantly more sensitive to heat inactivation than was the old-type polymerase. Highly purified poliovirions were found to contain several noncapsid proteins. At least two of these proteins were labeled by (/sup 35/S)methionine infected cells and appeared to be virally encoded proteins. One of these proteins was immunoprecipitated by anti-3B/sup vpg/ antiserum. This protein had the approximate Mr = 50,000 and appeared to be one of the previously identified 3B/sup vpg/ precursor proteins.

  17. Prefrontal microRNA-221 Mediates Environmental Enrichment-Induced Increase of Locomotor Sensitivity to Nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Adrian M.; Altomare, Diego; Sun, Wei-Lun; Midde, Narasimha M.; Ji, Hao; Shtutman, Michael; Turner, Jill R.; Creek, Kim E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Environmental enrichment alters susceptibility in developing drug addiction. We have demonstrated that rats raised in an enriched condition are more sensitive than rats raised in an impoverished condition to nicotine-induced locomotor activity, and this is associated with alterations of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 within the prefrontal cortex. This study determined the impact of microRNA-221 in the prefrontal cortex on phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and the enriched environment-dependent behavioral changes in response to nicotine. Methods: A microRNA array was conducted to profile microRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex of enriched condition and impoverished condition rats in response to repeated nicotine (0.35mg/kg, s.c.) administration. microRNA-221 in the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and striatum was further verified by quantitative real-time PCR. Lentiviral-mediated overexpression of microRNA-221 in PC12 cells and the medial prefrontal cortex was performed to determine the effects of microRNA-221 on nicotine-mediated phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, phosphorylated cAMP-response element-binding protein, and locomotor activity. Results: microRNA-221 was profoundly upregulated in the prefrontal cortex but not in nucleus accumbens and striatum of enriched condition rats relative to impoverished condition rats following repeated administration of nicotine. Overexpression of lentiviral-microRNA-221 attenuated nicotine-induced increase in phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in PC12 cells. Lentiviral-microRNA-221 overexpression in the medial prefrontal cortex further increased locomotor activity in impoverished condition but not in enriched condition rats in response to repeated nicotine administration. Accordingly, lentiviral-microRNA-221 attenuated nicotine-induced increases in phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and

  18. Stem-loop DNA-assisted silicon nanowires-based biochemical sensors with ultra-high sensitivity, specificity, and multiplexing capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Juan; Jiang, Xiangxu; Zhong, Yiling; Lu, Yimei; Wang, Siyi; Wei, Xinpan; Su, Yuanyuan; He, Yao

    2014-07-01

    A class of stem-loop DNA-assisted silicon nanowires (SiNWs)-based fluorescent biosensor is presented in this report. Significantly, the sensor enables rapid and sensitive detection of DNA targets with a concentration as low as 1 pM. Moreover, the large planar surface of SiNWs facilitates simultaneous assembly with different DNA strands, which is favorable for multiplexed DNA detection. On the other hand, the SiNWs-based sensor is highly efficacious for detecting heavy metal ions. Mercury ions (Hg2+) of low concentrations (e.g., 5 pM) are readily identified from its mixture with over 10 kinds of interfering metal ions, even in real water samples. Given that SiNWs can be fabricated in a facile, reproducible and low-cost manner, this kind of SiNWs-based high-performance sensor is expected to be a practical analytical tool for a variety of biological and environment-protection applications.A class of stem-loop DNA-assisted silicon nanowires (SiNWs)-based fluorescent biosensor is presented in this report. Significantly, the sensor enables rapid and sensitive detection of DNA targets with a concentration as low as 1 pM. Moreover, the large planar surface of SiNWs facilitates simultaneous assembly with different DNA strands, which is favorable for multiplexed DNA detection. On the other hand, the SiNWs-based sensor is highly efficacious for detecting heavy metal ions. Mercury ions (Hg2+) of low concentrations (e.g., 5 pM) are readily identified from its mixture with over 10 kinds of interfering metal ions, even in real water samples. Given that SiNWs can be fabricated in a facile, reproducible and low-cost manner, this kind of SiNWs-based high-performance sensor is expected to be a practical analytical tool for a variety of biological and environment-protection applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01097c

  19. MDA5 cooperatively forms dimers and ATP-sensitive filaments upon binding double-stranded RNA

    PubMed Central

    Berke, Ian C; Modis, Yorgo

    2012-01-01

    Melanoma differentiation-associated gene-5 (MDA5) detects viral double-stranded RNA in the cytoplasm. RNA binding induces MDA5 to activate the signalling adaptor MAVS through interactions between the caspase recruitment domains (CARDs) of the two proteins. The molecular mechanism of MDA5 signalling is not well understood. Here, we show that MDA5 cooperatively binds short RNA ligands as a dimer with a 16–18-basepair footprint. A crystal structure of the MDA5 helicase-insert domain demonstrates an evolutionary relationship with the archaeal Hef helicases. In X-ray solution structures, the CARDs in unliganded MDA5 are flexible, and RNA binds on one side of an asymmetric MDA5 dimer, bridging the two subunits. On longer RNA, full-length and CARD-deleted MDA5 constructs assemble into ATP-sensitive filaments. We propose a signalling model in which the CARDs on MDA5–RNA filaments nucleate the assembly of MAVS filaments with the same polymeric geometry. PMID:22314235

  20. MicroRNA-induced cascaded and catalytic self-assembly of DNA nanostructures for enzyme-free and sensitive fluorescence detection of microRNA from tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xue; Zhou, Wenjiao; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo; Xiang, Yun

    2016-02-11

    The presence of target microRNA triggers cascaded and catalytic self-assembly of two DNA motifs into DNA nanostructures, which serves as a remarkable signal amplification means for the highly sensitive monitoring of the target microRNA and the detection of low numbers of tumor cells.

  1. A novel method for sensitive microRNA detection: Electropolymerization based doping.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Merve; Kilic, Tugba; Guler, Gunnur; Mandli, Jihane; Amine, Aziz; Ozsoz, Mehmet

    2017-06-15

    In the proposed study, for the first time, sensitive electrochemical detection of a breast cancer biomarker microRNA (miRNA), mir-21 was achieved via electropolymerized polypyrrole (PPy) modified pencil graphite electrodes (PPy/PGE). The detection of hybridization of electrochemically doped probe miRNA, antimir-21, with its complementary target, mir-21 was monitored by either electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) via comparison of charge transfer resistance (Rct) values before and after hybridization or by electrochemical reduction signal of an hybridization indicator, Meldola's blue (MDB). The study covers all the optimization steps for hybridization procedure and electropolymerization of pyrrole as well as detection from real samples of breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. The designed sensor shows a high selectivity and a low detection limit of 0.17nM thanks to electrical conductivity and porous structure of PPy.

  2. Plasma mRNA as liquid biopsy predicts chemo-sensitivity in advanced gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Kong, Weiwei; Wu, Yuanna; Ren, Haozhen; Wei, Jia; Yang, Yang; Yang, Yan; Yu, Lixia; Guan, Wenxian; Liu, Baorui

    2017-01-01

    Predictive biomarkers based individualized chemotherapy can improve efficacy. However, for those advanced patients, it may be impossible to obtain the tissues from operation. Tissues from biopsy may not be always enough for gene detection. Thus, biomarker from blood could be a non-invasive and useful tool to provide real-time information in the procedure of treatment. To further understand the role of plasma mRNA in chemo-efficiency prediction, several mRNA expression levels were assessed in plasma and paired tumor tissues from 133 locally advanced gastric cancer patients (stage III), and mRNA levels were correlated with chemosensitivity to docetaxel, pemetrexed, platinum, and irinotecan. mRNA expression level in 64 advanced gastric cancer patients (stage IV) was also examined (55 in test group, and 9 in control), and chemotherapy in the test group were given according to the plasma gene detection. As a result, in the 133 patients with locally advanced gastric cancer (Stage III), correlations were observed between the mRNA expression of plasma/tumor BRCA1 levels and docetaxel sensitivity (P<0.001), plasma/tumor TS and pemetrexed sensitivity (P<0.001), plasma/tumor BRCA1 and platinum sensitivity (plasma, P=0.016; tumor, P<0.001), and plasma/tumor TOPO1 and irinotecan sensitivity (plasma, P=0.015; tumor, P=0.011). Among another 64 patients with advanced cancer (Stage IV), the median OS of test group was 15.5m (95% CI=10.1 to 20.9m), the PFS was 9.1m (95% CI=8.0 to 10.2m), which were significant longer than the control (P=0.047 for OS, P=0.038 for PFS). The mortality risk was higher in the control than patients treated according to the plasma gene detection (HR in the control=2.34, 95% CI=0.93 to 5.88, P=0.071). Plasma mRNA as liquid biopsy could be ideal recourse for examination to predict chemo-sensitivity in gastric cancer.

  3. Plasma mRNA as liquid biopsy predicts chemo-sensitivity in advanced gastric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Kong, Weiwei; Wu, Yuanna; Ren, Haozhen; Wei, Jia; Yang, Yang; Yang, Yan; Yu, Lixia; Guan, Wenxian; Liu, Baorui

    2017-01-01

    Predictive biomarkers based individualized chemotherapy can improve efficacy. However, for those advanced patients, it may be impossible to obtain the tissues from operation. Tissues from biopsy may not be always enough for gene detection. Thus, biomarker from blood could be a non-invasive and useful tool to provide real-time information in the procedure of treatment. To further understand the role of plasma mRNA in chemo-efficiency prediction, several mRNA expression levels were assessed in plasma and paired tumor tissues from 133 locally advanced gastric cancer patients (stage III), and mRNA levels were correlated with chemosensitivity to docetaxel, pemetrexed, platinum, and irinotecan. mRNA expression level in 64 advanced gastric cancer patients (stage IV) was also examined (55 in test group, and 9 in control), and chemotherapy in the test group were given according to the plasma gene detection. As a result, in the 133 patients with locally advanced gastric cancer (Stage III), correlations were observed between the mRNA expression of plasma/tumor BRCA1 levels and docetaxel sensitivity (P<0.001), plasma/tumor TS and pemetrexed sensitivity (P<0.001), plasma/tumor BRCA1 and platinum sensitivity (plasma, P=0.016; tumor, P<0.001), and plasma/tumor TOPO1 and irinotecan sensitivity (plasma, P=0.015; tumor, P=0.011). Among another 64 patients with advanced cancer (Stage IV), the median OS of test group was 15.5m (95% CI=10.1 to 20.9m), the PFS was 9.1m (95% CI=8.0 to 10.2m), which were significant longer than the control (P=0.047 for OS, P=0.038 for PFS). The mortality risk was higher in the control than patients treated according to the plasma gene detection (HR in the control=2.34, 95% CI=0.93 to 5.88, P=0.071). Plasma mRNA as liquid biopsy could be ideal recourse for examination to predict chemo-sensitivity in gastric cancer.

  4. Identification of nonviable genes affecting touch sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans using neuronally enhanced feeding RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyin; Cuadros, Margarete Diaz; Chalfie, Martin

    2015-01-09

    Caenorhabditis elegans senses gentle touch along the body via six touch receptor neurons. Although genetic screens and microarray analyses have identified several genes needed for touch sensitivity, these methods miss pleiotropic genes that are essential for the viability, movement, or fertility of the animals. We used neuronally enhanced feeding RNA interference to screen genes that cause lethality or paralysis when mutated, and we identified 61 such genes affecting touch sensitivity, including five positive controls. We confirmed 18 genes by using available alleles, and further studied one of them, tag-170, now renamed txdc-9. txdc-9 preferentially affects anterior touch response but is needed for tubulin acetylation and microtubule formation in both the anterior and posterior touch receptor neurons. Our results indicate that neuronally enhanced feeding RNA interference screens complement traditional mutageneses by identifying additional nonviable genes needed for specific neuronal functions.

  5. Silicon on-chip side-coupled high-Q micro-cavities for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal integrated sensors array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Daquan; Wang, Chunhong; Yuan, Wei; Wang, Bo; Yang, Yujie; Ji, Yuefeng

    2016-09-01

    A novel two-dimensional (2D) silicon (Si) photonic crystal (PC) α-H0-slot micro-cavity with high Q-factor and high sensitivity (S) is presented. Based on the proposed α-H0-Slot micro-cavities, an optimal design of photonic crystal integrated sensors array (PC-ISA) on monolithic silicon on insulator (SOI) is displayed. By using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, the simulation results demonstrate that both large S of 200 nm/RIU (RIU=refractive index unit) and high Q-factor >104 at telecom wavelength range can be achieved simultaneously. And the sensor figure of merit (FOM)>7000 is featured, an order of magnitude improvement over previous 2D PC sensors array. In addition, for the proposed 2D PC-ISA device, each sensor unit is shown to independently shift its resonance wavelength in response to the changes in refractive index (RI) and does not perturb the others. Thus, it is potentially an ideal platform for realizing ultra-compact lab-on-a-chip applications with dense arrays of functionalized spots for multiplexed sensing, and also can be used as an opto-fluidic architecture for performing highly parallel detection of biochemical interactions in aqueous environments.

  6. Multiplex, Rapid, and Sensitive Isothermal Detection of Nucleic-Acid Sequence by Endonuclease Restriction-Mediated Real-Time Multiple Cross Displacement Amplification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Dongxin; Luo, Lijuan; Li, Hua; Cao, Xiaolong; Liu, Kai; Xu, Jianguo; Ye, Changyun

    2016-01-01

    We have devised a novel isothermal amplification technology, termed endonuclease restriction-mediated real-time multiple cross displacement amplification (ET-MCDA), which facilitated multiplex, rapid, specific and sensitive detection of nucleic-acid sequences at a constant temperature. The ET-MCDA integrated multiple cross displacement amplification strategy, restriction endonuclease cleavage and real-time fluorescence detection technique. In the ET-MCDA system, the functional cross primer E-CP1 or E-CP2 was constructed by adding a short sequence at the 5' end of CP1 or CP2, respectively, and the new E-CP1 or E-CP2 primer was labeled at the 5' end with a fluorophore and in the middle with a dark quencher. The restriction endonuclease Nb.BsrDI specifically recognized the short sequence and digested the newly synthesized double-stranded terminal sequences (5' end short sequences and their complementary sequences), which released the quenching, resulting on a gain of fluorescence signal. Thus, the ET-MCDA allowed real-time detection of single or multiple targets in only a single reaction, and the positive results were observed in as short as 12 min, detecting down to 3.125 fg of genomic DNA per tube. Moreover, the analytical specificity and the practical application of the ET-MCDA were also successfully evaluated in this study. Here, we provided the details on the novel ET-MCDA technique and expounded the basic ET-MCDA amplification mechanism.

  7. RNA-protein cross-links induced by sensitization with a pyrroloquinolinone derivative, a furocoumarin analogue.

    PubMed

    Baccichetti, F; Marzano, C; Carlassare, F; Guiotto, A; Bordin, F

    1997-10-01

    The capacity of 2,6-dimethyl-9-methoxy-4H-pyrrolo [3,2,1-ij] quinolin-4-one (PQ), a furocoumarin analogue, of inhibiting protein synthesis in Ehrlich cells upon UVA irradiation was investigated. Using 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) as a reference, we observed that in our short-term test the block of RNA synthesis do not affect protein synthesis, which is driven by pre-synthesised molecules of m-RNA; actually 8-MOP, studied at 100 microM concentration, practically abolished RNA synthesis without affecting significantly protein synthesis. Studying PQ sensitization in HL60 cells by alkaline elution and protein precipitation, the formation of covalent RNA-protein cross-links was observed. 8-MOP, assayed in severe experimental conditions, induced only moderate amounts of such lesion. On the basis of the data obtained in experiments carried out using various scavengers or exposing cells to UVA light in a nitrogen atmosphere, this damage appeared to be due to singlet oxygen formation, which is generated by PQ to a large extent. These results are consistent with the data obtained by H. Singh and J.A. Vadasz (Singlet oxygen: a major reactive species in the furocoumarin photosensitized inactivation of E.coli ribosomes, Photochem. Photobiol., 28 (1978) 539-545) on E.coli ribosomes. The lower activity we observed with 8-MOP might be attributed to a different sensitivity of whole mammalian cells in comparison with isolated ribosomes.

  8. A synthetic lethal siRNA screen identifying genes mediating sensitivity to a PARP inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nicholas C; Lord, Christopher J; Iorns, Elizabeth; Brough, Rachel; Swift, Sally; Elliott, Richard; Rayter, Sydonia; Tutt, Andrew N; Ashworth, Alan

    2008-05-07

    Inhibitors of poly (ADP-ribose)-polymerase-1 (PARP) are highly lethal to cells with deficiencies in BRCA1, BRCA2 or other components of the homologous recombination pathway. This has led to PARP inhibitors entering clinical trials as a potential therapy for cancer in carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. To discover new determinants of sensitivity to these drugs, we performed a PARP-inhibitor synthetic lethal short interfering RNA (siRNA) screen. We identified a number of kinases whose silencing strongly sensitised to PARP inhibitor, including cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), MAPK12, PLK3, PNKP, STK22c and STK36. How CDK5 silencing mediates sensitivity was investigated. Previously, CDK5 has been suggested to be active only in a neuronal context, but here we show that CDK5 is required in non-neuronal cells for the DNA-damage response and, in particular, intra-S and G(2)/M cell-cycle checkpoints. These results highlight the potential of synthetic lethal siRNA screens with chemical inhibitors to define new determinants of sensitivity and potential therapeutic targets.

  9. Understanding thermal sensitivity at the molecular level and developing temperature-based systems using RNA Thermometers.

    PubMed

    Gul, Fatih; Orhan, Ibrahim Y; Ceylan, Furkan S; Akdeniz, Nadir B; Karadag, H Abdulkadir

    2016-12-01

    Temperature sensitivity is found in all multicelleular organisms, as well as in most primitive life forms. The ubiquity of this temperature sensitivity is an indicator of its effects at the multicellular, cellular and molecular levels [1]. Previous studies have shown that temperature-based regulation is present in the transcriptional process [2]. RNA Thermometers, temperature-sensitive sequences, have been shown to act on heat-shock genes to regulate temperature-dependant systems in many organisms [3,4]. The goal of this study was to characterize the shifts in the functioning of these RNA Thermometers at various temperatures. In addition, using the principle of transcriptional thermoregulation, an automated temperature-responsive system stimulating inverse endothermic and exothermic enzymatic reactions for heat stabilization was proposed. The endothermic enzymatic reaction was designated as the breakdown of urea, reflecting the function of urease, and the exothermic reaction was designated as the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide, reflecting the function of catalase [5]. The proposed system was built upon the translation of urease and the inhibition of catalase translation at higher temperatures, and the inverse at lower temperatures. As RNA Thermometers can be used only to drive transcription at higher temperatures, the installation of a lac-regulated 2-way system was suggested. This system would also provide a synthetic solution to thermoregulation and the current systems employed today. This system could be applied where the current thermoregulatory systems prove insufficient and could be further developed and optimized to replace them in the future.

  10. Highly Sensitive Detection of HBV RNA in Liver Tissue by In Situ Hybridization.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Diego; Wieland, Stefan F

    2017-01-01

    As soon as HBV was identified, HBV localization at the cellular level became instrumental in studying HBV infection. Multiple methodologies for detection of viral antigens and nucleic acids at the cellular level, not only in patient derived liver biopsy samples, but also in many other experimental systems, have been developed over the years. Recently, the development of highly sensitive and specific in situ hybridization systems enabled detection of cellular mRNAs at the single copy level. Adaptation of such a system (ViewRNA ISH Tissue Assay; Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA, USA) for the detection of viral RNAs allowed us to reliably identify hepatitis C virus RNA positive cells in the liver of HCV infected patients. Similarly, this protocol enabled detection of very rare HBV positive cells in liver biopsy tissue. Here, we now describe the specifics of the protocol for detection of HBV RNA using the ViewRNA ISH system. The protocol focuses on probe set design, sample preparation and data interpretation for accurate HBV RNA detection in liver tissue samples. The methodology is straightforward and will be very useful in the study of basic HBV virology as well as in clinical applications.

  11. Sensitivity and correlation of hypervariable regions in 16S rRNA genes in phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Yong; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2016-03-22

    Prokaryotic 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences are widely used in environmental microbiology and molecular evolution as reliable markers for the taxonomic classification and phylogenetic analysis of microbes. Restricted by current sequencing techniques, the massive sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons encompassing the full length of genes is not yet feasible. Thus, the selection of the most efficient hypervariable regions for phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic classification is still debated. In the present study, several bioinformatics tools were integrated to build an in silico pipeline to evaluate the phylogenetic sensitivity of the hypervariable regions compared with the corresponding full-length sequences. The correlation of seven sub-regions was inferred from the geodesic distance, a parameter that is applied to quantitatively compare the topology of different phylogenetic trees constructed using the sequences from different sub-regions. The relationship between different sub-regions based on the geodesic distance indicated that V4-V6 were the most reliable regions for representing the full-length 16S rRNA sequences in the phylogenetic analysis of most bacterial phyla, while V2 and V8 were the least reliable regions. Our results suggest that V4-V6 might be optimal sub-regions for the design of universal primers with superior phylogenetic resolution for bacterial phyla. A potential relationship between function and the evolution of 16S rRNA is also discussed.

  12. Potential Inhibitory Influence of miRNA 210 on Regulatory T Cells during Epicutaneous Chemical Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Long, Carrie Mae; Lukomska, Ewa; Marshall, Nikki B.; Nayak, Ajay; Anderson, Stacey E.

    2016-01-01

    Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is a potent low molecular weight chemical sensitizer and a leading cause of chemical-induced occupational asthma. The regulatory potential of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been recognized in a variety of disease states, including allergic disease; however, the roles of miRNAs in chemical sensitization are largely unknown. In a previous work, increased expression of multiple miRNAs during TDI sensitization was observed and several putative mRNA targets identified for these miRNAs were directly related to regulatory T-cell (Treg) differentiation and function including Foxp3 and Runx3. In this work, we show that miR-210 expression is increased in the mouse draining lymph node (dLN) and Treg subsets following dermal TDI sensitization. Alterations in dLN mRNA and protein expression of Treg related genes/putative miR-210 targets (foxp3, runx3, ctla4, and cd25) were observed at multiple time points following TDI exposure and in ex vivo systems. A Treg suppression assay, including a miR-210 mimic, was utilized to investigate the suppressive ability of Tregs. Cells derived from TDI sensitized mice treated with miR-210 mimic had less expression of miR-210 compared to the acetone control suggesting other factors, such as additional miRNAs, might be involved in the regulation of the functional capabilities of these cells. These novel findings indicate that miR-210 may have an inhibitory role in Treg function during TDI sensitization. Because the functional roles of miRNAs have not been previously elucidated in a model of chemical sensitization, these data contribute to the understanding of the potential immunologic mechanisms of chemical induced allergic disease. PMID:28035981

  13. Quercetin Enhances Cisplatin Sensitivity of Human Osteosarcoma Cells by Modulating microRNA-217-KRAS Axis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xian; Guo, Qinggong; Chen, Jingtao; Chen, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    Quercetin can suppress osteosarcoma cell growth and metastasis. However, other effects of quercetin on osteosarcoma remain largely unknown. This research aims to evaluate the effects of quercetin in combination with cisplatin as treatment for osteosarcoma and investigate its regulatory mechanism. Cell viability and apoptosis in 143B cell line were determined after treatment with quercetin and/or cisplatin. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis were performed to determine the RNA or protein expression levels. Moreover, transwell assay was used to evaluate metastasis. Furthermore, rescue experiments were performed to investigate the potential regulatory mechanism of the treatment. Results showed that quercetin with concentration that was equal to or greater than 10 μM inhibited 143B proliferation, while 5 μM quercetin enhanced the cisplatin sensitivity of 143B cells. Expression of miR-217 was upregulated after quercetin and/or cisplatin treatment, while its target KRAS was downregulated both at mRNA and protein levels. MiR-217 knockdown led to the loss of enhanced cisplatin sensitivity while miR-217 overexpression showed the opposite effects, indicating that quercetin regulated cisplatin sensitivity by modulating the miR-217-KRAS axis. In conclusion, 5 μM quercetin enhanced the cisplatin sensitivity by modulating the miR-217-KRAS axis. This finding suggests that quercetin may be administered with cisplatin to improve the treatment for osteosarcoma. PMID:26062553

  14. Silicon nanowire-based molecular beacons for high-sensitivity and sequence-specific DNA multiplexed analysis.

    PubMed

    Su, Shao; Wei, Xinpan; Zhong, Yiling; Guo, Yuanyuan; Su, Yuanyuan; Huang, Qing; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Fan, Chunhai; He, Yao

    2012-03-27

    Nanomaterial-based molecular beacons (nanoMBs) have been extensively explored due to unique merits of nanostructures, including gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-, carbon nanotube (CNT)-, and graphene-based nanoMBs. Those nanoMBs are well-studied; however, they possess relatively poor salt stability or low specificity, limiting their wide applications. Here, we present a novel kind of multicolor silicon-based nanoMBs by using AuNP-decorated silicon nanowires as high-performance quenchers. Significantly, the nanoMBs feature robust stability in high-concentration (0.1 M) salt solution and wide-ranging temperature (10-80 °C), high quenching efficiency (>90%) for various fluorophores (e.g., FAM, Cy5, and ROX), and large surfaces for simultaneous assembly of different DNA strands. We further show that silicon-based nanoMBs are highly effective for sensitive and specific multidetection of DNA targets. The unprecedented advantages of silicon-based multicolor nanoMBs would bring new opportunities for challenging bioapplications, such as allele discrimination, early cancer diagnosis, and molecular engineering, etc.

  15. HCV RNA assay sensitivity impacts the management of patients treated with direct-acting antivirals.

    PubMed

    Cloherty, Gavin; Cohen, Daniel; Sarrazin, Christoph; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Chevaliez, Stephane; Herman, Christine; Bernstein, Barry; Pawlotsky, Jean Michel

    2015-01-01

    Application of response-guided therapy (RGT) rules to the treatment of HCV infection with pegylated interferon-α2a and ribavirin, and direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) such as the NS3/4A protease inhibitors (PIs) boceprevir and telaprevir, relies on the determination of viral genotype and on-treatment HCV RNA level. Currently there are few data available regarding the clinical impact of the analytical differences that exist between different HCV RNA quantification assays on treatment decisions such as those involved in RGT. We sought to ascertain the concordance between two HCV RNA quantification assays, the Roche/High-Pure-System COBAS(®) TaqMan (CTM) version 2 and Abbott RealTime HCV (ART), and to understand the impact of different assay characteristics on treatment decisions. We evaluated 1,336 specimens collected from 74 patients enrolled in the Phase II CHAMPION-2 study of the investigational DAAs ABT-450 (an acylsulfonamide NS3/4A PI), ABT-072 and ABT-333 (both non-nucleoside NS5B polymerase inhibitors). HCV RNA level results were highly correlated, but CTM values were higher than those from ART by an average of 0.46 log IU/ml. Use of ART HCV RNA level results led to a higher positive predictive value of week 4 viral load for the achievement of a sustained virological response 24 weeks after the end of treatment (100% versus 87% using the lower limit of detection as the threshold). This study suggests that HCV viral load assay performance characteristics need to be taken into consideration when managing HCV patients with RGT. Further studies are required to determine whether a consensus HCV RNA level threshold can be established or whether HCV viral load assays with greater sensitivity can increase cure rates with RGT.

  16. Antibody array in a multiwell plate format for the sensitive and multiplexed detection of important plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Charlermroj, Ratthaphol; Himananto, Orawan; Seepiban, Channarong; Kumpoosiri, Mallika; Warin, Nuchnard; Gajanandana, Oraprapai; Elliott, Christopher T; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2014-07-15

    The global seed market is considered to be an important industry with a total value of $10,543 million US dollars in 2012. Because plant pathogens such as bacteria and viruses cause a significant economic loss to both producers and exporters, the seed export industry urgently requires rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive testing for the pathogens to prevent disease spreading worldwide. This study developed an antibody array in a multiwell plate format to simultaneously detect four crucial plant pathogens, namely, a bacterial fruit blotch bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), Chilli veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV, potyvirus), Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, tospovirus serogroup IV), and Melon yellow spot virus (MYSV, tospovirus). The capture antibodies specific to the pathogens were immobilized on each well at preassigned positions by an automatic microarrayer. The antibodies on the arrays specifically captured the corresponding pathogens present in the sample extracts. The presence of pathogens bound on the capture antibodies was subsequently detected by a cocktail of fluorescently conjugated secondary antibodies. The limits of detection of the developed antibody array for the detection of Aac, ChiVMV, WSMoV, and MYSV were 5 × 10(5) CFU/mL, 30 ng/mL, 1000 ng/mL, and 160 ng/mL, respectively, which were very similar to those of the conventional ELISA method. The antibody array in a multiwell plate format accurately detected plant pathogens in single and multiple detections. Moreover, this format enables easy handling of the assay at a higher speed of operation.

  17. MicroRNA-302 replacement therapy sensitizes breast cancer cells to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhongxing; Ahn, Jeffrey; Guo, Donna; Votaw, John R; Shim, Hyunsuk

    2013-04-01

    Solid tumors can be resistant or develop resistance to radiotherapy. The purpose of this study is to explore whether microRNA-302 is involved in radioresistance and can be exploited as a sensitizer to enhance sensitivity of breast cancer cells to radiation therapy. MiR-302 expression levels in radioresistant cell lines were analyzed in comparison with their parent cell lines. Furthermore, we investigated whether enforced expression of miR-302 sensitized radioresistant breast cancer cells to ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo. MiR-302 was downregulated in irradiated breast cancer cells. Additionally, the expression levels of miR-302a were inversely correlated with those of AKT1 and RAD52, two critical regulators of radioresistance. More promisingly, miR-302a sensitized radioresistant breast cancer cells to radiation therapy in vitro and in vivo and reduced the expression of AKT1 and RAD52. Our findings demonstrated that decreased expression of miR-302 confers radioresistance and restoration of miR-302 baseline expression sensitizes breast cancer cells to radiotherapy. These data suggest that miR-302 is a potential sensitizer to radiotherapy.

  18. Sensitivity to Alternaria alternata toxin in citrus because of altered mitochondrial RNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Ohtani, Kouhei; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Akimitsu, Kazuya

    2002-01-01

    Specificity in the interaction between rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.) and the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata rough lemon pathotype is determined by a host-selective toxin, ACR-toxin. Mitochondria from rough lemon are sensitive to ACR-toxin whereas mitochondria from resistant plants, including other citrus species, are resistant. We have identified a C. jambhiri mitochondrial DNA sequence, designated ACRS (ACR-toxin sensitivity gene), that confers toxin sensitivity to Escherichia coli. ACRS is located in the group II intron of the mitochondrial tRNA-Ala and is translated into a SDS-resistant oligomeric protein in C. jambhiri mitochondria but is not translated in the toxin-insensitive mitochondria. ACRS is present in the mitochondrial genome of both toxin-sensitive and -insensitive citrus. However, in mitochondria of toxin-insensitive plants, the transcripts from ACRS are shorter than those in mitochondria of sensitive plants. These results demonstrate that sensitivity to ACR-toxin and hence specificity of the interaction between A. alternata rough lemon pathotype and C. jambhiri is due to differential posttranscriptional processing of a mitochondrial gene. PMID:11842194

  19. Sensitivity to Alternaria alternata toxin in citrus because of altered mitochondrial RNA processing.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Kouhei; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Akimitsu, Kazuya

    2002-02-19

    Specificity in the interaction between rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.) and the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata rough lemon pathotype is determined by a host-selective toxin, ACR-toxin. Mitochondria from rough lemon are sensitive to ACR-toxin whereas mitochondria from resistant plants, including other citrus species, are resistant. We have identified a C. jambhiri mitochondrial DNA sequence, designated ACRS (ACR-toxin sensitivity gene), that confers toxin sensitivity to Escherichia coli. ACRS is located in the group II intron of the mitochondrial tRNA-Ala and is translated into a SDS-resistant oligomeric protein in C. jambhiri mitochondria but is not translated in the toxin-insensitive mitochondria. ACRS is present in the mitochondrial genome of both toxin-sensitive and -insensitive citrus. However, in mitochondria of toxin-insensitive plants, the transcripts from ACRS are shorter than those in mitochondria of sensitive plants. These results demonstrate that sensitivity to ACR-toxin and hence specificity of the interaction between A. alternata rough lemon pathotype and C. jambhiri is due to differential posttranscriptional processing of a mitochondrial gene.

  20. Profiling single-guide RNA specificity reveals a mismatch sensitive core sequence

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ting; Hou, Yingzi; Zhang, Pingjing; Zhang, Zhenxi; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Letian; Niu, Leilei; Yang, Yi; Liang, Da; Yi, Fan; Peng, Wei; Feng, Wenjian; Yang, Ying; Chen, Jianxin; Zhu, York Yuanyuan; Zhang, Li-He; Du, Quan

    2017-01-01

    Targeting specificity is an essential issue in the development of CRISPR-Cas technology. Using a luciferase activation assay, off-target cleavage activity of sgRNA was systematically investigated on single nucleotide-mismatched targets. In addition to confirming that PAM-proximal mismatches are less tolerated than PAM-distal mismatches, our study further identified a “core” sequence that is highly sensitive to target-mismatch. This sequence is of 4-nucleotide long, located at +4 to +7 position upstream of PAM, and positioned in a steric restriction region when assembled into Cas9 endonuclease. Our study also found that, single or multiple target mismatches at this region abolished off-target cleavage mediated by active sgRNAs, thus proposing a principle for gene-specific sgRNA design. Characterization of a mismatch sensitive “core” sequence not only enhances our understanding of how this elegant system functions, but also facilitates our efforts to improve targeting specificity of a sgRNA. PMID:28098181

  1. lncRNA NBR2 modulates cancer cell sensitivity to phenformin through GLUT1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaowen; Gan, Boyi

    2016-12-16

    Biguanides, including metformin (widely used in diabetes treatment) and phenformin, are AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activators and potential drugs for cancer treatment. A more in-depth understanding of how cancer cells adapt to biguanide treatment may provide important therapeutic implications to achieve more effective and rational cancer therapies. NBR2 is a glucose starvation-induced long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that interacts with AMPK and regulates AMPK activity upon glucose starvation. Here we show that phenformin treatment induces NBR2 expression, and NBR2 deficiency sensitizes cancer cells to phenformin-induced cell death. Surprisingly, unlike glucose starvation, phenformin does not induce NBR2 interaction with AMPK, and correspondingly, NBR2 deficiency does not affect phenformin-induced AMPK activation. We further reveal that NBR2 depletion attenuates phenformin-induced glucose transporter GLUT1 expression and glucose uptake. GLUT1 deficiency sensitizes cancer cells to phenformin-induced cell death, whereas GLUT1 restoration in NBR2 deficient cells rescues the increased cell death upon phenformin treatment. Together, the results of our study reveal that NBR2-GLUT1 axis may serve as an adaptive response in cancer cells to survive in response to phenformin treatment, and identify a novel mechanism coupling lncRNA to biguanide-mediated biology.

  2. Asymmetric mRNA localization contributes to fidelity and sensitivity of spatially localized systems.

    PubMed

    Weatheritt, Robert J; Gibson, Toby J; Babu, M Madan

    2014-09-01

    Although many proteins are localized after translation, asymmetric protein distribution is also achieved by translation after mRNA localization. Why are certain mRNA transported to a distal location and translated on-site? Here we undertake a systematic, genome-scale study of asymmetrically distributed protein and mRNA in mammalian cells. Our findings suggest that asymmetric protein distribution by mRNA localization enhances interaction fidelity and signaling sensitivity. Proteins synthesized at distal locations frequently contain intrinsically disordered segments. These regions are generally rich in assembly-promoting modules and are often regulated by post-translational modifications. Such proteins are tightly regulated but display distinct temporal dynamics upon stimulation with growth factors. Thus, proteins synthesized on-site may rapidly alter proteome composition and act as dynamically regulated scaffolds to promote the formation of reversible cellular assemblies. Our observations are consistent across multiple mammalian species, cell types and developmental stages, suggesting that localized translation is a recurring feature of cell signaling and regulation.

  3. Highly sensitive dual mode electrochemical platform for microRNA detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, Pawan; Batistuti, Marina R.; Miodek, Anna; Zhurauski, Pavel; Mulato, Marcelo; Lindsay, Mark A.; Estrela, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial regulatory roles in various human diseases including cancer, making them promising biomarkers. However, given the low levels of miRNAs present in blood, their use as cancer biomarkers requires the development of simple and effective analytical methods. Herein, we report the development of a highly sensitive dual mode electrochemical platform for the detection of microRNAs. The platform was developed using peptide nucleic acids as probes on gold electrode surfaces to capture target miRNAs. A simple amplification strategy using gold nanoparticles has been employed exploiting the inherent charges of the nucleic acids. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to monitor the changes in capacitance upon any binding event, without the need for any redox markers. By using thiolated ferrocene, a complementary detection mode on the same sensor was developed where the increasing peaks of ferrocene were recorded using square wave voltammetry with increasing miRNA concentration. This dual-mode approach allows detection of miRNA with a limit of detection of 0.37 fM and a wide dynamic range from 1 fM to 100 nM along with clear distinction from mismatched target miRNA sequences. The electrochemical platform developed can be easily expanded to other miRNA/DNA detection along with the development of microarray platforms.

  4. Long noncoding RNA expression signature to predict platinum-based chemotherapeutic sensitivity of ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Zeng, Ying; Zhou, Cheng-Fang; Wang, Ying; Li, Xi; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2017-12-01

    Dysregulated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are potential markers of several tumor prognoses. This study aimed to develop a lncRNA expression signature that can predict chemotherapeutic sensitivity for patients with advanced stage and high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGS-OvCa) treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. The lncRNA expression profiles of 258 HGS-OvCa patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas were analyzed. Results revealed that an eight-lncRNA signature was significantly associated with chemosensitivity in the multivariate logistic regression model, which can accurately predict the chemosensitivity of patients [Area under curve (AUC) = 0.83]. The association of a chemosensitivity predictor with molecular subtypes indicated the excellent prognosis performance of this marker in differentiated, mesenchymal, and immunoreactive subtypes (AUC > 0.8). The significant correlation between ZFAS1 expression and chemosensitivity was confirmed in 233 HGS-OvCa patients from the Gene Expression Omnibus datasets (GSE9891, GSE63885, and GSE51373). In vitro experiments demonstrated that the ZFAS1 expression was upregulated by cisplatin in A2008, HeyA8, and HeyC2 cell lines. This finding suggested that ZFAS1 may participate in platinum resistance. Therefore, the evaluation of the eight-lncRNA signature may be clinically implicated in the selection of platinum-resistant HGS-OvCa patients. The role of ZFAS1 in platinum resistance should be further investigated.

  5. Highly sensitive dual mode electrochemical platform for microRNA detection

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Pawan; Batistuti, Marina R.; Miodek, Anna; Zhurauski, Pavel; Mulato, Marcelo; Lindsay, Mark A.; Estrela, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial regulatory roles in various human diseases including cancer, making them promising biomarkers. However, given the low levels of miRNAs present in blood, their use as cancer biomarkers requires the development of simple and effective analytical methods. Herein, we report the development of a highly sensitive dual mode electrochemical platform for the detection of microRNAs. The platform was developed using peptide nucleic acids as probes on gold electrode surfaces to capture target miRNAs. A simple amplification strategy using gold nanoparticles has been employed exploiting the inherent charges of the nucleic acids. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to monitor the changes in capacitance upon any binding event, without the need for any redox markers. By using thiolated ferrocene, a complementary detection mode on the same sensor was developed where the increasing peaks of ferrocene were recorded using square wave voltammetry with increasing miRNA concentration. This dual-mode approach allows detection of miRNA with a limit of detection of 0.37 fM and a wide dynamic range from 1 fM to 100 nM along with clear distinction from mismatched target miRNA sequences. The electrochemical platform developed can be easily expanded to other miRNA/DNA detection along with the development of microarray platforms. PMID:27824137

  6. Direct observation of mobility state transitions in RNA trajectories by sensitive single molecule feedback tracking

    PubMed Central

    Spille, Jan-Hendrik; Kaminski, Tim P.; Scherer, Katharina; Rinne, Jennifer S.; Heckel, Alexander; Kubitscheck, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Observation and tracking of fluorescently labeled molecules and particles in living cells reveals detailed information about intracellular processes on the molecular level. Whereas light microscopic particle observation is usually limited to two-dimensional projections of short trajectory segments, we report here image-based real-time three-dimensional single particle tracking in an active feedback loop with single molecule sensitivity. We tracked particles carrying only 1–3 fluorophores deep inside living tissue with high spatio-temporal resolution. Using this approach, we succeeded to acquire trajectories containing several hundred localizations. We present statistical methods to find significant deviations from random Brownian motion in such trajectories. The analysis allowed us to directly observe transitions in the mobility of ribosomal (r)RNA and Balbiani ring (BR) messenger (m)RNA particles in living Chironomus tentans salivary gland cell nuclei. We found that BR mRNA particles displayed phases of reduced mobility, while rRNA particles showed distinct binding events in and near nucleoli. PMID:25414330

  7. [Primary study on characteristics of insulin secretion rate, metabolic clearance rate and sensitivity in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects from multiplex diabetic pedigrees].

    PubMed

    Ran, J; Cheng, H; Li, F

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of insulin secretion rate (ISR), metabolic clearance rate (MCR-I) and sensitivity and to explore their relationship with obesity in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects from multiplex diabetic pedigrees (MDP). Fifteen subjects with normal glucose tolerance and 11 non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients from MDP were included in the study. Frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) was performed. Glucose, insulin (INS) and connecting-peptide (C-P) concentrations were measured. A computer procedure devised by our laboratory was used to calculate the value of ISR at each time point, then MCR-I was acquired. Insulin sensitivity index (SI) was calculated according to minimal model technique about glucose in FSIVGTT. The ISR curve in control group was biphasic, while in non-insulin. In non-insulin-dependent diabetic group, areas under the curves of C-P (AUCC) and ISR level (AUCS) measured during 0 approximately 16 min were 7.9 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) +/- 2.8 nmol.min(-1).L(-1), and 6.1 nmol +/- 2.2 nmol, respectively, which were significantly lower than those in control group 17.7 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) +/- 4.92 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) and 12.3 nmol +/- 3.9 nmol (P < 0.01). The two parameters were slightly higher than those in control group 155 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) +/- 44 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) vs 101 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) +/- 30 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) and 76 nmol +/- 26 nmol vs 54 nmol +/- 20.0 nmol (P < 0.05)measured during 16 approximately 180 min. There was no significant difference, between the two groups about the amount of insulin secretion during 3 hours (82 nmol +/- 28nmol vs 68 nmol +/- 21 nmol, P = 0.2). In control group, there were significant positive correlation, between AUCS, waist-hip ratio (WHR), and body surface area, (BSA) and significant negative correlation between MCR-I, SI and WHR, BSA (P < 0.01), and also between MCR-I and SI. In non-insulin-dependent diabetic group, AUCS were significantly correlated with body mass

  8. RNase non-sensitive and endocytosis independent siRNA delivery system: delivery of siRNA into tumor cells and high efficiency induction of apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xinglu; Wang, Guobao; Liu, Ru; Wang, Yaling; Wang, Yongkui; Qiu, Xiaozhong; Gao, Xueyun

    2013-07-01

    To date, RNase degradation and endosome/lysosome trapping are still serious problems for siRNA-based molecular therapy, although different kinds of delivery formulations have been tried. In this report, a cell penetrating peptide (CPP, including a positively charged segment, a linear segment, and a hydrophobic segment) and a single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) are applied together by a simple method to act as a siRNA delivery system. The siRNAs first form a complex with the positively charged segment of CPP via electrostatic forces, and the siRNA-CPP further coats the surface of the SWCNT via hydrophobic interactions. This siRNA delivery system is non-sensitive to RNase and can avoid endosome/lysosome trapping in vitro. When this siRNA delivery system is studied in Hela cells, siRNA uptake was observed in 98% Hela cells, and over 70% mRNA of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is knocked down, triggering cell apoptosis on a significant scale. Our siRNA delivery system is easy to handle and benign to cultured cells, providing a very efficient approach for the delivery of siRNA into the cell cytosol and cleaving the target mRNA therein.

  9. Sensitive Multiplexed Quantitative Analysis of Autoantibodies to Cancer Antigens with Chemically S-Cationized Full-Length and Water-Soluble Denatured Proteins.

    PubMed

    Futami, Junichiro; Nonomura, Hidenori; Kido, Momoko; Niidoi, Naomi; Fujieda, Nao; Hosoi, Akihiro; Fujita, Kana; Mandai, Komako; Atago, Yuki; Kinoshita, Rie; Honjo, Tomoko; Matsushita, Hirokazu; Uenaka, Akiko; Nakayama, Eiichi; Kakimi, Kazuhiro

    2015-10-21

    Humoral immune responses against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) or cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) aberrantly expressed in tumor cells are frequently observed in cancer patients. Recent clinical studies have elucidated that anticancer immune responses with increased levels of anti-TAA/CTA antibodies improve cancer survival rates. Thus, these antibody levels are promising biomarkers for diagnosing the efficiency of cancer immunotherapy. Full-length antigens are favored for detecting anti-TAA/CTA antibodies because candidate antigen proteins contain multiple epitopes throughout their structures. In this study, we developed a methodology to prepare purified water-soluble and full-length antigens by using cysteine sulfhydryl group cationization (S-cationization) chemistry. S-Cationized antigens can be prepared from bacterial inclusion bodies, and they exhibit improved protein solubility but preserved antigenicity. Anti-TAA/CTA antibodies detected in cancer patients appeared to recognize linear epitopes, as well as conformational epitopes, and because the frequency of cysteine side-residues on the epitope-paratope interface was low, any adverse effects of S-cationization were virtually negligible for antibody binding. Furthermore, S-cationized antigen-immobilized Luminex beads could be successfully used in highly sensitive quantitative-multiplexed assays. Indeed, patients with a more broadly induced serum anti-TAA/CTA antibody level showed improved progression-free survival after immunotherapy. The comprehensive anti-TAA/CTA assay system, which uses S-cationized full-length and water-soluble recombinant antigens, may be a useful diagnostic tool for assessing the efficiency of cancer immunotherapy.

  10. Contamination and sensitivity issues with a real-time universal 16S rRNA PCR.

    PubMed

    Corless, C E; Guiver, M; Borrow, R; Edwards-Jones, V; Kaczmarski, E B; Fox, A J

    2000-05-01

    A set of universal oligonucleotide primers specific for the conserved regions of the eubacterial 16S rRNA gene was designed for use with the real-time PCR Applied Biosystems 7700 (TaqMan) system. During the development of this PCR, problems were noted with the use of this gene as an amplification target. Contamination of reagents with bacterial DNA was a major problem exacerbated by the highly sensitive nature of the real-time PCR chemistry. This was compounded by the use of a small amplicon of approximately 100 bases, as is necessary with TaqMan chemistry. In an attempt to overcome this problem, several methodologies were applied. Certain treatments were more effective than others in eliminating the contaminating DNA; however, to achieve this there was a decrease in sensitivity. With UV irradiation there was a 4-log reduction in PCR sensitivity, with 8-methoxypsoralen activity facilitated by UV there was between a 5- and a 7-log reduction, and with DNase alone and in combination with restriction digestion there was a 1.66-log reduction. Restriction endonuclease treatment singly and together did not reduce the level of contaminating DNA. Without the development of ultrapure Taq DNA polymerase, ultrapure reagents, and plasticware guaranteed to be free of DNA, the implementation of a PCR for detection of eubacterial 16S rRNA with the TaqMan system will continue to be problematical.

  11. Molecular structure and thermodynamic predictions to create highly sensitive microRNA biosensors.

    PubMed

    Larkey, Nicholas E; Brucks, Corinne N; Lansing, Shan S; Le, Sophia D; Smith, Natasha M; Tran, Victoria; Zhang, Lulu; Burrows, Sean M

    2016-02-25

    Many studies have established microRNAs (miRNAs) as post-transcriptional regulators in a variety of intracellular molecular processes. Abnormal changes in miRNA have been associated with several diseases. However, these changes are sometimes subtle and occur at nanomolar levels or lower. Several biosensing hurdles for in situ cellular/tissue analysis of miRNA limit detection of small amounts of miRNA. Of these limitations the most challenging are selectivity and sensor degradation creating high background signals and false signals. Recently we developed a reporter+probe biosensor for let-7a that showed potential to mitigate false signal from sensor degradation. Here we designed reporter+probe biosensors for miR-26a-2-3p and miR-27a-5p to better understand the effect of thermodynamics and molecular structures of the biosensor constituents on the analytical performance. Signal changes from interactions between Cy3 and Cy5 on the reporters were used to understand structural aspects of the reporter designs. Theoretical thermodynamic values, single stranded conformations, hetero- and homodimerization structures, and equilibrium concentrations of the reporters and probes were used to interpret the experimental observations. Studies of the sensitivity and selectivity revealed 5-9 nM detection limits in the presence and absence of interfering off-analyte miRNAs. These studies will aid in determining how to rationally design reporter+probe biosensors to overcome hurdles associated with highly sensitive miRNA biosensing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Multiplex PCR for detection of superantigenic toxin genes in methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients and carriers of a hospital in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wongboot, Warawan; Chomvarin, Chariya; Engchanil, Chulapan; Chaimanee, Prajuab

    2013-07-04

    The aims of this study were to develop multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of five superantigenic toxin genes (sea, seb, sec, sed and tst-1) in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from 149 clinical samples and nasal swabs from 201 healthy subjects in Thailand, and to compare prevalence and expression of those genes between methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). The sensitivity of multiplex PCR was 10(3) CFU/ml (60 CFU/PCR reaction) for DNA templates extracted by both boiling and extraction methods. S. aureus strains from patients (65%) harbored more superantigenic toxin genes than healthy subjects (54%). MRSA (80%) isolated from patients harbored more superantigenic toxin genes than MSSA (52%). Sea was the most frequently found gene in S. aureus strains from patients and carriers. MRSAisolates harbored sea and produced SEA more frequently than MSSA isolates (p <0.05) and MRSA isolates (59%) from blood samples consisted of a higher number of superantigenic toxin producers than MSSA (9%) (p < 0.05). More S. aureus strains isolated from patients with severe septicemia contained superantigenic toxin genes (94%) and produced toxins (82%) than those from non-severe patients (64% and 57%, respectively). The multiplex PCR method described here offers a reliable tool for simultaneous detection of various staphylococcal toxin genes.

  13. Super-multiplex vibrational imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Lu; Chen, Zhixing; Shi, Lixue; Long, Rong; Anzalone, Andrew V.; Zhang, Luyuan; Hu, Fanghao; Yuste, Rafael; Cornish, Virginia W.; Min, Wei

    2017-04-01

    The ability to visualize directly a large number of distinct molecular species inside cells is increasingly essential for understanding complex systems and processes. Even though existing methods have successfully been used to explore structure-function relationships in nervous systems, to profile RNA in situ, to reveal the heterogeneity of tumour microenvironments and to study dynamic macromolecular assembly, it remains challenging to image many species with high selectivity and sensitivity under biological conditions. For instance, fluorescence microscopy faces a ‘colour barrier’, owing to the intrinsically broad (about 1,500 inverse centimetres) and featureless nature of fluorescence spectra that limits the number of resolvable colours to two to five (or seven to nine if using complicated instrumentation and analysis). Spontaneous Raman microscopy probes vibrational transitions with much narrower resonances (peak width of about 10 inverse centimetres) and so does not suffer from this problem, but weak signals make many bio-imaging applications impossible. Although surface-enhanced Raman scattering offers high sensitivity and multiplicity, it cannot be readily used to image specific molecular targets quantitatively inside live cells. Here we use stimulated Raman scattering under electronic pre-resonance conditions to image target molecules inside living cells with very high vibrational selectivity and sensitivity (down to 250 nanomolar with a time constant of 1 millisecond). We create a palette of triple-bond-conjugated near-infrared dyes that each displays a single peak in the cell-silent Raman spectral window; when combined with available fluorescent probes, this palette provides 24 resolvable colours, with the potential for further expansion. Proof-of-principle experiments on neuronal co-cultures and brain tissues reveal cell-type-dependent heterogeneities in DNA and protein metabolism under physiological and pathological conditions, underscoring the

  14. Gene and microRNA expression reveals sensitivity to paclitaxel in laryngeal cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Cheng-Zhi; Xie, Jin; Jin, Bin; Chen, Xin-Wei; Sun, Zhen-Feng; Wang, Bao-Xing; Dong, Pin

    2013-01-01

    Paclitaxel is a widely used chemotherapy drug for advanced laryngeal cancer patients. However, the fact that there are 20-40% of advanced laryngeal cancer patients do not response to paclitaxel makes it necessary to figure out potential biomarkers for paclitaxel sensitivity prediction. In this work, Hep2, a laryngeal cancer cell line, untreated or treated with lower dose of paclitaxel for 24 h, was applied to DNA microarray chips for gene and miR expression profile analysis. Expression of eight genes altered significantly following paclitaxel treatment, which was further validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Four up-regulated genes were ID2, BMP4, CCL4 and ACTG2, in which ID2 and BMP4 were implicated to be involved in several drugs sensitivity. While the down-regulated four genes, MAPK4, FASN, INSIG1 and SCD, were mainly linked to the endoplasmic reticulum and fatty acid biosynthesis, these two cell processes that are associated with drug sensitivity by increasing evidences. After paclitaxel treatment, expression of 49 miRs was significantly altered. Within these miRs, the most markedly expression-changed were miR-31-star, miR-1264, miR-3150b-5p and miR-210. While the miRs putatively modulated the mRNA expression of the most significantly expression-altered genes were miR-1264, miR-130a, miR-27b, miR-195, miR-1291, miR-214, miR-1277 and miR-1265, which were obtained by miR target prediction and miRNA target correlation. Collectively, our study might provide potential biomarkers for paclitaxel sensitivity prediction and drug resistance targets in laryngeal cancer patients. PMID:23826416

  15. The supercoiling sensitivity of a bacterial tRNA promoter parallels its responsiveness to stringent control.

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Bossi, N; Guérin, M; Rahmouni, R; Leng, M; Bossi, L

    1998-01-01

    In Salmonella typhimurium, expression of the hisR locus, a tRNA operon, decreases upon inhibiting DNA gyrase. Here, the hisR promoter dependence on negative DNA supercoiling was examined in vivo and in vitro. Mutant analysis showed the sequence determinants of this dependence to lie in the region between the -10 box and the transcription start site. As with most promoters subject to stringent control, this portion of the hisR promoter is C-G-rich. Replacing a C/G bp with T/A at position -7 partially relieves the supercoiling response while changing the sequence between -5 and + 1 (-CCCCCG-) for -GTTAA- abolishes the response in vitro and in vivo. The relief of the supercoiling dependence closely correlates with increased promoter susceptibility to melting in vivo and a lesser requirement for initiating nucleotides in the formation of stable initiation complexes in vitro. Studies in isoleucine-starved cells showed that such sequence changes mitigate and abolish the hisR promoter response to stringent control, respectively. The data presented suggest that the hisR promoter's sensitivity to stringent regulation arises from the same physical property that confers supercoiling sensitivity, i.e. resistance to melting. We propose that the stringent control mechanism acts by hampering the ability of RNA polymerase to melt the DNA helix. PMID:9550733

  16. MicroRNA-9 suppresses the sensitivity of CNE2 cells to ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chao-Pan; Han, Ling; Hou, Wei-Jian; Tang, Jun; Wen, Yi-Hui; Fu, Ran; Wang, Yue-Jian; Wen, Wei-Ping

    2015-08-01

    MicroRNA (miR)-9 has been demonstrated to regulate the radiosensitivity of tumor cells. In the present study, the mechanism by which miR-9 modulates the sensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells to ultraviolet (UV) radiation was investigated. The results demonstrated that exposure of NPC cells to UV light resulted in a significant increase in the expression of miR-9, and that CNE2 cells overexpressing miR-9 exhibited reduced levels of DNA damage and increased levels of total glutathione upon UV exposure. Accordingly, the inhibition of the expression of miR-9 promoted UV-induced DNA damage and apoptosis. Although miR-9 inhibited the expression of E-cadherin in the CNE2 cells and increased their resistance to UV radiation, the use of small interfering RNA to inhibit the expression of E-cadherin was not sufficient to decrease the radiosensitivity of the NPC cells. These data demonstrated that miR-9 did not modulate the sensitivity of the CNE2 cells to UV radiation through E-cadherin, but suggested that miR-9 regulated radiosensitivity through its effects on glutathione. These findings suggest that miR-9 may be a potential target for modulating the radiosensitivity of NPC cells.

  17. Avermectin-sensitive chloride currents induced by Caenorhabditis elegans RNA in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Arena, J P; Liu, K K; Paress, P S; Cully, D F

    1991-09-01

    Avermectins are a family of potent broad-spectrum anthelmintic compounds, which bind with high affinity to membranes isolated from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Binding of avermectins is thought to modulate chloride channel activity, but the exact mechanism for anthelmintic activity remains to be determined. In this report, the properties of an avermectin-sensitive membrane current were evaluated in Xenopus laevis oocytes that were injected with poly(A)+ RNA from C. elegans. In such oocytes, avermectins increased inward membrane current at a holding potential of -80 mV. An avermectin analog without anthelmintic activity had no effect. Half-maximal activation of current was observed with 90 nM avermectin. The reversal potential for avermectin-sensitive current was -19.3 +/- 1.9 mV, and it shifted with external chloride, as expected for a chloride current. Avermectin increased membrane current in C. elegans-injected oocytes that were also injected with the Ca2+ chelator ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid. The response to avermectin was greatest in the 1.0-2.5-kilobase class of size-fractionated C. elegans poly(A)+ RNA. Oocytes that responded to avermectin were insensitive to gamma-aminobutyric acid and the avermectin-induced current was blocked by picrotoxin.

  18. A simple and sensitive in vivo luciferase assay for tRNA-mediated nonsense suppression.

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, D W; Yarus, M

    1990-01-01

    We present a rapid assay for tRNA suppression in living Escherichia coli. An amber, ochre, or opal nonsense mutation in a cloned luxB gene from the bacterium Vibrio harveyi was suppressed. Because luciferase (Lux) activity depends completely on the appearance of the full-length luxB gene product, the amount of light produced was proportional to tRNA-mediated nonsense suppression in the cell. This luminometric assay was notably quicker, easier, and more sensitive than a traditional colorimetric assay employing beta-galactosidase. Assays required only one addition to a growing culture and were complete within 1 min. Light output was directly proportional to the amount of bacterial luciferase in a sample over a range of greater than or equal to 40,000-fold. Fewer than 100 cells were required for detection of Lux with ordinary instrumentation; assays were 80-fold more sensitive than simultaneous beta-galactosidase measurements. Assayed cells survived and could be recovered as colony formers. The beta-galactosidase colorimetric assay and the luciferase assay were similarly reproducible. Light from colonies expressing Lux was visible to the dark-adapted eye and useful for screening. A rapid assay that does not depend on the formation of permanent transformants can be based on electroporation followed by luminometry. Images FIG. 5 PMID:2105299

  19. Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Rapid Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci Directly from Positive Blood Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hye-young; Kim, Sunghyun; Kim, Jungho; Park, Soon-Deok

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most prevalent cause of bloodstream infections (BSIs) and is recognized as a major nosocomial pathogen. This study aimed to evaluate a newly designed multiplex real-time PCR assay capable of the simultaneous detection of mecA, S. aureus, and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) in blood culture specimens. The Real-MRSA and Real-MRCoNS multiplex real-time PCR assays (M&D, Republic of Korea) use the TaqMan probes 16S rRNA for Staphylococcus spp., the nuc gene for S. aureus, and the mecA gene for methicillin resistance. The detection limit of the multiplex real-time PCR assay was 103 CFU/ml per PCR for each gene target. The multiplex real-time PCR assay was evaluated using 118 clinical isolates from various specimen types and a total of 350 positive blood cultures from a continuous monitoring blood culture system. The results obtained with the multiplex real-time PCR assay for the three targets were in agreement with those of conventional identification and susceptibility testing methods except for one organism. Of 350 positive bottle cultures, the sensitivities of the multiplex real-time PCR kit were 100% (166/166 cultures), 97.2% (35/36 cultures), and 99.2% (117/118 cultures) for the 16S rRNA, nuc, and mecA genes, respectively, and the specificities for all three targets were 100%. The Real-MRSA and Real-MRCoNS multiplex real-time PCR assays are very useful for the rapid accurate diagnosis of staphylococcal BSIs. In addition, the Real-MRSA and Real-MRCoNS multiplex real-time PCR assays could have an important impact on the choice of appropriate antimicrobial therapy, based on detection of the mecA gene. PMID:24648566

  20. Multiplex real-time PCR assay for rapid detection of methicillin-resistant staphylococci directly from positive blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hye-Young; Kim, Sunghyun; Kim, Jungho; Park, Soon-Deok; Uh, Young; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2014-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most prevalent cause of bloodstream infections (BSIs) and is recognized as a major nosocomial pathogen. This study aimed to evaluate a newly designed multiplex real-time PCR assay capable of the simultaneous detection of mecA, S. aureus, and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) in blood culture specimens. The Real-MRSA and Real-MRCoNS multiplex real-time PCR assays (M&D, Republic of Korea) use the TaqMan probes 16S rRNA for Staphylococcus spp., the nuc gene for S. aureus, and the mecA gene for methicillin resistance. The detection limit of the multiplex real-time PCR assay was 10(3) CFU/ml per PCR for each gene target. The multiplex real-time PCR assay was evaluated using 118 clinical isolates from various specimen types and a total of 350 positive blood cultures from a continuous monitoring blood culture system. The results obtained with the multiplex real-time PCR assay for the three targets were in agreement with those of conventional identification and susceptibility testing methods except for one organism. Of 350 positive bottle cultures, the sensitivities of the multiplex real-time PCR kit were 100% (166/166 cultures), 97.2% (35/36 cultures), and 99.2% (117/118 cultures) for the 16S rRNA, nuc, and mecA genes, respectively, and the specificities for all three targets were 100%. The Real-MRSA and Real-MRCoNS multiplex real-time PCR assays are very useful for the rapid accurate diagnosis of staphylococcal BSIs. In addition, the Real-MRSA and Real-MRCoNS multiplex real-time PCR assays could have an important impact on the choice of appropriate antimicrobial therapy, based on detection of the mecA gene.

  1. Second harmonic super-resolution microscopy for quantification of mRNA at single copy sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Cho, Il-Hoon; Cui, Yi; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2014-12-23

    Cell-specific information on the quantity and localization of key mRNAs at single copy sensitivity in single cells is critical for evaluating basic cellular process, disease risk, and efficacy of therapy. Quantification of overexpressed mRNAs beyond the diffraction limit is constrained by the optical property of the probes and microscopy techniques. In this report, nanosized barium titanium oxide (BaTiO3, BTO) crystals were utilized as probes for mRNA quantification by a second harmonic super-resolution microscopy (SHaSM). The SHaSM was able to detect a single copy of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) mRNA at a resolution of 55.6 nm with the ability to resolve multiple mRNA copies in a diffraction-limited spot. Her2 mRNA per cell was counted in SK-BR-3, MCF-7, and HeLa cell lines as 595±79.1, 38.9±8.26, and 1.5±2.8, respectively. Our single-cell quantification results were validated with the fluorescence in situ hybridization studies and quantitative PCR, showing better specificity and selectivity over current single-molecule approaches for transcript detection. The SHaSM is expected to have an upper limit of resolving ∼10(4) transcripts in a single cell with the ability to monitor intracellular transcriptional dynamics at video rate. The developed approach has strong potential in clinical research and in the early diagnosis of life-threatening diseases such as cancer.

  2. Second Harmonic Super-resolution Microscopy for Quantification of mRNA at Single Copy Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cell-specific information on the quantity and localization of key mRNAs at single copy sensitivity in single cells is critical for evaluating basic cellular process, disease risk, and efficacy of therapy. Quantification of overexpressed mRNAs beyond the diffraction limit is constrained by the optical property of the probes and microscopy techniques. In this report, nanosized barium titanium oxide (BaTiO3, BTO) crystals were utilized as probes for mRNA quantification by a second harmonic super-resolution microscopy (SHaSM). The SHaSM was able to detect a single copy of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) mRNA at a resolution of 55.6 nm with the ability to resolve multiple mRNA copies in a diffraction-limited spot. Her2 mRNA per cell was counted in SK-BR-3, MCF-7, and HeLa cell lines as 595 ± 79.1, 38.9 ± 8.26, and 1.5 ± 2.8, respectively. Our single-cell quantification results were validated with the fluorescence in situ hybridization studies and quantitative PCR, showing better specificity and selectivity over current single-molecule approaches for transcript detection. The SHaSM is expected to have an upper limit of resolving ∼104 transcripts in a single cell with the ability to monitor intracellular transcriptional dynamics at video rate. The developed approach has strong potential in clinical research and in the early diagnosis of life-threatening diseases such as cancer. PMID:25494326

  3. Cold-Sensitive Pseudomonas RNA Polymerase I. Characterization of the Host Dependent Cold-Sensitive Restriction of Phage CB3

    PubMed Central

    Sobieski, Rodney J.; Olsen, Ronald H.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of bacteriophage CB3 infection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAT2 establishes that phage induced changes in net macromolecular synthesis are absent at nonpermissive phage growth temperatures (32 C). Alterations which are evident in the PAT2 strain at 37 C or in the fully permissive strain, PAO1C, at either warm or cold temperatures do not occur in PAT2 at low temperatures. CB3 DNA synthesis and the degradation of host DNA to approximately 78S components occur at 37 C, but are absent in PAT2 at 20 C. Nevertheless, attachment of phage DNA to host cytoplasmic material occurs under permissive and nonpermissive conditions. This binding of phage DNA at 20 C is identical in nature to phage DNA bound at 37 C. Thus, the conditional cold-sensitive PAT2 host function in the growth of CB3 is expressed subsequent to membrane binding of the infecting genomes but prior to the onset of the initiation of CB3 DNA synthesis, the inhibition of host DNA synthesis, and the transient depression in RNA synthesis which occurs in permissive cells. PMID:4202617

  4. Increased sensitivity of RT-PCR for Potato virus Y detection using RNA isolated by a procedure with differential centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhua; Nie, Xianzhou; Boquel, Sébastien; Al-Daoud, Fadi; Pelletier, Yvan

    2015-12-01

    The sensitivity of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for virus detection is influenced by many factors such as specificity of primers and quality of templates. These factors become extremely important for successful detection when virus concentration is low. Total RNA isolated from Potato virus Y (PVY)-infected potato plants using the sodium sulfite RNA isolation method or RNeasy plant mini kit contains a high proportion of host RNA and may also contain trace amount of phenolic and polysaccharide residues, which may inhibit RT-PCR. The goal of this study was to enhance the sensitivity of PVY detection by reducing host RNA in the extract by differential centrifugation followed by extraction using an RNeasy mini kit (DCR method). One-step RT-PCR had relatively low amplification efficiency for PVY RNA when a high proportion of plant RNA was present. SYBR Green-based real time RT-PCR showed that the RNA isolated by the DCR method had a higher cycle threshold value (Ct) for the elongation factor 1-α mRNA (Ef1α) of potato than the Ct value of the RNA extracted using the RNeasy plant mini kit, indicating that the DCR method significantly reduced the proportion of potato RNA in the extract. The detectable amount of RNA extracted using the DCR method was <0.001ng when plant sap from 10 PVY-infected and PVY-free potato leaflets in a 1.5:100 fresh weight ratio was extracted, compared with 0.01 and 0.02ng of RNA using the RNeasy plant mini kit and sodium sulfite RNA isolation methods, respectively.

  5. Multiplex detection of microRNAs by combining molecular beacon probes with T7 exonuclease-assisted cyclic amplification reaction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yacui; Zhang, Jiangyan; Tian, Jingxiao; Fan, Xiaofei; Geng, Hao; Cheng, Yongqiang

    2017-01-01

    A simple, highly sensitive, and specific assay was developed for the homogeneous and multiplex detection of microRNAs (miRNAs) by combining molecular beacon (MB) probes and T7 exonuclease-assisted cyclic amplification. An MB probe with five base pairs in the stem region without special modification can effectively prevent the digestion by T7 exonuclease. Only in the presence of target miRNA is the MB probe hybridized with the target miRNA, and then digested by T7 exonuclease in the 5' to 3' direction. At the same time, the target miRNA is released and subsequently initiates the nuclease-assisted cyclic digestion process, generating enhanced fluorescence signal significantly. The results show that the combination of T7 exonuclease-assisted cyclic amplification reaction and MB probe possesses higher sensitivity for miRNA detection. Moreover, multiplex detection of miRNAs was successfully achieved by designing two MB probes labeled with FAM and Cy3, respectively. As a result, the method opens a new pathway for the sensitive and multiplex detection of miRNAs as well as clinical diagnosis. Graphical Abstract A simple, highly sensitive, and specific assay was developed for the detection of microRNAs by combining molecular beacon probes with T7 exonuclease-assisted cyclic amplification reaction.

  6. RNA-seq reveals determinants of sensitivity to chemotherapy drugs in esophageal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Xin; Li, Bai-Ling; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Yuan, Yang; Lu, Chao-Jing; Chen, Rui; Zhao, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment for patients with incurable disease of esophageal carcinoma. Most patients respond poorly to chemotherapy, it is necessary to figure out biomarkers for chemotherapy sensitivity or resistance to perform the individualized therapy. In present work, the sensitivities of two ESCC cell lines to 9 chemotherapy drugs were identified and the transcriptome of these two cell lines were investigated by RNA-seq, the correlation between the sensitivity to drugs and expression of some genes was attempted to construct. Eca-1 was more resistant to most of the chemotherapy drugs than Eca-109 cell line. RNA-seq results showed that there is dramatic difference in the basal expression between these two ESCC cell lines. Pathway analysis demonstrated that these differentially expressed genes were mainly enriched in Gαi signaling, calcium signaling, cAMP-mediated signaling, G-protein coupled receptor signaling and actin cytoskeleton signaling pathways. The molecules in Gαi signaling (ADCY1 and SSTR3) and actin cytoskeleton signaling (MYH6 and MYH7) were highly expressed in multidrug-resistant Eca-1 cells, which were validated by quantitative PCR. Activation of these two pathways results in the upregulation of downstream signaling, PKA signaling and Src-STAT3, and downregulation of RAF-ERK signaling, which was validated by immunoblotting experiments. Our work proposed that activation of Gαi signaling or actin cytoskeleton signaling may confer ESCC cells resistance to most chemotherapy drugs. Our work might provide potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for treatment of EC patients.

  7. RNA-seq reveals determinants of sensitivity to chemotherapy drugs in esophageal carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li-Xin; Li, Bai-Ling; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Yuan, Yang; Lu, Chao-Jing; Chen, Rui; Zhao, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment for patients with incurable disease of esophageal carcinoma. Most patients respond poorly to chemotherapy, it is necessary to figure out biomarkers for chemotherapy sensitivity or resistance to perform the individualized therapy. In present work, the sensitivities of two ESCC cell lines to 9 chemotherapy drugs were identified and the transcriptome of these two cell lines were investigated by RNA-seq, the correlation between the sensitivity to drugs and expression of some genes was attempted to construct. Eca-1 was more resistant to most of the chemotherapy drugs than Eca-109 cell line. RNA-seq results showed that there is dramatic difference in the basal expression between these two ESCC cell lines. Pathway analysis demonstrated that these differentially expressed genes were mainly enriched in Gαi signaling, calcium signaling, cAMP-mediated signaling, G-protein coupled receptor signaling and actin cytoskeleton signaling pathways. The molecules in Gαi signaling (ADCY1 and SSTR3) and actin cytoskeleton signaling (MYH6 and MYH7) were highly expressed in multidrug-resistant Eca-1 cells, which were validated by quantitative PCR. Activation of these two pathways results in the upregulation of downstream signaling, PKA signaling and Src-STAT3, and downregulation of RAF-ERK signaling, which was validated by immunoblotting experiments. Our work proposed that activation of Gαi signaling or actin cytoskeleton signaling may confer ESCC cells resistance to most chemotherapy drugs. Our work might provide potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for treatment of EC patients. PMID:24817948

  8. Highly Sensitive Detection and Genotyping of HPV by PCR Multiplex and Luminex Technology in a Cohort of Colombian Women with Abnormal Cytology.

    PubMed

    García, Dabeiba A; Cid-Arregui, Angel; Schmitt, Markus; Castillo, Marcos; Briceño, Ignacio; Aristizábal, Fabio A

    2011-01-01

    Cancer of the uterine cervix (CC) is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. In Colombia, CC is the second most frequent cancer among the entire women population and the first among women aged between 15 and 44 years, with an estimated incidence of 24.9 cases/100,000 inhabitants. The main risk factor is infection with one or more high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types. The aim of this study was to estimate the genotype-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in patients with cervical pathology using the multiplex PCR and Luminex xMAP technology. In addition, we compared genotyping with Luminex xMAP and with Reverse Line Blot (RLB). A cohort of 160 patients participated in the study, of which 25.6% had no cervical lesions, 35% presented cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade I (CIN I), 10% CIN II, 20.6% CIN III and 8.8% CC. The most frequent viral types in all lesion grades were HPV16 and HPV18. Infections by a unique virus were less frequent (19.4%) than multiple infections (80.6%). Single infections were found in 22% of women with no cervical lesions, and in 14.3% of CIN I, 18.7% CIN II, 21.2% CIN III and 28.6% of CC. Multiple infections were observed in 78.0% of cervical samples with negative histopathologic diagnosis, and in 85.7% of CIN I, 81.2% CIN II, 78.8% CIN III and 71.4% CC. All samples analyzed with Luminex xMAP were HPV-positive, while we could detect HPV in only 48.8% of cases with RLB. Of the samples positive by both methods, there was a 67.2% correlation in the viral type(s) detected. In conclusion, Luminex suspension array showed a remarkably higher sensitivity compared with RLB. Multiple infections were unexpectedly common, being HPV types 16 and 18 the most prevalent in all histopathologic grades.

  9. Highly Sensitive Detection and Genotyping of HPV by PCR Multiplex and Luminex Technology in a Cohort of Colombian Women with Abnormal Cytology

    PubMed Central

    García, Dabeiba A; Cid-Arregui, Angel; Schmitt, Markus; Castillo, Marcos; Briceño, Ignacio; Aristizábal, Fabio A

    2011-01-01

    Cancer of the uterine cervix (CC) is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. In Colombia, CC is the second most frequent cancer among the entire women population and the first among women aged between 15 and 44 years, with an estimated incidence of 24.9 cases/100,000 inhabitants. The main risk factor is infection with one or more high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types. The aim of this study was to estimate the genotype-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in patients with cervical pathology using the multiplex PCR and Luminex xMAP technology. In addition, we compared genotyping with Luminex xMAP and with Reverse Line Blot (RLB). A cohort of 160 patients participated in the study, of which 25.6% had no cervical lesions, 35% presented cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade I (CIN I), 10% CIN II, 20.6% CIN III and 8.8% CC. The most frequent viral types in all lesion grades were HPV16 and HPV18. Infections by a unique virus were less frequent (19.4%) than multiple infections (80.6%). Single infections were found in 22% of women with no cervical lesions, and in 14.3% of CIN I, 18.7% CIN II, 21.2% CIN III and 28.6% of CC. Multiple infections were observed in 78.0% of cervical samples with negative histopathologic diagnosis, and in 85.7% of CIN I, 81.2% CIN II, 78.8% CIN III and 71.4% CC. All samples analyzed with Luminex xMAP were HPV-positive, while we could detect HPV in only 48.8% of cases with RLB. Of the samples positive by both methods, there was a 67.2% correlation in the viral type(s) detected. In conclusion, Luminex suspension array showed a remarkably higher sensitivity compared with RLB. Multiple infections were unexpectedly common, being HPV types 16 and 18 the most prevalent in all histopathologic grades. PMID:21769306

  10. RNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darnell, James E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Ribonucleic acid (RNA) converts genetic information into protein and usually must be processed to serve its function. RNA types, chemical structure, protein synthesis, translation, manufacture, and processing are discussed. Concludes that the first genes might have been spliced RNA and that humans might be closer than bacteria to primitive…

  11. RNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darnell, James E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Ribonucleic acid (RNA) converts genetic information into protein and usually must be processed to serve its function. RNA types, chemical structure, protein synthesis, translation, manufacture, and processing are discussed. Concludes that the first genes might have been spliced RNA and that humans might be closer than bacteria to primitive…

  12. Multiplex RT-PCR assays for the simultaneous detection of both RNA and DNA viruses infecting cassava and the common occurrence of mixed infections by two cassava brown streak viruses in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Abarshi, M M; Mohammed, I U; Jeremiah, S C; Legg, J P; Kumar, P Lava; Hillocks, R J; Maruthi, M N

    2012-01-01

    Uniplex and multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols were developed for the detection of cassava brown streak viruses (CBSVs) in single and mixed infections with cassava mosaic begomoviruses (CMBs) in a tropical crop plant, cassava (Manihot esculenta). CMBs contain ssDNA as their genome (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) while CBSVs are made up of positive sense ssRNA (genus Ipomovirus, family Potyviridae), and they cause the economically important cassava mosaic and cassava brown streak diseases, respectively, in sub-Saharan Africa. Diagnostic methodologies have long been available for CMBs but they are limited for CBSVs especially in mixed infections. In this study, the two CBSVs, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Cassava brown streak Uganda virus (CBSUV) occurring singly or in mixed infection with CMBs, African cassava mosaic virus and East African cassava mosaic virus were detected in a single RT-PCR using both previously described and newly designed virus-specific primers. These protocols were highly efficient for detecting CBSVs compared to the existing methods and have great potential to minimize sample handling and contamination. As well as improving the diagnosis of cassava viruses, the development of multiplex RT-PCR protocols have revealed the common occurrence of mixed infections by CBSV and CBSUV in cassava fields of Tanzania and Kenya, which was contrary to the common belief until recently that these two viruses have existed separately. These protocols have implications for diagnosis and epidemiological studies on cassava virus diseases in Eastern Africa.

  13. RNA interference targeting Aurora-A sensitizes glioblastoma cells to temozolomide chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gan, Jing; Wang, Fangfang; Mu, Dezhi; Qu, Yi; Luo, Rong; Wang, Qiu

    2016-12-01

    Clinically, temozolomide (TMZ) is widely used in glioblastoma (GBM) treatment. However, the toxicity of TMZ may influence the quality of patient life. Thus, novel treatment options for sensitizing GBM cells to TMZ chemotherapy are necessary. Aurora-A is widely expressed in GBM and correlated with poor prognosis. It has been proven to be an effective target for gene therapy and chemotherapy. In the present study, short hairpin (sh)RNA targeting Aurora-A was employed to knockdown Aurora-A expression in GBM cells. Cell Counting Kit-8 assays, flow cytometry, colony formation assays, invasion assays and tube formation assays were used to determine the effects of Aurora-A knockdown when combined with TMZ treatment. A U251 subcutaneous cancer model was established to evaluate the efficacy of combined therapy. The results of the present study indicated that the proliferation, colony formation, invasion and angiogenesis of GBM cells were significantly inhibited by combined therapy when compared with TMZ treatment alone. In vivo results demonstrated that knockdown of Aurora-A significantly (P=0.0084) sensitizes GBM cells to TMZ chemotherapy. The results of the present study demonstrated that knockdown of Aurora-A in GBM cells enhances TMZ sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, Aurora-A knockdown may be a novel treatment option for decreasing TMZ toxicity and improving patient quality of life.

  14. Sensitive Detection of Protein and miRNA Cancer Biomarkers using Silicon-Based Photonic Crystals and A Resonance Coupling Laser Scanning Platform

    PubMed Central

    George, Sherine; Chaudhery, Vikram; Lu, Meng; Takagi, Miki; Amro, Nabil; Pokhriyal, Anusha; Tan, Yafang; Ferreira, Placid; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2013-01-01

    Enhancement of the fluorescent output of surface-based fluorescence assays by performing them upon nanostructured photonic crystal (PC) surfaces has been demonstrated to increase signal intensities by >8000×. Using the multiplicative effects of optical resonant coupling to the PC in increasing the electric field intensity experienced by fluorescent labels (“enhanced excitation”) and the spatially biased funneling of fluorophore emissions through coupling to PC resonances (“enhanced extraction”), PC enhanced fluorescence (PCEF) can be adapted to reduce the limits of detection of disease biomarker assays, and to reduce the size and cost of high sensitivity detection instrumentation. In this work, we demonstrate the first silicon-based PCEF detection platform for multiplexed biomarker assay. The sensor in this platform is a silicon-based PC structure, comprised of a SiO2 grating that is overcoated with a thin film of high refractive index TiO2 and is produced in a semiconductor foundry for low cost, uniform, and reproducible manufacturing. The compact detection instrument that completes this platform was designed to efficiently couples fluorescence excitation from a semiconductor laser to the resonant optical modes of the PC, resulting in elevated electric field strength that is highly concentrated within the region <100 nm from the PC surface. This instrument utilizes a cylindrically focused line to scan a microarray in <1 minute. To demonstrate the capabilities of this sensor-detector platform, microspot fluorescent sandwich immunoassays using secondary antibodies labeled with Cy5 for two cancer biomarkers (TNF-α and IL-3) were performed. Biomarkers were detected at concentrations as low as 0.1 pM. In a fluorescent microarray for detection of a breast cancer miRNA biomarker miR-21, the miRNA was detectable at a concentration of 0.6 pM. PMID:23963502

  15. Sensitive detection of protein and miRNA cancer biomarkers using silicon-based photonic crystals and a resonance coupling laser scanning platform.

    PubMed

    George, Sherine; Chaudhery, Vikram; Lu, Meng; Takagi, Miki; Amro, Nabil; Pokhriyal, Anusha; Tan, Yafang; Ferreira, Placid; Cunningham, Brian T

    2013-10-21

    Enhancement of the fluorescent output of surface-based fluorescence assays by performing them upon nanostructured photonic crystal (PC) surfaces has been demonstrated to increase signal intensities by >8000×. Using the multiplicative effects of optical resonant coupling to the PC in increasing the electric field intensity experienced by fluorescent labels ("enhanced excitation") and the spatially biased funneling of fluorophore emissions through coupling to PC resonances ("enhanced extraction"), PC enhanced fluorescence (PCEF) can be adapted to reduce the limits of detection of disease biomarker assays, and to reduce the size and cost of high sensitivity detection instrumentation. In this work, we demonstrate the first silicon-based PCEF detection platform for multiplexed biomarker assay. The sensor in this platform is a silicon-based PC structure, comprised of a SiO2 grating that is overcoated with a thin film of high refractive index TiO2 and is produced in a semiconductor foundry for low cost, uniform, and reproducible manufacturing. The compact detection instrument that completes this platform was designed to efficiently couple fluorescence excitation from a semiconductor laser to the resonant optical modes of the PC, resulting in elevated electric field strength that is highly concentrated within the region <100 nm from the PC surface. This instrument utilizes a cylindrically focused line to scan a microarray in <1 min. To demonstrate the capabilities of this sensor-detector platform, microspot fluorescent sandwich immunoassays using secondary antibodies labeled with Cy5 for two cancer biomarkers (TNF-α and IL-3) were performed. Biomarkers were detected at concentrations as low as 0.1 pM. In a fluorescent microarray for detection of a breast cancer miRNA biomarker miR-21, the miRNA was detectable at a concentration of 0.6 pM.

  16. Integrated mRNA and micro RNA profiling reveals epigenetic mechanism of differential sensitivity of Jurkat T cells to AgNPs and Ag ions.

    PubMed

    Eom, Hyun-Jeong; Chatterjee, Nivedita; Lee, Jeongsoo; Choi, Jinhee

    2014-08-17

    In our previous in vitro study of the toxicity on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), we observed a dramatically higher sensitivity of Jurkat T cells to AgNPs than to Ag ions, and DNA damage and apoptosis were found to be involved in that toxicity. In this study, to understand underlying mechanism of different sensitivity of Jurket T cells to AgNPs and Ag ions, mRNA microarray and micro RNA microarray were concomitantly conducted on AgNPs and Ag ions exposed Jurkat T cells. Surprisingly only a small number of genes were differentially expressed by exposure to each of the silver (15 altered mRNA by AgNPs exposure, whereas 4 altered mRNA by Ag ions exposure, as determined 1.5-fold change as the cut-off value). miRNA microarray revealed that the expression of 63 miRNAs was altered by AgNPs exposure, whereas that of 32 miRNAs was altered by Ag ions exposure. An integrated analysis of mRNA and miRNA expression revealed that the expression of hsa-miR-219-5p, was negatively correlated with the expression of metallothionein 1F (MT1F) and tribbles homolog 3 (TRIB3), in cells exposed to AgNPs; whereas, the expression of hsa-miR-654-3p was negatively correlated with the expression of mRNA, endonuclease G-like 1 (EDGL1) in cells exposed to Ag ions. Network analysis were further conducted on mRNA-miRNA pairs, which revealed that miR-219-5p-MT1F and -TRIB3 pairs by AgNPs are being involved in various cellular processes, such as, oxidative stress, cell cycle and apoptosis, whereas, miR-654-3p and ENDOGL1 pair by Ag ions generated a much simpler network. The putative target genes of AgNPs-induced miR-504, miR-33 and miR-302 identified by Tarbase 6.0 are also found to be involved in DNA damage and apoptosis. These results collectively suggest that distinct epigenetic regulation may be an underlying mechanism of different sensitivity of Jurkat T cells to AgNPs and Ag ion. Further identification of putative target genes of DE miRNA by AgNPs and Ag ions may provide additional clues for the

  17. Highly alignment tolerant and high-sensitivity 100Gb/s (4 × 25Gb/s) APD-ROSA with a thin-film filter-based de-multiplexer.

    PubMed

    Huh, Joon Young; Kang, Sae-Kyoung; Lee, Jie Hyun; Lee, Joon Ki; Kim, SunMe

    2016-11-28

    We investigate and demonstrate a 100-Gb/s (4x25-Gb/s) receiver optical sub-assembly (ROSA) based on avalanche photodiodes and a thin-film filter-based de-multiplexer. The overall alignment tolerances of the ROSA are relaxed to have larger than ± 25 μm by improving optical coupling structure. The receiver sensitivity of each lane is also measured to be less than -22.2 dBm, a record minimum to our knowledge, at the bit error ratio of 10-12 for 25.78-Gb/s NRZ signal.

  18. Development and application of multiplex PCR assays for detection of virus-induced respiratory disease complex in dogs

    PubMed Central

    PIEWBANG, Chutchai; RUNGSIPIPAT, Anudep; POOVORAWAN, Yong; TECHANGAMSUWAN, Somporn

    2016-01-01

    Canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRDC) viruses have been detected in dogs with respiratory illness. Canine influenza virus (CIV), canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAdV-2) and canine herpesvirus 1 (CaHV-1), are all associated with the CIRDC. To allow diagnosis, two conventional multiplex polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were developed to simultaneously identify four RNA and two DNA viruses associated with CIRDC. The two multiplex PCR assays were then validated on 102 respiratory samples collected from 51 dogs with respiratory illness by sensitivity and specificity determination in comparison to conventional simplex PCR and a rapid three-antigen test kit. All six viruses were detected in either individual or multiple infections. The developed multiplex PCR assays had a >87% sensitivity and 100% specificity compared to their simplex counterpart. Compared to the three-antigen test kit, the multiplex PCR assays yielded 100% sensitivity and more than 83% specificity for detection of CAdV-2 and CDV, but not for CIV. Therefore, the developed multiplex PCR modalities were able to simultaneously diagnose a panel of CIRDC viruses and facilitated specimen collection through being suitable for use of nasal or oral samples. PMID:27628592

  19. Lysine tRNA and cell division: a G1 cell cycle mutant is temperature sensitive for the modification of tRNA5Lys to tRNA4Lys.

    PubMed Central

    Ortwerth, B J; Lin, V K; Lewis, J; Wang, R J

    1984-01-01

    Ts-694 is a temperature sensitive mutant of hamster cells which is blocked in the G1 phase of the cell cycle at the restrictive temperature of 39 degrees. A comparison of the Lys-tRNA isoacceptors by RPC-5 chromatography showed a decrease in tRNA5Lys and an increase in tRNA4Lys at 39 degrees. This was identical to the changes seen in confluent cultures at the permissive temperature of 33 degrees. These Lys-tRNA changes were not seen in ts-694 cells blocked in G1 by isoleucine deficiency, nor in two other G1 ts mutants at the restrictive temperature. Cells trapped in S phase by a thymidine block also contained decreased levels of tRNA4Lys when raised to 39 degrees. Both tRNA4Lys levels and cell division increased when the cells were returned to the permissive temperature. An in vitro assay was established for the modification of tRNA5Lys to tRNA4Lys with tRNA6Lys and tRNA2Lys as intermediates. The first reaction is the synthesis of tRNA6Lys which involves the introduction of a modified uridine at the third position of the anticodon. Extracts of 694 cells grown at 33 degrees were able to modify rat liver [3H] tRNA5Lys to tRNA6Lys and tRNA4Lys in vitro when assayed at 25 degrees but not at 39 degrees. Extracts of Balb/c 3T3 cells, however, were more active at 39 degrees than at 25 degrees showing that the normal enzyme is not temperature sensitive. Ts-694 cell tRNA, isolated from cells grown at 33 degrees was aminoacylated at both 25 degrees and 39 degrees with rat liver synthetases. tRNA4Lys was present at both temperatures indicating that ts-694 cells do not contain a temperature sensitive tRNA4Lys. Images PMID:6569451

  20. Exosomes derived from alcohol-treated hepatocytes horizontally transfer liver specific miRNA-122 and sensitize monocytes to LPS.

    PubMed

    Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh; Bala, Shashi; Kodys, Karen; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2015-05-14

    Hepatocyte damage and inflammation in monocytes/macrophages are central to the pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis (AH). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate all of these processes. MiRNA-122 is abundantly expressed in hepatocytes while monocytes/macrophages have low levels. The role of exosomes in AH and possible cross talk between hepatocyte-derived exosomes and immune cells is not explored yet. Here, we show that the number of exosomes significantly increases in the sera of healthy individuals after alcohol binge drinking and in mice after binge or chronic alcohol consumption. Exosomes isolated from sera after alcohol consumption or from in vitro ethanol-treated hepatocytes contained miRNA-122. Exosomes derived from ethanol-treated Huh7.5 cells were taken up by the recipients THP1 monocytes and horizontally transferred a mature form of liver-specific miRNA-122. In vivo, liver mononuclear cells and Kupffer cells from alcohol-fed mice had increased miRNA-122 levels. In monocytes, miRNA-122 transferred via exosomes inhibited the HO-1 pathway and sensitized to LPS stimulation and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Finally, inflammatory effects of exosomes from ethanol-treated hepatocytes were prevented by using RNA interference via exosome-mediated delivery of a miRNA-122 inhibitor. These results demonstrate that first, exosomes mediate communication between hepatocytes and monocytes/macrophages and second, hepatocyte-derived miRNA-122 can reprogram monocytes inducing sensitization to LPS.

  1. Single molecule fluorescence microscopy for ultra-sensitive RNA expression profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, Jan; Jacak, Jaroslaw; Regl, Gerhard; Eichberger, Thomas; Aberger, Fritz; Schlapak, Robert; Howorka, Stefan; Muresan, Leila; Frischauf, Anna-Maria; Schütz, Gerhard J.

    2007-02-01

    We developed a microarray analysis platform for ultra-sensitive RNA expression profiling of minute samples. It utilizes a novel scanning system for single molecule fluorescence detection on cm2 size samples in combination with specialized biochips, optimized for low autofluorescence and weak unspecific adsorption. 20 μg total RNA was extracted from 10 6 cells of a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) and reversely transcribed in the presence of Alexa647-aha-dUTP. 1% of the resulting labeled cDNA was used for complex hybridization to a custom-made oligonucleotide microarray representing a set of 125 different genes. For low abundant genes, individual cDNA molecules hybridized to the microarray spots could be resolved. Single cDNA molecules hybridized to the chip surface appeared as diffraction limited features in the fluorescence images. The à trous wavelet method was utilized for localization and counting of the separated cDNA signals. Subsequently, the degree of labeling of the localized cDNA molecules was determined by brightness analysis for the different genes. Variations by factors up to 6 were found, which in conventional microarray analysis would result in a misrepresentation of the relative abundance of mRNAs.

  2. Aptamer-miRNA-212 Conjugate Sensitizes NSCLC Cells to TRAIL

    PubMed Central

    Iaboni, Margherita; Russo, Valentina; Fontanella, Raffaela; Roscigno, Giuseppina; Fiore, Danilo; Donnarumma, Elvira; Esposito, Carla Lucia; Quintavalle, Cristina; Giangrande, Paloma H; de Franciscis, Vittorio; Condorelli, Gerolama

    2016-01-01

    TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising antitumor agent for its remarkable ability to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells, without affecting the viability of healthy bystander cells. The TRAIL tumor suppressor pathway is deregulated in many human malignancies including lung cancer. In human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, sensitization to TRAIL therapy can be restored by increasing the expression levels of the tumor suppressor microRNA-212 (miR-212) leading to inhibition of the anti-apoptotic protein PED/PEA-15 implicated in treatment resistance. In this study, we exploited a previously described RNA aptamer inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase receptor Axl (GL21.T) expressed on lung cancer cells, as a means to deliver miR-212 into human NSCLC cells expressing Axl. We demonstrate efficient delivery of miR-212 following conjugation of the miR to GL21.T (GL21.T-miR212 chimera). We show that the chimera downregulates PED and restores TRAIL-mediate cytotoxicity in cancer cells. Importantly, treatment of Axl+ lung cancer cells with the chimera resulted in (i) an increase in caspase activation and (ii) a reduction of cell viability in combination with TRAIL therapy. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the GL21.T-miR212 chimera can be employed as an adjuvant to TRAIL therapy for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:27111415

  3. MicroRNA-218 Increases the Sensitivity of Bladder Cancer to Cisplatin by Targeting Glut1.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Yang, Xiao; Cheng, Yidong; Zhang, Xiaolei; Yang, Chengdi; Deng, Xiaheng; Li, Pengchao; Tao, Jun; Yang, Haiwei; Wei, Jifu; Tang, Jingyuan; Yuan, Wenbo; Lu, Qiang; Xu, Xiaoting; Gu, Min

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNA-218 (miR-218) is down-regulated in many malignancies that have been implicated in the regulation of diverse processes in cancer cells. However, the involvement of miR-218 in chemo-sensitivity to cisplatin and the precise mechanism of this action remained unknown in bladder cancer. qRT-PCR was used to detect miR-218 and its target Glut1 expression in bladder cancer cell lines T24 and EJ. CCK-8 method was utilized to measure the cell viability. IC 50 was calculated via a probit regression model. Glut1 was detected by western blotting for analysis of potential mechanism. Luciferase reporter assay was utilized to validate Glut1 as a direct target gene of miR-218. The intracellular level of GSH and ROS were determined using a commercial colorimetric assay kit and 2', 7'-dichlorodihydro-fluorescein diacetate, respectively. Over-expression of miR-218 significantly reduced the rate of glucose uptake and total level of GSH and enhanced the chemo-sensitivity of bladder cancer to cisplatin. Mechanistically, Glut1 was found to be a direct and functional target of miR-218. Up-regulation of Glut1 could restore chemo-resistance in T24 and EJ cells. On the contrary, knockdown of Glut1 could generate a similar effect as up-regulating the expression of miR-218. MiR-218 increases the sensitivity of bladder cancer to cisplatin by targeting Glut1. Restoration of miR-218 and repression of glut1 may provide a potential strategy to restore chemo-sensitivity in bladder cancer. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Efficient Methodologies for Sensitive HIV-1 RNA Quantitation from Plasma and Vaginal Secretions

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, Tara C.; Lacour, Nedra; Amedee, Angela Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Quantifying HIV levels in mucosal secretions is essential to study compartmentalized expression of HIV and facilitate development of intervention strategies to prevent disease progression and transmission. Objectives To develop a sensitive, reliable, and cost-effective technique to quantify HIV from blood and vaginal secretions that is compatible with efficient implementation in clinical research environments. Study Design A sensitive, reliable, internally-controlled real-time reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR assay, which uses the HIV-1 pol gene as a target (Hpol assay) was developed to quantify HIV levels in plasma and genital secretions, and compared to the widely-used Roche Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor assay. In addition, a simplified method of sample collection and processing of genital secretions (self-collection and use of RNAlater with batch processing) was compared to provider collection of samples and immediate processing. Results The sensitivity and reliability of HIV levels detected by the assay described herein correlate well with measurements from Roche Amplicor™ HIV-1 Monitor assay for both plasma and vaginal secretions (R2= 0.9179 and R2=0.942, respectively). The Hpol assay reproducibly quantifies a lower limit of 5 HIV-1 RNA copies per reaction, with low-levels of inter-assay and intra-assay variation. Additionally, vaginal viral levels and detection frequency did not differ significantly between the two the collection and processing methods. Conclusions The methodologies developed here provide sensitive, reliable, and cost-effective quantification of HIV levels in plasma and mucosal secretions, and are compatible with efficient use in clinical research studies. PMID:19783472

  5. Multiplexed Simultaneous High Sensitivity Sensors with High-Order Mode Based on the Integration of Photonic Crystal 1 × 3 Beam Splitter and Three Different Single-Slot PCNCs

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian; Huang, Lijun; Fu, Zhongyuan; Sun, Fujun; Tian, Huiping

    2016-01-01

    We simulated an efficient method for the sensor array of high-sensitivity single-slot photonic crystal nanobeam cavities (PCNCs) on a silicon platform. With the combination of a well-designed photonic crystal waveguide (PhCW) filter and an elaborate single-slot PCNC, a specific high-order resonant mode was filtered for sensing. A 1 × 3 beam splitter carefully established was implemented to split channels and integrate three sensors to realize microarrays. By applying the three-dimensional finite-difference-time-domain (3D-FDTD) method, the sensitivities calculated were S1 = 492 nm/RIU, S2 = 244 nm/RIU, and S3 = 552 nm/RIU, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first multiplexing design in which each sensor cite features such a high sensitivity simultaneously. PMID:27399712

  6. Multiplexed Simultaneous High Sensitivity Sensors with High-Order Mode Based on the Integration of Photonic Crystal 1 × 3 Beam Splitter and Three Different Single-Slot PCNCs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Huang, Lijun; Fu, Zhongyuan; Sun, Fujun; Tian, Huiping

    2016-07-07

    We simulated an efficient method for the sensor array of high-sensitivity single-slot photonic crystal nanobeam cavities (PCNCs) on a silicon platform. With the combination of a well-designed photonic crystal waveguide (PhCW) filter and an elaborate single-slot PCNC, a specific high-order resonant mode was filtered for sensing. A 1 × 3 beam splitter carefully established was implemented to split channels and integrate three sensors to realize microarrays. By applying the three-dimensional finite-difference-time-domain (3D-FDTD) method, the sensitivities calculated were S₁ = 492 nm/RIU, S₂ = 244 nm/RIU, and S₃ = 552 nm/RIU, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first multiplexing design in which each sensor cite features such a high sensitivity simultaneously.

  7. micro-RNA screening and prediction model construction for diagnosis of salt-sensitive essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Qi, Han; Liu, Zheng; Liu, Bin; Cao, Han; Sun, Weiping; Yan, Yuxiang; Zhang, Ling

    2017-04-01

    Commonly used tests for diagnosis of salt-sensitive hypertension (SSH) are complex and time-consuming, so new methods are required. Many studies have demonstrated roles for miRNAs in hypertension; however, the diagnostic value of miRNAs has yet to be determined for human SSH. In this study, we examined miRNA expression profiles by initial high-throughput miRNA sequencing of samples from patients with salt-sensitive and salt-resistant hypertension (SSH and SRH, respectively; n = 6, both groups), followed by validation by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in a larger cohort (n = 91). We also evaluated differences in baseline characteristics (e.g., age, sex, body mass index, consumption of specific foods) between the SSH and SRH groups. Of 36 miRNAs identified as differentially expressed between SSH and SRH groups by RNA-Seq, 8 were analyzed by qRT-PCR. There were significant differences in the expression levels of hsa-miR-361-5p and hsa-miR-362-5p between the 2 groups (P = .023 and.049, respectively). In addition, there were significant differences in sauce and poultry consumption between the 2 groups (P = .004 and.001, respectively). The areas under the curve (AUC) determined by receptor operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for hsa-miR-361-5p and all 8 miRNAs were 0.793 (95% CI, 0.698-0.888; sensitivity = 73.9%, specificity = 74.4%; P < .001) and 0.836 (95% CI, 0.749-0.922; sensitivity = 80.4%, specificity = 81.4%; P < .001), respectively, when sauce and poultry consumption were included in the models. Assay feasibility and economic considerations make hsa-miR-361-5p combined with the dietary factors the preferred markers for diagnosis of SSH.

  8. Low-cost, multiplexed biosensor for disease diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myatt, Christopher J.; Delaney, Marie; Todorof, Kathryn; Heil, James; Givens, Monique; Schooley, Robert T.; Lochhead, Michael J.

    2009-02-01

    Cost-effective disease diagnosis in resource-limited settings remains a critical global health challenge. Qualitative rapid tests based on lateral flow technology provide valuable screening information, but require relatively expensive confirmatory tests and generally lack quantitation. We report on a fluorescence technology that combines low cost instrumented readout with passive pumping in a disposable cartridge. The detection system utilizes a novel waveguide illumination approach in conjunction with commercial CMOS imagers. Total instrument cost in production are projected to be around $100 This cost structure and instrument ease of use will enable use in point-of-care settings, outside of centralized laboratories. The system has been used for detection and analysis of proteins, antibodies, nucleic acids, and cells. Here we will report first on our development of a multiplexed, array-based serology assay for HIV and common AIDS co-infections. Data will be presented for HIV/HCV antibody testing in human serum samples. In addition, we will present data on the use of the system for sensitive detection of bacterial RNA. Current detection limit for the model multiplexed RNA sandwich assay is 1 femtomolar target RNA. Finally, a high magnification version of the system is used to image immunostained human T cells.

  9. Detection of Genes Modifying Sensitivity to Proteasome Inhibitors Using a shRNA Library in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    TITLE: Detection of genes modifying sensitivity to proteasome inhibitors using a shRNA Library in Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gregory J...shRNA Library in Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Gregory J. Hannon, Ph.D. 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...clinical trials for breast and lung cancers . We are identifying genes that mediate resistance against Velcade that could serve as potential drug

  10. High sensitive method detection of plant RNA viruses by electrochemiluminescence reverse transcription PCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ya-bing; Xing, Da; Zhu, De-bin; Zhou, Xiao-ming

    2007-05-01

    It is well known that plant and animal viruses had widely spread the whole of world, and made a big loss in farming and husbandry. It is necessary that a highly efficient and accurate virus's detection method was developed. This research combines reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique with electrochemiluminescence method, to detect plant RNA viruses for the first time. Biotin-probe hybridizes with PCR product to specific select the target for detection, thus can avoid pseudo-positive result. TBR-probe hybridizes with PCR product to emit light for ECL detection. Specific nucleic acid sequences (20bp) were added to 5' terminal all of the primers, which can improve the chance of hybridization between TBR-probe and PCR product. At the same time, one of the PCR product chain can hybridize two Ru-probes, the ECL signal is intensified. The method was used to detect Odntoglossum ringspot virus ORSV, Sugarcane mosaic virus ScMV, Sorghum mosaic virus SrMV, and Maize dwarf mosaic virus MDMV, the experiment results show that this method could reliably identity virus infected plant samples. In a word, this method has higher sensitivity and lower cost than others. It can effectively detect the plant viruses with simplicity, stability, and high sensitivity.

  11. pH-sensitive residues in the p19 RNA silencing suppressor protein from carnation Italian ringspot virus affect siRNA binding stability.

    PubMed

    Law, Sean M; Zhang, Bin W; Brooks, Charles L

    2013-05-01

    Tombusviruses, such as Carnation Italian ringspot virus (CIRV), encode a protein homodimer called p19 that is capable of suppressing RNA silencing in their infected hosts by binding to and sequestering short-interfering RNA (siRNA) away from the RNA silencing pathway. P19 binding stability has been shown to be sensitive to changes in pH but the specific amino acid residues involved have remained unclear. Using constant pH molecular dynamics simulations, we have identified key pH-dependent residues that affect CIRV p19-siRNA binding stability at various pH ranges based on calculated changes in the free energy contribution from each titratable residue. At high pH, the deprotonation of Lys60, Lys67, Lys71, and Cys134 has the largest effect on the binding stability. Similarly, deprotonation of several acidic residues (Asp9, Glu12, Asp20, Glu35, and/or Glu41) at low pH results in a decrease in binding stability. At neutral pH, residues Glu17 and His132 provide a small increase in the binding stability and we find that the optimal pH range for siRNA binding is between 7.0 and 10.0. Overall, our findings further inform recent experiments and are in excellent agreement with data on the pH-dependent binding profile. Copyright © 2013 The Protein Society.

  12. pH-sensitive residues in the p19 RNA silencing suppressor protein from carnation Italian ringspot virus affect siRNA binding stability

    PubMed Central

    Law, Sean M; Zhang, Bin W; Brooks, Charles L

    2013-01-01

    Tombusviruses, such as Carnation Italian ringspot virus (CIRV), encode a protein homodimer called p19 that is capable of suppressing RNA silencing in their infected hosts by binding to and sequestering short-interfering RNA (siRNA) away from the RNA silencing pathway. P19 binding stability has been shown to be sensitive to changes in pH but the specific amino acid residues involved have remained unclear. Using constant pH molecular dynamics simulations, we have identified key pH-dependent residues that affect CIRV p19–siRNA binding stability at various pH ranges based on calculated changes in the free energy contribution from each titratable residue. At high pH, the deprotonation of Lys60, Lys67, Lys71, and Cys134 has the largest effect on the binding stability. Similarly, deprotonation of several acidic residues (Asp9, Glu12, Asp20, Glu35, and/or Glu41) at low pH results in a decrease in binding stability. At neutral pH, residues Glu17 and His132 provide a small increase in the binding stability and we find that the optimal pH range for siRNA binding is between 7.0 and 10.0. Overall, our findings further inform recent experiments and are in excellent agreement with data on the pH-dependent binding profile. PMID:23450521

  13. N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor siRNA inhibits the release of Weibel-Palade bodies in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yong; Yang, Shui-Xiang; Yue, Yu-Nan; Wei, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) methods on the expression of N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (NSF) and Weibel-Palade body (WPB) release in endothelial cells. A small hairpin RNA (shRNA), mediated with an adenovirus vector, was designed to target the N-terminal functional area of NSF. Subsequently, viruses were transfected into human aortic endothelial cells. The mRNA and protein expression levels of NSF were detected using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses, respectively, and the release of WPBs in the endothelial cells was examined using immunofluorescence. The mRNA expression of NSF in the endothelial cells, which were transfected with the adenoviruses carrying the NSF-shRNA was significantly decreased, compared with the negative control group (P=0.035) and blank control group (P=0.02). In addition, the mRNA expression of NSF was gradually decreased as duration increased; there were marked differences between the 24, 48 and 72 h groups (P<0.05). The protein expression of NSF was significantly decreased in the experimental group, compared with the negative control group (P=0.004) and blank control group (P=0.031), however, no difference was observed between the negative control and blank control groups (P=0.249). The immunofluorescence staining showed that the release of WPBs in the endothelial cells induced with thrombin was inhibited markedly following transfection with the virus carrying the NSF-shRNA. Therefore NSF-siRNA inhibited the mRNA and protein expression levels of NSF, and inhibited the release of WPBs in endothelial cells induced with thrombin. These results suggested that NSF-siRNA may be valuable for preventing and treating atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndrome. PMID:27277949

  14. Sensitivity of Ribosomal RNA Character Sampling in the Phylogeny of Rhabditida

    PubMed Central

    Holovachov, Oleksandr; Camp, Lauren; Nadler, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Near-full-length 18S and 28S rRNA gene sequences were obtained for 33 nematode species. Datasets were constructed based on secondary structure and progressive multiple alignments, and clades were compared for phylogenies inferred by Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods. Clade comparisons were also made following removal of ambiguously aligned sites as determined using the program ProAlign. Different alignments of these data produced tree topologies that differed, sometimes markedly, when analyzed by the same inference method. With one exception, the same alignment produced an identical tree topology when analyzed by different methods. Removal of ambiguously aligned sites altered the tree topology and also reduced resolution. Nematode clades were sensitive to differences in multiple alignments, and more than doubling the amount of sequence data by addition of 28S rRNA did not fully mitigate this result. Although some individual clades showed substantially higher support when 28S data were combined with 18S data, the combined analysis yielded no statistically significant increases in the number of clades receiving higher support when compared to the 18S data alone. Secondary structure alignment increased accuracy in positional homology assignment and, when used in combination with paired-site substitution models, these structural hypotheses of characters and improved models of character state change yielded high levels of phylogenetic resolution. Phylogenetic results included strong support for inclusion of Daubaylia potomaca within Cephalobidae, whereas the position of Fescia grossa within Tylenchina varied depending on the alignment, and the relationships among Rhabditidae, Diplogastridae, and Bunonematidae were not resolved. PMID:26941463

  15. Fidelity and enhanced sensitivity of differential transcription profiles following linear amplification of nanogram amounts of endothelial mRNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polacek, Denise C.; Passerini, Anthony G.; Shi, Congzhu; Francesco, Nadeene M.; Manduchi, Elisabetta; Grant, Gregory R.; Powell, Steven; Bischof, Helen; Winkler, Hans; Stoeckert, Christian J Jr; Davies, Peter F.

    2003-01-01

    Although mRNA amplification is necessary for microarray analyses from limited amounts of cells and tissues, the accuracy of transcription profiles following amplification has not been well characterized. We tested the fidelity of differential gene expression following linear amplification by T7-mediated transcription in a well-established in vitro model of cytokine [tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)]-stimulated human endothelial cells using filter arrays of 13,824 human cDNAs. Transcriptional profiles generated from amplified antisense RNA (aRNA) (from 100 ng total RNA, approximately 1 ng mRNA) were compared with profiles generated from unamplified RNA originating from the same homogeneous pool. Amplification accurately identified TNFalpha-induced differential expression in 94% of the genes detected using unamplified samples. Furthermore, an additional 1,150 genes were identified as putatively differentially expressed using amplified RNA which remained undetected using unamplified RNA. Of genes sampled from this set, 67% were validated by quantitative real-time PCR as truly differentially expressed. Thus, in addition to demonstrating fidelity in gene expression relative to unamplified samples, linear amplification results in improved sensitivity of detection and enhances the discovery potential of high-throughput screening by microarrays.

  16. Fidelity and enhanced sensitivity of differential transcription profiles following linear amplification of nanogram amounts of endothelial mRNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polacek, Denise C.; Passerini, Anthony G.; Shi, Congzhu; Francesco, Nadeene M.; Manduchi, Elisabetta; Grant, Gregory R.; Powell, Steven; Bischof, Helen; Winkler, Hans; Stoeckert, Christian J Jr; hide

    2003-01-01

    Although mRNA amplification is necessary for microarray analyses from limited amounts of cells and tissues, the accuracy of transcription profiles following amplification has not been well characterized. We tested the fidelity of differential gene expression following linear amplification by T7-mediated transcription in a well-established in vitro model of cytokine [tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)]-stimulated human endothelial cells using filter arrays of 13,824 human cDNAs. Transcriptional profiles generated from amplified antisense RNA (aRNA) (from 100 ng total RNA, approximately 1 ng mRNA) were compared with profiles generated from unamplified RNA originating from the same homogeneous pool. Amplification accurately identified TNFalpha-induced differential expression in 94% of the genes detected using unamplified samples. Furthermore, an additional 1,150 genes were identified as putatively differentially expressed using amplified RNA which remained undetected using unamplified RNA. Of genes sampled from this set, 67% were validated by quantitative real-time PCR as truly differentially expressed. Thus, in addition to demonstrating fidelity in gene expression relative to unamplified samples, linear amplification results in improved sensitivity of detection and enhances the discovery potential of high-throughput screening by microarrays.

  17. Multiplexed DNA-modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Slinker, Jason D; Muren, Natalie B; Gorodetsky, Alon A; Barton, Jacqueline K

    2010-03-03

    We report the use of silicon chips with 16 DNA-modified electrodes (DME chips) utilizing DNA-mediated charge transport for multiplexed detection of DNA and DNA-binding protein targets. Four DNA sequences were simultaneously distinguished on a single DME chip with 4-fold redundancy, including one incorporating a single base mismatch. These chips also enabled investigation of the sequence-specific activity of the restriction enzyme Alu1. DME chips supported dense DNA monolayer formation with high reproducibility, as confirmed by statistical comparison to commercially available rod electrodes. The working electrode areas on the chips were reduced to 10 microm in diameter, revealing microelectrode behavior that is beneficial for high sensitivity and rapid kinetic analysis. These results illustrate how DME chips facilitate sensitive and selective detection of DNA and DNA-binding protein targets in a robust and internally standardized multiplexed format.

  18. Multiplexed DNA-Modified Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Slinker, Jason D.; Muren, Natalie B.; Gorodetsky, Alon A.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2011-01-01

    We report the use of silicon chips with 16 DNA-modified electrodes (DME chips) utilizing DNA-mediated charge transport for multiplexed detection of DNA and DNA-binding protein targets. Four DNA sequences were simultaneously distinguished on a single DME chip with fourfold redundancy, including one incorporating a single base mismatch. These chips also enabled investigation of the sequence-specific activity of the restriction enzyme Alu1. DME chips supported dense DNA monolayer formation with high reproducibility, as confirmed by statistical comparison to commercially available rod electrodes. The working electrode areas on the chips were reduced to 10 µm in diameter, revealing microelectrode behavior that is beneficial for high sensitivity and rapid kinetic analysis. These results illustrate how DME chips facilitate sensitive and selective detection of DNA and DNA-binding protein targets in a robust and internally standardized multiplexed format. PMID:20131780

  19. Multiplex biomarkers in blood

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Advances in the field of blood biomarker discovery will help in identifying Alzheimer's disease in its preclinical stage, allowing treatment to be initiated before irreversible damage occurs. This review discusses some recent past and current approaches being taken by researchers in the field. Individual blood biomarkers have been unsuccessful in defining the disease pathology, progression and thus diagnosis. This directs to the need for discovering a multiplex panel of blood biomarkers as a promising approach with high sensitivity and specificity for early diagnosis. However, it is a great challenge to standardize a worldwide blood biomarker panel due to the innate differences in the population tested, nature of the samples and methods utilised in different studies across the globe. We highlight several issues that result in the lack of reproducibility in this field of research currently faced by researchers. Several important measures are summarized towards the end of the review that can be taken to minimize the variability among various centres. PMID:23795953

  20. Portable Multiplex Pathogen Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Visuri, S; McBride, M T; Matthews, D; Rao, R

    2002-07-15

    Tumor marker concentrations in serum provide useful information regarding clinical stage and prognosis of cancer and can thus be used for presymptomatic diagnostic purposes. Currently, detection and identification of soluble analytes in biological fluids is conducted by methods including bioassays, ELISA, PCR, DNA chip or strip tests. While these technologies are generally sensitive and specific, they are time consuming, labor intensive and cannot be multiplexed. Our goal is to develop a simple, point-of-care, portable, liquid array-based immunoassay device capable of simultaneous detection of a variety of cancer markers. Here we describe the development of assays for the detection of Serum Prostate Specific Antigen, and Ovalbumin from a single sample. The multiplexed immunoassays utilize polystyrene microbeads. The beads are imbedded with precise ratios of red and orange fluorescent dyes yielding an array of 100 beads, each with a unique spectral address (Figure 1). Each bead can be coated with capture antibodies specific for a given antigen. After antigen capture, secondary antibodies sandwich the bound antigen and are indirectly labeled by the fluorescent reporter phycoerythrin (PE). Each optically encoded and fluorescently-labeled microbead is then individually interrogated. A red laser excites the dye molecules imbedded inside the bead and classifies the bead to its unique bead set, and a green laser quantifies the assay at the bead surface. This technology has been proven to be comparable to the ELISA in terms of sensitivity and specificity. We also describe the laser-based instrumentation used to acquire fluorescent bead images Following the assay, droplets of bead suspension containing a mixture of bead classes were deposited onto filters held in place by a disposable plexiglass device and the resultant arrays viewed under the fluorescent imaging setup. Using the appropriate filter sets to extract the necessary red, orange and green fluorescence from the

  1. Evaluation of different RNA-extraction kits for sensitive detection of hepatitis A virus in strawberry samples.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Silvia; Dal Vecchio, Anna; Vilariño, María Luz; Romalde, Jesús L

    2011-02-01

    The efficiency of different commercial RNA extraction kits for the detection of hepatitis A virus (HAV) from seeded strawberry samples was assessed by standard RT-PCR and real time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). The best results with standard RT-PCR were achieved with Aurum™ Total RNA extraction kit (BioRad), obtaining a detection limit of 5-6.25 pfu/mg of tissue. A slightly lower sensitivity was rendered by the RNeasy® Plant mini kit (Qiagen) (10-12.5 pfu/mg tissue), while the Total Quick RNA Cells and Tissues kit version mini (Talent) rendered a detection limit of 50-100 pfu/mg of tissue. The other tested commercial kits showed worse detection limits (>500 pfu/mg). With RT-qPCR and ten fold diluted RNA all the kits showed an increase of sensitivity, detecting the kits from Qiagen, Talent and BioRad down to 0.05 pfu/mg of strawberry homogenate. These findings indicate that the use of Aurum™ Total RNA extraction kit, with standard RT-PCR technique or RT-qPCR, can not only be labor and time saving but also helpful to improve the sensitivity for the HAV detection from fruits and to facilitate the standardization of detection methods among laboratories.

  2. Differences in correlation of mRNA gene expression in mice sensitive and resistant to radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, C.J.; Piedboeuf, B.; Finkelstein, J.N.; Baggs, R.; Rubin, P.

    1995-05-01

    Fibrosis, characterized by the accumulation of collagen, is a late result of thoracic irradiation. The purpose of this study was to determine if extracellular matrix protein and transforming growth factor {beta} mRNA expression are altered late in the course of pulmonary fibrosis after irradiation, and then to determine if these changes differ between two strains of mice which vary in their sensitivity to radiation. Radiation-sensitive (C57BL/6) and radiation-resistant (C3H/HeJ) mice were irradiated with a single dose of 5 or 12.5 Gy to the thorax. Total lung RNA was prepared and immobilized by Northern and slot blotting and hybridized with radiolabeled cDNA probes for collagens I, III and IV, fibronectin, and transforming growth factor {beta}{sub 1} and {beta}{sub 3}. Autoradiographic data were quantified by video densitometry and results normalized to a control probe encoding for glyceralde-hyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Alterations in mRNA abundance were observed in the sensitive mice at all times, while levels in the resistant mice were unaffected until 26 weeks after irradiation. The relationship between extracellular matrix protein per se and increased mRNA abundance suggests that late matrix protein accumulation may be a function of gene expression. Differences in levels of transforming growth factor {beta}mRNA may lead to strain-dependent variation in fibrotic response and may also contribute to the radiation-induced component of pulmonary fibrosis. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  3. RNA-binding protein LIN28 is a sensitive marker of pediatric yolk sac tumors.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shaoguang; Huang, Songsong; Tong, Yulong; Chen, Zhongliang; Shen, Delei; Wu, Dazhou; Lai, Xin-He; Chen, Xiaoming

    2016-08-01

    RNA-binding protein LIN28 is involved in maintaining the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells. It has been detected in different types of testicular and ovarian germ cell tumors (GCTs), but its status in pediatric YSTs (yolk sac tumors) is still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the immunohistochemical profile of LIN28 in pediatric YSTs. Immunohistochemistry detection of LIN28 was performed in 22 cases of pediatric YSTs and 10 mature teratomas. The percentage of tumor cells stained was scored as 0, 1+ (1-30 % cells), 2+ (31-60 %), 3+ (61-90 %), and 4+ (>90 %). To compare its sensitive and specificity with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), we also stained AFP in 22 cases of pediatric YSTs and 10 mature teratomas in children. LIN28 staining was high in all 22 pediatric yolk sac tumor (2+ in 1, 3+ in 1, and 4+ in 20), and weak staining of LIN28 was seen in 1 of 10 mature teratomas (1+), 9 of 10 mature teratomas were negative expression. However, the expression of AFP in pediatric YST was lower compared with Lin28 (- in 1, 1+ in 8, 2+ in 12, and 3+ in 1), and weak expression of AFP was seen in 2 of 10 mature teratomas (1+), 8 of 10 mature teratomas were negative. LIN28 had higher intensity expression than AFP in pediatric YSTs (P < 0.001). LIN28 is a sensitive marker for pediatric YSTs and it can be used to distinguish them from mature teratomas. LIN28 is likely to become a new and valuable biomarker for diagnosing of pediatric YST.

  4. Development of a novel dengue virus serotype-specific multiplex real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for blood screening.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Kenta; Kuramitsu, Madoka; Okuma, Kazu; Nojima, Kiyoko; Araki, Kumiko; Shinohara, Naoya; Matsumoto, Chieko; Satake, Masahiro; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Saijo, Masayuki; Kurane, Ichiro; Hamaguchi, Isao

    2016-12-01

    Dengue fever is caused by four related RNA viruses of the genus Flavivirus, dengue virus (DENV)-1, -2, -3, and -4, which are transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. Although DENV is not endemic in Japan, an autochthonous dengue outbreak occurred in 2014. Several transfusion-transmitted cases have also been reported after the use of blood and plasma products in DENV-endemic countries. The aim of this study was to develop a novel multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for DENV blood screening. Large-scale oligonucleotide screening was performed to obtain DENV-specific primers and probes using a variety of DENV clinical isolates. A multiplex RT-PCR assay was then developed using the identified oligonucleotides and the ability of this assay to detect DENV RNA was evaluated. A number of oligonucleotides suitable for DENV RNA detection were identified and a novel DENV serotype-specific multiplex RT-PCR assay was successfully established. Comparative analysis revealed that the multiplex assay could detect levels of viral contamination as low as 100 viral copies/mL. This established serotype-specific multiplex RT-PCR assay provides a simple, sensitive, and quantitative detection method for DENV, which could be applied in the screening of blood samples to prevent transfusion-transmitted DENV infection. © 2016 AABB.

  5. RNA-binding protein LIN28 is a sensitive marker of ovarian primitive germ cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Xue, Debin; Peng, Yan; Wang, Fenghua; Allan, Robert W; Cao, Dengfeng

    2011-09-01

    LIN28 is an RNA-binding protein that has been detected in testicular germ cell tumours (GCTs), but its status in ovarian GCTs is unknown. The aim was to determine the immunohistochemical profile of LIN28 in ovarian GCTs. Immunohistochemistry of LIN28 was performed in 110 primary and 11 metastatic ovarian GCTs. The percentage of tumour cells stained was scored as 0, 1+ (1-30% cells), 2+ (31-60%), 3+ (61-90%), and 4+ (>90%). To determine its specificity, we stained LIN28 in 119 non-GCTs, including 37 clear cell carcinomas. Strong 4+ LIN28 staining was seen in 4/4 (100%) gonadoblastomas, 7/7 (100%) embryonal carcinomas (ECs), and 41/41 (100%) yolk sac tumours (YSTs). Among 39 dysgerminomas, 4+ staining was seen in 37 and 3+ staining in two (strong in 37; mixed weak and strong in two). Twelve of 14 immature teratomas showed variable LIN28 staining (1+ to 4+) in the immature neuroepithelium (weak to strong staining), whereas mature teratomas, carcinoids, struma ovarii and strumal carcinoids were negative. Only 5/117 non-GCTs (1/37 clear cell carcinomas) showed weak to moderate 1-2+ staining. LIN28 is a sensitive marker for gonadoblastomas, dysgerminomas, ECs, and YSTs. LIN28 can be used to distinguish them from non-GCTs. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  6. Plasma miRNA levels correlate with sensitivity to bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongqiu; Wang, Zhe; Fu, Qin; Zhang, Jing

    2014-11-01

    In our study, we detect the levels of three micro-RNAs (miRNAs; miR-21, miR-133a and miR-146a) in the plasma of 120 Chinese postmenopausal women who were divided into three groups (normal, osteopenia and osteoporosis) according to the T-scores. Downregulation of miR-21, as well as upregulation of miR-133a, was validated in the plasma of osteoporosis and osteopenia patients versus the normal group. The difference in expression regarding the miR-146a level in plasma among the three groups was not significant (p > 0.01). The circulating miRNA expression levels and bone mineral density (BMD) were examined during a multiple correlation analysis as a dependent variable after adjusting for age, weight and height. We have demonstrated that specific miRNAs species are significantly changed in the plasma of osteoporosis and osteopenia patients and correlated with the BMD. Our study suggested a potential use of miR-21 and miR-133a as sensitive and plasma biomarkers for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  7. Rapid and sensitive microRNA detection with laminar flow-assisted dendritic amplification on power-free microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Arata, Hideyuki; Komatsu, Hiroshi; Hosokawa, Kazuo; Maeda, Mizuo

    2012-01-01

    Detection of microRNAs, small noncoding single-stranded RNAs, is one of the key topics in the new generation of cancer research because cancer in the human body can be detected or even classified by microRNA detection. This report shows rapid and sensitive microRNA detection using a power-free microfluidic device, which is driven by degassed poly(dimethylsiloxane), thus eliminating the need for an external power supply. MicroRNA is detected by sandwich hybridization, and the signal is amplified by laminar flow-assisted dendritic amplification. This method allows us to detect microRNA of specific sequences at a limit of detection of 0.5 pM from a 0.5 µL sample solution with a detection time of 20 min. Together with the advantages of self-reliance of this device, this method might contribute substantially to future point-of-care early-stage cancer diagnosis.

  8. A novel, non-radioactive eukaryotic in vitro transcription assay for sensitive quantification of RNA polymerase II activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies of the eukaryotic transcription mechanism and its regulation rely on in vitro assays. Conventional RNA polymerase II transcription assays are based on radioactive labelling of the newly synthesized RNA. Due to the inefficient in vitro transcription, the detection of the RNA involving purification and gel electrophoresis is laborious and not always quantitative. Results Herein, we describe a new, non-radioactive, robust and reproducible eukaryotic in vitro transcription assay that has been established in our laboratory. Upon transcription, the newly synthesized RNA is directly detected and quantified using the QuantiGene assay. Alternatively, the RNA can be purified and a primer extension followed by PCR detection or qPCR quantification can be performed. When applied to assess the activity of RNA polymerase II inhibitors, this new method allowed an accurate estimation of their relative potency. Conclusions Our novel assay provides a non-radioactive alternative to a standard in vitro transcription assay that allows for sensitive detection and precise quantification of the newly transcribed, unlabelled RNA and is particularly useful for quantification of strong transcriptional inhibitors like α-amanitin. Moreover, the method can be easily adapted to quantify the reaction yield and the transcription efficiency of other eukaryotic in vitro systems, thus providing a complementary tool for the field of transcriptional research. PMID:24694320

  9. A genome-scale screen reveals context-dependent ovarian cancer sensitivity to miRNA overexpression.

    PubMed

    Shields, Benjamin B; Pecot, Chad V; Gao, Hua; McMillan, Elizabeth; Potts, Malia; Nagel, Christa; Purinton, Scott; Wang, Ying; Ivan, Cristina; Kim, Hyun Seok; Borkowski, Robert J; Khan, Shaheen; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Lea, Jayanthi; Gazdar, Adi; Baggerly, Keith A; Sood, Anil K; White, Michael A

    2015-12-11

    Large-scale molecular annotation of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) indicates remarkable heterogeneity in the etiology of that disease. This diversity presents a significant obstacle against intervention target discovery. However, inactivation of miRNA biogenesis is commonly associated with advanced disease. Thus, restoration of miRNA activity may represent a common vulnerability among diverse EOC oncogenotypes. To test this, we employed genome-scale, gain-of-function, miRNA mimic toxicity screens in a large, diverse spectrum of EOC cell lines. We found that all cell lines responded to at least some miRNA mimics, but that the nature of the miRNA mimics provoking a response was highly selective within the panel. These selective toxicity profiles were leveraged to define modes of action and molecular response indicators for miRNA mimics with tumor-suppressive characteristics in vivo. A mechanistic principle emerging from this analysis was sensitivity of EOC to miRNA-mediated release of cell fate specification programs, loss of which may be a prerequisite for development of this disease.

  10. Poliovirus temperature-sensitive mutant containing a single nucleotide deletion in the 5'-noncoding region of the viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Racaniello, V R; Meriam, C

    1986-12-01

    The effect on viral replication of deleting nucleotide 10 of the poliovirus RNA genome was determined. This deletion, which removes a base pair from a predicted hairpin structure in the viral RNA, was introduced into full-length cDNA. Virus recovered after transfection of HeLa cells with the mutated cDNA contained the expected deletion and was temperature sensitive for plaque formation. Analysis of viral replication by one-step growth experiments indicated that mutant virus production at the nonpermissive temperature was at least 100 times less than that of wild type virus, and release of virus from mutant-infected cells was delayed. The synthesis of positive- and negative-strand viral RNA in mutant virus-infected cells was temperature sensitive. Virus-specific protein synthesis in mutant virus-infected cells was not temperature sensitive but occurred at a slower rate than that of wild type virus at permissive and nonpermissive temperatures. Replication of the mutant virus was sensitive to actinomycin D, in contrast to the wild type parent virus, which was resistant to the drug. Mutant virus stocks contained a small percentage of ts+ viruses that were able to form plaques at the nonpermissive temperature. Nucleotide sequence analysis of genomic RNA from these ts+ viruses revealed a single base change at position 34 from a G to U. In the positive RNA strand, the effect of this mutation is to restore to the hairpin structure the single base pair whose formation was prevented by the original deletion. The ts+ pseudorevertants replicated to similar titers as wild type virus at 33 and 38.5 degrees and were partially sensitive to actinomycin D.

  11. Optimizing stem-loop qPCR assays through multiplexed cDNA synthesis of U6 and miRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Marie; Adhikari, Sajag; Subramanian, Senthil

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported that hairpin (or stem-loop) priming is better-suited than polyA tailing to generate cDNA for plant microRNA qPCR. One major limitation of this method is the need to perform individual cDNA synthesis reactions for the reference gene and test miRNAs. Here, we report a novel fusion primer that allows multiplexed hairpin cDNA synthesis of the most-commonly used reference gene, nucleolar small RNA U6, together with test miRNAs. We also propose the use of miR1515 as a house keeping control for tropical legumes. We show that multiplexed cDNA synthesis does not result in loss of sensitivity and reduces the amount of RNA required for miRNA gene expression assays. PMID:23673353

  12. Effect of α-Hederin on IL-2 and IL-17 mRNA and miRNA-133a Levels in Lungs of Ovalbumin-Sensitized Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Hadi; Fallahi, Maryam; Khamaneh, Amir Mahdi; Ebrahimi Saadatlou, Mohammad Ali; Saadat, Saeideh; Keyhanmanesh, Rana

    2016-03-01

    α-hederin, a saponin that is a major constituent of English Ivy (Hedera helix) is effective in the treatment of asthma. In the present study, the effect of α-hederin on lung tissue pathology and the levels of the inflammatory mediators; IL-2 mRNA, IL-17 mRNA, and MicroRNAs (miRNA)-133a was evaluated in a rat ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized model of asthma. Rats were divided randomly into control (C), OVA-sensitized (S), OVA-sensitized pretreated with the antioxidant, thymoquinone (3 mg/kg, S + TQ) or OVA-sensitized pretreated with α-hederin (0.02 mg/kg, S + AH) groups. Levels of IL-2 and IL-17 mRNA were higher in the OVA-sensitized group than controls while the level of miRNA-133a gene expression was lower. IL-2 mRNA and miRNA-133a gene expression in the S + TQ group was higher than in the control and OVA-sensitized groups while the level of IL-17 mRNA in the S + TQ group was lower than in the OVA-sensitized group. Pretreatment with α-hederin decreased IL-17 mRNA levels and increased miRNA-133a gene expression compared with OVA-sensitized animals. All pathological changes in pretreated groups were lower than the OVA-sensitized group. These results showed a beneficial effect of α-hederin in OVA-sensitized rats, suggesting that α-hederin affects the IL-2 and IL-17 secretion pathways, altering miRNA-133a expression.

  13. Development of a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for the detection of influenza virus type A including H5 and H9 subtypes.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-Qiong; Zhang, Jun; Muller, Claude P; Chen, Jing-Xian; Yang, Zi-Feng; Zhang, Ren; Li, Juan; He, Yun-Shao

    2008-06-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are endemic in wild birds and, if transmitted to poultry, can cause serious economic losses. The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for rapid detection of influenza virus type A, including H5 and H9 subtypes. The selected primers and various labeled TaqMan reporter probes corresponding to matrix, H5, and H9 genes were used in a multiplex real-time RT-PCR to simultaneously detect triple fluorescent signals. The results showed that the multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay can be applied to detect RNA of influenza virus type A including H5 and H9 subtypes with a high specificity and a sensitivity of 10 copies per reaction. As a result of its short turnaround times and a high specificity and sensitivity, the assay is very suitable for large-scale screening during AIV outbreaks.

  14. Down-regulation of Mcl-1 by small interference RNA induces apoptosis and sensitizes HL-60 leukemia cells to etoposide.

    PubMed

    Karami, Hadi; Baradaran, Behzad; Esfehani, Ali; Sakhinia, Masoud; Sakhinia, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a fatal hematological malignancy which is resistant to a variety of chemotherapy drugs. Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1), a death-inhibiting protein that regulates apoptosis, has been shown to be overexpressed in numerous malignancies. In addition, it has been demonstrated that the expression level of the Mcl-1 gene increases at the time of leukemic relapse following chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to target Mcl-1 by small interference RNA (siRNA) and analyze its effects on survival and chemosensitivity of acute myeloid leukemia cell line HL-60. siRNA transfection was performed with a liposome approach. The expression levels of mRNA and protein were measured by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. Trypan blue assays were performed to evaluate tumor cell growth after siRNA transfection. The cytotoxic effects of Mcl-1 siRNA (siMcl-1) and etoposide were determined using MTT assay on their own and in combination. Apoptosis was quantified using a DNA-histone ELISA assay. Transfection with siMcl-1 significantly suppressed the expression of Mcl-1 mRNA and protein in a time- dependent manner, resulting in strong growth inhibition and spontaneous apoptosis. Surprisingly, pretreatment with siMcl-1 synergistically enhanced the cytotoxic effect of etoposide. Furthermore, Mcl-1 down-regulation significantly increased apoptosis sensitivity to etoposide. No significant biological effects were observed with negative control siRNA treatment. Our results suggest that specific suppression of Mcl-1 by siRNA can effectively induce apoptosis and overcome chemoresistance of leukemic cells. Therefore, siMcl-1 may be a potent adjuvant in leukemia chemotherapy.

  15. Potential RNA Binding Proteins in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Identified as Suppressors of Temperature-Sensitive Mutations in Npl3

    PubMed Central

    Henry, M.; Borland, C. Z.; Bossie, M.; Silver, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    The NPL3 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a protein with similarity to heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs). Npl3p has been implicated in many nuclear-related events including RNA export, protein import, and rRNA processing. Several temperature-sensitive alleles of NPL3 have been isolated. We now report the sequence of these alleles. For one allele, npl3-1, four complementation groups of suppressors have been isolated. The cognate genes for the two recessive mutants were cloned. One of these is the previously known RNA15, which, like NPL3, also encodes a protein with similarity to the vertebrate hnRNP A/B protein family. The other suppressor corresponds to a newly defined gene we term HRP1, which also encodes a protein with similarity to the hnRNP A/B proteins of vertebrates. Mutations in HRP1 suppress all npl3 temperature-sensitive alleles but do not bypass an npl3 null allele. We show that HRP1 is essential for cell growth and that the corresponding protein is located in the nucleus. The discovery of two hnRNP homologues that can partially suppress the function of Np13p, also an RNA binding protein, will be discussed in terms of the possible roles for Npl3p in RNA metabolism. PMID:8770588

  16. [Sensitivity of doxorubicin-resistant osteosarcoma cells to doxorubicin regulated by long non-coding RNA NR_036444].

    PubMed

    Zhu, K P; Zhang, C L

    2017-04-23

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism of long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) NR_036444 mediated sensitivity of multidrug-resistant osteosarcoma to doxorubicin. Methods: LncRNA-mRNA combined microarray was used to screen the differential expressions of lncRNA and mRNA in doxorubicin-resistant MG63/DXR osteosarcoma cells and their paired doxorubicin-sensitive MG63 cells; qRT-PCR was used to check the consistency of microarray. LncRNA NR_036444 was over-expressed in MG63/DXR cells by lentrvirus. CCK-8 array was used to evaluate cell proliferation and the sensitivity of cells to doxorubicin; Flow cytometry was used to evaluate cell cycle and apoptosis. The expressions of lncRNA NR_036444 in 60 cases of tumor tissues resected from osteosarcoma patients were detected by qRT-PCR and correlation analyses administrator were conducted. Results: Compared with those in MG63 cells, 1, 761 lncRNAs were significantly up-regulated and 1, 704 lncRNAs were dramatically down-regulated in MG63/DXR cells (P<0.05). 15 lncRNAs were selected randomly and their expressions were confirmed by qRT-PCR. The data showed that the differences in expression of 15 lncRNAs were consistent with microarray result. lncRNA NR_036444 with 22 folds down-regulation was identified as the most significant differential lncRNA in MG63/DXR cells. Half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) in the blank group, negative control group and lncRNA NR_036444 overexpressed group were (12.73±0.50) μg/ml、(12.12±0.31) μg/ml and (5.77±0.25) μg/ml, respectively. Compared with that in negative control group, IC(50) in overexpressed group decreased by 49.6% (P<0.001). The percentages of G(1) phase cells in the overexpressed group, negative control group and blank group were(90.12±0.08)%, (33.36±0.85)% and (39.38±1.02)%. Compared with the negative control group and blank control group, the overexpression group had significantly more cells arrested in G(1) phase (both P<0.001). In the overexpressed group, negative

  17. Sensitive and long-term monitoring of intracellular microRNAs using a non-integrating cytoplasmic RNA vector.

    PubMed

    Sano, Masayuki; Ohtaka, Manami; Iijima, Minoru; Nakasu, Asako; Kato, Yoshio; Nakanishi, Mahito

    2017-10-04

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that modulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Different types of cells express unique sets of miRNAs that can be exploited as potential molecular markers to identify specific cell types. Among the variety of miRNA detection methods, a fluorescence-based imaging system that utilises a fluorescent-reporter gene regulated by a target miRNA offers a major advantage for long-term tracking of the miRNA in living cells. In this study, we developed a novel fluorescence-based miRNA-monitoring system using a non-integrating cytoplasmic RNA vector based on a replication-defective and persistent Sendai virus (SeVdp). Because SeVdp vectors robustly and stably express transgenes, this system enabled sensitive monitoring of miRNAs by fluorescence microscopy. By applying this system for cellular reprogramming, we found that miR-124, but not miR-9, was significantly upregulated during direct neuronal conversion. Additionally, we were able to isolate integration-free human induced pluripotent stem cells by long-term tracking of let-7 expression. Notably, this system was easily expandable to allow detection of multiple miRNAs separately and simultaneously. Our findings provide insight into a powerful tool for evaluating miRNA expression during the cellular reprogramming process and for isolating reprogrammed cells potentially useful for medical applications.

  18. An extended single-index multiplexed 16S rRNA sequencing for microbial community analysis on MiSeq illumina platforms.

    PubMed

    Derakhshani, Hooman; Tun, Hein Min; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-03-01

    The primary 16S rRNA sequencing protocol for microbial community analysis using Illumina platforms includes a single-indexing approach that allows pooling of hundreds of samples in each sequencing run. The protocol targets the V4 hypervariable region (HVR) of 16S rRNA using 150 bp paired-end (PE) sequencing. However, the latest improvement in Illumina chemistry has increased the read length up to 600 bp using 300 bp PE sequencing. To take advantage of the longer read length, a dual-indexing approach was previously developed for targeting different HVRs. However, due to simple working protocols, the single-index 150 bp PE approach still continues to be attractive to many researchers. Here, we described an extended single-indexing protocol for 300 bp PE illumina sequencing that targets the V3-V4 HVRs of 16S rRNA. The new primer set led to increased read length and alignment resolution, as well as increased richness and diversity of resulting microbial profile compared to that obtained from150 bp PE protocol for V4 sequencing. The β-diversity profile also differed qualitatively and quantitatively between the two approaches. Both primer sets had high coverage rates and specificity to detect dominant phyla; however, their coverage rate with regards to the rare biosphere varied. Our data further confirms that the choice of primer is the most deterministic factor in sequencing coverage and specificity.

  19. Detection of cyclin D1 mRNA by hybridization sensitive NIC-oligonucleotide probe.

    PubMed

    Kovaliov, Marina; Segal, Meirav; Kafri, Pinhas; Yavin, Eylon; Shav-Tal, Yaron; Fischer, Bilha

    2014-05-01

    A large group of fluorescent hybridization probes, includes intercalating dyes for example thiazole orange (TO). Usually TO is coupled to nucleic acids post-synthetically which severely limits its use. Here, we have developed a phosphoramidite monomer, 10, and prepared a 2'-OMe-RNA probe, labeled with 5-(trans-N-hexen-1-yl-)-TO-2'-deoxy-uridine nucleoside, dU(TO), (Nucleoside bearing an Inter-Calating moiety, NIC), for selective mRNA detection. We investigated a series of 15-mer 2'-OMe-RNA probes, targeting the cyclin D1 mRNA, containing one or several dU(TO) at various positions. dU(TO)-2'-OMe-RNA exhibited up to 7-fold enhancement of TO emission intensity upon hybridization with the complementary RNA versus that of the oligomer alone. This NIC-probe was applied for the specific detection of a very small amount of a breast cancer marker, cyclin D1 mRNA, in total RNA extract from cancerous cells (250 ng/μl). Furthermore, this NIC-probe was found to be superior to our related NIF (Nucleoside with Intrinsic Fluorescence)-probe which could detect cyclin D1 mRNA target only at high concentrations (1840 ng/μl). Additionally, dU(T) can be used as a monomer in solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis, thus avoiding the need for post-synthetic modification of oligonucleotide probes. Hence, we propose dU(TO) oligonucleotides, as hybridization probes for the detection of specific RNA in homogeneous solutions and for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Temperature-sensitive viral RNA expression in Moloney murine sarcoma virus ts110-infected cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hamelin, R; Brizzard, B L; Nash, M A; Murphy, E C; Arlinghaus, R B

    1985-01-01

    We examined the mos-specific intracellular RNA species in 6m2 cells, an NRK cell line nonproductively infected with the ts110 mutant of Moloney murine sarcoma virus. These cells present a normal phenotype at 39 degrees C and a transformed phenotype at 28 or 33 degrees C, expressing two viral proteins, termed P85gag-mos and P58gag, at 28 to 33 degrees C, whereas only P58gag is expressed at 39 degrees C. It has been previously shown that 6m2 cells contain two virus-specific RNA species, a 4.0-kilobase (kb) RNA coding for P58gag and a 3.5-kb RNA coding for P85gag-mos. Using both Northern blot and S1 nuclease analyses, we show here that the 3.5-kb RNA is the predominant viral RNA species in 6m2 cells grown at 28 degrees C, whereas only the 4.0-kb RNA is detected at 39 degrees C. During temperature shift experiments, the 3.5-kb RNA species disappears after a shift from 28 to 39 degrees C and is detected again after a shift back from 39 to 28 degrees C. By Southern blot analysis, we have detected only one ts110 proviral DNA in the 6m2 genome. This observation, as well as previously published heteroduplex and S1 nuclease analyses which showed that the 3.5-kb RNA species lacks about 430 bases found at the gag gene-mos gene junction in the 4.0-kb RNA, suggests that the 3.5-kb RNA is a splicing product of the 4.0-kb RNA. The absence of the 3.5-kb RNA when 6m2 cells are grown at 39 degrees C indicates that the splicing reaction is thermosensitive. The splicing defect of the ts110 Moloney murine sarcoma virus viral RNA in 6m2 cells cannot be complemented by acute Moloney murine leukemia virus superinfection, since no 3.5-kb ts110 RNA was detected in acutely superinfected 6m2 cells maintained at 39 degrees C. The spliced Moloney murine leukemia virus env mRNA, however, is found in acutely infected cells maintained at 39 degrees C, suggesting that the lack of ts110 viral RNA splicing at 39 degrees C is not due to an obvious host defect. In sharp contrast, however, 6m2 cells

  1. High-sensitive surface plasmon resonance microRNA biosensor based on streptavidin functionalized gold nanorods-assisted signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Hao, Kaihong; He, Yu; Lu, Huiting; Pu, Shaotao; Zhang, Yingnan; Dong, Haifeng; Zhang, Xueji

    2017-02-15

    Herein, a facile and sensitive microRNA (miRNA) biosensor was designed by using interfacial biotinylated thiolated DNA molecular beacon (MB) as probe and streptavidin functionalized gold nanorods (Stre-GNRs) as tag for the enhanced surface plasmon resonance (SPR) signal. The MB probe with two terminals labeled with biotin and thiol groups, respectively, was modified on the gold film via thiol-gold interaction. Upon hybridization with the target, the biotinylated group became accessible to the Stre-GNRs. The introduction of the Stre-GNRs tag to the gold film produced strong SPR signal for detection. Our work has illustrated that the plasmonic field extension generated from the gold film to GNRs and the mass increase due to the GNRs have led to drastic sensitivity enhancement. Under optimal conditions, this proposed approach allowed detection of miRNA with the limit of detection (LOD) down to 0.045 pM. The results have shown that the MB probe functionalized sensing film, together with streptavidin-conjugated GNRs, was readily served as a plasmonic coupling partner that can be used as a powerful ultrasensitive sandwich assay for miRNA detection, and GNRs were readily served as promising amplification labels in SPR sensing technology.

  2. Establishment and application of a multiplex PCR for rapid and simultaneous detection of six viruses in swine.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhiyong; Liu, Zhijie; Wang, Weicheng; Tang, Deyuan; Liang, Haiying; Liu, Zhao

    2014-11-01

    A multiplex PCR assay was developed and evaluated subsequently for its effectiveness in simultaneously detecting mixed viral infections of swine. Specific primers were designed and used for testing the six swine viruses: three DNA viruses, including pseudorabies virus (PRV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2); three common RNA viruses, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). This technique has shown to be highly sensitive in that the minimum detection amounts of nucleic acids from PRV, PPV, PCV2, PRRSV, CSFV, and JEV were 6.6, 96, 12.9, 10.5, 51, and 46 pg, respectively. It also was effective for detecting one or multiple viruses in the specimens, such as the lungs, spleens, lymph nodes, and tonsils collected from clinically ill pigs. The multiplex PCR method can detect simultaneously not only infection of the six viruses, but also other swine DNA and RNA viruses. Given its rapidity, specificity, and sensitivity, the multiplex PCR is a useful tool for diagnosing clinically the mixed infections of swine DNA and RNA viruses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Weighted multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Menichetti, Giulia; Remondini, Daniel; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragón, Raúl J; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of [Formula: see text] nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multiparticipation ratio. Finally, we introduce a theoretical framework based on the entropy of multiplex ensembles to quantify the information stored in multiplex networks that would remain undetected if the single layers were analyzed in isolation.

  4. Weighted Multiplex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Menichetti, Giulia; Remondini, Daniel; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragón, Raúl J.; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multiparticipation ratio. Finally, we introduce a theoretical framework based on the entropy of multiplex ensembles to quantify the information stored in multiplex networks that would remain undetected if the single layers were analyzed in isolation. PMID:24906003

  5. A cell line with decreased sensitivity to the methyl mercury-induced stimulation of alpha-amanitin sensitive RNA synthesis in isolated nuclei.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, G D; Ducote, J; Reboulleau, C P; Gierthy, J

    1988-01-01

    1. In nuclei isolated from cells of the B50 rat neuroblastoma line the stimulatory effect of methyl mercury on alpha-amanitin-sensitive RNA synthesis is very much reduced compared to the stimulatory effect in HeLa nuclei (see: Frenkel G. D. and Randles K. (1982) Specific stimulation of alpha-amanitin-sensitive RNA synthesis in isolated HeLa nuclei by methyl mercury. J. biol. Chem. 257, 6275-6279). 2. The stimulatory effect of another mercury compound, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, was also much less pronounced in the B50 nuclei. 3. Similar results were obtained with nuclei isolated from B50 cells which had been induced to differentiate by exposure to dibutaryl cyclic AMP. 4. Nuclei isolated from cells of another rat neuroblastoma line (B35), and nuclei from cells of a human neuroblastoma line both exhibited levels of stimulation similar to that of HeLa nuclei. 5. The B50 and HeLa cells were also compared as to their sensitivity to other effects of methyl mercury.

  6. Multiplex PCR Tests for Detection of Pathogens Associated with Gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongwei; Morrison, Scott; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis A wide range of enteric pathogens can cause infectious gastroenteritis. Conventional diagnostic algorithms including culture, biochemical identification, immunoassay and microscopic examination are time consuming and often lack sensitivity and specificity. Advances in molecular technology have as allowed its use as clinical diagnostic tools. Multiplex PCR based testing has made its way to gastroenterology diagnostic arena in recent years. In this article we present a review of recent laboratory developed multiplex PCR tests and current commercial multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen tests. We will focus on two FDA cleared commercial syndromic multiplex tests: Luminex xTAG GPP and Biofire FimArray GI test. These multiplex tests can detect and identify multiple enteric pathogens in one test and provide results within hours. Multiplex PCR tests have shown superior sensitivity to conventional methods for detection of most pathogens. The high negative predictive value of these multiplex tests has led to the suggestion that they be used as screening tools especially in outbreaks. Although the clinical utility and benefit of multiplex PCR test are to be further investigated, implementing these multiplex PCR tests in gastroenterology diagnostic algorithm has the potential to improve diagnosis of infectious gastroenteritis. PMID:26004652

  7. A sensitivity analysis of RNA folding nearest neighbor parameters identifies a subset of free energy parameters with the greatest impact on RNA secondary structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Jeffrey; Sun, Hongying; Zhang, Xiaoju; McFadyen, Iain; Mathews, David H

    2017-03-15

    Nearest neighbor parameters for estimating the folding energy changes of RNA secondary structures are used in structure prediction and analysis. Despite their widespread application, a comprehensive analysis of the impact of each parameter on the precision of calculations had not been conducted. To identify the parameters with greatest impact, a sensitivity analysis was performed on the 291 parameters that compose the 2004 version of the free energy nearest neighbor rules. Perturbed parameter sets were generated by perturbing each parameter independently. Then the effect of each individual parameter change on predicted base-pair probabilities and secondary structures as compared to the standard parameter set was observed for a set of sequences including structured ncRNA, mRNA and randomized sequences. The results identify for the first time the parameters with the greatest impact on secondary structure prediction, and the subset which should be prioritized for further study in order to improve the precision of structure prediction. In particular, bulge loop initiation, multibranch loop initiation, AU/GU internal loop closure and AU/GU helix end parameters were particularly important. An analysis of parameter usage during folding free energy calculations of stochastic samples of secondary structures revealed a correlation between parameter usage and impact on structure prediction precision.

  8. Rapid Multiplexed Flow Cytometric Assay for Botulinum Neurotoxin Detection Using an Automated Fluidic Microbead-Trapping Flow Cell for Enhanced Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Ozanich, Richard M.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Warner, Marvin G.; Miller, Keith D.; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Marks, James D.; Lou, Jianlong; Grate, Jay W.

    2009-07-15

    A bead-based sandwich immunoassay for botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) has been developed and demonstrated using a recombinant 50 kDa fragment (BoNT/A-HC-fragment) of the BoNT/A heavy chain (BoNT/A-HC) as a structurally valid simulant. Three different anti-BoNT/A antibodies were attached to three different fluorescent dye encoded flow cytometry beads for multiplexing. The assay was conducted in two formats: a manual microcentrifuge tube format and an automated fluidic system format. Flow cytometry detection was used for both formats. The fluidic system used a novel microbead-trapping flow cell to capture antibody-coupled beads with subsequent sequential perfusion of sample, wash, dye-labeled reporter antibody, and final wash solutions. After the reaction period, the beads were collected for analysis by flow cytometry. Sandwich assays performed on the fluidic system gave median fluorescence intensity signals on the flow cytometer that were 2-4 times higher than assays performed manually in the same amount of time. Limits of detection were estimated at 1 pM (~50 pg/mL for BoNT/A-HC-fragment) for the 15 minute fluidic assay.

  9. Target-triggered enzyme-free amplification strategy for sensitive detection of microRNA in tumor cells and tissues.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yuhui; Huang, Ru; Ma, Zhaokui; Wu, Yunxia; Zhou, Xiaoming; Xing, Da

    2014-05-06

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in important processes of life course. Because of their characters of small sizes, vulnerable degradabilities, and sequences similarities, the existing detection technologies mostly contain enzymatic amplification reactions for acquisition of high sensitivities and specificities. However, specific reaction conditions and time-dependent enzyme activities are caused by the accession of enzymes. Herein, we designed a target-triggered enzyme-free amplification platform that is realized by circulatory interactions of two hairpin probes and the integrated electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal giving-out component. Benefiting from outstanding performances of the enzyme-free amplification system and ECL, this strategy is provided with a simplified reaction process, high sensitivity, and operation under isothermal conditions. Through detection of the miRNA standard substance, the sensitivity of this platform reached 10 fmol, and a splendid specificity was achieved. We also analyzed three tumor cell lines (human lung adenocarcinoma, breast adenocarcinoma, and hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell lines) through this platform. The sensitivities of 10(3) cells, 10(4) cells, and 10(4) cells were, respectively, achieved. Furthermore, clinical tumor samples were tested, and 21 of 30 experimental samples gave out positive signals. Thus, this platform possesses potentials to be an innovation in miRNA detection methodology.

  10. Evaluation of Borrelia real time PCR DNA targeting OspA, FlaB and 5S-23S IGS and Borrelia 16S rRNA RT-qPCR.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Bertie H C G M; Maraha, Boulos; Hollemans, Leonie; Sprong, Hein; Brandenburg, Afke H; Westenend, Pieter J; Kusters, Johannes G

    2014-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi non-sensu lato (s.l.) strains occurred in the Netherlands. A multiplex OspA, FlaB, IGS real time PCR was compared to 16S rRNA/rDNA RT-qPCR with lower average Cycle threshold (Ct) and LOD on strain dilutions. Multiplexing increased sensitivity on CSF samples (n=74), distinguishing B. burgdorferi s.l. from non-s.l. strains.

  11. Direct profiling of cancer biomarkers in tumor tissue using a multiplexed nanostructured microelectrode integrated circuit.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhichao; Soleymani, Leyla; Pampalakis, Georgios; Yoshimoto, Maisa; Squire, Jeremy A; Sargent, Edward H; Kelley, Shana O

    2009-10-27

    The analysis of panels of nucleic acid biomarkers offers valuable diagnostic and prognostic information for cancer management. A cost-effective, highly sensitive electronic chip would offer an ideal platform for clinical biomarker readout and would have maximal utility if it was (i) multiplexed, enabling on-chip assays of multiple biomarkers, and (ii) able to perform direct (PCR-free) readout of disease-related genes. Here we report a chip onto which we integrate novel nanostructured microelectrodes and with which we directly detect cancer biomarkers in heterogeneous biological samples-both cell extracts and tumor tissues. Coarse photolithographic microfabrication defines a multiplexed sensing array; bottom-up fabrication of nanostructured microelectrodes then provides sensing elements. We analyzed a panel of mRNA samples for prostate cancer related gene fusions using the chip. We accurately identified gene fusions that correlate with aggressive prostate cancer and distinguished these from fusions associated with slower-progressing forms of the disease. The multiplexed nanostructured microelectrode integrated circuit reported herein provides direct, amplification-free, sample-to-answer in under 1 h using the 10 ng of mRNA readily available in biopsy samples.

  12. Sensitive detection of deletions of one or more exons in the neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) gene by multiplexed gene dosage polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Diebold, Ruth; Bartelt-Kirbach, Britta; Evans, D Gareth; Kaufmann, Dieter; Hanemann, C Oliver

    2005-02-01

    Mutation detection in the neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) gene is challenging because when combining mutation detection methods such as single-strand conformational polymorphism and heteroduplex analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and direct sequencing of aberrant polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragments only 30 to 60% of the constitutional mutations are detected. Because large deletions and complete chromosome rearrangements are also described methods such as microarray-comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization are also used. The one type of mutation often missed corresponds to deletions encompassing one or few exons. To detect this type we have developed a swift and reliable method. We perform a gene dosage analysis with two fluorescent multiplex PCR assays that amplify 15 of the 17 NF2 exons. The labeled PCR products are quantified and gene dose is calculated with respect to controls. We tested the reliability of this method with DNA from eight NF2 patients with known heterozygous NF2 deletions, eight controls and four unknown NF2 patients. In all of the patients with known heterozygous deletions we found in several exons a reduction of gene dosage to 50 to 69%. In one NF2 patient with previously unknown mutation and a severe phenotype we found the gene dosage of two exons reduced by 50% indicating a deletion of these two exons on one allele. This finding was validated by reverse transcriptase-PCR on fibroblast and schwannoma cell cultures of this patient and cDNA sequencing. Our gene dosage assay will detect deletions of one or more exons as well as gross deletions of the whole coding region of the gene. It can complement the existing screening methods because it is faster and easier.

  13. Simultaneous Detection of Aeromonas salmonicida, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, and Yersinia ruckeri, Three Major Fish Pathogens, by Multiplex PCR

    PubMed Central

    del Cerro, A.; Marquez, I.; Guijarro, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    A multiplex PCR assay based on the 16S rRNA genes was developed for the simultaneous detection of three major fish pathogens, Aeromonas salmonicida, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, and Yersinia ruckeri. The assay proved to be specific and as sensitive as each single PCR assay, with detection limits in the range of 6, 0.6, and 27 CFU for A. salmonicida, F. psychrophilum, and Y. ruckeri, respectively. The assay was useful for the detection of the bacteria in artificially infected fish as well as in fish farm outbreaks. Results revealed that this multiplex PCR system permits a specific, sensitive, reproducible, and rapid method for the routine laboratory diagnosis of infections produced by these three bacteria. PMID:12324372

  14. Multiplex PageRank.

    PubMed

    Halu, Arda; Mondragón, Raúl J; Panzarasa, Pietro; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2013-01-01

    Many complex systems can be described as multiplex networks in which the same nodes can interact with one another in different layers, thus forming a set of interacting and co-evolving networks. Examples of such multiplex systems are social networks where people are involved in different types of relationships and interact through various forms of communication media. The ranking of nodes in multiplex networks is one of the most pressing and challenging tasks that research on complex networks is currently facing. When pairs of nodes can be connected through multiple links and in multiple layers, the ranking of nodes should necessarily reflect the importance of nodes in one layer as well as their importance in other interdependent layers. In this paper, we draw on the idea of biased random walks to define the Multiplex PageRank centrality measure in which the effects of the interplay between networks on the centrality of nodes are directly taken into account. In particular, depending on the intensity of the interaction between layers, we define the Additive, Multiplicative, Combined, and Neutral versions of Multiplex PageRank, and show how each version reflects the extent to which the importance of a node in one layer affects the importance the node can gain in another layer. We discuss these measures and apply them to an online multiplex social network. Findings indicate that taking the multiplex nature of the network into account helps uncover the emergence of rankings of nodes that differ from the rankings obtained from one single layer. Results provide support in favor of the salience of multiplex centrality measures, like Multiplex PageRank, for assessing the prominence of nodes embedded in multiple interacting networks, and for shedding a new light on structural properties that would otherwise remain undetected if each of the interacting networks were analyzed in isolation.

  15. Multiplexity and multireciprocity in directed multiplexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmetto, Valerio; Squartini, Tiziano; Picciolo, Francesco; Ruzzenenti, Franco; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Real-world multilayer networks feature nontrivial dependencies among links of different layers. Here we argue that if links are directed, then dependencies are twofold. Besides the ordinary tendency of links of different layers to align as the result of "multiplexity," there is also a tendency to antialign as a result of what we call "multireciprocity," i.e., the fact that links in one layer can be reciprocated by opposite links in a different layer. Multireciprocity generalizes the scalar definition of single-layer reciprocity to that of a square matrix involving all pairs of layers. We introduce multiplexity and multireciprocity matrices for both binary and weighted multiplexes and validate their statistical significance against maximum-entropy null models that filter out the effects of node heterogeneity. We then perform a detailed empirical analysis of the world trade multiplex (WTM), representing the import-export relationships between world countries in different commodities. We show that the WTM exhibits strong multiplexity and multireciprocity, an effect which is, however, largely encoded into the degree or strength sequences of individual layers. The residual effects are still significant and allow us to classify pairs of commodities according to their tendency to be traded together in the same direction and/or in opposite ones. We also find that the multireciprocity of the WTM is significantly lower than the usual reciprocity measured on the aggregate network. Moreover, layers with low (high) internal reciprocity are embedded within sets of layers with comparably low (high) mutual multireciprocity. This suggests that, in the WTM, reciprocity is inherent to groups of related commodities rather than to individual commodities. We discuss the implications for international trade research focusing on product taxonomies, the product space, and fitness and complexity metrics.

  16. An electrochemical biosensor for sensitive detection of microRNA-155: combining target recycling with cascade catalysis for signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Chai, Yaqin; Zhang, Pu; Yuan, Ruo

    2015-01-14

    In this work, a new electrochemical biosensor based on catalyzed hairpin assembly target recycling and cascade electrocatalysis (cytochrome c (Cyt c) and alcohol oxidase (AOx)) for signal amplification was constructed for highly sensitive detection of microRNA (miRNA). It is worth pointing out that target recycling was achieved only based on strand displacement process without the help of nuclease. Moreover, porous TiO2 nanosphere was synthesized, which could offer more surface area for Pt nanoparticles (PtNPs) enwrapping and enhance the amount of immobilized DNA strand 1 (S1) and Cyt c accordingly. With the mimicking sandwich-type reaction, the cascade catalysis amplification strategy was carried out by AOx catalyzing ethanol to acetaldehyde with the concomitant formation of high concentration of H2O2, which was further electrocatalyzed by PtNPs and Cyt c. This newly designed biosensor provided a sensitive detection of miRNA-155 from 0.8 fM to 1 nM with a relatively low detection limit of 0.35 fM.

  17. pH-sensitive siRNA Nanovector for Targeted Gene Silencing and Cytotoxic Effect in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Hyejung; Veiseh, Omid; Fang, Chen; Kievit, Forrest M.; Wang, Freddy Y.; Park, James O.; Zhang, Miqin

    2010-01-01

    A small interfering RNA (siRNA) nanovector with dual targeting specificity and dual therapeutic effect is developed for targeted cancer imaging and therapy. The nanovector is comprised of an iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle core coated with three different functional molecules: polyethyleneimine (PEI), siRNA, and chlorotoxin (CTX). The primary amine group of PEI is blocked with citraconic anhydride that is removable at acidic conditions, not only to increase its biocompatibility at physiological conditions but also to elicit a pH-sensitive cytotoxic effect in the acidic tumor microenvironment. The PEI is covalently immobilized on the nanovector via a disulfide linkage that is cleavable after cellular internalization of the nanovector. CTX as a tumor-specific targeting ligand and siRNA as a therapeutic payload are conjugated on the nanovector via a flexible and hydrophilic PEG linker for targeted gene silencing in cancer cells. With a size of ~ 60 nm, the nanovector exhibits long-term stability and good magnetic property for magnetic resonance imaging. The multifunctional nanovector exhibits both significant cytotoxic and gene silencing effects at acidic pH conditions for C6 glioma cells, but not at physiological pH conditions. Our results suggest that this nanovector system could be safely used as a potential therapeutic agent for targeted treatment of glioma as well as other cancers. PMID:20722417

  18. Microfabrication of encoded microparticle array for multiplexed DNA hybridization detection.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Zheng-Liang; Morita, Yasutaka; Yamamura, Shouhei; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2005-05-21

    A strategy for the high-sensitivity, high-selectivity, and multiplexed detection of oligonucleotide hybridizations has been developed with an encoded Ni microparticle random array that was manufactured by a "top-down" approach using micromachining and microfabrication techniques.

  19. Targeting BCRP/ABCG2 by RNA interference enhances the chemotherapy sensitivity of human colon cancer side population cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun; Li, Jian; Yue, Xin; Wang, Jia-Cang; Wang, Jun-Feng; Liu, Jian-Zhong; Kong, Da-Lu

    2017-04-01

    Relapse and metastasis are frequent in colon cancer and may be linked to stem cell characteristics. This study isolated side population (SP) cells from a colon cancer cell line (Colo-320) and examined their self-renewal and differentiation abilities. Compared to non-SP (NSP) cells, SP colon cancer cells were more tumorigenic in vivo and exhibited more invasive characteristics and a greater ability to form colonies. Additionally, more cells were in G0/G1 phase and more highly expressed the multidrug resistance protein BCRP/ABCG2. We achieved enhanced chemotherapy sensitivity by transfecting SP cells with a hairpin-like, small interfering RNA (siRNA) eukaryotic expression plasmid targeting BCRP/ABCG2.

  20. Knock-Down of Core Proteins Regulating MicroRNA Biogenesis Has No Effect on Sensitivity of Lung Cancer Cells to Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhivotovsky, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies underline the important role of microRNAs (miRNA) in the development of lung cancer. The main regulators of miRNA biogenesis are the ribonucleases Drosha, Dicer and Ago2. Here the role of core proteins of miRNA biogenesis machinery in the response of human non-small and small cell lung carcinoma cell lines to treatment with ionizing radiation was assessed. We found that Drosha and Dicer were expressed at higher levels in radioresistant but not in sensitive cell lines. However, down-regulation of either Dicer or Drosha had no effect on the sensitivity of cells to irradiation. Elimination of components of the RNA-induced silencing complex Ago2 and Tudor staphylococcal nuclease also did not sensitize cells to the same treatment. Thus, modulation of miRNA biogenesis machinery is not sufficient to increase the radiosensitivity of lung tumors and other strategies are required to combat lung cancer. PMID:22479364

  1. Ultra-sensitive fluorescent sensor for intracellular miRNA based on enzyme-free signal amplification with carbon nitride nanosheet as a carrier.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xianjiu; Li, Zhenzhong; Peng, Tingting; Li, Jie; Qin, Fengying; Huang, Zuliang

    2017-06-01

    A novel ultra-sensitive fluorescent sensor for monitoring microRNA (miRNA) in living cells was constructed by utilizing a hybridization chain reaction (HCR) as the signal amplification with a carbon nitride nanosheet (CNNS) as a carrier. The Cy5-labeled hairpin DNA could be adsorbed onto the surface of CNNS, resulting in fluorescence quenching of Cy5. When treated with complementary miRNA, the fluorescence was recovered because miRNA could efficiently trigger an HCR, which led to the release of the HCR products from the CNNS. This intracellular HCR strategy can be used for ultra-sensitive monitoring of intracellular miRNA. The main advantages of the proposed method are its simplicity, high sensitivity, high specificity and low toxicity for monitoring low-level biomarkers. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Fast and highly specific DNA-based multiplex detection on a solid support.

    PubMed

    Barišić, Ivan; Kamleithner, Verena; Schönthaler, Silvia; Wiesinger-Mayr, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Highly specific and fast multiplex detection methods are essential to conduct reasonable DNA-based diagnostics and are especially important to characterise infectious diseases. More than 1000 genetic targets such as antibiotic resistance genes, virulence factors and phylogenetic markers have to be identified as fast as possible to facilitate the correct treatment of a patient. In the present work, we developed a novel ligation-based DNA probe concept that was combined with the microarray technology and used it for the detection of bacterial pathogens. The novel linear chain (LNC) probes identified all tested species correctly within 1 h based on their 16S rRNA gene in a 25-multiplex reaction. Genomic DNA was used directly as template in the ligation reaction identifying as little as 10(7) cells without any pre-amplification. The high specificity was further demonstrated characterising a single nucleotide polymorphism leading to no false positive fluorescence signals of the untargeted single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variants. In comparison to conventional microarray probes, the sensitivity of the novel LNC3 probes was higher by a factor of 10 or more. In summary, we present a fast, simple, highly specific and sensitive multiplex detection method adaptable for a wide range of applications.

  3. Temperature Sensitivity Caused by Mutant Release Factor 1 Is Suppressed by Mutations That Affect 16S rRNA Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Kaczanowska, Magdalena; Rydén-Aulin, Monica

    2004-01-01

    To study the effect of slow termination on the protein synthesizing machinery, we isolated suppressors to a temperature-sensitive release factor 1 (RF1). Of 26 independent clones, five complementation groups have been identified, two of which are presented here. The first mutation disrupts a base pair in the transcription terminator stem for the rplM-rpsI operon, which encodes ribosomal proteins L13 and S9. We have found that this leads to readthrough of the terminator and that lower levels of transcript (compared to the results seen with the wild type) are found in the cell. This probably leads to decreased expression of the two proteins. The second mutation is a small deletion of the yrdC open reading frame start site, and it is not likely that the protein is expressed. Both mutant strains show an increased accumulation of 17S rRNA (immature 16S rRNA). Maturation of 16S rRNA is dependent on proper assembly of the ribosomal proteins, a process that is disturbed when proteins are missing. The function of the YrdC protein is not known, but it is able to bind to double-stranded RNA; therefore, we suggest that it is an assembly factor important for 30S subunit biogenesis. On the basis of our findings, we propose that lesser amounts of S9 or a lack of YrdC causes the maturation defect. We have shown that as a consequence of the maturation defect, fewer 70S ribosomes and polysomes are formed. This and other results suggest that it is the lowered concentration of functional ribosomes that suppresses the temperature sensitivity caused by the mutant RF1. PMID:15126466

  4. microRNA160 dictates stage-specific auxin and cytokinin sensitivities and directs soybean nodule development.

    PubMed

    Nizampatnam, Narasimha Rao; Schreier, Spencer John; Damodaran, Suresh; Adhikari, Sajag; Subramanian, Senthil

    2015-10-01

    Legume nodules result from coordinated interactions between the plant and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. The phytohormone cytokinin promotes nodule formation, and recent findings suggest that the phytohormone auxin inhibits nodule formation. Here we show that microRNA160 (miR160) is a key signaling element that determines the auxin/cytokinin balance during nodule development in soybean (Glycine max). miR160 appears to promote auxin activity by suppressing the levels of the ARF10/16/17 family of repressor ARF transcription factors. Using quantitative PCR assays and a fluorescence miRNA sensor, we show that miR160 levels are relatively low early during nodule formation and high in mature nodules. We had previously shown that ectopic expression of miR160 in soybean roots led to a severe reduction in nodule formation, coupled with enhanced sensitivity to auxin and reduced sensitivity to cytokinin. Here we show that exogenous cytokinin restores nodule formation in miR160 over-expressing roots. Therefore, low miR160 levels early during nodule development favor cytokinin activity required for nodule formation. Suppression of miR160 levels using a short tandem target mimic (STTM160) resulted in reduced sensitivity to auxin and enhanced sensitivity to cytokinin. In contrast to miR160 over-expressing roots, STTM160 roots had increased nodule formation, but nodule maturation was significantly delayed. Exogenous auxin partially restored proper nodule formation and maturation in STTM160 roots, suggesting that high miR160 activity later during nodule development favors auxin activity and promotes nodule maturation. Therefore, miR160 dictates developmental stage-specific sensitivities to auxin and cytokinin to direct proper nodule formation and maturation in soybean.

  5. Multiplex gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentin, Jose R.

    1990-01-01

    The principles of the multiplex gas chromatography (GC) technique, which is a possible candidate for chemical analysis of planetary atmospheres, are discussed. Particular attention is given to the chemical modulators developed by present investigators for multiplex GC, namely, the thermal-desorption, thermal-decomposition, and catalytic modulators, as well as to mechanical modulators. The basic technique of multiplex GC using chemical modulators and a mechanical modulator is demonstrated. It is shown that, with the chemical modulators, only one gas stream consisting of the carrier in combination with the components is being analyzed, resulting in a simplified instrument that requires relatively few consumables. The mechanical modulator demonstrated a direct application of multiplex GC for the analysis of gases in atmosphere of Titan at very low pressures.

  6. Multiplexed Engineering in Biology.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Jameson K; Church, George M

    2016-03-01

    Biotechnology is the manufacturing technology of the future. However, engineering biology is complex, and many possible genetic designs must be evaluated to find cells that produce high levels of a desired drug or chemical. Recent advances have enabled the design and construction of billions of genetic variants per day, but evaluation capacity remains limited to thousands of variants per day. Here we evaluate biological engineering through the lens of the design–build–test cycle framework and highlight the role that multiplexing has had in transforming the design and build steps. We describe a multiplexed solution to the ‘test’ step that is enabled by new research. Achieving a multiplexed test step will permit a fully multiplexed engineering cycle and boost the throughput of biobased product development by up to a millionfold.

  7. Microfluidic multiplexing in bioanalyses.

    PubMed

    Araz, M Kursad; Tentori, Augusto M; Herr, Amy E

    2013-10-01

    The importance of biological assays spans from clinical diagnostics to environmental monitoring. Simultaneous detection of multiple analytes enhances the efficacy of bioassays by providing more data per assay under standardized conditions. Nevertheless, simultaneous handling and assaying of multiple samples, targets, and experimental conditions can be laborious, reagent consuming, and time intensive. Given these demands, microfluidic platforms have emerged over the past two decades as well-suited approaches for multiplexed assays. Microfluidic design supports integration of assay steps and reproducible sample manipulation across large sets of conditions--all relevant to multiplexed assays. Taken together, reduced reagent consumption, faster assay times, and potential for automation stemming from microfluidic assay design are attractive and needed multiplexed assay performance attributes. This review highlights recent advances in multiplexed bioanalyses benefitting from microfluidic integration.

  8. Multiplex gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentin, Jose R.

    1990-01-01

    The principles of the multiplex gas chromatography (GC) technique, which is a possible candidate for chemical analysis of planetary atmospheres, are discussed. Particular attention is given to the chemical modulators developed by present investigators for multiplex GC, namely, the thermal-desorption, thermal-decomposition, and catalytic modulators, as well as to mechanical modulators. The basic technique of multiplex GC using chemical modulators and a mechanical modulator is demonstrated. It is shown that, with the chemical modulators, only one gas stream consisting of the carrier in combination with the components is being analyzed, resulting in a simplified instrument that requires relatively few consumables. The mechanical modulator demonstrated a direct application of multiplex GC for the analysis of gases in atmosphere of Titan at very low pressures.

  9. Multiplex television transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. R.

    1967-01-01

    Time-multiplexing system enables several cameras to share a single commercial television transmission channel. This system is useful in industries for visually monitoring several operating areas or instrument panels from a remote location.

  10. Downlink data multiplexer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, S. Douglas (Inventor); Steele, Glen F. (Inventor); Romero, Denise M. (Inventor); Koudelka, Robert David (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A data multiplexer that accommodates both industry standard CCSDS data packets and bits streams and standard IEEE 1394 data is described. The multiplexer provides a statistical allotment of bandwidth to the channels in turn, preferably four, but expandable in increments of four up to sixteen. A microcontroller determines bandwidth requested by the plurality of channels, as well as the bandwidth available, and meters out the available bandwidth on a statistical basis employing flow control to the input channels.

  11. Multiplexed chirp waveform synthesizer

    DOEpatents

    Dudley, Peter A.; Tise, Bert L.

    2003-09-02

    A synthesizer for generating a desired chirp signal has M parallel channels, where M is an integer greater than 1, each channel including a chirp waveform synthesizer generating at an output a portion of a digital representation of the desired chirp signal; and a multiplexer for multiplexing the M outputs to create a digital representation of the desired chirp signal. Preferably, each channel receives input information that is a function of information representing the desired chirp signal.

  12. Development of real-time multiplex nucleic acid sequence-based amplification for detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Legionella spp. in respiratory specimens.

    PubMed

    Loens, K; Beck, T; Ursi, D; Overdijk, M; Sillekens, P; Goossens, H; Ieven, M

    2008-01-01

    Real-time multiplex isothermal nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) was developed to detect Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Legionella spp. in respiratory specimens using the NucliSens Basic Kit (bioMérieux, Boxtel, The Netherlands). Oligonucleotide primers were derived from the M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila 16S rRNA. For real-time detection, molecular beacons were used. Specificity was established on a panel of bacterial strains. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was determined by testing dilutions of wild-type in vitro-generated RNA in water and dilutions of reference strains in lysis buffer or added to pools of respiratory specimens. Subsequently, a limited number of M. pneumoniae-, C. pneumoniae-, and L. pneumophila-positive and -negative clinical specimens were analyzed. Specific detection of the 16S rRNA of the three organisms was achieved. The analytical sensitivity of the multiplex NASBA on spiked respiratory specimens was slightly diminished compared to the results obtained with the single-target (mono) real-time assays. We conclude that the proposed real-time multiplex NASBA assay, although less sensitive than the real-time mono NASBA assay, is a promising tool for the detection of M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, and Legionella spp. in respiratory specimens, regarding handling, speed, and number of samples that can be analyzed in a single run.

  13. The RNA exosome affects iron response and sensitivity to oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Tsanova, Borislava; Spatrick, Phyllis; Jacobson, Allan; van Hoof, Ambro

    2014-01-01

    RNA degradation plays important roles for maintaining temporal control and fidelity of gene expression, as well as processing of transcripts. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the RNA exosome is a major 3′-to-5′ exoribonuclease and also has an endonuclease domain of unknown function. Here we report a physiological role for the exosome in response to a stimulus. We show that inactivating the exoribonuclease active site of Rrp44 up-regulates the iron uptake regulon. This up-regulation is caused by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mutant. Elevated ROS also causes hypersensitivity to H2O2, which can be reduced by the addition of iron to H2O2 stressed cells. Finally, we show that the previously characterized slow growth phenotype of rrp44-exo− is largely ameliorated during fermentative growth. While the molecular functions of Rrp44 and the RNA exosome have been extensively characterized, our studies characterize how this molecular function affects the physiology of the organism. PMID:24860016

  14. Tumor acidity-sensitive linkage-bridged block copolymer for therapeutic siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cong-Fei; Zhang, Hou-Bing; Sun, Chun-Yang; Liu, Yang; Shen, Song; Yang, Xian-Zhu; Zhu, Yan-Hua; Wang, Jun

    2016-05-01

    The design of ideal nanoparticle delivery systems should be capable of meeting the requirements of several stages of drug delivery, including prolonged circulation, enhanced accumulation and penetration in the tumor, facilitated cellular internalization and rapid release of the active drug in the tumor cells. However, among the current design strategies, meeting the requirements of one stage often conflicts with the other. Herein, a tumor pH-labile linkage-bridged block copolymer of poly(ethylene glycol) with poly(lacide-co-glycolide) (PEG-Dlinkm-PLGA) was used for siRNA delivery to fulfill all aforementioned requirements of these delivery stages. The obtained siRNA-encapsulating PEG-Dlinkm-PLGA nanoparticle gained efficiently prolonged circulation in the blood and preferential accumulation in tumor sites via the PEGylation. Furthermore, the PEG surface layer was detached in response to the tumor acidic microenvironment to facilitate cellular uptake, and the siRNA was rapidly released within tumor cells due to the hydrophobic PLGA layer. Hence, PEG-Dlinkm-PLGA nanoparticles met the requirements of several stages of drug delivery, and resulted in the enhanced therapeutic effect of the nanoparticular delivery systems.

  15. Multiplexed reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction for simultaneous detection of Mayaro, Oropouche, and Oropouche-like viruses

    PubMed Central

    Naveca, Felipe Gomes; do Nascimento, Valdinete Alves; de Souza, Victor Costa; Nunes, Bruno Tardelli Diniz; Rodrigues, Daniela Sueli Guerreiro; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We describe a sensitive method for simultaneous detection of Oropouche and Oropouche-like viruses carrying the Oropouche S segment, as well as the Mayaro virus, using a multiplexed one-step reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). A chimeric plasmid containing both Mayaro and Oropouche targets was designed and evaluated for the in vitro production of transcribed RNA, which could be easily used as a non-infectious external control. To track false-negative results due to PCR inhibition or equipment malfunction, the MS2 bacteriophage was also included in the multiplex assay as an internal positive control. The specificity of the multiplex assay was evaluated by Primer-Blast analysis against the entire GenBank database, and further against a panel of 17 RNA arboviruses. The results indicated an accurate and highly sensitive assay with amplification efficiency greater than 98% for both targets, and a limit of detection between two and 20 copies per reaction. We believe that the assay described here will provide a tool for Mayaro and Oropouche virus detection, especially in areas where differential diagnosis of Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya viruses should be performed. PMID:28591313

  16. Multiplexed reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction for simultaneous detection of Mayaro, Oropouche, and Oropouche-like viruses.

    PubMed

    Naveca, Felipe Gomes; Nascimento, Valdinete Alves do; Souza, Victor Costa de; Nunes, Bruno Tardelli Diniz; Rodrigues, Daniela Sueli Guerreiro; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2017-07-01

    We describe a sensitive method for simultaneous detection of Oropouche and Oropouche-like viruses carrying the Oropouche S segment, as well as the Mayaro virus, using a multiplexed one-step reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). A chimeric plasmid containing both Mayaro and Oropouche targets was designed and evaluated for the in vitro production of transcribed RNA, which could be easily used as a non-infectious external control. To track false-negative results due to PCR inhibition or equipment malfunction, the MS2 bacteriophage was also included in the multiplex assay as an internal positive control. The specificity of the multiplex assay was evaluated by Primer-Blast analysis against the entire GenBank database, and further against a panel of 17 RNA arboviruses. The results indicated an accurate and highly sensitive assay with amplification efficiency greater than 98% for both targets, and a limit of detection between two and 20 copies per reaction. We believe that the assay described here will provide a tool for Mayaro and Oropouche virus detection, especially in areas where differential diagnosis of Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya viruses should be performed.

  17. Compact spatial multiplexers for mode division multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haoshuo; van Uden, Roy; Okonkwo, Chigo; Koonen, Ton

    2014-12-29

    Spatial multiplexer (SMUX) for mode division multiplexing (MDM) has evolved from mode-selective excitation, multiple-spot and photonic-lantern based solutions in order to minimize both mode-dependent loss (MDL) and coupler insertion loss (CIL). This paper discusses the implementation of all the three solutions by compact components in a small footprint. Moreover, the compact SMUX can be manufactured in mass production and packaged to assure high reliability. First, push-pull scheme and center launch based SMUXes are demonstrated on two mostly-popular photonic integration platforms: Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and Indium Phosphide (InP) for selectively exciting LP01 and LP11 modes. 2-dimensional (2D) top-coupling by using vertical emitters is explored to provide a coupling interface between a few-mode fiber (FMF) and the photonic integrated SMUX. SOI-based grating couplers and InP-based 45° vertical mirrors are proposed and researched as vertical emitters in each platform. Second, a 3-spot SMUX is realized on an InP-based circuit through employing 45° vertical mirrors. Third, as a newly-emerging photonic integration platform, laser-inscribed 3D waveguide (3DW) technology is applied for a fully-packaged dual-channel 6-mode SMUX including two 6-core photonic lantern structures as mode multiplexer and demultiplexer, respectively.

  18. Luciferase mRNA Transfection of Antigen Presenting Cells Permits Sensitive Nonradioactive Measurement of Cellular and Humoral Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Omokoko, Tana A.; Luxemburger, Uli; Bardissi, Shaheer; Simon, Petra; Utsch, Magdalena; Breitkreuz, Andrea; Türeci, Özlem; Sahin, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy is rapidly evolving as an effective treatment option for many cancers. With the emerging fields of cancer vaccines and adoptive cell transfer therapies, there is an increasing demand for high-throughput in vitro cytotoxicity assays that efficiently analyze immune effector functions. The gold standard 51Cr-release assay is very accurate but has the major disadvantage of being radioactive. We reveal the development of a versatile and nonradioactive firefly luciferase in vitro transcribed (IVT) RNA-based assay. Demonstrating high efficiency, consistency, and excellent target cell viability, our optimized luciferase IVT RNA is used to transfect dividing and nondividing primary antigen presenting cells. Together with the long-lasting expression and minimal background, the direct measurement of intracellular luciferase activity of living cells allows for the monitoring of killing kinetics and displays paramount sensitivity. The ability to cotransfect the IVT RNA of the luciferase reporter and the antigen of interest into the antigen presenting cells and its simple read-out procedure render the assay high-throughput in nature. Results generated were comparable to the 51Cr release and further confirmed the assay's ability to measure antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity. The assay's combined simplicity, practicality, and efficiency tailor it for the analysis of antigen-specific cellular and humoral effector functions during the development of novel immunotherapies. PMID:27057556

  19. A method for conducting highly sensitive microRNA in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Sempere, Lorenzo F; Korc, Murray

    2013-01-01

    Profiling experiments in whole tissue biopsies have linked altered expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) to different types of cancer, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Emerging evidence indicates that altered miRNA expression can occur in different cellular compartments (cancer and non-cancer cells) in tumor lesions, and thus it is important to ascertain which specific cell type expresses a particulars miRNA in PDAC tissues. Here, we describe a highly sensitive fluorescence-based ISH method to visualize miRNA accumulation within individual cells in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections using 5' and 3' terminally fluorescein-labeled locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified probes. We describe a multicolor ISH/IHC method based on sequential rounds of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mediated tyramide signal amplification (TSA) reactions with different in-house synthesized fluorochrome-conjugated substrates that enable co-detection of miRNAs, abundant noncoding RNAs and protein markers for signal quantification, and cell type co-localization studies in FFPE pancreatic tissue sections from clinical specimens and mouse models of PDAC.

  20. MicroRNA-320a sensitizes tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells to tamoxifen by targeting ARPP-19 and ERRγ.

    PubMed

    Lü, Mingrong; Ding, Keshuo; Zhang, Guofeng; Yin, Mianmian; Yao, Guidong; Tian, Hui; Lian, Jie; Liu, Lin; Liang, Meng; Zhu, Tao; Sun, Fei

    2015-03-04

    Tamoxifen represents a major adjuvant therapy to those patients with estrogen receptor-alpha positive breast cancer. However, tamoxifen resistance occurs quite often, either de novo or acquired during treatment. To investigate the role of miR-320a in the development of resistance to tamoxifen, we established tamoxifen-resistant (TamR) models by continually exposing MCF-7 or T47D breast cancer cells to tamoxifen, and identified microRNA(miRNA)-320a as a down-regulated miRNA in tamoxifen resistant cells. Re-expression of miR-320a was sufficient to sensitize TamR cells to tamoxifen by targeting cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (ARPP-19) and estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ) as well as their downstream effectors, c-Myc and Cyclin D1. Furthermore, progesterone (P4) promoted the expression of miR-320a by repressing c-Myc expression, while estrogen (E2) exerted the opposite effect. These results suggest the potential therapeutic approach for tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer by restorating miR-320a expression or depleting ARPP-19/ERRγ expression.

  1. CuO-induced signal amplification strategy for multiplexed photoelectrochemical immunosensing using CdS sensitized ZnO nanotubes arrays as photoactive material and AuPd alloy nanoparticles as electron sink.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guoqiang; Zhang, Yan; Kong, Qingkun; Zheng, Xiaoxiao; Yu, Jinghua; Song, Xianrang

    2015-04-15

    In this work, multiplexed photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunoassays are introduced into an indium tin oxide (ITO) device. Firstly, the ITO device is fabricated using a simple acid etch treatment method. Secondly, AuPd alloy nanoparticles are electro-deposited on ITO working electrodes as electron sink to construct the immunosensor platform. After that, ZnO nanotubes (ZNTs) arrays are synthesized via chemical etching of ZnO nanorods that are grown on AuPd surface by electrochemical deposition method. Subsequently, CdS is electro-deposited on ZNTs arrays and used as photoactive material. Then, CuO nanoseeds are labeled with signal antibodies and firstly used as PEC signal amplification label. The introduction of CuO brings signal amplification because of the conduction band (CB) of both CuO and ZnO are lower than that of CdS, CuO will compete the photo-induced electrons in CB of CdS with ZnO, leading to the decrease of the photocurrent intensity. Using cancer antigen 125, prostate specific antigen and α-fetoprotein as model analytes, the proposed immunoassay exhibits excellent precision and sensitivity. Meanwhile, this work provides a promising, addressable and simple strategy for the multi-detection of tumor markers.

  2. microRNA-218 promotes gemcitabine sensitivity in human pancreatic cancer cells by regulating HMGB1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Du, Ruixia; Long, Jin; Guo, Kejian; Ge, Chunlin; Bi, Shulong

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of gemcitabine (GEM) on microRNA-218 (miR-218) expression in human pancreatic cancer cells. Methods Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to examine the differences in miR-218 expression between the GEM-sensitive BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells and GEM-resistant PANC-1 cells. The effect of GEM on the expression of miR-218 in PANC-1 cells was also investigated. PANC-1 cells were transfected either with HMGB1 siRNA to knock down the expression of HMGB1 or with the recombinant HMGB1 expression vector (pcDNA3.1-HMGB1) to overexpress HMGB1. The effect of ectopic expression of HMGB1 on the apoptosis of miR-218-transfected and GEM-treated PANC-1 cells was examined by flow cytometric analysis. Results The miR-218 expression level was lower in GEM-resistant PANC-1 cells compared to GEM-sensitive BxPC-3 cells (P<0.05). The percentage of apoptotic PANC-1 cells was significantly increased in the miR-218 mimic + GEM group compared to the mimic ctrl + GEM group and the normal control group (P<0.01). The HMGB1 expression level was markedly decreased in PANC-1 cells transfected with HMGB1 siRNA but was significantly increased in PANC-1 cells transfected with the recombinant HMGB1 expression vector, pcDNA3.1-HMGB1 (P<0.01). The proportion of apoptotic PANC-1 cells was significantly lower in the miR-218 mimic + GEM + pcDNA3.1-HMGB1 group compared to the miR-218 mimic + GEM + HMGB1 siRNA group (P<0.01). Conclusions The expression level of miR-218 was downregulated in the GEM-resistant cell line. miR-218 promoted the sensitivity of PANC-1 cells to GEM, which was achieved mainly through regulating the expression of HMGB1 in PANC-1 cells. PMID:26157323

  3. Identification of the determinants of 2-deoxyglucose sensitivity in cancer cells by shRNA library screening.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hiroki; Nishimura, Haruna; Matsumoto, Ken; Yoshida, Minoru

    2015-11-06

    Combining glycolytic inhibition with other anti-cancer therapies is a potential approach to treating cancer. In this context, we attempted to identify genes that determine sensitivity to 2-deoxyglucose (2DG), a glycolytic inhibitor, in cancer cells using pooled shRNA libraries targeting ∼15,000 genes. The screen revealed that COPB1 and ARCN1, which are essential in retrograde transport, as determinants of sensitivity to 2DG: silencing of COPB1 or ARCN1 expression sensitized cells to 2DG toxicity. To address the mechanism of potentiation of 2DG toxicity by inhibition of COPI-mediated transport, we focused on the role of lipolysis as an alternate source of energy upon inhibition of glycolysis. In the process of lipolysis, COPI-mediated transport is required for localization to lipid droplets of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), a key enzyme that produces fatty acids from triacylglycerol as a substrate for β-oxidation. The ATGL inhibitor atglistatin potentiated 2DG toxicity, consistent with a model in which a defect in COPI-mediated transport of ATGL to lipid droplets inhibits energy supply, thereby sensitizing cells to glycolytic inhibition. Collectively, our data demonstrated that a defect in COPI-mediated transport or pharmacological inhibition of ATGL potentiates 2DG toxicity in cancer cells, possibly due to a reduction in the energy supply.

  4. Intrathecal PKA-selective siRNA treatment blocks sustained morphine-mediated pain sensitization and antinociceptive tolerance in rats.

    PubMed

    Tumati, S; Roeske, W R; Largent-Milnes, T M; Vanderah, T W; Varga, E V

    2011-07-15

    Sustained morphine treatment has been shown to produce paradoxical pain sensitization (opioid-induced hyperalgesia) and also causes increase in spinal pain neurotransmitter, such as calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), concentration in experimental animals. Studies have also shown that cyclic adenosine-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) plays a major role in the regulation of presynaptic neurotransmitter (such as CGRP and substance P) synthesis and release. We have previously shown that in cultured primary sensory dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons sustained in vitro opioid agonist treatment upregulates cAMP levels (adenylyl cyclase (AC) superactivation) and augments basal and capsaicin evoked CGRP release in a PKA dependent manner. In the present study, we investigated the in vivo role of PKA in sustained morphine-mediated pain sensitization. Our data indicate that selective knock-down of spinal PKA activity by intrathecal (i.th.) pretreatment of rats with a PKA-selective small interference RNA (siRNA) mixture significantly attenuates sustained morphine-mediated augmentation of spinal CGRP immunoreactivity, thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia and antinociceptive tolerance. The present findings indicate that sustained morphine-mediated activation of spinal cAMP/PKA-dependent signaling may play an important role in opioid induced hyperalgesia.

  5. RNA interference screening identifies lenalidomide sensitizers in multiple myeloma, including RSK2

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuan Xiao; Yin, Hongwei; Bruins, Laura A.; Shi, Chang-Xin; Jedlowski, Patrick; Aziz, Meraj; Sereduk, Chris; Kortuem, Klaus Martin; Schmidt, Jessica E.; Champion, Mia; Braggio, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    To identify molecular targets that modify sensitivity to lenalidomide, we measured proliferation in multiple myeloma (MM) cells transfected with 27 968 small interfering RNAs in the presence of increasing concentrations of drug and identified 63 genes that enhance activity of lenalidomide upon silencing. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase (RPS6KA3 or RSK2) was the most potent sensitizer. Other notable gene targets included 5 RAB family members, 3 potassium channel proteins, and 2 peroxisome family members. Single genes of interest included I-κ-B kinase-α (CHUK), and a phosphorylation dependent transcription factor (CREB1), which associate with RSK2 to regulate several signaling pathways. RSK2 knockdown induced cytotoxicity across a panel of MM cell lines and consistently increased sensitivity to lenalidomide. Accordingly, 3 small molecular inhibitors of RSK2 demonstrated synergy with lenalidomide cytotoxicity in MM cells even in the presence of stromal contact. Both RSK2 knockdown and small molecule inhibition downregulate interferon regulatory factor 4 and MYC, and provides an explanation for the synergy between lenalidomide and RSK2 inhibition. Interestingly, RSK2 inhibition also sensitized MM cells to bortezomib, melphalan, and dexamethasone, but did not downregulate Ikaros or influence lenalidomide-mediated downregulation of tumor necrosis factor-α or increase lenalidomide-induced IL-2 upregulation. In summary, inhibition of RSK2 may prove a broadly useful adjunct to MM therapy. PMID:25395420

  6. RNA interference screening identifies lenalidomide sensitizers in multiple myeloma, including RSK2.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuan Xiao; Yin, Hongwei; Bruins, Laura A; Shi, Chang-Xin; Jedlowski, Patrick; Aziz, Meraj; Sereduk, Chris; Kortuem, Klaus Martin; Schmidt, Jessica E; Champion, Mia; Braggio, Esteban; Keith Stewart, A

    2015-01-15

    To identify molecular targets that modify sensitivity to lenalidomide, we measured proliferation in multiple myeloma (MM) cells transfected with 27 968 small interfering RNAs in the presence of increasing concentrations of drug and identified 63 genes that enhance activity of lenalidomide upon silencing. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase (RPS6KA3 or RSK2) was the most potent sensitizer. Other notable gene targets included 5 RAB family members, 3 potassium channel proteins, and 2 peroxisome family members. Single genes of interest included I-κ-B kinase-α (CHUK), and a phosphorylation dependent transcription factor (CREB1), which associate with RSK2 to regulate several signaling pathways. RSK2 knockdown induced cytotoxicity across a panel of MM cell lines and consistently increased sensitivity to lenalidomide. Accordingly, 3 small molecular inhibitors of RSK2 demonstrated synergy with lenalidomide cytotoxicity in MM cells even in the presence of stromal contact. Both RSK2 knockdown and small molecule inhibition downregulate interferon regulatory factor 4 and MYC, and provides an explanation for the synergy between lenalidomide and RSK2 inhibition. Interestingly, RSK2 inhibition also sensitized MM cells to bortezomib, melphalan, and dexamethasone, but did not downregulate Ikaros or influence lenalidomide-mediated downregulation of tumor necrosis factor-α or increase lenalidomide-induced IL-2 upregulation. In summary, inhibition of RSK2 may prove a broadly useful adjunct to MM therapy.

  7. Tritium exchange on transfer RNA: slowly exchanging protons sensitive to a change in the dihydrouridine stem.

    PubMed

    Ramstein, J; Buckingham, R H

    1981-03-01

    Measurements of tritium exchange on tRNA were made for periods from 0.5 min to 8 hr after separation from labeled solvent. The exchange curve was analysed in terms of three kinetic classes of exchanging protons with half-lives of 5 hr (12 protons), 0.54 hr (37 protons) and about 3.5 min (58 protons) at 0 degrees C in 0.14 M K+/10 mM Mg2+. The behaviour under varying ionic conditions of protons in the slowest exchange class and of some protons in the intermediate class suggests that they are dependent on the tertiary structure of the molecule. Moreover, in the same range of exchange times characteristic of these latter protons, about 9 more protons were observed in the case of a mutant form of tRNA Trp, the UGA-suppressor species, than in the wild-type tRNATrp. These two species differ only in base 24 in the dihydrouridine stem. This dynamic difference between the wild-type and suppressor species may be related to a functionally important difference in coupling between the conformation of the molecule and interactions at the anticodon.

  8. Double-stranded RNA induces S100 gene expression by a cycloheximide-sensitive factor.

    PubMed

    Voss, Andreas; Gescher, Kirsten; Hensel, Andreas; Nacken, Wolfgang; Zänker, Kurt S; Kerkhoff, Claus

    2012-01-20

    Viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and its synthetic analog polyI:C are recognized via multiple pathways and induce the expression of genes related to inflammation. In the present study, we demonstrated the polyI:C-induced gene expression of the damage associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules S100A8 and S100A9, while other S100 genes were not affected. Cycloheximide and Brefeldin A treatment revealed both the expression of S100A8 and S100A9 as secondary response genes and the involvement of polyI:C-induced cytokines herein. Several type I and type III interferons such as IFNβ, IL-20, IL-24, and IFNλ/IL-29 were expressed in response to polyI:C, however, they failed to induce S100A8 and S100A9 gene expression. These data indicate the involvement of the danger molecule S100A8/A9 in the resistance against viruses. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sensitivity enhancement of graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite-based electrochemical impedance genosensor for single stranded RNA detection.

    PubMed

    Low, Sze Shin; Loh, Hwei-San; Boey, Jian Sheng; Khiew, Poi Sim; Chiu, Wee Siong; Tan, Michelle T T

    2017-08-15

    An efficient electrochemical impedance genosensing platform has been constructed based on graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite produced via a facile and green approach. Highly pristine graphene was synthesised from graphite through liquid phase sonication and then mixed with zinc acetate hexahydrate for the synthesis of graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite by solvothermal growth. The as-synthesised graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite was characterised with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) to evaluate its morphology, crystallinity, composition and purity. An amino-modified single stranded DNA oligonucleotide probe synthesised based on complementary Coconut Cadang-Cadang Viroid (CCCVd) RNA sequence, was covalently bonded onto the surface of graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite by the bio-linker 1-pyrenebutyric acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester. The hybridisation events were monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Under optimised sensing conditions, the single stranded CCCVd RNA oligonucleotide target could be quantified in a wide range of 1.0×10(-11)M to 1.0×10(-6) with good linearity (R =0.9927), high sensitivity with low detection limit of 4.3×10(-12)M. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was also performed for the estimation of nucleic acid density on the graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite-modified sensing platform. The current work demonstrates an important advancement towards the development of a sensitive detection assay for various diseases involving RNA agents such as CCCVd in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sensitivity of HIV rapid tests compared with fourth-generation enzyme immunoassays or HIV RNA tests.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei Sheng; Chow, Eric P F; Fairley, Christopher K; Chen, Marcus Y; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Read, Tim R H

    2016-07-31

    Determine the sensitivity of HIV rapid tests compared with fourth-generation enzyme immunoassays (EIA) or nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) in clinical settings. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Medline, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane reviews and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched until 14 July 2015 for studies of adults comparing point-of-care HIV rapid tests to fourth-generation HIV EIA antibody/p24 antigen or HIV NAAT. From 953 titles, 18 studies were included, involving 110 122 HIV rapid test results. Compared with EIA, the estimated sensitivity (random effects) of HIV rapid tests was 94.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 87.4-97.7]. Compared with NAAT, the sensitivity of HIV rapid tests was 93.7% (95% CI: 88.7-96.5). The sensitivity of HIV rapid tests in high-income countries was 85.7% (95% CI: 81.9-88.9) and in low-income countries was 97.7% (95% CI: 95.2-98.9) compared with either EIA or NAAT (P < 0.01 for difference between settings). Proportions of antibody negative acute infections were 13.6 (95% CI: 10.1-18.0) and 4.7% (95% CI: 2.8-7.7) in studies from high-income and low-income countries, respectively (P < 0.01). In clinical settings, HIV rapid tests were less sensitive in high-income countries compared with low-income countries, missing about one in seven infections, possibly because of the larger proportion of acute infections in targeted populations. This suggests that in high-income countries, HIV rapid tests should be used in combination with fourth-generation EIA or NAAT tests, except in special circumstances. Prospective Registration of Systematic Reviews registration number CRD42015020154.Supplementary video link: http://links.lww.com/QAD/A924.

  11. RTL-P: a sensitive approach for detecting sites of 2′-O-methylation in RNA molecules

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhi-Wei; Shao, Peng; Diao, Li-Ting; Zhou, Hui; Yu, Chun-Hong; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2012-01-01

    2′-O-methylation is present within various cellular RNAs and is essential to RNA biogenesis and functionality. Several methods have been developed for the identification and localization of 2′-O-methylated sites in RNAs; however, the detection of RNA modifications, especially in low-abundance RNAs and small non-coding RNAs with a 2′-O-methylation at the 3′-end, remains a difficult task. Here, we introduce a new method to detect 2′-O-methylated sites in diverse RNA species, referred to as RTL-P [Reverse Transcription at Low deoxy-ribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) concentrations followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)] that demonstrates precise mapping and superior sensitivity compared with previous techniques. The main procedures of RTL-P include a site-specific primer extension by reverse transcriptase at a low dNTP concentration and a semi-quantitative PCR amplification step. No radiolabeled or fluorescent primers are required. By designing specific RT primers, we used RTL-P to detect both previously identified and novel 2′-O-methylated sites in human and yeast ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), as well as mouse piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). These results demonstrate the powerful application of RTL-P for the systematic analysis of fully or partially methylated residues in diverse RNA species, including low-abundance RNAs or small non-coding RNAs such as piRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs). PMID:22833606

  12. RNA Chromogenic in situ Hybridization Assay with Clinical Automated Platform is a Sensitive Method in Detecting High-risk Human Papillomavirus in Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mendez-Pena, Javier E; Sadow, Peter M; Nose, Vania; Hoang, Mai P

    2017-03-13

    Detection of active human papillomavirus (HPV) is clinically important, as its presence has been shown to correlate with favorable clinical outcomes and better response to treatment in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Using a clinical automated platform, we compared the performance of commercially available HPV DNA and RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) probes in archival tissues of 57 SCC. Importantly, a clinical automated platform gives 1) consistent and reproducible results for HPV ISH and 2) better standardization across clinical laboratories. Compared to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results, RNA ISH exhibited 93% concordance versus 81% of DNA ISH. RNA ISH was more sensitive than DNA ISH (100% versus 88%), and more specific (87% versus 74%). When only accounting for 2-3+ positivity, sensitivity was 92% for RNA ISH versus 73% for DNA ISH, highlighting the ease of interpretation. p16 exhibited 96% sensitivity while specificity was only 55%. In 3 cases both RNA and DNA ISH were positive while PCR results were negative, suggesting that ISH methods might be a more sensitive method. Performing on a clinical automated platform, RNA ISH is sensitive in determining high-risk HPV status in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and has the potential of being a standalone clinical test.

  13. Control of Proton Sensitivity of the NMDA Receptor by RNA Splicing and Polyamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traynelis, Stephen F.; Hartley, Melissa; Heinemann, Stephen F.

    1995-05-01

    The function of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-preferring glutamate receptor can be regulated by extracellular pH, a process that may be important during ischemia in the brain or during seizures. Protons inhibit NMDA receptor function by 50 percent at pH 7.3 through interactions with the NR1 subunit, and both polyamines and NR1 exon 5 potentiate receptor function through relief of the tonic proton inhibition present at physiological pH. A single amino acid (lysine 211) was identified that mediates the effects of exon 5 in the rat brain. Electroneutral substitutions at this position restored pH sensitivity and, consequently, polyamine relief of tonic inhibition. This effect, together with the structural similarities between polyamines and the surface loop encoded by exon 5, suggest that exon 5 may act as a tethered pH-sensitive constitutive modulator of NMDA receptor function.

  14. New Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase-Initiated PCR Assay with Single-Copy Sensitivity for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA in Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Sarah; Wiegand, Ann P.; Maldarelli, Frank; Bazmi, Holly; Mican, JoAnn M.; Polis, Michael; Dewar, Robin L.; Planta, Angeline; Liu, Shuying; Metcalf, Julia A.; Mellors, John W.; Coffin, John M.

    2003-01-01

    More sensitive assays for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA are needed to detect, quantify, and characterize persistent viremia in patients who are receiving antiretroviral therapy and whose plasma HIV-1 RNA levels are suppressed to less than 50 to 75 copies/ml. We therefore developed an internally controlled real-time reverse transcriptase-initiated PCR assay that quantifies HIV-1 RNA concentrations down to 1 copy per ml of plasma. This assay with single-copy sensitivity (the single-copy assay) generates a reproducible linear regression plot of input copy number versus threshold cycle by using HIV-1 RNA transcripts at copy numbers ranging from 1 to 106 per reaction mixture. The single-copy assay was compared to the ultrasensitive AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR assay and a more sensitive modification of the ultrasensitive assay by repeatedly testing a low-copy-number panel containing 200 to 0.781 copies of HIV-1 RNA per ml of plasma. This comparison showed that the single-copy assay had a greater sensitivity than the other assays and was the only assay that detected HIV-1 RNA at levels as low as 0.781 copies/ml. Testing of plasma samples from 15 patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy and who had <75 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml revealed persistent viremia in all 15 patients, with HIV-1 RNA levels ranging from 1 to 32 copies/ml (median, 13 copies/ml). The greater sensitivity of the single-copy assay should allow better characterization of persistent viremia in patients who are receiving antiretroviral therapy and whose HIV-1 RNA levels are suppressed to below the detection limits of present assays. PMID:14532178

  15. Cellular sensitivity to UV-irradiation is mediated by RNA polymerase I transcription

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Maximilian; Koch, Sylvia; Gonzalez, Omar Garcia; Schelling, Adrian; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin

    2017-01-01

    The nucleolus has long been considered to be a pure ribosome factory. However, over the last two decades it became clear that the nucleolus is involved in numerous other functions besides ribosome biogenesis. Our experiments indicate that the activity of RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcription monitors the integrity of the DNA and influences the response to nucleolar stress as well as the rate of survival. Cells with a repressed ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription activity showed an increased and prolonged p53 stabilisation after UVC-irradiation. Furthermore, p53 stabilisation after inhibition and especially after UVC-irradiation might be due to abrogation of the HDM2-p53 degradation pathway by ribosomal proteins (RPs). Apoptosis mediated by highly activated p53 is a typical hallmark of Cockayne syndrome cells and transcriptional abnormalities and the following activation of the RP-HDM2-p53 pathway would be a possible explanation. PMID:28636660

  16. New Sensitive One-Step Real-Time Duplex PCR Method for Group A and B HIV-2 RNA Load

    PubMed Central

    Avettand-Fenoel, Véronique; Damond, Florence; Gueudin, Marie; Matheron, Sophie; Mélard, Adeline; Collin, Gilles; Descamps, Diane; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Rouzioux, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida et les hépatites virales (ANRS) previously developed a widely used method for HIV-1 RNA quantification (Biocentric). Here, we report the development of a new specific and sensitive method for HIV-2 RNA quantification, based on an adaptation of the existing HIV-1 protocol. The new test is based on TaqMan one-step reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) targeting two conserved consensus regions of HIV-2 (long terminal repeat [LTR] and gag). Analytic performances were determined in three laboratories. Clinical performances were evaluated on 100 plasma samples from HIV-2-infected patients (groups A, B, and H) by comparison with the assay currently used for the ANRS HIV-2 cohort. The specificity was 100%. Sensitivity was 50 copies/ml (cp/ml) and was optimized to 10 cp/ml. The within-run coefficients of variation in the three laboratories varied from 0.54% to 1.61% at 4 log10 copies/ml and from 7.24% to 14.32% at 2 log10 cp/ml. The between-run coefficients of variation varied from 2.28% to 6.43%. Of the 39 clinical samples below 2 log10 in the current assay, the new test improved the detection or quantification of 17 samples, including eight group B samples. For quantifiable samples, similar loads were obtained with the two assays for group A samples. The median difference between the two assays for group B samples was +0.18 but with greater heterogeneity than for group A. The HIV-2 group H sample had similar results with the two assays. This new assay is highly sensitive and accurately quantifies the most prevalent HIV-2 groups. This test will be useful for monitoring low viral loads in HIV-2-infected patients. PMID:24920771

  17. Toward Precision Medicine: A Cancer Molecular Subtyping Nano-Strategy for RNA Biomarkers in Tumor and Urine.

    PubMed

    Koo, Kevin M; Wee, Eugene J H; Mainwaring, Paul N; Wang, Yuling; Trau, Matt

    2016-12-01

    Cancer is a heterogeneous disease which manifests as different molecular subtypes due to the complex nature of tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis. The concept of precision medicine aims to exploit this cancer heterogeneity by incorporating diagnostic technology to characterize each cancer patient's molecular subtype for tailored treatments. To characterize cancer molecular subtypes accurately, a suite of multiplexed bioassays have currently been developed to detect multiple oncogenic biomarkers. Despite the reliability of current multiplexed detection techniques, novel strategies are still needed to resolve limitations such as long assay time, complex protocols, and difficulty in interpreting broad overlapping spectral peaks of conventional fluorescence readouts. Herein a rapid (80 min) multiplexed platform strategy for subtyping prostate cancer tumor and urine samples based on their RNA biomarker profiles is presented. This is achieved by combining rapid multiplexed isothermal reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) of target RNA biomarkers with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) nanotags for "one-pot" readout. This is the first translational application of a RT-RPA/SERS-based platform for multiplexed cancer biomarker detection to address a clinical need. With excellent sensitivity of 200 zmol (100 copies) and specificity, we believed that this platform methodology could be a useful tool for rapid multiplexed subtyping of cancers. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. An MRPS12 mutation modifies aminoglycoside sensitivity caused by 12S rRNA mutations

    PubMed Central

    Emperador, Sonia; Pacheu-Grau, David; Bayona-Bafaluy, M. Pilar; Garrido-Pérez, Nuria; Martín-Navarro, Antonio; López-Pérez, Manuel J.; Montoya, Julio; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Several homoplasmic pathologic mutations in mitochondrial DNA, such as those causing Leber hereditary optic neuropathy or non-syndromic hearing loss, show incomplete penetrance. Therefore, other elements must modify their pathogenicity. Discovery of these modifying factors is not an easy task because in multifactorial diseases conventional genetic approaches may not always be informative. Here, we have taken an evolutionary approach to unmask putative modifying factors for a particular homoplasmic pathologic mutation causing aminoglycoside-induced and non-syndromic hearing loss, the m.1494C>T transition in the mitochondrial DNA. The mutation is located in the decoding site of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA. We first looked at mammalian species that had fixed the human pathologic mutation. These mutations are called compensated pathogenic deviations because an organism carrying one must also have another that suppresses the deleterious effect of the first. We found that species from the primate family Cercopithecidae (old world monkeys) harbor the m.1494T allele even if their auditory function is normal. In humans the m.1494T allele increases the susceptibility to aminoglycosides. However, in primary fibroblasts from a Cercopithecidae species, aminoglycosides do not impair cell growth, respiratory complex IV activity and quantity or the mitochondrial protein synthesis. Interestingly, this species also carries a fixed mutation in the mitochondrial ribosomal protein S12. We show that the expression of this variant in a human m.1494T cell line reduces its susceptibility to aminoglycosides. Because several mutations in this human protein have been described, they may possibly explain the absence of pathologic phenotype in some pedigree members with the most frequent pathologic mutations in mitochondrial ribosomal RNA. PMID:25642242

  19. MicroRNA-451 sensitizes lung cancer cells to cisplatin through regulation of Mcl-1.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dezhi; Xu, Yi; Sun, Changzheng; He, Zhifeng

    2016-12-01

    As one of the most widely used chemotherapy drugs for lung cancer, chemoresistance of cisplatin (DPP) is one of the major hindrances in treatment of this malignancy. The microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified to mediate chemotherapy drug resistance. MiR-451 as a tumor suppressor has been evaluated its potential effect on the sensitivity of cancer cells to DDP. However, the role of miR-451 in regulatory mechanism of chemosensitivity in lung cancer cells is still largely unknown. In this study, we first constructed a cisplatin-resistant A549 cell line (A549/DPP) accompanied with a decreased expression of miR-451 and an increased expression of Mcl-1in the drug resistant cells compared with the parental cells. Exogenous expression of miR-451 level in A549/DPP was found to sensitize their reaction to the treatment of cisplatin, which coincides with reduced expression of Mcl-1. Interestingly, Mcl-1 knockdown in A549/DPP cells increased the chemosensitivity to DPP, suggesting the dependence of Mcl-1 regulation in miR-451 activity. Moreover, miR-451 can restore cisplatin treatment response in cisplatin-resistant xenografts in vivo, while Mcl-1 protein levels were decreased. Thus, these findings provided that in lung cancer cells, tumor suppressor miR-451 enhanced DPP sensitivity via regulation of Mcl-1 expression, which could be served as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of chemotherapy resistant in lung cancer.

  20. MicroRNA-224 promotes the sensitivity of osteosarcoma cells to cisplatin by targeting Rac1.

    PubMed

    Geng, Shuo; Gu, Lina; Ju, Fang; Zhang, Hepeng; Wang, Yiwen; Tang, Han; Bi, ZhengGang; Yang, Chenglin

    2016-09-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumour in children and adolescents. Accumulating evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in the development of almost all types of cancer. Here, we investigated the role of miR-224 in the development and progression of osteosarcoma. We demonstrated that miR-224 was down-regulated in osteosarcoma cell lines and tissues. Lower miR-224 levels were correlated with shorter survivalin osteosarcoma patients. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-224 suppressed osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion and contributed to the increased sensitivity of MG-63 cells to cisplatin. We identified Rac1 as a direct target gene of miR-224 in osteosarcoma. Rac1 expression was up-regulated in the osteosarcoma cell lines and tissues, and there was an inverse correlation between Rac1 and miR-224 expression in osteosarcoma tissues. Furthermore, rescuing Rac1 expression decreased the sensitivity of miR-224-overexpressing MG-63 cells to cisplatin. We also demonstrated that ectopic expression of Rac1 promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion of miR-224-overexpressing MG-63 cells. These data suggest that miR-224 plays a tumour suppressor role in the development of osteosarcoma and is related to the sensitivity of osteosarcoma to cisplatin. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  1. MicroRNA-595 sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin by targeting ABCB1

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Songyu; Zhang, Mingyue; Chen, Xiuwei; Liu, Yunduo; Lou, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is among the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in females. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-595 expression was downregulated in the ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines. miR-595 expression was lower in the lymph node metastases tissues than in the primary ovarian cancer tissues and normal tissues. Furthermore, miR-595 overexpression suppressed the ovarian cancer cell proliferation, colony formation and invasion and promoted the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cell to cisplatin. We identified ABCB1 as a direct target gene of miR-595 in the ovarian cancer cell. ABCB1 expression was upregulated in the ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines. Morevoer, the expression level of ABCB1 was inversely correlated with miR-595 in the ovarian cancer tissues. In addition, overexpression of ABCB1 decreased the miR-595-overexpressing HO8910PM and SKOV-3 cell sensitivity to cisplatin. Ectopic expression of ABCB1 promoted the miR-595-overexpressing HO8910PM and SKOV-3 cell proliferation, colony formation and invasion. These data suggested that miR-595 acted a tumor suppressor role in ovarian cancer development and increased the sensitivity of ovarian cancer to cisplatin. PMID:27893429

  2. Sensitivity of hepatitis C virus RNA to the antiviral enzyme ribonuclease L is determined by a subset of efficient cleavage sites.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian-Qiu; Wroblewski, Gerggory; Xu, Zan; Silverman, Robert H; Barton, David J

    2004-11-01

    Ribonuclease L (RNase L) cleaves RNA predominantly at single-stranded UA and UU dinucleotides. Intriguingly, hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNAs have a paucity of UA and UU dinucleotides, and relatively interferon (IFN)-resistant strains have fewer UA and UU dinucleotides than do more IFN-sensitive strains. In this study, we found that contextual features of UA and UU dinucleotides dramatically affected the efficiency of RNase L cleavage in HCV RNA. HCV genotype la RNA was cleaved by RNase L into fragments 200-1000 bases in length, consistent with 10-50 RNase L cleavage sites within the 9650-base long viral RNA. Using primer extension, we found that HCV RNA structures with multiple single-stranded UA and UU dinucleotides were cleaved most efficiently by RNase L. UA and UU dinucleotides with 3' proximal C or G residues were cleaved infrequently, whereas UA and UU dinucleotides within dsRNA structures were not cleaved. 5'-GUAC-3' and 5'-CUUC-3' were particularly unfavorable contexts for cleavage by RNase L. More than 60% of the UA and UU dinucleotides in HCV la RNA were not cleaved by RNase L because of these contextual features. The 10-30 most efficiently cleaved sites were responsible for approximately 50%-85% of all RNase L cleavage events. Our data indicate that a relatively small number of the UA and UU dinucleotides in HCV RNA mediate the overall sensitivity of HCV RNA to cleavage by RNase L.

  3. Sensitive multiplex spectroscopy in the molecular fingerprint 2.4 μm region with a Cr2+:ZnSe femtosecond laser

    PubMed Central

    Sorokin, E.; Sorokina, I. T.; Mandon, J.; Guelachvili, G.; Picqué, N.

    2010-01-01

    An ultrashort-pulse Cr2+:ZnSe laser is a novel broadband source for sensitive high resolution molecular spectroscopy. A 130-fs pulse allows covering of up to 380 cm−1 spectral domain around 2.4 μm which is analyzed simultaneously with a 0.12 cm−1 (3.6 GHz) resolution by a Fourier-transform spectrometer. Recorded in 13 s, from 70-cm length absorption around 4150 cm−1, acetylene and ammonia spectra exhibit a 3800 signal-to-noise ratio and a 2.4·10−7 cm−1·Hz−1/2 noise equivalent absorption coefficient at one second averaging per spectral element, suggesting a 0.2 ppbv detection level for HF molecule. With the widely practiced classical tungsten lamp source instead of the laser, identical spectra would have taken more than one hour. PMID:19550944

  4. Microwave multiplex readout for superconducting sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, E.; Becker, D.; Bennett, D.; Faverzani, M.; Fowler, J.; Gard, J.; Giachero, A.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Hilton, G.; Maino, M.; Mates, J.; Puiu, A.; Nucciotti, A.; Reintsema, C.; Schmidt, D.; Swetz, D.; Ullom, J.; Vale, L.

    2016-07-01

    The absolute neutrino mass scale is still an outstanding challenge in both particle physics and cosmology. The calorimetric measurement of the energy released in a nuclear beta decay is a powerful tool to determine the effective electron-neutrino mass. In the last years, the progress on low temperature detector technologies has allowed to design large scale experiments aiming at pushing down the sensitivity on the neutrino mass below 1 eV. Even with outstanding performances in both energy ( eV on keV) and time resolution ( 1 μs) on the single channel, a large number of detectors working in parallel is required to reach a sub-eV sensitivity. Microwave frequency domain readout is the best available technique to readout large array of low temperature detectors, such as Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) or Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). In this way a multiplex factor of the order of thousands can be reached, limited only by the bandwidth of the available commercial fast digitizers. This microwave multiplexing system will be used to readout the HOLMES detectors, an array of 1000 microcalorimeters based on TES sensors in which the 163Ho will be implanted. HOLMES is a new experiment for measuring the electron neutrino mass by means of the electron capture (EC) decay of 163Ho. We present here the microwave frequency multiplex which will be used in the HOLMES experiment and the microwave frequency multiplex used to readout the MKID detectors developed in Milan as well.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: steatocystoma multiplex

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetic Changes Steatocystoma multiplex can be caused by mutations in the KRT17 gene. This gene provides instructions ... skin, nails, and other tissues. The KRT17 gene mutations that cause steatocystoma multiplex alter the structure of ...

  6. Competitive RNA-RNA hybridization-based integrated nanostructured-disposable electrode for highly sensitive determination of miRNAs in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zouari, M; Campuzano, S; Pingarrón, J M; Raouafi, N

    2017-05-15

    A new method for the detection of miRNAs making use of a competitive RNA/RNA hybridization configuration is described in this work. A biotinylated miRNA (biotin-miRNA) of identical sequence to that of the target miRNA is mixed with the samples to be analyzed allowing competition to be accomplished with the target miRNA for a thiolated RNA probe assembled onto a gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified screen-printed electrode. After labeling the hybridized biotin-miRNA with streptavidin-HRP conjugates, amperometric detection at -0.20V was carried out using the H2O2/hydroquinone (HQ) system. The decrease in the amperometric response was proportional to the concentration of model target miRNA-21 in the 100 fM to 25.0 pM range. The integrated sensor provided a very low detection limit (25 fM, 0.25 attomol in 10μL sample) for miRNA-21 without any amplification step, a complete discrimination against single nucleotide mismatched sequences under practical conditions and high storage stability. The usefulness of the developed method was demonstrated by determining the endogenous levels of the mature target miRNA in total RNA (RNAt) extracted from cancerous and non-cancerous cells.

  7. Spectral analysis of multiplex Raman probe signatures.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Barry R; Dentinger, Claire E; Nguyen, Lienchi N; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Jingwu; Allen, April N; Chan, Selena; Knudsen, Beatrice S

    2008-11-25

    Raman nanoparticle probes are an emerging new class of optical labels for interrogation of physiological and pathological processes in bioassays, cells, and tissues. Although their unique emission signatures are ideal for multiplexing, the full potential of these probes has not been realized because conventional analysis methods are inadequate. We report a novel spectral fitting method that exploits the entire spectral signature to quantitatively extract individual probe signals from multiplex spectra. We evaluate the method in a series of multiplex assays using unconjugated and antibody-conjugated composite organic-inorganic nanoparticles (COINs). Results show sensitive multiplex detection of small signals (<2% of total signal) and similar detection limits in corresponding 4-plex and singlet plate binding assays. In a triplex assay on formalin-fixed human prostate tissue, two antibody-conjugated COINs and a conventional fluorophore are used to image expression of prostate-specific antigen, cytokeratin-18, and DNA. The spectral analysis method effectively removes tissue autofluorescence and other unknown background, allowing accurate and reproducible imaging (area under ROC curve 0.89 +/- 0.03) at subcellular spatial resolution. In all assay systems, the error attributable to spectral analysis constitutes multiplex spectra with overlapping peaks, (2) robust spot-by-spot removal of unknown background, (3) the opportunity to quantitatively assess the analysis error, (4) elimination of operator bias, and (5) simple automation appropriate for high-throughput analysis. The simple implementation and universal applicability of this approach significantly expands the potential of Raman probes for quantitative in vivo and ex vivo multiplex analysis.

  8. Adaptive Telemetry Multiplexer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinderson, R. L.; Salazar, G. A.; Haddick, C. M., Jr.; Spahn, C. J.; Venkatesh, C. N.

    1989-01-01

    Telemetry-data-acquisition unit adjusted remotely to produce changes in sampling rate, sampling channels, measurement scale, and output-bias level. Functional configuration adapted to changing conditions or new requirements by distant operator over telemetry link. Reconfiguration done in real time, without removing equipment from service. Bus-interface unit accepts reprogramming commands and translates them for low-rate adaptive multiplexer. Reprogrammable equipment reduces need for spare parts, since not necessary to stock variety of hardware with fixed characteristics. Adaptive multiplexer performs well in tests, amplitude errors less than 0.5 percent, distortion less than 0.25 percent, and crosstalk and common-mode rejection indiscernible.

  9. Identification of Clostridium beijerinckii, Cl. butyricum, Cl. sporogenes, Cl. tyrobutyricum isolated from silage, raw milk and hard cheese by a multiplex PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Cremonesi, Paola; Vanoni, Laura; Silvetti, Tiziana; Morandi, Stefano; Brasca, Milena

    2012-08-01

    Late blowing, caused by the outgrowth of clostridial spores present in raw milk and originating from silage, can create considerable product loss, especially in the production of hard and semi-hard cheeses. The conventional method for the isolation of Clostridium spp. from cheeses with late-blowing symptoms is very complicated and the identification of isolates is problematic. The aim of this work was the development of a multiplex PCR method for the detection of the main dairy-related clostridia such as: Cl. beijerinckii, Cl. butyricum, Cl. sporogenes, Cl. tyrobutyricum. Samples derived from silage, raw milk and hard cheese were analysed by the most probable number (MPN) enumeration. Forty-four bacterial strains isolated from gas positive tubes were used to check the reliability of the multiplex PCR assay. The specificity of the primers was tested by individually analysing each primer pair and the primer pair combined in the multiplex PCR. It was interesting to note that the samples not identified by the multiplex PCR assay were amplified by V2-V3 16S rRNA primer pair and the sequencing revealed the aligned 16S rRNA sequences to be Paenibacillus and Bacillus spp. This new molecular assay provides a simple promising alternative to traditional microbiological methods for a rapid, sensitive detection of clostridia in dairy products.

  10. MicroRNA-26a regulates insulin sensitivity and metabolism of glucose and lipids

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xianghui; Dong, Bingning; Tian, Yan; Lefebvre, Philippe; Meng, Zhipeng; Wang, Xichun; Pattou, François; Han, Weidong; Wang, Xiaoqiong; Lou, Fang; Jove, Richard; Staels, Bart; Moore, David D.; Huang, Wendong

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by insulin resistance and increased hepatic glucose production, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying these abnormalities are poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRs) are a class of small, noncoding RNAs that have been implicated in the regulation of human diseases, including T2D. miR-26a is known to play a critical role in tumorigenesis; however, its function in cellular metabolism remains unknown. Here, we determined that miR-26a regulates insulin signaling and metabolism of glucose and lipids. Compared with lean individuals, overweight humans had decreased expression of miR-26a in the liver. Moreover, miR-26 was downregulated in 2 obese mouse models compared with control animals. Global or liver-specific overexpression of miR-26a in mice fed a high-fat diet improved insulin sensitivity, decreased hepatic glucose production, and decreased fatty acid synthesis, thereby preventing obesity-induced metabolic complications. Conversely, silencing of endogenous miR-26a in conventional diet–fed mice impaired insulin sensitivity, enhanced glucose production, and increased fatty acid synthesis. miR-26a targeted several key regulators of hepatic metabolism and insulin signaling. These findings reveal miR-26a as a regulator of liver metabolism and suggest miR-26a should be further explored as a potential target for the treatment of T2D. PMID:25961460

  11. MicroRNA-26a regulates insulin sensitivity and metabolism of glucose and lipids.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xianghui; Dong, Bingning; Tian, Yan; Lefebvre, Philippe; Meng, Zhipeng; Wang, Xichun; Pattou, François; Han, Weidong; Wang, Xiaoqiong; Lou, Fang; Jove, Richard; Staels, Bart; Moore, David D; Huang, Wendong

    2015-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by insulin resistance and increased hepatic glucose production, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying these abnormalities are poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRs) are a class of small, noncoding RNAs that have been implicated in the regulation of human diseases, including T2D. miR-26a is known to play a critical role in tumorigenesis; however, its function in cellular metabolism remains unknown. Here, we determined that miR-26a regulates insulin signaling and metabolism of glucose and lipids. Compared with lean individuals, overweight humans had decreased expression of miR-26a in the liver. Moreover, miR-26 was downregulated in 2 obese mouse models compared with control animals. Global or liver-specific overexpression of miR-26a in mice fed a high-fat diet improved insulin sensitivity, decreased hepatic glucose production, and decreased fatty acid synthesis, thereby preventing obesity-induced metabolic complications. Conversely, silencing of endogenous miR-26a in conventional diet-fed mice impaired insulin sensitivity, enhanced glucose production, and increased fatty acid synthesis. miR-26a targeted several key regulators of hepatic metabolism and insulin signaling. These findings reveal miR-26a as a regulator of liver metabolism and suggest miR-26a should be further explored as a potential target for the treatment of T2D.

  12. MicroRNA-16 sensitizes breast cancer cells to paclitaxel through suppression of IKBKB expression.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xueyuan; Jin, Long; Cao, Peiguo; Cao, Ke; Huang, Chenghui; Luo, Yanwei; Ma, Jian; Shen, Shourong; Tan, Ming; Li, Xiayu; Zhou, Ming

    2016-04-26

    Paclitaxel (Taxol) is an effective chemotherapeutic agent for treating breast cancer patients. However, chemoresistance is a major obstacle in cancer treatment. Here, we showed that overexpression of miR-16 promoted Taxol-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, IκB kinase β (IKBKB) was identified as a direct target of miR-16. Up-regulation of IKBKB suppressed Taxol-induced apoptosis and led to an increased resistance to Taxol, and restoring IKBKB expression in miR-16-overexpressing breast cancer cells recovered Taxol resistance. Moreover, miR-16 was highly expressed in Taxol-sensitive breast cancer tissues compared with Taxol-resistant tissues, and there was an inverse correlation between miR-16 expression and IKBKB expression in breast cancer tissues. The expression levels of miR-16 were negatively associated with T stages, whereas the expression of IKBKB was positively correlated with T stages, lymph node metastasis and clinical stages. Taken together, our data demonstrates that miR-16 sensitizes breast cancer cells to Taxol through the suppression of IKBKB expression, and targeting miR-16/IKBKB axis will be a promising strategy for overcoming Taxol resistance in breast cancer.

  13. MicroRNA-16 sensitizes breast cancer cells to paclitaxel through suppression of IKBKB expression

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xueyuan; Jin, Long; Cao, Peiguo; Cao, Ke; Huang, Chenghui; Luo, Yanwei; Ma, Jian; Shen, Shourong; Tan, Ming; Li, Xiayu; Zhou, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel (Taxol) is an effective chemotherapeutic agent for treating breast cancer patients. However, chemoresistance is a major obstacle in cancer treatment. Here, we showed that overexpression of miR-16 promoted Taxol-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, IκB kinase β (IKBKB) was identified as a direct target of miR-16. Up-regulation of IKBKB suppressed Taxol-induced apoptosis and led to an increased resistance to Taxol, and restoring IKBKB expression in miR-16-overexpressing breast cancer cells recovered Taxol resistance. Moreover, miR-16 was highly expressed in Taxol-sensitive breast cancer tissues compared with Taxol-resistant tissues, and there was an inverse correlation between miR-16 expression and IKBKB expression in breast cancer tissues. The expression levels of miR-16 were negatively associated with T stages, whereas the expression of IKBKB was positively correlated with T stages, lymph node metastasis and clinical stages. Taken together, our data demonstrates that miR-16 sensitizes breast cancer cells to Taxol through the suppression of IKBKB expression, and targeting miR-16/IKBKB axis will be a promising strategy for overcoming Taxol resistance in breast cancer. PMID:26993770

  14. MiRNA-30a-mediated autophagy inhibition sensitizes renal cell carcinoma cells to sorafenib.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bing; Zhu, Hua; Gu, Donghua; Pan, Xiaodong; Qian, Lin; Xue, Boxin; Yang, Dongrong; Zhou, Jundong; Shan, Yuxi

    2015-04-03

    Chemotherapy-induced autophagy activation often contributes to cancer resistance. MiRNA-30a (miR-30a) is a potent inhibitor of autophagy by downregulating Beclin-1. In this study, we characterized the role of miR-30a in sorafenib-induced activity in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells. We found that expression of miR-30a was significantly downregulated in several human RCC tissues and in RCC cell lines. Accordingly, its targeted gene Beclin-1 was upregulated. Sorafenib activated autophagy in RCC cells (786-0 and A489 lines), evidenced by p62 degradation, Beclin-1/autophagy protein 5 (ATG-5) upregulation and light chain (LC)3B-I/-II conversion. Exogenously expressing miR-30a in 786-0 or A489 cells inhibited Beclin-1 expression and enhanced sorafenib-induced cytotoxicity. In contrast, knockdown of miR-30a by introducing antagomiR-30a increased Beclin-1 expression, and inhibited sorafenib-induced cytotoxicity against RCC cells. Autophagy inhibitors, including chloroquine, 3-methyaldenine or Bafliomycin A1, enhanced sorafenib activity, causing substantial cell apoptosis. Meanwhile, knockdown of Beclin-1 or ATG-5 by targeted siRNAs also increased sorafenib-induced cytotoxicity in above RCC cells. These findings indicate that dysregulation of miR-30a in RCC may interfere with the effectiveness of sorafenib-mediated apoptosis by an autophagy-dependent pathway, thus representing a novel potential therapeutic target for RCC.

  15. The intranuclear mobility of messenger RNA binding proteins is ATP dependent and temperature sensitive

    PubMed Central

    Calapez, Alexandre; Pereira, Henrique M.; Calado, Angelo; Braga, José; Rino, José; Carvalho, Célia; Tavanez, João Paulo; Wahle, Elmar; Rosa, Agostinho C.; Carmo-Fonseca, Maria

    2002-01-01

    fAter being released from transcription sites, messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) must reach the nuclear pore complexes in order to be translocated to the cytoplasm. Whether the intranuclear movement of mRNPs results largely from Brownian motion or involves molecular motors remains unknown. Here we have used quantitative photobleaching techniques to monitor the intranuclear mobility of protein components of mRNPs tagged with GFP. The results show that the diffusion coefficients of the poly(A)-binding protein II (PABP2) and the export factor TAP are significantly reduced when these proteins are bound to mRNP complexes, as compared with nonbound proteins. The data further show that the mobility of wild-type PABP2 and TAP, but not of a point mutant variant of PABP2 that fails to bind to RNA, is significantly reduced when cells are ATP depleted or incubated at 22°C. Energy depletion has only minor effects on the intranuclear mobility of a 2,000-kD dextran (which corresponds approximately in size to 40S mRNP particles), suggesting that the reduced mobility of PABP2 and TAP is not caused by a general alteration of the nuclear environment. Taken together, the data suggest that the mobility of mRNPs in the living cell nucleus involves a combination of passive diffusion and ATP-dependent processes. PMID:12473688

  16. Specific temperature-induced perturbations of secondary mRNA structures are associated with the cold-adapted temperature-sensitive phenotype of influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Chursov, Andrey; Kopetzky, Sebastian J; Leshchiner, Ignaty; Kondofersky, Ivan; Theis, Fabian J; Frishman, Dmitrij; Shneider, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    For decades, cold-adapted, temperature-sensitive (ca/ts) strains of influenza A virus have been used as live attenuated vaccines. Due to their great public health importance it is crucial to understand the molecular mechanism(s) of cold adaptation and temperature sensitivity that are currently unknown. For instance, secondary RNA structures play important roles in influenza biology. Thus, we hypothesized that a relatively minor change in temperature (32-39°C) can lead to perturbations in influenza RNA structures and, that these structural perturbations may be different for mRNAs of the wild type (wt) and ca/ts strains. To test this hypothesis, we developed a novel in silico method that enables assessing whether two related RNA molecules would undergo (dis)similar structural perturbations upon temperature change. The proposed method allows identifying those areas within an RNA chain where dissimilarities of RNA secondary structures at two different temperatures are particularly pronounced, without knowing particular RNA shapes at either temperature. We identified such areas in the NS2, PA, PB2 and NP mRNAs. However, these areas are not identical for the wt and ca/ts mutants. Differences in temperature-induced structural changes of wt and ca/ts mRNA structures may constitute a yet unappreciated molecular mechanism of the cold adaptation/temperature sensitivity phenomena.

  17. FGFR1 mRNA and protein expression, not gene copy number, predict FGFR TKI sensitivity across all lung cancer histologies.

    PubMed

    Wynes, Murry W; Hinz, Trista K; Gao, Dexiang; Martini, Michael; Marek, Lindsay A; Ware, Kathryn E; Edwards, Michael G; Böhm, Diana; Perner, Sven; Helfrich, Barbara A; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Jassem, Jacek; Wojtylak, Szymon; Sejda, Aleksandra; Gozgit, Joseph M; Bunn, Paul A; Camidge, D Ross; Tan, Aik-Choon; Hirsch, Fred R; Heasley, Lynn E

    2014-06-15

    FGFR1 gene copy number (GCN) is being evaluated as a biomarker for FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) response in squamous cell lung cancers (SCC). The exclusive use of FGFR1 GCN for predicting FGFR TKI sensitivity assumes increased GCN is the only mechanism for biologically relevant increases in FGFR1 signaling. Herein, we tested whether FGFR1 mRNA and protein expression may serve as better biomarkers of FGFR TKI sensitivity in lung cancer. Histologically diverse lung cancer cell lines were submitted to assays for ponatinib sensitivity, a potent FGFR TKI. A tissue microarray composed of resected lung tumors was submitted to FGFR1 GCN, and mRNA analyses and the results were validated with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) lung cancer data. Among 58 cell lines, 14 exhibited ponatinib sensitivity (IC50 values ≤ 50 nmol/L) that correlated with FGFR1 mRNA and protein expression, but not with FGFR1 GCN or histology. Moreover, ponatinib sensitivity associated with mRNA expression of the ligands, FGF2 and FGF9. In resected tumors, 22% of adenocarcinomas and 28% of SCCs expressed high FGFR1 mRNA. Importantly, only 46% of SCCs with increased FGFR1 GCN expressed high mRNA. Lung cancer TCGA data validated these findings and unveiled overlap of FGFR1 mRNA positivity with KRAS and PIK3CA mutations. FGFR1 dependency is frequent across various lung cancer histologies, and FGFR1 mRNA may serve as a better biomarker of FGFR TKI response in lung cancer than FGFR1 GCN. The study provides important and timely insight into clinical testing of FGFR TKIs in lung cancer and other solid tumor types. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Quantivirus® HPV E6/E7 RNA 3.0 assay (bDNA) is as sensitive, but less specific than Hybrid Capture 2 test.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yong; Gong, Jiaomei; He, Yanxia; Cheng, Guomei; Okunieff, Paul; Li, Xiaofu

    2013-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the primary cause of cervical cancer. The Quantivirus(®) HPV E6/E7 RNA 3.0 assay (DiaCarta, CA, USA) detects E6/E7 mRNA of 13 high risk subtypes and 6 low risk subtypes. Cervical specimens collected in PreservCyt were processed for HPV detection. Cervical biopsies were taken only from those women with abnormal colposcopy. 200 out of 272 (73.5%) cases were mRNA positive. The percentage of HPV E6/E7 mRNA positive samples increases with the severity of the cytological diagnosis, but not in histological diagnosis. In 146 patients with both tests, the E6/E7 mRNA assay had significant higher positivity rate than the Hybrid Capture 2 assay (75.3% versus 62.3%). The HPV mRNA assay and the HC2 assay had the same sensitivity of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2+), 82.4% (14/17) (95% confidence interval [CI], 64.3, 100). However, the specificity of CIN 2+ for the HPV mRNA assay was significantly lower than HC2 assay. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to compare the diagnostic performance of the E6/E7 mRNA and HC2. E6/E7 mRNA achieved 58.8% sensitivity with 74.1% specificity, HC2, achieved 47.1% sensitivity with 70.7% specificity. The overall performance of HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay for detecting CIN 2+ was lower than HC2. This study does not support the use of this assay in screening for cervical cancer prevention alone.

  19. Effect of Alpha-Hederin, the active constituent of Nigella sativa, on miRNA-126, IL-13 mRNA levels and inflammation of lungs in ovalbumin-sensitized male rats

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, Maryam; Keyhanmanesh, Rana; Khamaneh, Amir Mahdi; Ebrahimi Saadatlou, Mohammad Ali; Saadat, Saeideh; Ebrahimi, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In previous studies the therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa have been demonstrated on asthmatic animals. In the present study, the preventive effect of single dose of alpha-hederin, its active constituent, has been evaluated on lung inflammation and some inflammatory mediators in lungs of ovalbumin sensitized rat in order to elicit its mechanism. Materials and Methods: Forty rats were randomly grouped in 4 groups; control (C), sensitized (S), sensitized pretreated groups with thymoquinone (3 mg/kg i.p., S+TQ) and alpha-hederin (0.02 mg/kg i.p., S+AH). Levels of IL-13 mRNA and miRNA-126 in lung tissue and its pathological changes in each group were assessed. Results: Elevated levels of miRNA-126, IL-13 mRNA and pathological changes were observed in the sensitized group compared to the control group (p<0.001 to p<0.05). All of these factors were significantly reduced in S+TQ and S+AH groups in comparison to S group (p<0.001 to p<0.05). Although alpha-hederin decreased the levels of miRNA-126, IL-13 mRNA and pathological changes in comparison with thymoquinone, the results were statistically not significant. Conclusion: The results suggested that alpha-hederin had preventive effect on sensitized rats like thymoquinone. It may intervene in miRNA-126 expression, which consequently could interfere with IL-13 secretion pathway leading to a reduction in inflammatory responses. PMID:27247924

  20. Utility of RNA-seq and GPMDB protein observation frequency for improving the sensitivity of protein identification by tandem MS.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Avinash K; Yocum, Anastasia K; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I

    2014-09-05

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) followed by database search is the method of choice for protein identification in proteomic studies. Database searching methods employ spectral matching algorithms and statistical models to identify and quantify proteins in a sample. In general, these methods do not utilize any information other than spectral data for protein identification. However, considering the wealth of external data available for many biological systems, analysis methods can incorporate such information to improve the sensitivity of protein identification. In this study, we present a method to utilize Global Proteome Machine Database identification frequencies and RNA-seq transcript abundances to adjust the confidence scores of protein identifications. The method described is particularly useful for samples with low-to-moderate proteome coverage (i.e., <2000-3000 proteins), where we observe up to an 8% improvement in the number of proteins identified at a 1% false discovery rate.

  1. MicroRNA-566 activates EGFR signaling and its inhibition sensitizes glioblastoma cells to nimotuzumab

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is amplified in 40% of human glioblastomas. However, most glioblastoma patients respond poorly to anti-EGFR therapy. MicroRNAs can function as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes, and have been shown to play an important role in cancer cell proliferation, invasion and apoptosis. Whether microRNAs can impact the therapeutic effects of EGFR inhibitors in glioblastoma is unknown. Methods miR-566 expression levels were detected in glioma cell lines, using real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Luciferase reporter assays and Western blots were used to validate VHL as a direct target gene of miR-566. Cell proliferation, invasion, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were also examined to confirm whether miR-566 inhibition could sensitize anti-EGFR therapy. Results In this study, we demonstrated that miR-566 is up-regulated in human glioma cell lines and inhibition of miR-566 decreased the activity of the EGFR pathway. Lentiviral mediated inhibition of miR-566 in glioblastoma cell lines significantly inhibited cell proliferation and invasion and led to cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. In addition, we identified von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) as a novel functional target of miR-566. VHL regulates the formation of the β-catenin/hypoxia-inducible factors-1α complex under miR-566 regulation. Conclusions miR-566 activated EGFR signaling and its inhibition sensitized glioblastoma cells to anti-EGFR therapy. PMID:24650032

  2. Simultaneous delivery of Paclitaxel and Bcl-2 siRNA via pH-Sensitive liposomal nanocarrier for the synergistic treatment of melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Teegala Lakshminarayan; Garikapati, Koteswara Rao; Reddy, S. Gopal; Reddy, B. V. Subba; Yadav, J. S.; Bhadra, Utpal; Bhadra, Manika Pal

    2016-10-01

    pH-sensitive drug carriers that are sensitive to the acidic (pH = ~6.5) microenvironments of tumor tissues have been primarily used as effective drug/gene/siRNA/microRNA carriers for releasing their payloads to tumor cells/tissues. Resistance to various drugs has become a big hurdle in systemic chemotherapy in cancer. Therefore delivery of chemotherapeutic agents and siRNA’s targeting anti apoptotic genes possess advantages to overcome the efflux pump mediated and anti apoptosis-related drug resistance. Here, we report the development of nanocarrier system prepared from kojic acid backbone-based cationic amphiphile containing endosomal pH-sensitive imidazole ring. This pH-sensitive liposomal nanocarrier effectively delivers anti-cancer drug (Paclitaxel; PTX) and siRNA (Bcl-2), and significantly inhibits cell proliferation and reduces tumor growth. Tumor inhibition response attributes to the synergistic effect of PTX potency and MDR reversing ability of Bcl-2 siRNA in the tumor supporting that kojic acid based liposomal pH-sensitive nanocarrier as efficient vehicle for systemic co-delivery of drugs and siRNA.

  3. Simultaneous delivery of Paclitaxel and Bcl-2 siRNA via pH-Sensitive liposomal nanocarrier for the synergistic treatment of melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Teegala Lakshminarayan; Garikapati, Koteswara Rao; Reddy, S. Gopal; Reddy, B. V. Subba; Yadav, J. S.; Bhadra, Utpal; Bhadra, Manika Pal

    2016-01-01

    pH-sensitive drug carriers that are sensitive to the acidic (pH = ~6.5) microenvironments of tumor tissues have been primarily used as effective drug/gene/siRNA/microRNA carriers for releasing their payloads to tumor cells/tissues. Resistance to various drugs has become a big hurdle in systemic chemotherapy in cancer. Therefore delivery of chemotherapeutic agents and siRNA’s targeting anti apoptotic genes possess advantages to overcome the efflux pump mediated and anti apoptosis-related drug resistance. Here, we report the development of nanocarrier system prepared from kojic acid backbone-based cationic amphiphile containing endosomal pH-sensitive imidazole ring. This pH-sensitive liposomal nanocarrier effectively delivers anti-cancer drug (Paclitaxel; PTX) and siRNA (Bcl-2), and significantly inhibits cell proliferation and reduces tumor growth. Tumor inhibition response attributes to the synergistic effect of PTX potency and MDR reversing ability of Bcl-2 siRNA in the tumor supporting that kojic acid based liposomal pH-sensitive nanocarrier as efficient vehicle for systemic co-delivery of drugs and siRNA. PMID:27786239

  4. Optofluidic devices for biomolecule sensing and multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozcelik, Damla

    Optofluidics which integrates photonics and microfluidics, has led to highly compact, sensitive and adaptable biomedical sensors. Optofluidic biosensors based on liquid-core anti-resonant reflecting optical waveguides (LC-ARROWs), have proven to be a highly sensitive, portable, and reconfigurable platform for fluorescence spectroscopy and detection of single biomolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, and virus particles. However, continued improvements in sensitivity remain a major goal as we approach the ultimate limit of detecting individual bio-particles labeled by single or few fluorophores. Additionally, the ability to simultaneously detect and identify multiple biological particles or biomarkers is one of the key requirements for molecular diagnostic tests. The compactness and adaptability of these platforms can further be advanced by introducing tunability, integrating off-chip components, designing reconfigurable and customizable devices, which makes these platforms very good candidates for many different applications. The goal of this thesis was to introduce new elements in these LC-ARROW optofluidics platforms that provide major enhancements in their functionality, making them more sensitive, compact, customizable and multiplexed. First, a novel integrated tunable spectral filter that achieves effective elimination of background noise on the ARROW platform was demonstrated. A unique dual liquid-core design enabled the independent multi-wavelength tuning of the spectral filter by adjusting the refractive index and chemical properties of the liquid. In order to enhance the detection sensitivity of the platform, Y-splitter waveguides were integrated to create multiple excitation spots for each target molecule. A powerful signal processing algorithm was used to analyze the data to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the collected data. Next, the design, optimization and characterization of the Y-splitter waveguides are presented; and single

  5. Micro RNA 100 sensitizes luminal A breast cancer cells to paclitaxel treatment in part by targeting mTOR

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuan; Fu, Xing; Fu, Liya; Zhu, Zhengmao; Fu, Li; Dong, Jin-Tang

    2016-01-01

    Luminal A breast cancer usually responds to hormonal therapies but does not benefit from chemotherapies, including microtubule-targeted paclitaxel. MicroRNAs could play a role in mediating this differential response. In this study, we examined the role of micro RNA 100 (miR-100) in the sensitivity of breast cancer to paclitaxel treatment. We found that while miR-100 was downregulated in both human breast cancer primary tumors and cell lines, the degree of downregulation was greater in the luminal A subtype than in other subtypes. The IC50 of paclitaxel was much higher in luminal A than in basal-like breast cancer cell lines. Ectopic miR-100 expression in the MCF-7 luminal A cell line enhanced the effect of paclitaxel on cell cycle arrest, multinucleation, and apoptosis, while knockdown of miR-100 in the MDA-MB-231 basal-like line compromised these effects. Similarly, overexpression of miR-100 enhanced the effects of paclitaxel on tumorigenesis in MCF-7 cells. Rapamycin-mediated inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a target of miR-100, also sensitized MCF-7 cells to paclitaxel. Gene set enrichment analysis showed that genes that are part of the known paclitaxel-sensitive signature had a significant expression correlation with miR-100 in breast cancer samples. In addition, patients with lower levels of miR-100 expression had worse overall survival. These results suggest that miR-100 plays a causal role in determining the sensitivity of breast cancers to paclitaxel treatment. PMID:26744318

  6. MicroRNA 100 sensitizes luminal A breast cancer cells to paclitaxel treatment in part by targeting mTOR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baotong; Zhao, Ranran; He, Yuan; Fu, Xing; Fu, Liya; Zhu, Zhengmao; Fu, Li; Dong, Jin-Tang

    2016-02-02

    Luminal A breast cancer usually responds to hormonal therapies but does not benefit from chemotherapies, including microtubule-targeted paclitaxel. MicroRNAs could play a role in mediating this differential response. In this study, we examined the role of micro RNA 100 (miR-100) in the sensitivity of breast cancer to paclitaxel treatment. We found that while miR-100 was downregulated in both human breast cancer primary tumors and cell lines, the degree of downregulation was greater in the luminal A subtype than in other subtypes. The IC50 of paclitaxel was much higher in luminal A than in basal-like breast cancer cell lines. Ectopic miR-100 expression in the MCF-7 luminal A cell line enhanced the effect of paclitaxel on cell cycle arrest, multinucleation, and apoptosis, while knockdown of miR-100 in the MDA-MB-231 basal-like line compromised these effects. Similarly, overexpression of miR-100 enhanced the effects of paclitaxel on tumorigenesis in MCF-7 cells. Rapamycin-mediated inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a target of miR-100, also sensitized MCF-7 cells to paclitaxel. Gene set enrichment analysis showed that genes that are part of the known paclitaxel-sensitive signature had a significant expression correlation with miR-100 in breast cancer samples. In addition, patients with lower levels of miR-100 expression had worse overall survival. These results suggest that miR-100 plays a causal role in determining the sensitivity of breast cancers to paclitaxel treatment.

  7. Multiplex real-time qPCR for the detection of Ehrlichia canis and Babesia canis vogeli.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Ofer; Baneth, Gad; Eyal, Osnat; Inbar, Jacob; Harrus, Shimon

    2010-10-29

    Ehrlichia canis and Babesia canis vogeli are two tick-borne canine pathogens with a worldwide importance. Both pathogens are transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the brown dog tick, which has an increasing global distribution. A multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of the tick-borne pathogens E. canis and B. canis vogeli was developed using dual-labeled probes. The target genes were the 16S rRNA of E. canis and the heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) of B. canis vogeli. The canine beta actin (ACTB) gene was used as an internal control gene. The assay was conducted without using any pre-amplification steps such as nested reactions. The sensitivity of each reaction in the multiplex qPCR assay was tested in the presence of high template concentrations of the other amplified genes in the same tube and in the presence of canine DNA. The detection threshold of the multiplex assay was 1-10 copies/μl in all channels and the amplifications of the B. canis hsp70 and ACTB were not affected by the other simultaneous reactions, while minor interference was observed in the amplification of the E. canis 16S rRNA gene. This assay would be useful for diagnostic laboratories and may save time, labor and costs.

  8. Time-division SQUID multiplexers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, K. D.; Vale, L. R.; Bergren, N. E.; Deiker, S.; Grossman, E. N.; Hilton, G. C.; Nam, S. W.; Reintsema, C. D.; Rudman, D. A.; Huber, M. E.

    2002-02-01

    SQUID multiplexers make it possible to build arrays of thousands of low-temperature bolometers and microcalorimeters based on superconducting transition-edge sensors with a manageable number of readout channels. We discuss the technical tradeoffs between proposed time-division multiplexer and frequency-division multiplexer schemes and motivate our choice of time division. Our first-generation SQUID multiplexer is now in use in an astronomical instrument. We describe our second-generation SQUID multiplexer, which is based on a new architecture that significantly reduces the dissipation of power at the first stage, allowing thousands of SQUIDs to be operated at the base temperature of a cryostat. .

  9. Downregulation of microRNA-196a enhances the sensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer cells to cisplatin treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Yang, Zailiang; Chen, Mingyan; Liu, Ying

    2016-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are a class of small, non-coding RNA molecules that play an important role in the pathogenesis of human diseases through the regulation of gene expression. Although miRNA-196a has been implicated in the progression of human lung cancer, its role in enhancing the sensitivity of non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells to cisplatin has not yet been confirmed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of miRNA‑196a on the sensitivity of NSCLC cells to cisplatin in vitro and in vivo. RT-qPCR was used to detect miRNA-196a expression. Synthesized locked nucleic acid (LNA)-anti‑miRNA-196a oligonucleotide was transiently transfected into the SPC‑A‑1 and A549 lung cancer cells to examine the effects of miRNA‑196a on the growth of and colony formation inthe cisplatin‑treated cells. The effects of miRNA-196a on the sensitivity of SPC‑A-1 cells to cisplatin in vivo were determined using BALB/c nude mice. The expression of miRNA‑196a was significantly higher in both the lung cancer tissues and cell lines. The LNA-based knockdown of miRNA-196a significantly inhibited SPC‑A‑1 and A549 cell growth and induced apoptosis. Moreover, the downregulation of miRNA-196a sensitized the SPC‑A‑1 and A549 NSCLC cells to cisplatin in vitro and in vivo, by inducing apoptosis. The findings of this study demonstrate that the administration of cisplatin in combination with miRNA-196a-targeted therapy may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of NSCLC.

  10. Extracting information from multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-06-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering, and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from big data. For these reasons, characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function Θ ˜ S for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying these measures, we consider three multiplex network datasets coming for social science.

  11. Extracting information from multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-06-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering, and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from big data. For these reasons, characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function Θ̃(S) for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying these measures, we consider three multiplex network datasets coming for social science.

  12. A nucleic acid probe labeled with desmethyl thiazole orange: a new type of hybridization-sensitive fluorescent oligonucleotide for live-cell RNA imaging.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Akimitsu; Sugizaki, Kaori; Yuki, Mizue; Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Shuji; Sueoka, Takuma; Hayashi, Gosuke; Wang, Dan Ohtan

    2013-01-14

    A new fluorescent nucleotide with desmethyl thiazole orange dyes, D'(505), has been developed for expansion of the function of fluorescent probes for live-cell RNA imaging. The nucleoside unit of D'(505) for DNA autosynthesis was soluble in organic solvents, which made the preparation of nucleoside units and the reactions in the cycles of DNA synthesis more efficient. The dyes of D'(505)-containing oligodeoxynucleotide were protonated below pH 7 and the oligodeoxynucleotide exhibited hybridization-sensitive fluorescence emission through the control of excitonic interactions of the dyes of D'(505). The simplified procedure and effective hybridization-sensitive fluorescence emission produced multicolored hybridization-sensitive fluorescent probes, which were useful for live-cell RNA imaging. The acceptor-bleaching method gave us information on RNA in a specific cell among many living cells.

  13. Underproduction of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II causes temperature sensitivity, slow growth, and inositol auxotropy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Archambault, J.; Jansma, D.B.; Friesen, J.D.

    1996-03-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mutations in genes encoding subunits of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) often give rise to a set of pleiotropic phenotypes that includes temperature sensitivity, slow growth and inositol auxotrophy. In this study, we show that these phenotypes can be brought about by a reduction in the intracellular concentration of RNAPII. Underproduction of RNAPII was achieved by expressing the gene (RPO21), encoding the largest subunit of the enzyme from the LEU2 promoter or a weaker derivative of it, two promoters that can be repressed by the addition of leucine to the growth medium. We found that cells that underproduced RPO21 were unable to derepress fully the expression of a reporter gene under the control of the INO1 UAS. Our results indicate that temperature sensitivity, slow growth and inositol auxotrophy is a set of phenotypes that can be caused by lowering the steady-state amount of RNAPII; these results also lead to the prediction that some of the previously identified RNAPII mutations that confer this same set of phenotypes affect the assembly/stability of the enzyme. We propose a model to explain the hypersensitivity of INO1 transcription to mutations that affect components of the RNAPII transcriptional machinery. 70 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. MicroRNA-31 sensitizes human breast cells to apoptosis by direct targeting of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon).

    PubMed

    Körner, Cindy; Keklikoglou, Ioanna; Bender, Christian; Wörner, Angelika; Münstermann, Ewald; Wiemann, Stefan

    2013-03-22

    MicroRNAs post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and thereby contribute to the modulation of numerous complex and disease-relevant cellular phenotypes, including cell proliferation, cell motility, apoptosis, and stress response. In breast cancer cell systems, miR-31 has been shown to inhibit cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. Here, we link enhanced expression of miR-31 to the inhibition of the oncogenic NF-κB pathway, thus supporting the tumor-suppressive function of this microRNA. We identified protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε encoded by the PRKCE gene) as a novel direct target of miR-31 and show that down-regulation of PKCε results in impaired NF-κB signaling, enhanced apoptosis, and increased sensitivity of MCF10A breast epithelial and MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer cells toward ionizing radiation as well as treatment with chemotherapeutics. Mechanistically, we attribute this sensitization to anti-cancer treatments to the PRKCE-mediated down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic factor BCL2. In clinical breast cancer samples, high BCL2 expression was associated with poor prognosis. Furthermore, we found an inverse correlation between miR-31 and BCL2 expression, highlighting the functional relevance of the indirect down-regulation of BCL2 via direct targeting of PRKCE by miR-31.

  15. Differential Sensitivity of Bat Cells to Infection by Enveloped RNA Viruses: Coronaviruses, Paramyxoviruses, Filoviruses, and Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Markus; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Drexler, Jan Felix; Glende, Jörg; Erdt, Meike; Gützkow, Tim; Losemann, Christoph; Binger, Tabea; Deng, Hongkui; Schwegmann-Weßels, Christel; Esser, Karl-Heinz; Drosten, Christian; Herrler, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Bats (Chiroptera) host major human pathogenic viruses including corona-, paramyxo, rhabdo- and filoviruses. We analyzed six different cell lines from either Yinpterochiroptera (including African flying foxes and a rhinolophid bat) or Yangochiroptera (genera Carollia and Tadarida) for susceptibility to infection by different enveloped RNA viruses. None of the cells were sensitive to infection by transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a porcine coronavirus, or to infection mediated by the Spike (S) protein of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) incorporated into pseudotypes based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The resistance to infection was overcome if cells were transfected to express the respective cellular receptor, porcine aminopeptidase N for TGEV or angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 for SARS-CoV. VSV pseudotypes containing the S proteins of two bat SARS-related CoV (Bg08 and Rp3) were unable to infect any of the six tested bat cell lines. By contrast, viral pseudotypes containing the surface protein GP of Marburg virus from the family Filoviridae infected all six cell lines though at different efficiency. Notably, all cells were sensitive to infection by two paramyxoviruses (Sendai virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus) and three influenza viruses from different subtypes. These results indicate that bat cells are more resistant to infection by coronaviruses than to infection by paramyxoviruses, filoviruses and influenza viruses. Furthermore, these results show a receptor-dependent restriction of the infection of bat cells by CoV. The implications for the isolation of coronaviruses from bats are discussed. PMID:24023659

  16. Biosensor-based microRNA detection: techniques, design, performance, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Blake N; Mutharasan, Raj

    2014-04-07

    The current state of biosensor-based techniques for amplification-free microRNA (miRNA) detection is critically reviewed. Comparison with non-sensor and amplification-based molecular techniques (MTs), such as polymerase-based methods, is made in terms of transduction mechanism, associated protocol, and sensitivity. Challenges associated with miRNA hybridization thermodynamics which affect assay selectivity and amplification bias are briefly discussed. Electrochemical, electromechanical, and optical classes of miRNA biosensors are reviewed in terms of transduction mechanism, limit of detection (LOD), time-to-results (TTR), multiplexing potential, and measurement robustness. Current trends suggest that biosensor-based techniques (BTs) for miRNA assay will complement MTs due to the advantages of amplification-free detection, LOD being femtomolar (fM)-attomolar (aM), short TTR, multiplexing capability, and minimal sample preparation requirement. Areas of future importance in miRNA BT development are presented which include focus on achieving high measurement confidence and multiplexing capabilities.

  17. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing and molecular serotyping of Avibacterium paragallinarum isolated from Indian field conditions.

    PubMed

    Patil, Vihang Vithalrao; Mishra, Debendranath; Mane, Dilip Vithalrao

    2017-08-01

    This study was aimed at identifying Indian field isolates of Avibacterium paragallinarum on both molecular as well as serological levels that cause infectious coryza in chickens. Species-specific polymerase chain reaction (HPG-2 PCR), and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing were employed for molecular identification. Whereas, multiplex PCR technique was used for serological identification of Indian field isolates of A. paragallinarum. All three field isolates were identified as A. paragallinarum using HPG-2 PCR. The species-specific PCR results were validated using 16S rRNA sequencing. The partial 16S rRNA sequences obtained from all three isolates showed 96-99% homology with the NCBI database reference strains of A. paragallinarum. The aligned partial sequences of 16S rRNA were submitted to GenBank, and accession numbers were obtained. Multiplex PCR-based molecular serotyping showed that there are three serotypes of field isolates of A. paragallinarum, namely, strain IND101 is serovar A, strain IND102 is serovar B, and strain IND103 is serovar C. HPG-2 PCR, 16S rRNA sequencing, and multiplex PCR are proved to be more accurate, sensitive, and reliable diagnostic tools for molecular and serological identification of A. paragallinarum field isolates. These diagnostic methods can substitute conventional cultural characterization and would be much valuable to formulate quick and correct prevention and control measures against this detrimental poultry pathogen.

  18. Development and validation of a multiplex reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay for the rapid detection of Citrus tristeza virus, Citrus psorosis virus, and Citrus leaf blotch virus.

    PubMed

    Osman, Fatima; Hodzic, Emir; Kwon, Sun-Jung; Wang, Jinbo; Vidalakis, Georgios

    2015-08-01

    A single real-time multiplex reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), and Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV) was developed and validated using three different fluorescently labeled minor groove binding qPCR probes. To increase the detection reliability, coat protein (CP) genes from large number of different isolates of CTV, CPsV and CLBV were sequenced and a multiple sequence alignment was generated with corresponding CP sequences from the GenBank and a robust multiplex RT-qPCR assay was designed. The capacity of the multiplex RT-qPCR assay in detecting the viruses was compared to singleplex RT-qPCR designed specifically for each virus and was assessed using multiple virus isolates from diverse geographical regions and citrus species as well as graft-inoculated citrus plants infected with various combination of the three viruses. No significant difference in detection limits was found and specificity was not affected by the inclusion of the three assays in a multiplex RT-qPCR reaction. Comparison of the viral load for each virus using singleplex and multiplex RT-qPCR assays, revealed no significant differences between the two assays in virus detection. No significant difference in Cq values was detected when using one-step and two-step multiplex RT-qPCR detection formats. Optimizing the RNA extraction technique for citrus tissues and testing the quality of the extracted RNA using RT-qPCR targeting the cytochrome oxidase citrus gene as an RNA specific internal control proved to generate better diagnostic assays. Results showed that the developed multiplex RT-qPCR can streamline viruses testing of citrus nursery stock by replacing three separate singleplex assays, thus reducing time and labor while retaining the same sensitivity and specificity. The three targeted RNA viruses are regulated pathogens for California's mandatory "Section 3701

  19. Acid-Sensitive Sheddable PEGylated PLGA Nanoparticles Increase the Delivery of TNF-α siRNA in Chronic Inflammation Sites

    PubMed Central

    Aldayel, Abdulaziz M; Naguib, Youssef W; O'Mary, Hannah L; Li, Xu; Niu, Mengmeng; Ruwona, Tinashe B; Cui, Zhengrong

    2016-01-01

    There has been growing interest in utilizing small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific to pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α ( TNF-α), in chronic inflammation therapy. However, delivery systems that can increase the distribution of the siRNA in chronic inflammation sites after intravenous administration are needed. Herein we report that innovative functionalization of the surface of siRNA-incorporated poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles significantly increases the delivery of the siRNA in the chronic inflammation sites in a mouse model. The TNF-α siRNA incorporated PLGA nanoparticles were prepared by the standard double emulsion method, but using stearoyl-hydrazone-polyethylene glycol 2000, a unique acid-sensitive surface active agent, as the emulsifying agent, which renders (i) the nanoparticles PEGylated and (ii) the PEGylation sheddable in low pH environment such as that in chronic inflammation sites. In a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide-induced chronic inflammation, the acid-sensitive sheddable PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles showed significantly higher accumulation or distribution in chronic inflammation sites than PLGA nanoparticles prepared with an acid-insensitive emulsifying agent (i.e., stearoyl-amide-polyethylene glycol 2000) and significantly increased the distribution of the TNF-α siRNA incorporated into the nanoparticles in inflamed mouse foot. PMID:27434685

  20. Co-delivery of paclitaxel and anti-survivin siRNA via redox-sensitive oligopeptide liposomes for the synergistic treatment of breast cancer and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinyan; Zhang, Yidi; Tang, Chunming; Tian, Chunli; Sun, Qiong; Su, Zhigui; Xue, Lingjing; Yin, Yifan; Ju, Caoyun; Zhang, Can

    2017-08-30

    The overexpression of survivin in breast cancer cells is an important factor of paclitaxel (PTX) resistance in breast cancer. To overcome PTX resistance and improve the antitumor effect of PTX, we developed a novel liposome-based nanosystem (PTX/siRNA/SS-L), composed of a redox-sensitive cationic oligopeptide lipid (LHSSG2C14) with a proton sponge effect, natural soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC), and cholesterol for co-delivery of PTX and anti-survivin siRNA, which could specifically downregulate survivin overexpression. PTX/siRNA/SS-L exhibited high encapsulation efficiency and rapid redox-responsive release of both PTX and siRNA. Moreover, in vitro studies on the 4T1 breast cancer cells revealed that PTX/siRNA/SS-L offered significant advantages over other experimental groups, such as higher cellular uptake, successful endolysosomal escape, reduced survivin expression, the lowest cell viability and wound healing rate, as well as the highest apoptosis rate. In particular, in vivo evaluation of 4T1 tumor-bearing mice showed that PTX/siRNA/SS-L had lower toxicity and induced a synergistic inhibitory effect on tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis. Collectively, the collaboration of anti-survivin siRNA and PTX via redox-sensitive oligopeptide liposomes provides a promising strategy for the treatment of breast cancer and metastasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential regulation of Igf1 and Igf2 mRNA levels in tilapia hepatocytes: effects of insulin and cortisol on GH sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Andrew L; Breves, Jason P; Moriyama, Shunsuke; Hirano, Tetsuya; Grau, E Gordon

    2011-11-01

    Igf1 and Igf2 stimulate growth and development of vertebrates. In mammals, liver-derived endocrine Igf1 mediates the growth promoting effects of GH during postnatal life, whereas Igf2 stimulates placental and fetal growth and is not regulated by GH. Insulin enhances Igf1 production by the mammalian liver directly, and by increasing hepatocyte sensitivity to GH. We examined the regulation of igf1 and igf2 mRNA levels by GH, insulin, and cortisol, and the effects of insulin and cortisol on GH sensitivity in primary cultured hepatocytes of tilapia, a cichlid teleost. GH increased mRNA levels of both igf1 and igf2 in a concentration-related and biphasic manner over the physiological range, with a greater effect on igf2 mRNA level. Insulin increased basal igf2 mRNA level, and strongly increased GH-stimulated igf2 mRNA level, but slightly reduced basal igf1 mRNA level and did not affect GH-stimulated igf1 mRNA level. Cortisol inhibited GH stimulation of igf1, but increased GH stimulation of igf2 mRNA level. The synergistic effect of insulin and GH on igf2 mRNA level was confirmed in vivo. These results indicate that insulin and cortisol differentially modulate the response of igf1 and igf2 mRNA to GH in tilapia hepatocytes, and suggest that the regulation of liver Igf2 production differs between fish and mammals. Regulation of liver Igf2 production in fish appears to be similar to regulation of liver Igf1 production in mammals.

  2. Downlink Data Multiplexer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Douglas; Steele, Glen F.; Romero, Denise M.; Koudelka, Robert David

    2004-01-01

    A multiplexer/demultiplexer system has been developed to enable the transmission, over a single channel, of four data streams generated by a variety of sources at different (including variable) bit rates. In the original intended application, replicas of this multiplexer/demultiplexer system would be incorporated into the spacecraft-to-ground communication systems of the space shuttles. The multiplexer of each system would be installed in the spacecraft, where it would acquire and process data from such sources as commercial digital camcorders, video tape recorders, and the spacecraft telemetry system. The demultiplexer of each system would be installed in a ground station. Purely terrestrial systems of similar design could be attractive for use in situations in which there are requirements to transmit multiple streams of high-quality video data and possibly other data over single channels. The figure is a block diagram of the multiplexer as configured to process data received via three fiber-optic channels like those of the International Space Station and one electrical-cable channel that conforms to the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) 1394 standard. (This standard consists of specifications of a high-speed serial data interface, the physical layer of which includes a cable known in the art as "FireWire." An IEEE 1394 interface can also transfer power between the components to which it is connected.) The fiber-optic channels carry packet and/or bit-stream signals that conform to the standards of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). The IEEE 1394 interface accepts an isochronous signal like that from a digital camcorder or a video tape recorder. The processing of the four input data streams to combine them into one output stream is governed by a statistical multiplexing algorithm that features a flow-control capability and makes it possible to utilize the transmission channel with nearly 100-percent efficiency. This

  3. Development of a highly-sensitive multi-plex assay using monoclonal antibodies for the simultaneous measurement of kappa and lambda immunoglobulin free light chains in serum and urine.

    PubMed

    Campbell, John P; Cobbold, Mark; Wang, Yanyun; Goodall, Margaret; Bonney, Sarah L; Chamba, Anita; Birtwistle, Jane; Plant, Timothy; Afzal, Zaheer; Jefferis, Roy; Drayson, Mark T

    2013-05-31

    Monoclonal κ and λ immunoglobulin free light chain (FLC) paraproteins in serum and urine are important markers in the diagnosis and monitoring of B cell dyscrasias. Current nephelometric and turbidimetric methods that use sheep polyclonal antisera to quantify serum FLC have a number of well-observed limitations. In this report, we describe an improved method using specific mouse anti-human FLC monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Anti-κ and anti-λ FLC mAbs were, separately, covalently coupled to polystyrene Xmap® beads and assayed, simultaneously, in a multi-plex format by Luminex® (mAb assay). The mAbs displayed no cross-reactivity to bound LC, the alternate LC type, or other human proteins and had improved sensitivity and specificity over immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) and Freelite™. The assay gives good linearity and sensitivity (<1 mg/L), and the competitive inhibition format gave a broad calibration curve up to 437.5 mg/L and prevented anomalous results for samples in antigen excess i.e. high FLC levels. The mAbs displayed good concordance with Freelite™ for the quantitation of normal polyclonal FLC in plasma from healthy donors (n=249). The mAb assay identified all monoclonal FLC in serum from consecutive patient samples (n=1000; 50.1% with monoclonal paraprotein by serum IFE), and all FLC in a large cohort of urine samples tested for Bence Jones proteins (n=13090; 22.8% with monoclonal κ, 9.0% with monoclonal λ, and 0.8% with poly LC detected by urine IFE). Importantly this shows that the mAbs are at least close to the ideal of detecting FLC from all patients and neoplastic plasma cell clones. Given the overall effectiveness of the anti-FLC mAbs, further clinical validation is now warranted on serial samples from a range of patients with B cell disorders. Use of these mAbs on other assay platforms should also be investigated.

  4. Development of novel AllGlo-probe-based one-step multiplex qRT-PCR assay for rapid identification of avian influenza virus H7N9.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Mao, Haiyan; Yan, Juying; Wang, Xinying; Zhang, Lei; Guus, Koch; Li, Hui; Li, Zhen; Chen, Yin; Gong, Liming; Chen, Zhiping; Xia, Shichang

    2014-07-01

    Recently, human deaths have resulted from infection with low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus H7N9 strains that have emerged recently in China. To strengthen H7N9 surveillance and outbreak control, rapid and reliable diagnostic methods are needed. To develop a sensitive quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay for rapid detection of H7N9 viral RNA, primers and AllGlo probes were designed to target the HA and NA genes of H7N9. Conserved sequences in the HA and NA genes were identified by phylogenic analysis and used as targets for H7N9 virus detection. The similarities of the targeted HA and NA gene sequences from different H7 and N9 influenza virus strains were 93.2-99.9 % and 96.0-99.6 %, respectively The specificity and sensitivity of the new multiplex real-time qRT-PCR was established. The test was used for the detection of viral RNA in human pharyngeal swabs and environmental samples. The detection limit of the multiplex qRT-PCR was estimated to be about 10(-1) TCID50/reaction. Finally, the diagnostic sensitivities of the multiplex qRT-PCR, virus isolation and TaqMan qRT-PCR were compared using pharyngeal swabs and environmental samples. These analyses yielded positive results in 46.7 %, 43.3 % and 20.0 % of the samples, respectively. The novel multiplex AllGlo qRT-PCR is a rapid and sensitive method to identify H7N9 virus in clinical and environmental samples and can be used to facilitate studies on the epidemiology of H7N9 virus.

  5. Single step multiplex real-time RT-PCR for H5N1 influenza A virus detection.

    PubMed

    Payungporn, Sunchai; Chutinimitkul, Salin; Chaisingh, Arunee; Damrongwantanapokin, Sudarat; Buranathai, Chantanee; Amonsin, Alongkorn; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2006-02-01

    H5N1 influenza A virus causes a rapidly fatal systemic disease in domestic poultry and spreads directly from poultry to mammalian species such as leopards, tigers and humans. The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex real-time RT-PCR for rapid detection of H5N1 influenza A virus. The selected primers and various labeled TaqMan MGB reporter probes corresponding to M, H5 and N1 were used in a single step multiplex real-time RT-PCR to simultaneously detect triple fluorescent signals. In order to validate the method, 75 clinical specimens infected with H5N1 isolated from both poultry and mammals, as well as various specimens of other subtypes and RNA from other viral pathogens of poultry and human were tested. The results showed that the multiplex real-time RT-PCR assays can be applied to detect virus suspensions of H5N1 influenza A virus from a wide host range and demonstrated the sensitivity of the assay amounted to approximately 10(2)-10(3)copies/mul. In conclusion, the highlights of this particular method lie in its rapidity, specificity and sensitivity thus rendering it feasible and effective for large-scale screening at times of H5N1 influenza A virus outbreaks.

  6. Multiplex PCR for simultaneous identification of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes in food.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Van Giau, Vo; Vo, Tuong Kha

    2016-12-01

    The rapid detection of pathogens in food is becoming increasingly critical for ensuring the safety of consumers, since the majority of food-borne illnesses and deaths are caused by pathogenic bacteria. Hence, rapid, sensitive, inexpensive and convenient approaches to detect food-borne pathogenic bacteria is essential in controlling food safety. In this study, a multiplex PCR assay for the rapid and simultaneous detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes was established. The invA, stx and hlyA genes specifically amplified DNA fragments of 284, 404 and 510 bp from Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene was targeted as an internal control gene in the presence of bacterial DNA. The specificity and sensitivity of the multiplex PCR were performed by testing different strains. The multiplex PCR assay was able to specifically simultaneously detect ten colony-forming unit/mL of each pathogen in artificially inoculated samples after enrichment for 12 h. The whole process took less than 24 h to complete, indicating that the assay is suitable for reliable and rapid identification of these three food-borne pathogens, which could be suitable in microbial epidemiology investigation.

  7. LncRNA CCAT1 modulates the sensitivity of paclitaxel in nasopharynx cancers cells via miR-181a/CPEB2 axis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiaosu; Zhang, Wenjing; Hao, Shaojuan

    2017-03-30

    Recent studies reported that long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) might play critical roles in regulating chemo-resistant of multiple types of cancer. This study aimed to investigate whether long non-coding RNA CCAT1 was involved in Paclitaxel resistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). qRT-PCR was used for testing the expression of CCAT1, miR-181a and CPEB2 in tumor tissues and NPC cancers. NPC cells were transfected with siRNAs to suppress the mRNA level of CCAT1 in NPC cells. MTT assays and flow cytometry analysis were used to assess the sensitivity of paclitaxel in NPC cells. Luciferase reporter assays were used to examine the interaction of CCAT1 or CPEB2 to miR-181a. Our findings revealed that the upregulated CCAT1 results in significantly enhancing paclitaxel resistance in nasopharyngeal cancer cells. Bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay indicated that the upregulated CCAT1 sponges miR-181a in NPC cells. Furthermore, RNA immuno-precipitation assays showed that miR-181a could directly bind to CCAT1 mRNA in NPC cells. We restored miR-181a in NPC cells, and found restoration of miR-181a re-sensitized the NPC cells to paclitaxel in vitro. In addition, our results also showed that miR-181a was a modulator of paclitaxel sensitivity due to its regulative effect on cell apoptosis via targeting CPEB2 in NPC cells. Taken together, lncRNA CCAT1 regulates the sensitivity of paclitaxel in NPC cells via miR-181a/CPEB2 axis.

  8. Label-Free and Enzyme-Free Homogeneous Electrochemical Biosensing Strategy Based on Hybridization Chain Reaction: A Facile, Sensitive, and Highly Specific MicroRNA Assay.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ting; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiaojuan; Li, Feng

    2015-11-17

    Homogenous electrochemical biosensing strategies have attracted substantial attention, because of their advantages of being immobilization-free and having rapid response and improved recognition efficiency, compared to heterogeneous biosensors; however, the high cost of labeling and the strict reaction conditions of tool enzymes associated with current homogeneous electrochemical methods limit their potential applications. To address these issues, herein we reported, for the first time, a simple label-free and enzyme-free homogeneous electrochemical strategy based on hybridization chain reaction (HCR) for sensitive and highly specific detection of microRNA (miRNA). The target miRNA triggers the HCR of two species of metastable DNA hairpin probes, resulting in the formation of multiple G-quadruplex-incorporated long duplex DNA chains. Thus, with the electrochemical indicator Methylene Blue (MB) selectively intercalated into the duplex DNA chain and the multiple G-quadruplexes, a significant electrochemical signal drop is observed, which is dependent on the concentration of the target miRNA. Thus, using this "signal-off" mode, a simple, label-free and enzyme-free homogeneous electrochemical strategy for sensitive miRNA assay is readily realized. This strategy also exhibits excellent selectivity to distinguish even single-base mismatched miRNA. Furthermore, this method also exhibits additional advantages of simplicity and low cost, since both expensive labeling and sophisticated probe immobilization processes are avoided. Therefore, the as-proposed label-free and enzyme-free homogeneous electrochemical strategy may become an alternative method for simple, sensitive, and selective miRNA detection, and it has great potential to be applied in miRNA-related clinical diagnostics and biochemical research.

  9. Efficient Differentiation of Mycobacterium avium Complex Species and Subspecies by Use of Five-Target Multiplex PCR▿

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sung Jae; Lee, Byung Soo; Koh, Won-Jung; Manning, Elizabeth J. B.; Anklam, Kelly; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Lambrecht, Randall S.; Collins, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Infections caused by the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are on the rise in both human and veterinary medicine. A means of effectively discriminating among closely related yet pathogenetically diverse members of the MAC would enable better diagnosis and treatment as well as further our understanding of the epidemiology of these pathogens. In this study, a five-target multiplex PCR designed to discriminate MAC organisms isolated from liquid culture media was developed. This MAC multiplex was designed to amplify a 16S rRNA gene target common to all Mycobacterium species, a chromosomal target called DT1 that is unique to M. avium subsp. avium serotypes 2 and 3, to M. avium subsp. silvaticum, and to M. intracellulare, and three insertion sequences, IS900, IS901, and IS1311. The pattern of amplification results allowed determination of whether isolates were mycobacteria, whether they were members of the MAC, and whether they belonged to one of three major MAC subspecies, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, M. avium subsp. avium, and M. avium subsp. hominissuis. Analytical sensitivity was 10 fg of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genomic DNA, 5 to 10 fg of M. avium subsp. avium genomic DNA, and 2 to 5 fg of DNA from other mycobacterial species. Identification accuracy of the MAC multiplex was evaluated by testing 53 bacterial reference strains consisting of 28 different mycobacterial species and 12 nonmycobacterial species. Identification accuracy in a clinical setting was evaluated for 223 clinical MAC isolates independently identified by other methods. Isolate identification agreement between the MAC multiplex and these comparison assays was 100%. The novel MAC multiplex is a rapid, reliable, and simple assay for discrimination of MAC species and subspecies in liquid culture media. PMID:20810779

  10. Temperature-sensitive mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MRT4, GRC5, SLA2 and THS1 genes result in defects in mRNA turnover.

    PubMed Central

    Zuk, D; Belk, J P; Jacobson, A

    1999-01-01

    In a screen for factors involved in mRNA turnover, four temperature-sensitive yeast strains (ts1189, ts942, ts817, and ts1100) exhibited defects in the decay of several mRNAs. Complementation of the growth and mRNA decay defects, and genetic experiments, revealed that ts1189 is mutated in the previously unknown MRT4 gene, ts942 is mutated in GRC5 (encoding the L9 ribosomal protein), ts817 contains a mutation in SLA2 (encoding a membrane protein), and ts1100 contains a mutation in THS1 (encoding the threonyl-tRNA synthetase). Three of the four mutants (mrt4, grc5, and sla2) were not defective in protein synthesis, suggesting that these strains contain mutations in factors that may play a specific role in mRNA decay. The mRNA stabilization observed in the ths1 strain, however, could be due to the significant drop in translation observed in this mutant at 37 degrees. While the three interesting mutants appear to encode novel mRNA decay factors, at least one could be linked to a previously characterized mRNA decay pathway. The growth and mRNA decay defects of ts942 (grc5) cells were suppressed by overexpression of the NMD3 gene, encoding a protein shown to participate in a two-hybrid interaction with the nonsense-mediated decay protein Upf1p. PMID:10471698

  11. Combining Single RNA Sensitive Probes with Subdiffraction-Limited and Live-Cell Imaging Enables the Characterization of Virus Dynamics in Cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The creation of fluorescently labeled viruses is currently limited by the length of imaging observation time (e.g., labeling an envelope protein) and the rescue of viral infectivity (e.g., encoding a GFP protein). Using single molecule sensitive RNA hybridization probes delivered to the cytoplasm of infected cells, we were able to isolate individual, infectious, fluorescently labeled human respiratory syncytial virus virions. This was achieved without affecting viral mRNA expression, viral protein expression, or infectivity. Measurements included the characterization of viral proteins and genomic RNA in a single virion using dSTORM, the development of a GFP fusion assay, and the development of a pulse-chase assay for viral RNA production that allowed for the detection of both initial viral RNA and nascent RNA production at designated times postinfection. Live-cell measurements included imaging and characterization of filamentous virion fusion and the quantification of virus replication within the same cell over an eight-hour period. Using probe-labeled viruses, individual viral particles can be characterized at subdiffraction-limited resolution, and viral infections can be quantified in single cells over an entire cycle of replication. The implication of this development is that MTRIP labeling of viral RNA during virus assembly has the potential to become a general methodology for the labeling and study of many important RNA viruses. PMID:24351207

  12. MicroRNA-181b Improves Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Sensitivity by Regulating Endothelial Function in White Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xinghui; Lin, Jibin; Zhang, Yu; Kang, Sona; Belkin, Nathan; Wara, Akm K; Icli, Basak; Hamburg, Naomi M; Li, Dazhu; Feinberg, Mark W

    2016-03-04

    The pathogenesis of insulin resistance involves dysregulated gene expression and function in multiple cell types, including endothelial cells (ECs). Post-transcriptional mechanisms such as microRNA-mediated regulation of gene expression could affect insulin action by modulating EC function. To determine whether microRNA-181b (miR-181b) affects the pathogenesis of insulin resistance by regulating EC function in white adipose tissue during obesity. MiR-181b expression was reduced in adipose tissue ECs of obese mice, and rescue of miR-181b expression improved glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Systemic intravenous delivery of miR-181b robustly accumulated in adipose tissue ECs, enhanced insulin-mediated Akt phosphorylation at Ser473, and reduced endothelial dysfunction, an effect that shifted macrophage polarization toward an M2 anti-inflammatory phenotype in epididymal white adipose tissue. These effects were associated with increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase and FoxO1 phosphorylation as well as nitric oxide activity in epididymal white adipose tissue. In contrast, miR-181b did not affect insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in liver and skeletal muscle. Bioinformatics and gene profiling approaches revealed that Pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase, a phosphatase that dephosphorylates Akt at Ser473, is a novel target of miR-181b. Knockdown of Pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase increased Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 in ECs, and phenocopied miR-181b's effects on glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation of epididymal white adipose tissue in vivo. Finally, ECs from diabetic subjects exhibited increased Pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase expression. Our data underscore the importance of adipose tissue EC function in controlling the development of insulin resistance. Delivery of miR-181b or Pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat

  13. Frequency Hopping Transceiver Multiplexer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    8217 block number) frequency hopping, quadrature coupler, bandpass filter, coupling circuit, filter, helical resonator, matching network, PIN diode switch...which investigated the concept and feasibility of a 30MHz to 88MHz frequency hopping transceiver multiplexer. An approach which uses helical resonator...and Analysis 90 5.9.1 Helical Resonator 90 5.9.2 Shunt Capacitance Binary Bus Discussion 94 5.9.3 Resonator Design Decisions 97 5.9.4 Results and

  14. Differential sensitivity of 16S rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probes used for fluorescence in situ hybridization is a result of ribosomal higher order structure.

    PubMed

    Frischer, M E; Floriani, P J; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S A

    1996-10-01

    The use of 16S rRNA targeted gene probes for the direct analysis of microbial communities has revolutionized the field of microbial ecology, yet a comprehensive approach for the design of such probes does not exist. The development of 16S rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probes for use with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedures has been especially difficult as a result of the complex nature of the rRNA target molecule. In this study a systematic comparison of 16S rRNA targeted oligonucleotide gene probes was conducted to determine if target location influences the hybridization efficiency of oligonucleotide probes when used with in situ hybridization protocols for the detection of whole microbial cells. Five unique universal 12-mer oligonucleotide sequences, located at different regions of the 16S rRNA molecule, were identified by a computer-aided sequence analysis of over 1000 partial and complete 16S rRNA sequences. The complements of these oligomeric sequences were chemically synthesized for use as probes and end labeled with either [gamma-32P]ATP or the fluorescent molecule tetramethylrhodamine-5/-6. Hybridization sensitivity for each of the probes was determined by hybridization to heat-denatured RNA immobilized on blots or to formaldehyde fixed whole cells. All of the probes hybridized with equal efficiency to denatured RNA. However, the probes exhibited a wide range of sensitivity (from none to very strong) when hybridized with whole cells using a previously developed FISH procedure. Differential hybridization efficiencies against whole cells could not be attributed to cell wall type, since the relative probe efficiency was preserved when either Gram-negative or -positive cells were used. These studies represent one of the first attempts to systematically define criteria for 16S rRNA targeted probe design for use against whole cells and establish target site location as a critical parameter in probe design.

  15. Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing by sensitive detection of precursor rRNA using a novel electrochemical biosensing platform.

    PubMed

    Halford, Colin; Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Campuzano, Susana; Hu, Bo; Babbitt, Jane T; Liu, Jun; Wang, Joseph; Churchill, Bernard M; Haake, David A

    2013-02-01

    Precursor rRNA (pre-rRNA) is an intermediate stage in the formation of mature rRNA and is a useful marker for cellular metabolism and growth rate. We developed an electrochemical sensor assay for Escherichia coli pre-rRNA involving hybridization of capture and detector probes with tail sections that are spliced away during rRNA maturation. A ternary self-assembled monolayer (SAM) prepared on gold electrode surfaces by coassembly of thiolated capture probes with hexanedithiol and posttreatment with 6-mercapto-1-hexanol minimized the background signal and maximized the signal-to-noise ratio. Inclusion of internal calibration controls allowed accurate estimation of the pre-rRNA copy number per cell. As expected, the ratio of pre-rRNA to mature rRNA was low during stationary phase and high during log phase. Pre-rRNA levels were highly dynamic, ranging from 2 copies per cell during stationary phase to ~1,200 copies per cell within 60 min of inoculation into fresh growth medium. Specificity of the assay for pre-rRNA was validated using rifampin and chloramphenicol, which are known inhibitors of pre-rRNA synthesis and processing, respectively. The DNA gyrase inhibitor, ciprofloxacin, was found to act similarly to rifampin; a decline in pre-rRNA was detectable within 15 min in ciprofloxacin-susceptible bacteria. Assays for pre-rRNA provide insight into cellular metabolism and are promising predictors of antibiotic susceptibility.

  16. Rapid Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing by Sensitive Detection of Precursor rRNA Using a Novel Electrochemical Biosensing Platform

    PubMed Central

    Halford, Colin; Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Campuzano, Susana; Hu, Bo; Babbitt, Jane T.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Joseph; Churchill, Bernard M.

    2013-01-01

    Precursor rRNA (pre-rRNA) is an intermediate stage in the formation of mature rRNA and is a useful marker for cellular metabolism and growth rate. We developed an electrochemical sensor assay for Escherichia coli pre-rRNA involving hybridization of capture and detector probes with tail sections that are spliced away during rRNA maturation. A ternary self-assembled monolayer (SAM) prepared on gold electrode surfaces by coassembly of thiolated capture probes with hexanedithiol and posttreatment with 6-mercapto-1-hexanol minimized the background signal and maximized the signal-to-noise ratio. Inclusion of internal calibration controls allowed accurate estimation of the pre-rRNA copy number per cell. As expected, the ratio of pre-rRNA to mature rRNA was low during stationary phase and high during log phase. Pre-rRNA levels were highly dynamic, ranging from 2 copies per cell during stationary phase to ∼1,200 copies per cell within 60 min of inoculation into fresh growth medium. Specificity of the assay for pre-rRNA was validated using rifampin and chloramphenicol, which are known inhibitors of pre-rRNA synthesis and processing, respectively. The DNA gyrase inhibitor, ciprofloxacin, was found to act similarly to rifampin; a decline in pre-rRNA was detectable within 15 min in ciprofloxacin-susceptible bacteria. Assays for pre-rRNA provide insight into cellular metabolism and are promising predictors of antibiotic susceptibility. PMID:23229486

  17. Establishment of Multiplex Solid-Phase Strip PCR Test for Detection of 24 Ocular Infectious Disease Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Satoko; Sugita, Sunao; Tomaru, Yasuhiro; Hono, Ayumi; Nakamuro, Takako; Kubota, Toshiaki; Takase, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Manabu; Takahashi, Masayo; Shimizu, Norio

    2017-03-01

    To establish and evaluate a new multiplex solid-phase strip polymerase chain reaction (strip PCR) for concurrent detection of common ocular infectious disease pathogens. A new multiplex strip PCR was established to detect 24 common ocular infectious disease pathogens: herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1, HSV2, varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpes virus (HHV) 6, HHV7, HHV8, human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1, adenovirus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Treponema pallidum, Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), Candida species (Candida sp.), C. glabrata, C. krusei, Aspergillus, Fusarium, fungal 28S rRNA, Toxoplasma (T. gondii), Toxocara, Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis), and Acanthamoeba. Strip PCR was tested with a negative control (distilled water) and standard positive control DNA. Cutoffs of quantification cycle (Cq) values were determined with noninfectious ocular samples to avoid false-positives caused by contamination with P. acnes, bacterial 16S, and fungal 28S from reagents and ocular surfaces. A pilot study to evaluate the strip PCR was performed using infectious ocular samples (aqueous humor, vitreous, cornea, and tears) by strip PCR and previously developed capillary-type multiplex PCR and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Strip PCR was verified with negative and positive controls. Strip PCR rapidly detected HSV1, HSV2, VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV6, HHV7, HTLV-1, adenovirus, P. acnes, bacterial 16S, Candida sp., C. glabrata, Aspergillus, fungal 28S, T. gondii, C. trachomatis, and Acanthamoeba in patient samples. The sensitivity was comparable to that of qPCR. Our novel strip PCR assay is a simple, rapid, and high-sensitivity method for detecting ocular infectious disease pathogens.

  18. On-chip noninterference angular momentum multiplexing of broadband light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Haoran; Li, Xiangping; Zhang, Qiming; Gu, Min

    2016-05-01

    Angular momentum division has emerged as a physically orthogonal multiplexing method in high-capacity optical information technologies. However, the typical bulky elements used for information retrieval from the overall diffracted field, based on the interference method, impose a fundamental limit toward realizing on-chip multiplexing. We demonstrate noninterference angular momentum multiplexing by using a mode-sorting nanoring aperture with a chip-scale footprint as small as 4.2 micrometers by 4.2 micrometers, where nanoring slits exhibit a distinctive outcoupling efficiency on tightly confined plasmonic modes. The nonresonant mode-sorting sensitivity and scalability of our approach enable on-chip parallel multiplexing over a bandwidth of 150 nanometers in the visible wavelength range. The results offer the possibility of ultrahigh-capacity and miniaturized nanophotonic devices harnessing angular momentum division.

  19. On-chip noninterference angular momentum multiplexing of broadband light.

    PubMed

    Ren, Haoran; Li, Xiangping; Zhang, Qiming; Gu, Min

    2016-05-13

    Angular momentum division has emerged as a physically orthogonal multiplexing method in high-capacity optical information technologies. However, the typical bulky elements used for information retrieval from the overall diffracted field, based on the interference method, impose a fundamental limit toward realizing on-chip multiplexing. We demonstrate noninterference angular momentum multiplexing by using a mode-sorting nanoring aperture with a chip-scale footprint as small as 4.2 micrometers by 4.2 micrometers, where nanoring slits exhibit a distinctive outcoupling efficiency on tightly confined plasmonic modes. The nonresonant mode-sorting sensitivity and scalability of our approach enable on-chip parallel multiplexing over a bandwidth of 150 nanometers in the visible wavelength range. The results offer the possibility of ultrahigh-capacity and miniaturized nanophotonic devices harnessing angular momentum division. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Burst noise in the HAWAII-1RG multiplexer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, Candice M.; McMurtry, Craig W.; Pipher, Judith L.; Forrest, William J.; Garnett, James D.

    2005-08-01

    Burst noise (also known as popcorn noise and random telegraph signal/noise) is a phenomenon that is understood to be a result of defects in the vicinity of a p-n junction. It is characterized by rapid level shifts in both positive and negative directions and can have varying magnitudes. This noise has been seen in both HAWAII-1RG and HAWAII-2RG multiplexers and is under investigation. We have done extensive burst noise testing on a HAWAII-1RG multiplexer, where we have determined a significant percentage of pixels exhibit the phenomenon. In addition, the prevalence of small magnitude transitions make sensitivity of detection the main limiting factor. Since this is a noise source for the HAWAII-1RG multiplexer, its elimination would make the HAWAII-1RG and the HAWAII-2RG even lower noise multiplexers.

  1. Two Distinct RNase Activities of CRISPR-C2c2 Enable Guide RNA Processing and RNA Detection

    PubMed Central

    East-Seletsky, Alexandra; O’Connell, Mitchell R.; Knight, Spencer C.; Burstein, David; Cate, Jamie H. D.; Tjian, Robert; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial adaptive immune systems employ CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins for RNA-guided nucleic acid cleavage1,2. Although generally targeted to DNA substrates3–5, the Type III and Type VI CRISPR systems direct interference complexes against single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) substrates6–9. In Type VI systems, the single-subunit C2c2 protein functions as an RNA-guided RNA endonuclease9,10. How this enzyme acquires mature CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) essential for immune surveillance and its mechanism of crRNA-mediated RNA cleavage remain unclear. Here we show that C2c2 possesses a unique ribonuclease activity responsible for CRISPR RNA maturation that is distinct from its RNA-activated ssRNA-degradation activity. These dual ribonuclease functions are chemically and mechanistically different from each other and from the crRNA-processing behavior of the evolutionarily unrelated CRISPR enzyme Cpf111. We show that the two ribonuclease activities of C2c2 enable multiplexed processing and loading of guide RNAs that in turn allow for sensitive cellular transcript detection. PMID:27669025

  2. Single-Reaction, Multiplex, Real-Time RT-PCR for the Detection, Quantitation, and Serotyping of Dengue Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Waggoner, Jesse J.; Abeynayake, Janaki; Sahoo, Malaya K.; Gresh, Lionel; Tellez, Yolanda; Gonzalez, Karla; Ballesteros, Gabriela; Pierro, Anna M.; Gaibani, Paolo; Guo, Frances P.; Sambri, Vittorio; Balmaseda, Angel; Karunaratne, Kumudu; Harris, Eva; Pinsky, Benjamin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue fever results from infection with one or more of four different serotypes of dengue virus (DENV). Despite the widespread nature of this infection, available molecular diagnostics have significant limitations. The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex, real-time, reverse transcriptase-PCR (rRT-PCR) for the detection, quantitation, and serotyping of dengue viruses in a single reaction. Methodology/Principal Findings An rRT-PCR assay targeting the 5′ untranslated region and capsid gene of the DENV genome was designed using molecular beacons to provide serotype specificity. Using reference DENV strains, the assay was linear from 7.0 to 1.0 log10 cDNA equivalents/µL for each serotype. The lower limit of detection using genomic RNA was 0.3, 13.8, 0.8, and 12.4 cDNA equivalents/µL for serotypes 1–4, respectively, which was 6- to 275-fold more analytically sensitive than a widely used hemi-nested RT-PCR. Using samples from Nicaragua collected within the first five days of illness, the multiplex rRT-PCR was positive in 100% (69/69) of specimens that were positive by the hemi-nested assay, with full serotype agreement. Furthermore, the multiplex rRT-PCR detected DENV RNA in 97.2% (35/36) of specimens from Sri Lanka positive for anti-DENV IgM antibodies compared to just 44.4% (16/36) by the hemi-nested RT-PCR. No amplification was observed in 80 clinical samples sent for routine quantitative hepatitis C virus testing or when genomic RNA from other flaviviruses was tested. Conclusions/Significance This single-reaction, quantitative, multiplex rRT-PCR for DENV serotyping demonstrates superior analytical and clinical performance, as well as simpler workflow compared to the hemi-nested RT-PCR reference. In particular, this multiplex rRT-PCR detects viral RNA and provides serotype information in specimens collected more than five days after fever onset and from patients who had already developed anti-DENV IgM antibodies. The implementation of this

  3. MicroRNA-101 regulates T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia progression and chemotherapeutic sensitivity by targeting Notch1.

    PubMed

    Qian, Lu; Zhang, Wanggang; Lei, Bo; He, Aili; Ye, Lianhong; Li, Xingzhou; Dong, Xin

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of microRNA (miR)-101 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia progression and chemoresistance. Furthermore, a novel target gene of miR-101 was identified. Here, we confirmed that miR-101 was significantly downregulated in the blood samples of patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) compared with the healthy controls, as determined by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTqPCR) analysis. The in vitro experiments demonstrated that miR-101 significantly repressed the proliferation and invasion, and induced potent apoptosis in Jurkat cells, as determined by CCK-8, flow cytometer and cell invasion assays. Luciferase assay confirmed that Notch1 was a target gene of miR-101, and western blotting showed that miR-101 suppressed the expression of Notch1 at the protein level. Moreover, functional restoration assays revealed that Notch1 mediates the effects of miR-101 on Jurkat cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion. miR-101 enhanced the sensitivity of Jurkat cells to the chemotherapeutic agent adriamycin. Taken together, our results show for the first time that miR-101 acts as a tumor suppressor in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and it could enhance chemotherapeutic sensitivity. Furthermore, Notch1 was identified to be a novel target of miR-101. This study indicates that miR-101 may represent a potential therapeutic target for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia intervention.

  4. Long non-coding RNA TUC338 is functionally involved in sorafenib-sensitized hepatocarcinoma cells by targeting RASAL1.

    PubMed

    Jin, Weidong; Chen, Lei; Cai, Xun; Zhang, Yunxiao; Zhang, Jianxin; Ma, Dangdang; Cai, Xiong; Fu, Tao; Yu, Zhengping; Yu, Fuxiang; Chen, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Development of novel targeted therapy holds promise for conquering chemotherapy resistance, one of major hurdles in current liver cancer treatment. We found that long non-coding RNA TUC338 is involved in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and sorafenib resistance. HCC cell lines were transfected with siTUC338, then cell proliferation and i