Sample records for sensory specific satiety

  1. Repeated cycles of restricted food intake and binge feeding disrupt sensory-specific satiety in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Soyon; Phillips, Anthony G

    2012-06-01

    The relationship between food restriction and subsequent dysregulation of food intake is complex, variable and long-lasting. The present study investigated in rats whether repeated cycles of food restriction and binge feeding opportunities may alter regulation of food intake by employing a test for sensory-specific satiety. Rats that experienced repeated food restriction-binge cycles maintained heavier body weights compared to rats that remained on continuous food restriction. In contrast to the control subjects, rats that alternated between food restriction and binge feeding failed to display sensory-specific satiety. During the first meal, there was a gradual decrease in the amount of food intake over a 40 min period. When presented with a second meal of the same food, these rats responded to the familiar food in a manner similar as to a novel food (i.e., comparable quantities of both types of food were consumed). Food restriction-binge feeding cycles may be considered as a form of stress, which in turn is associated with cross-sensitization to numerous behavioral responses. Therefore, we propose that stress-induced disruption of sensory-specific satiety reflects a sensitized response to food, in which the interaction between sensory and satiety factors are no longer the key regulators of food choice and meal cessation. Furthermore, a role for sensory-specific satiety in terminating food intake appeared to decline with the progression of the cycles, thereby contributing to a steady increase in body weight of rats that experienced restriction with bouts of binge feeding opportunities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Taste Perception: An Examination of Fat Preference, Sensory Specific Satiety, and the Function of Eating Among Moderately Obese and Normal Weight Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-02-20

    For example if you ate a roasted chicken breast, you would type in chicken , press the Enter key and then press an arrow key to locate chicken ...Appendix B: Pudding Recipes High fat pudding Ingredients: 90 grams Jell-O brand instant dry vanilla pudding mix 500 grams Half-and half creamer...A lot How FLAVORFUL is this pudding? Extremely Subject #: Appendix D: Solution Recipes for Sensory Specific Satiety Tests Sweet-almond

  3. Is sensory-specific satiety for a bitter-sweet infusion modulated by context?

    PubMed

    Garcia-Burgos, David; Secchiari, Florencia; Calviño, Amalia

    2015-03-01

    The sensory-affective attributes of beverages have an important influence on a given intake and successive consumptions because of sensory-specific satiety (SSS; defined as a decrease in pleasantness ratings of a food eaten relative to uneaten foods). No studies have, however, investigated how multiple sessions of SSS for familiar drinks over a period of several days up to a week may change their pleasantness and how these hedonic-related judgments are affected by the context during SSS testing. With twenty-six participants, the present study explored the medium lasting and contextual effects of repeated SSS sessions for a bitter-sweet infusion on olfactory and flavour pleasantness over the course of three exposures in either a laboratory or a cafeteria setting. The results showed olfactory and flavour SSS for the infusion following each consumption in both the artificial and the natural setting. More interestingly, despite the failure to detect medium-term SSS (i.e., a greater decrease in pleasantness ratings of a food eaten relative to uneaten foods after repeated SSS sessions over several days as compared to the first SSS session), a contextual modulation of olfactory SSS was observed with a lesser overall magnitude in the cafeteria compared to the laboratory setting. To the best of our knowledge, the impact of eating location on the development of satiation and the differential contextual sensitivity of SSS for orthonasal odours and flavours has not been reported previously. The implications of potential environmental control of SSS are considered in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Additive effects of sensory-enhanced satiety and memory for recent eating on appetite.

    PubMed

    Yeomans, Martin R; Milton, Millie Ruder; Chambers, Lucy

    2017-10-01

    The sensory characteristics of a product have been shown to interact with actual nutrient content to generate satiety. Separately, cued recall of recent eating has also been shown to reduce food intake. Here we explore for the first time how these two effects interact, with the hypothesis that sensory enhancement of satiety might be mediated by more vivid memory of the earlier consumed item. On each of two test sessions, 119 women volunteers consumed a control drink (lemonade) on one morning and then one of two test drinks on the next day 30 min before an ad libitum lunch. The test drinks were equicaloric but one was noticeably thicker and creamier, and expected to generate stronger satiety. Just prior to the test lunch, participants were asked to recall either the test drink (test recall) or the drink from the previous day (control recall). Overall, lunch intake was significantly lower after the thicker and creamier (enhanced sensory ES) than thinner (low sensory: LS) test drink (p < 0.001, η 2  = 0.11) regardless of recall condition (p = 0.65, η 2  < 0.01), but was significantly lower after the test than control recall condition (p < 0.001, η 2  = 0.14). Rated hunger was lower after consuming the ES than LS drink both immediately after consumption (p < 0.001, η 2  = 0.11) and prior to the test lunch (p = 0.007, η 2  = 0.06), while rated hunger just before lunch tended to be lower after recalling the test than control drink (p = 0.052, η 2  = 0.03) regardless of the sensory characteristics (p = 0.27, η 2  = 0.01). Overall these data further demonstrate the power of 'sensory-enhanced satiety' and cued recall of earlier eating as methods to reduce acute food intake, but suggest these effects operate independently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pre- and postprandial variation in implicit attention to food images reflects appetite and sensory-specific satiety.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Graeme R; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna M; Kirkham, Tim C

    2018-06-01

    Implicit attentional processes are biased toward food-related stimuli, with the extent of that bias reflecting relative motivation to eat. These interactions have typically been investigated by comparisons between fasted and sated individuals. In this study, temporal changes in implicit attention to food were assessed in relation to natural, spontaneous changes in appetite occurring before and after an anticipated midday meal. Non-fasted adults performed an emotional blink of attention (EBA) task at intervals, before and after consuming preferred, pre-selected sandwiches to satiety. Participants were required to detect targets within a rapid visual stream, presented after task-irrelevant food (preferred or non-preferred sandwiches, or desserts) or non-food distractor images. All categories of food distractor preferentially captured attention even when appetite levels were low, but became more distracting as appetite increased preprandially, reducing task accuracy maximally as hunger peaked before lunch. Postprandially, attentional capture was markedly reduced for images of the specific sandwich type consumed and, to a lesser extent, for images of other sandwich types that had not been eaten. Attentional capture by images of desserts was unaffected by satiation. These findings support an important role of selective visual attention in the guidance of motivated behaviour. Naturalistic, meal-related changes in appetite are accompanied by changes in implicit attention to visual food stimuli that are easily detected using the EBA paradigm. Preprandial enhancement of attention capture by food cues likely reflects increases in the incentive motivational value of all food stimuli, perhaps providing an implicit index of wanting. Postprandial EBA responses confirm that satiation on a particular food results in relative inattention to that food, supporting an important attentional component in the operation of sensory-specific satiety. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published

  6. Effect of exposure to similar flavours in sensory specific satiety: Implications for eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    González, Ana; Recio, Sergio Andrés; Sánchez, Jesús; Gil, Marta; de Brugada, Isabel

    2018-08-01

    Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) refers to a decline in pleasantness of eaten foods in comparison to other non-ingested meals. Although SSS is specific to the eaten food, it can also generalize to other meals that share similar properties to the satiated food. It is possible that this phenomenon could become more specific after extensive experience, as repeated exposure to an assortment of similar food could cause perceptual learning (i.e. an increase in the distinctiveness of each specific item). This in turn would reduce generalization from the consumed food to other similar products, so they will be more readily consumed. To assess this hypothesis, two experiments were carried out using rats as experimental subjects and flavoured solutions as stimuli. In Experiment 1 our main goal was to find the basic SSS effect with two different solutions. As expected, the results showed that rats tended to consume a higher amount of non-sated solutions in comparison to sated ones. Experiment 2 evaluated how repeated exposure to two similar solutions affected generalization of the SSS. Results showed that rats that did not have extensive exposure to the flavoured solutions showed no preference for the non-sated drink. However, rats that had repeated exposure to the flavours showed SSS. The results suggest that easy and continuous access to a high variety of similar unhealthy foods might have long-term effects on food consumption, and highlight a potential mechanism linking obesogenic environments with dietary habits. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Sensory-specific satiety is intact in rats made obese on a high-fat high-sugar choice diet.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kevin P

    2017-05-01

    Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) is the temporary decreased pleasantness of a recently eaten food, which inhibits further eating. Evidence is currently mixed whether SSS is weaker in obese people, and whether such difference precedes or follows from the obese state. Animal models allow testing whether diet-induced obesity causes SSS impairment. Female rats (n = 24) were randomly assigned to an obesogenic high-fat, high-sugar choice diet or chow-only control. Tests of SSS involved pre-feeding a single palatable, distinctively-flavored food (cheese- or cocoa-flavored) prior to free choice between both foods. Rats were tested for short-term SSS (2 h pre-feeding immediately followed by 2 h choice) and long-term SSS (3 day pre-feeding prior to choice on day 4). In both short- and long-term tests rats exhibited SSS by shifting preference towards the food not recently eaten. SSS was not impaired in obese rats. On the contrary, in the long-term tests they showed stronger SSS than controls. This demonstrates that neither the obese state nor a history of excess energy consumption fundamentally causes impaired SSS in rats. The putative impaired SSS in obese people may instead reflect a specific predisposition, properties of the obesogenic diet, or history of restrictive dieting and bingeing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensory-specific satiety for a food is unaffected by the ad libitum intake of other foods during a meal. Is SSS subject to dishabituation?

    PubMed

    Meillon, S; Thomas, A; Havermans, R; Pénicaud, L; Brondel, L

    2013-04-01

    Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) is defined as a decrease in the pleasantness of a specific food that has just been eaten to satiation, while other non-eaten foods remain pleasant. The objectives of this study were the following: (1) to investigate whether SSS for a food is affected by the ad libitum intake of other foods presented sequentially during a meal, (2) to compare the development of SSS when foods are presented simultaneously or sequentially during a meal, and (3) to examine whether SSS is modified when foods are presented in an unusual order within a meal. Twelve participants participated in three tasting sessions. In session A, SSS for protein-, fat- and carbohydrate-rich sandwiches was measured after the ad libitum consumption of single type of each of these foods. In session B, SSS was measured for the same three foods consumed ad libitum but presented simultaneously. Session C was identical to session A, except that the presentation order of the three foods was reversed. The results indicate that once SSS for a given food is reached, the ad libitum consumption of other foods with different sensory characteristics does not decrease SSS, regardless of the order in which the foods are presented. Once reached, SSS is thus not subject to dishabituation during a meal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Emulsion oil droplet size significantly affects satiety: A pre-ingestive approach.

    PubMed

    Lett, Aaron M; Norton, Jennifer E; Yeomans, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the manipulation of oil droplet size within oil-in-water emulsions significantly affects sensory characteristics, hedonics and expectations of food intake, independently of energy content. Smaller oil droplets enhanced perceived creaminess, increased Liking and generated greater expectations of satiation and satiety, indicating that creaminess is a satiety-relevant sensory cue within these systems. This paper extends these findings by investigating the effect of oil droplet size (d4,3: 2 and 50 μm) on food intake and appetite. Male participants (n = 34 aged 18-37; BMI of 22.7 ± 1.6 kg/m(2); DEBQ restricted eating score of 1.8 ± 0.1.) completed two test days, where they visited the laboratory to consume a fixed-portion breakfast, returning 3 h later for a "drink", which was the emulsion preload containing either 2 or 50 μm oil droplets. This was followed 20 min later with an ad libitum pasta lunch. Participants consumed significantly less at the ad libitum lunch after the preload containing 2 μm oil droplets than after the 50 μm preload, with an average reduction of 12% (62.4 kcal). Despite the significant differences in intake, no significant differences in sensory characteristics were noted. The findings show that the impact that an emulsion has on satiety can be enhanced without producing significantly perceivable differences in sensory properties. Therefore, by introducing a processing step which results in a smaller droplets, emulsion based liquid food products can be produced that enhance satiety, allowing covert functional redesign. Future work should consider the mechanism responsible for this effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Does olfactory specific satiety take place in a natural setting?

    PubMed

    Fernandez, P; Bensafi, M; Rouby, C; Giboreau, A

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory-specific satiety (OSS) is characterized by a specific decrease in the odor pleasantness of a food eaten to satiety or smelled without ingestion. The usual protocol for studying OSS takes place in laboratory, a setting rather removed from the real world. Here, we set out to examine OSS in a natural setting: during a meal in a restaurant. We hypothesized that an aroma contained in a food that is eaten at the beginning of a meal decreases the pleasantness of the flavor of a food with the same aroma eaten at the end of the meal. In the first experiment (Experiment 1), a test group received an appetizer flavored with a test aroma (anise) at the beginning of the meal. After the main dish, they received a dessert flavored with the same aroma. A control group received the same aromatized dessert, but after a non-aromatized appetizer. This experiment was replicated (Experiment 2) using verbena as the test aroma. For both experiments, results revealed that aroma pleasantness, but not intensity or familiarity, significantly decreased in the test groups vs. the control groups. These findings extend the concept of OSS to a realistic eating context. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Training on the Reliability of Satiety Evaluation and Use of Trained Panellists to Determine the Satiety Effect of Dietary Fibre: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Solah, Vicky A.; Meng, Xingqiong; Wood, Simon; Gahler, Roland J.; Kerr, Deborah A.; James, Anthony P.; Pal, Sebely; Fenton, Haelee K.; Johnson, Stuart K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The assessment of satiety effects on foods is commonly performed by untrained volunteers marking their perceived hunger or fullness on line scales, marked with pre-set descriptors. The lack of reproducibility of satiety measurement using this approach however results in the tool being unable to distinguish between foods that have small, but possibly important, differences in their satiety effects. An alternate approach is used in sensory evaluation; panellists can be trained in the correct use of the assessment line-scale and brought to consensus on the meanings of descriptors used for food quality attributes to improve the panel reliability. The effect of training on the reliability of a satiety panel has not previously been reported. Method In a randomised controlled parallel intervention, the effect of training in the correct use of a satiety labelled magnitude scale (LMS) was assessed versus no-training. The test-retest precision and reliability of two hour postprandial satiety evaluation after consumption of a standard breakfast was compared. The trained panel then compared the satiety effect of two breakfast meals containing either a viscous or a non-viscous dietary fibre in a crossover trial. Results A subgroup of the 23 panellists (n = 5) improved their test re-test precision after training. Panel satiety area under the curve, “after the training” intervention was significantly different to “before training” (p < 0.001). Reliability of the panel determined by intraclass correlation (ICC) of test and retest showed improved strength of the correlation from 0.70 pre-intervention to 0.95 post intervention. The trained “satiety expert panel” determined that a standard breakfast with 5g of viscous fibre gave significantly higher satiety than with 5g non-viscous fibre (area under curve (AUC) of 478.2, 334.4 respectively) (p ≤ 0.002). Conclusion Training reduced between panellist variability. The improved strength of test-retest ICC as a

  12. Effect of training on the reliability of satiety evaluation and use of trained panellists to determine the satiety effect of dietary fibre: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Solah, Vicky A; Meng, Xingqiong; Wood, Simon; Gahler, Roland J; Kerr, Deborah A; James, Anthony P; Pal, Sebely; Fenton, Haelee K; Johnson, Stuart K

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of satiety effects on foods is commonly performed by untrained volunteers marking their perceived hunger or fullness on line scales, marked with pre-set descriptors. The lack of reproducibility of satiety measurement using this approach however results in the tool being unable to distinguish between foods that have small, but possibly important, differences in their satiety effects. An alternate approach is used in sensory evaluation; panellists can be trained in the correct use of the assessment line-scale and brought to consensus on the meanings of descriptors used for food quality attributes to improve the panel reliability. The effect of training on the reliability of a satiety panel has not previously been reported. In a randomised controlled parallel intervention, the effect of training in the correct use of a satiety labelled magnitude scale (LMS) was assessed versus no-training. The test-retest precision and reliability of two hour postprandial satiety evaluation after consumption of a standard breakfast was compared. The trained panel then compared the satiety effect of two breakfast meals containing either a viscous or a non-viscous dietary fibre in a crossover trial. A subgroup of the 23 panellists (n = 5) improved their test re-test precision after training. Panel satiety area under the curve, "after the training" intervention was significantly different to "before training" (p < 0.001). Reliability of the panel determined by intraclass correlation (ICC) of test and retest showed improved strength of the correlation from 0.70 pre-intervention to 0.95 post intervention. The trained "satiety expert panel" determined that a standard breakfast with 5g of viscous fibre gave significantly higher satiety than with 5g non-viscous fibre (area under curve (AUC) of 478.2, 334.4 respectively) (p ≤ 0.002). Training reduced between panellist variability. The improved strength of test-retest ICC as a result of the training intervention suggests that

  13. Composite foods: from structure to sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Elke

    2017-02-22

    An understanding of the effect of structural features of foods in terms of specific sensory attributes is necessary to design foods with specific functionalities, such as reduced fat or increased protein content, and increased feeling of satiety or liking. Although the bulk rheological properties of both liquid and solid foods can be related to textural attributes such as thickness and firmness, they do not always correlate to more complex sensory attributes, such as creamy and smooth. These attributes are often a result of different contributions, including lubrication aspects and interactions between food and components present in the oral cavity. In this review, the different contributions for a variety of composite foods, such as dispersions, emulsions and emulsion-filled gels, are discussed. The rheological properties are discussed in relation to specific structural characteristics of the foods, which are then linked to lubrication aspects and sensory perception.

  14. Potential benefits of satiety to the consumer: scientific considerations.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, M M; Cunningham, K; Dye, L; Gibson, E L; Gregersen, N T; Halford, J C G; Lawton, C L; Lluch, A; Mela, D J; Van Trijp, H C M

    2013-06-01

    Foods and dietary patterns that enhance satiety may provide benefit to consumers. The aim of the present review was to describe, consider and evaluate research on potential benefits of enhanced satiety. The proposal that enhanced satiety could only benefit consumers by a direct effect on food intake should be rejected. Instead, it is proposed that there is a variety of routes through which enhanced satiety could (indirectly) benefit dietary control or weight-management goals. The review highlights specific potential benefits of satiety, including: providing appetite control strategies for consumers generally and for those who are highly responsive to food cues; offering pleasure and satisfaction associated with low-energy/healthier versions of foods without feeling 'deprived'; reducing dysphoric mood associated with hunger especially during energy restriction; and improved compliance with healthy eating or weight-management efforts. There is convincing evidence of short-term satiety benefits, but only probable evidence for longer-term benefits to hunger management, possible evidence of benefits to mood and cognition, inadequate evidence that satiety enhancement can promote weight loss, and no evidence on which consumers would benefit most from satiety enhancement. The appetite-reducing effects of specific foods or diets will be much more subtle than those of pharmaceutical compounds in managing hunger; nevertheless, the experience of pharmacology in producing weight loss via effects on appetite suggests that there is potential benefit of satiety enhancement from foods incorporated into the diet to the consumer.

  15. Dietary fiber and satiety: the effects of oats on satiety

    PubMed Central

    O’Neil, Carol E.; Greenway, Frank L.

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the effect of β-glucan, the viscous soluble fiber in oats, on satiety. A literature search for studies that examined delivery of the fiber in whole foods or as an extract was conducted. Viscosity interferes with the peristaltic mixing process in the small intestine to impede digestion and absorption of nutrients, which precipitates satiety signals. From measurements of the physicochemical and rheological properties of β-glucan, it appears that viscosity plays a key role in modulating satiety. However, the lack of standardized methods to measure viscosity and the inherent nature of appetite make it difficult to pinpoint the reasons for inconsistent results of the effects of oats on satiety. Nevertheless, the majority of the evidence suggests that oat β-glucan has a positive effect on perceptions of satiety. PMID:26724486

  16. Dietary fiber and satiety: the effects of oats on satiety.

    PubMed

    Rebello, Candida J; O'Neil, Carol E; Greenway, Frank L

    2016-02-01

    This review examines the effect of β-glucan, the viscous soluble fiber in oats, on satiety. A literature search for studies that examined delivery of the fiber in whole foods or as an extract was conducted. Viscosity interferes with the peristaltic mixing process in the small intestine to impede digestion and absorption of nutrients, which precipitates satiety signals. From measurements of the physicochemical and rheological properties of β-glucan, it appears that viscosity plays a key role in modulating satiety. However, the lack of standardized methods to measure viscosity and the inherent nature of appetite make it difficult to pinpoint the reasons for inconsistent results of the effects of oats on satiety. Nevertheless, the majority of the evidence suggests that oat β-glucan has a positive effect on perceptions of satiety. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Satiety mechanisms in genetic risk of obesity.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, Clare Heidi; Trzaskowski, Maciej; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia Hendrika Maria; Plomin, Robert; Wardle, Jane

    2014-04-01

    A better understanding of the cause of obesity is a clinical priority. Obesity is highly heritable, and specific genes are being identified. Discovering the mechanisms through which obesity-related genes influence weight would help pinpoint novel targets for intervention. One potential mechanism is satiety responsiveness. Lack of satiety characterizes many monogenic obesity disorders, and lower satiety responsiveness is linked with weight gain in population samples. To test the hypothesis that satiety responsiveness is an intermediate behavioral phenotype associated with genetic predisposition to obesity in children. Cross-sectional observational study of a population-based cohort of twins born January 1, 1994, to December 31, 1996 (Twins Early Development Study). Participants included 2258 unrelated children (53.3% female; mean [SD] age, 9.9 [0.8] years), one randomly selected from each twin pair. Genetic predisposition to obesity. We created a polygenic risk score (PRS) comprising 28 common obesity-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in a meta-analysis of obesity-related genome-wide association studies. Satiety responsiveness was indexed with a standard psychometric scale (Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire). Using 1990 United Kingdom reference data, body mass index SD scores and waist SD scores were calculated from parent-reported anthropometric data for each child. Information on satiety responsiveness, anthropometrics, and genotype was available for 2258 children. We examined associations among the PRS, adiposity, and satiety responsiveness. The PRS was negatively related to satiety responsiveness (β coefficient, -0.060; 95% CI, -0.019 to -0.101) and positively related to adiposity (β coefficient, 0.177; 95% CI, 0.136-0.218 for body mass index SD scores and β coefficient, 0.167; 95% CI, 0.126-0.208 for waist SD scores). More children in the top 25% of the PRS were overweight than in the lowest 25% (18.5% vs 7.2%; odds ratio, 2.90; 95% CI, 1

  18. Protein-induced satiety: effects and mechanisms of different proteins.

    PubMed

    Veldhorst, M; Smeets, A; Soenen, S; Hochstenbach-Waelen, A; Hursel, R; Diepvens, K; Lejeune, M; Luscombe-Marsh, N; Westerterp-Plantenga, M

    2008-05-23

    Relatively high protein diets, i.e. diets that maintain the absolute number of grams of protein ingested as compared to before dieting, are a popular strategy for weight loss and weight maintenance. Research into multiple mechanisms regulating body weight has focused on the effects of different quantities and types of dietary protein. Satiety and energy expenditure are important in protein-enhanced weight loss and weight maintenance. Protein-induced satiety has been shown acutely, with single meals, with contents of 25% to 81% of energy from protein in general or from specific proteins, while subsequent energy intake reduction was significant. Protein-induced satiety has been shown with high protein ad libitum diets, lasting from 1 to 6 days, up to 6 months. Also significantly greater weight loss has been observed in comparison with control. Mechanisms explaining protein-induced satiety are nutrient-specific, and consist mainly of synchronization with elevated amino acid concentrations. Different proteins cause different nutrient related responses of (an)orexigenic hormones. Protein-induced satiety coincides with a relatively high GLP-1 release, stimulated by the carbohydrate content of the diet, PYY release, while ghrelin does not seem to be especially affected, and little information is available on CCK. Protein-induced satiety is related to protein-induced energy expenditure. Finally, protein-induced satiety appears to be of vital importance for weight loss and weight maintenance. With respect to possible adverse events, chronic ingestion of large amounts of sulphur-containing amino acids may have an indirect effect on blood pressure by induction of renal subtle structural damage, ultimately leading to loss of nephron mass, and a secondary increase in blood pressure. The established synergy between obesity and low nephron number on induction of high blood pressure and further decline of renal function identifies subjects with obesity, metabolic syndrome and

  19. Developmental programming of appetite/satiety.

    PubMed

    Ross, Michael G; Desai, Mina

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is often attributed to a Western lifestyle, a high-fat diet and decreased activity. While these factors certainly contribute to adult obesity, compelling data from our laboratory and others indicate that this explanation is oversimplified. Recent studies strongly argue that maternal/fetal under- or overnutrition predisposes the offspring to become hyperphagic and increases the risk of later obesity. Both infants small for gestational age (SGA) or infants born to obese mothers who consume a high-fat diet are at a markedly increased risk of adult obesity. Specific alterations in the fetal metabolic/energy environment directly influence the development of appetite regulatory pathways. Specifically, SGA infants demonstrate (1) impaired satiety and anorexigenic cell signaling, (2) enhanced cellular orexigenic responses, (3) programmed dysfunction of neuroprogenitor cell proliferation/differentiation, and (4) increased expression of appetite (NPY) versus satiety (POMC) neurons. In both hypothalamic tissue and ex vivo culture, SGA newborns exhibit increased levels of the nutrient sensor SIRT1, signifying reduced energy, whereas maternal high-fat-exposed newborns exhibit reduced levels of pAMPK, signifying energy excess. Via downstream regulation of bHLH neuroproliferation (Hes1) and neurodifferentiation factors (Mash1, Ngn3), neurogenesis is biased toward orexigenic and away from anorexigenic neurons, resulting in excess appetite, reduced satiety and development of obesity. Despite the developmental programming of appetite neurogenesis, the potential for neuronal remodeling raises the opportunity for novel interventions.

  20. Evaluation of satiety sensations and food intake after different preloads.

    PubMed

    Porrini, M; Crovetti, R; Testolin, G; Silva, S

    1995-08-01

    The reproducibility of three questions, related to fullness, satiety and desire to eat, rated on an unmarked triangle was verified. In four sessions 12 volunteers ate pasta with tomato sauce (520 kcal) and were asked to rate the sensations felt. There was no difference in rating scores of the replications so the proposed questionnaire provides a stable measure of sensations related to satiety. Subsequently three satiety conditions were studied. Two foods, one rich in carbohydrate, pasta (baked macaroni) and the other in protein, polpette (meatballs), were used as loads at two calorie levels and as preload before an "ad libitum" meal. All the three questions proved useful in discriminating between the different satiety conditions. The food intake underlines the specificity of satiety: subjects, after eating a preload which previously had satiated them, ate other foods in different amounts depending on the kind of preload eaten. Food intake was significantly higher after the pasta preload, furthermore "fullness" and "satiety" ratings were significantly highest after the meatball preload, suggesting that in our experimental conditions, meatballs were more satiating than pasta. In conclusion, this study highlights the validity of using several quite different questions to study hunger and satiety, together with the actual food intake.

  1. The ETS-5 transcription factor regulates activity states in Caenorhabditis elegans by controlling satiety

    PubMed Central

    Juozaityte, Vaida; Pladevall-Morera, David; Podolska, Agnieszka; Nørgaard, Steffen; Pocock, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Animal behavior is shaped through interplay among genes, the environment, and previous experience. As in mammals, satiety signals induce quiescence in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we report that the C. elegans transcription factor ETS-5, an ortholog of mammalian FEV/Pet1, controls satiety-induced quiescence. Nutritional status has a major influence on C. elegans behavior. When foraging, food availability controls behavioral state switching between active (roaming) and sedentary (dwelling) states; however, when provided with high-quality food, C. elegans become sated and enter quiescence. We show that ETS-5 acts to promote roaming and inhibit quiescence by setting the internal “satiety quotient” through fat regulation. Acting from the ASG and BAG sensory neurons, we show that ETS-5 functions in a complex network with serotonergic and neuropeptide signaling pathways to control food-regulated behavioral state switching. Taken together, our results identify a neuronal mechanism for controlling intestinal fat stores and organismal behavioral states in C. elegans, and establish a paradigm for the elucidation of obesity-relevant mechanisms. PMID:28193866

  2. White vegetables: glycemia and satiety.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G Harvey; Soeandy, Chesarahmia Dojo; Smith, Christopher E

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss the effect of white vegetable consumption on glycemia, satiety, and food intake. White vegetables is a term used to refer to vegetables that are white or near white in color and include potatoes, cauliflowers, turnips, onions, parsnips, white corn, kohlrabi, and mushrooms (technically fungi but generally considered a vegetable). They vary greatly in their contribution to the energy and nutrient content of the diet and glycemia and satiety. As with other foods, the glycemic effect of many white vegetables has been measured. The results illustrate that interpretation of the semiquantitative comparative ratings of white vegetables as derived by the glycemic index must be context dependent. As illustrated by using the potato as an example, the glycemic index of white vegetables can be misleading if not interpreted in the context of the overall contribution that the white vegetable makes to the carbohydrate and nutrient composition of the diet and their functionality in satiety and metabolic control within usual meals. It is concluded that application of the glycemic index in isolation to judge the role of white vegetables in the diet and, specifically in the case of potato as consumed in ad libitum meals, has led to premature and possibly counterproductive dietary guidance.

  3. Snack Food, Satiety, and Weight.

    PubMed

    Njike, Valentine Yanchou; Smith, Teresa M; Shuval, Omree; Shuval, Kerem; Edshteyn, Ingrid; Kalantari, Vahid; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-09-01

    In today's society, snacking contributes close to one-third of daily energy intake, with many snacks consisting of energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods. Choices made with regard to snacking are affected by a multitude of factors on individual, social, and environmental levels. Social norms, for example, that emphasize healthful eating are likely to increase the intake of nutrient-rich snacks. In addition, satiety, the feeling of fullness that persists after eating, is an important factor in suppressing overconsumption, which can lead to overweight and obesity. Thus, eating snacks between meals has the potential to promote satiety and suppress overconsumption at the subsequent meal. Numerous studies have explored the relation between snack foods and satiety. These studies concluded that whole foods high in protein, fiber, and whole grains (e.g., nuts, yogurt, prunes, and popcorn) enhance satiety when consumed as snacks. Other foods that are processed to include protein, fiber, or complex carbohydrates might also facilitate satiety when consumed as snacks. However, studies that examined the effects of snack foods on obesity did not always account for satiety and the dietary quality and portion size of the snacks consumed. Thus, the evidence concerning the effects of snack foods on obesity has been mixed, with a number of interventional and observational studies not finding a link between snack foods and increased weight status. Although further prospective studies are warranted to conclusively determine the effects of snack foods on obesity risk, the consumption of healthful snacks likely affects satiety and promotes appetite control, which could reduce obesity. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Specific Sensory Techniques and Sensory Environmental Modifications for Children and Youth With Sensory Integration Difficulties: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Bodison, Stefanie C; Parham, L Diane

    This systematic review examined the effectiveness of specific sensory techniques and sensory environmental modifications to improve participation of children with sensory integration (SI) difficulties. Abstracts of 11,436 articles published between January 2007 and May 2015 were examined. Studies were included if designs reflected high levels of evidence, participants demonstrated SI difficulties, and outcome measures addressed function or participation. Eight studies met inclusion criteria. Seven studies evaluated effects of specific sensory techniques for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Qigong massage, weighted vests, slow swinging, and incorporation of multisensory activities into preschool routines. One study of sensory environmental modifications examined adaptations to a dental clinic for children with ASD. Strong evidence supported Qigong massage, moderate evidence supported sensory modifications to the dental care environment, and limited evidence supported weighted vests. The evidence is insufficient to draw conclusions regarding slow linear swinging and incorporation of multisensory activities into preschool settings. Copyright © 2018 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  5. Semantic Relevance, Domain Specificity and the Sensory/Functional Theory of Category-Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Giuseppe; Gnoato, Francesca; Mariani, Ilenia; Prioni, Sara; Lombardi, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    According to the sensory/functional theory of semantic memory, Living items rely more on Sensory knowledge than Non-living ones. The sensory/functional explanation of category-specificity assumes that semantic features are organised on the basis of their content. We report here a study on DAT patients with impaired performance on Living items and…

  6. White Vegetables: Glycemia and Satiety12

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, G. Harvey; Soeandy, Chesarahmia Dojo; Smith, Christopher E.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss the effect of white vegetable consumption on glycemia, satiety, and food intake. White vegetables is a term used to refer to vegetables that are white or near white in color and include potatoes, cauliflowers, turnips, onions, parsnips, white corn, kohlrabi, and mushrooms (technically fungi but generally considered a vegetable). They vary greatly in their contribution to the energy and nutrient content of the diet and glycemia and satiety. As with other foods, the glycemic effect of many white vegetables has been measured. The results illustrate that interpretation of the semiquantitative comparative ratings of white vegetables as derived by the glycemic index must be context dependent. As illustrated by using the potato as an example, the glycemic index of white vegetables can be misleading if not interpreted in the context of the overall contribution that the white vegetable makes to the carbohydrate and nutrient composition of the diet and their functionality in satiety and metabolic control within usual meals. It is concluded that application of the glycemic index in isolation to judge the role of white vegetables in the diet and, specifically in the case of potato as consumed in ad libitum meals, has led to premature and possibly counterproductive dietary guidance. PMID:23674805

  7. Snack Food, Satiety, and Weight123

    PubMed Central

    Njike, Valentine Yanchou; Smith, Teresa M; Shuval, Omree; Shuval, Kerem; Edshteyn, Ingrid; Kalantari, Vahid; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    In today’s society, snacking contributes close to one-third of daily energy intake, with many snacks consisting of energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods. Choices made with regard to snacking are affected by a multitude of factors on individual, social, and environmental levels. Social norms, for example, that emphasize healthful eating are likely to increase the intake of nutrient-rich snacks. In addition, satiety, the feeling of fullness that persists after eating, is an important factor in suppressing overconsumption, which can lead to overweight and obesity. Thus, eating snacks between meals has the potential to promote satiety and suppress overconsumption at the subsequent meal. Numerous studies have explored the relation between snack foods and satiety. These studies concluded that whole foods high in protein, fiber, and whole grains (e.g., nuts, yogurt, prunes, and popcorn) enhance satiety when consumed as snacks. Other foods that are processed to include protein, fiber, or complex carbohydrates might also facilitate satiety when consumed as snacks. However, studies that examined the effects of snack foods on obesity did not always account for satiety and the dietary quality and portion size of the snacks consumed. Thus, the evidence concerning the effects of snack foods on obesity has been mixed, with a number of interventional and observational studies not finding a link between snack foods and increased weight status. Although further prospective studies are warranted to conclusively determine the effects of snack foods on obesity risk, the consumption of healthful snacks likely affects satiety and promotes appetite control, which could reduce obesity. PMID:27633103

  8. β-Glucan and dark chocolate: a randomized crossover study on short-term satiety and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Akyol, Asli; Dasgin, Halil; Ayaz, Aylin; Buyuktuncer, Zehra; Besler, H Tanju

    2014-09-23

    The aims of this study were to adapt a traditional recipe into a healthier form by adding 3 g of oat β-glucan, substituting milk chocolate to dark chocolate with 70% cocoa, and to examine the effect of these alterations on short-term satiety and energy intake. Study subjects (n = 25) were tested in a randomized, crossover design with four products closely matched for energy content. Four different versions of a traditional recipe including milk chocolate-control (CON), oat β-glucan (B-GLU), dark chocolate (DARK) or oat β-glucan and dark chocolate (B-GLU + DARK) were given to subjects on different test days. After subjects were asked to report visual analog scale (VAS) scores on sensory outcomes and related satiety for four hours ad libitum, lunch was served and energy intake of individuals was measured. VAS scores indicated that none of the test foods exerted an improved effect on satiety feelings. However, energy intake of individuals during ad libitum lunch was significantly lower in dark chocolate groups (CON: 849.46 ± 47.45 kcal versus DARK: 677.69 ± 48.45 kcal and B-GLU + DARK: 691.08 ± 47.45 kcal, p = 0.014). The study demonstrated that substituting dark chocolate for milk chocolate is more effective in inducing satiety during subsequent food intake in healthy subjects.

  9. β-Glucan and Dark Chocolate: A Randomized Crossover Study on Short-Term Satiety and Energy Intake

    PubMed Central

    Akyol, Asli; Dasgin, Halil; Ayaz, Aylin; Buyuktuncer, Zehra; Besler, H. Tanju

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aims of this study were to adapt a traditional recipe into a healthier form by adding 3 g of oat β-glucan, substituting milk chocolate to dark chocolate with 70% cocoa, and to examine the effect of these alterations on short-term satiety and energy intake. Materials and Methods: Study subjects (n = 25) were tested in a randomized, crossover design with four products closely matched for energy content. Four different versions of a traditional recipe including milk chocolate-control (CON), oat β-glucan (B-GLU), dark chocolate (DARK) or oat β-glucan and dark chocolate (B-GLU + DARK) were given to subjects on different test days. After subjects were asked to report visual analog scale (VAS) scores on sensory outcomes and related satiety for four hours ad libitum, lunch was served and energy intake of individuals was measured. Results: VAS scores indicated that none of the test foods exerted an improved effect on satiety feelings. However, energy intake of individuals during ad libitum lunch was significantly lower in dark chocolate groups (CON: 849.46 ± 47.45 kcal versus DARK: 677.69 ± 48.45 kcal and B-GLU + DARK: 691.08 ± 47.45 kcal, p = 0.014). Conclusion: The study demonstrated that substituting dark chocolate for milk chocolate is more effective in inducing satiety during subsequent food intake in healthy subjects. PMID:25251294

  10. Does Whole Grain Consumption Alter Gut Microbiota and Satiety?

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Danielle N.; Martin, Roy J.; Keim, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes recent studies examining whole grain consumption and its effect on gut microbiota and satiety in healthy humans. Studies comparing whole grains to their refined grain counterparts were considered, as were studies comparing different grain types. Possible mechanisms linking microbial metabolism and satiety are described. Clinical trials show that whole grain wheat, maize, and barley alter the human gut microbiota, but these findings are based on a few studies that do not include satiety components, so no functional claims between microbiota and satiety can be made. Ten satiety trials were evaluated and provide evidence that whole oats, barley, and rye can increase satiety, whereas the evidence for whole wheat and maize is not compelling. There are many gaps in the literature; no one clinical trial has examined the effects of whole grains on satiety and gut microbiota together. Once understanding the impact of whole grains on satiety and microbiota is more developed, then particular grains might be used for better appetite control. With this information at hand, healthcare professionals could make individual dietary recommendations that promote satiety and contribute to weight control. PMID:27417768

  11. Satiety Innovations: Food Products to Assist Consumers with Weight Loss, Evidence on the Role of Satiety in Healthy Eating: Overview and In Vitro Approximation.

    PubMed

    López-Nicolás, Rubén; Marzorati, Massimo; Scarabottolo, Lia; Halford, Jason C G; Johnstone, Alexandra M; Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; Sanmartín, Angel M; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Harrold, Joanne A

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing globally, driven by the availability of energy-dense palatable foods. Most dietary strategies fail because of hunger generated by calorie restriction, and interventions that specifically control hunger and/or promote fullness may aid success. Current consumers have a limited choice of satiety-enhancing products with proven health benefits, and innovative ways to produce new foods (as structural modification) to enhance satiety/satiation may provide new opportunities. However, this potential is hindered by the cost of product testing. Within the SATIN-SATiety INnovation project-an in vitro platform has been developed to offer a cost-effective means of assessing the potential satiation/satiety effect of novel foods. This combines in vitro technologies to assess changes in colonic bacteria metabolism, appetite hormone release and the stability and bioavailability of active compounds in the new products/ingredients. This article provides a brief review of nutrients for which an impact on short-term appetite regulation has been demonstrated, and a summary of the changes to food structure which can be used to produce a change in appetite expression. Furthermore, the SATIN in vitro platform is discussed as a means of assessing the impact of nutritional and structural manipulations on appetite.

  12. REMODELING SENSORY CORTICAL MAPS IMPLANTS SPECIFIC BEHAVIORAL MEMORY

    PubMed Central

    Bieszczad, Kasia M.; Miasnikov, Alexandre A.; Weinberger, Norman M.

    2013-01-01

    Neural mechanisms underlying the capacity of memory to be rich with sensory detail are largely unknown. A candidate mechanism is learning-induced plasticity that remodels adult sensory cortex. Here, expansion in the primary auditory cortical (A1) tonotopic map of rats was induced by pairing a 3.66 kHz tone with activation of the nucleus basalis, mimicking the effects of natural associative learning. Remodeling of A1 produced de novo specific behavioral memory, but neither memory nor plasticity were consistently at the frequency of the paired tone, which typically decreased in A1 representation. Rather, there was a specific match between individual subjects’ area of expansion and the tone that was strongest in each animal’s memory, as determined by post-training frequency generalization gradients. These findings provide the first demonstration of a match between the artificial induction of specific neural representational plasticity and artificial induction of behavioral memory. As such, together with prior and present findings for detection, correlation and mimicry of plasticity with the acquisition of memory, they satisfy a key criterion for neural substrates of memory. This demonstrates that directly remodeling sensory cortical maps is sufficient for the specificity of memory formation. PMID:23639876

  13. Role of the satiety factor oleoylethanolamide in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Bilbao, Ainhoa; Serrano, Antonia; Cippitelli, Andrea; Pavón, Francisco J; Giuffrida, Andrea; Suárez, Juan; García-Marchena, Nuria; Baixeras, Elena; Gómez de Heras, Raquel; Orio, Laura; Alén, Francisco; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Parsons, Loren H; Piomelli, Daniele; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is a satiety factor that controls motivational responses to dietary fat. Here we show that alcohol administration causes the release of OEA in rodents, which in turn reduces alcohol consumption by engaging peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α). This effect appears to rely on peripheral signaling mechanisms as alcohol self-administration is unaltered by intracerebral PPAR-α agonist administration, and the lesion of sensory afferent fibers (by capsaicin) abrogates the effect of systemically administered OEA on alcohol intake. Additionally, OEA is shown to block cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior (an animal model of relapse) and reduce the severity of somatic withdrawal symptoms in alcohol-dependent animals. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a homeostatic role for OEA signaling in the behavioral effects of alcohol exposure and highlight OEA as a novel therapeutic target for alcohol use disorders and alcoholism. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Effects of carbohydrates on satiety: differences between liquid and solid food.

    PubMed

    Pan, An; Hu, Frank B

    2011-07-01

    To examine the satiety effect of carbohydrates with a focus on the comparison of liquid and solid food and their implications for energy balance and weight management. A number of studies have examined the role of dietary fiber, whole grains, and glycemic index or glycemic load on satiety and subsequent energy intake, but results remain inconclusive. Intake of liquid carbohydrates, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages, has increased considerably across the globe in recent decades in both adolescents and adults. In general, liquid carbohydrates produce less satiety compared with solid carbohydrates. Some energy from liquids may be compensated for at subsequent meals but because the compensation is incomplete, it leads to an increase in total long-term energy intake. Recent studies also suggest some potential differential responses of satiety by characteristics of the patients (e.g., race, sex, and body weight status). These differences warrant further research. Satiety is a complex process influenced by a number of properties in food. The physical form (solid vs. liquid) of carbohydrates is an important component that may affect the satiety process and energy intake. Accumulating evidence suggests that liquid carbohydrates generally produce less satiety than solid forms.

  15. The Role of the Dynamic Sensory Perception in the Reformulation of Shakes: Use of TDS for Studying the Effect of Milk, Fiber, and Flavor Addition.

    PubMed

    Tomadoni, Barbara; Fiszman, Susana; Moreira, María R; Tarrega, Amparo

    2018-01-01

    Various factors need to be taken into account when reformulating a food or beverage. The food components, not only macronutrients but also minor ingredients such as flavoring agents, could affect the perception of the sensory sensations, importantly their dynamic aspects, as rising and duration, which are not normally considered. The novelty of this approach is the study of the effects of the addition of several ingredients (fiber, extra milk powder, and strawberry flavoring) on the dynamic perception of a food item (strawberry shakes) using the temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) technique. The occurrence and duration of the key sensory sensations (acid, natural strawberry flavor, thick, sweet, candy strawberry flavor, and milk flavor) extracted from the TDS curves were analyzed and linked to the composition factors and liking and expectations of satiety scores. For example, the addition of flavoring increased the liking scores (increments ranging from 0.3 to 1.1) that was linked to the attenuation of acid sensation; and the addition of extra milk powder increased the expectation of satiety scores (increments ranging from 0.5 to 0.7) that was linked to the perception of early thick sensation in the mouth. In general, the more complex sensory profiles the higher liking and expectations of satiety. This work is a case study on how temporal sensory methods can contribute important information on the actual perception of food during consumption. Depending on the ingredients added these sensory properties appear at different times and with different dominance during evaluation affecting liking or fullness expectations. In consequence, the temporal sensory properties should be taken into account when designing or reformulating food. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Brain activity in hunger and satiety: an exploratory visually stimulated FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Führer, Dagmar; Zysset, Stefan; Stumvoll, Michael

    2008-05-01

    To explore neuroanatomical sites of eating behavior, we have developed a simple functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm to image hunger vs. satiety using visual stimulation. Twelve healthy, lean, nonsmoking male subjects participated in this study. Pairs of food-neutral and food-related pictures were presented in a block design, after a 14-h fast and 1 h after ad libitum ingestion of a mixed meal. Statistically, a general linear model for serially autocorrelated observations with a P level<0.001 was used. During the hunger condition, significantly enhanced brain activity was found in the left striate and extrastriate cortex, the inferior parietal lobe, and the orbitofrontal cortices. Stimulation with food images was associated with increased activity in both insulae, the left striate and extrastriate cortex, and the anterior midprefrontal cortex. Nonfood images were associated with enhanced activity in the right parietal lobe and the left and right middle temporal gyrus. A significant interaction in activation pattern between the states of hunger and satiety and stimulation with food and nonfood images was found for the left anterior cingulate cortex, the superior occipital sulcus, and in the vicinity of the right amygdala. These preliminary data from a homogenous healthy male cohort suggest that central nervous system (CNS) activation is not only altered with hunger and satiety but that food and nonfood images have also specific effects on regional brain activity if exposure takes place in different states of satiety. Wider use of our or a similar approach would help to establish a uniform paradigm to map hunger and satiety to be used for further experiments.

  17. Satiety responsiveness and eating behavior among Chilean adolescents and the role of breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Reyes, M; Hoyos, V; Martinez, S M; Lozoff, B; Castillo, M; Burrows, R; Blanco, E; Gahagan, S

    2014-04-01

    To determine patterns of satiety responsiveness and its relationship to eating in the absence of hunger (EAH), in a cohort of adolescents. We also assessed whether sex, body mass index and duration of breastfeeding, during infancy, predicted satiety responsiveness and eating behavior at 16 years. Adolescents (n=576) from a longitudinal cohort, which began as an iron deficiency anemia preventive trial, participated in an unlimited breakfast after an overnight fast, and reported satiety response on a visual analog scale after the meal, followed by an EAH procedure. Height, weight and body composition were measured before breakfast. Latent profile analysis generated profiles that captured individual differences in satiety responsiveness. Multivariable regressions, adjusted for potential confounders, evaluated the association between: (1) satiety responsiveness and EAH, and (2) breastfeeding in infancy, satiety responsiveness and EAH in adolescence. Participants were on average 16.7-year old, 48% female, 37% overweight/obese and 76% were breastfed as the sole source of milk for <6 months. We found three latent profiles of satiety responsiveness: 1: 'responsive' (49%); 2: 'not responsive' (41%); 3: 'still hungry' (10%). Participants in the 'not responsive' or 'still hungry' profile were more likely to eat during the EAH procedure (odds ratio (OR)=2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.8-3.6). Being breastfed for <6 months was related to higher odds of being in the 'not responsive' or 'still hungry' profile (OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.2-2.6) and EAH (OR=2.2, 95% CI=1.4-3.3). Satiety responsiveness was not influenced by sex and overweight/obesity. After an ad libitum meal, we found varied satiety responses, which related to EAH. Furthermore, shorter breastfeeding duration was associated with poorer satiety response and higher consumption during an EAH procedure. Understanding if breastfeeding influences the development of satiety responsiveness and eating behavior may be important in

  18. Feed-forward neural network model for hunger and satiety related VAS score prediction.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Shaji; Hendriks, Henk F J; Hartvigsen, Merete L; de Graaf, Albert A

    2016-07-07

    An artificial neural network approach was chosen to model the outcome of the complex signaling pathways in the gastro-intestinal tract and other peripheral organs that eventually produce the satiety feeling in the brain upon feeding. A multilayer feed-forward neural network was trained with sets of experimental data relating concentration-time courses of plasma satiety hormones to Visual Analog Scales (VAS) scores. The network successfully predicted VAS responses from sets of satiety hormone data obtained in experiments using different food compositions. The correlation coefficients for the predicted VAS responses for test sets having i) a full set of three satiety hormones, ii) a set of only two satiety hormones, and iii) a set of only one satiety hormone were 0.96, 0.96, and 0.89, respectively. The predicted VAS responses discriminated the satiety effects of high satiating food types from less satiating food types both in orally fed and ileal infused forms. From this application of artificial neural networks, one may conclude that neural network models are very suitable to describe situations where behavior is complex and incompletely understood. However, training data sets that fit the experimental conditions need to be available.

  19. Robo2 determines subtype-specific axonal projections of trigeminal sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Y. Albert; Choy, Margaret; Prober, David A.; Schier, Alexander F.

    2012-01-01

    How neurons connect to form functional circuits is central to the understanding of the development and function of the nervous system. In the somatosensory system, perception of sensory stimuli to the head requires specific connections between trigeminal sensory neurons and their many target areas in the central nervous system. Different trigeminal subtypes have specialized functions and downstream circuits, but it has remained unclear how subtype-specific axonal projection patterns are formed. Using zebrafish as a model system, we followed the development of two trigeminal sensory neuron subtypes: one that expresses trpa1b, a nociceptive channel important for sensing environmental chemicals; and a distinct subtype labeled by an islet1 reporter (Isl1SS). We found that Trpa1b and Isl1SS neurons have overall similar axon trajectories but different branching morphologies and distributions of presynaptic sites. Compared with Trpa1b neurons, Isl1SS neurons display reduced branch growth and synaptogenesis at the hindbrain-spinal cord junction. The subtype-specific morphogenesis of Isl1SS neurons depends on the guidance receptor Robo2. robo2 is preferentially expressed in the Isl1SS subset and inhibits branch growth and synaptogenesis. In the absence of Robo2, Isl1SS afferents acquire many of the characteristics of Trpa1b afferents. These results reveal that subtype-specific activity of Robo2 regulates subcircuit morphogenesis in the trigeminal sensory system. PMID:22190641

  20. Immunization Elicits Antigen-Specific Antibody Sequestration in Dorsal Root Ganglia Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gunasekaran, Manojkumar; Chatterjee, Prodyot K.; Shih, Andrew; Imperato, Gavin H.; Addorisio, Meghan; Kumar, Gopal; Lee, Annette; Graf, John F.; Meyer, Dan; Marino, Michael; Puleo, Christopher; Ashe, Jeffrey; Cox, Maureen A.; Mak, Tak W.; Bouton, Chad; Sherry, Barbara; Diamond, Betty; Andersson, Ulf; Coleman, Thomas R.; Metz, Christine N.; Tracey, Kevin J.; Chavan, Sangeeta S.

    2018-01-01

    The immune and nervous systems are two major organ systems responsible for host defense and memory. Both systems achieve memory and learning that can be retained, retrieved, and utilized for decades. Here, we report the surprising discovery that peripheral sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of immunized mice contain antigen-specific antibodies. Using a combination of rigorous molecular genetic analyses, transgenic mice, and adoptive transfer experiments, we demonstrate that DRGs do not synthesize these antigen-specific antibodies, but rather sequester primarily IgG1 subtype antibodies. As revealed by RNA-seq and targeted quantitative PCR (qPCR), dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons harvested from either naïve or immunized mice lack enzymes (i.e., RAG1, RAG2, AID, or UNG) required for generating antibody diversity and, therefore, cannot make antibodies. Additionally, transgenic mice that express a reporter fluorescent protein under the control of Igγ1 constant region fail to express Ighg1 transcripts in DRG sensory neurons. Furthermore, neural sequestration of antibodies occurs in mice rendered deficient in neuronal Rag2, but antibody sequestration is not observed in DRG sensory neurons isolated from mice that lack mature B cells [e.g., Rag1 knock out (KO) or μMT mice]. Finally, adoptive transfer of Rag1-deficient bone marrow (BM) into wild-type (WT) mice or WT BM into Rag1 KO mice revealed that antibody sequestration was observed in DRG sensory neurons of chimeric mice with WT BM but not with Rag1-deficient BM. Together, these results indicate that DRG sensory neurons sequester and retain antigen-specific antibodies released by antibody-secreting plasma cells. Coupling this work with previous studies implicating DRG sensory neurons in regulating antigen trafficking during immunization raises the interesting possibility that the nervous system collaborates with the immune system to regulate antigen-mediated responses. PMID:29755449

  1. Liquid meal composition, postprandial satiety hormones, and perceived appetite and satiety in obese women during acute caloric restriction.

    PubMed

    Heden, Timothy D; Liu, Ying; Sims, Lauren; Kearney, Monica L; Whaley-Connell, Adam T; Chockalingam, Anand; Dellsperger, Kevin C; Fairchild, Timothy J; Kanaley, Jill A

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare postprandial satiety regulating hormone responses (pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY)) and visual analog scale- (VAS) assessed perceived appetite and satiety between liquid high-protein (HP) and high-carbohydrate (HC) meals in obese women during acute (24-h) caloric restriction. Eleven obese premenopausal women completed two conditions in random order in which they consumed 1500 calories as six 250-calorie HP meals or six 250-calorie HC meals over a 12-h period. Blood samples were taken at baseline and every 20 min thereafter and analyzed for PP and PYY concentrations. At these same points, perceived hunger and fullness were assessed with a VAS. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was used to compare postprandial responses. The 12-h PP and PYY iAUC were greater (P≤0.05) during the HP condition (PP: 4727±1306 pg/ml×12 h, PYY: 1373±357 pg/ml×12 h) compared with the HC condition (PP: 2300±528 pg/ml×12 h, PYY: 754±246 pg/ml×12 h). Perceived hunger and fullness were not different between conditions (P>0.05). The greatest changes in PYY and perceived fullness occurred after the morning meals during both conditions. These data suggest that in obese women during acute caloric restriction before weight loss, i) liquid HP meals, compared with HC meals, result in greater postprandial PP and PYY concentrations, an effect not associated with differential appetite or satiety responses, and ii) meal-induced changes in PYY and satiety are greatest during the morning period, regardless of dietary macronutrient composition.

  2. Satiety Impact of Different Potato Products Compared to Pasta Control.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Toledo, Carmen; Kurilich, Anne C; Re, Roberta; Wickham, Martin S J; Chambers, Lucy C

    2016-08-01

    A variety of potato dishes are regularly consumed worldwide, but the satiety value of these foods is not well established. The primary objective of this study was to compare the satiating effects of 4 equi-energy meals containing different potato preparations with an equi-energy pasta control meal. This study used a randomized crossover design to assess the impact of 4 equi-energy potato-based meals (fried French fries, baked potato, mashed potato, or potato wedges) on subjective satiety sensations (visual analogue scale [VAS] ratings) and subsequent energy intake (ad libitum meal [kcal]), compared to a control pasta-based meal. Thirty-three healthy nonobese men and women participated in the study. VAS ratings indicated that the meal containing fried french fries was perceived to be substantially more satiating than the equi-energy pasta control meal, with all other potato-based meals not differing overall from control. All test meals had a comparable effect on energy intake at a later ad libitum meal. Consumers reported higher levels of satiety following a meal where the principal carbohydrate source was fried french fries, compared to when they had consumed an energy-matched meal containing carbohydrate in the form of pasta. All other potato preparations had similar effects on satiety as pasta. It is concluded that participants perceived a meal with fried french fries as providing greater satiety than a pasta control meal.

  3. Measuring hunger and satiety in primary school children. Validation of a new picture rating scale.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Carmel; Blissett, Jackie

    2014-07-01

    Measuring hunger and satiety in children is essential to many studies of childhood eating behaviour. Few validated measures currently exist that allow children to make accurate and reliable ratings of hunger/satiety. Three studies aimed to validate the use of a new categorical rating scale in the context of estimated and real eating episodes. Forty-seven 6- to 8-year-olds participated in Study 1, which used a between-participant design. Results indicated that the majority of children were able to make estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character using the scale. No significant differences in the ratings of hunger/satiety of children measured before and after lunch were observed and likely causes are discussed. To account for inter-individual differences in hunger/satiety perceptions Study 2 employed a within-participant design. Fifty-four 5- to 7-year-olds participated and made estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character and real hunger/satiety ratings before and after lunch. The results indicated that the majority of children were able to use the scale to make estimated and real hunger and satiety ratings. Children were found to be significantly hungrier before compared to after lunch. As it was not possible to establish the types and quantities of food children ate for lunch a third study was carried out in a controlled laboratory environment. Thirty-six 6- to 9-year-olds participated in Study 3 and made hunger/satiety ratings before and after ingesting an ad libitum snack of known composition and quantity. Results indicated that children felt hungrier before than after the snack and that pre-snack hunger/satiety, and changes in hunger/satiety, were associated with snack intake. Overall, the studies indicate that the scale has potential for use with primary school children. Implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Oligofructose promotes satiety in healthy human: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cani, P D; Joly, E; Horsmans, Y; Delzenne, N M

    2006-05-01

    The administration of a fermentable dietary fibre (oligofructose) in rats increases satietogenic gut peptides and lowered spontaneous energy intake. The aim of the study was to assess the relevance of those effects of oligofructose on satiety and energy intake in humans. Single-blinded, crossover, placebo-controlled design, pilot study. Volunteers included five men and five women aged 21-39 years, BMI ranging from 18.5 to 27.4 kg/m(2), were randomly assigned as described below. Subjects were included in two 2-week experimental phases during which they received either fibre (oligofructose (OFS)) or placebo (dextrine maltose (DM)); a 2-week washout period was included between crossover phases. In total, 8 g OFS or 8 g DM were ingested twice daily (16 g/day in total). Energy intake, hunger, satiety, fullness and prospective food consumption were assessed with analogue scales at the end of each experimental phase. During breakfast, OFS significantly increases the satiety (P=0.04) without any difference on other sensations as compared to DM treatment periods. After lunch, no significant differences are observed between treatment period. At dinner, OFS significantly increases satiety (P=0.04), reduces hunger (P=0.04) and prospective food consumption (P=0.05). The energy intake at breakfast and lunch are significantly lower (P=0.01, 0.03, respectively) after OFS treatment than after DM treatment. Total energy intake per day is 5% lower during OFS than in DM period. Oligofructose treatment increases satiety following breakfast and dinner, reduces hunger and prospective food consumption following dinner. This pilot study presents a rationale to propose oligofructose supplements in the management of food intake in overweight and obese patients.

  5. Accumbal Cholinergic Interneurons Differentially Influence Motivation Related to Satiety Signaling.

    PubMed

    Aitta-Aho, Teemu; Phillips, Benjamin U; Pappa, Elpiniki; Hay, Y Audrey; Harnischfeger, Fiona; Heath, Christopher J; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Tim J; Apergis-Schoute, John

    2017-01-01

    Satiety, rather than all or none, can instead be viewed as a cumulative decrease in the drive to eat that develops over the course of a meal. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is known to play a critical role in this type of value reappraisal, but the underlying circuits that influence such processes are unclear. Although NAc cholinergic interneurons (CINs) comprise only a small proportion of NAc neurons, their local impact on reward-based processes provides a candidate cell population for investigating the neural underpinnings of satiety. The present research therefore aimed to determine the role of NAc-CINs in motivation for food reinforcers in relation to satiety signaling. Through bidirectional control of CIN activity in mice, we show that when motivated by food restriction, increasing CIN activity led to a reduction in palatable food consumption while reducing CIN excitability enhanced food intake. These activity-dependent changes developed only late in the session and were unlikely to be driven by the innate reinforcer strength, suggesting that CIN modulation was instead impacting the cumulative change in motivation underlying satiety signaling. We propose that on a circuit level, an overall increase in inhibitory tone onto NAc output neurons played a role in the behavioral results, as activating NAc-CINs led to an inhibition of medium spiny neurons that was dependent on nicotinic receptor activation. Our results reveal an important role for NAc-CINs in controlling motivation for food intake and additionally provide a circuit-level framework for investigating the endogenous cholinergic circuits that signal satiety.

  6. Effect of hydrolyzed guar fiber on fasting and postprandial satiety and satiety hormones: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial during controlled weight loss.

    PubMed

    Heini, A F; Lara-Castro, C; Schneider, H; Kirk, K A; Considine, R V; Weinsier, R L

    1998-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of a completely soluble fiber on fasting and postprandial hormone levels, respiratory quotient (RQ) and subjective ratings of satiety during a controlled weight-loss program. In a five-week prospective, randomized, double-blind study, a 3.3 MJ (800 kcal)/d diet was provided during a two-week wash-in period. Then, during the intervention weeks, separated by a one-week wash-out period, a 3.3 MJ (800 kcal) formula containing either 20 g fiber or placebo daily, was given in a cross-over design and on days 1, 3 and 7 of the intervention weeks (weeks 3 and 5) measurements were taken after an overnight fast. 25 obese but otherwise healthy females (age: 46+/-6 y, body mass index (BMI): 35+/-6 kg/m2) were studied. Body weight; hunger/satiety ratings; glucose, insulin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and leptin concentrations; RQ during the intervention weeks. In the fasting state, the supplement had no effect on any of the measured parameters, including blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, CCK, and leptin, RQ and satiety ratings. In the 2 h postprandial period following the test meal, none of the measured parameters differed significantly from that following the non-fiber-supplemented meal, except for the CCK response. CCK demonstrated an overall higher concentration after the fiber-supplemented meal (P=0.007), even after adjustment for age, weight, height and treatment sequence. The postprandial peak in CCK also occurred earlier (at 15 min vs 30 min) after completion of the fiber-supplemented meal. The results indicated that a hydrolyzed guar gum fiber supplement produced a heightened postprandial CCK response, but did not alter other satiety hormones or increase satiety ratings, in either the fasting or the postprandial state.

  7. Weak Satiety Responsiveness Is a Reliable Trait Associated with Hedonic Risk Factors for Overeating among Women.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Michelle; Hollingworth, Sophie; Blundell, John; Finlayson, Graham

    2015-09-04

    Some individuals exhibit a weak satiety response to food and may be susceptible to overconsumption. The current study identified women showing consistently low or high satiety responses to standardised servings of food across four separate days and compared them on behavioural, psychological and physiological risk factors for overeating and future weight gain. In a crossover design, 30 female participants (age: 28.0 ± 10.6; body mass index (BMI): 23.1 ± 3.0) recorded sensations of hunger in the post-prandial period following four graded energy level breakfasts. Satiety quotients were calculated to compare individuals on satiety responsiveness across conditions. Body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), energy intake, food reward and craving, and eating behaviour traits were assessed under controlled laboratory conditions. A distinct low satiety phenotype (LSP) was identified with good consistency across separate study days. These individuals had a higher RMR, greater levels of disinhibition and reported feeling lower control over food cravings. Further, they consumed more energy and exhibited greater wanting for high-fat food. The inverse pattern of characteristics was observed in those exhibiting a consistently high satiety phenotype (HSP). Weak satiety responsiveness is a reliable trait identifiable using the satiety quotient. The LSP was characterised by distinct behavioural and psychological characteristics indicating a risk for overeating, compared to HSP.

  8. Specific hunger- and satiety-induced tuning of guinea pig enteric nerve activity.

    PubMed

    Roosen, Lina; Boesmans, Werend; Dondeyne, Marjan; Depoortere, Inge; Tack, Jan; Vanden Berghe, Pieter

    2012-09-01

    Although hunger and satiety are mainly centrally regulated, there is convincing evidence that also gastrointestinal motor activity and hormone fluctuations significantly contribute to appetite signalling. In this study, we investigated how motility and enteric nerve activity are set by fasting and feeding. By means of video-imaging, we tested whether peristaltic activity differs in ex vivo preparations from fasted and re-fed guinea pigs. Ca(2+) imaging was used to investigate whether the feeding state directly alters neuronal activity, either occurring spontaneously or evoked by (an)orexigenic signalling molecules. We found that pressure-induced (2 cmH(2)O) peristaltic activity occurs at a higher frequency in ileal segments from re-fed animals (re-fed versus fasted, 6.12 ± 0.22 vs. 4.84 ± 0.52 waves min(-1), P = 0.028), even in vitro hours after death. Myenteric neuronal responses were tuned to the feeding status, since neurons in tissues from re-fed animals remained hyper-responsive to high K(+)-evoked depolarization (P < 0.001) and anorexigenic molecules (P < 0.001), while being less responsive to orexigenic ghrelin (P = 0.013). This illustrates that the feeding status remains ‘imprinted' ex vivo. We were able to reproduce this feeding state-related memory in vitro and found humoral feeding state-related factors to be implicated. Although the molecular link with hyperactivity is not entirely elucidated yet, glucose-dependent pathways are clearly involved in tuning neuronal excitability. We conclude that a bistable memory system that tunes neuronal responses to fasting and re-feeding is present in the enteric nervous system, increasing responses to depolarization and anorexigenic molecules in the re-fed state, while decreasing responses to orexigenic ghrelin. Unlike the hypothalamus, where specific cell populations sensitive to either orexigenic or anorexigenic molecules exist, the enteric feeding state-related memory system is present at the functional level

  9. Neurophysiology of Hunger and Satiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Pauline M.; Ferguson, Alastair V.

    2008-01-01

    Hunger is defined as a strong desire or need for food while satiety is the condition of being full or gratified. The maintenance of energy homeostasis requires a balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. The regulation of food intake is a complex behavior. It requires discrete nuclei within the central nervous system (CNS) to detect…

  10. Distinct modulatory effects of satiety and sibutramine on brain responses to food images in humans: a double dissociation across hypothalamus, amygdala and ventral striatum

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, PC; Napolitano, A; Skeggs, A; Miller, SR; Delafont, B; Cambridge, VC; de Wit, S; Nathan, PJ; Brooke, A; O’Rahilly, S; Farooqi, IS; Bullmore, ET

    2012-01-01

    We used fMRI to explore brain responses to food images in overweight humans, examining independently the impact of a pre-scan meal (“satiety”) and the anti-obesity drug sibutramine, a serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor. We identified significantly different responses to these manipulations in amygdala, hypothalamus and ventral striatum. Each region was specifically responsive to high calorie compared to low calorie food images. However, the ventral striatal response was attenuated by satiety (but unaffected by sibutramine) while the hypothalamic and amygdala responses were attenuated by drug but unaffected by satiety. Direct assessment of regional interactions confirmed the significance of this double dissociation. We explored the regional responses in greater detail by determining whether they were predictive of eating behaviour and weight change. We observed that across the different regions, the individual-specific magnitude of drug- and satiety-induced modulation was associated with both variables: the sibutramine-induced modulation of the hypothalamic response was correlated with the drug’s impact on both weight and subsequently-measured ad libitum eating. The satiety-induced modulation of striatal response also correlated with subsequent ad lib eating. These results suggest that hypothalamus and amygdala have roles in the control of food intake that are distinct from those of ventral striatum. Furthermore, they support a regionally-specific effect on brain function through which sibutramine exerts its clinical effect. PMID:20980590

  11. Different proteins and biopeptides differently affect satiety and anorexigenic/orexigenic hormones in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Diepvens, K; Häberer, D; Westerterp-Plantenga, M

    2008-03-01

    We investigated the effects of whey protein (WP), pea protein hydrolysate (PPH), a combination of WP+PPH and control (milk protein (MP) which consists of 80% casein and 20% WP) on appetite ratings, postprandial changes in hunger/satiety hormones and energy intake (EI). A randomized, crossover design which consisted of 2 parts (experiment 1 and 2). The peptides to be tested were provided as part of a shake (1024 kJ; en% P/F/C: 25/33/42) which contained either 15 g WP, 15 g PPH, a combination of 7.5 g WP and 7.5 g PPH (WP+PPH) or 15 g MP. 39 subjects (BMI: 27.6+/-1.7 kg m(-2); age: 42.3+/-13.8 years). In experiment 1 (duration 4 h), appetite profile was measured and blood samples were taken for analysis of hunger/satiety hormones and glucose. In experiment 2 (duration 7 h), appetite profile and EI (180 min after consumption of the shake) were measured. Some indications of lower hunger (experiment 1), desire to eat (experiment 2) and thirst (experiment 1 and 2) were shown after consumption of PPH compared to MP or WP+PPH (P<0.05). A longer intermeal interval and a higher satiety index were suggested after consumption of PPH. Both PPH and WP lead to greater satiety (experiment 2) and fullness (experiment 2) compared to MP and WP+PPH (P<0.05). For WP, a positive correlation between insulin and both cholecystokinine (CCK) and glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was observed (P<0.05). However, both CCK and GLP-1 were increased by MP (P<0.05), peptide YY (PYY) was stimulated by WP+PPH, while the decline in ghrelin was larger (P<0.05). No effect on EI was seen. There was modest evidence with respect to satiety by PPH consumption. Different exogenous biopeptides produced differences in release of endogenous peptides that had inconsistent relationships with satiety. Therefore, evidence derived from a supposed biomarker for satiety does not guarantee the highest satiety.

  12. Effects of eating rate on satiety: A role for episodic memory?

    PubMed Central

    Ferriday, Danielle; Bosworth, Matthew L.; Lai, Samantha; Godinot, Nicolas; Martin, Nathalie; Martin, Ashley A.; Rogers, Peter J.; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Eating slowly is associated with a lower body mass index. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here, our objective was to determine whether eating a meal at a slow rate improves episodic memory for the meal and promotes satiety. Participants (N = 40) consumed a 400 ml portion of tomato soup at either a fast (1.97 ml/s) or a slow (0.50 ml/s) rate. Appetite ratings were elicited at baseline and at the end of the meal (satiation). Satiety was assessed using; i) an ad libitum biscuit ‘taste test’ (3 h after the meal) and ii) appetite ratings (collected 2 h after the meal and after the ad libitum snack). Finally, to evaluate episodic memory for the meal, participants self-served the volume of soup that they believed they had consumed earlier (portion size memory) and completed a rating of memory ‘vividness’. Participants who consumed the soup slowly reported a greater increase in fullness, both at the end of the meal and during the inter-meal interval. However, we found little effect of eating rate on subsequent ad libitum snack intake. Importantly, after 3 h, participants who ate the soup slowly remembered eating a larger portion. These findings show that eating slowly promotes self-reported satiation and satiety. For the first time, they also suggest that eating rate influences portion size memory. However, eating slowly did not affect ratings of memory vividness and we found little evidence for a relationship between episodic memory and satiety. Therefore, we are unable to conclude that episodic memory mediates effects of eating rate on satiety. PMID:26143189

  13. Effects of eating rate on satiety: A role for episodic memory?

    PubMed

    Ferriday, Danielle; Bosworth, Matthew L; Lai, Samantha; Godinot, Nicolas; Martin, Nathalie; Martin, Ashley A; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2015-12-01

    Eating slowly is associated with a lower body mass index. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here, our objective was to determine whether eating a meal at a slow rate improves episodic memory for the meal and promotes satiety. Participants (N=40) consumed a 400ml portion of tomato soup at either a fast (1.97ml/s) or a slow (0.50ml/s) rate. Appetite ratings were elicited at baseline and at the end of the meal (satiation). Satiety was assessed using; i) an ad libitum biscuit 'taste test' (3h after the meal) and ii) appetite ratings (collected 2h after the meal and after the ad libitum snack). Finally, to evaluate episodic memory for the meal, participants self-served the volume of soup that they believed they had consumed earlier (portion size memory) and completed a rating of memory 'vividness'. Participants who consumed the soup slowly reported a greater increase in fullness, both at the end of the meal and during the inter-meal interval. However, we found little effect of eating rate on subsequent ad libitum snack intake. Importantly, after 3h, participants who ate the soup slowly remembered eating a larger portion. These findings show that eating slowly promotes self-reported satiation and satiety. For the first time, they also suggest that eating rate influences portion size memory. However, eating slowly did not affect ratings of memory vividness and we found little evidence for a relationship between episodic memory and satiety. Therefore, we are unable to conclude that episodic memory mediates effects of eating rate on satiety. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. A high-protein diet enhances satiety without conditioned taste aversion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Bensaïd, Ahmed; Tomé, Daniel; L'Heureux-Bourdon, Diane; Even, Patrick; Gietzen, Dorothy; Morens, Céline; Gaudichon, Claire; Larue-Achagiotis, Christiane; Fromentin, Gilles

    2003-02-01

    In order to determine the respective roles of conditioned food aversion, satiety and palatability, we studied behavioral responses to a 50% total milk protein diet, compared with those to a normal protein diet containing 14% total milk protein. Different paradigms were employed, including meal pattern analysis, two-choice testing, flavor testing, a behavioral satiety sequence (BSS) and taste reactivity. Our experiments showed that only behavioral and food intake parameters were disturbed during the first day when an animal ate the high-protein (P50) diet, and that most parameters returned to baseline values as soon as the second day of P50. Rats adapted to P50 did not acquire a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) but exhibited satiety, and a normal BSS. The initial reduction in high-protein diet intake appeared to result from the lower palatability of the food combined with the satiety effect of the high-protein diet and the delay required for metabolic adaptation to the higher protein level.

  15. Snack bar compositions and their acute glycaemic and satiety effects.

    PubMed

    Yan, Mary R; Parsons, Andrew; Whalley, Gillian A; Kelleher, John; Rush, Elaine C

    Maintaining blood glucose within homeostatic limits and eating foods that sup-press hunger and promote satiety have beneficial impacts for health. This study investigated the glycaemic re-sponse and satiety effects of a serving size of a healthier snack bar, branded Nothing Else, that met the required nutrient profiling score criteria for a health claim, in comparison to two top-selling commercial snack bars. In an experimental study, 24 participants aged >=50 years were recruited. On three different days blood glucose concentration was measured twice at baseline and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after consumption of a serving size of each bar. Satiety effects were self-reported hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and amount could eat ratings on visual analogue scales. The incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (iAUC) over two hours for the Nothing Else bar was 30% lower than commercial Bar 2 (p<0.001). At 45 minutes after eating, the Nothing Else bar induced the highest fullness rating and lowest hunger rating among the three snack bars. At two hours, fullness induced by the Nothing Else bar was twice that of Bar 2 (p=0.019), but not different to Bar 1 (p=0.212). The Nothing Else snack bar developed using the nutrient profiling scheme as a guideline, with its high protein and dietary fibre contents, had a lower glycaemic impact and induced a higher subjective satiety than the two commercial snack bars of equal weight.

  16. Environmental enrichment of young adult rats (Rattus norvegicus) in different sensory modalities has long-lasting effects on their ability to learn via specific sensory channels.

    PubMed

    Dolivo, Vassilissa; Taborsky, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Sensory modalities individuals use to obtain information from the environment differ among conspecifics. The relative contributions of genetic divergence and environmental plasticity to this variance remain yet unclear. Numerous studies have shown that specific sensory enrichments or impoverishments at the postnatal stage can shape neural development, with potential lifelong effects. For species capable of adjusting to novel environments, specific sensory stimulation at a later life stage could also induce specific long-lasting behavioral effects. To test this possibility, we enriched young adult Norway rats with either visual, auditory, or olfactory cues. Four to 8 months after the enrichment period we tested each rat for their learning ability in 3 two-choice discrimination tasks, involving either visual, auditory, or olfactory stimulus discrimination, in a full factorial design. No sensory modality was more relevant than others for the proposed task per se, but rats performed better when tested in the modality for which they had been enriched. This shows that specific environmental conditions encountered during early adulthood have specific long-lasting effects on the learning abilities of rats. Furthermore, we disentangled the relative contributions of genetic and environmental causes of the response. The reaction norms of learning abilities in relation to the stimulus modality did not differ between families, so interindividual divergence was mainly driven by environmental rather than genetic factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Identification of cytokine-specific sensory neural signals by decoding murine vagus nerve activity.

    PubMed

    Zanos, Theodoros P; Silverman, Harold A; Levy, Todd; Tsaava, Tea; Battinelli, Emily; Lorraine, Peter W; Ashe, Jeffrey M; Chavan, Sangeeta S; Tracey, Kevin J; Bouton, Chad E

    2018-05-22

    The nervous system maintains physiological homeostasis through reflex pathways that modulate organ function. This process begins when changes in the internal milieu (e.g., blood pressure, temperature, or pH) activate visceral sensory neurons that transmit action potentials along the vagus nerve to the brainstem. IL-1β and TNF, inflammatory cytokines produced by immune cells during infection and injury, and other inflammatory mediators have been implicated in activating sensory action potentials in the vagus nerve. However, it remains unclear whether neural responses encode cytokine-specific information. Here we develop methods to isolate and decode specific neural signals to discriminate between two different cytokines. Nerve impulses recorded from the vagus nerve of mice exposed to IL-1β and TNF were sorted into groups based on their shape and amplitude, and their respective firing rates were computed. This revealed sensory neural groups responding specifically to TNF and IL-1β in a dose-dependent manner. These cytokine-mediated responses were subsequently decoded using a Naive Bayes algorithm that discriminated between no exposure and exposures to IL-1β and TNF (mean successful identification rate 82.9 ± 17.8%, chance level 33%). Recordings obtained in IL-1 receptor-KO mice were devoid of IL-1β-related signals but retained their responses to TNF. Genetic ablation of TRPV1 neurons attenuated the vagus neural signals mediated by IL-1β, and distal lidocaine nerve block attenuated all vagus neural signals recorded. The results obtained in this study using the methodological framework suggest that cytokine-specific information is present in sensory neural signals within the vagus nerve. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  18. Pulse Consumption, Satiety, and Weight Management1

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, Megan A.; Hamaker, Bruce R.; Lovejoy, Jennifer C.; Eichelsdoerfer, Petra E.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions, making finding effective solutions to reduce obesity a public health priority. One part of the solution could be for individuals to increase consumption of nonoilseed pulses (dry beans, peas, chickpeas, and lentils), because they have nutritional attributes thought to benefit weight control, including slowly digestible carbohydrates, high fiber and protein contents, and moderate energy density. Observational studies consistently show an inverse relationship between pulse consumption and BMI or risk for obesity, but many do not control for potentially confounding dietary and other lifestyle factors. Short-term (≤1 d) experimental studies using meals controlled for energy, but not those controlled for available carbohydrate, show that pulse consumption increases satiety over 2–4 h, suggesting that at least part of the effect of pulses on satiety is mediated by available carbohydrate amount or composition. Randomized controlled trials generally support a beneficial effect of pulses on weight loss when pulse consumption is coupled with energy restriction, but not without energy restriction. However, few randomized trials have been conducted and most were short term (3–8 wk for whole pulses and 4–12 wk for pulse extracts). Overall, there is some indication of a beneficial effect of pulses on short-term satiety and weight loss during intentional energy restriction, but more studies are needed in this area, particularly those that are longer term (≥1 y), investigate the optimal amount of pulses to consume for weight control, and include behavioral elements to help overcome barriers to pulse consumption. PMID:22043448

  19. Consumer understanding, interpretation and perceived levels of personal responsibility in relation to satiety-related claims.

    PubMed

    Bilman, Els M; Kleef, Ellen van; Mela, David J; Hulshof, Toine; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore (a) whether and how consumers may (over-) interpret satiety claims, and (b) whether and to what extent consumers recognize that personal efforts are required to realize possible satiety-related or weight loss benefits. Following means-end chain theory, we explored for a number of satiety claims the extent of inference-making to higher-level benefits than actually stated in the claim, using internet-based questions and tasks. Respondents (N=1504) in U.K., France, Italy and Germany participated in the study. The majority of these respondents correctly interpret satiety-related claims; i.e. they largely limit their interpretation to what was actually stated. They do not expect a "magic bullet" effect, but understand that personal efforts are required to translate product attributes into potential weight control benefits. Less-restrained eaters were at lower risk for over-interpreting satiety-related claims, whilst respondents with a stronger belief that their weight is something that they can control accept more personal responsibility, and better understand that personal efforts are required to be effective in weight control. Overall, these results indicate there is likely to be a relatively low level of consumer misinterpretation of satiety-related claims on food products. Copyright © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. The interplay of health claims and taste importance on food consumption and self-reported satiety.

    PubMed

    Vadiveloo, Maya; Morwitz, Vicki; Chandon, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    Research has shown that subtle health claims used by food marketers influence pre-intake expectations, but no study has examined how they influence individuals' post-consumption experience of satiety after a complete meal and how this varies according to the value placed on food taste. In two experiments, we assess how labeling a pasta salad as "healthy" or "hearty" influences self-reported satiety, consumption volume, and subsequent consumption of another food. Using MANOVA, Study 1 shows that individuals who report low taste importance consume less-yet feel just as satiated-when a salad is labeled "hearty" rather than "healthy." In contrast, for individuals with higher taste importance, consumption and self-reported satiety are correlated and are both higher when a salad is labeled as "hearty" versus "healthy." Study 2 primes taste importance, rather than measuring it, and replicates these findings for consumption, but not for self-reported satiety. There was no effect on the consumption of other foods in either study. Overall, our findings add to earlier work on the impact of health labels by showing that subtle food descriptions also influence post-intake experiences of satiety, but that the direction of the effects depends on taste importance and on the selection of direct or indirect measures of satiety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Hunger and satiety factors in the regulation of pleasure associated with feeding behavior].

    PubMed

    Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is an instinctive behavior accompanied by rewarding feeling of pleasure during obtaining and ingesting food, corresponding to the preparatory and consummatory phases of motivated behavior, respectively. Perception of this emotional state together with alternating feelings of hunger and satiety drives the feeding behavior. Because alterations of feeding behavior including either overeating or anorexia may lead to obesity and cachexia, respectively, understanding the neurochemical mechanisms of regulation of feeding pleasure may help to develop new therapies of these diseases. The dopamine (DA) system of the mesolimbic projections plays a key role in behavioral reward in general and is also involved in regulating feeding-associated pleasure in the forebrain including the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). It suggests that this DA system can be selectively activated by factors specific to different types of motivated behavior including hunger- and satiety- related hormones. Indeed, central administrations of either orexigenic ghrelin or anorexigenic α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) increase DA release in the NAc. However, DA has also been shown to inhibit food intake when injected into the LHA, historically known as a « hunger center », indicating DA functional involvement in regulation of both appetite and feeding pleasure. Although both NAc and LHA contain neurons expressing melanocortin receptors, only the LHA receives the α-MSH containing nerve terminals from the α-MSH producing neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, the main relay of the peripheral hunger and satiety signals to the brain. A recent study showed that α-MSH in the LHA enhances satiety and inhibits feeding pleasure while potently stimulating DA release in this area during both preparatory and consummatory phases of feeding. It suggests that altered signaling by α-MSH to the DA system in the LHA may be involved in the pathophysiology of

  2. Additive postprandial blood glucose-attenuating and satiety-enhancing effect of cinnamon and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Mettler, Samuel; Schwarz, Isaline; Colombani, Paolo C

    2009-10-01

    Cinnamon and vinegar or acetic acid were reported to reduce the postprandial blood glucose response. We hypothesized that the combination of these substances might result in an additive effect. Therefore, we determined the 2-hour postprandial blood glucose and satiety response to a milk rice meal supplemented with either cinnamon or acetic acid on their own or in combination. Subjects (n = 27) consumed the meal on 4 occasions as either pure (control trial), with 4 g cinnamon, 28 mmol acetic acid, or the combination of cinnamon + acetic acid. Blood glucose and satiety were assessed before eating and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes postprandially. At 15 minutes, the combination of cinnamon + acetic acid resulted in a significantly reduced blood glucose concentration compared with the control meal (P = .021). The incremental area under the blood glucose response curve over 120 minutes did, however, not differ between the trials (P = .539). The satiety score of the cinnamon + acetic acid trial was significantly higher than that in the control trial at 15 (P = .024) and 30 minutes (P = .024), but the incremental area under the curve of the satiety response did not differ (P = .116) between the trials. In conclusion, the significant effect of the combination of cinnamon and acetic acid on blood glucose and satiety immediately after meal intake indicated an additive effect of the 2 substances. Whether larger doses of cinnamon and acetic acid may result in a more substantial additive effect on blood glucose or satiety remains to be investigated.

  3. Hunger and Satiety Signaling: Modeling Two Hypothalamomedullary Pathways for Energy Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Yoshiko

    2018-06-04

    The recent discovery of the medullary circuit driving "hunger responses" - reduced thermogenesis and promoted feeding - has greatly expanded our knowledge on the central neural networks for energy homeostasis. However, how hypothalamic hunger and satiety signals generated under fasted and fed conditions, respectively, control the medullary autonomic and somatic motor mechanisms remains unknown. Here, in reviewing this field, we propose two hypothalamomedullary neural pathways for hunger and satiety signaling. To trigger hunger signaling, neuropeptide Y activates a group of neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH), which then stimulate an excitatory pathway to the medullary circuit to drive the hunger responses. In contrast, melanocortin-mediated satiety signaling activates a distinct group of PVH neurons, which then stimulate a putatively inhibitory pathway to the medullary circuit to counteract the hunger signaling. The medullary circuit likely contains inhibitory and excitatory premotor neurons whose alternate phasic activation generates the coordinated masticatory motor rhythms to promote feeding. © 2018 The Authors. BioEssays Published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Successful development of satiety enhancing food products: towards a multidisciplinary agenda of research challenges.

    PubMed

    Van Kleef, E; Van Trijp, J C M; Van Den Borne, J J G C; Zondervan, C

    2012-01-01

    In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in societies worldwide, enhancing the satiating capacity of foods may help people control their energy intake and weight. This requires an integrated approach between various food-related disciplines. By structuring this approach around the new product development process, this paper aims to present the contours of such an integrative approach by going through the current state of the art around satiety enhancing foods. It portrays actual food choice as the end result of a complex interaction between internal satiety signals, other food benefits, and environmental cues. Three interrelated routes to satiating enhancement are to change the food composition to develop stronger physiological satiation and satiety signals, anticipate and build on smart external stimuli at the moment of purchase and consumption, and improve palatability and acceptance of satiety enhanced foods. Key research challenges in achieving these routes in the field of nutrition, food technology, consumer, marketing, and communication are outlined.

  5. Successful Development of Satiety Enhancing Food Products: Towards a Multidisciplinary Agenda of Research Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Van Kleef, E.; Van Trijp, J.C.M.; Van Den Borne, J.J.G.C.; Zondervan, C.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in societies worldwide, enhancing the satiating capacity of foods may help people control their energy intake and weight. This requires an integrated approach between various food-related disciplines. By structuring this approach around the new product development process, this paper aims to present the contours of such an integrative approach by going through the current state of the art around satiety enhancing foods. It portrays actual food choice as the end result of a complex interaction between internal satiety signals, other food benefits, and environmental cues. Three interrelated routes to satiating enhancement are to change the food composition to develop stronger physiological satiation and satiety signals, anticipate and build on smart external stimuli at the moment of purchase and consumption, and improve palatability and acceptance of satiety enhanced foods. Key research challenges in achieving these routes in the field of nutrition, food technology, consumer, marketing, and communication are outlined. PMID:22530713

  6. Weight Loss, Satiety, and the Postprandial Gut Hormone Response After Esophagectomy: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Jessie A; Docherty, Neil G; Eckhardt, Hans-Georg; Doyle, Suzanne L; Guinan, Emer M; Ravi, Narayanasamy; Reynolds, John V; Roux, Carel W le

    2017-07-01

    To prospectively characterize changes in body weight, satiety, and postprandial gut hormone profiles following esophagectomy. With improved oncologic outcomes in esophageal cancer, there is an increasing focus on functional status and health-related quality of life in survivorship. Early satiety and weight loss are common after esophagectomy, but the pathophysiology of these phenomena remains poorly understood. In this prospective study, consecutive patients undergoing esophagectomy with gastric conduit reconstruction were studied preoperatively and at 10 days, 6 weeks, and 3 months postoperatively. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) immunoreactivity of plasma collected immediately before and at 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 minutes after a standardized 400-kcal mixed meal was determined. Gastrointestinal symptom scores were computed using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer questionnaires. Body weight loss at 6 weeks and 3 months postoperatively among 13 patients undergoing esophagectomy was 11.1 ± 2.3% (P < 0.001) and 16.3 ± 2.2% (P < 0.0001), respectively. Early satiety (P = 0.043), gastrointestinal pain and discomfort (P = 0.01), altered taste (P= 0.006), and diarrhea (P= 0.038) scores increased at 3 months postoperatively. Area under the curve for the satiety gut hormone GLP-1 was significantly increased from 10 days postoperatively (2.4 ± 0.2-fold increase, P < 0.01), and GLP-1 peak increased 3.8 ± 0.6-, 4.7 ± 0.8-, and 4.4 ± 0.5-fold at 10 days, 6 weeks, and 3 months postoperatively (all P < 0.0001). Three months postoperatively, GLP-1 area under the curve was associated with early satiety (P = 0.0002, R = 0.74), eating symptoms (P = 0.007, R = 0.54), and trouble enjoying meals (P = 0.0004, R = 0.73). After esophagectomy, patients demonstrate an exaggerated postprandial satiety gut hormone response, which may mediate postoperative changes in satiety, body weight, and gastrointestinal quality of life.

  7. Satiety factor oleoylethanolamide recruits the brain histaminergic system to inhibit food intake

    PubMed Central

    Provensi, Gustavo; Coccurello, Roberto; Umehara, Hayato; Munari, Leonardo; Giacovazzo, Giacomo; Galeotti, Nicoletta; Nosi, Daniele; Gaetani, Silvana; Romano, Adele; Moles, Anna; Blandina, Patrizio; Passani, Maria Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Key factors driving eating behavior are hunger and satiety, which are controlled by a complex interplay of central neurotransmitter systems and peripheral stimuli. The lipid-derived messenger oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is released by enterocytes in response to fat intake and indirectly signals satiety to hypothalamic nuclei. Brain histamine is released during the appetitive phase to provide a high level of arousal in anticipation of feeding, and mediates satiety. However, despite the possible functional overlap of satiety signals, it is not known whether histamine participates in OEA-induced hypophagia. Using different experimental settings and diets, we report that the anorexiant effect of OEA is significantly attenuated in mice deficient in the histamine-synthesizing enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC-KO) or acutely depleted of histamine via interocerebroventricular infusion of the HDC blocker α-fluoromethylhistidine (α-FMH). α-FMH abolished OEA-induced early occurrence of satiety onset while increasing histamine release in the CNS with an H3 receptor antagonist-increased hypophagia. OEA augmented histamine release in the cortex of fasted mice within a time window compatible to its anorexic effects. OEA also increased c-Fos expression in the oxytocin neurons of the paraventricular nuclei of WT but not HDC-KO mice. The density of c-Fos immunoreactive neurons in other brain regions that receive histaminergic innervation and participate in the expression of feeding behavior was comparable in OEA-treated WT and HDC-KO mice. Our results demonstrate that OEA requires the integrity of the brain histamine system to fully exert its hypophagic effect and that the oxytocin neuron-rich nuclei are the likely hypothalamic area where brain histamine influences the central effects of OEA. PMID:25049422

  8. Copulation is reactivated by bromocriptine in male rats after reaching sexual satiety with a same sexual mate.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Hernández, Jorge; Juárez, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    Male sexual satiety has been associated with a decrease in dopamine levels. Spontaneous recovery of copulatory behavior begins at least 72 h after sexual satiety is reached or in the condition in which a sexually-satiated male is exposed to a new receptive female distinct from the one with which sexual satiety was reached. The aim of the present study was to explore whether dopaminergic activation by bromocriptine (BrCr) can reactivate copulatory behavior with the same sexual mate immediately after sexual satiety is reached. Male rats were divided into three groups exposed to one of the following three conditions: 1) administration of 2 mg/kgs.c. of BrCr and exposure to the same female with whom sexual satiety was previously reached; 2) administration of 0.3 mLs.c. of the vehicle solution with exposure to the same female with whom sexual satiety was reached; and, 3) exposure to a new receptive female after sexual satiety was reached. Results showed that BrCr significantly reactivated copulatory capability in sexually-satiated males with the same receptive female. In contrast, no males in the vehicle group ejaculated with the same female after reaching sexual exhaustion. Copulation was reactivated by BrCr in a way similar to that observed in untreated males exposed to a new receptive female (i.e., the Coolidge effect). The reversal of sexual satiety in the males treated with BrCr could be explained by its action on D2 family receptors, which promotes a reactivation of sexual motivation at a level sufficient to allow renewed copulation with the same female mate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reduced intestinal brain-derived neurotrophic factor increases vagal sensory innervation of the intestine and enhances satiation.

    PubMed

    Biddinger, Jessica E; Fox, Edward A

    2014-07-30

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is produced by developing and mature gastrointestinal (GI) tissues that are heavily innervated by autonomic neurons and may therefore control their development or function. To begin investigating this hypothesis, we compared the morphology, distribution, and density of intraganglionic laminar endings (IGLEs), the predominant vagal GI afferent, in mice with reduced intestinal BDNF (INT-BDNF(-/-)) and controls. Contrary to expectations of reduced development, IGLE density and longitudinal axon bundle number in the intestine of INT-BDNF(-/-) mice were increased, but stomach IGLEs were normal. INT-BDNF(-/-) mice also exhibited increased vagal sensory neuron numbers, suggesting that their survival was enhanced. To determine whether increased intestinal IGLE density or other changes to gut innervation in INT-BDNF(-/-) mice altered feeding behavior, meal pattern and microstructural analyses were performed. INT-BDNF(-/-) mice ate meals of much shorter duration than controls, resulting in reduced meal size. Increased suppression of feeding in INT-BDNF(-/-) mice during the late phase of a scheduled meal suggested that increased satiation signaling contributed to reduced meal duration and size. Furthermore, INT-BDNF(-/-) mice demonstrated increases in total daily intermeal interval and satiety ratio, suggesting that satiety signaling was augmented. Compensatory responses maintained normal daily food intake and body weight in INT-BDNF(-/-) mice. These findings suggest a target organ-derived neurotrophin suppresses development of that organ's sensory innervation and sensory neuron survival and demonstrate a role for BDNF produced by peripheral tissues in short-term controls of feeding, likely through its regulation of development or function of gut innervation, possibly including augmented intestinal IGLE innervation. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3410379-15$15.00/0.

  10. Satiety and eating patterns in two species of constricting snakes.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Torben P; Jacobsen, Magnus W; Wang, Tobias

    2011-01-10

    Satiety has been studied extensively in mammals, birds and fish but very little information exists on reptiles. Here we investigate time-dependent satiation in two species of constricting snakes, ball pythons (Python regius) and yellow anacondas (Eunectes notaeus). Satiation was shown to depend on both fasting time and prey size. In the ball pythons fed with mice of a relative prey mass RPM (mass of the prey/mass of the snake×100) of 15%, we observed a satiety response that developed between 6 and 12h after feeding, but after 24h pythons regained their appetite. With an RPM of 10% the pythons kept eating throughout the experiment. The anacondas showed a non-significant tendency for satiety to develop between 6 and 12h after ingesting a prey of 20% RPM. Unlike pythons, anacondas remained satiated after 24h. Handling time (from strike until prey swallowed) increased with RPM. We also found a significant decrease in handling time between the first and the second prey and a positive correlation between handling time and the mass of the snake. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of fruit in different forms on energy intake and satiety at a meal.

    PubMed

    Flood-Obbagy, Julie E; Rolls, Barbara J

    2009-04-01

    Consuming whole fruit reduces ratings of satiety more than fruit juice, but little is known about the effects of different forms of fruit on subsequent energy intake. This study tested how consuming preloads of apples in different forms prior to a meal (apple, applesauce, and apple juice with and without added fiber) influences satiety and energy intake at meal. Preloads were matched for weight, energy content, energy density, and ingestion rate. Once a week for 5 weeks, 58 adults consumed one of four preloads (266 g; 125 kcal [523 kJ]), or no preload (control), followed by a test meal consumed ad libitum 15 min later. Results showed that eating apple reduced lunch energy intake (preload+test meal) by 15% (187+/-36 kcal [782+/-151 kJ]) compared to control (p<0.0001) and decreased energy intake compared to applesauce and both juices. Fullness ratings differed significantly after preload consumption (apple>applesauce>both juices>control). Overall, whole apple increased satiety more than applesauce or apple juice. Adding naturally occurring levels of fiber to juice did not enhance satiety. These results suggest that solid fruit affects satiety more than pureed fruit or juice, and that eating fruit at the start of a meal can reduce energy intake.

  12. The effect of fruit in different forms on energy intake and satiety at a meal

    PubMed Central

    Flood-Obbagy, Julie E.; Rolls, Barbara J.

    2009-01-01

    Consuming whole fruit reduces ratings of satiety more than fruit juice, but little is known about the effects of different forms of fruit on subsequent energy intake. This study tested how consuming preloads of apples in different forms prior to a meal (apple, applesauce, and apple juice with and without added fiber) influences satiety and energy intake at meal. Preloads were matched for weight, energy content, energy density, and ingestion rate. Once a week for 5 weeks, 58 adults consumed one of four preloads (266 g; 125 kcal [523 kJ]), or no preload (control), followed by a test meal consumed ad libitum 15 min later. Results showed that eating apple reduced lunch energy intake (preload + test meal) by 15% (187 ± 36 kcal [782 ± 151 kJ]) compared to control (p < 0.0001) and decreased energy intake compared to applesauce and both juices. Fullness ratings differed significantly after preload consumption (apple > applesauce > both juices > control). Overall, whole apple increased satiety more than applesauce or apple juice. Adding naturally occurring levels of fiber to juice did not enhance satiety. These results suggest that solid fruit affects satiety more than pureed fruit or juice, and that eating fruit at the start of a meal can reduce energy intake. PMID:19110020

  13. Sport Skill-Specific Expertise Biases Sensory Integration for Spatial Referencing and Postural Control.

    PubMed

    Thalassinos, Michalis; Fotiadis, Giorgos; Arabatzi, Fotini; Isableu, Brice; Hatzitaki, Vassilia

    2017-09-15

    The authors asked how sport expertise modulates visual field dependence and sensory reweighting for controlling posture. Experienced soccer athletes, ballet dancers, and nonathletes performed (a) a Rod and Frame test and (b) a 100-s bipedal stance task during which vision and proprioception were successively or concurrently disrupted in 20-s blocks. Postural adaptation was assessed in the mean center of pressure displacement, root mean square of center of pressure velocity and ankle muscles integrated electromyography activity. Soccer athletes were more field dependent than were nonathletes. During standing, dancers were more destabilized by vibration and required more time to reweigh sensory information compared with the other 2 groups. These findings reveal a sport skill-specific bias in the reweighing of sensory inputs for spatial orientation and postural control.

  14. Short-term effects of chewing gum on satiety and afternoon snack intake in healthy weight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunyoung; Edirisinghe, Indika; Inui, Taichi; Kergoat, Sophie; Kelley, Michael; Burton-Freeman, Britt

    2016-05-15

    Afternoon snacking contributes significantly to total energy intake. Strategies to enhance the satiety value of lunch and reduce afternoon snacking are of interest for body weight management. To assess whether between-meal gum chewing would enhance the satiety response to a fixed lunch meal; and assess the role of cholecystokinin (CCK) as a potential mediator of the response in non-obese healthy weight and obese women. Fifty unrestrained obese (n=25) and non-obese healthy weight (n=25) women participated in a two-arm cross-over study assessing multiple (15min per hour×3h) gum chewing (GUM) occurrences or no gum (Control) on subjective ratings of satiety, subsequent sweet and salty snack intake, CCK and general metabolic responses. GUM compared to Control resulted in significant suppression of hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption (p<0.05). Total snack energy intake was reduced ~9.3% by GUM, but not significantly different from Control (p=0.08). However, overall carbohydrate intake was reduced by GUM (p=0.03). This was consistent with a reduction in snacks characterized as high carbohydrate, low fat (p=0.02). BMI specific effects indicated GUM reduced pretzel intake in obese women (p=0.05) and Oreo cookie intake in healthy weight women (p=0.03) 3h after lunch. Metabolic responses and CCK did not differ between experimental conditions. Chewing gum intermittently post-lunch enhances perceptions of satiety and may have important implications in reducing afternoon high carbohydrate-snack intake. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Defining Specificity Determinants of cGMP Mediated Gustatory Sensory Transduction in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Heidi K.; Luo, Linjiao; O’Halloran, Damien; Guo, Dagang; Huang, Xin-Yun; Samuel, Aravinthan D. T.; Hobert, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a key secondary messenger used in signal transduction in various types of sensory neurons. The importance of cGMP in the ASE gustatory receptor neurons of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was deduced by the observation that multiple receptor-type guanylyl cyclases (rGCs), encoded by the gcy genes, and two presently known cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel subunits, encoded by the tax-2 and tax-4 genes, are essential for ASE-mediated gustatory behavior. We describe here specific mechanistic features of cGMP-mediated signal transduction in the ASE neurons. First, we assess the specificity of the sensory functions of individual rGC proteins. We have previously shown that multiple rGC proteins are expressed in a left/right asymmetric manner in the functionally lateralized ASE neurons and are required to sense distinct salt cues. Through domain swap experiments among three different rGC proteins, we show here that the specificity of individual rGC proteins lies in their extracellular domains and not in their intracellular, signal-transducing domains. Furthermore, we find that rGC proteins are also sufficient to confer salt sensory responses to other neurons. Both findings support the hypothesis that rGC proteins are salt receptor proteins. Second, we identify a novel, likely downstream effector of the rGC proteins in gustatory signal transduction, a previously uncharacterized cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channel, encoded by the che-6 locus. che-6 mutants show defects in gustatory sensory transduction that are similar to defects observed in animals lacking the tax-2 and tax-4 CNG channels. In contrast, thermosensory signal transduction, which also requires tax-2 and tax-4, does not require che-6, but requires another CNG, cng-3. We propose that CHE-6 may form together with two other CNG subunits, TAX-2 and TAX-4, a gustatory neuron-specific heteromeric CNG channel complex. PMID:23695300

  16. Fto colocalizes with a satiety mediator oxytocin in the brain and upregulates oxytocin gene expression

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Olszewski, Pawel K., E-mail: olsze005@umn.edu; Minnesota Obesity Center, Saint Paul, MN 55108; Fredriksson, Robert

    2011-05-13

    Highlights: {yields} The majority of neurons synthesizing a satiety mediator, oxytocin, coexpress Fto. {yields} The level of colocalization is similar in the male and female brain. {yields} Fto overexpression in hypothalamic neurons increases oxytocin mRNA levels by 50%. {yields} Oxytocin does not affect Fto expression through negative feedback mechanisms. -- Abstract: Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have been associated with obesity in humans. Alterations in Fto expression in transgenic animals affect body weight, energy expenditure and food intake. Fto, a nuclear protein and proposed transcription co-factor, has been speculated to affect energy balance throughmore » a functional relationship with specific genes encoding feeding-related peptides. Herein, we employed double immunohistochemistry and showed that the majority of neurons synthesizing a satiety mediator, oxytocin, coexpress Fto in the brain of male and female mice. We then overexpressed Fto in a murine hypothalamic cell line and, using qPCR, detected a 50% increase in the level of oxytocin mRNA. Expression levels of several other feeding-related genes, including neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Agouti-related protein (AgRP), were unaffected by the FTO transfection. Addition of 10 and 100 nmol oxytocin to the cell culture medium did not affect Fto expression in hypothalamic cells. We conclude that Fto, a proposed transcription co-factor, influences expression of the gene encoding a satiety mediator, oxytocin.« less

  17. Impact of a non-restrictive satiating diet on anthropometrics, satiety responsiveness and eating behaviour traits in obese men displaying a high or a low satiety phenotype.

    PubMed

    Arguin, Hélène; Tremblay, Angelo; Blundell, John E; Després, Jean-Pierre; Richard, Denis; Lamarche, Benoît; Drapeau, Vicky

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a non-restrictive satiating diet in men displaying various degrees of satiety efficiency. In all, sixty-nine obese men aged 41·5 (sd 5·7) years were randomly assigned to a control (10-15, 55-60 and 30 % energy as protein, carbohydrate and lipid, respectively; n 34) or satiating (20-25, 45-50 and 30-35 % energy as protein, carbohydrate and lipid, respectively; n 35) diet for 16 weeks, and were classified as having a low (LSP) or high (HSP) satiety phenotype. Both diets were consumed ad libitum. Changes in body weight, BMI, percent fat mass, waist circumference, satiety responsiveness and eating behaviour traits were assessed following the intervention. Dropout rates were higher in the control diet (44·1 %) compared with the satiating diet (8·6 %). Decreases in body weight, BMI and waist circumference were significant in both groups, yet HSP individuals lost more body weight than LSP individuals (P=0·048). Decreases in % fat mass were greater in the satiating diet (LSP: -2·1 (sd 2·1) %; P<0·01 and HSP: -3·0 (sd 2·5) %; P<0·001) compared with the control diet (LSP: -1·1 (sd 2·5) % and HSP: -1·3 (sd 2·6) %) (P=0·034). Satiety responsiveness was markedly improved in the satiating diet, whereas no significant changes were observed in the control group. Changes in dietary restraint (+3·3 (sd 2·9) to +7·2 (sd 5·5)), flexible control (+0·9 (sd 1·4) to +2·3 (sd 2·7)), rigid control (+2·2 (sd 1·5) to +2·5 (sd 2·8)), disinhibition (-2·8 (sd 3·7) to -3·2 (sd 2·6)) and susceptibility to hunger (-2·7 (sd 4·1) to -4·6 (sd 3·9)) were similar between the diets. Compared with the control diet, the satiating diet favoured adherence, decreased % fat mass and improved satiety responsiveness in both HSP and LSP individuals.

  18. Alimentary Epigenetics: A Developmental Psychobiological Systems View of the Perception of Hunger, Thirst and Satiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harshaw, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Hunger, thirst and satiety have an enormous influence on cognition, behavior and development, yet we often take for granted that they are simply inborn or innate. Converging data and theory from both comparative and human domains, however, supports the conclusion that the phenomena hunger, thirst and satiety are not innate but rather emerge…

  19. Sugars and satiety: does the type of sweetener make a difference?

    PubMed

    Monsivais, Pablo; Perrigue, Martine M; Drewnowski, Adam

    2007-07-01

    Widespread use of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) in beverages has been linked to rising obesity rates. One hypothesis is that HFCS in beverages has little satiating power. The objective of the study was to compare the relative effect of commercial beverages containing sucrose or HFCS on hunger, satiety, and energy intakes at the next meal with the use of a within-subject design. Thirty-seven volunteers (19 men, 18 women) aged 20-29 y consumed isocaloric cola beverages (215 kcal) sweetened with sucrose, HFCS 42, or HFCS 55. HFCS 42 contains 42% fructose, and HFCS 55 contains 55% fructose. Diet cola (2 kcal), 1%-fat milk (215 kcal), and no beverage were the control conditions. The 5 beverages were consumed at 1010 (2 h after a standard breakfast). Participants rated hunger, thirst, and satiety at baseline and at 20-min intervals after ingestion. A tray lunch (1708 kcal) was served at 1230, and energy intakes were measured. The free sugars content of sucrose-sweetened cola was assayed at the time of the study. We found no differences between sucrose- and HFCS-sweetened colas in perceived sweetness, hunger and satiety profiles, or energy intakes at lunch. The 4 caloric beverages tended to partially suppress energy intakes at lunch, whereas the no-beverage and diet beverage conditions did not; the effect was significant (P<0.05) only for 1%-fat milk. Energy intakes in the diet cola and the no-beverage conditions did not differ significantly. There was no evidence that commercial cola beverages sweetened with either sucrose or HFCS have significantly different effects on hunger, satiety, or short-term energy intakes.

  20. Dairy products, satiety and food intake: A meta-analysis of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Onvani, Shokouh; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Surkan, Pamela J; Azadbakht, Leila

    2017-04-01

    Research on how dairy products affect appetite has shown conflicting results. To conduct a meta-analysis of clinical trials to assess the effects of dairy products consumption on satiety and its components (appetite, hunger, prospective food consumption, fullness, desire to eat and second meal food intake). We used PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Google Scholar to search for eligible clinical trials published before February 2015. From over 3000 articles, 13 clinical trials met the inclusion criteria. Analyses were performed to evaluate the effect of dairy consumption on energy intake in a second meal and to study sources of heterogeneity. We also assessed the effects of dairy consumption and subjective indicators of satiety. Primary analyses indicated that dairy consumption decreased energy intake in a second meal but that there was significant heterogeneity (Cochrane Q test, P < 0.001, I 2  = 88.2%). Heterogeneity was eliminated through subgroup analyses based on the type of preload consumed by the control group. All subgroups showed significant decreases in energy intake after consumption of preloads except for fruit drinks, cola, and chocolate bars. Consumption of more than 500 ml of dairy products influenced fullness, hunger, and PFC. Although not statistically significant, dairy consumption was associated with decreased appetite (-3.97, 95%CI: -9.37, 1.43) and desire to eat (-0.11, 95%CI: -4.21, 3.98). However, dairy product consumption significantly increased satiety (7.94, 95%CI: 0.60, 15.28). Consumption of over 500 ml of dairy products can increase satiety and its components. Moreover, the nature of the preload consumed by the control group influenced the effects of increased satiety on decreases in food intake during a second meal. Consumption of dairy products also increased the risk of inducing positive energy balance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of dietary macronutrients on postprandial incretin hormone release and satiety in obese and normal-weight women.

    PubMed

    Wikarek, Tomasz; Chudek, Jerzy; Owczarek, Aleksander; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena

    2014-01-28

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary macronutrients on postprandial incretin responses and satiety and hunger sensation in obese and normal-weight women. A total of eleven obese and nine normal-weight women were recruited for the assessment of plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and insulin and the sensation of satiety and hunger using a visual analogue scale before and during a 6 h period after administration of three different macronutrient test meals. The AUCtotal GLP-1 and AUCtotal GIP values were decreased in obese women after the consumption of a fatty meal and all the test meals, respectively. However, the AUCtotal insulin value after a carbohydrate meal was greater in the obese group. The AUCtotal satiety value was decreased only after the intake of the protein meal in obese women when compared with normal-weight women. After the consumption of the fatty meal, a significant positive correlation between maximum satiety sensation and the AUCtotal GLP-1 value in the obese group and that between minimum hunger sensation and the AUCtotal GLP-1 value in the normal-weight group were observed. In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggest that: (1) satiety sensation after consumption of carbohydrate and protein meals in the obese group is related to the postprandial insulin response, while after consumption of a fatty meal, it is related to the postprandial GLP-1 release; (2) the postprandial GIP response does not influence the sensation of satiety and hunger; (3) the reduced GLP-1 release after the intake of a fatty meal in obese individuals may explain impaired satiety sensation; (4) the impaired postprandial GIP response is not related to the consumption of macronutrients and may be the early indicator of incretin axis dysfunction in obese women.

  2. Effects of the increase in neuronal fatty acids availability on food intake and satiety in mice.

    PubMed

    Coccurello, Roberto; Caprioli, Antonio; Bellantuono, Sara; D'Amato, Francesca R; Conti, Roberto; Giannessi, Fabio; Borsini, Franco; Moles, Anna

    2010-05-01

    Neurons detect free fatty acids (FFAs) availability and use this nutritional status to modulate feeding and control body weight. The work is designed to characterize the impact on feeding behavior of either oleic acid (OA) administration (experiment 1) or the inhibition (experiment 2) of the enzyme carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1). The structure of feeding behavior and satiation time course were examined through the behavioral satiety sequence (BSS) paradigm. Adult male mice were initially habituated to a palatable diet, then subjected to intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of different doses of OA or the CPT-1 inhibitor ST1326. Food intake at different time points, duration, and frequencies of feeding and non-feeding-related behaviors were continuously monitored over 40 min and satiety development profiled according to BSS. Intra-i.c.v. infusion of oleic acid (300 nM) and ST1326 (50 and 75 pM) suppressed food intake. As indicated by the earlier leftward shifting of the normal transition from eating to resting, both strategies similarly accelerated the onset of satiety. The premature onset of satiety resulted in a dose-related fashion with 50 pM of ST1326 producing a marked premature onset than the lower dose. However, at the highest dose injected, the inhibition of CPT-1 disrupted the BSS profile. The increased neuronal availability of FFAs mediates a significant anorectic response which is mirrored by an early occurrence of satiety onset. Besides supporting the role of central nutrient sensing in feeding, the present data demonstrate that the modulation of satiety enhancement can produce appetite suppressant effects within narrow range of neuronal FFAs availability.

  3. The acute effects of baobab fruit ( Adansonia digitata) on satiety in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Rebecca; Clegg, Miriam; Coe, Shelly

    2017-06-01

    The baobab fruit is high in both dietary fibre and polyphenols and therefore may increase satiety. The aim of the study was to measure the effects of baobab fruit extract on satiety. The study was conducted on 20 healthy participants. The study was a one-day single-blind crossover design. Participants were randomised to either a test smoothie consisting of 15 g of baobab extract or a control smoothie without the addition of baobab. Subjective ratings of satiety were taken on visual analogue scales immediately pre-consumption and then post-consumption, and energy intake at a post ad libitum meal was recorded. Subjective measures of hunger were reduced following the test smoothie compared with the control ( p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in calorie intake at an ad libitum meal. This research has positive implications for the use of baobab for reducing hunger, possibly having a positive effect on weight maintenance.

  4. A pilot investigation to optimise methods for a future satiety preload study.

    PubMed

    Hobden, Mark R; Guérin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Commane, Daniel M; Rowland, Ian; Gibson, Glenn R; Kennedy, Orla B

    2017-01-01

    Preload studies are used to investigate the satiating effects of foods and food ingredients. However, the design of preload studies is complex, with many methodological considerations influencing appetite responses. The aim of this pilot investigation was to determine acceptability, and optimise methods, for a future satiety preload study. Specifically, we investigated the effects of altering (i) energy intake at a standardised breakfast (gender-specific or non-gender specific), and (ii) the duration between mid-morning preload and ad libitum lunch meal, on morning appetite scores and energy intake at lunch. Participants attended a single study visit. Female participants consumed a 214-kcal breakfast ( n  = 10) or 266-kcal breakfast ( n  = 10), equivalent to 10% of recommended daily energy intakes for females and males, respectively. Male participants ( n  = 20) consumed a 266-kcal breakfast. All participants received a 250-ml orange juice preload 2 h after breakfast. The impact of different study timings was evaluated in male participants, with 10 males following one protocol (protocol 1) and 10 males following another (protocol 2). The duration between preload and ad libitum lunch meal was 2 h (protocol 1) or 2.5 h (protocol 2), with the ad libitum lunch meal provided at 12.00 or 13.00, respectively. All female participants followed protocol 2. Visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaires were used to assess appetite responses and food/drink palatability. Correlation between male and female appetite scores was higher with the provision of a gender-specific breakfast, compared to non-gender-specific breakfast (Pearson correlation of 0.747 and 0.479, respectively). No differences in subjective appetite or ad libitum energy intake were found between protocols 1 and 2. VAS mean ratings of liking, enjoyment, and palatability were all > 66 out of 100 mm for breakfast, preload, and lunch meals. The findings of this pilot study confirm the acceptability

  5. The soluble fiber NUTRIOSE induces a dose-dependent beneficial impact on satiety over time in humans.

    PubMed

    Guérin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Pochat, Marine; Reifer, Cheryl; Wils, Daniel; Cho, Susan; Miller, Larry E

    2011-09-01

    Strong evidence supports the ability of dietary fibers to improve satiety. However, large variations in the physical and chemical characteristics of dietary fiber modulate the physiologic responses. We hypothesized that a nonviscous soluble dietary fiber may influence satiety. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study in 100 overweight healthy adults in China investigated the effect of different dosages of dietary supplementation with a dextrin, NUTRIOSE (ROQUETTE frères, Lestrem, France), on short-term satiety over time. Subjects were randomized by body mass index and energy intake and then assigned to receive either placebo or 8, 14, 18, or 24 g/d of NUTRIOSE mixed with orange juice (n = 20 volunteers per group). On days -2, 0, 2, 5, 7, 14, and 21, short-term satiety was evaluated with a visual analog scale, and hunger feeling status was assessed with Likert scale. NUTRIOSE exhibits a progressive and significant impact on short-term satiety, which is time and dosage correlated. Some statistical differences appear for the group 8 g/d from day 5, and from day 0 for the groups 14, 18, and 24 g/d. The hunger feeling status decreases significantly from day 5 to the end of the evaluation for the group 24 g and from day 7 for the groups 14 and 18 g. By day 5, the group 24 g showed significantly longer time to hunger between meals compared with placebo. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with a soluble fiber can decrease hunger feeling and increase short-term satiety over time when added to a beverage from 8 to 24 g/d with time- and dose-responses relationship. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Satiety-enhancing products for appetite control: science and regulation of functional foods for weight management.

    PubMed

    Halford, Jason C G; Harrold, Joanne A

    2012-05-01

    The current review considers satiety-based approaches to weight management in the context of health claims. Health benefits, defined as beneficial physiological effects, are what the European Food Safety Authority bases their recommendations on for claim approval. The literature demonstrates that foods that target within-meal satiation and post-meal satiety provide a plausible approach to weight management. However, few ingredient types tested produce the sustainable and enduring effects on appetite accompanied by the necessary reductions in energy intake required to claim satiety/reduction in hunger as a health benefit. Proteins, fibre types, novel oils and carbohydrates resistant to digestion all have the potential to produce beneficial short-term changes in appetite (proof-of-concept). The challenge remains to demonstrate their enduring effects on appetite and energy intake, as well as the health and consumer benefits such effects provide in terms of optimising successful weight management. Currently, the benefits of satiety-enhancing ingredients to both consumers and their health are under researched. It is possible that such ingredients help consumers gain control over their eating behaviour and may also help reduce the negative psychological impact of dieting and the physiological consequences of energy restriction that ultimately undermine weight management. In conclusion, industry needs to demonstrate that a satiety-based approach to weight management, based on single-manipulated food items, is sufficient to help consumers resist the situational and personal factors that drive overconsumption. Nonetheless, we possess the methodological tools, which when employed in appropriate designs, are sufficient to support health claims.

  7. Modality-specificity of sensory aging in vision and audition: evidence from event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Ceponiene, R; Westerfield, M; Torki, M; Townsend, J

    2008-06-18

    Major accounts of aging implicate changes in processing external stimulus information. Little is known about differential effects of auditory and visual sensory aging, and the mechanisms of sensory aging are still poorly understood. Using event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by unattended stimuli in younger (M=25.5 yrs) and older (M=71.3 yrs) subjects, this study examined mechanisms of sensory aging under minimized attention conditions. Auditory and visual modalities were examined to address modality-specificity vs. generality of sensory aging. Between-modality differences were robust. The earlier-latency responses (P1, N1) were unaffected in the auditory modality but were diminished in the visual modality. The auditory N2 and early visual N2 were diminished. Two similarities between the modalities were age-related enhancements in the late P2 range and positive behavior-early N2 correlation, the latter suggesting that N2 may reflect long-latency inhibition of irrelevant stimuli. Since there is no evidence for salient differences in neuro-biological aging between the two sensory regions, the observed between-modality differences are best explained by the differential reliance of auditory and visual systems on attention. Visual sensory processing relies on facilitation by visuo-spatial attention, withdrawal of which appears to be more disadvantageous in older populations. In contrast, auditory processing is equipped with powerful inhibitory capacities. However, when the whole auditory modality is unattended, thalamo-cortical gating deficits may not manifest in the elderly. In contrast, ERP indices of longer-latency, stimulus-level inhibitory modulation appear to diminish with age.

  8. Whey proteins in the regulation of food intake and satiety.

    PubMed

    Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Akhavan, Tina; Anderson, G Harvey

    2007-12-01

    Whey protein has potential as a functional food component to contribute to the regulation of body weight by providing satiety signals that affect both short-term and long-term food intake regulation. Because whey is an inexpensive source of high nutritional quality protein, the utilization of whey as a physiologically functional food ingredient for weight management is of current interest. At present, the role of individual whey proteins and peptides in contributing to food intake regulation has not been fully defined. However, Whey protein reduces short-term food intake relative to placebo, carbohydrate and other proteins. Whey protein affects satiation and satiety by the actions of: (1) whey protein fractions per se; (2) bioactive peptides; (3) amino-acids released after digestion; (4) combined action of whey protein and/or peptides and/or amino acids with other milk constituents. Whey ingestion activates many components of the food intake regulatory system. Whey protein is insulinotropic, and whey-born peptides affect the renin-angiotensin system. Therefore whey protein has potential as physiologically functional food component for persons with obesity and its co-morbidities (hypertension, type II diabetes, hyper- and dislipidemia). It remains unclear, however, if the favourable effects of whey on food intake, subjective satiety and intake regulatory mechanisms in humans are obtained from usual serving sizes of dairy products. The effects described have been observed in short-term experiments and when whey is consumed in much higher amounts.

  9. Sensory-specific anomic aphasia following left occipital lesions: Data from free oral descriptions of concrete word meanings

    PubMed Central

    Mårtensson, F.; Roll, M.; Lindgren, M.; Apt, P.; Horne, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated hierarchical lexical semantic structure in oral descriptions of concrete word meanings produced by a subject (ZZ) diagnosed with anomic aphasia due to left occipital lesions. The focus of the analysis was production of a) nouns at different levels of semantic specificity (e.g., “robin”–“bird”–“animal”) and b) words describing sensory or motor experiences (e.g., “blue,” “soft,” “fly”). Results show that in contrast to healthy and aphasic controls, who produced words at all levels of specificity and mainly vision-related sensory information, ZZ produced almost exclusively nouns at the most non-specific levels and words associated with sound and movement. PMID:23425233

  10. Medium-chain triglycerides and conjugated linoleic acids in beverage form increase satiety and reduce food intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Hannah; Quinn, Paul; Clegg, Miriam E

    2016-06-01

    Both developed and developing countries are seeing increasing trends of obesity in people young and old. It is thought that satiety may play a role in the prevention of obesity by increasing satiety and reducing energy intake. We hypothesized that medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) would increase satiety and decrease food intake compared with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and a control oil. Nineteen healthy participants were tested on 3 separate occasions, where they consumed a beverage test breakfast containing (1) vegetable oil (control), (2) CLA, or (3) MCT. Participants self-requested an ad libitum sandwich buffet lunch. Time between meals, satiety from visual analog scales, energy intake at lunch, and intake for the rest of the day using weighed food diaries were measured. The results indicated that the time until a meal request was significantly different between the 3 meals (P=.016); however, there were no differences in intakes at the ad libitum lunch (P>.05). The CLA breakfast generated the greatest delay in meal time request. There was a difference between the control lipid compared with both the CLA and MCT for energy intake over the remainder of the test day and for total energy intake on the test day (P<.001 for both), with the CLA and MCT resulting in a lower intake than the control throughout the day. There were no significant differences in satiety from visual analog scale scores (P>.05). Both CLA and MCT increased satiety and reduced energy intake, indicating a potential role in aiding the maintenance of energy balance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Drosophila mushroom bodies integrate hunger and satiety signals to control innate food-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Chang-Hui; Chen, Chien-Chun; Lin, Chen-Han; Yang, Hao-Yu; Lin, Suewei

    2018-03-16

    The fruit fly can evaluate its energy state and decide whether to pursue food-related cues. Here, we reveal that the mushroom body (MB) integrates hunger and satiety signals to control food-seeking behavior. We have discovered five pathways in the MB essential for hungry flies to locate and approach food. Blocking the MB-intrinsic Kenyon cells (KCs) and the MB output neurons (MBONs) in these pathways impairs food-seeking behavior. Starvation bi-directionally modulates MBON responses to a food odor, suggesting that hunger and satiety controls occur at the KC-to-MBON synapses. These controls are mediated by six types of dopaminergic neurons (DANs). By manipulating these DANs, we could inhibit food-seeking behavior in hungry flies or promote food seeking in fed flies. Finally, we show that the DANs potentially receive multiple inputs of hunger and satiety signals. This work demonstrates an information-rich central circuit in the fly brain that controls hunger-driven food-seeking behavior. © 2018, Tsao et al.

  12. Drosophila mushroom bodies integrate hunger and satiety signals to control innate food-seeking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Chang-Hui; Chen, Chien-Chun; Lin, Chen-Han; Yang, Hao-Yu

    2018-01-01

    The fruit fly can evaluate its energy state and decide whether to pursue food-related cues. Here, we reveal that the mushroom body (MB) integrates hunger and satiety signals to control food-seeking behavior. We have discovered five pathways in the MB essential for hungry flies to locate and approach food. Blocking the MB-intrinsic Kenyon cells (KCs) and the MB output neurons (MBONs) in these pathways impairs food-seeking behavior. Starvation bi-directionally modulates MBON responses to a food odor, suggesting that hunger and satiety controls occur at the KC-to-MBON synapses. These controls are mediated by six types of dopaminergic neurons (DANs). By manipulating these DANs, we could inhibit food-seeking behavior in hungry flies or promote food seeking in fed flies. Finally, we show that the DANs potentially receive multiple inputs of hunger and satiety signals. This work demonstrates an information-rich central circuit in the fly brain that controls hunger-driven food-seeking behavior. PMID:29547121

  13. Glycemic increase induced by intravenous glucose infusion fails to affect hunger, appetite, or satiety following breakfast in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Schultes, Bernd; Panknin, Ann-Kristin; Hallschmid, Manfred; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Wilms, Britta; de Courbière, Felix; Lehnert, Hendrik; Schmid, Sebastian M

    2016-10-01

    Meal-dependent fluctuations of blood glucose and corresponding endocrine signals such as insulin are thought to provide important regulatory input for central nervous processing of hunger and satiety. Since food intake also triggers the release of numerous gastrointestinal signals, the specific contribution of changes in blood glucose to appetite regulation in humans has remained unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that inducing glycemic fluctuations by intravenous glucose infusion is associated with concurrent changes in hunger, appetite, and satiety. In a single blind, counter-balanced crossover study 15 healthy young men participated in two experimental conditions on two separate days. 500 ml of a solution containing 50 g glucose or 0.9% saline, respectively, was intravenously infused over a 1-h period followed by a 1-h observation period. One hour before start of the respective infusion subjects had a light breakfast (284 kcal). Blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations as well as self-rated feelings of hunger, appetite, satiety, and fullness were assessed during the entire experiment. Glucose as compared to saline infusion markedly increased glucose and insulin concentrations (peak glucose level: 9.7 ± 0.8 vs. 5.3 ± 0.3 mmol/l; t(14) = -5.159, p < 0.001; peak insulin level: 370.4 ± 66.5 vs. 109.6 ± 21.5 pmol/l; t(14) = 4.563, p < 0.001) followed by a sharp decline in glycaemia to a nadir of 3.0 ± 0.2 mmol/l (vs. 3.9 ± 0.1 mmol/l at the corresponding time in the control condition; t(14) = -3.972, p = 0.001) after stopping the infusion. Despite this wide glycemic fluctuation in the glucose infusion condition subjective feelings of hunger, appetite satiety, and fullness did not differ from the control condition throughout the experiment. These findings clearly speak against the notion that fluctuations in glycemia and also insulinemia represent major signals in the short-term regulation of hunger and satiety. Copyright

  14. Cortical Activation in Response to Pure Taste Stimuli During the Physiological States of Hunger and Satiety

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Lori; Cerf-Ducastel, Barbara; Murphy, Claire

    2009-01-01

    This event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (er-fMRI) study investigated BOLD signal change in response to a series of pure gustatory stimuli that varied in stimulus quality when subjects were hungry and sated with a nutritional preload. Group analyses showed significant differences in activation in the hunger minus satiety condition in response to sucrose, caffeine, saccharin, and citric acid within the thalamus, hippocampus, and parahippocampus. When examining the hunger and satiety conditions, activation varied as a function of stimulus, with the majority of the stimuli exhibiting significantly greater activation in the hunger state within the insula, thalamus, and substantia nigra, in contrast to decreased activation in the satiated state within the parahippocampus, hippocampus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate. Region of interest (ROI) analysis revealed two significant interactions, ROI by physiology and ROI by physiology by stimulus. In the satiety condition, the primary (inferior and superior insulae) and secondary (OFC 11 and OFC 47) taste regions exhibited significantly greater brain activation in response to all stimuli than regions involved in processing eating behavior (hypothalamus), affect (amygdala), and memory (hippocampus, parahippocampus and entorhinal cortex). These same regions demonstrated significantly greater activation within the hunger condition than the satiety condition, with the exception of the superior insula. Furthermore, the patterns of activation differed as a function taste stimulus, with greater activation in response to sucrose than to the other stimuli. These differential patterns of activation suggest that the physiological states of hunger and satiety produce divergent activation in multiple brain areas in response to different pure gustatory stimuli. PMID:19007893

  15. Cortical activation in response to pure taste stimuli during the physiological states of hunger and satiety.

    PubMed

    Haase, Lori; Cerf-Ducastel, Barbara; Murphy, Claire

    2009-02-01

    This event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (er-fMRI) study investigated BOLD signal change in response to a series of pure gustatory stimuli that varied in stimulus quality when subjects were hungry and sated with a nutritional pre-load. Group analyses showed significant differences in activation in the hunger minus satiety condition in response to sucrose, caffeine, saccharin, and citric acid within the thalamus, hippocampus, and parahippocampus. When examining the hunger and satiety conditions, activation varied as a function of stimulus, with the majority of the stimuli exhibiting significantly greater activation in the hunger state within the insula, thalamus, and substantia nigra, in contrast to decreased activation in the satiated state within the parahippocampus, hippocampus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate. Region of interest (ROI) analysis revealed two significant interactions, ROI by physiology and ROI by physiology by stimulus. In the satiety condition, the primary (inferior and superior insulae) and secondary (OFC 11 and OFC 47) taste regions exhibited significantly greater brain activation in response to all stimuli than regions involved in processing eating behavior (hypothalamus), affect (amygdala), and memory (hippocampus, parahippocampus and entorhinal cortex). These same regions demonstrated significantly greater activation within the hunger condition than the satiety condition, with the exception of the superior insula. Furthermore, the patterns of activation differed as a function taste stimulus, with greater activation in response to sucrose than to the other stimuli. These differential patterns of activation suggest that the physiological states of hunger and satiety produce divergent activation in multiple brain areas in response to different pure gustatory stimuli.

  16. Are there hunger and satiety factors in the blood of domestic fowls?

    PubMed

    Savory, C J; Smith, C J

    1987-04-01

    The presence of blood-borne hunger and satiety factors in domestic fowls was investigated in two experiments. In the first, birds that had previously been fed ad libitum or fasted for 24 h ate less after their blood had been transfused with that of fed or fasted donors than they did after two control treatments. Blood from fed donors suppressed intake more than did blood from fasted donors, but not significantly so. In the second experiment, previously fed birds ate less in the first hour after intravenous injection of reconstituted plasma from 24-h fasted donors, than after control injections of saline. The same treatments had little or no effect with subjects that had previously been fasted for 24 h. These results consistently indicate an absence of any hunger factor, but are less conclusive with regard to the presence of a satiety factor, for which there is recent evidence in fowls from central administration of plasma. It is suggested that hunger and satiety may be associated with scarcity and abundance of the same humoral factor(s), and that monitoring of blood composition may provide the necessary feedback for longer-term adjustments in food intake, modifying short-term control based on emptying and filling of part(s) of the alimentary tract.

  17. The impact of a mental work on food preferences, eating behavior traits and satiety efficiency.

    PubMed

    Salama, Miram; Drapeau, Vicky; Tremblay, Angelo; Pérusse-Lachance, Émilie

    2016-02-01

    Sedentary lifestyles, which are partly due to the type of labor being performed, have contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In general, labor in a modern context solicits mental work, which has been shown to promote overeating and altered satiety efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of knowledge-based work on food preferences, eating behaviors traits and appetite sensations. The relationship between these effects and the morphological profile was also assessed. A cross-over experimental design was used in this study for which 35 healthy adults (22 men and 13 women (mean age: 24±3years)), were recruited. The participants were randomly assigned the one of the two following conditions: mental work (reading a document and writing a summary of 350 words with the use of a computer) or control (rest in seated position). Each condition lasted 45min, and was followed by a standardized ad libitum buffet-type meal. Measurements included anthropometric variables, ad libitum food intake, appetite sensations before and after each condition, and satiety quotient, a marker of satiety efficiency in response to the meal. Eating behavior traits were also evaluated using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Eating behaviors (restriction, disinhibition) were not associated with the energy intake in both conditions and in both genders. Women appeared to have a higher energy intake after the mental work condition (p<0.05), which was accompanied by an increased carbohydrate intake (p<0.05). Moreover, participants with the highest waist circumference had lower satiety efficiency (r=0.43, p<0.05) in response to mental work. These results suggest that increased energy intake in response to knowledge-based work is associated with food preference and an altered satiety efficiency in women and individuals with higher waist circumference. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mutations in the nervous system--specific HSN2 exon of WNK1 cause hereditary sensory neuropathy type II.

    PubMed

    Shekarabi, Masoud; Girard, Nathalie; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Dion, Patrick; Houle, Martin; Toulouse, André; Lafrenière, Ronald G; Vercauteren, Freya; Hince, Pascale; Laganiere, Janet; Rochefort, Daniel; Faivre, Laurence; Samuels, Mark; Rouleau, Guy A

    2008-07-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II (HSANII) is an early-onset autosomal recessive disorder characterized by loss of perception to pain, touch, and heat due to a loss of peripheral sensory nerves. Mutations in hereditary sensory neuropathy type II (HSN2), a single-exon ORF originally identified in affected families in Quebec and Newfoundland, Canada, were found to cause HSANII. We report here that HSN2 is a nervous system-specific exon of the with-no-lysine(K)-1 (WNK1) gene. WNK1 mutations have previously been reported to cause pseudohypoaldosteronism type II but have not been studied in the nervous system. Given the high degree of conservation of WNK1 between mice and humans, we characterized the structure and expression patterns of this isoform in mice. Immunodetections indicated that this Wnk1/Hsn2 isoform was expressed in sensory components of the peripheral nervous system and CNS associated with relaying sensory and nociceptive signals, including satellite cells, Schwann cells, and sensory neurons. We also demonstrate that the novel protein product of Wnk1/Hsn2 was more abundant in sensory neurons than motor neurons. The characteristics of WNK1/HSN2 point to a possible role for this gene in the peripheral sensory perception deficits characterizing HSANII.

  19. Mutations in the nervous system–specific HSN2 exon of WNK1 cause hereditary sensory neuropathy type II

    PubMed Central

    Shekarabi, Masoud; Girard, Nathalie; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Dion, Patrick; Houle, Martin; Toulouse, André; Lafrenière, Ronald G.; Vercauteren, Freya; Hince, Pascale; Laganiere, Janet; Rochefort, Daniel; Faivre, Laurence; Samuels, Mark; Rouleau, Guy A.

    2008-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II (HSANII) is an early-onset autosomal recessive disorder characterized by loss of perception to pain, touch, and heat due to a loss of peripheral sensory nerves. Mutations in hereditary sensory neuropathy type II (HSN2), a single-exon ORF originally identified in affected families in Quebec and Newfoundland, Canada, were found to cause HSANII. We report here that HSN2 is a nervous system–specific exon of the with-no-lysine(K)–1 (WNK1) gene. WNK1 mutations have previously been reported to cause pseudohypoaldosteronism type II but have not been studied in the nervous system. Given the high degree of conservation of WNK1 between mice and humans, we characterized the structure and expression patterns of this isoform in mice. Immunodetections indicated that this Wnk1/Hsn2 isoform was expressed in sensory components of the peripheral nervous system and CNS associated with relaying sensory and nociceptive signals, including satellite cells, Schwann cells, and sensory neurons. We also demonstrate that the novel protein product of Wnk1/Hsn2 was more abundant in sensory neurons than motor neurons. The characteristics of WNK1/HSN2 point to a possible role for this gene in the peripheral sensory perception deficits characterizing HSANII. PMID:18521183

  20. Touch Satiety: Differential Effects of Stroking Velocity on Liking and Wanting Touch Over Repetitions

    PubMed Central

    Triscoli, Chantal; Ackerley, Rochelle; Sailer, Uta

    2014-01-01

    A slow, gentle caress of the skin is a salient hedonic stimulus. Low threshold, unmyelinated C-tactile afferents fire preferentially to this type of touch, where slow (<1 cm/s) and fast (>10 cm/s) stroking velocities produce lower firing frequencies and are rated as less pleasant. The current aim was to investigate how the experience of tactile pleasantness changes with repeated exposure (satiety to touch). A further aim was to determine whether tactile satiety varied with different stroking velocities. The experimental paradigm used a controlled brush stroke to the forearm that was delivered repeatedly for ∼50 minutes. In Experiment 1, brush strokes were administered at three different velocities (0.3 cm/s, 3 cm/s and 30 cm/s), which were presented in a pseudo-randomised order. In Experiment 2, brush strokes were applied using only one velocity (either 3 or 30 cm/s). After each stroke, the participants rated both subjective pleasantness (liking) and wanting (the wish to be further exposed to the same stimulus) for each tactile sensation. In Experiment 1, both pleasantness and wanting showed a small, but significant, decrease over repetitions during stroking at 3 cm/s only, where the mean values for pleasantness and wanting were similar. Conversely, slower (0.3 cm/s) and faster (30 cm/s) stroking showed no decrease in ratings over time, however pleasantness was rated higher than wanting. In Experiment 2, both pleasantness and wanting showed a significant decrease over repetitions for both applied velocities, with a larger decrease in ratings for stroking at 3 cm/s. In conclusion, satiety to touch occurred with a slow onset and progression, where pleasantness and wanting ratings to stroking at 3 cm/s were affected more than at the slower or faster velocities. Tactile satiety appears to differ compared to appetitive and olfactory satiety, because the hedonic and rewarding aspects of touch persist for some time. PMID:25405620

  1. A high-fat diet temporarily accelerates gastrointestinal transit and reduces satiety in men.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Miriam E; Shafat, Amir

    2011-12-01

    High-fat (HF) diets of 2 weeks have been shown to accelerate gastrointestinal (GI) transit and decrease satiety. However, the effects of HF diets on GI transit over longer periods than 2 weeks are unknown. We hypothesize that over 4 weeks, GI transit of a HF test meal will accelerate. The study was a repeated measures design with 10 male volunteers completing a 1-week HF diet intervention and 7 completing a 4-week HF diet intervention with testing once a week on the same day throughout the 4 weeks. Gastric emptying (GE) was measured using the (13)C-octanoic acid breath test and mouth-to-caecum transit time (MCTT) using the inulin H(2) breath test. Satiety was analysed using visual analogue scales and an ad libitum buffet meal. Body mass increased by 1.3 kg over the 4 weeks (p = 0.036). GE latency time decreased from 45 ± 8 to 41 ± 10 min (p = 0.047) over 1 week but there were no changes in any GE parameters over the 4 weeks. MCTT was accelerated over 1 week (p = 0.036) from 308 ± 43 to 248 ± 83 min. However, over the 4-week period, there was no change. Volunteers became more hungry and desire to eat became greater after 1 week (p = 0.01). Changes in satiety were also evident over the 4 weeks. Satiety was reduced in the primary weeks and then returned to baseline towards the end of the intervention. GI adaptation to a HF diet occurred over a 1-week period and returned to pre-diet levels at the end of 4 weeks.

  2. Daily Rhythms of Hunger and Satiety in Healthy Men during One Week of Sleep Restriction and Circadian Misalignment.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Charli; Zhou, Xuan; Matthews, Raymond W; Darwent, David; Roach, Gregory D

    2016-01-29

    The impact of sleep restriction on the endogenous circadian rhythms of hunger and satiety were examined in 28 healthy young men. Participants were scheduled to 2 × 24-h days of baseline followed by 8 × 28-h days of forced desynchrony during which sleep was either moderately restricted (equivalent to 6 h in bed/24 h; n = 14) or severely restricted (equivalent to 4 h in bed/24 h; n = 14). Self-reported hunger and satisfaction were assessed every 2.5 h during wake periods using visual analogue scales. Participants were served standardised meals and snacks at regular intervals and were not permitted to eat ad libitum. Core body temperature was continuously recorded with rectal thermistors to determine circadian phase. Both hunger and satiety exhibited a marked endogenous circadian rhythm. Hunger was highest, and satiety was lowest, in the biological evening (i.e., ~17:00-21:00 h) whereas hunger was lowest, and satiety was highest in the biological night (i.e., 01:00-05:00 h). The results are consistent with expectations based on previous reports and may explain in some part the decrease in appetite that is commonly reported by individuals who are required to work at night. Interestingly, the endogenous rhythms of hunger and satiety do not appear to be altered by severe--as compared to moderate--sleep restriction.

  3. Interference in Ballistic Motor Learning: Specificity and Role of Sensory Error Signals

    PubMed Central

    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Petersen, Tue Hvass; Rothwell, John C.; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2011-01-01

    Humans are capable of learning numerous motor skills, but newly acquired skills may be abolished by subsequent learning. Here we ask what factors determine whether interference occurs in motor learning. We speculated that interference requires competing processes of synaptic plasticity in overlapping circuits and predicted specificity. To test this, subjects learned a ballistic motor task. Interference was observed following subsequent learning of an accuracy-tracking task, but only if the competing task involved the same muscles and movement direction. Interference was not observed from a non-learning task suggesting that interference requires competing learning. Subsequent learning of the competing task 4 h after initial learning did not cause interference suggesting disruption of early motor memory consolidation as one possible mechanism underlying interference. Repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of corticospinal motor output at intensities below movement threshold did not cause interference, whereas suprathreshold rTMS evoking motor responses and (re)afferent activation did. Finally, the experiments revealed that suprathreshold repetitive electrical stimulation of the agonist (but not antagonist) peripheral nerve caused interference. The present study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate that peripheral nerve stimulation may cause interference. The finding underscores the importance of sensory feedback as error signals in motor learning. We conclude that interference requires competing plasticity in overlapping circuits. Interference is remarkably specific for circuits involved in a specific movement and it may relate to sensory error signals. PMID:21408054

  4. Subjective satiety and other experiences of a Paleolithic diet compared to a diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Tommy; Granfeldt, Yvonne; Lindeberg, Staffan; Hallberg, Ann-Christine

    2013-07-29

    We found marked improvement of glycemic control and several cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes given advice to follow a Paleolithic diet, as compared to a diabetes diet. We now report findings on subjective ratings of satiety at meal times and participants' other experiences of the two diets from the same study. In a randomized cross-over study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes (3 women and 10 men), were instructed to eat a Paleolithic diet based on lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs and nuts, and a diabetes diet designed in accordance with dietary guidelines, during two consecutive 3-month periods. In parallel with a four-day weighed food record, the participants recorded their subjective rating of satiety. Satiety quotients were calculated as the intra-meal quotient of change in satiety during a meal and consumed energy or weight of food and drink for that specific meal. All participants answered the same three open-ended questions in a survey following each diet: "What thoughts do you have about this diet?", "Describe your positive and negative experiences with this diet" and "How do you think this diet has affected your health?". The participants were equally satiated on both diets. The Paleolithic diet resulted in greater satiety quotients for energy per meal (p = 0.004), energy density per meal (p = 0.01) and glycemic load per meal (p = 0.02). The distribution of positive and negative comments from the survey did not differ between the two diets, and the comments were mostly positive. Among comments relating to recurring topics, there was no difference in distribution between the two diets for comments relating to tastelessness, but there was a trend towards more comments on the Paleolithic diet being satiating and improving blood sugar values, and significantly more comments on weight loss and difficulty adhering to the Paleolithic diet. A Paleolithic diet is more satiating per calorie than a diabetes diet in

  5. Subjective satiety and other experiences of a Paleolithic diet compared to a diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We found marked improvement of glycemic control and several cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes given advice to follow a Paleolithic diet, as compared to a diabetes diet. We now report findings on subjective ratings of satiety at meal times and participants’ other experiences of the two diets from the same study. Methods In a randomized cross-over study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes (3 women and 10 men), were instructed to eat a Paleolithic diet based on lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs and nuts, and a diabetes diet designed in accordance with dietary guidelines, during two consecutive 3-month periods. In parallel with a four-day weighed food record, the participants recorded their subjective rating of satiety. Satiety quotients were calculated as the intra-meal quotient of change in satiety during a meal and consumed energy or weight of food and drink for that specific meal. All participants answered the same three open-ended questions in a survey following each diet: “What thoughts do you have about this diet?”, “Describe your positive and negative experiences with this diet” and “How do you think this diet has affected your health?”. Results The participants were equally satiated on both diets. The Paleolithic diet resulted in greater satiety quotients for energy per meal (p = 0.004), energy density per meal (p = 0.01) and glycemic load per meal (p = 0.02). The distribution of positive and negative comments from the survey did not differ between the two diets, and the comments were mostly positive. Among comments relating to recurring topics, there was no difference in distribution between the two diets for comments relating to tastelessness, but there was a trend towards more comments on the Paleolithic diet being satiating and improving blood sugar values, and significantly more comments on weight loss and difficulty adhering to the Paleolithic diet. Conclusions A

  6. Alimentary Epigenetics: A Developmental Psychobiological Systems View of the Perception of Hunger, Thirst and Satiety

    PubMed Central

    Harshaw, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Hunger, thirst and satiety have an enormous influence on cognition, behavior and development, yet we often take for granted that they are simply inborn or innate. Converging data and theory from both comparative and human domains, however, supports the conclusion that the phenomena hunger, thirst and satiety are not innate but rather emerge probabilistically as a function of experience during individual development. The metatheoretical perspective provided by developmental psychobiological systems theory provides a useful framework for organizing and synthesizing findings related to the development of the perception of hunger, thirst and satiety, or alimentary interoception. It is argued that neither developmental psychology nor the psychology of eating and drinking have adequately dealt with the ontogeny of alimentary interoception and that a more serious consideration of the species-typical developmental system of food and fluid intake and the many modifications that have been made therein is likely necessary for a full understanding of both alimentary and emotional development. PMID:19956358

  7. Satiety and energy intake after single and repeated exposure to gel-forming dietary fiber: post-ingestive effects.

    PubMed

    Wanders, A J; Mars, M; Borgonjen-van den Berg, K J; de Graaf, C; Feskens, E J M

    2014-06-01

    Viscous or gel-forming dietary fibers can increase satiety by a more firm texture and increased eating time. Effects of viscous or gel-forming fibers on satiety by post-ingestive mechanisms such as gastric emptying, hormonal signals, nutrient absorption or fermentation are unclear. Moreover, it is unclear whether the effects persist after repeated exposure. To investigate satiety and energy intake after single and repeated exposure to gelled fiber by post-ingestive mechanisms. In a two-arm crossover design, 32 subjects (24 female subjects, 21±2 y, BMI 21.8±1.9 kg m(-2)) consumed test foods once daily for 15 consecutive days, with 2 weeks of washout. Test foods were isocaloric (0.5 MJ, 200 g) with either 10 g gel-forming pectin or 3 g gelatin and 2 g starch, matched for texture and eating time. Hourly satiety ratings, ad libitum energy intake and body weight were measured on days 1 (single exposure) and 15 (repeated exposure). In addition, hourly breath hydrogen, fasting glucose, insulin, leptin and short-chain fatty acids were measured. Subjects rated hunger, desire to eat and prospective intake about 2% lower (P<0.015) and fullness higher (+1.4%; P=0.041) when they received pectin compared with control. This difference was similar after single and repeated exposure (P>0.64). After receiving pectin, energy intake was lower (-5.6%, P=0.012) and breath hydrogen was elevated (+12.6%, P=0.008) after single exposure, but not after repeated exposure. Fasting glucose concentrations were higher both after single and repeated exposure to pectin (+2.1%, P=0.019). Body weight and concentrations of insulin, leptin and short-chain fatty acids did not change during the study. Gelled pectin can increase satiety and reduce energy intake by post-ingestive mechanisms. Although the effects were small, the effects on satiety were consistent over time, whereas the effects on energy intake reduction were not.

  8. B-type natriuretic peptide modulates ghrelin, hunger, and satiety in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Vila, Greisa; Grimm, Gabriele; Resl, Michael; Heinisch, Birgit; Einwallner, Elisa; Esterbauer, Harald; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Mueller, Thomas; Luger, Anton; Clodi, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Chronic heart failure is accompanied by anorexia and increased release of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) from ventricular cardiomyocytes. The pathophysiological mechanisms linking heart failure and appetite regulation remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the impact of intravenous BNP administration on appetite-regulating hormones and subjective ratings of hunger and satiety in 10 healthy volunteers. Participants received in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover, single-blinded study (subject) placebo once and 3.0 pmol/kg/min human BNP-32 once administered as a continuous infusion during 4 h. Circulating concentrations of appetite-regulating peptides were measured hourly. Subjective ratings of hunger and satiety were evaluated by visual analog scales. BNP inhibited the fasting-induced increase in total and acylated ghrelin concentrations over time (P = 0.043 and P = 0.038, respectively). In addition, BNP decreased the subjective rating of hunger (P = 0.009) and increased the feeling of satiety (P = 0.012) when compared with placebo. There were no significant changes in circulating peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide 1, oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptide, leptin, and adiponectin concentrations. In summary, our results demonstrate that BNP exerts anorectic effects and reduces ghrelin concentrations in men. These data, taken together with the known cardiovascular properties of ghrelin, support the existence of a heart-gut-brain axis, which could be therapeutically targeted in patients with heart failure and obesity.

  9. Brn3a/Pou4f1 Regulates Dorsal Root Ganglion Sensory Neuron Specification and Axonal Projection into the Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Min; Li, Shengguo; Klein, William H.; Xiang, Mengqing

    2012-01-01

    The sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) must project accurately to their central targets to convey proprioceptive, nociceptive and mechanoreceptive information to the spinal cord. How these different sensory modalities and central connectivities are specified and coordinated still remains unclear. Given the expression of the POU homeodomain transcription factors Brn3a/Pou4f1 and Brn3b/Pou4f2 in DRG and spinal cord sensory neurons, we determined the subtype specification of DRG and spinal cord sensory neurons as well as DRG central projections in Brn3a and Brn3b single and double mutant mice. Inactivation of either or both genes causes no gross abnormalities in early spinal cord neurogenesis; however, in Brn3a single and Brn3a;Brn3b double mutant mice, sensory afferent axons from the DRG fail to form normal trajectories in the spinal cord. The TrkA+ afferents remain outside the dorsal horn and fail to extend into the spinal cord, while the projections of TrkC+ proprioceptive afferents into the ventral horn are also impaired. Moreover, Brn3a mutant DRGs are defective in sensory neuron specification, as marked by the excessive generation of TrkB+ and TrkC+ neurons as well as TrkA+/TrkB+ and TrkA+/TrkC+ double positive cells at early embryonic stages. At later stages in the mutant, TrkB+, TrkC+ and parvalbumin+ neurons diminish while there is a significant increase of CGRP+ and c-ret+ neurons. In addition, Brn3a mutant DRGs display a dramatic down-regulation of Runx1 expression, suggesting that the regulation of DRG sensory neuron specification by Brn3a is mediated in part by Runx1. Our results together demonstrate a critical role for Brn3a in generating DRG sensory neuron diversity and regulating sensory afferent projections to the central targets. PMID:22326227

  10. The Role of Sweet Taste in Satiation and Satiety

    PubMed Central

    Low, Yu Qing; Lacy, Kathleen; Keast, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Increased energy consumption, especially increased consumption of sweet energy-dense food, is thought to be one of the main contributors to the escalating rates in overweight individuals and obesity globally. The individual’s ability to detect or sense sweetness in the oral cavity is thought to be one of many factors influencing food acceptance, and therefore, taste may play an essential role in modulating food acceptance and/or energy intake. Emerging evidence now suggests that the sweet taste signaling mechanisms identified in the oral cavity also operate in the gastrointestinal system and may influence the development of satiety. Understanding the individual differences in detecting sweetness in both the oral and gastrointestinal system towards both caloric sugar and high intensity sweetener and the functional role of the sweet taste system may be important in understanding the reasons for excess energy intake. This review will summarize evidence of possible associations between the sweet taste mechanisms within the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract and the brain systems towards both caloric sugar and high intensity sweetener and sweet taste function, which may influence satiation, satiety and, perhaps, predisposition to being overweight and obesity. PMID:25184369

  11. 16p11.2 Locus modulates response to satiety before the onset of obesity.

    PubMed

    Maillard, A M; Hippolyte, L; Rodriguez-Herreros, B; Chawner, S J R A; Dremmel, D; Agüera, Z; Fagundo, A B; Pain, A; Martin-Brevet, S; Hilbert, A; Kurz, S; Etienne, R; Draganski, B; Jimenez-Murcia, S; Männik, K; Metspalu, A; Reigo, A; Isidor, B; Le Caignec, C; David, A; Mignot, C; Keren, B; van den Bree, M B M; Munsch, S; Fernandez-Aranda, F; Beckmann, J S; Reymond, A; Jacquemont, S

    2016-05-01

    The 600 kb BP4-BP5 copy number variants (CNVs) at the 16p11.2 locus have been associated with a range of neurodevelopmental conditions including autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. The number of genomic copies in this region is inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI): the deletion is associated with a highly penetrant form of obesity (present in 50% of carriers by the age of 7 years and in 70% of adults), and the duplication with being underweight. Mechanisms underlying this energy imbalance remain unknown. This study aims to investigate eating behavior, cognitive traits and their relationships with BMI in carriers of 16p11.2 CNVs. We assessed individuals carrying a 16p11.2 deletion or duplication and their intrafamilial controls using food-related behavior questionnaires and cognitive measures. We also compared these carriers with cohorts of individuals presenting with obesity, binge eating disorder or bulimia. Response to satiety is gene dosage-dependent in pediatric CNV carriers. Altered satiety response is present in young deletion carriers before the onset of obesity. It remains altered in adolescent carriers and correlates with obesity. Adult deletion carriers exhibit eating behavior similar to that seen in a cohort of obesity without eating disorders such as bulimia or binge eating. None of the cognitive measures are associated with eating behavior or BMI. These findings suggest that abnormal satiety response is a strong contributor to the energy imbalance in 16p11.2 CNV carriers, and, akin to other genetic forms of obesity, altered satiety responsiveness in children precedes the increase in BMI observed later in adolescence.

  12. Hunger and satiety in anorexia nervosa: fMRI during cognitive processing of food pictures.

    PubMed

    Santel, Stephanie; Baving, Lioba; Krauel, Kerstin; Münte, Thomas F; Rotte, Michael

    2006-10-09

    Neuroimaging studies of visually presented food stimuli in patients with anorexia nervosa have demonstrated decreased activations in inferior parietal and visual occipital areas, and increased frontal activations relative to healthy persons, but so far no inferences could be drawn with respect to the influence of hunger or satiety. Thirteen patients with AN and 10 healthy control subjects (aged 13-21) rated visual food and non-food stimuli for pleasantness during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a hungry and a satiated state. AN patients rated food as less pleasant than controls. When satiated, AN patients showed decreased activation in left inferior parietal cortex relative to controls. When hungry, AN patients displayed weaker activation of the right visual occipital cortex than healthy controls. Food stimuli during satiety compared with hunger were associated with stronger right occipital activation in patients and with stronger activation in left lateral orbitofrontal cortex, the middle portion of the right anterior cingulate, and left middle temporal gyrus in controls. The observed group differences in the fMRI activation to food pictures point to decreased food-related somatosensory processing in AN during satiety and to attentional mechanisms during hunger that might facilitate restricted eating in AN.

  13. Effects of a viscous-fibre supplemented evening meal and the following un-supplemented breakfast on post-prandial satiety responses in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Yong, Mei Kei; Solah, Vicky A; Johnson, Stuart K; Meng, Xingqiong; Kerr, Deborah A; James, Anthony P; Fenton, Haelee K; Gahler, Roland J; Wood, Simon

    2016-02-01

    The post-prandial satiety response and "second-meal effect" of a viscous fibre supplement PolyGlycopleX(®) (PGX(®)) was evaluated in a single-blind, randomised controlled crossover study of 14 healthy adult women. The two hour post-prandial satiety response, expressed as the area under the curve (AUC) of perceived hunger/fullness score versus post-prandial time, of a standardised evening meal with concurrent intake of either PGX softgel or rice flour softgel (control) was determined. On the following morning, after an overnight fast, the four hour satiety response to a standardised breakfast with no softgel supplementation was assessed. A significantly higher satiety response (AUC) to the standard dinner for the PGX-supplemented dinner compared with the control dinner (p=0.001) was found. No significant difference (p=0.09) was observed in the satiety response (AUC) of the breakfast regardless of which supplemented-dinner had been consumed prior, however the p value indicated a trend towards a higher response to the breakfast following the PGX-supplemented dinner. The fullness scores of the breakfast following the PGX-supplemented dinner at 15, 30, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240min post-prandial were significantly higher than those for the breakfast following the control dinner (p=<0.001, 0.007, 0.009, 0.009, 0.049, 0.03, 0.003 and <0.001 respectively). PGX supplementation at dinner increased the satiety effects of both the dinner itself and the subsequent un-supplemented breakfast; a "second meal effect" indicting the potential for this fibre supplement to induce extended satiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Postprandial profiles of CCK after high fat and high carbohydrate meals and the relationship to satiety in humans.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Catherine; Finlayson, Graham; Caudwell, Phillipa; Webb, Dominic-Luc; Hellström, Per M; Näslund, Erik; Blundell, John E

    2016-03-01

    CCK is understood to play a major role in appetite regulation. Difficulties in measuring CCK have limited the potential to assess its profile in relation to food-induced satiety. Improvements in methodology and progress in theoretical understanding of satiety/satiation make it timely for this to be revisited. First, examine how physiologically relevant postprandial CCK8/33(s) profiles are influenced by fat (HF) or carbohydrate (HCHO) meals. Second, to examine relationships between postprandial CCK and profiles of satiety (hunger/fullness) and satiation (meal size). Sixteen overweight/obese adults (11 females/5 males) participated in a randomised-crossover study (46 years, 29.8 kg/m(2)) in a university research centre. Plasma was collected preprandially and for 180 min postprandially. Simultaneously, ratings of hunger/fullness were tracked for 180 min before an ad libitum lunch was provided. CCK8/33(s) levels increased more rapidly and reached a higher peak following HF compared to HCHO breakfast (F(1,15)=14.737, p<0.01). Profiles of hunger/fullness did not differ between conditions (F(1,15)=0.505, p=0.488; F(1,15)=2.277, p=0.152). There was no difference in energy intake from the ad libitum meal (HF-3958 versus HCHO-3925 kJ; t(14)=0.201, p=0.844). CCK8/33(s) profiles were not associated with subjective appetite during early and late phases of satiety; nor was there an association between CCK8/33(s) and meal size. These results demonstrate CCK levels were higher after HF meal compared to HCHO isocaloric meal. There was no association between CCK levels and intensity of satiety, or with meal size. Under these circumstances, CCK does not appear to play a unique independent role in satiety/satiation. CCK probably acts in conjunction with other peptides and the action of the stomach. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fructose and satiety.

    PubMed

    Moran, Timothy H

    2009-06-01

    A role for the increased intake of dietary fructose in general and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) in particular in the current obesity epidemic has been proposed. Consumed fructose and glucose have different rates of gastric emptying, are differentially absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, result in different endocrine profiles, and have different metabolic fates, providing multiple opportunities for the 2 saccharides to differentially affect food intake. The consequences of fructose and glucose on eating have been studied under a variety of experimental situations in both model systems and man. The results have been inconsistent, and the particular findings appear to depend on the timing of saccharide administration or ingestion relative to a test meal situation, whether the saccharides are administered as pure sugars or as components of a dietary preload, and the overall volume of the preload. These factors rather than intrinsic differences in the saccharides' ability to induce satiety appear to carry many of the differential effects on food intake that have been found. On balance, the case for fructose being less satiating than glucose or HFCS being less satiating than sucrose is not compelling.

  16. Sensory specificity and speciation: a potential neuronal pathway for host fruit odour discrimination in Rhagoletis pomonella

    PubMed Central

    Batra, Srishti; Ramaswamy, Sree Subha; Feder, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural changes in habitat or mate choice can trigger population divergence, leading to speciation. However, little is known about the neurological bases for such changes. Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a model for ecological speciation via host plant shifts. Within the past 180 years, Rhagoletis flies infesting hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) shifted to attack domesticated apple (Malus pumila). The two populations differ in their olfactory preferences for apple versus hawthorn fruit. Here, we looked for patterns of sensory organization that may have contributed to this shift by characterizing the morphology, specificity and distribution of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) on the antennae of Rhagoletis responding to host fruit and non-host volatiles. Of 28 OSN classes identified, two colocalized OSN pairs were found that specifically responded to the major behavioural attractant and antagonist volatiles for each fly population. A reversal in the response of these OSNs to fruit volatiles, either through a switch in receptor expression between these paired neurons or changes in neuronal projections in the brain, could therefore account for the behavioural difference between apple and hawthorn flies. The finding supports the hypothesis that relatively minor changes in olfactory sensory pathways may contribute to rapid host shifting and divergence in Rhagoletis. PMID:28003447

  17. Consumption of the Soluble Dietary Fibre Complex PolyGlycopleX® Reduces Glycaemia and Increases Satiety of a Standard Meal Postprandially

    PubMed Central

    Solah, Vicky A.; O’Mara-Wallace, Babette; Meng, Xingqiong; Gahler, Roland J.; Kerr, Deborah A.; James, Anthony P.; Fenton, Haelee K.; Johnson, Stuart K.; Wood, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The effect of consumption of PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®) was compared to wheat dextrin (WD) in combination with a standard meal, on postprandial satiety and glycaemia in a double-blind, randomised crossover trial, of 14 healthy subjects trained as a satiety panel. At each of six two-hour satiety sessions, subjects consumed one of three different test meals on two separate occasions. The test meals were: a standard meal plus 5 g PGX; a standard meal plus 4.5 g of PGX as softgels; and a standard meal plus 5 g of WD. Subjects recorded fullness using a labelled magnitude scale at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min and the total area under the curve (AUC), mean fullness vs. time was calculated. The meals with PGX (in granular and softgel form) gave higher satiety (AUC) (477 ± 121 and 454 ± 242 cm·min), than the meal with WD (215 ± 261 cm·min) (p < 0.001). Subjects had blood glucose levels measured after the meals with PGX (granules) and WD. Glucose response (AUC) was significantly lower (p < 0.001) after the PGX meal than for the WD meal.  The high viscosity reported for PGX is a likely mechanism behind the significant satiety and blood glucose modulating effects observed in this study. PMID:27164135

  18. Instant Oatmeal Increases Satiety and Reduces Energy Intake Compared to a Ready-to-Eat Oat-Based Breakfast Cereal: A Randomized Crossover Trial.

    PubMed

    Rebello, Candida J; Johnson, William D; Martin, Corby K; Han, Hongmei; Chu, Yi-Fang; Bordenave, Nicolas; van Klinken, B Jan Willem; O'Shea, Marianne; Greenway, Frank L

    2016-01-01

    Foods that enhance satiety can help consumers to resist environmental cues to eat and help adherence to calorie restriction. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of 2 oat-based breakfast cereals on appetite, satiety, and food intake. Forty-eight healthy individuals, 18 years of age or older, were enrolled in a randomized, crossover trial. Subjects consumed isocaloric servings of either oatmeal or an oat-based ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEC) in random order at least a week apart. Visual analogue scales measuring appetite and satiety were completed before breakfast and throughout the morning. Lunch was served 4 hours after breakfast. The physicochemical properties of oat soluble fiber (β-glucan) were determined. Appetite and satiety responses were analyzed by area under the curve. Food intake and β-glucan properties were analyzed using t tests. Oatmeal increased fullness (p = 0.001) and reduced hunger (p = 0.005), desire to eat (p = 0.001), and prospective intake (p = 0.006) more than the RTEC. Energy intake at lunch was lower after eating oatmeal compared to the RTEC (p = 0.012). Oatmeal had higher viscosity (p = 0.03), β-glucan content, molecular weight (p < 0.001), and radius of gyration (p < 0.001) than the RTEC. Oatmeal suppresses appetite, increases satiety, and reduces energy intake compared to the RTEC. The physicochemical properties of β-glucan and sufficient hydration of oats are important factors affecting satiety and subsequent energy intake.

  19. Effects of gustatory stimulation on brain activity during hunger and satiety in females with restricting-type anorexia nervosa: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Vocks, Silja; Herpertz, Stephan; Rosenberger, Christina; Senf, Wolfgang; Gizewski, Elke R

    2011-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated altered neuronal responses to visual stimulation with food in anorexia nervosa, varying with the motivational state of hunger or satiety. The aim of the present fMRI study was to assess hunger- and satiety-dependent alterations in the gustatory processing of stimulation with food in anorexia nervosa. After food abstention (hunger condition) and after eating bread rolls with cheese (satiety condition), 12 females with restricting-type anorexia nervosa and 12 healthy females drank chocolate milk and water via a tube in a blocked design during image acquisition. Additionally, heart rate was registered during the measurements, and subjective ratings of hunger/satiety and of the valence of chocolate milk were assessed using a Likert scale. In participants with anorexia nervosa, drinking chocolate milk in the hunger condition induced significant activations in the right amygdala and in the left medial temporal gyrus relative to healthy controls. When contrasting neuronal responses to drinking chocolate milk during satiety with those evoked during hunger, a significant activation was found in the left insula in healthy controls, whereas in participants with anorexia nervosa, neuronal activity in the inferior temporal gyrus, covering the extrastriate body area, was observed. Neuronal responses evoked by gustatory stimulation differ depending on hunger and satiety. Activations located in the amygdala and in the extrastriate body area might reflect fear of weight gain, representing one of the core symptoms of anorexia nervosa. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cocoa and Whey Protein Differentially Affect Markers of Lipid and Glucose Metabolism and Satiety.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Caroline L; Foegeding, E Allen; Harris, G Keith

    2016-03-01

    Food formulation with bioactive ingredients is a potential strategy to promote satiety and weight management. Whey proteins are high in leucine and are shown to decrease hunger ratings and increase satiety hormone levels; cocoa polyphenolics moderate glucose levels and slow digestion. This study examined the effects of cocoa and whey proteins on lipid and glucose metabolism and satiety in vitro and in a clinical trial. In vitro, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with 0.5-100 μg/mL cocoa polyphenolic extract (CPE) and/or 1-15 mM leucine (Leu) and assayed for lipid accumulation and leptin production. In vivo, a 6-week clinical trial consisted of nine panelists (age: 22.6 ± 1.7; BMI: 22.3 ± 2.1) consuming chocolate-protein beverages once per week, including placebo, whey protein isolate (WPI), low polyphenolic cocoa (LP), high polyphenolic cocoa (HP), LP-WPI, and HP-WPI. Measurements included blood glucose and adiponectin levels, and hunger ratings at baseline and 0.5-4.0 h following beverage consumption. At levels of 50 and 100 μg/mL, CPE significantly inhibited preadipocyte lipid accumulation by 35% and 50%, respectively, and by 22% and 36% when combined with 15 mM Leu. Leu treatment increased adipocyte leptin production by 26-37%. In the clinical trial, all beverages significantly moderated blood glucose levels 30 min postconsumption. WPI beverages elicited lowest peak glucose levels and HP levels were significantly lower than LP. The WPI and HP beverage treatments significantly increased adiponectin levels, but elicited no significant changes in hunger ratings. These trends suggest that combinations of WPI and cocoa polyphenols may improve markers of metabolic syndrome and satiety.

  1. Sensory overload: A concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Scheydt, Stefan; Müller Staub, Maria; Frauenfelder, Fritz; Nielsen, Gunnar H; Behrens, Johann; Needham, Ian

    2017-04-01

    In the context of mental disorders sensory overload is a widely described phenomenon used in conjunction with psychiatric interventions such as removal from stimuli. However, the theoretical foundation of sensory overload as addressed in the literature can be described as insufficient and fragmentary. To date, the concept of sensory overload has not yet been sufficiently specified or analyzed. The aim of the study was to analyze the concept of sensory overload in mental health care. A literature search was undertaken using specific electronic databases, specific journals and websites, hand searches, specific library catalogues, and electronic publishing databases. Walker and Avant's method of concept analysis was used to analyze the sources included in the analysis. All aspects of the method of Walker and Avant were covered in this concept analysis. The conceptual understanding has become more focused, the defining attributes, influencing factors and consequences are described and empirical referents identified. The concept analysis is a first step in the development of a middle-range descriptive theory of sensory overload based on social scientific and stress-theoretical approaches. This specification may serve as a fundament for further research, for the development of a nursing diagnosis or for guidelines. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  2. Identification of the Sensory Neuron Specific Regulatory Region for the Mouse Gene Encoding the Voltage Gated Sodium Channel Nav1.8

    PubMed Central

    Puhl, Henry L.; Ikeda, Stephen R.

    2008-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) are critical membrane components that participate in the electrical activity of excitable cells. The type one VGSC family includes the tetrodotoxin insensitive sodium channel, Nav1.8, encoded by the Scn10a gene. Nav1.8 expression is restricted to small and medium diameter nociceptive sensory neurons of the dorsal root (DRG) and cranial sensory ganglia. In order to understand the stringent transcriptional regulation of the Scn10a gene, the sensory neuron specific promoter was functionally identified. While identifying the mRNA 5’ end, alternative splicing within the 5’ UTR was observed to create heterogeneity in the RNA transcript. Four kilobases of upstream genomic DNA was cloned and the presence of tissue specific promoter activity was tested by microinjection and adenoviral infection of fluorescent protein reporter constructs into primary mouse and rat neurons, and cell lines. The region contained many putative transcription factor binding sites and strong homology with the predicted rat ortholog. Homology to the predicted human ortholog was limited to the proximal end and several conserved cis elements were noted. Two regulatory modules were identified by microinjection of reporter constructs into DRG and superior cervical ganglia neurons: a neuron specific proximal promoter region between −1.6 and −0.2kb of the transcription start site cluster, and a distal sensory neuron switch region beyond −1.6kb that restricted fluorescent protein expression to a subset of primary sensory neurons. PMID:18466327

  3. Origins of task-specific sensory-independent organization in the visual and auditory brain: neuroscience evidence, open questions and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Heimler, Benedetta; Striem-Amit, Ella; Amedi, Amir

    2015-12-01

    Evidence of task-specific sensory-independent (TSSI) plasticity from blind and deaf populations has led to a better understanding of brain organization. However, the principles determining the origins of this plasticity remain unclear. We review recent data suggesting that a combination of the connectivity bias and sensitivity to task-distinctive features might account for TSSI plasticity in the sensory cortices as a whole, from the higher-order occipital/temporal cortices to the primary sensory cortices. We discuss current theories and evidence, open questions and related predictions. Finally, given the rapid progress in visual and auditory restoration techniques, we address the crucial need to develop effective rehabilitation approaches for sensory recovery. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Accute satiety response of mammalian, avian and fish proteins in dogs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fish proteins have been reported to be more satiating than meat proteins. The objective was to determine the effect of different animal protein pre-meals on satiety. Ten intact female hounds were fed either pork loin, beef loin, chicken breast, salmon fillet, or pollock fillet. During Phase I, 100 g...

  5. Post-meal perceivable satiety and subsequent energy intake with intake of partially hydrolysed guar gum.

    PubMed

    Rao, Theertham Pradyumna; Hayakawa, Mariko; Minami, Tadayasu; Ishihara, Noriyuki; Kapoor, Mahendra Parkash; Ohkubo, Tsutomu; Juneja, Lekh Raj; Wakabayashi, Kazuo

    2015-05-14

    Partially hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG), a soluble dietary fibre, has been shown to provide many health benefits. Previous studies had suggested that the combination of PHGG with protein provided a significant satiation effect on visual analogue scales (VAS). What was lacking was only the effect of administration of small doses of PHGG on post-meal satiation and subsequent energy intake. The objectives of the present investigations were to find the subjective perception of post-meal satiety with acute and long term administration of small amounts of PHGG alone with food, its effects on subsequent energy intake and the comparative effects among different types of soluble fibres. The following three separate studies were conducted: in study 1, healthy subjects (n 12) consumed PHGG along with breakfast, lunch and an evening snack; in study 2, healthy subjects (n 24) consumed 2 g of PHGG or dextrin along with yogurt as breakfast for 2 weeks; in study 3, healthy subjects (n 6) took 6 g each of either PHGG or indigestible dextrin or inulin along with lunch. In all the studies, various satiety parameters were measured on VAS before and after consumption of PHGG. The addition of PHGG showed significant (P < 0.05) acute (studies 1 and 3) and long-term (studies 1 and 2) satiety effects compared to the control and/or an equal amount of carbohydrate or other types of soluble fibre. Study 2 also indicated that the prolonged consumption of PHGG may significantly (P < 0.05) reduce energy intake from whole-day snacking. PHGG could be an ideal natural soluble fibre for delivering acute and long term satiety effects for comfortable appetite control.

  6. Instant Oatmeal Increases Satiety and Reduces Energy Intake Compared to a Ready-to-Eat Oat-Based Breakfast Cereal: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rebello, Candida J.; Johnson, William D.; Martin, Corby K.; Han, Hongmei; Chu, Yi-Fang; Bordenave, Nicolas; van Klinken, B. Jan Willem; O'Shea, Marianne; Greenway, Frank L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Foods that enhance satiety can help consumers to resist environmental cues to eat and help adherence to calorie restriction. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of 2 oat-based breakfast cereals on appetite, satiety, and food intake. Methods: Forty-eight healthy individuals, 18 years of age or older, were enrolled in a randomized, crossover trial. Subjects consumed isocaloric servings of either oatmeal or an oat-based ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEC) in random order at least a week apart. Visual analogue scales measuring appetite and satiety were completed before breakfast and throughout the morning. Lunch was served 4 hours after breakfast. The physicochemical properties of oat soluble fiber (β-glucan) were determined. Appetite and satiety responses were analyzed by area under the curve. Food intake and β-glucan properties were analyzed using t tests. Results: Oatmeal increased fullness (p = 0.001) and reduced hunger (p = 0.005), desire to eat (p = 0.001), and prospective intake (p = 0.006) more than the RTEC. Energy intake at lunch was lower after eating oatmeal compared to the RTEC (p = 0.012). Oatmeal had higher viscosity (p = 0.03), β-glucan content, molecular weight (p < 0.001), and radius of gyration (p < 0.001) than the RTEC. Conclusions: Oatmeal suppresses appetite, increases satiety, and reduces energy intake compared to the RTEC. The physicochemical properties of β-glucan and sufficient hydration of oats are important factors affecting satiety and subsequent energy intake. PMID:26273900

  7. Polymorphisms for ghrelin with consequences on satiety and metabolic alterations.

    PubMed

    Perret, Jason; De Vriese, Carine; Delporte, Christine

    2014-07-01

    To understand the current trend of ghrelin genetic variations on the control of satiety, eating behaviours, obesity, and metabolic alterations, and its development over the last 18 months. Several polymorphisms of the ghrelin gene, its receptor gene and ghrelin's acylating enzyme, ghrelin O-acyl transferase, have been identified and studied over the last decade in relation to control of satiety, obesity, eating behaviours, metabolic syndrome, glucose homeostasis, and type 2 diabetes. However, the effects described are either small or nonsignificant and often subjected to contradictory conclusions between studies. In the last 18 months, several of these areas of investigations have been revisited under more controlled conditions or have been subjected to meta-analysis. The effects of ghrelin gene polymorphism, is a complex area of investigation, due to ghrelin's interplay with a host of various factors part of an integrative network. However, taken together, results suggest that there are no or nonsignificant effects of the common genetic variants. A better understanding of the network, probably by a systems biology type approach, will be necessary to assign the exact role played by gene polymorphism of the component of the ghrelin axis.

  8. Positive impact of a functional ingredient on hunger and satiety after ingestion of two meals with different characteristics.

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Eliana B; Dan, Milana C T; Lui, Maria Cristina Y; Lajolo, Franco M; Menezes, Elizabete W

    2015-10-01

    The ingestion of unavailable carbohydrates - functional ingredients - has presented an inverse relationship with the risk for chronic non-communicable diseases. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of addition of inulin to two ready-to-eat frozen meals on the release of gastrointestinal hormones and other parameters related to hunger and satiety. Prototypes of two different kinds of frozen meals were elaborated by the food industry: control meal (C1 and C2); and test meals, added inulin (T1 and T2). Three sequential clinical assays were performed with healthy volunteers: 1) evaluation of glycemic response (n=16); 2) evaluation of gastrointestinal hormones related to satiety (n=15); and 3) evaluation of satiety (by Visual Analogue Scale - VAS and energy intake) (n=52). The meals showed low glycemic index and glycemic load, and T1 showed a decreased glycemic response peak compared to C1. The addition of inulin (~8g) to the test meals (lunch) provided significant satiety, resulting in an decrease in energy intake of 419 (group 1) and 586kJ (group 2) in the two subsequent meals (after 180min and 360min) and a decrease in hunger and increase in satiety at 120 and 180min when comparing with control meals. A positive post-prandial variation was observed in the plasmatic levels of ghrelin and insulin in relation to the control meal (hormones related to hunger in high levels), after the intake of both two test meals. Inulin is an ingredient that presents several positive characteristics for the elaboration of products that stimulate healthy eating habits. These effects are currently being evaluated in medium-term trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Modulation of Specific Sensory Cortical Areas by Segregated Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Demonstrated by Neuronal Tracing and Optogenetic Stimulation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chaves-Coira, Irene; Barros-Zulaica, Natali; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita; Núñez, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Neocortical cholinergic activity plays a fundamental role in sensory processing and cognitive functions. Previous results have suggested a refined anatomical and functional topographical organization of basal forebrain (BF) projections that may control cortical sensory processing in a specific manner. We have used retrograde anatomical procedures to demonstrate the existence of specific neuronal groups in the BF involved in the control of specific sensory cortices. Fluoro-Gold (FlGo) and Fast Blue (FB) fluorescent retrograde tracers were deposited into the primary somatosensory (S1) and primary auditory (A1) cortices in mice. Our results revealed that the BF is a heterogeneous area in which neurons projecting to different cortical areas are segregated into different neuronal groups. Most of the neurons located in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) projected to the S1 cortex, indicating that this area is specialized in the sensory processing of tactile stimuli. However, the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (B) nucleus shows a similar number of cells projecting to the S1 as to the A1 cortices. In addition, we analyzed the cholinergic effects on the S1 and A1 cortical sensory responses by optogenetic stimulation of the BF neurons in urethane-anesthetized transgenic mice. We used transgenic mice expressing the light-activated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2, tagged with a fluorescent protein (ChR2-YFP) under the control of the choline-acetyl transferase promoter (ChAT). Cortical evoked potentials were induced by whisker deflections or by auditory clicks. According to the anatomical results, optogenetic HDB stimulation induced more extensive facilitation of tactile evoked potentials in S1 than auditory evoked potentials in A1, while optogenetic stimulation of the B nucleus facilitated either tactile or auditory evoked potentials equally. Consequently, our results suggest that cholinergic projections to the cortex are organized into segregated

  10. Perceived thickness and creaminess modulates the short-term satiating effects of high-protein drinks.

    PubMed

    Bertenshaw, Emma J; Lluch, Anne; Yeomans, Martin R

    2013-08-28

    Previous research suggests that increasing beverage protein content enhances subsequent satiety, but whether this effect is entirely attributable to post-ingestive effects of protein or is partly caused by the distinct sensory characteristics imparted by the presence of protein remains unclear. To try and discriminate nutritive from sensory effects of added protein, we contrasted effects of three higher-energy (about 1·2 MJ) and one lower-energy (LE: 0·35 MJ) drink preloads on subsequent appetite and lunch intake. Two higher-energy drinks had 44% of energy from protein, one with the sensory characteristics of a juice drink (HP2, low-sensory protein) and the second a thicker and creamier (HPþ, high-sensory protein) drink. The high-carbohydrate preload (HCþ, high-sensory carbohydrate) was matched for thickness and creaminess to the HPþ drink. Participants (healthy male volunteers, n 26) consumed significantly less at lunch after the HPþ(566 g) and HCþ(572 g) than after HP2 (623 g) and LE (668 g) drinks, although the compensation for drink energy accounted for only 50% of extra energy at best. Appetite ratings indicated that participants felt significantly less hungry and more full immediately before lunch in HPþ and HCþ groups compared with LE, with HP2 being intermediate. The finding that protein generated stronger satiety in the context of a thicker creamier drink (HPþ but not HP2) and that an isoenergetic carbohydrate drink (HCþ), matched in thickness and creaminess to the HPþ drink, generated the same pattern of satiety as HPþ, both suggest an important role for these sensory cues in the development of protein-based satiety.

  11. Input-Specific Gain Modulation by Local Sensory Context Shapes Cortical and Thalamic Responses to Complex Sounds.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Ross S; Ahrens, Misha B; Linden, Jennifer F; Sahani, Maneesh

    2016-07-20

    Sensory neurons are customarily characterized by one or more linearly weighted receptive fields describing sensitivity in sensory space and time. We show that in auditory cortical and thalamic neurons, the weight of each receptive field element depends on the pattern of sound falling within a local neighborhood surrounding it in time and frequency. Accounting for this change in effective receptive field with spectrotemporal context improves predictions of both cortical and thalamic responses to stationary complex sounds. Although context dependence varies among neurons and across brain areas, there are strong shared qualitative characteristics. In a spectrotemporally rich soundscape, sound elements modulate neuronal responsiveness more effectively when they coincide with sounds at other frequencies, and less effectively when they are preceded by sounds at similar frequencies. This local-context-driven lability in the representation of complex sounds-a modulation of "input-specific gain" rather than "output gain"-may be a widespread motif in sensory processing. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential involvement of the basolateral amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in the formation of sensory-specific associations in conditioned flavor preference and magazine approach paradigms.

    PubMed

    Scarlet, Janina; Delamater, Andrew R; Campese, Vincent; Fein, Matthew; Wheeler, Daniel S

    2012-06-01

    Four experiments examined the roles of the basolateral amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in the formation of sensory-specific associations in conditioned flavor preference and conditioned magazine approach paradigms using unconditioned stimulus (US) devaluation and selective Pavlovian-instrumental transfer procedures in Long Evans rats. Experiment 1 found that pre-training amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex lesions had no detectable effect on the formation or flexible use of sensory-specific flavor-nutrient associations in a US devaluation task, where flavor cues were paired either simultaneously or sequentially with nutrient rewards in water-deprived subjects. In Experiment 2, pre-training amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex lesions both attenuated outcome-specific Pavlovian-instrumental transfer. Experiment 3 indicated that amygdala lesions have no effect on the formation of sensory-specific flavor-nutrient associations in a US devaluation task in food-deprived subjects. Finally, Experiment 4 demonstrated that the outcomes used in Experiment 3 were sufficiently motivationally significant to support conditioned flavor preference. These findings suggest that, although both orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala lesions attenuate the acquisition of sensory-specific associations in magazine approach conditioning, neither lesion reduces the ability to appropriately respond to a flavor cue that was paired with a devalued outcome. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. PROS-1/Prospero Is a Major Regulator of the Glia-Specific Secretome Controlling Sensory-Neuron Shape and Function in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Sean W; Singhvi, Aakanksha; Liang, Yupu; Lu, Yun; Shaham, Shai

    2016-04-19

    Sensory neurons are an animal's gateway to the world, and their receptive endings, the sites of sensory signal transduction, are often associated with glia. Although glia are known to promote sensory-neuron functions, the molecular bases of these interactions are poorly explored. Here, we describe a post-developmental glial role for the PROS-1/Prospero/PROX1 homeodomain protein in sensory-neuron function in C. elegans. Using glia expression profiling, we demonstrate that, unlike previously characterized cell fate roles, PROS-1 functions post-embryonically to control sense-organ glia-specific secretome expression. PROS-1 functions cell autonomously to regulate glial secretion and membrane structure, and non-cell autonomously to control the shape and function of the receptive endings of sensory neurons. Known glial genes controlling sensory-neuron function are PROS-1 targets, and we identify additional PROS-1-dependent genes required for neuron attributes. Drosophila Prospero and vertebrate PROX1 are expressed in post-mitotic sense-organ glia and astrocytes, suggesting conserved roles for this class of transcription factors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of a protein preload on food intake and satiety feelings in response to duodenal fat perfusions in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Oesch, Sibylle; Degen, Lukas; Beglinger, Christoph

    2005-10-01

    The control of food intake and satiety requires a coordinated interplay. Oral protein and duodenal fat inhibit food intake and induce satiety, but their interactive potential is unclear. Our aim was therefore to investigate the interactions between an oral protein preload and intraduodenal (ID) fat on food intake and satiety feelings. Twenty healthy male volunteers were studied in a randomized, double-blind, four-period crossover design. On each study day, subjects underwent one of the following treatments: 1) water preload plus ID saline perfusion, 2) water preload plus ID fat perfusion, 3) protein preload plus ID saline perfusion, or 4) protein preload plus ID fat perfusion. Subjects were free to eat and drink as much as they wished. An oral protein preload significantly reduced caloric intake (19%, P < 0.01). Simultaneous administration of an oral protein preload and ID fat did not result in a positive synergistic effect with respect to caloric consumption, rejecting the initial hypothesis that the two nutrients exert a positive synergistic effect on food intake. An oral protein preload but not ID fat altered the feelings of hunger and fullness. These data indicate that the satiety effect of an oral protein preload is not amplified by ID fat; indeed, the effect of a protein preload does not seem to be mediated by cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, or peptide YY. Much more information is necessary to understand the basic physiological mechanisms that control food intake and satiety.

  15. Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Stephen D.; Martin, Corby K.; Han, Hongmei; Coulon, Sandra; Cefalu, William T.; Geiselman, Paula; Williamson, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be one of the dietary causes of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Therefore, substituting sugar with low-calorie sweeteners may be an efficacious weight management strategy. We tested the effect of preloads containing stevia, aspartame, or sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Design: 19 healthy lean (BMI = 20.0 – 24.9) and 12 obese (BMI = 30.0 – 39.9) individuals 18 to 50 years old completed three separate food test days during which they received preloads containing stevia (290 kcal), aspartame (290 kcal), or sucrose (493 kcal) before the lunch and dinner meal. The preload order was balanced, and food intake (kcal) was directly calculated. Hunger and satiety levels were reported before and after meals, and every hour throughout the afternoon. Participants provided blood samples immediately before and 20 minutes after the lunch preload. Despite the caloric difference in preloads (290 vs. 493 kcals), participants did not compensate by eating more at their lunch and dinner meals when they consumed stevia and aspartame versus sucrose in preloads (mean differences in food intake over entire day between sucrose and stevia = 301 kcal, p < .01; aspartame = 330 kcal, p < .01). Self-reported hunger and satiety levels did not differ by condition. Stevia preloads significantly lowered postprandial glucose levels compared to sucrose preloads (p < .01), and postprandial insulin levels compared to both aspartame and sucrose preloads (p < .05). When consuming stevia and aspartame preloads, participants did not compensate by eating more at either their lunch or dinner meal and reported similar levels of satiety compared to when they consumed the higher calorie sucrose preload. PMID:20303371

  16. Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels.

    PubMed

    Anton, Stephen D; Martin, Corby K; Han, Hongmei; Coulon, Sandra; Cefalu, William T; Geiselman, Paula; Williamson, Donald A

    2010-08-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be one of the dietary causes of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Therefore, substituting sugar with low calorie sweeteners may be an efficacious weight management strategy. We tested the effect of preloads containing stevia, aspartame, or sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. 19 healthy lean (BMI=20.0-24.9) and 12 obese (BMI=30.0-39.9) individuals 18-50 years old completed three separate food test days during which they received preloads containing stevia (290kcal), aspartame (290kcal), or sucrose (493kcal) before the lunch and dinner meal. The preload order was balanced, and food intake (kcal) was directly calculated. Hunger and satiety levels were reported before and after meals, and every hour throughout the afternoon. Participants provided blood samples immediately before and 20min after the lunch preload. Despite the caloric difference in preloads (290kcal vs. 493kcal), participants did not compensate by eating more at their lunch and dinner meals when they consumed stevia and aspartame versus sucrose in preloads (mean differences in food intake over entire day between sucrose and stevia=301kcal, p<.01; aspartame=330kcal, p<.01). Self-reported hunger and satiety levels did not differ by condition. Stevia preloads significantly reduced postprandial glucose levels compared to sucrose preloads (p<.01), and postprandial insulin levels compared to both aspartame and sucrose preloads (p<.05). When consuming stevia and aspartame preloads, participants did not compensate by eating more at either their lunch or dinner meal and reported similar levels of satiety compared to when they consumed the higher calorie sucrose preload. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Variable sensory perception in autism.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Sarah M

    2018-03-01

    Autism is associated with sensory and cognitive abnormalities. Individuals with autism generally show normal or superior early sensory processing abilities compared to healthy controls, but deficits in complex sensory processing. In the current opinion paper, it will be argued that sensory abnormalities impact cognition by limiting the amount of signal that can be used to interpret and interact with environment. There is a growing body of literature showing that individuals with autism exhibit greater trial-to-trial variability in behavioural and cortical sensory responses. If multiple sensory signals that are highly variable are added together to process more complex sensory stimuli, then this might destabilise later perception and impair cognition. Methods to improve sensory processing have shown improvements in more general cognition. Studies that specifically investigate differences in sensory trial-to-trial variability in autism, and the potential changes in variability before and after treatment, could ascertain if trial-to-trial variability is a good mechanism to target for treatment in autism. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Fermentable fibers do not affect satiety or food intake by women who do not practice restrained eating.

    PubMed

    Karalus, Melinda; Clark, Michelle; Greaves, Kathryn A; Thomas, William; Vickers, Zata; Kuyama, Megumi; Slavin, Joanne

    2012-09-01

    Fiber is thought to enhance satiety, although not all fibers are equally effective. Colonic fermentation may influence satiety and food intake. To test the satiating properties of four isolated fibers added to chocolate crisp bars. Within-subject preload design with repeated measures. Each participant completed five conditions, presented in random order. Participants were 22 adult women who do not practice restrained eating (body mass index 18 to 29). The experimental conditions were four fiber treatments: 10 g oligofructose, inulin, soluble corn fiber, or resistant wheat starch in chocolate crisp bars. A no-added-fiber bar was evaluated as the control. The night before each treatment, participants consumed a dinner bar containing 10 g of the same fiber given the next morning. Repeated ratings of feelings related to hunger and fullness at the lunch meal were the main measures. Secondary outcomes included breath hydrogen and methane, gastrointestinal symptoms, energy consumed at an ad libitum lunch, and energy from 24-hour dietary recall. Mixed-effect linear models with random intercept for participants to model within-subject correlation. All treatments were well tolerated. No differences were found in subjective satiety during the morning or food intake at lunch or over 24 hours. The oligofructose bar produced the greatest increase in breath hydrogen, and the most bloating and flatulence symptoms. Functional fibers incorporated into chocolate bars at high fiber doses produce greater gastrointestinal symptoms than control, but do not alter satiety, hunger, or food intake compared with control in the short term. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Satiety following intake of potatoes and other carbohydrate test meals.

    PubMed

    Geliebter, Allan; Lee, Michelle I-Ching; Abdillahi, Mariane; Jones, James

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated satiation and satiety following intake of starch-rich side dishes representing a range of glycemic indices (GIs). Twelve normal-weight (BMI = 22.4 ± SD 2.0) participants (6 male, 6 female, 22-30 years) received one of four side dishes or white bread (GI reference) in randomized order on five mornings, followed by an ad libitum lunch. Blood draws prior to test meal and during the 2 h before lunch measured plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. GI was calculated from glucose incremental area under the curve (AUC). Hunger, fullness, desire to eat and prospective consumption were rated just before blood draws. No significant difference was found in hunger or fullness AUCs between test meals. Both potato meals yielded lower desire to eat compared to pasta throughout the 2-hour period (p = 0.002). Total lunch energy intake did not differ. No significant correlations were found between test meal GI and ratings of hunger, fullness or energy intake at lunch meal. GI of energy-equivalent test meals did not predict satiety or lunch meal intake. There was evidence of reduced appetite following both potato meals relative to the other carbohydrate side dishes but no differences in subsequent intake. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. The effect of sugar-free versus sugar-sweetened beverages on satiety, liking and wanting: an 18 month randomized double-blind trial in children.

    PubMed

    de Ruyter, Janne C; Katan, Martijn B; Kuijper, Lothar D J; Liem, Djin G; Olthof, Margreet R

    2013-01-01

    Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. A possible explanation is that sugar-containing and sugar-free beverages cause the same degree of satiety. However, this has not been tested in long-term trials. We randomized 203 children aged 7-11 years to receive 250 mL per day of an artificially sweetened sugar-free beverage or a similarly looking and tasting sugar-sweetened beverage. We measured satiety on a 5-point scale by questionnaire at 0, 6, 12 and 18 months. We calculated the change in satiety from before intake to 1 minute after intake and 15 minutes after intake. We then calculated the odds ratio that satiety increased by 1 point in the sugar-group versus the sugar-free group. We also investigated how much the children liked and wanted the beverages. 146 children or 72% completed the study. We found no statistically significant difference in satiety between the sugar-free and sugar-sweetened group; the adjusted odds ratio for a 1 point increase in satiety in the sugar group versus the sugar-free group was 0.77 at 1 minute (95% confidence interval, 0.46 to 1.29), and 1.44 at 15 minutes after intake (95% CI, 0.86 to 2.40). The sugar-group liked and wanted their beverage slightly more than the sugar-free group, adjusted odds ratio 1.63 (95% CI 1.05 to 2.54) and 1.65 (95% CI 1.07 to 2.55), respectively. Sugar-sweetened and sugar-free beverages produced similar satiety. Therefore when children are given sugar-free instead of sugar-containing drinks they might not make up the missing calories from other sources. This may explain our previous observation that children in the sugar-free group accumulated less body fat than those in the sugar group. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00893529 http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00893529.

  1. The Effect of Sugar-Free Versus Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Satiety, Liking and Wanting: An 18 Month Randomized Double-Blind Trial in Children

    PubMed Central

    de Ruyter, Janne C.; Katan, Martijn B.; Kuijper, Lothar D. J.; Liem, Djin G.; Olthof, Margreet R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. A possible explanation is that sugar-containing and sugar-free beverages cause the same degree of satiety. However, this has not been tested in long-term trials. Methods We randomized 203 children aged 7-11 years to receive 250 mL per day of an artificially sweetened sugar-free beverage or a similarly looking and tasting sugar-sweetened beverage. We measured satiety on a 5-point scale by questionnaire at 0, 6, 12 and 18 months. We calculated the change in satiety from before intake to 1 minute after intake and 15 minutes after intake. We then calculated the odds ratio that satiety increased by 1 point in the sugar-group versus the sugar-free group. We also investigated how much the children liked and wanted the beverages. Results 146 children or 72% completed the study. We found no statistically significant difference in satiety between the sugar-free and sugar-sweetened group; the adjusted odds ratio for a 1 point increase in satiety in the sugar group versus the sugar-free group was 0.77 at 1 minute (95% confidence interval, 0.46 to 1.29), and 1.44 at 15 minutes after intake (95% CI, 0.86 to 2.40). The sugar-group liked and wanted their beverage slightly more than the sugar-free group, adjusted odds ratio 1.63 (95% CI 1.05 to 2.54) and 1.65 (95% CI 1.07 to 2.55), respectively. Conclusions Sugar-sweetened and sugar-free beverages produced similar satiety. Therefore when children are given sugar-free instead of sugar-containing drinks they might not make up the missing calories from other sources. This may explain our previous observation that children in the sugar-free group accumulated less body fat than those in the sugar group. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00893529 http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00893529 PMID:24167595

  2. Estrogen- and Satiety State-Dependent Metabolic Lateralization in the Hypothalamus of Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Istvan; Kiss, David S.; Jocsak, Gergely; Somogyi, Virag; Toronyi, Eva; Bartha, Tibor; Frenyo, Laszlo V.; Horvath, Tamas L.; Zsarnovszky, Attila

    2015-01-01

    Hypothalamus is the highest center and the main crossroad of numerous homeostatic regulatory pathways including reproduction and energy metabolism. Previous reports indicate that some of these functions may be driven by the synchronized but distinct functioning of the left and right hypothalamic sides. However, the nature of interplay between the hemispheres with regard to distinct hypothalamic functions is still unclear. Here we investigated the metabolic asymmetry between the left and right hypothalamic sides of ovariectomized female rats by measuring mitochondrial respiration rates, a parameter that reflects the intensity of cell and tissue metabolism. Ovariectomized (saline injected) and ovariectomized+estrogen injected animals were fed ad libitum or fasted to determine 1) the contribution of estrogen to metabolic asymmetry of hypothalamus; and 2) whether the hypothalamic asymmetry is modulated by the satiety state. Results show that estrogen-priming significantly increased both the proportion of animals with detected hypothalamic lateralization and the degree of metabolic difference between the hypothalamic sides causing a right-sided dominance during state 3 mitochondrial respiration (St3) in ad libitum fed animals. After 24 hours of fasting, lateralization in St3 values was clearly maintained; however, instead of the observed right-sided dominance that was detected in ad libitum fed animals here appeared in form of either right- or left-sidedness. In conclusion, our results revealed estrogen- and satiety state-dependent metabolic differences between the two hypothalamic hemispheres in female rats showing that the hypothalamic hemispheres drive the reproductive and satiety state related functions in an asymmetric manner. PMID:26339901

  3. Effects on satiation, satiety and food intake of wholegrain and refined grain pasta.

    PubMed

    Cioffi, Iolanda; Ibrugger, Sabine; Bache, Jessica; Thomassen, Mette Torp; Contaldo, Franco; Pasanisi, Fabrizio; Kristensen, Mette

    2016-12-01

    Wholegrains have received much attention in recent years due to their role in prevention of obesity and its comorbidities. Many studies about energy regulation are focused on the effect between meals (satiety), but the effect within meal (satiation) for wholegrain foods has not been extensively studied. The objective was to investigate the effect of WG pasta (WGP) compared to refined grain pasta (RGP), on ad libitum energy intake (EI) within and at the subsequent meal as well as appetite. Two different ad libitum lunch meals (study A) and two different iso-caloric lunch meals (study B) were administered in sixteen overweight/obese subjects in a crossover design. The test meals consisted of RGP and WGP served with tomato sauce. Study A: the ad libitum lunch meal was consumed then EI registered. Study B: the iso-caloric lunch meal was served, then subjective appetite sensation and breath hydrogen excretion were assessed for 240 min followed by an ad libitum meal where EI was calculated. Overall, WGP did not significantly differ in the effect on ad libitum EI within meal (p = 0.23) in study A. In study B, WGP resulted in an increased sensation of satiety (p < 0.001) and lower ratings of hunger (p < 0.001) without increased in breath hydrogen excretion (p = 0.11). Again, no overall effect on EI at the subsequent meal was seen (p = 0.12). In conclusion, WGP increased satiety, diminished hunger without modifying energy intake at the subsequent meals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Feasibility of sensory tongue stimulation combined with task-specific therapy in people with spinal cord injury: a case study.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Amanda E; Malik, Raza Naseem; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Borisoff, Jaimie; Forwell, Susan; Lam, Tania

    2014-06-06

    Previous evidence suggests the effects of task-specific therapy can be further enhanced when sensory stimulation is combined with motor practice. Sensory tongue stimulation is thought to facilitate activation of regions in the brain that are important for balance and gait. Improvements in balance and gait have significant implications for functional mobility for people with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). The aim of this case study was to evaluate the feasibility of a lab- and home-based program combining sensory tongue stimulation with balance and gait training on functional outcomes in people with iSCI. Two male participants (S1 and S2) with chronic motor iSCI completed 12 weeks of balance and gait training (3 lab and 2 home based sessions per week) combined with sensory tongue stimulation using the Portable Neuromodulation Stimulator (PoNS). Laboratory based training involved 20 minutes of standing balance with eyes closed and 30 minutes of body-weight support treadmill walking. Home based sessions consisted of balancing with eyes open and walking with parallel bars or a walker for up to 20 minutes each. Subjects continued daily at-home training for an additional 12 weeks as follow-up. Both subjects were able to complete a minimum of 83% of the training sessions. Standing balance with eyes closed increased from 0.2 to 4.0 minutes and 0.0 to 0.2 minutes for S1 and S2, respectively. Balance confidence also improved at follow-up after the home-based program. Over ground walking speed improved by 0.14 m/s for S1 and 0.07 m/s for S2, and skilled walking function improved by 60% and 21% for S1 and S2, respectively. Sensory tongue stimulation combined with task-specific training may be a feasible method for improving balance and gait in people with iSCI. Our findings warrant further controlled studies to determine the added benefits of sensory tongue stimulation to rehabilitation training.

  5. Short-Term Effect of Convenience Meal Intake on Glycemic Response and Satiety among Healthy College Students in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Eunji; Lee, Jeunghyun; Lee, Sukyeong

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effect of convenience meals purchased at convenience stores on glycemic response and satiety in healthy college students. A total of 9 non-obese volunteers (4 males and 5 females) aged 20 to 24 years participated in this study. On 3 separate days, participants consumed a standard diet (cooked rice and side dishes), type 1 convenience meal (kimbap and instant ramen), and type 2 convenience meal (sweet bread and flavored milk). Capillary blood-glucose response and satiety were measured every 30 minutes for 2 hours after consuming the 3 different test meals. Although mean fasting glucose levels were not different, glucose levels at 30 minutes and 120 minutes after the type 1 convenience meal intake were significantly higher than those in the standard meal (p < 0.05, p < 0.01). Total glucose response was higher after consumption of the type 1 convenience meal, followed by the type 2 convenience meal and standard meal (p < 0.05). Though the type 2 convenience meal contained higher calorie than the other meals, satiety of the type 2 convenience meal was lowest at 30 minutes and 60 minutes after consumption (p < 0.01, p < 0.05). This pilot study suggests that convenience meals may increase glycemic response or induce higher calorie intake with low satiety compared with nutritionally balanced Korean style meal. PMID:28770184

  6. Short-Term Effect of Convenience Meal Intake on Glycemic Response and Satiety among Healthy College Students in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eunji; Lee, Jeunghyun; Lee, Sukyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the effect of convenience meals purchased at convenience stores on glycemic response and satiety in healthy college students. A total of 9 non-obese volunteers (4 males and 5 females) aged 20 to 24 years participated in this study. On 3 separate days, participants consumed a standard diet (cooked rice and side dishes), type 1 convenience meal (kimbap and instant ramen), and type 2 convenience meal (sweet bread and flavored milk). Capillary blood-glucose response and satiety were measured every 30 minutes for 2 hours after consuming the 3 different test meals. Although mean fasting glucose levels were not different, glucose levels at 30 minutes and 120 minutes after the type 1 convenience meal intake were significantly higher than those in the standard meal (p < 0.05, p < 0.01). Total glucose response was higher after consumption of the type 1 convenience meal, followed by the type 2 convenience meal and standard meal (p < 0.05). Though the type 2 convenience meal contained higher calorie than the other meals, satiety of the type 2 convenience meal was lowest at 30 minutes and 60 minutes after consumption (p < 0.01, p < 0.05). This pilot study suggests that convenience meals may increase glycemic response or induce higher calorie intake with low satiety compared with nutritionally balanced Korean style meal.

  7. Identity-Specific Reward Representations in Orbitofrontal Cortex Are Modulated by Selective Devaluation.

    PubMed

    Howard, James D; Kahnt, Thorsten

    2017-03-08

    Goal-directed behavior is sensitive to the current value of expected outcomes. This requires independent representations of specific rewards, which have been linked to orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) function. However, the mechanisms by which the human brain updates specific goals on the fly, and translates those updates into choices, have remained unknown. Here we implemented selective devaluation of appetizing food odors in combination with pattern-based neuroimaging and a decision-making task. We found that in a hungry state, participants chose to smell high-intensity versions of two value-matched food odor rewards. After eating a meal corresponding to one of the two odors, participants switched choices toward the low intensity of the sated odor but continued to choose the high intensity of the nonsated odor. This sensory-specific behavioral effect was mirrored by pattern-based changes in fMRI signal in lateral posterior OFC, where specific reward identity representations were altered after the meal for the sated food odor but retained for the nonsated counterpart. In addition, changes in functional connectivity between the OFC and general value coding in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) predicted individual differences in satiety-related choice behavior. These findings demonstrate how flexible representations of specific rewards in the OFC are updated by devaluation, and how functional connections to vmPFC reflect the current value of outcomes and guide goal-directed behavior. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is critical for goal-directed behavior. A recent proposal is that OFC fulfills this function by representing a variety of state and task variables ("cognitive maps"), including a conjunction of expected reward identity and value. Here we tested how identity-specific representations of food odor reward are updated by satiety. We found that fMRI pattern-based signatures of reward identity in lateral posterior OFC were modulated after

  8. Identity-Specific Reward Representations in Orbitofrontal Cortex Are Modulated by Selective Devaluation

    PubMed Central

    Howard, James D.

    2017-01-01

    Goal-directed behavior is sensitive to the current value of expected outcomes. This requires independent representations of specific rewards, which have been linked to orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) function. However, the mechanisms by which the human brain updates specific goals on the fly, and translates those updates into choices, have remained unknown. Here we implemented selective devaluation of appetizing food odors in combination with pattern-based neuroimaging and a decision-making task. We found that in a hungry state, participants chose to smell high-intensity versions of two value-matched food odor rewards. After eating a meal corresponding to one of the two odors, participants switched choices toward the low intensity of the sated odor but continued to choose the high intensity of the nonsated odor. This sensory-specific behavioral effect was mirrored by pattern-based changes in fMRI signal in lateral posterior OFC, where specific reward identity representations were altered after the meal for the sated food odor but retained for the nonsated counterpart. In addition, changes in functional connectivity between the OFC and general value coding in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) predicted individual differences in satiety-related choice behavior. These findings demonstrate how flexible representations of specific rewards in the OFC are updated by devaluation, and how functional connections to vmPFC reflect the current value of outcomes and guide goal-directed behavior. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is critical for goal-directed behavior. A recent proposal is that OFC fulfills this function by representing a variety of state and task variables (“cognitive maps”), including a conjunction of expected reward identity and value. Here we tested how identity-specific representations of food odor reward are updated by satiety. We found that fMRI pattern-based signatures of reward identity in lateral posterior OFC were modulated

  9. Effect of cinnamon on postprandial blood glucose, gastric emptying, and satiety in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Darwiche, Gassan; Björgell, Ola; Almér, Lars-Olof

    2007-06-01

    Previous studies of patients with type 2 diabetes showed that cinnamon lowers fasting serum glucose, triacylglycerol, and LDL- and total cholesterol concentrations. We aimed to study the effect of cinnamon on the rate of gastric emptying, the postprandial blood glucose response, and satiety in healthy subjects. The gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured by using standardized real-time ultrasonography. Fourteen healthy subjects were assessed by using a crossover trial. The subjects were examined after an 8-h fast if they had normal fasting blood glucose concentrations. GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15-90 min after ingestion of 300 g rice pudding (GER1) or 300 g rice pudding and 6 g cinnamon (GER2). The median value of GER1 was 37%, and that of GER2 was 34.5%. The addition of cinnamon to the rice pudding significantly delayed gastric emptying and lowered the postprandial glucose response (P < 0.05 for both). The reduction in the postprandial blood glucose concentration was much more noticeable and pronounced than was the lowering of the GER. The effect of cinnamon on satiety was not significant. The intake of 6 g cinnamon with rice pudding reduces postprandial blood glucose and delays gastric emptying without affecting satiety. Inclusion of cinnamon in the diet lowers the postprandial glucose response, a change that is at least partially explained by a delayed GER.

  10. Modulation of Specific Sensory Cortical Areas by Segregated Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Demonstrated by Neuronal Tracing and Optogenetic Stimulation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chaves-Coira, Irene; Barros-Zulaica, Natali; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita; Núñez, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Neocortical cholinergic activity plays a fundamental role in sensory processing and cognitive functions. Previous results have suggested a refined anatomical and functional topographical organization of basal forebrain (BF) projections that may control cortical sensory processing in a specific manner. We have used retrograde anatomical procedures to demonstrate the existence of specific neuronal groups in the BF involved in the control of specific sensory cortices. Fluoro-Gold (FlGo) and Fast Blue (FB) fluorescent retrograde tracers were deposited into the primary somatosensory (S1) and primary auditory (A1) cortices in mice. Our results revealed that the BF is a heterogeneous area in which neurons projecting to different cortical areas are segregated into different neuronal groups. Most of the neurons located in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) projected to the S1 cortex, indicating that this area is specialized in the sensory processing of tactile stimuli. However, the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (B) nucleus shows a similar number of cells projecting to the S1 as to the A1 cortices. In addition, we analyzed the cholinergic effects on the S1 and A1 cortical sensory responses by optogenetic stimulation of the BF neurons in urethane-anesthetized transgenic mice. We used transgenic mice expressing the light-activated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2, tagged with a fluorescent protein (ChR2-YFP) under the control of the choline-acetyl transferase promoter (ChAT). Cortical evoked potentials were induced by whisker deflections or by auditory clicks. According to the anatomical results, optogenetic HDB stimulation induced more extensive facilitation of tactile evoked potentials in S1 than auditory evoked potentials in A1, while optogenetic stimulation of the B nucleus facilitated either tactile or auditory evoked potentials equally. Consequently, our results suggest that cholinergic projections to the cortex are organized into segregated

  11. Not letting the left leg know what the right leg is doing: limb-specific locomotor adaptation to sensory-cue conflict.

    PubMed

    Durgin, Frank H; Fox, Laura F; Hoon Kim, Dong

    2003-11-01

    We investigated the phenomenon of limb-specific locomotor adaptation in order to adjudicate between sensory-cue-conflict theory and motor-adaptation theory. The results were consistent with cue-conflict theory in demonstrating that two different leg-specific hopping aftereffects are modulated by the presence of conflicting estimates of self-motion from visual and nonvisual sources. Experiment 1 shows that leg-specific increases in forward drift during attempts to hop in place on one leg while blindfolded vary according to the relationship between visual information and motor activity during an adaptation to outdoor forward hopping. Experiment 2 shows that leg-specific changes in performance on a blindfolded hopping-to-target task are similarly modulated by the presence of cue conflict during adaptation to hopping on a treadmill. Experiment 3 shows that leg-specific aftereffects from hopping additionally produce inadvertent turning during running in place while blindfolded. The results of these experiments suggest that these leg-specific locomotor aftereffects are produced by sensory-cue conflict rather than simple motor adaptation.

  12. Appetite suppressing effect of Spinacia oleracea in rats: Involvement of the short term satiety signal cholecystokinin.

    PubMed

    Panda, Vandana; Shinde, Priyanka

    2017-06-01

    Spinacia oleracea (spinach) is a green leafy vegetable rich in antioxidant phyto-constituents such as flavonoids, polyphenols, carotenoids and vitamins. Fruits and vegetables rich in flavonoids are known to prevent weight gain by inducing satiety. The present study evaluates the appetite suppressing effect of a flavonoid rich extract of the spinach leaf (SOE) in rats. HPTLC of SOE was performed for detecting flavonoids. Rats were administered SOE (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, p. o) and fluoxetine (6 mg/kg i. p) as a pre-meal for 14 days. Food intake and weight gain was observed daily during the treatment period. Serum levels of the short term satiety signals cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucose were measured on the 7th and 14thdays at different time points after start of meal to study the satiety inducing effect of SOE. HPTLC showed the presence of 14 flavonoids in SOE. SOE and fluoxetine treated rats showed a significant reduction in food intake and weight gain when compared with the normal control rats. On the 7th day of treatment, peak CCK levels were reached in 30 min after start of meal in fluoxetine treated rats and in 60 min in the remaining rats. On the 14th day, CCK peaking was observed in 30 min after start of meal in the fluoxetine as well as SOE 400 mg/kg treated rats. Peak glucose levels in all treatment groups were obtained in 60 min after start of feeding on both days of the study. It maybe concluded that SOE exhibited a promising appetite suppressing effect by inducing a quicker than normal release of CCK, thus eliciting an early onset of satiety in rats. This effect may be due to its high flavonoid content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Regional brain response to visual food cues is a marker of satiety that predicts food choice.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Sonya; Melhorn, Susan J; Smeraglio, Anne; Tyagi, Vidhi; Grabowski, Thomas; Schwartz, Michael W; Schur, Ellen A

    2012-11-01

    Neuronal processes that underlie the subjective experience of satiety after a meal are not well defined. We investigated how satiety alters the perception of and neural response to visual food cues. Normal-weight participants (10 men, 13 women) underwent 2 fMRI scans while viewing images of high-calorie food that was previously rated as incompatible with weight loss and "fattening" and low-calorie, "nonfattening" food. After a fasting fMRI scan, participants ate a standardized breakfast and underwent reimaging at a randomly assigned time 15-300 min after breakfast to vary the degree of satiety. Measures of subjective appetite, food appeal, and ad libitum food intake (measured after the second fMRI scan) were correlated with activation by "fattening" (compared with "nonfattening") food cues in a priori regions of interest. Greater hunger correlated with higher appeal ratings of "fattening" (r = 0.46, P = 0.03) but not "nonfattening" (r = -0.20, P = 0.37) foods. Fasting amygdalar activation was negatively associated with fullness (left: r = -0.52; right: r = -0.58; both P ≤ 0.01), whereas postbreakfast fullness was positively correlated with activation in the dorsal striatum (right: r = 0.44; left: r = 0.45; both P < 0.05). After breakfast, participants with greater activation in 4 regions-medial orbital frontal cortex (r = 0.49, P < 0.05), left amygdala (r = 0.49, P < 0.05), left insula (r = 0.47, P < 0.05), and nucleus accumbens (right: r = 0.57, P < 0.01; left: r = 0.43, P < 0.05)-chose buffet foods with higher fat content. Postmeal satiety is shown in regional brain activation by images of high-calorie foods. Regions including the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and dorsal striatum may alter perception of, and reduce motivation to consume, energy-rich foods, ultimately driving food choice. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01631045.

  14. Gastrointestinal transit, post-prandial lipaemia and satiety following 3 days high-fat diet in men.

    PubMed

    Clegg, M E; McKenna, P; McClean, C; Davison, G W; Trinick, T; Duly, E; Shafat, A

    2011-02-01

    High-fat (HF) diets of 2 weeks have been shown to accelerate gastric emptying (GE). To date, no studies have shown any alteration in GE following shorter HF diets. The aim of this study was to assess if an HF, high-energy diet of 3 days can adapt gastrointestinal (GI) transit, blood lipids and satiety. Eleven male volunteers participated in a study consisting of three, 3-day interventions each separated by a test day. During the first intervention, volunteers recorded their diet. In the second and third interventions, volunteers repeated their food diary plus either a low-fat yogurt or HF yogurt supplement in randomized order. Test days involved measurement of GE using the (13)C octanoic-acid breath-test, mouth-to-caecum transit time (MCTT) using the inulin H(2) breath test and satiety using visual analogue scales. Blood samples for measurement of lipaemia were taken using a venous cannula. MCTT was different between the three test days (P=0.038), with the shortest MCTT following the HF intervention. GE was shortest following the HF intervention. There were no differences in satiety between the interventions. The HF intervention reduced triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. This study shows that changes in GI transit owing to an HF diet can occur in a time period as short as 3 days.

  15. Assessment of satiety depends on the energy density and portion size of the test meal

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Rachel A.; Roe, Liane S.; Rolls, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Foods that enhance satiety can reduce overconsumption, but the availability of large portions of energy-dense foods may counter their benefits. We tested the influence on meal energy intake of varying the energy density and portion size of food consumed after a preload shown to promote satiety. Design and Methods In a crossover design, 46 women were served lunch on six days. On four days they ate a compulsory salad (300 g, 0.33 kcal/g). Unlike previous studies, instead of varying the preload, the subsequent test meal of pasta was varied between standard and increased levels of both energy density (1.25 or 1.66 kcal/g) and portion size (450 or 600 g). On two control days a salad was not served. Results Following the salad, the energy density and portion size of the test meal independently affected meal energy intake (both p<0.02). Serving the higher-energy-dense pasta increased test meal intake by 153±19 kcal and serving the larger portion of pasta increased test meal intake by 40±16 kcal. Compared to having no salad, consuming the salad decreased test meal intake by 123±18 kcal. Conclusions The effect of satiety-enhancing foods can be influenced by the energy density and portion size of other foods at the meal. PMID:23929544

  16. Disturbance of gut satiety peptide in purging disorder.

    PubMed

    Keel, Pamela K; Eckel, Lisa A; Hildebrandt, Britny A; Haedt-Matt, Alissa A; Appelbaum, Jonathan; Jimerson, David C

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about biological factors that contribute to purging after normal amounts of food-the central feature of purging disorder (PD). This study comes from a series of nested studies examining ingestive behaviors in bulimic syndromes and specifically evaluated the satiety peptide YY (PYY) and the hunger peptide ghrelin in women with PD (n = 25), bulimia nervosa-purging (BNp) (n = 26), and controls (n = 26). Based on distinct subjective responses to a fixed meal in PD (Keel, Wolfe, Liddle, DeYoung, & Jimerson, ), we tested whether postprandial PYY response was significantly greater and ghrelin levels significantly lower in women with PD compared to controls and women with BNp. Participants completed structured clinical interviews, self-report questionnaires, and laboratory assessments of gut peptide and subjective responses to a fixed meal. Women with PD demonstrated a significantly greater postprandial PYY response compared to women with BNp and controls, who did not differ significantly. PD women also endorsed significantly greater gastrointestinal distress, and PYY predicted gastrointestinal intestinal distress. Ghrelin levels were significantly greater in PD and BNp compared to controls, but did not differ significantly between eating disorders. Women with BNp endorsed significantly greater postprandial hunger, and ghrelin predicted hunger. PD is associated with a unique disturbance in PYY response. Findings contribute to growing evidence of physiological distinctions between PD and BNp. Future research should examine whether these distinctions account for differences in clinical presentation as this could inform the development of specific interventions for patients with PD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effect of intragastric acid stability of fat emulsions on gastric emptying, plasma lipid profile and postprandial satiety.

    PubMed

    Marciani, Luca; Faulks, Richard; Wickham, Martin S J; Bush, Debbie; Pick, Barbara; Wright, Jeff; Cox, Eleanor F; Fillery-Travis, Annette; Gowland, Penny A; Spiller, Robin C

    2009-03-01

    Fat is often included in common foods as an emulsion of dispersed oil droplets to enhance the organoleptic quality and stability. The intragastric acid stability of emulsified fat may impact on gastric emptying, satiety and plasma lipid absorption. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether, compared with an acid-unstable emulsion, an acid-stable fat emulsion would empty from the stomach more slowly, cause more rapid plasma lipid absorption and cause greater satiety. Eleven healthy male volunteers received on two separate occasions 500 ml of 15 % (w/w) [13C]palmitate-enriched olive oil-in-water emulsion meals which were either stable or unstable in the acid gastric environment. MRI was used to measure gastric emptying and the intragastric oil fraction of the meals. Blood sampling was used to measure plasma lipids and visual analogue scales were used to assess satiety. The acid-unstable fat emulsion broke and rapidly layered in the stomach. Gastric emptying of meal volume was slower for the acid-stable fat emulsion (P < 0.0001; two-way ANOVA). The rate of energy delivery of fat from the stomach to the duodenum was not different up to t = 110 min. The acid-stable emulsion induced increased fullness (P < 0.05), decreased hunger (P < 0.0002), decreased appetite (P < 0.0001) and increased the concentration of palmitic acid tracer in the chylomicron fraction (P < 0.04). This shows that it is possible to delay gastric emptying and increase satiety by stabilising the intragastric distribution of fat emulsions against the gastric acid environment. This could have implications for the design of novel foods.

  18. Region-specific reduction of auditory sensory gating in older adults.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Baillet, Sylvain; Lin, Yung-Yang

    2015-12-01

    Aging has been associated with declines in sensory-perceptual processes. Sensory gating (SG), or repetition suppression, refers to the attenuation of neural activity in response to a second stimulus and is considered to be an automatic process to inhibit redundant sensory inputs. It is controversial whether SG deficits, as tested with an auditory paired-stimulus protocol, accompany normal aging in humans. To reconcile the debates arising from event-related potential studies, we recorded auditory neuromagnetic reactivity in 20 young and 19 elderly adult men and determined the neural activation by using minimum-norm estimate (MNE) source modeling. SG of M100 was calculated by the ratio of the response to the second stimulus over that to the first stimulus. MNE results revealed that fronto-temporo-parietal networks were implicated in the M100 SG. Compared to the younger participants, the elderly showed selectively increased SG ratios in the anterior superior temporal gyrus, anterior middle temporal gyrus, temporal pole and orbitofrontal cortex, suggesting an insufficient age-related gating to repetitive auditory stimulation. These findings also highlight the loss of frontal inhibition of the auditory cortex in normal aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cortical network reorganization guided by sensory input features.

    PubMed

    Kilgard, Michael P; Pandya, Pritesh K; Engineer, Navzer D; Moucha, Raluca

    2002-12-01

    Sensory experience alters the functional organization of cortical networks. Previous studies using behavioral training motivated by aversive or rewarding stimuli have demonstrated that cortical plasticity is specific to salient inputs in the sensory environment. Sensory experience associated with electrical activation of the basal forebrain (BasF) generates similar input specific plasticity. By directly engaging plasticity mechanisms and avoiding extensive behavioral training, BasF stimulation makes it possible to efficiently explore how specific sensory features contribute to cortical plasticity. This review summarizes our observations that cortical networks employ a variety of strategies to improve the representation of the sensory environment. Different combinations of receptive-field, temporal, and spectrotemporal plasticity were generated in primary auditory cortex neurons depending on the pitch, modulation rate, and order of sounds paired with BasF stimulation. Simple tones led to map expansion, while modulated tones altered the maximum cortical following rate. Exposure to complex acoustic sequences led to the development of combination-sensitive responses. This remodeling of cortical response characteristics may reflect changes in intrinsic cellular mechanisms, synaptic efficacy, and local neuronal connectivity. The intricate relationship between the pattern of sensory activation and cortical plasticity suggests that network-level rules alter the functional organization of the cortex to generate the most behaviorally useful representation of the sensory environment.

  20. The specificity of action knowledge in sensory and motor systems

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Christine E.; Cardillo, Eileen R.; Bromberger, Bianca; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have found that sensorimotor systems are engaged when participants observe actions or comprehend action language. However, most of these studies have asked the binary question of whether action concepts are embodied or not, rather than whether sensory and motor areas of the brain contain graded amounts of information during putative action simulations. To address this question, we used repetition suppression (RS) functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine if functionally-localized motor movement and visual motion regions-of-interest (ROI) and two anatomical ROIs (inferior frontal gyrus, IFG; left posterior middle temporal gyrus, pMTG) were sensitive to changes in the exemplar (e.g., two different people “kicking”) or representational format (e.g., photograph or schematic drawing of someone “kicking”) within pairs of action images. We also investigated whether concrete versus more symbolic depictions of actions (i.e., photographs or schematic drawings) yielded different patterns of activation throughout the brain. We found that during a conceptual task, sensory and motor systems represent actions at different levels of specificity. While the visual motion ROI did not exhibit RS to different exemplars of the same action or to the same action depicted by different formats, the motor movement ROI did. These effects are consistent with “person-specific” action simulations: if the motor system is recruited for action understanding, it does so by activating one's own motor program for an action. We also observed significant repetition enhancement within the IFG ROI to different exemplars or formats of the same action, a result that may indicate additional cognitive processing on these trials. Finally, we found that the recruitment of posterior brain regions by action concepts depends on the format of the input: left lateral occipital cortex and right supramarginal gyrus responded more strongly to symbolic depictions of actions than

  1. Awake vs. anesthetized: layer-specific sensory processing in visual cortex and functional connectivity between cortical areas

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, Kristin K.; Bennett, Davis V.; Hutt, Axel; Williams, James H.

    2015-01-01

    During general anesthesia, global brain activity and behavioral state are profoundly altered. Yet it remains mostly unknown how anesthetics alter sensory processing across cortical layers and modulate functional cortico-cortical connectivity. To address this gap in knowledge of the micro- and mesoscale effects of anesthetics on sensory processing in the cortical microcircuit, we recorded multiunit activity and local field potential in awake and anesthetized ferrets (Mustela putoris furo) during sensory stimulation. To understand how anesthetics alter sensory processing in a primary sensory area and the representation of sensory input in higher-order association areas, we studied the local sensory responses and long-range functional connectivity of primary visual cortex (V1) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Isoflurane combined with xylazine provided general anesthesia for all anesthetized recordings. We found that anesthetics altered the duration of sensory-evoked responses, disrupted the response dynamics across cortical layers, suppressed both multimodal interactions in V1 and sensory responses in PFC, and reduced functional cortico-cortical connectivity between V1 and PFC. Together, the present findings demonstrate altered sensory responses and impaired functional network connectivity during anesthesia at the level of multiunit activity and local field potential across cortical layers. PMID:25833839

  2. Satiety-induced enhanced neuronal activity in the frontal operculum relates to the desire for food in the obese female brain.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saurabh; Grundeis, Felicitas; Brand, Cristin; Hwang, Han-Jeong; Mehnert, Jan; Pleger, Burkhard

    2018-06-22

    In the present pilot study, we questioned how eating to satiety affects cognitive influences on the desire for food and corresponding neuronal activity in the obese female brain. During EEG recording, lean (n = 10) and obese women (n = 10) self-rated the ability to reappraise visually presented food. All women were measured twice, when hungry and after eating to satiety. After eating to satiety, reappraisal of food was easier than when being hungry. Comparing the EEG data of the sated to the hungry state, we found that only in obese women the frontal operculum was involved not only in the reappraisal of food but also in admitting the desire for the same food. The right frontal operculum in the obese female brain, assumed to primarily host gustatory processes, may be involved in opposing cognitive influences on the desire for food. These findings may help to find potential brain targets for non-invasive brain stimulation or neurofeedback studies that aim at modulating the desire for food.

  3. Left TPJ activity in verbal working memory: implications for storage- and sensory-specific models of short term memory.

    PubMed

    Ravizza, Susan M; Hazeltine, Eliot; Ruiz, Sandra; Zhu, David C

    2011-04-15

    Patients with damage to the left temporoparietal junction (TPJ) have a low verbal span without concomitant deficits in speech perception. This pattern of cognitive impairment is taken as evidence for a dedicated phonological buffer that plays little role in perception (storage-specific account). In contrast, other research suggests that items are maintained and perceived in the same regions (sensory-specific account). In an fMRI study, we demonstrate that the left TPJ does not respond in a way predicted of a phonological buffer; that is, activity in this region is not sustained during encoding or maintenance. Instead, a region in the superior temporal gyrus that has been associated with both speech perception and production demonstrated the expected profile of a store: it was more active in the verbal condition than the object condition and was active during both encoding and maintenance. These results support the sensory-specific account of short term memory rather than the storage-specific account. Based on the pattern of activity in the left TPJ, we suggest that the impairment of verbal working memory observed in patients with TPJ damage may be due to diminished attentional processes rather than reduced storage capacity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. MILEPOST Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial: 12-Month Weight Loss and Satiety Outcomes After pose SM vs. Medical Therapy.

    PubMed

    Miller, Karl; Turró, R; Greve, J W; Bakker, C M; Buchwald, J N; Espinós, J C

    2017-02-01

    Pose SM is an endolumenal weight-loss intervention in which suture anchors are placed endoscopically in the gastric fundus/distal gastric body. Observational studies of pose have shown safe, effective weight loss. Twelve-month results of a randomized controlled trial comparing weight loss and satiety after pose vs. conventional medical therapy are reported. Subjects with classes I-II obesity were randomized in a 3:1 ratio to pose or diet/exercise guidance only (control). Pose subjects received gastric fundus and distal body suture-anchor plications with diet/exercise counseling. Total body (%TBWL) and excess weight loss (%EWL) were assessed at 6 and 12 months. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyze 12-month %TBWL. Satiety changes were assessed at 6 and 12 months. From November 2013 to July 2014, 44 subjects were randomized (34, 77.3 % female; mean age, 38.3 ± 10.7 years; body mass index, 36.5 ± 3.4 kg/m 2 ) to pose (n = 34) or control (n = 10) groups in three centers. Mean pose procedure time was 51.8 ± 14.5 min; pose subjects received a mean 8.8 ± 1.3 fundal and 4.2 ± 0.7 distal body plications. Twelve-month TBWL: pose, 13.0 % (EWL, 45.0 %), n = 30 vs. control group, 5.3 % (18.1 %), n = 9; significant mean difference, 7.7 % (95 % CI 2.2, 13.2; p < 0.01). Pose subjects showed significant reductions in satiety parameters (p < 0.001); controls experienced reduced caloric intake and satiety volume (p < 0.05). No serious device- or procedure-related adverse events occurred. In a randomized controlled trial at 12 months, pose-treated subjects had significantly greater weight loss than those treated with diet/exercise guidance alone. At 6 and 12 months, pose subjects showed significant reduction in satiety parameters. clinicaltrials.gov identifier # NCT01843231.

  5. Addiction: A dysregulation of satiety and inflammatory processes.

    PubMed

    Harricharan, Rivona; Abboussi, Oualid; Daniels, William M U

    2017-01-01

    Over the years, drug addiction has proven to be a perplexing conundrum for scientists. In attempts to decipher the components of the puzzle, multiple theories of addiction have been proposed. While these theories have assisted in providing essential fundamental information, current research recommends that a new theory needs to be presented taking into consideration the results of recent developments in the fields of neuroimmunology, genetics, and neuropsychiatry. After extensively examining the published literature, we propose in this review that neuroinflammation and hypothalamic functioning strongly underpin addictive behavior. To substantiate this notion, we typed the search-string "cocaine addiction, hypothalamus, and inflammation" into PubMed and Google Scholar. 50 and 1280 results were obtained in PubMed and Google Scholar, respectively. All article abstracts were perused for relevance to this review and 177 articles were used. Recent studies have purported that both acute and chronic psychostimulant use can activate specific components of the innate immune system. Findings such as these provide the scientific evidence supporting a hypothesis that includes a role for the innate immune system and inflammation in addictive behavior. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms by which they mediate the development of addiction have not been clearly delineated. The following review particularly focuses on the lateral hypothalamus and its functioning in satiety, and how inflammatory processes in the brain may contribute to addiction. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Eating responses to external food cues and internal satiety signals in weight discordant siblings

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Compared to normal-weight children, over-weight children are more responsive to external food cues and less sensitive to internal satiety signals, either of which may facilitate greater energy intake. The ability to compensate for prior kcal intake may decrease with age, with children sh...

  7. The control of meal size in human subjects: a role for expected satiety, expected satiation and premeal planning.

    PubMed

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2011-05-01

    Unlike energy expenditure, energy intake occurs during discrete events: snacks and meals. The prevailing view is that meal size is governed by physiological and psychological events that promote satiation towards the end of a meal. This review explores an alternative and perhaps controversial proposition. Specifically that satiation plays a secondary role, and that meal size (kJ) is controlled by decisions about portion size, before a meal begins. Recently, techniques have been developed that enable us to quantify 'expected satiation' and 'expected satiety' (respectively, the fullness and the respite from hunger that foods are expected to confer). When compared on a kJ-for-kJ basis, these expectations differ markedly across foods. Moreover, in self-selected meals, these measures are remarkably good predictors of the energy content of food that ends up on our plate, even more important than palatability. Expected satiation and expected satiety are influenced by the physical characteristics of a food (e.g. perceived volume). However, they are also learned. Indeed, there is now mounting evidence for 'expected-satiation drift', a general tendency for a food to have higher expected satiation as it increases in familiarity. Together, these findings show that important elements of control (discrimination and learning/adaptation) are clearly evident in plans around portion size. Since most meals are eaten in their entirety, understanding the nature of these controls should be given high priority.

  8. Soluble Fiber with High Water-Binding Capacity, Swelling Capacity, and Fermentability Reduces Food Intake by Promoting Satiety Rather Than Satiation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chengquan; Wei, Hongkui; Zhao, Xichen; Xu, Chuanhui; Zhou, Yuanfei; Peng, Jian

    2016-10-02

    To understand whether soluble fiber (SF) with high water-binding capacity (WBC), swelling capacity (SC) and fermentability reduces food intake and whether it does so by promoting satiety or satiation or both, we investigated the effects of different SFs with these properties on the food intake in rats. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four equal groups and fed the control diet or diet containing 2% konjac flour (KF), pregelatinized waxy maize starch (PWMS) plus guar gum (PG), and PWMS starch plus xanthan gum (PX) for three weeks, with the measured values of SF, WBC, and SC in the four diets following the order of PG > KF > PX > control. Food intake, body weight, meal pattern, behavioral satiety sequence, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in cecal content were evaluated. KF and PG groups reduced the food intake, mainly due to the decreased feeding behavior and increased satiety, as indicated by decreased meal numbers and increased inter-meal intervals. Additionally, KF and PG groups increased concentrations of acetate acid, propionate acid, and SCFAs in the cecal contents. Our results indicate that SF with high WBC, SC, and fermentability reduces food intake-probably by promoting a feeling of satiety in rats to decrease their feeding behavior.

  9. Soluble Fiber with High Water-Binding Capacity, Swelling Capacity, and Fermentability Reduces Food Intake by Promoting Satiety Rather Than Satiation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chengquan; Wei, Hongkui; Zhao, Xichen; Xu, Chuanhui; Zhou, Yuanfei; Peng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    To understand whether soluble fiber (SF) with high water-binding capacity (WBC), swelling capacity (SC) and fermentability reduces food intake and whether it does so by promoting satiety or satiation or both, we investigated the effects of different SFs with these properties on the food intake in rats. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four equal groups and fed the control diet or diet containing 2% konjac flour (KF), pregelatinized waxy maize starch (PWMS) plus guar gum (PG), and PWMS starch plus xanthan gum (PX) for three weeks, with the measured values of SF, WBC, and SC in the four diets following the order of PG > KF > PX > control. Food intake, body weight, meal pattern, behavioral satiety sequence, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in cecal content were evaluated. KF and PG groups reduced the food intake, mainly due to the decreased feeding behavior and increased satiety, as indicated by decreased meal numbers and increased inter-meal intervals. Additionally, KF and PG groups increased concentrations of acetate acid, propionate acid, and SCFAs in the cecal contents. Our results indicate that SF with high WBC, SC, and fermentability reduces food intake—probably by promoting a feeling of satiety in rats to decrease their feeding behavior. PMID:27706095

  10. GLYCEMIC INDEX, CHOLECYSTOKININ, SATIETY AND DISINHIBITION: IS THERE AN UNAPPRECIATED PARADOX FOR OVERWEIGHT WOMEN?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The clinical utility of a low glycemic index (GI) diet for appetite and food intake control is controversial. Complicating the issue is psychological and behavioral influences related to eating. The aim of the present study was to investigate the satiety and glycemic response to high and low GI meal...

  11. Polydextrose: its impact on short-term food intake and subjective feelings of satiety in males-a randomized controlled cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Ranawana, Viren; Muller, Adelaide; Henry, C Jeya K

    2013-04-01

    Polydextrose is a low-calorie highly branched-chain glucose polymer that is poorly digested in the upper gastrointestinal tract and therefore demonstrates fibre-like properties. Fibre has been shown to increase satiety and possibly reduce food intake. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to examine the effects of polydextrose on short-term satiety and energy intake. In a repeated-measures randomized blind cross-over design, 26 healthy males consumed a 400-g fruit smoothie containing 12 g (3 %) of polydextrose, and a buffet lunch 60 min after the smoothie. Motivational ratings for satiety and palatability and lunch energy intake were measured. The effects of the polydextrose-containing smoothie were compared against a polydextrose-free control smoothie. Polydextrose did not significantly alter the taste and palatability of the fruit smoothie. Consuming the polydextrose-containing smoothie resulted in a significantly lower energy intake at lunch (102 kcal less) compared to the control. Polydextrose may be a good fortificant for reducing short-term food intake.

  12. Sensory Transduction in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Austin L.; Ramot, Daniel; Goodman, Miriam B.

    The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has a well-defined and comparatively simple repertoire of sensory-guided behaviors, all of which rely on its ability to detect chemical, mechanical or thermal stimuli. In this chapter, we review what is known about the ion channels that mediate sensation in this remarkable model organism. Genetic screens for mutants defective in sensory-guided behaviors have identified genes encoding channel proteins, which are likely transducers of chemical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli. Such classical genetic approaches are now being coupled with molecular genetics and in vivo cellular physiology to elucidate how these channels are activated in specific sensory neurons. The ion channel superfamilies implicated in sensory transduction in C. elegans - CNG, TRP, and DEG/ENaC - are conserved across phyla and also appear to contribute to sensory transduction in other organisms, including vertebrates. What we learn about the role of these ion channels in C. elegans sensation is likely to illuminate analogous processes in other animals, including humans.

  13. The stomach, cholecystokinin, and satiety.

    PubMed

    McHugh, P R; Moran, T H

    1986-04-01

    The stomach of the rhesus monkey empties liquids in a fashion that varies with the character of the solutions. Physiological saline empties exponentially. Glucose solutions empty biphasically--rapidly for the first minutes, then slowly and proportionately to glucose concentration to deliver glucose calories through the pylorus at a regulated rate (0.4 kcal/min). This prolonged and regulated second phase of gastric emptying depends on intestinal inhibition of the stomach. Cholecystokinin (CCK), a hormone released by food in the intestine, is an inhibitor of gastric emptying. In vitro receptor autoradiography demonstrates CCK receptors to be clustered on the circular muscle of the pylorus. Exogenous CCK, in doses that inhibit gastric emptying, will reduce food intake only if combined with an infusion of saline in the stomach. These observations indicate how gastric distension can be a means for provoking satiety. The variably sustained distension produced by the stomach's slow, calorically regulated emptying could prolong intermeal intervals and thus permit high-calorie meals to inhibit further caloric intake over time. CCK, by directly inhibiting gastric emptying during a meal, could promote gastric distension and so restrict the duration and size of individual meals.

  14. Elucidation of the anatomy of a satiety network: Focus on connectivity of the parabrachial nucleus in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Zséli, Györgyi; Vida, Barbara; Martinez, Anais; Lechan, Ronald M; Khan, Arshad M; Fekete, Csaba

    2016-10-01

    We hypothesized that brain regions showing neuronal activation after refeeding comprise major nodes in a satiety network, and tested this hypothesis with two sets of experiments. Detailed c-Fos mapping comparing fasted and refed rats was performed to identify candidate nodes of the satiety network. In addition to well-known feeding-related brain regions such as the arcuate, dorsomedial, and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, lateral hypothalamic area, parabrachial nucleus (PB), nucleus of the solitary tract and central amygdalar nucleus, other refeeding activated regions were also identified, such as the parastrial and parasubthalamic nuclei. To begin to understand the connectivity of the satiety network, the interconnectivity of PB with other refeeding-activated neuronal groups was studied following administration of anterograde or retrograde tracers into the PB. After allowing for tracer transport time, the animals were fasted and then refed before sacrifice. Refeeding-activated neurons that project to the PB were found in the agranular insular area; bed nuclei of terminal stria; anterior hypothalamic area; arcuate, paraventricular, and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei; lateral hypothalamic area; parasubthalamic nucleus; central amygdalar nucleus; area postrema; and nucleus of the solitary tract. Axons originating from the PB were observed to closely associate with refeeding-activated neurons in the agranular insular area; bed nuclei of terminal stria; anterior hypothalamus; paraventricular, arcuate, and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei; lateral hypothalamic area; central amygdalar nucleus; parasubthalamic nucleus; ventral posterior thalamic nucleus; area postrema; and nucleus of the solitary tract. These data indicate that the PB has bidirectional connections with most refeeding-activated neuronal groups, suggesting that short-loop feedback circuits exist in this satiety network. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2803-2827, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley

  15. Yerba Maté (Ilex paraguariensis) Metabolic, Satiety, and Mood State Effects at Rest and during Prolonged Exercise.

    PubMed

    Alkhatib, Ahmad; Atcheson, Roisin

    2017-08-15

    Yerba Maté (YM), has become a popular herb ingested for enhancing metabolic health and weight-loss outcomes. No studies have tested the combined metabolic, satiety, and psychomotor effects of YM during exercise. We tested whether YM ingestion affects fatty acid oxidation (FAO), profile of mood state score (POMS), and subjective appetite scale (VAS), during prolonged moderate exercise. Twelve healthy active females were randomized to ingest either 2 g of YM or placebo (PLC) in a repeated-measures design. Participants rested for 120 min before performing a 30-min cycling exercise corresponding to individuals' crossover point intensity (COP). FAO, determined using indirect calorimetry, was significantly higher during the 30-min exercise in YM vs. PLC (0.21 ± 0.07 vs. 0.17 ± 0.06 g/min, p < 0.05). VAS scores for hunger, prospective eating, and desire to eat were all reduced ( p < 0.05). Whereas, POMS measures of focus, energy, and concentration were all increased ( p < 0.05). There was no significant time-effect for any of the measured variables, nor was there any interaction effects between YM treatment and time. Combining YM intake with prolonged exercise at targeted "fat-loss"' intensities augments FAO and improves measures of satiety and mood state. Such positive combined metabolic, satiety, and psychomotor effects may provide an important role for designing future fat and weight-loss lifestyle interventions.

  16. Yerba Maté (Ilex paraguariensis) Metabolic, Satiety, and Mood State Effects at Rest and during Prolonged Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Alkhatib, Ahmad; Atcheson, Roisin

    2017-01-01

    Yerba Maté (YM), has become a popular herb ingested for enhancing metabolic health and weight-loss outcomes. No studies have tested the combined metabolic, satiety, and psychomotor effects of YM during exercise. We tested whether YM ingestion affects fatty acid oxidation (FAO), profile of mood state score (POMS), and subjective appetite scale (VAS), during prolonged moderate exercise. Twelve healthy active females were randomized to ingest either 2 g of YM or placebo (PLC) in a repeated-measures design. Participants rested for 120 min before performing a 30-min cycling exercise corresponding to individuals’ crossover point intensity (COP). FAO, determined using indirect calorimetry, was significantly higher during the 30-min exercise in YM vs. PLC (0.21 ± 0.07 vs. 0.17 ± 0.06 g/min, p < 0.05). VAS scores for hunger, prospective eating, and desire to eat were all reduced (p < 0.05). Whereas, POMS measures of focus, energy, and concentration were all increased (p < 0.05). There was no significant time-effect for any of the measured variables, nor was there any interaction effects between YM treatment and time. Combining YM intake with prolonged exercise at targeted ”fat-loss”’ intensities augments FAO and improves measures of satiety and mood state. Such positive combined metabolic, satiety, and psychomotor effects may provide an important role for designing future fat and weight-loss lifestyle interventions. PMID:28809814

  17. The role of viscosity and fermentability of dietary fibers on satiety- and adiposity-related hormones in rats.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Natalia; Marquart, Len F; Gallaher, Daniel D

    2013-06-07

    Dietary fiber may contribute to satiety. This study examined the effect of two dietary fiber characteristics, small intestinal contents viscosity and large intestinal fermentability, on satiety-and adiposity-related hormones in rats. Diets contained fiber sources that were non-viscous, somewhat viscous, or highly viscous, and either highly fermentable or non-fermentable, in a 2 × 3 factorial design. In the fed state (2 h postprandial), rats fed non-fermentable fibers had significantly greater plasma GLP-1 concentration than fermentable fibers. In the fasted state, among non-fermentable fibers, viscosity had no effect on GLP-1 concentration. However, among fermentable fibers, greater viscosity reduced GLP-1 concentration. Plasma peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) concentrations in the fasted state were not influenced by the fermentability of the fiber overall, however animals consuming a fructooligosaccharide greater PYY concentration. In both the fed and fasted states, rats fed non-fermentable fibers had a significantly lower plasma ghrelin concentration than rats fed fermentable fibers. In the fasted state, rats fed non-fermentable fibers had a significantly lower plasma leptin concentration than rats fed fermentable fibers. Thus, fermentability and viscosity of dietary fiber interacted in complex ways to influence satiety- and adiposity-related plasma hormone concentrations. However, the results suggest that highly viscous, non-fermentable fibers may limit weight gain and reduce adiposity and non-fermentable fibers, regardless of viscosity, may promote meal termination.

  18. The Role of Viscosity and Fermentability of Dietary Fibers on Satiety- and Adiposity-Related Hormones in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Natalia; Marquart, Len F.; Gallaher, Daniel D.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fiber may contribute to satiety. This study examined the effect of two dietary fiber characteristics, small intestinal contents viscosity and large intestinal fermentability, on satiety-and adiposity-related hormones in rats. Diets contained fiber sources that were non-viscous, somewhat viscous, or highly viscous, and either highly fermentable or non-fermentable, in a 2 × 3 factorial design. In the fed state (2 h postprandial), rats fed non-fermentable fibers had significantly greater plasma GLP-1 concentration than fermentable fibers. In the fasted state, among non-fermentable fibers, viscosity had no effect on GLP-1 concentration. However, among fermentable fibers, greater viscosity reduced GLP-1 concentration. Plasma peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) concentrations in the fasted state were not influenced by the fermentability of the fiber overall, however animals consuming a fructooligosaccharide greater PYY concentration. In both the fed and fasted states, rats fed non-fermentable fibers had a significantly lower plasma ghrelin concentration than rats fed fermentable fibers. In the fasted state, rats fed non-fermentable fibers had a significantly lower plasma leptin concentration than rats fed fermentable fibers. Thus, fermentability and viscosity of dietary fiber interacted in complex ways to influence satiety- and adiposity-related plasma hormone concentrations. However, the results suggest that highly viscous, non-fermentable fibers may limit weight gain and reduce adiposity and non-fermentable fibers, regardless of viscosity, may promote meal termination. PMID:23749206

  19. A mid-morning snack of almonds generates satiety and appropriate adjustment of subsequent food intake in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Hull, Sarah; Re, Roberta; Chambers, Lucy; Echaniz, Ana; Wickham, Martin S J

    2015-08-01

    To assess the effect of consuming a mid-morning almond snack (28 and 42 g) tested against a negative control of no almonds on acute satiety responses. On three test days, 32 healthy females consumed a standard breakfast followed by 0, 28 or 42 g of almonds as a mid-morning snack and then ad libitum meals at lunch and dinner. The effect of the almond snacks on satiety was assessed by measuring energy intake (kcal) at the two ad libitum meals and subjective appetite ratings (visual analogue scales) throughout the test days. Intake at lunch and dinner significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in response to the almond snacks. Overall, a similar amount of energy was consumed on all three test days indicating that participants compensated for the 173 and 259 kcals consumed as almonds on the 28 and 42 g test days, respectively. Subjective appetite ratings in the interval between the mid-morning snack and lunch were consistent with dose-dependent enhanced satiety following the almond snacks. However, in the interval between lunch and dinner, appetite ratings were not dependent on the mid-morning snack. Almonds might be a healthy snack option since their acute satiating effects are likely to result in no net increase in energy consumed over a day.

  20. Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association with Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Alison E.; Young, Robyn L.; Baker, Amy E. Z.; Angley, Manya T.

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes…

  1. Including dietary fiber and resistant starch to increase satiety and reduce aggression in gestating sows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The swine industry is under a great deal of pressure to return sows to group housing. However, aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrate. ...

  2. Hunger and satiety responses to high-fat meals after a high-polyunsaturated fat diet: A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Jada L; Paton, Chad M; Cooper, Jamie A

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs) elicit a greater response in satiety after a single-meal challenge compared with other types of fats. The long-term effects of PUFAs on satiety, however, remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine subjective and physiological hunger and satiety responses to high-fat (HF) meals before and after a 7-d PUFA-rich diet. Twenty-six, healthy weight (body mass index 18-24.9 kg/m 2 ), sedentary adults were randomly assigned to either a 7-d PUFA-rich diet (n = 8 men and n = 8 women) or a 7-d control diet (n = 5 men and n = 5 women). After a 3-d lead-in diet, participants reported for the baseline visit where anthropometrics, fasting visual analog scale (VAS) measurements, and a fasting blood sample were collected. Then, two HF meals (breakfast and lunch) were consumed. Postprandial blood draws and VAS measures were collected approximately every 30 min for 4 h after each meal, for a total of 8 h. From pre- to post-PUFA-rich diet, there was a decrease in fasting ghrelin (P < 0.05) and an increase in fasting peptide YY (PYY; P < 0.05); however, there were no changes in fasting insulin or leptin concentrations. The postprandial response for PYY was higher after the PUFA-rich diet visit compared to baseline (P < 0.01). However, there were no differences in the postprandial response for ghrelin, insulin, leptin, or VAS measures from pre- to post-diet in either the PUFA-rich diet or control (ns). A PUFA-rich diet consumed for 7 d favorably altered fasting and postprandial physiological markers of hunger and satiety; yet, did not alter subjective ratings of hunger or fullness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Regional brain response to visual food cues is a marker of satiety that predicts food choice1234

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Sonya; Melhorn, Susan J; Smeraglio, Anne; Tyagi, Vidhi; Grabowski, Thomas; Schwartz, Michael W

    2012-01-01

    Background: Neuronal processes that underlie the subjective experience of satiety after a meal are not well defined. Objective: We investigated how satiety alters the perception of and neural response to visual food cues. Design: Normal-weight participants (10 men, 13 women) underwent 2 fMRI scans while viewing images of high-calorie food that was previously rated as incompatible with weight loss and “fattening” and low-calorie, “nonfattening” food. After a fasting fMRI scan, participants ate a standardized breakfast and underwent reimaging at a randomly assigned time 15–300 min after breakfast to vary the degree of satiety. Measures of subjective appetite, food appeal, and ad libitum food intake (measured after the second fMRI scan) were correlated with activation by “fattening” (compared with “nonfattening”) food cues in a priori regions of interest. Results: Greater hunger correlated with higher appeal ratings of “fattening” (r = 0.46, P = 0.03) but not “nonfattening” (r = −0.20, P = 0.37) foods. Fasting amygdalar activation was negatively associated with fullness (left: r = −0.52; right: r = −0.58; both P ≤ 0.01), whereas postbreakfast fullness was positively correlated with activation in the dorsal striatum (right: r = 0.44; left: r = 0.45; both P < 0.05). After breakfast, participants with greater activation in 4 regions—medial orbital frontal cortex (r = 0.49, P < 0.05), left amygdala (r = 0.49, P < 0.05), left insula (r = 0.47, P < 0.05), and nucleus accumbens (right: r = 0.57, P < 0.01; left: r = 0.43, P < 0.05)—chose buffet foods with higher fat content. Conclusions: Postmeal satiety is shown in regional brain activation by images of high-calorie foods. Regions including the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and dorsal striatum may alter perception of, and reduce motivation to consume, energy-rich foods, ultimately driving food choice. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01631045. PMID:22990034

  4. Impact of some isoenergetic snacks on satiety and next meal intake in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Almiron-Roig, E; Grathwohl, D; Green, H; Erkner, A

    2009-10-01

    Choosing small portions especially of low energy foods is a standard recommendation for weight management. However, this can result in rapid return of hunger or an increase in the next meal size. Enhancing the satiating capacities of low energy foods may help to overcome these effects. The present study compared the satiating properties of small servings of four low energy foods [465 kJ (111 kcal)] including a drinking yogurt enhanced for satiety. Thirty volunteers attended the laboratory to consume isoenergetic preloads of: a fibre-enriched drinking yogurt, a regular drinking yogurt, plain crackers, fresh banana; or an isovolumetric serving of water. Satiety was analysed using visual analogue scales, before and every 15 min after consumption for 60 min, when ad libitum food intake was measured. The yogurts and the banana were more satiating than water and crackers (P < 0.001 for yogurts and banana versus crackers and water). Only the fibre-enriched yogurt produced higher satiety scores than crackers at 60 min (P < 0.05). Mean + or - SD consumption at next meal was: fibre-enriched yogurt 2050 + or - 787 kJ (490 + or - 188 kcal); regular yogurt 2071 + or - 575 kJ (495 + or - 137 kcal); bananas 2178 + or - 603 kJ (520 + or - 144 kcal); crackers 2232 + or - 590 kJ (533 + or - 141 kcal); water 2519 + or - 741 kJ (602 + or - 177 kcal); (yogurts versus water: P = 0.001; bananas versus water: P = 0.013; crackers versus water: P = 0.064), demonstrating accurate energy compensation for the yogurts only. Although there were no significant differences between the different foods' satiating capacity, a trend for the following ranking was found: fibre-enriched yogurt > regular yogurt > banana > crackers > water. Overall, the fibre-enriched drinking yogurt tended to be more satiating than the other foods.

  5. [Sensory illusions in hang-gliding].

    PubMed

    Bousquet, F; Bizeau, A; Resche-Rigon, P; Taillemite, J P; De Rotalier

    1997-01-01

    Sensory illusions in hang-gliding and para-gliding. Hang-gliding and para-gliding are at the moment booming sports. Sensory illusions are physiological phenomena sharing the wrong perception of the pilote's real position in space. These phenomena are very familiar to aeroplane pilotes, they can also be noticed on certain conditions with hang-gliding pilotes. There are many and various sensory illusions, but only illusions of vestibular origin will be dealt with in this article. Vestibular physiology is reminded with the working principle of a semicircular canal. Physiology and laws of physics explain several sensory illusions, especially when the pilote loses his visual landmarks: flying through a cloud, coriolis effect. Also some specific stages of hang-gliding foster those phenomena: spiraling downwards, self-rotation, following an asymetric closing of the parachute, spin on oneself. Therefore a previous briefing for the pilotes seems necessary.

  6. Tasting calories differentially affects brain activation during hunger and satiety.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-02-15

    An important function of eating is ingesting energy. Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three stimuli in two motivational states (hunger and satiety) while their brain responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a randomized crossover design. Stimuli were solutions of sucralose (sweet, no energy), maltodextrin (non-sweet, energy) and sucralose+maltodextrin (sweet, energy). We found no main effect of energy content and no interaction between energy content and sweetness. However, there was an interaction between hunger state and energy content in the median cingulate (bilaterally), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus. This indicates that the anterior insula and thalamus, areas in which hunger state and taste of a stimulus are integrated, also integrate hunger state with caloric content of a taste stimulus. Furthermore, in the median cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, tasting energy resulted in more activation during satiety compared to hunger. This finding indicates that these areas, which are known to be involved in processes that require approach and avoidance, are also involved in guiding ingestive behavior. In conclusion, our results suggest that energy sensing is a hunger state dependent process, in which the median cingulate, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus play a central role by integrating hunger state with stimulus relevance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Creativity and sensory gating indexed by the P50: selective versus leaky sensory gating in divergent thinkers and creative achievers.

    PubMed

    Zabelina, Darya L; O'Leary, Daniel; Pornpattananangkul, Narun; Nusslock, Robin; Beeman, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Creativity has previously been linked with atypical attention, but it is not clear what aspects of attention, or what types of creativity are associated. Here we investigated specific neural markers of a very early form of attention, namely sensory gating, indexed by the P50 ERP, and how it relates to two measures of creativity: divergent thinking and real-world creative achievement. Data from 84 participants revealed that divergent thinking (assessed with the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking) was associated with selective sensory gating, whereas real-world creative achievement was associated with "leaky" sensory gating, both in zero-order correlations and when controlling for academic test scores in a regression. Thus both creativity measures related to sensory gating, but in opposite directions. Additionally, divergent thinking and real-world creative achievement did not interact in predicting P50 sensory gating, suggesting that these two creativity measures orthogonally relate to P50 sensory gating. Finally, the ERP effect was specific to the P50 - neither divergent thinking nor creative achievement were related to later components, such as the N100 and P200. Overall results suggest that leaky sensory gating may help people integrate ideas that are outside of focus of attention, leading to creativity in the real world; whereas divergent thinking, measured by divergent thinking tests which emphasize numerous responses within a limited time, may require selective sensory processing more than previously thought. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification and characterization of mouse otic sensory lineage genes

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Byron H.; Durruthy-Durruthy, Robert; Laske, Roman D.; Losorelli, Steven; Heller, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrate embryogenesis gives rise to all cell types of an organism through the development of many unique lineages derived from the three primordial germ layers. The otic sensory lineage arises from the otic vesicle, a structure formed through invagination of placodal non-neural ectoderm. This developmental lineage possesses unique differentiation potential, giving rise to otic sensory cell populations including hair cells, supporting cells, and ganglion neurons of the auditory and vestibular organs. Here we present a systematic approach to identify transcriptional features that distinguish the otic sensory lineage (from early otic progenitors to otic sensory populations) from other major lineages of vertebrate development. We used a microarray approach to analyze otic sensory lineage populations including microdissected otic vesicles (embryonic day 10.5) as well as isolated neonatal cochlear hair cells and supporting cells at postnatal day 3. Non-otic tissue samples including periotic tissues and whole embryos with otic regions removed were used as reference populations to evaluate otic specificity. Otic populations shared transcriptome-wide correlations in expression profiles that distinguish members of this lineage from non-otic populations. We further analyzed the microarray data using comparative and dimension reduction methods to identify individual genes that are specifically expressed in the otic sensory lineage. This analysis identified and ranked top otic sensory lineage-specific transcripts including Fbxo2, Col9a2, and Oc90, and additional novel otic lineage markers. To validate these results we performed expression analysis on select genes using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Fbxo2 showed the most striking pattern of specificity to the otic sensory lineage, including robust expression in the early otic vesicle and sustained expression in prosensory progenitors and auditory and vestibular hair cells and supporting cells. PMID:25852475

  9. CCK-58 Elicits Both Satiety and Satiation in Rats while CCK-8 Elicits Only Satiation

    PubMed Central

    Overduin, Joost; Gibbs, James; Cummings, David E.; Reeve, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of food intake by exogenous cholecystokinin (CCK) has been demonstrated primarily for its short molecular form, CCK-8. Mounting evidence, however, implicates CCK-58 as a major physiologically active CCK form, with different neural and exocrine response profiles than CCK-8. In three studies, we compared meal-pattern effects of intraperitoneal injections CCK-8 vs. CCK-58 in undeprived male Sprague-Dawley rats consuming sweetened condensed milk. In study one, rats (N=10) received CCK-8, CCK-58 (0.45, 0.9, 1.8 and 3.6 nmole/kg) or vehicle before a 4-hour test-food presentation. At most doses, both CCK-8 and CCK-58 reduced meal size relative to vehicle. Meal-size reduction prompted a compensatory shortening of the intermeal interval (IMI) after CCK-8, but not after CCK-58, which uniquely increased the satiety ratio (IMI/size of the preceding meal). In the second study, lick patterns were monitored after administration of 0.9nmole/kg CCK-58, CCK-8 or vehicle. Lick cluster size, lick efficiency and interlick-interval distribution remained unaltered compared to vehicle, implying natural satiation, rather than illness, following both CCK forms. In study 3, threshold satiating doses of the two CCK forms were given at 5 and 30 minutes after meal termination, respectively. CCK 58, but not CCK-8 increased the intermeal interval and satiety ratio compared to vehicle. In conclusion, while CCK 58 and CCK-8 both stimulate satiation, thereby reducing meal size, CCK-58 consistently exerts a satiety effect, prolonging IMI. Given the physiological prominence of CCK-58, these results suggest that CCK’s role in food intake regulation may require reexamination. PMID:24468546

  10. Caenorhabditis elegans TRPV Channels Function in a Modality-Specific Pathway to Regulate Response to Aberrant Sensory Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ezak , Meredith J.; Hong , Elizabeth; Chaparro-Garcia , Angela; Ferkey , Denise M.

    2010-01-01

    Olfaction and some forms of taste (including bitter) are mediated by G protein-coupled signal transduction pathways. Olfactory and gustatory ligands bind to chemosensory G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in specialized sensory cells to activate intracellular signal transduction cascades. G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are negative regulators of signaling that specifically phosphorylate activated GPCRs to terminate signaling. Although loss of GRK function usually results in enhanced cellular signaling, Caenorhabditis elegans lacking GRK-2 function are not hypersensitive to chemosensory stimuli. Instead, grk-2 mutant animals do not chemotax toward attractive olfactory stimuli or avoid aversive tastes and smells. We show here that loss-of-function mutations in the transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels OSM-9 and OCR-2 selectively restore grk-2 behavioral avoidance of bitter tastants, revealing modality-specific mechanisms for TRPV channel function in the regulation of C. elegans chemosensation. Additionally, a single amino acid point mutation in OCR-2 that disrupts TRPV channel-mediated gene expression, but does not decrease channel function in chemosensory primary signal transduction, also restores grk-2 bitter taste avoidance. Thus, loss of GRK-2 function may lead to changes in gene expression, via OSM-9/OCR-2, to selectively alter the levels of signaling components that transduce or regulate bitter taste responses. Our results suggest a novel mechanism and multiple modality-specific pathways that sensory cells employ in response to aberrant signal transduction. PMID:20176974

  11. Aberrant Food Choices after Satiation in Human Orexin-Deficient Narcolepsy Type 1.

    PubMed

    van Holst, Ruth Janke; van der Cruijsen, Lisa; van Mierlo, Petra; Lammers, Gert Jan; Cools, Roshan; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Aarts, Esther

    2016-11-01

    Besides influencing vigilance, orexin neurotransmission serves a variety of functions, including reward, motivation, and appetite regulation. As obesity is an important symptom in orexin-deficient narcolepsy, we explored the effects of satiety on food-related choices and spontaneous snack intake in patients with narcolepsy type 1 (n = 24) compared with healthy matched controls (n = 19). In additional analyses, we also included patients with idiopathic hypersomnia (n = 14) to assess sleepiness-related influences. Participants were first trained on a choice task to earn salty and sweet snacks. Next, one of the snack outcomes was devalued by having participants consume it until satiation (i.e., sensory-specific satiety). We then measured the selective reduction in choices for the devalued snack outcome. Finally, we assessed the number of calories that participants consumed spontaneously from ad libitum available snacks afterwards. After satiety, all participants reported reduced hunger and less wanting for the devalued snack. However, while controls and idiopathic hypersomnia patients chose the devalued snack less often in the choice task, patients with narcolepsy still chose the devalued snack as often as before satiety. Subsequently, narcolepsy patients spontaneously consumed almost 4 times more calories during ad libitum snack intake. We show that the manipulation of food-specific satiety has reduced effects on food choices and caloric intake in narcolepsy type 1 patients. These mechanisms may contribute to their obesity, and suggest an important functional role for orexin in human eating behavior. Study registered at Netherlands Trial Register. URL: www.trialregister.nl. Trial ID: NTR4508. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  12. Soups increase satiety through delayed gastric emptying yet increased glycaemic response.

    PubMed

    Clegg, M E; Ranawana, V; Shafat, A; Henry, C J

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the satiating properties of soups compared with solids; however, the mechanisms controlling soup-induced satiety are unknown. This study aimed to understand the physiological mechanisms causing soup to be more satiating. A total of 12 volunteers were tested on three occasions after a solid meal, chunky soup or smooth soup test meal for gastric emptying (GE) using the sodium [1-¹³C] acetate breath test, satiety using visual analog scales (VAS) and glycaemic response (GR) using finger prick blood samples. There was a significant difference in GE half-time (P=0.022) and GE ascension time (P=0.018), with the longest GE times for the smooth soup and the shortest for the solid meal. The GR area under the curve was significantly different between meals (P=0.040). The smooth soup had the greatest GR (87.0 ± 49.5 mmol/l/min), followed by the chunky soup (65.4 ± 48.0 mmol/l/min), with the solid meal having the lowest GR (61.6 ± 36.8 mmol/l/min). Volunteers were fuller after the smooth soup compared with solid meal (P=0.034). The smooth soup induced greater fullness compared with the solid meal because of a combination of delayed GE leading to feelings of gastric distension and rapid accessibility of nutrients causing a greater glycaemic response.

  13. Fluid or fuel? The context of consuming a beverage is important for satiety.

    PubMed

    McCrickerd, Keri; Chambers, Lucy; Yeomans, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    Energy-containing beverages have a weak effect on satiety, limited by their fluid characteristics and perhaps because they are not considered 'food'. This study investigated whether the context of consuming a beverage can influence the satiating power of its nutrients. Eighty participants consumed a lower- (LE, 75 kcal) and higher-energy (HE, 272 kcal) version of a beverage (covertly manipulated within-groups) on two test days, in one of four beverage contexts (between-groups): thin versions of the test-drinks were consumed as a thirst-quenching drink (n = 20), a filling snack (n = 20), or without additional information (n = 20). A fourth group consumed subtly thicker versions of the beverages without additional information (n = 20). Lunch intake 60 minutes later depended on the beverage context and energy content (p = 0.030): participants who consumed the thin beverages without additional information ate a similar amount of lunch after the LE and HE versions (LE = 475 kcal, HE = 464 kcal; p = 0.690) as did those participants who believed the beverages were designed to quench-thirst (LE = 442 kcal, HE = 402 kcal; p = 0.213), despite consuming an additional 197 kcal in the HE beverage. Consuming the beverage as a filling snack led participants to consume less at lunch after the HE beverage compared to the LE version (LE = 506 kcal, HE = 437 kcal; p = 0.025). This effect was also seen when the beverages were subtly thicker, with participants in this group displaying the largest response to the beverage's energy content, consuming less at lunch after the HE version (LE = 552 kcal, HE = 415 kcal; p<0.001). These data indicate that beliefs about the consequences of consuming a beverage can affect the impact of its nutrients on appetite regulation and provide further evidence that a beverage's sensory characteristics can limit its satiating power.

  14. A Community-Based Sensory Training Program Leads to Improved Experience at a Local Zoo for Children with Sensory Challenges.

    PubMed

    Kong, Michele; Pritchard, Mallory; Dean, Lara; Talley, Michele; Torbert, Roger; Maha, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Sensory processing difficulties are common among many special needs children, especially those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The sensory sensitivities often result in interference of daily functioning and can lead to social isolation for both the individual and family unit. A quality improvement (QI) project was undertaken within a local zoo to systematically implement a sensory training program targeted at helping special needs individuals with sensory challenges, including those with ASD, Down's syndrome, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and speech delay. We piloted the program over a 2-year period. The program consisted of staff training, provision of sensory bags and specific social stories, as well as creation of quiet zones. Two hundred family units were surveyed before and after implementation of the sensory training program. In this pilot QI study, families reported increased visitation to the zoo, improved interactions with staff members, and the overall quality of their experience. In conclusion, we are able to demonstrate that a sensory training program within the community zoo is feasible, impactful, and has the potential to decrease social isolation for special needs individuals and their families.

  15. No differences in satiety or energy intake after high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, or milk preloads.

    PubMed

    Soenen, Stijn; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2007-12-01

    It is unclear whether energy-containing drinks, especially those sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), promote positive energy balance and thereby play a role in the development of obesity. The objective was to examine the satiating effects of HFCS and sucrose in comparison with milk and a diet drink. The effects of four 800-mL drinks [corrected] containing no energy or 1.5 MJ from sucrose, HFCS, or milk on satiety were assessed, first in 15 men and 15 women with a mean (+/-SD) body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) of 22.1 +/- 1.9 according to visual analogue scales (VAS) and blood variables and second in 20 men and 20 women (BMI: 22.4 +/- 2.1) according to ingestion of a standardized ad libitum meal (granola cereal + yogurt, 10.1 kJ/g). Fifty minutes after consumption of the 1.5-MJ preload drinks containing sucrose, HFCS, or milk, 170%-mm VAS changes in satiety were observed. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) (P < 0.001) and ghrelin (P < 0.05) concentrations changed accordingly. Compensatory energy intake did not differ significantly between the 3 preloads and ranged from 30% to 45%. Energy intake compensations were related to satiety (r = 0.35, P < 0.05). No differences were observed between the effects of the sucrose- and HFCS-containing drinks on changes in VAS and on insulin, glucose, GLP-1, and ghrelin concentrations. Changes in appetite VAS ratings were a function of changes in GLP-1, ghrelin, insulin, and glucose concentrations. Energy balance consequences of HFCS-sweetened soft drinks are not different from those of other isoenergetic drinks, eg, a sucrose-drink or milk.

  16. Safety and efficacy of coffee enriched with inulin and dextrin on satiety and hunger in normal volunteers.

    PubMed

    Singer, Joelle; Grinev, Milana; Silva, Veronica; Cohen, Jonathan; Singer, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the safety and efficacy of a new beverage on suppressing hunger and improving feelings of satiety in healthy volunteers. In the safety study, participants (n = 269) received either 1) a control beverage-coffee alone (group C); 2) the study beverage-coffee, whey protein, inulin, and dextrin (group S); or 3) an inulin-enriched beverage (I group). The study was held over a 7-d period during which participants were required to consume 2 cups of coffee a day. There were no significant differences between the groups in any reported adverse effects, apart from more abdominal pain after the first cup in group I versus S (P < 0.05). This study showed that a coffee beverage enriched with inulin, dextrin, and whey is safe and has possible benefits with regard to feelings of hunger and satiety 2 h after ingestion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Transcriptional regulation of cranial sensory placode development

    PubMed Central

    Moody, Sally A.; LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Cranial sensory placodes derive from discrete patches of the head ectoderm, and give rise to numerous sensory structures. During gastrulation, a specialized “neural border zone” forms around the neural plate in response to interactions between the neural and non-neural ectoderm and signals from adjacent mesodermal and/or endodermal tissues. This zone subsequently gives rise to two distinct precursor populations of the peripheral nervous system: the neural crest and the pre-placodal ectoderm (PPE). The PPE is a common field from which all cranial sensory placodes arise (adenohypophyseal, olfactory, lens, trigeminal, epibranchial, otic). Members of the Six family of transcription factors are major regulators of PPE specification, in partnership with co-factor proteins such as Eya. Six gene activity also maintains tissue boundaries between the PPE, neural crest and epidermis by repressing genes that specify the fates of those adjacent ectodermally-derived domains. As the embryo acquires anterior-posterior identity, the PPE becomes transcriptionally regionalized, and it subsequently subdivides into specific placodes with distinct developmental fates in response to signaling from adjacent tissues. Each placode is characterized by a unique transcriptional program that leads to the differentiation of highly specialized cells, such as neurosecretory cells, somatic sensory receptor cells, chemosensory neurons, peripheral glia and supporting cells. In this review, we summarize the transcriptional and signaling factors that regulate key steps of placode development, influence subsequent sensory neuron specification, and discuss what is known about mutations in some of the essential PPE genes that underlie human congenital syndromes. PMID:25662264

  18. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition via RGFP966 Releases the Brakes on Sensory Cortical Plasticity and the Specificity of Memory Formation

    PubMed Central

    Bechay, Kiro; Rusche, James R.; Jacques, Vincent; Kudugunti, Shashi; Miao, Wenyan; Weinberger, Norman M.; McGaugh, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Research over the past decade indicates a novel role for epigenetic mechanisms in memory formation. Of particular interest is chromatin modification by histone deacetylases (HDACs), which, in general, negatively regulate transcription. HDAC deletion or inhibition facilitates transcription during memory consolidation and enhances long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. A key open question remains: How does blocking HDAC activity lead to memory enhancements? To address this question, we tested whether a normal function of HDACs is to gate information processing during memory formation. We used a class I HDAC inhibitor, RGFP966 (C21H19FN4O), to test the role of HDAC inhibition for information processing in an auditory memory model of learning-induced cortical plasticity. HDAC inhibition may act beyond memory enhancement per se to instead regulate information in ways that lead to encoding more vivid sensory details into memory. Indeed, we found that RGFP966 controls memory induction for acoustic details of sound-to-reward learning. Rats treated with RGFP966 while learning to associate sound with reward had stronger memory and additional information encoded into memory for highly specific features of sounds associated with reward. Moreover, behavioral effects occurred with unusually specific plasticity in primary auditory cortex (A1). Class I HDAC inhibition appears to engage A1 plasticity that enables additional acoustic features to become encoded in memory. Thus, epigenetic mechanisms act to regulate sensory cortical plasticity, which offers an information processing mechanism for gating what and how much is encoded to produce exceptionally persistent and vivid memories. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Here we provide evidence of an epigenetic mechanism for information processing. The study reveals that a class I HDAC inhibitor (Malvaez et al., 2013; Rumbaugh et al., 2015; RGFP966, chemical formula C21H19FN4O) alters the formation of auditory memory by

  19. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition via RGFP966 Releases the Brakes on Sensory Cortical Plasticity and the Specificity of Memory Formation.

    PubMed

    Bieszczad, Kasia M; Bechay, Kiro; Rusche, James R; Jacques, Vincent; Kudugunti, Shashi; Miao, Wenyan; Weinberger, Norman M; McGaugh, James L; Wood, Marcelo A

    2015-09-23

    Research over the past decade indicates a novel role for epigenetic mechanisms in memory formation. Of particular interest is chromatin modification by histone deacetylases (HDACs), which, in general, negatively regulate transcription. HDAC deletion or inhibition facilitates transcription during memory consolidation and enhances long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. A key open question remains: How does blocking HDAC activity lead to memory enhancements? To address this question, we tested whether a normal function of HDACs is to gate information processing during memory formation. We used a class I HDAC inhibitor, RGFP966 (C21H19FN4O), to test the role of HDAC inhibition for information processing in an auditory memory model of learning-induced cortical plasticity. HDAC inhibition may act beyond memory enhancement per se to instead regulate information in ways that lead to encoding more vivid sensory details into memory. Indeed, we found that RGFP966 controls memory induction for acoustic details of sound-to-reward learning. Rats treated with RGFP966 while learning to associate sound with reward had stronger memory and additional information encoded into memory for highly specific features of sounds associated with reward. Moreover, behavioral effects occurred with unusually specific plasticity in primary auditory cortex (A1). Class I HDAC inhibition appears to engage A1 plasticity that enables additional acoustic features to become encoded in memory. Thus, epigenetic mechanisms act to regulate sensory cortical plasticity, which offers an information processing mechanism for gating what and how much is encoded to produce exceptionally persistent and vivid memories. Significance statement: Here we provide evidence of an epigenetic mechanism for information processing. The study reveals that a class I HDAC inhibitor (Malvaez et al., 2013; Rumbaugh et al., 2015; RGFP966, chemical formula C21H19FN4O) alters the formation of auditory memory by

  20. Taste Perception: An Examination of Fat Preference, Sensory Specific Satiety, and the Function of Eating Among Moderately Obese and Normal Weight Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-02-20

    key will take you into the food database so you can find the specific type of food you have eaten. For example if you ate a roasted chicken breast...you would type in chicken , press the Enter key and then press an arrow key to locate chicken , breast, meat only, roasted in the food database...Taste Perception 61 Appendix B: Pudding Recipes High fat pudding

  1. Ratios of soluble and insoluble dietary fibers on satiety and energy intake in overweight pre- and postmenopausal women1

    PubMed Central

    Burton-Freeman, Britt; Liyanage, Dhanesh; Rahman, Sajida; Edirisinghe, Indika

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibers’ properties impact different mechanisms involved in satiety and energy intake regulation and metabolic outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effect of fiber types and menopausal status on satiety and metabolic responses in overweight women. METHODS: In a randomized within-subjects design, 19 overweight/obese women [9 premenopausal and 10 postmenopausal] consumed 3 preloads that varied by fiber content and source: 1) 3:1 ratio of soluble:insoluble fiber (SF), 2) 1:3 ratio of soluble:insoluble fiber (IF), 3) no fiber control (NFC). Subjective satiety, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucose, insulin, and triglyceride (TG) were measured for 3 h post-preload followed by in-lab ad libitum test meal and 32 hour food intake monitoring. RESULTS: Significant preload, time and preload by menopausal status interaction was apparent for hunger and fullness (p < 0.05 for both) with SF preload predominantly more satiating in postmenopausal women. CCK and insulin were significantly lower after SF preload (p < 0.0001 for both). Post-preload glucose responses differed by menopausal status: postmenopausal women distinguished between fiber types unlike premenopausal women (p = 0.02). TG was significantly elevated after the IF preload compared to NFC and SF (p = 0.007 and p = 0.008, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Customized/personalized dietary recommendations for women during their premenopausal and postmenopausal years can help maximize metabolic and appetite control. PMID:28447070

  2. A Community-Based Sensory Training Program Leads to Improved Experience at a Local Zoo for Children with Sensory Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Michele; Pritchard, Mallory; Dean, Lara; Talley, Michele; Torbert, Roger; Maha, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Sensory processing difficulties are common among many special needs children, especially those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The sensory sensitivities often result in interference of daily functioning and can lead to social isolation for both the individual and family unit. A quality improvement (QI) project was undertaken within a local zoo to systematically implement a sensory training program targeted at helping special needs individuals with sensory challenges, including those with ASD, Down’s syndrome, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and speech delay. We piloted the program over a 2-year period. The program consisted of staff training, provision of sensory bags and specific social stories, as well as creation of quiet zones. Two hundred family units were surveyed before and after implementation of the sensory training program. In this pilot QI study, families reported increased visitation to the zoo, improved interactions with staff members, and the overall quality of their experience. In conclusion, we are able to demonstrate that a sensory training program within the community zoo is feasible, impactful, and has the potential to decrease social isolation for special needs individuals and their families. PMID:28966920

  3. Perspectives on Sensory Processing Disorder: A Call for Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Lucy J.; Nielsen, Darci M.; Schoen, Sarah A.; Brett-Green, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the convergence of two fields, which have similar theoretical origins: a clinical field originally known as sensory integration and a branch of neuroscience that conducts research in an area also called sensory integration. Clinically, the term was used to identify a pattern of dysfunction in children and adults, as well as a related theory, assessment, and treatment method for children who have atypical responses to ordinary sensory stimulation. Currently the term for the disorder is sensory processing disorder (SPD). In neuroscience, the term sensory integration refers to converging information in the brain from one or more sensory domains. A recent subspecialty in neuroscience labeled multisensory integration (MSI) refers to the neural process that occurs when sensory input from two or more different sensory modalities converge. Understanding the specific meanings of the term sensory integration intended by the clinical and neuroscience fields and the term MSI in neuroscience is critical. A translational research approach would improve exploration of crucial research questions in both the basic science and clinical science. Refinement of the conceptual model of the disorder and the related treatment approach would help prioritize which specific hypotheses should be studied in both the clinical and neuroscience fields. The issue is how we can facilitate a translational approach between researchers in the two fields. Multidisciplinary, collaborative studies would increase knowledge of brain function and could make a significant contribution to alleviating the impairments of individuals with SPD and their families. PMID:19826493

  4. Food-derived sensory cues modulate longevity via distinct neuroendocrine insulin-like peptides

    PubMed Central

    Artan, Murat; Jeong, Dae-Eun; Lee, Dongyeop; Kim, Young-Il; Son, Heehwa G.; Husain, Zahabiya; Kim, Jinmahn; Altintas, Ozlem; Kim, Kyuhyung; Alcedo, Joy; Lee, Seung-Jae V.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental fluctuations influence organismal aging by affecting various regulatory systems. One such system involves sensory neurons, which affect life span in many species. However, how sensory neurons coordinate organismal aging in response to changes in environmental signals remains elusive. Here, we found that a subset of sensory neurons shortens Caenorhabditis elegans’ life span by differentially regulating the expression of a specific insulin-like peptide (ILP), INS-6. Notably, treatment with food-derived cues or optogenetic activation of sensory neurons significantly increases ins-6 expression and decreases life span. INS-6 in turn relays the longevity signals to nonneuronal tissues by decreasing the activity of the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO. Together, our study delineates a mechanism through which environmental sensory cues regulate aging rates by modulating the activities of specific sensory neurons and ILPs. PMID:27125673

  5. The Role of Sensory-Motor Information in Object Recognition: Evidence from Category-Specific Visual Agnosia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolk, D.A.; Coslett, H.B.; Glosser, G.

    2005-01-01

    The role of sensory-motor representations in object recognition was investigated in experiments involving AD, a patient with mild visual agnosia who was impaired in the recognition of visually presented living as compared to non-living entities. AD named visually presented items for which sensory-motor information was available significantly more…

  6. Sensory matched filters.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric J

    2016-10-24

    As animals move through their environments they are subjected to an endless barrage of sensory signals. Of these, some will be of utmost importance, such as the tell-tale aroma of a potential mate, the distinctive appearance of a vital food source or the unmistakable sound of an approaching predator. Others will be less important. Indeed some will not be important at all. There are, for instance, wide realms of the sensory world that remain entirely undetected, simply because an animal lacks the physiological capacity to detect and analyse the signals that characterise this realm. Take ourselves for example: we are completely insensitive to the Earth's magnetic field, a sensory cue of vital importance as a compass for steering the long distance migration of animals as varied as birds, lobsters and sea turtles. We are also totally oblivious to the rich palette of ultraviolet colours that exist all around us, colours seen by insects, crustaceans, birds, fish and lizards (in fact perhaps by most animals). Nor can we hear the ultrasonic sonar pulses emitted by bats in hot pursuit of flying insect prey. The simple reason for these apparent deficiencies is that we either lack the sensory capacity entirely (as in the case of magnetoreception) or that our existing senses are incapable of detecting specific ranges of the stimulus (such as the ultraviolet wavelength range of light). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of high protein diets on thermogenesis, satiety and weight loss: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Halton, Thomas L; Hu, Frank B

    2004-10-01

    For years, proponents of some fad diets have claimed that higher amounts of protein facilitate weight loss. Only in recent years have studies begun to examine the effects of high protein diets on energy expenditure, subsequent energy intake and weight loss as compared to lower protein diets. In this study, we conducted a systematic review of randomized investigations on the effects of high protein diets on dietary thermogenesis, satiety, body weight and fat loss. There is convincing evidence that a higher protein intake increases thermogenesis and satiety compared to diets of lower protein content. The weight of evidence also suggests that high protein meals lead to a reduced subsequent energy intake. Some evidence suggests that diets higher in protein result in an increased weight loss and fat loss as compared to diets lower in protein, but findings have not been consistent. In dietary practice, it may be beneficial to partially replace refined carbohydrate with protein sources that are low in saturated fat. Although recent evidence supports potential benefit, rigorous longer-term studies are needed to investigate the effects of high protein diets on weight loss and weight maintenance.

  8. Development of sensory systems in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorman, S. J.

    2001-01-01

    Zebrafish possess all of the classic sensory modalities: taste, tactile, smell, balance, vision, and hearing. For each sensory system, this article provides a brief overview of the system in the adult zebrafish followed by a more detailed overview of the development of the system. By far the majority of studies performed in each of the sensory systems of the zebrafish have involved some aspect of molecular biology or genetics. Although molecular biology and genetics are not major foci of the paper, brief discussions of some of the mutant strains of zebrafish that have developmental defects in each specific sensory system are included. The development of the sensory systems is only a small sampling of the work being done using zebrafish and provides a mere glimpse of the potential of this model for the study of vertebrate development, physiology, and human disease.

  9. Food-derived sensory cues modulate longevity via distinct neuroendocrine insulin-like peptides.

    PubMed

    Artan, Murat; Jeong, Dae-Eun; Lee, Dongyeop; Kim, Young-Il; Son, Heehwa G; Husain, Zahabiya; Kim, Jinmahn; Altintas, Ozlem; Kim, Kyuhyung; Alcedo, Joy; Lee, Seung-Jae V

    2016-05-01

    Environmental fluctuations influence organismal aging by affecting various regulatory systems. One such system involves sensory neurons, which affect life span in many species. However, how sensory neurons coordinate organismal aging in response to changes in environmental signals remains elusive. Here, we found that a subset of sensory neurons shortens Caenorhabditis elegans' life span by differentially regulating the expression of a specific insulin-like peptide (ILP), INS-6. Notably, treatment with food-derived cues or optogenetic activation of sensory neurons significantly increases ins-6 expression and decreases life span. INS-6 in turn relays the longevity signals to nonneuronal tissues by decreasing the activity of the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO. Together, our study delineates a mechanism through which environmental sensory cues regulate aging rates by modulating the activities of specific sensory neurons and ILPs. © 2016 Artan et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. Transformation of Context-dependent Sensory Dynamics into Motor Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Latorre, Roberto; Levi, Rafael; Varona, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    The intrinsic dynamics of sensory networks play an important role in the sensory-motor transformation. In this paper we use conductance based models and electrophysiological recordings to address the study of the dual role of a sensory network to organize two behavioral context-dependent motor programs in the mollusk Clione limacina. We show that: (i) a winner take-all dynamics in the gravimetric sensory network model drives the typical repetitive rhythm in the wing central pattern generator (CPG) during routine swimming; (ii) the winnerless competition dynamics of the same sensory network organizes the irregular pattern observed in the wing CPG during hunting behavior. Our model also shows that although the timing of the activity is irregular, the sequence of the switching among the sensory cells is preserved whenever the same set of neurons are activated in a given time window. These activation phase locks in the sensory signals are transformed into specific events in the motor activity. The activation phase locks can play an important role in motor coordination driven by the intrinsic dynamics of a multifunctional sensory organ. PMID:23459114

  11. Effect of Polydextrose on Subjective Feelings of Appetite during the Satiation and Satiety Periods: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Alvin; Astbury, Nerys M; Olli, Kaisa; Alhoniemi, Esa; Tiihonen, Kirsti

    2016-01-14

    Subjective feelings of appetite are measured using visual analogue scales (VAS) in controlled trials. However, the methods used to analyze VAS during the Satiation (pre- to post-meal) and Satiety (post-meal to subsequent meal) periods vary broadly, making it difficult to compare results amongst independent studies testing the same product. This review proposes a methodology to analyze VAS during both the Satiation and Satiety periods, allowing us to compare results in a meta-analysis. A methodology to express VAS results as incremental areas under the curve (iAUC) for both the Satiation and Satiety periods is proposed using polydextrose as a case study. Further, a systematic review and meta-analysis on subjective feelings of appetite was conducted following the PRISMA methodology. Meta-analyses were expressed as Standardized Mean Difference (SMD). Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. There were important differences in the methods used to analyze appetite ratings amongst these studies. The separate subjective feelings of appetite reported were Hunger, Satisfaction, Fullness, Prospective Food Consumption, and the Desire to Eat. The method proposed here allowed the results of the different studies to be homogenized. The meta-analysis showed that Desire to Eat during the Satiation period favors polydextrose for the reduction of this subjective feeling of appetite (SMD = 0.24, I² < 0.01, p = 0.018); this effect was also significant in the sub-analysis by sex for the male population (SMD = 0.35, I² < 0.01, p = 0.015). There were no other significant results. It is possible to compare VAS results from separate studies. The assessment of iAUC for both the Satiation and Satiety periods generates results of homogeneous magnitudes. This case study demonstrates, for the first time, that polydextrose reduces the Desire to Eat during the Satiation period. This may explain, at least in part, the observed effects of polydextrose on the reduction of levels of energy

  12. Effect of Polydextrose on Subjective Feelings of Appetite during the Satiation and Satiety Periods: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Alvin; Astbury, Nerys M.; Olli, Kaisa; Alhoniemi, Esa; Tiihonen, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Subjective feelings of appetite are measured using visual analogue scales (VAS) in controlled trials. However, the methods used to analyze VAS during the Satiation (pre- to post-meal) and Satiety (post-meal to subsequent meal) periods vary broadly, making it difficult to compare results amongst independent studies testing the same product. This review proposes a methodology to analyze VAS during both the Satiation and Satiety periods, allowing us to compare results in a meta-analysis. Methods: A methodology to express VAS results as incremental areas under the curve (iAUC) for both the Satiation and Satiety periods is proposed using polydextrose as a case study. Further, a systematic review and meta-analysis on subjective feelings of appetite was conducted following the PRISMA methodology. Meta-analyses were expressed as Standardized Mean Difference (SMD). Results: Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. There were important differences in the methods used to analyze appetite ratings amongst these studies. The separate subjective feelings of appetite reported were Hunger, Satisfaction, Fullness, Prospective Food Consumption, and the Desire to Eat. The method proposed here allowed the results of the different studies to be homogenized. The meta-analysis showed that Desire to Eat during the Satiation period favors polydextrose for the reduction of this subjective feeling of appetite (SMD = 0.24, I2 < 0.01, p = 0.018); this effect was also significant in the sub-analysis by sex for the male population (SMD = 0.35, I2 < 0.01, p = 0.015). There were no other significant results. Conclusion: It is possible to compare VAS results from separate studies. The assessment of iAUC for both the Satiation and Satiety periods generates results of homogeneous magnitudes. This case study demonstrates, for the first time, that polydextrose reduces the Desire to Eat during the Satiation period. This may explain, at least in part, the observed effects of

  13. Collective behaviour in vertebrates: a sensory perspective

    PubMed Central

    Collignon, Bertrand; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    Collective behaviour models can predict behaviours of schools, flocks, and herds. However, in many cases, these models make biologically unrealistic assumptions in terms of the sensory capabilities of the organism, which are applied across different species. We explored how sensitive collective behaviour models are to these sensory assumptions. Specifically, we used parameters reflecting the visual coverage and visual acuity that determine the spatial range over which an individual can detect and interact with conspecifics. Using metric and topological collective behaviour models, we compared the classic sensory parameters, typically used to model birds and fish, with a set of realistic sensory parameters obtained through physiological measurements. Compared with the classic sensory assumptions, the realistic assumptions increased perceptual ranges, which led to fewer groups and larger group sizes in all species, and higher polarity values and slightly shorter neighbour distances in the fish species. Overall, classic visual sensory assumptions are not representative of many species showing collective behaviour and constrain unrealistically their perceptual ranges. More importantly, caution must be exercised when empirically testing the predictions of these models in terms of choosing the model species, making realistic predictions, and interpreting the results. PMID:28018616

  14. Acute effect on satiety, resting energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, glucagon-like peptide-1, free fatty acids, and glycerol following consumption of a combination of bioactive food ingredients in overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Opizzi, Annalisa; Perna, Simone; Faliva, Milena; Solerte, Sebastiano Bruno; Fioravanti, Marisa; Klersy, Catherine; Edda, Cava; Maddalena, Paolini; Luciano, Scavone; Paola, Ceccarelli; Emanuela, Castellaneta; Claudia, Savina; Donini, Lorenzo Maria

    2013-01-01

    A combination of bioactive food ingredients (capsaicinoids, epigallocatechin gallate, piperin, and l-carnitine, CBFI) may promote satiety and thermogenesis. The study was conducted in order to assess whether there is any effect on satiety, resting energy expenditure (REE), respiratory quotient, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol release, following a standardized mixed meal with or without single consumption of a CBFI. An 8-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Dietetic and Metabolic Unit, Azienda di Servizi alla Persona, University of Pavia and "Villa delle Querce" Clinical Rehabilitation Institute, Rome, Italy. Thirty-seven overweight adults (body mass index [BMI]: 25-35). Nineteen overweight subjects were included in the supplemented group (14 women, 5 men; age 46.4 ± 6.4; BMI: 30.5 ± 3.3) and 18 in the placebo group (13 women, 5 men; age 40.8 ± 11.5; BMI: 30.1 ± 2.6). Satiety was assessed using 100-mm visual analogue scales (VAS) and the area under the curve was calculated. All measured parameters increased significantly in comparison with baseline in response to meal, both with CBFI and with placebo. However, throughout the study day, the supplemented group experienced a significantly greater increase than the placebo group in their sensation of satiety following acute administration of the supplement. CBFI may therefore be of great value in the treatment of overweight patients by increasing satiety and stimulating thermogenesis.

  15. Effect of a low dose of intraduodenal fat on satiety in humans: studies using the type A cholecystokinin receptor antagonist loxiglumide.

    PubMed Central

    Lieverse, R J; Jansen, J B; Masclee, A A; Rovati, L C; Lamers, C B

    1994-01-01

    Satiation, the process that brings eating to an end, and satiety, the state of inhibition over further eating, may be influenced by cholecystokinin (CCK). In animal and human studies, it has been shown that infusion of exogenous CCK decreases food intake, but the doses given may well have led to supraphysiological plasma concentrations. This study was done to discover if a low dose of intraduodenal fat releasing physiological amounts of endogenous cholecystokinin exerts satiation or satiety effects, or both and if these effects could be inhibited by the CCK receptor antagonist loxiglumide. In 10 healthy lean volunteers (5 F, 5 M, mean age 26) three tests were performed in a randomised blind fashion. Intralipid 20% (6 g/h) (experiments A and C) or saline (experiment B) were given intraduodenally from 1030 until 1300. The subjects received saline (experiments A and B) or loxiglumide (experiment C) a specific CCK-receptor antagonist (10 mg/kg/h) intravenously from 0930 until 1300. At 1200 a meal was served. At regular time intervals hunger feelings were measured using visual analogue scales and food selection lists and plasma CCK was measured by radioimmunoassay. Food intake (mean (SEM)) during intraduodenal fat (206(35)g) was lower than in the control study (269(37)g, p = 0.09). Loxiglumide largely prevented the inhibitory effect of intraduodenal fat on food intake (245(30)g). From 1030 until the meal at 1200 there was a significant satiating effect of intraduodenal fat compared with the control and loxiglumide experiments according to the food selection lists, which was because of the satiating effect for the fat rich items (p<0.05). Also feelings of fullness were significantly higher during intraduodenal fat than in the control or loxiglumide experiments (p<0.05). During intraduodenal fat there was a significant increase of plasma CCK from 2.4(0.3) to 4.8(0.4) pM (p<0.001). Loxiglumide led to an exaggerated CCK release to a peak concentration of 16(2.4) pM before

  16. Basal and meal-stimulated ghrelin, PYY, CCK levels and satiety in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome: effect of low-dose oral contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Arusoglu, Gulcan; Koksal, Gulden; Cinar, Nese; Tapan, Serkan; Aksoy, Duygu Yazgan; Yildiz, Bulent O

    2013-11-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide that stimulates food intake, whereas peptide YY (PYY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are anorexigenic gut hormones. Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) appear to have alterations in appetite regulation. We aimed to determine whether fasting or meal-stimulated ghrelin, PYY, CCK, and satiety responses are different between lean PCOS patients and healthy women. We also aimed to assess the potential effect of oral contraceptive use on these hormones and satiety response. We conducted a prospective observational study in a university practice. Eighteen lean PCOS patients and 18 healthy control women matched for age and body mass index underwent measurements of circulating ghrelin, PYY, CCK, and satiety index (SI) before and after a standardized mixed meal at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 180 minutes. For PCOS patients who were treated with ethinyl estradiol 30 μg/drospirenone 3 mg for 3 months, measurements were repeated. We measured ghrelin, PYY, and CCK levels and SI. At baseline, fasting ghrelin, PYY, CCK, and SI values in PCOS patients were not different from controls. Meal-stimulated PYY, CCK, and SI were also not different between the groups, whereas PCOS patients had significantly lower meal-stimulated ghrelin levels compared to controls (P = .04). Ghrelin, PYY, CCK, and SI did not show a significant change after treatment with ethinyl estradiol/drospirenone for 3 months. Basal and stimulated hunger and satiety hormones in lean PCOS patients are not different from lean healthy women, except for a lower meal-stimulated ghrelin response. Short-term use of a low-dose oral contraceptive does not have an effect on appetite regulation of PCOS.

  17. Patterns of Spinal Sensory-Motor Connectivity Prescribed by a Dorsoventral Positional Template

    PubMed Central

    Sürmeli, Gülşen; Akay, Turgay; Ippolito, Gregory; Tucker, Philip W; Jessell, Thomas M

    2011-01-01

    Summary Sensory-motor circuits in the spinal cord are constructed with a fine specificity that coordinates motor behavior, but the mechanisms that direct sensory connections with their motor neuron partners remain unclear. The dorsoventral settling position of motor pools in the spinal cord is known to match the distal-to-proximal position of their muscle targets in the limb, but the significance of invariant motor neuron positioning is unknown. An analysis of sensory-motor connectivity patterns in FoxP1 mutant mice, where motor neuron position has been scrambled, shows that the final pattern of sensory-motor connections is initiated by the projection of sensory axons to discrete dorsoventral domains of the spinal cord without regard for motor neuron subtype, or indeed, the presence of motor neurons. By implication, the clustering and dorsoventral settling position of motor neuron pools serves as a determinant of the pattern of sensory input specificity, and thus motor coordination. PMID:22036571

  18. Linking Anxiety and Insistence on Sameness in Autistic Children: The Role of Sensory Hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Black, Karen R; Stevenson, Ryan A; Segers, Magali; Ncube, Busiswe L; Sun, Sol Z; Philipp-Muller, Aviva; Bebko, James M; Barense, Morgan D; Ferber, Susanne

    2017-08-01

    Sensory hypersensitivity and insistence on sameness (I/S) are common, co-occurring features of autism, yet the relationship between them is poorly understood. This study assessed the impact of sensory hypersensitivity on the clinical symptoms of specific phobia, separation anxiety, social anxiety and I/S for autistic and typically developing (TD) children. Parents of 79 children completed questionnaires on their child's difficulties related to sensory processing, I/S, and anxiety. Results demonstrated that sensory hypersensitivity mediated 67% of the relationship between symptoms of specific phobia and I/S and 57% of the relationship between separation anxiety and I/S. No relationship was observed between sensory hypersensitivity and social anxiety. These mediation effects of sensory hypersensitivity were found only in autistic children, not in TD children.

  19. Homeostatic circuits selectively gate food cue responses in insular cortex

    PubMed Central

    Livneh, Yoav; Ramesh, Rohan n.; Burgess, christian R.; Levandowski, Kirsten M.; Madara, Joseph c.; Fenselau, henning; Goldey, Glenn J.; Diaz, Veronica E.; Jikomes, nick; Resch, Jon M.; Lowell, Bradford B.; Andermann, Mark L.

    2017-01-01

    Physiological needs bias perception and attention to relevant sensory cues. This process is ‘hijacked’ by drug addiction, causing cue-induced cravings and relapse. Similarly, its dysregulation contributes to failed diets, obesity, and eating disorders. Neuroimaging studies in humans have implicated insular cortex in these phenomena. However, it remains unclear how ‘cognitive’ cortical representations of motivationally relevant cues are biased by subcortical circuits that drive specific motivational states. Here we develop a microprism-based cellular imaging approach to monitor visual cue responses in the insular cortex of behaving mice across hunger states. Insular cortex neurons demonstrate food- cue-biased responses that are abolished during satiety. Unexpectedly, while multiple satiety-related visceral signals converge in insular cortex, chemogenetic activation of hypothalamic ‘hunger neurons’ (expressing agouti-related peptide (AgRP)) bypasses these signals to restore hunger-like response patterns in insular cortex. Circuit mapping and pathway-specific manipulations uncover a pathway from AgRP neurons to insular cortex via the paraventricular thalamus and basolateral amygdala. These results reveal a neural basis for state-specific biased processing of motivationally relevant cues. PMID:28614299

  20. Measurement in Sensory Modulation: The Sensory Processing Scale Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Lucy J.; Sullivan, Jillian C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Sensory modulation issues have a significant impact on participation in daily life. Moreover, understanding phenotypic variation in sensory modulation dysfunction is crucial for research related to defining homogeneous groups and for clinical work in guiding treatment planning. We thus evaluated the new Sensory Processing Scale (SPS) Assessment. METHOD. Research included item development, behavioral scoring system development, test administration, and item analyses to evaluate reliability and validity across sensory domains. RESULTS. Items with adequate reliability (internal reliability >.4) and discriminant validity (p < .01) were retained. Feedback from the expert panel also contributed to decisions about retaining items in the scale. CONCLUSION. The SPS Assessment appears to be a reliable and valid measure of sensory modulation (scale reliability >.90; discrimination between group effect sizes >1.00). This scale has the potential to aid in differential diagnosis of sensory modulation issues. PMID:25184464

  1. Sensory noise predicts divisive reshaping of receptive fields.

    PubMed

    Chalk, Matthew; Masset, Paul; Deneve, Sophie; Gutkin, Boris

    2017-06-01

    In order to respond reliably to specific features of their environment, sensory neurons need to integrate multiple incoming noisy signals. Crucially, they also need to compete for the interpretation of those signals with other neurons representing similar features. The form that this competition should take depends critically on the noise corrupting these signals. In this study we show that for the type of noise commonly observed in sensory systems, whose variance scales with the mean signal, sensory neurons should selectively divide their input signals by their predictions, suppressing ambiguous cues while amplifying others. Any change in the stimulus context alters which inputs are suppressed, leading to a deep dynamic reshaping of neural receptive fields going far beyond simple surround suppression. Paradoxically, these highly variable receptive fields go alongside and are in fact required for an invariant representation of external sensory features. In addition to offering a normative account of context-dependent changes in sensory responses, perceptual inference in the presence of signal-dependent noise accounts for ubiquitous features of sensory neurons such as divisive normalization, gain control and contrast dependent temporal dynamics.

  2. The effect of submicron fat droplets in a drink on satiety, food intake, and cholecystokinin in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Peters, Harry P F; Bouwens, Elisabeth C M; Schuring, Ewoud A H; Haddeman, Edward; Velikov, Krassimir P; Melnikov, Sergey M

    2014-04-01

    Small fat droplets infused into the gut reduce food intake and hunger more than bigger ones, at levels as low as 6 g, and these effects are hypothesized to occur via satiety hormones such as cholecystokinin. It is, however, unknown whether the effect of droplet size would persist after oral consumption. It is also unknown whether an even smaller droplet size can affect hunger and food intake and at what minimum amount of fat. Therefore, the aim of the study was to test the effect of very fine fat droplets on satiety and food intake in two different quantities. In a balanced-order 4-way crossover design, 24 volunteers consumed a fat-free meal replacement drink with either 5 or 9 g oil (rapeseed) and either 3 or 0.1 μm droplet size. Appetite scores and plasma cholecystokinin levels (in n = 12 subset) were measured for 180 min, when food intake was assessed during an ad libitum meal. Data were analyzed by ANCOVA, followed by Dunnett's test and paired t test. The behavior of the emulsions was also characterized in a simulated gastrointestinal model. Despite faster in vitro lipolysis of the smallest droplets, neither droplet size nor fat amount affected satiety or food intake. From t = 45-150 min, cholecystokinin response was 50% higher (P < 0.05) after the 0.1 versus 3 μm, but only with 9 g fat. When this particular fat at these amounts is delivered in a meal replacement drink, droplet size does not influence appetite or food intake. This effect is independent of the amount of fat or plasma cholecystokinin changes.

  3. Thorough Mastication Prior to Swallowing Increases Postprandial Satiety and the Thermic Effect of a Meal in Young Women.

    PubMed

    Komai, Naho; Motokubota, Naoko; Suzuki, Maki; Hayashi, Ikuyo; Moritani, Toshio; Nagai, Narumi

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence to support that mastication may contribute to the prevention of weight gain via reduction of appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. However, the metabolic effect of mastication after consumption of a daily meal, composed of the staple food (rice), soup, main and side dishes, is limited. Therefore, the effect of thorough mastication on greater satiety and the thermic effect of a meal (TEM) was investigated in young women. In study 1, energy expenditure (EE) derived from masticatory muscle activity for 20 min was measured while chewing hard, tasteless, non-caloric gum in seven subjects. In study 2, ten subjects consumed a solid meal performing 30 chews per mouthful (30 CPM), or swallowed the same, pureed meal without chewing (0 CPM) on two separate days, and postprandial EE, substrate oxidation, subjective appetite ratings and autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity for 3 h were examined. Both test meals were iso-caloric (2,510 kJ) and -weighted (884 g), and consumed in 20 min. From study 1, the EE of mastication itself for the 20 min was estimated to be 3.7±0.8 kJ. From study 2, significantly higher TEM (134.2±15.5 vs. 67.8±13.8 kJ/3 h, p<0.001) as well as satiety (p=0.005), and tendency toward greater fat oxidation (p=0.090) and ANS activity (p=0.069) were observed after consumption of the meal with 30 CPM compared to 0 CPM. In conclusion, thorough mastication before swallowing increased postprandial satiety and the TEM in young women, suggesting such eating behavior may be useful for preventing obesity.

  4. Addition of sucralose enhances the release of satiety hormones in combination with pea protein.

    PubMed

    Geraedts, Maartje C P; Troost, Freddy J; Saris, Wim H M

    2012-03-01

    Exposing the intestine to proteins or tastants, particularly sweet, affects satiety hormone release. There are indications that each sweetener has different effects on this release, and that combining sweeteners with other nutrients might exert synergistic effects on hormone release. STC-1 cells were incubated with acesulfame-K, aspartame, saccharine, sucralose, sucrose, pea, and pea with each sweetener. After a 2-h incubation period, cholecystokinin(CCK) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) concentrations were measured. Using Ussing chamber technology, the mucosal side of human duodenal biopsies was exposed to sucrose, sucralose, pea, and pea with each sweetener. CCK and GLP-1 levels were measured in basolateral secretions. In STC-1 cells, exposure to aspartame, sucralose, sucrose, pea, and pea with sucralose increased CCK levels, whereas GLP-1 levels increased after addition of all test products. Addition of sucrose and sucralose to human duodenal biopsies did not affect CCK and GLP-1 release; addition of pea stimulated CCK and GLP-1 secretion. Combining pea with sucrose and sucralose induced even higher levels of CCK and GLP-1. Synchronous addition of pea and sucralose to enteroendocrine cells induced higher levels of CCK and GLP-1 than addition of each compound alone. This study shows that combinations of dietary compounds synergize to enhance satiety hormone release. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. [SNACK HIGH WHEY PROTEIN IMPROVES THE LEVEL OF SATIETY AND REDUCES APPETITE HEALTHY WOMEN].

    PubMed

    Reyna, Nadia; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Mendoza, Laura; Urdaneta, Andrés; Artigas, Carlos; Reyna, Eduardo; Cámara Martos, Fernando

    2015-10-01

    the nutritional content and energy density of foods is related to greater control of appetite, satiety and reducing food intake. the randomized crossover study included 20 healthy women, aged 20 and 30 years with a BMI of 20 to 24.9 kg/m2 and who completed that included 3 day trial comparing 8 hours 130 kcal snacks consumed afternoon: yoghurt with added whey protein (PSL), biscuits and chocolate. Participants consumed a standardized menu; snack was consumed 3 hours after lunch. Perceived hunger and fullness were evaluated during the afternoon until dinner voluntary intake ad libitum. They repeat the same snack 3 times. consumption of yogurt with PSL led to a further reduction of appetite in the afternoon in front of the snack of chocolate and biscuits (p < 0.001). No differences of appetite in the afternoon between chocolate vs cookies but significant difference between yogurt with PSL and other treatments (p < 0.001) were detected. At snack, yogurt there was a significant reduction in caloric intake compared to other snacks (p < 0.001) and a later request for dinner with about 45 minutes apart. snacks with less energy density and rich in protein (yogurt with PSL) improve the control of appetite, satiety and reduces food intake in healthy women later. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Sensory Overload and Technology in Critical Care.

    PubMed

    Wung, Shu-Fen; Malone, Daniel C; Szalacha, Laura

    2018-06-01

    In this focus group study, we identified issues associated with sensory overload from medical technology alarms/alerts for intensive care unit nurses. Participants indicated that alarms from cardiopulmonary monitors, ventilators, and intravenous pumps contributed the most to sensory overload and, yet, these alarms were also deemed the most helpful. Alerts/alarms from electronic health records and medication dispensing systems were rated low in contributing to sensory overload, as well as being the least helpful. Specific device/technology barriers, related to device alerts/alarms, are detailed. Future user-centered and integrated improvements in alarm systems associated with medical devices in the intensive care unit are needed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Do early sensory cortices integrate cross-modal information?

    PubMed

    Kayser, Christoph; Logothetis, Nikos K

    2007-09-01

    Our different senses provide complementary evidence about the environment and their interaction often aids behavioral performance or alters the quality of the sensory percept. A traditional view defers the merging of sensory information to higher association cortices, and posits that a large part of the brain can be reduced into a collection of unisensory systems that can be studied in isolation. Recent studies, however, challenge this view and suggest that cross-modal interactions can already occur in areas hitherto regarded as unisensory. We review results from functional imaging and electrophysiology exemplifying cross-modal interactions that occur early during the evoked response, and at the earliest stages of sensory cortical processing. Although anatomical studies revealed several potential origins of these cross-modal influences, there is yet no clear relation between particular functional observations and specific anatomical connections. In addition, our view on sensory integration at the neuronal level is coined by many studies on subcortical model systems of sensory integration; yet, the patterns of cross-modal interaction in cortex deviate from these model systems in several ways. Consequently, future studies on cortical sensory integration need to leave the descriptive level and need to incorporate cross-modal influences into models of the organization of sensory processing. Only then will we be able to determine whether early cross-modal interactions truly merit the label sensory integration, and how they increase a sensory system's ability to scrutinize its environment and finally aid behavior.

  8. Sensory Cortical Plasticity Participates in the Epigenetic Regulation of Robust Memory Formation

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Mimi L.; Bieszczad, Kasia M.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroplasticity remodels sensory cortex across the lifespan. A function of adult sensory cortical plasticity may be capturing available information during perception for memory formation. The degree of experience-dependent remodeling in sensory cortex appears to determine memory strength and specificity for important sensory signals. A key open question is how plasticity is engaged to induce different degrees of sensory cortical remodeling. Neural plasticity for long-term memory requires the expression of genes underlying stable changes in neuronal function, structure, connectivity, and, ultimately, behavior. Lasting changes in transcriptional activity may depend on epigenetic mechanisms; some of the best studied in behavioral neuroscience are DNA methylation and histone acetylation and deacetylation, which, respectively, promote and repress gene expression. One purpose of this review is to propose epigenetic regulation of sensory cortical remodeling as a mechanism enabling the transformation of significant information from experiences into content-rich memories of those experiences. Recent evidence suggests how epigenetic mechanisms regulate highly specific reorganization of sensory cortical representations that establish a widespread network for memory. Thus, epigenetic mechanisms could initiate events to establish exceptionally persistent and robust memories at a systems-wide level by engaging sensory cortical plasticity for gating what and how much information becomes encoded. PMID:26881129

  9. Fluid or Fuel? The Context of Consuming a Beverage Is Important for Satiety

    PubMed Central

    McCrickerd, Keri; Chambers, Lucy; Yeomans, Martin R.

    2014-01-01

    Energy-containing beverages have a weak effect on satiety, limited by their fluid characteristics and perhaps because they are not considered ‘food’. This study investigated whether the context of consuming a beverage can influence the satiating power of its nutrients. Eighty participants consumed a lower- (LE, 75 kcal) and higher-energy (HE, 272 kcal) version of a beverage (covertly manipulated within-groups) on two test days, in one of four beverage contexts (between-groups): thin versions of the test-drinks were consumed as a thirst-quenching drink (n = 20), a filling snack (n = 20), or without additional information (n = 20). A fourth group consumed subtly thicker versions of the beverages without additional information (n = 20). Lunch intake 60 minutes later depended on the beverage context and energy content (p = 0.030): participants who consumed the thin beverages without additional information ate a similar amount of lunch after the LE and HE versions (LE = 475 kcal, HE = 464 kcal; p = 0.690) as did those participants who believed the beverages were designed to quench-thirst (LE = 442 kcal, HE = 402 kcal; p = 0.213), despite consuming an additional 197 kcal in the HE beverage. Consuming the beverage as a filling snack led participants to consume less at lunch after the HE beverage compared to the LE version (LE = 506 kcal, HE = 437 kcal; p = 0.025). This effect was also seen when the beverages were subtly thicker, with participants in this group displaying the largest response to the beverage’s energy content, consuming less at lunch after the HE version (LE = 552 kcal, HE = 415 kcal; p<0.001). These data indicate that beliefs about the consequences of consuming a beverage can affect the impact of its nutrients on appetite regulation and provide further evidence that a beverage’s sensory characteristics can limit its satiating power. PMID:24945526

  10. Anterograde transneuronal viral tract tracing reveals central sensory circuits from brown fat and sensory denervation alters its thermogenic responses.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Cheryl H; Bartness, Timothy J

    2012-05-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic activity and growth are controlled by its sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation, but nerve fibers containing sensory-associated neuropeptides [substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)] also suggest sensory innervation. The central nervous system (CNS) projections of BAT afferents are unknown. Therefore, we used the H129 strain of the herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), an anterograde transneuronal viral tract tracer used to delineate sensory nerve circuits, to define these projections. HSV-1 was injected into interscapular BAT (IBAT) of Siberian hamsters and HSV-1 immunoreactivity (ir) was assessed 24, 48, 72, 96, and 114 h postinjection. The 96- and 114-h groups had the most HSV-1-ir neurons with marked infections in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, periaqueductal gray, olivary areas, parabrachial nuclei, raphe nuclei, and reticular areas. These sites also are involved in sympathetic outflow to BAT suggesting possible BAT sensory-SNS thermogenesis feedback circuits. We tested the functional contribution of IBAT sensory innervation on thermogenic responses to an acute (24 h) cold exposure test by injecting the specific sensory nerve toxin capsaicin directly into IBAT pads and then measuring core (T(c)) and IBAT (T(IBAT)) temperature responses. CGRP content was significantly decreased in capsaicin-treated IBAT demonstrating successful sensory nerve destruction. T(IBAT) and T(c) were significantly decreased in capsaicin-treated hamsters compared with the saline controls at 2 h of cold exposure. Thus the central sensory circuits from IBAT have been delineated for the first time, and impairment of sensory feedback from BAT appears necessary for the appropriate, initial thermogenic response to acute cold exposure.

  11. Aberrant Food Choices after Satiation in Human Orexin-Deficient Narcolepsy Type 1

    PubMed Central

    van Holst, Ruth Janke; van der Cruijsen, Lisa; van Mierlo, Petra; Lammers, Gert Jan; Cools, Roshan; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Aarts, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Besides influencing vigilance, orexin neurotransmission serves a variety of functions, including reward, motivation, and appetite regulation. As obesity is an important symptom in orexin-deficient narcolepsy, we explored the effects of satiety on food-related choices and spontaneous snack intake in patients with narcolepsy type 1 (n = 24) compared with healthy matched controls (n = 19). In additional analyses, we also included patients with idiopathic hypersomnia (n = 14) to assess sleepiness-related influences. Methods: Participants were first trained on a choice task to earn salty and sweet snacks. Next, one of the snack outcomes was devalued by having participants consume it until satiation (i.e., sensory-specific satiety). We then measured the selective reduction in choices for the devalued snack outcome. Finally, we assessed the number of calories that participants consumed spontaneously from ad libitum available snacks afterwards. Results: After satiety, all participants reported reduced hunger and less wanting for the devalued snack. However, while controls and idiopathic hypersomnia patients chose the devalued snack less often in the choice task, patients with narcolepsy still chose the devalued snack as often as before satiety. Subsequently, narcolepsy patients spontaneously consumed almost 4 times more calories during ad libitum snack intake. Conclusions: We show that the manipulation of food-specific satiety has reduced effects on food choices and caloric intake in narcolepsy type 1 patients. These mechanisms may contribute to their obesity, and suggest an important functional role for orexin in human eating behavior. Clinical Trials Registration: Study registered at Netherlands Trial Register. URL: www.trialregister.nl. Trial ID: NTR4508. Citation: van Holst RJ, van der Cruijsen L, van Mierlo P, Lammers GJ, Cools R, Overeem S, Aarts E. Aberrant food choices after satiation in human orexindeficient narcolepsy type 1. SLEEP 2016

  12. Characterizing commercial pureed foods: sensory, nutritional, and textural analysis.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, Laurel; Keller, Heather H; Duizer, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Dysphagia (swallowing impairment) is a common consequence of stroke and degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Limited research is available on pureed foods, specifically the qualities of commercial products. Because research has linked pureed foods, specifically in-house pureed products, to malnutrition due to inferior sensory and nutritional qualities, commercial purees also need to be investigated. Proprietary research on sensory attributes of commercial foods is available; however direct comparisons of commercial pureed foods have never been reported. Descriptive sensory analysis as well as nutritional and texture analysis of commercially pureed prepared products was performed using a trained descriptive analysis panel. The pureed foods tested included four brands of carrots, of turkey, and two of bread. Each commercial puree was analyzed for fat (Soxhlet), protein (Dumas), carbohydrate (proximate analysis), fiber (total fiber), and sodium content (Quantab titrator strips). The purees were also texturally compared with a line spread test and a back extrusion test. Differences were found in the purees for sensory attributes as well as nutritional and textural properties. Findings suggest that implementation of standards is required to reduce variability between products, specifically regarding the textural components of the products. This would ensure all commercial products available in Canada meet standards established as being considered safe for swallowing.

  13. Cell-Type-Specific Modulation of Sensory Responses in Olfactory Bulb Circuits by Serotonergic Projections from the Raphe Nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Brunert, Daniela; Tsuno, Yusuke; Rothermel, Markus; Shipley, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Serotonergic neurons in the brainstem raphe nuclei densely innervate the olfactory bulb (OB), where they can modulate the initial representation and processing of olfactory information. Serotonergic modulation of sensory responses among defined OB cell types is poorly characterized in vivo. Here, we used cell-type-specific expression of optical reporters to visualize how raphe stimulation alters sensory responses in two classes of GABAergic neurons of the mouse OB glomerular layer, periglomerular (PG) and short axon (SA) cells, as well as mitral/tufted (MT) cells carrying OB output to piriform cortex. In PG and SA cells, brief (1–4 s) raphe stimulation elicited a large increase in the magnitude of responses linked to inhalation of ambient air, as well as modest increases in the magnitude of odorant-evoked responses. Near-identical effects were observed when the optical reporter of glutamatergic transmission iGluSnFR was expressed in PG and SA cells, suggesting enhanced excitatory input to these neurons. In contrast, in MT cells imaged from the dorsal OB, raphe stimulation elicited a strong increase in resting GCaMP fluorescence with only a slight enhancement of inhalation-linked responses to odorant. Finally, optogenetically stimulating raphe serotonergic afferents in the OB had heterogeneous effects on presumptive MT cells recorded extracellularly, with an overall modest increase in resting and odorant-evoked responses during serotonergic afferent stimulation. These results suggest that serotonergic afferents from raphe dynamically modulate olfactory processing through distinct effects on multiple OB targets, and may alter the degree to which OB output is shaped by inhibition during behavior. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Modulation of the circuits that process sensory information can profoundly impact how information about the external world is represented and perceived. This study investigates how the serotonergic system modulates the initial processing of olfactory

  14. Sensory organization for balance: specific deficits in Alzheimer's but not in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chong, R K; Horak, F B; Frank, J; Kaye, J

    1999-03-01

    The cause of frequent falling in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (AD) is not well understood. Distraction from incongruent visual stimuli may be an important factor as suggested by their poor performance in tests of shifting visual attention in other studies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether AD patients have difficulty maintaining upright balance under absent and/or incongruent visual and other sensory conditions compared to nondemented healthy elderly persons and individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Seventeen healthy older adults, 15 medicated PD subjects, and 11 AD subjects underwent the Sensory Organization Test protocol. The incidence of loss of balance ("falls"), and the peak-to-peak amplitude of body center of mass sway during stance in the six sensory conditions were used to infer the ability to use visual, somatosensory, and vestibular signals when they provided useful information for balance, and to suppress them when they were incongruent as an orientation reference. Vestibular reflex tests were conducted to ensure normal vestibular function in the subjects. AD subjects had normal vestibular function but had trouble using it in condition 6, where they had to concurrently suppress both incongruent visual and somatosensory inputs. All 11 AD subjects fell in the first trial of this condition. With repeated trials, only three AD subjects were able to stay balanced. AD subjects were able to keep their balance when only somatosensory input was incongruent. In this condition, all AD subjects were able to maintain balance whereas some falls occurred in the other groups. In all conditions, when AD subjects did not fall, they were able to control as large a sway as the healthy controls, except when standing with eyes closed in condition 2: AD subjects did not increase their sway whereas the other groups did. In the PD group, the total fall incidence was similar to the AD group, but the distribution was generalized across more

  15. Effect of feeding patterns on performance of a visuospatial memory task in the beagle dog: a novel cognitive-based protocol for assessing satiety.

    PubMed

    Chan, Joan W C; Araujo, Joseph A; Zicker, Steven C; Pun, Teresa W C; Milgram, Norton W

    2005-03-01

    The assessment of appetite suppressing effects, or satiating effects, of drugs or other treatments is typically based on the measurement of food consumption and body weight. The present study describes a novel cognitive-based protocol for assessing satiety in the dog based on response latency and performance accuracy on a canine test of spatial working memory, the three-component delayed-non-matching-to-position task (3cDNMP). We hypothesized that satiety, produced by providing food prior to testing, would reduce motivation to respond quickly and accurately on this food-reinforced task. Dogs were first over-trained on a variable-delay version of the 3cDNMP task. They were then pre-fed with either a single or a double portion of food prior to being tested on the same task. Pre-feeding slowed response latency, but had no effect on performance accuracy. A more pronounced increase in response latency was observed in young dogs than in old dogs when offered double portions of food. These results suggest, first, that spatial working memory capability is independent of motivation; second, that satiety is age sensitive; and third, that a cognitive protocol can provide a reliable method for evaluating the satiating effects of various foods and other compounds in the dog.

  16. Sensory noise predicts divisive reshaping of receptive fields

    PubMed Central

    Deneve, Sophie; Gutkin, Boris

    2017-01-01

    In order to respond reliably to specific features of their environment, sensory neurons need to integrate multiple incoming noisy signals. Crucially, they also need to compete for the interpretation of those signals with other neurons representing similar features. The form that this competition should take depends critically on the noise corrupting these signals. In this study we show that for the type of noise commonly observed in sensory systems, whose variance scales with the mean signal, sensory neurons should selectively divide their input signals by their predictions, suppressing ambiguous cues while amplifying others. Any change in the stimulus context alters which inputs are suppressed, leading to a deep dynamic reshaping of neural receptive fields going far beyond simple surround suppression. Paradoxically, these highly variable receptive fields go alongside and are in fact required for an invariant representation of external sensory features. In addition to offering a normative account of context-dependent changes in sensory responses, perceptual inference in the presence of signal-dependent noise accounts for ubiquitous features of sensory neurons such as divisive normalization, gain control and contrast dependent temporal dynamics. PMID:28622330

  17. TUTORIAL: Beyond sensory substitution—learning the sixth sense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, Saskia K.; Carl, Christine; Kringe, Tobias; Märtin, Robert; König, Peter

    2005-12-01

    Rapid advances in neuroscience have sparked numerous efforts to study the neural correlate of consciousness. Prominent subjects include higher sensory area, distributed assemblies bound by synchronization of neuronal activity and neurons in specific cortical laminae. In contrast, it has been suggested that the quality of sensory awareness is determined by systematic change of afferent signals resulting from behaviour and knowledge thereof. Support for such skill-based theories of perception is provided by experiments on sensory substitution. Here, we pursue this line of thought and create new sensorimotor contingencies and, hence, a new quality of perception. Adult subjects received orientation information, obtained by a magnetic compass, via vibrotactile stimulation around the waist. After six weeks of training we evaluated integration of the new input by a battery of tests. The results indicate that the sensory information provided by the belt (1) is processed and boosts performance, (2) if inconsistent with other sensory signals leads to variable performance, (3) does interact with the vestibular nystagmus and (4) in half of the experimental subjects leads to qualitative changes of sensory experience. These data support the hypothesis that new sensorimotor contingencies can be learned and integrated into behaviour and affect perceptual experience.

  18. Sensory Topography of Oral Structures.

    PubMed

    Bearelly, Shethal; Cheung, Steven W

    2017-01-01

    Sensory function in the oral cavity and oropharynx is integral to effective deglutition and speech production. The main hurdle to evaluation of tactile consequences of upper aerodigestive tract diseases and treatments is access to a reliable clinical tool. We propose a rapid and reliable procedure to determine tactile thresholds using buckling monofilaments to advance care. To develop novel sensory testing monofilaments and map tactile thresholds of oral cavity and oropharyngeal structures. A prospective cross-sectional study of 37 healthy adults (12 men, 25 women), specifically without a medical history of head and neck surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy, was carried out in an academic tertiary medical center to capture normative data on tactile sensory function in oral structures. Cheung-Bearelly monofilaments were constructed by securing nylon monofilament sutures (2-0 through 9-0) in the lumen of 5-French ureteral catheters, exposing 20 mm for tapping action. Buckling force consistency was evaluated for 3 lots of each suture size. Sensory thresholds of 4 oral cavity and 2 oropharyngeal subsites in healthy participants (n = 37) were determined by classical signal detection methodology (d-prime ≥1). In 21 participants, test-retest reliability of sensory thresholds was evaluated. Separately in 16 participants, sensory thresholds determined by a modified staircase method were cross-validated with those obtained by classical signal detection. Buckling forces of successive suture sizes were distinct (P < .001), consistent (Cronbach α, 0.99), and logarithmically related (r = 0.99, P < .001). Test-retest reliability of sensory threshold determination was high (Cronbach α, >0.7). The lower lip, anterior tongue, and buccal mucosa were more sensitive than the soft palate, posterior tongue, and posterior pharyngeal wall (P < .001). Threshold determination by classical signal detection and modified staircase methods were highly correlated (r = 0

  19. NUTRALYS® pea protein: characterization of in vitro gastric digestion and in vivo gastrointestinal peptide responses relevant to satiety

    PubMed Central

    Overduin, Joost; Guérin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Wils, Daniel; Lambers, Tim T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pea protein (from Pisum sativum) is under consideration as a sustainable, satiety-inducing food ingredient. Objective In the current study, pea-protein-induced physiological signals relevant to satiety were characterized in vitro via gastric digestion kinetics and in vivo by monitoring post-meal gastrointestinal hormonal responses in rats. Design Under in vitro simulated gastric conditions, the digestion of NUTRALYS® pea protein was compared to that of two dairy proteins, slow-digestible casein and fast-digestible whey. In vivo, blood glucose and gastrointestinal hormonal (insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin [CCK], glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1], and peptide YY [PYY]) responses were monitored in nine male Wistar rats following isocaloric (11 kcal) meals containing 35 energy% of either NUTRALYS® pea protein, whey protein, or carbohydrate (non-protein). Results In vitro, pea protein transiently aggregated into particles, whereas casein formed a more enduring protein network and whey protein remained dissolved. Pea-protein particle size ranged from 50 to 500 µm, well below the 2 mm threshold for gastric retention in humans. In vivo, pea-protein and whey-protein meals induced comparable responses for CCK, GLP-1, and PYY, that is, the anorexigenic hormones. Pea protein induced weaker initial, but equal 3-h integrated ghrelin and insulin responses than whey protein, possibly due to the slower gastric breakdown of pea protein observed in vitro. Two hours after meals, CCK levels were more elevated in the case of protein meals compared to that of non-protein meals. Conclusions These results indicate that 1) pea protein transiently aggregates in the stomach and has an intermediately fast intestinal bioavailability in between that of whey and casein; 2) pea-protein- and dairy-protein-containing meals were comparably efficacious in triggering gastrointestinal satiety signals. PMID:25882536

  20. Sensory Evaluation of Pralines Containing Different Honey Products

    PubMed Central

    Popov-Raljić, Jovanka V.; Laličić-Petronijević, Jovanka G.; Georgijev, Aneta S.; Popov, Vladimir S.; Mladenović, Mića A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, pralines manufactured by hand were evaluated sensorially. These pralines were obtained from dark chocolate containing 60% cocoa components, filled with Apis mellifera carnica Poll drone larvae, blossom honey and a blossom honey/pollen mixture from the protected region of Stara Planina-Eastern Serbia (a specific botanical region). The objectives of this study were investigations related to the use of sensory analysis for quality assessment of new functional products with potential benefits for human health, in particular of desserts based on dark chocolate pralines filled with different bee products characterized by a specific botanical and geographic origin, as well as of their storage properties and expected shelf life. Sensory quality (appearance, texture, odor and taste were evaluated by a group of experienced panelists immediately after the production (day 0), and then after 30, 90 and 180 days of storage under ambient conditions (temperature 18–20 °C). The results were statistically analyzed by the two-factorial analysis of variance (MANOVA) and with the LSD-test. It is possible to conclude that the storage time and composition of dark chocolate pralines containing different honey-bee products have statistically highly significant (p < 0.01) influence on the sensorially evaluated properties of pralines. PMID:22163633

  1. Sensory evaluation of pralines containing different honey products.

    PubMed

    Popov-Raljić, Jovanka V; Laličić-Petronijević, Jovanka G; Georgijev, Aneta S; Popov, Vladimir S; Mladenović, Mića A

    2010-01-01

    In this study, pralines manufactured by hand were evaluated sensorially. These pralines were obtained from dark chocolate containing 60% cocoa components, filled with Apis mellifera carnica Poll drone larvae, blossom honey and a blossom honey/pollen mixture from the protected region of Stara Planina-Eastern Serbia (a specific botanical region). The objectives of this study were investigations related to the use of sensory analysis for quality assessment of new functional products with potential benefits for human health, in particular of desserts based on dark chocolate pralines filled with different bee products characterized by a specific botanical and geographic origin, as well as of their storage properties and expected shelf life. Sensory quality (appearance, texture, odor and taste were evaluated by a group of experienced panelists immediately after the production (day 0), and then after 30, 90 and 180 days of storage under ambient conditions (temperature 18-20 °C). The results were statistically analyzed by the two-factorial analysis of variance (MANOVA) and with the LSD-test. It is possible to conclude that the storage time and composition of dark chocolate pralines containing different honey-bee products have statistically highly significant (p < 0.01) influence on the sensorially evaluated properties of pralines.

  2. The Sensory Nature of Episodic Memory: Sensory Priming Effects Due to Memory Trace Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunel, Lionel; Labeye, Elodie; Lesourd, Mathieu; Versace, Remy

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide evidence that memory and perceptual processing are underpinned by the same mechanisms. Specifically, the authors conducted 3 experiments that emphasized the sensory aspect of memory traces. They examined their predictions with a short-term priming paradigm based on 2 distinct phases: a learning phase consisting…

  3. Prestimulus influences on auditory perception from sensory representations and decision processes

    PubMed Central

    McNair, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    The qualities of perception depend not only on the sensory inputs but also on the brain state before stimulus presentation. Although the collective evidence from neuroimaging studies for a relation between prestimulus state and perception is strong, the interpretation in the context of sensory computations or decision processes has remained difficult. In the auditory system, for example, previous studies have reported a wide range of effects in terms of the perceptually relevant frequency bands and state parameters (phase/power). To dissociate influences of state on earlier sensory representations and higher-level decision processes, we collected behavioral and EEG data in human participants performing two auditory discrimination tasks relying on distinct acoustic features. Using single-trial decoding, we quantified the relation between prestimulus activity, relevant sensory evidence, and choice in different task-relevant EEG components. Within auditory networks, we found that phase had no direct influence on choice, whereas power in task-specific frequency bands affected the encoding of sensory evidence. Within later-activated frontoparietal regions, theta and alpha phase had a direct influence on choice, without involving sensory evidence. These results delineate two consistent mechanisms by which prestimulus activity shapes perception. However, the timescales of the relevant neural activity depend on the specific brain regions engaged by the respective task. PMID:27071110

  4. Prestimulus influences on auditory perception from sensory representations and decision processes.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Stephanie J; McNair, Steven W; Kayser, Christoph

    2016-04-26

    The qualities of perception depend not only on the sensory inputs but also on the brain state before stimulus presentation. Although the collective evidence from neuroimaging studies for a relation between prestimulus state and perception is strong, the interpretation in the context of sensory computations or decision processes has remained difficult. In the auditory system, for example, previous studies have reported a wide range of effects in terms of the perceptually relevant frequency bands and state parameters (phase/power). To dissociate influences of state on earlier sensory representations and higher-level decision processes, we collected behavioral and EEG data in human participants performing two auditory discrimination tasks relying on distinct acoustic features. Using single-trial decoding, we quantified the relation between prestimulus activity, relevant sensory evidence, and choice in different task-relevant EEG components. Within auditory networks, we found that phase had no direct influence on choice, whereas power in task-specific frequency bands affected the encoding of sensory evidence. Within later-activated frontoparietal regions, theta and alpha phase had a direct influence on choice, without involving sensory evidence. These results delineate two consistent mechanisms by which prestimulus activity shapes perception. However, the timescales of the relevant neural activity depend on the specific brain regions engaged by the respective task.

  5. Development of the Sensory Hypersensitivity Scale (SHS): a self-report tool for assessing sensitivity to sensory stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Eric A.; Benham, Grant; Sturgeon, John A.; Mackey, Sean; Johnson, Kevin A.; Younger, Jarred

    2016-01-01

    Sensory hypersensitivity is one manifestation of the central sensitization that may underlie conditions such as fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. We conducted five studies designed to develop and validate the Sensory Hypersensitive Scale (SHS); a 25-item self-report measure of sensory hypersensitivity. The SHS assesses both general sensitivity and modality-specific sensitivity (e.g. touch, taste, and hearing). 1202 participants (157 individuals with chronic pain) completed the SHS, which demonstrated an adequate overall internal reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) of 0.81, suggesting the tool can be used as a cross-modality assessment of sensitivity. SHS scores demonstrated only modest correlations (Pearson’s r) with depressive symptoms (0.19) and anxiety (0.28), suggesting a low level of overlap with psychiatric complaints. Overall SHS scores showed significant but relatively modest correlations (Pearson’s r) with three measures of sensory testing: cold pain tolerance (−0.34); heat pain tolerance (−0.285); heat pain threshold (−0.271). Women reported significantly higher scores on the SHS than did men, although gender-based differences were small. In a chronic pain sample, individuals with fibromyalgia syndrome demonstrated significantly higher SHS scores than did individuals with osteoarthritis or back pain. The SHS appears suitable as a screening measure for sensory hypersensitivity, though additional research is warranted to determine its suitability as a proxy for central sensitization. PMID:26873609

  6. Effect of aerobic exercise on hunger feelings and satiety regulating hormones in obese teenage girls.

    PubMed

    Prado, Wagner L; Balagopal, P Babu; Lofrano-Prado, Mara C; Oyama, Lila M; Tenório, Thiago Ricardo; Botero, João Paulo; Hill, James O

    2014-11-01

    Exercise is implicated in modifying subsequent energy intake (EI) through alterations in hunger and/or satiety hormones. Our aim was to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on hunger, satiety regulatory peptides, and EI in obese adolescents. Nine obese girls (age: 13-18 years old, BMI: 33.74 ± 4.04 kg/m2) participated in this randomized controlled crossover study. Each participant randomly underwent 2 experimental protocols: control (seated for 150 min) and exercise (exercised for 30 min on a treadmill performed at ventilatory threshold [VT] intensity and then remained seated for 120 min). Leptin, peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)), and subjective hunger were measured at baseline as well as 30 min and 150 min, followed by 24-hr EI measurement. Exercise session resulted in an acute increase in PYY(3-36) (p < .01) without changes in leptin and/or hunger scores. The control session increased hunger scores (p < .01) and decreased circulating leptin levels (p = .03). There was a strong effect size for carbohydrate intake (d = 2.14) and a modest effect size for protein intake (d = 0.61) after the exercise compared with the control session. Exercise performed at VT intensity in this study appears to provoke a state of transient anorexia in obese girls. These changes may be linked to an increase in circulating PYY3-36 and maintenance of leptin levels.

  7. Membrane potential correlates of sensory perception in mouse barrel cortex.

    PubMed

    Sachidhanandam, Shankar; Sreenivasan, Varun; Kyriakatos, Alexandros; Kremer, Yves; Petersen, Carl C H

    2013-11-01

    Neocortical activity can evoke sensory percepts, but the cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We trained mice to detect single brief whisker stimuli and report perceived stimuli by licking to obtain a reward. Pharmacological inactivation and optogenetic stimulation demonstrated a causal role for the primary somatosensory barrel cortex. Whole-cell recordings from barrel cortex neurons revealed membrane potential correlates of sensory perception. Sensory responses depended strongly on prestimulus cortical state, but both slow-wave and desynchronized cortical states were compatible with task performance. Whisker deflection evoked an early (<50 ms) reliable sensory response that was encoded through cell-specific reversal potentials. A secondary late (50-400 ms) depolarization was enhanced on hit trials compared to misses. Optogenetic inactivation revealed a causal role for late excitation. Our data reveal dynamic processing in the sensory cortex during task performance, with an early sensory response reliably encoding the stimulus and later secondary activity contributing to driving the subjective percept.

  8. Sensory-evoked perturbations of locomotor activity by sparse sensory input: a computational study

    PubMed Central

    Brownstone, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory inputs from muscle, cutaneous, and joint afferents project to the spinal cord, where they are able to affect ongoing locomotor activity. Activation of sensory input can initiate or prolong bouts of locomotor activity depending on the identity of the sensory afferent activated and the timing of the activation within the locomotor cycle. However, the mechanisms by which afferent activity modifies locomotor rhythm and the distribution of sensory afferents to the spinal locomotor networks have not been determined. Considering the many sources of sensory inputs to the spinal cord, determining this distribution would provide insights into how sensory inputs are integrated to adjust ongoing locomotor activity. We asked whether a sparsely distributed set of sensory inputs could modify ongoing locomotor activity. To address this question, several computational models of locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs) that were mechanistically diverse and generated locomotor-like rhythmic activity were developed. We show that sensory inputs restricted to a small subset of the network neurons can perturb locomotor activity in the same manner as seen experimentally. Furthermore, we show that an architecture with sparse sensory input improves the capacity to gate sensory information by selectively modulating sensory channels. These data demonstrate that sensory input to rhythm-generating networks need not be extensively distributed. PMID:25673740

  9. Sensory Impairment and Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    KWON, Hye-Jin; KIM, Ji-su; KIM, Yoon-jung; KWON, Su-jin; YU, Jin-Na

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sensory impairment is a common condition that exerts negative effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the relationship between sensory impairment and HRQoL and identify sensory-specific differences in the HRQoL of elderly. Methods: This study used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (2010–2012), analyzing 5,260 subjects over 60 years of age who completed ophthalmic and otologic examinations. Vision and hearing impairment were measured and classified. HRQoL was determined according to the European QoL five dimension test (EQ-5D). Multivariate logistic regression analysis and analysis of covariance were performed to identify relationships between sensory impairment and HRQoL dimensions as well as differences in HRQoL scores. Results: In the final adjusted multivariate model, there was a statistically higher proportion of those with dual sensory impairment who reported problems with mobility (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45–5.03), usual activities (aOR 2.32, 95% CI 1.16–4.64), and pain/discomfort among EQ-5D subcategories (aOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.07–2.97). In the EQ-5D dimensions, the means and standard deviations of vision impairment (0.86 [0.01]) and dual sensory impairment (0.84 [0.02]) appeared meaningfully lower than those for no sensory impairment (0.88 [0.00]) or hearing impairment (0.88 [0.01]); P = .02). Conclusion: Sensory impairment reduces HRQoL in the elderly. Improvement of HRQoL in the elderly thus requires regular screening and appropriate management of sensory impairment. PMID:26258089

  10. Small particle size lipid emulsions, satiety and energy intake in lean men.

    PubMed

    Chan, Y K; Budgett, S C; MacGibbon, A K; Quek, S Y; Kindleysides, S; Poppitt, S D

    2017-02-01

    Lipid emulsions have been proposed to suppress hunger and food intake. Whilst there is no consensus on optimal structural properties or mechanism of action, small particle size (small-PS) stable emulsions may have greatest efficacy. Fabuless®, a commercial lipid emulsion reported in some studies to decrease energy intake (EI), is a small-PS, 'hard' fat emulsion comprising highly saturated palm oil base (PS, 82nm). To determine whether small-PS dairy lipid emulsions can enhance satiety, firstly, we investigated 2 'soft' fat dairy emulsions generated using dairy and soy emulsifying agents (PS, 114nm and 121nm) and a non-emulsified dairy control. Secondly, we investigated a small-PS palmolein based 'hard' fat emulsion (fractionated palm oil, PS, 104nm) and non-emulsified control. This was a 6 arm, randomized, cross-over study in 18 lean men, with test lipids delivered in a breakfast meal: (i) Fabuless® emulsion (F EM ); (ii) dairy emulsion with dairy emulsifier (DE DE ); (iii) dairy emulsion with soy lecithin emulsifier (DE SE ); (iv) dairy control (DC ON ); (v) palmolein emulsion with dairy emulsifier (PE DE ); (vi) palmolein control (PC ON ). Participants rated postprandial appetite sensations using visual analogue scales (VAS), and ad libitum energy intake (EI) was measured at a lunch meal 3.5h later. Dairy lipid emulsions did not significantly alter satiety ratings or change EI relative to dairy control (DE DE , 4035kJ; DE SE , 3904kJ; DC ON , 3985kJ; P>0.05) nor did palm oil based emulsion relative to non-emulsified control (PE DE, 3902 kJ; PC ON, 3973kJ; P>0.05). There was no evidence that small-PS dairy lipid emulsions or commercial Fabuless altered short-term appetite or food intake in lean adults. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Sensory system plasticity in a visually specialized, nocturnal spider.

    PubMed

    Stafstrom, Jay A; Michalik, Peter; Hebets, Eileen A

    2017-04-21

    The interplay between an animal's environmental niche and its behavior can influence the evolutionary form and function of its sensory systems. While intraspecific variation in sensory systems has been documented across distant taxa, fewer studies have investigated how changes in behavior might relate to plasticity in sensory systems across developmental time. To investigate the relationships among behavior, peripheral sensory structures, and central processing regions in the brain, we take advantage of a dramatic within-species shift of behavior in a nocturnal, net-casting spider (Deinopis spinosa), where males cease visually-mediated foraging upon maturation. We compared eye diameters and brain region volumes across sex and life stage, the latter through micro-computed X-ray tomography. We show that mature males possess altered peripheral visual morphology when compared to their juvenile counterparts, as well as juvenile and mature females. Matching peripheral sensory structure modifications, we uncovered differences in relative investment in both lower-order and higher-order processing regions in the brain responsible for visual processing. Our study provides evidence for sensory system plasticity when individuals dramatically change behavior across life stages, uncovering new avenues of inquiry focusing on altered reliance of specific sensory information when entering a new behavioral niche.

  12. Sensory integration balance training in patients with multiple sclerosis: A randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, Marialuisa; Munari, Daniele; Geroin, Christian; Gajofatto, Alberto; Benedetti, Maria Donata; Midiri, Alessandro; Carla, Fontana; Picelli, Alessandro; Waldner, Andreas; Smania, Nicola

    2015-10-01

    Impaired sensory integration contributes to balance disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of this paper is to compare the effects of sensory integration balance training against conventional rehabilitation on balance disorders, the level of balance confidence perceived, quality of life, fatigue, frequency of falls, and sensory integration processing on a large sample of patients with MS. This single-blind, randomized, controlled trial involved 80 outpatients with MS (EDSS: 1.5-6.0) and subjective symptoms of balance disorders. The experimental group (n = 39) received specific training to improve central integration of afferent sensory inputs; the control group (n = 41) received conventional rehabilitation (15 treatment sessions of 50 minutes each). Before, after treatment, and at one month post-treatment, patients were evaluated by a blinded rater using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC), Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54, Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), number of falls and the Sensory Organization Balance Test (SOT). The experimental training program produced greater improvements than the control group training on the BBS (p < 0.001), the FSS (p < 0.002), number of falls (p = 0.002) and SOT (p < 0.05). Specific training to improve central integration of afferent sensory inputs may ameliorate balance disorders in patients with MS. Clinical Trial Registration (NCT01040117). © The Author(s), 2015.

  13. An Essential Role for the K+-dependent Na+/Ca2+-exchanger, NCKX4, in Melanocortin-4-receptor-dependent Satiety*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Fang; Lytton, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    K+-dependent Na+/Ca2+-exchangers are broadly expressed in various tissues, and particularly enriched in neurons of the brain. The distinct physiological roles for the different members of this Ca2+ transporter family are, however, not well described. Here we show that gene-targeted mice lacking the K+-dependent Na+/Ca2+-exchanger, NCKX4 (gene slc24a4 or Nckx4), display a remarkable anorexia with severe hypophagia and weight loss. Feeding and satiety are coordinated centrally by melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4R) in neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The hypophagic response of Nckx4 knock-out mice is accompanied by hyperactivation of neurons in the PVN, evidenced by high levels of c-Fos expression. The activation of PVN neurons in both fasted Nckx4 knock-out and glucose-injected wild-type animals is blocked by Ca2+ removal and MC4R antagonists. In cultured hypothalamic neurons, melanocyte stimulating hormone induces an MC4R-dependent and sustained Ca2+ signal, which requires phospholipase C activity and plasma membrane Ca2+ entry. The Ca2+ signal is enhanced in hypothalamic neurons from Nckx4 knock-out animals, and is depressed in cells in which NCKX4 is overexpressed. Finally, MC4R-dependent oxytocin expression in the PVN, a key essential step in satiety, is prevented by blocking phospholipase C activation or Ca2+ entry. These findings highlight an essential, and to our knowledge previously unknown, role for Ca2+ signaling in the MC4R pathway that leads to satiety, and a novel non-redundant role for NCKX4-mediated Ca2+ extrusion in controlling MC4R signaling and feeding behavior. Together, these findings highlight a novel pathway that potentially could be exploited to develop much needed new therapeutics to tackle eating disorders and obesity. PMID:25096581

  14. In vivo imaging of intragastric gelation and its effect on satiety in humans.

    PubMed

    Hoad, Caroline L; Rayment, Phillippa; Spiller, Robin C; Marciani, Luca; Alonso, Benito de Celis; Traynor, Catherine; Mela, David J; Peters, Harry P F; Gowland, Penny A

    2004-09-01

    Previous studies indicated that physical characteristics of food influence satiety, but the relative importance of the oral, gastric, and intestinal behaviors of the food is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the satiating effects of 2 types of alginates, which gel weakly or strongly on exposure to acid, compared with guar gum whose viscosity is unaffected by acid. Subjects (n = 12; 3 men, 9 women) ingested a 325-mL sweetened, milk-based meal replacer beverage on 4 separate occasions, either alone as a control or including 1% by weight alginate or guar gum. Intragastric gelling, gastric emptying, and meal dilution were assessed by serial MRI while satiety was recorded for 4 h. MR images showed that all of the meals became heterogeneous in the stomach except for guar, which remained homogeneous. The alginate meals formed lumps in the stomach, with the strong-gelling alginate producing the largest volume. Although gastric emptying was similar for all 4 meals, the sense of fullness at the same gastric volume was significantly greater for all 3 viscous meals than for the control. Compared with the control meal, the strong-gelling alginate (P = 0.031) and guar (P = 0.041) meals increased fullness at 115 min, and the strong-gelling alginate decreased hunger by the 115-min (P = 0.041) and 240-min (P = 0.041) time points. Agents that gel on contact with acid may be useful additions to weight-reducing diets. We hypothesize that this effect is due to distension in the gastric antrum and/or altered transport of nutrients to the small intestine in the lumps.

  15. Flexibility and Stability in Sensory Processing Revealed Using Visual-to-Auditory Sensory Substitution

    PubMed Central

    Hertz, Uri; Amedi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    The classical view of sensory processing involves independent processing in sensory cortices and multisensory integration in associative areas. This hierarchical structure has been challenged by evidence of multisensory responses in sensory areas, and dynamic weighting of sensory inputs in associative areas, thus far reported independently. Here, we used a visual-to-auditory sensory substitution algorithm (SSA) to manipulate the information conveyed by sensory inputs while keeping the stimuli intact. During scan sessions before and after SSA learning, subjects were presented with visual images and auditory soundscapes. The findings reveal 2 dynamic processes. First, crossmodal attenuation of sensory cortices changed direction after SSA learning from visual attenuations of the auditory cortex to auditory attenuations of the visual cortex. Secondly, associative areas changed their sensory response profile from strongest response for visual to that for auditory. The interaction between these phenomena may play an important role in multisensory processing. Consistent features were also found in the sensory dominance in sensory areas and audiovisual convergence in associative area Middle Temporal Gyrus. These 2 factors allow for both stability and a fast, dynamic tuning of the system when required. PMID:24518756

  16. Flexibility and Stability in Sensory Processing Revealed Using Visual-to-Auditory Sensory Substitution.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Uri; Amedi, Amir

    2015-08-01

    The classical view of sensory processing involves independent processing in sensory cortices and multisensory integration in associative areas. This hierarchical structure has been challenged by evidence of multisensory responses in sensory areas, and dynamic weighting of sensory inputs in associative areas, thus far reported independently. Here, we used a visual-to-auditory sensory substitution algorithm (SSA) to manipulate the information conveyed by sensory inputs while keeping the stimuli intact. During scan sessions before and after SSA learning, subjects were presented with visual images and auditory soundscapes. The findings reveal 2 dynamic processes. First, crossmodal attenuation of sensory cortices changed direction after SSA learning from visual attenuations of the auditory cortex to auditory attenuations of the visual cortex. Secondly, associative areas changed their sensory response profile from strongest response for visual to that for auditory. The interaction between these phenomena may play an important role in multisensory processing. Consistent features were also found in the sensory dominance in sensory areas and audiovisual convergence in associative area Middle Temporal Gyrus. These 2 factors allow for both stability and a fast, dynamic tuning of the system when required. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Sensory Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Men, Seniors, WomenTags: ageusia, anosmia, chemosensory disorders, decreased appetite, dysgeusia, flavor, olfactory dysfunction, overseasoning food, senses, sensory dysfunction, sensory impairment, smell, taste September ...

  18. Temperament and Sensory Features of Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Matthew E.; Freuler, Ashley; Baranek, Grace T.; Watson, Linda R.; Poe, Michele D.; Sabatino, Antoinette

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study sought to characterize temperament traits in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ages 3–7 years old, and to determine the potential association between temperament and sensory features in ASD. Individual differences in sensory processing may form the basis for aspects of temperament and personality, and aberrations in sensory processing may inform why some temperamental traits are characteristic of specific clinical populations. Methods Nine dimensions of temperament from the Behavioral Style Questionnaire (McDevitt & Carey, 1996) were compared among groups of children with ASD (n = 54), developmentally delayed (DD; n = 33), and the original normative sample of typically developing children (Carey & McDevitt, 1978; n = 350) using an ANOVA to determine the extent to which groups differed in their temperament profiles. The hypothesized overlap between three dimensional constructs of sensory features (hyperresponsiveness, hyporesponsivness, and seeking) and the nine dimensions of temperament was analyzed in children with ASD using regression analyses. Results The ASD group displayed temperament scores distinct from norms for typically developing children on most dimensions of temperament (activity, rhythmicity, adaptability, approach, distractibility, intensity, persistence, and threshold) but differed from the DD group on only two dimensions (approach and distractibility). Analyses of associations between sensory constructs and temperament dimensions found that sensory hyporesponsiveness was associated with slowness to adapt, low reactivity, and low distractibility; a combination of increased sensory features (across all three patterns) was associated with increased withdrawal and more negative mood. Conclusions Although most dimensions of temperament distinguished children with ASD as a group, not all dimensions appear equally associated with sensory response patterns. Shared mechanisms underlying sensory responsiveness

  19. Quantitative validation of sensory mapping in persistent postherniorrhaphy inguinal pain patients undergoing triple neurectomy.

    PubMed

    Bjurström, M F; Álvarez, R; Nicol, A L; Olmstead, R; Amid, P K; Chen, D C

    2017-04-01

    Neurectomy of the inguinal nerves may be considered for selected refractory cases of chronic postherniorrhaphy inguinal pain (CPIP). There is to date a paucity of easily applicable clinical tools to identify neuropathic pain and examine the neurosensory effects of remedial surgery. The present quantitative sensory testing (QST) pilot study evaluates a sensory mapping technique. Longitudinal (preoperative, immediate postoperative, and late postoperative) dermatomal sensory mapping and a comprehensive QST protocol were conducted in CPIP patients with unilateral, predominantly neuropathic inguinodynia presenting for triple neurectomy (n = 13). QST was conducted in four areas on the affected, painful side and in one contralateral comparison site. QST variables were compared according to sensory mapping outcomes: (o)/normal sensation, (+)/pain, and (-)/numbness. Diagnostic ability of the sensory mapping outcomes to detect QST-assessed allodynia or hypoesthesia was estimated through calculation of specificity and sensitivity values. Preoperatively, patients exhibited mechanical hypoesthesia and allodynia and pressure allodynia and hyperalgesia in painful areas mapped (+) (p < .05); sensory mapping outcome (+) demonstrated high ability to detect mechanical allodynia [sensitivity 0.74 (95% CI 0.61-0.86), specificity 0.94 (0.84-1.00)] and pressure allodynia [sensitivity 0.96 (0.89-1.00), specificity 1.00 (1.00-1.00)], but not thermal allodynia. Postoperatively, mapped areas of numbness (-) were associated with mechanical and thermal hypoesthesia (p < .05); (-) showed high sensitivity and specificity to detect mechanical and cold hypoesthesia. Sensory mapping provides an accurate clinical neuropathic assessment with strong correlation to QST findings of preoperative mechanical and pressure allodynia, and postoperative mechanical and thermal hypoesthesia in CPIP patients undergoing neurectomy.

  20. Sensory Processing in Preterm Preschoolers and Its Association with Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jenna N.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Huffman, Lynne C.; Loe, Irene M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Symptoms of abnormal sensory processing have been related to preterm birth, but have not yet been studied specifically in preterm preschoolers. The degree of association between sensory processing and other domains is important for understanding the role of sensory processing symptoms in the development of preterm children. Aims To test two related hypotheses: (1) preterm preschoolers have more sensory processing symptoms than full term preschoolers and (2) sensory processing is associated with both executive function and adaptive function in preterm preschoolers. Study Design Cross-sectional study Subjects Preterm children (≤34 weeks of gestation; n = 54) and full term controls (≥37 weeks of gestation; n = 73) ages 3-5 years. Outcome Measures Sensory processing was assessed with the Short Sensory Profile. Executive function was assessed with (1) parent ratings on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function- Preschool version and (2) a performance-based battery of tasks. Adaptive function was assessed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II. Results Preterm preschoolers showed significantly more sensory symptoms than full term controls. A higher percentage of preterm than full term preschoolers had elevated numbers of sensory symptoms (37% vs. 12%). Sensory symptoms in preterm preschoolers were associated with scores on executive function measures, but were not significantly associated with adaptive function. Conclusions Preterm preschoolers exhibited more sensory symptoms than full term controls. Preterm preschoolers with elevated numbers of sensory symptoms also showed executive function impairment. Future research should further examine whether sensory processing and executive function should be considered independent or overlapping constructs. PMID:25706317

  1. Congenital sensory neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Barry, J. E.; Hopkins, I. J.; Neal, B. W.

    1974-01-01

    Two infants with sporadic congenital sensory neuropathy are described. The criteria of generalized lack of superficial sensory appreciation, hypotonia, areflexia, together with histological evidence of abnormalities of sensory neural structures in skin and peripheral nerves have been met. No abnormality of motor or autonomic nerves was shown. ImagesFIG. PMID:4131674

  2. Sensory reactivity, empathizing and systemizing in autism spectrum conditions and sensory processing disorder.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli, Teresa; Miller, Lucy Jane; Schoen, Sarah A; Jo Brout, Jennifer; Sullivan, Jillian; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Although the DSM-5 added sensory symptoms as a criterion for ASC, there is a group of children who display sensory symptoms but do not have ASC; children with sensory processing disorder (SPD). To be able to differentiate these two disorders, our aim was to evaluate whether children with ASC show more sensory symptomatology and/or different cognitive styles in empathy and systemizing compared to children with SPD and typically developing (TD) children. The study included 210 participants: 68 children with ASC, 79 with SPD and 63 TD children. The Sensory Processing Scale Inventory was used to measure sensory symptoms, the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) to measure autistic traits, and the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and Systemizing Quotient (SQ) to measure cognitive styles. Across groups, a greater sensory symptomatology was associated with lower empathy. Further, both the ASC and SPD groups showed more sensory symptoms than TD children. Children with ASC and SPD only differed on sensory under-reactivity. The ASD group did, however, show lower empathy and higher systemizing scores than the SPD group. Together, this suggest that sensory symptoms alone may not be adequate to differentiate children with ASC and SPD but that cognitive style measures could be used for differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Learning Enhances Sensory and Multiple Non-sensory Representations in Primary Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Poort, Jasper; Khan, Adil G.; Pachitariu, Marius; Nemri, Abdellatif; Orsolic, Ivana; Krupic, Julija; Bauza, Marius; Sahani, Maneesh; Keller, Georg B.; Mrsic-Flogel, Thomas D.; Hofer, Sonja B.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We determined how learning modifies neural representations in primary visual cortex (V1) during acquisition of a visually guided behavioral task. We imaged the activity of the same layer 2/3 neuronal populations as mice learned to discriminate two visual patterns while running through a virtual corridor, where one pattern was rewarded. Improvements in behavioral performance were closely associated with increasingly distinguishable population-level representations of task-relevant stimuli, as a result of stabilization of existing and recruitment of new neurons selective for these stimuli. These effects correlated with the appearance of multiple task-dependent signals during learning: those that increased neuronal selectivity across the population when expert animals engaged in the task, and those reflecting anticipation or behavioral choices specifically in neuronal subsets preferring the rewarded stimulus. Therefore, learning engages diverse mechanisms that modify sensory and non-sensory representations in V1 to adjust its processing to task requirements and the behavioral relevance of visual stimuli. PMID:26051421

  4. Color of hot soup modulates postprandial satiety, thermal sensation, and body temperature in young women.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Maki; Kimura, Rie; Kido, Yasue; Inoue, Tomoko; Moritani, Toshio; Nagai, Narumi

    2017-07-01

    The color of food is known to modulate not only consumers' motivation to eat, but also thermal perception. Here we investigated whether the colors of hot soup can influence thermal sensations and body temperature, in addition to the food acceptability and appetite. Twelve young female participants consumed commercial white potage soup, modified to yellow or blue by adding food dyes, at 9 a.m. on 3 separated days. During the test, visual impression (willingness to eat, palatability, comfort, warmth, and anxiety) and thermal sensations were self-reported using visual analog scales. Core (intra-aural) and peripheral (toe) temperatures were continuously recorded 10 min before and 60 min after ingestion. Blue soup significantly decreased willingness to eat, palatability, comfort, and warmth ratings, and significantly increased anxiety feelings compared to the white and yellow soups. After ingestion, the blue soup showed significantly smaller satiety ratings and the tendency of lower thermal sensation scores of the whole body compared to the white and yellow soups. Moreover, a significantly greater increase in toe temperature was found with the yellow soup than the white or blue soup. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence that the colors of hot food may modulate postprandial satiety, thermal sensations and peripheral temperature. Such effects of color may be useful for dietary strategies for individuals who need to control their appetite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sensory and Repetitive Behaviors among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder at Home

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Anne V.; Boyd, Brian A.; Williams, Kathryn; Faldowski, Richard A.; Baranek, Grace T.

    2017-01-01

    Atypical sensory and repetitive behaviors are defining features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and are thought to be influenced by environmental factors; however, there is a lack of naturalistic research exploring contexts surrounding these behaviors. The current study involved video recording observations of 32 children with ASD (2 – 12 years of age) engaging in sensory and repetitive behaviors during home activities. Behavioral coding was used to determine what activity contexts, sensory modalities, and stimulus characteristics were associated with specific behavior types: hyperresponsive, hyporesponsive, sensory seeking, and repetitive/stereotypic. Results indicated that hyperresponsive behaviors were most associated with activities of daily living and family-initiated stimuli, whereas sensory seeking behaviors were associated with free play activities and child-initiated stimuli. Behaviors associated with multiple sensory modalities simultaneously were common, emphasizing the multi-sensory nature of children’s behaviors in natural contexts. Implications for future research more explicitly considering context are discussed. PMID:27091950

  6. Sensory features and repetitive behaviors in children with autism and developmental delays.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Brian A; Baranek, Grace T; Sideris, John; Poe, Michele D; Watson, Linda R; Patten, Elena; Miller, Heather

    2010-04-01

    This study combined parent and observational measures to examine the association between aberrant sensory features and restricted, repetitive behaviors in children with autism (N=67) and those with developmental delays (N=42). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to empirically validate three sensory constructs of interest: hyperresponsiveness, hyporesponsiveness, and sensory seeking. Examining the association between the three derived sensory factor scores and scores on the Repetitive Behavior Scales--Revised revealed the co-occurrence of these behaviors in both clinical groups. Specifically, high levels of hyperresponsive behaviors predicted high levels of repetitive behaviors, and the relationship between these variables remained the same controlling for mental age. We primarily found non-significant associations between hyporesponsiveness or sensory seeking and repetitive behaviors, with the exception that sensory seeking was associated with ritualistic/sameness behaviors. These findings suggest that shared neurobiological mechanisms may underlie hyperresponsive sensory symptoms and repetitive behaviors and have implications for diagnostic classification as well as intervention.

  7. Sensory-motor problems in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Whyatt, Caroline; Craig, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Despite being largely characterized as a social and cognitive disorder, strong evidence indicates the presence of significant sensory-motor problems in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This paper outlines our progression from initial, broad assessment using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to subsequent targeted kinematic assessment. In particular, pronounced ASD impairment seen in the broad categories of manual dexterity and ball skills was found to be routed in specific difficulties on isolated tasks, which were translated into focused experimental assessment. Kinematic results from both subsequent studies highlight impaired use of perception-action coupling to guide, adapt and tailor movement to task demands, resulting in inflexible and rigid motor profiles. In particular difficulties with the use of temporal adaption are shown, with “hyperdexterity” witnessed in ballistic movement profiles, often at the cost of spatial accuracy and task performance. By linearly progressing from the use of a standardized assessment tool to targeted kinematic assessment, clear and defined links are drawn between measureable difficulties and underlying sensory-motor assessment. Results are specifically viewed in-light of perception-action coupling and its role in early infant development suggesting that rather than being “secondary” level impairment, sensory-motor problems may be fundamental in the progression of ASD. This logical and systematic process thus allows a further understanding into the potential root of observable motor problems in ASD; a vital step if underlying motor problems are to be considered a fundamental aspect of autism and allow a route of non-invasive preliminary diagnosis. PMID:23882194

  8. Neuropathic sensory symptoms: association with pain and psychological factors

    PubMed Central

    Shaygan, Maryam; Böger, Andreas; Kröner-Herwig, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Background A large number of population-based studies of chronic pain have considered neuropathic sensory symptoms to be associated with a high level of pain intensity and negative affectivity. The present study examines the question of whether this association previously found in non-selected samples of chronic pain patients can also be found in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms. Methods Neuropathic sensory symptoms in 306 patients with chronic pain diagnosed as typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, fibromyalgia, or nociceptive back pain were assessed using the Pain DETECT Questionnaire. Two separate cluster analyses were performed to identify subgroups of patients with different levels of self-reported neuropathic sensory symptoms and, furthermore, to identify subgroups of patients with distinct patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms (adjusted for individual response bias regarding specific symptoms). Results ANOVA (analysis of variance) results in typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, and fibromyalgia showed no significant differences between the three levels of neuropathic sensory symptoms regarding pain intensity, pain chronicity, pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and depressive symptoms. However, in nociceptive back pain patients, significant differences were found for all variables except pain chronicity. When controlling for the response bias of patients in ratings of symptoms, none of the patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms were associated with pain and psychological factors. Conclusion Neuropathic sensory symptoms are not closely associated with higher levels of pain intensity and cognitive-emotional evaluations in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms. The findings are discussed in term of differential response bias in patients with versus without verified neuropathic sensory symptoms by clinical examination, medical tests, or underlying pathology of

  9. Ghrelin receptor regulates appetite and satiety during aging in mice by regulating meal frequency and portion size but not total food intake

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aging is often associated with overweight and obesity. There exists a long-standing debate about whether meal pattern also contributes to the development of obesity. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin regulates appetite and satiety by activating its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R)...

  10. Sensory description of marine oils through development of a sensory wheel and vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Larssen, W E; Monteleone, E; Hersleth, M

    2018-04-01

    The Omega-3 industry lacks a defined methodology and a vocabulary for evaluating the sensory quality of marine oils. This study was conducted to identify the sensory descriptors of marine oils and organize them in a sensory wheel for use as a tool in quality assessment. Samples of marine oils were collected from six of the largest producers of omega-3 products in Norway. The oils were selected to cover as much variation in sensory characteristics as possible, i.e. oils with different fatty acid content originating from different species. Oils were evaluated by six industry expert panels and one trained sensory panel to build up a vocabulary through a series of language sessions. A total of 184 aroma (odor by nose), flavor, taste and mouthfeel descriptors were generated. A sensory wheel based on 60 selected descriptors grouped together in 21 defined categories was created to form a graphical presentation of the sensory vocabulary. A selection of the oil samples was also evaluated by a trained sensory panel using descriptive analysis. Chemical analysis showed a positive correlation between primary and secondary oxidation products and sensory properties such as rancidity, chemical flavor and process flavor and a negative correlation between primary oxidation products and acidic. This research is a first step towards the broader objective of standardizing the sensory terminology related to marine oils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sensory dissociation in chronic low back pain: Two case reports.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Wacław M; Luedtke, Kerstin; Saulicz, Oskar; Saulicz, Edward

    2018-08-01

    Patients with chronic low back pain often report that they do not perceive their painful back accurately. Previous studies confirmed that sensory dissociation and/or discrepancy between perceived body image and actual size is one of the specific traits of patients with chronic pain. Current approaches for measuring sensory dissociation are limited to two-point-discrimination or rely on pain drawings not allowing for quantitative analysis. This case study reports the sensory dissociation of two cases with chronic low back pain using a recently published test (point-to-point-test (PTP)) and a newly developed test (two-point-estimation (TPE)). Both patients mislocalized tactile stimuli delivered to the painful location compared to non-painful locations (PTP test). In addition, both patients perceived their painful lumbar region differently from non-painful sites above and below and contralateral to the painful site. TPE data showed two distinct clinical patterns of sensory dissociation: one patient perceived the two-point distance in the painful area as expanded, while the other patient perceived it as shrunk. The latter pattern of sensory dissociation (i.e., pattern shrunk) is likely to respond to sensory training. Whether enlarged patterns of sensory dissociation are more resistant to treatment remains unknown but would explain the low effectiveness of previous studies using sensory training in chronic low back pain populations. Subgrouping patients according to their sensory discrimination pattern could contribute to the choice and effectiveness of the treatment approach.

  12. Age-dependent effects on sensory axonal excitability in normal mice.

    PubMed

    Banzrai, Chimeglkham; Nodera, Hiroyuki; Higashi, Saki; Okada, Ryo; Osaki, Yusuke; Mori, Atsuko; Kaji, Ryuji

    2016-01-12

    Serial recordings were performed to measure sensory excitability in peripheral nerves and elucidate age-dependent changes in neuronal ion currents in the peripheral sensory nervous system. The threshold tracking technique was used to measure multiple excitability indices in the tail sensory nerves of five normal male mice at four time points (6, 10, 14, and 19 weeks of age). A separate group of four mice was also measured at 43 weeks and at 60 weeks of age. Maturation was accompanied by an increase in early hyperpolarization and superexcitability at 10 weeks. At 60 weeks, the hyperpolarizing electrotonus shifted downward, while superexcitability became greater and subexcitability (double stimuli) decreased. Computer modeling showed that the most notable age-related interval changes in excitability parameters were Barrett-Barrett, H, and slow K(+) conductances. Understanding age-related changes in the excitability of sensory axons may provide a platform for understanding age-dependent sensory symptoms and developing age-specific channel-targeting therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The sensory system: More than just a window to the external world.

    PubMed

    Gendron, Christi M; Chung, Brian Y; Pletcher, Scott D

    2015-01-01

    While the traditional importance of the sensory system lies in its ability to perceive external information about the world, emerging discoveries suggest that sensory perception has a greater impact on health and longevity than was previously appreciated. These effects are conserved across species. In this mini-review, we discuss the specific sensory cues that have been identified to significantly impact organismal physiology and lifespan. Ongoing work in the aging field has begun to identify the downstream molecules that mediate the broad effects of sensory signals. Candidates include FOXO, neuropeptide F (NPF), adipokinetic hormone (AKH), dopamine, serotonin, and octopamine. We then discuss the many implications that arise from our current understanding of the effects of sensory perception on health and longevity.

  14. Haptic wearables as sensory replacement, sensory augmentation and trainer - a review.

    PubMed

    Shull, Peter B; Damian, Dana D

    2015-07-20

    Sensory impairments decrease quality of life and can slow or hinder rehabilitation. Small, computationally powerful electronics have enabled the recent development of wearable systems aimed to improve function for individuals with sensory impairments. The purpose of this review is to synthesize current haptic wearable research for clinical applications involving sensory impairments. We define haptic wearables as untethered, ungrounded body worn devices that interact with skin directly or through clothing and can be used in natural environments outside a laboratory. Results of this review are categorized by degree of sensory impairment. Total impairment, such as in an amputee, blind, or deaf individual, involves haptics acting as sensory replacement; partial impairment, as is common in rehabilitation, involves haptics as sensory augmentation; and no impairment involves haptics as trainer. This review found that wearable haptic devices improved function for a variety of clinical applications including: rehabilitation, prosthetics, vestibular loss, osteoarthritis, vision loss and hearing loss. Future haptic wearables development should focus on clinical needs, intuitive and multimodal haptic displays, low energy demands, and biomechanical compliance for long-term usage.

  15. Investigations of botanicals on food intake, satiety, weight loss and oxidative stress: study protocol of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Anton, Stephen D; Shuster, Jonathan; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2011-11-01

    Botanicals represent an important and underexplored source of potential new therapies that may facilitate caloric restriction and thereby may produce long-term weight loss. In particular, one promising botanical that may reduce food intake and body weight by affecting neuroendocrine pathways related to satiety is hydroxycitric acid (HCA) derived from Garcinia cambogia Desr. The objective of this article is to describe the protocol of a clinical trial designed to directly test the effects of Garcinia cambogia-derived HCA on food intake, satiety, weight loss and oxidative stress levels, and to serve as a model for similar trials. A total of 48 healthy, overweight or obese individuals (with a body mass index range of 25.0 to 39.9 kg/m(2)) between the ages of 50 to 70 will participate in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study designed to examine the effects of two doses of Garcinia cambogia-derived HCA on food intake, satiety, weight loss, and oxidative stress levels. Food intake represents the primary outcome measure and is calculated based on the total calories consumed at breakfast, lunch, and dinner meals during each test meal day. This study can be completed with far fewer subjects than a parallel design. Of the numerous botanical compounds, the compound Garcinia cambogia-derived HCA is selected for testing in the present study because of its potential to safely reduce food intake, body weight, and oxidative stress levels. We will review potential mechanisms of action and safety parameters throughout this clinical trial. ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT01238887).

  16. The Sensory Environment and Participation of Preschool Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Piller, Aimee; Pfeiffer, Beth

    2016-07-01

    Sensory processing is recognized as impacting participation for preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Little research exists to examine the impact of the sensory environment on the participation patterns of children with ASD, specifically from a contextual standpoint. The researchers in this study examined the viewpoint of teachers and occupational therapists on the sensory-related environmental barriers to participation within the preschool context. Qualitative descriptive methodology was used for data collection and analysis. Thirteen preschool teachers and occupational therapists were interviewed. Sensory aspects of the environment both inhibited and enhanced participation. Physical and temporal components of the environment are identified as being the most influential. Modifications of the environment are identified as increasing participation. It is important to consider the sensory aspects of the environment, in addition to the sensory processing patterns of the person in assessment and intervention planning within the preschool environment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Neural organization of linguistic short-term memory is sensory modality-dependent: evidence from signed and spoken language.

    PubMed

    Pa, Judy; Wilson, Stephen M; Pickell, Herbert; Bellugi, Ursula; Hickok, Gregory

    2008-12-01

    Despite decades of research, there is still disagreement regarding the nature of the information that is maintained in linguistic short-term memory (STM). Some authors argue for abstract phonological codes, whereas others argue for more general sensory traces. We assess these possibilities by investigating linguistic STM in two distinct sensory-motor modalities, spoken and signed language. Hearing bilingual participants (native in English and American Sign Language) performed equivalent STM tasks in both languages during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Distinct, sensory-specific activations were seen during the maintenance phase of the task for spoken versus signed language. These regions have been previously shown to respond to nonlinguistic sensory stimulation, suggesting that linguistic STM tasks recruit sensory-specific networks. However, maintenance-phase activations common to the two languages were also observed, implying some form of common process. We conclude that linguistic STM involves sensory-dependent neural networks, but suggest that sensory-independent neural networks may also exist.

  18. Differential Secretion of Satiety Hormones With Progression of Obesity in JCR: LA-corpulent Rats

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, Jill A.; Reimer, Raylene A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize the gastrointestinal tract at the onset and in well-established obesity. Methods and Procedures Lean (+/?) and obese (cp/cp) male JCR:LA-cp rats lacking a functional leptin receptor were killed at 3.5 weeks and 9 months of age and plasma concentrations of satiety hormones determined. The small intestine, colon, and stomach were measured, weighed, and mRNA levels of satiety genes quantified. Results At the onset of obesity, obese rats had greater intestine, colon, and liver mass when adjusted for body weight compared to lean rats. Conversely, adult rats with established obesity had lower intestine and colon mass and length after adjustment for body weight. Early changes in gene expression included decreased ghrelin mRNA levels in stomach and increased peptide YY (PYY) mRNA levels in duodenum of young obese rats. After massive accumulation of adipose tissue had occurred, adult obese rats had increased proglucagon and ghrelin mRNA expression in the proximal intestine. In the distal small intestine, obese rats had lower proglucagon, ghrelin, and PYY mRNA levels. Finally, at the onset and in well-established obesity, obese rats had higher plasma insulin, amylin, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and PYY, a finding, with the exception of insulin, unique to this model. Plasma total ghrelin levels were significantly lower at the onset of obesity and established obesity compared to the lean rats. Discussion Several defects are manifested in the obese gut early on in the disease before the accumulation of large excesses of body fat and represent potential targets for early intervention in obesity. PMID:18239578

  19. The evolutionarily conserved transcription factor PRDM12 controls sensory neuron development and pain perception.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Vanja; Cole, Tiffany; Van Campenhout, Claude; Khoung, Thang M; Leung, Calvin; Vermeiren, Simon; Novatchkova, Maria; Wenzel, Daniel; Cikes, Domagoj; Polyansky, Anton A; Kozieradzki, Ivona; Meixner, Arabella; Bellefroid, Eric J; Neely, G Gregory; Penninger, Josef M

    2015-01-01

    PR homology domain-containing member 12 (PRDM12) belongs to a family of conserved transcription factors implicated in cell fate decisions. Here we show that PRDM12 is a key regulator of sensory neuronal specification in Xenopus. Modeling of human PRDM12 mutations that cause hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) revealed remarkable conservation of the mutated residues in evolution. Expression of wild-type human PRDM12 in Xenopus induced the expression of sensory neuronal markers, which was reduced using various human PRDM12 mutants. In Drosophila, we identified Hamlet as the functional PRDM12 homolog that controls nociceptive behavior in sensory neurons. Furthermore, expression analysis of human patient fibroblasts with PRDM12 mutations uncovered possible downstream target genes. Knockdown of several of these target genes including thyrotropin-releasing hormone degrading enzyme (TRHDE) in Drosophila sensory neurons resulted in altered cellular morphology and impaired nociception. These data show that PRDM12 and its functional fly homolog Hamlet are evolutionary conserved master regulators of sensory neuronal specification and play a critical role in pain perception. Our data also uncover novel pathways in multiple species that regulate evolutionary conserved nociception.

  20. Calorie-induced ER stress suppresses uroguanylin satiety signaling in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Kim, G W; Lin, J E; Snook, A E; Aing, A S; Merlino, D J; Li, P; Waldman, S A

    2016-05-23

    The uroguanylin-GUCY2C gut-brain axis has emerged as one component regulating feeding, energy homeostasis, body mass and metabolism. Here, we explore a role for this axis in mechanisms underlying diet-induced obesity (DIO). Intestinal uroguanylin expression and secretion, and hypothalamic GUCY2C expression and anorexigenic signaling, were quantified in mice on high-calorie diets for 14 weeks. The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in suppressing uroguanylin in DIO was explored using tunicamycin, an inducer of ER stress, and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a chemical chaperone that inhibits ER stress. The impact of consumed calories on uroguanylin expression was explored by dietary manipulation. The role of uroguanylin in mechanisms underlying obesity was examined using Camk2a-Cre-ER(T2)-Rosa-STOP(loxP/loxP)-Guca2b mice in which tamoxifen induces transgenic hormone expression in brain. DIO suppressed intestinal uroguanylin expression and eliminated its postprandial secretion into the circulation. DIO suppressed uroguanylin through ER stress, an effect mimicked by tunicamycin and blocked by TUDCA. Hormone suppression by DIO reflected consumed calories, rather than the pathophysiological milieu of obesity, as a diet high in calories from carbohydrates suppressed uroguanylin in lean mice, whereas calorie restriction restored uroguanylin in obese mice. However, hypothalamic GUCY2C, enriched in the arcuate nucleus, produced anorexigenic signals mediating satiety upon exogenous agonist administration, and DIO did not impair these responses. Uroguanylin replacement by transgenic expression in brain repaired the hormone insufficiency and reconstituted satiety responses opposing DIO and its associated comorbidities, including visceral adiposity, glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis. These studies reveal a novel pathophysiological mechanism contributing to obesity in which calorie-induced suppression of intestinal uroguanylin impairs hypothalamic mechanisms

  1. Calorie-induced ER stress suppresses uroguanylin satiety signaling in diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, G W; Lin, J E; Snook, A E; Aing, A S; Merlino, D J; Li, P; Waldman, S A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The uroguanylin-GUCY2C gut–brain axis has emerged as one component regulating feeding, energy homeostasis, body mass and metabolism. Here, we explore a role for this axis in mechanisms underlying diet-induced obesity (DIO). Subjects/Methods: Intestinal uroguanylin expression and secretion, and hypothalamic GUCY2C expression and anorexigenic signaling, were quantified in mice on high-calorie diets for 14 weeks. The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in suppressing uroguanylin in DIO was explored using tunicamycin, an inducer of ER stress, and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a chemical chaperone that inhibits ER stress. The impact of consumed calories on uroguanylin expression was explored by dietary manipulation. The role of uroguanylin in mechanisms underlying obesity was examined using Camk2a-Cre-ERT2-Rosa-STOPloxP/loxP-Guca2b mice in which tamoxifen induces transgenic hormone expression in brain. Results: DIO suppressed intestinal uroguanylin expression and eliminated its postprandial secretion into the circulation. DIO suppressed uroguanylin through ER stress, an effect mimicked by tunicamycin and blocked by TUDCA. Hormone suppression by DIO reflected consumed calories, rather than the pathophysiological milieu of obesity, as a diet high in calories from carbohydrates suppressed uroguanylin in lean mice, whereas calorie restriction restored uroguanylin in obese mice. However, hypothalamic GUCY2C, enriched in the arcuate nucleus, produced anorexigenic signals mediating satiety upon exogenous agonist administration, and DIO did not impair these responses. Uroguanylin replacement by transgenic expression in brain repaired the hormone insufficiency and reconstituted satiety responses opposing DIO and its associated comorbidities, including visceral adiposity, glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis. Conclusions: These studies reveal a novel pathophysiological mechanism contributing to obesity in which calorie-induced suppression

  2. The effect of a portion size intervention on French fries consumption, plate waste, satiety and compensatory caloric intake: an on-campus restaurant experiment.

    PubMed

    Vermote, Marie; Versele, Vickà; Stok, Marijn; Mullie, Patrick; D'Hondt, Eva; Deforche, Benedicte; Clarys, Peter; Deliens, Tom

    2018-04-13

    One of the driving factors of dietary overconsumption throughout the last decennia is the increase of food portion sizes. Larger portions induce higher daily energy intake, so reducing portion size may reduce intake of excess calories. However, real-life studies about the effects of portion size reduction are lacking. Therefore, this study examined the effect of a French fries portion size reduction on French fries consumption, French fries plate waste, satiety and caloric intake during the subsequent afternoon among university students and employees in a Belgian on-campus restaurant setting. Moreover, this study evaluated consumers' perception about the portion size reduction. The study took place over a two-time (i.e. baseline and intervention week) 4-day period (Tuesday-Friday) in the on-campus restaurant where ±1200 meals are served every day. French fries' portions were reduced by 20% by replacing the usual porcelain bowl served during the baseline week (±200 g) with smaller volume paper bags during the intervention week (±159 g) in a pre-post real-life experiment. French fries consumption and plate waste were measured in 2056 consumers at baseline and 2175 consumers at intervention. Additionally, interviews were conducted directly after lunch and again between 4 and 6 p.m. on the same day to assess satiety and caloric intake at pre and post in a small subsample of both French fries consumers (n = 19) and non-French fries consumers (n = 14). Post-intervention, the same subsample was interviewed about their perception of the portion size reduction (n = 28). Total French fries intake decreased by 9.1%, and total plate waste decreased by 66.4%. No differences were found in satiety or caloric intake between baseline and intervention week among the French fries' consumers. The majority (n = 24, 86%) of French fries consumers noticed the reduction in portion size during the intervention. Although most participants (n = 19, 68%) perceived the

  3. Effects of 1 and 3 g cinnamon on gastric emptying, satiety, and postprandial blood glucose, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and ghrelin concentrations in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Hlebowicz, Anna; Lindstedt, Sandra; Björgell, Ola; Höglund, Peter; Holst, Jens J; Darwiche, Gassan; Almér, Lars-Olof

    2009-03-01

    A previous study of healthy subjects showed that intake of 6 g cinnamon with rice pudding reduced postprandial blood glucose and the gastric emptying rate (GER) without affecting satiety. The objective was to study the effect of 1 and 3 g cinnamon on GER, postprandial blood glucose, plasma concentrations of insulin and incretin hormones [glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)], the ghrelin response, and satiety in healthy subjects. GER was measured by using real-time ultrasonography after ingestion of rice pudding with and without 1 or 3 g cinnamon. Fifteen healthy subjects were assessed in a crossover trial. The addition of 1 or 3 g cinnamon had no significant effect on GER, satiety, glucose, GIP, or the ghrelin response. The insulin response at 60 min and the area under the curve (AUC) at 120 min were significantly lower after ingestion of rice pudding with 3 g cinnamon (P = 0.05 and P = 0.036, respectively, after Bonferroni correction). The change in GLP-1 response (DeltaAUC) and the change in the maximum concentration (DeltaC(max)) were both significantly higher after ingestion of rice pudding with 3 g cinnamon (P = 0.0082 and P = 0.0138, respectively, after Bonferroni correction). Ingestion of 3 g cinnamon reduced postprandial serum insulin and increased GLP-1 concentrations without significantly affecting blood glucose, GIP, the ghrelin concentration, satiety, or GER in healthy subjects. The results indicate a relation between the amount of cinnamon consumed and the decrease in insulin concentration.

  4. Effects of oatmeal and corn flakes cereal breakfasts on satiety, gastric emptying, glucose, and appetite-related hormones.

    PubMed

    Geliebter, Allan; Grillot, Charlotte L; Aviram-Friedman, Roni; Haq, Sakeena; Yahav, Eric; Hashim, Sami A

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which different types of breakfasts affect appetite and food intake is unclear. To assess the satiety effects of a high-fiber cereal, we compared oatmeal, isocaloric corn flakes, and water. Thirty-six subjects (18 lean, 18 overweight) were assigned to three conditions in a randomized sequence on different days. Ratings of hunger and fullness were obtained concurrently with blood samples for measuring concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, leptin, and acetaminophen (gastric emptying tracer). Appetite was assessed by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) for fullness and hunger, and by measuring food intake of an ad libitum lunch meal at 180 min. Lunch meal intake was lowest after consuming oatmeal (p < 0.00001), which was lower for overweight subjects than lean subjects (p = 0.007). Fullness AUC was greatest (p = 0.00001), and hunger AUC lowest (p < 0.001) after consuming oatmeal. At 180 min, blood glucose was lowest after the corn flakes (p = 0.0001). Insulin AUC was greater for both cereals than water (p < 0.00001). Leptin AUC and glucagon AUC values did not differ between conditions. Acetaminophen concentrations peaked latest after consuming oatmeal (p = 0.046), reflecting slower gastric emptying. Satiety was greater and ad libitum test meal intake lower after consuming oatmeal than after corn flakes, especially in the overweight subjects. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Sensory perception: lessons from synesthesia: using synesthesia to inform the understanding of sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Joshua Paul

    2013-06-01

    Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition's existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of "normal" sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion - the binding problem - as well as how sensory perception develops.

  6. Neuromorphic sensory systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shih-Chii; Delbruck, Tobi

    2010-06-01

    Biology provides examples of efficient machines which greatly outperform conventional technology. Designers in neuromorphic engineering aim to construct electronic systems with the same efficient style of computation. This task requires a melding of novel engineering principles with knowledge gleaned from neuroscience. We discuss recent progress in realizing neuromorphic sensory systems which mimic the biological retina and cochlea, and subsequent sensor processing. The main trends are the increasing number of sensors and sensory systems that communicate through asynchronous digital signals analogous to neural spikes; the improved performance and usability of these sensors; and novel sensory processing methods which capitalize on the timing of spikes from these sensors. Experiments using these sensors can impact how we think the brain processes sensory information. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Short-term effects of a low glycemic index carob-containing snack on energy intake, satiety, and glycemic response in normal-weight, healthy adults: Results from two randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Papakonstantinou, Emilia; Orfanakos, Nickolaos; Farajian, Paul; Kapetanakou, Anastasia E; Makariti, Ifigenia P; Grivokostopoulos, Nikolaos; Ha, Marie-Ann; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2017-10-01

    The potential positive health effects of carob-containing snacks are largely unknown. Therefore, the aims of these studies were to determine the glycemic index (GI) of a carob snack compared with chocolate cookie containing equal amounts of available carbohydrates and to compare the effects of a carob versus chocolate cookie preload consumed as snack before a meal on (a) short-term satiety response measured by subsequent ad libitum meal intake, (b) subjective satiety as assessed by visual analog scales and (c) postprandial glycemic response. Ten healthy, normal-weight volunteers participated in GI investigation. Then, 50 healthy, normal-weight individuals consumed, crossover, in random order, the preloads as snack, with 1-wk washout period. Ad libitum meal (lunch and dessert) was offered. Capillary blood glucose samples were collected at baseline, 2 h after breakfast, just before preload consumption, 2 h after preload, 3 h after preload, just before meal (lunch and dessert), 1 h after meal, and 2 h after meal consumption. The carob snack was a low GI food, whereas the chocolate cookie was a high GI food (40 versus 78, respectively, on glucose scale). Consumption of the carob preload decreased the glycemic response to a following meal and to the individual's feelings of hunger, desire to eat, preoccupation with food, and thirst between snack and meal, as assessed with the use of visual analog scales. Subsequently, participants consumed less amounts of food (g) and had lower total energy intake at mealtimes. The carob snack led to increased satiety, lower energy intake at meal, and decreased postmeal glycemic response possibly due to its low GI value. Identifying foods that promote satiety and decrease glycemic response without increasing the overall energy intake may offer advantages to body weight and glycemic control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An integrated method for the emotional conceptualization and sensory characterization of food products: The EmoSensory® Wheel.

    PubMed

    Schouteten, Joachim J; De Steur, Hans; De Pelsmaeker, Sara; Lagast, Sofie; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Gellynck, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    Although acceptability is commonly used to examine liking for food products, more studies now emphasize the importance of measuring consumers' conceptualizations, such as emotions for food products. It is also important to identify how consumers perceive the sensory attributes of food products, as illustrated by the increasing involvement of consumers in product characterization. The objective of this paper is to examine the use of a wheel-format questionnaire to obtain both an emotional and sensory profiles for food products using a hands-on consumer tool. Terms selected were product-specific and the rate-all-that-apply (RATA) approach was used as a scaling technique. Three different experiments demonstrated that the EmoSensory® Wheel could discriminate within and between food product categories. The added value of the RATA approach was illustrated in the sample discrimination for some food products when using the weighted attribute scores for analysis. The tool was used in both blind and informed conditions to illustrate its applicability across different experimental designs. In general, the respondents did not find the task tedious when using the wheel-questionnaire format, demonstrating the potential for collecting information in a more facile way. Although further studies with other food products are needed, this paper shows the potential for using this wheel format to obtain information about consumers' emotional and sensory profiling of food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Upper-limb sensory impairments after stroke: Self-reported experiences of daily life and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Håkan; Gard, Gunvor; Brogårdh, Christina

    2018-01-10

    To describe stroke survivors' experiences of sensory impairment in the upper limb, the influence of such impairment on daily life, coping strategies used, and sensory training for the affected hand. A qualitative study with a content analysis approach. Fifteen post-stroke patients interviewed individually. Five categories emerged from the data: "Changed and varied perception of the sensation"; "Affected movement control"; "Problems using the hand in daily life"; "Various strategies to cope with upper limb disability"; and "Lack of sensory training". Numbness and tingling, changes in temperature sensitivity, and increased sensitivity to touch and pain were reported. Many subjects had difficulty adjusting their grip force and performing movements with precision. It was problematic and mentally fatiguing managing personal care and carrying out household and leisure activities. Practical adaptations, compensation with vision, increased concentration, and use of the less affected hand were strategies used to overcome difficulties. Despite their problems very few subjects had received any specific sensory training for the hand. Stroke survivors perceive that sensory impairment of the upper limb has a highly negative impact on daily life, but specific rehabilitation for the upper limb is lacking. These findings imply that the clinical management of upper limb sensory impairment after stroke requires more attention.

  10. Motor-sensory confluence in tactile perception.

    PubMed

    Saig, Avraham; Gordon, Goren; Assa, Eldad; Arieli, Amos; Ahissar, Ehud

    2012-10-03

    Perception involves motor control of sensory organs. However, the dynamics underlying emergence of perception from motor-sensory interactions are not yet known. Two extreme possibilities are as follows: (1) motor and sensory signals interact within an open-loop scheme in which motor signals determine sensory sampling but are not affected by sensory processing and (2) motor and sensory signals are affected by each other within a closed-loop scheme. We studied the scheme of motor-sensory interactions in humans using a novel object localization task that enabled monitoring the relevant overt motor and sensory variables. We found that motor variables were dynamically controlled within each perceptual trial, such that they gradually converged to steady values. Training on this task resulted in improvement in perceptual acuity, which was achieved solely by changes in motor variables, without any change in the acuity of sensory readout. The within-trial dynamics is captured by a hierarchical closed-loop model in which lower loops actively maintain constant sensory coding, and higher loops maintain constant sensory update flow. These findings demonstrate interchangeability of motor and sensory variables in perception, motor convergence during perception, and a consistent hierarchical closed-loop perceptual model.

  11. Tactile Sensory Supplementation of Gravitational References to Optimize Sensorimotor Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. O.; Paloski, W. H.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Wood, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    Integration of multi-sensory inputs to detect tilts relative to gravity is critical for sensorimotor control of upright orientation. Displaying body orientation using electrotactile feedback to the tongue has been developed by Bach-y- Rita and colleagues as a sensory aid to maintain upright stance with impaired vestibular feedback. This investigation has explored the effects of Tongue Elecrotactile Feedback (TEF) for control of posture and movement as a sensorimotor countermeasure, specifically addressing the optimal location of movement sensors.

  12. [Characterization of stem cells derived from the neonatal auditory sensory epithelium].

    PubMed

    Diensthuber, M; Heller, S

    2010-11-01

    In contrast to regenerating hair cell-bearing organs of nonmammalian vertebrates the adult mammalian organ of Corti appears to have lost its ability to maintain stem cells. The result is a lack of regenerative ability and irreversible hearing loss following auditory hair cell death. Unexpectedly, the neonatal auditory sensory epithelium has recently been shown to harbor cells with stem cell features. The origin of these cells within the cochlea's sensory epithelium is unknown. We applied a modified neurosphere assay to identify stem cells within distinct subregions of the neonatal mouse auditory sensory epithelium. Sphere cells were characterized by multiple markers and morphologic techniques. Our data reveal that both the greater and the lesser epithelial ridge contribute to the sphere-forming stem cell population derived from the auditory sensory epithelium. These self-renewing sphere cells express a variety of markers for neural and otic progenitor cells and mature inner ear cell types. Stem cells can be isolated from specific regions of the auditory sensory epithelium. The distinct features of these cells imply a potential application in the development of a cell replacement therapy to regenerate the damaged sensory epithelium.

  13. Towards Optogenetic Sensory Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Doroudchi, M. Mehdi; Greenberg, Kenneth P.; Zorzos, Anthony N.; Hauswirth, William W.; Fonstad, Clifton G.; Horsager, Alan; Boyden, Edward S.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last several years we have developed a rapidly-expanding suite of genetically-encoded reagents (e.g., ChR2, Halo, Arch, Mac, and others) that, when expressed in specific neuron types in the nervous system, enable their activities to be powerfully and precisely activated and silenced in response to light. If the genes that encode for these reagents can be delivered to cells in the body using gene therapy methods, and if the resultant protein payloads operate safely and effectively over therapeutically important periods of time, these molecules could subserve a set of precise prosthetics that use light as the trigger of information entry into the nervous system, e.g. for sensory replacement. Here we discuss the use of ChR2 to make the photoreceptor-deprived retina, as found in diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa, sensitive to light, enabling restoration of functional vision in a mouse model of blindness. We also discuss arrays of light sources that could be useful for delivering patterned sensory information into the nervous system. PMID:22255005

  14. Examining Sensory Quadrants in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Carmody, Thomas; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Mehta, Jyutika A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sensory quadrants in autism based on Dunn's Theory of Sensory Processing. The data for this study was collected as part of a cross-sectional study that examined sensory processing (using the Sensory Profile) in 103 persons with autism, 3-43 years of age, compared to 103 age- and gender-matched community…

  15. Design of a robotic device for assessment and rehabilitation of hand sensory function.

    PubMed

    Lambercy, Olivier; Robles, Alejandro Juárez; Kim, Yeongmi; Gassert, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of the Robotic Sensory Trainer, a robotic interface for assessment and therapy of hand sensory function. The device can provide three types of well controlled stimuli: (i) angular displacement at the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint using a remote-center-of-motion double-parallelogram structure, (ii) vibration stimuli at the fingertip, proximal phalange and palm, and (iii) pressure at the fingertip, while recording position, interaction force and feedback from the user over a touch screen. These stimuli offer a novel platform to investigate sensory perception in healthy subjects and patients with sensory impairments, with the potential to assess deficits and actively train detection of specific sensory cues in a standardized manner. A preliminary study with eight healthy subjects demonstrates the feasibility of using the Robotic Sensory Trainer to assess the sensory perception threshold in MCP angular position. An average just noticeable difference (JND) in the MCP joint angle of 2.46° (14.47%) was found, which is in agreement with previous perception studies. © 2011 IEEE

  16. Multichannel brain recordings in behaving Drosophila reveal oscillatory activity and local coherence in response to sensory stimulation and circuit activation

    PubMed Central

    Paulk, Angelique C.; Zhou, Yanqiong; Stratton, Peter; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    Neural networks in vertebrates exhibit endogenous oscillations that have been associated with functions ranging from sensory processing to locomotion. It remains unclear whether oscillations may play a similar role in the insect brain. We describe a novel “whole brain” readout for Drosophila melanogaster using a simple multichannel recording preparation to study electrical activity across the brain of flies exposed to different sensory stimuli. We recorded local field potential (LFP) activity from >2,000 registered recording sites across the fly brain in >200 wild-type and transgenic animals to uncover specific LFP frequency bands that correlate with: 1) brain region; 2) sensory modality (olfactory, visual, or mechanosensory); and 3) activity in specific neural circuits. We found endogenous and stimulus-specific oscillations throughout the fly brain. Central (higher-order) brain regions exhibited sensory modality-specific increases in power within narrow frequency bands. Conversely, in sensory brain regions such as the optic or antennal lobes, LFP coherence, rather than power, best defined sensory responses across modalities. By transiently activating specific circuits via expression of TrpA1, we found that several circuits in the fly brain modulate LFP power and coherence across brain regions and frequency domains. However, activation of a neuromodulatory octopaminergic circuit specifically increased neuronal coherence in the optic lobes during visual stimulation while decreasing coherence in central brain regions. Our multichannel recording and brain registration approach provides an effective way to track activity simultaneously across the fly brain in vivo, allowing investigation of functional roles for oscillations in processing sensory stimuli and modulating behavior. PMID:23864378

  17. Sensory nerve action potentials and sensory perception in women with arthritis of the hand.

    PubMed

    Calder, Kristina M; Martin, Alison; Lydiate, Jessica; MacDermid, Joy C; Galea, Victoria; MacIntyre, Norma J

    2012-05-10

    Arthritis of the hand can limit a person's ability to perform daily activities. Whether or not sensory deficits contribute to the disability in this population remains unknown. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if women with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the hand have sensory impairments. Sensory function in the dominant hand of women with hand OA or RA and healthy women was evaluated by measuring sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) from the median, ulnar and radial nerves, sensory mapping (SM), and vibratory and current perception thresholds (VPT and CPT, respectively) of the second and fifth digits. All SNAP amplitudes were significantly lower for the hand OA and hand RA groups compared with the healthy group (p < 0.05). No group differences were found for SNAP conduction velocities, SM, VPT, and CPT. We propose, based on these findings, that women with hand OA or RA may have axonal loss of sensory fibers in the median, ulnar and radial nerves. Less apparent were losses in conduction speed or sensory perception.

  18. Sensory nerve action potentials and sensory perception in women with arthritis of the hand

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arthritis of the hand can limit a person’s ability to perform daily activities. Whether or not sensory deficits contribute to the disability in this population remains unknown. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if women with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the hand have sensory impairments. Methods Sensory function in the dominant hand of women with hand OA or RA and healthy women was evaluated by measuring sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) from the median, ulnar and radial nerves, sensory mapping (SM), and vibratory and current perception thresholds (VPT and CPT, respectively) of the second and fifth digits. Results All SNAP amplitudes were significantly lower for the hand OA and hand RA groups compared with the healthy group (p < 0.05). No group differences were found for SNAP conduction velocities, SM, VPT, and CPT. Discussion We propose, based on these findings, that women with hand OA or RA may have axonal loss of sensory fibers in the median, ulnar and radial nerves. Less apparent were losses in conduction speed or sensory perception. PMID:22575001

  19. Eye Movement as an Indicator of Sensory Components in Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckner, Michael; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigated Neuro-Linguistic Programming eye movement model's claim that specific eye movements are indicative of specific sensory components in thought. Agreement between students' (N=48) self-reports and trained observers' records support visual and auditory portions of model; do not support kinesthetic portion. Interrater agreement supports…

  20. Impact of Exercise and Dietary Fatty Acid Composition from a High-fat Diet on Markers of Hunger and Satiety

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, JA; Watras, AC; Paton, CM; Wegner, FH; Adams, AK; Schoeller, DA

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of both dietary fatty acid composition and exercise vs. sedentary conditions on circulating levels of hunger and satiety hormones. Eight healthy males were randomized in a 2×2 crossover design. The four treatments were 3 days of HF diets (50% of energy) containing high saturated fat (22% of energy) with exercise (SE) or sedentary (SS) conditions, and high monounsaturated fat (30% of energy) with exercise (UE) or sedentary (US) conditions. Cycling exercise was completed at 45% of VO2max for 2h daily. On the third HF day, 20 blood specimens were drawn over a 24h period for each hormone (leptin, insulin, ghrelin, and peptide YY (PYY)). A visual analog scale (VAS) was completed hourly between 0800 and 2200. Average 24h leptin and insulin levels were lower while 24h PYY was higher during exercise vs sedentary conditions. FA composition did not differentially affect 24h hormone values. VAS scores for hunger and fullness did not differ between any treatment but did correlate with ghrelin, leptin, and insulin. High saturated or unsaturated fat diets did not differ with respect to markers of hunger or satiety. Exercise decreased 24h leptin and insulin while increasing PYY regardless of FA composition. PMID:21035513

  1. Reading with sounds: sensory substitution selectively activates the visual word form area in the blind.

    PubMed

    Striem-Amit, Ella; Cohen, Laurent; Dehaene, Stanislas; Amedi, Amir

    2012-11-08

    Using a visual-to-auditory sensory-substitution algorithm, congenitally fully blind adults were taught to read and recognize complex images using "soundscapes"--sounds topographically representing images. fMRI was used to examine key questions regarding the visual word form area (VWFA): its selectivity for letters over other visual categories without visual experience, its feature tolerance for reading in a novel sensory modality, and its plasticity for scripts learned in adulthood. The blind activated the VWFA specifically and selectively during the processing of letter soundscapes relative to both textures and visually complex object categories and relative to mental imagery and semantic-content controls. Further, VWFA recruitment for reading soundscapes emerged after 2 hr of training in a blind adult on a novel script. Therefore, the VWFA shows category selectivity regardless of input sensory modality, visual experience, and long-term familiarity or expertise with the script. The VWFA may perform a flexible task-specific rather than sensory-specific computation, possibly linking letter shapes to phonology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Modelling the sensory space of varietal wines: Mining of large, unstructured text data and visualisation of style patterns.

    PubMed

    Valente, Carlo C; Bauer, Florian F; Venter, Fritz; Watson, Bruce; Nieuwoudt, Hélène H

    2018-03-21

    The increasingly large volumes of publicly available sensory descriptions of wine raises the question whether this source of data can be mined to extract meaningful domain-specific information about the sensory properties of wine. We introduce a novel application of formal concept lattices, in combination with traditional statistical tests, to visualise the sensory attributes of a big data set of some 7,000 Chenin blanc and Sauvignon blanc wines. Complexity was identified as an important driver of style in hereto uncharacterised Chenin blanc, and the sensory cues for specific styles were identified. This is the first study to apply these methods for the purpose of identifying styles within varietal wines. More generally, our interactive data visualisation and mining driven approach opens up new investigations towards better understanding of the complex field of sensory science.

  3. SENSory re-learning of the UPPer limb after stroke (SENSUPP): study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Håkan; Rosén, Birgitta; Pessah-Rasmussen, Hélène; Björkman, Anders; Brogårdh, Christina

    2018-04-17

    Many stroke survivors suffer from sensory impairments of their affected upper limb (UL). Although such impairments can affect the ability to use the UL in everyday activities, very little attention is paid to sensory impairments in stroke rehabilitation. The purpose of this trial is to investigate if sensory re-learning in combination with task-specific training may prove to be more effective than task-specific training alone to improve sensory function of the hand, dexterity, the ability to use the hand in daily activities, perceived participation, and life satisfaction. This study is a single-blinded pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) with two treatment arms. The participants will be randomly assigned either to sensory re-learning in combination with task-specific training (sensory group) or to task-specific training only (control group). The training will consist of 2.5 h of group training per session, 2 times per week for 5 weeks. The primary outcome measures to assess sensory function are as follows: Semmes-Weinstein monofilament, Shape/Texture Identification (STI™) test, Fugl-Meyer Assessment-upper extremity (FMA-UE; sensory section), and tactile object identification test. The secondary outcome measures to assess motor function are as follows: Box and Block Test (BBT), mini Sollerman Hand Function Test (mSHFT), Modified Motor Assessment Scale (M-MAS), and Grippit. To assess the ability to use the hand in daily activities, perceived participation, and life satisfaction, the Motor Activity Log (MAL), Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) participation domain, and Life Satisfaction checklist will be used. Assessments will be performed pre- and post-training and at 3-month follow-up by independent assessors, who are blinded to the participants' group allocation. At the 3-month follow-up, the participants in the sensory group will also be interviewed about their general experience of the training and how effective

  4. Role for the satiety factor Oleoylethanolamide in alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Bilbao, Ainhoa; Serrano, Antonia; Cippitelli, Andrea; Pavón, Francisco J.; Giuffrida, Andrea; Suárez, Juan; García-Marchena, Nuria; Baixeras, Elena; de Heras, Raquel Gomez; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Parsons, Loren H.; Piomelli, Daniele; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is a satiety factor released by the gut that controls motivational responses for caloric foods. Here, using both, rat and mice models, we determined that the administration of alcohol releases OEA that, by engaging peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), reduces alcohol consumption. Animals lacking FAAH, the enzyme that degrades OEA, accumulates this lipid in response to ethanol and displayed reduced alcohol preference. Pharmacological administration of OEA reduced operant alcohol self-administration via a peripheral mechanism, since this effect was abrogated by chemical deafferentation with capsaicin. Intracerebral injection of PPARα agonists did not affect alcohol self-administration. OEA also abolished both, cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol self-administration and the enhancement of alcohol consumption induced by a period of alcohol deprivation, suggesting a role for OEA on alcohol relapse. In addition, animals fed with a liquid diet containing 10% alcohol displayed elevated plasma levels of OEA that decreases upon removal of alcohol in the diet. This decrease paralleled the onset of alcohol withdrawal (AWD) symptoms and the administration of OEA reduced the severity of AWD. Finally, OEA, by inhibiting the expression of lipogenic enzymes, reduces chronic alcohol-induced liver steatosis, an effect not observed in PPARα-deficient mice. These results link OEA to the homeostatic adaption to alcohol and opens new opportunities for the treatment of alcoholism. PMID:26037332

  5. Prebiotic Fibre Supplementation In Combination With Metformin Modifies Appetite, Energy Metabolism, And Gut Satiety Hormones In Obese Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyra, Kim Alicia

    The prebiotic fibre, oligofructose (OFS), reduces energy intake and improves glycemic control in rodents and man. Metformin (MT) is a commonly used insulin-sensitizing agent that may limit weight gain in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to determine if using OFS as an adjunct to MT therapy (AD) modifies satiety hormone production and metabolism in obese rats. Independently, OFS and MT decreased energy intake, body fat, hepatic triglyceride content, plasma leptin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) levels. OFS and AD but not MT rats showed superior glycemic control during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) compared to C. Area under the curve for GIP was lowest in ADThe prebiotic fibre, oligofructose (OFS), reduces energy intake and improves glycemic control in rodents and man. Metformin (MT) is a commonly used insulin-sensitizing agent that may limit weight gain in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to determine if using OFS as an adjunct to MT therapy (AD) modifies satiety hormone production and metabolism in obese rats. Independently, OFS and MT decreased energy intake, body fat, hepatic triglyceride content, plasma leptin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) levels. OFS and AD but not MT rats showed superior glycemic control during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) compared to C. Area under the curve for GIP was lowest in AD

  6. NOTCH SIGNALING ALTERS SENSORY OR NEURONAL CELL FATE SPECIFICATION OF INNER EAR STEM CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sang-Jun; Fujioka, Masato; Kim, Shi-Chan; Edge, Albert S.B.

    2011-01-01

    Multipotent progenitor cells in the otic placode give rise to the specialized cell types of the inner ear, including neurons, supporting cells and hair cells. The mechanisms governing acquisition of specific fates by the cells that form the cochleovestibular organs remain poorly characterized. Here we show that whereas blocking Notch signaling with a γ-secretase inhibitor increased the conversion of inner ear stem cells to hair cells by a mechanism that involved the upregulation of bHLH transcription factor, Math1 (mouse Atoh1), differentiation to a neuronal lineage was increased by expression of the Notch intracellular domain. The shift to a neuronal lineage could be attributed in part to the continued cell proliferation in cells that did not undergo sensory cell differentiation due to the high Notch signaling, but also involved upregulation of Ngn1. The Notch intracellular domain influenced Ngn1 indirectly by upregulation of Sox2, a transcription factor expressed in many neural progenitor cells, and directly by an interaction with an RBP-J binding site in the Ngn1 promoter/enhancer. The induction of Ngn1 was blocked partially by mutation of the RBP-J site and nearly completely when the mutation was combined with inhibition of Sox2 expression. Thus Notch signaling had a significant role in the fate specification of neurons and hair cells from inner ear stem cells, and decisions about cell fate were mediated in part by a differential effect of combinatorial signaling by Notch and Sox2 on the expression of bHLH transcription factors. PMID:21653840

  7. Comparative proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins between peripheral sensory and motor nerves.

    PubMed

    He, Qianru; Man, Lili; Ji, Yuhua; Zhang, Shuqiang; Jiang, Maorong; Ding, Fei; Gu, Xiaosong

    2012-06-01

    Peripheral sensory and motor nerves have different functions and different approaches to regeneration, especially their distinct ability to accurately reinervate terminal nerve pathways. To understand the molecular aspects underlying these differences, the proteomics technique by coupling isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) with online two-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (2D LC-MS/MS) was used to investigate the protein profile of sensory and motor nerve samples from rats. A total of 1472 proteins were identified in either sensory or motor nerve. Of them, 100 proteins showed differential expressions between both nerves, and some of them were validated by quantitative real time RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. In the light of functional categorization, the differentially expressed proteins in sensory and motor nerves, belonging to a broad range of classes, were related to a diverse array of biological functions, which included cell adhesion, cytoskeleton, neuronal plasticity, neurotrophic activity, calcium-binding, signal transduction, transport, enzyme catalysis, lipid metabolism, DNA-binding, synaptosome function, actin-binding, ATP-binding, extracellular matrix, and commitment to other lineages. The relatively higher expressed proteins in either sensory or motor nerve were tentatively discussed in combination with their specific molecular characteristics. It is anticipated that the database generated in this study will provide a solid foundation for further comprehensive investigation of functional differences between sensory and motor nerves, including the specificity of their regeneration.

  8. Simultaneous activation of parallel sensory pathways promotes a grooming sequence in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hampel, Stefanie; McKellar, Claire E

    2017-01-01

    A central model that describes how behavioral sequences are produced features a neural architecture that readies different movements simultaneously, and a mechanism where prioritized suppression between the movements determines their sequential performance. We previously described a model whereby suppression drives a Drosophila grooming sequence that is induced by simultaneous activation of different sensory pathways that each elicit a distinct movement (Seeds et al., 2014). Here, we confirm this model using transgenic expression to identify and optogenetically activate sensory neurons that elicit specific grooming movements. Simultaneous activation of different sensory pathways elicits a grooming sequence that resembles the naturally induced sequence. Moreover, the sequence proceeds after the sensory excitation is terminated, indicating that a persistent trace of this excitation induces the next grooming movement once the previous one is performed. This reveals a mechanism whereby parallel sensory inputs can be integrated and stored to elicit a delayed and sequential grooming response. PMID:28887878

  9. 3D hierarchical spatial representation and memory of multimodal sensory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosla, Deepak; Dow, Paul A.; Huber, David J.

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes an efficient method and system for representing, processing and understanding multi-modal sensory data. More specifically, it describes a computational method and system for how to process and remember multiple locations in multimodal sensory space (e.g., visual, auditory, somatosensory, etc.). The multimodal representation and memory is based on a biologically-inspired hierarchy of spatial representations implemented with novel analogues of real representations used in the human brain. The novelty of the work is in the computationally efficient and robust spatial representation of 3D locations in multimodal sensory space as well as an associated working memory for storage and recall of these representations at the desired level for goal-oriented action. We describe (1) A simple and efficient method for human-like hierarchical spatial representations of sensory data and how to associate, integrate and convert between these representations (head-centered coordinate system, body-centered coordinate, etc.); (2) a robust method for training and learning a mapping of points in multimodal sensory space (e.g., camera-visible object positions, location of auditory sources, etc.) to the above hierarchical spatial representations; and (3) a specification and implementation of a hierarchical spatial working memory based on the above for storage and recall at the desired level for goal-oriented action(s). This work is most useful for any machine or human-machine application that requires processing of multimodal sensory inputs, making sense of it from a spatial perspective (e.g., where is the sensory information coming from with respect to the machine and its parts) and then taking some goal-oriented action based on this spatial understanding. A multi-level spatial representation hierarchy means that heterogeneous sensory inputs (e.g., visual, auditory, somatosensory, etc.) can map onto the hierarchy at different levels. When controlling various machine

  10. Fgf10 is required for specification of non-sensory regions of the cochlear epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Urness, Lisa D.; Wang, Xiaofen; Shibata, Shumei; Ohyama, Takahiro; Mansour, Suzanne L.

    2015-01-01

    The vertebrate inner ear is a morphologically complex sensory organ comprised of two compartments, the dorsal vestibular apparatus and the ventral cochlear duct, required for motion and sound detection, respectively. Fgf10, in addition to Fgf3, is necessary for the earliest stage of otic placode induction, but continued expression of Fgf10 in the developing otic epithelium, including the prosensory domain and later in Kolliker’s organ, suggests additional roles for this gene during morphogenesis of the labyrinth. While loss of Fgf10 was implicated previously in semicircular canal agenesis, we show that Fgf10−/+ embryos also exhibit a reduction or absence of the posterior semicircular canal, revealing a dosage-sensitive requirement for FGF10 in vestibular development. In addition, we show that Fgf10−/− embryos have previously unappreciated defects of cochlear morphogenesis, including a somewhat shortened duct, and, surprisingly, a substantially narrower duct. The mutant cochlear epithelium lacks Reissner’s membrane and a large portion of the outer sulcus--two non-contiguous, non-sensory domains. Marker gene analyses revealed effects on Reissner’s membrane as early as E12.5–E13.5 and on the outer sulcus by E15.5, stages when Fgf10 is expressed in close proximity to Fgfr2b, but these effects were not accompanied by changes in epithelial cell proliferation or death. These data indicate a dual role for Fgf10 in cochlear development: to regulate outgrowth of the duct and subsequently as a bidirectional signal that sequentially specifies Reissner’s membrane and outer sulcus non-sensory domains. These findings may help to explain the hearing loss sometimes observed in LADD syndrome subjects with FGF10 mutations. PMID:25624266

  11. Measuring Sensory Reactivity in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Application and Simplification of a Clinician-Administered Sensory Observation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavassoli, Teresa; Bellesheim, Katherine; Siper, Paige M.; Wang, A. Ting; Halpern, Danielle; Gorenstein, Michelle; Grodberg, David; Kolevzon, Alexander; Buxbaum, Joseph D.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory reactivity is a new DSM-5 criterion for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study aims to validate a clinician-administered sensory observation in ASD, the Sensory Processing Scale Assessment (SPS). The SPS and the Short Sensory Profile (SSP) parent-report were used to measure sensory reactivity in children with ASD (n = 35) and…

  12. Bilateral Sensory Abnormalities in Patients with Unilateral Neuropathic Pain; A Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) Study

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A.; Struys, Michel M.R.F.; van Wijhe, Marten

    2012-01-01

    In patients who experience unilateral chronic pain, abnormal sensory perception at the non-painful side has been reported. Contralateral sensory changes in these patients have been given little attention, possibly because they are regarded as clinically irrelevant. Still, bilateral sensory changes in these patients could become clinically relevant if they challenge the correct identification of their sensory dysfunction in terms of hyperalgesia and allodynia. Therefore, we have used the standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) to investigate somatosensory function at the painful side and the corresponding non-painful side in unilateral neuropathic pain patients using gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers as a reference cohort. Sensory abnormalities were observed across all QST parameters at the painful side, but also, to a lesser extent, at the contralateral, non-painful side. Similar relative distributions regarding sensory loss/gain for non-nociceptive and nociceptive stimuli were found for both sides. Once a sensory abnormality for a QST parameter at the affected side was observed, the prevalence of an abnormality for the same parameter at the non-affected side was as high as 57% (for Pressure Pain Threshold). Our results show that bilateral sensory dysfunction in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain is more rule than exception. Therefore, this phenomenon should be taken into account for appropriate diagnostic evaluation in clinical practice. This is particularly true for mechanical stimuli where the 95% Confidence Interval for the prevalence of sensory abnormalities at the non-painful side ranges between 33% and 50%. PMID:22629414

  13. Slack channels expressed in sensory neurons control neuropathic pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ruirui; Bausch, Anne E; Kallenborn-Gerhardt, Wiebke; Stoetzer, Carsten; Debruin, Natasja; Ruth, Peter; Geisslinger, Gerd; Leffler, Andreas; Lukowski, Robert; Schmidtko, Achim

    2015-01-21

    Slack (Slo2.2) is a sodium-activated potassium channel that regulates neuronal firing activities and patterns. Previous studies identified Slack in sensory neurons, but its contribution to acute and chronic pain in vivo remains elusive. Here we generated global and sensory neuron-specific Slack mutant mice and analyzed their behavior in various animal models of pain. Global ablation of Slack led to increased hypersensitivity in models of neuropathic pain, whereas the behavior in models of inflammatory and acute nociceptive pain was normal. Neuropathic pain behaviors were also exaggerated after ablation of Slack selectively in sensory neurons. Notably, the Slack opener loxapine ameliorated persisting neuropathic pain behaviors. In conclusion, Slack selectively controls the sensory input in neuropathic pain states, suggesting that modulating its activity might represent a novel strategy for management of neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351125-11$15.00/0.

  14. Sensory adaptation for timing perception.

    PubMed

    Roseboom, Warrick; Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-04-22

    Recent sensory experience modifies subjective timing perception. For example, when visual events repeatedly lead auditory events, such as when the sound and video tracks of a movie are out of sync, subsequent vision-leads-audio presentations are reported as more simultaneous. This phenomenon could provide insights into the fundamental problem of how timing is represented in the brain, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the effect of recent experience on timing perception is not just subjective; recent sensory experience also modifies relative timing discrimination. This result indicates that recent sensory history alters the encoding of relative timing in sensory areas, excluding explanations of the subjective phenomenon based only on decision-level changes. The pattern of changes in timing discrimination suggests the existence of two sensory components, similar to those previously reported for visual spatial attributes: a lateral shift in the nonlinear transducer that maps relative timing into perceptual relative timing and an increase in transducer slope around the exposed timing. The existence of these components would suggest that previous explanations of how recent experience may change the sensory encoding of timing, such as changes in sensory latencies or simple implementations of neural population codes, cannot account for the effect of sensory adaptation on timing perception.

  15. Sensory Sensitivities and Performance on Sensory Perceptual Tasks in High-Functioning Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minshew, Nancy J.; Hobson, Jessica A.

    2008-01-01

    Most reports of sensory symptoms in autism are second hand or observational, and there is little evidence of a neurological basis. Sixty individuals with high-functioning autism and 61 matched typical participants were administered a sensory questionnaire and neuropsychological tests of elementary and higher cortical sensory perception. Thirty-two…

  16. Satiety and the role of μ-opioid receptors in the portal vein.

    PubMed

    De Vadder, Filipe; Gautier-Stein, Amandine; Mithieux, Gilles

    2013-12-01

    Mu-opioid receptors (MORs) are known to influence food intake at the brain level, through their involvement in the food reward system. MOR agonists stimulate food intake. On the other hand, MOR antagonists suppress food intake. MORs are also active in peripheral organs, especially in the small intestine where they control the gut motility. Recently, an indirect role in the control of food intake was ascribed to MORs in the extrinsic gastrointestinal neural system. MORs present in the neurons of the portal vein walls sense blood peptides released from the digestion of dietary protein. These peptides behave as MOR antagonists. Their MOR antagonist action initiates a gut-brain circuitry resulting in the induction of intestinal gluconeogenesis, a function controlling food intake. Thus, periportal MORs are a key mechanistic link in the satiety effect of protein-enriched diets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SENSORY SYSTEMS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to many neurotoxic compounds has been shown to produce a sensory system dysfunction. Neurophysiological assessment of sensory function in humans and animal models often uses techniques known as sensory evoked potentials. Because both humans and animals show analogous res...

  18. Sensory-Challenge Balance Exercises Improve Multisensory Reweighting in Fall-Prone Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Allison, Leslie K; Kiemel, Tim; Jeka, John J

    2018-04-01

    Multisensory reweighting (MSR) deficits in older adults contribute to fall risk. Sensory-challenge balance exercises may have value for addressing the MSR deficits in fall-prone older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of sensory-challenge balance exercises on MSR and clinical balance measures in fall-prone older adults. We used a quasi-experimental, repeated-measures, within-subjects design. Older adults with a history of falls underwent an 8-week baseline (control) period. This was followed by an 8-week intervention period that included 16 sensory-challenge balance exercise sessions performed with computerized balance training equipment. Measurements, taken twice before and once after intervention, included laboratory measures of MSR (center of mass gain and phase, position, and velocity variability) and clinical tests (Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, Berg Balance Scale, Sensory Organization Test, Limits of Stability test, and lower extremity strength and range of motion). Twenty adults 70 years of age and older with a history of falls completed all 16 sessions. Significant improvements were observed in laboratory-based MSR measures of touch gain (P = 0.006) and phase (P = 0.05), Berg Balance Scale (P = 0.002), Sensory Organization Test (P = 0.002), Limits of Stability Test (P = 0.001), and lower extremity strength scores (P = 0.005). Mean values of vision gain increased more than those for touch gain, but did not reach significance. A balance exercise program specifically targeting multisensory integration mechanisms improved MSR, balance, and lower extremity strength in this mechanistic study. These valuable findings provide the scientific rationale for sensory-challenge balance exercise to improve perception of body position and motion in space and potential reduction in fall risk.

  19. Impact of heating on sensory properties of French Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) blue cheeses. Relationships with physicochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Bord, Cécile; Guerinon, Delphine; Lebecque, Annick

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the impact of heating on the sensory properties of blue-veined cheeses in order to characterise their sensory properties and to identify their specific sensory typology associated with physicochemical parameters. Sensory profiles were performed on a selection of Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheeses representing the four blue-veined cheese categories produced in the Massif Central (Fourme d'Ambert, Fourme de Montbrison, Bleu d'Auvergne and Bleu des Causses). At the same time, physicochemical parameters were measured in these cheeses. The relationship between these two sets of data was investigated. Four types of blue-veined cheeses displayed significantly different behaviour after heating and it is possible to discriminate these cheese categories through specific sensory attributes. Fourme d'Ambert and Bleu d'Auvergne exhibited useful culinary properties: they presented good meltability, stretchability and a weak oiling-off. However, basic tastes (salty, bitter and sour) are also sensory attributes which can distinguish heated blue cheeses. The relationship between the sensory and physicochemical data indicated a correlation suggesting that some of these sensory properties may be explained by certain physicochemical parameters of heated cheeses. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Subsecond Sensory Modulation of Serotonin Levels in a Primary Sensory Area and Its Relation to Ongoing Communication Behavior in a Weakly Electric Fish.

    PubMed

    Fotowat, Haleh; Harvey-Girard, Erik; Cheer, Joseph F; Krahe, Rüdiger; Maler, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Serotonergic neurons of the raphe nuclei of vertebrates project to most regions of the brain and are known to significantly affect sensory processing. The subsecond dynamics of sensory modulation of serotonin levels and its relation to behavior, however, remain unknown. We used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to measure serotonin release in the electrosensory system of weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus . These fish use an electric organ to generate a quasi-sinusoidal electric field for communicating with conspecifics. In response to conspecific signals, they frequently produce signal modulations called chirps. We measured changes in serotonin concentration in the hindbrain electrosensory lobe (ELL) with a resolution of 0.1 s concurrently with chirping behavior evoked by mimics of conspecific electric signals. We show that serotonin release can occur phase locked to stimulus onset as well as spontaneously in the ELL region responsible for processing these signals. Intense auditory stimuli, on the other hand, do not modulate serotonin levels in this region, suggesting modality specificity. We found no significant correlation between serotonin release and chirp production on a trial-by-trial basis. However, on average, in the trials where the fish chirped, there was a reduction in serotonin release in response to stimuli mimicking similar-sized same-sex conspecifics. We hypothesize that the serotonergic system is part of an intricate sensory-motor loop: serotonin release in a sensory area is triggered by sensory input, giving rise to motor output, which can in turn affect serotonin release at the timescale of the ongoing sensory experience and in a context-dependent manner.

  1. A simple method for purification of vestibular hair cells and non-sensory cells, and application for proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Herget, Meike; Scheibinger, Mirko; Guo, Zhaohua; Jan, Taha A; Adams, Christopher M; Cheng, Alan G; Heller, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Mechanosensitive hair cells and supporting cells comprise the sensory epithelia of the inner ear. The paucity of both cell types has hampered molecular and cell biological studies, which often require large quantities of purified cells. Here, we report a strategy allowing the enrichment of relatively pure populations of vestibular hair cells and non-sensory cells including supporting cells. We utilized specific uptake of fluorescent styryl dyes for labeling of hair cells. Enzymatic isolation and flow cytometry was used to generate pure populations of sensory hair cells and non-sensory cells. We applied mass spectrometry to perform a qualitative high-resolution analysis of the proteomic makeup of both the hair cell and non-sensory cell populations. Our conservative analysis identified more than 600 proteins with a false discovery rate of <3% at the protein level and <1% at the peptide level. Analysis of proteins exclusively detected in either population revealed 64 proteins that were specific to hair cells and 103 proteins that were only detectable in non-sensory cells. Statistical analyses extended these groups by 53 proteins that are strongly upregulated in hair cells versus non-sensory cells and vice versa by 68 proteins. Our results demonstrate that enzymatic dissociation of styryl dye-labeled sensory hair cells and non-sensory cells is a valid method to generate pure enough cell populations for flow cytometry and subsequent molecular analyses.

  2. Sensory perception in autism.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Caroline E; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental condition, and little is known about its neurobiology. Much of autism research has focused on the social, communication and cognitive difficulties associated with the condition. However, the recent revision of the diagnostic criteria for autism has brought another key domain of autistic experience into focus: sensory processing. Here, we review the properties of sensory processing in autism and discuss recent computational and neurobiological insights arising from attention to these behaviours. We argue that sensory traits have important implications for the development of animal and computational models of the condition. Finally, we consider how difficulties in sensory processing may relate to the other domains of behaviour that characterize autism.

  3. Effect of fat replacement by inulin or lupin-kernel fibre on sausage patty acceptability, post-meal perceptions of satiety and food intake in men.

    PubMed

    Archer, Bridie J; Johnson, Stuart K; Devereux, Helen M; Baxter, Amynta L

    2004-04-01

    The present study examined whether replacing fat with inulin or lupin-kernel fibre influenced palatability, perceptions of satiety, and food intake in thirty-three healthy men (mean age 52 years, BMI 27.4 kg/m(2)), using a within-subject design. On separate occasions, after fasting overnight, the participants consumed a breakfast consisting primarily of either a full-fat sausage patty (FFP) or a reduced-fat patty containing inulin (INP) or lupin-kernel fibre (LKP). Breakfast variants were alike in mass, protein and carbohydrate content; however the INP and LKP breakfasts were 36 and 37 % lower in fat and 15 and 17 % lower in energy density respectively compared with the FFP breakfast. The participants rated their satiety before breakfast then evaluated patty acceptability. Satiety was rated immediately after consuming the breakfast, then over the subsequent 4.5 h whilst fasting. Food consumed until the end of the following day was recorded. All patties were rated above 'neither acceptable or unacceptable', however the INP rated lower for general acceptability (P=0.039) and the LKP lower for flavour (P=0.023) than the FFP. The LKP breakfast rated more satiating than the INP (P=0.010) and FFP (P=0.016) breakfasts. Total fat intake was 18 g lower on the day of the INP (P=0.035) and 26 g lower on the day of the LKP breakfast (P=0.013) than the FFP breakfast day. Energy intake was lower (1521 kJ) only on the day of the INP breakfast (P=0.039). Both inulin and lupin-kernel fibre appear to have potential as fat replacers in meat products and for reducing fat and energy intake in men.

  4. Linking Anxiety and Insistence on Sameness in Autistic Children: The Role of Sensory Hypersensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Karen R.; Stevenson, Ryan A.; Segers, Magali; Ncube, Busiswe L.; Sun, Sol Z.; Philipp-Muller, Aviva; Bebko, James M.; Barense, Morgan D.; Ferber, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Sensory hypersensitivity and insistence on sameness (I/S) are common, co-occurring features of autism, yet the relationship between them is poorly understood. This study assessed the impact of sensory hypersensitivity on the clinical symptoms of specific phobia, separation anxiety, social anxiety and I/S for autistic and typically developing (TD)…

  5. Sensory cortex limits cortical maps and drives top-down plasticity in thalamocortical circuits

    PubMed Central

    Zembrzycki, Andreas; Chou, Shen-Ju; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Stoykova, Anastassia; O’Leary, Dennis D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Primary somatosensory cortex (S1) contains a complete body map that mirrors subcortical maps developed by peripheral sensory input projecting to sensory hindbrain, thalamus, then S1. Peripheral changes during development alter these maps through ‘bottom-up’ plasticity. Unknown is how S1 size influences map organization and if an altered S1 map feedbacks to affect subcortical maps. We show in mice that S1 is significantly reduced by cortex-specific deletion of Pax6, resulting in a reduced body map and loss of body representations by exclusion of later-differentiating sensory thalamocortical input. An initially normal sensory thalamus was re-patterned to match the aberrant S1 map by apoptotic deletion of thalamic neurons representing body parts with axons excluded from S1. Deleted representations were rescued by altering competition between thalamocortical axons by sensory deprivation or increasing S1. Thus, S1 size determined resolution and completeness of body maps and engaged ‘top-down’ plasticity that re-patterned sensory thalamus to match S1. PMID:23831966

  6. Dissociating sensory from decision processes in human perceptual decision making.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Pim; Kok, Peter; de Lange, Floris P

    2015-12-15

    A key question within systems neuroscience is how the brain translates physical stimulation into a behavioral response: perceptual decision making. To answer this question, it is important to dissociate the neural activity underlying the encoding of sensory information from the activity underlying the subsequent temporal integration into a decision variable. Here, we adopted a decoding approach to empirically assess this dissociation in human magnetoencephalography recordings. We used a functional localizer to identify the neural signature that reflects sensory-specific processes, and subsequently traced this signature while subjects were engaged in a perceptual decision making task. Our results revealed a temporal dissociation in which sensory processing was limited to an early time window and consistent with occipital areas, whereas decision-related processing became increasingly pronounced over time, and involved parietal and frontal areas. We found that the sensory processing accurately reflected the physical stimulus, irrespective of the eventual decision. Moreover, the sensory representation was stable and maintained over time when it was required for a subsequent decision, but unstable and variable over time when it was task-irrelevant. In contrast, decision-related activity displayed long-lasting sustained components. Together, our approach dissects neuro-anatomically and functionally distinct contributions to perceptual decisions.

  7. Dissociating sensory from decision processes in human perceptual decision making

    PubMed Central

    Mostert, Pim; Kok, Peter; de Lange, Floris P.

    2015-01-01

    A key question within systems neuroscience is how the brain translates physical stimulation into a behavioral response: perceptual decision making. To answer this question, it is important to dissociate the neural activity underlying the encoding of sensory information from the activity underlying the subsequent temporal integration into a decision variable. Here, we adopted a decoding approach to empirically assess this dissociation in human magnetoencephalography recordings. We used a functional localizer to identify the neural signature that reflects sensory-specific processes, and subsequently traced this signature while subjects were engaged in a perceptual decision making task. Our results revealed a temporal dissociation in which sensory processing was limited to an early time window and consistent with occipital areas, whereas decision-related processing became increasingly pronounced over time, and involved parietal and frontal areas. We found that the sensory processing accurately reflected the physical stimulus, irrespective of the eventual decision. Moreover, the sensory representation was stable and maintained over time when it was required for a subsequent decision, but unstable and variable over time when it was task-irrelevant. In contrast, decision-related activity displayed long-lasting sustained components. Together, our approach dissects neuro-anatomically and functionally distinct contributions to perceptual decisions. PMID:26666393

  8. The transformation of multi-sensory experiences into memories during sleep.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Gideon

    2018-03-26

    Our everyday lives present us with a continuous stream of multi-modal sensory inputs. While most of this information is soon forgotten, sensory information associated with salient experiences can leave long-lasting memories in our minds. Extensive human and animal research has established that the hippocampus is critically involved in this process of memory formation and consolidation. However, the underlying mechanistic details are still only partially understood. Specifically, the hippocampus has often been suggested to encode information during experience, temporarily store it, and gradually transfer this information to the cortex during sleep. In rodents, ample evidence has supported this notion in the context of spatial memory, yet whether this process adequately describes the consolidation of multi-sensory experiences into memories is unclear. Here, focusing on rodent studies, I examine how multi-sensory experiences are consolidated into long term memories by hippocampal and cortical circuits during sleep. I propose that in contrast to the classical model of memory consolidation, the cortex is a "fast learner" that has a rapid and instructive role in shaping hippocampal-dependent memory consolidation. The proposed model may offer mechanistic insight into memory biasing using sensory cues during sleep. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigations of botanicals on food intake, satiety, weight loss, and oxidative stress: a study protocol of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Stephen D.; Shuster, Jonathan; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2013-01-01

    Background Botanicals represent an important and underexplored source of potential new therapies that may facilitate caloric restriction and thereby produce long-term weight loss. In particular, one promising botanical that may reduce food intake and body weight by affecting neuroendocrine pathways related to satiety is Garcinia cambogia (Garcinia cambogia Desr.)-derived (−)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA). Methods and Design The objective of this article is to describe the protocol of a clinical trial designed to directly test the effect that Garcinia cambogia-derived HCA has on food intake, satiety, weight loss, and oxidative stress levels, and to serve as a model for similar trials. A total of 48 healthy, overweight and obese individuals (body mass index; BMI range = 25.0 – 39.9) between the ages of 50 to 70 will participate in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study designed to examine the effects of two doses of Garcinia cambogia-derived HCA on food intake, satiety, weight loss, and oxidative stress levels. This trial will take place at the University of Florida (UF)’s Aging and Rehabilitation Research Center (ARRC) and UF Clinical Research Center (CRC). Food intake represents the primary outcome measure and is calculated based on the total calories consumed at breakfast, lunch, and dinner meals during each test meal day at the CRC. This study can be completed with far fewer subjects than a parallel design. Discussion Of the numerous botanical compounds, the compound Garcinia cambogia-derived HCA was selected for testing in the present study because of its potential to safely reduce food intake, body weight, and oxidative stress levels. We will review potential mechanisms of action and safety parameters throughout this clinical trial, which is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under NCT01238887. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT01238887). PMID:22088584

  10. Satiety effects of a whole-grain fibre composite ingredient: reduced food intake and appetite ratings.

    PubMed

    Harrold, Joanne; Breslin, Leanne; Walsh, Jennifer; Halford, Jason; Pelkman, Christine

    2014-10-01

    The current study assesses the impact on appetite and food intake of a novel co-processed ingredient containing a viscous fibre and whole-grain high-amylose corn flour, a source of type 1 and type 2 resistant starch (HAM-RS). Ninety adults completed a crossover, placebo-controlled study comparing two doses of the ingredient (20 and 30 g) to a maltodextrin control in a fruit-based smoothie served with breakfast. Ad libitum food intake was measured over the day and visual analogue scales were used to assess subjective appetite sensations. Subjects consumed 7% less energy intake at dinner following the 30 g dose (p = 0.02) compared to control. In addition, a trend for lower lunch intake (5% less weight of food) was observed for the 20 g dose (p = 0.10). Reductions were also observed for the two meals combined, with 3% lower energy intake for the 20 g dose (p = 0.04) and 5% less weight of food consumed for the 30 g dose (p = 0.04). Lower ratings of hunger were reported at 3 h after breakfast for both doses and also at 2 and 3 h after lunch for the 30 g dose. With ratings combined to compute an overall appetite score, a trend for lower appetite scores at 3 h after breakfast was found for both doses. Consistent with this, significant reductions in AUC hunger and prospective consumption were identified in the 30 g condition. A similar pattern of results was observed for fullness and desire to eat. The results of this study show that a new composite satiety ingredient comprised of a viscous fibre and whole-grain corn flour can affect acute satiety responses in men and women.

  11. Differences in attention to food and food intake between overweight/obese and normal-weight females under conditions of hunger and satiety.

    PubMed

    Nijs, Ilse M T; Muris, Peter; Euser, Anja S; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2010-04-01

    Starting from an addiction model of obesity, the present study examined differences in attention for food-related stimuli and food intake between overweight/obese and normal-weight women under conditions of hunger and satiety. Twenty-six overweight/obese (BMI: 30.00+/-4.62) and 40 normal-weight (BMI: 20.63+/-1.14) females were randomly assigned to a condition of hunger or satiety. Three indexes of attention were employed, all including pictures of food items: an eye-tracking paradigm (gaze direction and duration), a visual probe task (reaction times), and a recording of electrophysiological brain activity (amplitude of the P300 event-related potential). In addition, the acute food intake of participants was assessed using a bogus taste task. In general, an attentional bias towards food pictures was found in all participants. No differences between groups or conditions were observed in the eye-tracking data. The visual probe task revealed an enhanced automatic orientation towards food cues in hungry versus satiated, and in overweight/obese versus normal-weight individuals, but no differences between groups or conditions in maintained attention. The P300 amplitude showed that only in normal-weight participants the intentional allocation of attention to food pictures was enhanced in hunger versus satiety. In hungry overweight/obese participants, the P300 bias for food pictures was not clearly present, although an increased food intake was observed especially in this group. In conclusion, various attention-related tasks yielded various results, suggesting that they measure different underlying processes. Strikingly, overweight/obese individuals appear to automatically direct their attention to food-related stimuli, to a greater extent than normal-weight individuals, particularly when food-deprived. Speculatively, hungry overweight/obese individuals also appear to use cognitive strategies to reduce a maintained attentional bias for food stimuli, perhaps in an attempt to

  12. Chronic sensory stroke with and without central pain is associated with bilaterally distributed sensory abnormalities as detected by quantitative sensory testing.

    PubMed

    Krause, Thomas; Asseyer, Susanna; Geisler, Frederik; Fiebach, Jochen B; Oeltjenbruns, Jochen; Kopf, Andreas; Villringer, Kersten; Villringer, Arno; Jungehulsing, Gerhard J

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 20% of patients suffering from stroke with pure or predominant sensory symptoms (referred to as sensory stroke patients) develop central poststroke pain (CPSP). It is largely unknown what distinguishes these patients from those who remain pain free. Using quantitative sensory testing (QST), we analyzed the somatosensory profiles of 50 patients with chronic sensory stroke, of which 25 suffered from CPSP. As compared with reference data from healthy controls, patients with CPSP showed alterations of thermal and mechanical thresholds on the body area contralateral to their stroke (P < 0.01). Patients with sensory stroke but without CPSP (non-pain sensory stroke [NPSS] patients) exhibited similar albeit less pronounced contralesional changes. Paradoxical heat sensation (PHS) and dynamic mechanical allodynia (DMA) showed higher values in CPSP, and an elevated cold detection threshold (CDT) was seen more often in CPSP than in patients with NPSS (P < 0.05). In patients with CPSP, changes in CDT, PHS, dynamic mechanical allodynia, and temporal pain summation (wind-up ratio) each correlated with the presence of pain (P < 0.05). On the homologous ipsilesional body area, both patient groups showed additional significant abnormalities as compared with the reference data, which strongly resembled the contralesional changes. In summary, our analysis reveals that CPSP is associated with impaired temperature perception and positive sensory signs, but differences between patients with CPSP and NPSS are subtle. Both patients with CPSP and NPSS show considerable QST changes on the ipsilesional body side. These results are in part paralleled by recent findings of bilaterally spread cortical atrophy in CPSP and might reflect chronic maladaptive cortical plasticity, particularly in patients with CPSP.

  13. Comparison of the Effects of Goat Dairy and Cow Dairy Based Breakfasts on Satiety, Appetite Hormones, and Metabolic Profile.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Martín, Elehazara; García-Escobar, Eva; Ruiz de Adana, Maria-Soledad; Lima-Rubio, Fuensanta; Peláez, Laura; Caracuel, Angel-María; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco-Javier; Soriguer, Federico; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Olveira, Gabriel

    2017-08-15

    The satiating effects of cow dairy have been thoroughly investigated; however, the effects of goat dairy on appetite have not been reported so far. Our study investigates the satiating effect of two breakfasts based on goat or cow dairy and their association with appetite related hormones and metabolic profile. Healthy adults consumed two breakfasts based on goat (G-Breakfast) or cow (C-Breakfast) dairy products. Blood samples were taken and VAS tests were performed at different time points. Blood metabolites were measured and Combined Satiety Index (CSI) and areas under the curves (AUC) were calculated. Desire to eat rating was significantly lower (breakfast & time interaction p < 0.01) and hunger rating tended to be lower (breakfast & time interaction p = 0.06) after the G-breakfast. None of the blood parameters studied were different between breakfasts; however, AUC GLP-1 was inversely associated with the AUC hunger and AUC desire-to-eat after the G-Breakfast, whereas triglyceride levels were directly associated with AUC CSI after the C-Breakfast. Our results suggest a slightly higher satiating effect of goat dairy when compared to cow dairy products, and pointed to a potential association of GLP-1 and triglyceride levels with the mechanisms by which dairy products might affect satiety after the G-Breakfast and C-Breakfast, respectively.

  14. Link Between Increased Satiety Gut Hormones and Reduced Food Reward After Gastric Bypass Surgery for Obesity.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, Anthony P; Miras, Alexander D; Scholtz, Samantha; Jackson, Sabrina; Neff, Karl J; Pénicaud, Luc; Geoghegan, Justin; Chhina, Navpreet; Durighel, Giuliana; Bell, Jimmy D; Meillon, Sophie; le Roux, Carel W

    2016-02-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is an effective long-term intervention for weight loss maintenance, reducing appetite, and also food reward, via unclear mechanisms. To investigate the role of elevated satiety gut hormones after RYGB, we examined food hedonic-reward responses after their acute post-prandial suppression. These were randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover experimental medicine studies. Two groups, more than 5 months after RYGB for obesity (n = 7-11), compared with nonobese controls (n = 10), or patients after gastric banding (BAND) surgery (n = 9) participated in the studies. Studies were performed after acute administration of the somatostatin analog octreotide or saline. In one study, patients after RYGB, and nonobese controls, performed a behavioral progressive ratio task for chocolate sweets. In another study, patients after RYGB, and controls after BAND surgery, performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging food picture evaluation task. Octreotide increased both appetitive food reward (breakpoint) in the progressive ratio task (n = 9), and food appeal (n = 9) and reward system blood oxygen level-dependent signal (n = 7) in the functional magnetic resonance imaging task, in the RYGB group, but not in the control groups. Octreotide suppressed postprandial plasma peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1, and fibroblast growth factor-19 after RYGB. The reduction in plasma peptide YY with octreotide positively correlated with the increase in brain reward system blood oxygen level-dependent signal in RYGB/BAND subjects, with a similar trend for glucagon-like peptide-1. Enhanced satiety gut hormone responses after RYGB may be a causative mechanism by which anatomical alterations of the gut in obesity surgery modify behavioral and brain reward responses to food.

  15. A note on eating disorders and appetite and satiety in the orthodox Jewish meal.

    PubMed

    Shafran, Yigal; Wolowelsky, Joel B

    2013-03-01

    The relationship between religion and eating concerns is receiving increasing empirical attention; and because religion seems to be important to many women with eating concerns, there is an interest in investigating the role religion plays and ways that religion might be employed therapeutically. Research has indicated that women who feel loved and accepted by God are buffered from eating disorder risk factors. An aspect of religiosity that is unique to Judaism is Halakhah, the system of Jewish Law and Ethics which informs the life of a religiously observant orthodox Jew. In this note, we briefly describe how Halakhah approaches the issues of appetite and satiety in eating meals. These might well contribute to the protective influence regarding tendencies for eating disorders in a person whose culture demands an awareness of and commitment to halakhic norms. Some of the most significant characteristics of disordered eating-lack of appetite, disturbed satiated response, withdrawal from community and decreased spirituality-correlate inversely with the halakhic requirements of eating a meal. We suggest that future studies of orthodox Jewish women measuring eating-order symptomatology and its correlation with religiosity might focus not only on well-known indicators of halakhic adherence such as kashrut and Sabbath observance, but also on the specifics of how their kosher meals are eaten, including ritually washing one's hands before eating, saying the appropriate blessing before and after eating, eating the required two meals on the Sabbath, and fully participating in the Passover Seder meal.

  16. Multi-Sensory Intervention Observational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2011-01-01

    An observational research study based on sensory integration theory was conducted to examine the observed impact of student selected multi-sensory experiences within a multi-sensory intervention center relative to the sustained focus levels of students with special needs. A stratified random sample of 50 students with severe developmental…

  17. Evaluating Sensory Processing in Fragile X Syndrome: Psychometric Analysis of the Brain Body Center Sensory Scales (BBCSS).

    PubMed

    Kolacz, Jacek; Raspa, Melissa; Heilman, Keri J; Porges, Stephen W

    2018-06-01

    Individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS), especially those co-diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), face many sensory processing challenges. However, sensory processing measures informed by neurophysiology are lacking. This paper describes the development and psychometric properties of a parent/caregiver report, the Brain-Body Center Sensory Scales (BBCSS), based on Polyvagal Theory. Parents/guardians reported on 333 individuals with FXS, 41% with ASD features. Factor structure using a split-sample exploratory-confirmatory design conformed to neurophysiological predictions. Internal consistency, test-retest, and inter-rater reliability were good to excellent. BBCSS subscales converged with the Sensory Profile and Sensory Experiences Questionnaire. However, data also suggest that BBCSS subscales reflect unique features related to sensory processing. Individuals with FXS and ASD features displayed more sensory challenges on most subscales.

  18. Sensory impacts of food-packaging interactions.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Susan E; Webster, Janet B

    2009-01-01

    Sensory changes in food products result from intentional or unintentional interactions with packaging materials and from failure of materials to protect product integrity or quality. Resolving sensory issues related to plastic food packaging involves knowledge provided by sensory scientists, materials scientists, packaging manufacturers, food processors, and consumers. Effective communication among scientists and engineers from different disciplines and industries can help scientists understand package-product interactions. Very limited published literature describes sensory perceptions associated with food-package interactions. This article discusses sensory impacts, with emphasis on oxidation reactions, associated with the interaction of food and materials, including taints, scalping, changes in food quality as a function of packaging, and examples of material innovations for smart packaging that can improve sensory quality of foods and beverages. Sensory evaluation is an important tool for improved package selection and development of new materials.

  19. Role of sufficient statistics in stochastic thermodynamics and its implication to sensory adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Takumi; Sagawa, Takahiro

    2018-04-01

    A sufficient statistic is a significant concept in statistics, which means a probability variable that has sufficient information required for an inference task. We investigate the roles of sufficient statistics and related quantities in stochastic thermodynamics. Specifically, we prove that for general continuous-time bipartite networks, the existence of a sufficient statistic implies that an informational quantity called the sensory capacity takes the maximum. Since the maximal sensory capacity imposes a constraint that the energetic efficiency cannot exceed one-half, our result implies that the existence of a sufficient statistic is inevitably accompanied by energetic dissipation. We also show that, in a particular parameter region of linear Langevin systems there exists the optimal noise intensity at which the sensory capacity, the information-thermodynamic efficiency, and the total entropy production are optimized at the same time. We apply our general result to a model of sensory adaptation of E. coli and find that the sensory capacity is nearly maximal with experimentally realistic parameters.

  20. The contribution of cutaneous and kinesthetic sensory modalities in haptic perception of orientation.

    PubMed

    Frisoli, Antonio; Solazzi, Massimiliano; Reiner, Miriam; Bergamasco, Massimo

    2011-06-30

    The aim of this study was to understand the integration of cutaneous and kinesthetic sensory modalities in haptic perception of shape orientation. A specific robotic apparatus was employed to simulate the exploration of virtual surfaces by active touch with two fingers, with kinesthetic only, cutaneous only and combined sensory feedback. The cutaneous feedback was capable of displaying the local surface orientation at the contact point, through a small plate indenting the fingerpad at contact. A psychophysics test was conducted with SDT methodology on 6 subjects to assess the discrimination threshold of angle perception between two parallel surfaces, with three sensory modalities and two shape sizes. Results show that the cutaneous sensor modality is not affected by size of shape, but kinesthetic performance is decreasing with smaller size. Cutaneous and kinesthetic sensory cues are integrated according to a Bayesian model, so that the combined sensory stimulation always performs better than single modalities alone. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding Sensory Integration. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMatties, Marie E.; Sammons, Jennifer H.

    This brief paper summarizes what is known about sensory integration and sensory integration dysfunction (DSI). It outlines evaluation of DSI, treatment approaches, and implications for parents and teachers, including compensatory strategies for minimizing the impact of DSI on a child's life. Review of origins of sensory integration theory in the…

  2. Toward an Interdisciplinary Understanding of Sensory Dysfunction in Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Integration of the Neural and Symptom Literatures

    PubMed Central

    Schauder, Kimberly B.; Bennetto, Loisa

    2016-01-01

    Sensory processing differences have long been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and they have recently been added to the diagnostic criteria for the disorder. The focus on sensory processing in ASD research has increased substantially in the last decade. This research has been approached from two different perspectives: the first focuses on characterizing the symptoms that manifest in response to real world sensory stimulation, and the second focuses on the neural pathways and mechanisms underlying sensory processing. The purpose of this paper is to integrate the empirical literature on sensory processing in ASD from the last decade, including both studies characterizing sensory symptoms and those that investigate neural response to sensory stimuli. We begin with a discussion of definitions to clarify some of the inconsistencies in terminology that currently exist in the field. Next, the sensory symptoms literature is reviewed with a particular focus on developmental considerations and the relationship of sensory symptoms to other core features of the disorder. Then, the neuroscience literature is reviewed with a focus on methodological approaches and specific sensory modalities. Currently, these sensory symptoms and neuroscience perspectives are largely developing independently from each other leading to multiple, but separate, theories and methods, thus creating a multidisciplinary approach to sensory processing in ASD. In order to progress our understanding of sensory processing in ASD, it is now critical to integrate these two research perspectives and move toward an interdisciplinary approach. This will inevitably aid in a better understanding of the underlying biological basis of these symptoms and help realize the translational value through its application to early identification and treatment. The review ends with specific recommendations for future research to help bridge these two research perspectives in order to advance our understanding

  3. Recent Advances in Insect Olfaction, Specifically Regarding the Morphology and Sensory Physiology of Antennal Sensilla of the Female Sphinx Moth Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    SHIELDS, VONNIE D.C.; HILDEBRAND, JOHN G.

    2008-01-01

    The antennal flagellum of female Manduca sexta bears eight sensillum types: two trichoid, two basiconic, one auriculate, two coeloconic, and one styliform complex sensilla. The first type of trichoid sensillum averages 34 μm in length and is innervated by two sensory cells. The second type averages 26 μm in length and is innervated by either one or three sensory cells. The first type of basiconic sensillum averages 22 μm in length, while the second type averages 15 μm in length. Both types are innervated by three bipolar sensory cells. The auriculate sensillum averages 4 μm in length and is innervated by two bipolar sensory cells. The coeloconic type-A and type-B both average 2 μm in length. The former type is innervated by five bipolar sensory cells, while the latter type, by three bipolar sensory cells. The styliform complex sensillum occurs singly on each annulus and averages 38-40 μm in length. It is formed by several contiguous sensilla. Each unit is innervated by three bipolar sensory cells. A total of 2,216 sensilla were found on a single annulus (annulus 21) of the flagellum. Electrophysiological responses from type-A trichoid sensilla to a large panel of volatile odorants revealed three different subsets of olfactory receptor cells (ORCs). Two subsets responded strongly to only a narrow range of odorants, while the third responded strongly to a broad range of odorants. Anterograde labeling of ORCs from type-A trichoid sensilla revealed that their axons projected mainly to two large female glomeruli of the antennal lobe. PMID:11754510

  4. The non-equilibrium and energetic cost of sensory adaptation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lan, G.; Sartori, Pablo; Tu, Y.

    2011-03-24

    Biological sensory systems respond to external signals in short time and adapt to permanent environmental changes over a longer timescale to maintain high sensitivity in widely varying environments. In this work we have shown how all adaptation dynamics are intrinsically non-equilibrium and free energy is dissipated. We show that the dissipated energy is utilized to maintain adaptation accuracy. A universal relation between the energy dissipation and the optimum adaptation accuracy is established by both a general continuum model and a discrete model i n the specific case of the well-known E. coli chemo-sensory adaptation. Our study suggests that cellular levelmore » adaptations are fueled by hydrolysis of high energy biomolecules, such as ATP. The relevance of this work lies on linking the functionality of a biological system (sensory adaptation) with a concept rooted in statistical physics (energy dissipation), by a mathematical law. This has been made possible by identifying a general sensory system with a non-equilibrium steady state (a stationary state in which the probability current is not zero, but its divergence is, see figure), and then numerically and analytically solving the Fokker-Planck and Master Equations which describe the sensory adaptive system. The application of our general results to the case of E. Coli has shed light on why this system uses the high energy SAM molecule to perform adaptation, since using the more common ATP would not suffice to obtain the required adaptation accuracy.« less

  5. Boar taint detection: A comparison of three sensory protocols.

    PubMed

    Trautmann, Johanna; Meier-Dinkel, Lisa; Gertheiss, Jan; Mörlein, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    While recent studies state an important role of human sensory methods for daily routine control of so-called boar taint, the evaluation of different heating methods is still incomplete. This study investigated three common heating methods (microwave (MW), hot-water (HW), hot-iron (HI)) for boar fat evaluation. The comparison was carried out on 72 samples with a 10-person sensory panel. The heating method significantly affected the probability of a deviant rating. Compared to an assumed 'gold standard' (chemical analysis), the performance was best for HI when both sensitivity and specificity were considered. The results show the superiority of the panel result compared to individual assessors. However, the consistency of the individual sensory ratings was not significantly different between MW, HW, and HI. The three protocols showed only fair to moderate agreement. Concluding from the present results, the hot-iron method appears to be advantageous for boar taint evaluation as compared to microwave and hot-water. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. A clinician-administered observation and corresponding caregiver interview capturing DSM-5 sensory reactivity symptoms in children with ASD.

    PubMed

    Siper, Paige M; Kolevzon, Alexander; Wang, A Ting; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Tavassoli, Teresa

    2017-06-01

    Sensory reactivity is a new criterion for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). However, there is no consensus on how to reliably measure sensory reactivity, particularly in minimally verbal individuals. The current study is an initial validation of the Sensory Assessment for Neurodevelopmental Disorders (SAND), a novel clinician-administered observation and corresponding caregiver interview that captures sensory symptoms based on DSM-5 criteria for ASD. Eighty children between the ages of 2 and 12 participated in this study; 44 children with ASD and 36 typically developing (TD) children. Sensory reactivity symptoms were measured using the SAND and the already validated Short Sensory Profile (SSP). Initial psychometric properties of the SAND were examined including reliability, validity, sensitivity and specificity. Children with ASD showed significantly more sensory reactivity symptoms compared to TD children across sensory domains (visual, tactile, and auditory) and within sensory subtypes (hyperreactivity, hyporeactivity and seeking). The SAND showed strong internal consistency, inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability, high sensitivity (95.5%) and specificity (91.7%), and strong convergent validity with the SSP. The SAND provides a novel method to characterize sensory reactivity symptoms based on DSM-5 criteria for ASD. This is the first known sensory assessment that combines a clinician-administered observation and caregiver interview to optimally capture sensory phenotypes characteristic of individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. The SAND offers a beneficial new tool for both research and clinical purposes and has the potential to meaningfully enhance gold-standard assessment of ASD. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1133-1140. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Modality-specific selective attention attenuates multisensory integration.

    PubMed

    Mozolic, Jennifer L; Hugenschmidt, Christina E; Peiffer, Ann M; Laurienti, Paul J

    2008-01-01

    Stimuli occurring in multiple sensory modalities that are temporally synchronous or spatially coincident can be integrated together to enhance perception. Additionally, the semantic content or meaning of a stimulus can influence cross-modal interactions, improving task performance when these stimuli convey semantically congruent or matching information, but impairing performance when they contain non-matching or distracting information. Attention is one mechanism that is known to alter processing of sensory stimuli by enhancing perception of task-relevant information and suppressing perception of task-irrelevant stimuli. It is not known, however, to what extent attention to a single sensory modality can minimize the impact of stimuli in the unattended sensory modality and reduce the integration of stimuli across multiple sensory modalities. Our hypothesis was that modality-specific selective attention would limit processing of stimuli in the unattended sensory modality, resulting in a reduction of performance enhancements produced by semantically matching multisensory stimuli, and a reduction in performance decrements produced by semantically non-matching multisensory stimuli. The results from two experiments utilizing a cued discrimination task demonstrate that selective attention to a single sensory modality prevents the integration of matching multisensory stimuli that is normally observed when attention is divided between sensory modalities. Attention did not reliably alter the amount of distraction caused by non-matching multisensory stimuli on this task; however, these findings highlight a critical role for modality-specific selective attention in modulating multisensory integration.

  8. Sensory Dysfunction and Sexuality in the U.S. Population of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Selena; Pinto, Jayant M; Wroblewski, Kristen E; McClintock, Martha K

    2018-04-01

    The sexual experience is shaped by sensory function; with aging, sensory dysfunction may interfere with sexuality and sexual behavior between partners. Specifically, older adults with age-related sensory dysfunction may have less sexual activity than those with better sensory function. In addition, since sexual desire and attraction rests in part upon sensory function, sensory dysfunction may also be associated with less sexual motivation. To test the association between sexual activity and motivation in older adults and their sensory dysfunction. Sensory dysfunction was measured both by global sensory impairment (a validated measure of dysfunction shared among the 5 classic senses: olfaction, vision, taste, touch, hearing) and by total sensory burden (cumulative sensory loss). Sexual activity was quantified by frequency and type of sexual behavior. Sexual motivation was measured by the frequency of sexual ideation and the importance of sex to the respondent. We used cross-sectional data from a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older adults (aged 57-85 years) in the United States (National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, N = 3,005) in logistic regression analyses. Sexual activity, sexual motivation, and satisfaction with the sexual relationship were self-reported. Older adults with sensory dysfunction were less likely to be sexually active-an association that persisted when accounting for other factors that also affected sexual activity (age, gender, partnered status, mental and physical health, and relationship satisfaction). Nonetheless, sensory dysfunction did not impair sexual motivation, nor affect the physical and emotional satisfaction with the sexual relationship. Among currently sexually active older adults, sensory dysfunction did not affect the frequency of sex or the type of sexual activity (foreplay, vaginal intercourse, or oral sex). These results were the same for 2 different measures of sensory dysfunction. This is the

  9. Perception of olive oils sensory defects using a potentiometric taste device.

    PubMed

    Veloso, Ana C A; Silva, Lucas M; Rodrigues, Nuno; Rebello, Ligia P G; Dias, Luís G; Pereira, José A; Peres, António M

    2018-01-01

    The capability of perceiving olive oils sensory defects and intensities plays a key role on olive oils quality grade classification since olive oils can only be classified as extra-virgin if no defect can be perceived by a human trained sensory panel. Otherwise, olive oils may be classified as virgin or lampante depending on the median intensity of the defect predominantly perceived and on the physicochemical levels. However, sensory analysis is time-consuming and requires an official sensory panel, which can only evaluate a low number of samples per day. In this work, the potential use of an electronic tongue as a taste sensor device to identify the defect predominantly perceived in olive oils was evaluated. The potentiometric profiles recorded showed that intra- and inter-day signal drifts could be neglected (i.e., relative standard deviations lower than 25%), being not statistically significant the effect of the analysis day on the overall recorded E-tongue sensor fingerprints (P-value = 0.5715, for multivariate analysis of variance using Pillai's trace test), which significantly differ according to the olive oils' sensory defect (P-value = 0.0084, for multivariate analysis of variance using Pillai's trace test). Thus, a linear discriminant model based on 19 potentiometric signal sensors, selected by the simulated annealing algorithm, could be established to correctly predict the olive oil main sensory defect (fusty, rancid, wet-wood or winey-vinegary) with average sensitivity of 75 ± 3% and specificity of 73 ± 4% (repeated K-fold cross-validation variant: 4 folds×10 repeats). Similarly, a linear discriminant model, based on 24 selected sensors, correctly classified 92 ± 3% of the olive oils as virgin or lampante, being an average specificity of 93 ± 3% achieved. The overall satisfactory predictive performances strengthen the feasibility of the developed taste sensor device as a complementary methodology for olive oils' defects analysis and subsequent

  10. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control.

    PubMed

    Teng, Ya-Ling; Chen, Chiung-Ling; Lou, Shu-Zon; Wang, Wei-Tsan; Wu, Jui-Yen; Ma, Hui-Ing; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP) postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99); controls (76.53±7.47); t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory conditions, which

  11. Mapping the sensory perception of apple using descriptive sensory evaluation in a genome wide association study

    PubMed Central

    Amyotte, Beatrice; Bowen, Amy J.; Banks, Travis; Rajcan, Istvan; Somers, Daryl J.

    2017-01-01

    Breeding apples is a long-term endeavour and it is imperative that new cultivars are selected to have outstanding consumer appeal. This study has taken the approach of merging sensory science with genome wide association analyses in order to map the human perception of apple flavour and texture onto the apple genome. The goal was to identify genomic associations that could be used in breeding apples for improved fruit quality. A collection of 85 apple cultivars was examined over two years through descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained sensory panel. The trained sensory panel scored randomized sliced samples of each apple cultivar for seventeen taste, flavour and texture attributes using controlled sensory evaluation practices. In addition, the apple collection was subjected to genotyping by sequencing for marker discovery. A genome wide association analysis suggested significant genomic associations for several sensory traits including juiciness, crispness, mealiness and fresh green apple flavour. The findings include previously unreported genomic regions that could be used in apple breeding and suggest that similar sensory association mapping methods could be applied in other plants. PMID:28231290

  12. Mapping the sensory perception of apple using descriptive sensory evaluation in a genome wide association study.

    PubMed

    Amyotte, Beatrice; Bowen, Amy J; Banks, Travis; Rajcan, Istvan; Somers, Daryl J

    2017-01-01

    Breeding apples is a long-term endeavour and it is imperative that new cultivars are selected to have outstanding consumer appeal. This study has taken the approach of merging sensory science with genome wide association analyses in order to map the human perception of apple flavour and texture onto the apple genome. The goal was to identify genomic associations that could be used in breeding apples for improved fruit quality. A collection of 85 apple cultivars was examined over two years through descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained sensory panel. The trained sensory panel scored randomized sliced samples of each apple cultivar for seventeen taste, flavour and texture attributes using controlled sensory evaluation practices. In addition, the apple collection was subjected to genotyping by sequencing for marker discovery. A genome wide association analysis suggested significant genomic associations for several sensory traits including juiciness, crispness, mealiness and fresh green apple flavour. The findings include previously unreported genomic regions that could be used in apple breeding and suggest that similar sensory association mapping methods could be applied in other plants.

  13. Attenuated Auditory Event-Related Potentials and Associations with Atypical Sensory Response Patterns in Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Donkers, Franc C.L.; Schipul, Sarah E.; Baranek, Grace T.; Cleary, Katherine M.; Willoughby, Michael T.; Evans, Anna M.; Bulluck, John C.; Lovmo, Jeanne E.; Belger, Aysenil

    2015-01-01

    Neurobiological underpinnings of unusual sensory features in individuals with autism are unknown. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by task-irrelevant sounds were used to elucidate neural correlates of auditory processing and associations with three common sensory response patterns (hyperresponsiveness; hyporesponsiveness; sensory seeking). Twenty-eight children with autism and 39 typically developing children (4–12 year-olds) completed an auditory oddball paradigm. Results revealed marginally attenuated P1 and N2 to standard tones and attenuated P3a to novel sounds in autism versus controls. Exploratory analyses suggested that within the autism group, attenuated N2 and P3a amplitudes were associated with greater sensory seeking behaviors for specific ranges of P1 responses. Findings suggest that attenuated early sensory as well as later attention-orienting neural responses to stimuli may underlie selective sensory features via complex mechanisms. PMID:24072639

  14. The Relationship Between Autistic Traits and Atypical Sensory Functioning in Neurotypical and ASD Adults: A Spectrum Approach.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Jennifer L

    2017-02-01

    Sensory processing atypicalities are a common feature in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and have previously been linked to a range of behaviours in individuals with ASD and atypical neurological development. More recently research has demonstrated a relationship between autistic traits in the neurotypical (NT) population and increased levels of atypical sensory behaviours. The aim of the present study is to extend previous research by examining specific patterns across aspects of autistic traits and sensory behaviours within both ASD and NT populations. The present study recruited 580 NT adults and 42 high-functioning ASD adults with a confirmed diagnosis to investigate the relationship between specific aspects of autistic traits and sensory processing using the subscales of the autism spectrum quotient (AQ) and adult/adolescent sensory profile (AASP). Results showed a significant relationship between all subscales except for attention to detail and imagination on the AQ and provided the first evidence that the strength and pattern of this relationship is identical between NT and ASD adults. These data also provided support for the broader autism phenotype, uncovering a clear progression of sensory atypicalities in line with an increase in autistic traits, regardless of diagnostic status, which has potential implications for the spectrum approach to ASD and how sensory behaviours across the whole of the neurotypical population are conceptualised.

  15. Clinical neurophysiology and quantitative sensory testing in the investigation of orofacial pain and sensory function.

    PubMed

    Jääskeläinen, Satu K

    2004-01-01

    Chronic orofacial pain represents a diagnostic and treatment challenge for the clinician. Some conditions, such as atypical facial pain, still lack proper diagnostic criteria, and their etiology is not known. The recent development of neurophysiological methods and quantitative sensory testing for the examination of the trigeminal somatosensory system offers several tools for diagnostic and etiological investigation of orofacial pain. This review presents some of these techniques and the results of their application in studies on orofacial pain and sensory dysfunction. Clinical neurophysiological investigation has greater diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity than clinical examination in the detection of the neurogenic abnormalities of either peripheral or central origin that may underlie symptoms of orofacial pain and sensory dysfunction. Neurophysiological testing may also reveal trigeminal pathology when magnetic resonance imaging has failed to detect it, so these methods should be considered complementary to each other in the investigation of orofacial pain patients. The blink reflex, corneal reflex, jaw jerk, sensory neurography of the inferior alveolar nerve, and the recording of trigeminal somatosensory-evoked potentials with near-nerve stimulation have all proved to be sensitive and reliable in the detection of dysfunction of the myelinated sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve or its central connections within the brainstem. With appropriately small thermodes, thermal quantitative sensory testing is useful for the detection of trigeminal small-fiber dysfunction (Adelta and C). In neuropathic conditions, it is most sensitive to lesions causing axonal injury. By combining different techniques for investigation of the trigeminal system, an accurate topographical diagnosis and profile of sensory fiber pathology can be determined. Neurophysiological and quantitative sensory tests have already highlighted some similarities among various orofacial pain conditions

  16. Sensory aspects of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, Tourette’s syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed. PMID:24331796

  17. Maturation of Sensori-Motor Functional Responses in the Preterm Brain.

    PubMed

    Allievi, Alessandro G; Arichi, Tomoki; Tusor, Nora; Kimpton, Jessica; Arulkumaran, Sophie; Counsell, Serena J; Edwards, A David; Burdet, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth engenders an increased risk of conditions like cerebral palsy and therefore this time may be crucial for the brain's developing sensori-motor system. However, little is known about how cortical sensori-motor function matures at this time, whether development is influenced by experience, and about its role in spontaneous motor behavior. We aimed to systematically characterize spatial and temporal maturation of sensori-motor functional brain activity across this period using functional MRI and a custom-made robotic stimulation device. We studied 57 infants aged from 30 + 2 to 43 + 2 weeks postmenstrual age. Following both induced and spontaneous right wrist movements, we saw consistent positive blood oxygen level-dependent functional responses in the contralateral (left) primary somatosensory and motor cortices. In addition, we saw a maturational trend toward faster, higher amplitude, and more spatially dispersed functional responses; and increasing integration of the ipsilateral hemisphere and sensori-motor associative areas. We also found that interhemispheric functional connectivity was significantly related to ex-utero exposure, suggesting the influence of experience-dependent mechanisms. At term equivalent age, we saw a decrease in both response amplitude and interhemispheric functional connectivity, and an increase in spatial specificity, culminating in the establishment of a sensori-motor functional response similar to that seen in adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Sensory over responsivity and obsessive compulsive symptoms: A cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Ben-Sasson, Ayelet; Podoly, Tamar Yonit

    2017-02-01

    Several studies have examined the sensory component in Obsesseive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and described an OCD subtype which has a unique profile, and that Sensory Phenomena (SP) is a significant component of this subtype. SP has some commonalities with Sensory Over Responsivity (SOR) and might be in part a characteristic of this subtype. Although there are some studies that have examined SOR and its relation to Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms (OCS), literature lacks sufficient data on this interplay. First to further examine the correlations between OCS and SOR, and to explore the correlations between SOR modalities (i.e. smell, touch, etc.) and OCS subscales (i.e. washing, ordering, etc.). Second, to investigate the cluster analysis of SOR and OCS dimensions in adults, that is, to classify the sample using the sensory scores to find whether a sensory OCD subtype can be specified. Our third goal was to explore the psychometric features of a new sensory questionnaire: the Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ). A sample of non clinical adults (n=350) was recruited via e-mail, social media and social networks. Participants completed questionnaires for measuring SOR, OCS, and anxiety. SOR and OCI-F scores were moderately significantly correlated (n=274), significant correlations between all SOR modalities and OCS subscales were found with no specific higher correlation between one modality to one OCS subscale. Cluster analysis revealed four distinct clusters: (1) No OC and SOR symptoms (NONE; n=100), (2) High OC and SOR symptoms (BOTH; n=28), (3) Moderate OC symptoms (OCS; n=63), (4) Moderate SOR symptoms (SOR; n=83). The BOTH cluster had significantly higher anxiety levels than the other clusters, and shared OC subscales scores with the OCS cluster. The BOTH cluster also reported higher SOR scores across tactile, vision, taste and olfactory modalities. The SPQ was found reliable and suitable to detect SOR, the sample SPQ scores was normally distributed (n=350). SOR is a

  19. Diagnostic value of the near-nerve needle sensory nerve conduction in sensory inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Odabasi, Zeki; Oh, Shin J

    2018-03-01

    In this study we report the diagnostic value of the near-nerve needle sensory nerve conduction study (NNN-SNCS) in sensory inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (IDP) in which the routine nerve conduction study was normal or non-diagnostic. The NNN-SNCS was performed to identify demyelination in the plantar nerves in 14 patients and in the median or ulnar nerve in 2 patients with sensory IDP. In 16 patients with sensory IDP, routine NCSs were either normal or non-diagnostic for demyelination. Demyelination was identified by NNN-SNCS by dispersion and/or slow nerve conduction velocity (NCV) below the demyelination marker. Immunotherapy was initiated in 11 patients, 10 of whom improved or remained stable. NNN-SNCS played an essential role in identifying demyelinaton in 16 patients with sensory IDP, leading to proper treatment. Muscle Nerve 57: 414-418, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Sensory and non-sensory factors and the concept of externality in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Gardner, R M; Brake, S J; Reyes, B; Maestas, D

    1983-08-01

    9 obese and 9 normal subjects performed a psychophysical task in which food- or non-food-related stimuli were briefly flashed tachistoscopically at a speed and intensity near the visual threshold. A signal was presented on one-half the trials and noise only on the other one-half of the trials. Using signal detection theory methodology, separate measures of sensory sensitivity (d') and response bias (beta) were calculated. No differences were noted between obese and normal subjects on measures of sensory sensitivity but significant differences on response bias. Obese subjects had consistently lower response criteria than normal ones. Analysis for subjects categorized by whether they were restrained or unrestrained eaters gave findings identical to those for obese and normal. The importance of using a methodology that separates sensory and non-sensory factors in research on obesity is discussed.

  1. Subliminal action priming modulates the perceived intensity of sensory action consequences☆

    PubMed Central

    Stenner, Max-Philipp; Bauer, Markus; Sidarus, Nura; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Haggard, Patrick; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    The sense of control over the consequences of one’s actions depends on predictions about these consequences. According to an influential computational model, consistency between predicted and observed action consequences attenuates perceived stimulus intensity, which might provide a marker of agentic control. An important assumption of this model is that these predictions are generated within the motor system. However, previous studies of sensory attenuation have typically confounded motor-specific perceptual modulation with perceptual effects of stimulus predictability that are not specific to motor action. As a result, these studies cannot unambiguously attribute sensory attenuation to a motor locus. We present a psychophysical experiment on auditory attenuation that avoids this pitfall. Subliminal masked priming of motor actions with compatible prime–target pairs has previously been shown to modulate both reaction times and the explicit feeling of control over action consequences. Here, we demonstrate reduced perceived loudness of tones caused by compatibly primed actions. Importantly, this modulation results from a manipulation of motor processing and is not confounded by stimulus predictability. We discuss our results with respect to theoretical models of the mechanisms underlying sensory attenuation and subliminal motor priming. PMID:24333539

  2. Sensori-Motor Learning with Movement Sonification: Perspectives from Recent Interdisciplinary Studies.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Frédéric; Boyer, Eric O; Françoise, Jules; Houix, Olivier; Susini, Patrick; Roby-Brami, Agnès; Hanneton, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an interdisciplinary research project on movement sonification for sensori-motor learning. First, we describe different research fields which have contributed to movement sonification, from music technology including gesture-controlled sound synthesis, sonic interaction design, to research on sensori-motor learning with auditory-feedback. In particular, we propose to distinguish between sound-oriented tasks and movement-oriented tasks in experiments involving interactive sound feedback. We describe several research questions and recently published results on movement control, learning and perception. In particular, we studied the effect of the auditory feedback on movements considering several cases: from experiments on pointing and visuo-motor tracking to more complex tasks where interactive sound feedback can guide movements, or cases of sensory substitution where the auditory feedback can inform on object shapes. We also developed specific methodologies and technologies for designing the sonic feedback and movement sonification. We conclude with a discussion on key future research challenges in sensori-motor learning with movement sonification. We also point out toward promising applications such as rehabilitation, sport training or product design.

  3. P50 Sensory Gating and Attentional Performance

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Li; Friedman, Bruce H.; Boutros, Nash N.; Crawford, Helen J.

    2008-01-01

    Sensory gating refers to the preattentional filtering of irrelevant sensory stimuli. This process may be impaired in schizotypy, which is a trait also associated with cigarette smoking. This association may in part stem from the positive effects of smoking on sensory gating and attention. The relationship among sensory gating, smoking, schizotypy and attention was examined in 39 undergraduates. Sensory gating was indexed by the P50 suppression paradigm, and attention was measured by the Attention Network Test (ANT) and a Stroop task. Results showed sensory gating to be positively correlated with performances on ANT and Stroop reflected in better alerting, less conflict between stimuli, faster reaction time, and greater accuracy. Smokers showed a pattern of a greater number of significant correlations between sensory gating and attention in comparison to non-smokers, although the relationship between sensory gating and attention was not affected by schizotypy. The majority of significant correlations were found in the region surrounding Cz. These findings are discussed relative to the potential modifying influence of smoking and schizotypy on sensory gating and attention. PMID:18036692

  4. Sensory Substitution and Multimodal Mental Imagery.

    PubMed

    Nanay, Bence

    2017-09-01

    Many philosophers use findings about sensory substitution devices in the grand debate about how we should individuate the senses. The big question is this: Is "vision" assisted by (tactile) sensory substitution really vision? Or is it tactile perception? Or some sui generis novel form of perception? My claim is that sensory substitution assisted "vision" is neither vision nor tactile perception, because it is not perception at all. It is mental imagery: visual mental imagery triggered by tactile sensory stimulation. But it is a special form of mental imagery that is triggered by corresponding sensory stimulation in a different sense modality, which I call "multimodal mental imagery."

  5. Nontargeted metabolite profiles and sensory properties of strawberry cultivars grown both organically and conventionally.

    PubMed

    Kårlund, Anna; Hanhineva, Kati; Lehtonen, Marko; Karjalainen, Reijo O; Sandell, Mari

    2015-01-28

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) contains many secondary metabolites potentially beneficial for human health, and several of these compounds contribute to strawberry sensory properties, as well. In this study, three strawberry cultivars grown both conventionally and organically were subjected to nontargeted metabolite profiling analysis with LC-qTOF-ESI-MS and to descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained panel. Combined metabolome and sensory data (PLS model) revealed that 79% variation in the metabolome explained 88% variation in the sensory profiles. Flavonoids and condensed and hydrolyzable tannins determined the orosensory properties, and fatty acids contributed to the odor attributes of strawberry. Overall, the results indicated that the chemical composition and sensory quality of strawberries grown in different cultivation systems vary mostly according to cultivar. Organic farming practices may enhance the accumulation of some plant metabolites in specific strawberry genotypes. Careful cultivar selection is a key factor for the improvement of nutritional quality and marketing value of organic strawberries.

  6. Short-term depression and transient memory in sensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Gillary, Grant; Heydt, Rüdiger von der; Niebur, Ernst

    2017-12-01

    Persistent neuronal activity is usually studied in the context of short-term memory localized in central cortical areas. Recent studies show that early sensory areas also can have persistent representations of stimuli which emerge quickly (over tens of milliseconds) and decay slowly (over seconds). Traditional positive feedback models cannot explain sensory persistence for at least two reasons: (i) They show attractor dynamics, with transient perturbations resulting in a quasi-permanent change of system state, whereas sensory systems return to the original state after a transient. (ii) As we show, those positive feedback models which decay to baseline lose their persistence when their recurrent connections are subject to short-term depression, a common property of excitatory connections in early sensory areas. Dual time constant network behavior has also been implemented by nonlinear afferents producing a large transient input followed by much smaller steady state input. We show that such networks require unphysiologically large onset transients to produce the rise and decay observed in sensory areas. Our study explores how memory and persistence can be implemented in another model class, derivative feedback networks. We show that these networks can operate with two vastly different time courses, changing their state quickly when new information is coming in but retaining it for a long time, and that these capabilities are robust to short-term depression. Specifically, derivative feedback networks with short-term depression that acts differentially on positive and negative feedback projections are capable of dynamically changing their time constant, thus allowing fast onset and slow decay of responses without requiring unrealistically large input transients.

  7. The effect of a whey protein supplement dose on satiety and food intake in resistance training athletes.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie-Shalders, Kristen L; Byrne, Nuala M; Slater, Gary J; King, Neil A

    2015-09-01

    Many athletes perform resistance training and consume dietary protein as a strategy to promote anabolic adaptation. Due to its high satiety value, the regular addition of supplemented dietary protein could plausibly displace other key macronutrients such as carbohydrate in an athlete's diet. This effect will be influenced by the form and dose of protein. Therefore, this study assessed the impact of liquid whey protein dose manipulation on subjective sensations of appetite and food intake in a cohort of athletes. Ten male athletes who performed both resistance and aerobic (endurance) training (21.2 ± 2.3 years; 181.7 ± 5.7 cm and 80.8 ± 6.1 kg) were recruited. In four counter-balanced testing sessions they consumed a manipulated whey protein supplement (20, 40, 60 or 80 g protein) 1 hour after a standardised breakfast. Subsequent energy intake was measured 3 hours after the protein supplement using an ad libitum test meal. Subjective appetite sensations were measured periodically during the test day using visual analogue scales. All conditions resulted in a significant decrease in ratings of hunger (50-65%; P < 0.05) at the time of supplement consumption. However, there were no significant differences between the conditions at any time point for subjective appetite sensations or for energy consumed in the ad libitum meal: 4382 ± 1004, 4643 ± 982, 4514 ± 1112, 4177 ± 1494 kJ respectively. Increasing whey protein supplement dose above 20 g did not result in a measurable increase in satiety or decrease in food intake. However, the inclusion of additional whey protein supplementation where not otherwise consumed could plausibly reduce dietary intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Met receptor signaling is required for sensory nerve development and HGF promotes axonal growth and survival of sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Maina, Flavio; Hilton, Mark C.; Ponzetto, Carola; Davies, Alun M.; Klein, Rüdiger

    1997-01-01

    The development of the nervous system is a dynamic process during which factors act in an instructive fashion to direct the differentiation and survival of neurons, and to induce axonal outgrowth, guidance to, and terminal branching within the target tissue. Here we report that mice expressing signaling mutants of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor, the Met tyrosine kinase, show a striking reduction of sensory nerves innervating the skin of the limbs and thorax, implicating the HGF/Met system in sensory neuron development. Using in vitro assays, we find that HGF cooperates with nerve growth factor (NGF) to enhance axonal outgrowth from cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. HGF also enhances the neurotrophic activities of NGF in vitro, and Met receptor signaling is required for the survival of a proportion of DRG neurons in vivo. This synergism is specific for NGF but not for the related neurotrophins BDNF and NT3. By using a mild signaling mutant of Met, we have demonstrated previously that Met requires signaling via the adapter molecule Grb2 to induce proliferation of myoblasts. In contrast, the actions of HGF on sensory neurons are mediated by Met effectors distinct from Grb2. Our findings demonstrate a requirement for Met signaling in neurons during development. PMID:9407027

  9. Cortico-Cortical Connections of Primary Sensory Areas and Associated Symptoms in Migraine.

    PubMed

    Hodkinson, Duncan J; Veggeberg, Rosanna; Kucyi, Aaron; van Dijk, Koene R A; Wilcox, Sophie L; Scrivani, Steven J; Burstein, Rami; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2016-01-01

    Migraine is a recurring, episodic neurological disorder characterized by headache, nausea, vomiting, and sensory disturbances. These events are thought to arise from the activation and sensitization of neurons along the trigemino-vascular pathway. From animal studies, it is known that thalamocortical projections play an important role in the transmission of nociceptive signals from the meninges to the cortex. However, little is currently known about the potential involvement of cortico-cortical feedback projections from higher-order multisensory areas and/or feedforward projections from principle primary sensory areas or subcortical structures. In a large cohort of human migraine patients ( N = 40) and matched healthy control subjects ( N = 40), we used resting-state intrinsic functional connectivity to examine the cortical networks associated with the three main sensory perceptual modalities of vision, audition, and somatosensation. Specifically, we sought to explore the complexity of the sensory networks as they converge and become functionally coupled in multimodal systems. We also compared self-reported retrospective migraine symptoms in the same patients, examining the prevalence of sensory symptoms across the different phases of the migraine cycle. Our results show widespread and persistent disturbances in the perceptions of multiple sensory modalities. Consistent with this observation, we discovered that primary sensory areas maintain local functional connectivity but express impaired long-range connections to higher-order association areas (including regions of the default mode and salience network). We speculate that cortico-cortical interactions are necessary for the integration of information within and across the sensory modalities and, thus, could play an important role in the initiation of migraine and/or the development of its associated symptoms.

  10. Sensory analysis of pet foods.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Kadri

    2014-08-01

    Pet food palatability depends first and foremost on the pet and is related to the pet food sensory properties such as aroma, texture and flavor. Sensory analysis of pet foods may be conducted by humans via descriptive or hedonic analysis, pets via acceptance or preference tests, and through a number of instrumental analysis methods. Sensory analysis of pet foods provides additional information on reasons behind palatable and unpalatable foods as pets lack linguistic capabilities. Furthermore, sensory analysis may be combined with other types of information such as personality and environment factors to increase understanding of acceptable pet foods. Most pet food flavor research is proprietary and, thus, there are a limited number of publications available. Funding opportunities for pet food studies would increase research and publications and this would help raise public awareness of pet food related issues. This mini-review addresses current pet food sensory analysis literature and discusses future challenges and possibilities. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Subsecond Sensory Modulation of Serotonin Levels in a Primary Sensory Area and Its Relation to Ongoing Communication Behavior in a Weakly Electric Fish

    PubMed Central

    Krahe, Rüdiger; Maler, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Serotonergic neurons of the raphe nuclei of vertebrates project to most regions of the brain and are known to significantly affect sensory processing. The subsecond dynamics of sensory modulation of serotonin levels and its relation to behavior, however, remain unknown. We used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to measure serotonin release in the electrosensory system of weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus. These fish use an electric organ to generate a quasi-sinusoidal electric field for communicating with conspecifics. In response to conspecific signals, they frequently produce signal modulations called chirps. We measured changes in serotonin concentration in the hindbrain electrosensory lobe (ELL) with a resolution of 0.1 s concurrently with chirping behavior evoked by mimics of conspecific electric signals. We show that serotonin release can occur phase locked to stimulus onset as well as spontaneously in the ELL region responsible for processing these signals. Intense auditory stimuli, on the other hand, do not modulate serotonin levels in this region, suggesting modality specificity. We found no significant correlation between serotonin release and chirp production on a trial-by-trial basis. However, on average, in the trials where the fish chirped, there was a reduction in serotonin release in response to stimuli mimicking similar-sized same-sex conspecifics. We hypothesize that the serotonergic system is part of an intricate sensory–motor loop: serotonin release in a sensory area is triggered by sensory input, giving rise to motor output, which can in turn affect serotonin release at the timescale of the ongoing sensory experience and in a context-dependent manner. PMID:27844054

  12. 2-Naphthalenesulphanyl-L-aspartyl-2-(phenethyl) amide (2-NAP) and food intake in rats: evidence that endogenous peripheral CCK does not play a major role as a satiety factor.

    PubMed Central

    Ebenezer, I. S.; Baldwin, B. A.

    1995-01-01

    1. The demonstration that systemic administration of the CCKA receptor antagonist, devazepide, increases food intake in rats has provided the strongest support for the hypothesis that endogenous peripherally released cholecystokinin (CCK) acts as a satiety factor. However, interpretation of these results has been confounded by the fact that devazepide can enter the brain from the systemic circulation and may increase food intake by a central action. The present study was therefore undertaken to confirm the hypothesis that endogenous peripheral CCK is a satiety factor by investigating the effects of a novel CCKA receptor antagonist, 2-NAP, which is unlikely to cross the blood brain barrier, on food intake in rats. 2. 2-NAP (1-16 mg kg-1, i.p.) had no significant effects on the intake of a test meal in rats. 3. Pretreatment of rats with 2-NAP (2 mg kg-1, s.c.) abolished the inhibitory effects of exogenous peripheral CCK (5 micrograms kg-1, i.p.) on food intake. 4. In agreement with previous results, devazepide (50-200 micrograms kg-1, i.p.) significantly increased the intake of a test meal in rats. 5. The observations that 2-NAP, which is unlikely to penetrate the blood brain barrier, had no effect on food intake, but that 2-NAP abolished the suppressant effect of exogenous peripheral CCK, suggest that endogenously released peripheral CCK is not important as a satiety factor in rats. PMID:8581271

  13. Chemical and sensorial aroma characterization of freshly distilled Calvados. 1. Evaluation of quality and defects on the basis of key odorants by olfactometry and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Guichard, Hugues; Lemesle, Stéphane; Ledauphin, Jérôme; Barillier, Daniel; Picoche, Bernard

    2003-01-15

    Eight freshly distilled samples of Calvados, a fermented and distilled apple juice, were analyzed by sensory evaluation and direct injection GC to determine the composition of higher alcohols, esters, and aldehydes. The composition determined by direct injection was tentatively related to sensory descriptors. Esters have a probable maximum level around 500 g/hl of pure alcohol (PA). This level also corresponds to the threshold of the main ester constituent, ethyl acetate. A high ratio of esters to ethyl acetate seems to be of prime importance for good quality. Total aldehydes, with a maximum level between 8 and 11 g/hl of PA and mainly comprising acetal (maximum between 5 and 9 g/hl of PA), were related to a "green" descriptor. Higher alcohols do not have a direct impact on quality, but other volatile compounds with a positive impact on flavor should probably be present at a high level. As overall quality was not well related to sensory quality, it was necessary to perform more a precise analysis to determine the key odorants. The Calvados samples were thus extracted using pentane. Gas chromatography, employing both a flame ionization detector and an olfactometry port, was used to analyze the obtained extracts. Seventy-one odors were detected and distributed according to Calvados quality determined by sensory evaluation. Nineteen odors common to all Calvados samples constituted the "skeleton" of the aroma. Twenty-eight odors were specific to a quality class: 6 for good quality, 4 for neutral, and 18 for defective. Twenty-four other odors had either too low an odor impact or no evident specificity.

  14. Effects of glucose-to-fructose ratios in solutions on subjective satiety, food intake, and satiety hormones in young men.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Tina; Anderson, G Harvey

    2007-11-01

    The greater prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in the past 35 y has been attributed to the replacement of sucrose in the food supply with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of solutions containing sucrose, HFCS, or various ratios of glucose to fructose (G:F) on food intake (FI), average appetite (AA), blood glucose (BG), plasma insulin, ghrelin, and uric acid (UA) in men. Sugar solutions (300 kcal/300 mL) were (in %) G20:F80, HFCS 55 (G45:F55), sucrose, and G80:F20 (experiment 1, n = 12) and G20:F80, G35:F65, G50:F50, sucrose, and G80:F20 (experiment 2, n = 19). The controls were a sweet energy-free control (experiment 1) and water (both experiments). Solutions were provided in a repeated-measures design. AA, BG, and FI were measured in all subjects. Hormonal responses and UA were measured in 7 subjects in experiment 2. Measurements were taken from baseline to 75 min. FI was measured at 80 min. Sucrose and HFCS (experiment 1) and sucrose and G50:F50 (experiment 2) had similar effects on all dependent measures. All sugar solutions similarly reduced the AA area under the curve (AUC). FI and plasma UA concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) lower after high-glucose solutions than after low-glucose solutions. The lower FI was associated with a greater BG AUC (P < 0.05) and smaller AA and ghrelin AUCs (P < 0.01). Insulin and BG AUCs were positively associated (P < 0.001). Sucrose, HFCS, and G50:F50 solutions do not differ significantly in their short-term effects on subjective and physiologic measures of satiety, UA, and FI at a subsequent meal.

  15. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, VA will furnish needed sensori-neural aids (i.e., eyeglasses, contact lenses...

  16. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, VA will furnish needed sensori-neural aids (i.e., eyeglasses, contact lenses...

  17. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, VA will furnish needed sensori-neural aids (i.e., eyeglasses, contact lenses...

  18. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, VA will furnish needed sensori-neural aids (i.e., eyeglasses, contact lenses...

  19. Cortical oscillations and sensory predictions.

    PubMed

    Arnal, Luc H; Giraud, Anne-Lise

    2012-07-01

    Many theories of perception are anchored in the central notion that the brain continuously updates an internal model of the world to infer the probable causes of sensory events. In this framework, the brain needs not only to predict the causes of sensory input, but also when they are most likely to happen. In this article, we review the neurophysiological bases of sensory predictions of "what' (predictive coding) and 'when' (predictive timing), with an emphasis on low-level oscillatory mechanisms. We argue that neural rhythms offer distinct and adapted computational solutions to predicting 'what' is going to happen in the sensory environment and 'when'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ): development and validation of a new sensory questionnaire for adults with and without autism.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli, Teresa; Hoekstra, Rosa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Questionnaire-based studies suggest atypical sensory perception in over 90% of individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Sensory questionnaire-based studies in ASC mainly record parental reports of their child's sensory experience; less is known about sensory reactivity in adults with ASC. Given the DSM-5 criteria for ASC now include sensory reactivity, there is a need for an adult questionnaire investigating basic sensory functioning. We aimed to develop and validate the Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ), which assesses basic sensory hyper- and hyposensitivity across all five modalities. A total of 359 adults with (n = 196) and without (n = 163) ASC were asked to fill in the SPQ, the Sensory Over-Responsivity Inventory (SensOR) and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) online. Adults with ASC reported more sensory hypersensitivity on the SPQ compared to controls (P < .001). SPQ scores were correlated with AQ scores both across groups (r = .-38) and within the ASC (r = -.18) and control groups (r = -.15). Principal component analyses conducted separately in both groups indicated that one factor comprising 35 items consistently assesses sensory hypersensitivity. The SPQ showed high internal consistency for both the total SPQ (Cronbach's alpha = .92) and the reduced 35-item version (alpha = .93). The SPQ was significantly correlated with the SensOR across groups (r = -.46) and within the ASC (r = -.49) and control group (r = -.21). The SPQ shows good internal consistency and concurrent validity and differentiates between adults with and without ASC. Adults with ASC report more sensitivity to sensory stimuli on the SPQ. Finally, greater sensory sensitivity is associated with more autistic traits. The SPQ provides a new tool to measure individual differences on this dimension.

  1. The Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ): development and validation of a new sensory questionnaire for adults with and without autism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Questionnaire-based studies suggest atypical sensory perception in over 90% of individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Sensory questionnaire-based studies in ASC mainly record parental reports of their child’s sensory experience; less is known about sensory reactivity in adults with ASC. Given the DSM-5 criteria for ASC now include sensory reactivity, there is a need for an adult questionnaire investigating basic sensory functioning. We aimed to develop and validate the Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ), which assesses basic sensory hyper- and hyposensitivity across all five modalities. Methods A total of 359 adults with (n = 196) and without (n = 163) ASC were asked to fill in the SPQ, the Sensory Over-Responsivity Inventory (SensOR) and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) online. Results Adults with ASC reported more sensory hypersensitivity on the SPQ compared to controls (P < .001). SPQ scores were correlated with AQ scores both across groups (r = .-38) and within the ASC (r = -.18) and control groups (r = -.15). Principal component analyses conducted separately in both groups indicated that one factor comprising 35 items consistently assesses sensory hypersensitivity. The SPQ showed high internal consistency for both the total SPQ (Cronbach’s alpha = .92) and the reduced 35-item version (alpha = .93). The SPQ was significantly correlated with the SensOR across groups (r = -.46) and within the ASC (r = -.49) and control group (r = -.21). Conclusions The SPQ shows good internal consistency and concurrent validity and differentiates between adults with and without ASC. Adults with ASC report more sensitivity to sensory stimuli on the SPQ. Finally, greater sensory sensitivity is associated with more autistic traits. The SPQ provides a new tool to measure individual differences on this dimension. PMID:24791196

  2. Acetylcholine and lobster sensory neurones

    PubMed Central

    Barker, David L.; Herbert, Edward; Hildebrand, John G.; Kravitz, Edward A.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments are presented in support of the hypothesis that acetylcholine functions as a sensory transmitter in the lobster nervous system. 1. Several different peripheral sensory structures incorporate radioactive choline into acetylcholine. The preparation most enriched in sensory as opposed to other nervous elements (the antennular sense organs of the distal outer flagellum) does not incorporate significant amounts of glutamate, tyrosine or tryptophan into any of the other major transmitter candidates. 2. There is a parallel between the distribution of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and the proportion of sensory fibres in nervous tissue from many parts of the lobster nervous system. 3. Isolated sensory axons contain at least 500 times as much choline acetyltransferase per cm of axon as do efferent excitatory and inhibitory fibres. 4. Abdominal ganglia and root stumps show a decline in the rate of incorporation of choline into acetylcholine 2 to 8 weeks after severing the first and second roots bilaterally (leaving the connectives and third roots intact). Extracts of the root stumps exhibit a significantly lower level of choline acetyltransferase 2 weeks after this operation. 5. Curare and atropine partially block an identified sensory synapse in the lobster abdominal ganglion. ImagesText-fig. 4Text-fig. 5Plate 1 PMID:4343316

  3. Dual Sensory Loss and Its Impact on Everyday Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Mark; Horowitz, Amy; Su, Ya-ping

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relation of dual and single sensory impairments, within the context of cognitive function, by using the framework of everyday competence in terms of the probability of difficulty with specific personal and instrumental activities of daily living (ADLs and IADLs, respectively). Design and Methods: The Longitudinal…

  4. The role of sensory perception in the development and targeting of tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Carrie M; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Connolly, Gregory N

    2007-01-01

    To examine tobacco industry research on smoking-related sensory effects, including differences in sensory perception across smoker groups, and to determine whether this research informed targeted product development and impacted the development of commercial tobacco products. We searched previously secret internal tobacco industry documents available online through document databases housed at Tobacco Documents Online, the British American Tobacco Document Archive and the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library. We identified relevant documents using a snowball sampling method to first search the databases using an initial set of key words and to then establish further search terms. Sensory research is a priority within the tobacco industry directly impacting commercial markets both in the United States and internationally. Sensory factors contribute to smoker satisfaction and product acceptance, and play an important role in controlling puffing behavior. Cigarette manufacturers have capitalized on distinct sensory preferences across gender, age and ethnic groups by tailoring products for specific populations. Regulation of tobacco products is needed to address product changes that are used to reinforce or contribute to tobacco dependence; for instance, the incorporation of additives that target attributes such as smoothness, harshness and aftertaste. Greater understanding of the role of sensory effects on smoking behavior may also help to inform the development of tobacco treatment options that support long-term tobacco abstinence.

  5. On the dependence of response inhibition processes on sensory modality.

    PubMed

    Bodmer, Benjamin; Beste, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The ability to inhibit responses is a central sensorimotor function but only recently the importance of sensory processes for motor inhibition mechanisms went more into the research focus. In this regard it is elusive, whether there are differences between sensory modalities to trigger response inhibition processes. Due to functional neuroanatomical considerations strong differences may exist, for example, between the visual and the tactile modality. In the current study we examine what neurophysiological mechanisms as well as functional neuroanatomical networks are modulated during response inhibition. Therefore, a Go/NoGo-paradigm employing a novel combination of visual, tactile, and visuotactile stimuli was used. The data show that the tactile modality is more powerful than the visual modality to trigger response inhibition processes. However, the tactile modality loses its efficacy to trigger response inhibition processes when being combined with the visual modality. This may be due to competitive mechanisms leading to a suppression of certain sensory stimuli and the response selection level. Variations in sensory modalities specifically affected conflict monitoring processes during response inhibition by modulating activity in a frontal parietal network including the right inferior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex and the temporoparietal junction. Attentional selection processes are not modulated. The results suggest that the functional neuroanatomical networks involved in response inhibition critically depends on the nature of the sensory input. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1941-1951, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Physico-chemical, textural, and sensory effects of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) flour fortified yogurt

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yogurt is a popular dairy product made by the bacterial fermentation of milk. It is considered nutritious and has probiotics as a result of fermentation that benefit digestive health when consumed. Protein fortification of foods is an effective way to deliver increased satiety to consumers. Chickpea...

  7. Sensory Disruption in Modern Living and the Emergence of Sensory Inequities

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Kara C.

    2018-01-01

    Modern lifestyles are disrupting the human senses—primarily sight, sound, and smell. Noise-induced hearing loss has been noted for centuries and increasing over time following the industrial era. From the mid-20th century, the numbers of individuals with myopia (the leading visual impairment) have been increasing globally. Historical evidence for olfactory dysfunction is not known but its etiological links to pollution suggest it increased following industrialization. Clinical interventions for sight and sound loss include preventative and corrective measures but none exist for olfactory dysfunction. Further, olfactory loss is linked to multiple negative health outcomes across physical, mental, and social domains. Due to the global rates of exposure to pollution, olfaction is a global health concern. The environmental injustice inherent in human society (locally and globally) results in inequitable risk for sensory loss by the most vulnerable populations and creates an even deeper gradient in health disparity. Situated within the environmental justice and health disparity literature, this paper introduces the term sensory inequity to describe variation in sensory environments based on socio-economic status (which is often entwined with race and education). A key challenge to risk management is awareness of sensory inequity experienced by vulnerable populations and incorporating that awareness into basic research and policy. PMID:29599658

  8. Sensory Intolerance: Latent Structure and Psychopathologic Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Steven; Conelea, Christine A.; McKay, Dean; Crowe, Katherine B.; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensory intolerance refers to high levels of distress evoked by everyday sounds (e.g., sounds of people chewing) or commonplace tactile sensations (e.g., sticky or greasy substances). Sensory intolerance may be associated with obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms, OC-related phenomena, and other forms of psychopathology. Sensory intolerance is not included as a syndrome in current diagnostic systems, although preliminary research suggests that it might be a distinct syndrome. Objectives First, to investigate the latent structure of sensory intolerance in adults; that is, to investigate whether it is syndrome-like in nature, in which auditory and tactile sensory intolerance co-occur and are associated with impaired functioning. Second, to investigate the psychopathologic correlates of sensory intolerance. In particular, to investigate whether sensory intolerance is associated with OC-related phenomena, as suggested by previous research. Method A sample of 534 community-based participants were recruited via Amazon.com’s Mechanical Turk program. Participants completed measures of sensory intolerance, OC-related phenomena, and general psychopathology. Results Latent class analysis revealed two classes of individuals: Those who were intolerant of both auditory and tactile stimuli (n = 150), and those who were relatively undisturbed by auditory or tactile stimuli (n = 384). Sensory intolerant individuals, compared to those who were comparatively sensory tolerant, had greater scores on indices of general psychopathology, more severe OC symptoms, a higher likelihood of meeting caseness criteria for OC disorder, elevated scores on measures of OC-related dysfunctional beliefs, a greater tendency to report OC-related phenomena (e.g., a greater frequency of tics), and more impairment on indices of social and occupational functioning. Sensory intolerant individuals had significantly higher scores on OC symptoms even after controlling for general psychopathology

  9. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Targeting Primary Motor Versus Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortices: Proof-of-Concept Study Investigating Functional Connectivity of Thalamocortical Networks Specific to Sensory-Affective Information Processing.

    PubMed

    Sankarasubramanian, Vishwanath; Cunningham, David A; Potter-Baker, Kelsey A; Beall, Erik B; Roelle, Sarah M; Varnerin, Nicole M; Machado, Andre G; Jones, Stephen E; Lowe, Mark J; Plow, Ela B

    2017-04-01

    The pain matrix is comprised of an extensive network of brain structures involved in sensory and/or affective information processing. The thalamus is a key structure constituting the pain matrix. The thalamus serves as a relay center receiving information from multiple ascending pathways and relating information to and from multiple cortical areas. However, it is unknown how thalamocortical networks specific to sensory-affective information processing are functionally integrated. Here, in a proof-of-concept study in healthy humans, we aimed to understand this connectivity using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting primary motor (M1) or dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC). We compared changes in functional connectivity (FC) with DLPFC tDCS to changes in FC with M1 tDCS. FC changes were also compared to further investigate its relation with individual's baseline experience of pain. We hypothesized that resting-state FC would change based on tDCS location and would represent known thalamocortical networks. Ten right-handed individuals received a single application of anodal tDCS (1 mA, 20 min) to right M1 and DLPFC in a single-blind, sham-controlled crossover study. FC changes were studied between ventroposterolateral (VPL), the sensory nucleus of thalamus, and cortical areas involved in sensory information processing and between medial dorsal (MD), the affective nucleus, and cortical areas involved in affective information processing. Individual's perception of pain at baseline was assessed using cutaneous heat pain stimuli. We found that anodal M1 tDCS and anodal DLPFC tDCS both increased FC between VPL and sensorimotor cortices, although FC effects were greater with M1 tDCS. Similarly, anodal M1 tDCS and anodal DLPFC tDCS both increased FC between MD and motor cortices, but only DLPFC tDCS modulated FC between MD and affective cortices, like DLPFC. Our findings suggest that M1 stimulation primarily modulates FC of sensory networks

  10. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Targeting Primary Motor Versus Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortices: Proof-of-Concept Study Investigating Functional Connectivity of Thalamocortical Networks Specific to Sensory-Affective Information Processing

    PubMed Central

    Sankarasubramanian, Vishwanath; Cunningham, David A.; Potter-Baker, Kelsey A.; Beall, Erik B.; Roelle, Sarah M.; Varnerin, Nicole M.; Machado, Andre G.; Jones, Stephen E.; Lowe, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The pain matrix is comprised of an extensive network of brain structures involved in sensory and/or affective information processing. The thalamus is a key structure constituting the pain matrix. The thalamus serves as a relay center receiving information from multiple ascending pathways and relating information to and from multiple cortical areas. However, it is unknown how thalamocortical networks specific to sensory-affective information processing are functionally integrated. Here, in a proof-of-concept study in healthy humans, we aimed to understand this connectivity using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting primary motor (M1) or dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC). We compared changes in functional connectivity (FC) with DLPFC tDCS to changes in FC with M1 tDCS. FC changes were also compared to further investigate its relation with individual's baseline experience of pain. We hypothesized that resting-state FC would change based on tDCS location and would represent known thalamocortical networks. Ten right-handed individuals received a single application of anodal tDCS (1 mA, 20 min) to right M1 and DLPFC in a single-blind, sham-controlled crossover study. FC changes were studied between ventroposterolateral (VPL), the sensory nucleus of thalamus, and cortical areas involved in sensory information processing and between medial dorsal (MD), the affective nucleus, and cortical areas involved in affective information processing. Individual's perception of pain at baseline was assessed using cutaneous heat pain stimuli. We found that anodal M1 tDCS and anodal DLPFC tDCS both increased FC between VPL and sensorimotor cortices, although FC effects were greater with M1 tDCS. Similarly, anodal M1 tDCS and anodal DLPFC tDCS both increased FC between MD and motor cortices, but only DLPFC tDCS modulated FC between MD and affective cortices, like DLPFC. Our findings suggest that M1 stimulation primarily modulates FC of sensory

  11. Sensory Correlations in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Johnson, Danny G.; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Savla, Jayshree S.; Mehta, Jyutika A.; Schroeder, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between auditory, visual, touch, and oral sensory dysfunction in autism and their relationship to multisensory dysfunction and severity of autism. The Sensory Profile was completed on 104 persons with a diagnosis of autism, 3 to 56 years of age. Analysis showed a significant correlation between the different…

  12. Individual Differences in the Rubber Hand Illusion Are Related to Sensory Suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Angela; Tinazzi, Michele; Cavedini, Clelia; Zampini, Massimiliano; Fiorio, Mirta

    2016-01-01

    In the rubber hand illusion (RHI), watching a rubber hand being stroked in synchrony with one's own hidden hand may induce a sense of ownership over the rubber hand. The illusion relies on bottom-up multisensory integration of visual, tactile, and proprioceptive information, and on top-down processes through which the rubber hand is incorporated into pre-existing representations of the body. Although the degree of illusory experience varies largely across individuals, the factors influencing individual differences are unknown. We investigated whether sensory suggestibility might modulate susceptibility to the RHI. Sensory suggestibility is a personality trait related to how individuals react to sensory information. Because of its sensory nature, this trait could be relevant for studies using the RHI paradigm. Seventy healthy volunteers were classified by Sensory Suggestibility Scale (SSS) scores as having high or low suggestibility and assigned to either a high- (High-SSS) or a low-suggestibility (Low-SSS) group. Two components of the RHI were evaluated in synchronous and asynchronous stroking conditions: subjective experience of sense of ownership over the rubber hand via a 9-statement questionnaire, and proprioceptive drift as measured with a ruler. The High-SSS group was generally more susceptible to the subjective component; in the synchronous condition, they rated the statement assessing the sense of ownership higher than the Low-SSS group. The scores for this statement significantly correlated with the total SSS score, indicating that the higher the sensory suggestibility, the stronger the sense of ownership. No effect of sensory suggestibility on proprioceptive drift was observed, suggesting that the effect is specific for the subjective feeling of ownership. This study demonstrates that sensory suggestibility may contribute to participants' experience of the illusion and should be considered when using the RHI paradigm.

  13. Individual Differences in the Rubber Hand Illusion Are Related to Sensory Suggestibility

    PubMed Central

    Marotta, Angela; Tinazzi, Michele; Cavedini, Clelia; Zampini, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    In the rubber hand illusion (RHI), watching a rubber hand being stroked in synchrony with one’s own hidden hand may induce a sense of ownership over the rubber hand. The illusion relies on bottom-up multisensory integration of visual, tactile, and proprioceptive information, and on top-down processes through which the rubber hand is incorporated into pre-existing representations of the body. Although the degree of illusory experience varies largely across individuals, the factors influencing individual differences are unknown. We investigated whether sensory suggestibility might modulate susceptibility to the RHI. Sensory suggestibility is a personality trait related to how individuals react to sensory information. Because of its sensory nature, this trait could be relevant for studies using the RHI paradigm. Seventy healthy volunteers were classified by Sensory Suggestibility Scale (SSS) scores as having high or low suggestibility and assigned to either a high- (High-SSS) or a low-suggestibility (Low-SSS) group. Two components of the RHI were evaluated in synchronous and asynchronous stroking conditions: subjective experience of sense of ownership over the rubber hand via a 9-statement questionnaire, and proprioceptive drift as measured with a ruler. The High-SSS group was generally more susceptible to the subjective component; in the synchronous condition, they rated the statement assessing the sense of ownership higher than the Low-SSS group. The scores for this statement significantly correlated with the total SSS score, indicating that the higher the sensory suggestibility, the stronger the sense of ownership. No effect of sensory suggestibility on proprioceptive drift was observed, suggesting that the effect is specific for the subjective feeling of ownership. This study demonstrates that sensory suggestibility may contribute to participants’ experience of the illusion and should be considered when using the RHI paradigm. PMID:27977783

  14. Central projections of sensory systems involved in honey bee dance language communication.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Axel; Robinson, Gene E

    2007-01-01

    Honey bee dance language is a unique and complex form of animal communication used to inform nest mates in the colony about the specific location of food sources or new nest sites. Five different sensory systems have been implicated in acquiring and communicating the information necessary for dance language communication. We present results from neuronal tracer studies identifying the central projections from four of the five. Sensory neurons of the dorsal rim area of the compound eyes, involved in acquiring sun-compass based information, project to the dorsal-most part of the medulla. Sensory neurons of the neck hair plates, required to transpose sun-compass based information to gravity-based information in the dark hive, project to the dorsal labial neuromere of the subesophageal ganglion. Sensory neurons from the antennal joint hair sensilla and the Johnston's organ, which perceive information on dance direction and distance from mechanostimuli generated by abdomen waggling and wing vibration, project to the deutocerebral dorsal lobe and the subesophageal ganglion, and the posterior protocerebrum, respectively. We found no 'dance-specific' projections relative to those previously described for drone and queen honey bees and other insect species that do not exhibit dance communication. We suggest that the evolution of dance language communication was likely based on the modification of central neural pathways associated with path integration, the capability to calculate distance, and directional information during flight. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Sensory rehabilitation in the plastic brain.

    PubMed

    Collignon, Olivier; Champoux, François; Voss, Patrice; Lepore, Franco

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to consider new sensory rehabilitation avenues in the context of the brain's remarkable ability to reorganize itself following sensory deprivation. Here, deafness and blindness are taken as two illustrative models. Mainly, two promising rehabilitative strategies based on opposing theoretical principles will be considered: sensory substitution and neuroprostheses. Sensory substitution makes use of the remaining intact senses to provide blind or deaf individuals with coded information of the lost sensory system. This technique thus benefits from added neural resources in the processing of the remaining senses resulting from crossmodal plasticity, which is thought to be coupled with behavioral enhancements in the intact senses. On the other hand, neuroprostheses represent an invasive approach aimed at stimulating the deprived sensory system directly in order to restore, at least partially, its functioning. This technique therefore relies on the neuronal integrity of the brain areas normally dedicated to the deprived sense and is rather hindered by the compensatory reorganization observed in the deprived cortex. Here, we stress that our understanding of the neuroplastic changes that occur in sensory-deprived individuals may help guide the design and the implementation of such rehabilitative methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Flavor lexicon for sensory descriptive profiling of different rice types.

    PubMed

    Limpawattana, M; Shewfelt, R L

    2010-05-01

    Rice flavor is a significant factor in determining quality and consumer acceptability as exemplified by scented rice, which is highly favored and commands a price premium. Sensory descriptive analysis has primarily been performed to assess rice flavor characteristics, but these studies feature only a limited lexicon for characterizing specific flavors or the range of flavor types is limited. This study was undertaken to establish a descriptive lexicon with reference standards for describing the flavor properties of a broad spectrum of rice types and use the developed lexicon to characterize which sensory attributes are most important in rice flavor quality. A rice flavor lexicon consisting of 24 descriptive notes was developed and expanded by 8 trained sensory panelists to characterize the flavor of cooked rice differing in terms of forms, types, and specialty (n = 36). Of these 24 descriptive terms, 19 were aromatic notes and 5 were fundamental tastes and oral feeling factors. Eighteen aromatic terms were significantly present in most rice samples whereas some descriptors exhibited unique characteristics of a specific-rice type. Subsequent multivariate analysis indicated that 18 descriptive terms were required to fully understand the characteristics of rice flavor in greater details. This lexicon covered a wider range of rice samples than in the previous studies and will facilitate targeting the characteristic notes important to rice processors as well as producers.

  17. Early compensatory sensory re-education.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Hugo R; Aguado, Leda

    2003-02-01

    After a neurorrhaphy, there will be a distal disconnection between the cortex and skin receptors, along with interruption of sensibility information. This report demonstrates the efficacy of a new sensory re-education program for achieving optimal sensation in a relatively short time. Between 1999 and 2001, in the authors' Hand Rehabilitation Department, 11 patients with previous neurorrhaphy were subjected to a program of early "compensatory sensory re-education." Lesions were caused by clean cut. There were 13 primary digital nerve procedures, 12 at the distal palmar MP level, and one at the radial dorsal branch of the index (just after emerging from the common digital nerve). The technique of compensatory sensory re-education was based on a previous, but modified, sensory re-education method. In order to evaluate the results in the compensatory sensory re-education series described, additional tests for evaluation of achieved functional sensibility were used. The authors' best results were achieved in a maximum of 8 weeks (4-8 weeks), much less time than with the original method (1-2 years). Using the British classification, it was possible to compare the achieved levels of sensibility and the time required for optimal results. The different methods of sensibility re-education may be similar, but with the authors' compensatory sensory re-education method, substantial time is saved.

  18. The dusp1 Immediate Early Gene is Regulated by Natural Stimuli Predominantly in Sensory Input Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Horita, Haruhito; Wada, Kazuhiro; Rivas, Miriam V.; Hara, Erina; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2010-01-01

    Many immediate early genes (IEGs) have activity-dependent induction in a subset of brain subdivisions or neuron types. However, none have been reported yet with regulation specific to thalamic-recipient sensory neurons of the telencephalon or in the thalamic sensory input neurons themselves. Here, we report the first such gene, dual specificity phosphatase 1 (dusp1). Dusp1 is an inactivator of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and MAPK activates expression of egr1, one of the most commonly studied IEGs, as determined in cultured cells. We found that in the brain of naturally behaving songbirds and other avian species, hearing song, seeing visual stimuli, or performing motor behavior caused high dusp1 upregulation, respectively, in auditory, visual, and somatosensory input cell populations of the thalamus and thalamic-recipient sensory neurons of the telencephalic pallium, whereas high egr1 upregulation occurred only in subsequently connected secondary and tertiary sensory neuronal populations of these same pathways. Motor behavior did not induce high levels of dusp1 expression in the motor-associated areas adjacent to song nuclei, where egr1 is upregulated in response to movement. Our analysis of dusp1 expression in mouse brain suggests similar regulation in the sensory input neurons of the thalamus and thalamic-recipient layer IV and VI neurons of the cortex. These findings suggest that dusp1 has specialized regulation to sensory input neurons of the thalamus and telencephalon; they further suggest that this regulation may serve to attenuate stimulus-induced expression of egr1 and other IEGs, leading to unique molecular properties of forebrain sensory input neurons. PMID:20506480

  19. The neuroecology of cartilaginous fishes: sensory strategies for survival.

    PubMed

    Collin, Shaun P

    2012-01-01

    As apex predators, chondrichthyans, or cartilaginous fishes, hold an important position within a range of aquatic ecosystems and influence the balance between species' abundance and biodiversity. Having been in existence for over 400 million years and representing the earliest stages of the evolution of jawed vertebrates, this group also covers a diverse range of eco-morphotypes, occupying both marine and freshwater habitats. The class Chondrichthyes is divided into two subclasses: the Elasmobranchii (sharks, skates, and rays) and the Holocephali (elephant sharks and chimaeras). However, many of their life history traits, such as low fecundity, the production of small numbers of highly precocious young, slow growth rates, and late maturity, make them highly susceptible to human exploitation. To mitigate the negative effects of human impacts, it is important that we understand the sensory strategies that elasmobranchs use for navigating within their environment, forming reproductive aggregations, feeding, and even communicating. One approach to investigate the sensory bases of their behavior is to examine the peripheral sense organs mediating vision, olfaction, gustation, lateral line, electroreception, and audition in a large range of species in order to identify specific adaptations, the range of sensitivity thresholds, and the compromise between sensory spatial resolution and sensitivity. In addition, we can quantitatively assess the convergence of sensory input to the central nervous system and the relative importance of different sensory modalities. Using a comparative approach and often a combination of anatomical, electrophysiological, and molecular techniques, significant variation has been identified in the spatial and chromatic sampling of the photoreceptors in the eye, the surface area and the number of olfactory lamellae within the nasal cavity, the level of gustatory sampling within the oral cavity, the type and innervation of neuromasts of the lateral

  20. Susceptibility of Primary Sensory Cortex to Spreading Depolarizations.

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, Volodymyr B; Middleton, Natalie A; Theriot, Jeremy J; Parker, Patrick D; Abdullah, Osama M; Ju, Y Sungtaek; Hartings, Jed A; Brennan, K C

    2016-04-27

    Spreading depolarizations (SDs) are recognized as actors in neurological disorders as diverse as migraine and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Migraine aura involves sensory percepts, suggesting that sensory cortices might be intrinsically susceptible to SDs. We used optical imaging, MRI, and field potential and potassium electrode recordings in mice and electrocorticographic recordings in humans to determine the susceptibility of different brain regions to SDs. Optical imaging experiments in mice under isoflurane anesthesia showed that both cortical spreading depression and terminal anoxic depolarization arose preferentially in the whisker barrel region of parietal sensory cortex. MRI recordings under isoflurane, ketamine/xylazine, ketamine/isoflurane, and urethane anesthesia demonstrated that the depolarizations did not propagate from a subcortical source. Potassium concentrations showed larger increases in sensory cortex, suggesting a mechanism of susceptibility. Sensory stimulation biased the timing but not the location of depolarization onset. In humans with TBI, there was a trend toward increased incidence of SDs in parietal/temporal sensory cortex compared with other regions. In conclusion, SDs are inducible preferentially in primary sensory cortex in mice and most likely in humans. This tropism can explain the predominant sensory phenomenology of migraine aura. It also demonstrates that sensory cortices are vulnerable in brain injury. Spreading depolarizations (SDs) are involved in neurologic disorders as diverse as migraine and traumatic brain injury. In migraine, the nature of aura symptoms suggests that sensory cortex may be preferentially susceptible. In brain injury, SDs occur at a vulnerable time, during which the issue of sensory stimulation is much debated. We show, in mouse and human, that sensory cortex is more susceptible to SDs. We find that sensory stimulation biases the timing but not the location of the depolarizations. Finally, we show a

  1. Susceptibility of Primary Sensory Cortex to Spreading Depolarizations

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanov, Volodymyr B.; Middleton, Natalie A.; Theriot, Jeremy J.; Parker, Patrick D.; Abdullah, Osama M.; Ju, Y. Sungtaek; Hartings, Jed A.

    2016-01-01

    Spreading depolarizations (SDs) are recognized as actors in neurological disorders as diverse as migraine and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Migraine aura involves sensory percepts, suggesting that sensory cortices might be intrinsically susceptible to SDs. We used optical imaging, MRI, and field potential and potassium electrode recordings in mice and electrocorticographic recordings in humans to determine the susceptibility of different brain regions to SDs. Optical imaging experiments in mice under isoflurane anesthesia showed that both cortical spreading depression and terminal anoxic depolarization arose preferentially in the whisker barrel region of parietal sensory cortex. MRI recordings under isoflurane, ketamine/xylazine, ketamine/isoflurane, and urethane anesthesia demonstrated that the depolarizations did not propagate from a subcortical source. Potassium concentrations showed larger increases in sensory cortex, suggesting a mechanism of susceptibility. Sensory stimulation biased the timing but not the location of depolarization onset. In humans with TBI, there was a trend toward increased incidence of SDs in parietal/temporal sensory cortex compared with other regions. In conclusion, SDs are inducible preferentially in primary sensory cortex in mice and most likely in humans. This tropism can explain the predominant sensory phenomenology of migraine aura. It also demonstrates that sensory cortices are vulnerable in brain injury. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Spreading depolarizations (SDs) are involved in neurologic disorders as diverse as migraine and traumatic brain injury. In migraine, the nature of aura symptoms suggests that sensory cortex may be preferentially susceptible. In brain injury, SDs occur at a vulnerable time, during which the issue of sensory stimulation is much debated. We show, in mouse and human, that sensory cortex is more susceptible to SDs. We find that sensory stimulation biases the timing but not the location of the depolarizations

  2. Subliminal action priming modulates the perceived intensity of sensory action consequences.

    PubMed

    Stenner, Max-Philipp; Bauer, Markus; Sidarus, Nura; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Haggard, Patrick; Dolan, Raymond J

    2014-02-01

    The sense of control over the consequences of one's actions depends on predictions about these consequences. According to an influential computational model, consistency between predicted and observed action consequences attenuates perceived stimulus intensity, which might provide a marker of agentic control. An important assumption of this model is that these predictions are generated within the motor system. However, previous studies of sensory attenuation have typically confounded motor-specific perceptual modulation with perceptual effects of stimulus predictability that are not specific to motor action. As a result, these studies cannot unambiguously attribute sensory attenuation to a motor locus. We present a psychophysical experiment on auditory attenuation that avoids this pitfall. Subliminal masked priming of motor actions with compatible prime-target pairs has previously been shown to modulate both reaction times and the explicit feeling of control over action consequences. Here, we demonstrate reduced perceived loudness of tones caused by compatibly primed actions. Importantly, this modulation results from a manipulation of motor processing and is not confounded by stimulus predictability. We discuss our results with respect to theoretical models of the mechanisms underlying sensory attenuation and subliminal motor priming. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Stable olfactory sensory neuron in vivo physiology during normal aging.

    PubMed

    Kass, Marley D; Czarnecki, Lindsey A; McGann, John P

    2018-05-08

    Normal aging is associated with a number of smell impairments that are paralleled by age-dependent changes in the peripheral olfactory system, including decreases in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and in the regenerative capacity of the epithelium. Thus, an age-dependent degradation of sensory input to the brain is one proposed mechanism for the loss of olfactory function in older populations. Here, we tested this hypothesis by performing in vivo optical neurophysiology in 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old mice. We visualized odor-evoked neurotransmitter release from populations of OSNs into olfactory bulb glomeruli, and found that these sensory inputs are actually quite stable during normal aging. Specifically, the magnitude and number of odor-evoked glomerular responses were comparable across all ages, and there was no effect of age on the sensitivity of OSN responses to odors or on the neural discriminability of different sensory maps. These results suggest that the brain's olfactory bulbs do not receive deteriorated input during aging and that local bulbar circuitry might adapt to maintain stable nerve input. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Redox and Nitric Oxide-Mediated Regulation of Sensory Neuron Ion Channel Function

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively) can intimately control neuronal excitability and synaptic strength by regulating the function of many ion channels. In peripheral sensory neurons, such regulation contributes towards the control of somatosensory processing; therefore, understanding the mechanisms of such regulation is necessary for the development of new therapeutic strategies and for the treatment of sensory dysfunctions, such as chronic pain. Recent Advances: Tremendous progress in deciphering nitric oxide (NO) and ROS signaling in the nervous system has been made in recent decades. This includes the recognition of these molecules as important second messengers and the elucidation of their metabolic pathways and cellular targets. Mounting evidence suggests that these targets include many ion channels which can be directly or indirectly modulated by ROS and NO. However, the mechanisms specific to sensory neurons are still poorly understood. This review will therefore summarize recent findings that highlight the complex nature of the signaling pathways involved in redox/NO regulation of sensory neuron ion channels and excitability; references to redox mechanisms described in other neuron types will be made where necessary. Critical Issues: The complexity and interplay within the redox, NO, and other gasotransmitter modulation of protein function are still largely unresolved. Issues of specificity and intracellular localization of these signaling cascades will also be addressed. Future Directions: Since our understanding of ROS and RNS signaling in sensory neurons is limited, there is a multitude of future directions; one of the most important issues for further study is the establishment of the exact roles that these signaling pathways play in pain processing and the translation of this understanding into new therapeutics. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 486–504. PMID:24735331

  5. Validity of Sensory Systems as Distinct Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chia-Ting

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the validity of sensory systems as distinct measurable constructs as part of a larger project examining Ayres’s theory of sensory integration. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test whether sensory questionnaire items represent distinct sensory system constructs. Data were obtained from clinical records of two age groups, 2- to 5-yr-olds (n = 231) and 6- to 10-yr-olds (n = 223). With each group, we tested several CFA models for goodness of fit with the data. The accepted model was identical for each group and indicated that tactile, vestibular–proprioceptive, visual, and auditory systems form distinct, valid factors that are not age dependent. In contrast, alternative models that grouped items according to sensory processing problems (e.g., over- or underresponsiveness within or across sensory systems) did not yield valid factors. Results indicate that distinct sensory system constructs can be measured validly using questionnaire data. PMID:25184467

  6. Spinal sensory circuits in motion.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Urs Lucas; Wyart, Claire

    2016-12-01

    The role of sensory feedback in shaping locomotion has been long debated. Recent advances in genetics and behavior analysis revealed the importance of proprioceptive pathways in spinal circuits. The mechanisms underlying peripheral mechanosensation enabled to unravel the networks that feedback to spinal circuits in order to modulate locomotion. Sensory inputs to the vertebrate spinal cord were long thought to originate from the periphery. Recent studies challenge this view: GABAergic sensory neurons located within the spinal cord have been shown to relay mechanical and chemical information from the cerebrospinal fluid to motor circuits. Innovative approaches combining genetics, quantitative analysis of behavior and optogenetics now allow probing the contribution of these sensory feedback pathways to locomotion and recovery following spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Three exploratory studies of relations between young adults' preference for activities involving a specific sense modality and sensory attributes of early memories.

    PubMed

    Westman, A S; Stuve, M

    2001-04-01

    Three studies explored whether young adults' preference for using a sense modality, e.g., hearing, correlated with presence or clarity of attributes of that sense modality in earliest memories from childhood, elementary school, or high school. In Study 1, 75 graduates or seniors in fine arts, fashion merchandising, music, conducting, or dance showed no greater frequency or clarity of any modality's sensory attributes. In Study 2, 213 beginning university students' ratings of current importance of activities emphasizing a sense modality correlated with sensory contents of recollections only for smell and taste. In Study 3, 102 beginning students' ratings of current enjoyment in using a sense modality and sensory contents of recollections were correlated and involved every modality except vision.

  8. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I.

    PubMed

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2008-03-18

    Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances) are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7) identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN), especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra neuropathy, or decaying skin

  9. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I

    PubMed Central

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2008-01-01

    Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances) are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7) identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN), especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra neuropathy, or decaying skin

  10. Hunger-Dependent Enhancement of Food Cue Responses in Mouse Postrhinal Cortex and Lateral Amygdala.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Christian R; Ramesh, Rohan N; Sugden, Arthur U; Levandowski, Kirsten M; Minnig, Margaret A; Fenselau, Henning; Lowell, Bradford B; Andermann, Mark L

    2016-09-07

    The needs of the body can direct behavioral and neural processing toward motivationally relevant sensory cues. For example, human imaging studies have consistently found specific cortical areas with biased responses to food-associated visual cues in hungry subjects, but not in sated subjects. To obtain a cellular-level understanding of these hunger-dependent cortical response biases, we performed chronic two-photon calcium imaging in postrhinal association cortex (POR) and primary visual cortex (V1) of behaving mice. As in humans, neurons in mouse POR, but not V1, exhibited biases toward food-associated cues that were abolished by satiety. This emergent bias was mirrored by the innervation pattern of amygdalo-cortical feedback axons. Strikingly, these axons exhibited even stronger food cue biases and sensitivity to hunger state and trial history. These findings highlight a direct pathway by which the lateral amygdala may contribute to state-dependent cortical processing of motivationally relevant sensory cues. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Gastric Metastasis of Prostate Cancer as an Unusual Presentation Using 68Ga-Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Solis Lara, Hugo Enrique; Villarreal Del Bosque, Natalia; Sada Treviño, Miguel Antonio; Yamamoto Ramos, Masao; Argueta Ruiz, Rocío Del Carmen

    2018-05-01

    A 79-year-old man with prostate cancer underwent Ga prostate-specific membrane antigen (Ga-PSMA) dual-time-point PET/CT scan to evaluate tumor activity due to early satiety, unquantified weight loss, and elevation of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), demonstrating thickening of the gastric wall with intense tracer uptake. The immunohistochemistry of gastric biopsy showed CDX2 and CK20: negative; CK7, focal positive; PSA, positive, which confirmed metastatic disease. Metastatic disease was also found in bones, right lung, and retroperitoneal and pelvic lymphadenopathies.

  12. Shapes, scents and sounds: quantifying the full multi-sensory basis of conceptual knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Paul; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary neuroscience theories assume that concepts are formed through experience in multiple sensory-motor modalities. Quantifying the contribution of each modality to different object categories is critical to understanding the structure of the conceptual system and to explaining category-specific knowledge deficits. Verbal feature listing is typically used to elicit this information but has a number of drawbacks: sensory knowledge often cannot easily be translated into verbal features and many features are experienced in multiple modalities. Here, we employed a more direct approach in which subjects rated their knowledge of objects in each sensory-motor modality separately. Compared with these ratings, feature listing over-estimated the importance of visual form and functional knowledge and under-estimated the contributions of other sensory channels. An item's sensory rating proved to be a better predictor of lexical-semantic processing speed than the number of features it possessed, suggesting that ratings better capture the overall quantity of sensory information associated with a concept. Finally, the richer, multi-modal rating data not only replicated the sensory-functional distinction between animals and non-living things but also revealed novel distinctions between different types of artefact. Hierarchical cluster analyses indicated that mechanical devices (e.g., vehicles) were distinct from other non-living objects because they had strong sound and motion characteristics, making them more similar to animals in this respect. Taken together, the ratings align with neuroscience evidence in suggesting that a number of distinct sensory processing channels make important contributions to object knowledge. Multi-modal ratings for 160 objects are provided as supplementary materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influences of Hunger, Satiety and Oral Glucose on Functional Brain Connectivity: A Multimethod Resting-State fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Al-Zubaidi, Arkan; Heldmann, Marcus; Mertins, Alfred; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Münte, Thomas F

    2018-07-01

    A major regulatory task of the organism is to keep brain functions relatively constant in spite of metabolic changes (e.g., hunger vs. satiety) or availability of energy (e.g., glucose administration). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) can reveal resulting changes in brain function but previous studies have focused mostly on the hypothalamus. Therefore, we took a whole-brain approach and examined 24 healthy normal-weight men once after 36 h of fasting and once in a satiated state (six meals over the course of 36 h). At the end of each treatment, rs-fMRI was recorded before and after the oral administration of 75 g of glucose. We calculated local connectivity (regional homogeneity [ReHo]), global connectivity (degree of centrality [DC]), and amplitude (fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation [fALFF]) maps from the rs-fMRI data. We found that glucose administration reduced all measures selectively in the left supplementary motor area and increased ReHo and fALFF in the right middle and superior frontal gyri. For fALFF, we observed a significant interaction between metabolic states and glucose in the left thalamus. This interaction was driven by a fALFF increase after glucose treatment in the hunger relative to the satiety condition. Our results indicate that fALFF analysis is the most sensitive measure to detect effects of metabolic states on resting-state brain activity. Moreover, we show that multimethod rs-fMRI provides an unbiased approach to identify spontaneous brain activity associated with changes in homeostasis and caloric intake. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Social gating of sensory information during ongoing communication.

    PubMed

    Anders, Silke; Heussen, Yana; Sprenger, Andreas; Haynes, John-Dylan; Ethofer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Social context plays an important role in human communication. Depending on the nature of the source, the same communication signal might be processed in fundamentally different ways. However, the selective modulation (or "gating") of the flow of neural information during communication is not fully understood. Here, we use multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) and multivoxel connectivity analysis (MVCA), a novel technique that allows to analyse context-dependent changes of the strength interregional coupling between ensembles of voxels, to examine how the human brain differentially gates content-specific sensory information during ongoing perception of communication signals. In a simulated electronic communication experiment, participants received two alternative text messages during fMRI ("happy" or "sad") which they believed had been sent either by their real-life friend outside the scanner or by a computer. A region in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) selectively increased its functional coupling with sensory-content encoding regions in the visual cortex when a text message was perceived as being sent by the participant's friend, and decreased its functional coupling with these regions when a text message was perceived as being sent by the computer. Furthermore, the strength of neural encoding of content-specific information of text messages in the dmPFC was modulated by the social tie between the participant and her friend: the more of her spare time a participant reported to spend with her friend the stronger was the neural encoding. This suggests that the human brain selectively gates sensory information into the relevant network for processing the mental states of others, depending on the source of the communication signal. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Food intake is influenced by sensory sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Naish, Katherine R; Harris, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    Wide availability of highly palatable foods is often blamed for the rising incidence of obesity. As palatability is largely determined by the sensory properties of food, this study investigated how sensitivity to these properties affects how much we eat. Forty females were classified as either high or low in sensory sensitivity based on their scores on a self-report measure of sensory processing (the Adult Sensory Profile), and their intake of chocolate during the experiment was measured. Food intake was significantly higher for high-sensitivity compared to low-sensitivity individuals. Furthermore, individual scores of sensory sensitivity were positively correlated with self-reported emotional eating. These data could indicate that individuals who are more sensitive to the sensory properties of food have a heightened perception of palatability, which, in turn, leads to a greater food intake.

  16. Wnt signaling induces proliferation of sensory precursors in the postnatal mouse cochlea.

    PubMed

    Chai, Renjie; Kuo, Bryan; Wang, Tian; Liaw, Eric J; Xia, Anping; Jan, Taha A; Liu, Zhiyong; Taketo, Makoto M; Oghalai, John S; Nusse, Roeland; Zuo, Jian; Cheng, Alan G

    2012-05-22

    Inner ear hair cells are specialized sensory cells essential for auditory function. Previous studies have shown that the sensory epithelium is postmitotic, but it harbors cells that can behave as progenitor cells in vitro, including the ability to form new hair cells. Lgr5, a Wnt target gene, marks distinct supporting cell types in the neonatal cochlea. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Lgr5(+) cells are Wnt-responsive sensory precursor cells. In contrast to their quiescent in vivo behavior, Lgr5(+) cells isolated by flow cytometry from neonatal Lgr5(EGFP-CreERT2/+) mice proliferated and formed clonal colonies. After 10 d in culture, new sensory cells formed and displayed specific hair cell markers (myo7a, calretinin, parvalbumin, myo6) and stereocilia-like structures expressing F-actin and espin. In comparison with other supporting cells, Lgr5(+) cells were enriched precursors to myo7a(+) cells, most of which formed without mitotic division. Treatment with Wnt agonists increased proliferation and colony-formation capacity. Conversely, small-molecule inhibitors of Wnt signaling suppressed proliferation without compromising the myo7a(+) cells formed by direct differentiation. In vivo lineage tracing supported the idea that Lgr5(+) cells give rise to myo7a(+) hair cells in the neonatal Lgr5(EGFP-CreERT2/+) cochlea. In addition, overexpression of β-catenin initiated proliferation and led to transient expansion of Lgr5(+) cells within the cochlear sensory epithelium. These results suggest that Lgr5 marks sensory precursors and that Wnt signaling can promote their proliferation and provide mechanistic insights into Wnt-responsive progenitor cells during sensory organ development.

  17. Cortical plasticity as a mechanism for storing Bayesian priors in sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Köver, Hania; Bao, Shaowen

    2010-05-05

    Human perception of ambiguous sensory signals is biased by prior experiences. It is not known how such prior information is encoded, retrieved and combined with sensory information by neurons. Previous authors have suggested dynamic encoding mechanisms for prior information, whereby top-down modulation of firing patterns on a trial-by-trial basis creates short-term representations of priors. Although such a mechanism may well account for perceptual bias arising in the short-term, it does not account for the often irreversible and robust changes in perception that result from long-term, developmental experience. Based on the finding that more frequently experienced stimuli gain greater representations in sensory cortices during development, we reasoned that prior information could be stored in the size of cortical sensory representations. For the case of auditory perception, we use a computational model to show that prior information about sound frequency distributions may be stored in the size of primary auditory cortex frequency representations, read-out by elevated baseline activity in all neurons and combined with sensory-evoked activity to generate a perception that conforms to Bayesian integration theory. Our results suggest an alternative neural mechanism for experience-induced long-term perceptual bias in the context of auditory perception. They make the testable prediction that the extent of such perceptual prior bias is modulated by both the degree of cortical reorganization and the magnitude of spontaneous activity in primary auditory cortex. Given that cortical over-representation of frequently experienced stimuli, as well as perceptual bias towards such stimuli is a common phenomenon across sensory modalities, our model may generalize to sensory perception, rather than being specific to auditory perception.

  18. The effect of early relearning on sensory recovery 4 to 9 years after nerve repair: a report of a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Vikström, Pernilla; Rosén, Birgitta; Carlsson, Ingela K; Björkman, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Twenty patients randomized to early sensory relearning (nine patients) or traditional relearning (11 patients) were assessed regarding sensory recovery 4 to 9 years after median or ulnar nerve repair. Outcomes were assessed with the Rosen score, questionnaires, and self-reported single-item questions regarding function and activity. The patients with early sensory relearning had significantly better sensory recovery in the sensory domain of the Rosen score, specifically, discriminative touch or tactile gnosis and dexterity. They had significantly less self-reported problems in gripping, clumsiness, and fine motor skills. No differences were found in questionnaires between the two groups. We conclude that early sensory relearning improves long-term sensory recovery following nerve repair. I.

  19. Sensory analysis of cosmetic powders: personal care ingredients and emulsions.

    PubMed

    Moussour, M; Lavarde, M; Pensé-Lhéritier, A-M; Bouton, F

    2017-02-01

    The powders are ingredients increasingly used in the formulation of cosmetic products for the sensory qualities they give. The objective of this study was the development of a lexicon and a referential for sensory characterization of these pure raw materials as well as formulations which contain them. Eleven expert panellists from Ecole de biologie industrielle de Cergy (France) developed a lexicon and a referential based on 12 powders of different chemical natures. The selected attributes were then used for performing a quantitative descriptive profile of two powders and an emulsion containing or not one of these two powders. A lexicon has been established through a consensus approach of the panel. It contains seven attributes that allow the evaluation of the powders in four phases: the appearance, the pickup, the application and the after-feel. This lexicon contains definitions and assessment protocols and provides references products. The quantitative descriptive profile of two powders of the same chemical nature, but different in physical quality showed significant differences in sensory level between products. These same attributes used to evaluate an emulsion containing the powder or not allowed to prove the contribution of these raw materials on the sensory specificities of the emulsion. The lexicon developed in this study can be used for assessment of other powders but also to define the quantities necessary to put in the formulation to meet the sensory characteristics of these raw materials powder. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  20. The peripheral sensory nervous system in the vertebrate head: a gene regulatory perspective.

    PubMed

    Grocott, Timothy; Tambalo, Monica; Streit, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    In the vertebrate head, crucial parts of the sense organs and sensory ganglia develop from special regions, the cranial placodes. Despite their cellular and functional diversity, they arise from a common field of multipotent progenitors and acquire distinct identity later under the influence of local signalling. Here we present the gene regulatory network that summarises our current understanding of how sensory cells are specified, how they become different from other ectodermal derivatives and how they begin to diversify to generate placodes with different identities. This analysis reveals how sequential activation of sets of transcription factors subdivides the ectoderm over time into smaller domains of progenitors for the central nervous system, neural crest, epidermis and sensory placodes. Within this hierarchy the timing of signalling and developmental history of each cell population is of critical importance to determine the ultimate outcome. A reoccurring theme is that local signals set up broad gene expression domains, which are further refined by mutual repression between different transcription factors. The Six and Eya network lies at the heart of sensory progenitor specification. In a positive feedback loop these factors perpetuate their own expression thus stabilising pre-placodal fate, while simultaneously repressing neural and neural crest specific factors. Downstream of the Six and Eya cassette, Pax genes in combination with other factors begin to impart regional identity to placode progenitors. While our review highlights the wealth of information available, it also points to the lack information on the cis-regulatory mechanisms that control placode specification and of how the repeated use of signalling input is integrated. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Screening for hearing, visual and dual sensory impairment in older adults using behavioural cues: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Roets-Merken, Lieve M; Zuidema, Sytse U; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra J F J; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Severe Dual Sensory Loss screening tool, a tool designed to help nurses and care assistants to identify hearing, visual and dual sensory impairment in older adults. Construct validity of the Severe Dual Sensory Loss screening tool was evaluated using Crohnbach's alpha and factor analysis. Interrater reliability was calculated using Kappa statistics. To evaluate the predictive validity, sensitivity and specificity were calculated by comparison with the criterion standard assessment for hearing and vision. The criterion used for hearing impairment was a hearing loss of ≥40 decibel measured by pure-tone audiometry, and the criterion for visual impairment was a visual acuity of ≤0.3 diopter or a visual field of ≤0.3°. Feasibility was evaluated by the time needed to fill in the screening tool and the clarity of the instruction and items. Prevalence of dual sensory impairment was calculated. A total of 56 older adults receiving aged care and 12 of their nurses and care assistants participated in the study. Crohnbach's alpha was 0.81 for the hearing subscale and 0.84 for the visual subscale. Factor analysis showed two constructs for hearing and two for vision. Kappa was 0.71 for the hearing subscale and 0.74 for the visual subscale. The predictive validity showed a sensitivity of 0.71 and a specificity of 0.72 for the hearing subscale; and a sensitivity of 0.69 and a specificity of 0.78 for the visual subscale. The optimum cut-off point for each subscale was score 1. The nurses and care assistants reported that the Severe Dual Sensory Loss screening tool was easy to use. The prevalence of hearing and vision impairment was 55% and 29%, respectively, and that of dual sensory impairment was 20%. The Severe Dual Sensory Loss screening tool was compared with the criterion standards for hearing and visual impairment and was found a valid and reliable tool, enabling nurses and care assistants to identify hearing

  2. An Evaluation of the Role of Sensory Drive in the Evolution of Lake Malawi Cichlid Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Adam R.; van Staaden, Moira J.; Carleton, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Although the cichlids of Lake Malawi are an important model system for the study of sensory evolution and sexual selection, the evolutionary processes linking these two phenomena remain unclear. Prior works have proposed that evolutionary divergence is driven by sensory drive, particularly as it applies to the visual system. While evidence suggests that sensory drive has played a role in the speciation of Lake Victoria cichlids, the findings from several lines of research on cichlids of Lake Malawi are not consistent with the primary tenets of this hypothesis. More specifically, three observations make the sensory drive model implausible in Malawi: (i) a lack of environmental constraint due to a broad and intense ambient light spectrum in species rich littoral habitats, (ii) pronounced variation in receiver sensory characteristics, and (iii) pronounced variability in male courtship signal characteristics. In the following work, we synthesize the results from recent studies to draw attention to the importance of sensory variation in cichlid evolution and speciation, and we suggest possible avenues of future research. PMID:22779029

  3. The sensory side of post-stroke motor rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Bolognini, Nadia; Russo, Cristina; Edwards, Dylan J

    2016-04-11

    Contemporary strategies to promote motor recovery following stroke focus on repetitive voluntary movements. Although successful movement relies on efficient sensorimotor integration, functional outcomes often bias motor therapy toward motor-related impairments such as weakness, spasticity and synergies; sensory therapy and reintegration is implied, but seldom targeted. However, the planning and execution of voluntary movement requires that the brain extracts sensory information regarding body position and predicts future positions, by integrating a variety of sensory inputs with ongoing and planned motor activity. Neurological patients who have lost one or more of their senses may show profoundly affected motor functions, even if muscle strength remains unaffected. Following stroke, motor recovery can be dictated by the degree of sensory disruption. Consequently, a thorough account of sensory function might be both prognostic and prescriptive in neurorehabilitation. This review outlines the key sensory components of human voluntary movement, describes how sensory disruption can influence prognosis and expected outcomes in stroke patients, reports on current sensory-based approaches in post-stroke motor rehabilitation, and makes recommendations for optimizing rehabilitation programs based on sensory stimulation.

  4. The sensory side of post-stroke motor rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Bolognini, Nadia; Russo, Cristina; Edwards, Dylan J.

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary strategies to promote motor recovery following stroke focus on repetitive voluntary movements. Although successful movement relies on efficient sensorimotor integration, functional outcomes often bias motor therapy toward motor-related impairments such as weakness, spasticity and synergies; sensory therapy and reintegration is implied, but seldom targeted. However, the planning and execution of voluntary movement requires that the brain extracts sensory information regarding body position and predicts future positions, by integrating a variety of sensory inputs with ongoing and planned motor activity. Neurological patients who have lost one or more of their senses may show profoundly affected motor functions, even if muscle strength remains unaffected. Following stroke, motor recovery can be dictated by the degree of sensory disruption. Consequently, a thorough account of sensory function might be both prognostic and prescriptive in neurorehabilitation. This review outlines the key sensory components of human voluntary movement, describes how sensory disruption can influence prognosis and expected outcomes in stroke patients, reports on current sensory-based approaches in post-stroke motor rehabilitation, and makes recommendations for optimizing rehabilitation programs based on sensory stimulation. PMID:27080070

  5. Short and long sympathetic-sensory feedback loops in white fat

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated white adipose tissue (WAT) innervation using the established WAT retrograde sympathetic nervous system (SNS)-specific transneuronal viral tract tracer pseudorabies virus (PRV152) and showed its role in the control of lipolysis. Conversely, we demonstrated WAT sensory innervation using the established anterograde sensory system (SS)-specific transneuronal viral tracer, the H129 strain of herpes simplex virus-1, with sensory nerves showing responsiveness with increases in WAT SNS drive. Several brain areas were part of the SNS outflow to and SS inflow from WAT between these studies suggesting SNS-SS feedback loops. Therefore, we injected both PRV152 and H129 into inguinal WAT (IWAT) of Siberian hamsters. Animals were perfused on days 5 and 6 postinoculation after H129 and PRV152 injections, respectively, and brains, spinal cords, sympathetic, and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were processed for immunohistochemical detection of each virus across the neuroaxis. The presence of H129+PRV152-colocalized neurons (∼50%) in the spinal segments innervating IWAT suggested short SNS-SS loops with significant coinfections (>60%) in discrete brain regions, signifying long SNS-SS loops. Notably, the most highly populated sites with the double-infected neurons were the medial part of medial preoptic nucleus, medial preoptic area, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, lateral hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray, oral part of the pontine reticular nucleus, and the nucleus of the solitary tract. Collectively, these results strongly indicate the neuroanatomical reality of the central SNS-SS feedback loops with short loops in the spinal cord and long loops in the brain, both likely involved in the control of lipolysis or other WAT pad-specific functions. PMID:24717676

  6. Sensory stimulation for persons with dementia: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Strøm, Benedicte S; Ytrehus, Siri; Grov, Ellen-Karine

    2016-07-01

    To provide an overview of available sensory stimulation interventions, and their effect on persons with dementia and to present theoretical and methodological characteristics of the studies included. Different sensory stimulation interventions are used for persons with dementia to increase alertness, reduce agitation and improve quality of life. However, the effect of these interventions is not clear, neither are their characteristics. A systematic search and review of the literature with description of the content and an evaluation of theoretical and methodological approaches. Systematic searches in CINAHL, PubMed (Medline), The Cochrane library and PsycINFO. Studies included have been subject to quality assessment by means of Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. Fifty-five studies were included and thirty of these documented significant effect. The effect of the sensory stimulation interventions mainly reported on negative behaviours, except from five studies assessing quality of life and well-being. The majority of the studies had methodological limitations. The different sensory stimulation interventions were organised into eight categories: music, light therapy, acupressure/reflexology, massage/aromatherapy and doll therapy/pet therapy/toy therapy, the Sonas programme and Snoezelen. More studies are needed to clarify appropriate substantial background for the specific interventions. However, most of the studies based their interventions on a theoretical foundation. Furthermore, more research is needed to measure the effect of sensory stimulation on communication as well as quality of life. In addition, studies are to focus on whether the effect depends on the stage of dementia. Nurses are to be aware of sensory stimulation as a possible intervention to improve persons' quality of life. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Visual learning with reduced adaptation is eccentricity-specific.

    PubMed

    Harris, Hila; Sagi, Dov

    2018-01-12

    Visual learning is known to be specific to the trained target location, showing little transfer to untrained locations. Recently, learning was shown to transfer across equal-eccentricity retinal-locations when sensory adaptation due to repetitive stimulation was minimized. It was suggested that learning transfers to previously untrained locations when the learned representation is location invariant, with sensory adaptation introducing location-dependent representations, thus preventing transfer. Spatial invariance may also fail when the trained and tested locations are at different distance from the center of gaze (different retinal eccentricities), due to differences in the corresponding low-level cortical representations (e.g. allocated cortical area decreases with eccentricity). Thus, if learning improves performance by better classifying target-dependent early visual representations, generalization is predicted to fail when locations of different retinal eccentricities are trained and tested in the absence sensory adaptation. Here, using the texture discrimination task, we show specificity of learning across different retinal eccentricities (4-8°) using reduced adaptation training. The existence of generalization across equal-eccentricity locations but not across different eccentricities demonstrates that learning accesses visual representations preceding location independent representations, with specificity of learning explained by inhomogeneous sensory representation.

  8. Locomotor sensory organization test: a novel paradigm for the assessment of sensory contributions in gait.

    PubMed

    Chien, Jung Hung; Eikema, Diderik-Jan Anthony; Mukherjee, Mukul; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2014-12-01

    Feedback based balance control requires the integration of visual, proprioceptive and vestibular input to detect the body's movement within the environment. When the accuracy of sensory signals is compromised, the system reorganizes the relative contributions through a process of sensory recalibration, for upright postural stability to be maintained. Whereas this process has been studied extensively in standing using the Sensory Organization Test (SOT), less is known about these processes in more dynamic tasks such as locomotion. In the present study, ten healthy young adults performed the six conditions of the traditional SOT to quantify standing postural control when exposed to sensory conflict. The same subjects performed these six conditions using a novel experimental paradigm, the Locomotor SOT (LSOT), to study dynamic postural control during walking under similar types of sensory conflict. To quantify postural control during walking, the net Center of Pressure sway variability was used. This corresponds to the Performance Index of the center of pressure trajectory, which is used to quantify postural control during standing. Our results indicate that dynamic balance control during locomotion in healthy individuals is affected by the systematic manipulation of multisensory inputs. The sway variability patterns observed during locomotion reflect similar balance performance with standing posture, indicating that similar feedback processes may be involved. However, the contribution of visual input is significantly increased during locomotion, compared to standing in similar sensory conflict conditions. The increased visual gain in the LSOT conditions reflects the importance of visual input for the control of locomotion. Since balance perturbations tend to occur in dynamic tasks and in response to environmental constraints not present during the SOT, the LSOT may provide additional information for clinical evaluation on healthy and deficient sensory processing.

  9. Can Sensory Gallery Guides for Children with Sensory Processing Challenges Improve Their Museum Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Tina S.; Blake, Amanda B.; Shelffo, Kathleen E.

    2018-01-01

    Children routinely visit art museums as part of their educational experience and family time, many of them having special needs. The number of children diagnosed with autism and sensory processing disorders is increasing. These conditions may include heightened sensory "avoiding" or "seeking" behaviors that can interfere with a…

  10. Sensory modality of smoking cues modulates neural cue reactivity.

    PubMed

    Yalachkov, Yavor; Kaiser, Jochen; Görres, Andreas; Seehaus, Arne; Naumer, Marcus J

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral experiments have demonstrated that the sensory modality of presentation modulates drug cue reactivity. The present study on nicotine addiction tested whether neural responses to smoking cues are modulated by the sensory modality of stimulus presentation. We measured brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 15 smokers and 15 nonsmokers while they viewed images of smoking paraphernalia and control objects and while they touched the same objects without seeing them. Haptically presented, smoking-related stimuli induced more pronounced neural cue reactivity than visual cues in the left dorsal striatum in smokers compared to nonsmokers. The severity of nicotine dependence correlated positively with the preference for haptically explored smoking cues in the left inferior parietal lobule/somatosensory cortex, right fusiform gyrus/inferior temporal cortex/cerebellum, hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex, and supplementary motor area. These observations are in line with the hypothesized role of the dorsal striatum for the expression of drug habits and the well-established concept of drug-related automatized schemata, since haptic perception is more closely linked to the corresponding object-specific action pattern than visual perception. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that with the growing severity of nicotine dependence, brain regions involved in object perception, memory, self-processing, and motor control exhibit an increasing preference for haptic over visual smoking cues. This difference was not found for control stimuli. Considering the sensory modality of the presented cues could serve to develop more reliable fMRI-specific biomarkers, more ecologically valid experimental designs, and more effective cue-exposure therapies of addiction.

  11. Food pleasantness affects visual selective attention.

    PubMed

    di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Magarelli, Silvia; Mengarelli, Flavia

    2011-03-01

    Fundamental to adaptive behaviour is the ability to select environmental objects that best satisfy current needs and preferences. Here we investigated whether temporary changes in food preference influence visual selective attention. To this end, we exploited the fact that when a food is eaten to satiety its motivational value and perceived pleasantness decrease relative to other foods not eaten in the meal, an effect termed sensory-specific satiety. A total of 26 hungry participants were fed until sated with one of two palatable foods. Before and after selective satiation, participants rated the pleasantness of the two foods and then viewed the same as stimuli on a computer screen while attention was assessed by a visual probe task. Results showed that the attentional bias for the food eaten decreased markedly from pre- to postsatiety, along with the subjective pleasantness for that food. By contrast, subjective pleasantness and attentional bias for the food not eaten did not show any such decrease. These findings suggest that the allocation of visual selective attention is flexibly and rapidly adjusted to reflect temporary shift in relative preference for different foods.

  12. Sensory determinants of the autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR): understanding the triggers.

    PubMed

    Barratt, Emma L; Spence, Charles; Davis, Nick J

    2017-01-01

    The autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR) is an atypical sensory phenomenon involving electrostatic-like tingling sensations in response to certain sensory, primarily audio-visual, stimuli. The current study used an online questionnaire, completed by 130 people who self-reported experiencing ASMR. We aimed to extend preliminary investigations into the experience, and establish key multisensory factors contributing to the successful induction of ASMR through online media. Aspects such as timing and trigger load, atmosphere, and characteristics of ASMR content, ideal spatial distance from various types of stimuli, visual characteristics, context and use of ASMR triggers, and audio preferences are explored. Lower-pitched, complex sounds were found to be especially effective triggers, as were slow-paced, detail-focused videos. Conversely, background music inhibited the sensation for many respondents. These results will help in designing media for ASMR induction.

  13. Sensory determinants of the autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR): understanding the triggers

    PubMed Central

    Barratt, Emma L.; Spence, Charles

    2017-01-01

    The autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR) is an atypical sensory phenomenon involving electrostatic-like tingling sensations in response to certain sensory, primarily audio-visual, stimuli. The current study used an online questionnaire, completed by 130 people who self-reported experiencing ASMR. We aimed to extend preliminary investigations into the experience, and establish key multisensory factors contributing to the successful induction of ASMR through online media. Aspects such as timing and trigger load, atmosphere, and characteristics of ASMR content, ideal spatial distance from various types of stimuli, visual characteristics, context and use of ASMR triggers, and audio preferences are explored. Lower-pitched, complex sounds were found to be especially effective triggers, as were slow-paced, detail-focused videos. Conversely, background music inhibited the sensation for many respondents. These results will help in designing media for ASMR induction. PMID:29018601

  14. Safety improvement and preservation of typical sensory qualities of traditional dry fermented sausages using autochthonous starter cultures.

    PubMed

    Talon, Régine; Leroy, Sabine; Lebert, Isabelle; Giammarinaro, Philippe; Chacornac, Jean-Paul; Latorre-Moratalla, Mariluz; Vidal-Carou, Carmen; Zanardi, Emanuela; Conter, Mauro; Lebecque, Annick

    2008-08-15

    Traditional dry fermented sausages are manufactured without addition of starter cultures in small-scale processing units, their fermentation relying on indigenous microflora. Characterisation and control of these specific bacteria are essential for the sensory quality and the safety of the sausages. The aim of this study was to develop an autochthonous starter culture that improves safety while preserving the typical sensory characteristics of traditional sausages. An autochthonous starter composed of Lactobacillus sakei, Staphylococcus equorum and Staphylococcus succinus isolated from a traditional fermented sausage was developed. These strains were tested for their susceptibility to antibiotics and their production of biogenic amines. This starter was evaluated in situ at the French traditional processing unit where the strains had been isolated. Effects of the autochthonous starter were assessed by analysing the microbial, physico-chemical, biochemical and sensory characteristics of the sausages. Inoculation with the chosen species was confirmed using known species-specific PCR assays for L. sakei and S. equorum and a species-specific PCR assay developed in this study for S. succinus. Strains were monitored by pulse-field gel electrophoresis typing. Addition of autochthonous microbial starter cultures improved safety compared with the traditional natural fermentation of sausages, by inhibiting the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, decreasing the level of biogenic amines and by limiting fatty acid and cholesterol oxidation. Moreover, autochthonous starter did not affect the typical sensory quality of the traditional sausages. This is the first time to our knowledge that selection, development and validation in situ of autochthonous starter cultures have been carried out, and also the first time that S. equorum together with S. succinus have been used as starter cultures for meat fermentation. Use of autochthonous starter cultures is an effective tool for limiting

  15. Interference of the end: why recency bias in memory determines when a food is consumed again.

    PubMed

    Garbinsky, Emily N; Morewedge, Carey K; Shiv, Baba

    2014-07-01

    The results of three experiments reveal that memory for end enjoyment, rather than beginning enjoyment, of a pleasant gustatory experience determines how soon people desire to repeat that experience. We found that memory for end moments, when people are most satiated, interferes with memory for initial moments. Consequently, end moments are more influential than initial moments when people decide how long to wait until consuming a food again. The findings elucidate the role of memory in delay until repeated consumption, demonstrate how sensory-specific satiety and portion sizes influence future consumption, and suggest one process by which recency effects influence judgments and decisions based on past experiences. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Learning about Sensory Integration Dysfunction: Strategies to Meet Young Children's Sensory Needs at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stacy D.; Rains, Kari W.

    2009-01-01

    Practitioners and parents are seeking ways to help children who are not able to integrate sensory information; this has generated recent media attention. A child's inability to integrate sensory information can have implications for the whole family and their everyday routines. Research conducted by occupational therapists has provided a rich…

  17. Caregiver Burden Varies by Sensory Subtypes and Sensory Dimension Scores of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Brittany N.; Lane, Alison E.; De Boeck, Paul; Basso, D. Michele; Nichols-Larsen, Deborah S.; Darragh, Amy R.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding characteristics associated with burden in caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is critical due to negative health consequences. We explored the association between child sensory subtype, sensory dimension scores, and caregiver burden. A national survey of caregivers of children with ASD aged 5-13 years was…

  18. Effects of Dietary Fibre (Pectin) and/or Increased Protein (Casein or Pea) on Satiety, Body Weight, Adiposity and Caecal Fermentation in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Adam, Clare L; Gratz, Silvia W; Peinado, Diana I; Thomson, Lynn M; Garden, Karen E; Williams, Patricia A; Richardson, Anthony J; Ross, Alexander W

    2016-01-01

    Dietary constituents that suppress appetite, such as dietary fibre and protein, may aid weight loss in obesity. The soluble fermentable dietary fibre pectin promotes satiety and decreases adiposity in diet-induced obese rats but effects of increased protein are unknown. Adult diet-induced obese rats reared on high fat diet (45% energy from fat) were given experimental diets ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group): high fat control, high fat with high protein (40% energy) as casein or pea protein, or these diets with added 10% w/w pectin. Dietary pectin, but not high protein, decreased food intake by 23% and induced 23% body fat loss, leading to 12% lower final body weight and 44% lower total body fat mass than controls. Plasma concentrations of satiety hormones PYY and total GLP-1 were increased by dietary pectin (168% and 151%, respectively) but not by high protein. Plasma leptin was decreased by 62% on pectin diets and 38% on high pea (but not casein) protein, while plasma insulin was decreased by 44% on pectin, 38% on high pea and 18% on high casein protein diets. Caecal weight and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the caecum were increased in pectin-fed and high pea protein groups: caecal succinate was increased by pectin (900%), acetate and propionate by pectin (123% and 118%, respectively) and pea protein (147% and 144%, respectively), and butyrate only by pea protein (309%). Caecal branched-chain fatty acid concentrations were decreased by pectin (down 78%) but increased by pea protein (164%). Therefore, the soluble fermentable fibre pectin appeared more effective than high protein for increasing satiety and decreasing caloric intake and adiposity while on high fat diet, and produced a fermentation environment more likely to promote hindgut health. Altogether these data indicate that high fibre may be better than high protein for weight (fat) loss in obesity.

  19. Sensory signals during active versus passive movement.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Kathleen E

    2004-12-01

    Our sensory systems are simultaneously activated as the result of our own actions and changes in the external world. The ability to distinguish self-generated sensory events from those that arise externally is thus essential for perceptual stability and accurate motor control. Recently, progress has been made towards understanding how this distinction is made. It has been proposed that an internal prediction of the consequences of our actions is compared to the actual sensory input to cancel the resultant self-generated activation. Evidence in support of this hypothesis has been obtained for early stages of sensory processing in the vestibular, visual and somatosensory systems. These findings have implications for the sensory-motor transformations that are need