... Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology ... Are Cataracts? Pediatric Cataracts Cataract Diagnosis and Treatment Cataract Surgery IOL Implants: Lens Replacement After Cataracts ...
N-Acetylcarnosine sustained drug delivery eye drops to control the signs of ageless vision: glare sensitivity, cataract amelioration and quality of vision currently available treatment for the challenging 50,000-patient population.
Babizhayev, Mark A; Burke, Leslie; Micans, Philip; Richer, Stuart P
drug studies. The authors present evidence, about why only a certain kind of NAC is safe, and why only certain formulas designed by IVP for drug discovery are efficacious in the prevention and treatment of senile cataract for long-term use. Overall cumulated studies demonstrate that the designed by IVP new vision-saving drug NAC eye drops help the aging eye to recover by improving its clarity, glare sensitivity, color perception and overall vision.
N-Acetylcarnosine sustained drug delivery eye drops to control the signs of ageless vision: Glare sensitivity, cataract amelioration and quality of vision currently available treatment for the challenging 50,000-patient population
Babizhayev, Mark A; Burke, Leslie; Micans, Philip; Richer, Stuart P
retinopathy are poorly represented in our current summary of vital-statistics and will be reported inherent in next N-acetylcarnosine ophthalmic drug studies. Conclusion: The authors present evidence, about why only a certain kind of NAC is safe, and why only certain formulas designed by IVP for drug discovery are efficacious in the prevention and treatment of senile cataract for long-term use. Overall cumulated studies demonstrate that the designed by IVP new vision-saving drug NAC eye drops help the aging eye to recover by improving its clarity, glare sensitivity, color perception and overall vision. PMID:19503764
... Colors that seem faded Glare - headlights, lamps or sunlight may seem too bright. You may also see ... a hat with a brim to block ultraviolet sunlight may help to delay cataracts. NIH: National Eye ...
Barman, Susmita; Srinivasan, Krishnapura
Non-enzymatic glycation of lens proteins and elevated polyol pathway in the eye lens have been the characteristic features of a diabetic condition. We have previously reported the benefits of zinc supplementation in reducing hyperglycemia and associated metabolic abnormalities and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. The current study explored whether zinc supplementation protects against cataractogenesis through modulation of glycation of lens proteins, elevated polyol pathway, oxidative stress, and proportion of different heat shock proteins in the eye lens of diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were fed with a zinc-enriched diet (5 and 10 times of normal) for 6 weeks. Supplemental zinc alleviated the progression and maturation of diabetes-induced cataract. Zinc was also effective in preventing the reduced content of total and imbalanced proportion of soluble proteins in the lens. Supplemental zinc also alleviated cross-linked glycation and concomitant expression of the receptor of glycated products and oxidative stress indicators in the eye lens. Zinc supplementation further induced the concentration of heat shock protein in the eye lens of diabetic rats, specifically α-crystallin. Zinc supplementation counteracted the elevated activity and expression of polyol pathway enzymes and molecules in the lens. The results of this animal study endorsed the advantage of zinc supplementation in exerting the antiglycating influence and downregulating polyol pathway enzymes to defer cataractogenesis in diabetic rats.
Valitsky, Michael; Hoffman, Amnon; Unterman, Terry; Bar-Tana, Jacob
Insulin-dependent type-1 diabetes (T1D) is driven by autoimmune β-cell failure, whereas systemic resistance to insulin is considered the hallmark of insulin-independent type-2 diabetes (T2D). In contrast to this canonical dichotomy, insulin resistance appears to precede the overt diabetic stage of T1D and predict its progression, implying that insulin sensitizers may change the course of T1D. However, previous attempts to ameliorate T1D in animal models or patients by insulin sensitizers have largely failed. Sensitization to insulin by MEthyl-substituted long-chain DICArboxylic acid (MEDICA) analogs in T2D animal models surpasses that of current insulin sensitizers, thus prompting our interest in probing MEDICA in the T1D context. MEDICA efficacy in modulating the course of T1D was verified in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats and autoimmune nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. MEDICA treatment normalizes overt diabetes in STZ diabetic rats when added on to subtherapeutic insulin, and prevents/delays autoimmune T1D in NOD mice. MEDICA treatment does not improve β-cell insulin content or insulitis score, but its efficacy is accounted for by pronounced total body sensitization to insulin. In conclusion, potent insulin sensitizers may counteract genetic predisposition to autoimmune T1D and amplify subtherapeutic insulin into an effective therapeutic measure for the treatment of overt T1D. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Gong, Bo; Zhang, Li-Yun; Lam, Dennis Shun-Chiu; Pang, Chi-Pui; Yam, Gary Hin-Fai
gammaD-Crystallin (CRYGD) is a major structural lens crystallin and its mutations result in congenital cataract formation. In this study, we attempted to correct the altered protein features of G165fsX8 CRYGD protein with small chemical molecules. Recombinant FLAG-tagged mutants (R15C, R15S, P24T, R61C, and G165fsX8) of CRYGD were expressed in COS-7 cells and treated with small chemical molecules with reported protein chaperoning properties (sodium 4-phenylbutyrate [4-PBA], trimethylamine N-oxide [TMAO], and glycerol and DMSO [DMSO]). Protein solubility in 0.5% Triton X-100 and subcellular distribution was examined by western blotting and immunofluorescence, respectively. Apoptosis was assayed as the percentage of fragmented nuclei in transfected cells. Expression of heat-shock proteins (Hsp70 and Hsp90) was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Unlike WT and most mutants (R15C, R15S, P24T, and R61C) of CRYGD, G165fsX8 CRYGD was significantly insoluble in 0.5% Triton X-100. This insolubility was alleviated by dose-dependent 4-PBA treatment. The treatment relieved the mislocalization of G165fsX8 CRYGD from the nuclear envelope. Also, 4-PBA treatment reduced cell apoptosis and caused an upregulation of Hsp70. 4-PBA treatment reduced the defective phenotype of mutant G165fsX8 CRYGD and rescued the affected cells from apoptosis. This could be a potential treatment for lens structural protein and prevent lens opacity in cataract formation.
Worgul, Basil V.; Smilenov, Lubomir; Brenner, David J.; Junk, Anna; Zhou, Wei; Hall, Eric J.
It is important to know whether the human population includes genetically predisposed radiosensitive subsets. In vitro studies have shown that cells from individuals homozygous for ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) are much more radiosensitive than cells from unaffected individuals. Although cells heterozygous for the ATM gene (ATM+/−) may be slightly more radiosensitive in vitro, it remained to be determined whether the greater susceptibility of ATM+/− cells translates into an increased sensitivity for late effects in vivo, though there is a suggestion that radiotherapy patients that are heterozygous for the ATM gene may be more at risk of developing late normal tissue damage. We chose cataractogenesis in the lens as a means to assay for the effects of ATM deficiency in a late-responding tissue. One eye of wild-type, Atm heterozygous and homozygous knockout mice was exposed to 0.5-, 1.0-, 2.0-, or 4.0-Gy x rays. The animals were followed weekly for cataract development by conventional slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Cataract development in the animals of all three groups was strongly dependent on dose. The lenses of homozygous mice were the first to opacify at any given dose. Most important in the present context is that cataracts appeared earlier in the heterozygous versus wild-type animals. The data suggest that ATM heterozygotes in the human population may also be radiosensitive. This may influence the choice of individuals destined to be exposed to higher than normal doses of radiation, such as astronauts, and may also suggest that radiotherapy patients who are ATM heterozygotes could be predisposed to increased late normal tissue damage. PMID:12119422
Worgul, Basil V.; Smilenov, Lubomir; Brenner, David J.; Junk, Anna; Zhou, Wei; Hall, Eric J.
It is important to know whether the human population includes genetically predisposed radiosensitive subsets. In vitro studies have shown that cells from individuals homozygous for ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) are much more radiosensitive than cells from unaffected individuals. Although cells heterozygous for the ATM gene (ATM(+/-)) may be slightly more radiosensitive in vitro, it remained to be determined whether the greater susceptibility of ATM(+/-) cells translates into an increased sensitivity for late effects in vivo, though there is a suggestion that radiotherapy patients that are heterozygous for the ATM gene may be more at risk of developing late normal tissue damage. We chose cataractogenesis in the lens as a means to assay for the effects of ATM deficiency in a late-responding tissue. One eye of wild-type, Atm heterozygous and homozygous knockout mice was exposed to 0.5-, 1.0-, 2.0-, or 4.0-Gy x rays. The animals were followed weekly for cataract development by conventional slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Cataract development in the animals of all three groups was strongly dependent on dose. The lenses of homozygous mice were the first to opacify at any given dose. Most important in the present context is that cataracts appeared earlier in the heterozygous versus wild-type animals. The data suggest that ATM heterozygotes in the human population may also be radiosensitive. This may influence the choice of individuals destined to be exposed to higher than normal doses of radiation, such as astronauts, and may also suggest that radiotherapy patients who are ATM heterozygotes could be predisposed to increased late normal tissue damage.
... age-related cataract. They recommend eating plenty of green leafy vegetables, fruits, nuts and other healthy foods. Also, don’t smoke, because smoking may speed cataract development. To screen for early signs of eye disease, Bishop recommends ...
Lavie, Carl J; Milani, Jenna N
Exercise training has numerous health benefits, and in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, it can improve insulin sensitivity and glucose control. A recent publication suggests that antioxidant vitamins (C and E) block these effects on blood glucose. This investigation was undertaken to determine whether antioxidant vitamins ameliorate the beneficial effects of cardiac rehabilitation and exercise training (CRET) on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). We assessed CHD risk factors, including clinical indices of glucose metabolism, and evaluated the effects of exercise training in 315 patients with CHD with diabetes mellitus and/or metabolic syndrome before and after a 3-month program of CRET. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on self-reported antioxidant vitamin (vitamins C and E) consumption. Both groups, 113 patients (36%) consuming vitamins (Vits group) and 202 patients (64%) who reported no vitamin use (no-Vits group) were statistically similar at baseline. Following CRET, patients improved exercise capacity (10%, P < .0001), fasting blood glucose (-7%, P < .0001), percent body fat (-3%, P = .0001), high-sensitive Creactive protein (-31%, P = .003), and various lipids and behavioral parameters, but there was no significant improvement in glycosylated hemoglobin following formal CRET. Both Vits group and no-Vits group achieved statistically similar improvements in fasting blood glucose, body fat, and other CHD risk factors. Commercially available antioxidant supplements (mean dose of 400 IU of vitamin E and 500 mg of vitamin C) do not ameliorate the health benefits of exercise training, including fasting blood glucose, in CHD patients
Ratnumnoi, Ravee; Keorochana, Narumon; Sontisombat, Chavalit
This study aimed to evaluate the normal flora of conjunctiva and lid margin, as well as its antibiotic sensitivity. This was a prospective cross-sectional study. A prospective study was conducted on 120 patients who underwent cataract surgery at the Phramongkutklao Hospital from September 2014 to October 2014. Conjunctival and lid margin swabs were obtained from patients before they underwent cataract surgery. These swabs were used to inoculate blood agar and chocolate agar plates for culturing. After growth of the normal flora, the antibiotic sensitivity method using tobramycin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and cefazolin was applied. Normal flora of conjunctiva and lid margin, along with its antibiotic sensitivity, from patients who underwent cataract surgery was assessed. A total of 120 eyes were included in this study, and bacterial isolation rates were identified. Five bacteria from the lid margin were cultured, namely, coagulase-negative staphylococcus (58.33%), Streptococcus spp. (2.5%), Corynebacterium (1.67%), Micrococcus spp. (1.67%), and Staphylococcus aureus (0.83%). Two bacteria from the conjunctiva were cultured, namely, coagulase-negative staphylococcus (30%) and Streptococcus spp. (0.83%). Results of antibiotic sensitivity test showed that all isolated bacteria are sensitive to cefazolin 100%, tobramycin 98.67%, levofloxacin 100%, and moxifloxacin 100%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci are the most common bacteria isolated from conjunctiva and lid margin.
Khokhar, Sudarshan Kumar; Pillay, Ganesh; Dhull, Chirakshi; Agarwal, Esha; Mahabir, Manish; Aggarwal, Pulak
Pediatric cataract is a leading cause of childhood blindness. Untreated cataracts in children lead to tremendous social, economical, and emotional burden to the child, family, and society. Blindness related to pediatric cataract can be treated with early identification and appropriate management. Most cases are diagnosed on routine screening whereas some may be diagnosed after the parents have noticed leukocoria or strabismus. Etiology of pediatric cataract is varied and diagnosis of specific etiology aids in prognostication and effective management. Pediatric cataract surgery has evolved over years, and with improving knowledge of myopic shift and axial length growth, outcomes of these patients have become more predictable. Favorable outcomes depend not only on effective surgery, but also on meticulous postoperative care and visual rehabilitation. Hence, it is the combined effort of parents, surgeons, anesthesiologists, pediatricians, and optometrists that can make all the difference. PMID:29208814
... JA, Vander JF, eds. Ophthalmology Secrets in Color . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2015:chap 21. Wevill ... cataract. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, eds. Ophthalmology . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 5. ...
... the doctor uses a tool that produces sound waves to break up the cataract into small pieces. ... JA, Vander JF, eds. Ophthalmology Secrets in Color . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 21.
Sasaki, Rie; Nishimura, Natsumi; Hoshino, Hiromi; Isa, Yasuka; Kadowaki, Maho; Ichi, Takahito; Tanaka, Akihito; Nishiumi, Shin; Fukuda, Itsuko; Ashida, Hitoshi; Horio, Fumihiko; Tsuda, Takanori
Adipocyte dysfunction is strongly associated with the development of obesity and insulin resistance. It is accepted that the regulation of adipocytokine expression is one of the most important targets for the prevention of obesity and improvement of insulin sensitivity. In this study, we have demonstrated that anthocyanin (cyanidin 3-glucoside; C3G) which is a pigment widespread in the plant kingdom, ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity due to the reduction of retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) expression in type 2 diabetic mice. KK-A(y) mice were fed control or control +0.2% of a C3G diet for 5 weeks. Dietary C3G significantly reduced blood glucose concentration and enhanced insulin sensitivity. The adiponectin and its receptors expression were not responsible for this amelioration. C3G significantly upregulated the glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) and downregulated RBP4 in the white adipose tissue, which is accompanied by downregulation of the inflammatory adipocytokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) in the white adipose tissue of the C3G group. These findings indicate that C3G has significant potency in an anti-diabetic effect through the regulation of Glut4-RBP4 system and the related inflammatory adipocytokines.
Lu, Qianbo; Bai, Jian; Wang, Kaiwei; Lou, Shuqi; Jiao, Xufen; Han, Dandan
Cross-sensitivity is a crucial parameter since it detrimentally affect the performance of an accelerometer, especially for a high resolution accelerometer. In this paper, a suite of analytical and finite-elements-method (FEM) models for characterizing the mechanism and features of the cross-sensitivity of a single-axis MOEMS accelerometer composed of a diffraction grating and a micromachined mechanical sensing chip are presented, which have not been systematically investigated yet. The mechanism and phenomena of the cross-sensitivity of this type MOEMS accelerometer based on diffraction grating differ quite a lot from the traditional ones owing to the identical sensing principle. By analyzing the models, some ameliorations and the modified design are put forward to suppress the cross-sensitivity. The modified design, achieved by double sides etching on a specific double-substrate-layer silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer, is validated to have a far smaller cross-sensitivity compared with the design previously reported in the literature. Moreover, this design can suppress the cross-sensitivity dramatically without compromising the acceleration sensitivity and resolution.
Elliott, D B
This paper reviews recent research on the evaluation of visual function in cataract. Visual impairment in cataract is principally caused by increased intraocular forward light scatter. It is assumed that visual acuity (VA) measurements assess the impact of narrow angle light scatter. This also makes the measurement of high spatial frequency contrast sensitivity (CS) unnecessary. However, VA measurements alone are an inadequate assessment of visual impairment in some patients with cataract. In addition, it is suggested that a measurement of wide-angle light scatter is required. This can be evaluated directly using the van den Berg Straylightmeter, or indirectly using low spatial frequency CS or disability glare (DG) tests. The following are discussed: (1) the relative usefulness of these tests; (2) how they can be incorporated into the decision as to when to extract a cataract; and (3) the importance of considering binocular visual function.
... Community Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Cataracts Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic ... every year in the US. The Most Common Types of Cataracts Cataracts are categorized depending on their ...
Ivanov, G; Cuşnir, V; Septichina, Natalia; Cuşnir, Vitalie
The work deals with the results of surgical treatment of 155 patients, who had uveal cataract, by method of facoemulsification with artificial crystalline lens transplanting. The age of the sick varied from 3 to 15 as a result of a complex treatment, involving determination of ethnic factor in the development of uveal cataract, before- and after-operation conservative medical treatment, surgical treatment of abscuration ambliopia 78.1% children and the keenness of sight 0.4 and 68.7% got binocularious sight. The study lot of posttraumatic cataract affected children included 189 patients, from them 68 with stationary cataract, 87 with intumescent cataract and 34 with postoperatorial aphakia. Age from 2 to 15 years. 76.3% cases of evolution without postoperatorial complications, in 13.7% intraoperatorial were observed different complications. The work presents the results of surgical treatment 196 of children, who had innate cataract, by the method of facoasoriation with soft intra-eyepiece lens transplanting from 133 patients who had two-sided cataract, 63 had monolateral cataract. All children underwent laser simulation and videocomputer auto-training in post-operation period. As a result of the treatment, 66.8% patients got the amelioration of sight with 0.4, and 58% got binocular sight. The children's age varied between 6 months and 15 years. This article presents a review of the treatment results of 213 children with posttraumatic, congenital and complicated cataracts. The rehabilitation of the patients with the lens pathology includes a complex of measures of early diagnosis, surgery, optimal correction, medical treatment before and after surgery, the prophilaxis and treatment of complications. This approach permits to increase the visual acuity in 83.8% and to restore the binocular vision in 71.4% patients.
Acharya, Rajendra Udyavara; Yu, Wenwei; Zhu, Kuanyi; Nayak, Jagadish; Lim, Teik-Cheng; Chan, Joey Yiptong
Human eyes are most sophisticated organ, with perfect and interrelated subsystems such as retina, pupil, iris, cornea, lens and optic nerve. The eye disorder such as cataract is a major health problem in the old age. Cataract is formed by clouding of lens, which is painless and developed slowly over a long period. Cataract will slowly diminish the vision leading to the blindness. At an average age of 65, it is most common and one third of the people of this age in world have cataract in one or both the eyes. A system for detection of the cataract and to test for the efficacy of the post-cataract surgery using optical images is proposed using artificial intelligence techniques. Images processing and Fuzzy K-means clustering algorithm is applied on the raw optical images to detect the features specific to three classes to be classified. Then the backpropagation algorithm (BPA) was used for the classification. In this work, we have used 140 optical image belonging to the three classes. The ANN classifier showed an average rate of 93.3% in detecting normal, cataract and post cataract optical images. The system proposed exhibited 98% sensitivity and 100% specificity, which indicates that the results are clinically significant. This system can also be used to test the efficacy of the cataract operation by testing the post-cataract surgery optical images.
Xue, Rong; Hao, Dan-Dan; Sun, Ji-Ping; Li, Wen-Wen; Zhao, Man-Man; Li, Xing-Hui; Chen, Ying; Zhu, Jian-Hua; Ding, Ying-Jiong; Liu, Jun
Abstract Aims: To examine if hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can promote glucose uptake and provide amelioration in type 2 diabetes. Results: Treatment with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor) increased glucose uptake in both myotubes and adipocytes. The H2S gas solution showed similar effects. The NaHS effects were blocked by an siRNA-mediated knockdown of the insulin receptor (IR). NaHS also increased phosphorylation of the IR, PI3K, and Akt. In Goto-Kakizaki (GK) diabetic rats, chronic NaHS treatment (30 μmol·kg−1·day−1) decreased fasting blood glucose, increased insulin sensitivity, and increased glucose tolerance with increased phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt in muscles. Similar insulin-sensitizing effects of NaHS treatment were also observed in Wistar rats. Moreover, glucose uptake was reduced in the cells with siRNA-mediated knockdown of the H2S-generating enzyme cystathionine γ-lyase in the presence or absence of exogenous H2S. Moreover, chronic NaHS treatment reduced oxygen species and the number of crescentic glomeruli in the kidney of GK rats. Innovation and Conclusion: This study provides the first piece of evidence for the insulin-sensitizing effect of NaHS/H2S in the both in vitro and in vivo models of insulin resistance. Rebound Track: This work was rejected during a standard peer review and rescued by the Rebound Peer Review (Antoxid Redox Signal 16: 293–296, 2012) with the following serving as open reviewers: Jin-Song Bian, Samuel Dudley, Hideo Kimura, and Xian Wang. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 5–23. PMID:23293908
Gahlaut, Anjum; Hooda, Vinita; Dhull, Vikas; Hooda, Vikas
The healthcare area is often reluctant to execute new technology unless they are proven to be safe, constructive and secure. Eventually, an aspiration stands for providing point-of-care testing service to allow a better estimation of the biochemical levels of a patient that entails an insistent remedial action. With increasing mortality rate due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in present scenario, it has become the need of hour to develop more advance methods for their diagnosis, so that it can be determined at sensitive levels and can be prevented from being fatal. Elevated level of cholesterol in blood stream is one of the utmost risk factors which lead to CVDs. Discernible from the vast research in this field, worth of cholesterol biosensors is already recognized and flourished in the clinical analysis of brain and cardiac vascular diseases. It necessitates unremitting progress in the development of biosensing technology towards fabrication, miniaturization and multiplexing ability of cholesterol quantification devices so that they can endow with lab-on-chip-analysis systems to the medical field. Different strategies have been meticulously explored for the engineering of cholesterol biosensors utilizing nanocomposites, conducting polymers, nanotubes and nanoparticles. Foremost, this article reviews the contemporary evolution in cholesterol biosensors, which encompass various strategies for immobilization of enzymes and roles of various matrices and artificial mediators used for the biosensor fabrication. Still there remains an enormous challenge to congregate the demands of performance and yield in a cost effective manner for its application in successful treatments of CVDs.
Cataract, or lens opacification, remains a major cause of blindness worldwide. Cataracts reduce vision in over eighty million people, causing blindness in eighteen million people. The number afflicted by cataract will increase dramatically as the proportion of the elderly global population increase...
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Arun, Veena; Noble, A Gwendolyn; Latkany, Paul; Troia, Robert N; Jalbrzikowski, Jessica; Kasza, Kristen; Karrison, Ted; Cezar, Simone; Sautter, Mari; Greenwald, Mark J; Mieler, William; Mets, Marilyn B; Alam, Ambereen; Boyer, Kenneth; Swisher, Charles N; Roizen, Nancy; Rabiah, Peter; Del Monte, Monte A; McLeod, Rima
To determine the incidence and natural history of cataracts in children with congenital toxoplasmosis. Children referred to the National Collaborative Chicago-based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study (NCCCTS) between 1981 and 2005 were examined by ophthalmologists at predetermined times according to a specific protocol. The clinical course and treatment of patients who developed cataracts were reviewed. In the first year of life, 134 of 173 children examined were treated with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and leukovorin, while the remaining 39 were not treated. Cataracts occurred in 27 eyes of 20 patients (11.6%, 95% confidence interval [7.2%, 17.3%]). Fourteen cataracts were present at birth and 13 developed postnatally. Locations of the cataracts included anterior polar (three eyes), anterior subcapsular (six eyes), nuclear (five eyes), posterior subcapsular (seven eyes), and unknown (six eyes). Thirteen cataracts were partial, nine total, and five with unknown complexity. Twelve cataracts remained stable, 12 progressed, and progression was not known for 3. Five of 27 eyes had cataract surgery, with 2 of these developing glaucoma. Sixteen eyes of 11 patients had retinal detachment and cataract. All eyes with cataracts had additional ocular lesions. In the NCCCTS cohort, 11.6% of patients were diagnosed with cataracts. There was considerable variability in the presentation, morphology, and progression of the cataracts. Associated intraocular pathology was an important cause of morbidity.
Abstract Recent studies have revealed the biological effects of H2 in suppressing organ injuries due to acute inflammation and oxidative stress. Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats naturally develop elevated blood pressure (BP) and kidney injury with aging. The present study examined the effect of long-term supplementation of H2 in drinking water on age-related changes. Four-week-old male Dahl SS rats were fed 3 types of water (n = 30 each) for up to 48 weeks: filtered water (FW), water with a high H2 content (492.5 ppb) obtained with water electrolysis (EW), or dehydrogenated EW (DW). Animals were subjected to histological analysis at 16, 24, and 48 weeks. The FW group showed progressive BP elevation and increases in albuminuria and cardiac remodeling during the course of treatment. Histologically, there were significant changes as a function of aging, i.e., glomerular sclerosis with tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the kidney, and increased cardiomyocyte diameter with interstitial fibrosis in the heart at 48 weeks. These changes were related to the enhanced inflammation and oxidative stress in the respective organs. However, there were no striking differences in BP among the groups, despite histological alterations in the EW group being significantly decreased when compared to FW and DW in both organs, with concurrently lower oxidative stress and inflammatory markers at 48 weeks. Conclusion Long-term ad libitum consumption of H2-enriched electrolyzed water can ameliorate the processes of kidney injury and cardiac remodeling with aging in Dahl SS rats by suppressing, at least partly, elevated inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:24289332
Shiels, Alan; Hejtmancik, J. Fielding
Lens opacities or cataract(s) represent a universally important cause of visual impairment and blindness. Typically, cataract is acquired with aging as a complex disorder involving environmental and genetic risk factors. Cataract may also be inherited with an early onset either in association with other ocular and/or systemic abnormalities or as an isolated lens phenotype. Here we briefly review recent advances in gene discovery for inherited and age-related forms of cataract that are providing new insights into lens development and aging. PMID:26310156
Matthews, Andrew G
It is conservatively estimated that some form of lens opacity is present in 5% to 7% of horses with otherwise clinically normal eyes.These opacities can range from small epicapsular remnants of the fetal vasculature to dense and extensive cataract. A cataract is defined technically as any opacity or alteration in the optical homogeneity of the lens involving one or more of the following: anterior epithelium, capsule, cortex, or nucleus. In the horse, cataracts rarely involve the entire lens structure (ie, complete cataracts) and are more usually localized to one anatomic landmark or sector of the lens. Complete cataracts are invariably associated with overt and significant visual disability. Focal or incomplete cataracts alone seldom cause any apparent visual dysfunction in affected horses,however.
Kurimoto, Yuta; Shibayama, Yuki; Inoue, Seiya; Soga, Minoru; Takikawa, Masahito; Ito, Chiaki; Nanba, Fumio; Yoshida, Tadashi; Yamashita, Yoko; Ashida, Hitoshi; Tsuda, Takanori
Black soybean seed coat has abundant levels of polyphenols such as anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-glucoside; C3G) and procyanidins (PCs). This study found that dietary black soybean seed coat extract (BE) ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity via the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in type 2 diabetic mice. Dietary BE significantly reduced blood glucose levels and enhanced insulin sensitivity. AMPK was activated in the skeletal muscle and liver of diabetic mice fed BE. This activation was accompanied by the up-regulation of glucose transporter 4 in skeletal muscle and the down-regulation of gluconeogenesis in the liver. These changes resulted in improved hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic mice. In vitro studies using L6 myotubes showed that C3G and PCs significantly induced AMPK activation and enhanced glucose uptake into the cells.
Weikel, Karen A; Garber, Caren; Baburins, Alyssa; Taylor, Allen
Lens opacification or cataract reduces vision in over 80 million people worldwide and blinds 18 million. These numbers will increase dramatically as both the size of the elderly demographic and the number of those with carbohydrate metabolism-related problems increase. Preventative measures for cataract are critical because the availability of cataract surgery in much of the world is insuficient. Epidemiologic literature suggests that the risk of cataract can be diminished by diets that are optimized for vitamin C, lutein/zeaxanthin, B vitamins, omega-3 fatty acids, multivitamins, and carbohydrates: recommended levels of micronutrients are salutary. The limited data from intervention trials provide some support for observational studies with regard to nuclear – but not other types of – cataracts. Presented here are the beneficial levels of nutrients in diets or blood and the total number of participants surveyed in epidemiologic studies since a previous review in 2007. PMID:24279748
The relationship between anisometropia and aniseikonia (ANK) is not well understood. Ametropic cataract patients provide a unique opportunity to study this relationship after undergoing emmetropizing lens extraction. Because light scatter may affect ANK measurement in cataract patients, its effect should also be evaluated. The Basic Aniseikonia Test (BAT) was evaluated using afocal size lenses to produce specific changes in retinal height. Several light scattering devices were then evaluated to determine which produced effects most similar to cataract. Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity (VA) losses were measured with each device and compared to those reported in cataract. After determining the most appropriate light scattering device, twenty healthy patients with normal visual function were recruited to perform the BAT using the filters to simulate cataract. Cataract patients were recruited from Vision America and the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Optometry. Patients between 20 and 75 years of age with at least 20/80 VA in each eye, ≥ 2D ametropia, and normal binocular function were recruited. Stereopsis and ANK were tested and each patient completed a symptom questionnaire. ANK measurements using afocal size lenses indicated that the BAT underestimates ANK, although the effect was minimal for vertical targets and darkened surroundings, as previously reported. Based on VA and contrast sensitivity loss, Vistech scattering filters produced changes most similar to cataract. Results of the BAT using Vistech filters demonstrated that a moderate cataract but not a mild cataract may affect the ANK measurement. ANK measurements on cataract patients indicated that those with ≥ 2 D ametropia in each eye may suffer from induced ANK after the first cataract extraction. With upcoming healthcare reform, unilateral cataract extraction may be covered, but not necessarily bilateral, depending on patient VA in each eye. However, a questionnaire about symptoms
The NASA-McGannon cataract surgery tool is a tiny cutter-pump which liquefies and pumps the cataract lens material from the eye. Inserted through a small incision in the cornea, the tool can be used on the hardest cataract lens. The cutter is driven by a turbine which operates at about 200,000 revolutions per minute. Incorporated in the mechanism are two passages for saline solutions, one to maintain constant pressure within the eye, the other for removal of the fragmented lens material and fluids. Three years of effort have produced a design, now being clinically evaluated, with excellent potential for improved cataract surgery. The use of this tool is expected to reduce the patient's hospital stay and recovery period significantly.
Despite being a treatable disease, cataract is still the leading cause for blindness in the world. Solar ultraviolet radiation is epidemiologically linked to cataract development, while animal and in vitro studies prove a causal relationship. However, the pathogenetic pathways for the disease are not fully understood and there is still no perfect model for human age related cataract. This non-comprehensive overview focus on recent developments regarding effects of solar UV radiation wavebands on the lens. A smaller number of fundamental papers are also included to provide a backdrop for the overview. Future studies are expected to further clarify the cellular and subcellular mechanisms for UV radiation-induced cataract and especially the isolated or combined temporal and spatial effects of UVA and UVB in the pathogenesis of human cataract. Regardless of the cause for cataract, there is a need for advances in pharmaceutical or other treatment modalities that do not require surgical replacement of the lens. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Takikawa, Masahito; Inoue, Seiya; Horio, Fumihiko; Tsuda, Takanori
Blueberries or bilberries contain large amounts of anthocyanins, making them one of the richest sources of dietary anthocyanin. These berries are widely consumed as fresh and dried fruits, jams, or juices. Considerable attention has been focused on the health benefits of bilberry fruits beyond their antioxidant content or their ability to improve vision. In this study, we tested the effect of dietary bilberry extract (BBE) on hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic mice. We found that dietary BBE ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Dietary BBE significantly reduced the blood glucose concentration and enhanced insulin sensitivity. AMPK was activated in white adipose tissue (WAT), skeletal muscle, and the liver of diabetic mice fed BBE. This activation was accompanied by upregulation of glucose transporter 4 in WAT and skeletal muscle and suppression of glucose production and lipid content in the liver. At the same time, acetyl-CoA carboxylase was inactivated and PPARalpha, acyl-CoA oxidase, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1A were upregulated in the liver. These changes resulted in improved hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. These findings provide a biochemical basis for the use of bilberry fruits and have important implications for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes via activation of AMPK.
Wesolosky, Jason D; Rudnisky, Christopher J
To determine the relationship between cataract severity and socioeconomic status (SES). Retrospective, observational case series. A total of 1350 eyes underwent phacoemulsification cataract extraction by a single surgeon using an Alcon Infiniti system. Cataract severity was measured using phaco time in seconds. SES was measured using area-level aggregate census data: median income, education, proportion of common-law couples, and employment rate. Preoperative best corrected visual acuity was obtained and converted to logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution values. For patients undergoing bilateral surgery, the generalized estimating equation was used to account for the correlation between eyes. Univariate analyses were performed using simple regression, and multivariate analyses were performed to account for variables with significant relationships (p < 0.05) on univariate testing. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the effect of including patient age in the controlled analyses. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that cataracts were more severe when the median income was lower (p = 0.001) and the proportion of common-law couples living in a patient's community (p = 0.012) and the unemployment rate (p = 0.002) were higher. These associations persisted even when controlling for patient age. Patients of lower SES have more severe cataracts. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sakai, Mariko; Uchii, Masako; Myojo, Kensuke; Kitayama, Tetsuya; Kunori, Shunji
Saxagliptin, a potent dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, is currently used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus, and it has been reported to exhibit a slower rate of dissociation from DPP-4 compared with another DPP-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin. In this study, we compared the effects of saxagliptin and sitagliptin on hypertension-related renal injury and the plasma and renal DPP-4 activity levels in Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive (Dahl-S) rats. The high-salt diet (8% NaCl) significantly increased the blood pressure and quantity of urinary albumin excretion and induced renal glomerular injury in the Dahl-S rats. Treatment with saxagliptin (14mg/kg/day via drinking water) for 4 weeks significantly suppressed the increase in urinary albumin excretion and tended to ameliorate glomerular injury without altering the blood glucose levels and systolic blood pressure. On the other hand, the administration of sitagliptin (140mg/kg/day via drinking water) did not affect urinary albumin excretion and glomerular injury in the Dahl-S rats. Meanwhile, the high-salt diet increased the renal DPP-4 activity but did not affect the plasma DPP-4 activity in the Dahl-S rats. Both saxagliptin and sitagliptin suppressed the plasma DPP-4 activity by 95% or more. Although the renal DPP-4 activity was also inhibited by both drugs, the inhibitory effect of saxagliptin was more potent than that of sitagliptin. These results indicate that saxagliptin has a potent renoprotective effect in the Dahl-S rats, independent of its glucose-lowering actions. The inhibition of the renal DPP-4 activity induced by saxagliptin may contribute to ameliorating renal injury in hypertension-related renal injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Labiris, Georgios; Toli, Aspasia; Polychroni, Damaskini; Gkika, Maria; Angelonias, Dimitrios; Kozobolis, Vassilios P.
A systematic review of the recent literature regarding the implementation of the liquefaction in cataract surgery and its short-term and long-term outcomes in various parameters that affect the quality of patients' life, including visual rehabilitation and possible complications was performed based on the PubMed, Medline, Nature and the American Academy of Ophthalmology databases in November 2013 and data from 14 comparative studies were included in this narrative review. Liquefaction is an innovative technology for cataract extraction that uses micropulses of balanced salt solution to liquefy the lens nucleus. Most studies reported that liquefaction is a reliable technology for mild to moderate cataracts, while fragmentation difficulties may be encountered with harder nuclei. PMID:26949656
Rehani, Madan M; Vano, Eliseo; Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Kleiman, Norman J
When this paper was about to go to press, the International Commission on Radiological Protection released a statement recommending a change in the threshold dose for the eye lens and dose limits for eye for occupationally exposed persons. It is clear that the earlier published threshold for radiation cataract is no longer valid. Epidemiological studies among Chernobyl clean-up workers, A bomb survivors, astronauts, residents of contaminated buildings, radiological technicians and recent surveys of staff in interventional rooms indicate that there is an increased incidence of lens opacities at doses below 1 Gy. Nevertheless, eye lens dosimetry is at a primitive stage and needs to be developed further. Despite uncertainties concerning dose threshold and dosimetry, it is possible to significantly reduce the risk of radiation cataract through the use of appropriate eye protection. By increasing awareness among those at risk and better adoption and increased usage of protective measures, radiation cataract can become preventable despite lowering of dose limits.
Cataracts are large landforms, and this oblique image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter covers only a small area of the innermost channel. The ridged material on the channel floor may be a lava flow that followed this channel after it was initially carved by giant floods of water.Obviously these are not the kind of cataracts that can develop in the lenses of your eyes, but large erosional scallops that form in river channels, like the Niagara Falls draining the Great Lakes of North America. Obviously these are not the kind of cataracts that can develop in the lenses of your eyes, but large erosional scallops that form in river channels, like the Niagara Falls draining the Great Lakes of North America. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21869
Hwang, Alex D.; Tuccar-Burak, Merve; Goldstein, Robert; Peli, Eli
Purpose: Oncoming headlight glare (HLG) reduces the visibility of objects on the road and may affect the safety of nighttime driving. With cataracts, the impact of oncoming HLG is expected to be more severe. We used our custom HLG simulator in a driving simulator to measure the impact of HLG on pedestrian detection by normal vision subjects with simulated mild cataracts and by patients with real cataracts. Methods: Five normal vision subjects drove nighttime scenarios under two HLG conditions (with and without HLG: HLGY and HLGN, respectively), and three vision conditions (with plano lens, simulated mild cataract, and optically blurred clip-on). Mild cataract was simulated by applying a 0.8 Bangerter diffusion foil to clip-on plano lenses. The visual acuity with the optically blurred lenses was individually chosen to match the visual acuity with the simulated cataract clip-ons under HLGN. Each nighttime driving scenario contains 24 pedestrian encounters, encompassing four pedestrian types; walking along the left side of the road, walking along the right side of the road, crossing the road from left to right, and crossing the road from right to left. Pedestrian detection performances of five patients with mild real cataracts were measured using the same setup. The cataract patients were tested only in HLGY and HLGN conditions. Participants’ visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were also measured in the simulator with and without stationary HLG. Results: For normal vision subjects, both the presence of oncoming HLG and wearing the simulated cataract clip-on reduced pedestrian detection performance. The subjects performed worst in events where the pedestrian crossed from the left, followed by events where the pedestrian crossed from the right. Significant interactions between HLG condition and other factors were also found: (1) the impact of oncoming HLG with the simulated cataract clip-on was larger than with the plano lens clip-on, (2) the impact of oncoming HLG
Schein, Oliver D.; Cassard, Sandra D.; Tielsch, James M.; Gower, Emily W.
Purpose To present descriptive epidemiology of cataract surgery among Medicare recipients in the United States. Setting Cataract surgery performed on Medicare beneficiaries in 2003 and 2004. Methods Medicare claims data were used to identify all cataract surgery claims for procedures performed in the United States in 2003-2004. Standard assumptions were used to limit the claims to actual cataract surgery procedures performed. Summary statistics were created to determine the number of procedures performed for each outcome of interest: cataract surgery rates by age, race, and gender; surgical volume by facility type, surgeon characteristics, and state; time interval between first- and second-eye cataract surgery. Results The national cataract surgery rate for 2003-2004 was 61.8 per 1000 Medicare beneficiary person-years. The rate was significantly higher for females and for those 75-84. After adjustment for age and gender, blacks had approximately a 30% lower rate of surgery than whites. While only 5% of cataract surgeons performed more than 500 cataract surgeries annually, these surgeons performed 26% of the total cataract surgeries. Increasing surgical volume was found to be highly correlated with use of ambulatory surgical centers and reduced time interval between first- and second-eye surgery in the same patient. Conclusions The epidemiology of cataract surgery in the United States Medicare population documents substantial variation in surgical rates by race, gender, age, and by certain provider characteristics. PMID:22978526
Schein, Oliver D; Cassard, Sandra D; Tielsch, James M; Gower, Emily W
To present descriptive epidemiology of cataract surgery among Medicare recipients in the United States. Cataract surgery performed on Medicare beneficiaries in 2003 and 2004. Medicare claims data were used to identify all cataract surgery claims for procedures performed in the United States in 2003-2004. Standard assumptions were used to limit the claims to actual cataract surgery procedures performed. Summary statistics were created to determine the number of procedures performed for each outcome of interest: cataract surgery rates by age, sex, race and state; surgical volume by facility type and surgeon characteristics; time interval between first- and second-eye cataract surgery. The national cataract surgery rate for 2003-2004 was 61.8 per 1000 Medicare beneficiary person-years. The rate was significantly higher for females and for those aged 75-84 years. After adjustment for age and sex, blacks had approximately a 30% lower rate of surgery than whites. While only 5% of cataract surgeons performed more than 500 cataract surgeries annually, these surgeons performed 26% of the total cataract surgeries. Increasing surgical volume was found to be highly correlated with use of ambulatory surgical centers and reduced time interval between first- and second-eye surgery in the same patient. The epidemiology of cataract surgery in the United States Medicare population documents substantial variation in surgical rates by race, sex, age, and by certain provider characteristics.
Lou, Lixia; Ye, Xin; Xu, Peifang; Wang, Jingyi; Xu, Yufeng; Jin, Kai; Ye, Juan
cataract burden showed little improvement in the past few decades. Worldwide, women have a higher cataract burden than men. Older age and lower socioeconomic status are associated with greater differences in rates of cataract by sex. Our findings may enhance public awareness of sexual differences in global cataract burden and emphasize the importance of making sex-sensitive health policy to manage global vision loss caused by cataract.
Huang, Dongmei; Zhu, Linping; Yang, Jinping; Wu, Donping
To evaluate the diagnostic value of ultrasonography for trinitrotoluene (TNT) cataract. The morphology and internal echoes of 90 lenses of 45 TNT cataract patients and 120 lenses of 60 healthy adults were observed and compared using ultrasonography and slit lamp, and the hemodynamic parameters of the post-ophthalmic artery were also measured. The findings of the slit-lamp microscope were regarded as diagnostic criteria, and the sensitivity, specificity, and accordance rate of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of TNT cataract were calculated. The sensitivity, specificity, and accordance rate of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of TNT cataract were 93.33%, 100.00%, and 97.14%, respectively; the positive and negative predictive values were 100% and 95.23%, respectively; the positive and negative likelihood ratios were 93.33 and 0.67, especuvey. With the progression TNT cataract, utrasonography showed that the lenses demonstrated morphological changes (spindle-shaped, spherical, and discoid morphologies), and the arc echoes of the posterior capsule were thickened and enhanced. The TNT cataract patients showed significantly lower peak systolic velocity and end-diastolic velocity of the ophthalmic artery (OA) and central retinal artery (P<0.01) and a significantly higher resistance index (P<0.05) than the healthy adults. The sensitivity of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of TNT cataract is similar to that of slit lamp. Ultrasonography can demonstrate objectively the shape, range, and degree of lens opacity in an efficient manner, which is conducive to the diagnosis and staging of TNT cataract by slit lamp, and can also provide hemodynamic information of the OA, thus providing new ideas for clinical physicians in evaluating the disease and clinical efficacy as well as exploring therapies.
Adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel blocking agent ameliorates, but the opening agent aggravates, ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury. Heart function studies in nonfibrillating isolated hearts.
Tosaki, A; Hellegouarch, A
This study was conducted to elucidate the role of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channel blocking agent glibenclamide and the opener cromakalim in the mechanism of reperfusion-induced injury. Recently, ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers have been proposed to reduce ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury, including arrhythmias and heart function. Thus, one might hypothesize that pharmacologic agents that enhance the loss of potassium ions in the myocardium through ATP-sensitive potassium channels would be arrhythmogenic, and agents that interfere with tissue potassium ion loss would be antiarrhythmic. Isolated "working" guinea pig hearts and phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to study the recovery of myocardial function and phosphorus compounds after 30, 40 and 50 min of normothermic global ischemia followed by reperfusion in untreated control and glibenclamide- and cromakalim-treated groups. After 30 min of ischemia, 1, 3, 10 and 30 mumol/liter of glibenclamide dose-dependently reduced the incidence of reperfusion-induced ventricular fibrillation (total) from its control value of 92% to 75%, 33% (p < 0.05), 33% (p < 0.05) and 42% (p < 0.05), respectively. The incidence of ventricular tachycardia followed the same pattern. A reduction of arrhythmias was also observed after 40 and 50 min of ischemia followed by reperfusion in the glibenclamide-treated hearts. Cromakalim, at the same concentrations, did not reduce the incidence of reperfusion-induced arrhythmias. During reperfusion, glibenclamide (3 and 10 mumol/liter) improved the recovery of coronary blood flow, aortic flow, myocardial contractility and tissue ATP and creatine phosphate content, but cromakalim failed to ameliorate the recovery of postischemic myocardium compared with that in the drug-free control hearts. The preservation of myocardial potassium ions and phosphorus compounds by glibenclamide can improve the recovery of postischemic function, but
Belkin, M.; Jacobs, D.R.; Jackson, S.M.
A retrospective survey of 32 persons with myopia and 38 persons with emmetropia who had been operated on at two US Army hospitals on the California coast showed that the persons with myopia who had worn eyeglasses for at least 20 years underwent cataract extraction at a significantly (P less than .00005) older age than the persons with emmetropia (median age at the time of the operation was 70 years, compared with 64 years). These results support the theory that some protection against solar ultraviolet radiation is offered the eyes by eye wear worn continuously and that solar ultraviolet radiationmore » may be a contributing factor in the formation of human senile cataracts.« less
Dr. Rafat Ansari and James King testing their dynamic light scattering clinical device in NASA's Vision Research Laboratory at NASA Glenn. The objective is to diagnose eye diseases non-invasively long before the clinical symptoms appear and help find non-surgical medical treatments. The device shown was recently used in humans by ophthalmologists and scientists for the study of early onset of cataracts.
Zhang, Hongqiu; Wu, Chen; Singh, Manmohan; Larin, Kirill V.
Cataract is the most prevalent cause of visual impairment worldwide. Cataracts can be formed due to trauma, radiation, drug abuse, or low temperatures. Thus, early detection of cataract can be immensely helpful for preserving visual acuity by ensuring that the appropriate therapeutic procedures are performed at earlier stages of disease onset and progression. In this work, we utilized a phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography (OCE) system to quantify changes in biomechanical properties of porcine lenses in vitro with induced cold cataracts. The results show significant increase in lens Young's modulus due to formation of the cold cataract (from 35 kPa to 60 kPa). These results show that OCE can assess lenticular biomechanical properties and may be useful for detecting and, potentially, characterizing cataracts.
Mennemeyer, Stephen T.; Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald
Older adults who undergo cataract extraction have roughly half the rate of motor vehicle collision (MVC) involvement per mile driven compared to cataract patients who do not elect cataract surgery. Currently in the U.S., most insurers do not allow payment for cataract surgery based upon the findings of a vision exam unless accompanied by an individual’s complaint of visual difficulties that seriously interfere with driving or other daily activities and individuals themselves may be slow or reluctant to complain and seek relief. As a consequence, surgery tends to occur after significant vision problems have emerged. We hypothesize that a proactive policy encouraging cataract surgery earlier for a lesser level of complaint would significantly reduce MVCs among older drivers. We used a Monte Carlo model to simulate the MVC experience of the U.S. population from age 60 to 89 under alternative protocols for the timing of cataract surgery which we call “Current Practice” (CP) and “Earlier Surgery” (ES). Our base model finds, from a societal perspective with undiscounted 2010 dollars, that switching to ES from CP reduces by about 21% the average number of MVCs, fatalities, and MVC cost per person. The net effect on total cost – all MVC costs plus cataract surgery expenditures -- is a reduction of about 16%. Quality Adjusted Life Years would increase by about 5%. From the perspective of payers for healthcare, the switch would increase cataract surgery expenditure for ages 65+ by about 8% and for ages 60 to 64 by about 47% but these expenditures are substantially offset after age 65 by reductions in the medical and emergency services component of MVC cost. Similar results occur with discounting at 3% and with various sensitivity analyses. We conclude that a policy of ES would significantly reduce MVCs and their associated consequences. PMID:23369786
Stanhewicz, Anna E.; Alba, Billie K.; Kenney, W. Larry; Alexander, Lacy M.
Chronic dairy intake is associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes while high dietary-sodium impairs endothelial function through increased oxidative stress and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of acute cheese consumption with consumption of sodium from non-dairy sources on microvascular function. We hypothesized that dairy-cheese ingestion would augment NO-dependent vasodilation compared to sodium from non-dairy sources. On 5 separate visits, 14 healthy subjects (61±2yrs, 8M/6F) consumed either 85g dairy cheese (560mg Na), 85g soy cheese (560mg Na), 65g pretzels (560mg Na), 170g dairy cheese (1120mg Na), or 130g pretzels (1120mg Na). Two intradermal microdialysis fibers were inserted in the ventral forearm for delivery of lactated Ringer’s or 10mM ascorbate (antioxidant) during local skin heating (~50 min). Red cell flux was measured continuously by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC=LDF/MAP) was normalized as %CVCmax (28mM sodium nitroprusside). Following a plateau in CVC, 15mM NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester was perfused to quantify NO-dependent vasodilation (~45 min). NO-dependent vasodilation was greater following dairy (560mg Na 57±3%) (1120mg Na 55±5%) compared to soy (560mg Na 42±3%; p=0.002) or pretzel (560mg Na 43±4%; p=0.004) (1120mg Na 46±3%; p=0.04). Ascorbate augmented NO-dependent vasodilation following soy (control: 42±3 vs. ascorbate: 54±3%; p=0.01) or pretzel (560mg Na; control: 43±4 vs. ascorbate: 56±3%; p=0.006) (1120mg Na; control: 46±5 vs. ascorbate: 56±3%; p=0.02), but not dairy. Sodium ingestion in dairy was associated with greater NO-dependent vasodilation compared to non-dairy sodium, a difference that was ameliorated with ascorbate perfusion. Dairy nutrients may protect against sodium-induced reductions in NO-dependent dilation through ascorbate-sensitive mechanisms. PMID:27363679
Koucheki, Behrooz; Nouri-Mahdavi, Kouros; Patel, Gitane; Gaasterland, Douglas; Caprioli, Joseph
To test the hypothesis that cataract extraction in glaucomatous eyes improves overall sensitivity of visual function without affecting the size or depth of glaucomatous scotomas. Experimental study with no control group. One hundred fifty-eight eyes (of 140 patients) from the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study with at least two reliable visual fields within a year both before and after cataract surgery were included. Average mean deviation (MD), pattern standard deviation (PSD), and corrected pattern standard deviation (CPSD) were compared before and after cataract extraction. To evaluate changes in scotoma size, the number of abnormal points (P < .05) on the pattern deviation plot was compared before and after surgery. We described an index ("scotoma depth index") to investigate changes of scotoma depth after surgery. Mean values for MD, PSD, and CPSD were -13.2, 6.4, and 5.9 dB before and -11.9, 6.8, and 6.2 dB after cataract surgery (P < or = .001 for all comparisons). Mean (+/- SD) number of abnormal points on pattern deviation plot was 26.7 +/- 9.4 and 27.5 +/- 9.0 before and after cataract surgery, respectively (P = .02). Scotoma depth index did not change after cataract extraction (-19.3 vs -19.2 dB, P = .90). Cataract extraction caused generalized improvement of the visual field, which was most marked in eyes with less advanced glaucomatous damage. Although the enlargement of scotomas was statistically significant, it was not clinically meaningful. No improvement of sensitivity was observed in the deepest part of the scotomas.
Gupta, Varun B; Rajagopala, Manjusha; Ravishankar, Basavaiah
Natural eye lens is a crystalline substance to produce a clear passage for light. Cataract is opacity within the clear lens of the eye and is the dominant cause of socio-medical problem i.e., blindness worldwide. The only available treatment of cataract is surgery. However, insufficient surgical facilities in poor and developing countries and post-operative complications inspire researchers to find out other modes of treatment for cataract. In this review, an attempt has been made to appraise various etiological factors of cataract to make their perception clear to build up counterpart treatment. Present study is an assortment of various available literatures and electronic information in view of cataract etiopathogenesis. Various risk factors have been identified in development of cataracts. They can be classified in to genetic factors, ageing (systemic diseases, nutritional and trace metals deficiencies, smoking, oxidative stress etc.), traumatic, complicated (inflammatory and degenerative diseases of eye), metabolic (diabetes, galactosemia etc.), toxic substances including drugs abuses, alcohol etc., radiation (ultraviolet, electromagnetic waves etc.) are implicated as significant risk factors in the development of cataract. PMID:24618482
Agramunt, Seraina; Meuleners, Lynn B; Fraser, Michelle L; Chow, Kyle C; Ng, Jonathon Q; Raja, Vignesh; Morlet, Nigel
Objectives To analyze the association between visual impairment and driver self-regulation among a cohort of older drivers waiting for first eye cataract surgery. Methods Ninety-six drivers with bilateral cataract aged 55+ years were assessed before first eye cataract surgery. Data collection consisted of a researcher-administered questionnaire, objective visual measures (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis), a visual attention test (the useful field of view test) and a cognitive test (the Mini-Mental State Examination). Driver self-regulation practices were collected using the Driving Habits Questionnaire and were also measured with an in-vehicle monitoring device. Characteristics of self-regulators and non-self-regulators were compared and a logistic regression model was used to examine the association between 3 objective visual measures and driver self-regulation status. Results After controlling for potential confounding factors, only binocular contrast sensitivity (p=0.01), age (p=0.03) and gender (p=0.03) were significantly associated with driver self-regulation status. The odds of participants with better contrast sensitivity scores (better vision) self-regulating their driving in at least 1 driving situation decreased (odds ratio [OR]: 0.01, 95% CI: 0.00–0.28) while those of increasing age reported an increased odds of self-regulating their driving (OR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.01–1.15). The odds of males self-regulating their driving was decreased compared with females (OR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.09–0.86). Conclusions Worse binocular contrast sensitivity scores, increasing age and being female were significantly associated with driver self-regulation. The study highlighted that while self-regulation was common among cataract patients, a proportion of those with poor vision did not self-regulate. Further research should determine how cataract patients could benefit from self-regulation strategies while waiting for cataract surgery. PMID:29184397
Demeler, U; Hinzpeter, E N
A short film showing our technique of combined penetrating keratoplasty and intracapsular cataract extraction was shown, and the postoperative results in 72 eyes after an average of 3 years were reported.
absence, assess for notable lenticular astigmatism ** How and when do you decide to use a capsular tension ring? (Expert) Zonular dialysis noted on...TITLE: Virtual Mentor Cataract Surgery Trainer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Principal Investigator: John I. Loewenstein MD Co-Investigator: Bonnie A...AND SUBTITLE Virtual Mentor Cataract Surgery Trainer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0531 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER
excessive lens movement), look for zonular absence, assess for notable lenticular astigmatism ** How and when do you decide to use a capsular...AD_________________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-08-1-0531 TITLE: Virtual Mentor Cataract Surgery Trainer...REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 20 Aug 2008 – 19 Aug 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Virtual Mentor Cataract Surgery
Agramunt, Seraina; Meuleners, Lynn B; Fraser, Michelle L; Chow, Kyle C; Ng, Jonathon Q; Raja, Vignesh
Driving a car is the most common form of transport among the older population. Common medical conditions such as cataract, increase with age and impact on the ability to drive. To compensate for visual decline, some cataract patients may self-regulate their driving while waiting for cataract surgery. However, little is known about the self-regulation practices of older drivers throughout the cataract surgery process. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of first and second eye cataract surgery on driver self-regulation practices, and to determine which objective measures of vision are associated with driver self-regulation. Fifty-five older drivers with bilateral cataract aged 55+ years were assessed using the self-reported Driving Habits Questionnaire, the Mini-Mental State Examination and three objective visual measures in the month before cataract surgery, at least one to three months after first eye cataract surgery and at least one month after second eye cataract surgery. Participants' natural driving behaviour in four driving situations was also examined for one week using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Two separate Generalised Estimating Equation logistic models were undertaken to assess the impact of first and second eye cataract surgery on driver-self-regulation status and which changes in visual measures were associated with driver self-regulation status. The odds of being a self-regulator in at least one driving situation significantly decreased by 70% after first eye cataract surgery (OR: 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.7) and by 90% after second eye surgery (OR: 0.1, 95% CI: 0.1-0.4), compared to before first eye surgery. Improvement in contrast sensitivity after cataract surgery was significantly associated with decreased odds of self-regulation (OR: 0.02, 95% CI: 0.01-0.4). The findings provide a strong rationale for providing timely first and second eye cataract surgery for older drivers with bilateral cataract, in order to improve their mobility and
Rao, Gullapalli N; Khanna, Rohit; Payal, Abhishek
To review the previous year's literature related to prevalence of blindness in general, blindness due to cataract, cataract surgical coverage (CSC) and cataract surgical rates (CSRs). Cataracts are the major cause of blindness and visual impairment in developing countries and contributes to more than 90% of the total disability adjusted life years. This review shows that coverage continues to be a problem in many countries, especially for the female population, those residing in rural areas and those who are illiterate. Although CSR is an indicator of the availability and acceptability of services, for measuring the impact of the program, we should look at combining CSR with CSC. This strategy would also enable us achieve our goal of eliminating avoidable blindness due to cataracts by the year 2020. Cataracts still continue- to be a major cause of blindness globally and with the rapidly aging population, it is a challenge to tackle. We need to plan a comprehensive strategy addressing issues related to availability, affordability, accessibility and acceptability of eye-care services.
Wesolosky, Jason D; Rudnisky, Christopher J
To determine the relationship between cataract severity and socioeconomic status (SES). Retrospective, observational case series. A total of 1350 eyes underwent phacoemulsification cataract extraction by a single surgeon using an Alcon Infiniti system. Cataract severity was measured using phaco time in seconds. SES was measured using area-level aggregate census data: median income, education, proportion of common-law couples, and employment rate. Preoperative best corrected visual acuity was obtained and converted to logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution values. For patients undergoing bilateral surgery, the generalized estimating equation was used to account for the correlation between eyes. Univariate analyses were performed using simple regression, and multivariate analyses were performed to account for variables with significant relationships (p < 0.05) on univariate testing. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the effect of including patient age in the controlled analyses. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that cataracts were more severe when the median income was lower (p = 0.001) and the proportion of common-law couples living in a patient's community (p = 0.012) and the unemployment rate (p = 0.002) were higher. These associations persisted even when controlling for patient age. Patients of lower SES have more severe cataracts. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Ni, W; Li, X; Hou, Z; Zhang, H; Qiu, W; Wang, W
Purpose Real-Life Vision Test (RLVT) is a newly developed performance-based measures of functional vision. This present study is designed to determine whether it could be a meaningful assessment for cataract surgery outcomes evaluation. Patients and methods Age-related cataract patients (56) who scheduled for bilateral cataract surgery and 44 age-matched controls were evaluated by four types of measurements: (1) demographic, medical, cognitive and depressive evaluation, and the reaction time testing; (2) clinical measures (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, stereopsis, and color perception); (3) the 25-item National Eye Institute's Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ); (4) the RLVT. Spearman's coefficients and multiple regression analysis were conducted to investigate the relationship among RLVT, clinical measures, and self-report assessment of visual function. Results The results of RLVT, clinical measures, and NEI-VFQ total scores were improved significantly after cataract surgery. There were no differences between control subjects and post-surgery patients with respect to NEI-VFQ-25 total scores, self-rating depression scale scores and three tasks of RLVT. Change of RLVT was significantly associated with the change of clinical measures in the cataract group. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that change of distance, intermediate, and near visual acuity, and binocular contrast sensitivity were significant predictors of improvements of RLVT. Conclusions Cataract surgery could improve real-world visual ability effectively for cataract patients. Our study highlights the potential usefulness of RLVT as an adjunct to the current outcomes evaluation system for cataract surgery. The use of RLVT combined with clinical and self-survey methods may be the comprehensive strategy to manifest the impact of cataract surgery on patients' overall vision-related quality of life. PMID:26272444
Caça, Ihsan; Sakalar, Yildirim Bayezit; Ari, Seyhmus; Alakus, Fuat; Dogan, Eyüp
We evaluated the results of simultaneous bilateral cataract extraction with intraocular lens (IOL) inplantation 32 pediatric cataract patients. Simultaneous cataract extraction and posterior capsulotomy with anterior vitrectomy and IOL implantation is an effective and safe procedure in bilateral pediatric cataracts treatment.
Randrianotahina, H C L; Nkumbe, H E
Cataract is the main cause of blindness among children in Africa, having replaced vitamin A deficiency and measles. The management of childhood cataract in Africa, especially francophone countries, is inadequate. The objective is to study the age at presentation of children diagnosed with cataract, their visual outcomes, and follow-up patterns after surgery in Madagascar. This was a retrospective case series of children operated on for cataract in one of the busiest eye hospitals in Madagascar between September 1999 and July 2009. Data were obtained from theater logs and patient case notes and entered in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Data entry was carried out using Microsoft Excel and analysis using Intercooled Stata version 9.0. Student t-test and Pearson's Chi-square were used to test associations where appropriate. A total of 60.5 percent of the 86 children operated on during the study period were boys. The mean age at presentation was 6.9 years (±SD 4.3) for congenital cataract, 13.1 years (±SD 2.9) for developmental cataract and 9.4 years (±SD 4.0) for traumatic cataract. A total of 36 children (41.9%) came back for follow-up, while 72 children (83.7%) were lost to follow-up 5 weeks after surgery. The mean follow-up period was 5 weeks (±SD 17.9). Children, who were brought back for follow-up were younger than those who were not. Although 64 (74.4%) of children had refraction during their encounters with the eye care facility, only 3 (3.5%) were provided with glasses. At last documented follow-up, 2.7% of the children had 6/18 vision or better. In Madagascar, presentation for congenital and developmental cataract is very late, visual outcome poor and follow-up inadequate. There is an urgent need for a childhood blindness program to effectively deal with pediatric cataract, an avoidable cause of blindness and visual disability in children on the island nation.
Khan, Arif O.
Hereditary pediatric cataract on the Arabian Peninsula does not follow the same epidemiological patterns as described for Western populations. This article describes selected genetic causes for inherited pediatric cataract in the region. PMID:23960971
Acosta-Rojas, E Ruthy; Comas, Mercè; Sala, Maria; Castells, Xavier
To evaluate the association between visual impairment (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, stereopsis) and patient-reported visual disability at different stages of cataract surgery. A cohort of 104 patients aged 60 years and over with bilateral cataract was assessed preoperatively, after first-eye surgery (monocular pseudophakia) and after second-eye surgery (binocular pseudophakia). Partial correlation coefficients (PCC) and linear regression models were calculated. In patients with bilateral cataracts, visual disability was associated with visual acuity (PCC = -0.30) and, to a lesser extent, with contrast sensitivity (PCC = 0.16) and stereopsis (PCC = -0.09). In monocular and binocular pseudophakia, visual disability was more strongly associated with stereopsis (PCC = -0.26 monocular and -0.51 binocular) and contrast sensitivity (PCC = 0.18 monocular and 0.34 binocular) than with visual acuity (PCC = -0.18 monocular and -0.18 binocular). Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis accounted for between 17% and 42% of variance in visual disability. The association of visual impairment with patient-reported visual disability differed at each stage of cataract surgery. Measuring other forms of visual impairment independently from visual acuity, such as contrast sensitivity or stereopsis, could be important in evaluating both needs and outcomes in cataract surgery. More comprehensive assessment of the impact of cataract on patients should include measurement of both visual impairment and visual disability.
Yeh, H; Price, R L; Lonsdale, D
A five-year-old girl with cerebral gigantism (Sotos' syndrome) and cataracts is described. Sotos' syndrome, characterized by generalized gigantism with normal endocrine studies has rarely been reported with ocular abnormalities and never with cataracts. It is important to study any child with cataracts for systemic disease.
Tripathi, B J; Tripathi, R C; Borisuth, N S; Dhaliwal, R; Dhaliwal, D
Because the organogenesis and physiology of the lens are essentially similar in various mammals, an understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of the formation of cataract in an animal model will enhance our knowledge of cataractogenesis in man. In this review, we summarize the background, etiology, and pathogenesis of cataracts that occur in rodents. The main advantages of using rodent mutants include the well-researched genetics of the animals and the comparative ease of breeding of large litters. Numerous rodent models of congenital and hereditary cataracts have been studied extensively. In mice, the models include the Cts strain, Fraser mouse, lens opacity gene (Lop) strain, Lop-2 and Lop-3 strains, Philly mouse, Nakano mouse, Nop strain, Deer mouse, Emory mouse, Swiss Webster strain, Balb/c-nct/nct mouse, and SAM-R/3 strain. The rat models include BUdR, ICR, Sprague-Dawley, and Wistar rats, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), the John Rapp inbred strain of Dahl salt-sensitive rat, as well as WBN/Kob, Royal College of Surgeons (RCS), and Brown-Norway rats. Other proposed models for the study of hereditary cataract include the degu and the guinea pig. Because of the ease of making clinical observations in vivo and the subsequent availability of the intact lens for laboratory analyses at different stages of cataract formation, these animals provide excellent models for clinicopathologic correlations, for monitoring of the natural history of the aging process and of metabolic defects, as well as for investigations on the effect of cataract-modulating agents and drugs, including the prospect of gene therapy.
Oliveira, Regina de Souza Carvalho de Salles; Temporini, Edméa R; Kara José, Newton; Carricondo, Pedro C; Kara José, Andréa C
To identify in adult patients suffering from cataract the perceptions regarding the disease and its surgical treatment. An exploratory survey was conducted among adult patients suffering from cataract and participating in a large-scale cataract management program at the University of São Paulo General Hospital in 2004. The interviews were conducted by research assistants previously trained to pose questions and record answers. The sample consisted of 170 men and women (43.5% and 56.5%, respectively), aged between 40 and 88 years. Of the 170 participants, 43.5% were from the State of São Paulo, 14.7% from the State of Bahia, 12.4% from the State of Minas Gerais, 5.9% from the State of Pernambuco, 1.8% from other countries, and the remaining 21.7% were from other Brazilian states. Of those who were actively working (n = 87), 43.7% had an occupational level corresponding to nonspecialized manual labor, 27.6% were in specialized manual labor jobs, 25.3% had routine nonmanual occupations, 1.1% supervised manual labor, and 2.3% had low-ranking supervision or inspection jobs over nonmanual occupations. Of those who were not actively working (n = 82), 53.6% were retired, 45.2% were housewives, and 1.2% were unemployed. Concerning conceptions about cataract, 79.0% referred to it as "a small skin fold that gradually covers the eye" and 32.4% mentioned, in addition, other conceptions. Concerning the cause, of the alternatives presented to them, 80% reported aging, 47.1% blamed "overusing the eyes in the workplace or at home", 7.1% believed they had cataract due to some kind of "spell." Of the associated answers, 94.1% referred to "blurred vision" in people suffering from cataract, 72.4% thought the person may become blind, and 66.5% believed that the patients suffering from cataract are depressed because they cannot see. Regarding surgery, 28.8% were afraid of undergoing surgery; of those, 16.3% cited with the fear of dying during surgery, 55.1% thought they might become
Ophthalmology was one of the most important specialties in Egyptian medicine, and more specialists are known in this field than in any other. This specialization seems, however, to have been of a purely noninvasive nature. Even though it has been claimed that cataract surgery was performed in pharaonic Egypt, careful analysis of the sources does not support the claim. No example of cataract surgery or of any other invasive ophthalmologic procedure can be found in the original sources. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Junk, A. K.; Worgul, B. V.
Cataracts characteristic of those arising from radiation exposure have been reported among the astronaut and cosmonaut corps. This being the case it is critical to appreciate how radiogenic cataracts relate to those arising from other exogenous causes such as therapeutics, which may, one day, have to be administered on an extended mission. Because they produce precisely the same clinical picture, corticosteroids are examples of a class of drugs that potentially can exacerbate damage to the lens from radiation. On the other hand, Vitamin E, a free radical scavenger, has been shown to ameliorate oxidative damage as caused by ionizing radiation and evidence is accumulating that it may constitute protection from radiogenic damage. An experimental study was conducted to understand if corticosteroids with and in the absence of Vitamin E deficiency modulate the onset of cataract induced by ionizing radiation. The right eyes of 72 28-day-old Brown-Norway rats were irradiated with 6 Gy of 240 kV X-rays, the shielded left eyes served as controls. Half of the animals were maintained on a Vitamin E free diet after irradiation, the others were kept on regular chow. In each nutritional group 18 rats additionally received dexamethasone. The initial daily dose of 10 mg/kg body weight injected subcutaneously was reduced to 0.5 mg/kg over the course of 6 months. Cataract onset and development were followed by weekly slit-lamp exam. After 6 month the lenses were harvested for microscopic analyses. Irradiated eyes in all treatment subgroups showed early cataract onset [5 wks versus 11 wks in controls (p<0.0001)]. Corticosteroids accounted for accelerated cataract development in both irradiated (p<0.0005) and non-irradiated eyes (p<0.0001) relative to respective control eyes. Vitamin E deficiency did not affect cataract incidence in combination with radiation or steroids alone. Unexpectedly, when compared to irradiated controls, cataract development was inhibited in the group that
Junk, A. K.; Worgul, B. W.
Cataracts characteristic of those arising from radiation exposure have been reported among the astronaut and cosmonaut corps. This being the case it is critical to appreciate how radiogenic cataracts relate to those arising from other exogenous causes such as therapeutics, which may, one day, have to be administered on an extended mission. Because they produce precisely the same clinical picture, corticosteroids are examples of a class of drugs that potentially can exacerbate damage to the lens from radiation. On the other hand, Vitamin E, a free radical scavenger, has been shown to ameliorate oxidative damage as caused by ionizing radiation and evidence is accumulating that it may constitute protection from radiogenic damage. An experimental study was conducted to understand if corticosteroids with, and in the absence of Vitamin E deficiency modulate the onset of cataract induced by ionizing radiation. The right eyes of seventy-two 28-day-old Brown-Norway rats were irradiated with 6 Gy of 240 kV X-rays, the shielded left eyes served as controls. Half of the animals were maintained on a Vitamin E free diet after irradiation, the others were kept on standard chow. Fifty per cent of the animals in each nutritional group received dexamethasone. The initial daily dose of 10 mg/kg body weight injected subcutaneously was reduced to 0.5 mg/kg over the course of six months. Cataract onset and development were followed by weekly slit-lamp exam. After six month the lenses were harvested for microscopic analyses. Irradiated eyes in all treatment subgroups showed early cataract onset [5 wks vs. 11 wks in controls ( p < 0.0001)]. Corticosteroids accounted for accelerated cataract development in both irradiated ( p < 0.0005) and non-irradiated eyes ( p < 0.0001) relative to respective control eyes. Vitamin E deficiency did not affect cataract incidence in combination with radiation or steroids alone. Unexpectedly, when compared to irradiated controls, cataract development was
Ma, Chun-Hua; Ma, Zhan-Qiang; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Shi-Ping
Ma Huang Tang (Ephedra decoction, MHT) is a famous classical formula from Shang Han Lun by Zhang Zhongjing in the Han Dynasty. The anti-asthmatic effects of MHT and the possible mechanisms were tested. An asthma model was established by ovalbumin (OVA)-induction in mice. A total of forty-eight mice were randomly assigned to six experimental groups: control, model, dexamethasone (2 mg·kg(-1)) and MHT (5, 10, and 20 mg·kg(-1)). Airway resistance (Raw) was measured by the forced oscillation technique, histological studies were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, Th1/Th2 and Th17 cytokines were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Th17 cells were evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM). This study demonstrated that MHT inhibited OVA-induced increases in Raw and eosinophil count; interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-17 levels were recovered in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, increased IFN-γ level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histological studies demonstrated that MHT substantially inhibited OVA-induced eosinophilia in lung tissue. Flow cytometry studies demonstrated that MHT substantially inhibited Th17 cells. These findings suggest that MHT may effectively ameliorate the progression of asthma, and could be further investigated for potential use as a therapy for patients with allergic asthma. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Posterior polar cataract is a rare form of congenital cataract. It is usually inherited as an autosomal dominant disease, yet it can be sporadic. Five genes have been attributed to the formation of this disease. It is highly associated with complications during surgery, such as posterior capsule rupture and nucleus drop. The reason for this high complication rate is the strong adherence of the opacity to the weak posterior capsule. Different surgical strategies were described for the handling of this challenging entity, most of which emphasized the need for gentle maneuvering in dealing with these cases. It has a unique clinical appearance that should not be missed in order to anticipate, avoid, and minimize the impact of the complications associated with it. PMID:23960967
Hiatt, R L
Over a period of 10 years, 160 children with cataracts underwent operation at the University of Tennessee Medical Center, Memphis. The surgical, optical, and psychosocial rehabilitation of these patients was analyzed and studied. The optical rehabilitation included patients with glasses, intraocular lens implants, epikeratophakia, and contact lenses. Seventy three of these patients were chosen at random and reevaluated as to visual outcome, and 46 were subjected to a psychosocial test to evaluate their quality of life and their rehabilitation. Eighteen of these were also given a psychosocial test to evaluate the quality of life enjoyed by these children at an older age following treatment for the cataract. Surgical, optical, and psychosocial rehabilitation of such children is also discussed. This is the first report of the psychological evaluation of such children. The further needs of these children as they approach adulthood are discussed in detail. PMID:10360302
Jutamulia, Suganda; Wihardjo, Erning; Widjaja, Joewono
A laser diode device for pre cataract surgery test is proposed. The operation is based on the speckle generated on the retina by the cataract lens, when the cataract lens is illuminated with a coherent laser light.
Lee, Cameron M; Afshari, Natalie A
Cataracts are a significant cause of blindness and visual impairment worldwide. The present article reviews the literature and describes the current extent of cataracts globally, barriers to treatment, and recommendations for improving the treatment of cataracts. Prevalence and absolute number of blind because of cataracts remain high, although rates are declining in many areas globally. The age-standardized prevalence of blindness in adults older than 50 remains highest in western sub-Saharan Africa, with a rate of 6.0%. The greatest declines in age-standardized blindness because of cataracts in adults older than 50 between 1990 and 2010 were in East Asia, tropical Latin America, and western Europe. Recent studies have largely found higher rates of cataracts in women than in men. A new simulator for training ophthalmologists in manual small-incision cataract surgery holds promise for the future. The rates of cataract surgery are increasing and postoperative outcomes are improving worldwide, yet challenges to reducing the cataract burden further remain. Cost, an insufficient number of ophthalmologists, and low government funding remain significant barriers but investment in further eye care infrastructure and training of additional ophthalmologists would improve the current situation.
Zhao, Ling; Chen, Xiang-Jun; Zhu, Jie; Xi, Yi-Bo; Yang, Xu; Hu, Li-Dan; Ouyang, Hong; Patel, Sherrina H; Jin, Xin; Lin, Danni; Wu, Frances; Flagg, Ken; Cai, Huimin; Li, Gen; Cao, Guiqun; Lin, Ying; Chen, Daniel; Wen, Cindy; Chung, Christopher; Wang, Yandong; Qiu, Austin; Yeh, Emily; Wang, Wenqiu; Hu, Xun; Grob, Seanna; Abagyan, Ruben; Su, Zhiguang; Tjondro, Harry Christianto; Zhao, Xi-Juan; Luo, Hongrong; Hou, Rui; Jefferson, J; Perry, P; Gao, Weiwei; Kozak, Igor; Granet, David; Li, Yingrui; Sun, Xiaodong; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Liangfang; Liu, Yizhi; Yan, Yong-Bin; Zhang, Kang
The human lens is comprised largely of crystallin proteins assembled into a highly ordered, interactive macro-structure essential for lens transparency and refractive index. Any disruption of intra- or inter-protein interactions will alter this delicate structure, exposing hydrophobic surfaces, with consequent protein aggregation and cataract formation. Cataracts are the most common cause of blindness worldwide, affecting tens of millions of people, and currently the only treatment is surgical removal of cataractous lenses. The precise mechanisms by which lens proteins both prevent aggregation and maintain lens transparency are largely unknown. Lanosterol is an amphipathic molecule enriched in the lens. It is synthesized by lanosterol synthase (LSS) in a key cyclization reaction of a cholesterol synthesis pathway. Here we identify two distinct homozygous LSS missense mutations (W581R and G588S) in two families with extensive congenital cataracts. Both of these mutations affect highly conserved amino acid residues and impair key catalytic functions of LSS. Engineered expression of wild-type, but not mutant, LSS prevents intracellular protein aggregation of various cataract-causing mutant crystallins. Treatment by lanosterol, but not cholesterol, significantly decreased preformed protein aggregates both in vitro and in cell-transfection experiments. We further show that lanosterol treatment could reduce cataract severity and increase transparency in dissected rabbit cataractous lenses in vitro and cataract severity in vivo in dogs. Our study identifies lanosterol as a key molecule in the prevention of lens protein aggregation and points to a novel strategy for cataract prevention and treatment.
Hales, Angela M.; Chamberlain, Coral G.; Murphy, Christopher R.; McAvoy, John W.
Cataract, already a major cause of visual impairment and blindness, is likely to become an increasing problem as the world population ages. In a previous study, we showed that transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) induces rat lenses in culture to develop opacities and other changes that have many features of human subcapsular cataracts. Here we show that estrogen protects against cataract. Lenses from female rats are more resistant to TGFβ-induced cataract than those from males. Furthermore, lenses from ovariectomized females show increased sensitivity to the damaging effects of TGFβ and estrogen replacement in vivo, or exposure to estrogen in vitro, restores resistance. Sex-dependent and estrogen-related differences in susceptibility to cataract formation, consistent with a protective role for estrogen, have been noted in some epidemiological studies. The present study in the rat indicates that estrogen provides protection against cataract by countering the damaging effects of TGFβ. It also adds to an increasing body of evidence that hormone replacement therapy protects postmenopausal women against various diseases. PMID:9016876
Ansari,Rafat R.; Clark, John I.; King, James F.
Half of all blindness worldwide is due to cataracts, and 34 million Americans over the age of 65 have cataracts. This figure is expected to rise to 70 million by the year 2030. Currently, no medical treatment is available to prevent or halt the progression of a cataract; nor is there any way to reverse a cataract once it has been detected by conventional methods. The only known treatment is surgical removal of the lens. It is estimated that over $5 billion will be spent this year for the treatment of cataract patients in the United States alone. According to Carl Kupfer, M.D., former Director of the National Eye Institute at the National Institutes of Health, "A delay in cataract formation of about 10 years would reduce the prevalence of visually disabling cataracts by about 45 percent." However, this vision remains a dream because of the lack of objective methods that can be used to detect cataracts very early and, hence, can be used for screening potential anticataract drugs. This is about to change. The National Eye Institute and NASA entered into a formal interagency agreement in late 1996 to develop and test a dynamic light-scattering (DLS) device to detect the earliest changes due to cataract formation. The new DLS probe developed by Dr. Ansari at the NASA Glenn Research Center is several orders of magnitude more sensitive than conventional clinical systems. This ultrahigh sensitivity enables the probe to detect the onset of a cataract before it has any effect on vision and allows researchers to test the effectiveness of anticataract drugs in reversing cataracts. This device (see the following illustration) was originally designed to study transport phenomena in microgravity fluid physics experiments onboard the space shuttle orbiters and space station. It will be very useful in testing anticataract drugs to halt or reverse the progression of cataracts during longitudinal clinical trials.
Medsinge, Anagha; Nischal, Ken K
Cataract is a significant cause of visual disability in the pediatric population worldwide and can significantly impact the neurobiological development of a child. Early diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention is critical to prevent irreversible amblyopia. Thorough ocular evaluation, including the onset, duration, and morphology of a cataract, is essential to determine the timing for surgical intervention. Detailed assessment of the general health of the child, preferably in conjunction with a pediatrician, is helpful to rule out any associated systemic condition. Although pediatric cataracts have a diverse etiology, with the majority being idiopathic, genetic counseling and molecular testing should be undertaken with the help of a genetic counselor and/or geneticist in cases of hereditary cataracts. Advancement in surgical techniques and methods of optical rehabilitation has substantially improved the functional and anatomic outcomes of pediatric cataract surgeries in recent years. However, the phenomenon of refractive growth and the process of emmetropization have continued to puzzle pediatric ophthalmologists and highlight the need for future prospective studies. Posterior capsule opacification and secondary glaucoma are still the major postoperative complications necessitating long-term surveillance in children undergoing cataract surgery early in life. Successful management of pediatric cataracts depends on individualized care and experienced teamwork. We reviewed the etiology, preoperative evaluation including biometry, choice of intraocular lens, surgical techniques, and recent developments in the field of childhood cataract. PMID:25609909
Hatch, Kathryn M; Schultz, Tim; Talamo, Jonathan H; Dick, H Burkhard
To compare effective phacoemulsification time (EPT) for the removal of brunescent cataracts treated with femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery with standard cataract phacoemulsification techniques. Ruhr University Eye Hospital, Bochum, Germany. Comparative prospective case study. The Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III) grading system was used to measure eyes divided into 4 groups having cataract surgery. Groups 1 and 2 contained eyes with LOCS III grade nuclear opalescence (NO) 3 cataracts treated with standard cataract surgery and femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery, respectively. Groups 3 and 4 contained brunescent cataracts, LOCS III grades NO5, treated with standard cataract surgery and femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery, respectively. There were 240 eyes, with 60 eyes in each group. The EPT in Group 1 ranged from 0.46 to 3.10 (mean 1.38); the EPT in all eyes in Group 2 was 0 (P < .001). The EPT in Groups 3 and 4 was 2.12 to 19.29 (mean 6.85) and 0 to 6.75 (mean 1.35), respectively (P < .001). A comparison between EPT in Groups 1 and 4 showed that EPT in Group 4 was also lower than in Group 1 (P = .013). Groups 4 and 1 were the most statistically similar of all groups compared, suggesting that EPT for a femtosecond laser-treated grade 5 cataract was most similar to that of a standard-treated grade 3 cataract. Femtosecond laser pretreatment for brunescent cataracts allowed for a significant reduction in EPT compared with manual standard phacoemulsification techniques. Drs. Hatch, Talamo, and Dick are consultants to Abbott Medical Optics, Inc. Dr. Schultz has no financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kronschläger, Martin; Löfgren, Stefan; Yu, Zhaohua; Talebizadeh, Nooshin; Varma, Shambhu D.; Söderberg, Per
The purpose of this study was to investigate if topically applied caffeine protects against in vivo ultraviolet radiation cataract and if so, to estimate the protection factor. Three experiments were carried out. First, two groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-treated with a single application of either placebo or caffeine eye drops in both eyes. All animals were then unilaterally exposed in vivo to 8 kJ/m2 UV-B radiation for 15 min. One week later, the lens GSH levels were measured and the degree of cataract was quantified by measurement of in vitro lens light scattering. In the second experiment, placebo and caffeine pre-treated rats were divided in five UV-B radiation dose groups, receiving 0.0, 2.6, 3.7, 4.5 or 5.2 kJ/m2 UV-B radiation in one eye. Lens light scattering was determined after one week. In the third experiment, placebo and caffeine pre-treated rats were UV-B-exposed and the presence of activated caspase-3 was visualized by immunohistochemistry. There was significantly less UV-B radiation cataract in the caffeine group than in the placebo group (95% confidence interval for mean difference in lens light scattering between the groups = 0.10 ± 0.05 tEDC), and the protection factor for caffeine was 1.23. There was no difference in GSH levels between the placebo- and the caffeine group. There was more caspase-3 staining in UV-B-exposed lenses from the placebo group than in UV-B-exposed lenses from the caffeine group. Topically applied caffeine protects against ultraviolet radiation cataract, reducing lens sensitivity 1.23 times. PMID:23644096
Ahn, Seong Joon; Woo, Se Joon; Hyon, Joon Young; Park, Kyu Hyung
To report the clinical features of cataracts in eyes with ocular toxocariasis. Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University Bundang Hosptal, Seongnam, South Korea. Retrospective observational case series. The clinical diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis was based on the following characteristic features: retinal granuloma with or without ocular inflammation and positive results in serum antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients younger than 60 years who presented with a unilateral cataract and were diagnosed with ocular toxocariasis between January 2009 and January 2012 were included. Demographic and ocular examination data for all patients showing atypical cataract features were collected. All cataracts were documented with anterior segment photography. Seven of 83 patients (8.4%) presented with an atypical cataract in the eye with ocular toxocariasis only. The mean patient age was 49.7 years ± 8.3 (SD) (range 38 to 59 years). All patients had small, round, white lens opacities resembling retinal granulomas. The granuloma-like opacities were located primarily in the lens midperiphery and in the subcapsular level. The lens opacity migrated in 1 patient. Ocular toxocariasis can cause a cataract with distinctive clinical features. These cataracts show a granuloma-like opacity primarily in the posterior subcapsular level; the opacity can migrate. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Trigueros, José Antonio; Piñero, David P; Ismail, Mahmoud M
To define the financial and management conditions required to introduce a femtosecond laser system for cataract surgery in a clinic using a fuzzy logic approach. In the simulation performed in the current study, the costs associated to the acquisition and use of a commercially available femtosecond laser platform for cataract surgery (VICTUS, TECHNOLAS Perfect Vision GmbH, Bausch & Lomb, Munich, Germany) during a period of 5y were considered. A sensitivity analysis was performed considering such costs and the countable amortization of the system during this 5y period. Furthermore, a fuzzy logic analysis was used to obtain an estimation of the money income associated to each femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (G). According to the sensitivity analysis, the femtosecond laser system under evaluation can be profitable if 1400 cataract surgeries are performed per year and if each surgery can be invoiced more than $500. In contrast, the fuzzy logic analysis confirmed that the patient had to pay more per surgery, between $661.8 and $667.4 per surgery, without considering the cost of the intraocular lens (IOL). A profitability of femtosecond laser systems for cataract surgery can be obtained after a detailed financial analysis, especially in those centers with large volumes of patients. The cost of the surgery for patients should be adapted to the real flow of patients with the ability of paying a reasonable range of cost.
Trigueros, José Antonio; Piñero, David P; Ismail, Mahmoud M
AIM To define the financial and management conditions required to introduce a femtosecond laser system for cataract surgery in a clinic using a fuzzy logic approach. METHODS In the simulation performed in the current study, the costs associated to the acquisition and use of a commercially available femtosecond laser platform for cataract surgery (VICTUS, TECHNOLAS Perfect Vision GmbH, Bausch & Lomb, Munich, Germany) during a period of 5y were considered. A sensitivity analysis was performed considering such costs and the countable amortization of the system during this 5y period. Furthermore, a fuzzy logic analysis was used to obtain an estimation of the money income associated to each femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (G). RESULTS According to the sensitivity analysis, the femtosecond laser system under evaluation can be profitable if 1400 cataract surgeries are performed per year and if each surgery can be invoiced more than $500. In contrast, the fuzzy logic analysis confirmed that the patient had to pay more per surgery, between $661.8 and $667.4 per surgery, without considering the cost of the intraocular lens (IOL). CONCLUSION A profitability of femtosecond laser systems for cataract surgery can be obtained after a detailed financial analysis, especially in those centers with large volumes of patients. The cost of the surgery for patients should be adapted to the real flow of patients with the ability of paying a reasonable range of cost. PMID:27500115
Torres-Bernal, Beatriz E; Torres-Bernal, Luis Fernando; Gutiérrez-Campos, Rafael R; Kershenobich Stalnikowitz, David D; Barba-Gallardo, Luis Fernando; Chayet, Arturo A; Ventura-Juárez, Javier
To analyze the expression of 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), 2 factors in the unfolded protein response (UPR), in age-related and diabetes-associated cataract. Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, México. Experimental study. The qualitative and quantitative expression of GRP78 and ATF6 were measured in surgical samples from 11 senile cataracts, 9 diabetic-associated cataracts, and 3 normal lenses. Both proteins were detected by immunofluorescence and immunogold-conjugated antibodies. Quantitative morphometry was used to analyze the differences in GRP78 and ATF6 between samples. The Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical analysis. Scanning electron microscopy showed the characteristic organization of fibers in normal lenses with regular alignment and interdigitation between them. On the other hand, lenses from eyes with senile or diabetic cataract showed the same pattern of misalignment and disorganization of the fibers. Both proteins were detected through immunofluorescence in senile and diabetic cataracts, but not in normal lenses. Immunogold-conjugated antibodies and transmission electron microscopy showed that GRP78 and ATF6 grains were 30% higher and 35% higher, respectively, in diabetic cataracts than in senile cataracts (P<.05). These data show for the first time in humans that GRP78 and ATF6 are present in lens fibers of senile cataracts and diabetic cataracts, establishing that the UPR may be important in the process of cataractogenesis. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vasavada, Abhay R; Vasavada, Vaishali A
Posterior polar cataracts (PPC) have always been a challenge for cataract surgeons due to their inherently higher propensity for posterior capsule rupture. Over the years, several technical modifications have been suggested to enhance safety and reduce posterior capsule rupture rates in these polar cataracts. This review article tries to present the various techniques and strategies to published in literature to manage PPCs. It also discusses pearls for making surgery more reproducible and consistent, as well as the role of newer diagnostic and surgical technology based on the published literature on the subject. PMID:29208815
Mathew, Milan C; Ervin, Ann-Margret; Tao, Jeremiah; Davis, Richard M
were available. We did not perform a sensitivity analysis. Main results Nine trials involving 117,272 individuals of age 35 years or older are included in this review. The trials were conducted in Australia, Finland, India, Italy, the United Kingdom and the United States, with duration of follow-up ranging from 2.1 to 12 years. The doses of antioxidant vitamins were higher than the recommended daily allowance. There was no evidence of effect of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in reducing the risk of cataract, cataract extraction, progression of cataract or in slowing the loss of visual acuity. In the pooled analyses, there was no evidence of effect of beta-carotene supplementation in reducing the risk of cataract (two trials) (relative risk (RR) 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91 to 1.08; n = 57,703) or in reducing the risk of cataract extraction (three trials) (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.10; n = 86,836) or of vitamin E supplementation in reducing the risk of cataract (three trials) (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.04; n = 50,059) or of cataract extraction (five trials) (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.05; n = 83,956). The proportion of participants developing hypercarotenodermia (yellowing of skin) while on beta-carotene ranged from 7.4% to 15.8%. Authors’ conclusions There is no evidence from RCTs that supplementation with antioxidant vitamins (beta-carotene, vitamin C or vitamin E) prevents or slows the progression of age-related cataract. We do not recommend any further studies to examine the role of antioxidant vitamins beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E in preventing or slowing the progression of age-related cataract. Costs and adverse effects should be weighed carefully with unproven benefits before recommending their intake above recommended daily allowances. PMID:22696344
Mathew, Milan C; Ervin, Ann-Margret; Tao, Jeremiah; Davis, Richard M
Age-related cataract is a major cause of visual impairment in the elderly. Oxidative stress has been implicated in its formation and progression. Antioxidant vitamin supplementation has been investigated in this context. To assess the effectiveness of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in preventing and slowing the progression of age-related cataract. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 2), MEDLINE (January 1950 to March 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to March 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to March 2012), Open Grey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 2 March 2012. We also checked the reference lists of included studies and ongoing trials and contacted investigators to identify eligible randomized trials. We included only randomized controlled trials in which supplementation with one or more antioxidant vitamins (beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E) in any form, dosage or combination for at least one year was compared to another antioxidant vitamin or to placebo. Two authors extracted data and assessed trial quality independently. We pooled results for the primary outcomes, i.e., incidence of cataract and incidence of cataract extraction. We did not pool results of the secondary outcomes - progression of cataract and loss of visual acuity, because of differences in definitions of outcomes and data presentation. We pooled results by type of cataract when data were available. We did not perform a sensitivity analysis. Nine trials involving 117
Huang, Chih-Chung; Chen, Ruimin; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Zhou, Qifa; Humayun, Mark S; Shung, K Kirk
A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye that affects vision. Phacoemulsification is the mostly common surgical method for treating cataracts, and determining that the optimal phacoemulsification energy is dependent on measuring the hardness of the lens. This study explored the use of an ultrasound needle transducer for invasive measurements of ultrasound attenuation coefficient to evaluate the hardness of the cataract lens. A 47 MHz high-frequency needle transducer with a diameter of 0.9 mm was fabricated by a polarized PMN-33%PT single crystal in the present study. The attenuation coefficients at different stages of an artificial porcine cataract lens were measured using the spectral shift approach. The hardness of the cataract lens was also evaluated by mechanical measurement of its elastic properties. The results demonstrated that the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient was increased from 0.048 +/- 0.02 to 0.520 +/- 0.06 dB mm(-1) MHz(-1) corresponding to an increase in Young's modulus from 6 +/- 0.4 to 96 +/- 6.2 kPa as the cataract further developed. In order to evaluate the feasibility of combining needle transducer and phacoemulsification probe for real-time measurement during cataract surgery, the needle transducer was mounted on the phacoemulsification probe for a vibration test. The results indicated that there was no apparent damage to the tip of the needle transducer and the pulse-echo test showed that a good performance in sensitivity was maintained after the vibration test.
Executive Summary Objective The objective of the report is to examine the comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of various intraocular lenses (IOLs) for the treatment of age-related cataracts. Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition A cataract is a hardening and clouding of the normally transparent crystalline lens that may result in a progressive loss of vision depending on its size, location and density. The condition is typically bilateral, seriously compromises visual acuity and contrast sensitivity and increases glare. Cataracts can also affect people at any age, however, they usually occur as a part of the natural aging process. The occurrence of cataracts increases with age from about 12% at age 50 years, to 60% at age 70. In general, approximately 50% of people 65 year of age or older have cataracts. Mild cataracts can be treated with a change in prescription glasses, while more serious symptoms are treated by surgical removal of the cataract and implantation of an IOL. In Ontario, the estimated prevalence of cataracts increased from 697,000 in 1992 to 947,000 in 2004 (35.9% increase, 2.4% annual increase). The number of cataract surgeries per 1,000 individuals at risk of cataract increased from 64.6 in 1992 to 140.4 in 1997 (61.9% increase, 10.1% annual increase) and continued to steadily increase to 115.7 in 2004 (10.7% increase, 5.2% increase per year). Description of Technology/Therapy IOLs are classified either as monofocal, multifocal, or accommodative. Traditionally, monofocal (i.e.. fixed focusing power) IOLs are available as replacement lenses but their implantation can cause a loss of the eye’s accommodative capability (which allows variable focusing). Patients thus usually require eyeglasses after surgery for reading and near vision tasks. Multifocal IOLs aim to improve near and distant vision and obviate the need for glasses. Potential disadvantages include reduced contrast sensitivity, halos around lights and glare
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Jones, Jeffrey A.; McCarten, M.; Manuel, K.; Djojonegoro, B.; Murray, J.; Cucinotta, F.; Feiversen, A.; Wear, M.
Induction of cataracts by occupational exposure in flight crew has been an important topic of interest in aerospace medicine in the past five years, in association with numerous reports of flight-associated disease incidences. Due to numerous confounding variables, it has been difficult to determine if there is increased cataract risk directly caused by interaction with the flight environment, specifically associated with added radiation exposure during flight. Military aviator records from the United States Air Force (USAF) and Navy (USN) and US astronauts at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) were evaluated for the presence, location and age of diagnosis of cataracts. Military aviators were found to have a statistically significant younger average age of onset of their cataracts compared with astronauts, however the incidence density of cataracts was found to be statistically higher in astronauts than in military aviators. USAF and USN aviator s cataracts were most commonly located in the posterior subcapsular region of the lens while astronauts cataracts were most likely to originate generally in the cortical zone. A prospective clinical trial which controls for confounding variables in examination technique, cataract classification, diet, exposure, and pharmacological intervention is needed to determine what percentage of the risk for cataracts are due to radiation, and how to best develop countermeasures to protect flight crews from radiation bioeffects in the future.
Varma, Devesh K; Belovay, Graham W; Tam, Diamond Y; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K
To report a series of eyes that developed malignant glaucoma after cataract surgery. Private academic practice, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Retrospective case series. Eyes that developed malignant glaucoma after cataract surgery were treated with medical therapy. This was followed by laser iridozonulohyaloidotomy, anterior chamber reformation and intraocular lens (IOL) pushback, and finally with surgical iridozonulohyaloidovitrectomy if all other measures were unsuccessful. Refraction, intraocular pressure (IOP), gonioscopy, and anterior chamber depth (ACD) by anterior segment optical coherence tomography were analyzed before treatment and after treatment. The study evaluated 20 eyes of 18 female patients aged 44 to 86 years. Preoperatively, the mean refraction was +3.11 diopters (D) ± 2.89 (SD), the mean axial length was 21.30 ± 1.40 mm, and all eyes had narrow or closed angles. Malignant glaucoma was diagnosed a mean of 5.8 ± 7.1 weeks postoperatively. At diagnosis, the mean refraction was -2.15 ± 2.95 D; the mean ACD, 2.49 ± 0.72 mm; and the mean IOP, 28.3 ± 10.8 mm Hg on a mean of 1.3 ± 1.6 medications. Two eyes responded to cycloplegia, 7 to laser iridozonulohyaloidotomy, and 6 to anterior chamber reformation-IOL pushback; 5 eyes required vitrectomy. Posttreatment, the mean refraction was -0.56 ± 1.07 D; the mean ACD, 3.30 ± 0.50 mm; and the mean IOP, 14.4 ± 4.60 mm Hg on a mean of 1.2 ± 1.4 medications. Cycloplegia was discontinued in 17 eyes. Malignant glaucoma can occur after phacoemulsification and presents with myopic surprise, anterior chamber shallowing and, possibly, elevated IOP. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cucinotta, F. A.; Manuel, F. K.; Jones, J.; Iszard, G.; Murrey, J.; Djojonegro, B.; Wear, M.
For over 30 years, astronauts in Earth orbit or on missions to the moon have been exposed to space radiation comprised of high-energy protons and heavy ions and secondary particles produced in collisions with spacecraft and tissue. Large uncertainties exist in the projection of risks of late effects from space radiation such as cancer and cataracts due to the paucity [corrected] of epidemiological data. Here we present epidemiological [corrected] data linking an increased risk of cataracts for astronauts with higher lens doses (>8 mSv) of space radiation relative to other astronauts with lower lens doses (<8 mSv). Our study uses historical data for cataract incidence in the 295 astronauts participating in NASA's Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) and individual occupational radiation exposure data. These results, while preliminary because of the use of subjective scoring methods, suggest that relatively low doses of space radiation may predispose crew to [corrected] an increased incidence and early appearance of cataracts.
Cucinotta, F A; Manuel, F K; Jones, J; Iszard, G; Murrey, J; Djojonegro, B; Wear, M
For over 30 years, astronauts in Earth orbit or on missions to the moon have been exposed to space radiation comprised of high-energy protons and heavy ions and secondary particles produced in collisions with spacecraft and tissue. Large uncertainties exist in the projection of risks of late effects from space radiation such as cancer and cataracts due to the paucity [corrected] of epidemiological data. Here we present epidemiological [corrected] data linking an increased risk of cataracts for astronauts with higher lens doses (>8 mSv) of space radiation relative to other astronauts with lower lens doses (<8 mSv). Our study uses historical data for cataract incidence in the 295 astronauts participating in NASA's Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) and individual occupational radiation exposure data. These results, while preliminary because of the use of subjective scoring methods, suggest that relatively low doses of space radiation may predispose crew to [corrected] an increased incidence and early appearance of cataracts.
... Camaschella C. Pathogenesis of hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2002 Nov-Dec;29(3):532-5. ... are genome editing and CRISPR-Cas9? What is precision medicine? What is newborn ...
Roszkowska, A. M.; Torrisi, L.
The aim of this paper is to illustrate the techniques of cataract surgery with implantation of intraocular lenses and some physical properties of the used materials. The new technology, coupled with extensive experience and the studied cases, permits to increase the standardization and accuracy of the engravings, by reducing the use and handling of surgical instruments inside the eye. At present it is possible to replace the cataract with crystalline lenses based on biopolymers such as PMMA, silicone, acrylic hydrophilic and hydrophobic acrylic. These materials are increasingly able to replace the natural lens and to ensure the fully functional of the eye. The role of femtosecond lasers in cataract surgery, to assist or replace several aspects of the manual cataract surgery, are discussed.
Rafnsson, V.; Olafsdottir, E.; Hrafnkelsson, J.; de Angelis, G.; Sasaki, H.; Arnarson, A.; Jonasson, F.
Nuclear cataracts have been associated with ionising radiation exposure in previous studies. A population based case-control study on airline pilots has been performed to investigate whether employment as a commercial pilot and consequent exposure to cosmic radiation were associated to lens opacification, when adjusted for known risk factors for cataracts. Cases of opacification of the ocular lens were found in surveys among pilots and a random sample of the Icelandic population. Altogether 445 male subjects underwent a detailed eye examination and answered a questionnaire. Information from the airline company on the 79 pilots employment time, annual hours flown per aircraft type, the timetables and the flight profiles made calculation of individual cumulated radiation dose (mSv) possible. Lens opacification were classified and graded according to WHO simplified cataracts grading system using slit lamp. The odds ratio from logistic regression of nuclear cataracts risk among cases and controls was 3.02 (95% CI 1.44 to 6.35) for pilots compared with non-pilots, adjusted for age, smoking and sunbathing habits, whereas that of cortical cataracts risk among cases and controls was lower than unity (non significant) for pilots compared with non-pilots in a logistic regression analysis adjusted for same factors. Length of employment as a pilot and cumulated radiation dose (mSv) were significantly related to the risk of nuclear cataracts. So the association between radiation exposure of pilots and the risk of nuclear cataracts, adjusted for age, smoking and sunbathing habits, indicates that cosmic radiation may be cause of nuclear cataract among commercial pilots.
Wu, B.; Medvedovsky, C.; Worgul, B. V.
Experimental animal studies and human observations suggest that the question is not whether or not prolonged space missions will cause cataracts to appear prematurely in the astronauts, but when and to what degree. Historically the major impediment to radiation cataract follow-up has been the necessarily subjective nature of assessing the degree of lens transparency. This has spurred the development of instruments which produce video images amenable to digital analysis. One such system, the Zeiss Scheimpflug slit lamp measuring system (SLC), was incorporated into our ongoing studies of radiation cataractogenesis. It was found that the Zeiss SLC measuring system has high resolution and permits the acquisition of reproducible images of the anterior segment of the eye. Our results, based on about 650 images of the rats lens, and followed over a period of 91 weeks of radiation cataract development, showed that the Integrated Optical Density (IOD) of the lens correlated well with conventional assessment with the added advantages of objectivity, permanent and transportable records and linearity as cataracts become more severe. This continuous data acquisition, commencing with cataract onset, can proceed through more advanced stages. The SLC exhibits much greater sensitivity reflected in a continuously progressive severity despite the artifactual plateaus in staging which occur using conventional scoring methods. Systems such as the Zeiss SLC should be used to monitor astronauts frequent visits to low earth orbit to obtain a longitudinal data-base on the influence of this activity on the lens.
Worgul, B. V.; Medvedovsky, C.; Wu, B.
Historically the major impediment to radiation cataract follow-up has been the necessarily subjective nature of assessing the degree of lens transparency. This has spurred the development of instruments which produce video images amenable to digital analysis. One such system, the Zeiss Scheimpflug slit lamp measuring system (SLC), was incorporated into our ongoing studies of radiation cataractogenesis. It was found that the Zeiss SLC measuring system has high resolution and permits the acquisition of reproducible images of the anterior segment of the eye. Our results, based on about 650 images of lenses followed over a period of 91 weeks of radiation cataract development, showed that the changes in the light scatter of the lens correlated well with conventional assessment of radiation cataracts with the added advantages of objectivity, permanent and transportable records and linearity as cataracts become more severe. This continuous data acquisition, commencing with cataract onset, can proceed through more advanced stages. The SLC exhibits much greater sensitivity reflected in a continuously progressive severity thereby avoiding the artifactual plateaus in staging which occur using conventional scoring methods.
Messina-Baas, Olga; Cuevas-Covarrubias, Sergio A.
Cataracts are the principal cause of treatable blindness worldwide. Inherited congenital cataract (CC) shows all types of inheritance patterns in a syndromic and nonsyndromic form. There are more than 100 genes associated with cataract with a predominance of autosomal dominant inheritance. A cataract is defined as an opacity of the lens producing a variation of the refractive index of the lens. This variation derives from modifications in the lens structure resulting in light scattering, frequently a consequence of a significant concentration of high-molecular-weight protein aggregates. The aim of this review is to introduce a guide to identify the gene involved in inherited CC. Due to the manifold clinical and genetic heterogeneity, we discarded the cataract phenotype as a cardinal sign; a 4-group classification with the genes implicated in inherited CC is proposed. We consider that this classification will assist in identifying the probable gene involved in inherited CC. PMID:28611546
Morris, D S; Wright, T; Somner, J E A; Connor, A
Background Climate change is predicted to be one of the largest global health threats of the 21st century. Health care itself is a large contributor to carbon emissions. Determining the carbon footprint of specific health care activities such as cataract surgery allows the assessment of associated emissions and identifies opportunities for reduction. Aim To assess the carbon footprint of a cataract pathway in a British teaching hospital. Methods This was a component analysis study for one patient having first eye cataract surgery in the University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff. Activity data was collected from three sectors, building and energy use, travel and procurement. Published emissions factors were applied to this data to provide figures in carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2eq). Results The carbon footprint for one cataract operation was 181.8 kg CO2eq. On the basis that 2230 patients were treated for cataracts during 2011 in Cardiff, this has an associated carbon footprint of 405.4 tonnes CO2eq. Building and energy use was estimated to account for 36.1% of overall emissions, travel 10.1% and procurement 53.8%, with medical equipment accounting for the most emissions at 32.6%. Conclusions This is the first published carbon footprint of cataract surgery and acts as a benchmark for other studies as well as identifying areas for emissions reduction. Within the procurement sector, dialogue with industry is important to reduce the overall carbon footprint. Sustainability should be considered when cataract pathways are designed as there is potential for reduction in all sectors with the possible side effects of saving costs and improving patient care. PMID:23429413
Khokhar, Sudarshan; Jose, Cijin P; Sihota, Ramanjit; Midha, Neha
To study the clinical profile and presentation of children with unilateral cataract. In this hospital-based, observational, cross-sectional study, patients 15 years of age or younger who presented with unilateral cataract were recruited. Cases of cataract secondary to causes such as trauma or uveitis were excluded. Age at detection and presentation, distance from the treatment center, presenting complaints, cataract morphology, and biometry were noted for each case. A total of 76 patients were recruited. Most patients presented with complaints of leukocoria. Persistent fetal vasculature accounted for 27.6% of cases and was the most common identifiable cause of cataract in this study. Subsequently, patients were divided into two groups: no persistent fetal vasculature (control) and persistent fetal vasculature. A male predominance was noted in both groups. The mean age at detection was 27.58 ± 37.02 and 6.17 ± 8.42 months and the mean age at presentation was 55.613 ± 45.21 and 14.83 ± 17.75 months in the control and persistent fetal vasculature groups, respectively. In the persistent fetal vasculature group, a significant difference was noted in the axial length, keratometry, and corneal diameter between the affected and normal eyes (P = .027, .00176, and .0114, respectively). In the control group, this difference was observed only in keratometry readings (P = .0464). The mean distance traveled by patients to reach the treatment center was 211 km. Persistent fetal vasculature is an important and less identified cause of unilateral cataract. A significant delay is noted in the detection and presentation of unilateral cataract. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2018;55(2):107-112.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Şahin, Alparslan; Çaça, Ihsan; Cingü, Abdullah Kürşat; Türkcü, Fatih Mehmet; Yüksel, Harun; Şahin, Muhammed; Çinar, Yasin; Ari, Şeyhmus
AIM To determine the incidence and risk factors of secondary glaucoma after pediatric cataract surgery. METHODS Two hundred and forty nine eyes of 148 patients underwent cataract surgery without intraocular lens (IOL) implantation (group 1), and 220 eyes of 129 patients underwent cataract surgery with IOL implantation (group 2) retrospectively, were evaluated between 2000 and 2011. The outcome measure was the presence or absence of post-cataract surgery glaucoma, defined as an intraocular pressure (IOP) ≥26mmHg, as measured on at least two occasions along with corneal or optic nerve changes. RESULTS The mean follow-up periods of group 1 and 2 were (60.86±30.95) months (12-123 months) and (62.11±31.29) months (14-115 months) respectively. In group 1, 12 eyes of 8 patients (4.8%) developed glaucoma. None of the patients developed glaucoma after surgery in group 2. The mean age of the patients at the cataract surgery was (2.58±0.90) months (1 month-4 months) and the average period for glaucoma development after surgery was (9.50±4.33) months (4-16 months) in group 1. Three of the 12 glaucomatous eyes were controlled with antiglaucomatous medication and 9 eyes underwent trabeculectomy+mitomycin C surgery. One patient underwent a second trabeculectomy + mitomycin C operation for both of his eyes. CONCLUSION The incidence of glaucoma after pediatric cataract surgery is very low in patients in whom IOL is implanted. The aphakic eyes after pediatric cataract surgery are at an increased risk for glaucoma development particularly if they underwent surgery before 4 months of age. PMID:23638427
Morris, D S; Wright, T; Somner, J E A; Connor, A
Climate change is predicted to be one of the largest global health threats of the 21st century. Health care itself is a large contributor to carbon emissions. Determining the carbon footprint of specific health care activities such as cataract surgery allows the assessment of associated emissions and identifies opportunities for reduction. To assess the carbon footprint of a cataract pathway in a British teaching hospital. This was a component analysis study for one patient having first eye cataract surgery in the University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff. Activity data was collected from three sectors, building and energy use, travel and procurement. Published emissions factors were applied to this data to provide figures in carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2eq). The carbon footprint for one cataract operation was 181.8 kg CO2eq. On the basis that 2230 patients were treated for cataracts during 2011 in Cardiff, this has an associated carbon footprint of 405.4 tonnes CO2eq. Building and energy use was estimated to account for 36.1% of overall emissions, travel 10.1% and procurement 53.8%, with medical equipment accounting for the most emissions at 32.6%. This is the first published carbon footprint of cataract surgery and acts as a benchmark for other studies as well as identifying areas for emissions reduction. Within the procurement sector, dialogue with industry is important to reduce the overall carbon footprint. Sustainability should be considered when cataract pathways are designed as there is potential for reduction in all sectors with the possible side effects of saving costs and improving patient care.
Soderberg, Per G.; Loefgren, Stefan
Current safety limits for cataract development after acute exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) are based on experiments analyzing experimental data with a quantal, effect-no effect, dose-response model. The present study showed that intensity of forward light scattering is better described with a continuous dose-response model. It was found that 3, 30 and 300 kJ/m2UVR300nm induces increased light scattering within 6 h. For all three doses the intensity of forward light scattering was constant after 6 h. The intensity of forward light scattering was proportional to the log dose of UVR300nm. There was a slight increase of the intensity of forward light scattering on the contralateral side in animals that received 300 kJ/m2. Altogether 72 Sprague-Dawley male rats were included. Half of the rats were exposed in vivo on one side to UVR300nm. The other half was kept as a control group, receiving the same treatment as exposed rats but without delivery of UVR300nm to the eye. Subgroups of the rats received either of the three doses. Rats were sacrificed at varying intervals after the exposure. The lenses were extracted and the forward light scattering was estimated. It is concluded that intensity of forward light scattering in the lens after exposure to UVR300nm should be described with a continuous dose-reponse model.
Do, Diana V; Gichuhi, Stephen; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Hawkins, Barbara S
Background Cataract formation or acceleration can occur after intraocular surgery, especially following vitrectomy, a surgical technique for removing the vitreous which is used in the treatment of disorders that affect the posterior segment of the eye. The underlying problem that led to vitrectomy may limit the benefit from cataract surgery. Objectives The objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract with respect to visual acuity, quality of life, and other outcomes. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 4), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE in-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily Update, Ovid OLDMED-LINE (January 1946 to May 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2013, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to May 2013), PubMed (January 1946 to May 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrial.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 22 May 2013. Selection criteria We planned to include randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing cataract surgery with no surgery in adult patients who developed cataract following vitrectomy. Data collection and analysis Two authors screened the search results independently according to the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Main results We found no randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing cataract surgery with no cataract surgery for patients who developed cataracts following vitrectomy surgery. Authors' conclusions There is no evidence from randomized or quasi
Leffler, Christopher T; Wainsztein, Ricardo D
We strove to identify the earliest cataract surgeons in Latin America. Probably by 1611, the Genovese oculist Francisco Drago was couching cataracts in Mexico City. The surgeon Melchor Vásquez de Valenzuela probably performed cataract couching in Lima by 1697. Juan Peré of France demonstrated cataract couching in Veracruz and Mexico City between 1779 and 1784. Juan Ablanedo of Spain performed couching in Veracruz in 1791. Cataract extraction might have been performed in Havana and Caracas by 1793 and in Mexico by 1797. The earliest contemporaneously documented cataract extractions in Latin America were performed in Guatemala City by Narciso Esparragosa in 1797. In addition to Esparragosa, surgeons born in the New World who established the academic teaching of cataract surgery included José Miguel Muñoz in Mexico and José María Vargas in Caracas. Although cataract surgery came quite early to Latin America, its availability was initially inconsistent and limited. PMID:27143845
Simon, Shira S; Chee, Yewlin E; Haddadin, Ramez I; Veldman, Peter B; Borboli-Gerogiannis, Sheila; Brauner, Stacey C; Chang, Kenneth K; Chen, Sherleen H; Gardiner, Matthew F; Greenstein, Scott H; Kloek, Carolyn E; Chen, Teresa C
To evaluate the difference between target and actual refraction after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation at an academic teaching institution's Comprehensive Ophthalmology Service. Retrospective study. We examined 1275 eye surgeries for this study. All consecutive cataract surgeries were included if they were performed by an attending or resident surgeon from January through December 2010. Postoperative refractions were compared with preoperative target refractions. Patients were excluded if they did not have a preoperative target refraction documented or if they did not have a recorded postoperative manifest refraction within 90 days. The main outcome measure was percentage of cases achieving a postoperative spherical equivalent ± 1.0 diopter (D) of target spherical equivalent. We performed 1368 cataract surgeries from January through December of 2010. Of these, 1275 (93%) had sufficient information for analysis. Of the included cases, 94% (1196 of 1275) achieved ± 1.0 D of target refraction by 90 days after cataract surgery. This paper establishes a new benchmark for a teaching hospital, where 94% of patients achieved within 1.0 D of target refraction after cataract surgery. The refractive outcomes after cataract surgery at this academic teaching institution were higher than average international benchmarks. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
for zonular absence, assess for notable lenticular astigmatism ** How and when do you decide to use a capsular tension ring? (Expert) Zonular...INTRODUCTION The Virtual Mentor Cataract Surgery Trainer is a computer based, cognitive simulation of phacoemulsification cataract surgery. It is...the Cataract Trainer. BODY Phacoemulsification cataract surgery (phaco) is a difficult procedure to learn, with little margin for error. As in other
Dave, Hreem; Phoenix, Vidya; Becker, Edmund R.; Lambert, Scott R.
OBJECTIVES To compare the incidence of adverse events, visual outcomes and economic costs of sequential versus simultaneous bilateral cataract surgery for infants with congenital cataracts. METHODS We retrospectively reviewed the incidence of adverse events, visual outcomes and medical payments associated with simultaneous versus sequential bilateral cataract surgery for infants with congenital cataracts who underwent cataract surgery when 6 months of age or younger at our institution. RESULTS Records were available for 10 children who underwent sequential surgery at a mean age of 49 days for the first eye and 17 children who underwent simultaneous surgery at a mean age of 68 days (p=.25). We found a similar incidence of adverse events between the two treatment groups. Intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred in 14 eyes. The most common postoperative complication was glaucoma. No eyes developed endophthalmitis. The mean absolute interocular difference in logMAR visual acuities between the two treatment groups was 0.47±0.76 for the sequential group and 0.44±0.40 for the simultaneous group (p=.92). Hospital, drugs, supplies and professional payments were on average 21.9% lower per patient in the simultaneous group. CONCLUSIONS Simultaneous bilateral cataract surgery for infants with congenital cataracts was associated with a 21.9% reduction in medical payments and no discernible difference in the incidence of adverse events or visual outcome. PMID:20697007
Lu, Chao-Kung; Kuang, Tung-Mei; Chou, Joe Ching-Kuang
Methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin) is the drug of choice for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, an association of Ritalin with glaucoma has been reported. We report a case of Ritalin-associated cataract and glaucoma. A 10-year-old boy was diagnosed with ADHD and had received methylphenidate hydrochloride, 60 mg/day for 2 years. He presented with blurred vision. Best-corrected visual acuity was 6/60 in both eyes. Ocular examinations revealed intraocular pressure (IOP) of 30 mmHg under medication, dense posterior subcapsular opacity of lens, pale disc with advanced cupping, and marked constriction of visual field. Despite maximal anti-glaucomatous medication, IOP still could not be controlled. The patient then received combined cataract and glaucoma surgery. Visual acuity improved and IOP was within normal limits in both eyes postoperatively. Large dose of methylphenidate may cause cataract and glaucoma. The mechanism remains unclear. Doctors should be aware of the possible ocular side effects of methylphenidate.
Mansouri, Behzad; Stacy, Rebecca C; Kruger, Joshua; Cestari, Dean M
Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of vision associated with decreased visual acuity, poor or absent stereopsis, and suppression of information from one eye.(1,2) Amblyopia may be caused by strabismus (strabismic amblyopia), refractive error (anisometropic amblyopia), or deprivation from obstructed vision (deprivation amblyopia). 1 In the developed world, amblyopia is the most common cause of childhood visual impairment, 3 which reduces quality of life 4 and also almost doubles the lifetime risk of legal blindness.(5, 6) Successful treatment of amblyopia greatly depends on early detection and treatment of predisposing disorders such as congenital cataract, which is the most common cause of deprivational amblyopia. Understanding the genetic causes of congenital cataract leads to more effective screening tests, early detection and treatment of infants and children who are at high risk for hereditary congenital cataract.
Nygren, Karin; Jalomäki, Sari; Karlstam, Lena; Narfström, Kristina
Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cataracts in the Russian Blue breed of cats in Sweden, and to describe the clinical appearance of this presumed inherited form of cataract. Methods A total of 66 Russian Blue cats were examined in Sweden, between March and October 2014, using standard examination techniques. The examined cats were between 3 months and 14 years of age. Pedigrees were collected from all examined cats for genetic studies. Results Mild-to-severe forms of mainly bilateral cataracts were observed in 22/66 examined Russian Blue cats of both sexes. Two affected cats were <1 year of age. The most frequently observed appearance of a cataract was a small triangular, Y-shaped or circular opacity at the border of the posterior nucleus and the anterior part of the posterior cortex, which caused no observable visual impairment. More extended forms were observed in 6/22 cats, with involvement of both the nucleus and either the entire cortex or parts of the posterior and/or anterior cortex. Visual impairment or blindness was observed in the latter six cases. Pedigree analyses indicated a simple autosomal recessive mode of inheritance for the defect, although a dominant mode with incomplete penetrance could not be excluded. Conclusions and relevance This study indicates that the Russian Blue breed of cat is affected by hereditary cataracts. The high prevalence in young cats and the characteristic location of the most frequently observed defect in the study suggest an early onset type of cataract. The breeders should be aware of this defect and have their cats examined by a veterinary ophthalmologist before breeding of an individual Russian Blue cat is considered.
Gelatt, K N; Samuelson, D A; Bauer, J E; Das, N D; Wolf, E D; Barrie, K P; Andresen, T L
Congenital cataracts and microphthalmia in the Miniature Schnauzer were inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Eighteen matings of affected X affected Miniature Schnauzers resulted in 87 offspring with congenital cataracts and microphthalmia (49 males/38 females). Two matings of congenital cataractous and microphthalmic Miniature Schnauzers (2 females) X a normal Miniature Schnauzer (1 male) yielded 11 clinically normal Miniature Schnauzers (7 males/4 females). Eighteen matings of congenital cataractous and microphthalmic Miniature Schnauzers (6 males) X carrier Miniature Schnauzers (9 females) produced 81 offspring; 39 exhibited congenital cataracts and microphthalmia (20 males/19 females) and 42 had clinically normal eyes (17 males/25 females).
Wong, Margaret; Baumrind, Benjamin R.; Frank, James H.; Halpern, Robert L.
A 53-year-old Caucasian man underwent femtosecond cataract surgery and then presented with pain and hand motions vision 1 day following surgery. Anterior segment examination showed a 2-mm-layered hypopyon, a well-centered intraocular lens in the sulcus, and an obscured view to the fundus. B-scan ultrasonography showed significant vitritis and that the retina was attached. A tap and an injection of vancomycin 1 mg per 0.1 ml and of ceftazidime 2.25 mg per 0.1 ml were performed. The tap eventually yielded culture results positive for Staphylococcus haemolyticus, which was sensitive to vancomycin. We report a case of endophthalmitis that occurred on postoperative day 1 following complicated cataract surgery. This is an uncommon bacterium that is not widely reported in the literature as a cause of endophthalmitis in the postoperative period. We urge clinicians to consider S. haemolyticus as an offending agent, especially when the infection presents very early and aggressively in the postoperative period. PMID:26951642
Wong, Margaret; Baumrind, Benjamin R; Frank, James H; Halpern, Robert L
A 53-year-old Caucasian man underwent femtosecond cataract surgery and then presented with pain and hand motions vision 1 day following surgery. Anterior segment examination showed a 2-mm-layered hypopyon, a well-centered intraocular lens in the sulcus, and an obscured view to the fundus. B-scan ultrasonography showed significant vitritis and that the retina was attached. A tap and an injection of vancomycin 1 mg per 0.1 ml and of ceftazidime 2.25 mg per 0.1 ml were performed. The tap eventually yielded culture results positive for Staphylococcus haemolyticus, which was sensitive to vancomycin. We report a case of endophthalmitis that occurred on postoperative day 1 following complicated cataract surgery. This is an uncommon bacterium that is not widely reported in the literature as a cause of endophthalmitis in the postoperative period. We urge clinicians to consider S. haemolyticus as an offending agent, especially when the infection presents very early and aggressively in the postoperative period.
Neriishi, Kazuo; Otake, Masanori; Kodama, Kazunori
Among 1713 atomic bomb survivors who underwent ophthalmological examinations from 1963-1964, the risk of cataract formation per unit dose of radiation was significantly greater for those who reported hair loss of 67% or more after exposure (the epilation group) than for those who reported less or no hair loss (the no-epilation group) (P,0.01). Such an epilation effect has also been associated with leukemia mortality and the frequency of chromosome aberrations. Although this might be interpreted as indicating differential sensitivity to radiation between the epilation group and the no-epilation group, it could also be explained by imprecision in dose estimates. Wemore » have calculated that a 48% random error in DS86 dose estimates could be in accordance with the dose-response relationship for the prevalence of cataracts in the epilation group or the no-epilation group. Possible mechanisms for variations in radiosensitivity are discussed. 37 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.« less
Lundström, Mats; Goh, Pik-Pin; Henry, Ype; Salowi, Mohamad A; Barry, Peter; Manning, Sonia; Rosen, Paul; Stenevi, Ulf
The aim of this study was to describe changes over time in the indications and outcomes of cataract surgery and to discuss optimal timing for the surgery. Database study. Patients who had undergone cataract extraction in the Netherlands, Sweden, or Malaysia from 2008 through 2012. We analyzed preoperative, surgical, and postoperative data from 2 databases: the European Registry of Quality Outcomes for Cataract and Refractive Surgery (EUREQUO) and the Malaysian National Cataract Registry. The EUREQUO contains complete data from the national cataract registries in the Netherlands and Sweden. Preoperative and postoperative corrected distance visual acuity, preoperative ocular comorbidity in the surgery eye, and capsule complications during surgery. There were substantial differences in indication for surgery between the 3 national data sets. The percentage of eyes with a preoperative best-corrected visual acuity of 20/200 or worse varied from 7.1% to 72%. In all 3 data sets, the visual thresholds for cataract surgery decreased over time by 6% to 28% of the baseline values. The frequency of capsule complications varied between the 3 data sets, from 1.1% to 3.7% in 2008 and from 0.6% to 2.7% in 2012. An increasing postoperative visual acuity was also seen for all 3 data sets. A high frequency of capsule complication was related significantly to poor preoperative visual acuity, and a high frequency of decreased visual acuity after surgery was related significantly to excellent preoperative visual acuity. The 5-year trend in all 3 national data sets showed decreasing visual thresholds for surgery, decreasing surgical complication rates, and increasing visual outcomes regardless of the initial preoperative visual level. Cataract surgery on eyes with poor preoperative visual acuity was related to surgical complications, and cataract surgery on eyes with excellent preoperative visual acuity was related to adverse visual results. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of
Bennett, Thomas M.; Hejtmancik, J. Fielding
Lens opacities, or cataract(s), may be inherited as a classic Mendelian disorder usually with early-onset or, more commonly, acquired with age as a multi-factorial or complex trait. Many genetic forms of cataract have been described in mice and other animal models. Considerable progress has been made in mapping and identifying the genes and mutations responsible for inherited forms of cataract, and genetic determinants of age-related cataract are beginning to be discovered. To provide a convenient and accurate summary of current information focused on the increasing genetic complexity of Mendelian and age-related cataract we have created an online chromosome map and reference database for cataract in humans and mice (Cat-Map). PMID:21042563
Kraijer-Huver, Ingrid M G; Gubbels, Ed J; Scholten, Janneke; Djajadiningrat-Laanen, Sylvia C; Boevé, Michael H; Stades, Frans C
To assess the prevalence and distribution of types of cataract, investigate the effects of selective breeding on cataract development, and identify the relationship between posterior polar cataract and other types of cortical cataracts in Labrador Retrievers in The Netherlands. 9,017 Labrador Retrievers. Records of 18,283 ophthalmic examinations performed by veterinary ophthalmologists from 1977 through 2005 were reviewed. There were 522 dogs affected by hereditary cataracts in 1 or both eyes without progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) and 166 PRA-affected dogs with cataracts. These cataracts were divided into 3 groups: posterior polar (triangular) cataract, extensive immature and mature cataract, and a miscellaneous group. Dogs with PRA were analyzed separately. From 1980 through 2000, the prevalence of hereditary cataracts was stable at 8%. The prevalence of cataracts in offspring of cataract-affected dogs was significantly increased, compared with the prevalence in offspring of nonaffected dogs. The distribution of types of cataract was significantly different between dogs with primary cataracts and PRA-affected dogs. Dogs with posterior polar (triangular) cataracts produced affected offspring with the same distribution of types of cataracts as the entire population of primary cataract-affected dogs. Cataract development in the Labrador Retriever population in The Netherlands appears to be a predominantly genetic disorder. Posterior polar (triangular) cataracts appear to be related to other types of hereditary cataract. Although there is no conclusive evidence, it seems valid to continue exclusion of all Labrador Retrievers affected by any type of primary cataract from breeding.
Churchill, A.; Vize, C.; Stewart, O.; Backhouse, O.
AIMS—To determine whether there were any specific factors that influenced waiting list time (WLT) for patients undergoing cataract surgery. METHODS—70 preoperative cataract patients were interviewed by one of the authors using a questionnaire to score visual acuity, coexisting ocular pathology and disabilities, threat to independent living/employment, and perceived visual handicap for detailed, gross, and driving vision. Individuals were analysed separately according to whether it was their first or second cataract operation. RESULTS—The median WLT for first eye surgery was 9 months (n = 31) and 13 months for second eye surgery (n = 36). The WLT ranged from 2 to 25 months for first eyes and 0.25-18 months for second eyes. Where there was a perceived threat to independent living or employment the WLT was found to be significantly shorter than the median. A high overall score correlated with a shorter WLT. Surgical priority was also given to individuals with anisometropia >3 dioptres. CONCLUSION—This study has demonstrated that there are specific factors that influence clinicians when prioritising patients for cataract surgery. PMID:10729304
Reports on a recent study of Chesapeake Bay watermen, which indicates a possible association between long-term exposure of the eyes to ultraviolet B rays and risk of cataract development. Authorities recommend protective lenses for outdoor athletes, especially those involved in winter sports. (SM)
Havnaer, Annika G; Greenberg, Paul B; Cockerham, Glenn C; Clark, Melissa A; Chomsky, Amy
To describe current cataract surgery practices within the United States Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Veterans Health Administration hospitals in the U.S. Retrospective data analysis. An initial e-mail containing a link to an anonymous 32-question survey of cataract surgery practices was sent to participants in May 2016. Two reminder e-mails were sent to nonresponders 1 week and 2 weeks after the initial survey was sent; the remaining nonresponders were called twice over a 2-week period. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The response rate was 75% (67/89). Cataract surgeons routinely ordered preoperative testing in 29 (45%) of 65 sections and preoperative consultations in 26 (39%) of 66 sections. In 22 (33%) of 66 sections, cataract surgeons administered intracameral antibiotics. In 61 (92%) of 66 sections, cataract surgeons used toric intraocular lenses (IOLs). In 20 (30%) of 66 sections, cataract surgeons used multifocal IOLs. Cataract surgeons in 6 (9%) of 66 sections performed femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. In 6 (9%) of 66 sections, cataract surgeons performed immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery. Forty-nine (74%) ophthalmology chiefs reported a high level of satisfaction with Veterans Affairs ophthalmology. The survey results indicate that in cataract surgery in the VHA, routine preoperative testing is commonly performed and emerging practices, such as femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery and immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery, have limited roles. The results of this survey could benchmark future trends in U.S. cataract surgery practices, especially in teaching hospital settings. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Iizuka, Megumi; Gorfinkel, John; Mandelcorn, Mark; Lam, Wai-Ching; Devenyi, Robert; Markowitz, Samuel N
The most desirable effect following cataract surgery in the presence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is to obtain an improvement in distance resolution acuity, and the only optical solution to this is the use of telescopic magnification. The purpose of the study was to develop and verify the clinical utility of inducing low-grade telescopic magnification (<33%) at the time of cataract surgery by the choice of an appropriate intraocular lens power and spectacle glasses in patients with AMD and cataract. The design was a prospective, nonrandomized, interventional case series involving 6 patients aged 74-86 (mean 80; SD 4) years with AMD and cataract. Participants were males and females, equal in number, who had visual acuity of less than 20/400 in the weaker eye. Standard cataract surgery was performed in the weaker eye. The power of the intraocular lens was derived from the reduced Gullstrand model of the eye in such a way that at the intraocular lens plane a minus lens was created, which, together with a plus lens in matching glasses, formed a Galilean telescopic system with magnification of up to 33%. Outcome measures were visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and activities of daily living (ADL) scores. The mean power of the implanted intraocular lenses was 6.31 (SD 2.42) diopters and, according to the theoretical derivations, achieved magnification between 20% and 30% (mean 26%; SD 4.92%). Visual acuity improved for the group from a mean of 20/525 (logMAR 1.48; SD 0.13) to a mean of 20/290 (logMAR 1.20; SD 0.21). Contrast sensitivity improved significantly (p < 0.001) only in the lower spatial frequencies. Postoperatively, ADL scores improved significantly in all patients except one. At the end of the follow-up period, 3 patients reported that they would like to proceed with similar surgery for the other eye. An optimal surgical telescopic device based on low-grade telescopic magnification may improve functional vision for usage in all tasks in AMD
To, Kien Gia; Meuleners, Lynn; Bulsara, Max; Fraser, Michelle L; Duong, Dat Van; Do, Dung Van; Huynh, Van-Anh Ngoc; Phi, Tien Duy; Tran, Hoang Huy; Nguyen, Nguyen Do
Aim Little information exists on the impact of cataract surgery on falls and other injuries in Vietnam. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of first and both eye cataract surgery on the number of falls and other injuries among bilateral cataract patients in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Materials and methods A longitudinal cohort study was conducted involving 413 bilateral cataract patients aged 50+ years. Participants were assessed at three time points: 1 week before, 1–3 months after, and 1 year after first-eye cataract surgery. Visual measures (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis) were taken, and self-reported falls and injury data were collected. A multilevel longitudinal Poisson regression model was used to investigate change in the number of falls after surgery. Results The risk of falls decreased by 78% (incidence-rate ratio [IRR] 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.06–0.77; P=0.018) in the year after cataract surgery for participants who had first-eye surgery only and 83% (IRR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04–0.69; P=0.012) for participants who had the second eye operated on compared to before surgery. The risk of falls was three times higher for females than males (IRR 3.13, 95% CI 1.53–6.40; P=0.002). Improved binocular contrast sensitivity was also associated with a decrease in falls (IRR 0.40, 95% CI 0.17–0.97; P=0.042). The prevalence of other injuries also decreased after cataract surgery. Conclusion Cataract surgery reduced the number of falls and other injuries in Vietnam. Contrast sensitivity may be important for ophthalmologists to consider when prioritizing patients for surgery and assessing their fall risk. PMID:24812501
Wirth, M G; Russell-Eggitt, I M; Craig, J E; Elder, J E; Mackey, D A
Background/aim: Paediatric cataract is a major cause of childhood blindness. Several genes associated with congenital and paediatric cataracts have been identified. The aim was to determine the incidence of cataract in a population, the proportion of hereditary cataracts, the mode of inheritance, and the clinical presentation. Methods: The Royal Children's Hospital and the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital have a referral base for almost all paediatric patients with cataracts in south eastern Australia. The database contains cases seen over the past 25 years. The medical histories of these patients were reviewed. Results: 421 patients with paediatric cataract were identified, which gives an estimated incidence of 2.2 per 10 000 births. Of the 342 affected individuals with a negative family history, 50% were diagnosed during the first year of life, and 56/342 (16%) were associated with a recognised systemic disease or syndrome. Unilateral cataract was identified in 178/342 (52%) of sporadic cases. 79 children (from 54 nuclear families) had a positive family history. Of these 54 families, 45 were recruited for clinical examination and DNA collection. Ten nuclear families were subsequently found to be related, resulting in four larger pedigrees. Thus, 39 families have been studied. The mode of inheritance was autosomal dominant in 30 families, X linked in four, autosomal recessive in two, and uncertain in three. In total, 178 affected family members were examined; of these 8% presented with unilateral cataracts and 43% were diagnosed within the first year of life. Conclusions: In the paediatric cataract population examined, approximately half of the patients were diagnosed in the first year of life. More than 18% had a positive family history of cataracts. Of patients with hereditary cataracts 8% presented with unilateral involvement. Identification of the genes that cause paediatric and congenital cataract should help clarify the aetiology of some sporadic and
Crnej, Alja; Hirnschall, Nino; Petsoglou, Con; Findl, Oliver
To compare objective methods for assessing backward and forward light scatter and psychophysical tests in patients with cataracts. Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom. Prospective case series. This study included patients scheduled for cataract surgery. Lens opacities were grouped into predominantly nuclear sclerotic, cortical, posterior subcapsular, and mixed cataracts. Backward light scatter was assessed using a rotating Scheimpflug imaging technique (Pentacam HR), forward light scatter using a straylight meter (C-Quant), and straylight using the double-pass method (Optical Quality Analysis System, point-spread function [PSF] meter). The results were correlated with visual acuity under photopic conditions as well as photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity. The study comprised 56 eyes of 56 patients. The mean age of the 23 men and 33 women was 71 years (range 48 to 84 years). Two patients were excluded. Of the remaining, 15 patients had predominantly nuclear sclerotic cataracts, 13 had cortical cataracts, 11 had posterior subcapsular cataracts, and 15 had mixed cataracts. Correlations between devices were low. The highest correlation was between PSF meter measurements and Scheimpflug measurements (r = 0.32). The best correlation between corrected distance visual acuity was with the PSF meter (r = 0.45). Forward and backward light-scatter measurements cannot be used interchangeably. Scatter as an aspect of quality of vision was independent of acuity. Measuring forward light scatter with the straylight meter can be a useful additional tool in preoperative decision-making. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kuklo, Patrycja; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Schwartz, Stephen G; Flynn, Harry W; Pathengay, Avinash
Acute-onset postoperative endophthalmitis is an uncommon but potentially serious complication of cataract surgery. Since there are relatively few randomized clinical trials comparing the timing and administration of prophylactic antibiotics, there are wide variations in prevention practices around the world. Literature review. Antibiotics may be used before surgery, during surgery, or after surgery in an attempt to decrease the rates of endophthalmitis. Antibiotics may be delivered by various routes, including topical, subconjunctival, in the irrigating solution, or by bolus intracameral injection. Polymerase chain reaction and other DNA identification techniques for bacterial isolates and their antibiotic sensitivity profiles will play an important role in future management strategies. There is no consensus regarding the precise use of antibiotics in the perioperative period. Because of increased multidrug-resistant bacteria, evolving strategies are needed to address these issues. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Brian, Garry; Ramke, Jacqueline; Szetu, John; Qoqonokana, Mundi Qalo
To characterize cataract and its surgery among adults aged ≥40 years in Fiji. Population-based cross-sectional survey using multistage cluster random sampling. 1381 (= 73.0% participation); eight provinces on Viti Levu. Interview-based questionnaire; visual acuity measured; autorefraction; dilated ocular examination. Prevalence; predictors; surgical outcomes. Being Indian (P = 0.001), elderly (P < 0.001), and previous/current smoker (P = 0.036) were predictive of at least one unoperated vision-impairing or operated cataract. Gender (P = 0.062) and diabetes (P = 0.384) were not. Unoperated cataract (predominantly nucleosclerosis) was the second most frequent (25.0%) cause of low vision (<6/18, ≥6/60) and commonest (71.1%) of blindness (<6/60). Ethnicity-gender-age-domicile adjusted and extrapolating to the Fiji population aged ≥40 years, prevalence of cataract-induced low vision and blindness were each 1.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-2.4%). At least one eye of 4.6% and both of 1.8% participants had surgery (86.4% extracapsular). Gender (P = 0.213), age (P = 0.472) and rural/urban domicile (P = 0.895) were not predictors of surgery among those who required it in at least one eye. After intraocular lens surgery: 50.7% had pupillary posterior capsular opacification; mean spherical equivalent was -1.37 ± 1.95D (range, -6.38 to +2.25D); mean cylindrical error was 2.31 ± 1.75D (range, 0.0 to 8.75D); ≥N8 for 39.5%; ≥6/18 for 56.6%; <6/60 for 19.7%, with 2.6% no light perception. Ethnicity-gender-age-domicile adjusted and extrapolating to the Fiji population aged ≥40 years, Cataract Surgical Coverage (Person) was 47.5% (95%CI 29.2-65.8%) at <6/18, and 65.2% (95%CI 37.8-92.6%) at <6/60. Fiji cataract services and outcomes compare favourably with those of neighbouring Papua New Guinea and Timor Leste. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
Nagai, Ryoji; Nagai, Mime; Shimasaki, Satoko; Baynes, John W.; Fujiwara, Yukio
Although many fruits such as lemon and orange contain citric acid, little is known about beneficial effects of citric acid on health. Here we measured the effect of citric acid on the pathogenesis of diabetic complications in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Although oral administration of citric acid to diabetic rats did not affect blood glucose concentration, it delayed the development of cataracts, inhibited accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) such as Nε-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) and Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) in lens proteins, and protected against albuminuria and ketosis . We also show that incubation of protein with acetol, a metabolite formed from acetone by acetone monooxygenase, generate CEL, suggesting that inhibition of ketosis by citric acid may lead to the decrease in CEL in lens proteins. These results demonstrate that the oral administration of citric acid ameliorates ketosis and protects against the development of diabetic complications in an animal model of type 1 diabetes. PMID:20117096
Walker, Janine G; Anstey, Kaarin J; Hennessy, Michael P; Lord, Stephen R; von Sanden, Chwee
Determine whether there are changes in visual functioning, vision-related disability, health status and mood after cataract surgery. 45 adults (mean age = 73.7 years) with bilateral cataract needing surgery for the first eye were recruited from public ophthalmology clinics. The Visual Functioning-14 survey assessed visual disability. Minimal angle of resolution tested visual acuity, and the Melbourne Edge Test examined contrast sensitivity. Demographic, psychological, health and medication use variables were examined. Participants were randomized to either an intervention or control arm. Controls were assessed on two occasions at a 3-month interval before having surgery. The intervention group was assessed 1-2 weeks before surgery and then reassessed 3 months after surgery. Visual functioning improved for those who had cataract surgery with better visual acuity in the better (P = 0.010) and worse (P = 0.028) eye compared with controls. The intervention group reported fewer difficulties with overall vision-related disability (P = 0.0001), reading (P = 0.004) and instrumental activities of daily living (P = 0.010) post-surgery compared with controls. People with improved depression scores (P = 0.048) after surgery had less difficulty with reading compared with those with unchanged or worsened depression scores. Cataract surgery did not improve health status. First eye cataract surgery is effective in improving outcomes in visual functioning and disability. Improved mood after surgery was related to less vision-related disability compared with unchanged or worse depression.
Kabat, Alan G
To report a series of cases involving neovascularization within the human crystalline lens-a normally avascular structure-after ocular trauma. This is a retrospective, consecutive observational case series with review of the prevailing literature. Four individuals with a history of ocular trauma and subsequent cataract development were examined between May 2004 and April 2007. All had hypermature cataracts and intraocular inflammation, presumably secondary to phacolysis; two of the four had concurrent hyphema and ocular hypertension in the involved eye. All subjects in this series were found to display a discrete network of blood vessels within the structure of the crystalline lens, just beneath the anterior lens capsule. Neovascularization of the crystalline lens has received little attention in the ophthalmic literature, having been described only rarely in individual case reports. This manuscript details the first known case series involving lenticular neovascularization, and offers insight into its possible developmental mechanism.
Sáles, Christopher S; Manche, Edward E
We present a review of keratorefractive and intraocular approaches to managing residual astigmatic and spherical refractive error after cataract surgery, including laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), arcuate keratotomy, intraocular lens (IOL) exchange, piggyback IOLs, and light-adjustable IOLs. Currently available literature suggests that laser vision correction, whether LASIK or PRK, yields more effective and predictable outcomes than intraocular surgery. Piggyback IOLs with a rounded-edge profile implanted in the sulcus may be superior to IOL exchange, but both options present potential risks that likely outweigh the refractive benefits except in cases with large residual spherical errors. The light-adjustable IOL may provide an ideal treatment to pseudophakic ametropia by obviating the need for secondary invasive procedures after cataract surgery, but it is not widely available nor has it been sufficiently studied. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sikder, Shameema; Tuwairqi, Khaled; Al-Kahtani, Eman; Myers, William G; Banerjee, Pat
Virtual simulators have been widely implemented in medical and surgical training, including ophthalmology. The increasing number of published articles in this field mandates a review of the available results to assess current technology and explore future opportunities. A PubMed search was conducted and a total of 10 articles were reviewed. Virtual simulators have shown construct validity in many modules, successfully differentiating user experience levels during simulated phacoemulsification surgery. Simulators have also shown improvements in wet-lab performance. The implementation of simulators in the residency training has been associated with a decrease in cataract surgery complication rates. Virtual reality simulators are an effective tool in measuring performance and differentiating trainee skill level. Additionally, they may be useful in improving surgical skill and patient outcomes in cataract surgery. Future opportunities rely on taking advantage of technical improvements in simulators for education and research.
Trokielewicz, Mateusz; Czajka, Adam; Maciejewicz, Piotr
This paper presents the experimental study revealing weaker performance of the automatic iris recognition methods for cataract-affected eyes when compared to healthy eyes. There is little research on the topic, mostly incorporating scarce databases that are often deficient in images representing more than one illness. We built our own database, acquiring 1288 eye images of 37 patients of the Medical University of Warsaw. Those images represent several common ocular diseases, such as cataract, along with less ordinary conditions, such as iris pattern alterations derived from illness or eye trauma. Images were captured in near-infrared light (used in biometrics) and for selected cases also in visible light (used in ophthalmological diagnosis). Since cataract is a disorder that is most populated by samples in the database, in this paper we focus solely on this illness. To assess the extent of the performance deterioration we use three iris recognition methodologies (commercial and academic solutions) to calculate genuine match scores for healthy eyes and those influenced by cataract. Results show a significant degradation in iris recognition reliability manifesting by worsening the genuine scores in all three matchers used in this study (12% of genuine score increase for an academic matcher, up to 175% of genuine score increase obtained for an example commercial matcher). This increase in genuine scores affected the final false non-match rate in two matchers. To our best knowledge this is the only study of such kind that employs more than one iris matcher, and analyzes the iris image segmentation as a potential source of decreased reliability
Ma Quintana, José; Escobar, Antonio; Bilbao, Amaia
Background Consensus techniques have been used previously to create explicit criteria to prioritize cataract extraction; however, the appropriateness of the intervention was not included explicitly in previous studies. We developed a prioritization tool for cataract extraction according to the RAND method. Methods Criteria were developed using a modified Delphi panel judgment process. A panel of 11 ophthalmologists was assembled. Ratings were analyzed regarding the level of agreement among panelists. We studied the effect of all variables on the final panel score using general linear and logistic regression models. Priority scoring systems were developed by means of optimal scaling and general linear models. The explicit criteria developed were summarized by means of regression tree analysis. Results Eight variables were considered to create the indications. Of the 310 indications that the panel evaluated, 22.6% were considered high priority, 52.3% intermediate priority, and 25.2% low priority. Agreement was reached for 31.9% of the indications and disagreement for 0.3%. Logistic regression and general linear models showed that the preoperative visual acuity of the cataractous eye, visual function, and anticipated visual acuity postoperatively were the most influential variables. Alternative and simple scoring systems were obtained by optimal scaling and general linear models where the previous variables were also the most important. The decision tree also shows the importance of the previous variables and the appropriateness of the intervention. Conclusion Our results showed acceptable validity as an evaluation and management tool for prioritizing cataract extraction. It also provides easy algorithms for use in clinical practice. PMID:16512893
Ravin, J G
Decreasing vision due to cataracts became a significant problem for Queen Victoria toward the end of the 19th century. Her personal physician, Sir James Reid, obtained consultations with two eminent British ophthalmologists, George Lawson and Edward Nettleship. The Queen was not satisfied, and requested an opinion from the German professor Hermann Pagenstecher. All the doctors agreed on the diagnosis, but the Queen never underwent surgery.
Randrianaivo, Jean-Baptiste; Anholt, R Michele; Tendrisoa, Diarimirindra Lazaharivony; Margiano, Nestor Jean; Courtright, Paul; Lewallen, Susan
To assess the prevalence and causes of avoidable blindness in Atsinanana Region, Madagascar, with the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) survey. We analyzed the hospital records to supplement the findings for public health care planning. Only villages within a two-hour walk from a road, about half of the population of Atsinanana was included. Seventy-two villages were selected by population-proportional-to-size sampling. In each village, compact segment sampling was used to select 50 people over age 50 for eye examination using standard RAAB methods. Records at the two hospitals providing cataract surgery in the region were analyzed for information on patients who underwent cataract surgery in 2010. Cataract incidence rate and target cataract surgery rate (CSR) was modeled from age-specific prevalence of cataract. The participation rate was 87% and the sample prevalence of blindness was 1.96%. Cataract was responsible for 64% and 85.7% of blindness and severe visual impairment, respectively. Visual impairment was due to cataract (69.4%) and refractive error (14.1%). There was a strong positive correlation between cataract surgical rate by district and the proportion of people living within 2 hours of a road. There were marked differences in the profiles of the cataract patients at the two facilities. The estimated incidence of cataract at the 6/18 level was 2.4 eyes per 100 people over age 50 per year. Although the survey included only people with reasonable access, the main cause of visual impairment was still cataract. The incidence of cataract is such that it ought to be possible to eliminate it as a cause of visual impairment, but changes in service delivery at hospitals and strategies to improve access will be necessary for this change.
Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Møller, Anders Pape
Background Radiation cataracts develop as a consequence of the effects of ionizing radiation on the development of the lens of the eye with an opaque lens reducing or eliminating the ability to see. Therefore, we would expect cataracts to be associated with reduced fitness in free-living animals. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the incidence of lens opacities typical of cataracts in more than 1100 free-living birds in the Chernobyl region in relation to background radiation. The incidence of cataracts increased with level of background radiation both in analyses based on a dichotomous score and in analyses of continuous scores of intensity of cataracts. The odds ratio per unit change in the regressor was 0.722 (95% CI 0.648, 0.804), which was less than odds ratios from investigations of radiation cataracts in humans. The relatively small odds ratio may be due to increased mortality in birds with cataracts. We found a stronger negative relationship between bird abundance and background radiation when the frequency of cataracts was higher, but also a direct effect of radiation on abundance, suggesting that radiation indirectly affects abundance negatively through an increase in the frequency of cataracts in bird populations, but also through direct effects of radiation on other diseases, food abundance and interactions with other species. There was no increase in incidence of cataracts with increasing age, suggesting that yearlings and older individuals were similarly affected as is typical of radiation cataract. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that cataracts are an under-estimated cause of morbidity in free-living birds and, by inference, other vertebrates in areas contaminated with radioactive materials. PMID:23935827
Park, Sangshin; Choi, Nam-Kyong
Cataract and insufficient vitamin D intake are both increasing worldwide concerns, yet little is known about the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and age-related cataract. We performed this study to determine the association between serum 25(OH)D levels and age-related cataract in adults. Study participants comprised 16,086 adults aged 40 years or older who had never been diagnosed with or undergone surgery for cataract using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2008 to 2012. Participants were assessed to have cataract when diagnosed with cortical, nuclear, anterior subcapsular, posterior subcapsular, or mixed cataract. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the magnitude and significance of the association between serum 25(OH)D levels and cataract in multivariable logistic regression models. The OR for nuclear cataract with the highest quintile of serum 25(OH)D levels was 0.86 (95% CI 0.75-0.99) compared to the lowest quintile. A linear trend across quintiles was significant. Natural log-transformed serum 25(OH)D levels were also significantly associated with nuclear cataract (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.75-0.95). The opulation-attributable fraction of nuclear cataract due to serum 25(OH)D insufficiency (<30 ng/mL) was 8.8% (p = 0.048). Serum 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with the risk of nuclear cataract. Prospective studies investigating the effects of serum 25(OH)D levels on the development of nuclear cataract are needed to confirm our findings.
Zhang, Mingjuan Lisa; Hirunyachote, Phenpan; Jampel, Henry
Background Cataract and glaucoma are leading causes of blindness worldwide, and their co-existence is common in elderly people. Glaucoma surgery can accelerate cataract progression, and performing both surgeries may increase the rate of postoperative complications and compromise the success of either surgery. However, cataract surgery may independently lower intraocular pressure (IOP), which may allow for greater IOP control among patients with co-existing cataract and glaucoma. The decision between undergoing combined glaucoma and cataract surgery versus cataract surgery alone is complex. Therefore, it is important to compare the effectiveness of these two interventions to aid clinicians and patients in choosing the better treatment approach. Objectives To assess the relative effectiveness and safety of combined surgery versus cataract surgery (phacoemulsification) alone for co-existing cataract and glaucoma. The secondary objectives include cost analyses for different surgical techniques for co-existing cataract and glaucoma. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 10), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to October 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2014), PubMed (January 1948 to October 2014), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to October 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 3 October 2014. We checked the reference lists of the included trials to identify further relevant trials. We used the Science
Zemba, M; Papadatu, Adriana-Camelia; Sîrbu, Laura-Nicoleta; Avram, Corina
to evaluate the efficiency of new torsional phacoemulsification software (Ozil IP system) in hard nucleus cataract extraction. 45 eyes with hard senile cataract (degree III and IV) underwent phacoemulsification performed by the same surgeon, using the same technique (stop and chop). Infiniti (Alcon) platform was used, with Ozil IP software and Kelman phaco tip miniflared, 45 degrees. The nucleus was split into two and after that the first half was phacoemulsificated with IP-on (group 1) and the second half with IP-off (group 2). For every group we measured: cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), numbers of tip closure that needed manual desobstruction the amount of BSS used. The mean CDE was the same in group 1 and in group 2 (between 6.2 and 14.9). The incidence of occlusion that needed manual desobstruction was lower in group 1 (5 times) than in group 2 (13 times). Group 2 used more BSS compared to group 1. The new torsional software (IP system) significantly decreased occlusion time and balanced salt solution use over standard torsional software, particularly with denser cataracts.
Sauder, Gangolf; Jonas, Jost B
To assess and compare the efficacy and safety of topical versus peribulbar anaesthesia in patients undergoing routine cataract surgery. The unicentre, prospective, randomized, clinical interventional trial included 140 consecutive patients undergoing routine cataract surgery performed by one of two surgeons. The patients were randomly distributed to either peribulbar anaesthesia or topical anaesthesia. To assess intraoperative pain, each patient was asked immediately after surgery to quantitate his/her pain using a 10-point pain rating scale. The study groups did not differ significantly in pain score (p=0.54), duration of surgery (p=0.52), anaesthesia-related intraoperative difficulties (p=0.17), postoperative visual acuity (p=0.94), overall intraoperative surgical complication rate, blood pressure rise (p=0.16) or blood oxygen saturation (p=0.74) Patient comfort and surgery-related complications did not differ between topical anaesthesia and peribulbar anaesthesia. As there are no significant differences between the two techniques in terms of subjective pain experienced by patients, intraoperative complications and postoperative visual outcome, and in view of the minimally invasive character of topical anaesthesia compared to peribulbar anaesthesia, the present study suggests the use of topical anaesthesia for routine cataract surgery.
Grozdanic, Sinisa D; Kecova, Helga; Lazic, Tatjana
To develop fast and reliable testing routines for diagnosing retina and optic nerve diseases in canine cataract patients based on chromatic properties of the pupillary light reflex response. Seventy-seven canine patients with a history of cataract and decreased vision (43 patients with cataracts and no evidence of retina or optic nerve disease, 21 patients with cataracts and retinal degeneration [RD], 13 patients with cataracts and retinal detachment [RDT]), 11 canine patients with optic neuritis (ON) and 23 healthy dogs were examined using chromatic pupillary light reflex (cPLR) analysis with red and blue light and electroretinography. Electroretinography analysis showed statistically significant deficits in a- and b-wave amplitudes in dogs with cataracts and RD, or cataracts and RDT, when compared to dogs with cataracts without evidence of retinal abnormalities. Evaluation of b-wave amplitudes showed that presence of 78.5-μV (or lower) amplitudes had high sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 87.2-100%) and high specificity of 96.7% (95% CI: 88.4-100%) in RD and RDT. Evaluation of cPLR responses using red light showed that presence of the pupil end constriction diameter of 5.5 mm (or higher) had moderately high sensitivity of 76.5% (95% CI: 50.1-93.2%) and high specificity of 100% (95% CI: 91.2-100%) in detecting RD and RDT. Optic neuritis patients had absent cPLR responses, regardless of the visual status. Chromatic evaluation of the pupillary light reflex is a rapid and accurate test for diagnosing retina and optic nerve diseases in canine patients. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
Johnson, Ashley C.; Lee, Jonathan W.; Harmon, Ashlyn C.; Morris, Zaliya; Wang, Xuexiang; Fratkin, Jonathan; Rapp, John P.; Gomez-Sanchez, Elise; Garrett, Michael R.
Cataracts are a major cause of blindness. The most common forms of cataracts are age and UV related and develops mostly in the elderly, while congenital cataracts appear at birth or in early childhood. The Dahl salt-sensitive (SS/Jr) rat is an extensively used model of salt-sensitive hypertension that exhibits concomitant renal disease. In the mid 1980’s, cataracts appeared in a few animals in the Dahl S colony, presumably the result of a spontaneous mutation. The mutation was fixed and bred to establish the SS/Jr-Ctr substrain. The SS/Jr-Ctr substrain has been exclusively used by a single investigator to study the role of steroids and hypertension. Using a classical positional cloning approach, we localized the cataract gene with high-resolution to a less than 1 Mbp region on chromosome 9 using an F1 (SS/Jr-Ctr X SHR) X SHR backcross population. The 1 Mbp region contained only 13 genes, including 4 genes from the γ-crystallins (Cryg) gene family which are known to play a role in cataract formation. All of the γ-crystallins were sequenced and a novel point mutation in the start codon (ATG → GTG) of the Crygd gene was identified which led to the complete absence of CRYGD protein in the eyes of the SS/Jr-Ctr strain. In summary, the identification of the genetic cause in this novel cataract model may provide an opportunity to better understand the development of cataracts, particularly in the context of hypertension. PMID:23404175
Sreelakshmi, V; Abraham, Annie
Cataract is the clouding of eye lens which causes impairment in vision and accounts for the leading factor of global blindness. Functional food-based prevention of cataract finds application in vision research because of its availability and easy access to all classes of the society. Cassia tora Linn. (Caesalpinaceae) is an edible plant mentioned in the traditional systems of medicine for whole body health, especially to the eyes. The present study evaluates the potential of ethyl acetate fraction of Cassia tora leaves (ECT) on experimental cataract. Cataract was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (4 μg/g body weight) on 10th day. ECT was supplemented orally from 8th day up to 12th day at a concentration of 5 μg/g body weight and marker parameters were evaluated after 30 days. The production of MPO and the activation of calpain were reduced 52.17% and 36.67% by ECT in lens tissue, respectively. It modulated the energy status by significantly increasing the activity of CCO 1 (55.56%) and ATP production (41.88%). ECT maintained the ionic balance in the lens by reducing the level of sodium (50%) and increasing the level of potassium (42.5%). It also reduced cell junction modifications and preserved a functional ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The results reinforce the growing attention on wild plant food resources for preventive protection against cataract. The data suggest the value of Cassia tora leaves as a functional food for ameliorating cataract pathology.
Gupta, S K; Selvan, V Kalai; Agrawal, S S; Saxena, Rohit
Cataractous-opacification of the lens is one of the leading causes of blindness in India. The situation can be managed by surgical removal of the cataractous lens. Various pharmacological strategies have been proposed for the prevention and treatment of cataract. Information on possible benefits of putative anticataract agents comes from a variety of approaches, ranging from laboratory experiments, both in vitro and in vivo, to epidemiological studies in patients. This review deals with the various mechanisms, and possible pharmacological interventions for the prevention of cataract. The article also reviews research on potential anticataractous agents, including aldose reductase inhibitors, glutathione boosters, antiglycating agents, vitamins and various drugs from indigenous sources. PMID:19384010
Groessl, Erik J; Liu, Lin; Sklar, Marisa; Tally, Steven R; Kaplan, Robert M; Ganiats, Theodore G
Cataracts are the leading cause of blindness worldwide and cause visual impairment for millions of adults in the United States. We compared the sensitivity of a vision-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measure to that of multiple generic measures of HRQOL before and at 2 time points after cataract surgery. Participants completed 1 vision-specific and 5 generic quality of life measures before cataract surgery, and again 1 and 6 months after surgery. Random effects modeling was used to measure changes over the three assessment points. The NEI-VFQ25 total score and all 11 subscales showed significant improvements during the first interval (baseline and 1 month). During the second interval (1-6 months post-surgery), significant improvements were observed on the total score and 5 of 11 NEI-VFQ25 subscales. There were significant increases in HRQOL during the first interval on some preference-based generic HRQOL measures, though changes during the second interval were mostly non-significant. None of the SF-36v2™ or SF6D scales changed significantly between any of the assessment periods. The NEI-VFQ25 was sensitive to changes in vision-specific domains of QOL. Some preference-based generic HRQOL measures were also sensitive to change and showed convergence with the NEI-VFQ25, but the effects were small. The SF-36v2™ and SF-6D did not change in a similar manner, possibly reflecting a lack of vision-related content. Studies seeking to document both the vision-specific and generic HRQOL improvements of cataract surgery should consider these results when selecting measures.
Kolawole, Olubayo U.; Ashaye, Adeyinka O.; Mahmoud, Abdulraheem O.; Adeoti, Caroline O.
Purpose: To estimate the burden of blindness and visual impairment due to cataract in Egbedore Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Twenty clusters of 60 individuals who were 50 years or older were selected by systematic random sampling from the entire community. A total of 1,183 persons were examined. Results: The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of bilateral cataract-related blindness (visual acuity (VA) < 3/60) in people of 50 years and older was 2.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6–2.4%). The Cataract Surgical Coverage (CSC) (persons) was 12.1% and Couching Coverage (persons) was 11.8%. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of bilateral operable cataract (VA < 6/60) in people of 50 years and older was 2.7% (95% CI: 2.3–3.1%). In this last group, the cataract intervention (surgery + couching) coverage was 22.2%. The proportion of patients who could not attain 6/60 vision after surgery were 12.5, 87.5, and 92.9%, respectively, for patients who underwent intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, cataract surgery without IOL implantation and those who underwent couching. “Lack of awareness” (30.4%), “no need for surgery” (17.6%), cost (14.6%), fear (10.2%), “waiting for cataract to mature” (8.8%), AND “surgical services not available” (5.8%) were reasons why individuals with operable cataract did not undergo cataract surgery. Conclusions: Over 600 operable cataracts exist in this region of Nigeria. There is an urgent need for an effective, affordable, and accessible cataract outreach program. Sustained efforts have to be made to increase the number of IOL surgeries, by making IOL surgery available locally at an affordable cost, if not completely free. PMID:23248537
Owsley, C; Stalvey, B; Wells, J; Sloane, M E
Cataract is a leading cause of vision impairment in older adults, affecting almost half of those over age 75 years. Driving is a highly visual task and, as with other age groups, older adults rely on the personal automobile for travel. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of cataract in driving. Older adults (aged 55-85 years) with cataract (n = 279) and those without cataract (n = 105) who were legally licensed to drive were recruited from eye clinics to participate in a driving habits interview to assess driving status, exposure, difficulty, and "space" (the distance of driving excursions from home base). Crash data over the prior 5 years were procured from state records. Visual functional tests documented the severity of vision impairment. Compared to those without cataract, older drivers with cataract were approximately two times more likely to report reductions in days driven and number of destinations per week, driving slower than the general traffic flow, and preferring someone else to drive. Those with cataract were five times more likely to have received advice about limiting their driving. Those with cataract were four times more likely to report difficulty with challenging driving situations, and those reporting driving difficulty were two times more likely to reduce their driving exposure. Drivers with cataract were 2.5 times more likely to have a history of at-fault crash involvement in the prior 5 years (adjusted for miles driven/week and days driven/week). These associations remained even after adjustments for the confounding effects of advanced age, impaired general health, mental status deficit, or depression. Older drivers with cataract experience a restriction in their driving mobility and a decrease in their safety on the road. These findings serve as a baseline for our ongoing study evaluating whether improvements in vision following cataract surgery expand driving mobility and improve driver safety.
Hayashi, Ken; Hayashi, Hideyuki
To examine the effect of contraction of the anterior capsule opening after cataract surgery on visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. Hayashi Eye Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan. Thirty-two eyes of 32 consecutive patients who showed marked contraction of the anterior capsule opening after implantation of an intraocular lens were recruited. The area of the anterior capsule opening was measured by Scheimpflug videophotography before and after neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) laser anterior capsulotomy and was correlated with visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. After Nd:YAG laser anterior capsulotomy, the mean area of the anterior capsule opening increased significantly from 8.2 mm(2) to 18.0 mm(2) (P<.0001). Contrast sensitivity at most visual angles also improved significantly after Nd:YAG anterior capsulotomy, although visual acuity did not. The area of the anterior capsule opening before anterior capsulotomy was correlated significantly with contrast sensitivity but not with visual acuity, whereas there was no correlation between the opening area after anterior capsulotomy and visual acuity or contrast sensitivity. Contraction of the anterior capsule opening after cataract surgery significantly diminished contrast sensitivity in proportion to the opening area but did not markedly worsen visual acuity. Neodymium:YAG laser anterior capsulotomy improved contrast sensitivity.
Naidu, Srilata; Lee, Jason E; Holopigian, Karen; Seiple, William H; Greenstein, Vivienne C; Stenson, Susan M
A body of clinical and laboratory evidence suggests that tinted spectacle lenses may have an effect on visual performance. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of spectacle lens tint on the visual performance of 25 subjects with cataracts. Cataracts were scored based on best-corrected acuity and by comparison with the Lens Opacity Classification System (LOCS III) plates. Visual performance was assessed by measuring contrast sensitivity with and without glare (Morphonome software version 4.0). The effect of gray, brown, yellow, green and purple tinting was evaluated. All subjects demonstrated an increase in contrast thresholds under glare conditions regardless of lens tint. However, brown and yellow lens tints resulted in the least amount of contrast threshold increase. Gray lens tint resulted in the largest contrast threshold increase. Individuals with lenticular changes may benefit from brown or yellow spectacle lenses under glare conditions.
Wong, Robert W; Rhodes, Kyle M
To describe a case of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery caused by Staphylococcus hominis and two separate colony types of Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Retrospective chart review including ophthalmic examination, intraocular biopsy and cultures, and anterior segment photography. A patient presented with endophthalmitis 1 month after cataract surgery. The patient underwent pars plana vitrectomy with vitreous fluid, aqueous fluid, and lens capsule biopsy with injection of intravitreal antimicrobials with full resolution of the infection. Cultures isolated grew S. hominis and two different colonies of S. haemolyticus, all sensitive to vancomycin. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of endophthalmitis due to lens capsule seeding from three different types of bacteria, S. hominis and two different colony types of S. haemolyticus. Prompt diagnosis and treatment can be associated with good visual outcomes.
Amsbaugh, D F; Stone, S H
Bilateral cataracts observed in the eyes of a 13/N guinea pig and one of her two offspring led to studies to determine the nature of this cataract and its possible heritability. The cataract was determined to be of the nuclear type, was congenital, and apparently transmitted by a single autosomal dominant gene. The cataractous condition of the mother had no effect on the percentage of litters containing stillborns. The cataractous condition of the offspring had no effect on their viability in utero, i.e., there was no greater incidence of stillborns among cataractous than among non-cataractous offspring. The birthweights of the cataractous animals were lower, but not significantly, than those of their non-cataractous littermates; however, the survivability to weaning of the cataractous offspring was reduced significantly when compared to their non-cataractous siblings.
Yang, Ji-Jiang; Li, Jianqiang; Shen, Ruifang; Zeng, Yang; He, Jian; Bi, Jing; Li, Yong; Zhang, Qinyan; Peng, Lihui; Wang, Qing
Cataract is defined as a lenticular opacity presenting usually with poor visual acuity. It is one of the most common causes of visual impairment worldwide. Early diagnosis demands the expertise of trained healthcare professionals, which may present a barrier to early intervention due to underlying costs. To date, studies reported in the literature utilize a single learning model for retinal image classification in grading cataract severity. We present an ensemble learning based approach as a means to improving diagnostic accuracy. Three independent feature sets, i.e., wavelet-, sketch-, and texture-based features, are extracted from each fundus image. For each feature set, two base learning models, i.e., Support Vector Machine and Back Propagation Neural Network, are built. Then, the ensemble methods, majority voting and stacking, are investigated to combine the multiple base learning models for final fundus image classification. Empirical experiments are conducted for cataract detection (two-class task, i.e., cataract or non-cataractous) and cataract grading (four-class task, i.e., non-cataractous, mild, moderate or severe) tasks. The best performance of the ensemble classifier is 93.2% and 84.5% in terms of the correct classification rates for cataract detection and grading tasks, respectively. The results demonstrate that the ensemble classifier outperforms the single learning model significantly, which also illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Venkatesh, Rengaraj; van Landingham, Suzanne W; Khodifad, Ashish M; Haripriya, Aravind; Thiel, Cassandra L; Ramulu, Pradeep; Robin, Alan L
This article raises awareness about the cost-effectiveness and carbon footprint of various cataract surgery techniques, comparing their relative carbon emissions and expenses: manual small-incision cataract surgery (MSICS), phacoemulsification, and femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. As the most commonly performed surgical procedure worldwide, cataract surgery contributes significantly to global climate change. The carbon footprint of a single phacoemulsification cataract surgery is estimated to be comparable to that of a typical person's life for 1 week. Phacoemulsification has been estimated to be between 1.4 and 4.7 times more expensive than MSICS; however, given the lower degree of postoperative astigmatism and other potential complications, phacoemulsification may still be preferable to MSICS in relatively resource-rich settings requiring high levels of visual function. Limited data are currently available regarding the environmental and financial impact of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery; however, in its current form, it appears to be the least cost-effective option. Cataract surgery has a high value to patients. The relative environmental impact and cost of different types of cataract surgery should be considered as this treatment becomes even more broadly available globally and as new technologies are developed and implemented.
Slagor, Rebekka Michaelsen; La Cour, Morten; Bonde, Jens Peter
There are indications that solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) increases the risk of cataract, but there is only circumstantial evidence that metal welding, an important occupational source of UVR exposure, is a risk factor. The objective of this study is to unravel if metal welding increases the risk of cataract. We compared the risk of being diagnosed with cataract from 1987-2012 in a historic cohort of 4288 male metal arc welders against a reference group comprised of Danish skilled and unskilled male workers with similar age distribution. For the welders' cohort, information on welding was collected from questionnaires and, for both cohorts, information about cataract diagnosis and operation was gathered from Danish national registers. Using Cox regression analysis, the hazard ratio (HR) for cataract diagnosis and/or operation was calculated in the follow-up period adjusted for baseline data regarding age, diabetes, and social group. There were 266 welders and 29 007 referents with a diagnosis and/or operation for cataract. The unadjusted HR for cataract comparing ever-welders with referents was 1.07 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.95-1.21] and the adjusted HR was 1.08 (95% CI 0.95-1.22). Age and diabetes were as expected strong risk factors. We found no increased risk of developing cataract among Danish metal welders who worked with arc welding from 1950-1985. This may be attributed to the effectiveness of personal safety equipment.
Aboobaker, Shaheer; Courtright, Paul
Cataract remains the leading cause of blindness in Africa. We performed a systematic literature search of articles reporting barriers to cataract surgery in Africa. PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched with the terms "barriers, cataract, Africa, cataract surgery, cataract surgical coverage (CSC), and rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB)." The review covered from 1999 to 2014. In RAAB studies, barriers related to awareness and access were more commonly reported than acceptance. Other type of studies reported cost as the most common barrier. Some qualitative studies tended to report community and family dynamics as barriers to cataract surgery. CSC was lower in females in 88.2% of the studies. The variability in outcomes of studies of barriers to cataract surgery could be due to context and the type of data collection. It is likely that qualitative data will provide a deeper understanding of the complex social, family, community, financial and gender issues relating to barriers to uptake of cataract surgery in Africa.
Background Cataract is an extremely common visual condition of ageing. Evidence suggests that visual impairment influences driving patterns and self-regulatory behavior among older drivers. However, little is known about the psychological effects of driver self-regulation among older drivers. Therefore, this study aimed to describe driver self-regulation practices among older bilateral cataract patients and to determine the association between self-regulation and depressive symptoms. Methods Ninety-nine older drivers with bilateral cataract were assessed the week before first eye cataract surgery. Driver self-regulation was measured via the Driving Habits Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 20-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Visual, demographic and cognitive data were also collected. Differences between self-regulators and non self-regulators were described and linear regression modeling used to determine the association between driver self-regulation and depressive symptoms score. Results Among cataract patients, 48% reported self-regulating their driving to avoid at least one challenging situation. The situations most commonly avoided were driving at night (40%), on the freeway (12%), in the rain (9%) and parallel parking (8%). Self-regulators had significantly poorer contrast sensitivity in their worse eye than non self-regulators (p = 0.027). Driver self-regulation was significantly associated with increased depressive symptoms after controlling for potential confounding factors (p = 0.002). Conclusions Driver self-regulation was associated with increased depressive symptoms among cataract patients. Further research should investigate this association among the general older population. Self-regulation programs aimed at older drivers may need to incorporate mental health elements to counteract unintended psychological effects. PMID:24016307
Leivo, Tiina; Sarikkola, Anna-Ulrika; Uusitalo, Risto J; Hellstedt, Timo; Ess, Sirje-Linda; Kivelä, Tero
To present an economic-analysis comparison of simultaneous and sequential bilateral cataract surgery. Helsinki University Eye Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. Economic analysis. Effects were estimated from data in a study in which patients were randomized to have bilateral cataract surgery on the same day (study group) or sequentially (control group). The main clinical outcomes were corrected distance visual acuity, refraction, complications, Visual Function Index-7 (VF-7) scores, and patient-rated satisfaction with vision. Health-care costs of surgeries and preoperative and postoperative visits were estimated, including the cost of staff, equipment, material, floor space, overhead, and complications. The data were obtained from staff measurements, questionnaires, internal hospital records, and accountancy. Non-health-care costs of travel, home care, and time were estimated based on questionnaires from a random subset of patients. The main economic outcome measures were cost per VF-7 score unit change and cost per patient in simultaneous versus sequential surgery. The study comprised 520 patients (241 patients included non-health-care and time cost analyses). Surgical outcomes and patient satisfaction were similar in both groups. Simultaneous cataract surgery saved 449 Euros (€) per patient in health-care costs and €739 when travel and paid home-care costs were included. The savings added up to €849 per patient when the cost of lost working time was included. Compared with sequential bilateral cataract surgery, simultaneous bilateral cataract surgery provided comparable clinical outcomes with substantial savings in health-care and non-health-care-related costs. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shah, Manjool; Law, Geoffrey; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K
To discuss the increasing utilization of cataract extraction in the management of glaucoma and to highlight advances in surgical care that can promote synergistic treatment of these comorbid conditions. Recent years have demonstrated significant advances in the management of glaucoma through the use of novel microinvasive glaucoma devices. Furthermore, an increased understanding of the role of cataract surgery in the treatment of various glaucomas warrants review. Nevertheless, cataract surgery in the glaucoma patient warrants specific preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative planning to optimize visual function and quality of life while mitigating potential risk factors for adverse events. Although the challenges of performing cataract extraction on glaucoma patients exist, the potential benefit to these patients is substantial. With attention to pre- and perioperative surgical planning and intraoperative technique, as well as with awareness and potential utilization of novel devices and treatment strategies, cataract extraction offers a unique platform for anatomical and functional improvement in this increasingly common cohort of patients.
Shiels, Alan; Hejtmancik, J. Fielding
The crystalline lens plays an important role in the refractive vision of vertebrates by facilitating variable fine focusing of light onto the retina. Loss of lens transparency, or cataract, is a frequently acquired cause of visual impairment in adults and may also present during childhood. Genetic studies have identified mutations in over 30 causative genes for congenital or other early-onset forms of cataract as well as several gene variants associated with age-related cataract. However, the pathogenic mechanisms resulting from genetic determinants of cataract are only just beginning to be understood. Here, we briefly summarize current concepts pointing to differences in the molecular mechanisms underlying congenital and age-related forms of cataract. PMID:27334249
Jacobson, Baruch S
Radiation-induced cataracts are predominantly of the posterior sub-capsular (PSC) type, whereas about 90% of age-related cataracts are of other types. Retired workers, likely to have transuranic body burdens, from three DOE-supported installations were questioned regarding their eye-care history and asked for permission to contact their eye-care providers regarding any cataracts. In 97 cases with lifetime exposure records 20 cases (20.6%) were reported to have PSC cataracts. However, of 24 individuals with recorded lifetime doses of 200-600 mSv, nine (37.5%) had PSC cataracts, compared with 15.1% of 73 cases with doses of less than 200 mSv. This difference is statistically significant at the 5% level.
Hollander, David A; Vagefi, M Reza; Seiff, Stuart R; Stewart, Jay M
To determine if there is an increased rate of postoperative bacterial endophthalmitis after resident-performed cataract extraction relative to the reported rates of experienced surgeons. Retrospective, observational case series. The operative reports of the resident-performed cataract surgeries at San Francisco General Hospital between 1983 and 2002 were reviewed. Cases of culture-positive bacterial endophthalmitis and vitreous loss were identified. Between 1983 and 2002, three cases (0.11%) of culture-positive bacterial endophthalmitis occurred after 2718 resident-performed cataract extractions. The overall vitreous loss rate was 6.7%. Two endophthalmitis cases were acute (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus viridans), presenting within five days of surgeries complicated by vitreous loss, and one case was delayed-onset (Corynebacterium species) after Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy after uncomplicated cataract extraction. Despite higher rates of vitreous loss, the rate of endophthalmitis following resident-performed cataract surgery remains comparable with the rates of more experienced surgeons.
Pike, M G; Jan, J E; Wong, P K
Ninety-seven children who were born between 1954 and 1986 and presented to the Visually Impaired Program of British Columbia's Children's Hospital, Vancouver, Canada, with a primary ophthalmologic diagnosis of cataracts, were assessed neurologically, ophthalmologically, audiologically, and developmentally. Causal factors included prenatal infection (35 cases), hereditary cataracts (22 cases), various syndromes and metabolic disorders (9 cases), trauma (1 case), and unknown (30 cases). Ninety children were diagnosed to have congenital cataracts while 7 acquired them. Findings indicated that prenatal infection continues to be a cause of infantile cataracts, despite rubella immunization; that prematurity is not, as has been stated in the past, a cause of infantile cataract; and that careful neurological, audiological, and developmental examination is vital in the assessment of likely causes of this condition.
Rotchford, A P; Johnson, G J
Cataract surgical coverage (CSC) is a useful indicator of the degree of success of a cataract intervention programme. However, because previously described methods are time-consuming and labour-intensive, they are rarely performed. This study describes a simple and inexpensive assessment of CSC based on screening of pensioners at pension delivery sites in a rural district. Random cluster-based cross-sectional survey. State pension distribution sites in Hlabisa, a rural district in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. 562 old-age pensioners. Subjects found to be blind (visual acuity < 3/60) and those reporting a history of eye surgery were examined using a torch and direct ophthalmoscope by an ophthalmologist. Cases of blindness due to operable cataract and post-cataract surgical subjects were identified. CSC was found to be 38.5% (95% confidence interval 29.1-47.9%). Blindness prevalence was 10.3%, with 69.0% due to cataract.
Li, Huiqi; Lim, Joo Hwee; Liu, Jiang; Mitchell, Paul; Tan, Ava Grace; Wang, Jie Jin; Wong, Tien Yin
Cataracts are the leading cause of blindness worldwide, and nuclear cataract is the most common form of cataract. An algorithm for automatic diagnosis of nuclear cataract is investigated in this paper. Nuclear cataract is graded according to the severity of opacity using slit lamp lens images. Anatomical structure in the lens image is detected using a modified active shape model. On the basis of the anatomical landmark, local features are extracted according to clinical grading protocol. Support vector machine regression is employed for grade prediction. This is the first time that the nucleus region can be detected automatically in slit lamp images. The system is validated using clinical images and clinical ground truth on >5000 images. The success rate of structure detection is 95% and the average grading difference is 0.36 on a 5.0 scale. The automatic diagnosis system can improve the grading objectivity and potentially be used in clinics and population studies to save the workload of ophthalmologists.
Apil, Aytekin; Ekinci, Metin; Cagatay, Halil Huseyin; Keles, Sadullah; Ceylan, Erdinc; Cakici, Ozgur
Purpose. To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of 0.5% propacaine hydrochloride as topical anesthesia during phacoemulsification surgery. Methods. Intraoperative pain intensity was assessed using a 5-category verbal rating scale during each of three surgical stages. Pain scores from each surgical stage and total pain scores were compared for the factors of patient age, gender, cataract laterality, and type. Results. In comparison of cataract type subgroups, the mean total pain scores and mean stage 2 pain scores in both white mature cataract (WMC) and corticonuclear plus posterior subcapsular cataract (CN + PSC) groups were significantly higher than in the PSC-only (PSC) group (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Phacoemulsification with topical anesthesia is not a completely painless procedure. Pain intensity varies with cataract type and stage of surgery. PMID:25050180
Vaidyanathan, K; Limburg, H; Foster, A; Pandey, R M
Cataract is a major cause of blindness in Asia. Efforts in India to provide cataract surgical services have had limited success in reaching the cataract-blind population. Earlier studies identified the major barriers to cataract surgery as poverty, lack of transportation or felt need, or sex related; and the critical barriers in rural areas as lack of awareness, difficult access, and cost. Compared with these earlier data, the results of the present study in Karnataka State indicate a shift in the character of the barriers. They now appear to be more related to case selection and service provision. These shifts are analysed and alternative strategies to increase the uptake to cataract surgery are recommended.
Burns, E C; Jones, R B
Presentation and outcome, particularly in terms of development, nursery, and school placement of 55 children with treated congenital cataracts was studied. Results indicate that although most children have satisfactory vision many of their parents would have welcomed more support at the time of the diagnosis, an opportunity to talk to parents of similarly affected children, and further advice on their child's early development and educational placement. It is suggested that improved communications between clinicians, therapists, and teachers, and parents' support groups would be helpful to these families. PMID:3923944
Anand, Vijay; Buckley, John G; Scally, Andy; Elliott, David B
To determine the influence of cataractous and refractive blur on postural stability and limb-load asymmetry (LLA) and to establish how postural stability changes with the spatial frequency and contrast of the visual stimulus. Thirteen elderly subjects (mean age, 70.76 +/- 4.14 [SD] years) with no history of falls and normal vision were recruited. Postural stability was determined as the root mean square [RMS] of the center of pressure (COP) signal in the anterior-posterior (A-P) and medial-lateral directions and LLA was determined as the ratio of the average body weight placed on the more-loaded limb to the less-loaded limb, recorded during a 30-second period. Data were collected under normal standing conditions and with somatosensory system input disrupted. Measurements were repeated with four visual targets with high (8 cyc/deg) or low (2 cyc/deg) spatial frequency and high (Weber contrast, approximately 95%) or low (Weber contrast, approximately 25%) contrast. Postural stability was measured under conditions of binocular refractive blur of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 D and with cataract simulation. The data were analyzed in a population-averaged linear model. The cataract simulation caused significant increases in postural instability equivalent to that caused by 8-D blur conditions, and its effect was greater when the input from the somatosensory system was disrupted. High spatial frequency targets increased postural instability. Refractive blur, cataract simulation, or eye closure had no effect on LLA. Findings indicate that cataractous and refractive blur increase postural instability, and show why the elderly, many of whom have poor vision along with musculoskeletal and central nervous system degeneration, are at greater risk of falling. Findings also highlight that changes in contrast sensitivity rather than resolution changes are responsible for increasing postural instability. Providing low spatial frequency information in certain environments may be useful in
Crosby, Niall; Polkinghorne, Philip J; Kim, Bia; McGhee, Charles; Welch, Sarah; Riley, Andrew
To determine if endophthalmitis following cataract surgery is linked to increased mortality. Increased mortality has been linked to patients with cataract and cataract surgery. We tested the hypothesis that post-cataract endophthalmitis has a greater risk of death than pseudophakes who do not develop this complication. Case-control study conducted in a tertiary public hospital. The study group comprised 50 consecutive patients with post-cataract endophthalmitis, and these were matched with selected controls. Patients with endophthalmitis following cataract surgery were identified from a prospective electronic surgical database. Subsequently, it was determined if the patient was deceased at the time of sequestration (September 2015), and the date of death was recorded. A previously described population who had undergone cataract surgery in the same facility was selected as a control group, and the population was case-matched in terms age, gender, presence or absence of diabetes and/or hypertension. The median survival rates were determined for the control group and the patients with post-cataract endophthalmitis. Fifty patients were identified as undergoing endophthalmitis post-cataract surgery, and 48 (n = 48) met inclusion criteria (mean age 72 years ±12 SD with 30:18 F:M); 17% were diabetic, and 50% had systemic hypertension. No statistically significant difference in median survival between the study and control cases was identified (100 months (95% confidence interval 86-114) vs. 106 months (95% confidence interval 66-146), respectively, P = 0.756). Post-cataract endophthalmitis was not associated with an increased rate of mortality in this study. © 2018 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
Elbieh, Islam; Bascaran, Covadonga; Blanchet, Karl; Foster, Allen
To describe cataract services in Egypt and explore resources and practices in public and private sectors. The study was conducted between June and August 2015. All facilities in the country providing cataract services were contacted to obtain information on surgeries performed in 2014. Hospitals performing eye surgery in Quena, Sharkia, and Fayoum regions were visited and a questionnaire on resources for cataract surgery was completed. Cataract surgery was offered in the public sector by 64 government and 16 university teaching hospitals and in the private sector by 101 hospitals. Over 90% of all facilities in the country contacted participated in the study. In 2014, the national cataract surgical rate (CSR) was 3674 varying in governorates from 7579 in Ismailia to 402 in Suez. The private sector performed 70% of cataract surgeries. Analysis of three regions showed an 11.7% increase in cataract output between 2010 and 2014. The average number of cataract surgeries per unit in 2014 was 2272 in private, 1633 in university, and 824 in government hospitals. Private hospitals had 60% of human resources for eye care. Phacoemulsification was the surgical technique in 85.6% of private, 72.1% of university, and 41% of government hospitals. Reasons explaining the differences in output between public and private sectors were the lack of trainers, supervisors, and incentives. The private sector provides most of the cataract services in Egypt, resulting in inadequate services for the poor. There is a 15-fold variation in CSR between the best and least served regions. The public sector could increase cataract output by improving training, supervision, and incentives.
Khandekar, Rajiv; Sudhan, Anand; Jain, B K; Deshpande, Madan; Dole, Kuldeep; Shah, Mahul; Shah, Shreya
The aim was to assess the impact of cataract surgeries in reducing visual disabilities and factors influencing it at three institutes of India. A retrospective chart review was performed in 2013. Data of 4 years were collected on gender, age, residence, presenting a vision in each eye, eye that underwent surgery, type of surgery and the amount the patient paid out of pocket for surgery. Visual impairment was categorized as; absolute blindness (no perception of light); blind (<3/60); severe visual impairment (SVI) (<6/60-3/60); moderate visual impairment (6/18-6/60) and; normal vision (≥6/12). Statistically analysis was performed to evaluate the association between visual disabilities and demographics or other possible barriers. The trend of visual impairment over time was also evaluated. We compared the data of 2011 to data available about cataract cases from institutions between 2002 and 2009. There were 108,238 cataract cases (50.6% were female) that underwent cataract surgery at the three institutions. In 2011, 71,615 (66.2%) cases underwent surgery. There were 45,336 (41.9%) with presenting vision < 3/60 and 75,393 (69.7%) had SVI in the fellow eye. Blindness at presentation for cataract surgery was associated to, male patients, Institution 3 (Dristi Netralaya, Dahod) surgeries after 2009, cataract surgeries without Intra ocular lens implant implantation, and patients paying <25 US $ for surgery. Predictors of SVI at time of cataract surgery were, male, Institution 3 (OM), phaco surgeries, those opting to pay 250 US $ for cataract surgeries. Patients with cataract seek eye care in late stages of visual disability. The goal of improving vision related quality of life for cataract patients during the early stages of visual impairment that is common in industrialized countries seems to be non-attainable in the rural India.
Chemerovski-Glikman, Marina; Mimouni, Michael; Dagan, Yarden; Haj, Esraa; Vainer, Igor; Allon, Raviv; Blumenthal, Eytan Z; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Segal, Daniel; Gazit, Ehud; Zayit-Soudry, Shiri
Cataract, the leading cause of vision impairment worldwide, arises from abnormal aggregation of crystallin lens proteins. Presently, surgical removal is the only therapeutic approach. Recent findings have triggered renewed interest in development of non-surgical treatment alternatives. However, emerging treatments are yet to achieve full and consistent lens clearance. Here, the first ex vivo assay to screen for drug candidates that reduce human lenticular protein aggregation was developed. This assay allowed the identification of two leading compounds as facilitating the restoration of nearly-complete transparency of phacoemulsified cataractous preparation ex vivo. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that both compounds reduce cataract microparticle size and modify their amyloid-like features. In vivo studies confirmed that the lead compound, rosmarinic acid, delays cataract formation and reduces the severity of lens opacification in model rats. Thus, the ex vivo assay may provide an initial platform for broad screening of potential novel therapeutic agents towards pharmacological treatment of cataract.
Day, Alexander C; Gore, Daniel M; Bunce, Catey; Evans, Jennifer R
Cataract is the leading cause of blindness in the world, and cataract surgery is one of the most commonly performed operations in the Western world. Preferred surgical techniques have changed dramatically over the past half century with associated improvements in outcomes and safety. Femtosecond laser platforms that can accurately and reproducibly perform key steps in cataract surgery, including corneal incisions, capsulotomy and lens fragmentation, are now available. The potential advantages of laser-assisted surgery are broad, and include greater safety and better visual outcomes through greater precision and reproducibility. To compare the effectiveness of laser-assisted cataract surgery with standard ultrasound phacoemulsification cataract surgery by gathering evidence on safety from randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 4), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to May 2016), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to May 2016), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en) and the U.S. Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) website (www.fda.gov). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 10 May 2016. We included randomised controlled trials where laser-assisted cataract surgery was compared to standard ultrasound phacoemulsification cataract surgery. We graded the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. Two review authors independently screened the search results, assessed risk of bias and extracted data using the standard methodological
Kelkar, Jai; Amuaku, Winfried; Kelkar, Uday; Shaikh, Aarofil
Postoperative endophthalmitis is a very devastating complication and every step should be taken to reduce its occurrence. Unattended air conditioning filter systems are often the culprits and regular maintenance of the filters is of paramount importance. Shedders of pathogenic organisms amongst the theater personnel should be identified by regular screening and should be promptly treated. In addition to the use of Povidone iodine 5% solution in the conjunctival sac few minutes prior to surgery, proper construction of wound, injectable intraocular lenses, use of prophylactic intracameral antibiotics or prophylactic subconjunctival antibiotic injection at the conclusion of cataract surgery, placing a patch after the surgery for at least 4 h and initiating topical antibiotics from the same day of surgery helps to lower the frequency of postoperative endophthalmitis. Intraoperative posterior capsule rupture and anterior vitrectomy are risk factors for acute endophthalmitis, and utmost care to prevent posterior capsular rent should be taken while performing cataract surgery. Also, in case of such complication, these patients should be closely monitored for early signs of endophthalmitis in the postoperative period. In the unfortunate event of endophthalmitis the diagnosis should be prompt and treatment must be initiated as early as possible. PMID:18711270
Conway, Mandi D; Stern, Ethan; Enfield, David B; Peyman, Gholam A
This review is timely because the outcomes of surgical invention in uveitic eyes with cataract can be optimized with adherence to strict anti-inflammatory principles. All eyes should be free of any cell/ flare for a minimum of 3 months preoperatively. Another helpful maneuver is to place dexamethasone in the infusion fluid or triamcinolone intracamerally at the end of surgery. Recent reports about the choice of intraocular lens material or lens design are germane to the best surgical outcome. Integrating these findings will promote better visual outcomes and allow advancement in research to further refine these surgical interventions in high-risk uveitic eyes. Control of inflammation has been shown to greatly improve postoperative outcomes in patients with uveitis. Despite better outcomes, more scientific research needs to be done regarding lens placement and materials and further research needs to adhere to the standardized reporting of uveitis nomenclature. Future studies should improve postoperative outcomes in eyes with uveitis so that they approach those of eyes undergoing routine cataract procedures.
Shah, Mehul A; Agrawal, Rupesh; Teoh, Ryan; Shah, Shreya M; Patel, Kashyap; Gupta, Satyam; Gosai, Siddharth
To introduce and validate the pediatric ocular trauma score (POTS) - a mathematical model to predict visual outcome trauma in children with traumatic cataract METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, medical records of consecutive children with traumatic cataracts aged 18 and below were retrieved and analysed. Data collected included age, gender, visual acuity, anterior segment and posterior segment findings, nature of surgery, treatment for amblyopia, follow-up, and final outcome was recorded on a precoded data information sheet. POTS was derived based on the ocular trauma score (OTS), adjusting for age of patient and location of the injury. Visual outcome was predicted using the OTS and the POTS and using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. POTS predicted outcomes were more accurate compared to that of OTS (p = 0.014). POTS is a more sensitive and specific score with more accurate predicted outcomes compared to OTS, and is a viable tool to predict visual outcomes of pediatric ocular trauma with traumatic cataract.
Lafuma, Antoine; Berdeaux, Gilles
Background To compare the lifetime costs of liberating patients from spectacles after cataract surgery by implanting the multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) 'ReSTOR®' versus monofocal IOLs in France, Italy, Germany and Spain. Methods A Markov model was created to follow patient cohorts from cataract surgery until death. Prevalence rates of patients not needing spectacles after cataract surgery were obtained from clinical trials. Resource utilisation included implant surgery, IOLs, spectacles, visits to ophthalmologists and eye centres, transport, and time lost by patients. Economic perspectives were those of Society and Sickness Funds (SFs). Results The mean number of spectacles purchased after ReSTOR® was 1.34–1.61 and after monofocal IOLs 6.05–7.27. From the societal perspective, total cost estimates discounted by 3% were between €3,551 and €4,052 with ReSTOR® compared to €3,989 and €5,548 with monofocal IOLs. Undiscounted savings related to ReSTOR® ranged from €815 to €2,164. From the SFs' perspective total cost estimates discounted by 3% were between €2,150 and €2,524 with ReSTOR® compared to €2,324 and €2,610 with monofocal IOLs. Savings related to ReSTOR®, once costs discounted, ranged from €61 to €219. Discount and spectacle freedom prevalence rates were the most sensitive parameters. Conclusion The bulk of the savings related to ReSTOR® were realized outside the SF. From both a societal and SF perspective, savings, after a 3% discounting, achieved by liberating patients from spectacles counterbalanced the initially higher cost of ReSTOR®. ReSTOR® is a cost saving alternative to spectacles for patients requiring cataract surgery. PMID:18627594
Meltzer, Mirjam E; Congdon, Nathan; Kymes, Steven M; Yan, Xixi; Lansingh, Van C; Sisay, Alemayehu; Müller, Andreas; Chan, Ving Fai; Jin, Ling; Karumanchi, Sasipriya M; Guan, Chunhong; Vuong, Quy; Rivera, Nelson; McCleod-Omawale, Joan; He, Mingguang
.9% were willing to pay, and 1.6% had treatable complications, of whom 39.4% were willing to pay. Maximum proportions with improved VA (and corresponding ICERs) were 0.08 for no follow-up, 0.45 ($151.56) for spontaneous follow-up, 0.53 ($164.46) for a telephone intervention, and 0.53 ($133.07) for a transportation intervention. These results were most sensitive to the cost of follow-up. Expected proportions (ICERs) were 0.08, 0.27 ($232.69), 0.30 ($456.22), and 0.30 ($206.47), respectively. Most patients benefiting from follow-up after cataract surgery returned spontaneously when requested at discharge. Use of telephone calls or transportation subsidies to increase follow-up in low- and middle-income countries may not be cost-effective.
To describe the near-infrared (NIR) operating microscopy (NIOM) system using the NIR wavelength as the illumination source and to evaluate the feasibility of this system for lightless cataract surgery. HenAm Kim Eye Center, Haenam-Gun, South Korea. In this noncomparative interventional case series, cataract surgery was performed in 4 patients with bilateral cataract using the NIOM system in 1 eye and conventional microscopy in the fellow eye. The primary components of the system include an optical filter, a stereoscopic camera, head-mounted displays, and a recording system. This system uses invisible NIR (wavelength 850 to 1300 nm) illumination to facilitate cataract surgery without light. The differences between the NIOM system and conventional microscopy during cataract surgery were evaluated. The NIOM system provided excellent 3-dimensional viewing in real time. The image resolution was sufficient while performing all steps of cataract surgery. Immediately postoperatively and at 10 and 30 minutes and 1 hour, the visual acuity was better in the 4 eyes in which the NIOM system was used than in the 4 eyes in which conventional microscopy was used. However, using the NIOM system required good surgical skill. Lightless cataract surgery using the NIOM system seems useful for obtaining good visual acuity immediately postoperatively. The system may also reduce the incidence of light-induced retinal toxicity and the need for mydriatic administration and be a good educational tool.
Caixinha, Miguel; Santos, Mário; Santos, Jaime
To demonstrate the feasibility of a new methodology for cataract hardness characterization and automatic classification using ultrasound techniques, different cataract degrees were induced in 210 porcine lenses. A 25-MHz ultrasound transducer was used to obtain acoustical parameters (velocity and attenuation) and backscattering signals. B-Scan and parametric Nakagami images were constructed. Ninety-seven parameters were extracted and subjected to a Principal Component Analysis. Bayes, K-Nearest-Neighbours, Fisher Linear Discriminant and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers were used to automatically classify the different cataract severities. Statistically significant increases with cataract formation were found for velocity, attenuation, mean brightness intensity of the B-Scan images and mean Nakagami m parameter (p < 0.01). The four classifiers showed a good performance for healthy versus cataractous lenses (F-measure ≥ 92.68%), while for initial versus severe cataracts the SVM classifier showed the higher performance (90.62%). The results showed that ultrasound techniques can be used for non-invasive cataract hardness characterization and automatic classification. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ionizing radiation on the lens of the eye can produce a progressive cataract. Small cumulative doses, over a long time period, can produce adverse effects on the professional capabilities of health workers in the ionizing radiation zone. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether occupational exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation can cause an increase in prevalence of cataract. We compared a group with occupational cataract, consisting of 115 health workers in the ionizing radiation zone, and two control groups: a group of 100 health-care workers in the ionizing radiation zone, with a higher incidence of chromosomal aberrations, but without cataract; and another control group of 26 health-care workers with cataract, outside the zone; all risk factors for the development of cataract were considered: age, sex, diference in profession, duration of occupational exposure, years of service, level of blood sugar, blood pressure, arrhythmias, etc. A more significant incidence of cataract was found in workers in the ionizing radiation zone, where the relative risk was 4.6; p < 0.01. Radiology technicians showed the highest prevalence (63.5%), while physicians-radiologists and pneumologists were second (15.7%) and third (10.3%) respectively; nurses showed a 3.5% incidence and nuclear medicine department workers showed an incidence of only 1.7%. Other risk factors had an effect on the development of cataract (p < 0.05). Occupational exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation, together with other risk factors, is a significant cofactor in the occurrence of cataract as an occupational disease among x-ray exposed health care workers. The categories most at risk are radiology technicians,followed by radiologists.
Ateş, N A; Yildirim, O; Tamer, L; Unlü, A; Ercan, B; Muşlu, N; Kanik, A; Hatungil, R; Atik, U
Oxidative mechanisms play a major role in the aetiology and pathogenesis of cataract, especially in age-related cataract. Our study aims to investigate systemic oxidant and antioxidant markers in cataract patients. The activity of erythrocyte catalase and the level of malondialdehyde in plasma were measured in 40 patients with cataract and 60 healthy control subjects. The malondialdehyde level, as an index of lipid peroxidation, was determined by thiobarbitüric acid reaction according to Yagi. The determination of catalase activity was measured by a method that was defined by Beutler. Catalase enzyme activity and malondialdehyde level were evaluated to find out whether there was a significant difference in these variables. Analysis of variance was used by forming a general linear model that takes age and gender as the covariate. CAT activity was found to be 13 920.2 +/- 847.9 U/l in cataract patients and 16 061.3 +/- 1126.6 U/l in control subjects. CAT activity in cataract patients was significantly lower than the control subjects (P = 0.008). Plasma MDA level is significantly higher in patients with cataract 4.47 +/- 0.35 nmol/ml compared to the control subjects 2.94 +/- 0.26 nmol/ml (P = 0.0001). There was no significant difference between different cataract subgroups when erythrocyte CAT activities and plasma MDA levels were compared (P = 0.322, 0.062). This study shows that oxidant/antioxidant balances alter in the presence of cataract.
Bozorg, Sara; Pineda, Roberto
Patients with both cataract and keratoconus present unique challenges for the surgeon. Accurate keratometry (K) and axial length (AL) readings may be impossible, and uncertainty is introduced when estimating the corneal power for intraocular lens (IOL) selection. Different options on how to choose an IOL and how to manage irregular astigmatism of a keratoconic patient with cataract have been proposed and are reviewed. The stage of keratoconus and the history of the patient are both critical in determining the strategy used in treatment of cataracts.
Corredor-Ortega, Claudia; Gonzalez-Salinas, Roberto; Montero, María José; González-Flores, Rocío; Collura-Merlier, Allan; Cervantes-Coste, Guadalupe; Mendoza-Schuster, Erick; Velasco-Barona, Cecilio
Pediatric cataract surgery poses a significant challenge for the cataract surgeon, in part because an elastic anterior capsule can make capsulorhexis difficult. With the use of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS), however, the continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis can be made with predictable size, circular shape, centration, and accuracy. In addition, topical anesthesia can be used for the FLACS docking procedure in cooperative children above 6 years of age, using transparent adhesive polyurethane film segments. Copyright © 2018 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Varma, Shambhu D
Previous biochemical and morphological studies with animal experiments have demonstrated that caffeine given topically or orally to certain experimental animal models has significant inhibitory effect on cataract formation. The present studies were undertaken to examine if there is a correlation between coffee drinking and incidence of cataract blindness in human beings. That has been found to be the case. Incidence of cataract blindness was found to be significantly lower in groups consuming higher amounts of coffee in comparison to the groups with lower coffee intake. Mechanistically, the caffeine effect could be multifactorial, involving its antioxidant as well as its bioenergetic effects on the lens. PMID:26869755
Li, Nan; Han, Zhenzhen; Li, Lin; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Zhidong; Li, Jiawei
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the solid lipid nanoparticles of baicalin (BA-SLNs) on an experimental cataract model and explore the molecular mechanism combined with bioinformatics analysis. The transparency of lens was observed daily by slit-lamp and photography. Lenticular opacity was graded. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was employed to analyze the differential protein expression modes in each group. Proteins of interest were subjected to protein identification by nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Bioinformatics analysis was performed using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) online software to comprehend the biological implications of the proteins identified by proteomics. At the end of the sodium selenite-induced cataract progression, almost all lenses from the model group developed partial nuclear opacity; however, all lenses were clear and normal in the blank group. There was no significant difference between the BA-SLNs group and the blank group. Many protein spots were differently expressed in 2-DE patterns of total proteins of lenses from each group, and 65 highly different protein spots were selected to be identified between the BA-SLNs group and the model group. A total of 23 proteins were identified, and 12 of which were crystalline proteins. We considered crystalline proteins to play important roles in preserving the normal expression levels of proteins and the transparency of lenses. The general trend in the BA-SLN-treated lenses' data showed that BA-SLNs regulated the protein expression mode of cataract lenses to normal lenses. Our findings suggest that BA-SLNs may be a potential therapeutic agent in treating cataract by regulating protein expression and may also be a strong candidate for future clinical research.
Laurendeau, C; Lafuma, A; Berdeaux, G
To compare the lifetime costs of freeing astigmatic patients from spectacles after bilateral cataract surgery implanting toric intraocular lenses (IOLs: i.e., Acrysof Toric) versus monofocal IOLs, in France, Italy, Germany and Spain. A Markov model followed patient cohorts from cataract surgery until death. Prevalence rates of patients not needing spectacles and the types of spectacles prescribed for those requiring them were obtained from clinical trials and national surveys. The economic perspective was societal. Mortality rates were incorporated into the model. Discount rates were applied. A sensitivity analysis was performed on non-discounted costs. Fewer patients with toric IOLs needed spectacles for distance vision than patients with monofocal IOLs. With monofocal IOLs more than 66% of patients needed complex spectacles compared to less than 25% implanted with toric IOLs. In France and Italy, toric IOLs reduced overall costs relative to otherwise high spectacle costs after cataract surgery. Savings were 897.0 euros (France), 822.5 euros (Germany), 895.8 euros (Italy) and 391.6 euros (Spain), without discounting. On applying a 3% discount rate the costs became 691.7 euros, 646.4 euros, 693.9 euros and 308.2 euros, respectively. Bilateral toric IOL implants in astigmatic patients decreased spectacle dependence for distance vision and the need for complex spectacles. The economic consequences for patients depended on the national spectacle costs usually incurred after cataract surgery.
Dave, Hreem; Phoenix, Vidya; Becker, Edmund R; Lambert, Scott R
To compare the incidence of adverse events and visual outcomes and to compare the economic costs of sequential vs simultaneous bilateral cataract surgery for infants with congenital cataracts. Retrospective review of simultaneous vs sequential bilateral cataract surgery for infants with congenital cataracts who underwent cataract surgery when 6 months or younger at our institution. Records were available for 10 children who underwent sequential surgery at a mean age of 49 days for the first eye and 17 children who underwent simultaneous surgery at a mean age of 68 days (P = .25). We found a similar incidence of adverse events between the 2 treatment groups. Intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred in 14 eyes. The most common postoperative complication was glaucoma. No eyes developed endophthalmitis. The mean (SD) absolute interocular difference in logMAR visual acuities between the 2 treatment groups was 0.47 (0.76) for the sequential group and 0.44 (0.40) for the simultaneous group (P = .92). Payments for the hospital, drugs, supplies, and professional services were on average 21.9% lower per patient in the simultaneous group. Simultaneous bilateral cataract surgery for infants with congenital cataracts is associated with a 21.9% reduction in medical payments and no discernible difference in the incidence of adverse events or visual outcomes. However, our small sample size limits our ability to make meaningful comparisons of the relative risks and visual benefits of the 2 procedures.
Gupta, Pankaj C; Caty, Jane T
To evaluate and summarize literature from the past 18 months reporting advancements and issues in astigmatism assessment prior to cataract surgery. New and updated toric calculators and regression formulas offer the opportunity for more accurate lens selection for our patients. Concurrently, improvements in topographic evaluation of corneal keratometry have allowed for a decrease in unplanned residual corneal astigmatism. Measuring posterior corneal astigmatism is especially valuable in eyes with keratoconus when planning to implant toric intraocular lens (IOL) and now allows access to this patient population. Improved accuracy of astigmatism evaluation now occurs with point reflections on the corneal surface along with the latest generation toric lens formulas which integrated posterior corneal astigmatism, predicted lens position, and intended spherical power of the IOL. These improvements can allow for incorporation of toric lenses in keratoconus patients.
Wang, Sophia Y; Stem, Maxwell S; Oren, Gale; Shtein, Roni; Lichter, Paul R
Over 8 million cataract surgeries are performed in the United States and the European Union annually, with many patients choosing to pay out of pocket for premium options including premium intraocular lens implants (IOLs) or laser-assisted cataract surgery (LACS). This report provides a systematic review evaluating patient-centered and visual quality outcomes comparing standard monofocal IOLs to premium cataract surgery options. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for publications published between January 1, 1980, and September 18, 2016, on multifocal, accommodative, and toric IOLs, monovision, and LACS, which reported on 1) dysphotopsias, 2) contrast sensitivity, 3) spectacle independence, 4) vision-related quality of life or patient satisfaction, and 5) IOL exchange. Multifocal lenses achieved higher rates of spectacle independence compared to monofocal lenses but also had higher reported frequency of dysphotopsia and worse contrast sensitivity, especially with low light or glare. Accommodative lenses were not associated with reduced contrast sensitivity or more dysphotopsia but had only modest improvements in spectacle independence compared to monofocal lenses. Studies of monovision did not target a sufficiently myopic outcome in the near-vision eye to achieve the full potential for spectacle independence. Patients reported high levels of overall satisfaction regardless of implanted IOL. No studies correlated patient-reported outcomes with patient expectations. Studies are needed to thoroughly compare patient-reported outcomes with concomitant patient expectations. In light of the substantial patient costs for premium options, patients and their surgeons will benefit from a better understanding of which surgical options best meet patients' expectations and how those expectations can be impacted by premium versus monofocal-including monovision-options.
Brooks, Clifford W; Howard, Robert C; Lyons, Robert A; Reilly, Charles D
We report a case of globe rupture associated with the use of post cataract-surgery protective eyewear. The patient had routine cataract surgery 3 months before presentation and had adapted his post cataract-surgery glasses to use on the tennis court. He experienced a large posterior globe rupture after falling directly onto his face during a match. Spectacle torsion is the suspected biomechanical process that led to the rupture. We conclude that although the glasses given to many patients after cataract surgery are protective for most low-impact injuries, patients should be aware they are not designed for activities with a risk for significant impact. Patients should also be counseled to use protective eyewear specifically designed and approved for the sport or activity in which they participate. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Santosa, I.; Romla, L.; Herawati, S.
Cataracts are eye diseases characterized by cloudy or opacity of the lens of the eye by changing the colour of black into grey-white which slowly continues to grow and develop without feeling pain and pain that can cause blindness in human vision. Therefore, researchers make an expert system of cataract eye disease diagnosis by using Fuzzy Mamdani and how to care. The fuzzy method can convert the crisp value to linguistic value by fuzzification and includes in the rule. So this system produces an application program that can help the public in knowing cataract eye disease and how to care based on the symptoms suffered. From the results of the design implementation and testing of expert system applications to diagnose eye disease cataracts, it can be concluded that from a trial of 50 cases of data, obtained test results accuracy between system predictions with expert predictions obtained a value of 78% truth.
Kaur, Amandeep; Gupta, Vikas; Christopher, Ajay Francis; Malik, Manzoor Ahmad; Bansal, Parveen
Cataract is a principal cause of blindness in the world and is characterized by clouding of eye's natural lens. Surgery is the major therapeutic step taken to cure cataract; however, it is having its own limitations and complications such as iris prolapse, raised IOP, infection, cystoid macular edema and posterior capsular opacification (PCO). So world is looking toward more robust and natural ways to prevent cataract. One of the important factors that can play a role in prevention of any and many diseases is diet of the people. The inclusion of certain naturally occurring food and nutraceuticals is coming up as a best alternative for curing cataract because of their presumed safety, potential nutritional and therapeutic effects. Some nutraceuticals can act as an anticataract agent through some or the other molecular mechanism if consumed by normal population deliberately or inadvertently.
Truscott, R J W
Age-related cataract is the leading cause of world blindness. Until recently, the biochemical mechanisms that result in human cataract formation have remained a mystery. In the case of nuclear cataract, it is becoming apparent that changes that take place within the lens at middle age may be ultimately responsible. The centre of the lens contains proteins that were synthesised prior to birth and while these crystallins are remarkably stable, it appears that an antioxidant environment may be necessary in order for them to remain soluble and for lens transparency. Once an internal barrier to the movement of small molecules, such as antioxidants, develops in the normal lens at middle age, the long-lived proteins in the lens centre become susceptible both to covalent attachment of reactive molecules, such as UV filters, and to oxidation. These processes of protein modification may, over time, lead inevitably to lens opacification and cataract.
... Claudine Klose, 63, lives on a farm in New York's Hudson Valley. She had successful cataract surgery in 2013 and shared her experience recently with NIH MedlinePlus magazine. What did you notice about your vision that ...
Dees, D Dustin; MacLaren, Nicole E
This case report describes suspected electrocution in a juvenile female Great Horned owl (Bubo virginianus) with subsequent bilateral cataract formation. The bird flew into a high-voltage power line and was immediately rescued. Burn wounds of the head and ataxia with apparent blindness were noted. Initial ophthalmic examination 5 days after the incident revealed bilaterally symmetrical anterior subcapsular vacuolar cataracts with absence of intraocular inflammation and a predominantly clear view to the normal appearing fundus. The bird appeared to be nonvisual. No ophthalmic medications were prescribed at initial examination. Subsequent recheck examination at 8 weeks revealed moderate resolution of the cataracts and improved vision. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first published report of suspected electric cataracts in an avian species. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Praveen, Smita Vittal; Noronha, Veena Olma
A carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal communication between the cavernous sinus and the carotid arterial system. The ocular manifestations include conjunctival chemosis, proptosis, globe displacement, raised intraocular pressure and optic neuropathy. Although management of CCF in these patients is necessary, the ophthalmologist may also have to treat other ocular morbidities such as cataract. Cataract surgery in patients with CCF may be associated with many possible complications, including suprachoroidal hemorrhage. We describe cataract extraction surgery in 60-year-old female with bilateral spontaneous low-flow CCF. She underwent phacoemulsification via a clear corneal route under topical anesthesia and had an uneventful postoperative phase and recovered successfully. Given the various possible ocular changes in CCF, one must proceed with an intraocular surgery with caution. In this communication, we wish to describe the surgical precautions and the possible pitfalls in cataract surgery in patients with CCF. PMID:25370401
Obuchowska, Iwona; Mariak, Zofia
In February 2000, the worldwide ophthalmology community celebrated the 50th anniversary of one of the twentieth century's most important innovations in eye care--the implantation of the first intraocular lens after cataract extraction by Sir Harold Ridley. It was the initiation of a golden age for the development of ophthalmology, especially cataract surgery. In our paper we would like to remember this outstanding English ophthalmologist and his great invention.
Grześk, Magdalena; Kałuzny, Józef; Malukiewicz-Wiśniewska, Grazyna
To evaluate the results of cataract surgery in patients with RP because retinitis pigmentosa is one of the disease entities that belongs to tapeto-retinal degenerations. The occurrence of RP appearance is 1:4000 to 1:3000. Twenty patients with RP (7 women and 13 men, 33 eyes), who underwent cataract surgery were examined retrospectively. Average age in our group was 46.6 years. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, slip lamp examination, fundus examination, cataract morphology, visual field were taken before surgery and on discharge, on the basis of medical documentation. Control examination was taken, on average, eighty one months after cataract surgery. Nine eyes were operated by phacoemulsification, 24 eyes by means of extracapsular cataract extraction. In the same way control group of 18 patients who underwent cataract surgery without RP (33 eyes) was examined. In RP group in 63.6% patients on discharge from the hospital and in 60.6% patients during the control examination, improvement of visual acuity was revealed. Deterioration was noted in 18.2% of patients on discharge from hospital and in 24.2% of patients during the control examination. In the control group improvement of visual acuity was revealed in 90.9% of patients on discharge and in 97% patients during the control examination, whereas deterioration of visual acuity occurred in 6.1% patients on discharge and in 3% patients during the check examination. In patients with retinitis pigmentosa cataract occurs earlier then in the control group. Cataract surgery for relatively minor opacities is beneficial in patients with RP, and causes improvement of visual acuity in most of eyes undergoing surgery.
Gelatt, K N; Samuelson, D A; Barrie, K P; Das, N D; Wolf, E D; Bauer, J E; Andresen, T L
Forty-two Miniature Schnauzer pups and adults with congenital cataracts and microphthalmia were evaluated by serial ophthalmic examinations, slit lamp biomicroscopic photography, and A-scan ultrasonography. The cataracts were evident when the eyelids opened at 2 weeks, affecting predominantly the lens nucleus and posterior cortex. Lenticonus was evident in 19% of the cataractous lenses. Progression of the cataracts was variable and related to involvement of the equatorial and posterior cortices. Lens-induced uveitis developed in some adult dogs with advanced hypermature cataracts. The globe and lens were smaller than normal in the cataractous eyes, as ascertained by A-scan ultrasonography. Age-matched comparisons of clear lens carrier Miniature Schnauzers and normal Beagles with the cataractous Miniature Schnauzers indicated affected globes and cataractous lenses were reduced 10% to 20% in their anteroposterior lengths. The microphthalmia appeared related to the congenital microphakic cataract.
Kocur, I; Resnikoff, S; Foster, A
Aim: To describe cataract surgical services in 1998 in 12 eastern European countries and to identify their needs to reduce cataract blindness. Methods: All inpatient eye departments in the 12 countries received a standardised questionnaire; the data obtained were further processed at the coordinating centre in Prague. Results: All 458 eye departments in the region were involved. The response rate was 100%, except for Bulgaria (93%) and Romania (93%). The total number of cataract surgeries per one million inhabitants in 1998 was calculated: Belarus (800), Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1275), Bulgaria (1730), the Czech Republic (4210), Estonia (2530), Hungary (3530), Latvia (1860), Lithuania (1550), Trans-Dniester Moldova (1300), Poland (1475), Romania (1260), and Slovakia (2430). Cataracts were mostly operated on by the extracapsular technique. Intracapsular extractions were frequently performed in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (47%), Belarus (46%), Bulgaria (18%), and Romania (14.3%). Phacoemulsification was uncommonly used in 1998, except for the Czech Republic (86%), Estonia (50%), Slovakia (38%), and Hungary (16%). An IOL was implanted in more than 90% of patients in the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, and Slovakia. Conclusions: Conditions for cataract surgery in the eastern European region differ. The main barriers to cataract surgery were state budget limitations, insufficient supply of consumables, underutilisation of operating theatres, and poor detection of patients requiring surgery. PMID:12140200
Kocur, I; Resnikoff, S; Foster, A
To describe cataract surgical services in 1998 in 12 eastern European countries and to identify their needs to reduce cataract blindness. All inpatient eye departments in the 12 countries received a standardised questionnaire; the data obtained were further processed at the coordinating centre in Prague. All 458 eye departments in the region were involved. The response rate was 100%, except for Bulgaria (93%) and Romania (93%). The total number of cataract surgeries per one million inhabitants in 1998 was calculated: Belarus (800), Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1275), Bulgaria (1730), the Czech Republic (4210), Estonia (2530), Hungary (3530), Latvia (1860), Lithuania (1550), Trans-Dniester Moldova (1300), Poland (1475), Romania (1260), and Slovakia (2430). Cataracts were mostly operated on by the extracapsular technique. Intracapsular extractions were frequently performed in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (47%), Belarus (46%), Bulgaria (18%), and Romania (14.3%). Phacoemulsification was uncommonly used in 1998, except for the Czech Republic (86%), Estonia (50%), Slovakia (38%), and Hungary (16%). An IOL was implanted in more than 90% of patients in the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, and Slovakia. Conditions for cataract surgery in the eastern European region differ. The main barriers to cataract surgery were state budget limitations, insufficient supply of consumables, underutilisation of operating theatres, and poor detection of patients requiring surgery.
van Zyl, Lourens; Kahawita, Shyalle; Goggin, Michael
Examination of the results and describing the technique of manual small incision extracapsular cataract extraction on patients with advanced cataracts in urban Australia. A descriptive case series. Thirty-eight patients at three public hospitals, one tertiary and two secondary ophthalmic units in urban Australia. Forty eyes with dense mature cataracts with hand movement vision or worse underwent a planned manual small incision extracapsular cataract extraction instead of traditional phaco-emulsification. Postoperative visual aquity, surgically induced astigmatism and complications. Seventy-eight per cent of patients had an uncorrected visual acuity of 6/12 or better on the first postoperative day. Eighty-three per cent of patients had a distance corrected visual acuity of 6/9 or better 3 months postoperatively. One case was complicated by a posterior capsule rupture. No cases of endophthalmitis were reported. The summated vector mean of the surgically induced astigmatism was 0.089D at 93°. Manual small incision extracapsular cataract extraction is an efficacious cataract surgery technique with good visual outcome and is a safe alternative to phaco-emulsification in suitable cases in a first-world setting. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
Structural and functional properties, chaperone activity and posttranslational modifications of alpha-crystallin and its related subunits in the crystalline lens: N-acetylcarnosine, carnosine and carcinine act as alpha- crystallin/small heat shock protein enhancers in prevention and dissolution of cataract in ocular drug delivery formulations of novel therapeutic agents.
Babizhayev, Mark A
Cataract is a leading cause of blindness worldwide and is responsible for ∼40-80% of the estimated 45 million cases of blindness that occur across the globe. In addition to providing refractive properties to the lens for focusing the image, it is believed that the molecular chaperone function of α-crystallin is essential in preventing the light scattering due to aggregation of other proteins and thus in the maintenance of lens transparency and thereby prevention of cataract. By now, it is fairly acknowledged that chaperoning ability of α-crystallin is instrumental in the maintenance of crystalline lens transparency, and decreased chaperone-like activity of α-crystallin is associated with various types and stages of cataract. A better pharmacological targeting of safeguarding the α-crystallin chaperone activity may aid the development of therapeutic strategies that could evade the need for cataract surgery and revive lens transparency of the cataractous lenses. This article originally summarizes the significance of modulation and enhancing of α-crystallin chaperone activity with imidazole-containing dipeptides N-acetylcarnosine, carnosine and carcinine in consequence to prevent, delay or dissolve the human cataract. A growing evidence and discussion of recent patents are presented in this study that demonstrate the ability of N-acetylcarnosine (lubricant eye drops) or carcinine (lubricant eye drops) (universal antioxidant and deglycation agent) resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis with carnosinase to act as pharmacological chaperones, to decrease oxidative stress and ameliorate oxidative and excessive glycation stress-related eye disease phenotypes, suggesting that the field of chaperone therapy might hold novel treatments for age-related cataracts, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and ocular complications of diabetes (OCD). The therapeutic strategies are highlighted in the study for identifying potential chaperone compounds and for experimentally
Selvander, Madeleine; Asman, Peter
To investigate construct validity for modules hydromaneuvers and phaco on the Eyesi surgical simulator. Seven cataract surgeons and 17 medical students performed capsulorhexis, hydromaneuvers, phaco, navigation, forceps, cracking and chopping modules in a standardized manner. Three trials were performed on each module (two on phaco) in the above order. Performance parameters as calculated by the simulator for each trial were saved. Video recordings of the second trial of the modules capsulorhexis, hydromaneuvers and phaco were evaluated with the modified Objective Structured Assessment of Surgical Skill (OSATS) and Objective Structured Assessment of Cataract Surgical Skill (OSACSS) tools. Cataract surgeons outperformed medical students with regard to overall score on capsulorhexis (p < 0.001, p = 0.035, p = 0.010 for the tree iterations, respectively), navigation (p = 0.024, p = 0.307, p = 0.007), forceps (p = 0.017, p = 0.03, p = 0.028). Less obvious differences in overall score were found for modules cracking and chopping (p = 0.266, p = 0.022, p = 0.324) and phaco (p = 0.011, p = 0.081 for the two iterations, respectively). No differences in overall score were found on hydromaneuvers (p = 0.588, p = 0.503, p = 0.773), but surgeons received better scores from the evaluations of the modified OSATS (p = 0.001) and OSACSS (capsulorhexis, p = 0.003; hydromaneuvers, p = 0.017; phaco, p = 0.001). Construct validity was found on several modules previously not investigated (phaco, hydromaneuvers, cracking and chopping, navigation), and our results confirm previously demonstrated construct validity for capsulorhexis and forceps modules. Interestingly, validation of the hydromaneuvers module required OSACSS video evaluation tool. A further development of the scoring system in the simulator for the hydromaneuvers module would be advantageous and make training and evaluation of progress more accessible and immediate. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta
Thariat, Juliette; Jacob, Sophie; Caujolle, Jean-Pierre; Maschi, Celia; Baillif, Stéphanie; Angellier, Gaelle; Mathis, Thibaud; Rosier, Laurence; Carnicer, Adela; Hérault, Joel; Salleron, Julia
The lens is a radiosensitive organ. Any dose of cephalic irradiation can give rise to radiation-induced cataracts. Contrary to other forms of radiotherapy, proton therapy (PT) can spare all or part of the lens due to accurate dose deposition. We investigated whether a lens-sparing approach was relevant to avoid cataracts in uveal melanoma patients. Patients were referred for PT from onco-ophthalmologists of private and academic institutions. Patients without preexisting cataracts or implants were entered in a prospective database. Dose thresholds responsible for cataracts were investigated in volumes of lens or lens periphery. Lens opacifications and de novo vision-impairing cataracts (VICs) had biannual follow up by ophthalmologists blinded to lens dose. Correlations between dose-volume relationships and VICs were assessed using univariate/multivariate regressions. Between 1991 and 2015, 1696 uveal melanoma patients were consecutively treated with PT. After a median follow up of 48 months, 14.4% and 8.7% of patients had cataracts and VIC within median times of 19 and 28 months, respectively. Median values of mean lens and lens periphery doses were 1.1 (radiobiologically effective [RBE] dose in photon-equivalent grays [GyRBE]) and 6.5 GyRBE, respectively. The lens received no dose in 25% of the patients. At an irradiated lens volume of ≤5%, there was no significantly increased risk for VIC below a dose of 10 GyRBE. A lens-sparing approach is feasible and results not only in reduced need for cataract surgery but also in better fundus-based tumor control. Reassessment of radioprotection rules for lens dose thresholds may follow.
Amansakhatov, S; Volokhovskaya, Z P; Afanasyeva, A N; Limburg, H
Aim: To present results of a rapid assessment of cataract in Turkmenistan. Methods: 6120 eligible people of 50 years and older were selected by systematic random sampling from the whole of Turkmenistan. A total of 6011 people were examined (coverage 98.2%). Results: Cataract is the major cause of bilateral blindness (54%), followed by glaucoma (25%). The age and sex adjusted prevalence of bilateral cataract blindness (VA <3/60) in people of 50 years and older was 0.6% (95% CI: 0.4 to 0.9), with a cataract surgical coverage of 75% (people). For VA <6/60 the prevalence was 2.6% (95% CI: 2.1 to 3.2) in people aged 50 and above, approximately 0.26% of the total population. In this last group the surgical coverage was 44% (people) and 32% (eyes). Of the patients operated with IOL implantation 8.2% could not see 6/60, 44.8% of those operated without IOL could not see 6/60. The main barrier to cataract surgery was indifference (“old age, no need for surgery”), followed by “waiting for maturity.” Conclusion: To increase the cataract surgical coverage in Turkmenistan the intake criteria should be lowered to VA <6/60 or less. At the same time the visual outcome of surgery can be improved by expanding the number of IOL surgeries and routine monitoring of cataract outcome. Additional investments will be required to provide all eye surgeons with appropriate equipment and skills for IOL surgery. PMID:12386068
Pokhrel, Amod K.; Bates, Michael N.; Shrestha, Sachet P.; Bailey, Ian L.; DiMartino, Robert B.; Smith, Kirk R.; Joshi, N. D.
Purpose Cataract is the most prevalent cause of blindness in Nepal. Several epidemiologic studies have associated cataracts with use of biomass cookstoves. These studies, however, have had limitations, including potential control selection bias and limited adjustment for possible confounding. This study, in Pokhara city, in an area of Nepal where biomass cookstoves are widely used without direct venting of the smoke to the outdoors, focuses on pre-clinical measures of opacity, while avoiding selection bias and taking into account comprehensive data on potential confounding factors Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, severity of lenticular damage, judged on the LOCS III scales, was investigated in females (n=143), aged 20-65 years, without previously diagnosed cataract. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationships with stove type and length of use. Clinically significant cataract, used in the logistic regression models, was defined as a LOCS III score > 2. Results Using gas cookstoves as the reference group, logistic regression analysis for nuclear cataract showed the evidence of relationships with stove type: for biomass stoves, the odds ratio (OR) was 2.58 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-5.46) and, for kerosene stoves, the OR was 5.18 (95% CI: 0.88-30.38). Similar results were found for nuclear color (LOCS III score > 2), but no association was found with cortical cataracts. Supporting a relationship between biomass stoves and nuclear cataract was a trend with years of exposure to biomass cookstoves (p=0.01). Linear regression analyses did not show clear evidence of an association between lenticular damage and stove types. Biomass fuel used for heating was not associated with any form of opacity. Conclusions This study provides support for associations of biomass and kerosene cookstoves with nuclear opacity and change in nuclear color. The novel associations with kerosene cookstove use deserve further investigation
Liao, Jiahn-Haur; Lin, I-Lin; Huang, Kai-Fa; Kuo, Pei-Ting; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Wu, Tzu-Hua
Carnosine (CAR) is an endogenous peptide and present in lens, but there is little evidence for its effectiveness in calpain-induced proteolysis inhibition and its differential effects toward different wavelengths of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. This study aimed to develop three in vitro cataract models to compare the mechanisms underlying the protective activities of CAR. Crude crystallins extracted from porcine lenses were used for antiproteolysis assays, and purified γ-crystallins were used for anti-UV assays. The turbidity in those in vitro models mimics cataract formation and was assayed by measuring optical density (OD) at 405 nm. The effectiveness of CAR on calpain-induced proteolysis was studied at 37 and 58 °C. Patterns of proteins were then analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The turbidity was reduced significantly (p<0.05) at 60 min measurements with the increased concentration of CAR (10-300 mM). SDS-PAGE showed that the decreased intensities at both ∼28 and ∼30 kDa protein bands in heat-enhanced assays were ameliorated by CAR at ≥10 mM concentrations. In UV-B studies, CAR (200, 300 mM) reduced the turbidity of γ-crystallin significantly (p<0.05) at 6 h observations. The turbidity of samples containing γ-crystallins was ameliorated while incubated with CAR (100, 300 mM) significantly (p<0.05) following 4 h of exposure to UV-C. SDS-PAGE showed that the presence of CAR reduced UV-B-induced aggregation of γ-crystallins at ∼44 kDa and resulted in less loss of γ-crystallin following UV-C exposure. The result of modeling also suggests that CAR acts as an inhibitor of calpain. In conclusion, CAR protects lens proteins more readily by inhibiting proteolysis and UV-C-induced degradation than aggregation induced by UV-B irradiation.
Ocal, Isil; Yilmaz, Mehmet B; Kocaturk-Sel, Sabriye; Tufan, Turan; Erkoc, Mehmet A; Comertpay, Gamze; Oksuz, Hale; Barc, Esma D
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that causes increased morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. With recent advancements in technology, alternative treatment methods have begun to be investigated in the world. This study aims to evaluate the effect of pulsed magnetic field (PMF) on vascular complications and contractile activities of aortic rings along with Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 subunit expressions of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K ATP ) in aortas of controlled-diabetic and non-controlled diabetic rats. Controlled-diabetic and non-controlled diabetic adult male Wistar rats were exposed to PMF for a period of 6 weeks according to the PMF application protocol (1 h/day; intensity: 1.5 mT; consecutive frequency: 1, 10, 20, and 40 Hz). After PMF exposure, body weight and blood glucose levels were measured. Then, thoracic aorta tissue was extracted for relaxation-contraction and Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 expression experiments. Blood plasma glucose levels, body weight, and aortic ring contraction percentage decreased in controlled-diabetic rats but increased in non-controlled diabetic rats. PMF therapy repressed Kir6.1 mRNA expression in non-controlled diabetic rats but not in controlled diabetic rats. Conversely, Kir6.2 mRNA expressions were repressed both in controlled diabetic and non-controlled diabetic rats by PMF. Our findings suggest that the positive therapeutic effects of PMF may act through (K ATP ) subunits and may frequently occur in insulin-free conditions. Bioelectromagnetics. 39:299-311, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Henderson, Bonnie An; Ali, Rasha
To review recent literature regarding innovative techniques, methods of teaching and assessing competence and skill in cataract surgery. The need for assessment of surgical competency and the requirement of wet lab facilities in ophthalmic training programs are being increasingly emphasized. Authors have proposed the use of standardized forms to collect objective and subjective data regarding the residents' surgical performance. Investigators have reported methods to improve visualization of cadaver and animal eyes for the wet lab, including the use of capsular dyes. The discussion of virtual reality as a teaching tool for surgical programs continues. Studies have proven that residents trained on a laparoscopic simulator outperformed nontrained residents during actual surgery for both surgical times and numbers of errors. Besides virtual reality systems, a program is being developed to separate the cognitive portion from the physical aspects of surgery. Another program couples surgical videos with three-dimensional animation to enhance the trainees' topographical understanding. Proper assessment of surgical competency is becoming an important focus of training programs. The use of surgical data forms may assist in standardizing objective assessments. Virtual reality, cognitive curriculum and animation video programs can be helpful in improving residents' surgical performance.
Resnikoff, S; Filliard, G; Dell'Aquila, B
During a countrywide survey we assessed the prevalence of climatic droplet keratopathy (CDK) in a randomised sample of 2446 subjects representative of the population of the Republic of Djibouti. The investigation of the relationship between CDK and two diseases considered to be related to exposure to ultra-violet light--namely, exfoliation syndrome and cataract--was planned as a case control study. In the rural area prevalence of CDK was five times higher than in the urban one (2.8% vs 0.5%) and varied according to districts. The highest rates were observed where the inhabitants' activities were related to the sea. The case control study revealed that the opacification of the lens was about three times commoner in patients with CDK than in patients without CDK (p = 0.03) and that the exfoliation syndrome was about six times commoner in patients with CDK than in controls of similar age, sex, climatic conditions, and lens status (p = 0.02). Moreover, we noticed that the sequelae of corneal perforations were about 30 times commoner in patients with CDK than in controls of similar age (p less than 0.00001). PMID:1768663
Ma, Yingyan; Huang, Jiannan; Zhu, Bijun; Sun, Qian; Miao, Yuyu; Zou, Haidong
ABSTRACT Purpose To explore the cost-utility of cataract surgery in patients with advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Patients who were diagnosed as having and treated for age-related cataract and with a history of advanced AMD at the Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, were included in the study. All of the participants underwent successful phacoemulsification with foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation under retrobulbar anesthesia. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and utility value elicited by time trade-off method from patients at 3-month postoperative time were compared with those before surgery. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained in a lifetime were calculated at a 3% annual discounted rate. Costs per QALY gained were calculated using the bootstrap method, and probabilities of being cost-effective were presented using a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results. Results Mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution BCVA in the operated eye increased from 1.37 ± 0.5 (Snellen, 20/469) to 0.98 ± 0.25 (Snellen, 20/191) (p < 0.001); BCVA in the weighted average from both eyes (=75% better eye + 25% worse eye) was changed from 1.13 ± 0.22 (Snellen, 20/270) to 0.96 ± 0.17 (Snellen, 20/182) (p < 0.001). Utility values from both patients and doctors increased significantly after surgery (p < 0.001 and p = 0.007). Patients gained 1.17 QALYs by cataract surgery in their lifetime. The cost per QALY was 8835 Chinese yuan (CNY) (1400 U.S. dollars [USD]). It is cost-effective at the threshold of 115,062 CNY (18,235 USD) per QALY in China recommended by the World Health Organization. The cost per QALY varied from 7045 CNY (1116 USD) to 94,178 CNY (14,925 USD) in sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Visual acuity and quality of life assessed by utility value improved significantly after surgery
Cai, Min; Zeng, Lu; Li, Lin-Jing; Mo, Li-Hua; Xie, Rui-Di; Feng, Bai-Sui; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Zhan-Ju; Yang, Ping-Chang
Hypersensitivity reaction to certain allergens plays a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aims to observe the effect of specific immunotherapy in a group of IBD patients. Patients with both ulcerative colitis (UC) and food allergy were recruited into this study. Food allergy was diagnosed by skin prick test and serum specific IgE. The patients were treated with specific immunotherapy (SIT) and Clostridium butyricum (CB) capsules. After treating with SIT and CB, the clinical symptoms of UC were markedly suppressed as shown by reduced truncated Mayo scores and medication scores. The serum levels of specific IgE, interleukin (IL)-4 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were also suppressed. Treating with SIT alone or CB alone did not show appreciable improvement of the clinical symptoms of UC. UC with food allergy can be ameliorated by administration with SIT and butyrate-production probiotics.
Roberts, H W; Ni, M Z; O'Brart, D P S
To develop financial models which offset additional costs associated with femtosecond laser (FL)-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) against improvements in productivity and to determine important factors relating to its implementation into the National Health Service (NHS). FL platforms are expensive, in initial purchase and running costs. The additional costs associated with FL technology might be offset by an increase in surgical efficiency. Using a 'hub and spoke' model to provide high-volume cataract surgery, we designed a financial model, comparing FLACS against conventional phacoemulsification surgery (CPS). The model was populated with averaged financial data from 4 NHS foundation trusts and 4 commercial organisations manufacturing FL platforms. We tested our model with sensitivity and threshold analyses to allow for variations or uncertainties. The averaged weekly workload for cataract surgery using our hub and spoke model required either 8 or 5.4 theatre sessions with CPS or FLACS, respectively. Despite reduced theatre utilisation, CPS (average £433/case) was still found to be 8.7% cheaper than FLACS (average £502/case). The greatest associated cost of FLACS was the patient interface (PI) (average £135/case). Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that FLACS could be less expensive than CPS, but only if increased efficiency, in terms of cataract procedures per theatre list, increased by over 100%, or if the cost of the PI was reduced by almost 70%. The financial viability of FLACS within the NHS is currently precluded by the cost of the PI and the lack of knowledge regarding any gains in operational efficiency. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Rabiu, Muhammad Mansur; Jenf, Mansour; Fituri, Suad; Choudhury, Abdulhanan; Agbabiaka, Idris; Mousa, Ahmed
To assess the major causes of avoidable blindness, and outcomes and barriers to cataract services in Libya. A stratified multistage cluster random sample study was conducted in the four regions of Libya. Visual acuity and lens assessment were performed on all subjects. Those with presenting visual acuity <6/18 in either or both eyes were further investigated to determine cause(s) of impairment. Barriers to cataract surgery were investigated. Visual outcomes of subjects with surgery performed were assessed. A total of 8538 persons aged ≥50 years were examined across the four regions. The prevalence of blindness was 3.25% (3.15% with best correction), which varied across the regions (2.94-3.80%); after adjustment for age and sex, the prevalence was 2.66%. Major causes of blindness were cataract (29%), glaucoma (24%) and other corneal scars (14%). Causes were similar across all regions except in the south. Avoidable causes were responsible for 60.6% of blindness. Major causes of visual impairment were cataract (31.2%), diabetic retinopathy (16.6%) and posterior segment diseases (15.1%). Cataract surgical coverage among those with visual acuity <3/60 was 95.4%, with no sex differences. About 38% of cataract-operated eyes had poor outcome even after best correction (35%). There was poor outcome in 33% of pseudophakic eyes with best correction. The major barriers to service uptake were "waiting for maturity" (26%), "unaware of treatment" (24%) and "God's will/destiny" (17%). Libya needs to improve the quality of cataract surgery across all the regions. The southern region needs improvement in both quality and coverage of services.
Gogate, Parikshit M; Sahasrabudhe, Mohini; Shah, Mitali; Patil, Shailbala; Kulkarni, Anil N; Trivedi, Rupal; Bhasa, Divya; Tamboli, Rahin; Mane, Rekha
To study long term outcome of bilateral congenital and developmental cataract surgery. 258 pediatric cataract operated eyes of 129 children. Children who underwent pediatric cataract surgery in 2004-8 were traced and examined prospectively in 2010-11. Demographic and clinical factors were noted from retrospective chart readings. All children underwent visual acuity estimation and comprehensive ocular examination in a standardized manner. L. V. Prasad Child Vision Function scores (LVP-CVF) were noted for before and after surgery. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS version 16 including multi-variate analysis. Children aged 9.1 years (std dev 4.6, range 7 weeks-15 years) at the time of surgery. 74/129 (57.4%) were boys. The average duration of follow-up was 4.4 years (stddev 1.6, range 3-8 years). 177 (68.6%) eyes had vision <3/60 before surgery, while 109 (42.2%) had best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) >6/18 and 157 (60.9%) had BCVA >6/60 3-8 years after surgery. 48 (37.2%) had binocular stereoacuity <480 sec of arc by TNO test. Visual outcome depended on type of cataract (P = 0.004), type of cataract surgery (P < 0.001), type of intra-ocular lens (P = 0.05), age at surgery (P = 0.004), absence of post-operative uveitis (P = 0.01) and pre-operative vision (P < 0.001), but did not depend on delay (0.612) between diagnosis and surgery. There was a statistically significant improvement for all the 20 questions of the LVP-CVF scale (P < 0.001). Pediatric cataract surgery improved the children's visual acuity, stereo acuity and vision function. Developmental cataract, use of phacoemulsification, older children and those with better pre-operative vision had betterlong-termoutcomes.
Hatch, Kathryn M; Talamo, Jonathan H
The use of the femtosecond laser (FSL) in cataract surgery may represent the largest advancement in the field since the inception of phacoemulsification. The goal of this review is to outline the benefits of and barriers to this technology. There are several significant potential benefits of the FSL in cataract surgery over conventional manual cataract surgery: precise capsulotomy formation, clear corneal and limbal relaxing incision construction, lens fragmentation, and lens softening. Evidence suggests that refractive benefits include more precise effective lens position as well as reduced effective phacoemulsification time with the use of FSL compared with manual surgery. Patients with conditions such as Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy, pseudoexfoliation, history of trauma, or brunescent cataracts may particularly benefit from this technology. There are significant financial and logistical issues to consider prior to the purchase of a FSL, including the cost of the laser, and charges to patients, and how the laser affects the patient flow in the operating room. The FSL may significantly change the current approach to cataract surgery.
Cochener, Béatrice; Patel, Sunni R; Galliot, Florence
To evaluate whether correlations exist between objective and subjective measures of vision quality as a consequence of cataract and whether this may qualify the Objective Scatter Index as a supplementary means of cataract assessment. A prospective multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 centers across France in patients undergoing cataract extraction surgery (lens opacity evaluated with the Lens Opacities Classification System III). A quality of life assessment using the Visual Function Index-14 (VF-14) (14 questions scored from 0 to 4) and measurement of visual acuity and evaluation of the Objective Scatter Index (HD Analyzer, Visiometrics SL, Terrassa, Spain) to assess the alteration of light scatter were used as measures in the study. The study included 1,768 eyes of 1,768 patients (mean age: 72.5 years; range: 28 to 93 years). The average OSI score was 4.97 ± 3.13 (range: 0.4 to 20.5). There was good correlation between visual acuity and OSI (r = -0.47, P < .001) and between OSI and VF-14 (r = -0.11, P < .001). The results presented in this study confirm that the Objective Scatter Index has sufficient correlations with visual acuity and VF-14 to supplement existing cataract diagnosis in a large population encompassing a broad spectrum of cataract presentations. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Kahawita, Shyalle K; Goggin, Michael
To provide local data on visual acuity and surgical outcomes for cataract surgery performed in an Australian teaching hospital. Continuous audit over 7 years in a public teaching hospital. A total of 3740 eyes had cataract surgery performed at The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, South Australia, from May 2006 to September 2013. Visual acuity and complication rates were recorded for cataract surgery cases operated on between May 2006 and September 2013 on a digital database with data entry contemporaneous with final follow-up. Visual acuity and surgical complications. Of the patients, 91.4% achieved postoperative best-measured vision better than preoperative best-measured vision. The rate of posterior capsular tear was 2.59%, endophthalmitis was 0.11% and the overall complication rate was 11.7%. This audit is the first to document modern cataract surgery, overwhelmingly dominated by phacoemulsification in an Australian population and can be used to benchmark cataract surgery outcome in an urban Australian population. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
Shrestha, M K; Thakur, J; Gurung, C K; Joshi, A B; Pokhrel, S; Ruit, S
A cross sectional study was carried out on 78 screened cataract patients of two screening camps in Kathmandu valley, Nepal, to assess the willingness to pay for cataract surgery. A non-probability sampling technique with open ended and close ended questionnaires was used. The average age of patients was 68.8 years. The ratio of men and women was 0.9:1. 42.3% (33) of patients were willing to pay for cataract surgery. Among them 48.5% (16) of people were willing to pay less than dollars 13 and 51.5% (17) were willing to pay more than dollars 13. The mean was dollars 2.3 (SD dollars 15.5) per case. Patients with bilateral cataract were more willing to pay than unilateral cases. Poverty (44.4%, 20) was the main barrier for unwillingness to pay for cataract surgery. Other reasons were the lack of family support (28.9%, 13), lack of knowledge of surgery and belief that it was an unnecessary procedure (15.6%, seven), and waiting for a free surgical service (11.1%, five). This study clearly indicates that although there was awareness of the availability of treatment and services provided within the reach, people are not willing to pay for the surgery and use the facility primarily because of poverty. Hence, to change patients' attitudes, a more holistic approach is needed, keeping in view the cultural, social, and economic background of the society.
Serafino, Massimiliano; Trivedi, Rupal H; Levin, Alex V; Wilson, M Edward; Nucci, Paolo; Lambert, Scott R; Nischal, Ken K; Plager, David A; Bremond-Gignac, Dominique; Kekunnaya, Ramesh; Nishina, Sachiko; Tehrani, Nasrin N; Ventura, Marcelo C
To identify areas of consensus and disagreement in the management of paediatric cataract using a modified Delphi approach among individuals recognised for publishing in this field. A modified Delphi method. International paediatric cataract experts with a publishing record in paediatric cataract management. The process consisted of three rounds of anonymous electronic questionnaires followed by a face-to-face meeting, followed by a fourth anonymous electronic questionnaire. The executive committee created questions to be used for the electronic questionnaires. Questions were designed to have unit-based, multiple choice or true-false answers. The questionnaire included issues related to the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative management of paediatric cataract. Consensus based on 85% of panellists being in agreement for electronic questionnaires or 80% for the face-to-face meeting, and near consensus based on 70%. Sixteen of 22 invited paediatric cataract surgeons agreed to participate. We arrived at consensus or near consensus for 85/108 (78.7%) questions and non-consensus for the remaining 23 (21.3%) questions. Those questions where consensus was not reached highlight areas of either poor evidence or contradicting evidence, and may help investigators identify possible research questions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Cetinel, Sibel; Montemagno, Carlo
The purpose of this article was to review recent advances in the applications of nanotechnology in cataract treatment and prevention strategies. A literature review on the use of nanotechnology for the prevention and treatment of cataract was done. Research articles about nanotechnology-based treatments and prevention technologies for cataract were searched on Web of Science, and the most recent advances were reported. Nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, natural antioxidants, biologic and chemical chaperones, and chaperones such as molecules have found great application in preventing and treating cataracts. Current scientific research on new treatment strategies, which focuses on the biochemical basis of the disease, will likely result in new anticataract agents. However, none of the drug formulations will be approved for use unless efficient delivery is promised. Nanoparticle engineering together with biomimetic strategies enable the development of next-generation, more efficient, less complex, and personalized treatments. The only currently available treatment for cataracts, surgical replacement of the opacified lens, is not an easily accessible option in developing countries. New treatment strategies based on topical drugs would enable treatment to reach massive populations facing the threat of blindness and more effectively deal with the postsurgical complications. Nanotechnology plays a key role in improving drug delivery systems with enhanced controlled release, targeted delivery, and bioavailability to overcome diffusion limitations in the eye.
Kanclerz, Piotr; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Schwartz, Stephen G; Lipowski, Paweł
The aim of the study was to evaluate complications of cataract surgery in eyes filled with silicone oil. This retrospective, noncomparative, consecutive case series analyzed medical files of patients with eyes filled with silicone oil undergoing cataract surgery. Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation was conducted with or without concurrent silicone oil removal. In this study, 121 eyes of 120 patients were included. In 32 eyes (26.4%) with evident silicone oil microemulsification or silicone oil-associated open-angle glaucoma, silicone oil was removed prior to phacoemulsification through a pars plana incision and no cases of posterior capsular rupture occurred during the subsequent cataract surgery. In the remaining 89 eyes, phacoemulsification was performed with silicone oil in the vitreous cavity. In these eyes, the rate of posterior capsular rupture was 9/89 (10.1%) and the rate of silicone oil migration into the anterior chamber through an apparently intact posterior capsule was 5/89 (5.6%). In 94 eyes (77.7%), an intraocular lens was inserted into the capsular bag, in 3 eyes (2.5%) into the sulcus, and in 1 eye (0.8%) a transscleral suturing was performed. In this series, complications related to the silicone oil were not uncommon during cataract surgery. In the majority of patients without evident silicone oil microemulsification or silicone oil-associated open-angle glaucoma, cataract surgery and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation were performed while leaving the silicone oil in place.
Singh, Ranjodh; Dohlman, Thomas H; Sun, Grace
The number of cataract surgeries performed globally will continue to rise to meet the needs of an aging population. This increased demand will require healthcare systems and providers to find new surgical efficiencies while maintaining excellent surgical outcomes. Immediately sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS) has been proposed as a solution and is increasingly being performed worldwide. The purpose of this review is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of ISBCS. When appropriate patient selection occurs and guidelines are followed, ISBCS is comparable with delayed sequential bilateral cataract surgery in long-term patient satisfaction, visual acuity and complication rates. In addition, the risk of bilateral postoperative endophthalmitis and concerns of poorer refractive outcomes have not been supported by the literature. ISBCS is cost-effective for the patient, healthcare payors and society, but current reimbursement models in many countries create significant financial barriers for facilities and surgeons. As demand for cataract surgery rises worldwide, ISBCS will become increasingly important as an alternative to delayed sequential bilateral cataract surgery. Advantages include potentially decreased wait times for surgery, patient convenience and cost savings for healthcare payors. Although they are comparable in visual acuity and complication rates, hurdles that prevent wide adoption include liability concerns as ISBCS is not an established standard of care, economic constraints for facilities and surgeons and inability to fine-tune intraocular lens selection in the second eye. Given these considerations, an open discussion regarding the advantages and disadvantages of ISBCS is important for appropriate patient selection.
Wirbelauer, C; Weller, A; Häberle, H; Pham, D T
Approximately 14 % of cataract surgery patients receive blood-thinning agents. In a prospective study, the influence of oral anticoagulants on intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhages in patients undergoing cataract surgery in topical anesthesia was investigated. 128 patients presenting for cataract surgery under oral anticoagulation were included. The mean preoperative prothrombin time was 39 +/- 18 %. Most patients (81 %) continued their oral anticoagulation (prothrombin time 34 +/- 13 %). All surgeries were performed in topical anesthesia. In 9 patients (7 %) an ocular hemorrhagic event was observed. These were not sight-threatening and resorbed spontaneously within a few days. Only one patient (0.8 %) had a slight hemorrhage in the anterior chamber. There were no differences (P > 0.05) between patients with or without hemorrhagic complications in the postoperative visual acuity, the intraocular pressure, the prothrombin time or the discontinuation of oral anticoagulants. Cataract surgery in topical anesthesia under oral anticoagulation did not increase the risk of sight-threatening hemorrhages. The continuation of oral anticoagulation seems particularly indicated for ambulatory cataract surgery.
Leffler, Christopher T.; Schwartz, Stephen G.; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Braich, Puneet S.
We tried to identify the earliest cataract surgeons in the English-speaking areas of America. In 1751, couching was performed on the Caribbean island of Montserrat by John Morphy. William Stork of England, who couched cataracts, practiced in Jamaica in 1760 and then in cities from Annapolis to Boston between 1761 and 1764. Frederick William Jericho of Germany, upon completion of his training at Utrecht, published his 1767 treatise on his preferred surgical technique of extracapsular cataract extraction. Jericho had practiced in the Leeward Islands by 1776 and then in cities from Charleston to Boston between 1783 and 1785. The French surgeon Lewis Leprilete was the first to advertise cataract extraction in the United States in 1782 and probably passed on the skill to his protégé, Nathaniel Miller of Massachusetts. Leprilete was also the first to publicize Benjamin Franklin's invention of bifocals.. These pioneers exposed American doctors and the public to cataract surgery. Shortly after their arrival, evidence emerges of other surgeons performing these procedures in America. PMID:25444521
Rosen, Peter N; Kaplan, Robert M; David, Kristen
To evaluate the validity and responsiveness of the self-administered Quality of Well-Being Scale (QWB-SA) and the 14-item Visual Function Index (VF-14) to assess patients having cataract surgery. Large Southern California health maintenance organization. This study comprised 233 adults who had uneventful small-incision (< 3.0 mm) phacoemulsification cataract extraction under local anesthesia. Patients were assessed before surgery as well as 4 to 6 weeks and 4 months after surgery using the QWB-SA and the VF-14. Postoperatively, patients reported significant improvements on QWB-SA (P < .005) and VF-14 (P < .001) measures. Those grouped by visual acuity in the operated eye and unoperated eye and first-eye surgery or second-eye surgery had significant changes in VF-14 results (P < .001). Improvements on the QWB-SA were significant except when the preoperative visual acuity was better than 20/40 in the operated eye or 20/50 in the unoperated eye and when patients had first-eye surgery. The vision-specific VF-14 was more sensitive to improvements after surgery than the more general QWB-SA. Both demonstrated a greater magnitude of change with lower baseline scores and correlated significantly with self-reported satisfaction and trouble with vision. Both the utility-based generic QWB-SA and disease-specific VF-14 profile were responsive to changes in quality of life after cataract surgery. The VF-14 was more sensitive to change but cannot be used for comparison across disease states or for policy analysis. The QWB-SA can be used to estimate the cost/utility of cataract surgery.
Muralidhar, R; Jain, Ashish; Vijayalakshmi, P; Suparna, G; Santhi, R; Shetty, Shashikanth
There is limited literature on the management of cataracts in juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG). A 2-month-old girl presented to us with hyphema, secondary glaucoma OU and skin nodules suggestive of JXG. She developed bilateral cataracts during her follow-up and was treated successfully with cataract surgery and aphakic rehabilitation.
Grzybowski, Andrzej; Wasinska-Borowiec, Weronika; Claoué, Charles
Immediately sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS) is currently a "hot topic" in ophthalmology. There are well-documented advantages in terms of quicker visual rehabilitation and reduced costs. The risk of bilateral simultaneous endophthalmitis and bilateral blindness is now recognized to be minuscule with the advent of intracameral antibiotics and modern management of endophthalmitis. Refractive surprises are rare for normal eyes and with the use of optical biometry. Where a general anesthetic is indicated for cataract surgery, the risk of death from a second anesthetic is much higher than the risk of blindness. A widely recognized protocol from the International Society of Bilateral Cataract Surgeons needs to be adhered to if surgeons wish to start practicing ISBCS.
Francis, P J; Berry, V; Hardcastle, A J; Maher, E R; Moore, A T; Bhattacharya, S S
To genetically map the gene causing isolated X linked cataract in a large European pedigree. Using the patient registers at Birmingham Women's Hospital, UK, we identified and examined 23 members of a four generation family with nuclear cataract. Four of six affected males also had complex congenital heart disease. Pedigree data were collated and leucocyte DNA extracted from venous blood. Linkage analysis by PCR based microsatellite marker genotyping was used to identify the disease locus and mutations within candidate genes screened by direct sequencing. The disease locus was genetically refined to chromosome Xp22, within a 3 cM linkage interval flanked by markers DXS9902 and DXS999 (Zmax=3.64 at theta=0 for marker DXS8036). This is the first report of a locus for isolated inherited cataract on the X chromosome. The disease interval lies within the Nance-Horan locus suggesting allelic heterogeneity. The apparent association with congenital cardiac anomalies suggests a possible new oculocardiac syndrome.
Ainsworth, E. J.; Jose, U.; Yang, V. V.; Barker, M. E.
The cataractogenic effects of heavy charged particles are evaluated in mice in relation to dose and ionization density. The relative biological effectiveness in relation to linear energy transfer for various particles is considered. Results indicated that low single doses (5 to 20 rad) of Fe 56 or Ar 40 particles are cataractogenic at 11 to 18 months after irradiation; onset and density of the opacification are dose related and cataract density (grade) at 9, 11, 13, and 16 months after irradiation shows partial linear energy transfer dependence. The severity of cataracts is reduced significantly when 417 rad of Co 60 gamma radiation is given in 24 weekly 17 rad fractions compared to giving this radiation as a single dose, but cataract severity is not reduced by fractionation of C12 doses over 24 weeks.
On Earth, cataracts represent regions where a river's gradient increases enough to create so much turbulence, that air gets incorporated into the water body forming a bubbly current sometimes called "whitewater". This image covers a location that may have acted as a cataract in the Kasei valley region. This observation from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows samples of bedrock lithologies which give us a measure of the post-flood erosion and modification history for the floor of Kasei Valles While there is a HiRISE stereo pair adjacent to this location that captures much of this cataract, it also misses some of the head scarp that might be the most useful, scientifically. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19351
Roberts, Timothy V; Lawless, Michael; Chan, Colin Ck; Jacobs, Mark; Ng, David; Bali, Shveta J; Hodge, Chris; Sutton, Gerard
The recent introduction of femtosecond lasers to cataract surgery has generated much interest among ophthalmologists around the world. Laser cataract surgery integrates high-resolution anterior segment imaging systems with a femtosecond laser, allowing key steps of the procedure, including the primary and side-port corneal incisions, the anterior capsulotomy and fragmentation of the lens nucleus, to be performed with computer-guided laser precision. There is emerging evidence of reduced phacoemulsification time, better wound architecture and a more stable refractive result with femtosecond cataract surgery, as well as reports documenting an initial learning curve. This article will review the current state of technology and discuss our clinical experience. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
Yoo, Sonia H; Bhatt, Anand B
The authors report surgical experience and clinical outcomes up to 1 year postoperatively in patients who underwent cataract surgery with the AquaLase liquefaction device (Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, TX). The device is a handpiece option for use with Alcon's Infiniti Vision System that uses heated balanced saline solution micropulses to liquefy lenticular material. Twenty-seven eyes of 23 patients underwent cataract extraction with the use of the AquaLase liquefaction device. The average age of participants was 68 years, and the average nuclear sclerotic grade was 1.96 on a 4-point scale. Outcomes were judged by metrics such as visual acuity, inflammation, endothelial cell count, and postoperative posterior capsule opacification. At 30 days postoperatively, 78% of eyes had a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20. Visual acuity was 20/25 or better 1 year postoperatively in 88% of patients without complications except conversion to ultrasound phacoemulsification for two dense cataracts.
Patel, Chirag; Kim, Stephen Jae; Chomsky, Amy; Saboori, Mazeyar
To determine the incidence of and associated risk factors for uveitis after cataract surgery. A total of 17,757 eyes were identified and records of 42 eyes that developed uveitis and 2320 eyes that did not were reviewed. Postsurgical uveitis was defined as persistent inflammation for ≥ 6 months after surgery. Forty-two eyes of 35 patients developed uveitis (0.24%). Eleven patients underwent consecutive cataract surgery but developed unilateral uveitis, and intraoperative complications occurred in 55% of uveitic eyes compared to 0% in fellow eyes (p < 0.05). Median duration of inflammation was 8 and 11.5 months in eyes with and without vitrectomy (p < 0.05). Intraocular complications occurred in 44 and 8.3% of eyes that did and did not develop uveitis, respectively (p = 0.01). Postsurgical uveitis developed after approximately 1 in 400 cataract surgeries and occurred more frequently in eyes experiencing intraoperative complications.
Hovanesian, John A; Karageozian, Vicken H
To determine whether a simple method for applying fibrin tissue adhesive to a clear corneal cataract incision can create a watertight seal. Laboratory investigation. Clear corneal cataract incisions were simulated in 8 eye-bank eyes. In 4 eyes, fibrin adhesive was applied to the incision in a simple manner; the other 4 eyes were controls with no adhesive. Each eye was tested under low pressure conditions to detect fluid ingress of India Ink on the eye's surface. The eyes were tested again with external compression to distort the incision to detect fluid egress. In the eyes with fibrin adhesive, there was no egress of fluid with incision distortion and no ingress of India Ink. In the 4 eyes without adhesive, there was ingress and egress of fluid. A simple method of applying fibrin adhesive to cataract incisions created a watertight seal.
Obuchowska, Iwona; Mariak, Zofia
During the past decade, advances in techniques and technology led to major changes in cataract surgical practice patterns. In this progression towards ever faster eye rehabilitation after surgery, simultaneous bilateral cataract surgery (SBCS) may be the next and ultimate step. It is not routinely performed: however, there are certain situations in which SBCS might be beneficial to the patients. It has been considered a good option in patients who have significant cataract in both eyes and are not good candidates for having anesthesia and surgery twice. The question is, if the benefits by bilateral surgery justify the risk of simultaneous complications, in particular endophthalmitis. In this perspective we present the clinical, social and economic advantages and disadvantages of such surgical procedures.
Mody, Vino C; Kakar, Manoj; Söderberg, Per G; Löfgren, Stefan
The purpose of this study was to determine a threshold measure, maximum tolerable dose (MTD), for avoidance of UVR-B-induced cataract in the pigmented guinea-pig. Thirty pupil-dilated anesthetized young female guinea-pigs, divided into five equal groups, received between 0 and 84.9 kJ/m(2) unilateral UVR-B. Lens extraction and in vitro lens photography occurred 24 hr after exposure. Measurement of intensity of lens light scattering served as quantifying tool for the degree of cataract. Data analysis included regression, using a second order polynomial model. The applied MTD concept was based on the UVR-B dose-response curve obtained for the pigmented guinea-pig. A smaller number of pigmented guinea-pigs, pigmented rats and albino rats underwent morphometric analysis of the anterior segment geometry. All eyes exposed to UVR-B developed cataract in the anterior subcapsular region. MTD for avoidance of UVR-B-induced cataract was 69.0 kJ/m(2) in the pigmented guinea-pig. Iris was considerably thicker in the guinea-pig than in the rats. Lens blockage by the dilated iris was lowest in the guinea-pig. Maximum tolerable dose for avoidance of UVR-B-induced cataract in the pigmented guinea-pig was 69.0 kJ/m(2), over 10-fold higher than the threshold 5 kJ/m(2) obtained by Pitts et al. in the pigmented rabbit. Maximum tolerable dose is an appropriate method for estimation of toxicity for UVR-B-induced cataract in the guinea-pig. The pigmented guinea-pig is significantly less sensitive to UVR-B exposure than the pigmented rabbit and pigmented rat. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Acta Ophthalmol.
Gavris, M Monica; Belicioiu, Roxana; Olteanu, Ioana; Horge, Ioan
Purpose: To present the advantages of performing femtosecond laser-assisted (Alcon-LenSx Inc.) cataract surgery. Methods: Cataract surgery was performed with the LenSx femtosecond laser (Alcon-LenSx Inc.) in 50 eyes of 50 patients. The laser was programmed to perform a 4,9-4,5 mm capsulorhexis, a 2,3 mm main corneal incision, two 1,3 mm side-port incisions and either a hybrid-pattern or a cylinder-pattern fragmentation of the nucleus. The evaluated parameters were the capsulotomy, the corneal wounds and the nucleus fragmentation. Phacoemulsification of the nucleus and aspiration of the cortex were performed with the Alcon Centurion Vision System and monofocal, toric and multifocal IOLs were successfully implanted. Results: A continuous, central, curvilinear capsulorhexis was performed in 48 cases, 96% (free-floating capsulotomy). In 2 cases, micro-adhesions were reported and detached with the Utrata forceps. Femtolaser capsulotomy resulted in a complete overlap of the anterior capsule over the IOL optics in all cases. Horizontal decentration was found in 2 cases, 4% and vertical decentration in 1 case, 2%. The main corneal incision was self-sealing in 49 cases, 98%. Sutures were used in 1 case, 2%. The hybrid pattern of nucleus fragmentation was used in 42 cases, 84% and the cylindrical pattern in 8 cases, 16%. The fragmentation was incomplete in one case of white cataract and in one case of traumatic cataract. Conclusions: The main advantages of femtolaser cataract surgery are standardized corneal incisions, perfectly centered, round capsulorhexis, and lens nucleus fragmentation even in eyes with hard cataracts. The laser precision is due to the real time OCT software programs, which cover the whole anterior segment, up to the posterior lens capsule. PMID:27373114
Kleiman, Norman Jay
The lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the body. Ocular ionizing radiation exposure results in characteristic, dose related, progressive lens changes leading to cataract formation. While initial, early stages of lens opacification may not cause visual disability, the severity of such changes progressively increases with dose until vision is impaired and cataract extraction surgery may be required. Because of the transparency of the eye, radiation induced lens changes can easily be followed non-invasively over time. Thus, the lens provides a unique model system in which to study the effects of low dose ionizing radiationmore » exposure in a complex, highly organized tissue. Despite this observation, considerable uncertainties remain surrounding the relationship between dose and risk of developing radiation cataract. For example, a growing number of human epidemiological findings suggest significant risk among various groups of occupationally and accidentally exposed individuals and confidence intervals that include zero dose. Nevertheless, questions remain concerning the relationship between lens opacities, visual disability, clinical cataract, threshold dose and/or the role of genetics in determining radiosensitivity. Experimentally, the response of the rodent eye to radiation is quite similar to that in humans and thus animal studies are well suited to examine the relationship between radiation exposure, genetic determinants of radiosensitivity and cataractogenesis. The current work has expanded our knowledge of the low-dose effects of X-irradiation or high-LET heavy ion exposure on timing and progression of radiation cataract and has provided new information on the genetic, molecular, biochemical and cell biological features which contribute to this pathology. Furthermore, findings have indicated that single and/or multiple haploinsufficiency for various genes involved in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control, such as Atm, Brca1
Nodehi Moghadam, Afsun; Goudarzian, Maryam; Azadi, Farhad; Hosseini, Seide Masume; Mosallanezhad, Zahra; Karimi, Nouraddin; Larne, Yassin; Habibi, Maryam; Yaghmaei, Poorya
Background: There is increasing evidence that visual impairment contribute to falling. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of vision impairment of old adult patients with cataract on the occurrence of falls and postural control. Methods: According to the results of screening ophthalmic examination, 48 cataract patients (mean±SD aged 68.5 ± 6.08 yrs.) and 50 individuals without any obvious eye disorders (mean age ± SD 70.7 ± 5.97 yrs.) were enrolled in this study. The postural control was determined using the clinical test of Sensory Interaction and Balance (CTSIB) and Timed up and Go (TUG) test. Results: The results of this study revealed that 18% (n = 9) of the normal individuals and 22.9% (n =11) of the cataract patients had at least two falls in the past 12 months. However, the result of chisquare test did not show any differences between the two groups (p= 0.36). The mean ± SD TUG times in cataract and control groups in our study were15.17 ± 3.58 and13.77 ± 4.90, respectively. However, no significant differences were found between the two groups (p= 0.12).The results of CTSIB test showed no significant differences between the two groups on standing on the floor with eyes open and eyes closed (p= 0.61, p= 0.89) and on standing on the foam with eyes open and eyes closed (p= 0.32, p= 0.74 ). Conclusion: According to the results of CTSIB and TUG tests, vision impairment of old adult patients with cataract is not associated with falls and balance disorders. Further work including assessment of postural control with advanced devices and considering other falls risk factors are also required to identify predictors of falls in cataract patients. PMID:26913274
Garcia-Arumi, Jose; Fonollosa, Alex; Sararols, Laura; Fina, Francesc; Martínez-Castillo, Vicente; Boixadera, Ana; Zapata, Miguel A; Campins, Magda
To assess the relationship between the risk for acute endophthalmitis after cataract extraction and whether certain factors, such as surgeon qualification, numerical order, duration of surgery, operating theater, and type of anesthesia (topical or retrobulbar), could be modified to decrease the risk. Single-center academic practice. Two epidemiological studies were performed: a case-control study and a retrospective cohort study. The surgical records of all patients with clinically diagnosed endophthalmitis within 30 days after cataract surgery performed between February 2002 and September 2003 were reviewed. The endophthalmitis cases were compared with 108 randomly selected controls (4 controls per case). The global incidence of endophthalmitis and the incidence according to type of anesthesia were calculated. Of 5011 cataract extractions performed, 27 cases of endophthalmitis occurred. The incidence was 5.39 per 1000 procedures. An independent statistically significant relationship was found between endophthalmitis and the use of topical anesthesia (odds ratio [OR], 11.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4-58.7) and surgery longer than 45 minutes (OR, 7.2; 95% CI, 1.7-29.7) but not between the other variables. The incidence of endophthalmitis was 1.8 per 1000 cataract extractions with retrobulbar anesthesia and 6.76 per 1000 with topical anesthesia (relative risk [RR], 3.76; 95% CI, 0.89-15.85). After the start of the study period was extended to May 2001, the incidence of endophthalmitis was 1.3 per 1000 cataract extractions with retrobulbar anesthesia and 8.7 per 1000 with topical anesthesia (RR, 6.72; 95% CI, 1.63-27.63). Results suggest that there may be an association between topical anesthesia and endophthalmitis after cataract extraction.
Sapkota, Y D; Pokharel, G P; Nirmalan, P K; Dulal, S; Maharjan, I M; Prakash, K
Background/aim Himalaya Eye Hospital (HEH), established in 1993, is rendering eye care services in the Gandaki and Dhaulagiri zones. The hospital has extensive community outreach activities along with services for outpatients, emergencies, and subspecialties such as vitreoretinal, paediatric, and low vision. The operation theatre is well equipped to match the surgical needs including phaco surgery for cataract. The hospital has performed more than 14 000 cataract surgeries and 250 000 treatment services during this period. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of blindness, visual impairment, and cataract surgical coverage among the older adult population of three districts of Gandaki Zone, where 80% of the hospital's service recipients reside. Methods People aged 45 years and older were enrolled in the study using a stratified cluster design. Subjects in 25 randomly selected clusters from the listed 806 were recruited through door to door visits. Each recruited subject had visual acuity (VA) and clinical examination conducted by an ophthalmologist. The survey was preceded by pre‐pilot and pilot studies to refine the operational method. To assess quality assurance the interobserver variation in VA measurement was also carried out in five different clusters. Results Out of 5863 selected subjects 85.3% were examined. Blindness defined as presenting VA <6/60 in both eyes was found in 2.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.2 to 3.9), whereas 16.8% individuals examined had vision <6/19 in one or both eyes. Cataract was the principal cause of blindness in 60.5%, and refractive error was the dominant cause of vision impairment (<6/19) 83.3%. Cataract surgical coverage was 59.5% among the cataract blind and associated with younger age, literacy, and male sex. Conclusion The finding suggests a positive impact of the HEH programme on the prevalence of blindness and cataract surgical services in the survey area. Strategies to further improve access and
Sethi, Anisha; Janda, Jaspreet Kaur; Sharma, Nidhi; Malhotra, S K
Mal de meleda (MdM), a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis is characterized by erythema and hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles with a sharp demarcation and that progress with age (progrediens) and extend to the dorsal aspects of the hands and feet (transgrediens). It has been associated with various conditions albeit rarely with congenial cataract. Ocular lens and the skin have the same embryological origins. We hereby present this novel case report of Mal de meleda in association with congenital posterior subcapsular cataract which to the best of our knowledge has not been reported from India before.
Haldipurkar, S S; Shikari, Hasanain T; Gokhale, Vishwanath
The basis of manual small incision cataract surgery is the tunnel construction for entry to the anterior chamber. The parameters important for the structural integrity of the tunnel are the self-sealing property of the tunnel, the location of the wound on the sclera with respect to the limbus, and the shape of the wound. Cataract surgery has gone beyond just being a means to get the lens out of the eye. Postoperative astigmatism plays an important role in the evaluation of final outcome of surgery. Astigmatic consideration, hence, forms an integral part of incisional considerations prior to surgery. PMID:19075401
Wilson, W A; Fine, R N
In reviewing the course of 218 renal transplantation recipients 55% have developed PSC of which eleven patients have had surgery on one or both eyes; The operations in general have been uncomplicated, and the visual results have been excellent with the exception of one case that had a detached retina. The cataracts were probably induced by heavy corticosteroid therapy as the larger the dosage and the younger the recipient, the more prone were they to the development of lens changes. Phacoemulsification was preferred in this series as the more expeditious technique, leading to a clearer anterior chamber with less chance of developing a secondary cataract. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 PMID:397659
Visser, Nienke; Beckers, Henny J M; Bauer, Noel J C; Gast, Sacha T J M; Zijlmans, Bart L M; Berenschot, Tos T J M; Webers, Carroll A; Nuijts, Rudy M M A
Spectacle independence is becoming increasingly important in cataract surgery. Not correcting corneal astigmatism at the time of cataract surgery will fail to achieve spectacle independency in 20% to 30% of patients. To compare bilateral aspherical toric with bilateral aspherical control intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in patients with cataract and corneal astigmatism. A multicenter, hospital-based, randomized clinical trial was conducted. The participants included 86 individuals with bilateral cataract and bilateral corneal astigmatism of at least 1.25 diopters (D) who were randomized to receive either bilateral toric (n = 41) or bilateral control (n = 45) IOL implantation. Bilateral implantation of an aspherical toric IOL or an aspherical control IOL. Spectacle independency for distance vision, uncorrected distance visual acuity, refractive astigmatism, contrast sensitivity, wavefront aberrations, and refractive error-related quality-of-life questionnaire. Preoperatively, mean (SD) corneal astigmatism was 2.02 (0.95) D and 2.00 (0.84) D in the toric and control groups, respectively. Four patients (5%) were lost to follow-up. At 6 months postoperatively, 26 (70%) of the patients in the toric group achieved an uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/25 or better compared with 14 (31%) in the control group (P < .001; odds ratio, 5.23; 95% CI, 2.03-13.48). Spectacle independency for distance vision was achieved in 31 patients (84%) in the toric group compared with 14 patients (31%) in the control group (P < .001; odds ratio, 11.44; 95% CI, 3.89- 33.63). Mean refractive astigmatism was -0.77 (0.52) D and -1.89 D (1.00) D, respectively. Vector analysis of toric IOLs showed a mean magnitude of error of +0.38 D, indicative of overcorrection. No significant differences were found in contrast sensitivity, higher-order aberrations, or refractive error-related quality of life. In patients with cataract and corneal astigmatism, bilateral toric IOL implantation results in
Kendrick, R; Kollarits, C R; Khan, N
When cataract surgery and glaucoma surgery are combined, the theoretical advantages of pressure control, removal of the visual impairment, and protection against an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) in the immediate postoperative period are gained. The authors' objective was to determine whether ab interno laser thermal sclerostomy (LTS) combined with cataract surgery would be as effective as trabeculectomy combined with cataract surgery. Ab interno LTS was compared with trabeculectomy, retrospectively, for patients who had undergone combined cataract and glaucoma surgery. There was no significant difference in the numbers of patients using no medications or fewer medications at 6 and 12 months. There was a greater reduction in IOP in the LTS group. LTS may be better than trabeculectomy in combined cataract and glaucoma surgery because it reduces the IOP more. Compared with trabeculectomy, LTS is simpler to perform and adds less operating time to cataract surgery. Continued follow-up is recommended.
Dhallu, Sandeep K; Maurino, Vincenzo; Wilkins, Mark R
Objectives To describe the initial outcomes following installation of a cataract surgery laser system. Setting National Health Service cataract surgery day care unit in North London, UK. Participants 158 eyes of 150 patients undergoing laser-assisted cataract surgery. Interventions Laser cataract surgery using the AMO Catalys femtosecond laser platform. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome measure: intraoperative complications including anterior and posterior capsule tears. Secondary outcome measures: docking to the laser platform, successful treatment delivery, postoperative visual acuities. Results Mean case age was 67.7±10.8 years (range 29–88 years). Docking was successful in 94% (148/158 cases), and in 4% (6/148 cases) of these, the laser delivery was aborted part way during delivery due to patient movement. A total of 32 surgeons, of grades from junior trainee to consultant, performed the surgeries. Median case number per surgeon was 3 (range from 1–20). The anterior capsulotomy was complete in 99.3% of cases, there were no anterior capsule tears (0%). There were 3 cases with posterior capsule rupture requiring anterior vitrectomy, and 1 with zonular dialysis requiring anterior vitrectomy (4/148 eyes, 2.7%). These 4 cases were performed by trainee surgeons, and were either their first laser cataract surgery (2 surgeons) or their first and second laser cataract surgeries (1 surgeon). Conclusions Despite the learning curve, docking and laser delivery were successfully performed in almost all cases, and surgical complication rates and visual outcomes were similar to those expected based on national data. Complications were predominately confined to trainee surgeons, and with the exception of intraoperative pupil constriction appeared unrelated to the laser-performed steps. PMID:27466243
Lundström, Mats; Barry, Peter; Henry, Ype; Rosen, Paul; Stenevi, Ulf
To analyze the visual outcome after cataract surgery. Cataract surgery clinics in 15 European countries. Database study. Data were drawn from case series of cataract extractions reported to the European Registry of Quality Outcomes for Cataract and Refractive Surgery database. These data were entered into the database via the Web by surgeons or by transfer from existing national registries or electronic medical record systems. The database contains individual anonymous data on preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative measurements. Data on 368,256 cataract extractions were available for analysis. The best visual outcome was achieved in age groups 40 to 74 years, and men showed a higher percentage of excellent vision (1.0 [20/20] or better) than women. A corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) of 0.5 (20/40) or better and of 1.0 (20/20) or better was achieved in 94.3% and 61.3% of cases, respectively. Ocular comorbidity and postoperative complications were the strongest influences on the visual outcome; however, surgical complications and ocular changes requiring complex surgery also had a negative influence. Deterioration of visual acuity after the surgery (n= 6112 [1.7% of all cases]) was most common in patients with a good preoperative visual acuity. The visual outcomes of cataract surgery were excellent, with 61.3% of patients achieving a corrected distance visual acuity of 1.0 (20/20) or better. Age and sex influenced the visual outcomes, but the greatest influences were short-term postoperative complications, ocular comorbidity, surgical complications, and complex surgery. A weakness of the study could be that some of the data is self-reported to the registry. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fahey, Jed W.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Wallace, Alison J.
We review herein the basis for using dietary components to treat and/or prevent Helicobacter pylori infection, with emphasis on: (a) work reported in the last decade, (b) dietary components for which there is mechanism-based plausibility, and (c) components for which clinical results on H. pylori amelioration are available. There is evidence that a diet-based treatment may reduce the levels and/or the virulence of H. pylori colonization without completely eradicating the organism in treated individuals. This concept was endorsed a decade ago by the participants in a small international consensus conference held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, and interest in such a diet-based approach has increased dramatically since then. This approach is attractive in terms of cost, treatment, tolerability and cultural acceptability. This review therefore highlights specific foods, food components, and food products, grouped as follows: bee products (e.g. honey and propolis), probiotics, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, oils, essential oils, and herbs, spices and other plants. A discussion of the small number of clinical studies that are available is supplemented by supportive in vitro and animal studies. This very large body of in vitro and pre-clinical evidence must now be followed up with rationally designed, unambiguous human trials. PMID:25799054
Abplanalp, Jeannette; Laczko, Endre; Philp, Nancy J.; Neidhardt, John; Zuercher, Jurian; Braun, Philipp; Schorderet, Daniel F.; Munier, Francis L.; Verrey, François; Berger, Wolfgang; Camargo, Simone M.R.; Kloeckener-Gruissem, Barbara
Creatine transport has been assigned to creatine transporter 1 (CRT1), encoded by mental retardation associated SLC6A8. Here, we identified a second creatine transporter (CRT2) known as monocarboxylate transporter 12 (MCT12), encoded by the cataract and glucosuria associated gene SLC16A12. A non-synonymous alteration in MCT12 (p.G407S) found in a patient with age-related cataract (ARC) leads to a significant reduction of creatine transport. Furthermore, Slc16a12 knockout (KO) rats have elevated creatine levels in urine. Transport activity and expression characteristics of the two creatine transporters are distinct. CRT2 (MCT12)-mediated uptake of creatine was not sensitive to sodium and chloride ions or creatine biosynthesis precursors, breakdown product creatinine or creatine phosphate. Increasing pH correlated with increased creatine uptake. Michaelis–Menten kinetics yielded a Vmax of 838.8 pmol/h/oocyte and a Km of 567.4 µm. Relative expression in various human tissues supports the distinct mutation-associated phenotypes of the two transporters. SLC6A8 was predominantly found in brain, heart and muscle, while SLC16A12 was more abundant in kidney and retina. In the lens, the two transcripts were found at comparable levels. We discuss the distinct, but possibly synergistic functions of the two creatine transporters. Our findings infer potential preventive power of creatine supplementation against the most prominent age-related vision impaired condition. PMID:23578822
Abplanalp, Jeannette; Laczko, Endre; Philp, Nancy J; Neidhardt, John; Zuercher, Jurian; Braun, Philipp; Schorderet, Daniel F; Munier, Francis L; Verrey, François; Berger, Wolfgang; Camargo, Simone M R; Kloeckener-Gruissem, Barbara
Creatine transport has been assigned to creatine transporter 1 (CRT1), encoded by mental retardation associated SLC6A8. Here, we identified a second creatine transporter (CRT2) known as monocarboxylate transporter 12 (MCT12), encoded by the cataract and glucosuria associated gene SLC16A12. A non-synonymous alteration in MCT12 (p.G407S) found in a patient with age-related cataract (ARC) leads to a significant reduction of creatine transport. Furthermore, Slc16a12 knockout (KO) rats have elevated creatine levels in urine. Transport activity and expression characteristics of the two creatine transporters are distinct. CRT2 (MCT12)-mediated uptake of creatine was not sensitive to sodium and chloride ions or creatine biosynthesis precursors, breakdown product creatinine or creatine phosphate. Increasing pH correlated with increased creatine uptake. Michaelis-Menten kinetics yielded a Vmax of 838.8 pmol/h/oocyte and a Km of 567.4 µm. Relative expression in various human tissues supports the distinct mutation-associated phenotypes of the two transporters. SLC6A8 was predominantly found in brain, heart and muscle, while SLC16A12 was more abundant in kidney and retina. In the lens, the two transcripts were found at comparable levels. We discuss the distinct, but possibly synergistic functions of the two creatine transporters. Our findings infer potential preventive power of creatine supplementation against the most prominent age-related vision impaired condition.
Tervo, T; Ljungberg, P; Kautiainen, T; Puska, P; Lehto, I; Raivio, I; Järvinen, E; Kuusela, P; Tarkkanen, A
To analyze the route of aqueous humor contamination leading to the development of postoperative endophthalmitis. Department of Ophthalmology, University of Helsinki, Finland. Forty-nine eyes of 49 patients (31 having phacoemulsification and 18 extracapsular cataract extraction [ECCE]) participated in the study. Four bacterial cultures were taken: preoperative conjunctival swab, lid margin culture, intraoperative lacrimal lake sample, and immediate postoperative anterior chamber fluid sample. Preoperative lid margin cultures were positive in 59.2% of eyes, conjunctival cultures in 69.4%, and lacrimal lake cultures in 24.9%. Four aqueous humor samples (8.2%) showed bacterial growth in the anterior chamber aspirate: 3 in the phacoemulsification and 1 in the ECCE group. The bacteria isolated in this study, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes (2 positive isolates each) were sensitive to the preoperative topical antibiotics used. No aqueous humor sample or any from other locations showed gram-negative microbe growth. The most frequently recovered microbes in all samples collected from the 3 other sources were S epidermidis and other coagulase-negative staphylococcus species, followed by P acnes and other propionibacterium species. Staphylococcus aureus, and diptheroids. The ocular surface significantly contributed to the transmission of microbes into the eye during cataract surgery. These microbes could not be eradicated by topical preoperative antibiotics. However, no patient developed postoperative endophthalmitis. Natural defense mechanisms appear to fend off a minor inoculum with these microbes of relatively low pathogenicity.
Phacoemulsification and aspiration (PEA) has become the most popular cataract surgery, due to the establishment of safe surgical techniques and development of associated instruments. However, corneal endothelial damage still represents a serious complication, as excessive damage can lead to irreversible bullous keratopathy. In addition to causes such as mechanical or heat injuries, free radical formation due to ultrasound has been posited as another cause of corneal endothelium damage in PEA. Ultrasound in aqueous solution induces cavitation, directly causing water molecule disintegration and resulting in the formation of hydroxylradicals, the most potent of the reactive oxygen species. Considering the oxidative insult to endothelial cells caused by free radicals, their presence in the anterior chamber may represent one of the most harmful factors during these procedures. Indeed, some researchers have recently started to evaluate PEA from the perspective of oxidative stress. Conversely, the major ingredient in ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVDs), which are indispensable for maintaining the anterior chamber in PEA surgery, is sodium hyaluronate, a known free radical scavenger. OVDs can thus be expected to provide some anti-free radical effect during PEA procedures. In addition, since commercially available OVDs display different properties regarding retention in the anterior chamber during PEA, the anti-free radical effect of OVDs is likely to depend on behavior during irrigation and aspiration. The present study followed standard PEA procedures in an eye model and measured hydroxylradicals in the anterior chamber using electron spin resonance. The kinetics of free radical intensity and effects of several OVDs during clinical PEA were also demonstrated. These studies may be of significance in re-evaluating OVDs as a chemical protectant for corneal endothelium, since the OVD has thus far only been regarded as a physical barrier. In addition, many reports about
Neel, Sean T
A cost analysis was performed to evaluate the effect on physicians in the United States of a transition from delayed sequential cataract surgery to immediate sequential cataract surgery. Financial and efficiency impacts of this change were evaluated to determine whether efficiency gains could offset potential reduced revenue. A cost analysis using Medicare cataract surgery volume estimates, Medicare 2012 physician cataract surgery reimbursement schedules, and estimates of potential additional office visit revenue comparing immediate sequential cataract surgery with delayed sequential cataract surgery for a single specialty ophthalmology practice in West Tennessee. This model should give an indication of the effect on physicians on a national basis. A single specialty ophthalmology practice in West Tennessee was found to have a cataract surgery revenue loss of $126,000, increased revenue from office visits of $34,449 to $106,271 (minimum and maximum offset methods), and a net loss of $19,900 to $91,700 (base case) with the conversion to immediate sequential cataract surgery. Physicians likely stand to lose financially, and this loss cannot be offset by increased patient visits under the current reimbursement system. This may result in physician resistance to converting to immediate sequential cataract surgery, gaming, and supplier-induced demand.
Mandracchia, B.; Finizio, A.; Ferraro, P.
As the world's population ages, cataract-induced visual dysfunction and blindness is on the increase. This is a significant global problem. The most common symptoms of cataracts are glared and blurred vision. Usually, people with cataract have trouble seeing and reading at distance or in low light and also their color perception is altered. Furthermore, cataract is a sneaky disease as it is usually a very slow but progressive process, which creates adaptation so that patients find it difficult to recognize. All this can be very difficult to explain, so we built and tested an optical device to help doctors giving comprehensive answers to the patients' symptoms. This device allows visualizing how cataract impairs vision mimicking the optical degradation of the crystalline related cataracts. This can be a valuable optical tool for medical education as well as to provide a method to illustrate the patients how cataract progression process will affect their vision.
Deschamps, D; Leport, M; Cordier, S; Laurent, A M; Festy, B; Hamard, H; Renard, G; Pouliquen, Y; Conso, F
Ethylene oxide is a sterilizing gas for heat-sensitive materials. Eight cases of subcapsular cataract were attributed to this compound from 1982 to 1985. This epidemiological study was conducted in 55 persons to determine the prevalence of lens opacities and cataracts in workers exposed to this gas. The 21 persons of more than 45 years of age were then compared to 16 non-exposed persons matched for age and gender. Lens opacities (independently of visual acuity) were observed in 19 of the 55 exposed. Among exposed and non-exposed persons of more than 45 years of age, there were no significantly differences with regard to the following characteristics of lens opacities: prevalence (13 in the 21 exposed; 10 in the 16 non-exposed), distribution of the localisations, morphology and importance of the cortical opacities. No link was found between the characteristics of the lens opacities and the characteristics of the exposure: habitual exposure and accidental overexposures. For cataracts, defined by the association of lens opacities and a visual acuity less than 20/25 (this loss not being attributable to another cause), their prevalence differed significantly (p less than 0.05) between the exposed (6 of 21) and the non-exposed (0 of 16). There was no relation between their existence and accidental overexposures. The risk of lens opacification by ethylene oxide, established in cases of massive exposures as previously described, could also exist during chronic exposure to low concentrations, but is to be confirmed by other studies. It could be explained by saturation of the protective mechanisms against alkylating action of this product. This study prompted us to discuss the epidemiological difficulties in studies of cataracts.
Baumgartner, R W; Waespe, W
The detection of a cataract in combination with a neurological deficit may provide the physician with important diagnostic help. But a minority of underlying diseases (angiokeratoma corporis diffusum, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, diabetes mellitus, galactosemia, hypocalcemia, Refsum's disease, Wilson's disease; Charles Bonnet syndrome; relapsing Perichondritis; adverse effects of medication and intoxications) can be treated causally. Therefore they are summed up and discussed in this paper.
Menabuoni, Luca; Pini, Roberto; Rossi, Francesca; Lenzetti, Ivo; Yoo, Sonia H; Parel, Jean-Marie
To evaluate the efficacy of laser welding to close corneal wounds in cataract surgery. Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital of Misericordia e Dolce, Prato, Italy. This retrospective nonrandomized interventional case series included 20 eyes of 20 patients. All eyes had cataract with visual acuity worse than 20/200. Ten patients had phacoemulsification surgery, and 10 had extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE). Surgeries were followed by laser-assisted closure of the corneal wounds by diode laser welding of the stroma using a technique established in animal models. Preoperative and postoperative (1, 3, 7, 30, and 90 days) astigmatism, level of inflammation, Seidel testing, and endothelial cell counts were obtained. There were minor differences in preoperative and postoperative astigmatism except in 1 eye in the ECCE group. The Seidel test showed no wound leakage during the follow-up examinations, and endothelial cell loss was similar to that published for standard surgical cataract procedures. No collateral effects of the laser welding were detected, nor was postoperative inflammation. Astigmatism was slightly affected by the use of laser welding for corneal wound closure after phacoemulsification and ECCE. The laser-assisted corneal sealing procedure was rapid and safe and could serve as an alternative to corneal suturing, with significant potential applications for the closure of longer incisions, such as those used in penetrating keratoplasty.
Churchill, Amanda; Graw, Jochen
Cataracts (opacities of the lens) are frequent in the elderly, but rare in paediatric practice. Congenital cataracts (in industrialized countries) are mainly caused by mutations affecting lens development. Much of our knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of cataractogenesis has come from the genetic analysis of affected families: there are contributions from genes coding for transcription factors (such as FoxE3, Maf, Pitx3) and structural proteins such as crystallins or connexins. In addition, there are contributions from enzymes affecting sugar pathways (particularly the galactose pathway) and from a quite unexpected area: axon guidance molecules like ephrins and their receptors. Cataractous mouse lenses can be identified easily by visual inspection, and a remarkable number of mutant lines have now been characterized. Generally, most of the mouse mutants show a similar phenotype to their human counterparts; however, there are some remarkable differences. It should be noted that many mutations affect genes that are expressed not only in the lens, but also in tissues and organs outside the eye. There is increasing evidence for pleiotropic effects of these genes, and increasing consideration that cataracts may act as early and readily detectable biomarkers for a number of systemic syndromes. PMID:21402583
Ellwein, L. B.; Kupfer, C.
Cataract blindness is a public health problem of major proportions in developing countries. Intracapsular cataract extraction with aphakic spectacles has been the standard surgical technique for restoring sight. Because of image magnification in the operated eye, however, the result in unilaterally blind patients is less than satisfactory. Fortunately, with the availability of low-cost intraocular lenses (IOL) and ophthalmologists trained in extracapsular surgery, it is now practical to intervene successfully in the unilateral case. The need for increased attention on the quality of the visual high prevalence of cataract blindness in developing countries and an increasing cataract incidence due to an aging population require substantial increases in surgical volume. The third issue relates to cost. If significant increases in surgical volume and quality of outcomes are to be realized without an increased need for external funding, service delivery must be made more efficient. The expansion of IOL surgery for unilateral blindness is a favourable trend in ensuring financial sustainability of delivery systems; patients can be operated on while still economically productive and able to pay rather than waiting for bilateral blindness and a less favourable economic and social impact. If the quality, volume, and cost issues are to be successfully addressed, operational and structural changes to eye care delivery systems are necessary. These changes can be effected through training, technology introduction, management of facilities, social marketing, organizational partnerships, and evaluation. With improved understanding of the critical factors in successful models their widespread replication will be facilitated. PMID:8846495
Raman, Thiagarajan; Ramar, Manikandan; Arumugam, Munusamy; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Varsha, Mosur Kumaraswamy Nagarajan Sai
This review discusses the relationship between oxidative stress and cataract formation, molecular mechanism of curcumin action and potential benefits of treatment with the antioxidant curcumin. The first section deals with curcumin and endogenous antioxidants. The second section focuses on the action of curcumin on lipid peroxidation. Calcium homeostasis and curcumin will be discussed in the third section. The fourth section discusses the role of crystallin proteins that are responsible for maintaining lens transparency and the role of curcumin in regulating crystallin expression. The interaction of curcumin with transcription factors will be dealt in the fifth section. The final section will focus on the effect of curcumin on aldose reductase, which is associated with hyperglycemia and cataract. One of the strongest antioxidants is curcumin which has been shown to be very effective against cataract. This compound is better than other antioxidants in preventing cataract but its limited bioavailability can be addressed by employing nanotechnology. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
... sensory cells. This nerve damage is known as peripheral neuropathy. Weakness in the legs, followed by the arms, ... and Neuropathy MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Congenital Cataract MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Peripheral Neuropathy General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests ...
Joseph, Sanil; Ravilla, Thulasiraj; Bassett, Ken
To investigate patterns and characteristics of men and women who used different cataract surgery payment streams in a South Indian hospital. We randomly sampled patients with age-related cataract aged 40 years and over from three routine cataract surgical service streams: walk-in paying, walk-in subsidized and free camp. Presenting visual acuity (VA) and cataract surgical details were obtained from routine hospital records. Demographic and socioeconomic factors were collected from patient interviews. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with use of different streams with walk-in paying as the reference group. There were 7076 eligible admissions (3742 women and 3334 men). Proportionately more women than men attended the walk-in subsidized (56%) or free camp sections (55%) compared to the walk-in paying stream (42%, odds ratio, OR, 1.40 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.25-1.57 and OR 1.33 95% CI 1.19-1.49, respectively). After adjustment for socioeconomic factors (illiteracy, not being in paid work), rural residence and poor presenting VA, OR for women compared to men for the walk-in subsided stream was 1.02, (95% CI 0.87-1.18) and for the free camp 0.94 (95% CI 0.80-1.11). Our results indicate that women are underrepresented in the paying section, reflecting their poorer socioeconomic and educational statuses.
Hamada, Nobuyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Fujii, Noriko; Furuhashi, Masato; Kubo, Eri; Minamino, Tohru; Nomura, Takaharu; Sato, Hitoshi
In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection issued a statement on tissue reactions (formerly termed non-stochastic or deterministic effects) to recommend lowering the threshold for cataracts and the occupational equivalent dose limit for the crystalline lens of the eye. Furthermore, this statement was the first to list circulatory disease (cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease) as a health hazard of radiation exposure and to assign its threshold for the heart and brain. These changes have stimulated various discussions and may have impacts on some radiation workers, such as those in the medical sector. This paper considers emerging issues associated with cataracts and cardiovascular disease. For cataracts, topics dealt with herein include (i) the progressive nature, stochastic nature, target cells and trigger events of lens opacification, (ii) roles of lens protein denaturation, oxidative stress, calcium ions, tumor suppressors and DNA repair factors in cataractogenesis, (iii) dose rate effect, radiation weighting factor, and classification systems for cataracts, and (iv) estimation of the lens dose in clinical settings. Topics for cardiovascular disease include experimental animal models, relevant surrogate markers, latency period, target tissues, and roles of inflammation and cellular senescence. Future research needs are also discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.
Wu, Renyi; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Zheng, Yingfeng; Rochtchina, Elena; Tan, Ava G; Wong, Tien Yin
To describe the relationship of smoking, sex, and socioeconomic factors with age-related cataract in Malay adults in Singapore. In a population-based study, 3280 Malay individuals aged 40 to 80 years participated (78.7% response rate). All had interviews, systemic examination, and laboratory investigations. Lens opacity was graded from slitlamp and retroillumination photographs using the Wisconsin Cataract Grading System. Smoking-cataract associations were compared with the Blue Mountains Eye Study in Australia. Of 2927 participants (89.2%) with gradable lens photographs, 1338 (45.7%) had cataract. After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes, current smokers had a higher prevalence of nuclear cataract (odds ratio [OR], 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46-2.98), cortical cataract (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.02-1.74), posterior subcapsular cataract (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.02-1.91), or any cataract (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.10-1.99). These associations were not seen in the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Primary or lower education (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.06-2.64) and low monthly income (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.09-1.87) were both associated with nuclear cataract, while small-sized public housing was associated with posterior subcapsular cataract (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.28-2.25). Among men, 43.5% currently smoked compared with only 3.2% of women. The population attributable risk of nuclear cataract due to smoking was estimated to be 17.6% in men. Smoking and indicators of low socioeconomic status were associated with cataract in Malay persons, with 1 in 6 nuclear cataract cases in men attributable to smoking. Smoking-cataract associations were stronger in Malay than in white persons.
Wang, Wei; Yan, William; Fotis, Kathy; Prasad, Noela M; Lansingh, Van Charles; Taylor, Hugh R; Finger, Robert P; Facciolo, Damian; He, Mingguang
Cataract is the leading cause of blindness and cataract surgical rate (CSR) is used as a proxy indicator of access to cataract services in a country. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between the CSR and the economic development of countries in terms of gross domestic product per capital (GDP/P) and gross national income per capita (GNI/P). We systematically searched OVID (Medline and Embase), Pubmed, Embase.com, ISI Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases, and retrieved additional data from unpublished reports. Cataract surgical rates and economic indicators (GDP/P, GNI/P) were collected for each country from 2005 to 2014. Complete data were used for the 50 largest countries according to World Health Organization (WHO) population estimates. Linear correlations between GDP/P and CSR were calculated. Cataract surgical rate data over two periods were used for analysis: 2005 to 2009 and 2010 to 2014 (CSR in 2009 or nearest year, CSR in 2014 or nearest year). Over the study period, CSR data were available for 152 countries across both time periods. Most of the CSR data were obtained from nongovernment organization (NGO) reports, including WHO reports. A good linear correlation between CSR and GDP/P was found overall, nearest to 2009 (β = 0.162, Linear: y = 0.162x + 282.242; R2 = 0.665, P < 0.001). Regression analysis of CSR nearest to 2014 produced similar findings, with significant correlations between CSR and GDP/P (Linear: y = 0.208x + 94.008; R2 = 0.785, P < 0.001). When using GNI/P as an economic indicator, similarly excellent lines of fit were obtained. After adjusting for time and country, CSR was significantly associated with GDP/P (Coefficient = 0.147, R2 = 0.759, P < 0.001), and GNI/P (Coefficient = 0.152, R2 = 0.757, P < 0.001). Most countries had an increase in CSRs over time, with the greatest increases observed for Iran and Argentina. Cataract surgical rate and economic indicators are closely associated, indicating the strong
Lean, Qi Ying; Eri, Rajaraman D.; Fitton, J. Helen; Patel, Rahul P.; Gueven, Nuri
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex sulphated, fucose-rich polysaccharides, found in edible brown algae and are described as having multiple bioactivities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of two different fucoidan preparations, fucoidan-polyphenol complex (Maritech Synergy) and depyrogenated fucoidan (DPF) was evaluated in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) mouse model of acute colitis. Mice were treated once daily over 7 days with fucoidans via oral (Synergy or DPF) or intraperitoneal administration (DPF). Signs and severity of colitis were monitored daily before colons and spleens were collected for macroscopic evaluation, cytokine measurements and histology. Orally administered Synergy and DPF, but not intraperitoneal DPF treatment, significantly ameliorated symptoms of colitis based on retention of body weight, as well as reduced diarrhoea and faecal blood loss, compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon and spleen weight in mice treated with oral fucoidan was also significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and oedema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice confirmed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and oedema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral fucoidan. Importantly, in this model, the macroscopic changes induced by oral fucoidan correlated significantly with substantially decreased production of at least 15 pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon tissue. Overall, oral fucoidan preparations significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis and could therefore
Hayashi, Kengo; Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko; Futagami, Soh; Ohno, Seiji; Tokoro, Takashi; Mochizuki, Manabu
To determine the incidence and characteristics of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in patients with high myopia (>or=8 diopters) who underwent cataract surgery in the Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, or the Ohno Eye Clinic, Tokyo, between September 1991 and March 2000. The medical records of 35 patients (48 eyes) who underwent cataract surgery with phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation were studied retrospectively. The development of CNV over a 4-year follow-up period, and its characteristics were determined. All of the eyes had received a comprehensive ophthalmological examination, including best-corrected visual acuity measurements, anterior segment biomicroscopy, and a dilated fundus examination by stereoscopic observation. CNV was found in six eyes (12.5%) of six patients. The mean interval between cataract surgery and the development of CNV was 34+/-17 months (range, 12-48 months). The CNV was subfoveal in all cases. The mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) after cataract surgery and before the appearance of CNV was 0.23+/-0.24, and 0.93+/-0.41 after the CNV appeared. This decrease was statistically significant (P=0.0008, paired Student t test). Subfoveal CNV developed more frequently in eyes when the fellow eye showed evidence of CNV preoperatively (40.0%) than in eyes when the fellow eye exhibited no evidence of CNV (9.3%). CNV developed in 12.5% of patients with high myopia after cataract surgery. CNV tended to develop more frequently when the fellow eye had CNV. Copyright (c) Japanese Ophthalmological Society 2006.
Benzarti Mezni, A; Loukil, I; Hriz, N; Kallel, K; Mlaiki, N; Ben Jemaâ, A
The industrial uses of ionizing radiation in Tunisia are expanding, especially in industry and most particularly in the nondestructive testing of welds. Thus workers operating in the non-destructive testing of welds may develop a radiation-induced cataract varying in time to onset depending on the dose. To describe the characteristics of the radiation-induced cataract in patients exposed to ionizing radiation, determine the risk factors of radiation-induced cataracts. This was an anamnestic, clinical, and environmental study of five cases of radiation-induced cataract in workers employed in non-destructive testing of welds. This series of five cases had a mean age of 30.2 years and 5.53 years of work experience, ranging from 14 months to 15 years. All the patients were male and industrial radiographers specialized in nondestructive testing of welds. The average duration of exposure to ionizing radiation was 5.53 years. None of the patients had worn protective gear such as eye goggles. The ophthalmic check-up for the five special industrial radiographers showed punctuate opacities in three cases, punctiform opacities in one eye in one case, and phacosclerosis with bilateral lens multiple crystalline stromal opacities in a case of micro-lens opacities in both eyes with opalescence of both eyes in one case. These cataracts had been declared as occupational diseases. The value of a specialized ophthalmologic surveillance among these workers and the early diagnosis of lens opacities must be emphasized. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Gaskin, Gregory L; Pershing, Suzann; Cole, Tyler S; Shah, Nigam H
Purpose To quantify the relationship between aggregated preoperative risk factors and cataract surgery complications, as well as to build a model predicting outcomes on an individual-level—given a constellation of demographic, baseline, preoperative, and intraoperative patient characteristics. Setting Stanford Hospital and Clinics between 1994 and 2013. Design Retrospective cohort study Methods Patients age 40 or older who received cataract surgery between 1994 and 2013. Risk factors, complications, and demographic information were extracted from the Electronic Health Record (EHR), based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition (ICD-9) codes, Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes, drug prescription information, and text data mining using natural language processing. We used a bootstrapped least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) model to identify highly-predictive variables. We built random forest classifiers for each complication to create predictive models. Results Our data corroborated existing literature on postoperative complications—including the association of intraoperative complications, complex cataract surgery, black race, and/or prior eye surgery with an increased risk of any postoperative complications. We also found a number of other, less well-described risk factors, including systemic diabetes mellitus, young age (<60 years old), and hyperopia as risk factors for complex cataract surgery and intra- and post-operative complications. Our predictive models based on aggregated outperformed existing published models. Conclusions The constellations of risk factors and complications described here can guide new avenues of research and provide specific, personalized risk assessment for a patient considering cataract surgery. The predictive capacity of our models can enable risk stratification of patients, which has utility as a teaching tool as well as informing quality/value-based reimbursements. PMID:26692059
Ansari, Rafat R.; Giblin, Frank J.; King, James F.
Human exploration of Mars may be a possibility in the next twenty years. Maintaining good vision is an essential aspect of achieving a successful mission. Continuous radiation exposure is a risk factor for radiation-induced cataracts in astronauts. A compact device based on the technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS) is designed for monitoring an astronaut's ocular health during long-duration space travel. Preliminary data on the simulated effects of ionizing radiation exposure to the ocular tissues of non-human animals and results on the sensitivity of DLS over established clinical procedures in investigating cataracts are presented. This capability of early diagnosis, unmatched by any other clinical technique in use today, may enable prompt initiation of preventive/curative therapy. An inter-net web based system integrating photon correlation data and controlling the hardware to monitor cataract development in vivo at a remote site in real time (tele-ophthalmology) is currently being developed. Cataract studies on-board the International Space Station (ISS) will be helpful in designing better protective radiation shields for future space vehicles and space suits. .
Ansari, Rafat R.; Giblin, Frank J.; King, James F.; Singh, B. (Technical Monitor)
Human exploration of Mars may be a possibility in the next twenty years. Maintaining good vision is an essential aspect of achieving a successful mission. Continuous radiation exposure is a risk factor for radiation-induced cataracts in astronauts. A compact device based on the technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS) is designed for monitoring an astronaut's ocular health during long-duration space travel. Preliminary data on the simulated effects of ionizing radiation exposure to the ocular tissues of nonhuman animals and results on the sensitivity of DLS over established clinical procedures in investigating cataracts are presented. This capability of early diagnosis, unmatched by any other clinical technique in use today, may enable prompt initiation of preventive/curative therapy. An internet web based system integrating photon correlation data and controlling the hardware to monitor cataract development in vivo at a remote site in real time (teleophthalmology) is currently being developed. Cataract studies on-board the International Space Station (ISS) will be helpful in designing better protective radiation shields for future space vehicles and space suits.
Cavallini, Gian Maria; Verdina, Tommaso; De Maria, Michele; Fornasari, Elisa; Volpini, Elisa; Campi, Luca
To describe the intraoperative complications and the learning curve of microincision cataract surgery assisted by femtosecond laser (FLACS) with bimanual technique performed by an experienced surgeon. It is a prospective, observational, comparative case series. A total of 120 eyes which underwent bimanual FLACS by the same experienced surgeon during his first experience were included in the study; we considered the first 60 cases as Group A and the second 60 cases as Group B. In both groups, only nuclear sclerosis of grade 2 or 3 was included; an intraocular lens was implanted through a 1.4-mm incision. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), surgically induced astigmatism (SIA), central corneal thickness and endothelial cell loss (ECL) were evaluated before and at 1 and 3 months after surgery. Intraoperative parameters, and intra- and post-operative complications were recorded. In Group A, we had femtosecond laser-related minor complications in 11 cases (18.3%) and post-operative complications in 2 cases (3.3%); in Group B, we recorded 2 cases (3.3%) of femtosecond laser-related minor complications with no post-operative complications. Mean effective phaco time (EPT) was 5.32 ± 3.68 s in Group A and 4.34 ± 2.39 s in Group B with a significant difference (p = 0.046). We recorded a significant mean BCVA improvement at 3 months in both groups (p < 0.05) and no significant SIA nor corneal pachymetry changes in the two groups during the follow-up (p > 0.05). Finally, we found significant ECL in both groups with a significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.042). FLACS with bimanual technique and low-energy LDV Z8 is associated with a necessary initial learning curve. After the first adjustments in the surgical technique, this technology seems to be safe and effective with rapid visual recovery and it helps surgeons to standardize the crucial steps of cataract surgery.
Kyei, Samuel; Koffuor, George A; Ramkissoon, Paul; Abu, Emmanuel K; Sarpong, Josephine F
To evaluate the anti-cataract potential of an aqueous whole plant extract of Heliotropium indicum (HIE) on galactose-induced cataract in Sprague-Dawley rats. Cataract scores were recorded in 3-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats in which cataract was being induced by an oral administration of 1500 mgkg -1 galactose twice daily for 4 weeks, and concurrently being treated with 30, 100, or 300 mgkg -1 HIE daily over the induction period. Fasting blood glucose was monitored at weekly intervals. Changes in body weight as well as total lens protein, lens glutathione, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined initially, and at the end of the experimental period. Crystalline lens weight-to-body-weight ratio was also determined for the various treatment groups at the end of the experimental period. Preliminary phytochemical screening, total antioxidant capacity, and reducing power assays were conducted on HIE. The 30 and 100 mgkg -1 HIE-treated rats recorded significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05-0.001) cataract scores (indicating very significant delays in cataractogenesis by the 3 rd and 4 th weeks of treatment) and blood glucose levels. Rats with delayed cataractogenesis also exhibited significant (p ≤ 0.05-0.001) weight gain, and reduction in lens weight. Total lens proteins glutathione and SOD levels in the crystalline lens were also significantly preserved (p ≤ 0.01-0.001). HIE showed substantial antioxidant capacity and reducing power. The aqueous whole plant extract of Heliotropium indicum delays cataractogenesis at an optimum dose of 30 mgkg -1 in Sprague-Dawley rats.
Pant, Hira B; Bandyopadhyay, Souvik; John, Neena; Chandran, Anil; Gudlavalleti, Murthy Venkata S
Women suffer disproportionately more from cataract blindness compared to males in low- and middle-income countries. Two large population-based surveys have been undertaken in India at an interval of 7 years and data from these surveys provided an opportunity to assess the trends in gender differentials in cataract blindness. Data were extracted from the surveys to discern sex differences in cataract blindness. Multivariate analysis was performed to adjust for confounders and their impact on gender differences in cataract blindness. Blindness was defined as presenting vision <20/400 in the better eye, and a cataract blind person was defined as a blind person where the principal cause of loss of vision was cataract. Prevalence of cataract blindness was higher in females compared to males in both surveys. The odds of cataract blindness for females did not change over time as observed in the surveys (1999-2001 and 2006-2007). Adjusted odds ratio from logistic regression analysis revealed that females continued to be at a higher risk of cataract blindness. Sex differences continued in India in relation to cataract blindness despite the gains made by the national program.
Zhu, Ming-ming; Zhu, Jian-feng; Zou, Hai-dong; He, Xian-gui; Zhao, Rong; Lu, Li-na
To explore the cataract surgical rate (CSR) of Shanghai from 2006 to 2012 and examine its influencing factors. As of 2003, a cataract surgery registration form had been filled by physicians after every cataract surgery in Shanghai. The local eye disease prevention team then entered the relevant information into the Shanghai Cataract Operations Database. Based upon this database, CSR of Shanghai was calculated. And the number of cataract surgeries was compared between Shanghai urban and suburban districts as well as among different medical institutions. The overall CSR in Shanghai increased from 1741 in 2006 to 2313 in 2012. In 2012, CSR in urban districts reached 6013 while it stood at 460 and 584 in inner and outer suburb districts respectively. The number of hospitals performing cataract surgery in urban districts was much more than that in suburbs. And the average number of cataract surgeries per hospital per year in suburbs was only one third of that (748 cases) in urban areas. The number of cataract surgeries at in private hospitals increased rapidly during the past 7 years. The number of 1921 cases was nearly twice as many as that at tertiary hospitals in 2012. Phacoemulsification surgery was the most popular surgical choice for cataract removal, accounting for 98.40% of total cataract surgeries in 2012. Until 2012, CSR in Shanghai dropped below the target of World Health Organization (WHO). A low level of CSR in suburbs is a major influencing factor for the overall level of CSR in Shanghai.
Sun, Wenmin; Xiao, Xueshan; Li, Shiqiang; Guo, Xiangming; Zhang, Qingjiong
Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the mutation spectrum and frequency of 34 known genes in 18 Chinese families with congenital cataracts. Methods Genomic DNA and clinical data was collected from 18 families with congenital cataracts. Variations in 34 cataract-associated genes were screened by whole exome sequencing and then validated by Sanger sequencing. Results Eleven candidate variants in seven of the 34 genes were detected by exome sequencing and then confirmed by Sanger sequencing, including two variants predicted to be benign and the other pathogenic mutations. The nine mutations were present in 9 of the 18 (50%) families with congenital cataracts. Of the four families with mutations in the X-linked NHS gene, no other abnormalities were recorded except for cataract, in which a pseudo-dominant inheritance form was suggested, as female carriers also had different forms of cataracts. Conclusion This study expands the mutation spectrum and frequency of genes responsible for congenital cataract. Mutation in NHS is a common cause of nonsyndromic congenital cataract with pseudo-autosomal dominant inheritance. Combined with our previous studies, a genetic basis could be identified in 67.6% of families with congenital cataracts in our case series, in which mutations in genes encoding crystallins, genes encoding connexins, and NHS are responsible for 29.4%, 14.7%, and 11.8% of families, respectively. Our results suggest that mutations in NHS are the common cause of congenital cataract, both syndromic and nonsyndromic. PMID:24968223
Mynampati, Bharani K; Ghosh, Sujata; Muthukumarappa, Thungapathra; Ram, Jagat
AIM To assess the level of glutathione, thioltransferase, and argpyrimidine in nuclear and cortical cataractous lenses as well as in the clear lenses in the north Indian population. METHODS Human cataractous lenses were collected from the patients who underwent extracapsular cataract extraction surgery; clear lenses were collected from the freshly donated eye bank eyes. Antioxidant molecules such as glutathione and thioltransferase enzyme activity were measured; simultaneously in these lenses a blue fluorophore argpyrimidine, an advanced glycation end (AGE) product level was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). RESULTS The protein concentration was found to be present at higher levels in the control lenses compared to cataract lenses. A significant decrease in the glutathione level was observed in the nuclear cataractous lenses compared to cortical cataractous (P=0.004) and clear lenses (P≤0.005), but no significant change in the level of antioxidant enzyme thioltransferase was observed. Further, argpyrimidine a blue fluorophore (AGE) was found to be significantly higher in the nuclear cataract (P=0.013) compared to cortical cataract lenses. CONCLUSION Antioxidants such as glutathione significantly decrease in age-related nuclear and cortical cataract and an AGE, argpyrimidine are present at significantly higher levels in nuclear cataract. PMID:28730112
Xu, Yi; He, Jiangnan; Lin, Senlin; Zhang, Bo; Zhu, Jianfeng; Resnikoff, Serge; Lu, Lina; Zou, Haidong
It was reported that lack of knowledge, less confidence of medical services, commute difficulties, and poor economic conditions would be the main barriers for cataract surgery practice. The influencing factors could have changed in cities with high developing speed. Shanghai is one of the biggest cities in China and the world. The purpose of the study was to explore the factors influencing cataract surgery practice in Shanghai. This was a population-based, cross-sectional study. A total of 2342 cataract patients older than 50 years old with cataract-induced visual impairment or who had undergone cataract surgery were recruited from rural and urban areas of Shanghai. Participants accepted a face-to-face structured questionnaire. Data were collected on patient demographics, education, work, income, health insurance, awareness about cataracts disease, treatment and related medical resources and deration policy, transportation and degree of satisfaction with hospitals. There were 417 patients who had received cataract surgery, 404 of them supplied complete information in the questionnaire. More female subjects (64.6%) than male subjects (35.4%) accepted cataract surgery among the 404 patients. Of the patients with cataract history, 36.4% of surgery patients were equal or older than 80. More people with urban medical insurance received surgery (p = 0.036). Patients who received surgery were more satisfied with local medical service (p = 0.032). In urban area, Lower income and difficulties with commutes were related to a higher rate of surgery. Cataract patients with the following features were more inclined to receive surgery: female, old age, better awareness. In urban areas low income and difficult commutes did not represent barriers for cataract surgery, probably because of appropriate cataract surgery promotion policies recent years in Shanghai. In rural areas, better healthcare reimbursement policies would likely lead to a higher uptake of cataract surgery
Parede, Taís Renata Ribeira; Torricelli, André Augusto Miranda; Mukai, Adriana; Vieira Netto, Marcelo; Bechara, Samir Jacob
Visual acuity is the measurement of an individual's ability to recognize details of an object in a space. Visual function measurements in clinical ophthalmology are limited by factors such as maximum contrast and so it might not adequately reflect the real vision conditions at that moment as well as the subjective aspects of the world perception by the patient. The objective of a successful vision-restoring surgery lies not only in gaining visual acuity lines, but also in vision quality. Therefore, refractive and cataract surgeries have the responsibility of achieving quality results. It is difficult to define quality of vision by a single parameter, and the main functional-vision tests are: contrast sensitivity, disability glare, intraocular stray light and aberrometry. In the current review the different components of the visual function are explained and the several available methods to assess the vision quality are described.
Menapace, R M; Dick, H B
The use of femtosecond lasers (FSL) is increasingly spreading in cataract surgery. Potential advantages over standard manual cataract surgery are the superior precision of corneal incisions and capsular openings as well as the reduction of ultrasound energy for lens nucleus work-up. Exact positioning and dimensioning of the anterior capsular opening should help reduce decentration and tilt of the intraocular lens (IOL) optics and thus achieve better target refraction. Together with the possibility to correct low-grade corneal astigmatism by precise arcuate incision, FSL technology is expected to convert cataract surgery from a purely curative into a refractive procedure. Apart from own experiences this review article critically analyses the pertinent literature published so far as well as congress presentations and personal reports of other FSL surgeons. The advantages and disadvantages are scrutinized with regard to their impact on the surgical and refractive results and compared with those experienced by the authors with manual cataract surgery over several decades. Economic and healthcare political aspects are also addressed. The use of FSL surgery improves the precision and reproducibility of corneal incisions and the capsular opening and reduces the amount of ultrasound energy required for lens nucleus work-up. However, the clinical benefits must be put into perspective due to the subsequent surgical manipulation of the incisions (during lens emulsification, aspiration and IOL injection), the lacking possibility to visualize the crystalline lens equator as the reference for correct capsulotomy centration and the relativity of ultrasound energy consumption on the corneal endothelial trauma. This is of particular relevance against the background of the significantly higher costs. Conversely, tears of the anterior capsule edge which, apart from interfering with correct IOL positioning, may entail serious complications presently occur more frequently with all FSL
Guay, Joanne; Sales, Karl
Local anaesthesia for cataract surgery can be provided by sub-Tenon's or topical anaesthesia. Both techniques offer possible advantages. This review, which originally was published in 2007 and was updated in 2014, was undertaken to compare these two anaesthetic techniques. Our objectives were to compare the effectiveness of topical anaesthesia (with or without intracameral local anaesthetic) versus sub-Tenon's anaesthesia in providing pain relief during cataract surgery. We reviewed pain during administration of anaesthesia, postoperative pain, surgical satisfaction with operating conditions and patient satisfaction with pain relief provided, and we looked at associated complications. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE and EMBASE (last search in November 2014) and the reference lists of published articles. We looked for conferences abstracts and trials in progress and placed no constraints on language or publication status. We included all randomized studies that compared sub-Tenon's anaesthesia versus topical anaesthesia for cataract surgery. We assessed trial quality and extracted data in the format allowing maximal data inclusion. We included eight studies in this updated review but could retain in the analysis only seven studies on 742 operated eyes of 617 participants. Two cross-over trials included 125 participants, and five parallel trials included 492 participants. These studies were published between 1997 and 2005. The mean age of participants varied from 71.5 years to 83.5 years. The female proportion of participants varied from 54% to 76%. Compared with sub-Tenon's anaesthesia, topical anaesthesia (with or without intracameral injection) for cataract surgery increases intraoperative pain but decreases postoperative pain at 24 hours. The amplitude of the effect (equivalent to 1.1 on a score from 0 to 10 for intraoperative pain, and to 0.2 on the same scale for postoperative pain at 24 hours), although statistically
Kukier, U; Chaney, R L
In situ remediation (phytostabilization) is a cost-effective solution for restoring the productivity of metal-contaminated soils and protection of food chains. A pot experiment with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), and redbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) was conducted to test the ability of limestone and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) to ameliorate Ni phytotoxicity in two soils contaminated by particulate emissions from a nickel refinery. Quarry muck (Terric Haplohemist; 72% organic matter) contained 2210 mg kg(-1) of total Ni. The mineral soil, Welland silt loam (Typic Epiaquoll), was more contaminated (2930 mg Ni kg(-1)). Both soils were very strongly acidic, allowing the soil Ni to be soluble and phytotoxic. Nickel phytotoxicity of the untreated muck soil was not very pronounced and could be easily confused with symptoms of Mn deficiency that occurred in this soil even with Mn fertilization. Severe nickel phytotoxicity of the untreated mineral soil prevented any growth of redbeet, the most sensitive crop; even wheat, a relatively Ni-resistant species, was severely damaged. White banding indicative of Ni phytotoxicity was present on oat and wheat leaves grown on the acidic mineral soil. Soil Ni extracted with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and 0.01 M Sr(NO3)2 was indicative of the ameliorative effect of amendments and correlated well with Ni concentrations in plant shoots. Making soils calcareous was an effective treatment to reduce plant-available Ni and remediate Ni phytotoxicity of these soils to all crops tested. The ameliorative effect of HFO was crop-specific and much less pronounced.
Burns, M S; File, D M
Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is a surface analytical technique with high sensitivity for elemental detection and microlocalization capabilities within the micrometre range. Quantitative analysis of epoxy resins and gelatin have been reported (Burns-Bellhorn & File, 1979). We report here the first application of this technique to quantitative microlocalization in the context of a physiological problem--analyses of sodium, potassium and calcium in normal and galactose-induced cataract in rat lens. It is known that during the development of galactose-induced cataract the whole lens content of potassium is decreased, sodium is increased and, in late stages, calcium concentration increases. Whether these alterations in diffusible ions occur homogeneously or heterogeneously is not known. Standard curves were generated from epoxy resins containing known concentrations of sodium, potassium or calcium organometallic compounds using the Cameca IMS 300 Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer. Normal and cataractous lenses were prepared by freezing in isopentane in a liquid nitrogen bath followed by freeze-drying at -30 degrees C. After dry embedding in epoxy resin, 10 microns thick sections of lens were pressure mounted on silicon wafers, overcoated with gold, and ion emission measured under the same instrumental conditions used to obtain the standard curves. Quantitative analysis of an area 27 microns in diameter, or a total analysed volume of 1.1 microns3, was performed by using a mechanical aperture in the ion optical system. Ion images provided qualitative microanalysis with a lateral resolution of 1 micron. Control rat lenses gave values for sodium and potassium content with a precision of +/- 17% or less. These values were compared to flame photometry and atomic absorption measurements of normal lenses and were accurate within 25%. Analysis of serum and blood also gave accurate and precise measurements of these elements. Normal rat lenses had a gradient of sodium, and
Ravindran, Ravilla D; Vashist, Praveen; Gupta, Sanjeev K; Young, Ian S; Maraini, Giovanni; Camparini, Monica; Jayanthi, R; John, Neena; Fitzpatrick, Kathryn E; Chakravarthy, Usha; Ravilla, Thulasiraj D; Fletcher, Astrid E
To examine the association between vitamin C and cataract in the Indian setting. Population-based cross-sectional analytic study. A total of 5638 people aged ≥60 years. Enumeration of randomly sampled villages in 2 areas of north and south India to identify people aged ≥60 years. Participants were interviewed for socioeconomic and lifestyle factors (tobacco, alcohol, household cooking fuel, work, and diet); attended a clinical examination, including lens photography; and provided a blood sample for antioxidant analysis. Plasma vitamin C was measured using an enzyme-based assay in plasma stabilized with metaphosphoric acid, and other antioxidants were measured by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Cataract and type of cataract were graded from digital lens images using the Lens Opacity Classification System III (LOCS III), and cataract was classified from the grade in the worse eye of ≥4 for nuclear cataract, ≥3 for cortical cataract, and ≥2 for posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC). Any cataract was defined as any unoperated or operated cataract. Of 7518 enumerated people, 5638 (75%) provided data on vitamin C, antioxidants, and potential confounders. Vitamin C was inversely associated with cataract (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for highest to lowest quartile = 0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.51-0.74; P=1.1×10(-6)). Inclusion of other antioxidants in the model (lutein, zeaxanthin, retinol, β-carotene, and α-tocopherol) made only a small attenuation to the result (OR 0.68; 95% CI, 0.57-0.82; P < 0.0001). Similar results were seen with vitamin C by type of cataract: nuclear cataract (adjusted OR 0.66; CI, 0.54-0.80; P < 0.0001), cortical cataract (adjusted OR 0.70; CI, 0.54-0.90; P < 0.002), and PSC (adjusted OR 0.58; CI, 0.45-0.74; P < 0.00003). Lutein, zeaxanthin, and retinol were significantly inversely associated with cataract, but the associations were weaker and not consistently observed by type of cataract. Inverse associations
Wang, J; Cao, Y X
The aim of modern micro-incision phacoemulsification combined with foldable intraocular lens implantation and femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery is evolving from a simple pursuit of recuperation to a refractive procedure, which involves the correction of ametropia according to preoperative and postoperative refractive conditions, especially corneal astigmatism, in order to achieve the goal of optimized postoperative uncorrected full range of vision. Nowadays, due attention to the effect of preoperative corneal astigmatism, surgery-induced astigmatism and residual astigmatism after operation is lacked, which affect postoperative visual acuity significantly. There are many effective ways to reduce corneal astigmatism after cataract surgery including selecting appropriate size and location of clear corneal incision, employing astigmatism keratotomy and the implantation of Toric intraocular lenses, which need to be appropriately applied and popularized. At the same time, surgical indications, predictability and safety should also be taken into account. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2018, 54: 321-323) .
Erraguntla, Vasudha; De la Huerta, Irina; Vohra, Sunita; Abdolell, Mohamed; Levin, Alex V
To investigate the effectiveness of information transfer by the pediatric cataract surgeon to the parents or guardians of children during the informed-consent process. Prospective observational case series. Parents of 31 children undergoing cataract surgery. Parents were enrolled from the clinical practice of 1 pediatric cataract surgeon. Using a checklist developed in consultation with other pediatric cataract surgeons, the surgeon discussed the nature of the disease, the course without surgical intervention, the surgical procedure, the risks and benefits, and the postoperative care. Immediately after the discussion, parents were invited to complete a questionnaire assessing information recall. Analysis of variance and the t test were used to determine associations between questionnaire scores and demographic variables. The surgeon subsequently called parents and discussed again the issues that they had not remembered correctly, as identified by the questionnaire responses. The study and data accumulation were carried out with the approval of the Research Ethics Board at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ont. Informed consent for the research was obtained from the parents or legal guardians of the children enrolled in the study. The study adhered to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki. Of 31 parents, 18 (58%) overestimated their understanding of the informed-consent discussion. Parents scored well on questions about the nature of the disease and the postoperative follow-up but scored lower on questions regarding surgical risks and outcomes. Parents identified several barriers to understanding, including the large amount of information, stress, and preoccupation with the child. No association was noted between the level of understanding and demographic factors. Parents may overestimate their understanding of informed-consent discussions. Some parents may be overly optimistic about risks and outcomes. The surgeon's follow-up communication with parents
Hayashi, Ken; Yoshida, Motoaki; Manabe, Shin-ichi; Hirata, Akira
To compare corneal endothelial damage after cataract surgery in eyes with low endothelial cell density (ECD) and eyes with normal ECD. Hayashi Eye Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan. Case-control study. Cataract surgery was performed in eyes with a low ECD (500 to 1000 cells/mm(2)) (low-density group) and control eyes with a normal ECD. The ECD and central corneal thickness (CCT) were measured preoperatively and 1 and 3 months postoperatively, and the percentage cell loss and increase in CCT were compared. The low-density group and control group each comprised 50 eyes. In the low-density group, 39 eyes had nonprogressive endothelial pathology and 11 had Fuchs dystrophy. The mean ECD was significantly less and the CCT significantly greater in the low-density group than in the control group throughout the follow-up (P ≤.0066). However, no significant difference in the percentage of cell loss was found between groups at 1 or 3 months (5.1%, low-density group; 4.2%, control group) (P ≥.1477). The percentage increase in CCT was significantly greater in the low-density group than in the control group at 1 month (P<.0001), although there was no significant difference at 3 months (0.4% and -0.4%, respectively) (P=.2172). Corneal endothelial damage after cataract surgery in eyes with low ECD was slight and comparable to that in healthy eyes, which suggests that cataract surgery alone (without corneal transplantation) should be performed first. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kramar, P; Harris, C; Emery, A F; Guy, A W
Rabbits and monkeys were irradiated in the near field of a cavity-backed 2450 MHz resonant slot radiator, to determine the cataractogenic threshold. Rabbits developed cataracts at incident "apparent" power densities of 180 mW/cm2 (E2/120 pi, where E=rms/electric field strength). Monkeys sustained facial burns, but no lens damage, even at incident "apparent" power densities of 500 mW/cm2. These results were substantiated by computer thermal models.
Davison, James A
Purpose/aim of the study To present a phacoemulsification technique for hard cataracts and compare postoperative results using two different ultrasonic tip motions during quadrant removal. Materials and methods A phacoemulsification technique which employs in situ fracture and endocapsular debulking for hard cataracts is presented. The prospective study included 56 consecutive cases of hard cataract (LOCS III NC [Lens Opacification Classification System III, nuclear color], average 4.26), which were operated using the Infiniti machine and the Partial Kelman tip. Longitudinal tip movement was used for sculpting for all cases which were randomized to receive longitudinal or torsional/interjected longitudinal (Intelligent Phaco [IP]) strategies for quadrant removal. Measurements included cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), 3 months postoperative surgically induced astigmatism (SIA), and corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) losses. Results No complications were recorded in any of the cases. Respective overall and longitudinal vs IP means were as follows: CDE, 51.6±15.6 and 55.7±15.5 vs 48.6±15.1; SIA, 0.36±0.2 D and 0.4±0.2 D vs 0.3±0.2 D; and mean ECD loss, 4.1%±10.8% and 5.9%±13.4% vs 2.7%±7.8%. The differences between longitudinal and IP were not significant for any of the three categories. Conclusion The endocapsular phacofracture debulking technique is safe and effective for phacoemulsification of hard cataracts using longitudinal or torsional IP strategies for quadrant removal with the Infiniti machine and Partial Kelman tip. PMID:26203213
Davison, James A
To present a phacoemulsification technique for hard cataracts and compare postoperative results using two different ultrasonic tip motions during quadrant removal. A phacoemulsification technique which employs in situ fracture and endocapsular debulking for hard cataracts is presented. The prospective study included 56 consecutive cases of hard cataract (LOCS III NC [Lens Opacification Classification System III, nuclear color], average 4.26), which were operated using the Infiniti machine and the Partial Kelman tip. Longitudinal tip movement was used for sculpting for all cases which were randomized to receive longitudinal or torsional/interjected longitudinal (Intelligent Phaco [IP]) strategies for quadrant removal. Measurements included cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), 3 months postoperative surgically induced astigmatism (SIA), and corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) losses. No complications were recorded in any of the cases. Respective overall and longitudinal vs IP means were as follows: CDE, 51.6±15.6 and 55.7±15.5 vs 48.6±15.1; SIA, 0.36±0.2 D and 0.4±0.2 D vs 0.3±0.2 D; and mean ECD loss, 4.1%±10.8% and 5.9%±13.4% vs 2.7%±7.8%. The differences between longitudinal and IP were not significant for any of the three categories. The endocapsular phacofracture debulking technique is safe and effective for phacoemulsification of hard cataracts using longitudinal or torsional IP strategies for quadrant removal with the Infiniti machine and Partial Kelman tip.
Salazar Méndez, R; Cuesta García, M; Llaneza Velasco, M E; Rodríguez Villa, S; Cubillas Martín, M; Alonso Álvarez, C M
To evaluate the usefulness of surgical complexity classification index (SCCI) to predict the degree of surgical difficulty in cataract surgery. This retrospective study includes data collected between January 2013 and December 2014 from patients who underwent cataract extraction by phacoemulsification at our hospital. A sample size of 159 patients was obtained by simple random sampling (P=.5, 10% accuracy, 95% confidence). The main variables were: recording and value of SCCI in electronic medical record (EMR), presence of exfoliation syndrome (XFS), criteria for inclusion in surgical waiting list (SWL), and functional results. SCCI was classified into 7 categories (range: 1-4) according to predictors of technical difficulty, which was indirectly estimated in terms of surgical time (ST). All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS v15.0 statistical software. Prevalence of XFS was 18.2% (95%CI: 11.9-24.5). In terms of quality indicators in the cataract surgery process, 96.8% of patients met at least one of the criteria to be included in SWL, and 98.1% gained ≥2 Snellen lines. The SCCI was recorded in EMR of 98.1% patients, and it was grouped for study into 2 categories: High and low surgical complexity. Statistically significant differences in the distribution of ST were found depending on the assigned SCCI (P<.005) and the presence of XFS (P<.005). The SCCI enables to estimate the degree of surgical complexity in terms of ST in cataract surgery, which is especially useful in those areas with high prevalence of XFS, because of the higher theoretical risk of surgical complications. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Mayer, S; Wirbelauer, C; Häberle, H; Altmeyer, M; Pham, D T
Although postoperative eye patching is a common practice its background is not well known. Therefore the necessity of eye patching after cataract surgery in topical anesthesia from the medical point of view and the patients' subjective opinion was studied. In this prospective and randomized study 133 patients received after cataract surgery either no covering of the eye (group1), a transparent eye shield for four hours (group 2), an eye pad for four hours (group 3) or an eye pad until the next morning (group 4). Clinical findings were noted and local symptoms, such as pain, foreign body sensation, tearing and photophobia were documented on a visual analogue scale (0 - 10). Furthermore, a questionnaire concerning the subjective opinion was handed out to the patient. The clinical findings revealed no significant differences between the groups. The mean values for local pain were 0.94 +/- 1.56, for the foreign body sensation 1.41 +/- 2.02, for tearing 0.99 +/- 1.8 and for photophobia 1.05 +/- 1.99. Comparing the groups there was significantly more pain and foreign body sensation reported by the patients in group 3, who received eye patching for 4 hours. 91 % of the unpatched patients had no discomfort, whereas 53 % of the patients wearing an eye pad until the next morning considered it as unnecessary. After cataract surgery in topical anesthesia only mild symptoms were noted. There were no significant differences between the groups in the objective clinical findings and the subjective feeling. These results indicate that after cataract surgery eye patching could be unnecessary.
Hässig, M; Jud, F; Spiess, B
We examined and monitored a dairy farm in which a large number of calves were born with nuclear cataracts after a mobile phone base station had been erected in the vicinity of the barn. Calves showed a 3.5 times higher risk for heavy cataract if born there compared to Swiss average. All usual causes such as infection or poisoning, common in Switzerland, could be excluded. The real cause of the increased incidence of cataracts remains unknown.
Francis, P; Berry, V; Hardcastle, A; Maher, E; Moore, A; Bhattacharya, S
Purpose: To genetically map the gene causing isolated X linked cataract in a large European pedigree. Methods: Using the patient registers at Birmingham Women's Hospital, UK, we identified and examined 23 members of a four generation family with nuclear cataract. Four of six affected males also had complex congenital heart disease. Pedigree data were collated and leucocyte DNA extracted from venous blood. Linkage analysis by PCR based microsatellite marker genotyping was used to identify the disease locus and mutations within candidate genes screened by direct sequencing. Results: The disease locus was genetically refined to chromosome Xp22, within a 3 cM linkage interval flanked by markers DXS9902 and DXS999 (Zmax=3.64 at θ=0 for marker DXS8036). Conclusions: This is the first report of a locus for isolated inherited cataract on the X chromosome. The disease interval lies within the Nance-Horan locus suggesting allelic heterogeneity. The apparent association with congenital cardiac anomalies suggests a possible new oculocardiac syndrome. PMID:11836358
Iqbal, Yasir; Zia, Sohail; Baig Mirza, Aneeq Ullah
To determine the intraoperative and early postoperative complications of manual sutureless cataract extraction. Case series. Redo Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from January 2009 to December 2010. Three hundred patients of cataract through purposive non-probability sampling were selected. The patients underwent manual sutureless cataract surgery (MSCS) by single experienced surgeon and intraoperative complications were documented. The surgical technique was modified to deal with any intraoperative complications accordingly. Patients were examined on the first postoperative day and on the first postoperative week for any postoperative complications. The data was entered in Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13.0 and the results were calculated in frequencies. Among the 300 cases, 81.3% surgeries went uneventful whereas 18.6% had some complication. The common intraoperative complications were superior button-hole formation in 5%; posterior capsular rent in 5% and premature entry with iris prolapse in 3% cases. Postoperatively, the commonly encountered complications were striate keratopathy in 9.6% and hyphema 9%. At first week follow-up, 4% had striate keratopathy and 0.6% had hyphema. Striate keratopathy resolved with topical medication on subsequent follow-up. A total of 9 cases (3%) underwent second surgery: 2 cases for lens matter wash, 2 cases for hyphema and 5 cases needed suturing of wound for shallow anterior chamber due to wound leak. Superior button-hole formation, posterior capsular rent and premature entry were the common intraoperative complications of MSCS whereas the common early postoperative complications were striate keratopathy and hyphema.
Chang, Kun-Che; Li, Linfeng; Sanborn, Theresa M; Shieh, Biehuoy; Lenhart, Patricia; Ammar, David; LaBarbera, Daniel V; Petrash, J Mark
Aldose reductase (AR) in the lens plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cataract (DC) by contributing to osmotic and oxidative stress associated with accelerated glucose metabolism through the polyol pathway. Therefore, inhibition of AR in the lens may hold the key to prevent DC formation. Emodin, a bioactive compound isolated from plants, has been implicated as a therapy for diabetes. However, its inhibitory activity against AR remains unclear. Our results showed that emodin has good selectively inhibitory activity against AR (IC50 = 2.69 ± 0.90 μM) but not other aldo-keto reductases and is stable at 37 °C for at least 7 days. Enzyme kinetic studies demonstrated an uncompetitive inhibition against AR with a corresponding inhibition constant of 2.113 ± 0.095 μM. In in vivo studies, oral administration of emodin reduced the incidence and severity of morphological markers of cataract in lenses of AR transgenic mice. Computational modeling of the AR-NADP(+)-emodin ternary complex indicated that the 3-hydroxy group of emodin plays an essential role by interacting with Ser302 through hydrogen bonding in the specificity pocket of AR. All the findings above provide encouraging evidence for emodin as a potential therapeutic agent to prevent cataract in diabetic patients.
Hayashi, Ken; Hayashi, Hideyuki
To compare the surgical outcomes of simultaneous penetrating keratoplasty and cataract surgery with those of sequential surgery. Thirty-nine eyes of 39 patients scheduled for simultaneous keratoplasty and cataract surgery and 23 eyes of 23 patients scheduled for sequential keratoplasty and secondary phacoemulsification surgery were recruited. Refractive error, regular and irregular corneal astigmatism determined by Fourier analysis, and endothelial cell loss were studied at 1 week and 3, 6, and 12 months after combined surgery in the simultaneous surgery group or after subsequent phacoemulsification surgery in the sequential surgery group. At 3 and more months after surgery, mean refractive error was significantly greater in the simultaneous surgery group than in the sequential surgery group, although no difference was seen at 1 week. The refractive error at 12 months was within 2 D of that targeted in 15 eyes (39%) in the simultaneous surgery group and within 2 D in 16 eyes (70%) in the sequential surgery group; the incidence was significantly greater in the sequential group (P = 0.0344). The regular and irregular astigmatism was not significantly different between the groups at 3 and more months after surgery. No significant difference was also found in the percentage of endothelial cell loss between the groups. Although corneal astigmatism and endothelial cell loss were not different, refractive error from target refraction was greater after simultaneous keratoplasty and cataract surgery than after sequential surgery, indicating a better outcome after sequential surgery than after simultaneous surgery.
Olali, Carpi A; Priya, Anita; Gupta, Mohit; Ahmed, Sohail
A postal questionnaire study to evaluate the current practice of cataract surgery delivery in the United Kingdom including strategies for postoperative review was performed. A cataract questionnaire was sent to all hospital departments delivering ophthalmic services in the United Kingdom based on a list from the Royal College of Ophthalmologists. It included questions about the staffing level, number of cases operated on per list, and the different strategies employed postoperatively. The results were statistically analyzed. A total of 248 questionnaires were sent and 106 (43%) replies were received. The mean number of consultant teams was 11 (2-20). The average number of cases per list was 6-7 (range 4-9). In 65 hospitals, all patients are reviewed postoperatively in the hospital and some consultant teams review patients postoperatively in 18 hospitals. In 15 hospitals, patients were seen by the community optician. Most hospitals review their patients postoperatively within the first 3 weeks with more hospitals seeing them at 2-3 weeks. A wide variety of health professionals review the postoperative cases and they include doctors, nurses, and opticians (in house and community). There are varied practices for cataract surgery in the United Kingdom including the number of cases on the list and postoperative review protocols. There is room for better service organization in some hospitals in terms of patient flow and better use of medical staff time to improve output.
Au Eong, K G
The visual sensations many patients experience during cataract surgery under local anaesthesia have received little attention until recently. This paper reviews the recent studies on this phenomenon, discusses its clinical significance and suggests novel approaches to reduce its negative impact on the surgery. Literature review. Many patients who have cataract surgery under retrobulbar, peribulbar or topical anaesthesia experience a variety of visual sensations in their operated eye during surgery. These visual sensations include perception of light, movements, flashes, one or more colours, surgical instruments, the surgeon's hand/fingers, the surgeon and changes in light brightness. Some patients experience transient no light perception, even if the operation is performed under topical anaesthesia. The clinical significance of this phenomenon lies in the fact that approximately 7.1% to 15.4% of patients find their visual experience frightening. This fear and anxiety may cause some patients to become uncooperative during surgery and trigger a sympathetic surge, causing such undesirable effects as hypertension, tachycardia, ischaemic strain on the heart, hyperventilation and acute panic attack. Several approaches to reduce the negative impact of patients' visual experience are suggested, including appropriate preoperative counselling and reducing the ability of patients to see during surgery. The findings that some patients find their intraoperative visual experience distressing have a major impact on the way ophthalmologists manage their cataract patients. To reduce its negative impact, surgeons should consider incorporating appropriate preoperative counselling on potential intraoperative visual experience when obtaining informed consent for surgery.
Taner, Mehmet Tolga
The article's aim is to focus on the application of Six Sigma to minimise intraoperative and post-operative complications rates in a Turkish public hospital cataract surgery unit. Implementing define-measure-analyse-improve and control (DMAIC) involves process mapping, fishbone diagrams and rigorous data-collection. Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), pareto diagrams, control charts and process capability analysis are applied to redress cataract surgery failure root causes. Inefficient skills of assistant surgeons and technicians, low quality of IOLs used, wrong IOL placement, unsystematic sterilisation of surgery rooms and devices, and the unprioritising network system are found to be the critical drivers of intraoperative-operative and post-operative complications. Sigma level was increased from 2.60 to 3.75 subsequent to extensive training of assistant surgeons, ophthalmologists and technicians, better quality IOLs, systematic sterilisation and air-filtering, and the implementation of a more sophisticated network system. This article shows that Six Sigma measurement and process improvement can become the impetus for cataract unit staff to rethink their process and reduce malpractices. Measuring, recording and reporting data regularly helps them to continuously monitor their overall process and deliver safer treatments. This is the first Six Sigma ophthalmology study in Turkey.
Giles, Kagmeni; Robert, Ebana Steve; Come, Ebana Mvogo; Wiedemann, Peter
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and visual outcomes of simultaneous bilateral cataract surgery (SBCS) with intraocular lens implantation performed in outreach surgical eye camps. METHODS The medical records of 47 consecutive patients who underwent simultaneous bilateral small-incision cataract surgery between January 2010 and December 2015 in outreach surgical camps in rural Cameroon were reviewed. The measures included postoperative visual outcomes and intraoperative and postoperative complications. RESULTS Data from 94 eyes of 47 participants (30 men, 17 women; mean age: 60.93 ± 13.58 years, range: 45–80 years) were included in this study. The presented best visual acuity (VA) was less than 3/60 in 100% of the eyes. At the 4-week follow-up, 84.04% of the eyes showed increased VA of 1 line or more (P = .001). Of these, 71 (75.53%) achieved good VA (greater than 6/18). Intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred in 19 (20.21%) eyes. The most serious intraoperative complication was a posterior capsule rupture and vitreous loss (2 patients, 2 eyes). The postoperative complications included a transient elevation in the intraocular pressure (6 eyes), chronic corneal oedema (5 eyes), iris capture (3 eyes), lens decentration (2 eyes), and hyphema (1 eye). No cases of postoperative endophthalmitis were recorded. CONCLUSIONS Under the strict observation of endophthalmitis prophylaxis, SBCS is an option to reduce the cataract blindness backlog in rural areas of developing countries. PMID:28469481
Morris, Robert E; Shere, Jeffrey L; Witherspoon, C Douglas; Segal, Zachary K; Tehranchi, Linda; Kuhn, Ferenc; Sapp, Mathew
To assess the safety and efficacy of peripheral 360-degree laser retinopexy as prophylaxis against rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in eyes having pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for the removal of retained cataract fragments. Private practice, Callahan Eye Foundation Hospital, University of Alabama at Birmingham, and Helen Keller Foundation for Research and Education, Birmingham, Alabama, USA. This retrospective analysis comprised a consecutive series of patients who had PPV with 360-degree laser retinopexy for retained cataract fragment removal between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 2000. All laser treatments were applied with indirect ophthalmoscope delivery. In 78 eyes of 78 patients, the mean interval between cataract surgery and PPV with 360-degree laser retinopexy prophylaxis was 14 days. One (1.3%) of 78 eyes had postoperative RRD during a mean follow-up of 6 years. No laser-related complications occurred. The incidence of RRD after PPV with 360-degree laser retinopexy prophylaxis was 1.3%, a significant reduction from the average 8.2% RRD rate in the literature (P = .024). Although future prospective trials are indicated, the results suggest that 360-degree laser retinopexy prophylaxis could significantly reduce the incidence of this visually disabling complication.
Helbostad, Jorunn L; Oedegaard, Maria; Lamb, Sarah E; Delbaere, Kim; Lord, Stephen R; Sletvold, Olav
Cataract surgery improves vision and visual functioning; the effect on general health is not established. We investigated if vision, visual functioning, and general health follow the same trajectory of change the year after cataract surgery and if changes in vision explain changes in visual disability and general health. One-hundred forty-eight persons, with a mean (SD) age of 78.9 (5.0) years (70% bilateral surgery), were assessed before and 6 weeks and 12 months after surgery. Visual disability and general health were assessed by the CatQuest-9SF and the Short Formular-36. Corrected binocular visual acuity, visual field, stereo acuity, and contrast vision improved (P < 0.001) from before to 6 weeks after surgery, with further improvements of visual acuity evident up to 12 months (P = 0.034). Cataract surgery had an effect on visual disability 1 year later (P < 0.001). Physical and mental health improved after surgery (P < 0.01) but had returned to presurgery level after 12 months. Vision changes did not explain visual disability and general health 6 weeks after surgery. Vision improved and visual disability decreased in the year after surgery, whereas changes in general health and visual functioning were short-term effects. Lack of associations between changes in vision and self-reported disability and general health suggests that the degree of vision changes and self-reported health do not have a linear relationship.
Huang, Qing; Huang, Yongzhi; Luo, Qu; Fan, Wei
We aimed to measure ocular biometric characteristics in older cataract patients from western China. Ocular biometry records were retrospectively analyzed for 6933 patients with cataracts (6933 eyes) at least 50 years old who were treated at West China Hospital of Sichuan University. Partial coherence laser interferometry gave the following population averages: axial length (AL), 24.32 ± 2.42 mm; anterior chamber depth (ACD), 3.08 ± 0.47 mm; keratometric power (K), 44.23 ± 1.66 diopters; and corneal astigmatism (CA), 1.00 ± 0.92 diopters. The percentage of individuals with AL > 26.5 mm was 13.66%, while the percentage with CA > 1.0 diopters was 35.54%. Mean AL and ACD showed a trend of decrease with increasing age (P < 0.001). AL correlated positively with ACD (Spearman coefficient, 0.542) and CA (0.111), but negatively with K (- 0.411) (all P < 0.01). K also correlated negatively with ACD (- 0.078, P < 0.01). These results show, for the first time, that older cataract patients from western China have similar ocular biometric characteristics as other populations. The high prevalence of severe axial myopia warrants further investigation.
Kan, Emrah; Kiliçkan, Elif; Ayar, Ahmet; Çolak, Ramis
The purpose of this study was to determine whether α-lipoic acid and fisetin have protective effects against cataract in a streptozotocin-induced experimental cataract model. Twenty-eight male BALB/C mice were made diabetic by the intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (200 mg/kg). Three weeks after induction of diabetes, mice were divided randomly into 4 groups in which each group contained 7 mice; fisetin-treated group (group 1), α-lipoic acid-treated group (group 2), fisetin placebo group (group 3), α-lipoic acid placebo group (group 4). Fisetin and α-lipoic acid were administered intraperitoneally weekly for 5 weeks. Cataract development was assessed at the end of 8 weeks by slit lamp examination, and cataract formation was graded using a scale. All groups developed at least grade 1 cataract formation. In the fisetin-treated group, the cataract stages were significantly lower than in the placebo group (p = 0.02). In the α-lipoic acid-treated group, the cataract stages were lower than in the placebo group but it did not reach to a significant value. Both fisetin and α-lipoic acid had a protective effect on cataract development in a streptozotocin-induced experimental cataract model. The protective effect of fisetin appears as though more effective than α-lipoic acid.
Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni; Vilas, Kovai; Shamanna, Bindiganavale R; Rao, Gullapalli N; Thomas, Ravi; Balasubramanian, Dorairajan
To investigate the associations between tobacco smoking and various forms of cataracts among the people of a state in India. A population-based cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted in the south Indian state of Andhra Pradesh (AP). A total of 10,293 subjects of all ages from one urban and three rural areas, representative of the population of AP, were interviewed, and each underwent a detailed dilated ocular evaluation by trained professionals. Data were analyzed for 7416 (72%) of the subjects aged >15 years. Increasing age was significantly associated with all cataract types and history of prior cataract surgery and/or total cataract. In multivariate analyses, after adjusting for all demographic factors and for history of smoking, females, illiterate persons, and those belonging to the extreme lower socioeconomic status group were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of any cataract, adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.60 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24-1.96), 1.46 (95% CI: 1.17-1.70), and 1.92 (95% CI: 1.14-3.24), respectively. After adjustment, cigarette and cigar smokers had a significantly higher prevalence of any cataract, adjusted OR=1.51 (95% CI: 1.10-2.06) and 1.44 (95% CI: 1.12-1.84), respectively, compared with those who had never smoked ("never-smokers"). A significantly higher prevalence of nuclear, cortical cataract, and history of prior cataract surgery and/ or total cataract was found among cigarette smokers. A dose-response relationship was seen with respect to cigarette and cigar smoking. After adjustment, compared with never-smokers, cigarette smokers who smoked heavily (>14 "pack-years" of smoking) had a significantly higher prevalence of nuclear cataract (OR=1.65; 95% CI: 1.10-2.59), cortical cataract (OR=2.11; 95% CI: 1.38-3.24), and history of prior cataract surgery and/or total cataract (OR=2.10; 95% CI: 1.05-4.22). Nuclear cataract was significantly higher in cigar smokers (adjusted OR=1.55; 95% CI: 1.16-2.01) and in cigar
Bao, Y Z
With wide-spread performance of pars plana vitrectomy, cataract surgeries with no vitreous are getting more and more. This kind of surgery has great difference between individuals and it lacks randomized large sample clinical trial. Surgical strategy decision was basically relied on the surgeon's personal experience. We should fully aware the individual and common characteristics of no vitreous cataract surgery. Surgical time should be carefully decided. Complete ocular examination, evaluation, design of cataract surgical procedure and appropriate intra-ocular lens selection are needed. We must pay highly attention on the cataract surgery of no vitreous eyes. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 241-243) .
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... is calculated as tartaric acid for grapes, malic acid for apples, and citric acid for other fruit... natural wine from juice having a fixed acid level exceeding 5.0 grams per liter, the winemaker may adjust the fixed acid level by adding ameliorating material (water, sugar, or a combination of both) before...
... natural wine from juice having a fixed acid level exceeding 5.0 grams per liter, the winemaker may adjust... acid level of the juice or wine by 0.1 gram per liter (the fixed acid level of the juice or wine may not be less than 5.0 gram per liter after the addition of ameliorating material). (b) Limitations. (1...
... natural wine from juice having a fixed acid level exceeding 5.0 grams per liter, the winemaker may adjust... acid level of the juice or wine by 0.1 gram per liter (the fixed acid level of the juice or wine may not be less than 5.0 gram per liter after the addition of ameliorating material). (b) Limitations. (1...
... natural wine from juice having a fixed acid level exceeding 5.0 grams per liter, the winemaker may adjust... acid level of the juice or wine by 0.1 gram per liter (the fixed acid level of the juice or wine may not be less than 5.0 gram per liter after the addition of ameliorating material). (b) Limitations. (1...
Yang, Fei; Hou, Xianru; Wu, Huijuan; Bao, Yongzhen
To evaluate the characteristics of postoperative refractive status in age-related cataract patients with shallow anterior chamber and the correlation between pre-operative anterior chamber depth and postoperative refractive status. Prospective case-control study. Sixty-eight cases (90 eyes) with age-related cataract were recruited from October 2010 to January 2012 in People's Hospital Peking University including 28 cases (34 eyes) in control group and 40 cases (56 eyes) in shallow anterior chamber group according to anterior chamber depth (ACD) measured by Pentacam system. Axial length and keratometer were measured by IOL Master and intraocular lens power was calculated using SRK/T formula. Postoperative refraction, ACD and comprehensive eye examination were performed at 1 month and 3 months after cataract surgery. Using SPSS13.0 software to establish a database, the two groups were compared with independent samples t-test and correlation analysis were performed with binary logical regression. The postoperative refractive deviation at 1 month were (-0.39 ± 0.62) D in control group and (+0.73 ± 0.26) D in shallow anterior chamber group respectively which present statistical significance between the two groups (P = 0.00, t = 3.67); the postoperative refractive deviation in 3 month was (-0.37 ± 0.62) D in control group and (+0.79 ± 0.28) D in shallow anterior chamber group operatively which present statistical significance between the two groups (P = 0.00, t = 3.33). In shallow anterior chamber group, with the shallower of ACD, the greater of refractive deviation (P = 0.00, r1 month = -0.57, r3 months = -0.61). Hyperopic shift existed in age-related cataract patients with shallow anterior chamber and the shallower of ACD was, the greater of hyperopic shift happened.
Dave, Alpana; Martin, Sarah; Kumar, Raman; Craig, Jamie E; Burdon, Kathryn P; Sharma, Shiwani
Congenital cataract is a leading cause of childhood blindness. Mutations in the EPHA2 gene are one of the causes of inherited congenital cataract. The EPHA2 gene encodes a membrane-bound tyrosine kinase receptor and is highly expressed in epithelial cells, including in the ocular lens. Signaling through the EPHA2 receptor plays a pivotal role in epithelial cell homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of congenital cataract causing mutations in the EPHA2 gene on the encoded protein in epithelial cells. The effect of five disease-causing mutations, p.P584L (c.1751C>T), p.T940I (c.2819C>T), p.D942fsXC71 (c.2826-9G>A), p.A959T (c.2875G>A), and p.V972GfsX39 (c.2915_2916delTG), on localization of the protein was examined in two in vitro epithelial cell culture systems: Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) and human colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) epithelial cells. Myc-tagged mutant constructs were generated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based mutagenesis. The Myc-tagged wild-type construct was used as a control. The Myc-tagged wild-type and mutant proteins were ectopically expressed and detected by immunofluorescence labeling. Two of the mutations, p.T940I and p.D942fsXC71, located within the cytoplasmic sterile-α-motif (SAM) domain of EPHA2, led to mis-localization of the protein to the perinuclear space and co-localization with the cis-golgi apparatus, indicating sub-organellar/cellular retention of the mutant proteins. The mutant proteins carrying the remaining three mutations, similar to the wild-type EPHA2, localized to the cell membrane. Mis-localization of two of the mutant proteins in epithelial cells suggests that some disease-causing mutations in EPHA2 likely affect lens epithelial cell homeostasis and contribute to cataract. This study suggests that mutations in EPHA2 contribute to congenital cataract through diverse mechanisms.
Michael, Ralph; Rosandić, Jurja; Montenegro, Gustavo A; Lobato, Elvira; Tresserra, Francisco; Barraquer, Rafael I; Vrensen, Gijs F J M
Eye lenses from human donors with and without Alzheimer's disease (AD) were studied to evaluate the presence of amyloid in cortical cataract. We obtained 39 lenses from 21 postmortem donors with AD and 15 lenses from age-matched controls provided by the Banco de Ojos para Tratamientos de la Ceguera (Barcelona, Spain). For 17 donors, AD was clinically diagnosed by general physicians and for 4 donors the AD diagnosis was neuropathologically confirmed. Of the 21 donors with AD, 6 had pronounced bilateral cortical lens opacities and 15 only minor or no cortical opacities. As controls, 7 donors with pronounced cortical opacities and 8 donors with almost transparent lenses were selected. All lenses were photographed in a dark field stereomicroscope. Histological sections were analyzed using a standard and a more sensitive Congo red protocol, thioflavin staining and beta-amyloid immunohistochemistry. Brain tissue from two donors, one with cerebral amyloid angiopathy and another with advanced AD-related changes and one cornea with lattice dystrophy were used as positive controls for the staining techniques. Thioflavin, standard and modified Congo red staining were positive in the control brain tissues and in the dystrophic cornea. Beta-amyloid immunohistochemistry was positive in the brain tissues but not in the cornea sample. Lenses from control and AD donors were, without exception, negative after Congo red, thioflavin, and beta-amyloid immunohistochemical staining. The results of the positive control tissues correspond well with known observations in AD, amyloid angiopathy and corneas with lattice dystrophy. The absence of staining in AD and control lenses with the techniques employed lead us to conclude that there is no beta-amyloid in lenses from donors with AD or in control cortical cataracts. The inconsistency with previous studies of Goldstein et al. (2003) and Moncaster et al. (2010), both of which demonstrated positive Congo red, thioflavin, and beta
Ouchi, M; Kinoshita, S
Purpose To evaluate the postoperative outcomes of cataract eyes complicated with coexisting ocular pathologies that underwent implantation of a refractive multifocal intraocular lens (MIOL) with a surface-embedded near section. Methods LENTIS MPlus (Oculentis GmbH) refractive MIOLs were implanted in 15 eyes with ocular pathologies other than cataract (ie, six high-myopia eyes with an axial length longer than 28 mm, two fundus albipunctatus eyes, two branch retinal-vein occlusion eyes, four glaucoma eyes (one with high myopia), and two keratoconus eyes). Uncorrected or corrected distance and near visual acuity (VA) (UDVA, UNVA, CDVA, and CNVA), contrast sensitivity, and defocus curve were measured at 1 day and 6 months postoperatively, and each patient completed a 6-month postoperative questionnaire regarding vision quality and eyeglass use. Results Thirteen eyes (87%) registered 0 or better in CDVA and 12 eyes (73%) registered better than 0 in CNVA. Contrast sensitivity in the eyes of all patients was comparable to that of normal healthy subjects. No patient required eyeglasses for distance vision, but three patients (20%) required them for near vision. No patient reported poor or very poor vision quality. Conclusion With careful case selection, sectorial refractive MIOL implantation is effective for treating cataract eyes complicated with ocular pathologies. PMID:25744442
Ouchi, M; Kinoshita, S
To evaluate the postoperative outcomes of cataract eyes complicated with coexisting ocular pathologies that underwent implantation of a refractive multifocal intraocular lens (MIOL) with a surface-embedded near section. LENTIS MPlus (Oculentis GmbH) refractive MIOLs were implanted in 15 eyes with ocular pathologies other than cataract (ie, six high-myopia eyes with an axial length longer than 28 mm, two fundus albipunctatus eyes, two branch retinal-vein occlusion eyes, four glaucoma eyes (one with high myopia), and two keratoconus eyes). Uncorrected or corrected distance and near visual acuity (VA) (UDVA, UNVA, CDVA, and CNVA), contrast sensitivity, and defocus curve were measured at 1 day and 6 months postoperatively, and each patient completed a 6-month postoperative questionnaire regarding vision quality and eyeglass use. Thirteen eyes (87%) registered 0 or better in CDVA and 12 eyes (73%) registered better than 0 in CNVA. Contrast sensitivity in the eyes of all patients was comparable to that of normal healthy subjects. No patient required eyeglasses for distance vision, but three patients (20%) required them for near vision. No patient reported poor or very poor vision quality. With careful case selection, sectorial refractive MIOL implantation is effective for treating cataract eyes complicated with ocular pathologies.
Murthy, Gvs; Gupta, Sanjeev K; John, Neena; Vashist, Praveen
India is a signatory to the World Health Organization resolution on Vision 2020: The right to sight. Efforts of all stakeholders have resulted in increased number of cataract surgeries performed in India, but the impact of these efforts on the elimination of avoidable blindness is unknown. Projection of performance of cataract surgery over the next 15 years to determine whether India is likely to eliminate cataract blindness by 2020. Data from three national level blindness surveys in India over three decades, and projected age-specific population till 2020 from US Census Bureau were used to develop a model to predict the magnitude of cataract blindness and impact of Vision 2020: the right to sight initiatives. Using age-specific data for those aged 50+ years it was observed that prevalence of blindness at different age cohorts (above 50 years) reduced over three decades with a peak in 1989. Projections show that among those aged 50+ years, the quantum of cataract surgery would double (3.38 million in 2001 to 7.63 million in 2020) and cataract surgical rate would increase from 24025/million 50+ in 2001 to 27817/million 50+ in 2020. Though the prevalence of cataract blindness would decrease, the absolute number of cataract blind would increase from 7.75 million in 2001 to 8.25 million in 2020 due to a substantial increase in the population above 50 years in India over this period. Considering existing prevalence and projected incidence of cataract blindness over the period 2001-2020, visual outcomes after cataract surgery and sight restoration rate, elimination of cataract blindness may not be achieved by 2020 in India.
Bassett, K L; Noertjojo, K; Liu, L; Wang, F S; Tenzing, C; Wilkie, A; Santangelo, M; Courtright, P
Background: A recently published, population based survey of the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) of China reported on low vision, blindness, and blinding conditions. This paper presents detailed findings from that survey regarding cataract, including prevalence, cataract surgical coverage, surgical outcome, and barriers to use of services. Methods: The Tibet Eye Care Assessment (TECA) was a prevalence survey of people from randomly selected households from three of the seven provinces of the TAR (Lhoka, Nakchu, and Lingzhr), representing its three main environmental regions. The survey, conducted in 1999 and 2000, assessed visual acuity, cause of vision loss, and eye care services. Results: Among the 15 900 people enumerated, 12 644 were examined (79.6%). Cataract prevalence was 5.2% and 13.8%, for the total population, and those over age 50, respectively. Cataract surgical coverage (vision <6/60) for people age 50 and older (85–90% of cataract blind) was 56% overall, 70% for men and 47% for women. The most common barriers to use of cataract surgical services were distance and cost. In the 216 eyes with cataract surgery, 60% were aphakic and 40% were pseudophakic. Pseudophakic surgery left 19% of eyes blind (<6/60) and an additional 20% of eyes with poor vision (6/24–6/60). Aphakic surgery left 24% of eyes blind and an additional 21% of eyes with poor vision. Even though more women remained blind than men, 28% versus 18% respectively, the different was not statistically significant (p = 0.25). Conclusions: Cataract surgical coverage was remarkably high despite the difficulty of providing services to such an isolated and sparse population. Cataract surgical outcome was poor for both aphakic and pseudophakic surgery. Two main priorities are improving cataract surgical quality and cataract surgical coverage, particularly for women. PMID:15615736
Tan, Jennifer; Wang, Jie Jin; Flood, Victoria; Kaushik, Shweta; Barclay, Alan; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Mitchell, Paul
Although dietary carbohydrates are thought to play a role in cataractogenesis, few epidemiologic studies have examined links between carbohydrate nutrition and cataract. We investigated the associations between dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), total carbohydrate intake, and 10-y incident nuclear, cortical, and posterior subcapsular cataract. Of 3654 baseline participants in an Australian population aged >/=49 y (1992-1994), 933 were seen after 5 and/or 10 y, had completed a detailed semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire, had no previous cataract surgery or baseline cataract, and had photographs taken to assess incident cataract with the Wisconsin Cataract Grading System. Dietary information was collected with a validated food questionnaire. GI was calculated from a customized database of Australian foods. GI, GL, and all other nutrients were energy adjusted. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were calculated with the use of discrete logistic models. After age, sex, diabetes, and other factors were controlled for, each SD increase in GI significantly predicted incident cortical cataract (HR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.39). Participants within the highest compared with the lowest quartile of GI were more likely to develop incident cortical cataract (HR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.78; P for trend = 0.035). These findings were similar after excluding participants with diabetes, although they were slightly attenuated and marginally nonsignificant (HR: 1.16; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.37, per SD increase in GI). No association was found between GI and nuclear or posterior subcapsular cataract and between GL or carbohydrate quantity and any cataract subtype. In an Australian cohort, poorer dietary carbohydrate quality, reflected by high GI, predicted incident cortical cataract.
Avachat, Shubhada Sunil; Phalke, Vaishali; Kambale, Suchit
The most recent estimates from World Health Organization (WHO) reveal that 47.8% of global blindness is due to cataract. Cataract has been documented to be the most significant cause of bilateral blindness in India. The most recent estimates from WHO reveal that 47.8% of global blindness is due to cataract and in south Asia region which includes India, 51% of blindness is due to cataract. In India cataract is the principal cause of blindness accounting for 62.6% cases of blindness. The key to the success of the Global Vision 2020: The right to sight initiative is a special effort to tackle cataract blindness which includes estimation of magnitude of the problem and understanding factors associated with it. Therefore, a study was conducted in the hospital to estimate the magnitude of cataract and study various epidemiological factors associated with it. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary health center in rural area. Total 746 patients who availed services from ophthalmology department during study period were included in the study and relevant data was collected from them. Data analysis was done by percentages, proportions, and tests of significance (Chi-square test). Out of 746 patients, 400 (53.6%) were suffering from cataract. Senile cataract was the most common cause (54%). Fifty-five percent patients were in the age group of 60-80 years and majority of them were from low socioeconomic strata. The prevalence of cataract in a medical college hospital in rural area was 53.6%. Age, sex, and educational status were significantly associated with cataract.
Khan, Arif O; Aldahmesh, Mohammed A; Mohamed, Jawahir Y; Alkuraya, Fowzan S
To correlate clinical examination with underlying genotype in asymptomatic females who are potential carriers of X-linked developmental cataract (Nance-Horan syndrome). An ophthalmologist blind to the pedigree performed comprehensive ophthalmic examination for 16 available family members (two affected and six asymptomatic females, five affected and three asymptomatic males). Facial features were also noted. Venous blood was collected for sequencing of the gene NHS. All seven affected family members had congenital or infantile cataract and facial dysmorphism (long face, bulbous nose, abnormal dentition). The six asymptomatic females ranged in age from 4-35 years old. Four had posterior Y-suture centered lens opacities; these four also exhibited the facial dysmorphism of the seven affected family members. The fifth asymptomatic girl had scattered fine punctate lens opacities (not centered on the Y-suture) while the sixth had clear lenses, and neither exhibited the facial dysmorphism. A novel NHS mutation (p.Lys744AsnfsX15 [c.2232delG]) was found in the seven patients with congenital or infantile cataract. This mutation was also present in the four asymptomatic girls with Y-centered lens opacities but not in the other two asymptomatic girls or in the three asymptomatic males (who had clear lenses). Lens opacities centered around the posterior Y-suture in the context of certain facial features were sensitive and specific clinical signs of carrier status for NHS mutation in asymptomatic females. Lens opacities that did not have this characteristic morphology in a suspected female carrier were not a carrier sign, even in the context of her affected family members.
Rosen, Emanuel; Alió, Jorge L; Dick, H Burkhard; Dell, Steven; Slade, Stephen
We performed a metaanaysis of peer-reviewed studies involving implantation of a multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) in presbyopic patients with cataract or having refractive lens exchange (RLE). Previous reviews have considered the use of multifocal IOLs after cataract surgery but not after RLE, whereas greater insight might be gained from examining the full range of studies. Selected studies were examined to collate outcomes with monocular and binocular uncorrected distance, intermediate, and near visual acuity; spectacle independence; contrast sensitivity; visual symptoms; adverse events; and patient satisfaction. In 8797 eyes, the mean postoperative monocular uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) was 0.05 logMAR ± 0.006 (SD) (Snellen equivalent 20/20(-3)). In 6334 patients, the mean binocular UDVA was 0.04 ± 0.00 logMAR (Snellen equivalent 20/20(-2)), with a mean spectacle independence of 80.1%. Monocular mean UDVA did not differ significantly between those who had a cataract procedure and those who had an RLE procedure. Neural adaptation to multifocality may vary among patients. Dr. Alió is a clinical research investigator for Hanita Lenses, Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Topcon Medical Systems, Inc., Oculentis GmbH, and Akkolens International BV. Dr. Dell is a consultant to Bausch & Lomb and Abbott Medical Optics, Inc. Dr. Slade is a consultant to Alcon Surgical, Inc., Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, and Bausch & Lomb. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barnes, Alexander C; Roth, Allen S
We describe a case of bilateral anterior lenticonus in a patient with Alport syndrome treated with femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS). FLACS was performed without complication, and a desirable postoperative visual acuity was achieved. Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery is an effective approach for managing patients with anterior lenticonus secondary to Alport syndrome.
Lehmann, Philipp; Boratyński, Zbyszek; Mappes, Tapio; Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P
A cataract is a clouding of the lens that reduces light transmission to the retina, and it decreases the visual acuity of the bearer. The prevalence of cataracts in natural populations of mammals, and their potential ecological significance, is poorly known. Cataracts have been reported to arise from high levels of oxidative stress and a major cause of oxidative stress is ionizing radiation. We investigated whether elevated frequencies of cataracts are found in eyes of bank voles Myodes glareolus collected from natural populations in areas with varying levels of background radiation in Chernobyl. We found high frequencies of cataracts in voles collected from different areas in Chernobyl. The frequency of cataracts was positively correlated with age, and in females also with the accumulated radiation dose. Furthermore, the number of offspring in female voles was negatively correlated with cataract severity. The results suggest that cataracts primarily develop as a function of ionizing background radiation, most likely as a plastic response to high levels of oxidative stress. It is therefore possible that the elevated levels of background radiation in Chernobyl affect the ecology and fitness of local mammals both directly through, for instance, reduced fertility and indirectly, through increased cataractogenesis.
Nowak, Michał S; Grabska-Liberek, Iwona; Michalska-Małecka, Katarzyna; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Kozioł, Milena; Niemczyk, Wojciech; Więckowska, Barbara; Szaflik, Jacek P
Background: To assess the incidence and characteristic of cataract surgery in Poland from 2010 to 2015 and to interpret these findings. Patients and methods: Data from all patients who underwent cataract surgery alone or in combined procedures in Poland between January 2010 and December 2015 were evaluated. Patient data were from the national database of hospitalizations maintained by National Health Fund. Data on the population of Poland were obtained from Central Statistical Office of Poland. Results: In total, 1,218,777 cataract extractions (alone or combined with other procedures) were performed in 1,081,345 patients during 2010-2015. Overall, the incidence of cataract surgery increased from 5.22/1000 person-years in 2010 to 6.17/1000 person-years in 2015. Phacoemulsification was performed in 97.46% of cataract extractions, and 3.02% of cataract extractions were combined procedures. The rate of one-day procedures increased from 28.3% in 2010 to 43.1% in 2015. The probability of second-eye surgery 12 months after the first-eye surgery increased from 44% in 2010 to 73% in 2015 (log-rank test p < 0.0001). Conclusion: In Poland, from 2010 to 2015, the total incidence of cataract surgery, the number of people who underwent surgery, and the number of one-day cataract surgeries increased significantly.
Celojevic, Dragana; Abramsson, Alexandra; Seibt Palmér, Mona; Tasa, Gunnar; Juronen, Erkki; Zetterberg, Henrik; Zetterberg, Madeleine
Ephrin receptors (Ephs) are tyrosine kinases that together with their ligands, ephrins, are considered important in cell-cell communication, especially during embryogenesis but also for epithelium homeostasis. Studies have demonstrated the involvement of mutations or common variants of the gene encoding Eph receptor A2 (EPHA2), in congenital cataract and in age-related cataract. This study investigated a number of disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in EPHA2 in patients with age-related cataract. The study included 491 Estonian patients who had surgery for age-related cataract, classified as nuclear, cortical, posterior subcapsular and mixed lens opacities, and 185 controls of the same ethnical origin. Seven SNPs in EPHA2 (rs7543472, rs11260867, rs7548209, rs3768293, rs6603867, rs6678616, rs477558) were genotyped using TaqMan Allelic Discrimination. Statistical analyses for single factor associations used χ(2)-test and logistic regression was performed including relevant covariates (age, sex and smoking). In single-SNP allele analysis, only the rs7543472 showed a borderline significant association with risk of cataract (p = 0.048). Regression analysis with known risk factors for cataract showed no significant associations of the studied SNPs with cataract. Stratification by cataract subtype did not alter the results. Adjusted odds ratios were between 0.82 and 1.16 (95% confidence interval 0.61-1.60). The present study does not support a major role of EphA2 in cataractogenesis in an Estonian population.
Ueda, Tetsuo; Ikeda, Hitoe; Ota, Takeo; Matsuura, Toyoaki; Hara, Yoshiaki
To evaluate the relationship between cataract density and the deviation from the predicted refraction. Department of Ophthalmology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Japan. Axial length (AL) was measured in eyes with mainly nuclear cataract using partial coherence interferometry (IOLMaster). The postoperative AL was measured in pseudophakic mode. The AL difference was calculated by subtracting the postoperative AL from the preoperative AL. Cataract density was measured with the pupil dilated using anterior segment Scheimpflug imaging (EAS-1000). The predicted postoperative refraction was calculated using the SRK/T formula. The subjective refraction 3 months postoperatively was also measured. The mean absolute prediction error (MAE) (mean of absolute difference between predicted postoperative refraction and spherical equivalent of postoperative subjective refraction) was calculated. The relationship between the MAE and cataract density, age, preoperative visual acuity, anterior chamber depth, corneal radius of curvature, and AL difference was evaluated using multiple regression analysis. In the 96 eyes evaluated, the MAE was correlated with cataract density (r = 0.37, P = .001) and the AL difference (r = 0.34, P = .003) but not with the other parameters. The AL difference was correlated with cataract density (r = 0.53, P<.0001). The postoperative refractive outcome was affected by cataract density. This should be taken into consideration in eyes with a higher density cataract. (c) 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang, D D; Du, J Z; Topolewski, J; Wang, X M
Congenital cataract is a common cause of blindness in children; however, its pathogenesis remains unclear. Genetic factors have been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of congenital cataract. The current genetic models of congenital cataract include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and sex-linked inheritance. Sex-linked congenital cataract could be inherited through the X or Y chromosome. Congenital cataract is a symptom associated with several X-linked disorders, including Nance-Horan syndrome, Lowe syndrome, Conradi-Hünermann-Happle syndrome, oculo-facio-cardio-dental syndrome, and Alport syndrome. On the other hand, the mechanism and characteristics of Y-linked congenital cataract remains to be identified. Despite its rarity, sex-linked congenital cataract has been known to seriously affect the quality of life of patients. In this review, we present our current understanding of the genes and loci associated with sex-linked congenital cataract. This could help identify novel approaches for the prevention, early diagnosis, and comprehensive disease treatment.
Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Bach-Holm, Daniella; Kjærbo, Hadi; Højgaard-Olsen, Klavs; Subhi, Yousif; Saleh, George M; Park, Yoon Soo; la Cour, Morten; Konge, Lars
To investigate the effect of virtual reality proficiency-based training on actual cataract surgery performance. The secondary purpose of the study was to define which surgeons benefit from virtual reality training. Multicenter masked clinical trial. Eighteen cataract surgeons with different levels of experience. Cataract surgical training on a virtual reality simulator (EyeSi) until a proficiency-based test was passed. Technical performance in the operating room (OR) assessed by 3 independent, masked raters using a previously validated task-specific assessment tool for cataract surgery (Objective Structured Assessment of Cataract Surgical Skill). Three surgeries before and 3 surgeries after the virtual reality training were video-recorded, anonymized, and presented to the raters in random order. Novices (non-independently operating surgeons) and surgeons having performed fewer than 75 independent cataract surgeries showed significant improvements in the OR-32% and 38%, respectively-after virtual reality training (P = 0.008 and P = 0.018). More experienced cataract surgeons did not benefit from simulator training. The reliability of the assessments was high with a generalizability coefficient of 0.92 and 0.86 before and after the virtual reality training, respectively. Clinically relevant cataract surgical skills can be improved by proficiency-based training on a virtual reality simulator. Novices as well as surgeons with an intermediate level of experience showed improvement in OR performance score. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lindfield, Robert; Vishwanath, Kalluru; Ngounou, Faustin; Khanna, Rohit C
Cataract is the leading cause of blindness globally and surgery is the only known measure to deal with it effectively. Providing high quality cataract surgical services is critical if patients with cataract are to have their sight restored. A key focus of surgery is the outcome of the procedure. In cataract surgery this is measured predominantly, using visual acuity. Population- and hospital-based studies have revealed that the visual outcome of cataract surgery in many low and middle income settings is frequently sub-optimal, often failing to reach the recommended standards set by the World Health Organization (WHO). Another way of measuring outcome of cataract surgery is to ask patients for their views on whether surgery has changed the functioning of their eyes and their quality of life. There are different tools available to capture patient views and now, these patient-reported outcomes are becoming more widely used. This paper discusses the visual outcome of cataract surgery and frames the outcome of surgery within the context of the surgical service, suggesting that the process and outcome of care cannot be separated. It also discusses the components of patient-reported outcome tools and describes some available tools in more detail. Finally, it describes a hierarchy of challenges that need to be addressed before a high quality cataract surgical service can be achieved. PMID:22944761
Wei, Lin; Liang, Ge; Cai, Chunmei; Lv, Jin
Whether vitamin C is a protective factor for age-related cataract remains unclear. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence from epidemiological studies of vitamin C and the risk of age-related cataract. Pertinent studies were identified by searching in PubMed and in Webscience. The random effect model was used to combine the results. Meta-regression and subgroups analyses were used to explore potential sources of between-study heterogeneity. Publication bias was estimated using Egger's regression asymmetry test. Finally, 15 articles with 20 studies for vitamin C intake and eight articles with 10 studies for serum ascorbate were included in this meta-analysis. The relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval of cataract for the highest versus the lowest category of vitamin C intake was 0.814 (0.707-0.938), and the associations were significant in America and Asia. Significant association of cataract risk with highest versus the lowest category of serum ascorbate was found in general [0.704 (0.564-0.879)]. Inverse associations were also found between serum ascorbate and nuclear cataract and posterior subcapsular cataract. Higher vitamin C intake and serum ascorbate might be inversely associated with risk of cataract. Vitamin C intake should be advocated for the primary prevention of cataract. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Baumworcel, Natasha; Soares, Ana M B; Helms, Gustavo; Rei, Paulo R L; Castro, Maria Cristina N
To describe the most common canine breeds affected with cataracts in Rio de Janeiro. Three hundred and three dogs were included in this retrospective study. Animal ages ranged from 6 months to 14.8 years. All records of dogs seen by the Ophthalmology Service of Policlínica Veterinária Botafogo between January 2005 and June 2008 were reviewed. Animals with cataracts were separated, and breed and age were evaluated. Most of the dogs presented with cataracts were Toy Poodles with a mean age of 8.2 years, followed by Cocker Spaniels and Bichon Frises. The percentage of Toy Poodles affected with cataracts was 13.8% while 33.3% of Bichon Frise was diagnosed with cataracts. Toy Poodles are a popular breed in Rio de Janeiro. Without regulations on breeding, the prevalence of cataracts may increase rapidly. Furthermore, due to the relatively late onset of cataract formation in the Toy Poodle (mean 8.2 years of age), affected animals may have produced several litters of puppies. This study emphasizes the importance of screening for the presence of inherited ocular abnormalities such as cataracts prior to breeding.
... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Billing for services of assistant at surgery during... PROGRAMS Permissive Exclusions § 1001.1701 Billing for services of assistant at surgery during cataract... surgery during a cataract operation, or (ii) Charges that include a charge for an assistant at surgery...
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Billing for services of assistant at surgery during... PROGRAMS Permissive Exclusions § 1001.1701 Billing for services of assistant at surgery during cataract... surgery during a cataract operation, or (ii) Charges that include a charge for an assistant at surgery...
... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Billing for services of assistant at surgery during... PROGRAMS Permissive Exclusions § 1001.1701 Billing for services of assistant at surgery during cataract... surgery during a cataract operation, or (ii) Charges that include a charge for an assistant at surgery...
... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Billing for services of assistant at surgery during... PROGRAMS Permissive Exclusions § 1001.1701 Billing for services of assistant at surgery during cataract... surgery during a cataract operation, or (ii) Charges that include a charge for an assistant at surgery...
... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Billing for services of assistant at surgery during... PROGRAMS Permissive Exclusions § 1001.1701 Billing for services of assistant at surgery during cataract... surgery during a cataract operation, or (ii) Charges that include a charge for an assistant at surgery...
Cucinotta, F. A.; Manuel, F. K.; Iszard, G.; Feiveson, A.; Peterson, L. E.; Hardy, D.; Marak, L.; Tung, W.; Wear, M.; Chylack, L. T., Jr.
For over 35 years, astronauts in low Earth orbit or on missions to the moon have been exposed to space radiation comprised of high-energy protons, heavy ions, and secondary neutrons. We reviewed the radiation exposures received by astronauts in space and on Earth, and presented results from the first epidemiological study of cataract incidence in the astronauts. Our data suggested an increased risk for cataracts from space radiation exposures. Using parametric survival analysis and the maximum likelihood method, we estimated the dose-response and age distribution for cataract incidence in astronauts by space radiation. Considering the high-LET dose contributions on specific space missions as well as data from animal studies with neutrons and heavy ions, suggested a linear response with no dose-threshold for cataracts. However, there are unanswered questions related to the importance and the definition of clinically significant cataracts commonly used in radiation protection, especially in light of epidemiological data suggesting that the probability that sub-clinical cataracts will progress is highly dependent on the age at which cataracts appear. We briefly describe a new study that will address the measurement of cataract progression-rates in astronauts and a ground-based comparison group.
Cucinotta, F. A.; Manuel, F. K.; Iszard, G.; Feiveson, A.; Peterson, L. E.; Hardy, D.; Marak, L.; Tung, W.; Wear, M.; Chylack, L. T., Jr.
For over 35 years, astronauts in low Earth orbit or on missions to the moon have been exposed to space radiation comprised of high-energy protons, heavy ions, and secondary neutrons. We reviewed the radiation exposures received by astronauts in space and on Earth, and presented results from the first epidemiological study of cataract incidence in the astronauts. Our data suggested an increased risk for cataracts from space radiation exposures*. Using parametric survival analysis and the maximum likelihood method, we estimated the dose-response and age distribution for cataract incidence in astronauts by space radiation. Considering the high-LET dose contributions on specific space missions as well as data from animal studies with neutrons and heavy ions, suggested a linear response with no dose-threshold for cataracts. However, there are unanswered questions related to the importance and the definition of "clinically significant" cataracts commonly used in radiation protection, especially in light of epidemiological data suggesting that the probability that "sub-clinical" cataracts will progress is highly dependent on the age at which cataracts appear. We briefly describe a new study that will address the measurement of cataract progression-rates in astronauts and a ground-based comparison group.
Gower, Emily W; Lindsley, Kristina; Nanji, Afshan A; Leyngold, Ilya; McDonnell, Peter J
Background Endophthalmitis is a severe inflammation of the anterior and/or posterior chambers of the eye that may be sterile or associated with infection. It is a potentially vision-threatening complication of cataract surgery. Prophylactic measures for endophthalmitis are targeted against various sources of infection. Objectives The objective of this review was to evaluate the effects of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for endophthalmitis following cataract surgery. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 10), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE, (January 1950 to October 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to October 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 25 October 2012. We also searched for additional studies that cited any included trials using the Science Citation Index. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials that enrolled adults undergoing cataract surgery (any method and incision type) for lens opacities due to any origin. Trials that evaluated preoperative antibiotics, intraoperative (intracameral, subconjunctival or systemic) or postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis for acute endophthalmitis were included. We did not include studies that evaluated antiseptic preoperative preparations using agents such as povidone iodine, nor did we include studies that evaluated antibiotics for treating acute endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. Data collection and analysis Two
Lee, Jae Eun; Fos, Peter J; Sung, Jung Hye; Amy, Brian W; Zuniga, Miguel A; Lee, Won Jae; Kim, Jae Chang
This study was conducted in an attempt to describe the status of cataract symptoms of preoperative cataract patients, as well as to determine the relationship between cataract symptom and vision-related quality of life measures. A cross-sectional study design was used. Study subjects were selected using non-probabilistic methods. The study sample consisted of 132 patients scheduled for cataract surgery in one eye. Information was obtained from study subjects by conducting face-to-face interviews. Study subjects were adult cataract patients at Samsung and Kunyang General Hospitals in Seoul, Korea, and Tulane University Hospital and Clinics in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States of America. Degree to which study subjects were "bothered" by cataract symptoms was measured by using the 5-item Cataract Symptom Scores (CSS). The number of symptoms, highest scored symptom among the five, number of symptoms extremely bothering, and the mean of cataract symptom score were created based on the CSS measure. Vision-related quality of life was assessed by using the Visual Function 14 Items (VF-14) and Global Measure of Vision (GMV) for trouble and satisfaction. The symptoms "blurry vision" and "worsening of vision" were most frequently reported. The symptom "colors looking different" was rarely reported among preoperative cataract patients. The degree to which study subjects were bothered by "blurry vision" and "seeing glare, halo, or rings" was highly associated with visual function, visual trouble, and visual satisfaction. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the newly developed cataract symptom-related scales, as well as total amount of degree to which study subjects were "bothered" by symptoms were highly related to vision-related quality of life measures. These relationships were persistent after controlling for major socio-demographic variables. The results indicate that cataract symptoms are highly associated with vision-related quality of life. The results also
Tseng, Victoria L; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Yu, Fei; Cauley, Jane A; Li, Wenjun; Thomas, Fridtjof; Virnig, Beth A; Coleman, Anne L
Previous studies have suggested an association between cataract surgery and decreased risk for all-cause mortality potentially through a mechanism of improved health status and functional independence, but the association between cataract surgery and cause-specific mortality has not been previously studied and is not well understood. To examine the association between cataract surgery and total and cause-specific mortality in older women with cataract. This prospective cohort study included nationwide data collected from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial and observational study linked with the Medicare claims database. Participants in the present study were 65 years or older with a diagnosis of cataract in the linked Medicare claims database. The WHI data were collected from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 2015. Data were analyzed for the present study from July 1, 2014, through September 1, 2017. Cataract surgery as determined by Medicare claims codes. The outcomes of interest included all-cause mortality and mortality attributed to vascular, cancer, accidental, neurologic, pulmonary, and infectious causes. Mortality rates were compared by cataract surgery status using the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusting for demographics, systemic and ocular comorbidities, smoking, alcohol use, body mass index, and physical activity. A total of 74 044 women with cataract in the WHI included 41 735 who underwent cataract surgery. Mean (SD) age was 70.5 (4.6) years; the most common ethnicity was white (64 430 [87.0%]), followed by black (5293 [7.1%]) and Hispanic (1723 [2.3%]). The mortality rate was 2.56 per 100 person-years in both groups. In covariate-adjusted Cox models, cataract surgery was associated with lower all-cause mortality (adjusted hazards ratio [AHR], 0.40; 95% CI, 0.39-0.42) as well as lower mortality specific to vascular (AHR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.39-0.46), cancer (AHR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0
Yang, Jing; Zhou, Sheng; Guo, Minfei; Li, Yuting; Gu, Jianjun
The purpose of this study was to investigate the different expressions of αA-crystallin and αB-crystallin in human lens epithelium of age-related and congenital cataracts. The central part of the human anterior lens capsule approximately 5 mm in diameter together with the adhering epithelial cells, were harvested and processed within 6 hours after cataract surgery from age-related and congenital cataract patients or from normal eyes of fresh cadavers. The mRNA and soluble protein levels of αA-crystallin and αB-crystallin in the human lens epithelium were detected by real-time PCR and western blots, respectively. The mRNA and soluble protein expressions of αA-crystallin and αB-crystallin in the lens epithelium were both reduced in age-related and congenital cataract groups when compared with the normal control group. However, the degree of α-crystallin loss in the lens epithelium was highly correlated with different cataract types. The α-crystallin expression of the lens epithelium was greatly reduced in the congenital cataract group but only moderately decreased in the age-related cataract group. The reduction of αA-crystallin soluble protein levels in the congenital cataract group was approximately 2.4 fold decrease compared with that of the age-related cataract group, while an mRNA fold change of 1.67 decrease was observed for the age-related cataract group. Similarly, the reduction of soluble protein levels of αB-crystallin in the congenital cataract group was approximately a 1.57 fold change compared with that of the age-related cataract group. A 1.75 fold change for mRNA levels compared with that of the age-related cataract group was observed. The results suggest that the differential loss of α-crystallin in the human lens epithelium could be associated with the different mechanisms of cataractogenesis in age-related versus congenital cataracts, subsequently resulting in different clinical presentations.
Royo-Dujardin, L; Alcalde-Vílchez, E; Rodríguez-de la Rúa, E; Novalbos-Ruiz, J P
To publish the outcomes and complications of age-related cataract surgery in Cadiz (Spain). Due to the lack of national audits, a comparison was made between the results obtained here and those of the most recent European audit, EUREQUO (2013), and the British audit RCOphth NOD (2015). A prospective, longitudinal, before-after study of 312 patients undergoing cataract surgery in the University Hospitals of Puerta del Mar and Puerto Real (Cadiz), in 2013-14. Outcome measurements included sociodemographic characteristics, visual acuity (VA), symptoms secondary to cataract, ocular comorbidity, waiting time, expertise of surgeon (consultant vs. trainee), rate and type of surgical complications. The median age at surgery was 73.92±7.31. Almost all (98.3%) of patients at consultation had a VA ≥0.60logMAR, with a mean pre-surgical VA of 1.01logMAR (0.92-1.10). There was a 6.7% complication rate, with 3.8% posterior capsule ruptures and 2.8% corneal decompensations. No cases of endophthalmitis occurred. The mean post-operative VA was 0.28logMAR (0.22-0.33). More than three-quarters (78.8%) of cases achieved a post-operative VA ≤0.3logMAR, and 27.6% of cases achieved a VA ≤0.0logMAR. Our success rate was inferior to the EUREQUO and RCOphth NOD studies, with the percentage of patients acquiring a postoperative VA ≤0.3logMAR being 98% and 89%, respectively. However, the populations were not comparable. It is hoped that this study will encourage other public hospitals in Spain to undertake audits and share their results, in order to provide a tool for constructive criticism and quality improvement initiatives. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. All rights reserved.
Razmjoo, Hassan; Ghoreishi, Mohammad; Milasi, Azadeh Mohammadi; Peyman, Alireza; Jafarzadeh, Zahra; Mohammadinia, Mohadeseh; Kobra, Nasrollahi
To assess the clinical consequences of AcrySof toric intraocular lens (IOL) and Hoya toric IOL implantation to correct preexisting corneal astigmatism in patients undergoing cataract surgery. In this study, we examined 55 eyes of 45 patients with at least 1.00 D corneal astigmatism who were scheduled for cataract surgery. After phacoemulsification, toric IOL was inserted and axis was aligned. We observed the patients, uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), keratometry, manifest refraction, and IOL axis alignment 6 months after surgery. After 6 months, the UDVA was 0.17 ± 0.17 logMAR in the AcrySof group and 0.17 ± 0.18 logMar in the Hoya group. More than 78% of eyes in the AcrySof group and 80% of eyes in the Hoya toric IOL achieved a UDVA of 20/40 or better. In the AcrySof group, the mean preoperative corneal astigmatism was 2.73 ± 0.92 D. The mean postoperative refractive astigmatism was 0.84 ± 0.63 D. In the Hoya group, the preoperative corneal astigmatism was 2.58 ± 0.76 D and the postoperative refractive astigmatism was 0.87 ± 0.66 D ( P < 0.05). The mean AcrySof IOL axis rotation was 1.88° ± 3.05°. In the Hoya group, the mean axis rotation was 1.53° ± 3.66°. All changes in visual and refractive data before and after surgery were statistically significant ( P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding refractive and visual outcome after surgery ( P > 0.05 for all). Implantation of AcrySof toric IOL and Hoya toric IOL was an effective way to correct preexisting corneal astigmatism in cataract surgery.
Baptista, António M. G.; Sousa, Raul A. R. C.; Rocha, Filomena A. S. Q.; Fernandes, Paula Sepúlveda; Macedo, António F.
Purpose. The photostress recovery time test (PSRT) has been widely reported as a helpful screening clinical tool. However, the poor standardization of its measurement technique remains to be a limitation among clinicians. The purpose of this study is to apply a recommended clinical technique to measure the PSRT in some of the most commons eye diseases to ascertain whether these diseases affect the PSRT values. Methods. One hundred and one controls and 105 patients, with diagnosed diabetes (without visible signs of diabetic retinopathy), primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) or cataracts underwent photostress testing. The test was performed with a direct ophthalmoscope for illuminating the macula for 30 seconds. Participants belonged to three age classes: A, B and C; and were divided into four groups: control, diabetic, POAG and cataract. The age range for A, B and C classes were respectively 43-54, 55-64 and 65-74 years. The groups were also further compared within each age class. In addition, the influence of age on PSRT was evaluated using the control group. Results. Results demonstrate that PSRT changes with age (p<0.02). In class A, diabetic group had a faster PSRT than control group, (mean +/- standard deviation) 20.22+/-7.51 and 26.14+/-8.34 seconds. The difference between these groups was statistical significant (t-test, p=0.012). Cataract and POAG groups did not affect the PSRT significantly. Conclusions. The technique used for the Photostress showed that diabetics, younger than 54 years, may have faster PSRT and that, aging delays PSRT.
Matsuura, Kazuki; Miyazaki, Dai; Sasaki, Shin-Ichi; Yakura, Keiko; Inoue, Yoshitsugu; Sakamoto, Masako
To determine the antiseptic efficacy of timely intraoperative iodine irrigation during cataract surgery. A total of 198 eyes of 99 cataract surgery patients were studied. The eyes were randomly assigned to treatment with or without timely intraoperative iodine irrigation of the surgical field with an iodine compound equivalent to 0.33 % povidone-iodine. In eyes in the timely intraoperative iodine irrigation group, the ocular surface was irrigated twice intraoperatively-before the initial incision and before insertion of the intraocular lens (IOL). The efficacy of the antiseptic treatment was evaluated by culture tests using scrapings of the surface of the sclerocornea and conjunctiva to the left of the incision and by broad-range real-time PCR for bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA using scrapings from the right side of the incision. Following intraoperative application of the iodine, bacteria were not detected in cultures of the samples. For the control eyes without timely iodine irrigation, cultures of samples from five and two eyes were positive before the initial incision and before IOL insertion, respectively. The bacterial DNA copy number before the initial incision was 1.7 ± 0.5 × 10 3 , which was significantly lower than that of the control eyes (1.7 ± 0.6 × 10 4 ). For both groups of eyes, the bacterial DNA copy number was significantly lower before the IOL insertion depending on the time course. When the antiseptic effect of the iodine irrigation and time course on bacterial DNA copy number was analyzed using generalized mixed linear regression, both were found to be significantly effective. No significant intraoperative epithelial defect was observed. The postoperative corneal endothelial cell count did not differ significantly between the two groups of eyes. Timely iodine irrigation can serve as a simple and useful adjunctive disinfection step in cataract surgery.
Yang, Chun-xiao; Ding, Tian-bing
Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the potential antioxidative effect and mechanism for the protective effects of hydrogen saline on selenite-induced cataract in rats. Methods Sprague-Dawley rat pups were divided into the following groups: control (Group A), selenite induced (Group B), and selenite plus hydrogen saline treated (Group C). Rat pups in Groups B and C received a single subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (25 μmol/kg bodyweight) on postnatal day 12. Group C also received an intraperitoneal injection of H2 saline (5 ml/kg bodyweight) daily from postnatal day 8 to postnatal day 17. The development of cataract was assessed weekly by slit-lamp examination for 2 weeks. After sacrifice, extricated lenses were analyzed for activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, levels of malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione (GSH), and total sulfhydryl contents. Results The magnitude of lens opacification in Group B was significantly higher than in Group A (p<0.05), while Group C had less opacification than Group B (p<0.05). Compared with Group B, the mean activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, levels of GSH, and total sulfhydryl contents were higher, whereas the level of malondialdehyde was lower following treatment with hydrogen saline(p<0.05). Conclusions This is an initial report showing that hydrogen saline can prevent selenite-induced cataract in rats. It acts via maintaining antioxidant enzymes and GSH, protecting the sulfhydryl group, and inhibiting lipid peroxidation. PMID:23922487
Selvander, Madeleine; Åsman, Peter
To investigate initial learning curves on a virtual reality (VR) eye surgery simulator and whether achieved skills are transferable between tasks. Thirty-five medical students were randomized to complete ten iterations on either the VR Caspulorhexis module (group A) or the Cataract navigation training module (group B) and then two iterations on the other module. Learning curves were compared between groups. The second Capsulorhexis video was saved and evaluated with the performance rating tool Objective Structured Assessment of Cataract Surgical Skill (OSACSS). The students' stereoacuity was examined. Both groups demonstrated significant improvements in performance over the 10 iterations: group A for all parameters analysed including score (p < 0.0001), time (p < 0.0001) and corneal damage (p = 0.0003), group B for time (p < 0.0001), corneal damage (p < 0.0001) but not for score (p = 0.752). Training on one module did not improve performance on the other. Capsulorhexis score correlated significantly with evaluation of the videos using the OSACSS performance rating tool. For stereoacuity < and ≥120 seconds of arc, sum of both modules' second iteration score was 73.5 and 41.0, respectively (p = 0.062). An initial rapid improvement in performance on a simulator with repeated practice was shown. For capsulorhexis, 10 iterations with only simulator feedback are not enough to reach a plateau for overall score. Skills transfer between modules was not found suggesting benefits from training on both modules. Stereoacuity may be of importance in the recruitment and training of new cataract surgeons. Additional studies are needed to investigate this further. Concurrent validity was found for Capsulorhexis module. © 2010 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2010 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.
Pham, D T; Scherer, V; Wollensak, J
The successful development of cataract operation and IOL implantation in the last decade has resulted in progressive shortening of the incision length as well as in developing safer and simpler anesthetic techniques. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether cataract surgery with scleral incision is possible using only topical sponge anesthesia with oxybuprocaine 0.4%. This method was compared with retrobulbar injection. 150 patients (3 groups each consisting 50 eyes) underwent phaco with scleral incision. 1st group: oxybuprocaine sponge anesthesia. 2nd group: oxybuprocaine sponge anesthesia combined with mild systemic analgesia (tramadol p.o.). 3rd group: retrobulbar injection (prilocaine/etidocaine mixture). All patients received medazolam premedication (Dormicum, 3/10 of 1 cc). Pain and discomfort during and after operation were investigated and statistically analyzed. Neither in group 1, 2 or 3 an additional subconjunctival injection was necessary. Pain or discomfort during operation was felt in 14 percent of the patients anesthetized with the oxybuprocaine sponge but only in 6 percent of the patients additionally premedicated with tramadol (2nd group). Also 6 percent of the patients after retrobulbar injection felt pain during operation. Postoperatively no significant differences between group 1 and 2 were obtained: 6 percent felt pain, 30 percent had a short term foreign body sensation. After retrobulbar injection (group 3) only 10 percent felt postoperative pain or discomfort. Topically applied oxybuprocaine provides sufficient anesthesia during cataract surgery with scleral incision. A combination with mild systemic analgesia (tramadol) helps to minimize pain and discomfort. Retrobulbur injection yielded only in the postoperative period significantly better analgesia. In the operating room full cooperation of the patient is required. Therefore we recommend not to use sponge anesthesia in cases when communication between surgeon and patient is
Birch, Eileen E.; Cheng, Christina; Christina, V; Stager, David R.
Background Good long-term visual acuity outcomes for children with dense congenital unilateral cataracts have been reported following early surgery and good compliance with postoperative amblyopia therapy. However, treated eyes rarely achieve normal visual acuity and there has been no formal evaluation of the utility of the treated eye for reading. Methods Eighteen children previously treated for dense congenital unilateral cataract were tested monocularly with the Gray Oral Reading Test, 4th edition (GORT-4) at 7 to 13 years of age using two passages for each eye, one at grade level and one at +1 above grade level. In addition, right eyes of 55 normal children age 7 to 13 served as a control group. The GORT-4 assesses reading rate, accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. Results Visual acuity of treated eyes ranged from 0.1 to 2.0 logMAR and of fellow eyes from −0.1 to 0.2 logMAR. Treated eyes scored significantly lower than fellow and normal control eyes on all scales at grade level and at +1 above grade level. Monocular reading rate, accuracy, fluency, and comprehension were correlated with visual acuity of treated eyes (rs = −0.575 to −0.875, p < 0.005). Treated eyes with 0.1-0.3 logMAR visual acuity did not differ from fellow or normal control eyes in rate, accuracy, fluency, or comprehension when reading at grade level or at +1 above grade level. Fellow eyes did not differ from normal controls on any reading scale. Conclusions Excellent visual acuity outcomes following treatment of dense congenital unilateral cataracts are associated with normal reading ability of the treated eye in school-age children. PMID:20603057
Lum, Flora; Schachat, Andrew P; Jampel, Henry D
The American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO; San Francisco) launched a national eye care outcomes initiative in 1996, in response to strong interest by third-party payers and managed care in performance measurement and outcomes. The AAO's outcomes initiative NEON (National Eyecare Outcomes Network) began with the design and launch of a prospective observational registry of patients undergoing cataract surgery. Participants submitted a common set of data regarding patients' demographics, preoperative ophthalmologic history, physical exam, test results, functional status and symptoms, intraoperative procedures and events, and postoperative outcomes for all patients undergoing first or second eye cataract surgery. Between January 1, 1996, and March 30, 2001, a total of 249 ophthalmologists submitted data on 17,876 patients undergoing first or second eye surgery. All preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative clinical data forms were submitted for 9,937 patients (55.7%). After surgery, 93% of patients achieved a best corrected visual acuity of 20/40, 89% improved their visual functioning, and 92% experienced fewer cataract-related symptoms. At the end of March 2001, NEON was discontinued because of a lack of participation and demand by members or third parties for this information. The momentum for accountability and performance measures never quite materialized into advantages for contracting for physicians or requirements by payers. In the future, more scientific evidence regarding the validity and meaning of outcome measures and differences in measurements, investment in health information technology infrastructure, use of technology to collect information at the point of care, and incentives favoring data collection and analysis will be needed to pave the way for renewed interest in outcomes.
Shung, K. Kirk; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Fang, Jui; Ma, Hsiang-Yang; Wu, Shuicai; Lin, Chung-Chih
Phacoemulsification is a common surgical method for treating advanced cataracts. Determining the optimal phacoemulsification energy depends on the hardness of the lens involved. Previous studies have shown that it is possible to evaluate lens hardness via ultrasound parametric imaging based on statistical models that require data to follow a specific distribution. To make the method more system-adaptive, nonmodel-based imaging approach may be necessary in the visualization of lens hardness. This study investigated the feasibility of applying an information theory derived parameter – Shannon entropy from ultrasound backscatter to quantify lens hardness. To determine the physical significance of entropy, we performed computer simulations to investigate the relationship between the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) based on the Rayleigh distribution and Shannon entropy. Young's modulus was measured in porcine lenses, in which cataracts had been artificially induced by the immersion in formalin solution in vitro. A 35-MHz ultrasound transducer was used to scan the cataract lenses for entropy imaging. The results showed that the entropy is 4.8 when the backscatter data form a Rayleigh distribution corresponding to an SNR of 1.91. The Young's modulus of the lens increased from approximately 8 to 100 kPa when we increased the immersion time from 40 to 160 min (correlation coefficient r = 0.99). Furthermore, the results indicated that entropy imaging seemed to facilitate visualizing different degrees of lens hardening. The mean entropy value increased from 2.7 to 4.0 as the Young's modulus increased from 8 to 100 kPa (r = 0.85), suggesting that entropy imaging may have greater potential than that of conventional statistical parametric imaging in determining the optimal energy to apply during phacoemulsification. PMID:24760103
Wilson, M E; Pandey, S K; Thakur, J
Paediatric cataract blindness presents an enormous problem to developing countries in terms of human morbidity, economic loss, and social burden. Managing cataracts in children remains a challenge: treatment is often difficult, tedious, and requires a dedicated team effort. To assure the best long term outcome for cataract blind children, appropriate paediatric surgical techniques need to be defined and adopted by ophthalmic surgeons of developing countries. The high cost of operative equipment and the uneven world distribution of ophthalmologists, paediatricians, and anaesthetists create unique challenges. This review focuses on issues related to paediatric cataract management that are appropriate and suitable for ophthalmic surgeons in the developing world. Practical guidelines and recommendations have also been provided for ophthalmic surgeons and health planners dealing with childhood cataract management in the developing world. PMID:12488254
Naz, Shagufta; Sharif, Saima; Badar, Hafsa; Rashid, Farzana; Kaleem, Afshan; Iqtedar, Mehwish
To check the incidence of environmental and genetic factors causing congenital cataract in infants. The descriptive study was conducted at Layton Rahmatullah Benevolent Trust, Lahore, Pakistan, from October 2013 to April 2014, and comprised children under 15 years of age who had rubella syndrome, herpes simplex, birth trauma, trisomy 21, Nance-Horan syndrome or Lowe's syndrome. Of the 38,000 cases examined, 120(0.3%) patients were diagnosed with congenital cataract. Of them, 52(43.33%)were aged between 2 and 5 years,22(18.33%) <11 years and 10(8.33%) ?15 years. Bilateral congenital cataract was observed in 91(75.83%) patients and unilateral congenital cataract in 29(24.17%). Environmental factors caused 72(62.07%) cases and genetic factors caused 44(37.93%).. Congenital cataract predominated in boys compared to girls. Early diagnosis and adequate therapy requires specific technology, as well as long-term and permanent care..
Sawada, Hideko; Fukuchi, Takeo; Abe, Haruki
To investigate the levels of oxidative stress markers in human eyes with senile cataracts. We conducted a retrospective, case-controlled study of 57 patients with senile cataracts. To assess oxidative stress markers in the eye, we measured the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as the total protein levels in aqueous humor. In aqueous humor, SOD and CAT activity levels were 0.133 +/- 0.020 and 1.223 +/- 0.081 U/ml, respectively; protein levels were 2.372 +/- 0.166 mg/ml (means +/- SEM). We observed a significant increase in SOD activity and the protein level in progressed nuclear cataracts. No significant age-associated difference in antioxidant enzyme levels was detected. Significant increases in the levels of SOD activity and total protein correlated with the severity of the cataract but not with patient age, suggesting that progressed cataract is associated with molecules leaking from the lens capsule.
Abubakar, Tafida; Gudlavalleti, Murthy V S; Sivasubramaniam, Selvaraj; Gilbert, Clare E; Abdull, Mohammed M; Imam, Abdullahi U
To determine cataract surgical coverage, and barriers to modern cataract surgery in Nigeria. Multistage stratified cluster random sampling was used to identify a nationally representative sample of 15,027 persons aged 40+ years. All underwent visual acuity testing, frequency doubling technology visual field testing, autorefraction, and measurement of best corrected vision if <6/12 in one or both eyes. An ophthalmologist examined the anterior segment and fundus through an undilated pupil for all participants. Participants were examined by a second ophthalmologist using a slit lamp and dilated fundus examination using a 90 diopter condensing lens if vision was <6/12 in one or both eyes, there were optic disc changes suggestive of glaucoma, and 1 in 7 participants regardless of findings. All those who had undergone cataract surgery were asked where and when this had taken place. Individuals who were severely visually impaired or blind from unoperated cataract were asked to explain why they had not undergone surgery. A total of 13,591 participants were examined (response rate 89.9%). Prevalence of cataract surgery was 1.6% (95% confidence interval 1.4-1.8), significantly higher among those aged ≥70 years. Cataract surgical coverage (persons) in Nigeria was 38.3%. Coverage was 1.7 times higher among males than females. Coverage was only 9.1% among women in the South-South geopolitical zone. Over one third of those who were cataract blind said they could not afford surgery (36%). Cataract surgical coverage in Nigeria was among the lowest in the world. Urgent initiatives are necessary to improve surgical output and access to surgery.
Bhati, Hitesh; Manjusha, R
Senile cataract is the leading cause of blindness according to the World Health Report, 1998. Till date no accepted medical treatment is available for cataract. In Ayurveda visual disturbances are described in the context of Timira, Kacha and Linganasha. Timira is an early stage characterized by blurring of vision and Linganasha is end stage where complete loss of vision occurs. Ancient scholars have advocated different Anjana application and oral medications in the Timira and Kacha stage. To study the efficacy of test drugs Triphaladi Ghana Vati and Elaneer Kuzhambu Anjana in immature cataract. In this trial patients having Senile Immature Cataract were randomized with equal probability to one of the two treatment Groups A and B (n = 20 each). In Group A Triphaladi Ghana Vati 500 mg internally for 3 months and in Group B Triphaladi Ghana Vati 500 mg internally and Elaneer Kuzhambu Anjana for local application were given. Assessment was done on the basis of blurring of vision, visualization of nonexisting things, difficulty in bright light and dim light or night vision, distant visual acuity, pinhole vision, best corrected visual acuity and cataract grading on slit lamp. Both groups showed statistically significant changes in blurring of vision, difficulty in glare, daytime and bright light, distant visual activity, pinhole vision, and best-corrected visual acuity. Group B also showed significant changes in difficulty in night time, visualization of nonexisting things and in nuclear cataract. The study establishes that test drugs can reduce and control the progress of immature cataract, and combined therapy was found more effective. Chakshushya Rasayana, early diagnosis and proper management on Doshic lines can prevent arrest or delay senile cataract.
Bhati, Hitesh; Manjusha, R.
Introduction: Senile cataract is the leading cause of blindness according to the World Health Report, 1998. Till date no accepted medical treatment is available for cataract. In Ayurveda visual disturbances are described in the context of Timira, Kacha and Linganasha. Timira is an early stage characterized by blurring of vision and Linganasha is end stage where complete loss of vision occurs. Ancient scholars have advocated different Anjana application and oral medications in the Timira and Kacha stage. Aim: To study the efficacy of test drugs Triphaladi Ghana Vati and Elaneer Kuzhambu Anjana in immature cataract. Materials and Methods: In this trial patients having Senile Immature Cataract were randomized with equal probability to one of the two treatment Groups A and B (n = 20 each). In Group A Triphaladi Ghana Vati 500 mg internally for 3 months and in Group B Triphaladi Ghana Vati 500 mg internally and Elaneer Kuzhambu Anjana for local application were given. Assessment was done on the basis of blurring of vision, visualization of nonexisting things, difficulty in bright light and dim light or night vision, distant visual acuity, pinhole vision, best corrected visual acuity and cataract grading on slit lamp. Results: Both groups showed statistically significant changes in blurring of vision, difficulty in glare, daytime and bright light, distant visual activity, pinhole vision, and best-corrected visual acuity. Group B also showed significant changes in difficulty in night time, visualization of nonexisting things and in nuclear cataract. Conclusion: The study establishes that test drugs can reduce and control the progress of immature cataract, and combined therapy was found more effective. Chakshushya Rasayana, early diagnosis and proper management on Doshic lines can prevent arrest or delay senile cataract. PMID:27313415
Abumansour, Iman S; Wrogemann, Jens; Chudley, Albert E; Chodirker, Bernard N; Salman, Michael S
Classical lissencephaly may be associated with cerebellar hypoplasia and when significant cerebellar abnormalities occur, defects in proteins encoded by TUBA1A, RELN, and very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) genes have been reported. We present a neonate with a severe neurologic phenotype associated with hypotonia, oropharyngeal incoordination that required a gastric tube for feeding, intractable epilepsy, and congenital cataracts. Her brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed classical lissencephaly, ventriculomegaly, absent corpus callosum, globular and vertical hippocampi, and severe cerebellar and brainstem hypoplasia. She died at 6 weeks of age. No specific molecular diagnosis was made. This likely represents a previously undescribed genetic lissencephaly syndrome. © The Author(s) 2013.
Blakely, Eleanor [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Life Sciences Division
Summer Lecture Series 2009: Eleanor Blakely, radiation biologist of the Life Sciences Division at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, has been a scientist at Berkeley Lab since 1975. She is studying the effect of radiation on cataracts which concerns not only cancer patients, but also astronauts. As astronauts spend increasingly longer time in space, the effects of cosmic radiation exposure will become an increasingly important health issue- yet there is little human data on these effects. Blakely reviews this emerging field and the contributions made at Berkeley Lab
Ferry, A P
Dr. William O. Coffee was an ophthalmologist who conducted an office and mail-order practice in the Midwest from the 1880s until 1927. His main stock in trade was a self-discovered absorption cure for a variety of ocular diseases, with particular emphasis on the medical cure of cataracts. Dr. Coffee's career was a checkered one, marked by dubious credentials, exuberant self-promotion, unlikely and exaggerated claims of medical successes, plagiarism, and rejection by the medical "establishment." Certain parallels may be drawn between his activities and some currently observed practices in ophthalmology.
Kelly-Pérez, Ismael; Méndez-Aguilar, Emilia M; Treviño-Palacios, Carlos G; Bruce, Neil C; Berriel-Valdos, Luis R; Al-Hohamedi, Haroun; Bende, Thomas
The gradual process in which the crystalline lens is cloudy due to the appearance of elements giving rise to variations in the refractive index is known as cataract. Clinical assessment is usually complicated because it considers patient's perception, and individuals with similar development have different visual deficits. This work presents a model which considers the fluctuations in the refractive index as spherical particles produce measurable scatter radial profiles patterns on the retina. Measurements for 2 different wavelengths simultaneously provide information on particle size and a quantitative assessment by measurement of the fluctuations of the refractive index. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Maslov, N. A.; Larionov, P. M.; Rozhin, I. A.; Druzhinin, I. B.; Chernykh, V. V.
Excitation-emission matrices of laser-induced fluorescence of lens capsule epithelium, the lens nucleus, and the lens capsule are investigated. A solid-state laser in combination with an optical parametric generator tunable in the range from 210 to 350 nm was used for excitation of fluorescence. The spectra of fluorescence of all three types of tissues exhibit typical features that are specific to them and drastically differ from one another. This effect can be used for intrasurgical control of presence of residual lens capsule epithelium cells in the capsular bag after surgical treatment of a cataract.
Bang, Casper N; Greve, Anders M; La Cour, Morten; Boman, Kurt; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa; Ray, Simon; Pedersen, Terje; Rossebø, Anne; Okin, Peter M; Devereux, Richard B; Wachtell, Kristian
Recent American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on statin initiation on the basis of total atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk argue that the preventive effect of statins on cardiovascular events outweigh the side effects, although this is controversial. Studies indicate a possible effect of statin therapy on reducing risk of lens opacities. However, the results are conflicting. The Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis study (NCT00092677) enrolled 1,873 patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis and no history of diabetes, coronary heart disease, or other serious co-morbidities were randomized (1:1) to double-blind 40 mg simvastatin plus 10 mg ezetimibe versus placebo. The primary end point in this substudy was incident cataract. Univariate and multivariate Cox models were used to analyze: (1) if the active treatment reduced the risk of the primary end point and (2) if time-varying low-density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol lowering (annually assessed) was associated with less incident cataract per se. During an average follow-up of 4.3 years, 65 patients (3.5%) developed cataract. Mean age at baseline was 68 years and 39% were women. In Cox multivariate analysis adjusted for age, gender, prednisolone treatment, smoking, baseline LDL cholesterol and high sensitivity C-reactive protein; simvastatin plus ezetimibe versus placebo was associated with 44% lower risk of cataract development (hazard ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.96, p = 0.034). In a parallel analysis substituting time-varying LDL-cholesterol with randomized treatment, lower intreatment LDL-cholesterol was in itself associated with lower risk of incident cataract (hazard ratio 0.78 per 1 mmol/ml lower total cholesterol, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 0.93, p = 0.008). In conclusion, randomized treatment with simvastatin plus ezetimibe was associated with a 44% lower risk of incident cataract development. This effect should perhaps be considered
Anderson, David F; Dhariwal, Mukesh; Bouchet, Christine; Keith, Michael S
To systematically review the published evidence on the prevalence and economic and humanistic burden of astigmatism in cataract patients. For this systematic literature review, the Medline, PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched from 1996 to September 2015 for available scientific literature that met the inclusion criteria. Studies published in the English language reporting prevalence and humanistic and economic burden in patients diagnosed with cataract and astigmatism were included. Of 3,649 papers reviewed, 31 studies from 32 publications met the inclusion criteria of this review. Preexisting astigmatism ≥1 D was present in up to 47% of cataract eyes. The cost burden of residual uncorrected astigmatism after cataract surgery was driven by the cost of spectacles, which was estimated to range from $2,151 to $3,440 in the US and $1,786 to $4,629 in Europe over a lifetime. In cataract patients, both preexisting and postoperative residual astigmatism were associated with poor vision-related patient satisfaction and quality of life, as well as higher spectacle burden. Astigmatism correction during cataract surgery appears to improve visual outcomes and results in overall lifetime cost savings compared to astigmatism correction with postoperative vision correction. There is a high prevalence of preexisting astigmatism in cataract patients. Although published data are limited, both preoperative astigmatism and postoperative residual astigmatism affect visual function and vision-related quality of life, resulting in increased humanistic burden. Suboptimal correction of astigmatism during cataract surgery drives the continuous need for vision correction with spectacles in the postoperative period. Patients must bear the out-of-pocket expenses, since payers often do not reimburse the cost of spectacles. Greater access to astigmatism correction during cataract surgery could improve visual outcomes and quality of life in patients. More research is required
Anderson, David F; Dhariwal, Mukesh; Bouchet, Christine; Keith, Michael S
Purpose To systematically review the published evidence on the prevalence and economic and humanistic burden of astigmatism in cataract patients. Materials and methods For this systematic literature review, the Medline, PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched from 1996 to September 2015 for available scientific literature that met the inclusion criteria. Studies published in the English language reporting prevalence and humanistic and economic burden in patients diagnosed with cataract and astigmatism were included. Results Of 3,649 papers reviewed, 31 studies from 32 publications met the inclusion criteria of this review. Preexisting astigmatism ≥1 D was present in up to 47% of cataract eyes. The cost burden of residual uncorrected astigmatism after cataract surgery was driven by the cost of spectacles, which was estimated to range from $2,151 to $3,440 in the US and $1,786 to $4,629 in Europe over a lifetime. In cataract patients, both preexisting and postoperative residual astigmatism were associated with poor vision-related patient satisfaction and quality of life, as well as higher spectacle burden. Astigmatism correction during cataract surgery appears to improve visual outcomes and results in overall lifetime cost savings compared to astigmatism correction with postoperative vision correction. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of preexisting astigmatism in cataract patients. Although published data are limited, both preoperative astigmatism and postoperative residual astigmatism affect visual function and vision-related quality of life, resulting in increased humanistic burden. Suboptimal correction of astigmatism during cataract surgery drives the continuous need for vision correction with spectacles in the postoperative period. Patients must bear the out-of-pocket expenses, since payers often do not reimburse the cost of spectacles. Greater access to astigmatism correction during cataract surgery could improve visual outcomes and quality
Aydemir, Orhan; Güler, Mete; Kaya, Mehmet Kaan; Deniz, Nurettin; Üstündağ, Bilal
To determine whether ebselen has a protective effect or antioxidative potential in a sodium-selenite-induced experimental cataract model. Fırat University, Elazığ, Turkey. Experimental study. Twenty-one Sprague-Dawley rat pups were randomly divided into a control group, a sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group, and an ebselen-treated group; each group contained 7 rat pups. Rats in the control group received dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) intraperitoneally only and rats in the sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group received 30 nmol/g body weight sodium selenite subcutaneously and DMSO intraperitoneally 10 days postpartum. Rats in the ebselen group received 30 nmol/g body weight sodium selenite subcutaneously 10 days postpartum and were treated with 5 mg/kg body weight ebselen once a day for 4 consecutive days. Cataract development was assessed weekly for 3 weeks by slitlamp examination and graded using a scale. Reduced glutathione (GSH), total nitrite, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in lens supernatants were measured at the end of 3 weeks. In the control group, all lenses were clear. In the ebselen-treated group, the mean cataract stage was significantly lower than in the sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group (P = .022). The GSH levels were significantly lower in the sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group than in the control and ebselen groups (P < .001). The MDA levels were lower in the ebselen group than in the sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group (P < .001). The mean total nitrite level was significantly lower in the sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group than in the ebselen group (P = .001). Ebselen had a protective effect on cataract development in a sodium-selenite-induced experimental model. The protective effect of ebselen appears to be due to inhibition of oxidative stress. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eliah, Edson; Lewallen, Susan; Kalua, Khumbo; Courtright, Paul; Gichangi, Michael; Bassett, Ken
This project examined the surgical productivity and attrition of non-physician cataract surgeons (NPCSs) in Tanzania, Malawi, and Kenya. Baseline (2008-9) data on training, support, and productivity (annual cataract surgery rate) were collected from officially trained NPCSs using mailed questionnaires followed by telephone interviews. Telephone interviews were used to collect follow-up data annually on productivity and semi-annually on attrition. A detailed telephone interview was conducted if a surgeon left his/her post. Data were entered into and analysed using STATA. Among the 135 NPCSs, 129 were enrolled in the study (Kenya 88, Tanzania 38, and Malawi 3) mean age 42 years; average time since completing training 6.6 years. Employment was in District 44%, Regional 24% or mission/ private 32% hospitals. Small incision cataract surgery was practiced by 38% of the NPCSs. The mean cataract surgery rate was 188/year, median 76 (range 0-1700). For 39 (31%) NPCSs their surgical rate was more than 200/year. Approximately 22% in Kenya and 25% in Tanzania had years where the cataract surgical rate was zero. About 11% of the surgeons had no support staff. High quality training is necessary but not sufficient to result in cataract surgical activity that meets population needs and maintains surgical skill. Needed are supporting institutions and staff, functioning equipment and programs to recruit and transport patients.
Kempen, John H.; Sugar, Elizabeth A.; Varma, Rohit; Dunn, James P.; Heinemann, Murk-Hein; Jabs, Douglas A.; Lyon, Alice T.; Lewis, Richard A.
Purpose To evaluate the risk of cataract in the setting of AIDS. Design Prospective cohort study. Participants Subjects with AIDS free of ocular opportunistic infections throughout catamnesis. Methods During 1998–2008 inclusive, subjects ≥13 years of age were enrolled. Demographic characteristics and clinical characteristics were documented at enrollment and semiannually. Main Outcome Measures Cataract was defined as high-grade lens opacity observed by biomicroscopy and judged to be the cause of a best-corrected visual acuity worse than 20/40. Eyes that underwent cataract surgery during follow-up were considered to have developed cataract prior to the first visit when pseudophakia or aphakia was observed. Results Among 1,606 participants (3,212 eyes), at enrollment 1.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3%−2.7%) were observed to have cataract or prior cataract surgery. Among the 2,812 eyes initially free of cataract, and followed longitudinally (median follow-up=4.6 years), the incidence of cataract was 0.37%/eye-year (95% CI: 0.26%– 0.53%). In addition to age, significant cataract risk factors included prior cataract in the contralateral eye (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=21.6, 95% CI: 10.4–44.8), anterior segment inflammation (aHR=4.40, 95% CI: 1.64–11.9), prior retinal detachment (aHR=4.94, 95% CI: 2.21–11.0), and vitreous inflammation (aHR=7.12, 95% CI: 2.02– 25.0), each studied as a time-updated characteristic. Detectable HIV RNA in peripheral blood was associated with lower risk of cataract at enrollment (adjusted odds ratio=0.32, 95% CI: 0.12–0.80) but not of incident cataract (aHR=1.58, 95% CI: 0.90–2.76). After adjustment for other factors, neither the then current absolute CD4+ T cell count nor antiretroviral therapy status showed consistent association with cataract risk, nor did an additive diagnosis of other other co-morbidities. Compared to the available population-based studies that used similar definitions of cataract, the age
Muhammad, Nasiru; Adamu, Mohammed Dantani; Caleb, Mpyet; Maishanu, Nuhu Mohammed; Jabo, Aliyu Mohammed; Rabiu, Muhammad Mansur; Bascaran, Covadonga; Isiyaku, Sunday
Purpose This study was conducted to assess the impact of the eye care programme on cataract blindness and cataract surgical services in Sokoto, Nigeria over a 12 year period 2005–2016. Methods Data from the 2005 population based cross-sectional study of blindness in Sokoto state was re-analysed to obtain baseline estimates of the prevalence of cataract blindness and cataract surgical coverage for persons 50 years and over in Wurno health zone. A population based survey of a representative sample of persons 50 years and over in Wurno health zone was conducted in July 2016. Data on eye health workforce, infrastructure and cataract surgical services between 2005 and 2016 were analysed from relevant documents. Results In 2005 the unadjusted prevalence of bilateral cataract blindness (<3/60) in people 50 years and over in Wurno health zone was 5.6% (95% CI: 3.1, 10.1). By 2016 this had fallen to 2.1% (95% CI 1.5%, 2.7%), with the age-sex adjusted prevalence being 1.9% (95% CI 1.3%, 2.5%). The CSC for persons with visual acuity <3/60, <6/60, <6/18 for Wurno health zone was 9.1%, 7.1% and 5.5% respectively in 2005 and this had increased to 67.3%, 62.1% and 34.7% respectively in 2016. The CSR in Sokoto state increased from 272 (1005 operations) in 2006, to 596 (2799 operations) in 2014. In the 2005 survey, couching (a procedure used by traditional practitioners to dislocate the lens into the vitreous cavity) accounted for 87.5% of all cataract interventions, compared to 45.8% in the 2016 survey participants. In 2016 18% of eyes having a cataract operation with IOL implantation had a presenting visual acuity of <6/60 (poor outcome) with the main causes being postoperative complications (53%) and uncorrected refractive error (29%). Conclusion Between 2005 and 2016 there was a doubling in cataract surgical rate, a 7 times increase in cataract surgical coverage (<3/60), and a decrease in cataract blindness and the proportion of eyes being couched. However, there remains a
Sutu, Christine; Fukuoka, Hideki; Afshari, Natalie A
To provide a summary of the mechanisms that may cause dry eye after cataract surgery and discuss available and upcoming treatment modalities. Development or worsening of dry eye symptoms after cataract surgery is multifactorial with corneal nerve transection, inflammation, goblet cell loss, and meibomian gland dysfunction commonly cited as underlying disorders. With increasing awareness of the prevalence of dry eye disease, current surgical techniques are being analyzed for their contribution to the issue. Although many classic interventions, such as artificial tears and anti-inflammatory drops, remain first-line treatment options, they may not adequately address abnormalities of the tear film. The trend has been to create new drugs and technologies that target meibomian gland deficiencies and restore goblet cell numbers. Therapy for postoperative dry eye symptoms should be determined based on symptom severity and which underlying cause is most prominent at a given time. Patients with high-level risk factors for dry eye should be evaluated preoperatively to determine whether they have preexisting dry eye disease or if they are susceptible to developing disease after surgery.
Phaco chop is a bimanual phacoemulsification technique to remove cataracts. The technique was first presented at the 1993 3rd American-International Congress on Cataract, IOL, and Refractive Surgery in Seattle by Dr Kunihiro Nagahara. He compared the lens with a block of wood and by applying chopping forces parallel to the natural planes of the lens lamellae, as one does in splitting wood, a nucleus can be cleaved with surprisingly little force and time. Dr Nagahara used the phaco tip to impale and high vacuum to hold the nucleus while a second instrument, or chopper, hooked the equator and was pulled centrally, splitting the nucleus along its natural cleavage planes. This was a breakthrough for surgeons who had been utilizing several minutes of phaco energy sculpting grooves and bowls in a lens. Studies have shown that compared with four-quadrant 'divide and conquer', the phaco chop technique uses less phaco time and energy, significantly reducing endothelial cell damage. Other advantages of phaco chop include reduction of zonular and capsular stress because forces are directed toward an opposing instrument and the phaco tip is kept in a central 'safe zone' in the middle of the pupil. This technique has also been successfully adapted to the canine phacoemulsification procedure. The larger canine lens requires some modifications, and lenses with hard nuclear and cortical material may not be amenable to this procedure.
Ansari, Rafat R.; Dhadwal, Harbans S.
A compact fiber optic probe developed for on-orbit science experiments was used to detect the onset of cataracts, a capability that could eliminate physicians' guesswork and result in new drugs to 'dissolve' or slow down the cataract formation before surgery is necessary. The probe is based upon dynamic light scattering (DLS) principles. It has no moving parts, no apertures, and requires no optical alignment. It is flexible and easy to use. Results are presented for excised but intact human eye lenses. In a clinical setting, the device can be easily incorporated into a slit-lamp apparatus (ophthalmoscope) for complete eye diagnostics. In this set-up, the integrated fiber optic probe, the size of a pencil, delivers a low power cone of laser light into the eye of a patient and guides the light which is backscattered by the protein molecules of the lens through a receiving optical fiber to a photo detector. The non-invasive DLS measurements provide rapid determination of protein crystalline size and its size distribution in the eye lens.
Nandigam, Kiran; Soh, Jonathan; Gensheimer, William G; Ghazi, Ahmed; Khalifa, Yousuf M
To compare 8 ophthalmology resident surgical training tools to determine which is most cost effective. University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA. Retrospective evaluation of technology. A cost-analysis model was created to compile all relevant costs in running each tool in a medium-sized ophthalmology program. Quantitative cost estimates were obtained based on cost of tools, cost of time in evaluations, and supply and maintenance costs. For wet laboratory simulation, Eyesi was the least expensive cataract surgery simulation method; however, it is only capable of evaluating simulated cataract surgery rehearsal and requires supplementation with other evaluative methods for operating room performance and for noncataract wet lab training and evaluation. The most expensive training tool was the Eye Surgical Skills Assessment Test (ESSAT). The 2 most affordable methods for resident evaluation in operating room performance were the Objective Assessment of Skills in Intraocular Surgery (OASIS) and Global Rating Assessment of Skills in Intraocular Surgery (GRASIS). Cost-based analysis of ophthalmology resident surgical training tools are needed so residency programs can implement tools that are valid, reliable, objective, and cost effective. There is no perfect training system at this time. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Leon, Pia; Pastore, Marco Rocco; Zanei, Andrea; Umari, Ingrid; Messai, Meriem; Negro, Corrado; Tognetto, Daniele
To evaluate and compare aspheric toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and aspheric monofocal IOL implantation with limbal relaxing incisions (LRI) to manage low corneal astigmatism (1.0-2.0 D) in cataract surgery. A prospective randomized comparative clinical study was performed. There were randomly recruited 102 eyes (102 patients) with cataracts associated with corneal astigmatism and divided into two groups. The first group received toric IOL implantation and the second one monofocal IOL implantation with peripheral corneal relaxing incisions. Outcomes considered were: visual acuity, postoperative residual astigmatism, endothelial cell count, the need for spectacles, and patient satisfaction. To determine the postoperative toric axis, all patients who underwent the toric IOL implantation were further evaluated using an OPD Scan III (Nidek Co, Japan). Follow-up lasted 6mo. The mean uncorrected distance visual acuity (UCVA) and the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) demonstrated statistically significant improvement after surgery in both groups. At the end of the follow-up the UCVA was statistically better in the patients with toric IOL implants compared to those patients who underwent implantation of monofocal IOL plus LRI. The mean residual refractive astigmatism was of 0.4 D for the toric IOL group and 1.1 D for the LRI group (P<0.01). No difference was observed in the postoperative endothelial cell count between the two groups. The two surgical procedures demonstrated a significant decrease in refractive astigmatism. Toric IOL implantation was more effective and predictable compared to the limbal relaxing incision.
Apple, David J; Escobar-Gomez, Marcela; Zaugg, Brian; Kleinmann, Guy; Borkenstein, Andreas F
We summarize information, based on clinicopathologic studies over the past decade, on various cataract intraocular lens (IOL) procedures and modern "specialized" IOLs, that will help surgeons continuously improve long-term results for cataract patients. Although most operations do initially provide excellent refractive correction and visual rehabilitation, late complications occur. These sometimes are missed because they are outside of the routine period of follow-up care. We have tried to determine if the various techniques and IOLs truly deliver the long-term results that we desire. Most safety and efficacy information is derived from the manufacturer and is passed through the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This is often based on limited, relatively short-term observations made by the manufacturer. After a lens receives FDA approval, there are few means to assess the outcome of each procedure and lens years later. We rarely hear of a 10- or 20-year follow-up study. We have found that one of the best means to assess long-term results is pathologic analyses. We discuss recently studied aspects of pathologic reactions, such as posterior capsule opacification, intracapsular fibrosis, glistenings, intralenticular opacification, and other issues with the various IOL platforms; we then present a clinicopathological overview of tissues and IOLs from our database. These include hydrophobic and hydrophilic acrylic designs, plate lenses, and a dual optic lens. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Spiritus, A; Huygens, M; Callebaut, F
To evaluate the efficacy of topical anesthesia with oxybuprocaïne 0.4% without intracameral lidocaïne as an alternative to peribulbar or retrobulbar anesthesia in cataract surgery. Fifty-eight patients (eighty-two eyes) were included in this study. All patients received topical anesthesia with oxybuprocaïne 0.4%. No intracameral lidocaïne was used at the start of the intervention. Seventy-five per cent of patients received oral sedation with lorazepam 2.5 mg. All surgery was done using a superior corneal incision and phacoemulsification followed by a foldable IOL implantation. Subjective pain was assessed at 4 intervals during surgery using a 4-point pain scale. All patients were evaluated for intraoperative eye motility and blepharospasm. Patient and surgeon satisfaction was measured with a 4-point satisfaction scale. 15% of patients experienced mild pain during phaco and 43% had mild pain during corneal suturing. No patient had severe pain during the operation. In 4% of patients, intracameral lidocaïne was used to relieve pain. The surgeon and patient satisfaction was high. No eye movements or blepharospasm were recorded in 75% and 62% of cases respectively. No serious complications occurred. Topical anesthesia is a safe and effective alternative to peribulbar and retrobulbar anesthesia in corneal cataract surgery for the experienced surgeon.
Roizenblatt, Roberto; Schor, Paulo; Dante, Fabio; Roizenblatt, Jaime; Belfort, Rubens
Background Biometric methods are security technologies, which use human characteristics for personal identification. Iris recognition systems use iris textures as unique identifiers. This paper presents an analysis of the verification of iris identities after intra-ocular procedures, when individuals were enrolled before the surgery. Methods Fifty-five eyes from fifty-five patients had their irises enrolled before a cataract surgery was performed. They had their irises verified three times before and three times after the procedure, and the Hamming (mathematical) distance of each identification trial was determined, in a controlled ideal biometric environment. The mathematical difference between the iris code before and after the surgery was also compared to a subjective evaluation of the iris anatomy alteration by an experienced surgeon. Results A correlation between visible subjective iris texture alteration and mathematical difference was verified. We found only six cases in which the eye was no more recognizable, but these eyes were later reenrolled. The main anatomical changes that were found in the new impostor eyes are described. Conclusions Cataract surgeries change iris textures in such a way that iris recognition systems, which perform mathematical comparisons of textural biometric features, are able to detect these changes and sometimes even discard a pre-enrolled iris considering it an impostor. In our study, re-enrollment proved to be a feasible procedure. PMID:14748929
Roizenblatt, Roberto; Schor, Paulo; Dante, Fabio; Roizenblatt, Jaime; Belfort, Rubens
Biometric methods are security technologies, which use human characteristics for personal identification. Iris recognition systems use iris textures as unique identifiers. This paper presents an analysis of the verification of iris identities after intra-ocular procedures, when individuals were enrolled before the surgery. Fifty-five eyes from fifty-five patients had their irises enrolled before a cataract surgery was performed. They had their irises verified three times before and three times after the procedure, and the Hamming (mathematical) distance of each identification trial was determined, in a controlled ideal biometric environment. The mathematical difference between the iris code before and after the surgery was also compared to a subjective evaluation of the iris anatomy alteration by an experienced surgeon. A correlation between visible subjective iris texture alteration and mathematical difference was verified. We found only six cases in which the eye was no more recognizable, but these eyes were later reenrolled. The main anatomical changes that were found in the new impostor eyes are described. Cataract surgeries change iris textures in such a way that iris recognition systems, which perform mathematical comparisons of textural biometric features, are able to detect these changes and sometimes even discard a pre-enrolled iris considering it an impostor. In our study, re-enrollment proved to be a feasible procedure.
Kretz, Florian T A; Tandogan, Tamer; Khoramnia, Ramin; Auffarth, Gerd U
AIM To evaluate the quality of vision in respect to high order aberrations and straylight perception after implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting, monofocal intraocular lens (IOL). METHODS Twenty-one patients (34 eyes) aged 50 to 83y underwent cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting IOL (Tecnis ZCB00, Abbott Medical Optics). Three months after surgery they were examined for uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), contrast sensitivity (CS) under photopic and mesopic conditions with and without glare source, ocular high order aberrations (HOA, Zywave II) and retinal straylight (C-Quant). RESULTS Postoperatively, patients achieved a postoperative CDVA of 0.0 logMAR or better in 97.1% of eyes. Mean values of high order abberations were +0.02±0.27 (primary coma components) and -0.04±0.16 (spherical aberration term). Straylight values of the C-Quant were 1.35±0.44 log which is within normal range of age matched phakic patients. The CS measurements under mesopic and photopic conditions in combination with and without glare did not show any statistical significance in the patient group observed (P≥0.28). CONCLUSION The implantation of an aspherical aberration correcting monofocal IOL after cataract surgery resulted in very low residual higher order aberration (HOA) and normal straylight. PMID:26309872
Sharifi, Emile; Porco, Travis C; Naseri, Ayman
To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of intracameral cefuroxime for postoperative endophthalmitis prophylaxis, and to determine the efficacy threshold necessary for alternative antibiotics to attain cost-effective equivalence with intracameral cefuroxime. Cost-effectiveness analysis. We study a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 patients undergoing cataract surgery as a part of the cost analysis. A cost-effectiveness model was constructed to analyze different antibiotic prophylactic regimens for postoperative endophthalmitis with intracameral cefuroxime as our base case. Efficacy was defined as the absolute reduction in rate of infection from background rate of infection, which was sourced from the literature. Antibiotic cost data were derived from the Red Book 2007 edition, and salary data were taken from the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. Multivariate sensitivity analysis assessed the performance of antibiotic options under different scenarios. Cost per case of endophthalmitis prevented; theoretical maximal cost-effectiveness; efficacy threshold necessary to achieve cost-effective equivalence with intracameral cefuroxime; ratio indicating how many times more effective or less expensive alternative antibiotics would have to be to achieve cost-effective equivalence with intracameral cefuroxime. The cost-effectiveness ratio for intracameral cefuroxime is $1403 per case of postoperative endophthalmitis prevented. By comparison, the least expensive topical fluoroquinolone in our study, ciprofloxacin, would have to be >8 times more effective than intracameral cefuroxime to achieve cost-effective equivalence. The most expensive topical fluoroquinolones studied, gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin, would have to be > or =19 times more effective than intracameral cefuroxime to achieve cost-effective equivalence. A sensitivity analysis reveals that even in the worst case scenario for intracameral cefuroxime efficacy and with a 50% reduction in the cost of 4th
Modenese, Alberto; Gobba, Fabriziomaria
Cataract is currently the primary cause of blindness worldwide, and one of its main risk factors is solar ultraviolet radiation exposure. According to the localization of lens opacities, three main subtypes of cataract are recognized: nuclear, cortical and posterior subcapsular cataract. One of the main determinants of individual long-term solar radiation exposure is outdoor work. We systematically reviewed scientific literature from the last 20 years to update the recent development of research on the risk of cataract in outdoor workers and on the specific subtypes involved, also investigating the methods applied to evaluate the occupational risk. A total of 15 studies were included in the review, of which 12 showed a positive association. The studies confirm the relationship of long-term occupational solar radiation exposure with cortical cataract and give new support for nuclear cataract, although no substantial new data were available to support a relation with the posterior subcapsular subtype. In most of the studies, the exposure assessment was not adequate to support a representative evaluation of the ocular risk; however, outdoor work is clearly a relevant risk factor for cataract. Further research providing a better evaluation of the relation between solar radiation exposure levels and lens damage in workers is needed and aimed to establish adequate occupational exposure limits and better preventive measures, studying also their effectiveness. © 2018 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zhu, X; Ye, H; He, W; Yang, J; Dai, J; Lu, Y
Purpose To explore the objective functional visual outcomes of cataract surgery in patients with good preoperative visual acuity. Methods We enrolled 130 cataract patients whose best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/40 or better preoperatively. Objective visual functions were evaluated with a KR-1W analyzer before and at 1 month after cataract surgery. Results The nuclear (N), cortical (C), and N+C groups had very high preoperative ocular and internal total high-order aberrations (HOAs), coma, and abnormal spherical aberrations. At 1 month after cataract surgery, in addition to the remarkable increase of both uncorrected visual acuity and BCVA, both ocular and internal HOAs in the three groups decreased significantly after cataract surgery (all P<0.05). Point spread function and modulation transfer functions were also improved significantly in these patients (all P<0.05). Conclusions The objective functional vision of patients with 20/40 or better preoperative BCVA improved significantly after cataract surgery. This finding shows that the arbitrary threshold of BCVA worse than 20/40 in China cannot always be used to determine who will benefit from cataract surgery. PMID:27858933
Russell-Eggitt, I M
When an X-linked pedigree of posterior lenticonus with cataract was identified further evidence for X-linked inheritance of this condition was sought. Forty-three cases of posterior lenticonus were identified from a database of 354 children with cataract. Two children with the X-linked syndromes of Lowe and Nance-Horan and 3 children with Fanconi syndrome have been excluded from further analysis. None of the children was deaf. None of the non-syndromic cases had microcornea. There were 38 cases of non-syndromic posterior lenticonus (approximately 11%). There were 15 children from 13 pedigrees and 23 apparently sporadic cases. Of the 106 cases on the database with unilateral cataract 15 had posterior lenticonus (approximately 14%). Eleven of 13 pedigrees were compatible with X-linked inheritance or autosomal dominant inheritance with variable expression. However, in 2 pedigrees there was father to son transmission. Posterior lenticonus is a common cause of unilateral infantile cataract, but is thought to be a rare cause of bilateral cataracts. This study suggests that posterior lenticonus is responsible for a significant proportion of childhood cataracts (approximately 14% of unilateral and approximately 9% of bilateral cases). Posterior lenticonus is generally thought to occur as a sporadic condition. This study demonstrates that there is a family history of early-onset cataract in a significant number of bilateral cases (approximately 58%).
Santoro, Stephanie L; Atoum, Dema; Hufnagel, Robert B; Motley, William W
Individuals with Down syndrome have an increased risk for congenital cataracts, but descriptions of surgical, medical and developmental outcomes are sparse. Retrospective review of medical charts of patients with Down syndrome with visits to Cincinnati Children's Hospital from 1988 to 2013 was performed. A case series of five patients with Down syndrome and cataracts is presented. A total of 47 patients with Down syndrome without cataracts were used as a developmental control. Developmental quotients were compared using an independent-sample, unequal variance t-test. Post-operative cataract complication rates ranged from 20% to 60%. Visual outcomes were varied; significant associations between complication rate and visual outcome were not found. Developmental quotients did not show an association with number of complications, but were lower for children with Down syndrome with cataracts requiring surgery compared to children with Down syndrome without cataracts. In children with Down syndrome and congenital cataract, surgical intervention has risk for post-operative complications. Further investigation is needed to determine if there is an association between surgical complications and visual or developmental outcomes.
Mares, Julie A.; Voland, Rick; Adler, Rachel; Tinker, Lesley; Millen, AE; Moeller, Suzen M.; Blodi, Barbara; Gehrs, Karen M.; Wallace, Robert B.; Chappell, Richard J.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Sarto, G
Objective and Design The association between healthy diet scores which reflect adherence to the US Dietary Guidelines and prevalence of nuclear cataract, assessed four to seven years later, was assessed in a sample of Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study participants (50–79 years of age) who were residing in Iowa, Wisconsin and Oregon. Scores on the 1995 Healthy Eating Index (HEI-95), which reflect adherence to 1990 guidelines, were assigned from responses to food frequency questionnaires at WHI-baseline (1994–1998). Presence of nuclear cataract was determined from slit-lamp photographs and self-report of cataract extractions were assessed from 2001–04 in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (N=1,808). Results Having a high HEI-95 score was the strongest modifiable predictor of low prevalence of nuclear cataract among numerous risk factors investigated in this sample. The multivariable-adjusted OR and 95% confidence interval for high vs. low quintile for diet score were 0.6 (0.4–0.9). Higher prevalence of nuclear cataract was also associated with other modifiable factors (smoking and marked obesity) and non-modifiable factors (having brown eyes, myopia and high pulse pressure). Vitamin supplement use was not related to cataract. Conclusion These data add to the body of evidence suggesting that eating foods that are rich in a variety of vitamins and minerals, may contribute to postponing the occurrence of the most common type of cataract in the US. PMID:20547952
Xiang, Minhong; Zhang, Xingru; Li, Qingsong; Wang, Hanmin; Zhang, Zhenyong; Han, Zhumei; Ke, Meiqing; Chen, Xingxing
Proteins in the aqueous humor (AH) are important in the induction of cataract development. The identification of cataract-associated proteins assists in identifying patients and predisposed to the condition and improve treatment efficacy. Proteomics analysis has previously been used for identifying protein markers associated with eye diseases; however, few studies have examined the proteomic alterations in cataract development due to high myopia, glaucoma and diabetes. The present study, using the isobaric tagging for relative and absolute protein quantification methodology, aimed to examine cataract-associated proteins in the AH from patients with high myopia, glaucoma or diabetes, and controls. The results revealed that 445 proteins were identified in the AH groups, compared with the control groups, and 146, 264 and 130 proteins were differentially expressed in the three groups of patients, respectively. In addition, 44 of these proteins were determined to be cataract‑associated, and the alterations of five randomly selected proteins were confirmed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The biological functions of these 44 cataract-associated proteins were analyzed using Gen Ontology/pathways annotation, in addition to protein‑protein interaction network analysis. The results aimed to expand current knowledge of the pathophysiologic characteristics of cataract development and provided a panel of candidates for biomarkers of the disease, which may assist in further diagnosis and the monitoring of cataract development.
Chan, Frank Wan-kin; Fan, Alex Hoi; Wong, Fiona Yan-yan; Lam, Philip Tsze-ho; Yeoh, Eng-kiong; Yam, Carrie Ho-kwan; Griffiths, Sian; Lam, Dennis Shun-chiu; Congdon, Nathan
To characterize willingness to pay for private operations and preferred waiting time among patients awaiting cataract surgery in Hong Kong. This was a cross-sectional survey. Subjects randomly selected from cataract surgical waiting lists in Hong Kong (n = 467) underwent a telephone interview based on a structured, validated questionnaire. Data were collected on private insurance coverage, preferred waiting time, amount willing to pay for surgery, and self-reported visual function and health status. Among 300 subjects completing the interview, 144 (48.2%) were 76 years of age or older, 177 (59%) were women, and mean time waiting for surgery was 17 +/- 15 months. Among 220 subjects (73.3%) willing to pay anything for surgery, the mean amount was US$552 +/- 443. With adjustment for age, education, and monthly household income, subjects willing to pay anything were less willing to wait 12 months for surgery (OR = 4.34; P = 0.002), more likely to know someone having had cataract surgery (OR = 2.20; P = 0.03), and more likely to use their own savings to pay for the surgery (OR = 2.21; P = 0.04). Subjects considering private cataract surgery, knowing people who have had cataract surgery, using nongovernment sources to pay for surgery, and having lower visual function were willing to pay more. Many patients wait significant periods for cataract surgery in Hong Kong, and are willing to pay substantial amounts for private operations. These results may have implications for other countries with cataract waiting lists.
Tan, Anna C S; Wang, Jie Jin; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Wong, Wanling; Mitchell, Paul; Li, Jialiang; Tan, Ava Grace; Wong, Tien Y
Cataract is the major cause of blindness worldwide yet there is no consensus on its assessment and definition. This study compares age-related cataract prevalence derived from two commonly used methods: clinical assessment using the Lens Opacity Classification System (LOCS III) and photographic grading using the Wisconsin Cataract Grading System (Wisconsin System). The Singapore Malay Eye Study is a population-based study of 3,280 Singapore Malays aged 40-80 years. Presence of nuclear, cortical and posterior sub-capsular cataract was assessed clinically during slit-lamp examination using LOCS III, and via slit-lamp and retro-illumination photographic grading using the Wisconsin System. Analyses were conducted to determine agreement in cataract prevalence estimates between the two grading Systems and approaches. Poor agreement was found between severity levels of the two grading scales for all three cataract types. Using currently accepted cut-offs to define nuclear (≥ 4 on both LOCS III and Wisconsin System), cortical (≥ 2 in LOCS III, ≥ 25% in Wisconsin) and PSC (≥ 2 in LOCS III, ≥ 5 % in Wisconsin) cataract, the LOCS III overestimated the prevalence of significant cataract as compared to the Wisconsin System, with nuclear cataract prevalence, 27.5% (LOCS III) versus 17.0% (Wisconsin System), cortical cataract prevalence, 27.9% versus 7.0% and posterior sub-capsular cataract prevalence, 7.8% versus 5.1%. The prevalence of cataract in a population varies substantially by measurement methods, with systematically different estimates found using the two most frequent cataract grading systems. This study re-emphasizes the need for global standards to assess and define cataract for epidemiologic and clinical studies.
Babul, R.; Chitayat, D.; Teshima, I.
Three forms of X-linked congenital cataracts have been delineated: congenital cataract with posterior Y-sutural opacities in heterozygotes, congenital cataract and microcornea or microphthalmia and congenital cataract-dental syndrome (Nance-Horan syndrome). Of these, only the Nance-Horan syndrome has been mapped to Xp22.3-p21.1. However, Warburg has suggested that these different forms of X-linked congenital cataracts are due to deletions of varying sizes, placing them in the vicinity of the Nance-Horan syndrome region. We report on a female patient born to a 29-year-old primigravida woman who at birth was found to have hypotonia, dysmorphic facial features, hydrocephalus and dense white congenital bilateral cataracts. Othermore » ophthalmological findings included bilateral nystagmus and shallow orbits. Chromosome analysis revealed 46,X,del(X)(q26q28)mat. The mother, however, is phenotypically normal. Brain CT scan on the female infant revealed communicating hydrocephalus and a muscle biopsy showed congenital muscle fiber disproportion. An EMG and NCV were normal. At 4 years of age, her height and weight were below -3SD and her OFC was +2SD. Molecular studies using DNA markers located in Xq26-qter have revealed that the proximal breakpoint in the patient and her mother is defined by the HPRT locus while the distal breakpoint is defined by the locus DXS1108. This indicates that the deletion is not terminal but rather interstitial, retaining sequences proximal to the telomeric region. Other molecular studies are in progress to determine the X-inactivation status of the deleted chromosome in our patient and her mother as a possible explanation for the variation in the phenotype. These clinical and molecular findings suggest that another locus for X-linked congenital cataract exists at Xq26-28.« less
Paula, J S; Thorn, F; Cruz, A A V
To compare the prevalence of pterygium and cataract in four indigenous populations of the Brazilian Amazonian rain forest (Arawak, Tukano, Maku, and Yanomami) with different ethnic and social behaviour backgrounds. A cross-sectional pterygium and cataract survey was performed in 624 adult Indians of the Brazilian rain forest belonging to four different ethnic groups. The Indians were classified according to their social behaviour in two groups: Arawak and Tukano (group 1) and Maku and Yanomami (group 2). Slit-lamp biomicroscopy was employed to examine the entire sample. All subjects were classified as 1 or 0 according to the presence or absence pterygium and cataract. Sex and age were also recorded. chi(2)-tests revealed that the prevalence of pterygium and cataract differed significantly between groups 1 and 2. For pterygia: 36.6% (97/265) and 5.0% (18/359), respectively (chi(2)=101.2, P<0.0001), and for cataracts: 24.5% (65/265) and 13.7% (49/359) respectively (chi(2)=12.09, P=0.0005). Gender was not associated with pterygium (P=0.1326) and cataract (P=0.2263) in both groups. Elderly subjects showed a significantly higher prevalence of cataract (P<0.0001). The prevalence of pterygia did not increase with age (P=0.8079) in both groups. Indians of group 1 have higher prevalence of pterygia and cataract than Indians of group 2. Social behaviour, especially the rate of sun exposure, appears to be the main factor for the different rates of pterygium and cataract displayed by these indigenous people of the Brazilian rain forest.
Bennett, Thomas M; M'Hamdi, Oussama; Hejtmancik, J Fielding; Shiels, Alan
Rare germ-line mutations in the coding regions of the human EPHA2 gene (EPHA2) have been associated with inherited forms of pediatric cataract, whereas, frequent, non-coding, single nucleotide variants (SNVs) have been associated with age-related cataract. Here we sought to determine if germ-line EPHA2 coding SNVs were associated with age-related cataract in a case-control DNA panel (> 50 years) and if somatic EPHA2 coding SNVs were associated with lens aging and/or cataract in a post-mortem lens DNA panel (> 48 years). Micro-fluidic PCR amplification followed by targeted amplicon (exon) next-generation (deep) sequencing of EPHA2 (17-exons) afforded high read-depth coverage (1000x) for > 82% of reads in the cataract case-control panel (161 cases, 64 controls) and > 70% of reads in the post-mortem lens panel (35 clear lens pairs, 22 cataract lens pairs). Novel and reference (known) missense SNVs in EPHA2 that were predicted in silico to be functionally damaging were found in both cases and controls from the age-related cataract panel at variant allele frequencies (VAFs) consistent with germ-line transmission (VAF > 20%). Similarly, both novel and reference missense SNVs in EPHA2 were found in the post-mortem lens panel at VAFs consistent with a somatic origin (VAF > 3%). The majority of SNVs found in the cataract case-control panel and post-mortem lens panel were transitions and many occurred at di-pyrimidine sites that are susceptible to ultraviolet (UV) radiation induced mutation. These data suggest that novel germ-line (blood) and somatic (lens) coding SNVs in EPHA2 that are predicted to be functionally deleterious occur in adults over 50 years of age. However, both types of EPHA2 coding variants were present at comparable levels in individuals with or without age-related cataract making simple genotype-phenotype correlations inconclusive.
Bennett, Thomas M.; M’Hamdi, Oussama; Hejtmancik, J. Fielding
Rare germ-line mutations in the coding regions of the human EPHA2 gene (EPHA2) have been associated with inherited forms of pediatric cataract, whereas, frequent, non-coding, single nucleotide variants (SNVs) have been associated with age-related cataract. Here we sought to determine if germ-line EPHA2 coding SNVs were associated with age-related cataract in a case-control DNA panel (> 50 years) and if somatic EPHA2 coding SNVs were associated with lens aging and/or cataract in a post-mortem lens DNA panel (> 48 years). Micro-fluidic PCR amplification followed by targeted amplicon (exon) next-generation (deep) sequencing of EPHA2 (17-exons) afforded high read-depth coverage (1000x) for > 82% of reads in the cataract case-control panel (161 cases, 64 controls) and > 70% of reads in the post-mortem lens panel (35 clear lens pairs, 22 cataract lens pairs). Novel and reference (known) missense SNVs in EPHA2 that were predicted in silico to be functionally damaging were found in both cases and controls from the age-related cataract panel at variant allele frequencies (VAFs) consistent with germ-line transmission (VAF > 20%). Similarly, both novel and reference missense SNVs in EPHA2 were found in the post-mortem lens panel at VAFs consistent with a somatic origin (VAF > 3%). The majority of SNVs found in the cataract case-control panel and post-mortem lens panel were transitions and many occurred at di-pyrimidine sites that are susceptible to ultraviolet (UV) radiation induced mutation. These data suggest that novel germ-line (blood) and somatic (lens) coding SNVs in EPHA2 that are predicted to be functionally deleterious occur in adults over 50 years of age. However, both types of EPHA2 coding variants were present at comparable levels in individuals with or without age-related cataract making simple genotype-phenotype correlations inconclusive. PMID:29267365
Kim, Dong-Hyun; Wee, Won-Ryang; Lee, Jin-Hak
Purpose To compare the intraoperative performances and postoperative outcomes of cataract surgery performed with longitudinal phacoemulsification and torsional phacoemulsification in moderate and hard cataracts. Methods Of 85 patients who had senile cataracts, 102 eyes were operated on using the Infiniti Vision System. Preoperative examinations (slit lamp examination, mean central corneal thickness, and central endothelial cell counts) were performed for each patient. Cataracts were subdivided into moderate and hard, according to the Lens Opacities Classification System III grading of nucleus opalescence (NO). Eyes in each cataract group were randomly assigned to conventional and torsional phaco-mode. Intraoperative parameters, including ultrasound time (UST), cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), and the balanced salt solution plus (BSSP) volume utilized were evaluated. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was checked on postoperative day 30; mean central corneal thickness and central endothelial cell counts were investigated on postoperative days 7 and 30. Results Preoperative BCVA and mean grading of NO showed no difference in both groups. Preoperative endothelial cell count and central corneal thickness also showed no significant difference in both groups. In the moderate cataract group, the CDE, UST, and BSSP volume were significantly lower in the torsional mode than the longitudinal mode, but they did not show any difference in the hard cataract group. Torsional group showed less endothelial cell loss and central corneal thickening at postoperative day seven in moderate cataracts but showed no significant differences, as compared with the longitudinal group, by postoperative day 30. Conclusions Torsional phacoemulsification showed superior efficiency for moderate cataracts, as compared with longitudinal phacoemulsification, in the early postoperative stage. PMID:21165231
Kim, Dong-Hyun; Wee, Won-Ryang; Lee, Jin-Hak; Kim, Mee-Kum
To compare the intraoperative performances and postoperative outcomes of cataract surgery performed with longitudinal phacoemulsification and torsional phacoemulsification in moderate and hard cataracts. Of 85 patients who had senile cataracts, 102 eyes were operated on using the Infiniti Vision System. Preoperative examinations (slit lamp examination, mean central corneal thickness, and central endothelial cell counts) were performed for each patient. Cataracts were subdivided into moderate and hard, according to the Lens Opacities Classification System III grading of nucleus opalescence (NO). Eyes in each cataract group were randomly assigned to conventional and torsional phaco-mode. Intraoperative parameters, including ultrasound time (UST), cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), and the balanced salt solution plus (BSSP) volume utilized were evaluated. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was checked on postoperative day 30; mean central corneal thickness and central endothelial cell counts were investigated on postoperative days 7 and 30. Preoperative BCVA and mean grading of NO showed no difference in both groups. Preoperative endothelial cell count and central corneal thickness also showed no significant difference in both groups. In the moderate cataract group, the CDE, UST, and BSSP volume were significantly lower in the torsional mode than the longitudinal mode, but they did not show any difference in the hard cataract group. Torsional group showed less endothelial cell loss and central corneal thickening at postoperative day seven in moderate cataracts but showed no significant differences, as compared with the longitudinal group, by postoperative day 30. Torsional phacoemulsification showed superior efficiency for moderate cataracts, as compared with longitudinal phacoemulsification, in the early postoperative stage.
Lin, Xianhua; Ling, Yunlan; Lin, Xiaofeng; Li, Mingge; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Zheng, Yingfeng
Purpose To study willingness to pay for cataract surgery and surgical service provided by a senior cataract surgeon in urban Southern China. Methods This study was a cross-sectional willingness-to-pay (WTP) interview using bidding formats. Two-hundred eleven persons with presenting visual impairment in either eye due to cataract were enrolled at a tertiary eye hospital. Participants underwent a comprehensive eye examination and a WTP interview for both surgery and service provided by a senior surgeon. Demographic information, socioeconomic status and clinical data were recorded. Results Among 211 (98% response rate) persons completing the interview, 53.6% were women and 80.6% were retired. About 72.2% had a monthly income lower than 1000 renminbi (US $161). A total of 189 (89.6%) were willing to pay for cataract and the median amount of WTP was 6000 renminbi (US$968). And 102 (50.7%) were willing to pay additional fees for surgery performed by a senior surgeon, and the median amount of WTP was 500 renminbi (US$81). In regression models adjusting for age and gender, persons with preexisting eye diseases other than cataract, were more likely to pay for cataract surgery and service provided by a senior surgeon (P = 0.04 for both). Conclusions In urban China, cataract patients, especially those with preexisting eye conditions, are willing to pay additional fees for a senior surgeon. Moving to a system where the price of cataract surgery is proportional to the consultant’ skill and expertise is possible and may have a potential impact on waiting list and quality of eye care. Further studies are needed to examine the impact of such pricing system on attitudes and choices of cataract patients. PMID:26575284
Megaw, R; Rane-Malcolm, T; Brannan, S; Smith, R; Sanders, R
To determine current knowledge and opinion on revalidation, and methods of cataract surgery audit in Scotland and to outline the current and future possibilities for electronic cataract surgery audit. In 2010 we conducted a prospective, cross-sectional, Scottish-wide survey on revalidation knowledge and opinion, and cataract audit practice among all senior NHS ophthalmologists. Results were anonymised and recorded manually for analysis. In all, 61% of the ophthalmologists surveyed took part. Only 33% felt ready to take part in revalidation, whereas 76% felt they did not have adequate information about the process. Also, 71% did not feel revalidation would improve patient care, but 85% agreed that cataract surgery audit is essential for ophthalmic practice. In addition, 91% audit their cataract outcomes; 52% do so continuously. Further, 63% audit their subspecialist surgical results. Only 25% audit their cataract surgery practice electronically, and only 12% collect clinical data using a hospital PAS system. Funding and system incompatibility were the main reasons cited for the lack of electronic audit setup. Currently, eight separate hospital IT patient administration systems are used across 14 health boards in Scotland. Revalidation is set to commence in 2012. The Royal College of Ophthalmologists will use cataract outcome audit as a tool to ensure surgical competency for the process. Retrospective manual auditing of cataract outcome is time consuming, and can be avoided with an electronic system. Scottish ophthalmologists view revalidation with scepticism and appear to have inadequate knowledge of the process. However, they strongly agree with the concept of cataract surgery audit. The existing and future electronic applications that may support surgical audit are commercial electronic records, web-based applications, centrally funded software applications, and robust NHS connections between community and hospital.
Wang, Mei; Zuo, Yajing; Lin, Xianhua; Ling, Yunlan; Lin, Xiaofeng; Li, Mingge; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Zheng, Yingfeng
To study willingness to pay for cataract surgery and surgical service provided by a senior cataract surgeon in urban Southern China. This study was a cross-sectional willingness-to-pay (WTP) interview using bidding formats. Two-hundred eleven persons with presenting visual impairment in either eye due to cataract were enrolled at a tertiary eye hospital. Participants underwent a comprehensive eye examination and a WTP interview for both surgery and service provided by a senior surgeon. Demographic information, socioeconomic status and clinical data were recorded. Among 211 (98% response rate) persons completing the interview, 53.6% were women and 80.6% were retired. About 72.2% had a monthly income lower than 1000 renminbi (US $161). A total of 189 (89.6%) were willing to pay for cataract and the median amount of WTP was 6000 renminbi (US$968). And 102 (50.7%) were willing to pay additional fees for surgery performed by a senior surgeon, and the median amount of WTP was 500 renminbi (US$81). In regression models adjusting for age and gender, persons with preexisting eye diseases other than cataract, were more likely to pay for cataract surgery and service provided by a senior surgeon (P = 0.04 for both). In urban China, cataract patients, especially those with preexisting eye conditions, are willing to pay additional fees for a senior surgeon. Moving to a system where the price of cataract surgery is proportional to the consultant' skill and expertise is possible and may have a potential impact on waiting list and quality of eye care. Further studies are needed to examine the impact of such pricing system on attitudes and choices of cataract patients.
Murthy, Gudlavalleti V S; Vashist, Praveen; John, Neena; Pokharel, Gopal; Ellwein, Leon B
Investigate the prevalence and vision-related outcomes of cataract surgery in an area of high cataract surgical rate. Cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting individuals > or = 50 years of age in 2007. Participants were queried regarding year and place of previous cataract surgery. Cataract surgical procedures and evidence of surgical complications were recorded. The principal cause was identified for eyes presenting with visual acuity (VA) < or = 20/40. A total of 4,738 persons were examined and 834 (17.6%) had cataract surgery. Intra-ocular lenses (IOLs) were used in 84.1% of the 1,299 cataract-operated eyes, with more than half of these having manual small incision surgery. Surgical coverage among the cataract blind (visual acuity [VA] < 20/200) was estimated as 72.2%. Coverage was associated with older age, literacy, and urban residence; gender was not significant. Among cataract-operated eyes, 18.7% presented with VA > or = 20/32 and 18.0% were < 20/200. With best-corrected acuity, the corresponding percentages were 55.7% and 11.0%. Presenting and best-corrected VA > or = 20/63 were associated with young age, literacy, and IOL surgery; urban residence and surgery in non-governmental organizations (NGO)/private facilities were also significant for presenting VA; and recent surgery was significant for best-corrected VA. Refractive error was the main cause of vision impairment/blindness in cataract-operated eyes. Refractive error and posterior capsule opacification, easily treatable causes of visual impairment, are common among the operated. A greater emphasis on the quality of visual acuity outcomes along with sustained efforts to provide access to affordable surgery is needed.
García-Layana, Alfredo; Ciufo, Gianfranco; Toledo, Estefania; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montse; Estruch, Ramon; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miguel; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Portillo, Maria P; Sorli, José V; Bulló, Mónica; Vinyoles, Ernest; Sala-Vila, Aleix; Ros, Emilio; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Arós, Fernando
Cataract is a leading cause of vision impairment worldwide, and surgery is the only available treatment. The process that initiates lens opacification is dependent on the oxidative stress experienced by the lens components. A healthy overall dietary pattern, with the potential to reduce oxidative stress, has been suggested as a means to decrease the risk of developing cataract. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis that an intervention with a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) rather than a low-fat diet could decrease the incidence of cataract surgery in elderly subjects. We included 5802 men and women (age range: 55-80 years) from the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea study (multicenter, parallel-group, randomized controlled clinical trial) who had not undergone cataract surgery. They were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups: (1) a MedDiet enriched with extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) ( n = 1998); (2) a MedDiet enriched with nuts ( n = 1914), and a control group recommended to follow a low-fat diet ( n = 1890). The incidence of cataract surgery was recorded yearly during follow-up clinical evaluations. Primary analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Cox regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between the nutritional intervention and the incidence of cataract surgery. During a follow-up period of 7.0 years (mean follow-up period: 5.7 years; median: 5.9 years), 559 subjects underwent cataract surgery. Two hundred and six participants from the MedDiet + EVOO group, 174 from the MedDiet + Nuts group, and 179 from the control group underwent cataract surgery. We did not observe a reduction in the incidence of cataract surgery in the MedDiet groups compared to the control group. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios were 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84-1.26, p = 0.79) for the control group versus the MedDiet + EVOO group and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.86-1.31, p = 0.58) for the control group versus the MedDiet + Nuts group
García-Layana, Alfredo; Ciufo, Gianfranco; Toledo, Estefania; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montse; Estruch, Ramon; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miguel; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Portillo, Maria P.; Sorli, José V.; Bulló, Mónica; Vinyoles, Ernest; Sala-Vila, Aleix; Ros, Emilio; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Arós, Fernando
Background: Cataract is a leading cause of vision impairment worldwide, and surgery is the only available treatment. The process that initiates lens opacification is dependent on the oxidative stress experienced by the lens components. A healthy overall dietary pattern, with the potential to reduce oxidative stress, has been suggested as a means to decrease the risk of developing cataract. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis that an intervention with a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) rather than a low-fat diet could decrease the incidence of cataract surgery in elderly subjects. Methods: We included 5802 men and women (age range: 55–80 years) from the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea study (multicenter, parallel-group, randomized controlled clinical trial) who had not undergone cataract surgery. They were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups: (1) a MedDiet enriched with extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) (n = 1998); (2) a MedDiet enriched with nuts (n = 1914), and a control group recommended to follow a low-fat diet (n = 1890). The incidence of cataract surgery was recorded yearly during follow-up clinical evaluations. Primary analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Cox regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between the nutritional intervention and the incidence of cataract surgery. Results: During a follow-up period of 7.0 years (mean follow-up period: 5.7 years; median: 5.9 years), 559 subjects underwent cataract surgery. Two hundred and six participants from the MedDiet + EVOO group, 174 from the MedDiet + Nuts group, and 179 from the control group underwent cataract surgery. We did not observe a reduction in the incidence of cataract surgery in the MedDiet groups compared to the control group. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios were 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84–1.26, p = 0.79) for the control group versus the MedDiet + EVOO group and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.86–1.31, p = 0.58) for the control group
Bras, I Dineli; Colitz, Carmen M H; Kusewitt, Donna F; Chandler, Heather; Lu, Ping; Gemensky-Metzler, Anne J; Wilkie, David A
The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) increases in the human cataract and should correlate with increased DNA damage and proliferation of lens epithelial cells (LECs). The purpose of this study was to measure and immunolocalize RAGE in normal and cataractous canine LECs, and to determine whether there was a correlation between RAGE and DNA damage (gadd45), cell-cycle regulation (p21), and LEC proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA). Thirty-two anterior lens capsules from 22 dogs that underwent cataract surgery and 10 lenses from dogs with normal eyes were evaluated. Eleven of the cataractous lenses were from diabetic patients (n=16), and eleven were from patients with inherited cataracts (n=16). Standard immunohistochemical staining was performed using antibodies against RAGE, gadd45, p21, PCNA, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and TGF-beta. Immunostaining intensity for each antibody was given a score of 0-4+. Standard Western blot analysis on normal and cataractous lens capsules was performed using the same antibodies as in the immunohistochemical staining. Comparisons were also made based on age and sex. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed for RAGE. There was an increase in RAGE expression with age in normal LECs, but no significant difference was seen when normal adult LECs were compared to cataractous LECs. The stage of the cataract and the presence of LIU were not associated with a significant increase in RAGE expression. There was no age-dependent difference in the normal lenses for gadd45, p21, or PCNA. Significant up-regulation of p21 (P < 0.05) and PCNA (P < 0.05) was seen in diabetic cataracts compared to inherited cataracts. RAGE and PCNA expression did not increase with cataractogenesis, possibly due to overexpression associated with normal aging and constant exposure to oxidative stress from sunlight-related ultraviolet irradiation, respectively. However, p21 and PCNA increased
Tan, Xuhua; Lin, Haotian; Lin, Zhuoling; Chen, Jingjing; Tang, Xiangchen; Luo, Lixia; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Yizhi
Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate capsular outcomes 12 months after pediatric cataract surgery without intraocular lens implantation via qualitative classification and quantitative measurement. This study is a cross-sectional study that was approved by the institutional review board of Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center of Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, China. Digital coaxial retro-illumination photographs of 329 aphakic pediatric eyes were obtained 12 months after pediatric cataract surgery without intraocular lens implantation. Capsule digital coaxial retro-illumination photographs were divided as follows: anterior capsule opening area (ACOA), posterior capsule opening area (PCOA), and posterior capsule opening opacity (PCOO). Capsular outcomes were qualitatively classified into 3 types based on the PCOO: Type I—capsule with mild opacification but no invasion into the capsule opening; Type II—capsule with moderate opacification accompanied by contraction of the ACOA and invasion to the occluding part of the PCOA; and Type III—capsule with severe opacification accompanied by total occlusion of the PCOA. Software was developed to quantitatively measure the ACOA, PCOA, and PCOO using standardized DCRPs. The relationships between the accurate intraoperative anterior and posterior capsulorhexis sizes and the qualitative capsular types were statistically analyzed. The DCRPs of 315 aphakic eyes (95.8%) of 191 children were included. Capsular outcomes were classified into 3 types: Type I—120 eyes (38.1%); Type II—157 eyes (49.8%); Type III—38 eyes (12.1%). The scores of the capsular outcomes were negatively correlated with intraoperative anterior capsulorhexis size (R = −0.572, P < 0.001), but no significant correlation with intraoperative posterior capsulorhexis size (R = −0.16, P = 0.122) was observed. The ACOA significantly decreased from Type I to Type II to Type III, the PCOA increased in size from Type I to Type
Lowry, K R; Baker, D H
Several chick bioassays were conducted to evaluate means of ameliorating ethionine toxicity. Supplementing a corn-soy diet marginally deficient in sulfur amino acids (methionine + cystine) with .075% D,L-ethionine reduced weight gain in 8-day-old chicks by 70% compared to gains of unsupplemented controls. Dietary addition of .50% DL-methionine prevented reduction in weight gain and feed intake resulting from ethionine supplementation whereas feeding supplemental L-cystine was without effect. Supplementation of the ethionine-containing diet with either choline or betaine ameliorated the growth depression, although neither compound was able to completely overcome the toxic effects of ethionine. Dietary ethionine did not affect plasma levels of free methionine or cystine but did increase plasma free glycine 6-fold. Dietary addition of .50% DL-methionine caused normalization of plasma glycine levels whereas it elevated plasma methionine concentration. Although results suggested the possibility of ethionine-induced serine or threonine deficiency, dietary additions of .75% L-serine or .75% L-threonine failed to improve chick weight gain. These studies suggest that ethionine, in addition to affecting transsulfuration and transmethylation activity may exert specific effects on certain amino acids in tissue pools.
Van Konynenburg, Richard A.; Farmer, Joseph C.
A fuse and filter arrangement for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.
Medina-Andrade, A; Villanueva-Mendoza, C; Arenas, S; Cortés-González, V
The case concerns a 16 year-old boy with a history of high myopia and unilateral congenital cataract, tall stature for age, facial dysmorphism, hypermobile metacarpal-phalangeal joints, as well as behavioural problems. The mother had a history of recurrent pregnancy loss. Chromosomal analysis of the peripheral blood lymphocytes reported 47,XYY. Patients with sex chromosome aneuploidy 47,XYY have higher risk of congenital malformations, although ophthalmological anomalies are unusual. Evaluation of patients with tall stature and behavioural problems should include a chromosomal analysis in order to determine the aetiology. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Martinez, Jaime D; Amescua, Guillermo; Lozano-Cárdenas, Jesus; Suh, Leejee H
The purpose of this manuscript is to report the case of an 81-year-old patient who presented with bilateral keratitis after phacoemulsification surgery. Cultures came back positive for Mycobacterium chelonae . Despite aggressive topical and systemic antimicrobial treatment, the patient developed a corneal perforation in both eyes, treated with corneal glue in the right eye and corneoscleral patch in the left eye. After two years of follow-up, patient was free of infection in the right eye with visual acuity of 20/200 and the left eye progressed to phthisis bulbi. We present an unusual case of bilateral Mycobacterium chelonae keratitis associated with phacoemulsification cataract surgery. This case represents the importance of making clinicians aware of this devastating infection and highlights the need for better management to improve outcomes.
Zaret, M M; Snyder, W Z; Birenbaum, L
The case histories of two individuals exposed to thermal radiation emitted from an electric oven and range were presented. In one patient, earlier exposure to medical diathermy appears to have initiated delayed or late-appearing, capsular cataracts. Instead of the anticipated slow progression, the cataractogenesis was accelerated following recent, repeated exposure to the intense, infrared radiation. In the other patient, exposed solely to infrared radiation, a chorioretinal lesion indistinguishable from the type characteristically secondary to repeated, thermal radiation was observed. More recently, the earliest sign of thermal radiation cataractogenesis, capsular opacification, has become evident. The widespread availability of radiant energy sources such as diathermy machines, microwave ovens, and electric ovens and ranges makes it imperative to examine carefully any possible hazards that may result from their use. With this in mind, radiant energy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cataractogenesis. Images PMID:990233
Cravy, T V
Obtaining a minimal amount of postoperative astigmatism following cataract surgery is becoming increasingly important. One aspect of the patient's surgery which should not be overlooked is the preoperative keratometry which provides a basis for preoperative planning of surgical technique to be used and a point of reference for determining the amount of change in astigmatism produced by the surgery. Analysis of the surgically induced change in astigmatism using the calculations described in this paper will allow the surgeon to evaluate his own techniques and to maximize his potential for obtaining consistently good postoperative astigmatic results without the need for suture removal. The method presented is based upon concepts in common use in surgical ophthalmology and requires only simple mathematical procedures, familiar to all with a background in algebra and trigonometry.
Maksimov, V Iu; Zakharova, N V; Maksimova, I S; Golushkov, G A; Evseev, S Iu
Effects of low-intensive laser and alternating magnetic field on the course of the postoperative period were studied in patients with exudative reaction after extracapsular cataract extraction with implantation of intraocular lens (IOL). The results are analyzed for 148 eyes with early exudative reaction after IOL implantation (136 patients aged 42-75 years). The patients were observed for up to 6 months. The treatment efficiency was evaluated by the clinical picture of inflammatory reaction, visual acuity, and results of biochemical analysis of the lacrimal fluid (the ratio of lipid peroxidation products to antioxidants in cell membrane). The course of the postoperative period was more benign and recovery sooner in patients of the main group in comparison with the control.
Yiu, Glenn; Marra, Kyle V; Wagley, Sushant; Krishnan, Sheela; Sandhu, Harpal; Kovacs, Kyle; Kuperwaser, Mark; Arroyo, Jorge G
To compare functional and anatomical outcomes after idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) peeling combined with phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation versus ERM peeling alone. A retrospective, non-randomised comparative case series study was conducted of 81 eyes from 79 patients who underwent ERM peeling at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center between 2001 and 2010. Eyes that underwent combined surgery for ERM and cataracts (group 1) were compared with those that had ERM peeling alone (group 2) with respect to best-corrected visual acuity at 6 months and 1 year after surgery, postoperative central macular thickness (CMT) as measured on optical coherence tomography, and rates of complications, including elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), ERM recurrence and need for reoperation. Mean logMAR visual acuity improved significantly in both groups at 6 months (p<0.001) and 1 year (p<0.001) after surgery. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in visual acuity improvement at 6 months (p=0.108) or 1 year (p=0.094). Mean CMT of both groups also significantly decreased after surgery (p=0.002), with no statistical difference in CMT reduction between the two groups, but a trend toward less CMT reduction in group 1 (p=0.061). The rates of complications, including IOP elevation, ERM recurrence and frequency of reoperation, were similar in the two groups, with non-statistical trends toward greater ERM recurrence (p=0.084) and need for reoperation (p=0.096) in those that had combined surgery. Combined surgery for ERMs and cataracts may potentially be as effective as membrane peeling alone with respect to visual and anatomical outcomes. Further studies are necessary to determine if there may be greater ERM recurrence or need for reoperation after combined surgery.
Leon, Pia; Pastore, Marco Rocco; Zanei, Andrea; Umari, Ingrid; Messai, Meriem; Negro, Corrado; Tognetto, Daniele
AIM To evaluate and compare aspheric toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and aspheric monofocal IOL implantation with limbal relaxing incisions (LRI) to manage low corneal astigmatism (1.0-2.0 D) in cataract surgery. METHODS A prospective randomized comparative clinical study was performed. There were randomly recruited 102 eyes (102 patients) with cataracts associated with corneal astigmatism and divided into two groups. The first group received toric IOL implantation and the second one monofocal IOL implantation with peripheral corneal relaxing incisions. Outcomes considered were: visual acuity, postoperative residual astigmatism, endothelial cell count, the need for spectacles, and patient satisfaction. To determine the postoperative toric axis, all patients who underwent the toric IOL implantation were further evaluated using an OPD Scan III (Nidek Co, Japan). Follow-up lasted 6mo. RESULTS The mean uncorrected distance visual acuity (UCVA) and the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) demonstrated statistically significant improvement after surgery in both groups. At the end of the follow-up the UCVA was statistically better in the patients with toric IOL implants compared to those patients who underwent implantation of monofocal IOL plus LRI. The mean residual refractive astigmatism was of 0.4 D for the toric IOL group and 1.1 D for the LRI group (P<0.01). No difference was observed in the postoperative endothelial cell count between the two groups. CONCLUSION The two surgical procedures demonstrated a significant decrease in refractive astigmatism. Toric IOL implantation was more effective and predictable compared to the limbal relaxing incision. PMID:26309869
Dexter, Franklin; Birchansky, Lee; Bernstein, James M; Wachtel, Ruth E
The increase in the number of operating rooms nationwide in the United States may reflect preferences of patients for scheduling of outpatient surgery. Yet, little is known of the importance that patients place on scheduling convenience and flexibility. Fifty cataract surgery patients seen by a surgeon at his main office during a 6-mo period responded to a marketing survey. All the patients had Medicare insurance and supplemental insurance permitting surgery at any facility. A telephone questionnaire included four vignettes describing different choices in the scheduling of cataract surgery. Respondents were asked how far they would be willing to travel for one option instead of another. For example, "Your surgery will be on Thursday in three weeks at 2 pm. You can drink water until 9 am. You arrive at 10 am, because your surgery might start early. If you travel farther, you would arrive at 8 am for 9 am surgery." The median (50th percentile) additional travel time was 60 min (lower 95% confidence bound >or=52 min) for each of four options: to receive care on a day chosen by the patient instead of assigned by the physician, to receive care at a single site instead of both the surgeon's office and a surgery center at a different location, to combine the examination and the surgery into a single visit instead of two visits, and to have surgery in the morning instead of the afternoon. The patients of this ophthalmologist placed a high value on convenience and flexibility in scheduling their surgery. In general, this would be achievable only if many operating rooms were available each morning.
Gite, S S; Yadav, S A; Nilegaonkar, S S; Agte, V V
Functional foods are the most natural and safest source of health ingredients, providing health benefits beyond basic nutrition, and hence can be used as supplements for the prevention of secondary complications in diabetes. Persistent diabetes may cause glycation of various tissue proteins such as of those in lens, kidney, blood, and brain, which may further lead to the development of pathological conditions such as cataract and cardiovascular diseases. This study on adult rats was designed to assess if the functional food supplements A and B (proprietary blends of antioxidant rich plant materials) can reduce secondary complications such as cataract, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress under severe diabetic conditions. After nine weeks of intervention of the supplements, it was found that the % HbA1c levels in the formulation group B significantly (p < 0.05) lowered (10.9%) followed by those in group A (11.1%) as compared to those in the diabetic fructose control (DFC) group (15.1%); moreover, plasma insulin levels were significantly (p < 0.01) improved in the formulation B group (9.8 mU L -1 ) as compared to those in the DFC group (8.5 mU L -1 ). The significantly higher level of plasma TEAC in group B (27.5 mg dL -1 ) (p < 0.02) and group A (26.6 mg dL -1 ) (p < 0.05) indicates an improved plasma antioxidants status as compared to that in DFC group (21.7 mg dL -1 ). Both the formulation groups A and B showed a decrease in AGEs and tryptophan fluorescence, which suggests amelioration of the glycation of lens proteins as compared to that in the DFC group. The present results indicate that the formulations A and B exhibit antiglycating and antioxidant potentials by inhibiting the high fructose-induced glycation in diabetic rats; hence, they may have therapeutic value as functional foods in the effective management of secondary complications associated with severe diabetic conditions.
Kador, Peter F; Guo, Changmei; Kawada, Hiroyoshi; Randazzo, James; Blessing, Karen
Based on the hypothesis that oral nutraceuticals do not adequately reach all ocular tissues in the anterior segment, we evaluated the ability of a 3% concentration of the ingredients in a topical nutraceutical antioxidant formulation called Optixcare Eye Health (Optixcare EH) to ameliorate oxidative stress in rat models of age-related ocular diseases. Diabetes was induced by tail-vein injection of streptozotocin, and the development of cataracts was monitored by slit lamp. Young rats were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light, and the reduction in lens glutathione (GSH) levels and increase in 4-hydroxynonenol (4-HNE) were measured. Oxidative stress in the neural retina was generated by exposure of dark-adapted rats to 1,000 lx of light, and oxidative stress markers were measured. Dry eye was induced in rats by twice daily (b.i.d.) subcutaneous scopolamine injections. Topical Optixcare EH was administered b.i.d. and compared in select experiments to the multifunctional antioxidant JHX-4, the topical aldose reductase inhibitor (ARI) Kinostat™, oral Ocu-GLO™, and the topical ocular comfort agents Optixcare Eye Lube, Optixcare Eye Lube + Hyaluron, and Idrop Vet Plus hyaluronic acid. In diabetic rats, topical ARI treatment prevented cataract formation while the nutraceuticals delayed their development with Optixcare EH>Ocu-GLO. In UV-exposed rats, the reduction of GSH and increase in 4-HNE in the lens were normalized in order JHX-4>Optixcare EH>Ocu-GLO. In the retina, oxidative stress markers were reduced better by oral JHX-4 compared with topical Optixcare EH. In the scopolamine-induced dry-eye rats, tear flow was maintained by Optixcare EH treatment, while none of the comfort agents examined altered tear flow. Topical administration of a 3% concentration of the ingredients in Optixcare EH reduces experimentally induced reactive oxygen species in rats exposed to several sources of ocular oxidative stress. In addition, Optixcare EH maintains tear volume in scopolamine
Murthy, Gudlavalleti V S; John, Neena; Shamanna, Bindiganavale R; Pant, Hira B
Background: In the final push toward the elimination of avoidable blindness, cataract occupies a position of eminence for the success of the Right to Sight initiative. Aims: Review existing situation and assess what monitoring indicators may be useful to chart progress towards attaining the goals of Vision 2020. Settings and Design: Review of published papers from low and middle income countries since 2000. Materials and Methods: Published population-based data on prevalence of cataract blindness/visual impairment were accessed and prevalence of cataract blindness/visual impairment computed, where not reported. Data on prevalence of cataract blindness, cataract surgical coverage at different visual acuity cut offs, surgical outcomes, and prevalence of cataract surgery were analyzed. Scatter plots were used to look at relationships of some variables, with Human Development Index (HDI) rank. Available data on Cataract Surgical Rate (CSR) was plotted against prevalence of cataract surgery reported from surveys. Results: Worse HDI Ranks were associated with higher prevalence of cataract blindness. Most studies showed that a significant proportion of the blind were covered by surgery, while a fifth showed that a significant proportion, were operated before they went blind. A good visual outcome after surgery was positively correlated with higher surgical coverage. CSR was positively correlated with cataract surgical coverage. Conclusions: Cataract surgical coverage is increasing in most countries at vision <3/60 and visual outcomes after cataract surgery are improving. Establishing population-based surveillance of cataract surgical need and performance is a strong monitoring tool and will help program planners immensely. PMID:22944756
Ozolinsh, Maris; Danilenko, Olga; Zavjalova, Varvara
Visual stimuli were demonstrated on a 4.3'' mobile phone screen inside a "Virtual Reality" adapter that allowed separation of the left and right eye visual fields. Contrast of the retina image thus can be controlled by the image on the phone screen and parallel to that at appropriate geometry by the AC voltage applied to scattering PDLC cell inside the adapter. Such optical pathway separation allows to demonstrate to both eyes spatially variant images, that after visual binocular fusion acquire their characteristic indications. As visual stimuli we used grey and different color (two opponent components to vision - red-green in L*a*b* color space) spatially periodical stimuli for left and right eyes; and with spatial content that by addition or subtraction resulted as clockwise or counter clockwise slanted Gabor gratings. We performed computer modeling with numerical addition or subtraction of signals similar to processing in brain via stimuli input decomposition in luminance and color opponency components. It revealed the dependence of the perception psychophysical equilibrium point between clockwise or counter clockwise perception of summation on one eye image contrast and color saturation, and on the strength of the retinal aftereffects. Existence of a psychophysical equilibrium point in perception of summation is only in the presence of a prior adaptation to a slanted periodical grating and at the appropriate slant orientation of adaptation grating and/or at appropriate spatial grating pattern phase according to grating nods. Actual observer perception experiments when one eye images were deteriorated by simulated cataract approved the shift of mentioned psychophysical equilibrium point on the degree of artificial cataract. We analyzed also the mobile devices stimuli emission spectra paying attention to areas sensitive to macula pigments absorption spectral maxima and blue areas where the intense irradiation can cause in abnormalities in periodic melatonin
Schein, Oliver D; Pronovost, Peter J
Cataract surgery poses minimal systemic medical risk, yet a preoperative general medical history and physical is required by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and other regulatory bodies within 1 month of cataract surgery. Based on prior research and practice guidelines, there is professional consensus that preoperative laboratory testing confers no benefit when routinely performed on cataract surgical patients. Such testing remains commonplace. Although not yet tested in a large-scale trial, there is also no evidence that the required history and physical yields a benefit for most cataract surgical patients above and beyond the screening performed by anesthesia staff on the day of surgery. We propose that the minority of patients who might benefit from a preoperative medical history and physical can be identified prospectively. Regulatory agencies should not constrain medical practice in a way that adds enormous cost and patient burden in the absence of value.
Badrinath, S S; Sharma, T; Biswas, J; Srinivas, V
A case-control study (244 cases and 264 controls) was done during 1986-89 on a hospital based population to evaluate the risk factors associated with the etiology of senile cataract. Patient with age between 40-60 years, visual acuity of 6/9 or less, and presence of lenticular opacity of senile origin were included as cases. Age matched individuals with absence of lenticular opacity made up the controls. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that higher systolic BP and number of meals were significantly (P < or = 0.05) associated with presence of senile cataract; whereas higher weight, education and income, and utilization of cooking water had a significant protective effect against senile cataract. The present study helps the clinician to understand the possible risk factors associated with the development of senile cataract and could be helpful in designing a intervention strategy in future.
Shafie, Suraiya M.; Barria von-Bischhoffshausen, Fernando R.; Bateman, J. Bronwyn
PURPOSE To document intrafamilial and interocular phenotypic variability of autosomal dominant cataract (ADC). DESIGN Prospective observational case series. METHODS We performed ophthalmologic examination in four Chilean ADC families. RESULTS The families exhibited variability with respect to morphology, location with the lens, color and density of cataracts among affected members. We documented asymmetry between eyes in the morphology, location within the lens, color and density of cataracts, and a variable rate of progression. CONCLUSIONS The cataracts in these families exhibit wide intrafamilial and interocular phenotypic variability, supporting the premise that the mutated genes are expressed differentially in individuals and between eyes; other genes or environmental factors may be the bases for this variability. Marked progression among some family members underscores the variable clinical course of a common mutation within a family. Like retinitis pigmentosa, classification of ADC will be most useful if based on the gene and specific mutation. PMID:16564818
... of damage and other eye problems, such as diabetic retinopathy or age-related macular degeneration. A dilated eye ... likely to develop a cataract. Diabetic Eye Disease Diabetic Retinopathy : A scene as it might be viewed by ...
Indaram, Maanasa; VanderVeen, Deborah K
Advances in surgical techniques allow implantation of intraocular lenses (IOL) with cataract extraction, even in young children. However, there are several challenges unique to the pediatric population that result in greater degrees of postoperative refractive error compared to adults. Literature review of the techniques and outcomes of pediatric cataract surgery with IOL implantation. Pediatric cataract surgery is associated with several sources of postoperative refractive error. These include planned refractive error based on age or fellow eye status, loss of accommodation, and unexpected refractive errors due to inaccuracies in biometry technique, use of IOL power formulas based on adult normative values, and late refractive changes due to unpredictable eye growth. Several factors can preclude the achievement of optimal refractive status following pediatric cataract extraction with IOL implantation. There is a need for new technology to reduce postoperative refractive surprises and address refractive adjustment in a growing eye.
Antioxidant amelioration of arsenical-induced effects in vivo. ES Hunter and EH Rogers. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC.
Antioxidants have been reported to ameliorate the effects of many developmental toxicants. We tested the hypothesis that oxi...
Shobana, Shanmugam; Harsha, Mysore R; Platel, Kalpana; Srinivasan, Krishnapura; Malleshi, Nagappa G
Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) is extensively cultivated and consumed in India and Africa. The millet seed coat is a rich source of dietary fibre and phenolic compounds. The effect of feeding a diet containing 20% finger millet seed coat matter (SCM) was examined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats maintained on the millet SCM diet (diabetic experimental (DE) group) for 6 weeks exhibited a lesser degree of fasting hyperglycaemia and partial reversal of abnormalities in serum albumin, urea and creatinine compared with the diabetic control (DC) group. The DE group of rats excreted comparatively lesser amounts of glucose, protein, urea and creatinine and was accompanied by improved body weights compared with their corresponding controls. Hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriacylglycerolaemia associated with diabetes were also notably reversed in the DE group. Slit lamp examination of the eye lens revealed an immature subcapsular cataract with mild lenticular opacity in the DE group of rats compared to the mature cataract with significant lenticular opacity and corneal vascularisation in the DC group. Lower activity of lens aldose reductase, serum advanced glycation end products and blood glycosylated Hb levels were observed in the DE group. The millet SCM feeding showed pronounced ameliorating effects on kidney pathology as reflected by near normal glomerular and tubular structures and lower glomerular filtration rate compared with the shrunken glomerulus, tubular vacuolations in the DC group. Thus, the present animal study evidenced the hypoglycaemic, hypocholesterolaemic, nephroprotective and anti-cataractogenic properties of finger millet SCM, suggesting its utility as a functional ingredient in diets for diabetics.
Maddirala, Yasaswi; Tobwala, Shakila; Karacal, Humeyra; Ercal, Nuran
The present study sought to evaluate the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) eye drops in reversing the cataract formation induced by sodium selenite in male Wistar rat pups. Forty male Wistar rat pups were randomly divided into a control group, an N-acetylcysteine amide-only group, a sodium selenite-induced cataract group, and a NACA-treated sodium selenite-induced cataract group. Sodium selenite was injected intraperitoneally on postpartum day 10, whereas N-acetylcysteine amide was injected intraperitoneally on postpartum days 9, 11, and 13 in the respective groups. Cataracts were evaluated at the end of week 2 (postpartum day 14) when the rat pups opened their eyes. N-acetylcysteine amide eye drops were administered beginning on week 3 until the end of week 4 (postpartum days 15 to 30), and the rats were sacrificed at the end of week 4. Lenses were isolated and examined for oxidative stress parameters such as glutathione, lipid peroxidation, and calcium levels along with the glutathione reductase and thioltransferase enzyme activities. Casein zymography and Western blot of m-calpain were performed using the water soluble fraction of lens proteins. Morphological examination of the lenses in the NACA-treated group indicated that NACA was able to reverse the cataract grade. In addition, glutathione level, thioltransferase activity, m-calpain activity, and m-calpain level (as assessed by Western blot) were all significantly higher in the NACA-treated group than in the sodium selenite-induced cataract group. Furthermore, sodium selenite- injected rat pups had significantly higher levels of malondialdehyde, glutathione reductase enzyme activity, and calcium levels, which were reduced to control levels upon treatment with NACA. The data suggest that NACA has the potential to significantly improve vision and decrease the burden of cataract-related loss of function. Prevention and reversal of cataract formation could have a global impact. Development of
Brown, Gary C; Brown, Melissa M; Menezes, Alicia; Busbee, Brandon G; Lieske, Heidi B; Lieske, Philip A
To assess the 2012 cost utility of cataract surgery in the United States and to compare 2012 cost-utility data with those from 2000. Value-Based Medicine (Flourtown, PA), patient preference-based, comparative effectiveness analysis and cost-utility analysis using 2012 real United States dollars. Previously published Patient Outcomes Research Team Study data and time tradeoff utilities obtained from patients with vision loss. Visual acuity measurements from patients wtih untreated cataract were used as controls. Thirteen-year, average, first-eye and second-eye cataract surgery cost-utility analysis using the societal and third-party insurer cost perspectives. Patient value gain in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and percent gain in quality of life as well as the cost-utility ratio using the dollars expended per QALY gained. Patient and financial value outcomes were discounted at 3% annually with net present value analysis. First-eye cataract surgery conferred 1.6212 QALYs over the 13-year model, a 20.8% quality-of-life gain. Bilateral cataract surgery conferred 2.8152 QALYs over 13 years, a 36.2% improvement in quality of life. The direct ophthalmic medical cost for unilateral cataract surgery in 2012 United States nominal dollars was $2653, an inflation-adjusted 34.2% less than in 2000 and 85% less than in 1985. The 2012 inflation-adjusted physician fee was 10.1% of that in 1985. The 13-year societal cost perspective, financial return on investment (ROI) for first-eye cataract surgery was $121,198, a 4567% gain. The third-party insurer cost perspective average cost-utility ratio was $2653/1.6212 = $1636/QALY for unilateral cataract surgery, whereas the societal cost perspective average cost-utility ratio was -$121,198/1.6212 = -$74,759/QALY. The net 13-year $123.4-billion financial ROI from a 1-year cohort of cataract surgery patients was accrued: Medicare, $36.4 billion; Medicaid, $3.3 billion; other insurers, $9.6 billion; patients, $48.6 billion; and
Lundström, M; Stenevi, U; Thorburn, W; Roos, P
To demonstrate the outcome for patients after cataract extraction using the Catquest cataract questionnaire and discuss the models validity in assessing outcome. Thirty-five Swedish departments of ophthalmology. Patients having cataract extraction performed by surgeons from 35 Swedish departments of opthalmology participated in the study. The questionnaire was given to 2970 consecutive patients having surgery during March 1995 at the participating surgical units. The questionnaire was sent by mail to patients and completed on a voluntary basis. It focuses on visual disabilities in daily life, activity level, cataract symptoms, and degree of independence. The results form the questionnaire are interpreted using a benefit matrix that credits not only a decrease in visual disabilities and cataract symptoms but also an improvement in or maintenance of a preoperative activity level. Complete surgical outcome data and completed preoperative and postoperative questionnaires were available in 1933 cases (65.1%). Benefit from surgery according to the model was achieved by 90.9% of the patients. Patients having their second cataract extraction had the highest frequency of the greatest benefit form surgery. There was good agreement between the different levels of benefit from surgery according to the model and the patient's global rating of his or her vision or achieved visual acuity after surgery, respectively. Patients with missing data (did not return postoperative questionnaire or had missing surgical result variables) were older and had a higher frequency of other diseases and handicaps. The Catquest cataract questionnaire allowed the outcome of cataract surgery to be graded by different levels of benefit. There seemed to be good agreement between this model of assessment and the patient's global rating of his or her vision. Missing data may be a problem when a postal questionnaire is used.
Hellinger, Walter C; Hasan, Saiyid A; Bacalis, Laura P; Thornblom, Deborah M; Beckmann, Susan C; Blackmore, Carina; Forster, Terri S; Tirey, Jason F; Ross, Mary J; Nilson, Christian D; Mamalis, Nick; Crook, Julia E; Bendel, Rick E; Shetty, Rajesh; Stewart, Michael W; Bolling, James P; Edelhauser, Henry F
Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS), a complication of cataract surgery, is a sterile inflammation of the anterior chamber of the eye. An outbreak of TASS was recognized at an outpatient surgical center and its affiliated hospital in December 2002. Medical records of patients who underwent cataract surgery during the outbreak were reviewed, and surgical team members who participated in the operations were interviewed. Potential causes of TASS were identified and eliminated. Feedwater from autoclave steam generators and steam condensates were analyzed by use of spectroscopy and ion chromatography. During the outbreak, 8 (38%) of 21 cataract operations were complicated by TASS, compared with 2 (0.07%) of 2,713 operations performed from January 1996 through November 2002. Results of an initial investigation suggested that cataract surgical equipment may have been contaminated by suboptimal equipment reprocessing or as a result of personnel changes. The frequency of TASS decreased (1 of 44 cataract operations) after reassignment of personnel and revision of equipment reprocessing procedures. Further investigation identified the presence of impurities (eg, sulfates, copper, zinc, nickel, and silica) in autoclave steam moisture, which was attributed to improper maintenance of the autoclave steam generator in the outpatient surgical center. When impurities in autoclave steam moisture were eliminated, no cases of TASS were observed after more than 1,000 cataract operations. Suboptimal reprocessing of cataract surgical equipment may evolve over time in busy, multidisciplinary surgical centers. Clinically significant contamination of surgical equipment may result from inappropriate maintenance of steam sterilization systems. Standardization of protocols for reprocessing of cataract surgical equipment may prevent outbreaks of TASS and may be of assistance during outbreak investigations.
Gonzalez-Salinas, Roberto; Guarnieri, Adriano; Guirao Navarro, María Concepción; Saenz-de-Viteri, Manuel
Cataract, a degradation of the optical quality of the crystalline lens, progressive and age-related, is the leading cause of treatable blindness worldwide. Cataract surgery is the most common surgical procedure performed by ophthalmologists and is the only effective treatment for cataracts. Advances in the surgical techniques and better postoperative visual outcomes have progressively changed the primary concern of cataract surgery to become a procedure refined to yield the best possible refractive results. Sufficient mydriasis during cataract removal is critical to a successful surgical outcome. Poor pupil dilation can lead to serious sight-threatening complications that significantly increase the cost of surgery and decrease patients comfort. Mydriasis is obtained using anticholinergic and sympathomimetic drugs. Phenylephrine, an α1-adrenergic receptor agonist, can efficiently dilate the pupil when administered by intracameral injection. Additionally, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ketorolac, which inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins, are used to decrease intraoperative miosis, control pain and inflammation associated with cataract surgery, and to prevent the development of cystoid macular edema following surgery. Recently, a new combination of phenylephrine and ketorolac (Omidria ® ) has been approved by United States Food and Drug Administration for use during cataract surgery to maintain intraoperative mydriasis, prevent miosis, and reduce postoperative pain and inflammation. Clinical trials have shown that this new combination is effective, combining the positive effects of both drugs with a good safety profile and patient tolerability. Moreover, recent reports suggest that this combination is also effective in patients with high risk of poor pupil dilation. In conclusion, cataract is a global problem that significantly affects patients' quality of life. However, they can be managed with a safe and minimally invasive surgery
Javadiyan, Shari; Craig, Jamie E; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; Sharma, Shiwani; Lower, Karen M; Pater, John; Casey, Theresa; Hodson, Trevor; Burdon, Kathryn P
Cataract is a major cause of childhood blindness worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the genetic cause of paediatric cataract in a South Australian family with a bilateral lamellar paediatric cataract displaying variable phenotypes. Fifty-one genes implicated in congenital cataract in human or mouse were sequenced in an affected individual from an Australian (Caucasian) family using a custom Ampliseq library on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Reads were mapped against the human genome (hg19) and variants called with the Torrent Suite software. Variants were annotated to dbSNP 137 using Ion Reporter (IR 1.6.2) and were prioritised for validation if they were novel or rare and were predicted to be protein changing. We identified a previously reported oligomerization disrupting mutation, c.62G > A (p.R21Q), in the Crystallin alpha A (CRYAA) gene segregating in this three generation family. No other novel or rare coding mutations were detected in the known cataract genes sequenced. Microsatellite markers were used to compare the haplotypes between the family reported here and a previously published family with the same segregating mutation. Haplotype analysis indicated a potential common ancestry between the two South Australian families with this mutation. The work strengthens the genotype-phenotype correlations between this functional mutation in the crystallin alpha A (CRYAA) gene and paediatric cataract. The p.R21Q mutation is the most likely cause of paediatric cataract in this family. The recurrence of this mutation in paediatric cataract families is likely due to a familial relationship.
Borodina, N B; Kobzova, M V; Musaeva, G M
The characteristics of morphofunctional status of cornea after extracapsular cataract extraction and phakoemulsification with IOL implantation (30 and 58 operations respectively) were analyzed in detail using up-to-date diagnostic techniques. The results of examination using developed algorithm including study of light transmission, refraction and protective function of cornea show advantage of microinvasive ultrasound technique of cataract surgery in terms of minimal impact on corneal structure, optical and biomechanical characteristics.
de Castro, Alberto; Benito, Antonio; Manzanera, Silvestre; Mompeán, Juan; Cañizares, Belén; Martínez, David; Marín, Jose María; Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Artal, Pablo
To image, describe, and characterize different features visible in the crystalline lens of older adults with and without cataract when imaged three-dimensionally with a swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system. We used a new SS-OCT laboratory prototype designed to enhance the visualization of the crystalline lens and imaged the entire anterior segment of both eyes in two groups of participants: patients scheduled to undergo cataract surgery, n = 17, age range 36 to 91 years old, and volunteers without visual complains, n = 14, age range 20 to 81 years old. Pre-cataract surgery patients were also clinically graded according to the Lens Opacification Classification System III. The three-dimensional location and shape of the visible opacities were compared with the clinical grading. Hypo- and hyperreflective features were visible in the lens of all pre-cataract surgery patients and in some of the older adults in the volunteer group. When the clinical examination revealed cortical or subcapsular cataracts, hyperreflective features were visible either in the cortex parallel to the surfaces of the lens or in the posterior pole. Other type of opacities that appeared as hyporeflective localized features were identified in the cortex of the lens. The OCT signal in the nucleus of the crystalline lens correlated with the nuclear cataract clinical grade. A dedicated OCT is a useful tool to study in vivo the subtle opacities in the cataractous crystalline lens, revealing its position and size three-dimensionally. The use of these images allows obtaining more detailed information on the age-related changes leading to cataract.
Turalba, Angela; Payal, Abhishek R; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Luis A; Cakiner-Egilmez, Tulay; Chomsky, Amy S; Vollman, David E; Baze, Elizabeth F; Lawrence, Mary; Daly, Mary K
To compare visual acuity outcomes, vision-related quality of life, and complications related to cataract surgery in eyes with and without glaucoma. Retrospective cohort study. Cataract surgery outcomes in cases with and without glaucoma from the Veterans Affairs Ophthalmic Surgical Outcomes Data Project were compared. We identified 608 glaucoma cases and 4306 controls undergoing planned cataract surgery alone. After adjusting for age, pseudoexfoliation, small pupil, prior ocular surgery, and anterior chamber depth, we found that glaucoma cases were more likely to have posterior capsular tear with vitrectomy (odds ratio [OR] 1.8, P = .03) and sulcus intraocular lens placement (OR 1.65, P = .03) during cataract surgery. Glaucoma cases were more likely to have postoperative inflammation (OR 1.73, P < .0001), prolonged elevated intraocular pressure (OR 2.96, P = .0003), and additional surgery within 30 days (OR 1.92, P = .03). Mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ) scores significantly improved after cataract surgery in both groups (P < .0001), but there were larger improvements in BCVA (P = .01) and VFQ composite scores (P < .0001) in the nonglaucoma vs the glaucoma group. A total of 3621 nonglaucoma cases (94.1%) had postoperative BCVA 20/40 or better, compared to 466 glaucoma cases (89.6%) (P = .0003). Eyes with glaucoma are at increased risk for complications and have more modest visual outcomes after cataract surgery compared to eyes without glaucoma. Despite this, glaucoma patients still experience significant improvement in vision-related outcomes after cataract extraction. Further study is needed to explore potential factors that influence cataract surgery outcomes in glaucomatous eyes. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Christen, William G.; Glynn, Robert J.; Sesso, Howard D.; Kurth, Tobias; MacFadyen, Jean; Bubes, Vadim; Buring, Julie E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Michael Gaziano, J.
Objective To test whether supplementation with alternate day vitamin E or daily vitamin C affects the incidence of age-related cataract in a large-scale randomized trial of men. Design Randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial. Participants Eleven thousand five hundred forty-five apparently healthy US male physicians aged 50 years or older who were without a diagnosis of cataract at baseline. Intervention Participants were randomly assigned to receive 400 IU of vitamin E or placebo on alternate days, and 500 mg of vitamin C or placebo daily. Main Outcome Measure Incident cataract responsible for a reduction in best-corrected visual acuity to 20/30 or worse based on self-report confirmed by medical record review. Results After 8 years of treatment and follow-up, a total of 1,174 incident cataracts were confirmed. There were 579 cataracts in the vitamin E treated group and 595 in the vitamin E placebo group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.99; 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 0.88 to 1.11). For vitamin C, there were 593 cataracts in the treated group and 581 in the placebo group (HR, 1.02; CI, 0.91 to 1.14). Conclusions In a large-scale randomized trial of US male physicians, long-term alternate day use of 400 IU of vitamin E and/or daily use of 500 mg of vitamin C had no significant beneficial or harmful effect on the risk of cataract. Application to Clinical Practice Long-term use of vitamin E and/or vitamin C supplements has no appreciable effect on cataract. PMID:21060040
Raynal, M; Aupy, B; Jahidi, A; Ettien, D; Le Page, P; Briche, T; Kossowski, M; Pailllaud, E
Cataract is a major cause of visual impairment among elderly. Cataract surgery improves visual afferencies and can have an impact on balance. The present study assessed the impact of cataract surgery upon balance and autonomy in elderly. We realized clinical examinations and objective tests the day before surgery and 2-months later. The initial cohort consisted of 66 patients that had to undergo a cataract surgery. Their mean age was 79 +/- 0.5. For logistic reasons, only 33 patients have been completely evaluated before and after surgery. Each patient underwent a history and examination that have assessed autonomy, walking, visual and then cochleo-vestibular functions including bone vibratory test and dynamic computerized posturography (Equitest). After 2 months, cataract surgery had no incidence on balance. The fear of falling has stayed the same whereas the number of falls has been noticeably reduced by surgery. The overall score of Equitest has shown an increase in visual dependence after surgery. Although cataract surgery has no incidence on autonomy, it may improve the quality of life among older people by leisure activities recovery. An early physical rehabilitation facilitated by visual improvement after surgery can also prevent visual dependence and autonomy loss. We recommend vestibular rehabilitation in elderly with major visual dependence.
Tian, Shu; Yin, Xu-Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Zhou, Fang; Hao, Hong-Wei
The phacoemulsification surgery is one of the most advanced surgeries to treat cataract. However, the conventional surgeries are always with low automatic level of operation and over reliance on the ability of surgeons. Alternatively, one imaginative scene is to use video processing and pattern recognition technologies to automatically detect the cataract grade and intelligently control the release of the ultrasonic energy while operating. Unlike cataract grading in the diagnosis system with static images, complicated background, unexpected noise, and varied information are always introduced in dynamic videos of the surgery. Here we develop a Video-Based Intelligent Recognitionand Decision (VeBIRD) system, which breaks new ground by providing a generic framework for automatically tracking the operation process and classifying the cataract grade in microscope videos of the phacoemulsification cataract surgery. VeBIRD comprises a robust eye (iris) detector with randomized Hough transform to precisely locate the eye in the noise background, an effective probe tracker with Tracking-Learning-Detection to thereafter track the operation probe in the dynamic process, and an intelligent decider with discriminative learning to finally recognize the cataract grade in the complicated video. Experiments with a variety of real microscope videos of phacoemulsification verify VeBIRD's effectiveness.
Yin, Xu-Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Zhou, Fang; Hao, Hong-Wei
The phacoemulsification surgery is one of the most advanced surgeries to treat cataract. However, the conventional surgeries are always with low automatic level of operation and over reliance on the ability of surgeons. Alternatively, one imaginative scene is to use video processing and pattern recognition technologies to automatically detect the cataract grade and intelligently control the release of the ultrasonic energy while operating. Unlike cataract grading in the diagnosis system with static images, complicated background, unexpected noise, and varied information are always introduced in dynamic videos of the surgery. Here we develop a Video-Based Intelligent Recognitionand Decision (VeBIRD) system, which breaks new ground by providing a generic framework for automatically tracking the operation process and classifying the cataract grade in microscope videos of the phacoemulsification cataract surgery. VeBIRD comprises a robust eye (iris) detector with randomized Hough transform to precisely locate the eye in the noise background, an effective probe tracker with Tracking-Learning-Detection to thereafter track the operation probe in the dynamic process, and an intelligent decider with discriminative learning to finally recognize the cataract grade in the complicated video. Experiments with a variety of real microscope videos of phacoemulsification verify VeBIRD's effectiveness. PMID:26693249
Nikolić, Ljubiša; Jovanović, Vesna
Approaching art from the standpoint of optics and the artist’s eye pathology can sometimes explain the shift of the spectral colors in the work of some artists with cataract and aphakia. This may not be obvious in the paintings of other artists with the same eye pathology. The aim of this study was to create a timeline from the recently obtained details of the cataract surgery, his best corrected aphakic visual acuity, and the last paintings of the artist Jovan Bijelić. The research included primary and secondary source material: Bijelić’s paintings from all stages of his career, interviews with Bijelić and his eye surgeon, art criticism, sources with the description of Bijelić’s symptoms, hospital archives, discussion with art historians, comparison of his palette from different periods. Jovan Bijelić was nearly blind from cataract in 1957. He underwent an unsuccessful cataract surgery in 1956, followed by enucleation of the operated eye. In 1958, 20/25–20/20 vision was regained, after the extracapsular cataract extraction and sector iridectomy in his right eye, with the posterior lens capsule discision afterwards. Xanthopsia and cyanopsia are not present in his art, which is not a representation of visualized objects. The response of Jovan Bijelić to cataract and aphakia was predominantly a change of his style.
Sychev, Yevgeniy V; Zepeda, Emily M; Lam, Deborah L
Acute development of cataracts that may be transient is known to occur during correction of diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome. Nettleship in 1885 was the first to describe the presence of a transient cataract in three diabetic patients that grew worse and eventually cleared with treatment. 1 We present a case of irreversible cataracts formed by nuclear fracture of the crystalline lens after hyperglycemia correction, an entity that has not yet been described. A 67 year-old Caucasian man presented with sudden bilateral vision loss one week after a week-long hospitalization in the intensive care unit for correction of hyperglycemia in the setting of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome requiring an insulin drip. This was caused by spontaneous fractures of the lens nuclei causing bilateral irreversible cataracts. The patient underwent uncomplicated bilateral cataract extraction resulting in restoration of normal vision. Acute transient cataracts that develop during correction of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome are thought to result from osmotic lens swelling. In this case report, internal fracture of the lens was produced by mechanical forces generated in the process of lens swelling occurring as a consequence of initial hyperglycemia and its subsequent correction. This case represents a rare ocular complication of hyperglycemia correction, and provides new evidence that mechanical forces can be part of diabetic cataractogenesis.
Jyothi, M; Sanil, R; Shashidhar, S
Glutathione depletion has been postulated to be the prime reason for galactose cataract. The current research seeks the prospect of targeting erythrocytes to pursue the lens metabolism by studying the glutathione system. To study the activity of the glutathione-linked scavenger enzyme system in the erythrocyte and lens of rats with cataract. Experiments were conducted in 36 male albino rats weighing 80 ± 20 g of 28 days of age. The rats were divided into two major groups, viz. experimental and control. Six rats in each group were sacrificed every 10 days, for 30 days. Cataract was induced in the experimental group by feeding the rats 30% galactose (w/w). The involvement of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the linked enzymes was studied in the erythrocytes and lens of cataractous as well as control rats. Parametric tests like one-way ANOVA and Student's 't' test were used for comparison. Correlation linear plot was used to compare the erythrocyte and lens metabolism. The concentration of GSH and the activity of linked enzymes were found decreased with the progression of cataract, and also in comparison to the control. The same linear fashion was also observed in the erythrocytes. Depletion of GSH was the prime factor for initiating galactose cataract in the rat model. This depletion may in turn result in enzyme inactivation leading to cross-linking of protein and glycation. The correlation analysis specifies that the biochemical mechanism in the erythrocytes and lens is similar in the rat model.
Mercado, Carmel L; Doroslovački, Pavle; Wang, Jiangxia; Siddiqui, Aazim A; Kolker, Andrew F; Kolker, Richard J
The purpose of this study was to assess whether there is a disparity in distance and near best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in cataract eyes. 102 patients with cataract (N = 121 eyes) were seen in clinic between January and November 2013 at the Wilmer Eye Institute Comprehensive Eye Service. An age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) group (N = 27 eyes) was also identified for comparison. Distance and near BCVA were measured as part of the standard ophthalmic evaluation. Snellen measurements were converted to their LogMAR equivalents for statistical analysis. Near was better than distance BCVA with mean difference of 1.38 lines (P < 0.001) in the cataract eyes. This disparity was not seen in the ARMD eyes. Near-distance BCVA disparity is a statistically significant finding seen with cataracts. This may have further implications in patients with both cataract and ARMD as the presence of disparity may suggest a cataract etiology playing a greater role in vision loss. This comparison may be useful for surgical prognostication and as a quick triage tool in conjunction with, or in place of, a potential acuity meter and dilated near-pinhole test.
Liu, Yan; Shen, Yuecheng; Ruan, Haowen; Brodie, Frank L.; Wong, Terence T. W.; Yang, Changhuei; Wang, Lihong V.
Normal development of the visual system in infants relies on clear images being projected onto the retina, which can be disrupted by lens opacity caused by congenital cataract. This disruption, if uncorrected in early life, results in amblyopia (permanently decreased vision even after removal of the cataract). Doctors are able to prevent amblyopia by removing the cataract during the first several weeks of life, but this surgery risks a host of complications, which can be equally visually disabling. Here, we investigated the feasibility of focusing light noninvasively through highly scattering cataractous lenses to stimulate the retina, thereby preventing amblyopia. This approach would allow the cataractous lens removal surgery to be delayed and hence greatly reduce the risk of complications from early surgery. Employing a wavefront shaping technique named time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing in reflection mode, we focused 532-nm light through a highly scattering ex vivo adult human cataractous lens. This work demonstrates a potential clinical application of wavefront shaping techniques.
Brilliant, L B; Grasset, N C; Pokhrel, R P; Kolstad, A; Lepkowski, J M; Brilliant, G E; Hawks, W N; Pararajasegaram, R
The relationship between cataract prevalence, altitude, and sunlight hours was investigated in a large national probability sample survey of 105 sites in the Himalayan kingdom of Nepal, December 1980 through April 1981. Cataract of senile or unknown etiology was diagnosed by ophthalmologists in 873 of 30,565 full-time life-long residents of survey sites. Simultaneously, the altitude of sites was measured using a standard mountain altimeter. Seasonally adjusted average daily duration of sunlight exposure for each site was calculated by a method which took into account latitude and obstructions along the skyline. Age- and sex-standardized cataract prevalence was 2.7 times higher in sites at an altitude of 185 meters or less than in sites over 1000 meters. Cataract prevalence was negatively correlated with altitude (r = -0.533, p less than 0.0001). However, a positive correlation between cataract prevalence and sunlight was observed (r = 0.563, p less than 0.0001). Sites with an average of 12 hours of sunlight exposure had 3.8 times as much cataract as sites with an average of only seven hours of exposure. Sunlight was blocked from reaching certain high altitude sites by tall neighboring mountains.
Auger, Nathalie; Tang, Tina; Healy-Profitós, Jessica; Paradis, Gilles
We assessed the long-term risk of cataract following a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes. We carried out a longitudinal cohort study of 1,108,541 women who delivered infants between 1989-2013 in Quebec, Canada, with follow-up extending up to 25years later. The cohort included 71,862 women with gestational diabetes and 5247 with cataracts. We used Cox regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of gestational diabetes with subsequent risk of cataract, adjusted for age, parity, socioeconomic status, time period, comorbidity, and type 2 diabetes. Women with gestational diabetes had an elevated incidence of cataract (22.6 per 1000) compared with no gestational diabetes (15.1 per 1000), with 1.15 times the risk (95% CI 1.04-1.28). Women with gestational diabetes who subsequently developed type 2 diabetes had a higher risk of cataract compared with no gestational and type 2 diabetes (HR 3.62, 95% CI 3.01-4.35), but women with gestational diabetes who did not develop type 2 diabetes continued to be at risk (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.00-1.25). Gestational diabetes may be an independent risk factor for cataract later in life, although risks are greatest for women who subsequently develop type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Das, Sudeep; Kummelil, Mathew Kurian; Kharbanda, Varun; Arora, Vishal; Nagappa, Somshekar; Shetty, Rohit; Shetty, Bhujang K
To demonstrate the uses and applications of a microscope integrated intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography in Micro Incision Cataract Surgery (MICS) and Femtosecond Laser Assisted Cataract Surgery (FLACS). Intraoperative real time imaging using the RESCAN™ 700 (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Oberkochen, Germany) was done for patients undergoing MICS as well as FLACS. The OCT videos were reviewed at each step of the procedure and the findings were noted and analyzed. Microscope Integrated Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography was found to be beneficial during all the critical steps of cataract surgery. We were able to qualitatively assess wound morphology in clear corneal incisions, in terms of subclinical Descemet's detachments, tears in the inner or outer wound lips, wound gaping at the end of surgery and in identifying the adequacy of stromal hydration, for both FLACS as well as MICS. It also enabled us to segregate true posterior polar cataracts from suspected cases intraoperatively. Deciding the adequate depth of trenching was made simpler with direct visualization. The final position of the intraocular lens in the capsular bag and the lack of bioadhesivity of hydrophobic acrylic lenses were also observed. Even though Microscope Integrated Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography is in its early stages for its application in cataract surgery, this initial assessment does show a very promising role for this technology in the future for cataract surgery both in intraoperative decision making as well as for training purposes.
Dhir, L; Habib, N E; Monro, D M; Rakshit, S
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cataract surgery and pupil dilation on iris pattern recognition for personal authentication. Prospective non-comparative cohort study. Images of 15 subjects were captured before (enrolment), and 5, 10, and 15 min after instillation of mydriatics before routine cataract surgery. After cataract surgery, images were captured 2 weeks thereafter. Enrolled and test images (after pupillary dilation and after cataract surgery) were segmented to extract the iris. This was then unwrapped onto a rectangular format for normalization and a novel method using the Discrete Cosine Transform was applied to encode the image into binary bits. The numerical difference between two iris codes (Hamming distance, HD) was calculated. The HD between identification and enrolment codes was used as a score and was compared with a confidence threshold for specific equipment, giving a match or non-match result. The Correct Recognition Rate (CRR) and Equal Error Rates (EERs) were calculated to analyse overall system performance. After cataract surgery, perfect identification and verification was achieved, with zero false acceptance rate, zero false rejection rate, and zero EER. After pupillary dilation, non-elastic deformation occurs and a CRR of 86.67% and EER of 9.33% were obtained. Conventional circle-based localization methods are inadequate. Matching reliability decreases considerably with increase in pupillary dilation. Cataract surgery has no effect on iris pattern recognition, whereas pupil dilation may be used to defeat an iris-based authentication system.
Chethan, S; Dharmesh, Shylaja M; Malleshi, Nagappa G
Retinopathy is a major cause of blindness in the Western world, while cataract is one of the three major causes of blindness worldwide. Diabetes is one of the major risk factor in retinopathy and cataract. The prevalence of blindness in India is 15 per 1000 while cataract alone accounts for 80% of this blindness. Diabetes induced cataract is characterized by an accumulation of sorbitol which is mediated by the action of a key enzyme aldose reductase (AR). Non-enzymatic glycation (binding of glucose to protein molecule) induced during diabetes appear to be the key factor for AR mediated sugar-induced cataract. Finger millet polyphenols (FMP) being a major anti-diabetic and antioxidant component, we have evaluated them for AR inhibiting activity. Phenolic constituents in FMP such as gallic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxy benzoic, p-coumaric, vanillic, syringic, ferulic, trans-cinnamic acids and the quercetin inhibited cataract eye lens effectively, the latter was more potent with an IC(50) of 14.8nM. Structure function analysis revealed that phenolics with OH group at 4th position was important for aldose reductase inhibitory property. Also the presence of neighboring O-methyl group in phenolics denatured the AR activity. Finger millet seed coat polyphenols (SCP) has been found to inhibit AR reversibly by non-competitive inhibition. Results thus, provide a stronger evidence for the potentials of FMP in inhibiting cataractogenesis in humans.
Reus, Nicolaas J.; van den Berg, Thomas J. T. P.
Purpose To investigate the significance of difference in straylight of cataract eyes with different morphologies, as a function of age and visual acuity. Methods A literature review to collect relevant papers on straylight, age, and visual acuity of three common cataract morphologies leads to including five eligible papers for the analysis. The effect of morphology was incorporated to categorize straylight dependency on the two variables. We also determined the amount of progression in a cataract group using a control group. Results The mean straylight was 1.22 log units ± 0.20 (SD) in nuclear (592 eyes), 1.26 log units ± 0.23 in cortical (776 eyes), and 1.48 log units ± 0.34 in posterior subcapsular (75 eyes) groups. The slope of straylight-age relationship was 0.009 (R 2 = 0.20) in nuclear, 0.012 (R 2 = 0.22) in cortical, and 0.014 (R 2 = 0.11) in posterior subcapsular groups. The slope of straylight-visual acuity relationship was 0.62 (R 2 = 0.25) in nuclear, 0.33 (R 2 = 0.13) in cortical, and 1.03 (R 2 = 0.34) in posterior subcapsular groups. Conclusion Considering morphology of cataract provides a better insight in assessing visual functions of cataract eyes, in posterior subcapsular cataract, particularly, in spite of notable elevated straylight, visual acuity might not manifest severe loss. PMID:28831307
The author focused on the functional decline of synapses in the brain with aging to understand the underlying mechanisms and to ameliorate the deficits. The first attempt was to unravel the neuronal functions of gangliosides so that gangliosides could be used for enhancing synaptic activity. The second attempt was to elicit the neuronal plasticity in aged animals through enriched environmental stimulation and nutritional intervention. Environmental stimuli were revealed neurochemically and morphologically to develop synapses leading to enhanced cognitive function. Dietary restriction as a nutritional intervention restored the altered metabolism of neuronal membranes with aging, providing a possible explanation for the longevity effect of dietary restriction. These results obtained with aging and dementia models of animals would benefit aged people. PMID:22728441
Gower, Emily W; Lindsley, Kristina; Tulenko, Samantha E; Nanji, Afshan A; Leyngold, Ilya; McDonnell, Peter J
Background Endophthalmitis is a severe inflammation of the anterior or posterior (or both) chambers of the eye that may be sterile or associated with infection. It is a potentially vision-threatening complication of cataract surgery. Prophylactic measures for endophthalmitis are targeted against various sources of infection. Objectives To evaluate the effects of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for endophthalmitis following cataract surgery compared with no prophylaxis or other form of prophylaxis. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 12), Ovid MEDLINE, Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily (January 1946 to December 2016), Embase (January 1980 to December 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (1982 to December 2016),the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We used no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 6 December 2016. We also searched for additional studies that cited any included trials using the Science Citation Index. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials that enrolled adults undergoing cataract surgery (any method and incision type) for lens opacities due to any origin. We included trials that evaluated preoperative antibiotics, intraoperative (intracameral, subconjunctival or systemic), or postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis for acute endophthalmitis. We excluded studies that evaluated antiseptic preoperative preparations using agents such as povidone iodine or antibiotics for treating acute endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently reviewed abstracts and
Habtamu, Esmael; Eshete, Zebiba; Burton, Matthew J
Cataract is the leading cause of blindness worldwide, with the greatest burden found in low-income countries. Cataract surgery is a curative and cost-effective intervention. Despite major non-governmental organization (NGO) support, the cataract surgery performed in Southern Region, Ethiopia is currently insufficient to address the need. We analyzed the distribution, productivity, cost and determinants of cataract surgery services. Confidential interviews were conducted with all eye surgeons (Ophthalmologists & Non-Physician Cataract Surgeons [NPCS]) in Southern Region using semi-structured questionnaires. Eye care project managers were interviewed using open-ended qualitative questionnaires. All eye units were visited. Information on resources, costs, and the rates and determinants of surgical output were collected. Cataract surgery provision is uneven across Southern Region: 66% of the units are within 200 km of the regional capital. Surgeon to population ratios varied widely from 1:70,000 in the capital to no service provision in areas containing 7 million people. The Cataract Surgical Rate (CSR) in 2010 was 406 operations/million/year with zonal CSRs ranging between 204 and 1349. Average number of surgeries performed was 374 operations/surgeon/year. Ophthalmologists and NPCS performed a mean of 682 and 280 cataract operations/surgeon/year, respectively (p = 0.03). Resources are underutilized, at 56% of capacity. Community awareness programs were associated with increased activity (p = 0.009). Several factors were associated with increased surgeon productivity (p < 0.05): working for >2 years, working in a NGO/private clinic, working in an urban unit, having a unit manger, conducting outreach programs and a satisfactory work environment. The average cost of cataract surgery in 2010 was US$141.6 (Range: US$37.6-312.6). Units received >70% of their consumables from NGOs. Mangers identified poor staff motivation, community awareness and limited
Kuhli-Hattenbach, C; Fronius, M; Kohnen, T
The optimal time for surgical intervention