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Sample records for seoul korea 2003-2008

  1. Seoul: Korea's high-tech hotbed.

    PubMed

    Rusoff, D

    1987-04-01

    Seoul, Korea, is in the throes of change--in the way its people live, in the jobs they do, and in the makeup of its populace. The city of Seoul proper houses 1 out of every 4 Koreans. Home to 95 of Korea's 100 largest trading companies and 42 of the 46 family-based industrial conglomerates--Seoul controls Korean commerce. Employment opportunities have kept pace with Seoul's rapidly growing labor supply resulting in low unemployment by developing country standards. Only 12.3% of Koreans now live below the poverty line, down from nearly 41% in 1962. The real per capita income in Seoul rose from a dismal $87 in 1962 to nearly $2000 in 1985. The completion of 2 commuter rail lines in 1974 accelerated the movement of people out of the city and into suburban areas, concentrating urban growth along the railway corridors. Population densities in the city's central wards make Seoul 1 of the world's most densely populated cities. Although Seoul's population is young--27.9% of the population was under age 15 in 1983-- it is becoming increasingly dominated by those of working age. Seoul is essentially a city of migrants; more than 1/2 of the city's grwoth since 1960 is attributable to in-migration. Although the trend is toward rising white-collar employment, Seoul is still a blue-collar town. Seoul's educational system is so highly regarded in Korea that families move to seoul just to enroll their children. Korean spending patterns are influenced greatly by the Korean penchant for higher education.

  2. Characterization of norovirus infections in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sanghun; Jung, Jihun; Oh, Seah; Jung, Hyowon; Oh, Younghee; Cho, Seokju; Cho, Seogju; Cho, Sungja; Park, Hyongsug; Jo, Namsook; Bae, Kyungwon; Choi, Sungmin; Kim, Bogsoon; Kim, Junghun; Chae, Youngzoo; Jung, Haesook; Cheon, Doosung; Kim, Hyunsoo

    2012-10-01

    The present study has determined the detection rate of norovirus (NoV) with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in hospitalized children and describes the molecular epidemiology of NoV circulating in Seoul, Korea. Six hundred and eighty-three (9.8%) of samples were positive for NoV. Of these, the NoV GII genogroup was the most commonly found, with a prevalence of 96.2% (683 of 710). Only 27 samples were positive for the NoV GI genogroup. Ten kinds of GI genotype (GI/1, GI/2, GI/3, GI/4, GI/5, GI/6, GI/7, GI/9, GI/12, and GI/13) and eight kinds of GII genotype (GII/2, GII/3, GII/4, GII/8, GII/14, GII/15, GII/16, and GII/17) were identified in children with AGE during the years 2008-2011.

  3. Reemergence of the bedbug Cimex lectularius in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In-Yong; Ree, Han-Il; An, Song-Jun; Linton, John Alderman

    2008-01-01

    A healthy 30-yr-old woman carrying an insect that had been caught in her living room visited the International Clinic at Severance Hospital, Seoul, in December 2007. The insect she brought was identified to be a nymph of a bedbug, Cimex lectularius, and her skin rashes looked typical bedbug's bites. Her apartment was investigated, and a dead body of a bedbug, cast skins, and hatched eggs were found in her rooms and neighbors' rooms in the same building. She was living in that apartment in Seoul for 9 months since she had moved from New Jersey, USA. We assume that the bedbugs were introduced from abroad, since there had been no report on bedbugs in Seoul for more than 2 decades at least. This is a report of a reemergence of the common bedbug, C. lectularius in Seoul, Korea. PMID:19127335

  4. Reemergence of the bedbug Cimex lectularius in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Yong; Ree, Han-Il; An, Song-Jun; Linton, John Alderman; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2008-12-01

    A healthy 30-yr-old woman carrying an insect that had been caught in her living room visited the International Clinic at Severance Hospital, Seoul, in December 2007. The insect she brought was identified to be a nymph of a bedbug, Cimex lectularius, and her skin rashes looked typical bedbug's bites. Her apartment was investigated, and a dead body of a bedbug, cast skins, and hatched eggs were found in her rooms and neighbors' rooms in the same building. She was living in that apartment in Seoul for 9 months since she had moved from New Jersey, USA. We assume that the bedbugs were introduced from abroad, since there had been no report on bedbugs in Seoul for more than 2 decades at least. This is a report of a reemergence of the common bedbug, C. lectularius in Seoul, Korea.

  5. Wood Decay Fungi in South Korea: Polypores from Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yeongseon; Jang, Seokyoon; Lee, Jaejung; Lee, Hwanhwi; Lee, Hanbyul; Lee, Young Min; Hong, Joo-Hyun; Min, Mihee; Lim, Young Woon; Kim, Changmu

    2014-01-01

    In Seoul, a majority of plant communities have undergone significant changes over the last few decades; however, how wood decay fungi have responded and adapted to the changes in vegetation remains unknown. Through an ongoing investigation of Korean indigenous fungi, ca. 300 specimens with poroid basidiocarp were collected in Seoul during 2008~2012. Morphological examination and molecular analysis using the internal transcribed spacer and nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA region sequences helped identify 38 species belonging to 28 genera, 10 families, and 5 orders in this area. Among them, three polypores, Abundisporus pubertatis, Coriolopsis strumosa, and Perenniporia maackiae were found to be new to South Korea. PMID:25071382

  6. The Climate Analysis Seoul (CAS) simulation for thermal characteristics in different urban locations in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Gon; Lee, Jisu; Kim, Baek-Jo

    2016-04-01

    The Climate Analysis Seoul (CAS) being tailored for simulating detailed climate was applied to investigate the temperature distribution around the Seonjeongneung Royal Tombs that includes forest and grassland and in the surrounding high-density buildings in Seoul, Korea for a hot summer days of August 6-7, 2015. In this study, we used the digitalized topographical and land-use data of the 5 m resolution and wind and air temperature fields of 100 m resolution produced by the numerical model MetPhoMod (MPM), part of the CAS for the area of interest with an area of 25,000,000 m2. The difference of the temperatures compared with the representative meteorological station of Seoul was analyzed by considering the presence or absence of the Seonjeongneung Royal Tombs. For the case of heat wave issued in Seoul from August 6th, 06 LST to 7th, 18 LST, 2015, the simulation results presented that averaged temperatures in the green area were 2 °C lower than the one of the standard weather station, whereas they showed 1.5 °C higher when the green area was replaced with the building area. From this simulation result, we can suggest that the green area has a temperature reduction effect of 1-3 °C and its influence can be extended up to 150 m from the boundary of the green area. This fact reconfirms that the urban green area generates a micro-scale cool-island effect and this local phenomenon can reduce heat stress produced by surplus thermal sources of the surrounding buildings and paved roads during the hot summer days. Key words: Climate Analysis Seoul (CAS), Urban Green Area, Cool-Island Effect

  7. Urban vegetation and heat-related mortality in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Ji-Young; Lane, Kevin J; Lee, Jong-Tae; Bell, Michelle L

    2016-11-01

    Urban areas are particularly vulnerable to heat-related health outcomes. Simultaneous trends of climate change and urbanization may increase the urban heat-related health burden. We investigated the effects of urban vegetation on heat-related mortality, and evaluated whether different levels of vegetation and individuals' characteristics affect the temperature-mortality associations within Seoul, Korea 2000-2009. We used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to assess the urban vegetation within Seoul. We applied an overdispersed Poisson generalized linear model with interaction term between temperature and indicator of NDVI group (categorized in 3 levels) to assess the effect modification of the temperature-mortality association by urban vegetation. We conducted stratified analysis to explore whether associations are affected by individual characteristics of sex and age. The association between total mortality and a 1°C increase in temperature above the 90th percentile (25.1°C) (the "heat effect") was the highest for gus with low NDVI. The heat effect was a 4.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3, 5.9%), 3.0% (95% CI 0.2, 5.9%), and 2.2% (95% CI -0.5, 5.0%) increase in mortality risk for low, medium, and high NDVI group, respectively. Estimated risks showed similar effects by sex and age. Our findings suggest a higher mortality effect of high temperature in areas with lower vegetation in Seoul, Korea.

  8. Clinical and epidemiological comparison of human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in seoul, Korea, 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang Keun; Choi, Jungi; Callaway, Zak; Kim, Hyo Bin; Chung, Ju Young; Koh, Young-Yull; Shin, Bo Moon

    2010-03-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) shares clinical and epidemiological characteristics with well-known respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and epidemiological differences between HMPV- and RSV-induced wheezing illnesses. A total of 1,008 nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens was collected from 1,008 pediatric patients hospitalized with acute respiratory tract infection at Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital from December 2003 to April 2008, and tested for seven common respiratory viruses. Conditions classified as wheezing illness were bronchiolitis, reactive airways disease, and bronchial asthma. HMPV caused a significantly lower proportion of wheezing illness when compared to RSV (48.1% vs. 82.2%, P<0.05). HMPV-induced wheezing illness occurred predominantly in older patients when compared to RSV patients (P<0.001). RSV infections peaked in the fall and winter followed by peaks of HMPV infection in winter and spring. Eosinophil counts were significantly higher (P<0.01) in RSV patients when compared to HMPV patients. These results show that human metapneumovirus patients exhibit several different clinical and epidemiological characteristics, such as higher proportion of wheezing illness, age and seasonal incidence, and eosinophil counts, when compared to RSV patients.

  9. Air pollution and daily mortality in Seoul and Ulsan, Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J T; Shin, D; Chung, Y

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between air pollution and daily mortality for the period 1991-1995 was examined in two Korean cities, Seoul and Ulsan. The observed concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2; mean = 28.7 ppb), ozone (O3; mean = 29.2 ppb), and total suspended particulates (TSP; mean = 82.3 microg/m3) during the study period were at levels below Korea's current ambient air quality standards. Daily death counts were regressed separately in the two cities, using Poisson regression on SO2, O3, and/or TSP controlling for variability in the weather and seasons. When considered singly in Poisson regression models controlling for seasonal variations and weather conditions, the nonaccidental mortality associated with a 50-ppb increment in a 3-day moving average of SO2 concentrations, including the concurrent day and the preceding 2 days, was 1.078 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.057-1.099] for Seoul and 1.051 (CI, 0.991-1.115) for Ulsan. The rate ratio was 1.051 (CI, 1.031-1.072) in Seoul and 0.999 (CI, 0. 961-1.039) in Ulsan per 100 microg/m3 for TSP, and 1.015 (CI, 1. 005-1.025) in Seoul and 1.020 (0.889-1.170) in Ulsan per 50 ppb for 1-hr maximum O3. When TSP was considered simultaneously with other pollutants, the TSP association was no longer significant. We observed independent pollution effects on daily mortality even after using various approaches to control for either weather or seasonal variables in the regression model. This study demonstrated increased mortality associated with air pollution at both SO2 and O3 levels below the current World Health Organization recommendations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9924011

  10. Vulnerability to temperature-related mortality in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Anderson, G. Brooke; Bell, Michelle L.

    2011-07-01

    Studies indicate that the mortality effects of temperature may vary by population and region, although little is known about the vulnerability of subgroups to these risks in Korea. This study examined the relationship between temperature and cause-specific mortality for Seoul, Korea, for the period 2000-7, including whether some subgroups are particularly vulnerable with respect to sex, age, education and place of death. The authors applied time-series models allowing nonlinear relationships for heat- and cold-related mortality, and generated exposure-response curves. Both high and low ambient temperatures were associated with increased risk for daily mortality. Mortality risk was 10.2% (95% confidence interval 7.43, 13.0%) higher at the 90th percentile of daily mean temperatures (25 °C) compared to the 50th percentile (15 °C). Mortality risk was 12.2% (3.69, 21.3%) comparing the 10th (-1 °C) and 50th percentiles of temperature. Cardiovascular deaths showed a higher risk to cold, whereas respiratory deaths showed a higher risk to heat effect, although the differences were not statistically significant. Susceptible populations were identified such as females, the elderly, those with no education, and deaths occurring outside of a hospital for heat- and cold-related total mortality. Our findings provide supportive evidence of a temperature-mortality relationship in Korea and indicate that some subpopulations are particularly vulnerable.

  11. Identifying airborne fungi in Seoul, Korea using metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung-Yoon; Fong, Jonathan J; Park, Myung Soo; Chang, Limseok; Lim, Young Woon

    2014-06-01

    Fungal spores are widespread and common in the atmosphere. In this study, we use a metagenomic approach to study the fungal diversity in six total air samples collected from April to May 2012 in Seoul, Korea. This springtime period is important in Korea because of the peak in fungal spore concentration and Asian dust storms, although the year of this study (2012) was unique in that were no major Asian dust events. Clustering sequences for operational taxonomic unit (OTU) identification recovered 1,266 unique OTUs in the combined dataset, with between 223᾿96 OTUs present in individual samples. OTUs from three fungal phyla were identified. For Ascomycota, Davidiella (anamorph: Cladosporium) was the most common genus in all samples, often accounting for more than 50% of all sequences in a sample. Other common Ascomycota genera identified were Alternaria, Didymella, Khuskia, Geosmitha, Penicillium, and Aspergillus. While several Basidiomycota genera were observed, Chytridiomycota OTUs were only present in one sample. Consistency was observed within sampling days, but there was a large shift in species composition from Ascomycota dominant to Basidiomycota dominant in the middle of the sampling period. This marked change may have been caused by meteorological events. A potential set of 40 allergy-inducing genera were identified, accounting for a large proportion of the diversity present (22.5᾿7.2%). Our study identifies high fungal diversity and potentially high levels of fungal allergens in springtime air of Korea, and provides a good baseline for future comparisons with Asian dust storms.

  12. Investigation of norovirus occurrence in groundwater in metropolitan Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heetae; Kim, Misoon; Lee, Jung Eun; Lim, Miyoung; Kim, Minjung; Kim, Ju-Mi; Jheong, Weon-Hwa; Kim, Jongmin; Ko, GwangPyo

    2011-05-01

    Groundwater is an important source of drinking and household water worldwide. Hence, the quality of groundwater is very important for preventing waterborne disease outbreaks and should be properly monitored. This study investigated the prevalence of waterborne viruses and fecal indicators in groundwater in metropolitan Seoul and Gyeonggi province, South Korea. A total of 116 samples of groundwater were taken using NanoCeram filters during both summer (June to August) and fall-winter seasons (October to December) in 2008. Among 71 sampling sites, 28 (48.3%) and 18 (35.3%) were positive for norovirus (NoV) from the summer and fall-winter season, respectively. The identified genotypes of NoV include GI-1, 4, 8, 9 and GII-4, 10, 11 (or 17), 13, 15 (or 16). None of fecal indicators was significantly correlated with NoV in groundwater. Among the tested fecal indicators, somatic coliphage (95.3%) showed an excellent true-negative rate of NoV occurrence. The combination of chemical, microbial and viral indicators increased the positive predictive value (50-100%). This study demonstrated a high prevalence of NoV in groundwater in metropolitan Seoul areas and characterized the positive and negative predictive values of a fecal indicator for predicting NoV prevalence.

  13. EZ lidar dust transit phenomena observations in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lolli, S.; Sauvage, L.; Loaec, S.

    2009-09-01

    Duststorms and sandstorms regularly devastate Northeast Asia and cause considerable damage to transportation system and public health; further, these events are conceived to be one of the very important indices for estimating the global warming and desertification. Previously, yellow sand events were considered natural phenomena that originate in deserts and arid areas. However, the greater scale and frequency of these events in recent years are considered to be the result of human activities such as overgrazing and over-cultivation. Japan, Korea, Cina and Mongolia are directly concerned to prevent and control these storms and have been able to some extent to provide forecasts and early warnings. In this framework, to improve the accuracy of forecasting , a compact and rugged eye safe lidar, the EZ LIDATM, developed together by Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et l'Environnement (LSCE) (CEA-CNRS) and LEOSPHERE, France) to study and investigate structural and optical properties of clouds and aerosols, thanks to the strong know-how of CEA and CNRS in the field of air quality measurements and cloud observation and analysis, was deployed in Seoul, Korea in order to detect and study yellow sand events, thanks to its depolarization channel and scan capabilities. The preliminary results, showed in this paper, of this measurement campaign put in evidence that EZ Lidar, for its capabilities of operating unattended day and night under each atmospheric condition, is mature to be deployed in a global network to study long-range transport, crucial in the forecasting model.

  14. Properties of 21 Urban Agricultural Soils in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. W.

    2012-04-01

    The number of urban agriculture practitioners has been increasing rapidly in Korea like many other urbanized countries recently. The Korean government enacted a law for promoting urban agriculture in 2011. However, urban soil environment can be potential sources of many toxic contaminants including heavy metals making people concern about the safety of the agricultural products from the urban agriculture. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and plant by overuse of compost from animal waste was one of the raised concerns. This study was carried out to find out properties and total and phytoavailable (1.0 M NH4NO3 extractable) contents of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) in 21 urban agricultural soils in Seoul. On the average, the investigated urban soils showed pH1:5 6.89, EC1:5 0.14 dS m-1, organic mater 2.22%, available P2O5 139 mg kg-1, cation exchange capacity (CEC) 11.36 cmolc kg-1 and total nitrogen 0.15%. The average exchangeable-Ca, -Mg, -K and -Na of the 21 samples were 6.71, 1.44, 1.06 and 0.30 cmol+ kg-1, respectively. Total heavy metal concentrations (Cd 0.97-3.17 mg kg-1, average 1.89 mg kg-1; Pb 8.10-46.27 mg kg-1, average 19.96 mg kg-1; Cu 8.97-133.40 mg kg-1, average 38.37 mg kg-1; and Zn 38.97-180.06 mg kg-1, average 97.73 mg kg-1) in urban agricultural soils were lower than those of the warning standard in the area 1 according to the Soil Environmental Conservation Act of Korea. Phytoavailable-Cu, -Pb, and -Zn concentrations of the samples showed 0.02-0.28, N.D-0.09 and 0.01-0.43 mg kg-1, respectively. Phytoavailable-Cd was not detected. The average phytoavailable-Cu concentration from this study was similar to that from the previous phytoavailable-Cu of the highly contaminated soils from nearby abandoned mines, which might be resulted from overuse of compost from animal waste. Results showed a necessity of long-term monitoring of soils for sustainable urban agriculture in Korea.

  15. 76 FR 51350 - Aerospace Executive Service Trade Mission (AESTM) to Seoul, Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... medium-sized companies while combining aspects of a trade mission, such as one on one pre-scheduled... releases to general and trade media, direct mail, broadcast fax, notices by industry trade associations and... International Trade Administration Aerospace Executive Service Trade Mission (AESTM) to Seoul, Korea AGENCY...

  16. Modeling of urban trees' effects on reducing human exposure to UV radiation in Seoul, Korea

    Treesearch

    Hang Ryeol Na; Gordon M. Heisler; David J. Nowak; Richard H. Grant

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical model isconstructed for quantifying urban trees’ effects on mitigating the intensity of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the ground within different landuse types across a city. The model is based upon local field data, meteorological data and equations designed to predict the reduced UV fraction due to trees at the ground level. Trees in Seoul, Korea (2010...

  17. Radon exposure assessment for underground workers: a case of Seoul Subway Police officers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Myeong Han; Chang, Byung-Uck; Kim, Yongjae; Cho, Kun-Woo

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study is the systematic and individual assessment of the annual effective dose due to inhaled radon for the Seoul Subway Police officers, Korea. The annual average radon concentrations were found to be in the range of 18.9-114 Bq·m(-3) in their workplaces. The total annual effective doses which may likely to be received on duty were assessed to be in the range of 0.41-1.64 mSv·y(-1). These were well below the recommended action level 10 mSv·y(-1) by ICRP. However, the effective doses were higher than subway station staff in Seoul, Korea.

  18. Air Shower Events of High-Energy Cosmic Rays Measured at Seoul, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Wooram; Shin, Jae-Ik; Kim, Hongki; Lee, Seulgi; Lim, Sunin; Nam, Sinwoo; Yang, Jongmann; Cheon, Byunggu; Bang, Hyungchan; Kwon, Youngjoon

    2011-09-01

    The COsmic ray Research and Education Array (COREA) collaboration has installed an array of six detector stations at two high schools in and near Seoul, Korea for measurement of air-shower events from high-energy cosmic rays. Three stations are installed at each site, where each station consists of four plastic scintillation detectors covering an area of 2m2. In this presentation, we report the currenst status of the COREA project, describing the experimental equipment and measurement of coincident events.

  19. Photochemical Pollution over the suburban forest in Seoul South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Saewung; Sanchez, Dianne; Jeong, Daun; Seco, Roger; Gu, Dasa; Guenther, Alex; Lee, Meehye

    2017-04-01

    We will present long term photo-chemical observations at Taehwa Research Forest a suburban forest near by Seoul Metropolitan Area a home of 23 million. The discussion is mainly about observations during KORUS-AQ 2016 a NASA-NIER collaborative field campaign in the late spring. There were a couple of pollution stagnation episodes during the campaign and we will present how intensified pollution elevate ozone forming potentials by interacting with BVOC from surrounding forest. During the campaign, we conducted a comprehensive suite of trace gas observations along with OH reactivity and radical precursor observations. We will comprehensively examine atmospheric oxidation capacity and reactivity to evaluate the accuracy of our photochemical understanding in diagnosing regional pollution.

  20. Applications in brain proteomics: 8(th) HUPO Brain Proteome Project Workshop 7 October 2007, Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Hamacher, Michael; Stephan, Christian; Hardt, Tanja; Eisenacher, Martin; Henkel, Andreas; Wiltfang, Jens; Jimenez, Connie R; Park, Young Mok; Marcus, Katrin; Meyer, Helmut E

    2008-05-01

    What are the current approaches in brain proteomics? Can we combine different, but complementary study designs to obtain better results concerning brain diseases? What are the neuro-hotspots, especially in Korea? These were some of the questions the participants of the 8(th) HUPO Brain Proteome Project Workshop tried to answer prior to the 6(th) HUPO World Congress in Seoul, Korea. Around 100 scientists came together during the afternoon of 7 October, 2007, to discuss and to catch up on the latest results and strategies concerning Huntington's disease, glioblastoma and standardization.

  1. Effectiveness of Varicella Vaccination Program in Preventing Laboratory-Confirmed Cases in Children in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Hwa; Choe, Young June; Cho, Sung Il; Kang, Cho Ryok; Bang, Ji Hwan; Oh, Myoung Don; Lee, Jong Koo

    2016-12-01

    A universal one-dose varicella vaccination program was introduced in 2005 in Republic of Korea. However, the incidence of varicella in Korea has tripled over the last decade. We conducted a community based 1:1 matched case-control study to assess the effectiveness of one MAV strain-based vaccine and three Oka strain-based vaccines licensed for use in Korea. All cases were children in Seoul, Korea with varicella who were reported to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System in Seoul during 2013. The controls were age-matched children with mumps or scarlet fever but no history of varicella. We included 537 cases and 537 controls. The overall effectiveness of one dose of varicella vaccination was 13% (95% confidence interval [CI], -17.3-35.6). Of the four licensed varicella vaccines, only one was highly effective (88.9%; 95% CI, 52.1-97.4). The vaccine effectiveness for the other vaccines were 71.4% (95% CI, -37.5-94.1), -5% (95% CI, -61.9-31.9), and -100% (95% CI, -700-50.0). The overall effectiveness of vaccination was 75.8% (95% CI, 22.8-92.4) in the first year after vaccination and decreased thereafter; the effectiveness became -7.2% (95% CI, -130.9-59.2) in the fourth year after vaccination. Further studies are warranted to investigate reduced effectiveness of varicella vaccines in Korea.

  2. Full PACS installation in Seoul National University Hospital, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, HyunWoo; Kim, DongOok; Ahn, JinYoung; Lee, DongHyuk; Lee, JinHyung; Park, HeeJung; Kim, JongHyo; Han, Jungu

    2002-05-01

    Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) is composed of two buildings and has more than 1500 beds for patients needing hospitalization. Marotech has provided full PACS to SNUH with total HIS Integration in this year. In this paper, the installation process and management experience for seven months will be presented. At SNUH, 1643.8 exams were held per day during seven month after PACS installation. It is about 40 Gigabytes per day. Two acquisition servers (ACQ 1, 2), two database servers (DB 1, 2), two storage servers (LTA, network attached storage-NAS), one backup server (DLT) totally 8 servers were installed. SNUH has 11 CRs, 4 CTs, 3 MRIs, 9 NMs, 4 RFs, 20 USs, 7 ESs, 4 SCs, 5 XAs, and 5 Film Ditigers. All these modalities were integrated with PACS. DICOM 3.0 standard was conformed for images. DICOM Gateways were installed for modalities that do not support DICOM. The doctor can query and view Endoscopes, pathologic and anatomic data as well as radiological data. All the past five years exams is accessed less than 10 Seconds via on-line. Through the cooperation with SNUH and Marotech, HIS and PACS work together in stable state. These systems were integrated with HL7 standards and IHE.

  3. Source apportionment of the particulate PAHs at Seoul, Korea: impact of long range transport to a megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Kim, Y. P.

    2007-07-01

    Northeast Asia including China, Korea, and Japan is one of the world's largest fossil fuel consumption regions. Seoul, Korea, is a megacity in Northeast Asia. Its emissions of air pollutants can affect the region, and in turn it is also affected by regional emissions. To understand the extent of these influences, major sources of ambient particulate PAHs in Seoul were identified and quantified based on measurements made between August 2002 and December 2003. The chemical mass balance (CMB) model was applied. Seven major emission sources were identified based on the emission data in Seoul and Northeast Asia: Gasoline and diesel vehicles, residential coal use, coke ovens, coal power plants, biomass burning, and natural gas (NG) combustion. The major sources of particulate PAHs in Seoul during the whole measurement period were gasoline and diesel vehicles, together accounted for 31% of the measured particulate PAHs levels. However, the source contributions showed distinct daily and seasonal variations. High contributions of biomass burning and coal (residential and coke oven) were observed in fall and winter, accounting for 63% and 82% of the total concentration of PAHs, respectively. Since these sources were not strong in and around Seoul, they are likely to be related to transport from outside of Seoul, from China and/or North Korea. This implies that the air quality in a mega-city such as Seoul can be influenced by the long range transport of air pollutants such as PAHs.

  4. Source apportionment of the particulate PAHs at Seoul, Korea: impact of long range transport to a megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Kim, Y. P.

    2007-01-01

    Northeast Asia including China, Korea, and Japan is one of the world's largest fossil fuel consumption regions. Seoul is a megacity in Northeast Asia and its emissions of air pollutants can affect the region and is also affected by the regional emissions. To understand the degree of this relationship, major sources of ambient particulate PAHs at Seoul, Korea were identified and quantified based on the measurement data between August 2002 and December 2003. The chemical mass balance (CMB) model was applied. Seven major emission sources were identified based on the emission data in Seoul and Northeast Asia: Gasoline and diesel vehicles, coal residential, coke oven, coal power plant, biomass burning, natural gas (NG) combustion. The major source of particulate PAHs at Seoul on the whole measurement period was gasoline and diesel vehicles, accounted for 31% of the measured particulate PAHs levels. However, the source contributions showed distinct seasonal variations. High contributions of biomass burning and coal (residential and coke oven) were shown in fall and winter accounted for 63% and 82% of the total PAHs concentration, respectively. Since these sources were not strong in and around Seoul, these might be related to transport from outside of Seoul, from China and/or North Korea. It implies that the air quality in the large urban city such as Seoul can be influenced by the long range transport of air pollutants such as PAHs.

  5. The study to estimate the floating population in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Geon Woo; Lee, Yong Jin; Kim, Youngeun; Hong, Seung-Han; Kim, Soohwaun; Kim, Jeong Soo; Lee, Jong Tae; Shin, Dong Chun; Lim, Youngwook

    2017-01-01

    Traffic-related pollutants have been reported to increase the morbidity of respiratory diseases. In order to apply management policies related to motor vehicles, studies of the floating population living in cities are important. The rate of metro rail transit system use by passengers residing in Seoul is about 54% of total public transportation use. Through the rate of metro use, the people-flow ratios in each administrative area were calculated. By applying a people-flow ratio based on the official census count, the floating population in 25 regions was calculated. The reduced level of deaths among the floating population in 14 regions having the roadside monitoring station was calculated as assuming a 20% reduction of mobile emission based on the policy. The hourly floating population size was calculated by applying the hourly population ratio to the regional population size as specified in the official census count. The number of people moving from 5 a.m. to next day 1 a.m. could not be precisely calculated when the population size was applied, but no issue was observed that would trigger a sizable shift in the rate of population change. The three patterns of increase, decrease, and no change of population in work hours were analyzed. When the concentration of particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter was reduced by 20%, the number of excess deaths varied according to the difference of the floating population. The effective establishment of directions to manage the pollutants in cities should be carried out by considering the floating population. Although the number of people using the metro system is only an estimate, this disadvantage was supplemented by calculating inflow and outflow ratio of metro users per time in the total floating population in each region. Especially, 54% of metro usage in public transport causes high reliability in application.

  6. The study to estimate the floating population in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Soo; Lee, Jong Tae

    2017-01-01

    Traffic-related pollutants have been reported to increase the morbidity of respiratory diseases. In order to apply management policies related to motor vehicles, studies of the floating population living in cities are important. The rate of metro rail transit system use by passengers residing in Seoul is about 54% of total public transportation use. Through the rate of metro use, the people-flow ratios in each administrative area were calculated. By applying a people-flow ratio based on the official census count, the floating population in 25 regions was calculated. The reduced level of deaths among the floating population in 14 regions having the roadside monitoring station was calculated as assuming a 20% reduction of mobile emission based on the policy. The hourly floating population size was calculated by applying the hourly population ratio to the regional population size as specified in the official census count. The number of people moving from 5 a.m. to next day 1 a.m. could not be precisely calculated when the population size was applied, but no issue was observed that would trigger a sizable shift in the rate of population change. The three patterns of increase, decrease, and no change of population in work hours were analyzed. When the concentration of particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter was reduced by 20%, the number of excess deaths varied according to the difference of the floating population. The effective establishment of directions to manage the pollutants in cities should be carried out by considering the floating population. Although the number of people using the metro system is only an estimate, this disadvantage was supplemented by calculating inflow and outflow ratio of metro users per time in the total floating population in each region. Especially, 54% of metro usage in public transport causes high reliability in application. PMID:28602069

  7. Urbanization and the groundwater budget, metropolitan Seoul area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoon-Young; Lee, Kang-Kun; Sung, Ig Hwan

    2001-07-01

    The city of Seoul is home to more than 10 million people in an area of 605 km2. Groundwater is ed for public water supply and industrial use, and to drain underground facilities and construction sites. Though most tap water is supplied from the Han River, the quantity and quality of groundwater is of great concern to Seoul's citizens, because the use of groundwater for drinking water is continuously increasing. This study identifies the major factors affecting the urban water budget and quality of groundwater in the Seoul area and estimates the urban water budget. These factors include leakage from the municipal water-supply system and sewer systems, precipitation infiltration, water-level fluctuations of the Han River, the subway pumping system, and domestic pumping. The balance between groundwater recharge and discharge is near equilibrium. However, the quality of groundwater and ability to control contaminant fluxes are impeded by sewage infiltration, abandoned landfills, waste dumps, and abandoned wells. Résumé. La ville de Séoul possède une population de plus de 10 millions d'habitants, pour une superficie de 605 km2. Les eaux souterraines sont pompées pour l'eau potable et pour les usages industriels, ainsi que pour drainer les équipements souterrains et les sites en construction. Bien que l'essentiel de l'eau potable provienne de la rivière Han, la quantité et la qualité de l'eau souterraine présentent un grand intérêt pour les habitants de Séoul, parce qu'on utilise de plus en plus l'eau souterraine pour l'eau potable. Cette étude identifie les facteurs principaux qui affectent la qualité de l'eau souterraine dans la région de Séoul et fait l'estimation du bilan d'eau urbaine. Les principaux facteurs affectant le bilan d'eau urbaine et la qualité de l'eau souterraine sont les fuites du réseau d'adduction et du réseau d'égouts, l'infiltration des eaux de précipitation, les fluctuations du niveau de la rivière Han, le réseau de pompage

  8. Molecular detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) in feral cats from Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jusun; Kang, Jun-Gu; Oh, Sung-Suck; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Cho, Yun-Kyung; Cho, Young-Sun; Lee, Hang; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2017-01-01

    This study tested serum samples of feral cats from a highly urbanized habitat, Seoul, Korea to determine the infection to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV). From 126 samples tested, SFTSV was detected by RT-PCR in 22 (17.5%) cats from various sites of Seoul. Sequences identified from this study were grouped with clusters from China and Japan. Our result provides data that SFTSV may have been circulating in settings that were suspected to have relatively low risk, such as highly urbanized habitats. Thus it warrants further study to investigate the ecology of SFTSV in urban-dwelling animals including ticks, human and other potential host species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of Lumbar Disc Herniation in Adolescent Males in Seoul, Korea: Prevalence of Adolescent LDH in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do-Keun; Oh, Chang Hyun; Lee, Myoung Seok; Park, Hyung-chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2011-01-01

    Objective The authors surveyed the prevalence and the clinical character of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) in Korean male adolescents, and the usefulness of current conscription criteria. Methods The data of 39,673 nineteen-year-old males that underwent a conscription examination at the Seoul Regional Korean Military Manpower Administration (MMA) from October 2010 to May 2011 were investigated. For those diagnosed as having lumbar disc herniation, prevalences, subject characteristics, herniation severities, levels of herniation, and modified Korean Oswestry low back pain disability scores by MMA physical grade were evaluated. The analysis was performed using medical certificates, medical records, medical images, and electromyographic and radiologic findings. Results The prevalence of adolescent LDH was 0.60%(237 of the 39,673 study subjects), and the prevalence of serious adolescent LDH with thecal sac compression or significant discogenic spinal stenosis was 0.28%(110 of the 39,673 study subjects). Of the 237 adolescent LDH cases, 105 (44.3%) were of single level LDH and 132 (55.7%) were of multiple level LDH, and the L4-5 level was the most severely and frequently affected. Oswestry back pain disability scores increased with herniation severity (p<0.01), and were well correlated with MMA grade. Conclusions In this large cohort of 19-year-old Korean males, the prevalence of adolescent LDH was 0.60% and the prevalence of serious adolescent LDH, which requires management, was relatively high at 0.28%. MMA physical grade was confirmed to be a useful measure of the disability caused by LDH. PMID:26064143

  10. Effectiveness of Varicella Vaccination Program in Preventing Laboratory-Confirmed Cases in Children in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A universal one-dose varicella vaccination program was introduced in 2005 in Republic of Korea. However, the incidence of varicella in Korea has tripled over the last decade. We conducted a community based 1:1 matched case-control study to assess the effectiveness of one MAV strain-based vaccine and three Oka strain-based vaccines licensed for use in Korea. All cases were children in Seoul, Korea with varicella who were reported to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System in Seoul during 2013. The controls were age-matched children with mumps or scarlet fever but no history of varicella. We included 537 cases and 537 controls. The overall effectiveness of one dose of varicella vaccination was 13% (95% confidence interval [CI], −17.3–35.6). Of the four licensed varicella vaccines, only one was highly effective (88.9%; 95% CI, 52.1–97.4). The vaccine effectiveness for the other vaccines were 71.4% (95% CI, −37.5–94.1), −5% (95% CI, −61.9–31.9), and −100% (95% CI, −700–50.0). The overall effectiveness of vaccination was 75.8% (95% CI, 22.8–92.4) in the first year after vaccination and decreased thereafter; the effectiveness became −7.2% (95% CI, −130.9–59.2) in the fourth year after vaccination. Further studies are warranted to investigate reduced effectiveness of varicella vaccines in Korea. PMID:27822926

  11. Estimation of Populations Exposed to Road Traffic Noise in Districts of Seoul Metropolitan Area of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaewon; Gu, Jinhoi; Park, Hyunggyu; Yun, Heekyung; Kim, Samsoo; Lee, Wooseok; Han, Jinseok; Cha, Jun-Seok

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to model road traffic noise levels and estimate the human exposure at the 25 districts in the metropolitan Seoul, Republic of Korea. The SoundPLAN® Version 7.1 software package was used to model noise levels and simulated road traffic noise maps were created. The people exposed to daytime/nighttime road traffic noise were also estimated. The proportions of the population exposed to road traffic noise in major cities in the EU were also estimated and compared. Eight (8) districts show the exceeded rate (percentage of the exposed population exceeding the daytime standard) of 20% or more, and eleven (11) districts show 10%-20% and six (6) districts show less than 10%, which indicates considerable variation among districts. Two districts (Nowon-gu and Yangcheon-gu) show the highest exposure rate during the daytime (35.2%). For nighttime noise levels, fourteen (14) districts show the exceeded rate (percentage of exposed population exceeding the nighttime standard) over 30%. The average percentages of the exposed population exceeding the daytime/nighttime standards in Seoul and the EU were 16.6%/34.8% and 13.0%/16.1%, respectively. The results show that road traffic noise reduction measures should urgently be taken for the nighttime traffic noise in Seoul. When the grid noise map and the 3-D façade noise map were compared, the 3-D façade noise map was more accurate in estimating exposed population in citywide noise mapping. PMID:24603496

  12. Signatures of the Sudden Stratospheric Warming events of January-February 2008 in Seoul, S. Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Wachter, Evelyn; Hocke, Klemens; Flury, Thomas; Scheiben, Dominik; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Ka, Soohyun; Oh, Jung Jin

    2011-11-01

    The period January-February 2008 was characterized by four Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) in the Northern Hemisphere, of which the last warming, at the end of February 2008, was a major warming. A significant decrease in mesospheric water vapour (H 2O) of more than 2 ppmv (˜40%) was observed by the ground-based microwave (GBMW) radiometer in Seoul, S. Korea [37.3°N, 126.3°E] during the major SSW. A comparison with ground-based mesospheric H 2O observations from the mid-latitude station in Bern [46.9°N, 7°E] revealed an anticorrelation in the mesospheric H 2O data during the major SSW. In addition, prior to the major warming, strong periodic fluctuations were recorded in the Aura MLS vertical temperature distribution between 15 and 0.05 hPa at Seoul. The mesospheric temperature oscillation was found to have a period of ˜10-14 days with a persistency of 3-4 cycles. The observed anticorrelation in mesospheric H 2O between the stations in Seoul and Bern is associated with an increased meridional flow. Trajectory calculations give evidence that H 2O-rich subtropical air had moved to Bern during the major SSW while H 2O-poor polar air was transported to Seoul. The results shown in this study are a possible indication of a strong coupling between the dynamic regimes of the low- and the high-latitude regions during SSWs.

  13. Assessment of airborne environmental bacteria and related factors in 25 underground railway stations in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Yoon, Chung Sik; Ryu, Kyong Nam; Paik, Samuel Y.; Cho, Jun Ho

    2010-05-01

    This study assessed bacterial concentrations in indoor air at 25 underground railway stations in Seoul, Korea, and investigated various related factors including the presence of platform screen doors (PSD), depth of the station, year of construction, temperature, relative humidity, and number of passengers. A total of 72 aerosol samples were collected from all the stations. Concentrations of total airborne bacteria (TAB) ranged from not detected (ND) to 4997 CFU m -3, with an overall geometric mean (GM) of 191 CFU m -3. Airborne bacteria were detected at 23 stations (92%) and Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) were detected at two stations (8%). TAB concentrations of four stations (16%) exceeded 800 CFU m -3, the Korea indoor bio-aerosol guideline. The results of the study showed that TAB concentrations at the stations without PSD showed higher TAB concentrations than those with PSD, though not at statistically significant levels. TAB concentrations of deeper stations revealed significantly higher levels than those of shallower stations. Based on this study, it is recommended that mitigation measures be applied to improve the indoor air quality (IAQ) of underground railway stations in Seoul, with focused attention on deeper stations.

  14. Deprivation and suicide mortality across 424 neighborhoods in Seoul, South Korea: a Bayesian spatial analysis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Tae-Ho; Noh, Maengseok; Han, Junhee; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Khang, Young-Ho

    2015-12-01

    A neighborhood-level analysis of mortality from suicide would be informative in developing targeted approaches to reducing suicide. This study aims to examine the association of community characteristics with suicide in the 424 neighborhoods of Seoul, South Korea. Neighborhood-level mortality and population data (2005-2011) were obtained to calculate age-standardized suicide rates. Eight community characteristics and their associated deprivation index were employed as determinants of suicide rates. The Bayesian hierarchical model with mixed effects for neighborhoods was used to fit age-standardized suicide rates and other covariates with consideration of spatial correlations. Suicide rates for 424 neighborhoods were between 7.32 and 71.09 per 100,000. Ninety-nine percent of 424 neighborhoods recorded greater suicide rates than the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development member countries' average. A stepwise relationship between area deprivation and suicide was found. Neighborhood-level indicators for lack of social support (residents living alone and the divorced or separated) and socioeconomic disadvantages (low educational attainment) were positively associated with suicide mortality after controlling for other covariates. Finding from this study could be used to identify priority areas and to develop community-based programs for preventing suicide in Seoul, South Korea.

  15. First molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sukyee; Lee, Seung-Hun; VanBik, Dorene; Kim, Neung-Hee; Kim, Kyoo-Tae; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Rhee, Man Hee; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the status of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection was assessed in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea, with PCR and phylogenetic analyses. Nested PCR on 1058 collected blood samples revealed only one A. phagocytophilum positive sample (female, age <1year, mixed breed, collected from the north of the Han River). The genetic variability of A. phagocytophilum was evaluated by genotyping, using the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 gene sequences of the positive sample. BLASTn analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 genes had 99.6%, 99.9%, and 100% identity with the following sequences deposited in GenBank: a cat 16S rRNA sequence from Korea (KR021166), a rat groEL sequence from Korea (KT220194), and a water deer msp2 sequence from Korea (HM752099), respectively. Phylogenetic analyses classified the groEL gene into two distinct groups (serine and alanine), whereas the msp2 gene showed a general classification into two groups (USA and Europe) that were further subgrouped according to region. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to describe the molecular diagnosis of A. phagocytophilum in dogs reared in Korea. In addition, the high genetic identity of the 16S rRNA and groEL sequences between humans and dogs from the same region suggests a possible epidemiological relation. Given the conditions of climate change, tick ecology, and recent incidence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis in Korea, the findings of this study underscore the need to establish appropriate control programs for tick-borne diseases in Korea.

  16. First molecular detection and genetic analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in shelter cats in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hun; VanBik, Dorene; Kim, Neung-Hee; Park, Sang-Joon; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-12-01

    Here, we report the molecular detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in shelter cats in Korea and the relationships between A. phagocytophilum gene sequences and the pathogenicity, region, and host specificity of this bacterium. Two (0.9%) out of 222 shelter cats from Seoul, Korea, yielded positive results for the A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 genes. Phylogenetic analysis divided groEL gene sequences into two groups (alanine and serine), based on their nucleotide and amino acid sequences. A. phagocytophilum msp2 gene sequences were grouped per the region of isolation (Europe vs. USA, including Korea). Some nucleotide and amino acid sequences of groEL and msp2 showed distinctive patterns according to the region of isolation, which helped in distinguishing A. phagocytophilum gene sequences detected in Korea from those detected in the USA and Europe. Although the limited number of clinical anaplasmosis cases caused by A. phagocytophilum belonging to the alanine group prevents any firm conclusions, the results of the present study tend to refute the previous view that the pathogenicity of A. phagocytophilum is associated with the serine group. Moreover, our results suggest that genetic analyses of groEL and msp2 can be used to obtain a regional fingerprint of A. phagocytophilum.

  17. First molecular detection and genetic analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in shelter cats in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hun; VanBik, Dorene; Kim, Neung-Hee; Park, Sang-Joon; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-10-29

    Here, we report the molecular detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in shelter cats in Korea and the relationships between A. phagocytophilum gene sequences and the pathogenicity, region, and host specificity of this bacterium. Two (0.9%) out of 222 shelter cats from Seoul, Korea, yielded positive results for the A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 genes. Phylogenetic analysis divided groEL gene sequences into two groups (alanine and serine), based on their nucleotide and amino acid sequences. A. phagocytophilum msp2 gene sequences were grouped per the region of isolation (Europe vs. USA, including Korea). Some nucleotide and amino acid sequences of groEL and msp2 showed distinctive patterns according to the region of isolation, which helped in distinguishing A. phagocytophilum gene sequences detected in Korea from those detected in the USA and Europe. Although the limited number of clinical anaplasmosis cases caused by A. phagocytophilum belonging to the alanine group prevents any firm conclusions, the results of the present study tend to refute the previous view that the pathogenicity of A. phagocytophilum is associated with the serine group. Moreover, our results suggest that genetic analyses of groEL and msp2 can be used to obtain a regional fingerprint of A. phagocytophilum.

  18. Assessment of the Air Quality Improvement Potentials for Seoul Metropolitan Area using GAINS-Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Woo, J. H.; Ahn, Y. H.; Kim, J.; Bu, C.; Lee, Y.; Choi, K. C.; Amann, M.; Kim, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    Urban areas are very important places for climate change and air pollution because they have been emitting a significant amount of Green House Gases (GHGs) and air pollutants. Cause they have massive pollutant emissions and high population density with amount of vehicles. Korea's government has set the 2nd phase capital air quality improvement program called Seoul metropolitan area Air Quality Management Plan(SAQMP), targeting the year 2024. The air quality improvement targets are to achieve annual mean PM10 and pm2.5concentration for SMA Area 30 ug/m3 and 20 ug/m3, respectively. To achieve this target, emissions of PM10, PM2.5 are required to be decreased up to 35%, 45%, respectively, from their future baseline level. In this study, we found the emission level of some pollutants for the year 2030 will be decreased compare with the baseline level but the concentration cannot meet their target even with more stringent control measures. The more in-depth analysis of future PM concentration, estimated from Source-Receptor(S-R) relationship, were conducted for more accurate air quality improvement assessment. As the result, we found that secondary and transboundary pollution have been plying significant role in Seoul Metro air quality. Not only direct/in-region measures, therefore, but indirect measures/international cooperation have to be conducted to achieve target air quality. ** This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Climate Change Correspondence Program". This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Environment Research (NIER), funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea.

  19. Characterization of Anthropogenic Magnetic Particles in Asian Dust Using Magnetic Measurements and Electron Microscope Observations in Seoul, Korea: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Doh, S.; Park, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Magnetic measurements and electron microscopic observations have been performed for Asian dust samples in Seoul, Korea, and desert-sand and loess samples in source regions in China to identify pollution of Asian dust by anthropogenic particulates during transportation. Asian dust samples in Seoul have been collected during four Asian dust events occurred in March 19 and 23, April 9, 2002, and April 12, 2003. Desert-sand samples from Khorchin, Lanzhou and Tengel regions, and loess samples from Chifeng region were also collected for comparison during March 2-9, 2003. χLF, ARM and SIRM values (magnetic concentration parameters) of Asian dust in Seoul showed 2~288, 2~61 and 2 ~251 times, respectively, higher than those of desert-sand and loess in source regions. This result indicates that Asian dust originated from source regions in China experienced significant influx of magnetic particles during transportation to Seoul, Korea. These magnetic particles added in Asian dust can be recognized as ferrimagnetic minerals (e.g., magnetite and maghemite) based on IRM acquisition patterns and S-ratio values. During the electron microscopic observations for magnetic particles in Asian dust, iron-oxide spherules accompanied by carbon were frequently observed, implying that magnetic contaminants in Asian dust might be originated from fossil fuel combustions. Air- mass backward trajectories during four Asian dust events showed that the air-mass, transporting Asian dust, was originated from the central China and passed through the industrialized eastern China and western Korea on its way to Seoul. Therefore, it can be interpreted that Asian dust in Seoul was highly polluted by anthropogenic magnetic particles originated from industrialized regions in China and Korea. The present study reveals the pollution of Asian dust by anthropogenic particulates during transportation, and suggests that magnetic measurements associated with electron microscopic observations can be used as an

  20. Evaluating the PM damage cost due to urban air pollution and vehicle emissions in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Jin; Lim, Young Wook; Yang, Ji Yeon; Kim, Chang Soo; Shin, Young Chul; Shin, Dong Chun

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluated the prospective damage costs of PM(2.5) inhalation. We performed a health risk assessment based on an exposure-response function to estimate the annual population risk in the Seoul metropolitan city, Korea. Also, we estimated a willingness-to-pay (WTP) amount for reducing the mortality rate in order to evaluate a statistical life value. We combined the annual population risk and the value-of-statistical-life to calculate the damage cost estimate. In the health risk assessment, we applied the PM(2.5) relative risk to evaluate the annual population risk. We targeted an exposure population of 5,401,369 persons who were over the age of 30. Using a Monte-Carlo simulation for uncertainty analysis, we estimated that the population risk of PM(2.5) inhalation during a year in Seoul is 2181 premature deaths for acute exposure and 18,510 premature deaths for chronic exposure. The monthly average WTP for 5/1000 mortality reduction over ten years is $20.20 USD (95% C.I: $16.60-24.50) and the implied value-of-statistical-life (VSL) is $485,000 USD (95% C.I: $398,000-588,000). The damage cost estimate due to risk from PM(2.5) inhalation in Seoul is about $1057 million USD per year for acute exposure, and $8972 million USD per year for chronic exposure. It is important to note that this cost estimate does not reflect all health damage cost estimates in this urban area. This recommendation is a model for evaluating a mortality risk reduction and as such we must re-evaluate an integrated application of morbidity risk. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Epidemiological characteristics of the first water-borne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Shinje; Kwak, Wooseok; Lee, Sangwon; Kim, Won; Oh, Jaeyeon; Youn, Seung-Ki

    2013-07-01

    The first case of human cryptosporidiosis was reported in Korea in 1995; however, an outbreak of Cryptosporidium has not been reported in Korea until now. This paper describes the first outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Korea. On May 24, 2012, a local public health center filed a report on 126 residents with gastrointestinal symptoms in an old apartment complex in Seoul. Epidemiological investigations were implemented on 125 of the 126 patients. The patients were reported continuously over a period of 22 days. Diarrhea was the most common clinical symptom, and lasted for 5 days on average. The tap water was the only common exposure of the patients. During the environmental investigation it was discovered that the water and septic tanks were situated closely and that the waste water pipes were corroded where they passed over the water pipes. Cryptosporidium parvum was detected in 3 of the 7 stool specimens by PCR-RFLP. A number of Cryptosporidium oocysts were also detected in the water specimens from the water tank. In conclusion, Cryptosporidium parvum was the key causal pathogen of this outbreak. It is presumed that the tap water was contaminated by a sewage leak from the aged pipelines.

  2. Epidemiological Characteristics of the First Water-Borne Outbreak of Cryptosporidiosis in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Shinje; Kwak, Wooseok; Lee, Sangwon; Kim, Won; Oh, Jaeyeon

    2013-01-01

    The first case of human cryptosporidiosis was reported in Korea in 1995; however, an outbreak of Cryptosporidium has not been reported in Korea until now. This paper describes the first outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Korea. On May 24, 2012, a local public health center filed a report on 126 residents with gastrointestinal symptoms in an old apartment complex in Seoul. Epidemiological investigations were implemented on 125 of the 126 patients. The patients were reported continuously over a period of 22 days. Diarrhea was the most common clinical symptom, and lasted for 5 days on average. The tap water was the only common exposure of the patients. During the environmental investigation it was discovered that the water and septic tanks were situated closely and that the waste water pipes were corroded where they passed over the water pipes. Cryptosporidium parvum was detected in 3 of the 7 stool specimens by PCR-RFLP. A number of Cryptosporidium oocysts were also detected in the water specimens from the water tank. In conclusion, Cryptosporidium parvum was the key causal pathogen of this outbreak. It is presumed that the tap water was contaminated by a sewage leak from the aged pipelines. PMID:23853479

  3. Changes in the association between summer temperature and mortality in Seoul, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Jongsik; Kim, Ho

    2013-07-01

    The health impact of climate change depends on various conditions at any given time and place, as well as on the person. Temporal variations in the relationship between high temperature and mortality need to be explored in depth to explain how changes in the level of exposure and public health interventions modify the temperature-mortality relationship. We examined changes in the relationship between human mortality and temperature in Seoul, which has the highest population in South Korea, considering the change in population structure from 1993-2009. Poisson regression models were used to estimate short-term temperature-related mortality impacts. Temperature-related risks were divided into two "time periods" of approximately equal length (1993 and 1995-2000, and 2001-2009), and were also examined according to early summer and late summer. Temperature-related mortality in summer over the past 17 years has declined. These decreasing patterns were stronger for cardiovascular disease-related mortality than for all non-accidental deaths. The novel finding is that declines in temperature-related mortality were particularly noteworthy in late summer. Our results indicate that temperature-related mortality is decreasing in Seoul, particularly during late summer and, to a lesser extent, during early summer. This information would be useful for detailed public health preparedness for hot weather.

  4. Wet precipitation of major ions, polonium-210, and organic carbon in a metropolitan city, Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, G.; Kim, G.

    2011-12-01

    An extensive survey of chemical constituents in precipitation including dissolved organic carbon, dissolved nitrogen, major ions, trace elements, and radionuclides was conducted in a representative urban environment of Seoul over one-year period from 2009 to 2010. The sources for these chemical species were apportioned by applying principal component analysis (PCA) in association with commonly acknowledged key tracers, such as Na, K, Ca, and V. The fossil fuel combustion (especially coal) was shown to be the dominant source for most constituents being investigated, with biomass burning being recognized as another significant source. With the aid of air mass backward trajectory analyses, we concluded that the primary fraction of the chemical species in our precipitation samples originated locally in Korea, albeit the frequent long-range transport from the eastern and northeastern China might contribute substantially. Overall, our study suggests the significant role of human activities in altering the atmospheric environment of Seoul and presumably most urban areas around the world, highlighting its profound environmental implications, such as health risks posed by excessive polonium-210, enhanced rainwater acidity from organic acids, and radiative forcing by organic aerosols.

  5. Characterization of atmospheric particles in Seoul, Korea using SEM-EDX.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eunha; Park, Inji; Lee, Young Jae; Lee, Meehye

    2012-07-01

    Atmospheric particles in Seoul, Korea were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Particles were identified and characterized by their morphology and elemental compositions. The morphology of particles was closely coupled with elemental compositions, which provided information on sources and transport processes of aerosols. There were various types of combustion-derived particles identified such as fly ashes, soot, organic matters, tar balls, chars, and sulfur-containing particles. These anthropogenic particles mainly have spherical shape with nano- to micro-meter size. Char was, however, distinguished by irregular shape with varying size up to several micrometers. The sulfur-containing aggregates show a wide range of size, shape, and elemental composition. In addition, bioaerosol and mineral dust were the most abundant particles from natural sources.

  6. Current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyoung; Yoon, Jihyun; Kwon, Sooyoun; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin

    2012-12-01

    Recently the need to manage food allergies in schools has been growing. This study aimed to examine the current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea. A questionnaire survey was conducted in cooperation with the School Dietician Association during April 2009. Among the participating 154 schools, a total of 109 (71%) were determining students' food allergy status through parental surveys based on self-reported food allergies. A total of 72 (47%) had experienced student visits to a school health room due to food allergies within one year before the survey. Over 80 percent of the schools relied on self-care only without any school-wide measures for food allergies in place. Among the 890 menu items most frequently served in school lunch programs, a total of 664 (75%) were found to contain more than one food allergen. It is highly suggested that preventive plans and treatment measures should be established to manage food allergies in schools.

  7. The rate of Salmonella spp. infection in zoo animals at Seoul Grand Park, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Y. H.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, J. G.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, T. J.; Park, J. H.; Chung, B. H.

    2008-01-01

    Salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease that affects both people and animals. The incidence of reptile-associated salmonellosis has increased in Western countries due to the increasing popularity of reptiles as pets. In Korea, where reptiles are not popular as pets, many zoos offer programs in which people have contact with animals, including reptiles. So, we determined the rate of Salmonella spp. infection in animals by taking anal swabs from 294 animals at Seoul Grand Park. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 14 of 46 reptiles (30.4%), 1 of 15 birds (6.7%) and 2 of 233 mammals (0.9%). These findings indicate that vigilance is required for determining the presence of zoonotic pathogen infections in zoo animals and contamination of animal facilities to prevent human infection with zoonotic diseases from zoo facilities and animal exhibitions. In addition, prevention of human infection requires proper education about personal hygiene. PMID:18487939

  8. Children at risk: A comparison of child pedestrian traffic collisions in Santiago, Chile, and Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Blazquez, Carola; Lee, Jae Seung; Zegras, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We examine and compare pedestrian-vehicle collisions and injury outcomes involving school-age children between 5 and 18 years of age in the capital cities of Santiago, Chile, and Seoul, South Korea. We conduct descriptive analysis of the child pedestrian-vehicle collision (P-VC) data (904 collisions for Santiago and 3,505 for Seoul) reported by the police between 2010 and 2011. We also statistically analyze factors associated with child P-VCs, by both incident severity and age group, using 3 regression models: negative binomial, probit, and spatial lag models. Descriptive statistics suggest that child pedestrians in Seoul have a higher risk of being involved in traffic crashes than their counterparts in Santiago. However, in Seoul a greater proportion of children are unharmed as a result of these incidents, whereas more child pedestrians are killed in Santiago. Younger children in Seoul suffer more injuries from P-VCs than in Santiago. The majority of P-VCs in both cities tend to occur in the afternoon and evening, at intersections in Santiago and at midblock locations in Seoul. Our model results suggest that the resident population of children is positively associated with P-VCs in both cities, and school concentrations apparently increase P-VC risk among older children in Santiago. Bus stops are associated with higher P-VCs in Seoul, and subway stations relate to higher P-VCs among older children in Santiago. Zone-level land use mix was negatively related to child P-VCs in Seoul but not in Santiago. Arterial roads are associated with fewer P-VCs, especially for younger children in both cities. A share of collector roads is associated with increased P-VCs in Seoul but fewer P-VCs in Santiago. Hilliness is related to fewer P-VCs in both cities. Differences in these model results for Santiago and Seoul warrant additional analysis, as do the differences in results across model type (negative binomial versus spatial lag models). To reduce child P-VCs, this study

  9. Repeating microseismicity in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea, and its implications for the seismic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kang, S.; Ryoo, Y.; Park, Y.; Kyung, J.

    2013-12-01

    An earthquake with magnitude 3.0 occurred in the Seoul Metropolitan Capital Area (SNCA), Korea, on 9 February 2010. The earthquake attracted much attention and raised concerns about seismic hazards and risks in the Korea Peninsula, in particular, to the SNCA. SNCA includes the Seoul and Incheon metropolitans and most of the Gyeonggi province. It has a population of 24.5 million and is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world. We applied waveform correlation detector to 2007-2011 continuously recorded seismic data to identify repeating earthquakes. We identify 9 micro-earthquakes during 2007-2010 periods which are not reported in the KNSN bulletin because their magnitudes are too small. Estimated magnitudes using amplitude ratios measured at the station SEO indicate the smallest event detected by the waveform cross correlation technique in the study is as low as 0.19. The number of events for our interpretation becomes 11 including 2 previously reported events and 9 newly identified ones. All of them occur in a very small area. While there are historic documents reporting earthquakes in the SNCA, repeating earthquakes or clustered seismicity from the instrumental earthquake record have not reported before. We have determined the focal mechanism solution for the representative event (9 February 2010, ML 3.0) using first motions. The preferred focal mechanism solution for the representative event is the WNW-ESE striking fault, which are consistent with the precisely determined earthquake hypocenter distribution. The orientation of P-axis is also consistent with the results in the previous studies of stress orientation in and around the Korean peninsula. The new list of earthquakes in this study is far from any complete, although we have adopted a well-established method to detect earthquakes. Considering the low seismicity, extensive efforts to monitor the micro-seismicity are definitely required to obtain comprehensive picture of the seismicity pattern in

  10. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter and Associations between Particulate Chemical Constituents and Mortality in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jung, Kweon

    2012-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have linked fine particles [≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] and health. Most studies focused on the total mass of the particles, although the chemical composition of the particles varies substantially. Which chemical components of fine particles that are the most harmful is not well understood, and research on the chemical composition of PM2.5 and the components that are the most harmful is particularly limited in Asia. Objectives: We characterized PM2.5 chemical composition and estimated the effects of cause-specific mortality of PM2.5 mass and constituents in Seoul, Korea. We compared the chemical composition of particles to those of the eastern and western United States. Methods: We examined temporal variability of PM2.5 mass and its composition using hourly data. We applied an overdispersed Poisson generalized linear model, adjusting for time, day of week, temperature, and relative humidity to investigate the association between risk of mortality and PM2.5 mass and its constituents in Seoul, Korea, for August 2008 through October 2009. Results: PM2.5 and chemical components exhibited temporal patterns by time of day and season. The chemical characteristics of Seoul’s PM2.5 were more similar to PM2.5 found in the western United States than in the eastern United States. Seoul’s PM2.5 had lower sulfate (SO4) contributions and higher nitrate (NO3) contributions than that of the eastern United States, although overall PM2.5 levels in Seoul were higher than in the United States. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in magnesium (Mg) (0.05 μg/m3) was associated with a 1.4% increase (95% confidence interval: 0.2%, 2.6%) in total mortality on the following day. Several components that were among the largest contributors to PM2.5 total mass—NO3, SO4, and ammonium (NH4)—were moderately associated with same-day cardiovascular mortality at the p < 0.10 level. Other components with smaller mass contributions [Mg and

  11. A Multilevel Analysis of the Compositional and Contextual Association of Social Capital and Subjective Well-Being in Seoul, South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Sehee; Kim, Heaseung; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between social capital and subjective well-being (life satisfaction) by using multilevel analysis considering both individual and area-level social capital while adjusting for various control variables at multiple-levels in Seoul, South Korea. The data was from the 2010 (Wave 2) Seoul Welfare…

  12. Introduction of the Mobile Platform for the Meteorological Observations in Seoul Metropolitan City of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, K. T.; Lee, S.; Kang, M.; Lee, G.

    2016-12-01

    Traffic accidents due to adverse weather such as fog, heavy rainfall, flooding and road surface freezing have been increasing in Korea. To reduce damages caused by the severe weather on the road, a forecast service of combined real-time road-wise weather and the traffic situation is required. Conventional stationary meteorological observations in sparse location system are limited to observe the detailed road environment. For this reason, a mobile meteorological observation platform has been coupled in Weather Information Service Engine (WISE) which is the prototype of urban-scale high resolution weather prediction system in Seoul metropolitan area of Korea in early August 2016. The instruments onboard are designed to measure 15 meteorological parameters; pressure, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, up/down net radiation, up/down longwave radiation, up/down shortwave radiation, road surface condition, friction coefficient, water depth, wind direction and speed. The observations from mobile platform show a distinctive advantage of data collection in need for road conditions and inputs for the numerical forecast model. In this study, we introduce and examine the feasibility of mobile observations in urban weather prediction and applications.

  13. Improvement of Advanced Storm-scale Analysis and Prediction System (ASAPS) on Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jeong-Gyun; Jee, Joon-Bum

    2017-04-01

    Dangerous weather such as severe rain, heavy snow, drought and heat wave caused by climate change make more damage in the urban area that dense populated and industry areas. Urban areas, unlike the rural area, have big population and transportation, dense the buildings and fuel consumption. Anthropogenic factors such as road energy balance, the flow of air in the urban is unique meteorological phenomena. However several researches are in process about prediction of urban meteorology. ASAPS (Advanced Storm-scale Analysis and Prediction System) predicts a severe weather with very short range (prediction with 6 hour) and high resolution (every hour with time and 1 km with space) on Seoul metropolitan area based on KLAPS (Korea Local Analysis and Prediction System) from KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration). This system configured three parts that make a background field (SUF5), analysis field (SU01) with observation and forecast field with high resolution (SUF1). In this study, we improve a high-resolution ASAPS model and perform a sensitivity test for the rainfall case. The improvement of ASAPS include model domain configuration, high resolution topographic data and data assimilation with WISE observation data.

  14. Daily variation of organic aerosol concentration and composition in Seoul, Korea during KORUS pre-campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, H. J.; Lee, J.; Choi, A. Y.; Park, S. M.; Park, J. S.; Song, I. H.; Hong, Y. D.

    2015-12-01

    Daily variation of Organic Aerosol (OA) as well as organic tracer compounds have been observed in aerosol samples collected during KORUS-AQ (Korea-US Air Quality Study) pre-campaign (From May 18 to June 12) in Seoul, Korea. NR-PM1 bounded OA was measured by HR-TOF-AMS (Aerodyne) and the temporal variation, composition of OA by family group characterization, and oxidation state of OA was studied. And to distinguish the source characteristics (such as HOA, COA, NOA, SV-OOA, LV-OOA, etc…) of the organic, AMS-PMF model will be used.For the observation of organic tracer compounds, solvent extractable fractions were analyzed by GC-MS. More than 80 organic compounds were detected in the aerosol samples and grouped by source characterized classes, including vehicular emission tracers, biomass burning tracers, coal emission tracers, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers. The main objective of this study is evaluation of the validity of OA fractionation based on the AMS measurement. So, we will compare daily variation of OA composition measured by AMS with daily variation of organic tracer compounds. Further, we will specify source characteristics estimated using AMS-PMF model by comparing the results of source apportionment of OA using PMF of organic tracer compounds.

  15. Radiocarbon-Based Source apportionment of Elemental Carbon Aerosols at Seoul, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerian Ghahferrokhi, Farid; Ahn, Jinho; Czimczik, Claudia I.; Holden, Sandra; Park, JinSoo

    2016-04-01

    In this study, 10 samples of PM2.5 (aerosol particle with diameter less than 2.5 μm) were collected in the Northeast of Seoul (37.60o N, 127.05o E), South Korea, over 2-4 day periods in May and June of 2015 with a high volume air sampler. The samples were analyzed for their bulk carbon (TC) and nitrogen (N) elemental and stable isotope composition with EA-IRMS. Elemental carbon (EC) was quantified with the Swiss_4S protocol using a Sunset OC/EC analyzer. Both, TC and EC were analyzed for their radiocarbon (14C) content via accelerator mass spectrometry. The mass and isotopic composition of organic carbon (OC) was quantified by (isotope) mass balance. TC loads were 6.6 +/- 1.5 ug C m-3 air (ave. +/- sd; range 4.7-9.7), with a ∆14C ranging from 240 to -446 per mill and a δ13C of -25.4+/-0.3 per mill. EC was a minor fraction of TC (7.2+/-1.9% or 0.5+/-0.2 ug C m-3 air). EC was strongly depleted in 14C (∆14C = -915 to -819 per mill), with fossil sources accounting for 88+/-3% of EC (6.3+/-1.7% of TC). OC was enriched in 14C above natural levels (∆14C = -401 to 309 per mill), and thus could not be partitioned into fossil and modern sources. Local wind directions showed that air masses originated from the South, demonstrating that regional sources may be the crucial contributor to PM pollution in Seoul during that sampling period (early summer).

  16. Gender modifies the relationship between social networks and smoking among adults in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Ayers, John W; Hofstetter, C Richard; Hughes, Suzanne C; Park, Hae-Ryun; Paik, Hee-Young; Song, Yoon Ju; Irvin, Veronica; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the interaction of gender with social network mechanisms and smoking behaviors in Seoul, South Korea, where smoking is common among men but not women. During 2002, telephone surveys were completed with 500 adults drawn from a probability sample in Seoul. Respondents described their smoking status, smoking rate (number of cigarettes smoked per day) and social networks by assessing who discouraged or encouraged smoking (smoking support) or smoked (smoking models). Multivariable regressions were used for analyses. Women encountered significantly less smoking support than men, 88% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 85-91) versus 70% (95% CI 66-73) net discouragement of smoking in their network. A difference in smoking support from 25 to 75% net discouragement was associated with a 27% (95% CI 9-49) lower probability of smoking among women, significantly stronger (z = 3.18, p < 0.01) than among men who had a 19% (95% CI 8-27) lower probability of smoking. A similar difference in smoking support was associated with male smokers smoking 6.38 (95% CI 0.86-12.30) fewer cigarettes per day, or 2,329 (95% CI 314-4,490) fewer cigarettes per year. The later association could not be observed among women due to the small proportion of female smokers. Smoking models were not significantly associated with any smoking behaviors across genders. Social network mechanisms were differentially associated with the high smoking prevalence among men and low prevalence among women and should be targeted by interventions tailored to these differences.

  17. Origin and Migration of the Pollutants in Precipitation and Surface Water in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, I.; Lim, C.; Yu, J.

    2002-12-01

    Variations in abundance of stable isotopes of sulfur, hydrogen, and oxygen are studied on snow and rainwater samples from Seoul area. Their suitability as a tool for characterizing the seasonality and source of regions near Korea, which contribute to the pollution in Seoul Area was investigated. Also stable isotopic and chemical evidence has been used to trace the sources of sulfate in precipitation at study area and to distinguish sulfate between natural and anthropogenic origins. The contribution of different sources to a specific receptor site depends on emission patterns and meteorological conditions. Measured isotope ratios reflect the actual superposition of the distinct source types based on the assumption that no major isotope fractionation occurs during the transportation process between source region and sampling site. The sulfur isotopic composition of sulfate (δ34S) in precipitation decreased during spring and summer. The δ34S values ranged from +4.4 to +6.5› (mean +5.9›) in winter and from +3.7 to 4.8› (mean +4.3›) in summer. Furthermore, the isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen in the snow and rainwater samples were used to support the meteorological information. The δ34S value of the sulfate in precipitation shows characteristic patterns of seasonal variation in the present research. Seasonal variations of the δ34S values and their relation to chemical composition of the atmospheric pollutants are discussed taking into account the δ34S values of sulfur originating from sea salt, oil and coal combustion, and biogenic activity. Also, the δ34S values of sulfate in the atmospheric pollutants show a remarkable seasonal variation depending on the wind directions. The relationship between wind direction and seasonal variation can be explained by contribution of sulfur from coal combustion in northern China and southern China.

  18. Gender modifies the relationship between social networks and smoking among adults in Seoul, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, John W.; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Park, Hae-Ryun; Paik, Hee-Young; Song, Yoon Ju; Irvin, Veronica; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the interaction of gender with social network mechanisms and smoking behaviors in Seoul, South Korea, where smoking is common among men but not women. Methods During 2002, telephone surveys were completed with 500 adults drawn from a probability sample in Seoul. Respondents described their smoking status, smoking rate (number of cigarettes smoked per day) and social networks by assessing who discouraged or encouraged smoking (smoking support) or smoked (smoking models). Multivariable regressions were used for analyses. Results Women encountered significantly less smoking support than men, 88% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 85–91) versus 70% (95% CI 66–73) net discouragement of smoking in their network. A difference in smoking support from 25 to 75% net discouragement was associated with a 27% (95% CI 9–49) lower probability of smoking among women, significantly stronger (z = 3.18, p < 0.01) than among men who had a 19% (95% CI 8–27) lower probability of smoking. A similar difference in smoking support was associated with male smokers smoking 6.38 (95% CI 0.86–12.30) fewer cigarettes per day, or 2,329 (95% CI 314–4,490) fewer cigarettes per year. The later association could not be observed among women due to the small proportion of female smokers. Smoking models were not significantly associated with any smoking behaviors across genders. Conclusions Social network mechanisms were differentially associated with the high smoking prevalence among men and low prevalence among women and should be targeted by interventions tailored to these differences. PMID:20217178

  19. Microseismicity in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea, and its implications for the seismic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kang, S.; Ryoo, Y.; Kim, M.; Park, Y.; Kyung, J.

    2012-12-01

    On 9 February 2010, a minor earthquake occurred in the northwest of South Korea. The earthquake was widely felt in the Seoul National Capital Area (SNCA). The earthquake attracted much attention from media, politicians, policy makers and the public, who raised concerns about seismic hazards and risks in the Korea Peninsula, in particular, to the SNCA. SNCA includes the Seoul and Incheon metropolitans and most of the Gyeonggi province. It has a population of 24.5 million (as of 2007) and is ranked as the second largest metropolitan area in the world. The SNCA has been the center of the economics, politics, and culture during the past half millennium since the city has been designated as the capital city in 1394. We applied waveform correlation detector to 2007-2010 continuously recorded seismic data to identify repeating earthquakes. We identify 9 micro-earthquakes during 2007-2010 periods which are not reported in the KNSN bulletin because their magnitudes are too small. Estimated magnitudes using amplitude ratios measured at the station SEO indicate the smallest event detected by the waveform cross correlation technique in the study is as low as 0.19. The number of events for our interpretation becomes 11 including two previously reported events and nine newly identified micro-earthquakes. All of them occur in a very small area. While there are historic documents reporting earthquakes in the SNCA, repeating earthquakes or clustered seismicity from the instrumental earthquake record have not reported before. We have determined the focal mechanism solution for the representative events (9 February 2010, ML 3.0) using the first-motion polarities. The preferred focal mechanism solution for the representative event is the WNW-ESE striking fault, which are consistent with the precisely determined earthquake hypocenter distribution. It is also consistent with the results in the previous studies of stress orientation in and around the Korean peninsula. The new list of

  20. Submicron aerosol distributions and CCN concentration at Gosan and Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Lee, S.; Yum, S. S.; Hudson, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    Counter fell in the range of 400 - 8000 cm-3. The CCN/CN ratios were below 1 for the whole period and were low when Dg were low and high when the Dg were high showing that the CCN measurements were consistent with other aerosol measurements. Additional measurement will be made in Seoul, the capital of Korea, with 10 million inhabitants, in September and October 2006. Further analysis and comparison including Seoul measurements will be presented at the conference.

  1. An overview of 2016 WISE Urban Summer Observation Campaign (WUSOC 2016) in the Seoul metropolitan area of South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jae-Won; Kim, Sang-Woo; Shim, Jae-Kwan; Kwak, Kyung-Hwan

    2017-04-01

    The Weather Information Service Engine (WISE), launched project of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA), aims to operate the urban meteorological observation network from 2012 to 2019 and to test and operate the application weather service (e.g., flash flood, road weather, city ecology, city microclimate, dispersion of hazardous substance etc.) in 2019 through the development of Advanced Storm-scale Analysis Prediction System(ASAPS) for the production of storm-scale hazard weather monitoring and prediction system. The WISE institute has completed construction of 31 urban meteorological observation cities in Seoul metropolitan area and has built a real-time test operation and verification system by improving the ASAPS that produces 1 km and 6 hour forecast information based on the 5 km forecast information of KMA. Field measurements of 2016 WISE Urban Summer Observation Campaign (WUSOC 2016) was conducted in the Seoul metropolitan area of South Korea from August 22 to October 14, 2016. Involving over 70 researchers from more than 12 environmental and atmospheric science research groups in South Korea, WUSOC2016 focused on special observations, severe rain storm observations using mobile observation car and radiosonde, wind profile observations using Wind Doppler Lidar and radiosonde, etc., around the Seoul metropolitan area. WUSOC2016 purpose at data quality control, accuracy verification, usability check, and quality improvement of ASAPS at observation stations constructed in WISE. In addition, we intend to contribute to the activation of urban fusion weather research and risk weather research through joint observation and data sharing.

  2. Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidities of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in children in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee-Jeong

    2015-03-01

    The present study reports past-year prevalence of and comorbidities associated with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) disorders in 1645 children aged 6 to 12 years in Seoul, Korea. The diagnosis was based on the parental version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV). Our participants completed the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). The estimated prevalence of any full-syndrome and subthreshold DSM-IV disorders were 16.2% and 28.1%, respectively. The most prevalent disorders were specific phobia (9.6%), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; 5.9%), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD; 4.9%). The estimated prevalence of depressive disorder was 0.1% according to the DISC-IV and1.9% according to the CDI. ADHD, ODD, and anxiety disorders were highly comorbid. Our study highlights the importance of obtaining children's self-report data in addition to the parents' interview, particularly for depression, and the importance of early detection of subthreshold conditions and considering comorbid diagnoses. © 2013 APJPH.

  3. Land-use regression panel models of NO2 concentrations in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngkook; Guldmann, Jean-Michel

    2015-04-01

    Transportation and land-use activities are major air pollution contributors. Since their shares of emissions vary across space and time, so do air pollution concentrations. Despite these variations, panel data have rarely been used in land-use regression (LUR) modeling of air pollution. In addition, the complex interactions between traffic flows, land uses, and meteorological variables, have not been satisfactorily investigated in LUR models. The purpose of this research is to develop and estimate nitrogen dioxide (NO2) panel models based on the LUR framework with data for Seoul, Korea, accounting for the impacts of these variables, and their interactions with spatial and temporal dummy variables. The panel data vary over several scales: daily (24 h), seasonally (4), and spatially (34 intra-urban measurement locations). To enhance model explanatory power, wind direction and distance decay effects are accounted for. The results show that vehicle-kilometers-traveled (VKT) and solar radiation have statistically strong positive and negative impacts on NO2 concentrations across the four seasonal models. In addition, there are significant interactions with the dummy variables, pointing to VKT and solar radiation effects on NO2 concentrations that vary with time and intra-urban location. The results also show that residential, commercial, and industrial land uses, and wind speed, temperature, and humidity, all impact NO2 concentrations. The R2 vary between 0.95 and 0.98.

  4. Comprehensive monitoring of drinking well water quality in Seoul metropolitan city, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Susaya, Janice P; Park, Chan Goo; Uhm, Jung-Hoon; Hur, Jin

    2013-08-01

    In this research, the quality of drinking well waters from 14 districts around Seoul metropolitan city, Korea was assessed by measuring a number of parameters with established guideline (e.g., arsenic, fluoride, nitrate nitrogen, benzene, 1,2-dichloroethene, dichloromethane, copper, and lead) and without such criteria (e.g., hardness, chloride ion, sulfate ion, ammonia nitrogen, aluminum, iron, manganese, and zinc). Physical parameters such as evaporation residue (or total dissolved solids) and turbidity were also measured. The importance of each parameter in well waters was examined in terms of the magnitude and exceedance frequency of guideline values established by international (and national) health agencies. The results of this study indicate that among the eight parameters with well-established guidelines (e.g., WHO), arsenic and lead (guideline value of 0.01 mg L(-1) for both) recorded the highest exceedance frequency of 18 and 16 well samples ranging in 0.06-136 and 2-9 mg L(-1), respectively. As such, a number of water quality parameters measured from many well waters in this urban area were in critical levels which require immediate attention for treatment and continuous monitoring.

  5. Effect of diurnal temperature range on cardiovascular markers in the elderly in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Kim, Ho; Kim, Jin Hee; Bae, Sanghyuk; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2013-07-01

    While diurnal temperature range (DTR) has been found to be a risk factor for mortality, evaluation of the underlying mechanisms involved in this association are lacking. To explain the association between DTR and health effects, we investigated how cardiovascular markers responded to DTR. Data was obtained from 560 participants who regularly attended a community elderly welfare center located in Seoul, Korea. Data collection was conducted a total of five times over a 3-year period beginning in August, 2008. We examined systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV). Mixed-effects models and generalized additive mixed models were used to assess the relationship of DTR with BP, HR, and HRV. BP was not associated significantly with rapid temperature changes during the day. While HR was associated linearly with increments of DTR, the relationship between DTR and HRV showed nonlinear associations, or the presence of a cutoff around median DTR. At the cutoff level of DTR determined by an inflection point in the graph, standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) and root mean square successive difference (RMSSD) were peaked, whereas the low frequency:high frequency (LF:HF) ratio was elevated with decreasing DTR below the cutoff level. The study demonstrated that HR increases with increasing temperature range during the day, and that HRV is reduced at small or large DTR, which suggests minimal cardiovascular stress around the median level of temperature range during the day.

  6. Outbreak of botulism (Clostridium botulinum type C) in wild waterfowl: Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Kim, Ha-Young; Bae, You-Chan; Jean, Young Hwa; Yoon, Soon-Seek; Bak, Eun-Jung; Hwang, Eui Kyung; Joo, Yi-Seok

    2010-07-01

    Over a 6-day period beginning on 15 October 2008, 93 dead or sick wild waterfowl, including Mallards, Spotbills, and teal species, were found along the shore of a branch stream of the Hangang River, which flows through Seoul, Korea, and were submitted to the National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service (NVRQS) for diagnosis. Clinically, the affected birds showed flaccid paralysis of the legs and wings and paralysis of the neck. Grossly, no bird showed any lesions, but all had almost empty stomachs. Histopathologic findings included mild lymphocytic hepatitis and mild lymphocytic interstitial nephritis. Clostridium botulinum type C toxin was identified in sera collected from the birds using a mouse bioassay for botulinum toxins; however, no bacteria were isolated from any of the affected birds. In addition, a low-pathogenic avian influenza virus was isolated from two Spotbills, and pesticides such as diazinon and phorate, were detected in seven Mallards. The cause of this outbreak is not clear, but an increase in organic materials from sewage due to drought, increased temperatures, and an increased number of aquatic carcasses resulting from pesticide contamination may have increased the replication of C. botulinum, contributing to the release of botulinum toxins into the waterfowl food chain.

  7. Volatile Organic Compounds in Ambient Air at Four Residential Locations in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ho, Duy Xuan; Park, Chan Goo; Ma, Chang-Jin; Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Lee, Sung Chun; Jeong, Ho Jin; Lee, Soon Hee

    2012-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the environmental behavior of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban areas, their concentrations were measured at four urban monitoring sites (namely, N, S, E, and W) in Seoul, Korea (February to December 2009). A total of 27 compounds were quantified that consist of four chemical groups: aromatic (AR), halogenated aromatic, halogenated paraffin, and halogenated olefin. Results were evaluated by focusing on these four functional groups just mentioned and their summation term as total VOC (TVOC) along with several individual species (mainly AR species, that is, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene). The highest concentration of chemical groups was found from AR (71.1±42.1 ppbC), while that for individual species confirmed the dominance of toluene (7.48±3.88 ppb). The analysis of spatial distribution indicated that high TVOC levels were recorded at sites N and W, while it was not so significant such as S and E in terms of TVOC budget. Seasonal variation of these VOCs was characterized by the peak values in December to reflect the combined effects of pronounced source activities and meteorological conditions. Analysis of spatial variations in VOC levels between the four urban sites indicated that their distributions are tightly affected by local source processes in each area. PMID:22969269

  8. Impact of future urban growth on regional climate changes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsu; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Song, Sang-Keun; Lee, Hwa Woon

    2016-11-15

    The influence of changes in future urban growth (e.g., land use changes) on the future climate variability in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA), Korea was evaluated using the WRF model and an urban growth model (SLEUTH). The land use changes in the study area were simulated using the SLEUTH model under three different urban growth scenarios: (1) current development trends scenario (SC 1), (2) managed development scenario (SC 2) and (3) ecological development scenario (SC 3). The maximum difference in the ratio of urban growth between SC 1 and SC 3 (SC 1 - SC 3) for 50years (2000-2050) was approximately 6.72%, leading to the largest differences (0.01°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively) in the mean air temperature at 2m (T2) and wind speed at 10m (WS10). From WRF-SLEUTH modeling, the effects of future urban growth (or future land use changes) in the SMA are expected to result in increases in the spatial mean T2 and WS10 of up to 1.15°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively, possibly due to thermal circulation caused by the thermal differences between urban and rural regions.

  9. A multilevel analysis of social capital and self-reported health: evidence from Seoul, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aims to resolve two limitations of previous studies. First, as only a few studies examining social capital have been conducted in non-western countries, it is inconclusive that the concept, which has been developed in Western societies, applies similarly to an Asian context. Second, this study considers social capital at the individual-level, area-level and cross-levels of interaction and examines its associations with health while simultaneously controlling for various confounders at both the individual-level and area-level, whereas previous studies only considered one of the two levels. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine the associations between social capital and health by using multilevel analysis after controlling for various confounders both at the individual and area-levels (i.e., concentrated disadvantage) in non-western countries. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey from December 2010 to April 2011 in Seoul, South Korea. The target population included respondents aged 25 years and older who have resided in the same administrative area since 2008. The final sample for this study consisted of 4,730 respondents within all 25 of Seoul's administrative areas. Results In our final model, individual-level social capital, including network sources (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.11-1.37) and organizational participation (OR = 2.55; 95% CI = 2.11-3.08) was positively associated with good/very good health. Interestingly, the individual × area organizational participation cross-level interaction was negatively associated with good/very good health (OR = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.32-0.50), indicating that in areas with higher organizational participation, individuals with high organizational participation were less likely to report good/very good health when compared to low organizational participation individuals. Conclusion Our study provides evidence that individual-level social capital is associated with self-reported health, even

  10. Genetic analyses of Acanthamoeba isolates from contact lens storage cases of students in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hak-Sun; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Hyo-Kyung; Kong, Hyun-Hee

    2001-01-01

    We conducted both the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA RFLP analyses for a genetic characterization of Acanthamoeba isolates from contact lens storage cases of students in Seoul, Korea. Twenty-three strains of Acanthamoeba from the American Type Culture Collection and twelve clinical isolates from Korean patients were used as reference strains. Thirty-nine isolates from contact lens storage cases were classified into seven types (KA/LS1, KA/LS2, KA/LS4, KA/LS5, KA/LS7, KA/LS18, KA/LS31). Four types (KA/LS1, KA/LS2, KA/LS5, KA/LS18) including 33 isolates were regarded as A. castellanii complex by riboprints. KA/LS1 type was the most predominant (51.3%) in the present survey area, followed by KA/LS2 (20.9%), and KA/LS5 (7.7%) types. Amoebae of KA/LS1 type had the same mtDNA RFLP and riboprint patterns as KA/E2 and KA/E12 strains, clinical isolates from Korean keratitis patients. Amoebae of KA/LS2 type had the identical mtDNA RFLP patterns with A. castellanii Ma strain, a corneal isolate from an American patient as amoebae of KA/LS5 type, with KA/E3 and KA/E8 strains from other Korean keratitis patients. Amoebae of KA/LS18 type had identical patterns with JAC/E1, an ocular isolate from a Japanese patient. Three types, which remain unidentified at species level, were not corresponded with any clinical isolate in their mtDNA RFLP and riboprint patterns. Out of 39 isolates analyzed in this study, mtDNA RFLP and riboprint patterns of 33 isolates (84.6%) were identical to already known clinical isolates, and therefore, they may be regarded as potentially keratopathogenic. These results suggest that contact lens wearers in Seoul should pay more attention to hygienic maintenance of contact lens storage cases for the prevention of Acanthamoeba keratitis. PMID:11441503

  11. Genetic analyses of Acanthamoeba isolates from contact lens storage cases of students in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Yu, H S; Choi, K H; Kim, H K; Kong, H H; Chung, D I

    2001-06-01

    We conducted both the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA RFLP analyses for a genetic characterization of Acanthamoeba isolates from contact lens storage cases of students in Seoul, Korea. Twenty-three strains of Acanthamoeba from the American Type Culture Collection and twelve clinical isolates from Korean patients were used as reference strains. Thirty-nine isolates from contact lens storage cases were classified into seven types (KA/LS1, KA/LS2, KA/LS4, KA/LS5, KA/LS7, KA/LS18, KA/LS31). Four types (KA/LS1, KA/LS2, KA/LS5, KA/LS18) including 33 isolates were regarded as A. castellanii complex by riboprints. KA/LS1 type was the most predominant (51.3%) in the present survey area, followed by KA/LS2 (20.9%), and KA/LS5 (7.7%) types. Amoebae of KA/LS1 type had the same mtDNA RFLP and riboprint patterns as KA/E2 and KA/E12 strains, clinical isolates from Korean keratitis patients. Amoebae of KA/LS2 type had the identical mtDNA RFLP patterns with A. castellanii Ma strain, a corneal isolate from an American patient as amoebae of KA/LS5 type, with KA/E3 and KA/E8 strains from other Korean keratitis patients. Amoebae of KA/LS18 type had identical patterns with JAC/E1, an ocular isolate from a Japanese patient. Three types, which remain unidentified at species level, were not corresponded with any clinical isolate in their mtDNA RFLP and riboprint patterns. Out of 39 isolates analyzed in this study, mtDNA RFLP and riboprint patterns of 33 isolates (84.6%) were identical to already known clinical isolates, and therefore, they may be regarded as potentially keratopathogenic. These results suggest that contact lens wearers in Seoul should pay more attention to hygienic maintenance of contact lens storage cases for the prevention of Acanthamoeba keratitis.

  12. Hydrochemistry of urban groundwater, Seoul, Korea: the impact of subway tunnels on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Chae, Gi-Tak; Yun, Seong-Taek; Choi, Byoung-Young; Yu, Soon-Young; Jo, Ho-Young; Mayer, Bernhard; Kim, Yun-Jong; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2008-10-23

    Hydrogeologic and hydrochemical data for subway tunnel seepage waters in Seoul (Republic of Korea) were examined to understand the effect of underground tunnels on the degradation of urban groundwater. A very large quantity of groundwater (up to 63 million m3 year(-1)) is discharged into subway tunnels with a total length of 287 km, resulting in a significant drop of the local groundwater table and the abandonment of groundwater wells. For the tunnel seepage water samples (n = 72) collected from 43 subway stations, at least one parameter among pathogenic microbes (total coliform, heterotrophic bacteria), dissolved Mn and Fe, NH4+, NO3(-), turbidity, and color exceeded the Korean Drinking Water Standards. Locally, tunnel seepage water was enriched in dissolved Mn (avg. 0.70 mg L(-1), max. 5.58 mg L(-1)), in addition to dissolved Fe, NH4+, and pathogenic microbes, likely due to significant inflow of sewage water from broken or leaking sewer pipes. Geochemical modeling of redox reactions was conducted to simulate the characteristic hydrochemistry of subway tunnel seepage. The results show that variations in the reducing conditions occur in urban groundwater, dependent upon the amount of organic matter-rich municipal sewage contaminating the aquifer. The organic matter facilitates the reduction and dissolution of Mn- and Fe-bearing solids in aquifers and/or tunnel construction materials, resulting in the successive increase of dissolved Mn and Fe. The present study clearly demonstrates that locally significant deterioration of urban groundwater is caused by a series of interlinked hydrogeologic and hydrochemical changes induced by underground tunnels.

  13. Effect of changes in season and temperature on mortality associated with air pollution in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Ae Kyung; Hong, Yun Chul; Kim, Ho

    2011-04-01

    Global warming has increased concern about the synergistic or interactive effects of temperature and air pollution on human health. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of changes in season and temperature on mortality associated with air pollution in Seoul, Korea, from June 1999 to December 2007. We used Poisson regression models with natural cubic splines. The effect of modifications was explored with two models: a time-varying coefficient model and a temperature-stratified model. In the summer season with high temperatures, we observed a considerable increase in the association between mortality and air pollution. The elevated risk was pronounced particularly in the effect of SO₂, and the increase of RR on non-accidental mortality was 0.83% (95% CI 0.42 to 1.25) at high temperatures (≥ 26.2°C) whereas the overall estimate was 0.21% (95% CI 0.07 to 0.36) per 0.5 ppb increment of SO₂. Those aged 65 y and over generally showed a higher risk of mortality. At extremely high temperature, the age group 85 y and older was especially vulnerable to air pollution. In a two-pollutant model, the significant effect of SO₂ at high temperatures (≥ 26.2°C) was not confounded by adjusting for other pollutants and the effect of CO at temperatures of 19.1-26.2°C remained largely unchanged by adjusting for other pollutants. The dominant adverse effect of SO₂ at high temperatures might be explained by an increase in concentration of sulfates by enhanced photochemical reaction, whereas at milder temperatures without vigorous photochemical activity the effect of CO may predominate in increasing mortality. Season and temperature strongly modified the adverse effect of air pollution, which implicates that an increase in the number of hot summer days by global warming may alter the health effects of air pollution.

  14. Estimation of inhaled airborne particle number concentration by subway users in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minhae; Park, Sechan; Namgung, Hyeong-Gyu; Kwon, Soon-Bark

    2017-08-25

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) causes several diseases in the human body. The smaller particles, which have relatively large surface areas, are actually more harmful to the human body since they can penetrate deeper parts of the lungs or become secondary pollutants by bonding with other atmospheric pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides. The purpose of this study is to present the number of PM inhaled by subway users as a possible reference material for any analysis of the hazards to the human body arising from the inhalation of such PM. Two transfer stations in Seoul, Korea, which have the greatest number of users, were selected for this study. For 0.3-0.422 μm PM, particle number concentration (PNC) was highest outdoors but decreased as the tester moved deeper underground. On the other hand, the PNC between 1 and 10 μm increased as the tester moved deeper underground and showed a high number concentration inside the subway train as well. An analysis of the particles to which subway users are actually exposed to (inhaled particle number), using particle concentration at each measurement location, the average inhalation rate of an adult, and the average stay time at each location, all showed that particles sized 0.01-0.422 μm are mostly inhaled from the outdoor air whereas particles sized 1-10 μm are inhaled as the passengers move deeper underground. Based on these findings, we expect that the inhaled particle number of subway users can be used as reference data for an evaluation of the hazards to health caused by PM inhalation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Heat-attributable deaths between 1992 and 2009 in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Clara T; Lim, Youn-Hee; Woodward, Alistair; Kim, Ho

    2015-01-01

    Climate change may significantly affect human health. The possible effects of high ambient temperature must be better understood, particularly in terms of certain diseases' sensitivity to heat (as reflected in relative risks [RR]) and the consequent disease burden (number or fraction of cases attributable to high temperatures), in order to manage the threat. This study investigated the number of deaths attributable to abnormally high ambient temperatures in Seoul, South Korea, for a wide range of diseases. The relationship between mortality and daily maximum temperature using a generalized linear model was analyzed. The threshold temperature was defined as the 90th percentile of maximum daily temperatures. Deaths were classified according to ICD-10 codes, and for each disease, the RR and attributable fractions were determined. Using these fractions, the total number of deaths attributable to daily maximum temperatures above the threshold value, from 1992 to 2009, was calculated. Data analyses were conducted in 2012-2013. Heat-attributable deaths accounted for 3,177 of the 271,633 deaths from all causes. Neurological (RR 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.11) and mental and behavioral disorders (RR 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.07) had relatively high increases in the RR of mortality. The most heat-sensitive diseases (those with the highest RRs) were not the diseases that caused the largest number of deaths attributable to high temperatures. This study estimated RRs and deaths attributable to high ambient temperature for a wide variety of diseases. Prevention-related policies must account for both particular vulnerabilities (heat-sensitive diseases with high RRs) and the major causes of the heat mortality burden (common conditions less sensitive to high temperatures).

  16. Chemical compositions of subway particles in Seoul, Korea determined by a quantitative single particle analysis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sunni; Hwang, HeeJin; Park, YooMyung; Kim, HyeKyoung; Ro, Chul-Un

    2008-12-15

    A novel single particle analytical technique, low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis, was applied to characterize seasonal subway samples collected at a subway station in Seoul, Korea. For all 8 samples collected twice in each season, 4 major types of subway particles, based on their chemical compositions, are significantly encountered: Fe-containing; soil-derived; carbonaceous; and secondary nitrate and/or sulfate particles. Fe-containing particles are generated indoors from wear processes at rail-wheel-brake interfaces while the others may be introduced mostly from the outdoor urban atmosphere. Fe-containing particles are the most frequently encountered with relative abundances in the range of 61-79%. In this study, it is shown that Fe-containing subway particles almost always exist either as partially or fully oxidized forms in underground subway microenvironments. Their relative abundances of Fe-containing particles increase as particle sizes decrease. Relative abundances of Fe-containing particles are higher in morning samples than in afternoon samples because of heavier train traffic in the morning. In the summertime samples, Fe-containing particles are the most abundantly encountered, whereas soil-derived and nitrate/sulfate particles are the least encountered, indicating the air-exchange between indoor and outdoor environments is limited in the summer, owing to the air-conditioning in the subway system. In our work, it was observed that the relative abundances of the particles of outdoor origin vary somewhat among seasonal samples to a lesser degree, reflecting that indoor emission sources predominate.

  17. Effects of land-use type on urban groundwater quality, Seoul metropolitan city, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Yun, S.; Chae, G.; So, C.; Kweon, S.; Lee, P.

    2001-12-01

    The progressive degradation of urban groundwater becomes an important environmental problem encountered in South Korea. This study aims to examine the relationships between land-use type and groundwater quality in Seoul metropolitan city, based on the results of hydrogeochemical monitoring. For this purpose, land-use type was divided into five categories (green zone, housing, agricultural, traffic, and industrialized). The mean concentrations of TDS (total dissolved solids) effectively reflect the degree of anthropogenic contamination and increase in the following order: green zone (152.5 mg/l), then agricultural (380.7 mg/l) and housing (384.2 mg/l), then traffic (457.0 mg/l), and finally industrialized area (554.5 mg/l). Among major dissolved solutes, the concentrations of Na, Ca, Mg, HCO3, and Cl increase with increasing TDS. In case of Na and Ca, de-icing salts and sewage are considered as major contamination sources. The corrosion of cements may also increase Ca. Nitrate concentration is characteristically very high in housing and agricultural areas, reflecting the severe contamination from domestic sewage and fertilizer. Sulfate and magnesium are enriched in industrialized area, possibly due to their derivation from industrial facilities. Chlorine ion is considered to be derived from de-chlorination of hydrocarbons as well as de-icing salts. Bicarbonate also increases with increasing TDS, for which cement dissolution and oxidation of organics are considered as source materials. However, enhanced water-rock(or construction materials) interaction also may increase the bicarbonate, because acidic wastewater in urban area is very corrosive. Trace metals and organic compounds generally does not show any distinct pattern of regional variation. However, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn, TCE, and PCE tend to increase locally in industrialized area, whereas high concentrations of Br, Ni, and Cu are found in traffic area. The groundwaters with very high concentrations of Fe, Zn, and

  18. Impact of outdoor air pollution on the incidence of tuberculosis in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seung-sik; Kang, Sungchan; Lee, Ji-Young; Lee, Ji Sun; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Sung Koo

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Although indoor air pollution is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB), the possible link between outdoor air pollution and TB development has not been examined fully. We assessed the impact of outdoor air pollution on TB development in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea. Methods The mean concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 µm (PM10), O3, CO, NO2, and SO2 levels in Seoul, between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2006, were determined. Furthermore, their association with the risk of developing TB after adjusting for socioeconomic status, between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2006, was investigated. Results Between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2006, a total of 41,185 TB cases were reported in Seoul. Concentrations of PM10, O3, CO, and NO2 were not associated with TB incidence in males or females. However, the interquartile increase in SO2 concentration was associated with a 7% increment in TB incidence (relative risk [RR], 1.07; 95% credible interval [CrI], 1.03 to 1.12) in males but not in females (RR, 1.02; 95% CrI, 0.98 to 1.07). Conclusions Long-term exposure to ambient SO2 increased the risk of TB in males. PMID:24648801

  19. Aerosol scattering properties measured by an integrating nephelometer in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, S.; Kim, J. H.; Cha, J.; Yum, S.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, J.

    2008-12-01

    The aerosol optical properties are known to have a significant impact on regional and global radiation budget and therefore climate change, and are a crucial factor to determine atmospheric visibility. As an effort to understand the influence of anthropogenic pollution aerosols, we analyzed the scattering coefficient (σsp) measured by an integrating nephelometer (TSI, model 3563) for the one year period of Feb. 2007 to Feb. 2008 in the highly populated city of Seoul, Korea and compared with total aerosol (CN) concentration and cloud condensations nuclei (CCN) concentration measured at the same location. Daily, weekly and seasonal statistics are calculated. Additionally, three Asian dust events that occurred during the measurement period were investigated in more detail. To reduce the humidity effect, only the cases when the instrument RH was less than 40% were selected for analysis. The daily mean σsp measured at 550 nm varied from 3.4±0.5 to 986.8±318.0 Mm-1. Seasonally σsp was the highest and the Ångström exponent calculated with the σsp for the three wavelengths (450, 550 and 700 nm) was the lowest in spring. Specifically, the Ångström exponent was significantly low during the Asian dust events. The mean diurnal variation of σsp showed different trends in weekdays and weekends; a primary and a secondary peak of σsp occurred at about 9 a.m. and 7 p.m., respectively, in weekdays, while only a single peak of σsp occurred at about 11 a.m. in weekends, 2 hours later than the time of the primary peak in weekdays. Despite different measurement principles, σsp tends to show similar time variation trend to the CN concentration but even more so to CCN concentrations. This may demonstrate that the aerosols that can act as CCN can also contribute to scattering. These aerosols can doubly contribute to the cooling effects directly by scattering the sunlight and indirectly by acting as CCN and making the cloud bright. Ammonium sulfate will be an excellent

  20. Measurements on atmospheric trace species at Mt. Kwanak, the southern suburb of Seoul, Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gangwoong; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Kyung-Ryul

    1996-12-31

    Although there has been increasing awareness of the photochemical pollution in Seoul, comprehensive scientific studies are too sparse to understand behaviors and interactions of photochemically reactive species. To extend our knowledge on chemical characteristics of atmosphere in Seoul, we made concurrent measurements of various atmospheric trace species and meteorological parameters in the campus of Seoul National University on the high foot of Mt. Kwanak, from 22 November to 2 December 1995. Among them are reactive atmospheric trace gases (NO, NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3}, HCl, Formic acid), water-soluble ions of aerosols (Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NH{sup +}{sub 4} Na{sup +}), and conservative trace gases (CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, CFC-11, CFC-12, N{sub 2}O).

  1. Analysis of aerosol optical properties over Korea during the 2015 MAPS-Seoul campaign using AERONET and GOCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Choi, M.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; KIM, M.

    2015-12-01

    To investigate aerosol characteristics over East Asia, many campaigns using in-situ measurements, ground and satellite based remote sensing, and air quality modeling have been conducted as ACE-Asia in 2001, ABC-EAREX in 2005, and DRAGON-NE Asia in 2012, and planned KORUS-AQ in 2016. Planned KORUS-AQ 2016 campaigns provides excellent opportunity to monitor and analyze air quality including aerosol and trace gases from diverse platform including ground-based, airborne, shipborne and satellite platform. Prior to the upcoming KORUS-AQ campaign, the Megacity Air Pollution Studies (MAPS)-Seoul campaign was held from May 18 to June14, 2015. During the campaign, total 8 AERONET sunphotometers are deployed over Korea. GOCI Yonsei aerosol retrieval (YAER) algorithm was developed, improved and evaluated through the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign. GOCI YAER AOD at 550 nm with spatial resolution of 6 km showed good agreement with AERONET AOD (R > 0.88) during the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign. In this study, aerosol optical properties from AERONET and GOCI are analyzed together during the MAPS-Seoul campaign. Mean AERONET AOD at 550 nm over a megacity site, Seoul and a coastal site Gosan shows the lowest values in 2015 as 0.338 and 0.214, respectively, compared with values during the same period from 2011 to 2014 (0.557-0.645 at Seoul, and 0.447-0.618 at Gosan). GOCI YAER algorithm uses the minimum reflectivity technique from the composited Rayleigh-corrected reflectance during a month thus low AOD increase a possibility to find clear pixels to obtain accurate surface reflectance. To improve surface reflectance quality, multi-year GOCI data are also analyzed. Furthermore higher spatial resolution retrieval in 3 km is tested to detect small-scale aerosol features and point sources in megacities. DRAGON-NE Asia in 2012, MAPS-Seoul in 2015, and planned KORUS-AQ in 2016 field campaigns contribute to the continuous assessment of GOCI YAER algorithm performance for the improvements.

  2. Association between district-level perceived safety and self-rated health: a multilevel study in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Sup; Choi, Jaesung; Park, Kisoo; Chung, Yeonseung; Park, Sangjo; Heo, Jongho

    2014-07-29

    Several studies have reported the relationship between residents' perceived neighbourhood safety and their health outcomes. However, those studies suffered from unreliability of neighbourhood safety measure and potential residual confounding related to crime rates. In this study, using multilevel analysis to account for the hierarchical structure of the data, we examined associations between district-level perceived safety and self-rated health after adjusting for potential confounders including the district-level crime rate. Cross-sectional study. We used the first wave of Seoul Welfare Panel Study, which has 7761 individuals from 3665 households in 25 administrative districts in Seoul, South Korea. District-level perceived safety was obtained by aggregating responses from the residents that are representative samples for each administrative district in Seoul. To examine an association between district-level safety and residents' self-rated health, we used mixed effect logistic regression. Our results showed that higher district-level perceived safety, an aggregated measure of district residents' responses towards neighbourhood safety, was significantly associated with poor self-rated health after controlling for sex, age, education level, job status, marital status and household income (OR=0.87, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.97). Furthermore, this association was still robust when we additionally adjusted for the district-level crime rate (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.95). Our study highlights the importance of improving neighbourhood perceived safety to enhance residents' health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Wavelength dependence of Ångström exponent and single scattering albedo observed by skyradiometer in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Ja-Ho; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Jaehwa; Eck, Thomas F.; Lee, Yun Gon; Park, Sang Seo; Kim, Mijin; Jung, Ukkyo; Yoon, Jongmin; Mok, Jungbin; Cho, Hi-Ku

    2016-11-01

    Absorption and scattering characteristics of various aerosol events are investigated using 2-years of measurements from a skyradiometer at Yonsei University in Seoul, Korea. Both transported dust and anthropogenic aerosols are observed at distinct geo-location of Seoul, a megacity located a few thousand kilometers away from dust source regions in China. We focus on the wavelength dependence of Ångström exponent (AE) and single scattering albedo (SSA), showing the characteristics of regional aerosols. The correlation between spectral SSAs and AEs calculated using different wavelength pairs generally indicates relatively weak absorption of fine-mode aerosols (urban pollution and/or biomass burning) and strong absorption of coarse-mode aerosols (desert dust) at this location. AE ratio (AER), a ratio of AEs calculated using wavelength pair between shorter (340-675 nm) and longer wavelength pair (675-1020 nm) correlates differently with SSA according to the dominant size of local aerosols. Correlations between SSA and AER show strong absorption of aerosols for AER < 1.0 and weak absorption for AER > 2.0. Based on the seasonal pattern of wavelength dependence of AER and SSA, this correlation difference looks to reveal the separated characteristics of transported dust and anthropogenic particles from urban pollution respectively. The seasonal characteristics of AER and SSAs also show that the skyradiometer measurement with multiple wavelengths may be able to detect the water soluble brown carbon, one of the important secondary organic aerosols in the summertime atmospheric composition.

  4. Isolation of Legionella pneumophila from cooling towers, public baths, hospitals, and fountains in Seoul, Korea, from 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changkyu; Jeon, Sujin; Jung, Jihun; Oh, Younghee; Kim, Yeonsun; Lee, Jaein; Choi, Sungmin; Chae, Youngzoo; Lee, Young-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Legionnaire's disease is associated with a high mortality rate. The authors collected 3,495 water samples in Seoul, Korea, between 2010 and 2012 from public facilities (cooling towers, public baths, hospitals, and decorative fountains), which are considered the major habitats of Legionella pneumophila. In all, 527 (15.1%) isolates of L. pneumophila were obtained by microbial culture and polymerase chain reaction. Serological diagnosis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis were performed for the samples. The authors categorized the samples into four groups (A-D) on the basis of PFGE results. The analysis revealed that cooling towers containing the most samples with L. pneumophila serogroup 1 constituted the highest proportion of isolate. Samples from public facilities and serogroups could be distinctively classified by PFGE patterns. Thus, it is expected that source-specific features revealed through PFGE and serological analyses could serve as the basis for effectively coping with future outbreaks of L. pneumophila.

  5. Seasonal variations in the light-absorbing properties of water-soluble and insoluble organic aerosols in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwajin; Kim, Jin Young; Jin, Hyoun Cher; Lee, Ji Yi; Lee, Se Pyo

    2016-03-01

    The spectral properties of light-absorbing organic aerosol extractions were investigated using 24-h average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements from October 2012 to September 2013 in Seoul, Korea. The light-absorption spectra of water and methanol extracts exhibited strong evidence of brown carbon with Absorption Angstrom Exponent (AAE; fitted between 300 and 700 nm) ranges of 5.84-9.17 and 4.08-5.75, with averages of 7.23 ± 1.58 and 5.05 ± 0.67, respectively. The light absorption of both extracts at 365 nm (Abs365), which is typically used as a proxy for brown carbon (BrC), displayed strong seasonal variations and was well correlated with both water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC; r = 0.81) and organic carbon (OC; r = 0.85), indicating that both primary and secondary organics were sources of BrC in this region. Normalizing the Abs365 of water and methanol extracts to the mass of WSOC and OC yielded average solution mass absorption efficiency (MAE365) of 0.28-1.18 and 0.44-1.45 m2 g-1 C, respectively. MAE365 in Korea were in the same range or slightly lower than those in China, however, despite the same ranges, the seasonal variations were different, suggesting that the sources of light absorbers could be different. Combining the AAE, Abs365, and MAE365 of both extracts and a detailed chemical speciation of filter extracts identified the compounds responsible for the temporal variations of BrC in Korea. During summer, secondary organic aerosol (SOA), photochemically generated from anthropogenic emissions, was the major source; however, during winter, long range transported organics or transported BrC seem to be a source of BrC in Korea, a downwind site of China, where severe smog and BrC were observed during this season. Biomass burning was also an important source; however, unlike in previous studies, where it was identified as a major source during winter, here, it contributed during the whole year. Although many of its properties, sources, and potential

  6. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in feral cats in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Eun; Kim, Neung-Hee; Chae, Hee-Sun; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Nam, Ho-Woo; Lee, Won-Ja; Kim, Sun-Heung; Lee, Jung-Hark

    2011-02-01

    The present study assessed the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in feral cat populations in Seoul using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 456 feral cats from 17 wards in Seoul was surveyed. The overall prevalence of T. gondii infection was 15.8% (69/456) by ELISA and 17.5% (80/456) by PCR; by gender, 17% (44/259) by ELISA and 16.2% (42/259) by PCR in males and 14.3% (28/196) by ELISA and 19.4% (38/196) by PCR in females. On a baseline of the Han River, prevalence was 15.1% (29/192) by ELISA and 15.6% (30/192) by PCR in the upper region and 16.4% (43/264) by ELISA and 18.9% (50/264) by PCR in the lower area. This suggested that toxoplasmosis is widespread throughout Seoul's feral cat population and it is critical that the city institute policies for the control of the feral cat population to reduce the risk of toxoplasmosis transmission to animals, including humans.

  7. Determination of upwind and downwind areas of Seoul, Korea using trajectory analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, H. S.; Ghim, Y. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Chang, Y. S.

    2010-09-01

    To identify the domains that have the greatest impacts on air quality at the surface, both the upwind and downwind areas of Seoul were determined by season using refined wind fields. Four consecutive days were selected as the study period typical of each season. The mesoscale meteorology of the study period was reproduced by using the MM5 prognostic meteorological model (PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model) with horizontally nested grids. The gridded meteorological field, which was used on the study area of 242 km x 226 km with grid spacing of 2 km, was generated by using the CALMET diagnostic meteorological model. Upwind and downwind areas of Seoul were determined by calculating 24-hour backward and forward air parcel trajectories, respectively, with u, v, and w velocity vectors. The results showed that the upwind and downwind areas were extended far to the northwest and the southeast as a result of high wind speeds in the spring and winter, while they were restricted on the fringe of Seoul in the summer and fall.

  8. Chemical composition and source apportionment of PM2.5 in Seoul, Korea during 2012-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Junghwa; Kim, Sang-Woo; Mann Kim, Bong; Kim, Jin Young

    2017-04-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected at a centrally located urban site of KIST (Korea Institute of Science and Technology) in Seoul, Korea, every day from October 2012 to September 2013. Sources were identified using Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model and two multivariate models. The averaged PM2.5 mass concentration was 41.5 ± 27.7 μg m-3, and seasonally averaged PM2.5 concentration was high in the following order: Winter (57.2 ± 32.7 μg m-3), spring (48.5 ± 27.6 μg m-3), fall (28.6 ± 10.5 μg m-3), and summer (22.7 ± 12.9 μg m-3). Secondary inorganic species and organic matter were the major chemical component occupying about 73.7% - 87.9% of PM2.5 mass concentration in all seasons. The maximum value of sulfate was 11.2 μg m-3in winter, however, the fraction of sulfate concentration was highest in summer (31.4%) due to the active photochemical reactivity. The maximum nitrate concentration was measured as 13.4 μg m-3in winter because the cooler temperature is the favorable condition for the formation of particulate nitrate. The highest concentrations of elemental carbon and soil were observed in fall and spring, which were caused by the frequent occurrence of biomass burning and Asian dust events, respectively. 7 sources were attributable to PM2.5 mass concentration in Seoul. The main sources were secondary sulfate (24.2%), secondary nitrate (27.3%), biomass burning (14.9%), and vehicle (8.9%). The contributions from other carbon source (5.5%), geological source (5.5%), and marine aerosol (0.8%) were relatively less than those of main sources. Compared to the results from the previous study, contributions of secondary nitrate and vehicle were overestimated and underestimated, respectively, due to the limitation of source profiles used in this study. On the other hand, PM2.5 concentration in Seoul was highly affected by long-range transported pollution from northern China in January 2013. The contribution of other carbon source, which was the residual

  9. Influence of trans-boundary air pollution from China on multi-day high PM10 episodes in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, H. R.; Ho, C. H.; Kim, J.; Chen, D.; Lee, S.; Choi, Y. S.; Chang, L. S.; Song, C. K.

    2014-12-01

    Air quality problems have become a serious global issue as it causes over 3 million deaths per year all over the world. With generations of massive air pollutants in China, the effects of trans-boundary transports of air pollutants on human health have become a serious international concern in East Asia. However, only a limited number of studies are available for providing scientific evidences for quantifying the sources and transports of air pollutants over major countries in East Asia. Here, it is shown that particulate matters originated from China played major role in the occurrence of multi-day (≥ 4 days) severe air pollution episodes in Seoul, Korea, in which the concentration of particulate matter of diameters ≤ 10 μm exceeds 100 μg m-3. Observations show that these multi-day severe air quality episodes occur when a strong high-pressure system resides over the eastern China - Korea region. Such a weather condition confines air pollutants within the atmospheric boundary layer and spread them by slow westerlies within the boundary layer from China into the neighboring countries. Understanding such dynamical processes is a key for advancing the predictability of trans-boundary air pollutants and their health impacts in East Asia as well as developing international measures to improve air quality for the region.

  10. Occurrence of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products in the Han River (Seoul, South Korea).

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yeomin; Ryu, Jaena; Oh, Jeill; Choi, Byeong-Gyu; Snyder, Shane A

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of 31 selected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in Korean surface waters was investigated. The area was selected since there is a lack of information in the Seoul area on the suspected contamination of rivers by micropollutants, although over 99% of drinking water is produced from surface waters in this area that has a population of approximately 15 million inhabitants. Samples were collected from upstream/downstream and effluent-dominated creeks along the Han River, Seoul (South Korea) and analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). Most target compounds were detected in both the Han River samples (63%) and the effluent-dominated creek samples (79%). Iopromide, atenolol, TCPP, TECP, musk ketone, naproxen, DEET, carbamazepine, caffeine, and benzophenone were frequently detected in both river and creek samples, although the mean concentrations in effluent-dominated creek samples (102 ng/L-3745 ng/L) were significantly higher than those in river samples (56 ng/L-1013 ng/L). However, the steroid hormones 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethynylestradiol, progesterone, and testosterone, were not detected (<1 ng/L) in both the river and creek samples. Numerous target compounds (15) were found to be positively correlated (over 0.8) to the conventional water quality parameters (chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved organic carbon, and ultraviolet absorbance). Results of this study provide increasing evidence that certain EDCs and PPCPs commonly occur in the Han River as the result of wastewater outfalls.

  11. Determination of micropollutants in combined sewer overflows and their removal in a wastewater treatment plant (Seoul, South Korea).

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jaena; Oh, Jeill; Snyder, Shane A; Yoon, Yeomin

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated the occurrence of 29 selected micropollutants such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in surface waters and wastewaters in Seoul (South Korea) during both dry and wet weather conditions. The study area was selected based on the lack of available information regarding the suspected contamination of rivers/creeks by EDCs and PPCPs in the Seoul region and the presence of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which serves approximately 4.1 million inhabitants and has a design capacity of 1,297 × 10(3) m(3)/day. Many target compounds (83 %) were detected in samples collected from wastewater treatment influent/effluent, creek water, and combined sewer overflow (CSO). The total EDC/PPCP concentrations were as follows: WWTP influent (69,903 ng/L) > WWTP effluent (50,175 ng/L) >3 creek samples (16,035-44,446 ng/L) during dry weather, and WWTP influent (53,795 ng/L) > WWTP bypass (38,653 ng/L) >5 creek samples (15,260-29,113 ng/L) >2 CSO samples (11,109-11,498 ng/L) during wet weather. EDCs and PPCPs were found to be present at high daily loads (65.1 and 69.8 kg/day during dry and wet weather, respectively) in the WWTP effluent. Compound removal by the WWTP varied significantly by compound: caffeine, diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, and propylparaben (>90 %), and acesulfame, DEET, iohexol, iopromide, and iopamidol (<5 %). These findings and literature information support the hypothesis that the efficiency of removal of EDCs and PPCPs is strongly dependent on both removal mechanism (e.g., biodegradation, adsorption to sludge, and oxidation by chlorine) and compound physicochemical properties (e.g., pK a and hydrophobicity).

  12. Prediction of PM10 grades in Seoul, Korea using a neural network model based on synoptic patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, S. K.; Oh, H. R.; Ho, C. H.; Kim, J.; Song, C. K.; Chang, L. S.; Lee, J. B.

    2016-12-01

    As of November 2014, the Korean Ministry of Environment (KME) started forecasting the level of ambient particulate matter with diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM10) as four grades: low (PM10 ≤ 30 μg m-3), moderate (30 < PM10 ≤ 80 μg m-3), high (80 < PM10 ≤ 150 μg m-3), and very high (PM10 > 150 μg m-3). Due to short history of forecast, overall performance of the operational forecasting system and its hit rate for the four PM10 grades are difficult to evaluate. In attempt to provide a statistical reference for the current air quality forecasting system, we hindcasted the four PM10 grades for the cold seasons (October-March) of 2001-2014 in Seoul, Korea using a neural network model based on the synoptic patterns of meteorological fields such as geopotential height, air temperature, relative humidity, and wind. In the form of cosine similarity, the distinctive synoptic patterns for each PM10 grades are well quantified as predictors to train the neural network model. Using these fields as predictors and considering the PM10 concentration in Seoul from the day before prediction as an additional predictor, an overall hit rate of 69% was achieved; the hit rates for the low, moderate, high, and very high PM10 grades were 33%, 83%, 45%, and 33%, respectively. This study reveals that the synoptic patterns of meteorological fields are useful predictors for the identification of favorable conditions for each PM10 grade, and the associated transboundary transport and local accumulation of PM10 from the industrialized regions of China. Consequently, the assessments of predictability obtained from the neural network model in this study are reliable to use as a statistical reference for the current air quality forecasting system.

  13. A ten-year survey of Giardia cysts in drinking water supplies of Seoul, the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mok-Young; Cho, Eun-Joo; Lee, Jin-Hyo; Han, Sun-Hee; Park, Yong-Sang

    2011-03-01

    To understand the distribution of Giardia cysts in drinking water supplies in Seoul, Korea, we collected water samples quarterly at 6 intakes in the Han River, its largest stream and 6 conventional water treatment plants (WTPs) serving drinking water, from 2000 to 2009. Giardia cysts in each of 10 L water were confirmed in 35.0% of intake water samples and the arithmetic mean was 1.65 cysts/10 L (range 0-35 cysts/10 L). The lowest cyst density was observed at Paldang and Kangbuk intakes, and the pollution level was higher at 4 intakes downstream. It seemed that these 4 intakes were under influence of Wangsuk stream at the end of which cysts were found in all samples with the mean of 140 cysts/10 L. The annual mean number of cysts was 0.21-4.21 cysts/10 L, and the cyst level at the second half of the 10 years was about 1/5 of that at first half on average. The cysts were more frequently found in winter, and their mean density was 3.74 cysts/10 L in winter and 0.80-1.08 cysts/10 L in other seasons. All finished water samples collected at 6 WTPs were negative for Giardia in each of 100 L sample for 10 years and cyst removal by physical process was average 2.9-log. It was concluded that conventional water treatment at 6 WTPs of Seoul appears to remove the cysts effectively under the present level of their source water. Domestic wastewater from the urban region could be an important source of Giardia pollution in the river.

  14. Characteristics of cloud-to-ground lightning activity over Seoul, South Korea in relation to an urban effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, S. K.; Liou, Y.-A.; Ha, K.-J.

    2007-11-01

    Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash data collected by the lightning detection network installed at the Korean Meteorological Administration (KMA) have been used to study the urban effect on lightning activity over and around Seoul, the largest metropolitan city of South Korea, for the period of 1989-1999. Negative and positive flash density and the percentage of positive flashes have been calculated. Calculation reveals that an enhancement of approximately 60% and 42% are observed, respectively, for negative and positive flash density over and downwind of the city. The percentage decrease of positive flashes occurs over and downwind of Seoul and the amount of decrease is nearly 20% compared to upwind values. The results are in good agreement with those obtained by Steiger et al. (2002) and Westcott (1995). CG lightning activities have also been considered in relation to annual averages of PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) concentrations. Interesting results are found, indicating that the higher concentration of SO2 contributes to the enhancement of CG lightning flashes. On the other hand, the contribution from PM10 concentration has not appeared in this study to be as significant as SO2 in the enhancement of CG lightning flashes. Correlation coefficients of 0.33 and 0.64 are found between the change in CG lightning flashes and the PM10 and SO2, respectively, for upwind to downwind areas, suggesting a significant influence of the increased concentration of SO2 on the enhancement of CG flashes.

  15. Isolation of an H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Strain from Wild Birds in Seoul, a Highly Urbanized Area in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Hun; Jeong, Jei-Hyun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Noh, Jin-Yong; Hong, Woo-Tack; Jeong, Sol; Gwon, Gyeong-Bin; Lee, Sang-Won; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2017-07-01

    Asian-lineage H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) have caused recurrent outbreaks in poultry and wild birds. In January 2014, H5N8 HPAIV caused outbreaks in South Korea and subsequently spread to East Asia, Europe, and North America. We report the isolation of an H5N8 HPAIV strain from wild birds in Seoul, the most-developed city in South Korea. We analyzed the complete genome sequence of this isolate and estimated its origin using a phylogenetic analysis. The Seoul H5N8 isolate clustered phylogenetically with strains isolated from migratory wild birds but was distinct from Korean poultry isolates. This H5N8 virus was likely introduced into the urbanized city by migratory wild birds. Therefore, wild bird habitats in urbanized areas should be carefully monitored for HPAIV.

  16. Discovery of Parasite Eggs in Archeological Residence during the 15th Century in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Pyo Yeon; Park, Jung-Min; Hwang, Myeong-Ki; Park, Seo Hye; Park, Yun-Kyu; Jeon, Bo-Young; Kim, Tong-Soo; Lee, Hyeong-Woo

    2017-01-01

    During civil engineering construction near Sejong-ro, Jongro-ku, Seoul, cultural sites were found that are thought to have been built in the 15th century. This area was home to many different people as well as the leaders of the Yi dynasty. To gain further insight into the life styles of the inhabitants of the old capital, soil samples were collected from various areas such as toilets, water foundations, and drainage ways. Parasite eggs were examined by microscopy after 5 g soil samples were rehydrated in 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. A total of 662 parasite eggs from 7 species were found. Species with the highest number of eggs found were Ascaris lumbricoides (n=483), followed by Trichuris trichiura (138), Trichuris vulpis (21), Fasciola hepatica (8), Clonorchis sinensis (6), Paragonimus westermani (4), and Metagonimus yokogawai (2). These findings indirectly indicate the food habits of the people in Yi dynasty. PMID:28719964

  17. Discovery of Parasite Eggs in Archeological Residence during the 15th Century in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Pyo Yeon; Park, Jung-Min; Hwang, Myeong-Ki; Park, Seo Hye; Park, Yun-Kyu; Jeon, Bo-Young; Kim, Tong-Soo; Lee, Hyeong-Woo

    2017-06-01

    During civil engineering construction near Sejong-ro, Jongro-ku, Seoul, cultural sites were found that are thought to have been built in the 15th century. This area was home to many different people as well as the leaders of the Yi dynasty. To gain further insight into the life styles of the inhabitants of the old capital, soil samples were collected from various areas such as toilets, water foundations, and drainage ways. Parasite eggs were examined by microscopy after 5 g soil samples were rehydrated in 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. A total of 662 parasite eggs from 7 species were found. Species with the highest number of eggs found were Ascaris lumbricoides (n=483), followed by Trichuris trichiura (138), Trichuris vulpis (21), Fasciola hepatica (8), Clonorchis sinensis (6), Paragonimus westermani (4), and Metagonimus yokogawai (2). These findings indirectly indicate the food habits of the people in Yi dynasty.

  18. Analysis on the flood vulnerability in the Seoul and Busan metropolitan area, Korea using spatial database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mung-Jin

    2015-04-01

    In the future, temperature rises and precipitation increases are expected from climate change due to global warming. Concentrated heavy rain, typhoons, flooding, and other weather phenomena bring hydrologic variations. In this study, the flood susceptibility of the Seoul and Busan metropolitan area was analyzed and validated using a GIS based on a frequency ratio model and a logistic regression model with training and validation datasets of the flooded area. The flooded area in 2010 was used to train the model, and the flooded area in 2011 was used to validate the model. Using data is that topographic, geological, and soil data from the study areas were collected, processed, and digitized for use in a GIS. Maps relevant to the specific capacity were assembled in a spatial database. Then, flood susceptibility maps were created. Finally, the flood susceptibility maps were validated using the flooded area in 2011, which was not used for training. To represent the flood susceptible areas, this study used the probability-frequency ratio. The frequency ratio is the probability of occurrence of a certain attribute. Logistic regression allows for investigation of multivariate regression relations between one dependent and several independent variables. Logistic regression has a limit in that the calculation process cannot be traced because it repeats calculations to find the optimized regression equation for determining the possibility that the dependent variable will occur. In case of Seoul, The frequency ratio and logistic regression model results showed 79.61% and 79.05% accuracy. And the case of Busan, logistic regression model results showed 82.30%. This information and the maps generated from it could be applied to flood prevention and management. In addition, the susceptibility map provides meaningful information for decision-makers regarding priority areas for implementing flood mitigation policies.

  19. Real time measurements of submicrometer aerosols in Seoul, Korea: Sources, characteristics, and processing of organic aerosols during winter time.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Zhang, Q.

    2016-12-01

    Highly time-resolved chemical characterization of non-refractory submicrometer particulate matter (NR-PM1) was conducted in Seoul, the capital of Korea, using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). The measurements were performed during winter when persistent air quality problems associated with elevated PM concentrations were observed. The average NR-PM1 concentration was 27.5 µg m-3 and the average mass was dominated by organics (44%), followed by nitrate (24%) and sulfate (10%). Five distinct sources of organic aerosol (OA) were identified from positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the AMS data: vehicle emissions represented by a hydrocarbon-like OA factor (HOA), cooking represented by a cooking OA factor (COA), wood combustion represented by a biomass burning OA factor (BBOA), and secondary aerosol formation in the atmosphere that is represented by a semi-volatile oxygenated OA factor (SVOOA) and a low volatile oxygenated OA factor (LVOOA). These factors, on average, contributed 16, 20, 23, 15 and 26% to the total OA mass, respectively, with primary organic aerosol (POA = HOA + COA + BBOA) accounting for 59% of the OA mass. On average, both primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation are important factors affecting air quality in Seoul during winter, contributing approximately equal. However, differences in the fraction of PM source and properties were observed between high and low loading PM period. For example, during stagnant period with low wind speed (WS) (0.99 ± 0.7 m/s) and high RH (71%), high PM loadings (43.6 ± 12.4 µg m-3) with enhanced fractions of nitrate (27%) and SVOOA (8%) were observed, indicating a strong influence from locally generated secondary aerosol. On the other hand, when low PM loadings (12.6 ± 7.1 µg m-3), which were commonly associated with high WS (1.8 ± 1.1 m/s) and low RH (50 %), were observed, the fraction of regional sources, such as sulfate (12%) and LVOOA (21

  20. Triazole Susceptibilities in Thermotolerant Fungal Isolates from Outdoor Air in the Seoul Capital Area in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungeun; Xu, Siyu; Bivila, Chemmeri Padasseri; Lee, Hyeyoung; Park, Myung Soo; Lim, Young Woon; Yamamoto, Naomichi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungi resistant to triazoles are a concern because of the increased use of medical triazoles and exposure to agricultural triazoles. However, little is known about the levels of triazole susceptibility in outdoor airborne fungi making it difficult to assess the risks of inhalation exposure to airborne, antifungal-resistant fungi. This study examined triazole susceptibilities of the airborne thermotolerant fungi isolated from the ambient air of the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We used impactor air sampling with triazole-containing nutrient agar plates as the collection substrates to screen for airborne fungal isolates based on their triazole susceptibilities. This study estimated that 0.17% of all the culturable fungi belong to the pathogenic thermotolerant taxa, among which each isolate of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 μg/mL or greater for itraconazole. Their concentration in air was 0.4 CFU/m3. Seven human pathogenic Paecilomyces variotii isolates had MICs of 32 μg/mL or greater and lower than 2 μg/mL for the agricultural fungicide tebuconazole and the medical triazole itraconazole, respectively. Though the concentration was low, our results confirm the presence of airborne fungi with high MICs for itraconazole in ambient air. Inhalation is an important exposure route because people inhale more than 10 m3 of air each day. Vigilance is preferred over monitoring for the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal pathogens in ambient outdoor air. PMID:26405807

  1. Triazole Susceptibilities in Thermotolerant Fungal Isolates from Outdoor Air in the Seoul Capital Area in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungeun; Xu, Siyu; Bivila, Chemmeri Padasseri; Lee, Hyeyoung; Park, Myung Soo; Lim, Young Woon; Yamamoto, Naomichi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungi resistant to triazoles are a concern because of the increased use of medical triazoles and exposure to agricultural triazoles. However, little is known about the levels of triazole susceptibility in outdoor airborne fungi making it difficult to assess the risks of inhalation exposure to airborne, antifungal-resistant fungi. This study examined triazole susceptibilities of the airborne thermotolerant fungi isolated from the ambient air of the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We used impactor air sampling with triazole-containing nutrient agar plates as the collection substrates to screen for airborne fungal isolates based on their triazole susceptibilities. This study estimated that 0.17% of all the culturable fungi belong to the pathogenic thermotolerant taxa, among which each isolate of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 μg/mL or greater for itraconazole. Their concentration in air was 0.4 CFU/m3. Seven human pathogenic Paecilomyces variotii isolates had MICs of 32 μg/mL or greater and lower than 2 μg/mL for the agricultural fungicide tebuconazole and the medical triazole itraconazole, respectively. Though the concentration was low, our results confirm the presence of airborne fungi with high MICs for itraconazole in ambient air. Inhalation is an important exposure route because people inhale more than 10 m3 of air each day. Vigilance is preferred over monitoring for the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal pathogens in ambient outdoor air.

  2. Seasonal variation in airborne endotoxin levels in indoor environments with different micro-environmental factors in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Park, Dong Jin; Park, Wha Me; Park, Dong Uk; Ahn, Jae Kyoung; Yoon, Chung Sik

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the variation over a year in airborne endotoxin levels in the indoor environment of five university laboratories in Seoul, South Korea, and examined the micro-environmental factors that influenced endotoxin levels. These included temperature, relative humidity, CO2, CO, illumination, and wind velocity. A total of 174 air samples were collected and analyzed using the kinetic limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Endotoxin levels ranged from <0.001 to 8.90EU/m(3), with an overall geometric mean of 0.240EU/m(3). Endotoxin levels showed significantly negative correlation with temperature (r=-0.529, p<0.001), CO2 (r=-0.213, p<0.001) and illumination (r=-0.538, p<0.001). Endotoxin levels tended to be higher in winter. Endotoxin levels in laboratories with rabbits were significantly higher than those of laboratories with mice. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the environmental factors affecting endotoxin levels were temperature (coefficient=-0.388, p<0.001) and illumination (coefficient=-0.370, p<0.001). Strategies aimed at reducing airborne endotoxin levels in the indoor environments may be most effective if they focus on illumination.

  3. Effects of an urban park and residential area on the atmospheric CO2 concentration and flux in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Moon-Soo; Joo, Seung Jin; Lee, Chang Seok

    2013-03-01

    The CO2 concentrations and fluxes over an urban forest site (Namsan) and an urban residential region (Boramae) in Seoul, Korea, during the non-growing season (2-4 March 2011), the growing season (10-12 June 2011), and the late-growing season (22-24 September 2011) were analyzed. The CO2 concentrations of two sites showed nearly the same diurnal variation, with a maximum value occurring during the night and a minimum value occurring during daytime, as well as the same seasonal variation, with a maximum value during the non-growing season (early spring) and a minimum value during the growing season (summer). The CO2 flux over the urban forest did not show any typical diurnal variation during the non-growing season, but did show diurnal variation with a small positive value during the night and a large negative value during daytime in the growing and late-growing seasons due to photosynthesis in the urban forest. The CO2 flux over the urban residential region showed a positive daily mean value for all periods, with large values during the non-growing season and small values during the growing season, and it also showed diurnal variation with two maxima at 0600-1000 LST and 1800-2400 LST, and two minima at 0300-0600 LST and 1100-1500 LST, and was strongly correlated with the use of liquefied natural gas for cooking and heating by surrounding houses.

  4. Food Availability in School Stores in Seoul, South Korea After Implementation of Food- and Nutrient-Based Policies.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seul Ki; Frongillo, Edward A; Blake, Christine E; Thrasher, James F

    2017-07-01

    To improve school store food environments, the South Korean government implemented 2 policies restricting unhealthy food sales in school stores. A food-based policy enacted in 2007 restricts specific food sales (soft drinks); and a nutrient-based policy enacted in 2009 restricts energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) food sales. The purpose of the study was to assess how the 2 policies have changed the school store food environment. Foods sold in school stores in Seoul, South Korea were observed before (2006, 15 stores) and after (2013, 12 stores) implementation of the school store policies. Food availability in school stores in 2006 and 2013 was compared and EDNP food availability in 2013 was examined. When controlling the total number of foods sold in school stores and school characteristics, the mean number of soft drinks sold in a school store in 2013 (0.3 items) was significantly lower than in 2006 (1.9 items, p = .032). Soft drinks were still available in 50% of school stores observed in 2013, with all school stores selling EDNP foods in 2013. South Korean policies have had a modest influence on availability of unhealthy school store foods. Alternative strategies to improve school store food environments are needed. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  5. Transition of water demand and treatment plant overcapacity: a case study of the Seoul Metropolitan City, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangeun; Park, Heekyung

    2010-01-01

    This study deals with the overcapacity problem of water treatment plants in Korea, and mainly discusses status, causes, and engineering options. To this end, we first statistically analyze the recent trend of demand, revealing that the demands of small- and mid-size systems are still increasing while that of large-size systems is now decreasing. Since the existing approach to plan capacity implicitly assumes that demand will increase at a regular rate, we estimate excess capacities and system utilizations of large-size systems. From these results it is found that the large-size systems are suffering from serious overcapacity, thus necessitating that engineers make very difficult decisions given that systems are still expanding the capacities of plants due to a lack of awareness of the current demand trend. For other systems where there is a better understanding of the transition of demand, planners have ceased to expand plants or have closed down relatively old plants in efforts to reduce O&M costs. To address this problem, quick recognition of the transition of demand is being highlighted by the concepts of integrated resources management and cybernetics. Therefore, we examined how quickly the new trend of the Seoul case could be precisely recognized and appropriately addressed. Using the Bayesian parameter estimation method, we found that a new trend can be recognized six years after the transition of demand.

  6. An analysis on the concentration characteristics of PM2.5 in Seoul, Korea from 2005 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Miyeon

    2014-11-01

    PM2.5 is a big issue as it is considerably more harmful than other sizes of particulate matter. World Health Organization (WHO) recommends 25 μg m-3 as the daily average concentration, and 10 μg m-3 per day as an annual average. To keep up with global trends, it is first necessary to understand the current status and characteristics of PM2.5 concentrations in Korea. Using the PM2.5 data measured by Seoul Metropolitan City from November 2005 to March 2012, the author analyzed its statistical characteristics and correlations with other air pollutants. For the time period from 2005 to 2012, the annual average concentration of PM2.5 was 27 μg m-3, three times the WHO standard. Also, the daily average PM2.5 concentration of 215 days per year also exceeded the WHO standard. However, the number days exceeding the Korean daily average standard of 50 μg m-3 to be enacted in 2014 was only three. PM2.5 concentration had a high correlation (r = 0.84) with PM10, and also showed high correlations with gaseous pollutants, such as SO2, NO2, and CO, but not O3. This study suggests that the Korean government should strengthen their standard to match the criteria used by WHO.

  7. Risk factors for perceived unmet medical needs in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Cho Ryok; Bang, Ji Hwan; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Kui Nam; Lee, Hee-Jin; Lee, Young Hwa; Ryu, Bo Yeong; Cho, Soo Kyung; Oh, Myoung-Don; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2016-09-01

    To identify the factors associated with perceived unmet medical needs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults, we analyzed the results from a series of city-wide cross-sectional surveys of HIV-infected adults living in Seoul, Korea. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors related to unmet medical needs. Among the 775 subjects included in the study, 15.4% had perceived unmet medical needs. Significant factors included age group (35-49 years; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-3.06), lower monthly income (aOR, 3.75 for the <$900/mo group and 2.44 for the $900-$1800/mo group; 95% CI, 1.68-8.35 and 1.18-5.04, respectively), beneficiaries of the National Medical Aid Program (aOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.01-3.17), recent CD4 cell counts <500/µL (aOR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.01-2.33). Taken together, these data reveal strong associations of middle age and low socioeconomic status with perceived unmet medical needs among HIV-infected adults.

  8. Nasal colonization by four potential respiratory bacteria in healthy children attending kindergarten or elementary school in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Bae, Songmee; Yu, Jae-Yon; Lee, Kwangjun; Lee, Sunhwa; Park, Bohyun; Kang, Yeonho

    2012-05-01

    A longitudinal analysis was carried out of the colonization by four potential respiratory pathogens - Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Staphylococcus aureus - in 165 healthy children (aged 3-7 years) attending three kindergartens and 417 healthy children (aged 7-10 years) attending an elementary school in Seoul, Korea, by four consecutive examinations over 1 year. The prevalence of nasal carriers of one or more of four bacteria was found to be higher in younger children (≤7 years) (mean 68.6%) than that in older children (mean 46.8%). The mean rates of nasal carriage of Strep. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis and Staph. aureus were 16.8, 18.9, 20.2 and 18.2%, respectively. Colonization by Strep. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis was higher in pre-school children (28.6, 32.4 and 35.0%, respectively) than in school children (12.2, 13.6 and 14.3%, respectively). Carriage trends differed with age, with Strep. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis colonization decreasing with age but Staph. aureus colonization increasing. Positive associations of co-occurrence between Strep. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were evident, with a significant negative association evident between Staph. aureus and the other three bacteria. A better understanding of the colonization and interaction of potential respiratory pathogens may be important for predicting changes in bacterial ecology and for designing control strategies that target bacterial colonization in upper respiratory tract infections.

  9. Analysis of foodborne disease outbreaks for improvement of food safety programs in Seoul, Republic of Korea, from 2002 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jib Ho; Lee, Joon-Hak; Kim, Moo Sang; Park, Seog Gee

    2009-03-01

    Foodborne disease (FBD) is a common food safety problem in Seoul, Republic of Korea. To identify target areas for improvement of the food safety programs, FBD outbreaks from 2002 to 2006 were analyzed with regard to facility, monthly occurrences, and causative agents. A total of 147 FBD outbreaks were reported, with an average of 29.4 FBD outbreaks per year and 49 cases per outbreak. Restaurants and school lunches were two main facilities associated with 76.2% of the outbreaks. A majority of FBD cases (73.1%) were from school lunches. The highest number of outbreaks and cases occurred in June, followed by March. Among the seven identified causative agents, norovirus was the most significant in the number of outbreaks and cases. Among the outbreaks and cases with causative agents identified, norovirus and Staphylococcus aureus were responsible for 61.7% of outbreaks and 81.5% of cases. The analysis indicates that the efficiency of current food safety programs could be enhanced if critical control points in school lunch programs are identified and incorporated in the training and inspection. Identifying risk factors for contamination of norovirus and Staphylococcus aureus would also be beneficial.

  10. The Study on Flood Reduction and Securing Instreamflow by applying Decentralized Rainwater Retention Facilities for Chunggyechun in Seoul of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Jun, S. M.; Park, C. G.

    2014-12-01

    Recently abnormal climate phenomena and urbanization recently causes the changes of the hydrological environment. To restore the hydrological cycle in urban area some fundamental solutions such as decentralized rainwater management system and Low Impact Development (LID) techniques may be choosed. In this study, SWMM 5 was used to analyze the effects of decentralized stormwater retention for preventing the urban flood and securing the instreamflow. The Chunggyechun stream watershed(21.29㎢) which is located in Seoul city(Korea) and fully developed as urban area was selected as the study watershed, and the runoff characteristics of urban stream with various methods of LID techniques (Permeable pavement, small rainwater storage tank, large rainwater storage tank) were analyzed. By the simulation results, the permeability of pavement materials and detention storage at the surface soil layer make high effect to the flood discharge, and the initial rainfall retention at the rainwater storage tank effected to reduce the flood peak. The peak discharge was decreased as 22% for the design precipitation. Moreover the instreamflow was increased as 55% by using adequate LID techniques These kind of data could be used as the basis data for designing urban flood prevention facilities, urban regeneration planning in the view of the integrated watershed management.

  11. A retrospective analysis of 19,157 burns patients: 18-year experience from Hallym Burn Center in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Tae-Hyung; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Yang, Min-Seok; Han, Kyung-Woo; Han, Sook-Hee; Jung, Jin-A; Lee, Jong-Wook; Jang, Young-Chul; Burd, Andrew; Oh, Suk-Joon

    2005-06-01

    This is a retrospective, epidemiological study of 19,157 acute burn patients admitted to the Hallym Burn Centre, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, Korea, during the period 1986-2003. The study was conducted to identify characteristics of burn patients that could lead to development of preventive programs to reduce both the frequency and mortality of burn injury. The majority of patients admitted had relatively minor burns, which were treated conservatively. Males predominated in all age groups with a summer peak seasonal variation. Typical burn in the children <5 years of age was a scald injury, occurring at home, affecting upper limbs and resulting in a relatively short hospital stay. Electrical burns due to steel chopsticks and steam burns due to electric rice cookers were also found in this age group. Adult burns, affecting upper and lower limbs, were caused by flames, hot liquids or electricity. Burns were sustained at the workplace and outdoors. Flame accidents in males were the leading cause of death with overall mortality of 8.2%. 13.9% of admissions needed intensive care and average length of hospital stay was 32.6 days. The annual number of patients undergoing burn related surgery has continuously increased reflecting a more aggressive surgical management. Our ongoing efforts are to promote prevention program and look for changes in the incidence of burn injury based on these epidemiologic features. Further study for implications of changes in management protocols and policies on treatment outcomes would improve the provision of appropriate care for the patients.

  12. Perceived urban neighborhood environment for physical activity of older adults in Seoul, Korea: A multimethod qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seunghyun; Kim, Dong Ha

    2016-12-24

    This study assessed the attributes of a perceived urban neighborhood environment for the physical activity (PA) of older adults by applying a qualitative multimethod approach to collect both descriptive and spatial information. Conducted in a northern community of Seoul, Korea, from April 2014 to November 2015, data collection methods included 90 walking tours by researchers, 46 face-to-face, semi-structured interviews combined with qualitative mapping with senior residents aged 65+, 19 guided tours with the interviewees, and 3 focus groups with 12 community service providers. Thematic analysis and pattern finding were performed on the data. Walking was the main type of PA of the older adults. Nine attributes of perceived neighborhood environment for PA were identified under three themes: daily living (everyday life activities, mobility, social opportunities, diverse destinations); the multidimensionality of accessibility (physical, economic, psychosocial), and attractiveness and pleasantness (maintenance, aesthetics). The subcategories of the attributes included proximity, access to public transportation, walkability, cost-worthiness, low or no cost, familiarity, sense of welcoming, sociocultural appropriateness, fair access, order and upkeep, safety, openness, cleanliness, and interestingness. Strategies to generate more movement and activities in the everyday routine of the elderly should be a core task for health promotion and neighborhood design. A strategic application of multiple qualitative methods can create an opportunity to build contextual understanding and to generate ideas in interactions with the community.

  13. Changes in NOx and O3 concentrations over a decade at a central urban area of Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vellingiri, Kowsalya; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Jin Yong; Brown, Richard J. C.; Jung, Myung-Chae

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to explore trends of NOx (NO + NO2) pollution over ten years (2004-2013) at an urban monitoring station at Yongsan in Seoul, Korea. The mean concentrations (in nmol/mol) of NO, NO2, and O3 measured over the entire study period were 25.3 ± 7.30, 36.9 ± 1.76, and 17.5 ± 1.31, respectively. The decadal trend of these pollutants exhibited statistically significant, but contrasting, results with downward NO and NOx trends and upward O3 trends throughout the study period. Correlation studies and principal component analysis (PCA) explained association of NO and NO2 with traffic related pollutants (CO, PM, and SO) at a statistically significant level while O3 exhibited patterns correlated with meteorological parameters. The overall results of this study indicate that the decadal trend of NO and NO2 was highly dependent on automotive related pollution, while O3 concentration was influenced by both the availability of NO and meteorological conditions.

  14. Significance of serum antibody test for toxocariasis in healthy healthcare examinees with eosinophilia in Seoul and Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Seok; Jin, Yan; Choi, Min-Ho; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Young Ha; Yoon, Cheong Ha; Hwang, Eui-Hyuk; Kang, Hun; Ahn, Sang-Yong; Kim, Gi Jin; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2014-12-01

    There have been numerous reports on the relationship between eosinophilia and toxocariasis. The present study investigated seropositive rates of toxocariasis among healthy people with or without eosinophilia in urban and rural areas, and assessed risk factors for positive antibody test. A total of 610 healthy people, who visited health check-up (Medicheck®, Korea Association of Health Promotion), 310 from Seoul and 300 from Gyeongsangnam-do, were subjected for this study. Their serum samples were tested by ELISA with the crude antigen of Toxocara canis larvae. Cross-reactions with other tissue invading helminth antigens were also investigated. Total antibody positive rate of toxocariasis was 8.7% of the 610 subjects. When the subjects were grouped into 3 by their eosinophil counts, the antibody positive rates significantly differed by the groups; 5.9% (18/306) in the group<350/µL, 10.0% (11/110) in the group 350-500/µL, and 12.4% (24/194) in the group>500/µL (P=0.028). A total of 22 serum samples cross-reacted with other tissue-invading helminth antigens. A questionnaire analysis recognized drinking alcohol and smoking as significant risk factors of toxocariasis. In conclusion, toxocariasis antibody positive rate is correlated with eosinophil counts. It is recommended that healthy subjects with eosinophilia by routine health examination and risk factors undergo Toxocara serology by multiantigen ELISA to investigate etiology.

  15. Proceedings of the Pacific Conference on Operations Research, April 23- 28, 1979, Seoul, Korea. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    operations research discipline . The method has its origin in work done by F.L. Hitchcock in 1941 with a study titled "The Distribution of a Product from...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS r 0.PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJFCT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Military Operations Research Society of Korea2 1 I Korean...development work on transport systems analysis during the past two decades has been directed towards the urban transport sector. The dominant transport

  16. Assessment of radiation exposure from cesium-137 contaminated roads for epidemiological studies in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun-Keun; Ju, Young-Su; Lee, Won Jin; Hwang, Seung Sik; Yim, Sang-Hyuk; Yoo, Sang-Chul; Lee, Jieon; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Burm, Eunae; Ha, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to assess the radiation exposure for epidemiologic investigation in residents exposed to radiation from roads that were accidentally found to be contaminated with radioactive cesium-137 (137Cs) in Seoul. Methods Using information regarding the frequency and duration of passing via the 137Cs contaminated roads or residing/working near the roads from the questionnaires that were obtained from 8875 residents and the measured radiation doses reported by the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission, we calculated the total cumulative dose of radiation exposure for each person. Results Sixty-three percent of the residents who responded to the questionnaire were considered as ever-exposed and 1% of them had a total cumulative dose of more than 10 mSv. The mean (minimum, maximum) duration of radiation exposure was 4.75 years (0.08, 11.98) and the geometric mean (minimum, maximum) of the total cumulative dose was 0.049 mSv (<0.001, 35.35) in the exposed. Conclusions An individual exposure assessment was performed for an epidemiological study to estimate the health risk among residents living in the vicinity of 137Cs contaminated roads. The average exposure dose in the exposed people was less than 5% of the current guideline. PMID:26184047

  17. Hydrochemistry of urban groundwater in Seoul, South Korea: effects of land-use and pollutant recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byoung-Young; Yun, Seong-Taek; Yu, Soon-Young; Lee, Pyeong-Koo; Park, Seong-Sook; Chae, Gi-Tak; Mayer, Bernhard

    2005-10-01

    The ionic and isotopic compositions (δD, δ18O, and 3H) of urban groundwaters have been monitored in Seoul to examine the water quality in relation to land-use. High tritium contents (6.1-12.0 TU) and the absence of spatial/seasonal change of O-H isotope data indicate that groundwaters are well mixed within aquifers with recently recharged waters of high contamination susceptibility. Statistical analyses show a spatial variation of major ions in relation to land-use type. The major ion concentrations tend to increase with anthropogenic contamination, due to the local pollutants recharge. The TDS concentration appears to be a useful contamination indicator, as it generally increases by the order of forested green zone (average 151 mg/l), agricultural area, residential area, traffic area, and industrialized area (average 585 mg/l). With the increased anthropogenic contamination, the groundwater chemistry changes from a Ca-HCO3 type toward a Ca-Cl(+NO3) type. The source and behavior of major ions are discussed and the hydrochemical backgrounds are proposed as the basis of a groundwater management plan.

  18. Phosphorus release rates from sediments and pollutant characteristics in Han River, Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Lee-Hyung; Choi, Euiso; Gil, Kyung-Ik; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2004-04-05

    The Han River is 469.7-km long and drains a 26219-km(2) watershed. The sediments in the river are highly polluted due to inputs from upstream tributaries as well as partially treated municipal wastewaters that are discharged to the river. The water quality and strategy for control are important because the river is the primary drinking water supply for the City of Seoul, as well as being a major source for irrigation and industrial water. The Jamsil submerged dam partitions the river to isolate an upstream area for drinking water, but also captures sediments. Samples from four sites were studied to determine sediment pollutant concentrations and phosphorus release rates. Phosphorus tends to desorb from sediments when the concentration of overlying water is less than 1.4 mg/l. Water column P concentrations range from 0.04 to 0.1 mg/l, which suggests that sediments will act as a P source. In a series of batch experiments, P was released at approximately 15-20 mg/m(2)week in the winter (1-5 degrees C) and as much as 90 mg/m(2)week in the summer (20-24 degrees C), and is also a function of pH and dissolved oxygen concentration. The sediment total phosphorus concentration, which averages 833 mg/kg, is evenly distributed among non-apatite-P (33%), apatite-P (32%) and residual-P (34%). An equilibrium model is proposed to describe release rate.

  19. Assessment of Urban Vegetation using Remote Sensing Data: a Case Study in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Kim, J.; Yeom, J.; Kim, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Vegetation in the city has various positive effects on the entire urban ecosystem: it reduces CO2 and air temperature, improves air quality, helps to maintain the water balance of natural ground, decreases surface overflow during floods, and provides food source as well as living space for diverse wildlife. Urban green areas also have a social and educational role, e.g. for recreational activity, positive experience in a natural environment, and perception of seasonal changes. In addition, citizens can find a balance between urban green and built up spaces. However, the very high intensity of land use in urban areas changes the local urban ecosystem to a large degree and leads to enormous stress for the urban vegetation. In this study, we aim to develop a method for assessing effects of urban vegetation on ecosystem function using remote sensing technology. We use multispectral RapidEye satellite and LiDAR data for the classification of urban vegetation types in metropolitan area Seoul and test different kinds of vegetation indices focusing on the red edge of RapidEye data to assess the stress degree of the vegetation.

  20. Assessment of radiation exposure from cesium-137 contaminated roads for epidemiological studies in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Keun; Ju, Young-Su; Lee, Won Jin; Hwang, Seung Sik; Yim, Sang-Hyuk; Yoo, Sang-Chul; Lee, Jieon; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Burm, Eunae; Ha, Mina

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the radiation exposure for epidemiologic investigation in residents exposed to radiation from roads that were accidentally found to be contaminated with radioactive cesium-137 ((137)Cs) in Seoul. Using information regarding the frequency and duration of passing via the (137)Cs contaminated roads or residing/working near the roads from the questionnaires that were obtained from 8875 residents and the measured radiation doses reported by the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission, we calculated the total cumulative dose of radiation exposure for each person. Sixty-three percent of the residents who responded to the questionnaire were considered as ever-exposed and 1% of them had a total cumulative dose of more than 10 mSv. The mean (minimum, maximum) duration of radiation exposure was 4.75 years (0.08, 11.98) and the geometric mean (minimum, maximum) of the total cumulative dose was 0.049 mSv (<0.001, 35.35) in the exposed. An individual exposure assessment was performed for an epidemiological study to estimate the health risk among residents living in the vicinity of (137)Cs contaminated roads. The average exposure dose in the exposed people was less than 5% of the current guideline.

  1. Speciation and source identification of organic compounds in PM₁₀ over Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Na Rae; Lee, Se Pyo; Lee, Ji Yi; Jung, Chang Hoon; Kim, Yong Pyo

    2016-02-01

    Seventy three individual organic compounds in the atmospheric particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to a nominal 10 μm (PM10) over Seoul were identified and quantified from April 2010 to April 2011 using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These organic compounds were classified into five groups, n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mono-carboxylic acids, di-carboxylic acids (DCAs), and sugars based on their chemical structures and properties. The organic compounds showed higher seasonal average concentrations from fall to winter than from spring to summer due to source strength, except some organic compounds among mono-carboxylic acids, DCAs, sugars such as undecanoic acid, methylmalonic acid, and fructose. Through qualitative data analysis using seasonal concentration variations and relevant diagnostic parameters, it was found that (1) anthropogenic sources such as combustion of fossil fuel and biomass burning attributed more to the formation of the organic aerosols than biogenic sources, and (2) the ambient level of n-alkanes, PAHs, and some compounds of DCAs and sugars was elevated in winter due to the increased primary emissions and larger transport from outside of the organic compounds in winter.

  2. General characteristics of causes of urban flood damage and flood forecasting/warning system in Seoul, Korea Young-Il Moon1, 2, Jong-Suk Kim1, 2 1 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743, South Korea 2 Urban Flood Research Inst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Young-Il; Kim, Jong-Suk

    2015-04-01

    Due to rapid urbanization and climate change, the frequency of concentrated heavy rainfall has increased, causing urban floods that result in casualties and property damage. As a consequence of natural disasters that occur annually, the cost of damage in Korea is estimated to be over two billion US dollars per year. As interest in natural disasters increase, demands for a safe national territory and efficient emergency plans are on the rise. In addition to this, as a part of the measures to cope with the increase of inland flood damage, it is necessary to build a systematic city flood prevention system that uses technology to quantify flood risk as well as flood forecast based on both rivers and inland water bodies. Despite the investment and efforts to prevent landside flood damage, research and studies of landside-river combined hydro-system is at its initial stage in Korea. Therefore, the purpose of this research introduces the causes of flood damage in Seoul and shows a flood forecasting and warning system in urban streams of Seoul. This urban flood forecasting and warning system conducts prediction on flash rain or short-term rainfall by using radar and satellite information and performs prompt and accurate prediction on the inland flooded area and also supports synthetic decision-making for prevention through real-time monitoring. Although we cannot prevent damage from typhoons or localized heavy rain, we can minimize that damage with accurate and timely forecast and a prevention system. To this end, we developed a flood forecasting and warning system, so in case of an emergency there is enough time for evacuation and disaster control. Keywords: urban flooding, flood risk, inland-river system, Korea Acknowledgments This research was supported by a grant (13AWMP-B066744-01) from Advanced Water Management Research Program (AWMP) funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  3. Comparison of Aerosol Volume Size Distributions between Surface and Ground-based Remote Sensing Measurements Downwind of Seoul, Korea during MAPS-Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, P.; Choi, Y.; Ghim, Y. S.

    2016-12-01

    Both sunphotometer (Cimel, CE-318) and skyradiometer (Prede, POM-02) were operated in May, 2015 as a part of the Megacity Air Pollution Studies-Seoul (MAPS-Seoul) campaign. These instruments were collocated at the Hankuk University of Foreign Studies (Hankuk_UFS) site of AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and the Yongin (YGN) site of SKYradiometer NETwork (SKYNET). The aerosol volume size distribution at the surface was measured using a wide range aerosol spectrometer (WRAS) system consisting of a scanning mobility particle sizer (Grimm, Model 5.416; 45 bins, 0.01-1.09 μm) and an optical particle counter (Grimm, Model 1.109; 31 bins, 0.27-34 μm). The measurement site (37.34oN, 127.27oE, 167 m above sea level) is located about 35 km southeast of downtown Seoul. To investigate the discrepancies in volume concentrations, effective diameters and fine mode volume fractions, we compared the volume size distributions from sunphotometer, skyradiometer, and WRAS system when the measurement time coincided within 5 minutes considering that the measurement intervals were different between instruments.

  4. Impacts of different plant functional types on ambient ozone predictions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas (SMAs), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.-K.; Woo, J.-H.; Park, R. S.; Song, C. H.; Kim, J.-H.; Ban, S.-J.; Park, J.-H.

    2014-07-01

    Plant functional type (PFT) distributions affect the results of biogenic emission modeling as well as O3 and particulate matter (PM) simulations using chemistry-transport models (CTMs). This paper analyzes the variations of both surface biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions and O3 concentrations due to changes in the PFT distributions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas, Korea. The Fifth-Generation NCAR/Pennsylvania State Meso-scale Model (MM5)/the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN)/the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE)/the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations were implemented over the Seoul Metropolitan Areas in Korea to predict surface O3 concentrations for the period of 1 May to 31 June 2008. Starting from a performance check of CTM predictions, we consecutively assessed the effects of PFT area deviations on the MEGAN BVOC and CTM O3 predictions, and we further considered the basis of geospatial and statistical analyses. The three PFT data sets considered were (1) the Korean PFT, developed with Korea-specific vegetation database; (2) the CDP PFT, adopted from the community data portal (CDP) of US National Center for Atmospheric Research in the United States (NCAR); (3) MODIS PFT, reclassified from the NASA Terra and Aqua combined land cover products. Although the CMAQ performance check reveals that all of the three different PFT data sets are applicable choices for regulatory modeling practice, noticeable primary data (i.e., PFT and Leaf Area Index (LAI)) was observed to be missing in many geographic locations. Based on the assessed effect of such missing data on CMAQ O3 predictions, we found that this missing data can cause spatially increased bias in CMAQ O3. Thus, it must be resolved in the near future to obtain more accurate biogenic emission and chemistry transport modeling results. Comparisons of MEGAN biogenic emission results with the three different PFT data showed that broadleaf

  5. Assessment of a Megacity Air Quality Management Policy using the GAINS-Korea : Seoul metropolitan area Air Quality Management Plan(SAQMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Woo, J. H.; Ahn, Y. H.; Choi, K. C.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, Y. M.; Amann, M.; Wagner, F.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Han, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution in and near megacities are very severe because of their massive pollutant emissions and high population density. Korea has ambitiously set its 2nd phase capitol air quality improvement program called Seoul metropolitan area Air Quality Management Plan(SAQMP), targeting the year 2024. The air quality improvement targets for the year 2024 are 30 ug/m3 and 20 ug/m3 for PM10 and pm2.5, respectively and planned expenditure are almost 4 billion US dollar. Emissions of PM10, PM2.5 are required to be decreased up to 35%, 45%, respectively, from their future baseline level. Various special measures, such as cap-and-trade, LNB, EURO standards program, will be implemented to control emissions over Seoul, Incheon, and Gyeonggi-do area. Smart approach of reducing air pollution and GHGs are, however, required to maximize improvement of metropolitan air quality and climate change. IIASA's Greenhouse gas - Air pollution Interactions aNd Synergies(GAINS) modeling framework is an widely used tool to design and manage smart emission control strategies that can achieve air quality/climate improvements with least costs. We have developed the national version of GAINS for Korea (GAINS-Korea) to set up those strategies for national and regional scale. In this study, we have implemented SAQMP in the GAINS-Korea Model and assess its effects of emissions reduction and air quality improvements. Various analysis results using the framework will be presented at site.

  6. Temporal and Spatial Variations in Fine and Coarse Particles in Seoul, Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Ghim, Young Sung; Chang, Young-Soo; Jung, Kweon

    2015-06-01

    Concentrations of fine (PM2.5) and coarse particles (PM10 -2.5), whose diameters are less 2.5 µm, and between 2.5 and 10 µm, respectively, at ambient air monitoring stations in Seoul between 2002 and 2008 were analyzed. Effects of Asian dust are mainly manifested as concentration spikes of PM10 - 2.5 but were considerable on PM2.5 levels in 2002 when Asian dust storms were the strongest. Excluding the effects of Asian dust, annual average PM2.5 showed a downward trend. Despite a similarity in year - to - year variations, PM10- 2.5, mostly affected by fugitive dust emissions, and CO and NO2, primarily affected by motor vehicle emissions, did not show a decrease. PM2.5 along with CO and NO2 had the highest values during the morning rush hour. PM10 - 2.5 peak lagged about one hour behind that of PM2.5 because of fugitive dust emissions despite an increasing mixing height. On high PM2.5 days, PM2. 5 peaks occurred two hours later than usual as the effects of secondary formation became more important. A test for the spatial variabilities shows that PM10 - 2.5, which is known to be greatly influenced by local effects, is lower in its correlation coeffic ient and higher in its coefficient of divergence (COD, which serves as an indicator for spatial variability) than PM2.5, albeit that the difference between the two is small. The average COD of PM2.5 among monitoring stations was about 0.2 but was lowered t o 0.13 when considering high PM2.5 days only, which signifies that spatial uniformity increases significantly.

  7. Exploring Household-level Risk Factors for Self-reported Prevalence of Allergic Diseases Among Low-income Households in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Seo, SungChul; Paul, Christopher; Yoo, Young; Choung, Ji Tae

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Indoor risk factors for allergic diseases in low-income households in Korea have been characterized only partially. We evaluated the prevalences of atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic rhinitis in Seoul, Korea, to identify key housing and behavioral risk factors of low-income households. Methods Statistical analysis of the prevalence of these diseases and various risk factors was conducted using data from a 2010 Ministry of Environment household survey. Logistic regression models were generated using data from 511 low-income household apartments in districts of Seoul. Results In general, housing factors such as renovation history (P<0.1) and crowding status (P<0.01) were associated with allergic rhinitis, whereas behavioral factors such as frequency of indoor ventilation (P<0.05) and cleaning (P<0.1) were inversely correlated with atopic dermatitis. Indoor smoking was a major trigger of asthma and atopic dermatitis in low-income households (P<0.05). The presence of mold and water leakage in houses were the most important risk factors for all three diseases (P<0.05). Conclusions Various risk factors play a role in triggering allergic diseases among low-income households in Seoul, and health or environmental programs mitigating allergic diseases should be tailored to address appropriate housing or behavioral factors in target populations. PMID:25228999

  8. Gay Seouls: Expanding Religious Spaces for Non-Heterosexuals in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yi, Joseph; Jung, Gowoon; Segura, Saul Serna; Phillips, Joe; Park, Jerry Z

    2017-09-08

    What sorts of Protestant Christian congregations offer space for worship and dialogue among persons with different sexual orientations? The academic literature finds or assumes that non-heterosexuals are stigmatized or invisible in theologically conservative congregations and are welcomed in progressive, affirming congregations. This article develops an alternative claim that some conservative or evangelical congregations offer attractive spaces for many non-heterosexuals to worship and dialogue. We illustrate with an exploratory study of four, inclusive congregations in South Korea-two theologically progressive, two evangelical-whose pastors welcomed everybody regardless of sexual orientation or gender identity. The "inclusive-evangelical" congregations retained conservative theology on sexuality (sexual relations only within heterosexual marriage), but offered more empathic dialogue with non-heterosexuals than did most evangelical congregations; they also provided more resources, conventional religious culture, and ties to traditional affective networks than the affirming-progressive congregations. Inclusive-evangelical congregations offer an institutional venue for non-heterosexual Christians in Korea to potentially reconcile three central values: conservative Christianity, traditional (Confucian) affective networks, and expressive-individualism.

  9. Evaluation of environmental burdens caused by changes of food waste management systems in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Suk-Hui; Choi, Ki-In; Osako, Masahiro; Dong, Jong-In

    2007-11-15

    During the last decade, there have been remarkable changes in food waste management in Korea following a ban on direct landfilling. To evaluate the environmental impacts of food waste management systems, we examined individual treatment systems with the LCA approach -- landfill, incineration, composting, and feed manufacturing -- and estimated the change from 1997 to 2005. The efficient system was different in each impact category, but it was evaluated that landfill is the main contributor to human toxicity and global warming (based on fossil CO(2)). In contrast, due to the increase of food waste recycling, acidification, eutrophication, and fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity impact was increased. Especially, the high energy consumption and generated residue in recycling systems caused the large burdens in toxicity categories.

  10. Spatial variation of contaminant elements of roadside dust samples from Budapest (Hungary) and Seoul (Republic of Korea), including Pt, Pd and Ir.

    PubMed

    Sager, Manfred; Chon, Hyo-Taek; Marton, Laszlo

    2015-02-01

    Roadside dusts were studied to explain the spatial variation and present levels of contaminant elements including Pt, Pd and Ir in urban environment and around Budapest (Hungary) and Seoul (Republic of Korea). The samples were collected from six sites of high traffic volumes in Seoul metropolitan city and from two control sites within the suburbs of Seoul, for comparison. Similarly, road dust samples were obtained two times from traffic focal points in Budapest, from the large bridges across the River Danube, from Margitsziget (an island in the Danube in the northern part of Budapest, used for recreation) as well as from main roads (no highways) outside Budapest. The samples were analysed for contaminant elements by ICP-AES and for Pt, Pd and Ir by ICP-MS. The highest Pt, Pd and Ir levels in road dusts were found from major roads with high traffic volume, but correlations with other contaminant elements were low, however. This reflects automobile catalytic converter to be an important source. To interpret the obtained multi-element results in short, pollution index, contamination index and geo-accumulation index were calculated. Finally, the obtained data were compared with total concentrations encountered in dust samples from Madrid, Oslo, Tokyo and Muscat (Oman). Dust samples from Seoul reached top level concentrations for Cd-Zn-As-Co-Cr-Cu-Mo-Ni-Sn. Just Pb was rather low because unleaded gasoline was introduced as compulsory in 1993. Concentrations in Budapest dust samples were lower than from Seoul, except for Pb and Mg. Compared with Madrid as another continental site, Budapest was higher in Co-V-Zn. Dust from Oslo, which is not so large, contained more Mn-Na-Sr than dust from other towns, but less other metals.

  11. Chemical speciation of size-segregated floor dusts and airborne magnetic particles collected at underground subway stations in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hae-Jin; Kim, BoWha; Malek, Md Abdul; Koo, Yong Sung; Jung, Jong Hoon; Son, Youn-Suk; Kim, Jo-Chun; Kim, HyeKyoung; Ro, Chul-Un

    2012-04-30

    Previous studies have reported the major chemical species of underground subway particles to be Fe-containing species that are generated from wear and friction processes at rail-wheel-brake and catenaries-pantographs interfaces. To examine chemical composition of Fe-containing particles in more details, floor dusts were collected at five sampling locations of an underground subway station. Size-segregated floor dusts were separated into magnetic and non-magnetic fractions using a permanent magnet. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDX), iron metal, which is relatively harmless, was found to be the dominating chemical species in the floor dusts of the <25 μm size fractions with minor fractions of Mg, Al, Si, Ca, S, and C. From SEM analysis, the floor dusts of the <25 μm size fractions collected on railroad ties appeared to be smaller than 10 μm, indicating that their characteristics should somewhat reflect the characteristics of airborne particles in the tunnel and the platform. As most floor dusts are magnetic, PM levels at underground subway stations can be controlled by removing magnetic indoor particles using magnets. In addition, airborne subway particles, most of which were smaller than 10 μm, were collected using permanent magnets at two underground subway stations, namely Jegi and Yangjae stations, in Seoul, Korea. XRD and SEM/EDX analyses showed that most of the magnetic aerosol particles collected at Jegi station was iron metal, whereas those at Yangjae station contained a small amount of Fe mixed with Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, and C. The difference in composition of the Fe-containing particles between the two subway stations was attributed to the different ballast tracks used.

  12. Is "Safety-in-numbers" theory applies to the pattern of pedestrian accidents in Seoul, South Korea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Yoon, H.

    2016-12-01

    Every year, about 1.25 million people die of vehicle-related accidents, among which half are pedestrians with higher vulnerability: pedestrian, cyclists and motorcyclist (World Health Organization, 2016). This urges city governments in the world to strive for pedestrian safety and to apply diverse theories to transportation planning and design. The common belief is that the number of pedestrian accidents is directly and positively associated with the volume of pedestrian, however, another hypothesis, called "safety-in-numbers" effect, tells an opposite story in that accident rates declines with increase of the volume of pedestrian. In this study, we examine first, whether the safety-in-numbers theory applies to the pattern of pedestrian accidents in Seoul, and second, further investigate environmental factors that are associated with the pedestrian safety. On the first count, we use geospatial statistical analyses of the multi-year pedestrian accident data collected by Korea Road Traffic Authority (KoRoad) and the pedestrian volume data collected by SK Telecom (SKT). With Kernel Density Estimation and Bivariate Local Moran's I, we identify spatial clustering of pedestrian accidents in the city, and examine whether those locations match with concentrations of pedestrian volume. On the second count, we use statistical analysis, tobit, poisson and negative binomial regression to investigate relationships between pedestrian volume and number of pedestrian accident for the two types of geographic areas by the results of the aforementioned analysis; Area 1- locations of high volume of pedestrian with high number of accident, Area 2- locations of high volume of pedestrian with low number of accident. For environmental factors potentially explaining pedestrian accidents, we include land use composition, number of traffic lanes, crosswalk presence, pedestrian signal, traffic island and sidewalk width in our analysis. This research will be valuable in city governments

  13. Single-particle characterization of indoor aerosol particles collected at an underground shopping area in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Maskey, Shila; Kang, TaeHee; Jung, Hae-Jin; Ro, Chul-Un

    2011-02-01

    In this study, single-particle characterization of aerosol particles collected at an underground shopping area was performed for the first time. A quantitative single-particle analytical technique, low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis, was used to characterize a total of 7900 individual particles for eight sets of aerosol samples collected at an underground shopping area in Seoul, Korea. Based on secondary electron images and X-ray spectral data of individual particles, fourteen particle types were identified, in which primary soil-derived particles were the most abundant, followed by carbonaceous, Fe-containing, secondary soil-derived, and secondary sea-salt particles. Carbonaceous particles exist in three types: organic carbon, carbon-rich, and CNO-rich. A significant number of textile particles with chemical composition C, N, and O were encountered in some of the aerosol samples, which were from the textile shops and/or from clothes of passersby. Primary soil-derived particles showed seasonal variation, with peak values in spring samples, reflecting higher air exchange between indoor and outdoor environments in the spring. Secondary soil-derived, secondary sea-salt, and ammonium sulfate particles were frequently encountered in winter samples. Fe-containing particles, contributed from a nearby subway station, were in the range of about 19% relative abundances for all samples. In underground shopping areas, particulate matters can be a considerable health hazard to the workers, shoppers, passersby, and shop-keepers as they spend their considerable time in this closed microenvironment. However, no study on the characteristics of indoor aerosols in an underground shopping area has been reported to our knowledge. This work provides detailed information on characteristics of underground shopping area aerosols on a single particle level. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Does community capacity influence self-rated health? Multilevel contextual effects in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo; Viswanath, K

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between community-level contextual effects and self-rated health (SRH) based on the perspective of community capacity rather than social capital. Community capacity for mobilization is broad cooperation for networking among indigenous social agents and grassroots organizations that may serve as potential resources. The idea of community capacity is rooted in the philosophy that a community not only faces problems but also possesses the necessary resources to solve its problems. We used nationally representative data from South Korea, 2010, drawing on 14,228 residents in 404 communities. Community capacity was measured at two levels: an individual-level indicator of community satisfaction, and community-level indicators of participation rate in community organizations, number of community-based organizations (CBOs), and number of volunteer work camps (VWCs). The outcome variable was SRH, which was categorized into two groups: the low-SRH and high-SRH groups. Confounders included gender, age, and income at the individual level, and aggregate length of residency, financial independence ratio, and aggregate income at the community level. We estimated the effects of community capacity on SRH using hierarchical generalized linear models. The likelihood of belonging to the group having low-SRH is significantly high among those respondents living in places with lower community capacity at the community level, that report lower community satisfaction, and that have lower income at the individual level. After controlling for socio-economic confounders, the odds ratios were attenuated but remained significant in the final model, which included the gender-specific model. This study revealed that SRH is related to the level of community capacity for mobilization. It is probably because CBOs and VWCs not only provide necessary information and complementary services but also play an active role in identifying and resolving health problems

  15. Distributions of fossil fuel originated CO2 in five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) according to the Δ14C in ginkgo leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Hong, W.; Park, G.; Sung, K. S.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, Y. E.; Kim, J. K.; Choi, H. W.; Kim, G. D.; Woo, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    We collected a batch of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus) leaf samples at five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) in 2009 to obtain the regional distribution of fossil fuel originated CO2 (fossil fuel CO2) in the atmosphere. Regions assumed to be free of fossil fuel CO2 were also selected, namely Mt. Chiak, Mt. Kyeryong, Mt. Jiri, Anmyeon Island, and Jeju Island and ginkgo leaf samples were collected in those areas during the same period. The Δ14C values of the samples were measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and the fossil fuel CO2 ratios in the atmosphere were obtained in the five metropolitan areas. The average ratio of fossil fuel CO2 in Seoul was higher than that in the other four cities. The leaves from the Sajik Tunnel in Seoul recorded the highest FFCTC (fossil fuel CO2 over total CO2 in atmosphere), 13.9 ± 0.5%, as the air flow of the surrounding neighborhood of the Sajik Tunnel was blocked.

  16. Analysis of climate variability under various scenarios for future urban growth in Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Jeong, J.; Kim, Y.

    2011-12-01

    It is important to adjust urban growth data closer to reality in the regional climate model because urban changes give effects to physical properties such as albedo, moisture availability and roughness length in the atmosphere. Future urban growth, however, has not been considered widely in the prediction model for future climate change. In this study, we used the urban growth model called SLEUTH (Slope, Land-use, Excluded, Urban, Transportation, Hill-shade) based on cellular automata (CA) technique to predict the future urban growth. The target area is Seoul Metropolitan area (SMA) where the urban area explosively has expanded the most in the Korean peninsula due to the continuous industrialization since 1970s. The SLEUTH model was calibrated to know the pattern of the urban growth in SMA with historical data for 35 years (1975-2000) provided from Water Management Information System (WAMIS) in Korea and then the future urban growth was projected out to 2050 assuming three different scenarios: (1) current trends scenario (Scenario 1; SC1), (2) regional policy and urban planning scenario (Scenario 2; SC2), (3) ecologically protection scenario (Scenario 3; SC3). As a result, the urban ratios by scenarios were increased 12.87, 11.17 and 6.26 percentages of the total area for 50 years respectively. These predictions of SLEUTH model used as the boundary condition data and the 6 hourly data of ECHAM5/OM-1 A1B scenarios generated by Max-Plank Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany used as the initial condition data in Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We designed four different numerical experiments in accordance with the four scenarios for the urban growth (SC1, SC2, SC3 and Current condition) and carried out for 5 years (2046-2050). Overall, the increment of urban ratio under various urban growth scenarios in SMA caused the spatial distributions of temperature to change, the average temperature to increase and the average wind speed to decrease in the

  17. Submicron aerosol size distribution measurements in the city of Seoul, and coastal and marine environments around South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yum, S. S.; Kim, J.; Han, D.; Oh, S.; Nam, J.

    2005-12-01

    Submicron aerosol size distributions and total particle (i.e., condensation nuclei, CN) concentrations were measured continuously from September 2004 at the campus of Yonsei University located at the central part of Seoul. The instruments, TSI SMPS-3936L10 and CPC-3010, were installed at an office in the sixth floor of a building and the sample air was drawn from a window. The height of the building and the relatively low traffic in the campus may qualify these measurements as a background aerosol distribution in a highly urbanized city. The highest monthly average CPC (total particle) concentration was 37000 cm-3 in February 2005. The trend of wintertime increase was also obvious in the SMPS integrated concentrations but these were only 60-70 percent of the CPC concentrations. There was rather clear diurnal trend of near dawn (~4 AM) minima and morning peak (~8 AM) and a secondary peak in the evening (~8 PM) for both CPC and SMPS data. As a part of the Atmospheric Brown Clouds East Asian Regional Experiment (ABC-EAREX2005), measurements were also made on board the research vessel Kisang 2000 during the cruise from March 2 to March 10, 2005 over the South Sea of Korea and over the Korean sector of the Yellow Sea. Ship track was 60 km or more away from the coast. After the ship measurements the instruments were placed at the Gosan ABC Observatory in Jeju Island, for almost four weeks starting from March 11, 2005 to measure coastal aerosol distributions and inter-comparisons with other instruments. The average CPC and SMPS concentrations were 6700 cm-3 and 4400 cm-3, respectively, for the ship measurements, and 6000 cm-3 and 4000 cm-3 for the same two measurements at Gosan. However, when remote marine environments near Jeju Island were segregated from the ship measurements, the CPC and SMPS concentrations were 3600 cm-3 and 2400 cm-3, respectively. CPC and SMPS measurements will also be made over the South China Sea during another ship cruise from Jeju Island to

  18. Seoul's greenbelt: an experiment in urban containment

    Treesearch

    David N. Bengston; Youn Yeo-Chang

    2005-01-01

    Urban containment policies are considered by some to be a promising approach to growth management. The greenbelt-based urban containment policy of Seoul, Republic of Korea is examined as a case study. Seoul's greenbelt has generated both significant social costs and benefits. Korea's greenbelt policy is currently being revised, largely due to pressure from...

  19. Characteristics of aerosol optical properties and total amount of trace gases over Korea during the 2015 MAPS-Seoul campaign using AERONET and Pandora spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Kim, J.; Choi, M.; Kim, W.; Lee, H.; Kim, J. H.; Chong, H.; Koo, J. H.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Herman, J. R.; Abuhassan, N.; Ahn, J. Y.; Park, J.; Hong, J.; Kim, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    To investigate characteristics of air quality and enhance the performance of the air quality model prediction and satellite retrieval, Korea-US Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) campaign was conducted over Korea in May-June, 2016. As pre-campaign of the KORUS-AQ, Megacity Air Pollution Studies (MAPS)-Seoul campaign was held from May 18 to June 14, 2015. During this campaign, eight AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sunphotometers and six Pandora spectrometers observed the aerosol optical properties and total column density of O3 and NO2 over Korea, respectively. Using these data set, we examine the general spatiotemporal characteristic of aerosol optical properties and some trace gases in South Korea. Mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550nm at Seoul (megacity region) and Gosan (coastal region) are 0.338 and 0.214 respectively during MAPS campaign, which are quite lower values compare to other recent years (2011 to 2014); The range of mean AOD in the same period is 0.557-0.684 at Seoul and 0.447-0.618 at Gosan. The reason of low AOD during MAPS period is not clearly understood yet. In this period, most of AERONET sites show the black carbon dominance except Gosan, showing a dominance of non-absorbing particles. This looks because the Gosan site is affected by the relatively clean maritime air-mass. Pandora O3 measurements have low spatial variability, but NO2 measurements shows larger spatiotemporal variability. Pandora total O3 vertical column density (VCD) shows a good agreement OMI O3 VCD (R > 0.9) probably due to low spatial variability of O3, In the contrast, Pandora total NO2 VCD does not much correlates with OMI NO2 VCDs. In addition to high variability of NO2, the influence of regional aerosol optical properties on the estimation of total NO2 VCD seems another reason to explain the poor relationship between Pandora and OMI NO2 VCD. To investigate the effect of aerosol optical properties on total NO2 VCD, AOD, single scattering albedo and fine mode fraction from

  20. Westchester Community College Five Year Strategic Plan, 2003-2008.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westchester Community Coll., Valhalla, NY. Office of Institutional Research and Planning.

    This document is focused on the Westchester Community College. It discusses the school's 2003-2008 Strategic Planning Process that was developed by the faculty, administrators, and staff over a 2-year period. The Planning Process is based upon the mission statement of the Westchester Community College and the most recent demographic and economic…

  1. In-situ measurements of nighttime radical species (NO3 and N2O5) from Seoul N Tower in Korea during MAPS 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    The importance of nitrate radical (NO3) chemistry has been emphasized in the nocturnal atmosphere which influences on the air quality in following day. This chemistry could gather its importance even more in urban setting or in downwind area of large urban emission sources. In support of these issue, efforts in investigating the nighttime chemical mechanisms has been made during MAPS 2015 (Megacity Air Pollution Study 2015) at Seoul in Korea from May 18th to June 12th of 2015. By deploying NOAA's state-of-the-art instrument, ARNOLD (Airborne Ring-down Nitrogen Oxide Laser Detector), high time resolution in-situ measurement of nitrate (NO3), dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) as well as other related trace gases species (e.g. NO, NO2, NOy, and O3) were made on the Seoul N Tower (inlet height: 362m ASL). The in-situ measurements of NO3 radical will provide good observational constraints on night time oxidation processes. The NO3 and N2O5 equilibrium and reactivity will be analyzed by comparison of their lifetimes to those calculated from VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) measurements and kinetic calculations. Implications for nitrogen oxides species will be discussed.

  2. High-resolution urban observation network for user-specific meteorological information service in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Moon-Soo; Park, Sung-Hwa; Chae, Jung-Hoon; Choi, Min-Hyeok; Song, Yunyoung; Kang, Minsoo; Roh, Joon-Woo

    2017-04-01

    To improve our knowledge of urban meteorology, including those processes applicable to high-resolution meteorological models in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), the Weather Information Service Engine (WISE) Urban Meteorological Observation System (UMS-Seoul) has been designed and installed. The UMS-Seoul incorporates 14 surface energy balance (EB) systems, 7 surface-based three-dimensional (3-D) meteorological observation systems and applied meteorological (AP) observation systems, and the existing surface-based meteorological observation network. The EB system consists of a radiation balance system, sonic anemometers, infrared CO2/H2O gas analyzers, and many sensors measuring the wind speed and direction, temperature and humidity, precipitation, and air pressure. The EB-produced radiation, meteorological, and turbulence data will be used to quantify the surface EB according to land use and to improve the boundary-layer and surface processes in meteorological models. The 3-D system, composed of a wind lidar, microwave radiometer, aerosol lidar, or ceilometer, produces the cloud height, vertical profiles of backscatter by aerosols, wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, and liquid water content. It will be used for high-resolution reanalysis data based on observations and for the improvement of the boundary-layer, radiation, and microphysics processes in meteorological models. The AP system includes road weather information, mosquito activity, water quality, and agrometeorological observation instruments. The standardized metadata for networks and stations are documented and renewed periodically to provide a detailed observation environment. The UMS-Seoul data are designed to support real-time acquisition and display and automatically quality check within 10 min from observation. After the quality check, data can be distributed to relevant potential users such as researchers and policy makers. Finally, two case studies demonstrate that the observed data

  3. Assessment for Single layer urban canopy model in WRF by the WISE observation data in Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hankyung; Min, Jae-sik; Jee, Joon-Bum; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Park, Jeong-Gyun

    2017-04-01

    The atmospheric flow and other meteorological elements within urban is quite influenced artificial factors such as buildings or asphalt pavement, and so on. In order to understand these urban effects, the Urban Canopy Model (UCM) in Weather Research Forecast (WRF) is employed to investigate complex physical characteristics in the urban area. The performance of single layer UCM in WRF is assessed by observation data of flux towers operated by the WISE during the year of 2016 in Seoul metropolitan area. WISE has installed flux towers in Seoul metropolitan area and generate observation data. In addition, the radiosonde data was generated to vertical observation by floating during 2016 WISE urban summer observation campaign. The comparison between numerical model results and observation of flux tower show that applying UCM is possible to simulate the change for latent heat flux similarly with observations on urban area. Also, the simulated temperature near the surface by UCM is good agreement with radiosonde observations. UCM employed in WRF shows realistic results in terms of temperature and surface heat flux, indicating thermodynamic treatment of UCM can enhance the skills of high resolution forecast model in urban area.

  4. Effect modification of individual- and regional-scale characteristics on heat wave-related mortality rates between 2009 and 2012 in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, E-Jin; Kim, Ho

    2017-10-01

    Many studies have investigated the associations between heat waves, ambient temperature, cold spells, and mortality or morbidity. Some studies have utilized effect modification to reveal the factors that increase an individual's susceptibility to temperature extremes, which can then be used to reshape public policy. In this study, we used a time-stratified case-crossover technique to examine how individual- and regional-scale characteristics modified heat wave-related impacts on mortality rates in Seoul, South Korea, between 2009 and 2012. We defined a heat wave as having at least two consecutive days with a daily mean temperature greater than or equal to the 95th percentile recorded in each of Seoul's twenty-five districts. At the individual scale, citizens classified as belonging to a lower education group had a higher vulnerability to heat wave-related morbidity or mortality [odds ratio (OR) 1.261; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.034-1.538]. At a regional scale, death during heat waves was more likely to occur in districts with a high deprivation index (OR=1.194; 95% CI: 1.028-1.388). And a low proportion of green space around buildings (OR=1.178; 95% CI: 1.016-1.366), a low proportion of rooftop green space (OR=1.207; 95% CI: 1.042-1.399), or those that had fewer hospitals (OR=1.186; 95% CI: 1.019-1.379). Our data show that mortality during heat waves is more likely where these individual and regional-scale vulnerabilities overlap. Our findings support evidence of mortality impacts from heat waves and provide a basis for selection to policy makers choose on the target groups to reduce the public health burden of heat waves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical mass balance receptor model applied to ambient C 2-C 9 VOC concentration in Seoul, Korea: Effect of chemical reaction losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Kwangsam; Pyo Kim, Yong

    A chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model was used for estimating the diurnal contributions of VOC emission sources to the ambient C 2-C 9 VOC concentration in Seoul, Korea. For this purpose, the VOC concentrations were measured in the morning, the afternoon, and the evening. The samples were collected using a 2-h integrated SUMMA canister. The source profiles were developed for the CMB calculation in the Seoul area. To investigate the effect of the chemical reaction loss of VOCs on the CMB calculation, the modified model employing a decay factor and the standard model that considers no loss were compared. The modified model estimated that the vehicle exhaust (52%) was the largest leading source of VOCs in the Seoul atmosphere, followed by the use of solvents (26%), gasoline evaporation (15%), the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) (5%), and the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) (2%). Relative source contribution for vehicle exhaust showed a clear diurnal variation with a high in the morning and evening and a low in the afternoon, while the contribution of evaporative emissions (gasoline evaporation and solvent usage) showed a different diurnal pattern from that of the vehicle exhaust, exhibiting a high in the afternoon and evening and a low in the morning. It was found that the difference between the total source contribution (μg m -3) estimated from these two models was not statistically significant. However, when the paired-sample t-test is applied to the individual sources, a significant difference was found for the vehicle exhaust and the solvent use. In addition, the modified model brought forth a better performance with high R2 and low χ2 as compared to those obtained from the standard model in the CMB calculation. The vehicle exhaust and solvent use were estimated to be the largest and the second largest contributors to ambient benzene as well as ozone formation potential (OFP), respectively. Based on above results we believe that incorporating the

  6. Sources and atmospheric processing of winter aerosols in Seoul, Korea: insights from real-time measurements using a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwajin; Zhang, Qi; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Kim, Jin Young; Bok Lee, Seung

    2017-02-01

    Highly time-resolved chemical characterization of nonrefractory submicrometer particulate matter (NR-PM1) was conducted in Seoul, the capital and largest metropolis of Korea, using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). The measurements were performed during winter, when elevated particulate matter (PM) pollution events are often observed. This is the first time that detailed real-time aerosol measurement results have been reported from Seoul, Korea, and they reveal valuable insights into the sources and atmospheric processes that contribute to PM pollution in this region. The average concentration of submicron aerosol (PM1 = NR-PM1+ black carbon (BC)) was 27.5 µg m-3, and the total mass was dominated by organics (44 %), followed by nitrate (24 %) and sulfate (10 %). The average atomic ratios of oxygen to carbon (O / C), hydrogen to carbon (H / C), and nitrogen to carbon (N / C) of organic aerosols (OA) were 0.37, 1.79, and 0.018, respectively, which result in an average organic mass-to-carbon (OM / OC) ratio of 1.67. The concentrations (2.6-90.7 µg m-3) and composition of PM1 varied dynamically during the measurement period due to the influences of different meteorological conditions, emission sources, and air mass origins. Five distinct sources of OA were identified via positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the HR-ToF-AMS data: vehicle emissions represented by a hydrocarbon-like OA factor (HOA, O / C = 0.06), cooking activities represented by a cooking OA factor (COA, O / C = 0.14), wood combustion represented by a biomass burning OA factor (BBOA, O / C = 0.34), and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) represented by a semivolatile oxygenated OA factor (SV-OOA, O / C = 0.56) and a low-volatility oxygenated OA factor (LV-OOA, O / C = 0.68). On average, primary OA (POA = HOA + COA + BBOA) accounted for 59 % the OA mass, whereas SV-OOA and LV-OOA contributed 15 and 26 %, respectively. Our results indicate that air

  7. Correlation between bioaerosol microbial community characteristics and real-time measurable environmental items: A case study from KORUS-AQ pre-campaign in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, H.

    2015-12-01

    Due to global climate change, bioaerosols are more globally mixed with a more random manner. During a long-distance traveling dust event, the number of microbes significantly increases in bioaerosol, and the chance for bioaerosol to contain human pathogenic microorganisms may also increase. Recently, we have found that bioaerosol microbial community characteristics (copy number of total bacterial 16S rRNA genes, and population diversity and composition) are correlated with the quantitative detection of potential human pathogens. However, bioaerosol microbial community characteristics cannot be directly used in real-time monitoring because the DNA-based detection method requires at least couple days or a week to get reliable data. To circumvent this problem, a correlation of microbial community characteristics with real-time measurable environmental items (PM10, PM2.5, temperature, humidity, NOx, O3 etc.), if any, will be useful in frequent assessment of microbial risk from available real-time measured environmental data. In this work, we monitored bioaerosol microbial communities using a high-throughput DNA sequencing method (Mi-seq) during the KORUS-AQ (KoreaUS-Air Quality) pre-campaign (May to June, 2015) in Seoul, and investigated whether any correlation exists between the bioaerosol microbial community characteristics and the real-time measureable environmental items simultaneously attained during the pre-campaign period. At the pre-campaign site (Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul), bioaerosol samples were collected using high volume air sampler, and their 16S rRNA gene based bacterial communities were analyzed by Miseq sequencing and bioinformatics. Simultaneously, atmosphere environmental items were monitored at the same site. Using Decision Tree, a non-linear multi-variant correlation was observed between the bioaerosol microbial community characteristics and the real-time measured atmosphere chemistry data, and a rule induction was developed

  8. Cyanide Poisoning Deaths Detected at the National Forensic Service Headquarters in Seoul of Korea: A Six Year Survey (2005~2010)

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Jong Sook; Yum, Hye Sun

    2012-01-01

    The records of 255 cyanide poisoning deaths obtained from National Forensic Service (NFS) headquarters, located in Seoul of Korea, from 2005 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age was 41.88 ± 13.09 and range was 6~80 years (unknown in seven cases). The number of deaths of males and females were 200 and 53, respectively (unknown in two cases). The largest number of cases occurred in people aged 40-49 years (81 cases, 31.8%), followed by the age groups 30~39 years (51 cases, 20%), 50~59 years (44 cases, 17.2%) and 20~29 years (43 cases, 16.9%). The total number of deaths among other age groups (below 10, 10~19, 60~69, 70~79, over 80 years and unknown) were 36, representing only 14.1%. Of all cyanide poisoning deaths, 97.3% were due to suicide, and 14.5% of the total number who died received medical treatment. The most frequent site for ingestion was the person's own residence (120 cases, 47.1%) and the route of administration was mainly oral (252, 98.8%). From the total of 255 cyanide poisoning cases, white powders were submitted for analysis in 92 cases. Potassium cyanide and sodium cyanide occupied 51 and 41 cases, respectively. This study showed that poisoning deaths due to cyanide are one of the continuously reported public health problems in Korea. Enforcement of regulations and safety education to prevent cyanide poisoning should be carried out by the government. PMID:24278610

  9. Regional contributions to particulate matter concentration in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea: seasonal variation and sensitivity to meteorology and emissions inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Eunhye; Bae, Changhan; Cho, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Byeong-Uk; Kim, Soontae

    2017-09-01

    The impact of regional emissions (e.g., domestic and international) on surface particulate matter (PM) concentrations in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA), South Korea, and its sensitivities to meteorology and emissions inventories are quantitatively estimated for 2014 using regional air quality modeling systems. Located on the downwind side of strong sources of anthropogenic emissions, South Korea bears the full impact of the regional transport of pollutants and their precursors. However, the impact of foreign emissions sources has not yet been fully documented. We utilized two regional air quality simulation systems: (1) a Weather Research and Forecasting and Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) system and (2) a United Kingdom Met Office Unified Model and CMAQ system. The following combinations of emissions inventories are used: the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B, the Inter-comparison Study for Asia 2010, and the National Institute of Environment Research Clean Air Policy Support System. Partial contributions of domestic and foreign emissions are estimated using a brute force approach, adjusting South Korean emissions to 50 %. Results show that foreign emissions contributed ˜ 60 % of SMA surface PM concentration in 2014. Estimated contributions display clear seasonal variation, with foreign emissions having a higher impact during the cold season (fall to spring), reaching ˜ 70 % in March, and making lower contributions in the summer, ˜ 45 % in September. We also found that simulated surface PM concentration is sensitive to meteorology, but estimated contributions are mostly consistent. Regional contributions are also found to be sensitive to the choice of emissions inventories.

  10. Assessing the Performance of the Photovoltaic Cells on the Effects of Yellow Dust Events and Haze in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jiyeon; Kim, Yong Pyo; Wee, DaeHyun

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the potential effects of the Asian yellow dust Events and haze on the performance of Korean photovoltaic systems. Particulate matters from the Asian yellow dust outbreaks in the deserts of Mongolia and northern China are typically transported to Korea. Haze is an atmospheric phenomenon where dust, smoke and other dry particles obscure the clarity of the sky. Hence, we conjecture that the effects of the Asian yellow dust and haze block the incident solar irradiance. The potential reduction of the solar spectral irradiance due to Asian yellow dust events and haze in Korea is investigated using a clear-sky spectral radiation model, and the performance of photovoltaic systems under reduced irradiance is estimated by using a simple analytic model representing typical photovoltaic cells. Comparison of photovoltaic performance under Asian dust events, haze and that under a clear condition is made to evaluate overall influence of the particulate air pollution, respectively.

  11. Added dietary vegetables and fruits improved coat quality of capybara in Seoul Zoo, Republic of Korea: A case study.

    PubMed

    Shim, Hyungeun; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2017-01-01

    Adequate levels of dietary vitamin C are necessary for capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrocharis) because they cannot synthesize the vitamin endogenously. Beginning in 2013, hair and weight loss, as well as general dermatitis, were observed in all individual capybaras (n = 4) in a mixed exhibit at Seoul Zoo. Seven additional vegetables, leafy greens, and fruits that increased dietary vitamin C concentration from ∼300-400 to >600 mg/kg dry matter were added to the diet since January 2015. Within 6 months, capybaras' skin and coats improved considerably, with hair becoming thicker and glossier. Animals visually appeared healthier and gained weight. In conclusion, hair loss, dermatitis, and weight loss in capybara can be improved by feeding enough fresh green leaves, vegetables, and fruits. Although vitamin C is considered a major factor for alleviation of poor body condition observed, increased status of other nutrients (i.e., vitamin B6 ) provided by the diet change may also have contributed to the improvements seen in the capybara. Zoo Biol. 36:50-55, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Current Issues in University Education of Korea and Japan. Proceedings of the International Seminar (6th, Seoul, South Korea, July 7-8, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korean Council for Univ. Education, Seoul (South Korea).

    Fourteen conference papers on university education in South Korea and Japan are presented in this document. The papers cover administrative, social, student, and teaching issues and are grouped into six sections based on the major themes of the seminar. The sections are as follows: (1) university administration and management, including "Some…

  13. Validation of aerosol and cloud layer structures from the space-borne lidar CALIOP using a ground-based lidar in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.-W.; Berthier, S.; Raut, J.-C.; Chazette, P.; Dulac, F.; Yoon, S.-C.

    2008-07-01

    We present initial validation results of the space-borne lidar CALIOP onboard CALIPSO satellite using coincidental observations from a ground-based lidar in Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul, Korea (37.46° N, 126.95° E). We analyze six selected cases between September 2006 and February 2007, including 3 daytime and 3 night-time observations and covering different types of clear and cloudy atmospheric conditions. Apparent scattering ratios calculated from the two lidar measurements of total attenuated backscatter at 532 nm show similar aerosol and cloud layer structures both under cloud-free conditions and in cases of multiple aerosol layers underlying semi-transparent cirrus clouds. Agreement on top and base heights of cloud and aerosol layers is generally within 0.10 km, particularly during night-time. This result confirms that the CALIPSO science team algorithms for the discrimination of cloud and aerosol as well as for the detection of layer top and base altitude provide reliable information in such atmospheric conditions. This accuracy of the planetary boundary layer top height under cirrus cloud appears, however, limited during daytime. Under thick cloud conditions, however, information on the cloud top (bottom) height only is reliable from CALIOP (ground-based lidar) due to strong signal attenuations. However, simultaneous space-borne CALIOP and ground-based SNU lidar (SNU-L) measurements complement each other and can be combined to provide full information on the vertical distribution of aerosols and clouds. An aerosol backscatter-to-extinction ratio (BER) estimated from lidar and sunphotometer synergy at the SNU site during the CALIOP overpass is assessed to be 0.023±0.004 sr-1 (i.e. a lidar ratio of 43.2±6.2 sr) from CALIOP and 0.027±0.006 sr-1 (37.4±7.2 sr) from SNU-L. For aerosols within the planetary boundary layer under cloud-free conditions, the aerosol extinction profiles from both lidars are in agreement within about 0.02 km-1. Under semi

  14. Evaluating the predictability of PM10 grades in Seoul, Korea using a neural network model based on synoptic patterns.

    PubMed

    Hur, Sun-Kyong; Oh, Hye-Ryun; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Kim, Jinwon; Song, Chang-Keun; Chang, Lim-Seok; Lee, Jae-Bum

    2016-11-01

    As of November 2014, the Korean Ministry of Environment (KME) has been forecasting the concentration of particulate matter with diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM10) classified into four grades: low (PM10 ≤ 30 μg m(-3)), moderate (30 < PM10 ≤ 80 μg m(-3)), high (80 < PM10 ≤ 150 μg m(-3)), and very high (PM10 > 150 μg m(-3)). The KME operational center generates PM10 forecasts using statistical and chemistry-transport models, but the overall performance and the hit rate for the four PM10 grades has not previously been evaluated. To provide a statistical reference for the current air quality forecasting system, we have developed a neural network model based on the synoptic patterns of several meteorological fields such as geopotential height, air temperature, relative humidity, and wind. Hindcast of the four PM10 grades in Seoul, Korea was performed for the cold seasons (October-March) of 2001-2014 when the high and very high PM10 grades are frequently observed. Because synoptic patterns of the meteorological fields are distinctive for each PM10 grade, these fields were adopted and quantified as predictors in the form of cosine similarities to train the neural network model. Using these predictors in conjunction with the PM10 concentration in Seoul from the day before prediction as an additional predictor, an overall hit rate of 69% was achieved; the hit rates for the low, moderate, high, and very high PM10 grades were 33%, 83%, 45%, and 33%, respectively. Our findings also suggest that the synoptic patterns of meteorological variables are reliable predictors for the identification of the favorable conditions for each PM10 grade, as well as for the transboundary transport of PM10 from China. This evaluation of PM10 predictability can be reliably used as a statistical reference and further, complement to the current air quality forecasting system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of cloud, aerosol, and ozone on surface spectral Ultraviolet and total irradiance observed in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hana; Kim, Jhoon; Kim, Woogyung; Lee, Yun Gon; Cho, Hi Ku

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, there have been substantial attempts to model the radiative transfer for climatological and biological purposes. However, the incorporation of clouds, aerosols and ozone into the modeling process is one of the difficult tasks due to their variable transmission in both temporal and space domains. In this study we quantify the atmospheric transmissions by clouds, aerosol optical depth (AOD at 320 nm) and total ozone (Ozone) together with all skies in three solar radiation components of the global solar (GS 305-2800nm), total ultraviolet (TUV 290-363nm) and the erythemal weighted ultraviolet (EUV 290-325nm) irradiances with statistical methods using the data at Seoul. The purpose of this study also is to clarify the different characteristics between cloud, AOD and Ozone in the wavelength-dependent solar radiation components. The ozone, EUV and TUV used in this study (March 2003 - February 2014) have been measured with Dobson Spectrophotometer (Beck #124) and Brewer Spectrophotometer (SCI-TEC#148) at Yonsei University, respectively. GS, Cloud Cover (CC) are available from the Korean Meteorological Agency. The measured total (effect of cloud, aerosol, and ozone) transmissions on annual average showed 74%, 76% and 80% of GS, TUV and EUV irradiance, respectively. For the comparison of the measured values with modeled, we have also constructed a multiple linear regression model for the total transmission. The average ratio of measured to modeled total transmission were 0.94, 0.96 and 0.96 with higher measured than modeled value in the three components, respectively, The individual transmission by clouds under the constant AOD and Ozone atmosphere on average showed 68%, 71% and 76% and further the overcast clouds reduced the transmissions to the 45%, 54% and 59% of the clear sky irradiance in the GS, TUV and EUV, respectively. The annual transmissions by AOD showed on average 67%, 70% and 74% and further the high loadings 2.5-4.0 AOD reduced the

  16. Vitamin A status of 20- to 59-year-old adults living in Seoul and the metropolitan area, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungah; Kim, Young-Nam

    2012-01-01

    Dietary intakes and plasma concentrations of retinol and carotenoids were estimated in assessing the vitamin A status of Korean adults living in Seoul and the metropolitan area. Three consecutive 24-h food recalls were collected from 106 healthy subjects (33 males and 73 females) aged 20-59 years. Fasting blood samples of the subjects were obtained and plasma retinol and carotenoids were analyzed. The daily vitamin A intakes (mean ± SD) were 887.77 ± 401.35 µg retinol equivalents or 531.84 ± 226.42 µg retinol activity equivalents. There were no significant differences in vitamin A intakes among age groups. The retinol intake of subjects was 175.92 ± 129.87 µg/day. The retinol intake of the subjects in their 50's was significantly lower than those in their 20's and 30's (P < 0.05). Provitamin A carotenoid intakes were 3,828.37 ± 2,196.29 µg/day β-carotene, 472.57 ± 316.68 µg/day α-carotene, and 412.83 ± 306.46 µg/day β-cryptoxanthin. Approximately 17% of the subjects consumed vitamin A less than the Korean Estimated Average Requirements for vitamin A. The plasma retinol concentration was 1.22 ± 0.34 µmol/L. There was no significant difference in plasma retinol concentrations among age groups. However, the concentrations of β-carotene, lycopene, and lutein of subjects in their 50's were significantly higher than those of in their 20's. Only one subject had a plasma retinol concentration < 0.70 µmol/L indicating marginal vitamin A status. Plasma retinol concentration in 30% of the subjects was 0.70- < 1.05 µmol/L, which is interpreted as the concentration possibly responsive to greater intake of vitamin A. In conclusion, dietary intakes and status of vitamin A were generally adequate in Korean adults examined in this study. PMID:22413040

  17. HCHO column density retrieval using Pandora measurements in Seoul, Korea: Temporal characteristics and comparison with OMI measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Junsung; Lee, Hanlim; Kim, Jhoon; Herman, Jay; Kim, Daewon

    2017-04-01

    We, for the first time, retrieved the Formaldehyde (HCHO) vertical column density (VCD) using Pandora instruments in Seoul, a megacity in northeast Asia, for the period between 2012 and 2014. We retrieved HCHO slant column density (SCD) using the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) method. Then HCHO SCD was converted to HCHO VCD using geometric Air Mass Factor (AMF), since Pandora is the direct-sun measurement. The HCHO VCDs were generally highest at 12:00 local time (LT) and were low at the 10:00 (LT) and 14:00 (LT) throughout all seasons. The mean HCHO VCDs at 12:00 LT were 1.57×1016, 2.29×1016, 9.94× 1015, and 8.33×1015 molecules cm-2 in the spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively, whereas those at 10:00 (14:00) LT were 1.22×1016 (8.68×1015), 1.25×1016 (1.54×1016), 1.13×1016 (1.33×1016), and 6.58×1015 (5.11×1015) molecules cm-2 in the spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. In terms of seasonal variations, HCHO VCD was highest in summer due to the photo-oxidation whereas it showed the lowest value in winter during the entire measurement period. The Pandora HCHO VCDs range from 4.10×1015 molecules cm-2 to 2.89×1016 molecules cm-2. In comparison with the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements, the HCHO VCDs obtained from the OMI were higher than those were the Pandora HCHO VCDs. We found a correlation coefficient of 0.74, with slop of 0.35 between the Pandora HCHO VCDs and the OMI HCHO VCDs. Furthermore, to investigate HCHO mixing ratio level within Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL), we converted Pandora HCHO VCDs to HCHO mixing ratio in the PBL using an empirical linear model with the inputs of PBL data obtained from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) and other meteorological data.

  18. Seasonal effect of PM(10) concentrations on mortality and morbidity in Seoul, Korea: a temperature-matched case-crossover analysis.

    PubMed

    Yi, Okhee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kim, Ho

    2010-01-01

    Explorations of interactions between air pollution and seasonal changes have represented one approach in examining the consequences of global warming. However, only a few studies have focused on evaluating the effects of seasonal air pollution using data on both morbidity and mortality in Asia. We examined the associations between PM(10) concentrations and mortality and hospital admissions in Seoul, Korea for the periods 2000-2006 and 2001-2006. We employed a temperature-matched case-crossover design, where reference periods matched case days in regard to temperature (same rounded to degrees celsius ( degrees C)), month, and year. A total of 238,826 deaths were identified, along with 98,570 and 93,553 inpatient admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, respectively. We found that the association with PM(10) and mortality/morbidity increased during the summer. During the study period, 10microg/m(3) increase in PM(10) was associated with the increase in mortality by 0.28% (95% confidence interval: 0.12, 0.44), 0.51% (0.19, 0.83), and 0.59% (-0.08, 1.26) for non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory causes. 10microg/m(3) increase in PM(10) was also associated with increase in hospitalization from cardiovascular and respiratory causes by 0.77% (0.53, 1.01) and 1.19% (0.94, 1.44). In the summer, the increase in mortality and hospitalization was 0.57% (0.20, 0.93), 0.64% (-0.10, 1.38), 0.50% (-1.02, 2.05), 1.52% (0.89, 2.16), and 1.55% (0.87, 2.22). This study provides evidence that the effect of PM(10) on mortality and morbidity varies with season and increases during the summer season.

  19. The effect of man made source processes on the behavior of total gaseous mercury in air: a comparison between four urban monitoring sites in Seoul Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Shon, Zang-Ho; Nguyen, Hang Thi; Jung, Kweon; Park, Chan-Goo; Bae, Gwi Nam

    2011-09-01

    Concentrations of total gaseous mercury (TGM) were measured continuously at four urban residential locations (G (Guro-gu); N (Nowon-gu); S (Songpa-gu); and Y (Yongsan-gu)) in Seoul, Korea from 2004 to 2009. The mean concentrations of Hg at these sites were found on the order of N (3.98±1.68 ng m(-3)), S (3.87±1.56 ng m(-3)), G (3.80±1.60 ng m(-3)), and Y (3.36±1.55 ng m(-3)). Evidence indicates that the spatial distribution of Hg should be affected by the combined effects of both local anthropogenic (incineration facilities and thermal power plants) and natural (soil) emission sources in association with the meteorological parameters. Inspection of the Hg temporal patterns indicates the co-existence of contrasting seasonal patterns between the central site Y (winter dominance) and all other outbound sites near city borders (summer dominance). The long-term trend of Hg, if examined by combining our previous studies and the present one, shows that Hg levels in this urban area declined gradually across decadal periods despite slight variabilities in spatial scale: (1) above 10 ng m(-3) in the late 1980s, (2) ~5 ng m(-3) in the late 1990s, and (3) ~3 ng m(-3) toward the late 2000s. The results of the principal component analysis along with observed differences in seasonal patterns (between study sites) suggest that Hg distributions between different urban sites are greatly distinguishable with strong source signatures at each individual site.

  20. Geometric and optical properties of cirrus clouds inferred from three-year ground-based lidar and CALIOP measurements over Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yumi; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Man-Hae; Yoon, Soon-Chang

    2014-03-01

    This study examines cirrus cloud top and bottom heights (CTH and CBH, respectively) and the associated optical properties revealed by ground-based lidar in Seoul (SNU-L), Korea, and space-borne Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), which were obtained during a three-year measurement period between July 2006 and June 2009. From two selected cases, we determined good agreement in CTH and CBH with cirrus cloud optical depth (COD) between ground-based lidar and space-borne CALIOP. In particular, CODs at a wavelength of 532 nm calculated from the three years of SNU-L and CALIOP measurements were 0.417 ± 0.394 and 0.425 ± 0.479, respectively. The fraction of COD lower than 0.1 was approximately 17% and 25% of the total SNU-L and CALIOP profiles, respectively, and approximately 50% of both lidar profiles were classified as sub-visual or optically thin such that COD was < 0.3. The mean depolarization ratio was estimated to be 0.30 ± 0.06 for SNU-L and 0.34 ± 0.08 for CALIOP. The monthly variation of CODs from SNU-L and CALIOP measurements was not distinct, whereas cirrus altitudes from both SNU-L and CALIOP showed distinct monthly variation. CALIOP observations showed that cirrus clouds reached the tropopause level in all months, whereas the up-looking SNU-L did not detect cirrus clouds near the tropopause in summer due to signal attenuation by underlying optically thick clouds. The cloud layer thickness (CLT) and COD showed a distinct linear relationship up to approximately 2 km of the CLT; however, the COD did not increase, but remained constant when the CLT was greater than 2.0 km. The ice crystal content, lidar signal attenuation, and the presence of multi-layered cirrus clouds may have contributed to this tendency.

  1. Report on the '92 Seoul International Conference on the Role of the University Education in the Asia/Pacific Age (Seoul, Republic of Korea, April 8-10, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Robert A.

    This report, by the U.S. representative to the conference, presents observations on and basic results of the 1992 Seoul International Conference on the Role of the University in the Asia/Pacific Age, as well as the conference agenda and program, the minutes of the meeting, and other related documents. The conference convened 51 representatives…

  2. Gang homicides - five U.S. cities, 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    2012-01-27

    Gang homicides account for a substantial proportion of homicides among youths in some U.S. cities; however, few surveillance systems collect data with the level of detail necessary to gang homicide prevention strategies. To compare characteristics of gang homicides with nongang homicides, CDC analyzed 2003-2008 data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) for five cities with high levels of gang homicide. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, consistent with similar previous research, a higher proportion of gang homicides than other homicides involved young adults and adolescents, racial and ethnic minorities, and males. Additionally, the proportion of gang homicides resulting from drug trade/use or with other crimes in progress was consistently low in the five cities, ranging from zero to 25%. Furthermore, this report found that gang homicides were more likely to occur with firearms and in public places, which suggests that gang homicides are quick, retaliatory reactions to ongoing gang-related conflict. These findings provide evidence for the need to prevent gang involvement early in adolescence and to increase youths' capacity to resolve conflict nonviolently.

  3. Metagenomic Analysis of Airborne Bacterial Community and Diversity in Seoul, Korea, during December 2014, Asian Dust Event

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Seho; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Jang, Jun Hyeong; Lee, Dongwook; Lim, Sora; Kim, Kyung Sang; Jheong, Weonhwa; Lee, Dong-Won; Park, Eung-Roh; Chung, Hyun-Mi; Choe, Joonho; Kim, Myung Kyum; Seo, Taegun

    2017-01-01

    Asian dust or yellow sand events in East Asia are a major issue of environmental contamination and human health, causing increasing concern. A high amount of dust particles, especially called as particulate matter 10 (PM10), is transported by the wind from the arid and semi-arid tracks to the Korean peninsula, bringing a bacterial population that alters the terrestrial and atmospheric microbial communities. In this study, we aimed to explore the bacterial populations of Asian dust samples collected during November–December 2014. The dust samples were collected using the impinger method, and the hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene were amplified using PCR followed by pyrosequencing. Analysis of the sequencing data were performed using Mothur software. The data showed that the number of operational taxonomic units and diversity index during Asian dust events were higher than those during non-Asian dust events. At the phylum level, the proportions of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes were different between Asian dust and non-Asian dust samples. At the genus level, the proportions of the genus Bacillus (6.9%), Arthrobacter (3.6%), Blastocatella (2%), Planomicrobium (1.4%) were increased during Asian dust compared to those in non-Asian dust samples. This study showed that the significant relationship between bacterial populations of Asian dust samples and non-Asian dust samples in Korea, which could significantly affect the microbial population in the environment. PMID:28122054

  4. Influence of fossil-fuel power plant emissions on the surface fine particulate matter in the Seoul Capital Area, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byeong-Uk; Kim, Okgil; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Soontae

    2016-09-01

    The South Korean government plans to reduce region-wide annual PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm) concentrations in the Seoul Capital Area (SCA) from 2010 levels of 27 µg/m(3) to 20 µg/m(3) by 2024. At the same time, it is inevitable that emissions from fossil-fuel power plants will continue to increase if electricity generation expands and the generation portfolio remains the same in the future. To estimate incremental PM2.5 contributions due to projected electricity generation growth in South Korea, we utilized an ensemble forecasting member of the Integrated Multidimensional Air Quality System for Korea based on the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model. We performed sensitivity runs with across-the-board emission reductions for all fossil-fuel power plants in South Korea to estimate the contribution of PM2.5 from domestic fossil-fuel power plants. We estimated that fossil-fuel power plants are responsible for 2.4% of the annual PM2.5 national ambient air quality standard in the SCA as of 2010. Based on the electricity generation and the annual contribution of fossil-fuel power plants in 2010, we estimated that annual PM2.5 concentrations may increase by 0.2 µg/m(3) per 100 TWhr due to additional electricity generation. With currently available information on future electricity demands, we estimated that the total future contribution of fossil-fuel power plants would be 0.87 µg/m(3), which is 12.4% of the target reduction amount of the annual PM2.5 concentration by 2024. We also approximated that the number of premature deaths caused by existing fossil-fuel power plants would be 736 in 2024. Since the proximity of power plants to the SCA and the types of fuel used significantly impact this estimation, further studies are warranted on the impact of physical parameters of plants, such as location and stack height, on PM2.5 concentrations in the SCA due to each precursor. Improving air quality by reducing fine particle

  5. Greenland's mass balance observed by GRACE between 2003-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wouters, B.; Schrama, E.

    2009-04-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites have been providing the scientific community with a quasi-continuous record of the Earth's gravity field over the last 6 years. Due to its global coverage, it offers an excellent tool to study mass changes over large regions. Among others, GRACE has lead to a leap in our understanding of the mass balance of Greenland ice sheet, which was indirectly known until a few years ago. In this presentation, we demonstrate how the GRACE observations can be used to monitor changes in Greenland's mass distribution on a regional scale. Over the period of 2003-2008, the ice sheet lost annually approximately 210 cubic kilometers of ice on average, contributing 0.5 mm per year to global mean sea level. According to (Rignot,2008) this value is unprecedented in the last 50 years suggesting a significant impact of global warming on the Greenland's ice volume. A forward modeling technique significantly helps to identify the hydrologic basins where the melt occurs. As a result we now know from the GRACE data that the main melting signal occurs during summer along the southeastern coast, although spreading to the northwest, with most pronounced changes so far occurring in 2007. Although 2008 was not a record year in terms of total mass lost, it may be called exceptional in terms of the spatial pattern of the summer losses, which mainly took place in the high North, consistent with surface melt observations and regional climate model results. Largest mass losses are observed in the regions surroundig the Humboldt Glacier and Zachariae Isstrom, two glaciers that have been reported to have retreated significantly in 2008.

  6. Analysis of Regional Climate Changes adjusted Future Urban Growth Scenarios and possibility of the future air quality prediction in Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Jeong, J.

    2012-12-01

    Land-use changes give effects to physical properties such as albedo, moisture availability and roughness length in the atmosphere, but future urban growth has not been considered widely to predict the future regional climate change because it is hard to predict the future land-use changes. In this study, we used the urban growth model called SLEUTH (Slope, Land-use, Excluded, Urban, Transportation, Hill-shade) based on Cellular Automata (CA) technique to predict the future land-use (especially, urban growth) changes. Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), the research area in this study, is the most explosively developed region in the Korean peninsula due to the continuous industrialization since 1970s. SLEUTH was calibrated to know the pattern and process of the urban growth and expansion in SMA with historical data for 35 years (1975-2000) provided from WAter Management Information System (WAMIS) in Korea and then future urban growth was projected out to 2050 assuming three different scenarios: (1) historical trends of urban growth (SC1), (2) future urban policy and plan (SC2), (3) ecological protection and growth (SC3). We used the FNL data of NCEP/NCAR for one month, Oct. in 2005 to evaluate the performance of the WRF on the long-term climate simulation and compared results of WRF with the ASOS/AWS (Automated Surface Observing Systems and Automated Weather System) observation data of the Korea Meteorology Administration. Based on the accuracy of the model, we performed various numerical experiments by the urban growth scenarios using the 6 hourly data of ECHAM5/OM-1 A1B scenarios generated by Max-Plank Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany on Oct. for 5 years (2046-2050), respectively. The difference of urban ratio under various urban growth scenarios in SMA consequently caused the spatial distributions of temperature to change, the average temperature to increase in the urban area. PBL height with a maximum of about 200m also appeared locally in newly

  7. Aerosol optical depth and its relation to regional-scale circulations over Korea during MAPS-Seoul (May-June, 2015) and KORUS-AQ campaigns (May-June, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Hyunhye; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Ji-Hyoung; Park, Jin-Soo; Ahn, Joon-Young; Lee, Jae-Bum; Lim, Yong-Jae

    2017-04-01

    We investigate aerosol optical depth (AOD) and its relation to regional-scale circulations over Korea during the two recent field campaigns conducted in May-June of 2015 (MAPS-Seoul experiment) and May-June of 2016 (KORUS-AQ campaign), using satellite MODIS and AERONET measurement data. The monthly averaged MODIS AOD at 550 nm was estimated to about 0.35 in May and 0.50 in June during the MAPS-Seoul experiment, which was about 33% and 17% lower than that of 13-year averaged MODIS AOD. MODIS AOD during KORUS-AQ 2016 campaign was similarly about 8˜23% lower than those of 13-year averages, but slightly higher than those in 2015. The monthly averaged MODIS AOD was 0.40 in May and 0.56 in June, 2016. Consistently, ground-based AERONET sky radiometer measurements at Seoul showed AODs of about 0.35 (May) and 0.60 (June) at 500 nm during MAPS-Seoul experiment, which was approximately 32% and 20% lower than the averaged AODs (May - 0.51; June - 0.76) from 4-year measurements (2012, 2013, 2015, and 2016). Also, AOD during KORUS-AQ campaign in 2016 was about 0.43 in May and 0.71 in June, which was about 16% and 6% lower than 4-year mean AOD. This year-to-year variation of AOD in May-June over East Asia, including Korea, was closely linked with synoptic atmospheric circulations. Generally, aerosol optical depth (AOD) is high in May and June due to stagnant synoptic meteorological systems, as previously reported by Kim et al. (Atmospheric Environment, 2007). For example, in 2012, MODIS AOD over the Korean Peninsula was observed to be about 0.71 in May and 0.72 in June. This can be explained by the frequent occurrences of stagnant atmospheric conditions. However, the regional-scale circulations during MAPS-Seoul and KORUS-AQ campaigns were characterized by the fast-moving confluent flows over the Korean peninsula, formed between Siberian high pressure system located in North China and North Pacific high in South China. These results suggest that atmospheric circulations play a

  8. Recent damaging earthquakes in Japan, 2003-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, Robert E

    2008-01-01

    During the last six years, from 2003-2008, Japan has been struck by three significant and damaging earthquakes: The most recent M6.6 Niigata Chuetsu Oki earthquake of July 16, 2007 off the coast of Kashiwazaki City, Japan; The M6.6 Niigata Chuetsu earthquake of October 23, 2004, located in Niigata Prefecture in the central Uonuma Hills; and the M8.0 Tokachi Oki Earthquake of September 26, 2003 effecting southeastern Hokkaido Prefecture. These earthquakes stand out among many in a very active period of seismicity in Japan. Within the upper 100 km of the crust during this period, Japan experienced 472 earthquakes of magnitude 6, or greater. Both Niigata events affected the south-central region of Tohoku Japan, and the Tokachi-Oki earthquake affected a broad region of the continental shelf and slope southeast of the Island of Hokkaido. This report is synthesized from the work of scores of Japanese and US researchers who led and participated in post-earthquake reconnaissance of these earthquakes: their noteworthy and valuable contributions are listed in an extended acknowledgements section at the end of the paper. During the Niigata Chuetsu Oki event of 2007, damage to the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant, structures, infrastructure, and ground were primarily the product of two factors: (1) high intensity motions from this moderate-sized shallow event, and (2) soft, poor performing, or liquefiable soils in the coastal region of southwestern Niigata Prefecture. Structural and geotechnical damage along the slopes of dunes was ubiquitous in the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa region. The 2004 Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake was the most significant to affect Japan since the 1995 Kobe earthquake. Forty people were killed, almost 3,000 were injured, and many hundreds of landslides destroyed entire upland villages. Landslides were of all types; some dammed streams, temporarily creating lakes threatening to overtop their new embankments and cause flash floods and mudslides. The numerous

  9. ILO/KRIVET National Tripartite Workshop: Workplace Learning in a Globalizing World [Proceedings] (Seoul, South Korea, November 29-30, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korea Research Inst. for Vocational Education and Training, Seoul.

    This document contains the following five papers, all in both English and Korean, from a workshop on on-the-job training held in Korea in 2001: "Issues in Knowledge and Skills Development: Globalization and the Effective Use of New Technologies" (S. Ian Cummings); "The Knowledge Economy and Vocational Training Policy in Korea"…

  10. Review of Doctoral Research in Second Language Acquisition in Wales (2003-2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Tess

    2010-01-01

    An objective selection protocol identified 25 Ph.D. theses from Welsh universities in the period 2003-2008 which are relevant to the field of second language acquisition. Most of these fall into three broad subject areas: language in school, acquisition and assessment of spoken language, and lexical issues. The last of these encompasses the…

  11. Time-course monitoring of urban bioaerosol bacterial communities and its use in microbial hazard identification during Asian Dust events in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.

    2015-12-01

    The microbial communities transported by Asian dust events have attracted much attention as bioaerosols because the transported airborne microbes may strongly influence the downwind ecosystems and potentially human health in East Asia. Bioaerosol study has received relatively little attention and their characterization and risk assessments remain poorly developed. We used high throughput 16S rRNA gene targeted pyrosequencing and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) to monitor airborne bacterial communities and assess their potential risk. We monitored microbial communities in bioaerosol in Seoul between 2011 and 2013 using high volume air samplers. Six samples were collected during Asian dust (AD) events and the other 34 samples were urban air collected during non-Asian dust (non-AD) events. According to the qPCR result, the gene copy numbers of 16S rRNA genes were significantly higher during the AD events (P < 0.05) and their abundances were positively correlated with PM10 concentrations and bacterial diversities. The most abundant bacterial members (genus level) in the AD samples were Bacillus, Neisseria and E.coli/Shigella. To identify pathogenic populations, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and virulence tests were applied using culture methods. 16S rRNA gene sequences of several pathogens were detected and their relative abundances appeared to have increased with increased concentrations of PM10. About 1% of Bacillus isolates were identified as known pathogenic B. cereus, confirming their presence in Asian dust samples. The qPCR detection of bceT gene, which codes for an enterotoxin in B. cereus group, was significantly increased in the AD dust samples over the non-AD samples. The following MLST assessment and virulence test of cultivated Bacillus isolates showed that B. cereus, B. licheniformis and B. mycoides were identified as pathogenic bacteria, and these pathogenic bacteria were usually more abundant during AD events. To assess the possible associations of

  12. Factors associated with secondhand smoke incursion into the homes of non-smoking residents in a multi-unit housing complex: a cross-sectional study in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeonghoon; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, KyooSang

    2017-09-25

    In a multi-unit housing (MUH) complex, secondhand smoke (SHS) can pass from one living space to another. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of SHS incursion, and to establish the relationship between SHS incursion and socio-demographic and built environmental factors in MUH in Korea. A population-based sample of 2600 residents (aged ≥19 years) living in MUH from across the city of Seoul, Korea, was obtained through a web-based selection panel. The residents completed a questionnaire detailing socio-demographic factors, smoking status, frequency of SHS incursion, and built environmental factors. The presence of a personal smoke-free home rule was determined by residents declaring that no one smoked inside the home. Of the 2600 participants, non-smoking residents who lived in homes with a personal smoke-free rule were selected for further analysis (n = 1784). In the previous 12 months, 74.7% of residents had experienced SHS incursion ≥1 times. A multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis indicated that residents who spent more time at home, lived with children, supported the implementation of smoke-free regulations in MUH, lived in small homes, lived in homes with natural ventilation provided by opening a front door or the windows and front door, and lived in homes with more frequent natural ventilation were more likely to report SHS incursion into their homes. The majority of the non-smoking residents experienced SHS incursion, even with a personal smoke-free rule in their homes. A smoke-free policy in MUH is needed to protect residents from SHS exposure when they are at home.

  13. Chemical characterization of outdoor and subway fine (PM(2.5-1.0)) and coarse (PM(10-2.5)) particulate matter in Seoul (Korea) by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM).

    PubMed

    Byeon, Sang-Hoon; Willis, Robert; Peters, Thomas M

    2015-02-13

    Outdoor and indoor (subway) samples were collected by passive sampling in urban Seoul (Korea) and analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX). Soil/road dust particles accounted for 42%-60% (by weight) of fine particulate matter larger than 1 µm (PM(2.5-1.0)) in outdoor samples and 18% of PM2.5-1.0 in subway samples. Iron-containing particles accounted for only 3%-6% in outdoor samples but 69% in subway samples. Qualitatively similar results were found for coarse particulate matter (PM(10-2.5)) with soil/road dust particles dominating outdoor samples (66%-83%) and iron-containing particles contributing most to subway PM(10-2.5) (44%). As expected, soil/road dust particles comprised a greater mass fraction of PM(10-2.5) than PM(2.5-1.0). Also as expected, the mass fraction of iron-containing particles was substantially less in PM(10-2.5) than in PM(2.5-1.0). Results of this study are consistent with known emission sources in the area and with previous studies, which showed high concentrations of iron-containing particles in the subway compared to outdoor sites. Thus, passive sampling with CCSEM-EDX offers an inexpensive means to assess PM(2.5-1.0) and PM(10-2.5) simultaneously and by composition at multiple locations.

  14. Federal funding for endoscopic research in the United States: 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    Othman, Mohamed O; Wallace, Michael B

    2011-02-01

    Endoscopic research is underfunded compared with other areas of research. In 2003 we evaluated trends in National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding for endoscopic research from 1972 through 2002. Here, we update those trends for 2003-2008. We calculated the number of federally funded endoscopic research grants and classified them as primary or secondary. Endoscopy funding was compared with other funding for the same period. From 2003 through 2008, the NIH funded 76 primary and 114 secondary endoscopy grants. R01 grants accounted for 25% of these. Colorectal cancer research and imaging and advanced optical technology received most of the grants. More primary endoscopic grants were funded than Helicobacter pylori research grants or cardiac catheterization grants. The number of funded endoscopic grants was not different between the periods 1972-2002 and 2003-2008. Endoscopic research remains underfunded compared with other areas of research.

  15. The exceedance patterns of air quality criteria: a case study of ozone and nitrogen dioxide in Seoul, Korea between 1990 and 2000.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Ye-Jin; Kim, Min-Young

    2005-07-01

    In this study, the environmental behavior of two major airborne pollutants, ozone and nitrogen dioxide, was investigated with respect to their exceedance patterns of air quality criteria. For this purpose, we used data sets collected from a total of 31 air quality monitoring stations dispersed across the Seoul metropolitan city between 1990 and 2000. In the case of NO(2), the frequency of hourly exceedance data sets exhibited little changes in the early 90s. However, it increased dramatically after 1995, probably in compliance with a rapid increase in the total number of automobiles. Likewise, the daily exceedance of O(3) in the early 90s was not significant, approaching 100 cases (except in 1994). However, its total quantity began to surpass 300 cases since around 1996. Comparison of those exceedance data was also made among spatially divided data groups. In the case of NO(2), the occurrence of exceedance data was dominated by the western part of the city in both magnitude and frequency. On the other hand, that for O(3) was characterized by notably strong occurrences in the eastern counterpart. The overall results of our analysis of the NO(2) and O(3) exceedance data sets indicate an inextricable linkage between the two pollutants in association with geographical and meteorological factors.

  16. A multivariate study for characterizing particulate matter (PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1)) in Seoul metropolitan subway stations, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Bark; Jeong, Wootae; Park, Duckshin; Kim, Ki-Tae; Cho, Kyung Hwa

    2015-10-30

    Given that around eight million commuters use the Seoul Metropolitan Subway (SMS) each day, the indoor air quality (IAQ) of its stations has attracted much public attention. We have monitored the concentration of particulate matters (PMx) (i.e., PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) in six major transfer stations per minute for three weeks during the summer, autumn, and winter in 2014 and 2015. The data were analyzed to investigate the relationship between PMx concentration and multivariate environmental factors using statistical methods. The average PM concentration observed was approximately two or three times higher than outdoor PM10 concentration, showing similar temporal patterns at concourses and platforms. This implies that outdoor PM10 is the most significant factor in controlling indoor PM concentration. In addition, the station depth and number of trains passing through stations were found to be additional influences on PMx. Principal component analysis (PCA) and self-organizing map (SOM) were employed, through which we found that the number of trains influences PM concentration in the vicinity of platforms only, and PMx hotspots were determined. This study identifies the external and internal factors affecting PMx characteristics in six SMS stations, which can assist in the development of effective IAQ management plans to improve public health.

  17. Development of a speciated, hourly, and gridded air pollutants emission modeling system--a case study on the precursors of photochemical smog in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, D Y; Kim, J W

    2000-03-01

    A speciated, hourly, and gridded air pollutants emission modeling system (SHEMS) was developed and applied in predicting hourly nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) levels in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA). The primary goal of the SHEMS was to produce a systemized emission inventory for air pollutants including ozone precursors for modeling air quality in urban areas. The SHEMS is principally composed of three parts: (1) a pre-processor to process emission factors, activity levels, and spatial and temporal information using a geographical information system; (2) an emission model for each source type; and (3) a post-processor to produce report and input data for air quality models through database modeling. The source categories in SHEMS are point, area, mobile, natural, and other sources such as fugitive emissions. The emission database produced by SHEMS contains 22 inventoried compounds: sulfur dioxide, NO2, carbon monoxide, and 19 speciated volatile organic compounds. To validate SHEMS, the emission data were tested with the Urban Airshed Model to predict NO2 and O3 concentrations in the SMA during selected episode days in 1994. The results turned out to be reliable in describing temporal variation and spatial distribution of those pollutants.

  18. Physician-prescribed Asthma Treatment Regimen does not differ Between Smoking and Non-smoking Patients With Asthma in Seoul and Gyunggi province of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kian Fan; Allen-Ramey, Felicia; Pollard, Ryan; Perry, Richard; Price, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Smoking has detrimental effects on asthma symptom control and response to treatment and is prevalent among asthma patients in South Korea. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of smoking among asthma patients in South Korea and to compare the medication regimens of asthma patients who do and do not smoke. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2010 to January 2011. Participating physicians (N=25) recorded demographic and clinical data on all asthma patients presenting during the study period (N=2,032), and then recruited a subset of patients (N=500) for the survey such that half were self-reported current smokers. Recruited patients were between the ages of 18 and 60. Results Among presenting asthma patients, 17.3% were current smokers, 19.2% were former smokers, and 63.5% had never smoked. Within the analyzable study population (N=471), 212 patients reported smoking currently, 79 smoking formerly, and 180 never smoking. Among current and former smokers, 79.7% and 81.0%, respectively, were men, while women represented 80.5% of patients who had never smoked. Agreement was strong between physician-determined smoking status and patient-reported smoking status (κ=0.82; P<0.001). However, asthma medication regimens examined according to GINA treatment steps did not differ by smoking status. In addition, mean quality of life scores and level of asthma control did not differ by smoking status. Conclusions In South Korea, physicians are well aware of the smoking status of their patients. However, smoking status did not affect the prescribed medication regimens of this population of asthma patients. PMID:25553260

  19. Food deserts in Korea? A GIS analysis of food consumption patterns at sub-district level in Seoul using the KNHANES 2008-2012 data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dohyeong; Lee, Chang Kil; Seo, Dong Yeon

    2016-10-01

    The concept of "food deserts" has been widely used in Western countries as a framework to identify areas with constrained access to fresh and nutritious foods, providing guidelines for targeted nutrition and public health programs. Unlike the vast amount of literature on food deserts in a Western context, only a few studies have addressed the concept in an East Asian context, and none of them have investigated spatial patterns of unhealthy food consumption from a South Korean perspective. We first evaluated the applicability of food deserts in a Korean setting and identified four Korean-specific unhealthy food consumption indicators, including insufficient food consumption due to financial difficulty, limited consumption of fruits and vegetables, excessive consumption of junk food, and excessive consumption of instant noodles. The KNHANES 2008-2012 data in Seoul were analyzed with stratified sampling weights to understand the trends and basic characteristics of these eating patterns in each category. GIS analyses were then conducted for the data spatially aggregated at the sub-district level in order to create maps identifying areas of concern regarding each of these indicators and their combinations. Despite significant reduction in the rate of food insufficiency due to financial difficulty, the rates of excessive consumption of unhealthy foods (junk food and instant noodles) as well as limited consumption of fruits and vegetables have increased or remained high. These patterns tend to be found among relatively younger and more educated groups, regardless of income status. A GIS-based analysis demonstrated several hotspots as potential "food deserts" tailored to the Korean context based on the observed spatial patterns of undesirable food consumption. These findings could be used as a guide to prioritize areas for targeted intervention programs to facilitate healthy food consumption behaviors and thus improve nutrition and food-related health outcomes.

  20. Analysis of parasitic diseases diagnosed by tissue biopsy specimens at KyungHee Medical Center (1984-2005) in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Hyung; Chu, Jong-Phil; Jiang, Meihua; Lee, Yun-Sik; Kim, Bum-Shik; Kim, Deog-Gon; Park, Yong-Koo

    2010-03-01

    We analyzed parasitic diseases diagnosed by tissue biopsy specimens at KyungHee Medical Center (KMC) from 1984 to 2005. The total number of parasite infection cases was 150 (0.07%) out of the total 211,859 biopsy specimens submitted for histopathological examinations. They consisted of 62 cysticercosis, 23 sparganosis, 16 paragonimiasis, 15 amebiasis, 11 anisakiasis, 11 clonorchiasis, 3 ascariasis, 2 scabies, 2 enterobiasis, 2 trichuriasis, 1 leishmaniasis, 1 taeniasis, and 1 thelaziasis. Out of 62 cysticercosis cases, 55 were detected in subcutaneous tissues or the central nerve system. Eighteen out of 23 sparganosis cases were involved in muscular and subcutaneous tissues. In most anisakiasis cases, the involved organ was the stomach. The lung and the pleura were the most common site of paragonimiasis. The incidence of parasitic diseases during the first 5 years (1984-1988) was the highest of all observed periods. After 1989, similar incidences were shown throughout the period. Whereas cysticercosis was diagnosed in 34 cases during 1984-1988, no case has been diagnosed since 2000. In the case of sparganosis, the chronological incidence was almost uniform throughout the period 1984-2005. Paragonimiasis showed a similar tendency to cysticercosis. In gender and age distribution of parasitic diseases, men showed higher incidence rates than females, and the age groups of the 40s or older indicated higher infection frequencies than other age groups. Therefore, these results are a significant report to appear the tendency of human parasitic disease diagnosed by tissue biopsy in association with parasitosis at KMC in Seoul.

  1. Food deserts in Korea? A GIS analysis of food consumption patterns at sub-district level in Seoul using the KNHANES 2008-2012 data

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dohyeong; Seo, Dong Yeon

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The concept of "food deserts" has been widely used in Western countries as a framework to identify areas with constrained access to fresh and nutritious foods, providing guidelines for targeted nutrition and public health programs. Unlike the vast amount of literature on food deserts in a Western context, only a few studies have addressed the concept in an East Asian context, and none of them have investigated spatial patterns of unhealthy food consumption from a South Korean perspective. SUBJECTS/METHODS We first evaluated the applicability of food deserts in a Korean setting and identified four Korean-specific unhealthy food consumption indicators, including insufficient food consumption due to financial difficulty, limited consumption of fruits and vegetables, excessive consumption of junk food, and excessive consumption of instant noodles. The KNHANES 2008-2012 data in Seoul were analyzed with stratified sampling weights to understand the trends and basic characteristics of these eating patterns in each category. GIS analyses were then conducted for the data spatially aggregated at the sub-district level in order to create maps identifying areas of concern regarding each of these indicators and their combinations. RESULTS Despite significant reduction in the rate of food insufficiency due to financial difficulty, the rates of excessive consumption of unhealthy foods (junk food and instant noodles) as well as limited consumption of fruits and vegetables have increased or remained high. These patterns tend to be found among relatively younger and more educated groups, regardless of income status. CONCLUSIONS A GIS-based analysis demonstrated several hotspots as potential "food deserts" tailored to the Korean context based on the observed spatial patterns of undesirable food consumption. These findings could be used as a guide to prioritize areas for targeted intervention programs to facilitate healthy food consumption behaviors and thus

  2. Chemical Characterization of Outdoor and Subway Fine (PM2.5–1.0) and Coarse (PM10–2.5) Particulate Matter in Seoul (Korea) by Computer-Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM)

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Sang-Hoon; Willis, Robert; Peters, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor and indoor (subway) samples were collected by passive sampling in urban Seoul (Korea) and analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX). Soil/road dust particles accounted for 42%–60% (by weight) of fine particulate matter larger than 1 µm (PM2.5–1.0) in outdoor samples and 18% of PM2.5–1.0 in subway samples. Iron-containing particles accounted for only 3%–6% in outdoor samples but 69% in subway samples. Qualitatively similar results were found for coarse particulate matter (PM10–2.5) with soil/road dust particles dominating outdoor samples (66%–83%) and iron-containing particles contributing most to subway PM10–2.5 (44%). As expected, soil/road dust particles comprised a greater mass fraction of PM10–2.5 than PM2.5–1.0. Also as expected, the mass fraction of iron-containing particles was substantially less in PM10–2.5 than in PM2.5–1.0. Results of this study are consistent with known emission sources in the area and with previous studies, which showed high concentrations of iron-containing particles in the subway compared to outdoor sites. Thus, passive sampling with CCSEM-EDX offers an inexpensive means to assess PM2.5–1.0 and PM10-2.5 simultaneously and by composition at multiple locations. PMID:25689348

  3. Cardiovascular health metrics and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality among middle-aged men in Korea: the Seoul male cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Ko, Young-Jin; Rhee, Chul Woo; Park, Byung-Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Bae, Jong-Myon; Shin, Myung-Hee; Lee, Moo-Song; Li, Zhong Min; Ahn, Yoon-Ok

    2013-11-01

    This study estimated the association of cardiovascular health behaviors with the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in middle-aged men in Korea. In total, 12 538 men aged 40 to 59 years were enrolled in 1993 and followed up through 2011. Cardiovascular health metrics defined the following lifestyle behaviors proposed by the American Heart Association: smoking, physical activity, body mass index, diet habit score, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose. The cardiovascular health metrics score was calculated as a single categorical variable, by assigning 1 point to each ideal healthy behavior. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio of cardiovascular health behavior. Population attributable risks (PARs) were calculated from the significant cardiovascular health metrics. There were 1054 total and 171 CVD deaths over 230 690 person-years of follow-up. The prevalence of meeting all 7 cardiovascular health metrics was 0.67%. Current smoking, elevated blood pressure, and high fasting blood glucose were significantly associated with all-cause and CVD mortality. The adjusted PARs for the 3 significant metrics combined were 35.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.7 to 47.4) and 52.8% (95% CI, 22.0 to 74.0) for all-cause and CVD mortality, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratios of the groups with a 6-7 vs. 0-2 cardiovascular health metrics score were 0.42 (95% CI, 0.31 to 0.59) for all-cause mortality and 0.10 (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.29) for CVD mortality. Among cardiovascular health behaviors, not smoking, normal blood pressure, and recommended fasting blood glucose levels were associated with reduced risks of all-cause and CVD mortality. Meeting a greater number of cardiovascular health metrics was associated with a lower risk of all-cause and CVD mortality.

  4. Violent deaths of Iraqi civilians, 2003-2008: analysis by perpetrator, weapon, time, and location.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei; Dardagan, Hamit; Guerrero Serdán, Gabriela; Bagnall, Peter M; Sloboda, John A; Spagat, Michael

    2011-02-15

    forces had higher Woman and Child DWIs than Anti-Coalition forces, with no evidence of decrease over 2003-2008, for all weapons combined and for small arms gunfire, specifically. Most Iraqi civilian violent deaths during 2003-2008 of the Iraq war were inflicted by Unknown perpetrators, primarily through extrajudicial executions that disproportionately increased in regions with greater numbers of violent deaths. Unknown perpetrators using suicide bombs, vehicle bombs, and mortars had highly lethal and indiscriminate effects on the Iraqi civilians they targeted. Deaths caused by Coalition forces of Iraqi civilians, women, and children peaked during the invasion period, with relatively indiscriminate effects from aerial weapons. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  5. Prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome among the privately insured, United States, 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    Okoroh, Ekwutosi M; Hooper, W Craig; Atrash, Hani K; Yusuf, Hussain R; Boulet, Sheree L

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its phenotypes as defined by the National Institutes of Health, Rotterdam criteria, and Androgen Society. Thomson Reuters MarketScan Commercial databases (Thomson Reuters Healthcare Inc, New York, NY) for 2003-2008 were used to calculate the prevalence of PCOS and to assess differences in demographic characteristics and comorbid conditions among women who were 18-45 years old with and without PCOS. The prevalence of PCOS was 1585.1 per 100,000; women with phenotype A or classic PCOS were most prevalent at 1031.5 per 100,000. Women with PCOS were more likely than those without PCOS to be 25-34 years old, be from the South, be infertile, have metabolic syndrome, have been seen by an endocrinologist, and have taken oral contraceptives. This is the first study to use all available criteria to estimate the prevalence of PCOS. Providers should evaluate women with menstrual dysfunction for the presence of PCOS. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  6. Chemical Characterization of Outdoor and Subway Fine (PM2.5-1.0) and Coarse (PM10-2.5) Particulate Matter in Seoul (Korea) Computer-Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outdoor and indoor (subway) samples were collected by passive sampling in urban Seoul and analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX). Soil/road dust particles accounted for 42-60% (by weight) of fin...

  7. Chemical Characterization of Outdoor and Subway Fine (PM2.5-1.0) and Coarse (PM10-2.5) Particulate Matter in Seoul (Korea) Computer-Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outdoor and indoor (subway) samples were collected by passive sampling in urban Seoul and analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX). Soil/road dust particles accounted for 42-60% (by weight) of fin...

  8. 2015 summertime characteristic variations of NMHCs in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, J.

    2015-12-01

    Nonmethane hydrocarbons(NMHCs) is well known as a precursor of ozone and organic aerosols along with nitrogen oxides compounds. Recently, SOA(secondary Organic Aerosol) dominant fine particles and episodic high O3 are frequently observed throughout major cities of the East Asia, especially SMA(Seoul Metropolitan Area). Even though NMHCs play an important role in their producions, we still have great uncertainties of it's emission, transport and chemistry. During MAPS-Seoul 2015 (Magacity Air Pollution Studies- Seoul)/KORUS-AQ(Korea-US Air Quality Study), we measured NMHCs using automated dual column/FID GC system with thermal desorption unit to address science questions both defined in KORUS-AQ and MAPS-Seoul White papers. One column was designed to separate low boiling point NMHC(C2~C6), the other for high boiling point NMHC(C7~C12). 56 NMHC compounds were measured from 18th May to 12th June, 2015 at an urban site in hill top of Korea Institute of Science and Technology campus.During the observation period, sum of NMHCs ranged from 27.6 ppbv to 54.1 ppbv. Among them, the mean concentrations of ethane was the highest (7.0 ppbv), and propane(6.7 ppbv), toluene(4.9ppbv), n-butane(3.3 ppbv) were followed. These four species represented 54% of total NMHCs concentration. The detailed behaviors of NMHC species were discussed further.

  9. Assessing a Public Health Intervention for Children in Barbados, 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    Bushelle-Edghill, Jennifer H; Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N; Brunner Huber, Larissa R

    2015-08-27

    In 2003, Barbados, a developing country with universal health care, launched the Barbados Strategic Plan for Health, a national intervention to promote public health. Teachers, health educators, and clinicians worked to improve children's health, with particular focus on asthma and diabetes. We studied this intervention by using data on preventable hospitalization, an indicator that assesses both the overall effectiveness of public health and access to primary health care. The purpose of this study was to assess the Barbados Strategic Plan for Health by measuring rates of preventable hospitalization among children. Few researchers have studied these hospitalizations for children, and only 1 study has done so in a developing country. We calculated annual (2003-2008) population-based rates of preventable hospitalizations from birth through age 19, both summary and disease-specific, for the 5 conditions that define the indicator for children: asthma, diabetes, gastroenteritis, urinary tract infection, and perforated appendix. Across the 6 years, the population rates of preventable hospitalizations increased 115.4% for boys and 67.2% for girls (both P < .001). Asthma accounted for much of the increase. Regression analysis indicated that the average annual increase in asthma hospitalization for boys was 0.45 per 1,000, an average annual increase of 20.6% of the baseline rate. These results suggest generally increasing rates of hospitalization for asthma for boys. There was no evidence of a corresponding rate trend for girls. Results suggest an opportunity to improve public health education and access to primary health care. Public health professionals in developing countries can use the approaches of this study to evaluate initiatives to improve child health.

  10. Sodium and potassium intakes among US adults: NHANES 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    Cogswell, Mary E; Zhang, Zefeng; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Gunn, Janelle P; Kuklina, Elena V; Saydah, Sharon H; Yang, Quanhe; Moshfegh, Alanna J

    2012-09-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA), Institute of Medicine (IOM), and US Departments of Health and Human Services and Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans all recommend that Americans limit sodium intake and choose foods that contain potassium to decrease the risk of hypertension and other adverse health outcomes. We estimated the distributions of usual daily sodium and potassium intakes by sociodemographic and health characteristics relative to current recommendations. We used 24-h dietary recalls and other data from 12,581 adults aged ≥20 y who participated in NHANES in 2003-2008. Estimates of sodium and potassium intakes were adjusted for within-individual day-to-day variation by using measurement error models. SEs and 95% CIs were assessed by using jackknife replicate weights. Overall, 99.4% (95% CI: 99.3%, 99.5%) of US adults consumed more sodium daily than recommended by the AHA (<1500 mg), and 90.7% (89.6%, 91.8%) consumed more than the IOM Tolerable Upper Intake Level (2300 mg). In US adults who are recommended by the Dietary Guidelines to further reduce sodium intake to 1500 mg/d (ie, African Americans aged ≥51 y or persons with hypertension, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease), 98.8% (98.4%, 99.2%) overall consumed >1500 mg/d, and 60.4% consumed >3000 mg/d-more than double the recommendation. Overall, <2% of US adults and ~5% of US men consumed ≥4700 mg K/d (ie, met recommendations for potassium). Regardless of recommendations or sociodemographic or health characteristics, the vast majority of US adults consume too much sodium and too little potassium.

  11. Special Education in South Korea: Daegu University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha; Rhee, Kun Yong; Burns, Carol; Lerner, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Daegu University has enjoyed a long and remarkable history of special education. Daegu University is large University located in Daegu, South Korea, a large city in South Korea that is south of Seoul. Since the 1970's, South Korea has achieved unusual and comprehensive growth in its economy, and the field of special education continued to thrive…

  12. Special Education in South Korea: Daegu University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha; Rhee, Kun Yong; Burns, Carol; Lerner, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Daegu University has enjoyed a long and remarkable history of special education. Daegu University is large University located in Daegu, South Korea, a large city in South Korea that is south of Seoul. Since the 1970's, South Korea has achieved unusual and comprehensive growth in its economy, and the field of special education continued to thrive…

  13. Changes in Optimal Childcare Practices in Kenya: Insights from the 2003, 2008-9 and 2014 Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Matanda, Dennis Juma; Urke, Helga Bjørnøy; Mittelmark, Maurice B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s) Using nationally representative surveys conducted in Kenya, this study examined optimal health promoting childcare practices in 2003, 2008–9 and 2014. This was undertaken in the context of continuous child health promotion activities conducted by government and non-government organizations throughout Kenya. It was the aim of such activities to increase the prevalence of health promoting childcare practices; to what extent have there been changes in optimal childcare practices in Kenya during the 11-year period under study? Methods Cross-sectional data were obtained from the Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2003, 2008–9 and 2014. Women 15–49 years old with children 0–59 months were interviewed about a range of childcare practices. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine changes in, and correlates of, optimal childcare practices using the 2003, 2008–9 and 2014 data. Samples of 5949, 6079 and 20964 women interviewed in 2003, 2008–9 and 2014 respectively were used in the analysis. Results Between 2003 and 2014, there were increases in all health facility-based childcare practices with major increases observed in seeking medical treatment for diarrhoea and complete child vaccination. Mixed results were observed in home-based care where increases were noted in the use of insecticide treated bed nets, sanitary stool disposal and use of oral rehydration solutions, while decreases were observed in the prevalence of urging more fluid/food during diarrhoea and consumption of a minimum acceptable diet. Logit models showed that area of residence (region), household wealth, maternal education, parity, mother's age, child’s age and pregnancy history were significant determinants of optimal childcare practices across the three surveys. Conclusions The study observed variation in the uptake of the recommended optimal childcare practices in Kenya. National, regional and local child health promotion activities, coupled with changes

  14. Changes in Optimal Childcare Practices in Kenya: Insights from the 2003, 2008-9 and 2014 Demographic and Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Matanda, Dennis Juma; Urke, Helga Bjørnøy; Mittelmark, Maurice B

    2016-01-01

    Using nationally representative surveys conducted in Kenya, this study examined optimal health promoting childcare practices in 2003, 2008-9 and 2014. This was undertaken in the context of continuous child health promotion activities conducted by government and non-government organizations throughout Kenya. It was the aim of such activities to increase the prevalence of health promoting childcare practices; to what extent have there been changes in optimal childcare practices in Kenya during the 11-year period under study? Cross-sectional data were obtained from the Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2003, 2008-9 and 2014. Women 15-49 years old with children 0-59 months were interviewed about a range of childcare practices. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine changes in, and correlates of, optimal childcare practices using the 2003, 2008-9 and 2014 data. Samples of 5949, 6079 and 20964 women interviewed in 2003, 2008-9 and 2014 respectively were used in the analysis. Between 2003 and 2014, there were increases in all health facility-based childcare practices with major increases observed in seeking medical treatment for diarrhoea and complete child vaccination. Mixed results were observed in home-based care where increases were noted in the use of insecticide treated bed nets, sanitary stool disposal and use of oral rehydration solutions, while decreases were observed in the prevalence of urging more fluid/food during diarrhoea and consumption of a minimum acceptable diet. Logit models showed that area of residence (region), household wealth, maternal education, parity, mother's age, child's age and pregnancy history were significant determinants of optimal childcare practices across the three surveys. The study observed variation in the uptake of the recommended optimal childcare practices in Kenya. National, regional and local child health promotion activities, coupled with changes in society and in living conditions between 2003 and

  15. An Incidence Survey of Battered Children in Two Elementary Schools of Seoul.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kwang-iel; Ko, Bokja

    1990-01-01

    A survey of 1,142 elementary school students in Seoul (Korea) found that 8 percent were seriously battered, 58 percent were mildly battered, and 34 percent were unbattered in a 1-year period. Child battering was more serious in families in lower social strata, with poor living conditions, in broken families, and where parents were unskilled or…

  16. A Case Study of MOOCs Design and Administration at Seoul National University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Cheolil; Kim, Sunyoung; Kim, Mihwa; Han, Songlee; Seo, Seungil

    2014-01-01

    This research, based on the case study of edX at Seoul National University, which is running Korea's first Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), discussed and proposed the roles of principal facilitators, the process, and the relationships among various facilitators in selecting, designing, opening and administrating MOOCs classes. Researches on…

  17. Molecular analysis of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from US service members wounded in Iraq, 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    Huang, X-Z; Chahine, M A; Frye, J G; Cash, D M; Lesho, E P; Craft, D W; Lindler, L E; Nikolich, M P

    2012-12-01

    Global dissemination of imipenem-resistant (IR) clones of Acinetobacter baumannii - A. calcoaceticus complex (ABC) have been frequently reported but the molecular epidemiological features of IR-ABC in military treatment facilities (MTFs) have not been described. We characterized 46 IR-ABC strains from a dataset of 298 ABC isolates collected from US service members hospitalized in different US MTFs domestically and overseas during 2003-2008. All IR strains carried the bla(OXA-51) gene and 40 also carried bla(OXA-23) on plasmids and/or chromosome; one carried bla(OXA-58) and four contained ISAbal located upstream of bla(OXA-51). Strains tended to cluster by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles in time and location. Strains from two major clusters were identified as international clone I by multilocus sequence typing.

  18. East Asia: Korea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-18

    CHOSON Reviews Korean Army 13 ECONOMIC Samsung Group Moves Toward Merger, Expansion 34 Production of Export Goods Diversified 35 Rapid Information...events and the income from the sale of TV broadcasting privileges." However, the IOC and the Korean Olympic Committee (KOC) of Seoul have taken the...explanation into rumors that 6.5 million U.S. dollars was received as a commis- sion for Korea’s purchase of u.s. weapons during the Chon government, as

  19. Scleractinia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from ECOMARG 2003, 2008 and 2009 expeditions to bathyal waters off north and northwest Spain (northeast Atlantic).

    PubMed

    Altuna, Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    Nineteen species of deep-water scleractinian corals were collected at depths between 488-1222 m during ECOMARG 2003, 2008 and 2009 expeditions to the Avilds Canyon system, Le Danois Bank ('el Cachucho'), and Galicia Bank (northeast Atlantic). Eighteen of them were identified to species. All are previously known from the northeast Atlantic, although several are seldom reported (e.g., Aulocyathus atlanticus, Balanophyllia thalassae, Dendrophyllia alternata, Stephanocyathus crassus). Records of Deltocyathus eccentricus and Flabellum chunii constitute northern range extensions. Six species (Caryophyllia sarsiae, Stephanocyathus crassus, Flabelluin chunii, Flabellun macandrewi, Dendrophyllia alternata, Balanophyllia cellulosa) were recorded outside their previously known bathymetric ranges in the Bay of Biscay and nearby areas. Dendrophyllia alternata, Deltocyathus eccentricus and Stephanocyathus crassus are new to the "West coast of Spain and Portugal" region, here considered of high biodiversity. The bank-building species Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata were abundant on Galicia Bank, and the latter was as well in the Avilés Canyon system. Both were exceedingly rare on Le Danois Bank. Among all species identified, Madrepora oculata was the most common (11 stations). The number of species collected was higher on Le Danois Bank (13 species) than on Galicia Bank (12 species) and in the Avilés Canyon system (3 species), although results may be related to sampling effort. From a literature review and new records presented herein, numbers of species known from each of the three areas total 23, 12, and 18 respectively.

  20. Letter from Seoul: Correspondence from the International Arts Education Symposium and the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aprill, Arnold; Schroeder-Yu, Gigi

    2006-01-01

    Arts educator Gigi Schroeder-Yu and Arnold Aprill arrived in Seoul, Korea to participate in the International Arts Education Symposium and in the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference that are part of the wind up for the pitch of the UNESCO World Conference on Arts Education to be held in Lisbon in March 2006. In this article, they reflect on their…

  1. Letter from Seoul: Correspondence from the International Arts Education Symposium and the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aprill, Arnold; Schroeder-Yu, Gigi

    2006-01-01

    Arts educator Gigi Schroeder-Yu and Arnold Aprill arrived in Seoul, Korea to participate in the International Arts Education Symposium and in the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference that are part of the wind up for the pitch of the UNESCO World Conference on Arts Education to be held in Lisbon in March 2006. In this article, they reflect on their…

  2. Hydrologic conditions, stream-water quality, and selected groundwater studies conducted in the Lawrenceville area, Georgia, 2003-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.; Williams, Lester J.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrologic studies conducted during 2003-2008 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Cooperative Water Program with the City of Lawrenceville, Georgia, provide important data for the management of water resources. The Cooperative Water Program includes (1) hydrologic monitoring (precipitation, streamflow, and groundwater levels) to quantify baseline conditions in anticipation of expanded groundwater development, (2) surface-water-quality monitoring to provide an understanding of how stream quality is affected by natural (such as precipitation) and anthropogenic factors (such as impervious area), and (3) geologic studies to better understand groundwater flow and hydrologic processes in a crystalline rock setting. The hydrologic monitoring network includes each of the two watersheds projected for groundwater development?the Redland-Pew Creek and upper Alcovy River watersheds?and the upper Apalachee River watershed, which serves as a background or control watershed because of its similar hydrologic and geologic characteristics to the other two watersheds. In each watershed, precipitation was generally greater during 2003-2005 than during 2006-2008, and correspondingly streamflow and groundwater levels decreased. In the upper Alcovy River and Redland-Pew Creek watersheds, groundwater level declines during 2003-2008 were mostly between 2 and 7 feet, with maximum observed declines of as much as 28.5 feet in the upper Alcovy River watershed, and 49.1 feet in the Redland-Pew Creek watershed. Synoptic base-flow measurements were used to locate and quantify gains or losses to streamflow resulting from groundwater interaction (groundwater seepage). In September 2006, seepage gains were measured at five of nine reaches evaluated in the upper Alcovy River watershed, with losses in the other four. The four losing reaches were near the confluence of the Alcovy River and Cedar Creek where the stream gradient is low and bedrock is at or near the land surface. In the Redland

  3. Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in cervical cancer 2003-2008 in Stockholm, Sweden, before public HPV vaccination.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Näsman, Anders; Carlson, Joseph W; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Dalianis, Tina

    2011-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major cause of cervical cancer, but the prevalence of different HPV types varies depending on geographical location and may change dramatically after introduction of HPV vaccination. Here, we aimed to gain some information regarding the recent prevalence of different HPV types, in cancer of the uterine cervix in the Stockholm region, before the introduction of public HPV vaccination in Sweden. From 215 diagnosed cervical cancer patients 2003-2008 at the Karolinska University Hospital, 160 pretreatment cervical cancer samples, including both squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and adenocarcinomas (ADC) could be obtained. DNA was extracted from 154/160 of the SCC and ADC samples and assayed by Luminex Multiplex for 24 different HPV types, including 15 high-risk (HR), three putative HR and six low-risk types (LR). We successfully analysed 154/215 (71.6%) of the locally diagnosed cases and found a high prevalence of HPV with 92.9% in all uterine cervix cancer cases, and 93.3% and 91.4 % in SCC and ADC, respectively. All HPV positive cases harboured HR types, either alone or as multiple infections. In SCC HPV16 dominated and together with HPV18 accounted for 69.7% of the cases, followed in prevalence by HPV33, 31 and 45. In ADC, HPV18 was more common than HPV16, and they were observed in all except one of the HPV positive samples. The prevalence of HPV16 and 18, followed by HPV33, 31 and 45 is high in SCC and ADC in the Stockholm region. Public HPV vaccination could potentially inhibit a large proportion of such tumours underlining the urgency to initiate HPV vaccination.

  4. Neonatal mortality due to preterm birth at 28-36 weeks' gestation in China, 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    Liang, Juan; Mao, Meng; Dai, Li; Li, Xiaohong; Miao, Lei; Li, Qi; He, Chunhua; Li, Mingrong; Wang, He; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Yanping

    2011-11-01

    Almost all (99%) neonatal deaths occur in developing countries, where the progress in reducing neonatal mortality rates (NMR) has been small; the Millennium Development Goal for child survival cannot be met if this situation continues. China is among the 10 countries that have the largest numbers of neonatal deaths. In order to provide effective interventions to reduce the national NMR for government policy makers, we analyse the trends, causes and characteristics of the neonatal deaths of preterm babies in different regions of China during the period 2003-2008. The data for this retrospective study were retrieved from the population-based Maternal and Child Health Surveillance System of China. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to analyse the trend of NMRs due to immaturity. The national NMR due to immaturity has decreased by 38.7% in 6 years. However, the proportion of preterm births among the causes of neonatal death has increased significantly from 33.6% in 2003 to 40.9% in 2008. The relative risk of neonatal death among preterm babies has shown significant regional disparity. In 2008, the adjusted relative risk was 1.30 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95, 1.78] in the inland regions and 2.37 [95% CI 1.56, 3.60] in the remote regions, both compared with the coastal regions. The proportion of neonatal deaths with a gestational age <32 weeks or a birthweight <1500 g was highest among the coastal regions. Most neonatal deaths of preterm babies in remote areas were born at home and were not treated before death. Our study suggests that preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal death in China and neonatal mortality due to immaturity displayed regional differences. The Chinese government should implement major effective strategies for reducing the mortality of preterm infants to further decrease the total NMR. Priority interventions should be region-specific, depending on the availability of economic and health care resources.

  5. The consumption of canned food and beverages and urinary Bisphenol A concentrations in NHANES 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    Hartle, Jennifer C; Navas-Acien, Ana; Lawrence, Robert S

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous and includes dietary and environmental pathways. BPA is rapidly glucuronidated in the body, and both BPA and its conjugates can be readily measured in urine. To investigate the contribution of canned food and beverages, known sources of BPA contamination, to BPA biomarkers of exposure using dietary and urinary BPA concentration information in a representative sample of the U.S. We evaluated 7669 NHANES 2003-2008 participants 6 years and older with 24-h dietary recall information and urinary BPA concentrations available. Using linear regression models, we evaluated the associations between recent canned food and beverage consumption and urinary BPA concentrations, adjusting for potential confounders. We found 9% of our participants consumed one canned food in the past 24h and 2% consumed two or more canned foods. The consumption of one canned food vs. none was associated with 24% (95% CI 1.11, 1.38) higher urinary BPA concentrations. The consumption of two or more canned foods vs. none was associated with 54% (95% CI 1.27, 1.88) higher urinary BPA concentrations. The consumption of one or more of some specific types of canned foods vs. none were associated with higher urinary BPA concentrations: 41% (95% CI 1.23, 1.63) higher BPA for vegetable and fruit, 70% (95% CI 1.18, 2.44) higher for canned pasta, and 229% (95% CI 1.22, 4.30) higher for canned soup. Canned beverages were not associated with urinary BPA concentrations. Canned food, including some specific types such as canned vegetable and fruit, canned pasta, and canned soup were associated with higher levels of urinary BPA concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Terrorism in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century.

  7. Drought over Seoul and Its Association with Solar Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Hyeok; Chang, Heon-Young

    2013-12-01

    We have investigated drought periodicities occurred in Seoul to find out any indication of relationship between drought in Korea and solar activities. It is motivated, in view of solar-terrestrial connection, to search for an example of extreme weather condition controlled by solar activity. The periodicity of drought in Seoul has been re-examined using the wavelet transform technique as the consensus is not achieved yet. The reason we have chosen Seoul is because daily precipitation was recorded for longer than 200 years, which meets our requirement that analyses of drought frequency demand long-term historical data to ensure reliable estimates. We have examined three types of time series of the Effective Drought Index (EDI). We have directly analyzed EDI time series in the first place. And we have constructed and analyzed time series of histogram in which the number of days whose EDI is less than -1.5 for a given month of the year is given as a function of time, and one in which the number of occasions where EDI values of three consecutive days are all less than -1.5 is given as a function of time. All the time series data sets we analyzed are periodic. Apart from the annual cycle due to seasonal variations, periodicities shorter than the 11 year sunspot cycle, ~ 3, ~ 4, ~ 6 years, have been confirmed. Periodicities to which theses short periodicities (shorter than Hale period) may be corresponding are not yet known. Longer periodicities possibly related to Gleissberg cycles, ~ 55, ~ 120 years, can be also seen. However, periodicity comparable to the 11 year solar cycle seems absent in both EDI and the constructed data sets.

  8. [Health state of Governmental Fire Fighting Service workers in North-East Regional Center of Ministry of Emergencies over 2003-2008].

    PubMed

    Kotenko, P K; Kireev, S G; Golovinova, V Iu; Paramoshko, V V

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed at evaluation of health state in Governmental Fire Fighting Service workers in North-East Regional Center of Ministry of Emergencies over 2003-2008. Using medical statistic analysis, the authors determined levels and statistically significant tendencies in dynamics of general and primary morbidity, labour losses, disability and mortality, defined the most important social and epidemiologic classes of diseases in firemen.

  9. Light Pollution Surveys around the Seoul Capital Area: Results from 2009 and 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jinhee; An, Sung-Ho; Bae, Hyun-Jin; Roh, Eunji; Chiang, Howoo; Kim, Jinhyub; Kim, Seongjoong; Park, Songyoun

    2015-08-01

    We conducted a series of light pollution surveys in the periods of 2009/2010 and 2014/2015 at ~130 sites within the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We quantitatively measured the night sky brightness in the unit of mag/arcsec2 with the ‘SQM (Sky Quality Meter)-L’ by considering the following conditions: 1) fully dark sky after astronomical twilight, 2) good weather with the cloud amount less than 10%, and 3) ensure no contaminations from nearby street lights to the measured value. We find that the night sky is getting darker from the center of Seoul to the outskirts of Gyeonggi-do by a factor of ~40. In both surveys, for example, the brightest site is Namsan Elementary School (Jung-gu, Seoul: 16.3 and 16.5 mag/arcsec2 in 2009/2010 and 2014/2015, respectively), located nearly at the middle of Seoul. Also, the darkest site is Goseong-ri (Gapyeong-gun, Gyeonggi-do: 20.1 and 20.6 mag/arcsec2 in 2009/2010 and 2014/2015, respectively), situated ~50 km northeast of the brightest site. In addition, the night sky brightness in 2014/2015 is on average darker by ~0.4 mag/arcsec2 compared to the brightness in 2009/2010, which indicates the reduced light pollution in the Seoul Capital Area. In this contribution, we will present the maps of the night sky brightness in the capital region of Korea from both surveys, and discuss the possible reasons for the changes in night sky brightness within 5 years.

  10. US Military Presence in a Unified Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-07

    profiles/ap_mp_05.cfm ; Internet; accessed 11 March 2003; and World Almanac Education Group, Inc., The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2003 (New York...New York: World Almanac Books, 2003), 108, 771, 799, 801, 843. 15 Han Woo-Keun, The History of Korea (Seoul, Korea: The Eul-Yoo Publishing Company...January 2003. 37 World Almanac Education Group, Inc., The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2003 (New York, New York: World Almanac Books, 2003), 218. 38

  11. Hygroscopic properties of urban aerosols and their cloud condensation nuclei activities measured in Seoul during the MAPS-Seoul campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Najin; Park, Minsu; Yum, Seong Soo; Park, Jong Sung; Song, In Ho; Shin, Hye Jung; Ahn, Joon Young; Kwak, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Hwajin; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Lee, Gangwoong

    2017-03-01

    Aerosol physical properties, chemical compositions, hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activities were measured in Seoul, the highly populated capital city of Korea, during the Megacity Air Pollution Studies (MAPS-Seoul) campaign, in May-June 2015. The average aerosol concentration for particle diameters >10 nm was 11787 ± 7421 cm-3 with dominant peaks at morning rush hours and in the afternoon due to frequent new particle formation (NPF) events. The average CCN concentration was 4075 ± 1812 cm-3 at 0.6% supersaturation, with little diurnal variation. The average hygroscopicity parameter (κ) value determined using a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) ranged 0.17-0.27 for a range of particle diameters (30-150 nm). The κ values derived using the aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) data with three different methods were 0.32-0.34, significantly higher than those from HTDMA due to the uncertainties in the hygroscopicity values of different chemical compositions, especially organics and black carbon. Factors affecting the aerosol hygroscopicity seemed to be traffic and chemical processes during the NPF events. The CCN concentration predicted based on HTDMA κ data showed very good agreement with the measured one. Because of the overestimation of κ, CCN closure with the predicted CCN concentration based on AMS κ data over-predicted CCN concentration although the linear correlation between measured and predicted CCN concentration was still very good.

  12. United States - Republic of Korea Security Relations: Policy/Strategy for the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    bok , "Seoul-Moscow Normalization Only at Floating Stage," The Korea Times, 24 April 1990, p. 2. 7Edward A. Olsen, Prospects For An Increased Naval Role...2, No. 4, 1989. Kim, Sung- Bok . "Seoul-Moscow Normalization Only at Floating Stage." The Korea Herald, 24 April 1990, p. 2. Kinnard, Douglas. "The...Public and National Security Policy." Naval War College Review, Autumn 1989, pp. 66-82. Kwang, Soo Choi . "Korea’s Foreign Policy in the 1990’s." Korea

  13. Using a choice experiment to measure the environmental costs of air pollution impacts in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Kwak, Seung-Jun; Lee, Joo-Suk

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution, a by-product of economic growth, has been incurring extensive environmental costs in Seoul, Korea. Unfortunately, air pollution impacts are not treated as a commercial item, and thus it is difficult to measure the environmental costs arising from air pollution. There is an imminent need to find a way to measure air pollution impacts so that appropriate actions can be taken to control air pollution. Therefore, this study attempts to apply a choice experiment to quantifying the environmental costs of four air pollution impacts (mortality, morbidity, soiling damage, and poor visibility), using a specific case study of Seoul. We consider the trade-offs between price and attributes of air pollution impacts for selecting a preferred alternative and derive the marginal willingness to pay (WTP) estimate for each attribute. According to the results, the households' monthly WTP for a 10% reduction in the concentrations of major pollutants in Seoul was found to be approximately 5494 Korean won (USD 4.6) and the total annual WTP for the entire population of Seoul was about 203.4 billion Korean won (USD 169.5 million). This study is expected to provide policy-makers with useful information for evaluating and planning environmental policies relating specifically to air pollution.

  14. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) at the urban core site of Seoul during 2015 MAPS / KORUS - AQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. S.; Lee, G.; Lee, M.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    A few measurements of atmospheric PAN were made in Seoul for the last decade. One study showed the average and maximum PAN concentration in summer of 2004 and 2005 with 0.8 ppb and 10.4 ppb and another study specified 0.64 ppb and 5.03 ppb, respectively in 2011. In this study, the measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) have been conducted at an urban site situated in KIST campus (Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 127° 2'E, 37° 36'N) from May 18 to June 12, 2015. PAN was measured every 2 minutes by a fast chromatography with luminol-based chemiluminescence detection. Concentration of PAN ranged from 0.15ppbv to 4.37ppbv, with the average of 0.57 ppbv. PAN revealed its peak between 2 and 4 pm matching with the photochemical activities and precursor emission. When comparing with historic data of PAN in urban Seoul during the past decade, it has decreased about 50%. The rather rapid decrease of summertime PAN level for last ten years in Seoul will be discussed further with the behaviors of its precursor species.

  15. Air pollution trends and countermeasures of Seoul metropolitan area last 20 years

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, K.C.; Ghim, Y.S.; Kim, Y.P.; Kim, J.Y.

    1999-07-01

    The city of Seoul is a mega-city with the area of 605 km{sup 2} (0.6% of the total area of South Korea) but has about 25% (11 million) of the total population, 32% of the total vehicles, and more than 40% of the total national production. As a result, severe environmental problems have arisen in Seoul including frequent visibility impairment episodes and signs of photochemical smog. The visibility, air quality and gaseous characteristics of Seoul metropolitan were measured during the last several years, and investigated the air pollution trends and causes of last twenty years. The major parameters such as particle size distribution, light extinction budget, meteorological parameters and particle characteristics were measured and simulated. For this study, many different measurements of previous researchers' results were used in order to analyze the causes and counter measures. The yearly average concentrations of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and total suspended particles were decreased due to strong Korean government air quality control and clean fuel supplying policies. But the yearly average concentrations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide have not been decreased due to the drastically increased the number of vehicles and other impacts, such as transport of air pollutants from outside of Seoul. The smog phenomena and visibility impairment causes are to be more investigated in near future.

  16. Added effect of heat wave on mortality in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Kyung; Lee, Hye Ah; Lim, Youn Hee; Park, Hyesook

    2016-05-01

    A heat wave could increase mortality owing to high temperature. However, little is known about the added (duration) effect of heat wave from the prolonged period of high temperature on mortality and different effect sizes depending on the definition of heat waves and models. A distributed lag non-linear model with a quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the added effect of heat wave on mortality after adjusting for long-term and intra-seasonal trends and apparent temperature. We evaluated the cumulative relative risk of the added wave effect on mortality on lag days 0-30. The models were constructed using nine definitions of heat wave and two relationships (cubic spline and linear threshold model) between temperature and mortality to leave out the high temperature effect. Further, we performed sensitivity analysis to evaluate the changes in the effect of heat wave on mortality according to the different degrees of freedom for time trend and cubic spline of temperature. We found that heat wave had the added effect from the prolonged period of high temperature on mortality and it was considerable in the aspect of cumulative risk because of the lagged influence. When heat wave was defined with a threshold of 98th percentile temperature and ≥2, 3, and 4 consecutive days, mortality increased by 14.8 % (7.5-22.6, 95 % confidence interval (CI)), 18.1 % (10.8-26.0, 95 % CI), 18.1 % (10.7-25.9, 95 % CI), respectively, in cubic spline model. When it came to the definitions of 90th and 95th percentile, the risk increase in mortality declined to 3.7-5.8 % and 8.6-11.3 %, respectively. This effect was robust to the flexibility of the model for temperature and time trend, while the definitions of a heat wave were critical in estimating its relationship with mortality. This finding could help deepen our understanding and quantifying of the relationship between heat wave and mortality and select an appropriate definition of heat wave and temperature model in the future studies.

  17. Added effect of heat wave on mortality in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Won Kyung; Lee, Hye Ah; Lim, Youn Hee; Park, Hyesook

    2016-05-01

    A heat wave could increase mortality owing to high temperature. However, little is known about the added (duration) effect of heat wave from the prolonged period of high temperature on mortality and different effect sizes depending on the definition of heat waves and models. A distributed lag non-linear model with a quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the added effect of heat wave on mortality after adjusting for long-term and intra-seasonal trends and apparent temperature. We evaluated the cumulative relative risk of the added wave effect on mortality on lag days 0-30. The models were constructed using nine definitions of heat wave and two relationships (cubic spline and linear threshold model) between temperature and mortality to leave out the high temperature effect. Further, we performed sensitivity analysis to evaluate the changes in the effect of heat wave on mortality according to the different degrees of freedom for time trend and cubic spline of temperature. We found that heat wave had the added effect from the prolonged period of high temperature on mortality and it was considerable in the aspect of cumulative risk because of the lagged influence. When heat wave was defined with a threshold of 98th percentile temperature and ≥2, 3, and 4 consecutive days, mortality increased by 14.8 % (7.5-22.6, 95 % confidence interval (CI)), 18.1 % (10.8-26.0, 95 % CI), 18.1 % (10.7-25.9, 95 % CI), respectively, in cubic spline model. When it came to the definitions of 90th and 95th percentile, the risk increase in mortality declined to 3.7-5.8 % and 8.6-11.3 %, respectively. This effect was robust to the flexibility of the model for temperature and time trend, while the definitions of a heat wave were critical in estimating its relationship with mortality. This finding could help deepen our understanding and quantifying of the relationship between heat wave and mortality and select an appropriate definition of heat wave and temperature model in the future studies.

  18. Evaluation of the Department of Neurosurgery of the Seoul National University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Neurosurgery (DNS) of the Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH), belongs to the largest and oldest such institutions in Korea. Because of its growing reputation it is hardly surprising that the DNS draws visitor and scholars for clinical education and academic exchange from far beyond Korea. I myself visited the SNUH in February and March 2013. During this time I composed this evaluation in which I compare the DNS to my home Department at the Johannes Gutenberg-University in Mainz/Germany, as well as the situation of Neurosurgery in Korea and Germany in general. In the first part this evaluation summarizes data concerning equipment, staff and organizational structure, as well as educational and scientific issues of the DNS. In the second part some issues of interest are discussed in special regard to the corresponding practices in Germany. PMID:23908698

  19. Analysis of Biogenic VOCs Emissions During the MAPS-Seoul Aircraft Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Bu, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, M. H.; Eo, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The MAPS-Seoul (Megacity Air Pollution Studies-Seoul) aircraft mission was conducted in May - June 2016 to understand atmospheric environment over the South Korea. BVOCs emissions forecasting, along with other components, were conducted daily in support of the aircraft mission planning. The biogenic emissions as well as anthropogenic ones were very important factor to model and analyze atmospheric environment since more than 80% of global VOCs emission comes from biogenic sources. This also could be true for South Korea, since more than 70% of its land area are vegetated such as forest, cropland. For modeling-based BVOC emission estimation, geographical distribution of PFT (plant functional type) and LAI (Leaf Area Index) are considered as very important driving variables. Most of cases, PFTs and LAI were derived from the low-resolution satellite-based information which are not quite ideal for relatively small area like South Korea. In this study, we developed the more reliable Korean PFT and LAI cover derived from Korean landcover maps and modeled satellite images. The WRF-MEGAN modeling framework over South Korea for the period of May to June 2016 was used to estimate re-analysis BVOCs emission field. Analysis of different PFT and LAI inputs affected local and national biogenic emission estimations will be presented at site. Acknowledgements : This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Climate Change Correspondence Program". This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Environment Research (NIER), funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea.

  20. Evaluation of Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Forecasts during the MAPS-Seoul Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, C.; Kim, S.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, B. U.

    2015-12-01

    We report forecasting model performance analysis results of Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions (CAMx) simulation evaluated with flight measurements during Megacity Air Pollution Studies-Seoul (MAPS-Seoul) field campaign. The primary focus of this study is two-fold: (1) the air quality forecasting model performance for O3, PM10/2.5 and their precursors over the Yellow Sea to measure the model's ability to account for the transport process and (2) the utilization of modeled source-receptor relationship to understand the root of systematic model under-prediction for PM10 and PM2.5 forecasts. MAPS-Seoul, conducted in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) in the summer of 2015, was an integrated research program covering ground monitoring and aloft measurement with aircrafts. To support this field campaign, air quality forecasting was performed with Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) - Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) - CAMx modeling framework. WRF model simulations initialized with National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Forecasting System (NOAA/NCEP-GFS) were prepared for daily meteorological forecasts. Emission inventories used in this study are Model Inter-Comparison Study-Asia (MICS-Asia) 2010 for Asia and Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS) 2010 for South Korea. Simulated PM10 concentrations were evaluated with observed PM10 concentrations at ground monitoring sites of the AirKorea network in SMA. During the campaign period, average simulated PM10 concentrations showed significant underprediction, over 30% (~35 ㎍/㎥) lower than those observed at sites. To examine source-receptor relationship as a way to identify the cause of underprediction, we ran CAMx with Particulate matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT). The air quality forecasting model is based on the with 27-km horizontal grid resolution over Northeast Asia.

  1. The environment modifies the relationship between social networks and secondhand smoke exposure among Korean nonsmokers in Seoul and California.

    PubMed

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Ayers, John W; Unger, Jennifer B; Vollinger, Robert E; Latkin, Carl; Juon, Hee-Soon; Park, Hae-Ryun; Paik, Hee-Young; Hofstetter, C Richard; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2015-03-01

    This study compared risks of secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) among Korean nonsmokers in Seoul, South Korea and California, United States. Social networks were hypothesized to contain more smokers in Seoul than in California, and smokers were hypothesized to produce more secondhand smoke in Seoul than California, as Seoul's policies and norms are less restrictive. Telephone interviews were conducted with Korean adults in Seoul (N = 500) and California (N = 2830). In all, 69% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 64-74) of Koreans and 31% (95% CI = 29-33) of Korean Americans reported any SHSe. A total of 44% (95% CI = 40-47) of Korean family members smoked versus 29% (95% CI = 28-30) of Korean American family members (t = 7.84, P < .01). A 25% to 75% increase in the proportion of family members that smoked corresponded with a 13% (95% CI = 5-21) higher probability of any SHSe among Koreans compared with 6% (95% CI = 2-10) among Korean Americans. Network interventions in combination with policies and/or health campaigns may help reduce SHSe globally.

  2. Missile defense and strategic stability: Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) in South Korea

    DOE PAGES

    Sankaran, Jaganath; Fearey, Bryan L.

    2017-02-06

    South Korea is threatened by its troubled relationship with North Korea. North Korea possesses a large cache of missiles as well as chemical and biological weapons, and the future potential to mount nuclear weapons on its missiles. The United States is also challenged because of its defense commitments to Seoul. As a countermeasure, the United States and South Korea decided to deploy Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) missile defenses in South Korea. However, China has objected. Chinese scholars believe the THAAD radar would be able to track Chinese inter-continental ballistic missiles, thereby weakening their deterrent. A technical analysis doesmore » not support this assertion. But, it is vital for South Korea, given its proximity and economic interdependence, to reassure China. The United States Forces Korea will deploy THAD and that is not a commitment by Seoul to become part of U.S.-led missile defenses in the Asia-Pacific.« less

  3. 78 FR 42041 - Travel and Tourism Trade Mission to Taiwan, Japan, and Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... the travel and tourism industry find business partners and sell services in Taipei, Taiwan; Seoul... International Trade Administration Travel and Tourism Trade Mission to Taiwan, Japan, and Korea AGENCY... notice for the Travel and Tourism Trade Mission to Taiwan, Japan and Korea scheduled for March...

  4. North Korea’s Choice of the Types of Provocation Against South Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    13 Ministry of National Defense, Republic of Korea, 2010 Defense White Paper (Seoul: Ministry of National Defense, Republic of Korea, 2011 ), 314...Korea, 1993), 36–37. 41 In-hak Baek, “The Course of North Korean Socialism,” in North Korea’s Policy and Society, ed. Eun -ho Lee and Young -jae Kim...LIST OF REFERENCES Baek, In-hak. “The Course of North Korean Socialism.” In North Korea’s Policy and Society, edited by Eun -ho Lee and Young -jae

  5. Hemorrhagic Fever With Renal Syndrome in 4 US Soldiers, South Korea, 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    John S. Lee, Michael J. Turell, and Terry A. Klein Author affiliations: Korea University, Seoul, South Korea (J.-W. Song, S.-S. Moon, S.H. Gu, K.-J...HFRS), accounts for ≈70% of all HFRS cases in South Korea and is the most severe of the 4 rodent-borne hantaviruses (Seoul virus, Soochong virus, and...Muju virus) found there (1–3). Recently, a shrew-borne hantavirus , Imjin virus, was isolated from Ussuri white toothed shrews (Crocidura lasiura

  6. Effect of pregnancy on the levels of selected perfluoroalkyl compounds for females aged 17-39 years: data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2013-01-01

    The presence of perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFC) in maternal serum may pose a risk to the developing fetus. A large-scale study to evaluate the extent of exposure to PFC in pregnant and nonpregnant females in the United States has not been conducted. The impact of pregnancy on the concentration levels of perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was assessed by analyzing data (n = 1079) from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 2003-2008 for females aged 17-39 yr. While pregnant females possessed lower serum concentrations of all 4 PFC than nonpregnant females, only the differences for PFOS were significant (9.6 vs. 11.8 ng/ml). Those mothers who breast-fed at least one child displayed significantly lower levels of PFOA (2.6 vs. 3.1 ng/ml) than those with non-breast-fed infants. The concentration levels of PFNA and PFOA decreased with increase in number of live births. While levels of PFHxS and PFOS markedly fell over the period 2003-2008, the levels of PFNA rose over the same time period. There was nonlinear elevation in levels of PFHxS and PFOS with age. Smoking was associated with increased levels of PFNA and PFOA. There was a significant, positive association between total cholesterol and PFOS as well as for serum albumin with PFHxS and PFOS. Elevated levels of PFNA and PFOA were associated with a rise in serum protein. Further studies are needed to adequately explain why smoking was associated with increased levels of PFNA and PFOA.

  7. E-Unification of Koreas: Dreams, Plans and Realities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    Acclaim among Animation Film Fan in Europe,” The People’s Korea website, December 2001 Some of these projects have been joint ventures with ROK...12, 2000; “First animation project planned by South, North Korea,” The Korea Herald, Seoul, ROK, February 3, 2001; “Firm to produce animation with...someone takes away its pizza or remote control” was launched on May 5, 2001, Children’s Day in both Koreas. It is a joint project between the

  8. Carbon Stocks in the Seoul Forest Park: Quantification of Soil and Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, J.; Ryu, Y.

    2012-12-01

    It is generally agreed that mitigation of CO2 emissions is a big issue in our societies. The rapid growth in global population and urbanization have changed urban ecosystem. The urban became the center of the greenhouse gas emissions, especially CO2. It is true that the changes in land cover affect the soil and vegetation in urban ecosystem; specifically the amount of carbon stocks is changed. Such an anthropogenic disturbance, in the face of climate change, has led to interest in quantifying and understanding carbon stocks. However many studies focus on natural forest and pasture ecosystems, furthermore the organic carbon stocks in urban park have been less quantified. In this study, we measure the soil and vegetation carbon stocks in the Seoul Forest Park. The study site is located in Seoul, Republic of Korea; its total area is 116ha. This study has two purposes. First, we measure soil and vegetation carbon stock in the urban park. Second, we compare soil carbon stocks between modified and conserved area in the Seoul Forest Park. This study can lead re-evaluation of urban green space.

  9. OH Reactivity Observations during the MAPS-Seoul Campaign: Contrasts between Urban and Suburban Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, D.; Jeong, D.; Blake, D. R.; Wang, M. D.; Kim, D. S.; Lee, G.; Lee, M.; Jung, J.; Ahn, J.; Cho, G.; Guenther, A. B.; Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    Direct total OH reactivity was observed in the urban and suburban environments of Seoul, South Korea using a comparative reactivity method (CRM) during the MAPS-Seoul field campaign. In addition, CO, NOx, SO2, ozone, VOCs, aerosol, physical, and chemical parameters were also deployed. By comparing the observed total OH reactivity results with calculated OH reactivity from the trace gas observational datasets, we will evaluate our current status in constraining reactive gases in the urban and suburban environments in the East Asian megacity. Observed urban OH reactivity will be presented in the context of the ability to constrain anthropogenic reactive trace gas emissions. It will then be compared to the observed suburban results from Taehwa Research Forest (located ~ 50 km from the Seoul City Center). Our understanding of reactive trace gases in an environment of high BVOC emissions in a mildly aged anthropogenic influences will be evaluated. Using an observational constrained box model with detailed VOC oxidation schemes (e.g. MCM), we will discuss: 1) what is the amount of missing OH reactivity 2) what are the potential sources of the missing OH reactivity, and 3) what are the implications on regional air quality?

  10. Development and assessment of road weather information in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sanghoo; Lee, Jonghak; Kim, Mingyu; Choi, Youngjean

    2016-04-01

    Road-based transport is essential for populations operating in large urban environments. Driving conditions are impacted by the intensity of rainfall. However, rainfall is not directly measured on roads. In this study, we evaluated road weather prediction accuracy using representative rainfall days in Seoul, South Korea, during 2013.Data were collected by 190 weather stations, of which 33 were located within 20 meters of a road and were used as model validation sites, while the remaining 157 were used as model fitting sites. Inverse distance weighting (IDW) and ordinary kriging (OK) based on variograms were considered for interpolation. We used the bias, root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and correlation coefficient (CC) as the prediction performance criteria. The prediction performance of OK was higher than that of IDW. As expected, prediction performance increased when the number of rainfall observations increased. We also simulated road conditions using the accumulated historical rainfall data. Generating road information for the entire urban road network is very expensive; therefore, 177,599 road positions were reproduced from 22,184 road link units. Finally, safe driving speeds were calculated from simulated rainfall, stopping distance, and visibility distance.We hope that the results of this study will provide a basis for the safety information given to road users.

  11. The Relationship between Obesity and Urban Environment in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungah; Shon, Changwoo; Yi, Seonju

    2017-08-09

    Obesity is a global pandemic that brings about a myriad of health consequences. In the past, policies for combating obesity mainly focused on improving individual health and behavior, but nowadays some policies have changed and now concentrate on improving the built environment believing this can improve health through positive changes to health-related behaviors. We examined whether both individual and environmental factors were associated with body mass index in Seoul, the capital city of South Korea. Data from the 2011 and 2013 Community Health Surveys were used (n = 20,147 men and 25,300 women). We staged multilevel logistic regression models to estimate the effect of individual and environmental factors on obesity. Among individual covariates, high-risk drinking, the time spent watching TV and surfing the Internet, high salt intake, stress, and the negative recognition of health were significantly associated with obesity. When controlling individual covariates, the number of sports facilities, number of fried chicken stores, and food insecurity level were statistically associated with probability of obesity. Therefore, this study emphasizes that it is important not only to improve the health behavior of the individual, but also to improve the urban environment in order to reduce the obesity rates of city dwellers.

  12. Korea's developmental program for superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Gye-Won; Won, Dong-Yeon; Kuk, Il-Hyun; Park, Jong-Chul

    1995-01-01

    Superconductivity research in Korea was firstly carried out in the late 70's by a research group in Seoul National University (SNU), who fabricated a small scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system under the financial support from Korea Electric Power Company (KEPCO). But a few researchers were involved in superconductivity research until the oxide high Tc superconductor was discovered by Bednorz and Mueller. After the discovery of YBaCuO superconductor operating above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K)(exp 2), Korean Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) sponsored a special fund for the high Tc superconductivity research to universities and national research institutes by recognizing its importance. Scientists engaged in this project organized 'High Temperature Superconductivity Research Association (HITSRA)' for effective conducting of research. Its major functions are to coordinate research activities on high Tc superconductivity and organize the workshop for active exchange of information. During last seven years the major superconductivity research has been carried out through the coordination of HITSRA. The major parts of the Korea's superconductivity research program were related to high temperature superconductor and only a few groups were carrying out research on conventional superconductor technology, and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) have led this research. In this talk, the current status and future plans of superconductivity research in Korea will be reviewed based on the results presented in interim meeting of HITSRA, April 1-2, 1994. Taejeon, as well as the research activity of KAERI.

  13. The Role of Educational Drama in Korea's Integrated Arts Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyejoo

    2017-01-01

    During the second half of 2014 in Seoul, South Korea, the author participated in the "Integrated Culture & Arts Education Workshop," which was held for local teachers and theatre practitioners. During the workshop, a group of participants designed a programme based on theatre conventions and dealing with social issues for youth.…

  14. Sudden high concentration of TSP affected by atmospheric boundary layer in Seoul metropolitan area during duststorm period.

    PubMed

    Choi, H; Zhang, Y H; Kim, K H

    2008-07-01

    Hourly concentrations of TSP, PM(10), PM(2.5) near the surface at Seoul city were examined from March 20 to March 25, 2001 (duststorm event) in order to investigate the effect of a duststorm generated in China on the local aerosol concentration in Korea, The ratios of fine to coarse particles such as TSP to PM(10), TSP to PM(2.5) and PM(10)-PM(2.5) to PM(2.5) showed that a great amount of dust transported from the origin of the duststorm was remarkable with a maximum ratio of 9.77 between TSP and PM(2.5). Back trajectories every 6 h showed the movement of dust particles in the lower atmosphere near 500 m to 1500 m (atmospheric boundary layer), which implied transport from Baotou in inner Mongolia of northern China to the direction of Seoul city in Korea and then the back trajectories passed near the southern border of Mongolia and Baotou through Zengzhou in the midlevels (3000 m) and low levels (500 m) of China, finally reaching Seoul city. So, the TSP concentration at Seoul city was partially influenced by the duststorm, under the prevailing westerly wind and the transported aerosols could influence high concentrations of pollutants of TSP, PM(10) and PM(2.5) in Seoul. The sudden high concentrations of TSP and PM(10) were found for a few hours, especially at 1500 to 1800 LST, March 22. At 1200 LST, before the passage of a cold front through the Korean peninsula, the convective boundary layer (CBL) near Seoul was not shallow, but at 1500 LST, under the frontal passage, the CBL was remarkably thinner (less than 300 m), due to the compression of the boundary layer by the intrusion of cold air. This resulted in the increase of the TSP concentration, even though the mixed layer above maintained almost the same depth. At 1800 LST shortly after the frontal passage, that is, near sunset, the nocturnal cooling of the ground caused air parcels to cool, thereby enhancing the shallower nocturnal surface inversion layer and producing the maximum concentration of TSP of 1388

  15. U.S.- South Korea Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-28

    well as research and development work on safety, safeguards, advanced nuclear reactors , and fuel cycle technologies. On June 15, 2015, the United...related to nuclear energy as a whole. Others see fuel cycle capabilities as part of a long-term nuclear reactor export strategy, envisioning that South...based in the ROK and South Korea is included under the U.S. “ nuclear umbrella.” Second, Washington and Seoul cooperate in addressing the challenges

  16. An analysis of the characteristics of aerosol light scattering coefficients at Seoul and Baengnyeongdo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B.; Eun, S.; Seo, W.; Park, J.; Ahn, J.; Moon, K.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosols in the atmosphere can scatter and absorb solar radiation and their spatial/temporal distributions are highly inhomogeneous due to short lifetimes (about a few weeks or less). Through scattering and absorption of solar radiation, aerosols directly affect visibility and climate through the modification of the Earth's energy budget (Charlson et al., 1992; Yan, 2007; Wang, 2012). This study investigates long-term trends and characteristics of aerosol light scattering coefficient at Seoul and Baengnyeongdo, 100 km upstream of Seoul, in Korea. Aerosol scattering coefficients were measured continuously with nephelometers. The analysis period is limited to one year of 2011. For the relationship analysis of extinction coefficients (σext) to visibility and aerosol optical depth, σsp observed at 3 p.m. have been used with help of aerosol absorption coefficients (σap) in order to remove its dependence upon relative humidity (RH), and also those of rainy period have been excluded. As expected, σext estimated are inversely proportional to visibility observation by eye. Aerosol extinction coefficients have been vertically integrated with an assumption of nearly well-mixed within an e-folding height to determine aerosol optical depth (τa), and compared with those retrieved from sunphotometer. The results show a reasonable agreement in spite of an inherent difference of each definition. We expect these findings would help to eventually understand aerosol radiative forcing and its effect on the regional climate change around Korea.

  17. Informal Control by Family and Risk Markers for Alcohol Abuse/Dependence in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Emery, Clifton R; Wu, Shali; Yang, Hyerin; Lee, Hotaek; Kim, Junpyo; Chan, Ko Ling

    2016-05-08

    Although previous research documents a reliable relationship between physical intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and alcoholism, relatively little research has examined new theoretical constructs in IPV research that may increase risk for or help buffer women from alcohol abuse/dependence. The purpose of the present study was to examine informal social control of IPV by family members as a protective factor against and coercive control as a risk factor for alcohol abuse/dependence in a small population sample of married women in Seoul, South Korea. We hypothesized that (a) informal social control by family members would be negatively associated with victim alcohol abuse/dependence and (b) husband's coercive control would be positively associated with victim alcohol abuse/dependence. We measured alcohol abuse/dependence (CAGE scale), IPV and coercive control by husbands, and informal social control of IPV (ISC_IPV) by extended family members in a three-stage random cluster sample of 462 married women in Seoul, South Korea. Both random effects regression and zero-inflated Poisson regression models found that ISC_IPV by extended family members was associated with a significantly lower CAGE scores, and coercive control was associated with significantly higher CAGE scores. Interventions to boost ISC_IPV by extended family members may mitigate some of the risk of alcohol abuse/dependence by victims.

  18. Statistical analysis of Seoul air quality to assess the efficacy of emission abatement strategies since 1987.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Scott D; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kwon, Eilhann E; Brown, Richard J C; Griffiths, Alan D; Crawford, Jagoda

    2017-02-15

    The combined influences of recent mitigation measures on urban air quality have been assessed using hourly observations of the criteria air pollutants (NO, NO2, O3, CO, and SO2) made from the Yongsan district of Seoul, Korea, over 26years (1987 to 2013). A number of data selection criteria are proposed in order to minimize variability associated with temporal changes (at diurnal, weekly, and seasonal timescales) in source strengths, their spatial distribution, and the atmospheric volume into which they mix. The temporal constraints required to better characterize relationships between observed air quality and changes in source strengths in Seoul were identified as: (i) a 5-hour diurnal sampling window (1300-1700h), (b) weekday measurements (Monday to Friday only), and (c) summer measurements (when pollutant fetch is mostly Korea-specific, and mean wind speeds are the lowest). Using these selection criteria, we were able to closely relate long-term trends identified in criteria pollutants to a number of published changes to traffic-related source strengths brought about by mitigation measures adopted over the last 10-15years.

  19. Is urban ozone in Korea increasing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, L.; Hong, J.; Song, C. K.; Kim, S. K.; Kim, J. Y.; Moon, K. J.; Cho, A.; Choi, W.

    2016-12-01

    Air quality in Korea is a characteristic of many factors contributing together and pollution control has become an issue of increasing importance. Urban ozone in Korea was investigated using both satellite column data and surface measurement data. 1-hr average ground level NO2, NOy, ozone and VOC data was obtained from urban sites in Seoul during 2005 2015, while stratospheric ozone in OMI was subtracted from total column ozone with the help of MLS in order to yield tropospheric column ozone. During the last 10 years the 1-hr average ground level ozone concentrations in Seoul have been in no trend while 8-hr average ozone concentrations have increased steadily in Seoul. On the other hand, tropospheric column ozone is in slightly increasing trend with a positive slope proven by seasonal Mann-Kendall test. The ozone sensitivity of indicators such as HCHO/NO2, O3/NOy, O3/NOz and etc in both troposphere and surface allowed us to investigate the cause of the urban ozone trend in Korea. Satellite column data was validated using the boundary layer NO2 and HCHO columns derived from surface concentration with some assumptions.

  20. Initial Analysis of VOCs Speciation in CREATE Emissions Inventory using the MAPS-Seoul Aircraft Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, C.; Woo, J. H.; Lee, Y.; Kim, J.; Choi, K. C.; Kim, Y.; Kim, J.; Jang, Y. K.; Kim, S.

    2016-12-01

    As the first international cooperative air quality field study, the MAPS-Seoul (Megacity Air Pollution Studies-Seoul) aircraft mission was conducted in May - June 2016 over the South Korea, to understand of climate and atmospheric environment. The aircraft carried observation instruments for measurements of GHGs, ozone and its precursors, aerosols, and chemical tracers. The CREATE (Comprehensive Regional Emissions inventory for Atmospheric Environment) emissions inventory and SMOKE-Asia emission processing system were used to support chemical forecasting and to serve as a priori for evaluation. Initial results of comparison studies show large discrepancies in VOC species over the South Korea - especially over urban regions. Several VOC species observed high near megacities and petro-chemical plants but under-predicted by chemical transport models (CTMs) - possibly due to relatively low emissions. The chemical speciation profiles and emissions inventory for each emission sources, therefore, have to be re-visited to improve emissions information. In this study, we have; 1) re-examined our emissions inventory and emission speciation processes, 2) and tried to find possible missing sources and alternative chemical speciation profiles, to improve our modelling emissions inventory. Initial review of the mapping and classification profiles, the original US chemical speciation profiles were found to be low in partitioning painting and surface coating sources, although they are the very significant contributors. Unlike other major national cities in China, Shanghai's VOC emissions fraction seems very similar to that of Seoul. Continuous analysis of major urban and industrial areas of the country will be presented at site.Acknowledgements : This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Climate Change Correspondence Program". This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Environment Research (NIER), funded by the Ministry of Environment

  1. Clinical Features of Re-Emerging Hepatitis A: An Analysis of Patients Hospitalized during an Urban Epidemic in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hee Kyoung; Song, Young Goo; Kim, Chang Oh; Shin, So Youn; Chin, Bum Sik; Han, Sang Hoon; Jin, Sung Joon; Chae, Yun Tae; Baek, Ji-Hyeon; Kim, Sun Bean; Kim, Do Young; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, June Myung

    2011-01-01

    From April 2008 to November 2008, many cases of hepatitis A were reported in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province in Korea. Furthermore, the rate of severe or fulminant hepatitis have significantly increased during the latest epidemic (13.4% vs. 5.2%, p=0.044). Therefore, widespread use of vaccine is warranted to reduce the burden of hepatitis A in Korea. PMID:21623615

  2. How do Australian news media depict illicit drug issues? An analysis of print media reporting across and between illicit drugs, 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Caitlin Elizabeth; Lancaster, Kari; Spicer, Bridget

    2011-07-01

    Media reporting on illicit issues has been frequently criticised for being sensationalised, biased and narrow. Yet, there have been few broad and systematic analyses of the nature of reporting. Using a large sample and methods commonly adopted in media communications analysis this paper sought to identify the dominant media portrayals used to denote illicit drugs in Australian newspapers and to compare and contrast portrayals across drug types. A retrospective content analysis of Australian print media was carried out over the period 2003-2008 from a sample comprised of 11 newspapers. Articles that contained one or more mention of five different drugs (or derivatives) were identified: cannabis, amphetamines, ecstasy, cocaine and heroin. A sub-sample of 4397 articles was selected for media content analysis (with 2045 selected for full content analysis) and a large number of text elements coded for each. Key elements included topic, explicit or implicit messages about the consequences of drugs/use and three value dimensions: overall tone, whether drugs were portrayed as a crisis issue and moral evaluations of drugs/use. The dominant media portrayals depicted law enforcement or criminal justice action (55%), but most articles were reported in a neutral manner, in the absence of crisis framings. Portrayals differed between drugs, with some containing more narrow frames and more explicit moral evaluations than others. For example, heroin was disproportionately framed as a drug that will lead to legal problems. In contrast, ecstasy and cocaine were much more likely to emphasise health and social problems. Media reporting on illicit drugs is heavily distorted towards crime and deviance framings, but may be less overtly sensationalised, biased and narrowly framed than previously suggested. This is not to suggest there is no sensationalism or imbalance, but this appears more associated with particular drug types and episodes of heightened public concern. Copyright © 2011

  3. Correlation between eye and ear symptoms and lack of teeth, bruxism and other parafunctions in a population of 1006 patients in 2003-2008

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, Maciej; Wysokińska-Miszczuk, Joanna; Paulo, Michał; Bożyk, Andrzej; Borowicz, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Parafunctions (harmful habits) play a crucial role in the formation of temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction syndrome with disc displacement. Disorder symptoms in temporo-mandibular joints manifest themselves in the eye and ear but are usually not associated with the dysfunction of temporo-mandibular joints and that might lead to errors in diagnosis. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of missing teeth and parafunctions on the occurrence of ear and eye symptoms in patients treated in the Department of Prosthodontics of the Medical University of Lublin. Material and methods The patient group consisted of 753 women and 253 men aged 10 to 82 years who had been treated in the Department of Prosthodontics, Medical University of Lublin in the years 2003-2008 due to various symptoms associated with temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction. Results Eye (24.84%, n = 785) and ear (33.38%, n = 785) syndromes occur on average more often in patients with parafunctions than without them (15.98%, n = 219 and 23.29%, n = 219). However, only parafunctions involving tooth contact should be taken into consideration when diagnosing eye and ear syndromes. The data presented here show that the number of missing teeth does not have a significant influence on the frequency of occurrence of parafunctions. Parafunctions have become a very important factor in the diagnosis of diseases and pathological symptoms of eye and ear as the rate at which they occur is growing. Conclusions The kind of parafunction is very important. Only those involving tooth contact should be taken into consideration when diagnosing eye and ear syndromes. PMID:22457683

  4. Food security and cardiovascular disease risk among adults in the United States: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    Ford, Earl S

    2013-12-05

    Little is known about the relationship between food security status and predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between food security status and cardiovascular disease risk factors and predicted 10-year risk in a national sample of US adults. A cross-sectional analysis using data from 10,455 adults aged 20 years or older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2008 was conducted. Four levels of food security status were defined by using 10 questions. Among all participants, 83.9% had full food security, 6.7% had marginal food security, 5.8% had low food security, and 3.6% had very low food security. After adjustment, mean hemoglobin A1c was 0.15% greater and mean concentration of C-reactive protein was 0.8 mg/L greater among participants with very low food security than among those with full food security. The adjusted mean concentration of cotinine among participants with very low food security was almost double that of participants with full food security (112.8 vs 62.0 ng/mL, P < .001). No significant associations between food security status and systolic blood pressure or concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were observed. Participants aged 30 to 59 years with very low food security were more likely to have a predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk greater than 20% than fully food secure participants (adjusted prevalence ratio, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.31-4.31). Adults aged 30 to 59 years with very low food security showed evidence of increased predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk.

  5. Status of Cardiovascular Health in US Adults: Prevalence Estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2003-2008

    PubMed Central

    Shay, Christina M.; Ning, Hongyan; Allen, Norrina B.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Greenlund, Kurt J.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The American Heart Association's 2020 Strategic Impact Goals define a new concept, “cardiovascular (CV) health”; however, current prevalence estimates of the status of CV health in U.S. adults according to age, sex and race/ethnicity have not been published. Methods and Results We included 14,515 adults (≥20 years) from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Participants were stratified by young (20-39 years), middle (40-64 years), and older ages (65+ years). CV health behaviors (diet, physical activity, body mass index, smoking) and CV health factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, smoking) were defined as poor, intermediate, or ideal. Less than 1% of adults exhibited ideal CV health for all 7 metrics. For CV health behaviors, non-smoking was most prevalent (range:60.2-90.4%) while ideal Healthy Diet Score was least prevalent (range:0.2-2.6%) across groups. Prevalence of ideal BMI (range:36.5-45.3%) and ideal physical activity levels (range:50.2-58.8%) were higher in young adults compared to middle or older ages. Ideal total cholesterol (range:23.7-36.2%), blood pressure (range:11.9-16.3%) and fasting blood glucose (range:31.2-42.9%) were lower in older adults compared with young and middle age adults.Prevalence of poor CV health factors was lowest in young age but higher at middle and older ages. Prevalence estimates by age and sex were consistent across race/ethnic groups. Conclusions These prevalence estimates of CV health represent a starting point from which effectiveness of efforts to promote CV health and prevent CV disease can be monitored and compared in U.S. adult populations. PMID:22095826

  6. Spatial regression analysis of traffic crashes in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Kyoung-Ah; Kim, Joon-Ki; Lee, Young-ihn; Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F

    2016-06-01

    Traffic crashes can be spatially correlated events and the analysis of the distribution of traffic crash frequency requires evaluation of parameters that reflect spatial properties and correlation. Typically this spatial aspect of crash data is not used in everyday practice by planning agencies and this contributes to a gap between research and practice. A database of traffic crashes in Seoul, Korea, in 2010 was developed at the traffic analysis zone (TAZ) level with a number of GIS developed spatial variables. Practical spatial models using available software were estimated. The spatial error model was determined to be better than the spatial lag model and an ordinary least squares baseline regression. A geographically weighted regression model provided useful insights about localization of effects. The results found that an increased length of roads with speed limit below 30 km/h and a higher ratio of residents below age of 15 were correlated with lower traffic crash frequency, while a higher ratio of residents who moved to the TAZ, more vehicle-kilometers traveled, and a greater number of access points with speed limit difference between side roads and mainline above 30 km/h all increased the number of traffic crashes. This suggests, for example, that better control or design for merging lower speed roads with higher speed roads is important. A key result is that the length of bus-only center lanes had the largest effect on increasing traffic crashes. This is important as bus-only center lanes with bus stop islands have been increasingly used to improve transit times. Hence the potential negative safety impacts of such systems need to be studied further and mitigated through improved design of pedestrian access to center bus stop islands.

  7. Daily Mean Temperature Affects Urolithiasis Presentation in Seoul: a Time-series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the overall cumulative exposure-response and the lag response relationships between daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation in Seoul. Using a time-series design and distributing lag nonlinear methods, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of urolithiasis presentation associated with mean daily temperature, including the cumulative RR for a 20 days period, and RR for individual daily lag through 20 days. We analyzed data from 14,518 patients of 4 hospitals emergency department who sought medical evaluation or treatment of urolithiasis from 2005-2013 in Seoul. RR was estimated according to sex and age. Associations between mean daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation were not monotonic. Furthermore, there was variation in the exposure-response curve shapes and the strength of association at different temperatures, although in most cases RRs increased for temperatures above the 13°C reference value. The RRs for urolothiasis at 29°C vs. 13°C were 2.54 in all patients (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-3.87), 2.59 in male (95% CI, 1.56-4.32), 2.42 in female (95% CI, 1.15-5.07), 3.83 in male less than 40 years old (95% CI, 1.78-8.26), and 2.47 in male between 40 and 60 years old (95% CI, 1.15-5.34). Consistent trends of increasing RR of urolithiasis presentation were observed within 5 days of high temperatures across all groups. Urolithiasis presentation increased with high temperature with higher daily mean temperatures, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days, in Seoul, a metropolitan city in Korea. PMID:27134497

  8. Daily Mean Temperature Affects Urolithiasis Presentation in Seoul: a Time-series Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, SeoYeon; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kwon, Jong Kyou; Chi, Byung Hoon; Kim, Jin Wook; Chang, In Ho

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the overall cumulative exposure-response and the lag response relationships between daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation in Seoul. Using a time-series design and distributing lag nonlinear methods, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of urolithiasis presentation associated with mean daily temperature, including the cumulative RR for a 20 days period, and RR for individual daily lag through 20 days. We analyzed data from 14,518 patients of 4 hospitals emergency department who sought medical evaluation or treatment of urolithiasis from 2005-2013 in Seoul. RR was estimated according to sex and age. Associations between mean daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation were not monotonic. Furthermore, there was variation in the exposure-response curve shapes and the strength of association at different temperatures, although in most cases RRs increased for temperatures above the 13°C reference value. The RRs for urolothiasis at 29°C vs. 13°C were 2.54 in all patients (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-3.87), 2.59 in male (95% CI, 1.56-4.32), 2.42 in female (95% CI, 1.15-5.07), 3.83 in male less than 40 years old (95% CI, 1.78-8.26), and 2.47 in male between 40 and 60 years old (95% CI, 1.15-5.34). Consistent trends of increasing RR of urolithiasis presentation were observed within 5 days of high temperatures across all groups. Urolithiasis presentation increased with high temperature with higher daily mean temperatures, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days, in Seoul, a metropolitan city in Korea.

  9. Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) PM 2.5 speciation program: Methodology and PM 2.5 chemical composition for the years 2003-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Dann, Tom F.; Kalyani Martinelango, P.; Celo, Valbona; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Mathieu, David; Ding, Luyi; Austin, Claire C.

    2011-01-01

    The Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) network, monitoring criteria gases (CO, O 3, NO x, and SO 2), PM 2.5, PM 10, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and particle chemical mass and composition, has been in operation for over 40 years. Since 1984 both fine (<2.5 μm - PM 2.5) and coarse (2.5-10 μm - PM 10-2.5) particle mass measurements have been made at NAPS network sites using dichotomous samplers. In January 2003, the NAPS PM 2.5 speciation program was initiated with the purpose of measuring all major components of PM 2.5, including ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, metals, and organic and elemental carbon. The present paper describes the improved sampling (e.g. Teflon/Nylon filter packs for nitrate loss, and an active blank for each and every sample in the determination of positive organic carbon artifacts), and analytical methods used in the Canadian NAPS PM 2.5 speciation program. A detailed dataset was then analyzed for seasonal and geographical variations in the major components of 24-h time integrated PM 2.5 samples collected at eight urban and three rural measurement sites across Canada (2003-2008). Chemical mass reconstruction was used for assessment of the adequacy of selected sampling and chemical parameters as well as for the determination of the relative contributions of different compound classes to PM 2.5 mass. The highest frequency of PM 2.5 episodes exceeding 30 μg m -3 were observed in Ontario and southern Quebec. In general, the most important contributions to PM 2.5 mass were secondary aerosol sulphate and nitrate (38-63% for western sites and 3-44% for eastern sites), depending on the season. Organic matter (OM) was found to be the second most important component (21-45%), while particle-bound water (PBW) accounted for 6-12% of the PM 2.5 mass. Golden B.C. was an exception, exhibiting high levels of OM (60-70%) and low levels of PBW (˜3%).

  10. The Seoul Metropolitan Lifestyle Intervention Program and Metabolic Syndrome Risk: A Retrospective Database Study

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Jina; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Ryu, Hosihn; Park, Mi-Suk; Lee, Hyang Sook; Park, Yoo Mi; Lim, Do-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Since 2011, the Seoul Metabolic Syndrome Management (SMESY) program has been employed as a community-wide, lifestyle modification intervention in Seoul, Korea. We aimed to determine if the SMESY intervention would be significantly associated with improvements in metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. This retrospective database study included data from 25,449 participants aged 30–64 years between 1 January 2013 and 30 June 2013. In the SMESY program, 3 risk-stratified groups by the number of MetS factors were followed for 12 months with different intensity and timeframe of intervention. Among the high-(n = 7116) and moderate-risk groups (n = 14,762), all MetS factors (except triglycerides among the moderate-risk group) as well as MetS z-scores significantly improved over 12 months (all p < 0.05). Among the low-risk group (n = 3571), all factors aggravated significantly over 12 months (all p < 0.05). We observed temporal associations between the implementation of the SMESY program and improvements in MetS risk factors. However, such improvements differed by risk-stratified group, being most robust for the high-risk group, modest for the moderate-risk group, and aggravated for the low-risk group. Thus, more intensive interventions targeting different risk-stratified groups are needed, given a better understanding of the increase in risk factors observed in the low-risk group. PMID:27384576

  11. Meteorological effects on the evolution of high ozone episodes in the greater Seoul area.

    PubMed

    Ghim, Y S; Oh, H S; Chang, Y S

    2001-02-01

    Three high O3 episodes--7 days in 1992 (July 3-July 9), 9 days in 1994 (July 21-July 29), and another 3 days in 1994 (August 22-August 24)--were selected on the basis of morning (7:00 a.m.-10:00 a.m.) average wind direction and speed and daily maximum O3 concentrations in the greater Seoul, Korea, of 1990-1997. To better understand their characteristics and life cycles, surface data from the Seoul Weather Station (SWS) and surface and 850-hPa wind field data covering northeast Asia around the Korean Peninsula were used for the analysis. In the July 1992 episode, westerly winds were most frequent as a result of the influence of a high-pressure system west of the Korean Peninsula behind a trough. In contrast, in the July 1994 episode, easterly winds were most frequent as a result of the effect of a typhoon moving north from the south of Japan. Despite different prevailing wind directions, the peak O3 concentrations for each episode occurred when a sea/land breeze developed in association with weak synoptic forcing. The August 1994 episode, which was selected as being representative of calm conditions, was another typical example in which a well-developed

  12. Concentrations and identification of culturable airborne fungi in underground stations of the Seoul metro.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Jang, Soojin; Park, Wha Me; Park, Jae Bum

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the culturable airborne fungi (CAF) concentrations in the underground subway stations of Seoul, Korea at two time points. This study measured the CAF concentrations in enclosed environments at 16 underground stations of the Seoul Metro in 2006 and 2013 and investigated the effects of various environmental factors, including the presence of platform screen doors, temperature, relative humidity, and number of passengers. CAF concentrations at the stations in 2006 were significantly higher than that at the same stations in 2013 (p < 0.001). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between CAF concentration and relative humidity (r = 0.311, p < 0.05). Geotrichum and Penicillium were the predominant genera. The CAF concentrations in stations with an operating supply air were significantly higher than that in stations with no supply air (p < 0.001). Therefore, it is recommended that special attention be given to stations with clean supplied air to improve the indoor air quality of these subway stations.

  13. Seasonal Variations of Quantified Organic Compounds in PM10 over Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, N.; Lee, J.; Kim, Y. P.

    2014-12-01

    The concentrations of 87 individual organic matters in the PM10 samples, systematically collected on the roof of the School of Public Health building at Seoul National University (mixed commercial and residential area), Seoul, South Korea on a daily basis from April 2010 to April 2011, were quantified by mean of Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The daily average concentrations of five organic groups, alkanes, PAHs, fatty acid, DCAs, and sugars were ranged from 498.40 ng m3 to 10.20 μg m3. The seasonal concentrations of the total quantified organic species were 1.73 μg m3 (Spring), 2.04 μg m3 (Summer), 3.11 μg m3 (Fall), and 3.60 μg m3 (Winter), respectively. All the organic groups showed higher average concentration in winter than in summer. However, some organic compounds among fatty acids, DCAs, and sugars showed reverse pattern. The seasonal concentration patterns and episode variation of individual organic compounds were studied to clarify the emission characteristics of organic matters in PM10.

  14. Evaluation of stage acoustics in Seoul Arts Center Concert Hall by measuring stage support.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Barron, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Stage acoustics is an important characteristic for concert halls, both for the acoustic quality on stage and for the audience. However, relatively little research has been conducted into the question. This study was based on the investigation of an actual concert hall stage, that of the Seoul Arts Center Concert Hall in Korea. The stage acoustics was evaluated in the actual hall, and with two models: a 1:25 scale model and a computer model. The study was based on the stage support parameter ST1 proposed by Gade as a measure of support for individual performers [Acustica 65, 193-203 (1989)]. The variation of support was measured on the empty stage of the actual hall and in the two models. The effect of musicians on stage, the effect of moving the orchestra, the effect of ceiling height and of stage-wall profile were also investigated. Conclusions are drawn both relating to the Seoul Concert Hall stage and stages in general.

  15. Application of short-term water demand prediction model to Seoul.

    PubMed

    Joo, C N; Koo, J Y; Yu, M J

    2002-01-01

    To predict daily water demand for Seoul, Korea, the artificial neural network (ANN) was used. For the cross correlation, the factors affecting water demand such as maximum temperature, humidity, and wind speed as natural factors, holidays as a social factor and daily demand 1 day before were used. From the results of learning using various hidden layers and units in order to establish the structure of optimal ANN, the case of 3 hidden layers and numbers of unit with the same number of input factors showed the best result and, therefore, it was applied to seasonal water demand prediction. The performance of ANN was compared with a multiple regression method. We discuss the representation ability of the model building process and the applicability of the ANN approach for the daily water demand prediction. ANN provided reasonable results for time series prediction.

  16. The history of dental hygiene in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Mann, Nancy K

    2011-01-01

    This historical narrative highlights the origin and development of the dental hygiene profession in South Korea. The legacy of early American missionaries to Korea includes profound and long-lasting contributions in medicine, education and theology. Many of Korea's top universities today have their roots in the missionary schools of the late nineteenth century, including Yonsei University, home of the first dental hygiene program in Korea. From Yonsei in Seoul, the dental hygiene profession spread throughout the country, includingtheAmerican missionary-based program in Kwangju in 1977. Contributions included clinical and didactic education, as well as professional leadership and development. American dental missionaries developed the profession of dental hygiene in Korea, and provided guidance to Korean dentists and hygienists for its growth and expansion.

  17. Mosquito Species Composition and Plasmodium vivax Infection Rates on Baengnyeong-do (Island), Republic of Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    313 © 2011, Korean Society for Parasitology This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non...Protection and Preventive Medicine, 65th Medical Brigade/USAMEDDAC-Korea, Unit 15281, APO AP 96205-5247, Yongsan Army Garrison, USA; 3Department of...Environmental Medical Biology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752, Korea; 45th Medical Detachment, 168th Multifunctional Medical Battalion

  18. About contaminant element composition of roadside dust samples from Budapest and Seoul, including Pt and Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, M.; Chon, H. T.; Marton, L.

    2012-04-01

    Roadside dust was sampled in Seoul megacity /Korea as well as in Budapest and some other places in Hungary, digested with reverse aqua regia in presence of bromine, and analyzed for 29 chemical elements with ICP-OES and ICP-MS methods. In addition to rather traditionally investigated elements, like Pb-Cd-Cr-Ni-As-Sb, newly emerging Pt and Pd from abrasion of automotive catalysts were included in the study. For the analysis of Pd, separation by precipitation with dithizone had to be applied. Principal component analysis was used as a tool to estimate the contribution of various sources. Geogenic element contents were used to estimate geogenic backgrounds und inputs from soils erosion. Seoul is an East Asian densely populated megacity, not far from the seaside, and surrounded by granite rocks. To the contrary, Budapest is a European continental city surrounded mainly by plains formed in the tertiary. Background concentrations were estimated from median concentrations in soils over alluvial deposits from the East of Austria, as well as from Poland. Background concentrations for Seoul were estimated from Shiheung farmland soil, a town close to the megacity. As a result, traffic related contaminations were highly effected by traffic related activities, like stop and go. Pt and Pb levels in roadside dusts from Budapest citiy were in the range of 2-133 μg/kg (av. 62,9 μg/kg), and 88 - 2838 mg/kg (av. 662 mg/kg) respectively. The highest Pt and Pb levels in roadside dust were found at major roads with high traffic volumes. Due to the geo-accumulation index, in all roadside soils sampled in Hungary, Cu-Pb-Zn were enriched, and Cd-Mo and occasionally Ba from Budapest in addition, but As-Co-Cr-Hg-Ni-Tl-V were not. In roadside dusts from Seoul, heavy contaminations of As-Cd-Cu-Mo-Pb-Zn were found, but no significant increase of Co-Cr-Ni-V. The pollution index, which refers to the permissible levels of As-Cd-Cu-Hg-Pb-Sb-Tl-V, indicates heavy pollution for roadside dusts from

  19. Korean arms control: Arms control policies of the two Koreas

    SciTech Connect

    Park, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the arms control proposals suggested by South and North Korea since the end of the Korean War and suggests some arms control measures that would be applied to the Korean Peninsula. Pyongyang has persistently proposed arms reduction measures since 1953, but Seoul has refused to discuss the issue because it suspected the North's true motive. The study points out that the objective reality of the two Koreas does not show any strong possibility of a war on the Peninsula. The most destabilizing factor in the South-North military relations is the possibility of misperception and miscalculation about the military capabilities and intentions of the other side. The study recommends that Seoul government not entirely adhere to the European CSBM model centered on the transparency of military activities. There are many other policy options for Seoul. The area between Seoul and Pyongyang can be made into a [open quotes]limited forces area[close quotes] as experienced by Egypt and Israel on the Sinai Peninsula. The study notes the utility of applying Charles Osgood's GRIT strategy to the Korean situation, a unilateral arms control approach. Among the structural arms control issues, the withdrawal of the US forces and its nuclear weapons are the most important ones which have to be dealt with before seriously negotiating arms reductions between the two Koreas. Considering the increasing capability of the South Korean armed forces and the availability of the US air and naval forces in and around South Korea, the US ground forces and the nuclear weapons would best be withdrawn from the South. Although these withdrawals cannot be used as bargaining chips by the South in the arms control negotiations with the North, these can be effectively utilized as GRIT measures. The South needs to persuade the North to reduce its redundant offensive weapons including chemical weapons and SCUD missiles as priority targets for arms reduction.

  20. [South] Korea.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    The Republic of Korea occupies approximately 38,000 square miles in the southern position of a mountaineous peninsula. It shares a land boundary with North Korea. With a population of more than 40 million people, South Korea has 1 of the highest population densities in the world. The language spoken is a Uralic language, closely akin to Japanese, Hungarian, Finnish, and Mongolian, and the traditional religions are Shamanism and Buddhism. Over the course of time, South Korea has been invaded and fought over by its neighbors. The US and the Soviet Union have never been able to reach a unification agreement for North and South Korea. The 3rd Republic era, begun in 1963, saw a time of rapid industrialization and a great deal of economic growth. The 5th Republic began with a new constitution and new elections brought about the election of a president to a 7-year term of office beginning in 1981. Economic growth has been remarkable over the last 25 years despite the fact that North Korea possesses most of the mineral and hydroelectric resources and the existing heavy industrial base built by the Japanese while South Korea has the limited agricultural resources and had, initially, a large unskilled labor pool. Serious industrial growth began in South Korea in the early 1960s and the GNP grew at an annual rate of 10% during the period 1963-78. Current GNP is now, at $2000, well beyond that of its neighbors to the north. The outlook for longterm growth is good; however, the military threat posed by North Korea and the absence of foreign economic assistance has resulted in Korea spending 1/3 of its budget on defense. South Korea is active in international affairs and in the UN. Economic realities have forced Korea to give economics priority in their foreign policy. There has been an on-again, off-again quality to dialogue between the 2 nations. However, the US is committed to maintaining peace on the Korean peninsula. In order to do so, they have supplied manpower and

  1. Study on Asia's growing cities: Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    1981-01-01

    Focus in this discussion of migration and urbanization in Korea is on the following: historical perspective, implications of urban growth, urbanization trends and population distribution, patterns of migration, socioeconomic differences, and population redistribution policies. Korea is one of the most densely populated countries in Asia. Attempts to deal successfully with this phenomenon have met with varying degrees of success. Population concentration in the capital region continues to be a problem and has resulted in acute housing shortages, rapidly rising land prices, and on encroachment of urban land use into prime agricultural land surrounding the Seoul metropolitan region. Between 1955-1975 the population of Seoul increased from 1.6 million to 6.9 million for the capital city proper and to 9.4 million for its metropolitan region, including 5 satellite cities. This fringe spillover began in the late 1960s. The metropolitan area, comprising 4 cities around the fast growing city of Busan in the south, was formed in the mid-1970s with 3.2 million people. At this time major policy concerns center on the demographic phenomenon of continued concentrations in the Seoul and Busan regions. Problem issues which persist include nonfarm polarization, regional imbalance, diverging intra-sectoral incomes, and the aging rural labor force. Despite its nearness to the demilitarized zone, Seoul was and continues to be the focal point of economic and educational opportunity. The early 1960s brought little variation in migration and urbanization trends. In 1961 family planning and planned economic development were initiated but their impact came several years later. The overall urban growth rate dropped from 5.4 to 4.6% in the 1960-1966 period, and Seoul's pace of expansion slowed down to an annual average of 6.5%. Yet, the capital continued its urbanizing dominance. By 1975 Korea had 3 cities with a population of over 3 million: Seoul, Busan, and Daegu. In 1975 48.4% of the

  2. High resolution mapping of flood hazard for South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sourima; Nzerem, Kechi; Zovi, Francesco; Li, Shuangcai; Mei, Yi; Assteerawatt, Anongnart; Hilberts, Arno; Tillmanns, Stephan; Mitas, Christos

    2015-04-01

    Floods are one of primary natural hazards that affect South Korea. During the past 15 years, catastrophic flood events which mainly have occurred during the rainy and typhoon seasons - especially under condition where soils are already saturated, have triggered substantial property damage with an average annual loss of around US1.2 billion (determined from WAter Management Information System's flood damage database for years 2002-2011) in South Korea. According to Seoul Metropolitan Government, over 16,000 households in the capital city Seoul were inundated during 2010 flood events. More than 10,000 households in Seoul were apparently flooded during one major flood event due to torrential rain in July 2011. Recently in August 2014, a serious flood event due to heavy rainfall hit the Busan region in the south east of South Korea. Addressing the growing needs, RMS has recently released country-wide high resolution combined flood return period maps for post-drainage local "pluvial" inundation and undefended large-scale "fluvial" inundation to aid the government and the insurance industry in the evaluation of comprehensive flood risk. RMS has developed a flood hazard model for South Korea to generate inundation depths and extents for a range of flood return periods. The model is initiated with 30 years of historical meteorological forcing data and calibrated to daily observations at over 100 river gauges across the country. Simulations of hydrologic processes are subsequently performed based on a 2000 year set of stochastic forcing. Floodplain inundation processes are modelled by numerically solving the shallow water equations using finite volume method on GPUs. Taking into account the existing stormwater drainage standards, economic exposure densities, etc., reasonable flood maps are created from inundation model output. Final hazard maps at one arcsec grid resolution can be the basis for both evaluating and managing flood risk, its economic impacts, and insured flood

  3. Meteorological effects on the evolution of high ozone episodes in the greater Seoul area.

    SciTech Connect

    Ghim, Y. S.; Oh, H. S.; Chang, Y.-S.; Environmental Assessment; Korea Inst. of Science and Tech.

    2001-02-01

    Three high O{sub 3} episodes - 7 days in 1992 (July 3-July 9), 9 days in 1994 (July 21-July 29), and another 3 days in 1994 (August 22-August 24) - were selected on the basis of morning (7:00 a.m.-10:00 a.m.) average wind direction and speed and daily maximum O{sub 3} concentrations in the greater Seoul, Korea, of 1990-1997. To better understand their characteristics and life cycles, surface data from the Seoul Weather Station (SWS) and surface and 850-hPa wind field data covering northeast Asia around the Korean Peninsula were used for the analysis. In the July 1992 episode, westerly winds were most frequent as a result of the influence of a high-pressure system west of the Korean Peninsula behind a trough. In contrast, in the July 1994 episode, easterly winds were most frequent as a result of the effect of a typhoon moving north from the south of Japan. Despite different prevailing wind directions, the peak O{sub 3} concentrations for each episode occurred when a sea/land breeze developed in association with weak synoptic forcing. The August 1994 episode, which was selected as being representative of calm conditions, was another typical example in which a well-developed sea/land breeze helped cause the peak O{sub 3} concentration to rise to a record high of 322 parts per billion by volume (ppbv). All three high O3 episodes ended as a result of precipitation, and subsequent rises in O3 concentrations were also suppressed by a series of precipitation events afterwards. In particular, two heavy rainfalls were the main reason why the August 1994 episode, which had the highest and second-highest O{sub 3} concentrations, lasted only a few days.

  4. Smoking trajectories among Koreans in Seoul and California: exemplifying a common error in age parameterization.

    PubMed

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Ayers, John W; Unger, Jennifer B; Irvin, Veronica L; Hofstetter, C Richard; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2012-01-01

    Immigration to a nation with a stronger anti-smoking environment has been hypothesized to make smoking less common. However, little is known about how environments influence risk of smoking across the lifecourse. Research suggested a linear decline in smoking over the lifecourse but these associations, in fact, might not be linear. This study assessed the possible nonlinear associations between age and smoking and examined how these associations differed by environment through comparing Koreans in Seoul, South Korea and Korean Americans in California, United States. Data were drawn from population based telephone surveys of Korean adults in Seoul (N=500) and California (N=2,830) from 2001-2002. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (lowess) was used to approximate the association between age and smoking with multivariable spline logistic regressions, including adjustment for confounds used to draw population inferences. Smoking differed across the lifecourse between Korean and Korean American men. The association between age and smoking peaked around 35 years among Korean and Korean American men. From 18 to 35 the probability of smoking was 57% higher (95%CI, 40 to 71) among Korean men versus 8% (95%CI, 3 to 19) higher among Korean American men. A similar difference in age after 35, from 40 to 57 years of age, was associated with a 2% (95%CI, 0 to 10) and 20% (95%CI, 16 to 25) lower probability of smoking among Korean and Korean American men. A nonlinear pattern was also observed among Korean American women. Social role transitions provide plausible explanations for the decline in smoking after 35. Investigators should be mindful of nonlinearities in age when attempting to understand tobacco use.

  5. A Study of China’s Possible Military Intervention in the Event of a Sudden Change in North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    Korea Military Academy, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 1997 Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 2011 -01 Approved for public release...06- 2011 2. REPORT TYPE Master‘s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) AUG 2010 – JUN 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Study of China‘s Possible...M.A. Accepted this 10th day of June 2011 by: , Director, Graduate Degree Programs Robert F. Baumann, Ph.D. The opinions and

  6. Aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei concentration measurement in Seoul during 2004-2010 and its comparison to those in other places around the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M.; Kim, J.; Yum, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    The prediction of the effects of atmospheric aerosols on climate has been known to be very uncertain. The reason for this low scientific understanding is mainly due to insufficient observational characterization of aerosols despite their local and time varying nature. Particularly, Asian regions have been recognized as an enormous source of anthropogenic aerosols. Therefore aerosol measurement in Asian regions is crucially important. Submicron aerosol number concentration (NCN) and the size distributions(10 nm < particle diameter < 480 nm) were measured in a continuous manner at Yonsei University located near the center of Seoul, South Korea, during 2004-2010. Cloud condensation nuclei number concentration (NCCN) was also measured during 2006-2010 at the same location. Measurements were occasionally interrupted due to repair and during field measurements at several other places around the Korean Peninsula. Otherwise measurement was continuously made in Seoul. The NCN, geometric mean diameter of aerosols (Dg) and NCCN at 0.6% supersaturation are in the range of 18094±7149 cm-3, 49±10 nm, and 5272±3143 cm-3 , respectively, at Yonsei University in Seoul. At Yeongjong Island located to the west of the Korean Peninsula, the NCN, Dg and NCCN at 0.53% supersaturation are in the range of 3011±456 cm-3, 91±6 nm, and 2791±519 cm-3 during 16-21 August 2008. At Daegwallyeong located in the eastern mountain range of the Korea Peninsula, they are in the range of 5069±2314 cm-3, 53±15 nm, and 1401±375 cm-3 during 22-29 August 2008. Additionally several flight measurements and ship measurements around the Korean Peninsula are made. These measurements are made as an effort to know representative values of NCN and NCCN around the Korea Peninsula. Comprehensive analysis will be shown at the conference.

  7. Promoting Instructional Improvement or Resistance? A Comparative Study of Teachers' Perceptions of Teacher Evaluation Policy in Korea and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jihyun; Youngs, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This study draws on institutional theory to examine teachers' and principals' perceptions of new teacher evaluation policies, factors that influence such perceptions and how such perceptions shape the implementation of the policies in Seoul (Korea) and Michigan (USA). The study featured in-depth interviews of 11 elementary school teachers and 4…

  8. Promoting Instructional Improvement or Resistance? A Comparative Study of Teachers' Perceptions of Teacher Evaluation Policy in Korea and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jihyun; Youngs, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This study draws on institutional theory to examine teachers' and principals' perceptions of new teacher evaluation policies, factors that influence such perceptions and how such perceptions shape the implementation of the policies in Seoul (Korea) and Michigan (USA). The study featured in-depth interviews of 11 elementary school teachers and 4…

  9. Assessment of visual resources desirable for tourism and recreational uses along the site of Lake Choon-Chon in Korea

    Treesearch

    Won-Woo Suh

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the inventory and analysis of visual resources in the Choon-Chon lakeside tourism route between the Seoul tourism circle and the Seolag tourism circle. The study was a service requested by the Korean Society of Landscape Architects under supervision of the Tourism Department of the Kang Won Provincial Government Office, Republic of Korea. It...

  10. Evaluation of the virus and viroid infection status of flowering cherry (Prunus yedoensis) collections in Korea and the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The virus and viroid infection status of flowering cherry trees (Prunus yedoensis) in prominent ornamental collections in Korea (Seoul, Jinhae, Jeju) and the U.S. (Washington, D.C.) was investigated. A total of 344 trees were tested by conventional RT-PCR for 13 viruses and 2 viroids. Eight viruses ...

  11. Separating boys and girls and increasing weight? Assessing the impacts of single-sex schools through random assignment in Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jaesung; Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research reports associations of school contexts with adolescents’ weight and weight-related behaviors. One interesting, but under-researched, dimension of school context that potentially matters for adolescents’ weight is the gender composition. If boys and girls are separated into single-sex schools, they might be less concerned about physical appearance, which may result in increased weight. Utilizing a unique setting in Seoul, Korea where students are randomly assigned to single-sex and coeducational schools within school districts, we estimate causal effects of single-sex schools on weight and weight-related behaviors. Our results show that students attending single-sex schools are more likely to be overweight, and that the effects are more pronounced for girls. We also find that girls in single-sex schools are less likely to engage in strenuous activities than their coeducational counterparts. PMID:25863424

  12. Separating boys and girls and increasing weight? Assessing the impacts of single-sex schools through random assignment in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaesung; Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R

    2015-06-01

    A growing body of research reports associations of school contexts with adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. One interesting, but under-researched, dimension of school context that potentially matters for adolescents' weight is the gender composition. If boys and girls are separated into single-sex schools, they might be less concerned about physical appearance, which may result in increased weight. Utilizing a unique setting in Seoul, Korea where students are randomly assigned to single-sex and coeducational schools within school districts, we estimate causal effects of single-sex schools on weight and weight-related behaviors. Our results show that students attending single-sex schools are more likely to be overweight, and that the effects are more pronounced for girls. We also find that girls in single-sex schools are less likely to engage in strenuous activities than their coeducational counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Seoul frog Rana chosenica (Amphibia, Ranidae): comparison of R. chosenica and R. plancyi.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Shi Hyun; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2011-06-01

    Here, we have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Seoul frog Rana chosenica (Amphibia, Ranidae), which is known as a Korean endemic species. It is listed as a vulnerable species by IUCN Red List and also an endangered species in South Korea. The complete mitochondrial genome of R. chosenica consists of 18,357 bp. Its gene arrangement pattern was identical with those of other Rana frogs. We compared the mitochondrial genome of R. chosenica with that of the Peking frog Rana plancyi that has been known closely related to R. chosenica. Nucleotide sequence similarity between the two whole mitochondrial genomes was 95.7%, and the relatively low similarity seems to indicate that the two species are distinctly separated on the species level. The information of mitochondrial genome comparison of the two species was discussed in detail.

  14. Genetic analysis of hepatitis A virus strains that induced epidemics in Korea during 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeokjin; Jeong, Hyesook; Yun, Heasun; Kim, Kisang; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Yang, Jai Myung; Cheon, Doo-Sung

    2012-04-01

    Hepatitis A virus is one of the most prominent causes of fecally transmitted acute hepatitis worldwide. In order to characterize the viral agents causing an outbreak in Korea (comprising North and South Korea) from June 2007 to May 2009, we collected specimens and performed genotyping of the VP1/P2A and VP3/VP1 regions of hepatitis A virus. We then used a multiple-alignment algorithm to compare the nucleotide sequences of the 2 regions with those of reference strains. Hepatitis A virus antibodies were detected in 64 patients from 5 reported outbreaks (North Korea, June 2007 [n = 11]; Jeonnam, April 2008 [n = 15]; Daegu, May 2008 [n = 13]; Seoul, May 2009 [n = 22]; and Incheon, May 2009 [n = 3]). We found 100% homology between strains isolated from the Kaesong Industrial Region and Jeonnam. While those strains were classified as genotype IA strains, strains from Seoul and Incheon were identified as genotype IIIA strains and showed 98.9 to 100% homology. Genotype IIIA was also dominant in Daegu, where strains were 95.7 to 100% homologous. All hepatitis A virus strains isolated from the Kaesong Industrial Region, Jeonnam, Seoul, and Incheon belonged to a single cluster. However, strains from Daegu could be classified into 2 clusters, suggesting that the outbreak had multiple sources. This study indicates that hepatitis A virus strains of 2 different genotypes are currently cocirculating in Korea. Moreover, it documents an increasing prevalence of genotype IIIA strains in the country.

  15. Genetic Analysis of Hepatitis A Virus Strains That Induced Epidemics in Korea during 2007–2009

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeokjin; Jeong, Hyesook; Yun, Heasun; Kim, Kisang; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Yang, Jai Myung

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus is one of the most prominent causes of fecally transmitted acute hepatitis worldwide. In order to characterize the viral agents causing an outbreak in Korea (comprising North and South Korea) from June 2007 to May 2009, we collected specimens and performed genotyping of the VP1/P2A and VP3/VP1 regions of hepatitis A virus. We then used a multiple-alignment algorithm to compare the nucleotide sequences of the 2 regions with those of reference strains. Hepatitis A virus antibodies were detected in 64 patients from 5 reported outbreaks (North Korea, June 2007 [n = 11]; Jeonnam, April 2008 [n = 15]; Daegu, May 2008 [n = 13]; Seoul, May 2009 [n = 22]; and Incheon, May 2009 [n = 3]). We found 100% homology between strains isolated from the Kaesong Industrial Region and Jeonnam. While those strains were classified as genotype IA strains, strains from Seoul and Incheon were identified as genotype IIIA strains and showed 98.9 to 100% homology. Genotype IIIA was also dominant in Daegu, where strains were 95.7 to 100% homologous. All hepatitis A virus strains isolated from the Kaesong Industrial Region, Jeonnam, Seoul, and Incheon belonged to a single cluster. However, strains from Daegu could be classified into 2 clusters, suggesting that the outbreak had multiple sources. This study indicates that hepatitis A virus strains of 2 different genotypes are currently cocirculating in Korea. Moreover, it documents an increasing prevalence of genotype IIIA strains in the country. PMID:22238447

  16. Responses of Two Invasive Plants Under Various Microclimate Conditions in the Seoul Metropolitan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Uhram; Mun, Saeromi; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Lee, Eun Ju

    2012-06-01

    The possible consequences of global warming on plant communities and ecosystems have wide-ranging ramifications. We examined how environmental change affects plant growth as a function of the variations in the microclimate along an urban-suburban climate gradient for two allergy-inducing, invasive plants, Humulus japonicus and Ambrosia artemisiifolia var. elatior. The environmental factors and plant growth responses were measured at two urban sites (Gangbuk and Seongbuk) and two suburban sites (Goyang and Incheon) around Seoul, South Korea. The mean temperatures and CO2 concentrations differed significantly between the urban (14.8 °C and 439 ppm CO2) and suburban (13.0 °C and 427 ppm CO2) sites. The soil moisture and nitrogen contents of the suburban sites were higher than those at the urban sites, especially for the Goyang site. The two invasive plants showed significantly higher biomasses and nitrogen contents at the two urban sites. We conducted experiments in a greenhouse to confirm the responses of the plants to increased temperatures, and we found consistently higher growth rates under conditions of higher temperatures. Because we controlled the other factors, the better performance of the two invasive plants appears to be primarily attributable to their responses to temperature. Our study demonstrates that even small temperature changes in the environment can confer significant competitive advantages to invasive species. As habitats become urbanized and warmer, these invasive plants should be able to displace native species, which will adversely affect people living in these areas.

  17. Simulating urban-scale air pollutants and their predicting capabilities over the Seoul metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Soo; Lee, Suk-Jo; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Yoo, Chul; Lee, Yong-Hee

    2004-06-01

    Urban-scale air pollutants for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter > or = 10 microm, and ozone (O3) were simulated over the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea, during the period of July 2-11, 2002, and their predicting capabilities were discussed. The Air Pollution Model (TAPM) and the highly disaggregated anthropogenic and the biogenic gridded emissions (1 km x 1 km) recently prepared by the Korean Ministry of Environment were applied. Wind fields with observational nudging in the prognostic meteorological model TAPM are optionally adopted to comparatively examine the meteorological impact on the prediction capabilities of urban-scale air pollutants. The result shows that the simulated concentrations of secondary air pollutant largely agree with observed levels with an index of agreement (IOA) of >0.6, whereas IOAs of approximately 0.4 are found for most primary pollutants in the major cities, reflecting the quality of emission data in the urban area. The observationally nudged wind fields with higher IOAs have little effect on the prediction for both primary and secondary air pollutants, implying that the detailed wind field does not consistently improve the urban air pollution model performance if emissions are not well specified. However, the robust highest concentrations are better described toward observations by imposing observational nudging, suggesting the importance of wind fields for the predictions of extreme concentrations such as robust highest concentrations, maximum levels, and >90th percentiles of concentrations for both primary and secondary urban-scale air pollutants.

  18. The formation of high-O3 episodes derived from atmospheric conditions in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, H.; Woochul, C.; Lee, M.; Lee, G.; Lee, S. D.; Blake, D. R.; Jang, J.

    2016-12-01

    To understand the characteristics of high O3 episodes in urban, O3, CO, and NOx, photochemical indicator species including PAN (peroxyacetyl nitrate), and H2O2(hydrogen peroxide) were determined by GC-luminol system, and HPLC-postcolumn enzyme fluorescence system, respectively from May 18 to June 12 2015. VOCs were sampled with a canister twice a day (09:30 and 15:00) and analyzed by GC-FID. The observation site was installed in Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) in Seoul. The west side of KIST site was surrounded by freeways and the forest was located at the east side. High ozone concentrations were encountered from the end of May to the early of June and the maximum concentration was 155 ppbv on Jun 10. Although the level of NOx was much reduced in June, O3 concentration was slightly higher in June. PAN was well correlation with O3 and was raised up to 4.4 ppbv in June. H2O2 was low concentrations and not clear in June with under high O3 concentrations. The calculated OH reactivity of VOCS suggests that isoprene played a major role in the enhancement of O3 and PAN in the late afternoon,. As a results, PAN showed the second peak in accordance with the highest O3 concentration in the late afternoon. These results reflected that photochemical reaction in urban was distinguished with change of chemical regime.

  19. Diurnal variation of on-road air pollution in an urban street canyon in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Woo, Sung; Lee, Seung-Bok; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Sunwoo, Young; Ma, Young-Il; Han, Dokyoung; Song, Sanghoo

    2014-05-01

    Motor vehicles are a major source of CO, NOx and particulate matters. Especially, in the surroundings of high-raised buildings, so-called an urban street canyon, air pollution levels increase due to limited dispersion of vehicle emissions. In this study, a mobile laboratory was used to measure diurnal variation of on-road concentrations of air pollutants such as NOx, particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, black carbon and particle number in the urban street canyon on the Teheran road with eight lanes in Seoul, Korea from 5th to 8th November 2013. Each traveling distance was about 3.3km. Traveling vehicle at the middle of the Teheran road was recorded by video camera, and then the car counting by vehicle types. On road measurements conducted for 3~6 hours per day. Hourly average of air pollutant concentration in morning rush hour more than two times higher than those at the daybreak. We will analyze the correlation between air pollution levels and traffic volume by vehicle types. We will discuss about spatial characteristics of on-road air pollution levels in the urban street canyon.

  20. Responses of two invasive plants under various microclimate conditions in the Seoul metropolitan region.

    PubMed

    Song, Uhram; Mun, Saeromi; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Lee, Eun Ju

    2012-06-01

    The possible consequences of global warming on plant communities and ecosystems have wide-ranging ramifications. We examined how environmental change affects plant growth as a function of the variations in the microclimate along an urban-suburban climate gradient for two allergy-inducing, invasive plants, Humulus japonicus and Ambrosia artemisiifolia var. elatior. The environmental factors and plant growth responses were measured at two urban sites (Gangbuk and Seongbuk) and two suburban sites (Goyang and Incheon) around Seoul, South Korea. The mean temperatures and CO(2) concentrations differed significantly between the urban (14.8 °C and 439 ppm CO(2)) and suburban (13.0 °C and 427 ppm CO(2)) sites. The soil moisture and nitrogen contents of the suburban sites were higher than those at the urban sites, especially for the Goyang site. The two invasive plants showed significantly higher biomasses and nitrogen contents at the two urban sites. We conducted experiments in a greenhouse to confirm the responses of the plants to increased temperatures, and we found consistently higher growth rates under conditions of higher temperatures. Because we controlled the other factors, the better performance of the two invasive plants appears to be primarily attributable to their responses to temperature. Our study demonstrates that even small temperature changes in the environment can confer significant competitive advantages to invasive species. As habitats become urbanized and warmer, these invasive plants should be able to displace native species, which will adversely affect people living in these areas.

  1. Assessing the effect of long-range pollutant transportation on air quality in Seoul using the conditional potential source contribution function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Ukkyo; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Hanlim; Lee, Yun Gon

    2017-02-01

    It is important to estimate the effects of the long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants for efficient and effective strategies to control air quality. In this study, the contributions of trans-boundary transport to the mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 in Seoul, Korea from 2001 to 2014 were estimated based on the conditional potential source contribution function (CPSCF) method. Eastern China was found to be the major source of trans-boundary pollution in Seoul, but moderate sources were also located in northeastern China. The contribution of long-range transport from Japan was negligible. The spatial distributions of the potential source contribution function (PSCF) values of each pollutant showed reasonable consistency with their emission inventory and satellite products. The PSCF values of SO2 and PM10 from eastern China were higher than those of NO2 and CO. The mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 in Seoul for the period from 2001 to 2014 were 5.34, 37.0, and 619.1 ppb, and 57.4 4 μg/m3, respectively. The contributions of long-range transport to the mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 in Seoul were 0.74, 3.4, and 39.0 ppb, and 12.1 μg/m3, respectively, which are 14%, 9%, 6%, and 21% of the mean concentrations, respectively. The annual mean concentrations of SO2 and NO2 followed statistically significant increasing linear trends (0.5 and 1.6 ppb per decade, respectively), whereas the trends in the annual mean concentrations of CO and PM10 were statistically insignificant. The trends in the ratio of the increased concentrations associated with long-range transport to the annual mean concentrations of the pollutants were statistically insignificant. However, the results indicate that the trans-boundary transport of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 from eastern China consistently affected air quality in Seoul over the study period (2001-2014). Regionally, the effects of the long-range transport of pollutants from Beijing and Harbin

  2. Schizophrenic delusions in Seoul, Shanghai and Taipei: a transcultural study.

    PubMed

    Kim, K; Hwu, H; Zhang, L D; Lu, M K; Park, K K; Hwang, T J; Kim, D; Park, Y C

    2001-02-01

    In this transcultural study of schizophrenic delusions among patients in Seoul, Shanghai and Taipei, we discovered that both the frequency and content of delusions differed among the three groups; and that these differences could perhaps be explained by varying sociocultural and political situations. Delusional themes that are sensitive to sociocultural or political situations include guilt, love/sex, religion, somatic damage, economy/business and politics. Delusions regarding longevity, love/sex, dysmorphophobia/dysosmophobia, religion or supernatural matters, and espionage/spy stories were most frequent in Seoul patients. Those in Taipei predominantly had delusions about possession, religion or supernatural matters, hypnotism, and mass media/computers. Shanghai patients often had delusions of poisons, being prickled by poisoned needles, their brain and viscera extracted and being a family member of political authorities.

  3. Schizophrenic delusions in Seoul, Shanghai and Taipei: a transcultural study.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, K.; Hwu, H.; Zhang, L. D.; Lu, M. K.; Park, K. K.; Hwang, T. J.; Kim, D.; Park, Y. C.

    2001-01-01

    In this transcultural study of schizophrenic delusions among patients in Seoul, Shanghai and Taipei, we discovered that both the frequency and content of delusions differed among the three groups; and that these differences could perhaps be explained by varying sociocultural and political situations. Delusional themes that are sensitive to sociocultural or political situations include guilt, love/sex, religion, somatic damage, economy/business and politics. Delusions regarding longevity, love/sex, dysmorphophobia/dysosmophobia, religion or supernatural matters, and espionage/spy stories were most frequent in Seoul patients. Those in Taipei predominantly had delusions about possession, religion or supernatural matters, hypnotism, and mass media/computers. Shanghai patients often had delusions of poisons, being prickled by poisoned needles, their brain and viscera extracted and being a family member of political authorities. PMID:11289407

  4. The Spatial and Temporal Pattern of Heavy Precipitation in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. S.; Yu, J.; Im, J.; Jin, R.

    2014-12-01

    1.Introduction Combined with summer heavy rainfall and urbanization today's urban area face higher frequency of heavy rainfall with higher intensity in summer than before. Heavy rainfall in short time makes it low elevation area to be susceptible to more flooding than before. According to KMA it is announced as heavy rainfall warning whose precipitation amount is equal to or greater than 150mm per 12 hours. And sometimes, these rainfall events bring out severe disasters such as the case of flooding in Gangnam Station, Daechi Station and landslides which resulted in 20 person death in downtown Seoul on July 27th, 2011. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the spatial and temporal pattern of heavy precipitation in Seoul. Ultimately it aims to contribute these results to the proper urban planning and management. 2. Materials and Methods In this study, the digital topograhic data and weather data in Seoul Metropolitan Area were used to figure out the spatial distribution of summer heavy rainfall. The precipitation data in summer (June to Sep.) season were used to detect the recent changes of temporal and spatial features from 1995 to 2014 (20 years) using Automatic Weather tation (AWS) data in Seoul Metropolitan Area. The precipitation amount in summer during the past 20 years has been on the rise but rainy days have barely changed,which reveals the daily precipitation intensity has increased. After deriving the characteristic of heavy rainfall, the relationship among precipitation, topography and land uses were interpreted and discussed. This study is to investigate the characteristics of flood prone area by focusing topographic and land use characteristics. Ultimately it contributes to prepare the guideline for flood preventive urban plannig.

  5. Temporal and Spatial Variations in PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 in the Seoul Metropolitan Area between 2002 and 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghim, Y.; Jung, K.; Kang, M.

    2010-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM; PM10 and PM2.5) concentrations at ambient air monitoring stations located in Seoul between 2002 and 2008 were analyzed. In Korea, PM10 is regulated as a criteria pollutant and thus is monitored as a part of the urban ambient air pollution monitoring network. PM2.5 is currently not a criteria pollutant but will be soon designated as a criteria pollutant. The hourly-average PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected using the beta-ray absorption method. In this study, data from 14 stations with consistent measurements during the study period were used. As in other major cities, primary factors determining the PM concentrations in Seoul are vehicle emissions (including emissions from other combustion sources) and secondary formation. However, in Seoul, fugitive dust comprising crustal elements accounts for a large proportion of total PM, especially coarse particles (PM10-2.5). During the past several years, the Korean Government as well as the City Government has strived to lessen the PM pollution in Seoul and its satellite cities. Temporal and spatial variations in fine particles (PM2.5) and coarse particles (PM10-2.5) were analyzed to discern behaviors according to the particle size of fugitive dust. Variations in annual averages were examined to assess the effects of policy on PM levels. The influence of fugitive dust was found to be high in the springtime due to low relative humidity and high wind speed, even excluding the Asian dust events. In contrast, PM levels are affected primarily by combustion-related emissions in winter and active secondary formation in later spring and fall. Typical seasonal characteristics and diurnal variations were also explored based on data for high PM2.5 days only. Spatial variability of PM and PM10-2.5 were examined on both all and high PM2.5 days and compared with those of other pollutants.

  6. Prevalence and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in raw meat in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Suk-Kyung; Nam, Hyang-Mi; Park, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Hee-Soo; Choi, Min-Jung; Jung, Suk-Chan; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Young-Cho; Song, Si-Wook; Wee, Sung-Hwan

    2010-04-01

    A total of 2,858 meat samples collected during 2003-2008 in Korea were investigated, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were isolated from 1.0% (9/890) of beef, 0.3% (4/1,055) of pork, and 0.3% (3/913) of chicken meat samples, respectively. MRSA isolates showed the two sequence types (STs), ST72 from beef and pork and ST692 from chicken meat. MRSA isolates from beef and pork were Panton-Valentine leukocidin -negative, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IVa strain with ST 72, which is the most prevalent type of community acquired-MRSA in Korea. An identical pulse-field gel electrophoresis pattern was detected among 10 of 16 MRSA isolates: 9 strains from beef (n=5) and pork (n=4) in 2008, respectively, and one strain from beef in 2005.

  7. Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON) - Korea 2012 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W. V.; Choi, M.; Kim, D. S.; Kim, B.; Kim, S.; Ghim, Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, J. H.; Park, R.; Seo, M.; Song, C.; Yum, S.; Woo, J.; Yoon, S.; Lee, K.; Lee, M.; Lim, J.; Chang, I.; Jeong, M. J.; Bae, M.; Sorokin, M.; Giles, D. M.; Schafer, J.; Herman, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the main objectives of Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON) campaign in Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) mission is to understand the relationship between the column optical properties of the atmosphere and the surface level air quality in terms of aerosols and gases. Recently, with the cooperative efforts with NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) / GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center), Korean University research groups, and KME (Korea Ministry of Environment) / NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research), DRAGON-Korea 2012 campaign was successfully performed from March to May 2012. The campaign sites were divided into two groups, the National scale sites and Seoul metropolitan sites. Thirteen Cimel sunphotometers were distributed at National scale sites including two metropolitan cities and several remote sites. Nine Cimel sunphotometers were distributed at Seoul Metropolitan sites including several residential sites and traffic source areas. The measured datasets are being analyzed in diverse fields of air quality communities including in-situ measurement groups, satellite remote sensing groups, chemical modeling groups, and airplane measurement groups. We will introduce several preliminary results of the analysis and discuss the future planes and corporations in Korea.

  8. Teaching Religious Studies to Undergraduate Non-Majors at Seoul National University, South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Yohan

    2015-01-01

    This essay is part of a collection of short essays solicited from authors around the globe who teach religion courses at the college level (not for professional religious training). They are published together with an introduction in "Teaching Theology and Religion" 18:3 (July 2015). The authors were asked to provide a brief overview of…

  9. Impact of traffic flows and wind directions on air pollution concentrations in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngkook; Guldmann, Jean-Michel

    2011-05-01

    Vehicle emissions are responsible for a substantial share of urban air pollution concentrations. Various integrated air quality modeling systems have been developed to analyze the consequences of air pollution caused by traffic flows. However, the quantitative relationship between vehicle-kilometers-traveled (VKT) and pollution concentrations while considering wind direction effects has rarely been explored in the context of land-use regression models (LUR). In this research, VKTs occurring within circular buffers around air pollution monitoring stations are simulated, using a traffic assignment model, and weighted by eight wind directions frequencies. The relationships between monitored pollution concentrations and weighted VKTs are estimated using regression analysis. In general, the wind direction weighted VKT variable increases the explanatory power of the models, particularly for nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide. The case of ozone is more complex, due to the effects of solar radiation, which appears to overwhelm the effects of wind direction in the afternoon hours. The statistical significance of the weighted VKT variable is high, which makes the models appropriate for impact analysis of traffic flow growth.

  10. Same Day Surgery at the 121st General Hospital Seoul, South Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Therapy Clinic Optometry Clinic Pharmacy Services Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic Physical Therapy Clinic Orthopedic Clinic Pre-Admission Unit...most conducive to BAMC’s current operating environment; and seventh, recommend a location for the physical layout of the same-day surgery areas at... physical and financial constraints of the 12 1st GH over a several year period, hospital-based integrated SDS has developed minus the correct coding of

  11. A mechanism of institutional isomorphism in referral networks among hospitals in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo; Choi, Mankyu

    2010-01-01

    Hospitals engage in medical referral system relations voluntarily, by virtue of their own service capacities. These capacities include medical technology, equipment supply, and patient management, which are assessed individually by medical institutions in efforts to control costs and maintain efficiency in tertiary hospitals. This study assessed referral networks according to the institutional isomorphism theory of new economic sociology. As a result, the referral networks were shown to exhibit emergent structural hierarchy via cumulative clustering by established year and were not affected by attributive variables such as region, bed number, and year of establishment. In particular, the networks evidenced institutional isomorphism with certain central hospitals. As a consequence, personal indices were shown to decrease in accordance with its period, and only the structural index increased. Normative pressures cause organizations to become hierarchically homogenized, in accordance with the principle of organizational learning in specialized fields. Therefore, normative isomorphism on the basis of public domains should be considered an inherent factor in the development of referral networks.

  12. Characterization of particulate matter concentrations and bioaerosol on each floor at a building in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyeon-Ju; Jeong, Na-Na; Chi, Woo-Bae; Seo, Ji-Hoon; Jun, Si-Moon; Sohn, Jong-Ryeul

    2015-10-01

    Particulate matter (PM) in buildings are mostly sourced from the transport of outdoor particles through a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system and generation of particle within the building itself. We investigated the concentrations and characteristic of indoor and outdoor particles and airborne bacteria concentrations across four floors of a building located in a high-traffic area. In all the floors we studied (first, second, fifth, and eighth), the average concentrations of particles less than 10 μm (PM10) in winter for were higher than those in summer. On average, a seasonal variation in the PM10 level was found for the first, fifth, and eighth floors, such that higher values occurred in the winter season, compared to the summer season. In addition, in winter, the indoor concentrations of PM10 on the first, fifth, and eighth floors were higher than those of the outdoor PM10. The maximum level of airborne bacteria concentration was found in a fifth floor office, which held a private academy school consisting of many students. Results indicated that the airborne bacteria remained at their highest concentration throughout the weekday period and varied by students' activity. The correlation coefficient (R (2)) and slope of linear approximation for the concentrations of particulate matter were used to evaluate the relationship between the indoor and outdoor particulate matter. These results can be used to predict both the indoor particle levels and the risk of personal exposure to airborne bacteria.

  13. Teaching Religious Studies to Undergraduate Non-Majors at Seoul National University, South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Yohan

    2015-01-01

    This essay is part of a collection of short essays solicited from authors around the globe who teach religion courses at the college level (not for professional religious training). They are published together with an introduction in "Teaching Theology and Religion" 18:3 (July 2015). The authors were asked to provide a brief overview of…

  14. Japan’s Post-Cold War North Korea Policy: Hedging toward Autonomy?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    Socialist Party (JSP) led by Deputy Prime Minister Kanemaru Shin visited Pyongyang from September 24 through 28, 1990, it was part of a calculated effort...Early Rounds, 1991–1992 When Shin Kanemaru led his delegation into Pyongyang in September 1990 the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) expected...and Korean Unification (Seoul, Korea: Yonsei University Press, 1999). 2. Jung Hyun Shin , Japanese-North Korean Relations: Linkage Politics in the

  15. Observation of Periodic and Transient Cosmic Ray Flux Variations by the Daejeon Neutron Monitor and the Seoul muon Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Suyeon; Kang, Jeongsoo

    2013-09-01

    Recently, two instruments of cosmic ray are operating in South Korea. One is Seoul muon detector after October 1999 and the other is Daejeon neutron monitor (Kang et al. 2012) after October 2011. The former consists of four small plastic scintillators and the latter is the standard 18 NM 64 type. In this report, we introduce the characteristics of both instruments. We also analyze the flux variations of cosmic ray such as diurnal variation and Forbush decrease. As the result, the muon flux shows the typical seasonal and diurnal variations. The neutron flux also shows the diurnal variation. The phase which shows the maximum flux in the diurnal variation is around 13-14 local time. We found a Forbush decrease on 7 March 2012 by both instruments. It is also identified by Nagoya multi-direction muon telescope and Oulu neutron monitor. The observation of cosmic ray at Jangbogo station as well as in Korean peninsula can support the important information on space weather in local area. It can also enhance the status of Korea in the international community of cosmic ray experiments.

  16. Diversity and spatial distribution of surname structure in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Okyu; Son, Woo-Sik

    2015-11-01

    We studied the population structure of South Korea by using the distributions of surnames for all 246 administrative regions. Every 4,177 surnames are distinguished by their bon-gwan which indicates the place of their family clans. Using Fisher's Alpha, we found that the level of inbreeding increases as the distance from the capital Seoul increases. We introduced the Shannon index to measure the level of spatial diffusion for each surname population, and the geographical clusters based on similarities of the surname compositions among the regions show almost exact agreement with those at the administrative districts.

  17. National Plant Genome Initiative: 2003-2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Arabidopsis or rice. For example, potato tubers are underground stems that are uniquely modified as starch- storing organs. Sweet potatoes are roots...as computer hardware/ software and data storage , has decreased steadily. As a result, individual investigators and teams of investigators from a...maize, wheat, barley and sorghum . ! New fundamental science discoveries including: (1) the structure and organization of centromeres in higher plants

  18. Status report on the Seoul National University AMS facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. C.; Youn, M.; Kim, I. C.; Park, J. H.; Song, Y. M.; Kang, J.; Choi, H. R.

    2004-08-01

    We report recent progress at the Seoul National University AMS facility in the area of sample preparations, facility maintenance, and briefly describe examples of present applications and future plans. The background level depending on the preparation methods is discussed, and water preparation line that are still under development is described. As the successful application of our facility, dating results of a historic site and a Paleolithic site, dating of Siberian permafrost and bomb pulse measurement are shown. Future plans for Be/Al AMS and biomedical application are discussed.

  19. Socio-economic Vulnerability Assessment of Natural Disaster Considering Urban Characteristics in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yoonkyung; Jun, Hwandon; Kim, Sangdan

    2015-04-01

    In this presentation, an indicator-based model is proposed to quantify socio-economic damage under natural disaster in Seoul, Korea. Seoul is the highest population density in Korea. Scales of the model are divided into two classes. First scale is "borough", which is town, or a district with a large town, and has its own council. In the case of Seoul, average size of boroughs is 24.28 square kilometers. Second one is "census output area", which is the finest level of statistical information. Average size of census output area in Seoul is 0.0374 kilometers. The Census output area has high resolution than boroughs. For the purpose of considering various aspects on socio-economic vulnerability under natural disaster, the proposed socio-economic vulnerability assessment model is composed of demographic/social indicator, economic indicator, and prepare/response/recovery indicator. Each of them is consist of 5, 3, and 6 proxy variables, respectively. Using the suggested model, the socio-economic vulnerability for 25 boroughs and 16,230 census output areas of Seoul is assessed. As a result, it is shown that southeastern boroughs in Seoul (Gangnam and Seocho) have lower vulnerability scores than other boroughs. According to this results, these places are much safer than other regions under natural disaster. Additionally, the socio-economic vulnerability was assessed in scale of census output data. Socio-economic vulnerability scores are shown similar results comparing with results of borough scale. However, socio-economic vulnerability scores are calculated in higher resolution. These results are caused by different demographic and social factors in each census output area even census output areas are located same borough. The additional importance of vulnerability assessment in the scale of census output areas will be presented. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant(13SCIPS04) from Smart Civil Infrastructure Research Program funded by Ministry of Land

  20. Evidence of Diachronic Sound Change: A Comparative Acoustic Study of Seoul and Kyungsang Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyunjung

    2013-01-01

    The phonetics and phonology of the Kyungsang dialect of Korean is distinct from those of the standard Seoul dialect with regard to segments and lexical pitch. However, whether the distinctive phonetics and phonology of Kyungsang Korean are maintained by younger speakers is questionable due to the increased exposure to Seoul Korean and the…

  1. Evidence of Diachronic Sound Change: A Comparative Acoustic Study of Seoul and Kyungsang Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyunjung

    2013-01-01

    The phonetics and phonology of the Kyungsang dialect of Korean is distinct from those of the standard Seoul dialect with regard to segments and lexical pitch. However, whether the distinctive phonetics and phonology of Kyungsang Korean are maintained by younger speakers is questionable due to the increased exposure to Seoul Korean and the…

  2. A survey of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water supplies during a 10-year period (2000-2009) in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mok Young; Cho, Eun Joo; Lee, Jin Hyo; Han, Sun Hee; Park, Yong Sang

    2010-09-01

    This study has been conducted to estimate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water supplies in the Metropolitan area of Seoul, South Korea, for 10 years from 2000 to 2009. Water samples were collected quarterly at 6 intakes in the Han River and its largest stream and 6 conventional Water Treatment Plants (WTPs) serving drinking water for 10 million people of Seoul. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 22.5% of intake water samples and arithmetic mean was 0.65 oocysts/10 L (range 0-22 oocysts/10 L). Although the annual mean of oocyst number was as low as 0.04-1.90 oocysts/10 L, 3 peaks in 2004 and 2007 were observed and the pollution level was a little higher in winter. The lowest density was observed at Paldang intake and the pollution level increased at Kuui and Jayang intakes. At the end of the largest stream, oocysts were found in 70% of collected samples (mean 5.71 oocysts/10 L) and it seemed that its joining the Han River resulted in the increase at Kuui intake and downstream. Oocyst removal by physical process exceeded 2.0-2.3 log and then all finished water samples collected at 6 WTPs were negative for Cryptosporidium in each 100 L sample for 10 years. These results suggested that domestic wastewater from the urban region could be a source of Cryptosporidium pollution and separating sewage systems adjacent to the intakes could be meaningful for some intakes having weakness related to parasitological water quality.

  3. Spatial Approach of Climate Risk Assessment and Uncertainty: A Case Study of Heat Wave Risk in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, S.; Lee, D. K.; Jeong, W.

    2016-12-01

    As climate change continuously reaches new climaxes, it is aggravating many climate extremes. Urban heat island effect (UHI) is one of them. It occurs in cities with sealed surfaces and building canyons, which make changes in storage, radiative and turbulent heat flux that make cities warmer than surrounding areas. However, applying adequate policies at the right place can attenuate the impacts of UHI. Therefore, heat wave risk assessment is important in the sense that it helps decision makers set priority in targets of application. Seoul is highly urbanized capital of South Korea. It is suffering from increasing heat wave days and tropical nights every year. More than 10 million residents are exposed to heat extremes and measures should be taken. Therefore, heat wave risk assessment of Seoul should be done in advance. While, risk assessment contains uncertainty; from variables to assessment procedure. However, there is no standardized assessment methodology. A fuzzy logic, introduced by Zadeh in 1965, is applied in quantifying these uncertainties. We fuzzified indices for assessing heat wave risk with threshold values. And indices were aggregated step by step with fuzzy operators, which make up "vulnerability" and "climate exposure". Vulnerability and climate exposure are further combined with fuzzy operator to derive complete heat wave risk assessment map. As a result, we expressed spatial distribution of UHI risk. Districts lying in the central area of the city showed higher risk than in marginal areas. In addition, hierarchic structured approach of assessing risk in this study makes it easy to track key variables of risk, therefore, giving decision makers insights to help their application of adaptation policies.

  4. Long term measurements of condensation nuclei and cloud condensation nuclei in the megacity of Seoul during 2004-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Kim, J.; Shim, S.; Yum, S. S.

    2010-12-01

    The effects of atmospheric aerosols on climate are among the most uncertain. The reason for this very low scientific understanding is mainly due to insufficient measurement of aerosols despite the local and time varying nature of aerosols. Particularly, Asian regions of fast industrialization have been recognized as an enormous source of anthropogenic aerosols. As an effort to monitor the physical properties of these anthropogenic aerosols, we measured total aerosol (i.e., condensation nuclei, CN) number concentration, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration and aerosol size distribution (10.9 nm < particle diameter < 478.3 nm) in the mega city of Seoul, South Korea over the period from June 2004 to May 2010. Measurements were interrupted due to malfunctioning, repair and deployment for field measurements in other places but otherwise the measurements were continuously made in Seoul. The average CN number concentration was 18517 ± 8880 cm-3 while CCN number concentration at 0.6 % supersaturation was 5227 ± 3142 cm-3. The average of the ratio of CCN/CN number concentration was approximately 0.30 ± 0.15. The diurnal variation of CN number concentration showed minima at around 4 a.m. and the highest peak at around 8 ~ 10 a.m. throughout the period regardless of season. The average CN and CCN number concentrations were higher in winter than in summer. The correlation between CN number concentration and traffic amount was high (r2=0.84). Overall there were 891 days of aerosol size distribution measurement and in 83 of these days nucleation events were observed, roughly during 10 % of the measurement days. They appeared to be associated with cloudiness and precipitation. Further analysis will be shown at the conference.

  5. Instant noodle consumption is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors among college students in Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Huh, In Sil; Kim, Hyesook; Jo, Hee Kyung; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Jong Seung; Kim, Soo Jin; Kwon, Oran

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Increased consumption of instant noodles has recently been reported to be positively associated with obesity and cardiometabolic syndrome in South Korea, which has the highest per capita instant noodle consumption worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the association between instant noodle consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors among college students in Seoul. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study subjects consisted of 3,397 college students (1,782 male; 1,615 female) aged 18-29 years who participated in a health checkup. Information on instant noodle consumption was obtained from the participants' answers to a question about their average frequency of instant noodle intake over the 1 year period prior to the survey. RESULTS Statistical analysis using a general linear model that adjusted for age, body mass index, gender, family income, health-related behaviors, and other dietary factors important for cardiometabolic risk, showed a positive association between the frequency of instant noodle consumption and plasma triglyceride levels, diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels in all subjects. Compared to the group with the lowest frequency of instant noodle intake (≤ 1/month), the odds ratio for hypertriglyceridemia in the group with an intake of ≥ 3/week was 2.639 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.393–5.000] for all subjects, while it was 2.149 (95% CI, 1.045–4.419) and 5.992 (95% CI, 1.859–21.824) for male and female students, respectively. In female students, diastolic blood pressure was also higher among more frequent consumers of instant noodles. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that frequent consumption of instant noodles may be associated with increased cardiometabolic risk factors among apparently healthy college students aged 18–29 years. PMID:28584580

  6. Instant noodle consumption is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors among college students in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Huh, In Sil; Kim, Hyesook; Jo, Hee Kyung; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Jong Seung; Kim, Soo Jin; Kwon, Oran; Oh, Bumjo; Chang, Namsoo

    2017-06-01

    Increased consumption of instant noodles has recently been reported to be positively associated with obesity and cardiometabolic syndrome in South Korea, which has the highest per capita instant noodle consumption worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the association between instant noodle consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors among college students in Seoul. The study subjects consisted of 3,397 college students (1,782 male; 1,615 female) aged 18-29 years who participated in a health checkup. Information on instant noodle consumption was obtained from the participants' answers to a question about their average frequency of instant noodle intake over the 1 year period prior to the survey. Statistical analysis using a general linear model that adjusted for age, body mass index, gender, family income, health-related behaviors, and other dietary factors important for cardiometabolic risk, showed a positive association between the frequency of instant noodle consumption and plasma triglyceride levels, diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels in all subjects. Compared to the group with the lowest frequency of instant noodle intake (≤ 1/month), the odds ratio for hypertriglyceridemia in the group with an intake of ≥ 3/week was 2.639 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.393-5.000] for all subjects, while it was 2.149 (95% CI, 1.045-4.419) and 5.992 (95% CI, 1.859-21.824) for male and female students, respectively. In female students, diastolic blood pressure was also higher among more frequent consumers of instant noodles. Our results suggest that frequent consumption of instant noodles may be associated with increased cardiometabolic risk factors among apparently healthy college students aged 18-29 years.

  7. Assessment of Flood Vulnerability to Climate Change Using Fuzzy Operators in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this study is to apply the IPCC(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) concept of vulnerability to climate change and verify the use of a combination of vulnerability index and fuzzy operators to flood vulnerability analysis and mapping in Seoul using GIS. In order to achieve this goal, this study identified indicators influencing floods based on literature review. We include indicators of exposure to climate(daily max rainfall, days of 80㎜ over), sensitivity(slope, geological, average DEM, Impermeability layer, topography and drainage), and adaptive capacity(retarding basin and green-infra). Also, this research used fuzzy operator model for aggregating indicators, and utilized frequency ratio to decide fuzzy membership values. Results show that number of days of precipitation above 80㎜, the distance from river and impervious surface have comparatively strong influence on flood damage. Furthermore, when precipitation is over 269㎜, areas with scare flood mitigation capacities, industrial land use, elevation of 16˜20m, within 50m distance from rivers are quite vulnerable to floods. Yeongdeungpo-gu, Yongsan-gu, Mapo-gu include comparatively large vulnerable areas. The relative weight of each factor was then converted into a fuzzy membership value and integrated as a flood vulnerability index using fuzzy operators (fuzzy AND, fuzzy OR, fuzzy algebraic sum, and fuzzy algebraic product). Comparing the results of the highest for the fuzzy AND operator, fuzzy gamma operator (γ = 0.2) is higher with improved computational. This study improved previous flood vulnerability assessment methodology by adopting fuzzy operator model. Also, vulnerability map provides meaningful information for decision makers regarding priority areas for implementing flood mitigation policies. Acknowledgements: The authors appreciate the support that this study has received from "Development of Time Series Disaster Mapping Technologies through Natural Disaster Factor Spatial

  8. Synergistic interaction between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and environmental tobacco smoke on the risk of obesity in children and adolescents: The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Woo; Kam, Sin; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2014-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may be obesogens. However, the role of PAHs independent of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is unclear, and the interaction between PAHs and ETS remains unknown. We performed cross-sectional analyses of urinary concentrations of PAH metabolites, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) in 1985 people aged 6-18 years using data from the 2003-2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. ETS exposure level was measured as serum cotinine level. PAH metabolites were positively associated with BMI and WC in both the ETS-unexposed and ETS-exposed groups. The adjusted odds ratios for general obesity defined by age- and sex-specific BMI≥95th percentile across the quartiles of total PAH metabolites were 1, 4.51, 2.57, and 8.09 (Ptrend=0.003) in the ETS-unexposed group and 1, 2.02, 1.83, and 3.86 (Ptrend<0.001) in the ETS-exposed group. However, the association of PAH metabolites with obesity became stronger as serum cotinine levels increased (Pinteraction<0.05). Among those with high ETS exposure, the adjusted odds ratios for general obesity across quartiles of total PAH metabolites were 1, 2.89, 5.26, and 16.29 (Ptrend<0.001). Compared to the low PAH-exposure group without exposure to ETS, the high ETS- and high PAH-exposure group had 33.85- and 17.64-fold greater risks of general and central obesity, respectively. Environmental exposure to PAHs may be associated with childhood obesity irrespective of ETS. In particular, simultaneous exposure to PAHs and ETS may substantially increase the risk of obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternal asthma, diabetes, and high blood pressure are associated with low birth weight and increased hospital birth and delivery charges; Hawai'i hospital discharge data 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Donald K; Feigal, David W; Smith, Ruben A; Fuddy, Loretta J

    2014-02-01

    Asthma, diabetes, and high blood pressure are common maternal conditions that can impact birth outcomes. Data from hospital discharges in Hawai'i were analyzed for 107,034 singleton births from 2003-2008. Categories were determined using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, ninth revision (ICD-9) from linked delivery records of mother and infant. Prevalence estimates of asthma (ICD-9: 493), diabetes (ICD-9: 250,648.0, 648.8), high blood pressure (ICD-9: 401-405,642) as coded on the delivery record, low birth weight (<2500 grams), high birth weight (>4500 grams), Cesarean delivery, and median hospital charges were calculated. Median regression analysis assessed total hospital charges adjusting for maternal age, maternal race, insurance, and Cesarean delivery. Maternal asthma was present in 4.3% (95% confidence interval=4.1-4.4%), maternal diabetes was present in 7.7% (95% CI=7.6-7.9%), and maternal high blood pressure was present in 9.2% (95% CI=9.0-9.3%) of births. In the adjusted median regression analysis, mothers with asthma had $999 (95% CI: $886 to $1,112) higher hospital charges compared to those without; mothers with diabetes had $743 (95% CI: $636 to $850) higher charges compared to those without; and mothers with high blood pressure had $2,314 (95% CI: $2,194 to $2,434) higher charges compared to those without. Asthma, diabetes, and high blood pressure are associated with higher hospital delivery charges and low birth weight. Diabetes and high blood pressure were also associated with Cesarean delivery. An increased awareness of the impact of these conditions on both adverse birth outcomes and the development of chronic disease is needed.

  10. Korea-United States Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellanos, Patricia; Da Silva, Arlindo; Longo-De Freitas, Karla

    2017-01-01

    The Korea-United States Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) campaign was an international cooperative field study based out of Osan Air Base, Songtan, South Korea (about 60 kilometers south of Seoul) in April-June 2016. A comprehensive suite of instruments capable of measuring atmospheric composition was deployed around the Korean peninsula on aircrafts, ships, and at ground sites in order to characterize local and transboundary pollution. The NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, version 5 (GEOS-5) forecast model was used for near real time meteorological and aerosol forecasting and flight planning during the KORUS-AQ campaign. Evaluation of GEOS-5 against observations from the campaign will help to identify inaccuracies in the models physical and chemical processes in this region within East Asia and lead to further developments of the modeling system.

  11. Dialogue with Asia's Rural Man - Number 2. A Report of the 1976 CENDHRRA Integral Rural Development Workshops (Korea, June 6-13, 1976 and Indonesia, November 7-14, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledesma, Antonio L.; Yap-Ledesma, Angelita

    Two 1976 workshops (Seoul, Korea--June 6-13; Tugu, Bogor, Indonesia--November 7-14) in the Integral Rural Development series had as their objectives to: study the role of training in and value of an integrated rural development approach; exchange experiences on the impact of new agricultural technology upon institutions and people at the village…

  12. Dialogue with Asia's Rural Man - Number 2. A Report of the 1976 CENDHRRA Integral Rural Development Workshops (Korea, June 6-13, 1976 and Indonesia, November 7-14, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledesma, Antonio L.; Yap-Ledesma, Angelita

    Two 1976 workshops (Seoul, Korea--June 6-13; Tugu, Bogor, Indonesia--November 7-14) in the Integral Rural Development series had as their objectives to: study the role of training in and value of an integrated rural development approach; exchange experiences on the impact of new agricultural technology upon institutions and people at the village…

  13. Seoul Searching: Transitioning Basic Writers within the Global Frontiers Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Tabetha; Meyer, Connie

    2014-01-01

    The course described here was designed especially for students enrolled in a collaborative program between Texas A&M University-Commerce and Konkuk University in South Korea. This course was created specifically for students who did not earn a qualifying score on a standardized placement exam required of all first-year students for enrollment…

  14. Seoul Searching: Transitioning Basic Writers within the Global Frontiers Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Tabetha; Meyer, Connie

    2014-01-01

    The course described here was designed especially for students enrolled in a collaborative program between Texas A&M University-Commerce and Konkuk University in South Korea. This course was created specifically for students who did not earn a qualifying score on a standardized placement exam required of all first-year students for enrollment…

  15. Helicopter emergency medical services: a report on the current status in a metropolitan area of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young-Hoon; Moon, Sung-Woo; Lee, Sung-Woo; Choi, Sung-Hyuk; Cho, Han-Jin; Kim, Jung-Yun

    2011-06-01

    This report introduces and discusses the present state of the helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in the metropolitan area of South Korea. The data of patients transported by HEMS from April 2007 to June 2009 were provided by Seoul Metropolitan Fire and Disaster Management Department. The data of patients subsequently transported to Korea University Guro Hospital were analyzed. During the study period, 725 emergency rescue calls were dispatched and 703 patients were rescued, of which 562 patients were judged by an emergency medical technician to be in a nonemergent condition and were referred to ground emergency medical services and 141 patients were judged as having an emergent situation and were directly transported to a nearby hospital. The data of patients who were transported to Korea University Guro Hospital by HEMS were as follows. The mean age was 51.7±12.1 years; 75.6% were male patients; 28 patients (68.3%) were traumatically injured; the mean of the injury severity score was 13.5±14.7, and 13 patients (46.4%) had an injury severity score of more than 15. No procedures other than basic life support were performed by the emergency medical technicians during transport. The role of HEMS in South Korea is limited to transporting injured patients from locations that cannot be approached by ground emergency medical services. Even though HEMS is essential considering the local mountainous geography of Seoul, Korea, overutilization of HEMS is still suspected in the metropolitan area.

  16. Kinetics of electrons and neutral particles in radio-frequency transformer coupled plasma H- ion source at Seoul National University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, K. J.; Dang, J. J.; Kim, J. Y.; Cho, W. H.; Hwang, Y. S.

    2016-10-01

    In volume production H- ion sources, control of electron temperature is essential due to its close correlation with the generation of vibrationally-excited hydrogen molecules in the driver region as well as the generation of H- ions by dissociative attachment in the extraction region. In the ion source group at Seoul National University (SNU) in Korea, a lot of research effort has been made to the development of a volume production H- ion source based on radio-frequency (RF) transformer-coupled plasma (TCP) for long lifetime continuous wave (CW) operation. It has a spiral RF antenna located outside the discharge chamber to generate a plasma with high electron temperature in the driver region and employs a magnetic filter field to prevent high energy electrons from being transported to the extraction region. In this paper, we present the recent progress on understanding of the underlying physics of the RF TCP H- ion source at SNU. Special attention is paid to the characterization of electron kinetics regime for controlling electron energy distribution and the influence of relaxation of neutral particles during the transport across the magnetic filter region. Effect of the degree of dissociation on the production of H- ions is also discussed.

  17. Flexible operation of the Cap-and-Trade System for the air pollutants in the Seoul Metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Yeo, M J; Kim, Y P

    2012-08-30

    To improve the air quality in the Seoul Metropolitan area (SMA), the Korean government has implemented special measures in the 1990s. As part of these measures, the Cap-and-Trade System (CATS) was introduced and executed in July 1, 2007 for the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and sulfur (SOx) to provide added flexibility for large sources to meet the required emission reductions. However, the trade via the SMA CATS for the air pollutants has not been active because of the limited buyers and sellers within the system as well as limited tradable species. For more flexible operation of the SMA CATS, following strategies have been suggested and their merits are discussed; (1) to link the SMA CATS with the Korea Voluntary Emission Reduction (KVER) program which is a program to manage greenhouse gases (GHGs), and (2) to extend the system, such as extension of the tradable species, participants, and introducing a project-based certification mechanism for pollutants reduction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Shallow hydraulic fracturing measurements in Korea support tectonic and seismic indicators of regional stress.

    SciTech Connect

    Haimson, Bezalel Cecil; Lee, Moo Yul; Song, I.

    2003-07-01

    We have conducted five hydraulic fracturing stress measurement campaigns in Korea, involving 13 test holes ranging in depth from 30 to 250 m, at locations from North Seoul to the southern coast of the peninsula. The measurements reveal consistent crustal stress magnitudes and directions that suggest persistence throughout western and southern Korea. The maximum horizontal stress {sigma}{sub H} is oriented between ENE-WSW and E-W, in accord with plate movement and deformation, and with directions indicated by both focal mechanism solutions from earthquakes inland and offshore as well as borehole breakouts in mainland China close to its eastern coast. With respect to magnitudes, the vertical stress is the overall minimum stress at all tested locations, suggesting a thrust faulting regime within the relatively shallow depths reached by our tests. Typically, such a stress regime becomes one favoring strike-slip at greater depths, as is also indicated by the focal mechanism solutions around Korea.

  19. The State and Development Direction of the Geodetic VLBI Station in Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ju, Hyunhee; Kim, Myungho; Kim, Suchul; Park, Jinsik; Kondo, Tetsuro; Kim, Tuhwan; Oh, Hongjong; Yi, Sangoh

    2010-01-01

    A permanent geodetic VLBI station with a 22-m diameter antenna will be newly constructed in Korea by the National Geographic Information Institute (NGII) under the project Korea VLBI system for Geodesy (KVG) that aims at maintaining the Korean geodetic datum accurately on the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). KVG can receive 2, 8, 22, and 43 GHz bands simultaneously in order to conduct geodetic and astronomical VLBI observations with Korea astronomical VLBI stations along with geodetic observations with IVS stations. This simultaneous four-band receiving capability is a unique feature of the KVG system. The KVG has started officially in October 2008. A new geodetic VLBI station will be constructed at Sejong city (about 120 km south of Seoul and about 20 km north-northwest of Daejeon) and construction of all systems will be completed in 2011.

  20. Genetic evidence of illegal trade in protected whales links Japan with the US and South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Baker, C. Scott; Steel, Debbie; Choi, Yeyong; Lee, Hang; Kim, Kyung Seok; Choi, Sung Kyoung; Ma, Yong-Un; Hambleton, Charles; Psihoyos, Louie; Brownell, R. L.; Funahashi, Naoko

    2010-01-01

    We report on genetic identification of ‘whale meat’ purchased in sushi restaurants in Los Angeles, CA (USA) in October 2009 and in Seoul, South Korea in June and September 2009. Phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA cytochrome b sequences confirmed that the products included three species of whale currently killed in the controversial scientific whaling programme of Japan, but which are protected from international trade: the fin, sei and Antarctic minke. The DNA profile of the fin whale sold in Seoul established a match to products purchased previously in Japan in September 2007, confirming unauthorized trade between these two countries. Following species identification, these products were handed over to the appropriate national or local authorities for further investigation. The illegal trade of products from protected species of whales, presumably taken under a national permit for scientific research, is a timely reminder of the need for independent, transparent and robust monitoring of any future whaling. PMID:20392716

  1. Genetic evidence of illegal trade in protected whales links Japan with the US and South Korea.

    PubMed

    Baker, C Scott; Steel, Debbie; Choi, Yeyong; Lee, Hang; Kim, Kyung Seok; Choi, Sung Kyoung; Ma, Yong-Un; Hambleton, Charles; Psihoyos, Louie; Brownell, R L; Funahashi, Naoko

    2010-10-23

    We report on genetic identification of 'whale meat' purchased in sushi restaurants in Los Angeles, CA (USA) in October 2009 and in Seoul, South Korea in June and September 2009. Phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA cytochrome b sequences confirmed that the products included three species of whale currently killed in the controversial scientific whaling programme of Japan, but which are protected from international trade: the fin, sei and Antarctic minke. The DNA profile of the fin whale sold in Seoul established a match to products purchased previously in Japan in September 2007, confirming unauthorized trade between these two countries. Following species identification, these products were handed over to the appropriate national or local authorities for further investigation. The illegal trade of products from protected species of whales, presumably taken under a national permit for scientific research, is a timely reminder of the need for independent, transparent and robust monitoring of any future whaling.

  2. Seoul National University Bundang Hospital's Electronic System for Total Care

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sooyoung; Lee, Kee Hyuck; Lee, Hak Jong; Ha, Kyooseob; Lim, Cheong; Chin, Ho Jun; Yun, Jonghoar; Cho, Eun-Young; Chung, Eunja; Baek, Rong-Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Wee, Won Ryang; Lee, Chul Hee; Lee, Hai-Seok; Byeon, Nam-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, which is the first Stage 7 hospital outside of North America, has adopted and utilized an innovative and emerging information technology system to improve the efficiency and quality of patient care. The objective of this paper is to briefly introduce the major components of the SNUBH information system and to describe our progress toward a next-generation hospital information system (HIS). Methods SNUBH opened in 2003 as a fully digital hospital by successfully launching a new HIS named BESTCare, "Bundang hospital Electronic System for Total Care". Subsequently, the system has been continuously improved with new applications, including close-loop medication administration (CLMA), clinical data warehouse (CDW), health information exchange (HIE), and disaster recovery (DR), which have resulted in the achievement of Stage 7 status. Results The BESTCare system is an integrated system for a university hospital setting. BESTCare is mainly composed of three application domains: the core applications, an information infrastructure, and channel domains. The most critical and unique applications of the system, such as the electronic medical record (EMR), computerized physician order entry (CPOE), clinical decision support system (CDSS), CLMA, CDW, HIE, and DR applications, are described in detail. Conclusions Beyond our achievement of Stage 7 hospital status, we are currently developing a next-generation HIS with new goals of implementing infrastructure that is flexible and innovative, implementing a patient-centered system, and strengthening the IT capability to maximize the hospital value. PMID:22844650

  3. Modeling Study on Air Quality Improvement due to Mobile Source Emission control Plan in Seoul Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. J.; Sunwoo, Y.; Hwang, I.; Song, S.; Sin, J.; Kim, D.

    2015-12-01

    A very high population and corresponding high number of vehicles in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) are aggravating the air quality of this region. The Korean government continues to make concerted efforts to improve air quality. One of the major policies that the Ministry of Environment of Korea enforced is "The Special Act for Improvement of Air Quality in SMA" and "The 1st Air Quality Management Plan of SMA". Mobile Source emission controls are an important part of the policy. Thus, it is timely to evaluate the air quality improvement due to the controls. Therefore, we performed a quantitative analysis of the difference in air quality using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and December, 2011 was set as the target period to capture the impact of the above control plans. We considered four fuel-type vehicle emission scenarios and compared the air quality improvement differences between them. The scenarios are as follows: no-control, gasoline vehicle control only, diesel vehicle control only, and control of both; utilizing the revised mobile source emissions from the Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS), which is the national emission inventory reflecting current policy.In order to improve the accuracy of the modeling data, we developed new temporal allocation coefficients based on traffic volume observation data and spatially reallocated the mobile source emissions using vehicle flow survey data. Furthermore, we calculated the PM10 and PM2.5 emissions of gasoline vehicles which is omitted in CAPSS.The results of the air quality modeling shows that vehicle control plans for both gasoline and diesel lead to a decrease of 0.65ppb~8.75ppb and 0.02㎍/㎥~7.09㎍/㎥ in NO2 and PM10 monthly average concentrations, respectively. The large percentage decreases mainly appear near the center of the metropolis. However, the largest NO2 decrease percentages are found in the northeast region of Gyeonggi-do, which is the province that surrounds the

  4. Estimation of source contribution of PM2.5 at a background area in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S.; Kim, Y. P.; Lee, J.; Jung, C. H.; Lee, J.; Heo, J.; Kim, E. S.

    2016-12-01

    Organic aerosols account for a large fraction (20-80 wt%) in the ambient particulate matter, especially, in PM2.5 (particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter). PM2.5 has detrimental effects on human health as well as the environmental effects such as climate change. Thus, identification of major sources of organic aerosols in PM2.5 at a background area is necessary to understand the characteristics of the ambient air in Korea. The objectives of this study are (1) estimation and identification of sources of organic aerosols (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, dicarboxylic acids, and sugars) using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model for the data measured from Jul. 2015 to Apr. 2016 at Anmyeon island, a back ground station in Korea, and (2) comparison with the PMF modeling result at Seoul to understand the characteristics of background areas of Korea. Five sources were identified at Anmyeon island. The profiles of some factors were similar to the profiles of Seoul and the factors at both sites showed similar seasonal variation in daily contribution.

  5. Nation Building in Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-04-01

    opportunity to rebuild South Korea . He saw it as “something almost unique in history. It is the opportunity of an army in a foreign land to contribute...problems. The North Korean invasion in 1950 wedded South Korea to the United States and confronted the United States with the enormous task of...elections in Korea .8 After failing to achieve agreement to peninsula-wide elections, the United Nations sponsored elections in South

  6. Enteropathogenic Bacteria Contamination of Unchlorinated Drinking Water in Korea, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Si Won; Lee, Do Kyung; An, Hyang Mi; Cha, Min Kyeong; Kim, Kyung Jae

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of unchlorinated drinking water in Korea, 2010. One hundred and eighty unchlorinated drinking water samples were collected from various sites in Seoul and Gyeonggi province. Methods To investigate bacterial presence, the pour plate method was used with cultures grown on selective media for total bacteria, total coliforms, and Staphylococcus spp., respectively. Results In the 180 total bacteria investigation, 72 samples from Seoul and 33 samples from Gyeonggi province were of an unacceptable quality (>102 CFU/mL). Of all the samples tested, total coliforms were detected in 28 samples (15.6%) and Staphylococcus spp. in 12 samples (6.7%). Most of the coliform isolates exhibited high-level resistance to cefazolin (88.2%), cefonicid (64.7%) and ceftazidime (20.6%). In addition, Staphylococcus spp. isolates exhibited high-level resistance to mupirocin (42%). Species of Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Cupriavidus, Hafnia, Rahnella, Serratia, and Yersinia were isolated from the water samples. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that consumption of unchlorinated drinking water could represent a notable risk to the health of consumers. As such, there is need for continuous monitoring of these water sources and to establish standards. PMID:22216417

  7. Chemical weathering of granite under acid rainfall environment, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Yeop; Kim, Soo Jin; Baik, Min Hoon

    2008-08-01

    Chemical weathering was investigated by collecting samples from five selected weathering profiles in a high elevation granitic environment located in Seoul, Korea. The overall changes of chemistry and mineralogical textures were examined reflecting weathering degrees of the samples, using polarization microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe micro analysis (EPMA), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The chemical distribution in the weathering profiles shows that few trace elements are slightly immobile, whereas most major (particularly Ca and Na) and trace elements are mobile from the beginning of the granite weathering. On the other hand, there were mineralogical changes initiated from a plagioclase breakdown, which shows a characteristic circular dissolved pattern caused by a preferential leaching of Ca cation along grain boundaries and zoning. The biotite in that region is also supposed to be sensitive to exterior environmental condition and may be easily dissolved by acidic percolated water. As a result, it seems that some rock-forming minerals in the granitic rock located in Seoul are significantly unstable due to the environmental condition of acidic rainfall and steep slopes, where they are susceptible to be dissolved incongruently leading some elements to be highly depleted.

  8. Gender difference in the affricate productions of young Seoul Korean speakers.

    PubMed

    Kong, Eun Jong; Kang, Soyoung; Seo, Misun

    2014-10-01

    This study explored gender-related differences in affricates' place of articulation of young Seoul Korean speakers. Word-initial and medial affricates before /a/ and /i/ collected from 42 adult Seoul speakers were compared with alveolar and palatalized fricatives in the same vowel conditions by examining spectral peak frequencies of the frication part of the consonants. Results showed evidence of gender differences in the acoustic realization of word-medial affricates, which implies a more anterior articulation in females' productions before /a/. Possibilities for sound change in affricates led by females or the use of anterior affricates as a socially indexed gender marker are discussed.

  9. The Geography of Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Young-Han

    1988-01-01

    Briefly surveys the geography of both North and South Korea, examining mountain ranges, rivers, soil, and climate. Also discusses the economic activities of South Korea, including industrialization, transportation, population, and the urban system. Provides a map of the Korean peninsula and a table of land area and population by province. (GEA)

  10. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its related factors among North Korean refugees in South Korea: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon Jung; Lee, Yo Han; Lee, Yun Jeong; Kim, Kyeong Jin; An, Jee Hyun; Kim, Nam Hoon; Kim, Hee Young; Choi, Dong Seop; Kim, Sin Gon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its related factors among North Korean refugees (NKR) in South Korea. Design Cross-sectional study conducted using a questionnaire and anthropometric and biochemical data on NKR in South Korea. Setting Seoul, South Korea. Participants A sample of NKR who voluntarily underwent medical examinations in Anam Hospital of Korea University, Seoul, South Korea (N=708, consisting of 161 males and 547 females). To compare the prevalence of MetS, 1416 age- and gender-matched individuals from the South Korean population (SKP, at a ratio of 1:2 to NKR) were randomly selected from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Main outcome measures The prevalence of MetS and its related factors among NKR in South Korea and comparison with its prevalence among the general SKP. Results The prevalence of MetS among male and female NKR in South Korea was 19.7% and 17.2%, respectively. Although obesity is more prevalent in South than in North Korea, we found no difference in the prevalence of MetS between the female NKR and SKP groups (17.2% vs 16.6%, respectively; p=0.830). As regards the males, the small sample size of the NKR group yielded insufficient evidence of any difference in MetS prevalence between the NKR and SKP groups (19.7% vs 26.2%, respectively; p=0.134). We found that excess weight gain (≥5%) in South Korea was significantly associated with MetS among NKR. Conclusions The prevalence of MetS among NKR did not differ from that in the SKP group despite the lower prevalence of obesity in NKR than in the general SKP. The fact that excess weight gain in South Korea was associated with the risk of MetS suggests that public health policy makers should focus on preventing excess weight gain in NKR during resettlement in South Korea. PMID:27251685

  11. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its related factors among North Korean refugees in South Korea: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Jung; Lee, Yo Han; Lee, Yun Jeong; Kim, Kyeong Jin; An, Jee Hyun; Kim, Nam Hoon; Kim, Hee Young; Choi, Dong Seop; Kim, Sin Gon

    2016-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its related factors among North Korean refugees (NKR) in South Korea. Cross-sectional study conducted using a questionnaire and anthropometric and biochemical data on NKR in South Korea. Seoul, South Korea. A sample of NKR who voluntarily underwent medical examinations in Anam Hospital of Korea University, Seoul, South Korea (N=708, consisting of 161 males and 547 females). To compare the prevalence of MetS, 1416 age- and gender-matched individuals from the South Korean population (SKP, at a ratio of 1:2 to NKR) were randomly selected from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The prevalence of MetS and its related factors among NKR in South Korea and comparison with its prevalence among the general SKP. The prevalence of MetS among male and female NKR in South Korea was 19.7% and 17.2%, respectively. Although obesity is more prevalent in South than in North Korea, we found no difference in the prevalence of MetS between the female NKR and SKP groups (17.2% vs 16.6%, respectively; p=0.830). As regards the males, the small sample size of the NKR group yielded insufficient evidence of any difference in MetS prevalence between the NKR and SKP groups (19.7% vs 26.2%, respectively; p=0.134). We found that excess weight gain (≥5%) in South Korea was significantly associated with MetS among NKR. The prevalence of MetS among NKR did not differ from that in the SKP group despite the lower prevalence of obesity in NKR than in the general SKP. The fact that excess weight gain in South Korea was associated with the risk of MetS suggests that public health policy makers should focus on preventing excess weight gain in NKR during resettlement in South Korea. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. An international survey of physicians regarding clinical trials: a comparison between Kyoto University Hospital and Seoul National University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ito-Ihara, Toshiko; Hong, Jeong-Hwa; Kim, Ock-Joo; Sumi, Eriko; Kim, Soo-Youn; Tanaka, Shiro; Narita, Keiichi; Hatta, Taichi; Choi, Eun-Kyung; Choi, Kyu-Jin; Miyagawa, Takuya; Minami, Manabu; Murayama, Toshinori; Yokode, Masayuki

    2013-10-25

    International clinical trials are now rapidly expanding into Asia. However, the proportion of global trials is higher in South Korea compared to Japan despite implementation of similar governmental support in both countries. The difference in clinical trial environment might influence the respective physicians' attitudes and experience towards clinical trials. Therefore, we designed a questionnaire to explore how physicians conceive the issues surrounding clinical trials in both countries. A questionnaire survey was conducted at Kyoto University Hospital (KUHP) and Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) in 2008. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions and 2 open-ended questions on broad key issues relating to clinical trials. The number of responders was 301 at KUHP and 398 at SNUH. Doctors with trial experience were 196 at KUHP and 150 at SNUH. Among them, 12% (24/196) at KUHP and 41% (61/150) at SUNH had global trial experience. Most respondents at both institutions viewed clinical trials favorably and thought that conducting clinical trials contributed to medical advances, which would ultimately lead to new and better treatments. The main reason raised as a hindrance to conducting clinical trials was the lack of personnel support and time. Doctors at both university hospitals thought that more clinical research coordinators were required to conduct clinical trials more efficiently. KUHP doctors were driven mainly by pure academic interest or for their desire to find new treatments, while obtaining credits for board certification and co-authorship on manuscripts also served as motivation factors for doctors at SNUH. Our results revealed that there might be two different approaches to increase clinical trial activity. One is a social level approach to establish clinical trial infrastructure providing sufficient clinical research professionals. The other is an individual level approach that would provide incentives to encourage doctors to participate in and

  13. An international survey of physicians regarding clinical trials: a comparison between Kyoto University Hospital and Seoul National University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background International clinical trials are now rapidly expanding into Asia. However, the proportion of global trials is higher in South Korea compared to Japan despite implementation of similar governmental support in both countries. The difference in clinical trial environment might influence the respective physicians’ attitudes and experience towards clinical trials. Therefore, we designed a questionnaire to explore how physicians conceive the issues surrounding clinical trials in both countries. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted at Kyoto University Hospital (KUHP) and Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) in 2008. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions and 2 open-ended questions on broad key issues relating to clinical trials. Results The number of responders was 301 at KUHP and 398 at SNUH. Doctors with trial experience were 196 at KUHP and 150 at SNUH. Among them, 12% (24/196) at KUHP and 41% (61/150) at SUNH had global trial experience. Most respondents at both institutions viewed clinical trials favorably and thought that conducting clinical trials contributed to medical advances, which would ultimately lead to new and better treatments. The main reason raised as a hindrance to conducting clinical trials was the lack of personnel support and time. Doctors at both university hospitals thought that more clinical research coordinators were required to conduct clinical trials more efficiently. KUHP doctors were driven mainly by pure academic interest or for their desire to find new treatments, while obtaining credits for board certification and co-authorship on manuscripts also served as motivation factors for doctors at SNUH. Conclusions Our results revealed that there might be two different approaches to increase clinical trial activity. One is a social level approach to establish clinical trial infrastructure providing sufficient clinical research professionals. The other is an individual level approach that would provide incentives to

  14. Construction of a New Geodetic VLBI Station in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, T.; Kim, T.; Sasao, T.; Kwak, Y.; Oh, H.; Yi, S.; Hyun, D.; Bae, M.

    2008-12-01

    In Korea, KVN (Korean VLBI Network) project dedicated to radio astronomy is being promoted by Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), and three 21-m diameter antennas equipped with 22/43/86/129 GHz receivers have been already constructed at Seoul, Ulsan, and Jeju. On the other hand NGII (National Geographic Information Institute, Korea) has planned to construct their own antenna dedicated to geodetic VLBI measurements to maintain the Korean Geodetic Datum accurately. It also aims at a fundamental station in East Asia and will contribute to the better definition of the ITRF there. Grand design named KVG (Korea VLBI project for Geodesy) realizing NGII's plan has been proposed by Ajou University with collaborations from NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan) and GSI (Geographical Survey Institute, Japan). KVG project got a national budget for construction formally this year (2008), and it has entered the three-year term of construction and development phase since October, 2008. A VLBI antenna will be constructed in Sejong city (about 120km south-southeast from Seoul) and its construction will be completed in 2011. The antenna is designed based on the VLBI2010 except for receiving frequencies and the diameter where VLBI2010 is the guideline for next generation's geodetic VLBI system compiled by IVS (International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry). Newly constructed antenna can receive 2/8/22/43 GHz band simultaneously in order to carry out geodetic VLBI observations not only with current geodetic VLBI stations equipped with 2/8 GHz receivers but also with KVN stations equipped with 22/43 GHz receivers. The antenna is also designed to be able to introduce a broadband feed and receivers in the future according to VLBI2010's suggestion. The diameter of antenna is chosen to be 22-m, which is larger than the VLBI2010's recommendation (13-m), to make astronomical VLBI observations of weak radio sources with KVN

  15. A decrease in mesospheric water vapour detected in South-Korea in February 2008; from observation to interpretation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wachter, Evelyn; Kaempfer, Niklaus; Flury, Thomas; Ka, Soohyun; Oh, Jung Jin

    Since November 2006, the University of Bern in Switzerland has been operating a ground-based microwave [GBMW] radiometer in Seoul, S-Korea [37.32N, 126.57E]. At the end of February 2008 we observed a significant decrease in mesospheric water vapour of more than 2 ppmv [around 40Trajectories were calculated and the temperature and wind field distribution in the northern hemisphere was analyzed. We validated the trajectory model results by a match tech-nique with other GBMW radiometer data from stations of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change [NDACC]. In addition, we investigated the possible impact of the major sudden stratospheric warming [SSW], which occured in February 2008 at midlat-itudes, to the mesospheric region, leaving signatures in the water vapour distribution at the observation site in Seoul.

  16. Hepatitis B Virus Genotype C Prevails Among Chronic Carriers of the Virus in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Si Hyun; Yoon, Seung Kew; Jang, Jeong Won; Kim, Chang Wook; Nam, Soon Woo; Choi, Jong Young; Kim, Boo Sung; Park, Young Min; Suzuki, Seiji; Sugauchi, Fuminaka

    2005-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the major causative agents of chronic liver diseases in Korea. HBV has been classified into 8 genotypes by a divergence of >8% in the entire genomic sequence, and have distinct geographic distributions. There are limited data on the relevance between HBV genotypes and clinical outcomes in Korea. To investigate the clinical feature relating to HBV genotype in Korea, a total 120 serum samples with HBsAg (65 from Seoul and 55 from the other city in Korea) were obtained from each 30 chronic HBV carriers with asymptomatic carrier (ASC), chronic hepatitis (CH), liver cirrhosis (LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBV genotype was determined by either enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using monoclonal antibodies against genotype-specific epitopes in the preS2-region or the direct sequencing of small S gene. HBV genotypes were determined in 105 (87.5%) of 120 samples. HBV genotype C was identified in all HBV carriers with ASC, CH, LC, and HCC. Genotypes A, B, D, E, F and G were not detected in any of them. Genotype C HBV prevails predominantly among chronic carriers of the virus in Korea, irrespective of their clinical stages of liver disease and geographic origin. PMID:16224156

  17. Review of Suicide Prevention Programs: Massachusetts, United States, in Comparison with Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Ji Hyun; Park, Jong-Ik; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Roh, Sung-won; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a tragedy that has massive impact on society. In order to prevent suicide, active government intervention is necessary. The suicide rate in Seoul is rapidly increasing and is more than five times higher than that in the state of Massachusetts (MA) during the last decade, especially in the elderly. The suicide prevention program of MA is one of the most effective suicide prevention programs in the United States. The program views suicide as a preventable public health problem, and emphasizes treatment of depression and de-stigmatization of mental health illnesses to prevent suicide. Also, through active collaboration with mental health professionals, they try to identify at-risk populations and help them to get medical interventions. The program also actively collaborates with the regional coalition program and the Samaritans in taking care of the elderly, and supports the elderly in feeling worthwhile after retirement by helping them to work for communities as volunteers. For its part, the Seoul suicide prevention program puts more emphasis on "life respect culture" and "emotional support to high risk individuals by regular visiting". The annual budget of the Seoul suicide prevention program is one-quarter and that for mental health is about one-twentieth that of MA. Considering the high suicide rate and lower mental health service usage in Seoul, it is crucial to raise awareness of depression and decrease the stigma on mental illnesses. Furthermore, educational efforts with long-term investment in research on suicide are necessary. PMID:26207119

  18. Re-Locating the National: Spatialization of the National Past in Seoul

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Soochul

    2009-01-01

    This article is an attempt to make sense of the emerging culture of mobility in Seoul in the 1990s. The 1990s in a South Korean context is emblematic of a changed social reality and transformation. Grand narratives of development, anti-state democratization activism and Cold War politics were losing their effect and authority. Meanwhile, new…

  19. Food Availability in School Stores in Seoul, South Korea after Implementation of Food- and Nutrient-Based Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Seul Ki; Frongillo, Edward A.; Blake, Christine E.; Thrasher, James F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: To improve school store food environments, the South Korean government implemented 2 policies restricting unhealthy food sales in school stores. A food-based policy enacted in 2007 restricts specific food sales (soft drinks); and a nutrient-based policy enacted in 2009 restricts energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) food sales. The…

  20. Kimpo-iap K-14, Seoul, Korea. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-10-30

    53 j~ .J______..4 6o.. VARBCL ... ____ ___ ____ ___ ________.....3 *....,, C’CALM ’~21.6 TOTAL NUMBE Of OBSERVATIONS 2278 t 0USAFETAC TO A 0-8-5 (CI...779178,9’� 780,2 780,3 78,3󈨊,3 78*3 18,3 7844 7893-71t]:i_>450 76.3 77.6 75,0 71,2 71#3 󈨏", 1 76*6 711.,6 791,6 71,6 71*6 𔄁a,6 78,6 78,;6 -71,-# 4000... 7844 78t4 � 7498 78󈨈 79.0 79o1 � � -79,2 49i2 79i2 i > 3500 76.0 7v.,0 7-03-7蔟 ,1 594 00 0, 00 05 O, 006 0 GO, 16 _ 3000 78.0 80.6 $11

  1. Proceedings of the Pacific Conference on Operations Research, Held April 23-28, 1979, Seoul, Korea. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    undesirable. As the objective is to provide the decision maker with a rich picture, events may include social, political , technological, economic...STRUCTURAL MODELLING FOR TECHNOLOGY ASESSMENT, vols I and II, Report to the National Science Foundation, Portland State University, February 1978. [7...SUBJECTIVE INFORMATION, Soclo-Economic Planning Sciences , Vol 12, 1978. L11 Wakeland, W., QSIM 2: A LOW BUDGET HEURISTIC APPROACH TO MODELLING AND

  2. Toward an Effective Mentoring Program Planning by Using Needs Assessment: For New Elementary Teachers in Seoul, Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, DaeYeon; Kwon, Dae-Bong

    This study investigated what new Korean elementary teachers wanted to learn and what experienced teachers, regarded as potential mentors, expected to teach to beginning teachers. The study was conducted to help determine the contents of a mentoring program being developed for new elementary teachers by using needs assessment. Separate…

  3. Retrospective study on traumatic dental injuries in preschool children at Kyung Hee Dental Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung Chul; Park, Jae Hong; Pae, Ahran; Kim, Jong Ryul

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the traumatic dental injuries (TDI) of Korean preschoolers by investigating the occurrence, type, area, cause, injured region, seasonal variation and the interval between injury and treatment. In this study, data from 1856 preschoolers aged 4 months to 6 years and 11 months (mean age : 3.6 +/- 1.6) were used, out of a total of 2761 patients who attended the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Kyung Hee Dental Hospital for TDI between January 1998 and December 2007. All the data were statistically analysed using the anova and chi-square statics. Most of the patients were 1-2, 2-3 years old (24.5%, 25.4%) and boys were 1.67 times more likely to have TDI. The most common cause, location and seasonal variation of the trauma, were respectively falling (50.8%), at home (48.8%) and late spring. The treatment intervals usually occurred within a day. Most of the injuries involved single (47%) or double (38%) tooth/teeth. However, car accidents or sports trauma often involved multiple teeth. In both primary and permanent dentition, the most common teeth injured were maxillary central incisors (72.6%), and periodontal injury was caused by subluxation or concussion. Among the various types of hard tissue injuries, enamel fracture in the primary dentition (35.0%) and enamel-dentin fracture in the permanent dentition (45.8%) were the most common types.

  4. Analysis of effects of climate change on runoff in an urban drainage system: a case study from Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, M; Kim, H; Mallari, K J B; Pak, G; Yoon, J

    2015-01-01

    Both water quantity and quality are impacted by climate change. In addition, rapid urbanization has also brought an immeasurable loss of life and property resulting from floods. Hence, there is a need to predict changes in rainfall events to effectively design stormwater infrastructure to protect urban areas from disaster. This study develops a framework for predicting future short duration rainfall intensity and examining the effects of climate change on urban runoff in the Gunja Drainage Basin. Non-stationarities in rainfall records are first analysed using trend analysis to extrapolate future climate change scenarios. The US Environmental Protection Agency Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) was used for single event simulation of runoff quantity from the study area. For the 1-hour and 24-hour durations, statistically significant upward trends were observed. Although the 10-minute duration was only nearly significant at the 90% level, the steepest slope was observed for this short duration. Moreover, it was observed that the simulated peak discharge from SWMM increases as the short duration rainfall intensity increases. The proposed framework is thought to provide a means to review the current design of stormwater infrastructures to determine their capacity, along with consideration of climate change impact.

  5. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis Infection in Stray Cats by Nested PCR in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Won-Ja; Oh, Jung-Hyun; Maheswaran, Easwaran; Seo, Kyoung-Won

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a survey of Dirofilaria immitis infection among stray cats in Korea using nested PCR. We included 235 stray cats (121 females and 114 males) and evaluated each for the presence of feline heartworm infection. Blood samples were collected from 135 cats in Daejeon, 50 cats in Seoul, and 50 cats from Gyeonggi-do (Province). Of the 235 DNA samples, 14 (6.0%) were positive for D. immitis. The prevalence of infection in male cats (8/114, 7.0%) tended to be higher than that in female cats (6/121, 5.0%), but the difference was not statistically significant. In each location, 8, 2, and 4 cats were positive for infection, respectively, based on DNA testing. No significant differences in the prevalence were observed among the geographic regions, although the rate of infection was higher in Gyeonggi-do (8.0%) than Daejeon (5.9%) and Seoul (4.0%). We submitted 7 of the 14 D. immitis DNA-positive samples for sequencing analysis. All samples corresponded to partial D. immitis cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene sequences with 99% homology to the D. immitis sequence deposited in GenBank (accession no. FN391553). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first survey using nested PCR to analyze the prevalence of D. immitis in stray cats in Korea. PMID:25548424

  6. Dissolved organic nitrogen in precipitation at two contrasting sites in Korea: Urban versus Rural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, G.; Kim, G.

    2013-12-01

    It has been recognized that organic nitrogen is a significant and ubiquitous constituent of total fixed nitrogen in the atmosphere (contributing approx. 30% on average). Despite the growing number of studies being conducted on atmospheric organic nitrogen worldwide, virtually nothing is known about its distribution and characteristics in Korea. In this work, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was investigated in precipitation samples collected over a one-year period at two representative sites in Korea with contrasting environmental settings: Seoul (urban terrestrial, 2012-2013) and Uljin (background coastal, 2011-2012). The concentrations of DON in precipitation ranged from 0 to 72 μM (average of 11 μM) for Seoul, and from 0 to 145 μM (average of 30 μM) for Uljin, respectively. The fraction of total dissolved nitrogen (inorganic plus organic) composed by DON was found to be much higher in Uljin (28%) than that in Seoul (12%), which might indicate the significant contribution by natural sources to atmospheric DON. In addition, amino acids which are one of the most important components of atmospheric DON were also analyzed in our precipitation samples. The total concentrations (free plus combined) of 13 individual amino acids were determined by using high performance liquid chromatography after acidic liquid hydrolysis. The compositions of the amino acids pool showed considerable variations from sample to sample, suggesting the contributions from diverse sources and/or varying degradation states of the amino acids in our samples. Moreover, the D-amino acids (enantiomeric isomer) were found to be ubiquitous, with highest D/L ratios of 0.5, 0.5, 0.7, and 0.8 for aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, and alanine, respectively. The noteworthy presence of D-amino acids reveals the significant contributions to DON in our samples from bacterial biomass. Overall, our results fill the knowledge gap in distributions of atmospheric DON and contribute to the understanding of

  7. Protocol of a Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study (T-CALOS): a prospective, clinical and epidemiological study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Eun; Park, Young Joo; Cho, Belong; Hwang, Yunji; Choi, June Young; Kim, Su-jin; Choi, Hoonsung; Choi, Ho-Chun; An, Ah Reum; Park, Do Joon; Park, Sue K; Youn, Yeo-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Thyroid cancer incidence in Korea is the highest in the world and has recently increased steeply. However, factors contributing to this sudden increase have not been fully elucidated, and few studies have explored the postoperative prognosis. The Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study (T-CALOS) was initiated with three aims: (1) to identify factors predicting quality of life, recurrence, and incidence of other diseases after thyroid cancer treatments; (2) to investigate environmental exposure to radiation, toxicants and molecular factors in relation to tumour aggressiveness; and (3) to evaluate gene–environment interactions that increase thyroid cancer in comparison with healthy participants from a pool of nationwide population-based healthy examinees. Methods and analysis T-CALOS enrols patients with incident thyroid cancer from three general hospitals, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital and National Medical Center, Korea. The study is an ongoing project expecting to investigate 5000 patients with thyroid cancer up until 2017. Healthy examinees with a normal thyroid confirmed by sonography have been enrolled at the Healthy Examination Center at Seoul National University Hospital. We are also performing individual matching using two nationwide databases that are open to the public. Follow-up information is obtained at patients’ clinical visits and by linkage to the national database. For statistical analysis, we will use conditional logistic regression models and a Cox proportional hazard regression model. A number of stratifications and sensitivity analyses will be performed to confirm the results. Ethics and dissemination Based on a large sample size, a prospective study design, comprehensive data collection and biobank, T-CALOS has been independently peer-reviewed and approved by the three hospitals and two funding sources (National Research Foundation of Korea and Korean Foundation for Cancer Research

  8. Numerical Simulation and Analysis of the Localized Heavy Precipitation Event in South Korea based on diagnostic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Joon-Woo; Choi, Young-Jean

    2016-04-01

    Accurate prediction of precipitation is one of the most difficult and significant tasks in weather forecasting. Heavy precipitations in the Korean Peninsula are caused by various physical mechanisms, which are affected by shortwave trough, quasi-stationary moisture convergence zone among varying air masses, and a direct/indirect effect of tropical cyclone. Many previous studies have used observations, numerical modeling, and statistics to investigate the potential causes of warm-season heavy precipitation in South Korea. Especially, the frequency of warm-season torrential rainfall events more than 30 mm/h precipitation has increased threefold in Seoul, a metropolitan city in South Korea, in recent 30 years. Localized heavy rainfall events in South Korea generally arise from mesoscale convective systems embedded in these synoptic scale disturbances along the Changma front, or from convective instabilities resulting from unstable air masses. In order to investigate localized heavy precipitation system in Seoul metropolitan area, analysis and numerical experiment were performed for a typical event in 20 June 2014. This case is described to a structure of baroclinic instability associated with a short-wave trough from the northwest and high moist and warm air by a thermal low from the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. We investigated localized heavy precipitation in narrow zone of the Seoul urban area using numerical simulations based on the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model with convective scale. The topography and land use data of the revised U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) data and the appropriate set of physical scheme options for WRF model simulation were deliberated. Simulation experiments showed patches of primary physical structures related to the localized heavy precipitation using the diagnostic fields, which are storm relative helicity (SRH), updraft helicity (UH), and instantaneous contraction rates (ICON). SRH and UH are dominantly related to

  9. Serosurveillance of Scrub Typhus in Small Mammals Collected from Military Training Sites near the DMZ, Northern Gyeonggi-do, Korea, and Analysis of the Relative Abundance of Chiggers from Mammals Examined

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Hilton Hotel , Seoul, Korea. 21. Fuller HS, Smadel JE. Rickettsial diseases and the Korean conflia. Medical Science Publication No. 4, Recent Advances...harvesting and other outdoor activities . Additionally, small mammal surveillance was conducted prior to the onset of the primary "scrub typhus...habitats at risk for scrub typhus. Cantonment sites are often established adjacent to tall grasses and forested margins, while training activities

  10. Surface measurements of global warming causing atmospheric constituents in Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, S N; Youn, Y H; Park, K J; Min, H K; Schnell, R C

    2001-07-01

    The expansion of the industrial economy and the increase of population in Northeast Asian countries have caused much interest in climate monitoring related to global warming. However, new techniques and better platforms for the measurement of global warming and regional databases are still old-fashioned and are not being developed sufficiently. With respect to this agenda, since 1993, at the request of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), to monitor functions of global warming, the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) has set up a Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) Station on the western coast of Korea (Anmyun-do) and has been actively monitoring global warming over Northeast Asia. In addition, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has been measured for a similar KMA global warming program at Kosan, Cheju Island since 1990. Aerosol and radiation have also been measured at both sites as well as in Seoul. The observations have been analyzed using diagnostics of climate change in Northeast Asia and also have been internationally compared. Results indicate that greenhouse gases are in good statistic agreement with the NOAA/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) long-term trends of monthly mean concentrations and seasonal cycles. Atmospheric particulate matter has also been analyzed for particular Asian types in terms of optical depth, number concentration and size distribution.

  11. Occupational Lung Cancer Surveillance in South Korea, 2006-2009

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Ryu, Jeong-Seon; Won, Jong Uk; Moon, Jai Dong; Kim, Young-Chul; Koh, Sang Baek; Yong, Suk Joong; Kim, Soo Geun; Park, Jae Yong; Kim, Inah; Kim, Jung Il; Kim, Jung Won; Lee, Eui-cheol; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kang, Dong Mug; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The lung cancer mortality in Korea has increased remarkably during the last 20 years, and has been the first leading cause of cancer-related deaths since 2000. The aim of the current study was to examine the time trends of occupational lung cancer and carcinogens exposure during the period 2006-2009 in South Korea, by assessing the proportion of occupational burden. Methods We defined occupational lung cancer for surveillance, and developed a reporting protocol and reporting website for the surveillance of occupational lung cancer. The study patients were chosen from 9 participating university hospitals in the following 7 areas: Seoul, Incheon, Wonju, Daejeon, Daegu, Busan, and Gwangju. Results The combined proportion of definite and probable occupational lung cancer among all lung cancers investigated in this study was 10.0%, 8.6%, 10.7%, and 15.8% in the years 2006 to 2009, respectively, with an average of 11.7% over the four-year study period. The main carcinogens were asbestos, crystalline silica, radon, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), diesel exhaust particles, chromium, and nickel. Conclusion We estimated that about 11.7% of the incident lung cancer was preventable. This reveals the potential to considerably reduce lung cancer by intervention in occupational fields. PMID:22953173

  12. Ensemble Streamflow Prediction in Korea: Past and Future 5 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, D.; Kim, Y.; Lee, J.

    2005-05-01

    The Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) approach was first introduced in 2000 by the Hydrology Research Group (HRG) at Seoul National University as an alternative probabilistic forecasting technique for improving the 'Water Supply Outlook' That is issued every month by the Ministry of Construction and Transportation in Korea. That study motivated the Korea Water Resources Corporation (KOWACO) to establish their seasonal probabilistic forecasting system for the 5 major river basins using the ESP approach. In cooperation with the HRG, the KOWACO developed monthly optimal multi-reservoir operating systems for the Geum river basin in 2004, which coupled the ESP forecasts with an optimization model using sampling stochastic dynamic programming. The user interfaces for both ESP and SSDP have also been designed for the developed computer systems to become more practical. More projects for developing ESP systems to the other 3 major river basins (i.e. the Nakdong, Han and Seomjin river basins) was also completed by the HRG and KOWACO at the end of December 2004. Therefore, the ESP system has become the most important mid- and long-term streamflow forecast technique in Korea. In addition to the practical aspects, resent research experience on ESP has raised some concerns into ways of improving the accuracy of ESP in Korea. Jeong and Kim (2002) performed an error analysis on its resulting probabilistic forecasts and found that the modeling error is dominant in the dry season, while the meteorological error is dominant in the flood season. To address the first issue, Kim et al. (2004) tested various combinations and/or combining techniques and showed that the ESP probabilistic accuracy could be improved considerably during the dry season when the hydrologic models were combined and/or corrected. In addition, an attempt was also made to improve the ESP accuracy for the flood season using climate forecast information. This ongoing project handles three types of climate

  13. A waterborne outbreak and detection of cryptosporidium oocysts in drinking water of an older high-rise apartment complex in seoul.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun-Joo; Yang, Jin-Young; Lee, Eun-Sook; Kim, Se-Chul; Cha, So-Yang; Kim, Sung-Tek; Lee, Man-Ho; Han, Sun-Hee; Park, Young-Sang

    2013-08-01

    From May to June 2012, a waterborne outbreak of 124 cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred in the plumbing systems of an older high-rise apartment complex in Seoul, Republic of Korea. The residents of this apartment complex had symptoms of watery diarrhea and vomiting. Tap water samples in the apartment complex and its adjacent buildings were collected and tested for 57 parameters under the Korean Drinking Water Standards and for additional 11 microbiological parameters. The microbiological parameters included total colony counts, Clostridium perfringens, Enterococcus, fecal streptococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cryptosporidium oocysts, Giardia cysts, total culturable viruses, and Norovirus. While the tap water samples of the adjacent buildings complied with the Korean Drinking Water Standards for all parameters, fecal bacteria and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in the tap water samples of the outbreak apartment complex. It turned out that the agent of the disease was Cryptosporidium parvum. The drinking water was polluted with sewage from a septic tank in the apartment complex. To remove C. parvum oocysts, we conducted physical processes of cleaning the water storage tanks, flushing the indoor pipes, and replacing old pipes with new ones. Finally we restored the clean drinking water to the apartment complex after identification of no oocysts.

  14. A Waterborne Outbreak and Detection of Cryptosporidium Oocysts in Drinking Water of an Older High-Rise Apartment Complex in Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin-Young; Lee, Eun-Sook; Kim, Se-Chul; Cha, So-Yang; Kim, Sung-Tek; Lee, Man-Ho; Han, Sun-Hee; Park, Young-Sang

    2013-01-01

    From May to June 2012, a waterborne outbreak of 124 cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred in the plumbing systems of an older high-rise apartment complex in Seoul, Republic of Korea. The residents of this apartment complex had symptoms of watery diarrhea and vomiting. Tap water samples in the apartment complex and its adjacent buildings were collected and tested for 57 parameters under the Korean Drinking Water Standards and for additional 11 microbiological parameters. The microbiological parameters included total colony counts, Clostridium perfringens, Enterococcus, fecal streptococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cryptosporidium oocysts, Giardia cysts, total culturable viruses, and Norovirus. While the tap water samples of the adjacent buildings complied with the Korean Drinking Water Standards for all parameters, fecal bacteria and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in the tap water samples of the outbreak apartment complex. It turned out that the agent of the disease was Cryptosporidium parvum. The drinking water was polluted with sewage from a septic tank in the apartment complex. To remove C. parvum oocysts, we conducted physical processes of cleaning the water storage tanks, flushing the indoor pipes, and replacing old pipes with new ones. Finally we restored the clean drinking water to the apartment complex after identification of no oocysts. PMID:24039290

  15. Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery-dementia version (SNSB-D): a useful tool for assessing and monitoring cognitive impairments in dementia patients.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyun-Jung; Chin, Juhee; Park, Aram; Lee, Byung Hwa; Suh, Mee Kyung; Seo, Sang Won; Na, Duk L

    2010-07-01

    The Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB) is one of the standardized neuropsychological test batteries widely used in Korea. However, it may be a bit too lengthy for patients with decreased attention span; and it does not provide the score of global cognitive function (GCF), which is useful for monitoring patients longitudinally. We sought to validate a dementia version of SNSB (SNSB-D) that was shorter than the original SNSB and contained only scorable tests with a GCF score of 300. We administered SNSB-D to patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n=43) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n=93), and normal controls (NC) (n=77). MCI and AD groups had GCF scores significantly different from NC group, and GCF scores were able to distinguish patients with Clinical Dementia Rating of 0.5 and 1. Test-retest reliability was high, with a correlation coefficient of 0.918 for AD, 0.999 for MCI, and 0.960 for NC. The GCF score significantly correlated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Through ROC-curve analysis, GCF scores were found to yield more accurate diagnoses than the MMSE. The SNSB-D is a valid, reliable tool for assessing the overall cognitive function, and can be used to monitor cognitive changes in patients with dementia.

  16. [The introduction of Western psychiatry into Korea (II). Psychiatric education in Korea during the forced Japanese annexation of Korea (1910-1945)].

    PubMed

    Chung, Wonyong; Lee, Nami; Rhi, Bou-Yong

    2006-12-01

    In the second report in our series on the historical investigation on the introduction of western psychiatry into Korea, authors deal with the status of psychiatric education during the Japanese forced annexation of Korea. The first lecture on psychiatry in Korea under the title "Mental Diseases" was held in Dae-han-eui-won around 1910. In 1913, the Department of Psychiatry branched off from the Department of Internal Medicine of Chosen-sotoku-fu-iing, the Colonial Governmental Clinic, the successor of Dae-han-eui-won. The chairman, Professor Suiju Sinji; and the Korean assistant Sim Ho-seop administered the psychiatric ward with 35 beds. Since 1913, an Australian missionary psychiatrist, Dr. McLaren began to teach neurology and psychiatry at Severance Union Medical College and established a Department of Psychiatry in 1923. Dr. McLaren was a faithful Christian and open minded toward Oriental religious thought such as in Buddhism and Taoism. He devoted himself to the humanitarian care of mentally ill patients and served there until 1937 when he had to leave the land due to Japanese persecution. His disciple, Dr. Lee Jung Cheol succeeded the chair of the Psychiatric Department of Severance Medical College and served until 1939. In 1916, Keijo (Seoul) Medical College was established and in 1928, Keijo Teikoku Daigaku (Imperial University). From 1929 to 1941, the Department of Neurology and Psychiatry of Keijo Imperial University grew under the chairmanship of Professor Kubo Kioji followed by Professor Watanabe until 1945. Many assistants including a few Koreans were gathered to the Department for training and research. The main textbook used for the psychiatric education for medical students in Korea was on Kraepelinian German Psychiatry translated and edited by Japanese psychiatrists. Lectures and clerkships for Neurology and Psychiatry were allocated generally in the curriculum for senior students for weekly 1-3 hours. Postgraduate professional training for the

  17. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among overweight and obese college students in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cha, EunSeok; Burke, Lora E; Kim, Kevin H; Shin, Yun-A; Kim, Hee Young

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of metabolic risk factors among overweight and obese college students aged 18 to 29 years in Korea. Baseline data from a healthy lifestyle intervention study for overweight and obese college students in Korea were used. We recruited the sample (N = 73) (84% male; mean [SD] age, 23.77 [2.45] years) from 2 universities in Seoul, Korea, and measured body mass index, waist-hip circumstance, blood pressure, and fasting blood chemistry. Descriptive statistics, Spearman rank order correlations, and analysis of variance were conducted using SPSS 16.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois) for windows. Three-fourths of the participants were identified as being viscerally obese based on the Asia Pacific criteria. Of the total sample, about 12% and 20% were defined as having metabolic syndrome according to the National Cholesterol Education Program--the Adult Treatment Panel III and International Diabetes Federation, respectively. Concordance between the National Cholesterol Education Program--the Adult Treatment Panel III and International Diabetes Federation definitions was very good in the current study (Cohen kappa coefficient = 0.74, P <.001). Body mass index was significantly correlated with greater triglyceride and systolic and diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference but with lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Early screening and targeted interventions to prevent obesity and the metabolic syndrome are urgently needed to promote health for adolescents and young adults in South Korea.

  18. The current status and future perspectives of nuclear medicine in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Chul; Oh, So Won; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    2010-06-01

    Since the introduction of nuclear medicine in 1959, Korea accomplished a brilliant development in terms of both clinical practice and research activities, which was mainly due to the dedication of nuclear medicine specialists, consisting of physicians, technicians, and scientists, and strong support from the Korean Government. Now, Korea has 150 medical institutes, performing approximately 561,000 nuclear imaging procedures and 11.6 million in vitro studies in 2008, and ranked fourth in the number of presentations at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) in 2008. The successful progress in this field has allowed Korea to focus on the international promotion of nuclear medicine, especially in the developing and underdeveloped countries. In consequence, the Asian Regional Cooperative Council for Nuclear Medicine (ARCCNM) was established in 2001, and Seoul hosted the 9th Congress of the World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB) in 2006. In the future, Korea will strive to sustain its rate of advancement in the field and make every effort to share its progress and promote the exchange of scientific information at the international level.

  19. China and the Korean Peninsula: Beijing’s Pyongyang Problem and Seoul Hope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    observers need a clear idea of China’s objectives on the Korean Peninsula. In the abstract, a Korea that would best serve China’s interests would...publicly oppose reunification would offend Koreans on both sides of the 38th Parallel, and a divided Korea has clearly been advantageous in some ways...and areas of Manchuria with heavily ethnic Korean populations. A North Korea hostile to the United States has precluded the possibility of U.S. military

  20. Modification of the gravity model and application to the metropolitan Seoul subway system.

    PubMed

    Goh, Segun; Lee, Keumsook; Park, Jong Soo; Choi, M Y

    2012-08-01

    The Metropolitan Seoul Subway system is examined through the use of the gravity model. Exponents describing the power-law dependence on the time distance between stations are obtained, which reveals a universality for subway lines of the same topology. In the short (time) distance regime the number of passengers between stations does not grow with the decrease in the distance, thus deviating from the power-law behavior. It is found that such reduction in passengers is well described by the Hill function. Further, temporal fluctuations in the passenger flow data, fitted to the gravity model modified by the Hill function, are analyzed to reveal the Yule-type nature inherent in the structure of Seoul.

  1. [Seoul hantavirus infection-associated hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in France: A case report].

    PubMed

    Bour, A; Reynes, J-M; Plaisancie, X; Dufour, J-F

    2016-07-01

    Rodents are hantavirus hosts. In Europe, hantaviruses are responsible for human infections resulting in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Thousands of Puumala virus infections are reported annually in Europe, whereas human Seoul virus infections are rarely detected. We report the case of a 38-year-old patient who presented initially with flu-like symptoms and transitory blurred vision. He developed thrombocytopenia, acute renal failure, and elevated aminotransferases levels during the disease course, but the outcome was favorable with a full recovery. Afterwards, the hantavirus serology results were indicative of Seoul virus infection. This report serves to remind physicians to consider diagnosing hantavirus infection when observing the association of fever, acute renal failure and thrombocytopenia. Transitory blurred vision is a specific element to indicate this diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Characteristics of MSW and heat energy recovery between residential and commercial areas in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sora; Yoo, Kee-Young; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2011-03-01

    This paper analyzes the amount and characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW) according to the inhabitant density of population and the business concentration in 25 districts in Seoul. Further, the heat energy recovery and avoided CO(2) emissions of four incineration plants located in residential and commercial areas in Seoul are examined. The amount of residential waste per capita tended to increase as the density of inhabitants decreased. The amount of commercial waste per capita tended to increase as the business concentration increased. The examination of the heat energy recovery characteristics indicated that the four incineration plants produced heat energy that depended on residential or commercial areas based on population and business. The most important result regarding avoided CO(2) emissions was that commercial areas with many office-type businesses had the most effective CO(2) emission savings by combusting 1 kg of waste. Assuming the full-scale operation of the four incineration plants, the amount of saved CO(2) emissions per year was 444 Gg CO(2) and 57,006 households in Seoul can be provided with heat energy equivalent to 542,711 Nm(3) of LNG.

  3. Sex differences in immune responses and viral shedding following Seoul virus infection in Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Klein, S L; Bird, B H; Glass, G E

    2001-07-01

    In the field, male rodents are more frequently infected with hantaviruses than females. This study examined whether patterns of immune responses against hantavirus differed between the sexes. Male and female Long Evans rats (Rattus norvegicus) were inoculated with Seoul virus, and antibody and cytokine responses, as well as virus shedding were assessed. Males were more likely to shed virus in saliva, to shed virus through multiple routes (saliva, urine, and feces), and to have viral RNA in the spleen than females. Anti-Seoul virus IgG responses were higher in males than females. In both sexes, splenic IFNgamma and IL-4 production increased following infection. After infection, males had higher Th1 immune responses (i.e., IgG2a, IFNgamma, and IL-2) than females; in contrast, Th2 immune responses (i.e., IgG1, IL-4, and IL-10) were similar between the sexes. These data suggest that immune responses to Seoul virus differ between the sexes.

  4. The Effects of Occupational Stress, Work-Centrality, Self-Efficacy, and Job Satisfaction on Intent to Quit Among Long-Term Care Workers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeongkyu; Yoon, Seokwon; Moon, Sung Seek; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Park, Jueun

    2017-01-01

    A large and growing population of elderly Koreans with chronic conditions necessitates an increase in long-term care. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of occupational stress, work-centrality, self-efficacy, and job satisfaction on intent to leave among long-term care workers in Korea. We tested the hypothesized structural equation model predicting the intention to quit among long-term care workers in Korea. Survey data were collected from 532 long-term care workers in Seoul, Korea. Results showed that occupational stress was positively associated with intention to leave the job. The study also identified several possible mediators (self-efficacy, work-centrality, job satisfaction) in the relationship between stress and intent to quit. Evidence-based stress management interventions are suggested to help the workers better cope with stressors. Mentoring programs should also be considered for new workers.

  5. Open-path FTIR ozone measurements in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, William T.; Perry, Stephen H.; Han, Jin-Seok; Park, Chul-Jin

    1999-02-01

    In July 1997 the Republic of Korea became the 15th country to exceed 10-million registered motor vehicles. The number of cars has been increasing exponentially in Korea for the past 12 years opening an era of one car per household in this nation with a population of 44 million. The air quality effects of the growth of increasingly congested motor vehicle traffic in Seoul, home to more than one-fourth of the entire population, is of great concern to Korea's National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER). AIL's Open-Path FTIR air quality monitor, RAM 2000TM, has been used to quantify the ozone increase over the course of a warm summer day. The RAM 2000 instrument was setup on the roof of the 6-story NIER headquarters. The retroreflector was sited 180-m away across a major highway where it was tripod-mounted on top of the 6- story Korean National Institute of Health facility. During the Open-Path FTIR data taking, NIER Air Physics Division research team periodically tethered an airborne balloon containing pump and a potassium iodide solution to obtain absolute ozone concentration results which indicated that the ambient ozone level was 50 ppb when the Open-Path FTIR measurements began. Total ozone concentrations exceeded 120 ppb for five hours between 11:30 AM and 4:30 PM. The peak ozone concentration measured was 199 ppb at 12:56 PM. The averaged concentration for five and a half hours of data collection was 145 ppb. Ammonia concentrations were also measured.

  6. Seroepidemiological study of Helicobacter pylori infection in asymptomatic people in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Kim, H Y; Kim, N Y; Kim, S W; Kim, J G; Kim, J J; Roe, I H; Seo, J K; Sim, J G; Ahn, H; Yoon, B C; Lee, S W; Lee, Y C; Chung, I S; Jung, H Y; Hong, W S; Choi, K W

    2001-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection occurs throughout the world and causes gastroduodenal diseases in all age groups. The prevalence of H. pylori infection varies between countries and races. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection in asymptomatic healthy people in South Korea. From March 1998 to October 1998, 5732 asymptomatic subjects who responded to the self-assessment questionnaires from 54 hospitals in South Korea were enrolled in this study. The serum levels of antibodies for H. pylori immunoglobulinG were measured by using an ELISA test. The overall seroprevalence of H. pylori infection was 46.6% and there was no statistical difference between males (47.2%) and females (45.9%). In adults, a significant difference was observed between genders. According to the geographic areas, the high prevalent provinces were Kangwon (53.4%), Cheju (52.9%) and Cholla province (50.6%); Seoul (41.9%) was the lowest prevalent area. The seroprevalence increased with age and was highest when patients were aged in their 40s (78.5%). The characteristic feature of our study was that the infection rate was steeply increased in three age groups (10-12 year olds, 16-19 year olds and those aged in their 20s). In Seoul, there was no difference in the prevalence rate among the districts studied. This nation-wide seroprevalence of H. pylori infection in South Korea was 46.6%, which showed the transition from a developing country to a developed country. More studies on the epidemiological factors and the route of transmission of H. pylori infection should be warranted.

  7. Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Livestock Agriculture in 16 Local Administrative Districts of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Eun Sook; Park, Kyu-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from livestock agriculture in 16 local administrative districts of Korea from 1990 to 2030. National Inventory Report used 3 yr averaged livestock population but this study used 1 yr livestock population to find yearly emission fluctuations. Extrapolation of the livestock population from 1990 to 2009 was used to forecast future livestock population from 2010 to 2030. Past (yr 1990 to 2009) and forecasted (yr 2010 to 2030) averaged enteric CH4 emissions and CH4 and N2O emissions from manure treatment were estimated. In the section of enteric fermentation, forecasted average CH4 emissions from 16 local administrative districts were estimated to increase by 4%–114% compared to that of the past except for Daejeon (−63%), Seoul (−36%) and Gyeonggi (−7%). As for manure treatment, forecasted average CH4 emissions from the 16 local administrative districts were estimated to increase by 3%–124% compared to past average except for Daejeon (−77%), Busan (−60%), Gwangju (−48%) and Seoul (−8%). For manure treatment, forecasted average N2O emissions from the 16 local administrative districts were estimated to increase by 10%–153% compared to past average CH4 emissions except for Daejeon (−60%), Seoul (−4.0%), and Gwangju (−0.2%). With the carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (CO2-Eq), forecasted average CO2-Eq from the 16 local administrative districts were estimated to increase by 31%–120% compared to past average CH4 emissions except Daejeon (−65%), Seoul (−24%), Busan (−18%), Gwangju (−8%) and Gyeonggi (−1%). The decreased CO2-Eq from 5 local administrative districts was only 34 kt, which was insignificantly small compared to increase of 2,809 kt from other 11 local administrative districts. Annual growth rates of enteric CH4 emissions, CH4 and N2O emissions from manure management in Korea from 1990 to 2009 were 1.7%, 2.6%, and 3.2%, respectively. The

  8. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock agriculture in 16 local administrative districts of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ji, Eun Sook; Park, Kyu-Hyun

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from livestock agriculture in 16 local administrative districts of Korea from 1990 to 2030. National Inventory Report used 3 yr averaged livestock population but this study used 1 yr livestock population to find yearly emission fluctuations. Extrapolation of the livestock population from 1990 to 2009 was used to forecast future livestock population from 2010 to 2030. Past (yr 1990 to 2009) and forecasted (yr 2010 to 2030) averaged enteric CH4 emissions and CH4 and N2O emissions from manure treatment were estimated. In the section of enteric fermentation, forecasted average CH4 emissions from 16 local administrative districts were estimated to increase by 4%-114% compared to that of the past except for Daejeon (-63%), Seoul (-36%) and Gyeonggi (-7%). As for manure treatment, forecasted average CH4 emissions from the 16 local administrative districts were estimated to increase by 3%-124% compared to past average except for Daejeon (-77%), Busan (-60%), Gwangju (-48%) and Seoul (-8%). For manure treatment, forecasted average N2O emissions from the 16 local administrative districts were estimated to increase by 10%-153% compared to past average CH4 emissions except for Daejeon (-60%), Seoul (-4.0%), and Gwangju (-0.2%). With the carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (CO2-Eq), forecasted average CO2-Eq from the 16 local administrative districts were estimated to increase by 31%-120% compared to past average CH4 emissions except Daejeon (-65%), Seoul (-24%), Busan (-18%), Gwangju (-8%) and Gyeonggi (-1%). The decreased CO2-Eq from 5 local administrative districts was only 34 kt, which was insignificantly small compared to increase of 2,809 kt from other 11 local administrative districts. Annual growth rates of enteric CH4 emissions, CH4 and N2O emissions from manure management in Korea from 1990 to 2009 were 1.7%, 2.6%, and 3.2%, respectively. The annual growth rate of total CO2-Eq was 2

  9. Tsunami Run-up Heights at Imwon Port, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yong-Sik; Cho, Jeong-Seon

    2015-04-01

    Tsunami Run-up Heights at Imwon Port, Korea Yong-Sik Cho and Jeong-Seon Cho Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791, Korea. The Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula has been attacked frequently by a number of tsunamis causing severe damages during this century. Among them, 1983 Central East Sea and 1993 Hokkaido Tsunami events were recorded as the most devastating events in Korea. More recently, the Great East Japan Tsunami had also attacked the Korean Peninsula. The Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula is the terminal place where tsunamis climb up inland after it generated along the western coast of Japan. The central part of the coast, in special, is worried as a tsunami danger zone because much tsunami energy is concentrated on by a topographic condition of this region. Recently, several coastal facilities including harbors and breakwaters are built and operated along the Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula. Furthermore, several nuclear power plants are already operating and several more units are now under construction. Residents who lived alongside the coast want free from unexpected danger, so the tsunami hazard mitigation becomes an important issue of coastal problems in Korea. Through the historical tsunami events, the Imwon Port is known as the place where most severe damage occurred, especially in 1983. An effective and economic way for the tsunami hazard mitigation planning is to construct inundation maps along the coast vulnerable to tsunami flooding. These maps should be built based on the historical tsunami events and the projected scenarios. For this purpose, an accurate estimation of tsunami run-up height and inundation process through the numerical model is needed. As a first step to tsunami mitigation program, the maximum run-up heights at the Imwon Port are computed and compared with field observed data. For this, tsunami run-up heights in this region were filed

  10. Korea's School Grounds Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Joohun

    2003-01-01

    This article describes two projects which Korea has undertaken to improve its school grounds: (1) the Green School Project; and (2) the School Forest Pilot Project. The Korean Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOE&HRI) recently launched the Green School Project centred on existing urban schools with poor outdoor…

  11. Dance Education in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byeon, Jae-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Despite a structured physical education system and related policies, dance education in Korea largely exists as a course in name only, without achieving its unique goals. It lacks standards within the physical education curriculum, which indicates that dance education is not conducted properly. Thus, the content and level of dance education vary…

  12. Divided Korea: United Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumings, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Korea's recorded history extends back before the birth of Christ. Through their long history, the Koreans have endured a variety of social, political, and economical crises. Confucianism has long been one of the most popular religions by which the Korean people have lived. However, Koreans also have embraced Buddhism and Christianity while…

  13. Educational Facilities in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Describes a Korean program to modernize school buildings and equipment to better meet current teaching needs.Examines Korea's education and administrative systems, and the Ministry of Education's involvement in schooling trends, facilities for higher education, and developments in information and technology. (GR)

  14. Korea's School Grounds Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Joohun

    2003-01-01

    This article describes two projects which Korea has undertaken to improve its school grounds: (1) the Green School Project; and (2) the School Forest Pilot Project. The Korean Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOE&HRI) recently launched the Green School Project centred on existing urban schools with poor outdoor…

  15. Temporal trends in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival outcomes between two metropolitan communities: Seoul-Osaka resuscitation study.

    PubMed

    Ro, Young Sun; Shin, Sang Do; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Lee, Eui Jung; Kajino, Kentaro; Song, Kyoung Jun; Nishiyama, Chika; Kong, So Yeon; Sakai, Tomohiko; Nishiuchi, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Yasuyuki; Iwami, Taku

    2015-06-09

    The objective of this study was to compare the temporal trends in survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) between two large metropolitan communities in Asia and evaluate the factors affecting survival after OHCA. A population-based prospective observational study. The Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance (CAVAS) project in Seoul and the Utstein Osaka Project in Osaka. A total of 36,292 resuscitation-attempted OHCAs with cardiac aetiology from 2006 to 2011 in Seoul and Osaka (11,082 in Seoul and 25,210 in Osaka). The primary outcome was neurologically favourable survival. Trend analysis and multivariable Poisson regression models were conducted to evaluate the temporal trends in survival of two communities. During the study period, the overall neurologically favourable survival was 2.6% in Seoul and 4.6% in Osaka (p<0.01). In both communities, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) rates increased significantly from 2006 to 2011 (from 0.1% to 13.1% in Seoul and from 33.3% to 41.7% in Osaka). OHCAs that occurred in public places increased in Seoul (12.5% to 20.1%, p for trend <0.01) and decreased in Osaka (13.5% to 10.5%, p for trend <0.01). The proportion of OHCAs defibrillated by emergency medical service (EMS) providers was only 0.4% in 2006 but increased to 17.5% in 2011 in Seoul, whereas the proportion in Osaka decreased from 17.7% to 13.7% (both p for trend <0.01). Age-adjusted and gender-adjusted rates of neurologically favourable survival increased significantly in Seoul from 1.4% in 2006 to 4.3% in 2011 (adjusted rate ratio per year, 1.17; p for trend <0.01), whereas no significant improvement was observed in Osaka (3.6% in 2006 and 5.1% in 2011; adjusted rate ratio per year, 1.03; p for trend=0.08). Survivals after OHCA were increased in Seoul while remained constant in Osaka, which may have been affected by the differences and improvements of patient, community, and EMS system factors. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  16. Contributions of processed foods to dietary intake in the US from 2003-2008: a report of the Food and Nutrition Science Solutions Joint Task Force of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council.

    PubMed

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R

    2012-11-01

    Processed foods are an integral part of American diets, but a comparison of the nutrient contribution of foods by level of processing with the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans regarding nutrients to encourage or to reduce has not been documented. The mean reported daily dietary intakes of these nutrients and other components were examined among 25,351 participants ≥2 y of age in the 2003-2008 NHANES to determine the contribution of processed food to total intakes. Also examined was the percent contribution of each nutrient to the total reported daily nutrient intake for each of the 5 categories of food that were defined by the level of processing. All processing levels contributed to nutrient intakes, and none of the levels contributed solely to nutrients to be encouraged or solely to food components to be reduced. The processing level was a minor determinant of individual foods' nutrient contribution to the diet and, therefore, should not be a primary factor when selecting a balanced diet.

  17. Sex differences in the recognition of and innate antiviral responses to Seoul virus in Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Michele F; Bajic, Vladimir B; Klein, Sabra L

    2008-05-01

    Among rodents that carry hantaviruses, more males are infected than females. Male rats also have elevated copies of Seoul virus RNA and reduced transcription of immune-related genes in the lungs than females. To further characterize sex differences in antiviral defenses and whether these differences are mediated by gonadal hormones, we examined viral RNA in the lungs, virus shedding in saliva, and antiviral defenses among male and female rats that were intact, gonadectomized neonatally, or gonadectomized in adulthood. Following inoculation with Seoul virus, high amounts viral RNA persisted longer in lungs from intact males than intact females. Removal of the gonads in males reduced the amount of viral RNA to levels comparable with intact females at 40 days post-inoculation (p.i.). Intact males shed more virus in saliva than intact females 15 days p.i.; removal of the gonads during either the neonatal period or in adulthood increased virus shedding in females and decreased virus shedding in males. Induction of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs; Tlr7 and Rig-I), expression of antiviral genes (Myd88, Visa, Jun, Irf7, Ifnbeta, Ifnar1, Jak2, Stat3, and Mx2), and production of Mx protein was elevated in the lungs of intact females compared with intact males. Gonadectomy had more robust effects on the induction of PRRs than on downstream IFNbeta or Mx2 expression. Putative androgen and estrogen response elements are present in the promoters of several of these antiviral genes, suggesting the propensity for sex steroids to directly affect dimorphic antiviral responses against Seoul virus infection.

  18. [Distribution of airborne fungi, particulate matter and carbon dioxide in Seoul metropolitan subway stations].

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Youn; Park, Jae Beom; Kim, Chi Nyon; Lee, Kyung Jong

    2006-07-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the level of airborne fungi and environmental factors in Seoul metropolitan subway stations and to provide fundamental data to protect the health of subway workers and passengers. The field survey was performed from November in 2004 to February in 2005. A total 22 subway stations located at Seoul subway lines 1-4 were randomly selected. The measurement points were subway workers' activity areas (station office, bedroom, ticket office and driver's seat) and the passengers' activity areas (station precincts, inside train and platform). Air sampling for collecting airborne fungi was carried out using a one-stage cascade impactor. The PM and CO2 were measured using an electronic direct recorder and detecting tube, respectively. In the activity areas of the subway workers and passengers, the mean concentrations of airborne fungi were relatively higher in the workers' bedroom and station precinct whereas the concentration of particulate matter, PM10 and PM2.5, were relatively higher in the platform, inside the train and driver's seat than in the other activity areas. There was no significant difference in the concentration of airborne fungi between the underground and ground activity areas of the subway. The mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentration in the platform located at underground was significantly higher than that of the ground (p<0.05). The levels of airborne fungi in the Seoul subway line 1-4 were not serious enough to cause respiratory disease in subway workers and passengers. This indicates that there is little correlation between airborne fungi and particulate matter.

  19. Chemical composition of major VOC emission sources in the Seoul atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Na, Kwangsam; Kim, Yong Pyo; Moon, Il; Moon, Kil-Choo

    2004-04-01

    This paper describes a chemical analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for five emission sources in Seoul. The source categories included motor vehicle exhaust, gasoline evaporation, paint solvents, natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). These sources were selected because they have been known to emit significant quantities of VOCs in the Seoul area (more than 5% of the total emission inventory). Chemical compositions of the five emission sources are presented for a group of 45 C2-C9 VOCs. Motor vehicle exhaust profiles were developed by conducting an urban tunnel study. These emissions profiles were distinguished from the other emission profiles by a high weight percentage of butanes over seasons and propane in the wintertime. It was found that this is due to the wide use of butane-fueled vehicles. To obtain gasoline vapor profiles, gasoline samples from five major brands for each season were selected. The brands were blended on the basis of the marketshare of these brands in Seoul area. Raoult's law was used to calculate gasoline evaporative compositions based on the liquid gasoline compositions. The measured and estimated gasoline vapor compositions were found to be in good agreement. Vehicle and gasoline evaporation profiles were made over seasons because of the seasonal change in their compositions. Paint solvent emissions profiles were produced based on a product-use survey and sales figures. These profiles are a composite of four major oil-based paints and thinning solvent. The source profile of natural gas was made on a methane-free basis. It was found that Ethane and propane were the most abundant compounds accounting for 95% of the natural gas composition. LPG was largely composed of propane and ethane and the remaining components were minor contributors.

  20. Emergence of Criticality in the Transportation Passenger Flow: Scaling and Renormalization in the Seoul Bus System

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Segun; Lee, Keumsook; Choi, MooYoung; Fortin, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Social systems have recently attracted much attention, with attempts to understand social behavior with the aid of statistical mechanics applied to complex systems. Collective properties of such systems emerge from couplings between components, for example, individual persons, transportation nodes such as airports or subway stations, and administrative districts. Among various collective properties, criticality is known as a characteristic property of a complex system, which helps the systems to respond flexibly to external perturbations. This work considers the criticality of the urban transportation system entailed in the massive smart card data on the Seoul transportation network. Analyzing the passenger flow on the Seoul bus system during one week, we find explicit power-law correlations in the system, that is, power-law behavior of the strength correlation function of bus stops and verify scale invariance of the strength fluctuations. Such criticality is probed by means of the scaling and renormalization analysis of the modified gravity model applied to the system. Here a group of nearby (bare) bus stops are transformed into a (renormalized) “block stop” and the scaling relations of the network density turn out to be closely related to the fractal dimensions of the system, revealing the underlying structure. Specifically, the resulting renormalized values of the gravity exponent and of the Hill coefficient give a good description of the Seoul bus system: The former measures the characteristic dimensionality of the network whereas the latter reflects the coupling between distinct transportation modes. It is thus demonstrated that such ideas of physics as scaling and renormalization can be applied successfully to social phenomena exemplified by the passenger flow. PMID:24599221

  1. Emergence of criticality in the transportation passenger flow: scaling and renormalization in the Seoul bus system.

    PubMed

    Goh, Segun; Lee, Keumsook; Choi, Moo Young; Fortin, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Social systems have recently attracted much attention, with attempts to understand social behavior with the aid of statistical mechanics applied to complex systems. Collective properties of such systems emerge from couplings between components, for example, individual persons, transportation nodes such as airports or subway stations, and administrative districts. Among various collective properties, criticality is known as a characteristic property of a complex system, which helps the systems to respond flexibly to external perturbations. This work considers the criticality of the urban transportation system entailed in the massive smart card data on the Seoul transportation network. Analyzing the passenger flow on the Seoul bus system during one week, we find explicit power-law correlations in the system, that is, power-law behavior of the strength correlation function of bus stops and verify scale invariance of the strength fluctuations. Such criticality is probed by means of the scaling and renormalization analysis of the modified gravity model applied to the system. Here a group of nearby (bare) bus stops are transformed into a (renormalized) "block stop" and the scaling relations of the network density turn out to be closely related to the fractal dimensions of the system, revealing the underlying structure. Specifically, the resulting renormalized values of the gravity exponent and of the Hill coefficient give a good description of the Seoul bus system: The former measures the characteristic dimensionality of the network whereas the latter reflects the coupling between distinct transportation modes. It is thus demonstrated that such ideas of physics as scaling and renormalization can be applied successfully to social phenomena exemplified by the passenger flow.

  2. Women in Physics in Nigeria: 2003-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuwape, Ibiyinka; Okeke, Francisca; Ajayi, Modupe; Popoola, Oyebola; Olayanju, Olugbenga

    2009-04-01

    One of the vital ingredients for development of any nation is knowledge of basic science, of which physics is the root source. There is poor enrollment of women in physics at both secondary and tertiary levels of education in Nigeria. Recently, the number of women enrolling in physics in Nigeria has increased slightly, but women are yet to distinguish themselves fully in the field. With a population of about 140 million people, of which more than 50% are women, Nigeria still has low student enrollment for females in physics compared with other courses. After the first and second IUPAP Women in Physics conferences in 2002 and 2005, there has been some improvement for women in physics in Nigeria, through the implementation of some of the resolutions reached at these conferences. We anticipate that implementing the strategies from this Third IUPAP Women in Physics Conference will yield positive fruits, as well.

  3. Emulating multiple inheritance in Fortran 2003/2008

    DOE PAGES

    Morris, Karla

    2015-01-24

    Although the high-performance computing (HPC) community increasingly embraces object-oriented programming (OOP), most HPC OOP projects employ the C++ programming language. Until recently, Fortran programmers interested in mining the benefits of OOP had to emulate OOP in Fortran 90/95. The advent of widespread compiler support for Fortran 2003 now facilitates explicitly constructing object-oriented class hierarchies via inheritance and leveraging related class behaviors such as dynamic polymorphism. Although C++ allows a class to inherit from multiple parent classes, Fortran and several other OOP languages restrict or prohibit explicit multiple inheritance relationships in order to circumvent several pitfalls associated with them. Nonetheless, whatmore » appears as an intrinsic feature in one language can be modeled as a user-constructed design pattern in another language. The present paper demonstrates how to apply the facade structural design pattern to support a multiple inheritance class relationship in Fortran 2003. As a result, the design unleashes the power of the associated class relationships for modeling complicated data structures yet avoids the ambiguities that plague some multiple inheritance scenarios.« less

  4. Electronic Play, Study, Communication, and Adolescent Achievement, 2003-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Moon, Ui Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents' time spent messaging, exploring websites, and studying on the computer increased between 2003 and 2008. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics Child Development Supplement, this study examines how such changes have influenced individual achievement and behavior from childhood to adolescence. Greater communications and…

  5. Electronic Play, Study, Communication, and Adolescent Achievement, 2003-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Moon, Ui Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents' time spent messaging, exploring websites, and studying on the computer increased between 2003 and 2008. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics Child Development Supplement, this study examines how such changes have influenced individual achievement and behavior from childhood to adolescence. Greater communications and…

  6. 'Paramedical' Healing in Hospitals: The Expansion of Spiritual Care in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Park, Irene Yung

    2016-03-01

    Emotional and spiritual healing stand at the center of the activity of Catholic pastoral caregivers attending to the sick in non-Catholic hospitals in Seoul. In this paper I explore how these agents understand their practice as part of a holistic human healing, positioning their work side by side with medical healing. I also examine how their role is both confirmed and challenged against the backdrop of the growing commercialization of the health care industry under the neoliberal paradigm. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Characteristics of ground-level ozone distributions in Korea for the period of 1990-1995.

    SciTech Connect

    Ghim, Y. S.; Chang, Y.-S.; Environmental Assessment; Korea Inst. of Science and Technology

    2000-04-16

    General characteristics and trends of ground-level ozone were investigated by using observations from over 80 stations in Korea for the period of 1990-1995. In general, seasonal ozone variations are characterized by a spring peak with decreased levels in the summer, followed by increases in the fall. In summer, owing to frequent precipitation, monthly average ozone levels notably decreased in most coastal areas, while a weak depression was observed in inland stations, sustained by photochemical ozone buildup under relatively low wind speeds. Coupled with frequent precipitation in summer, with high ozone-forming potential, low wind speeds in inland areas play a significant role in local variations of ozone concentrations. Accordingly, ozone concentrations vary in a quite different manner among monitoring stations in the Greater Seoul Area, as well as among major cities nationwide. On the whole, monthly average ozone concentrations in major cities, whether located in inland or coastal areas, are about 10-20 ppb lower than background levels of 30-40 ppb typical of the Northern Hemisphere. These lower concentrations are likely due to the titration effect of local NO{sub x} emissions, which is a clear indication of urban characteristics for most of the stations. Next, ozone concentration variations at 34-37 stations in the Greater Seoul Area, characterized by typical photochemical air pollution, were closely investigated. Special efforts were made to clarify the effects of transport within the Greater Seoul Area on the ozone concentration variations, a long-standing question at issue, by examining monthly variations of percentile values and frequency distributions of hourly ozone concentrations. It is believed that complex local variations across the nation are superimposed on underlying effects from the Asian continent and the ocean, located to the west and northeast of the Korean Peninsula, respectively. Further research is needed to quantify the relative importance

  8. Classification and its scale analysis of Severe Haze recently observed in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. M.; Eun, S. H.; Kim, B. G.; Kim, S. W.; Park, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Cloud-aerosol-precipitation interactions mechanism is heavily dependent upon scale problems, and thus the first thing to understand its mechanism is to quantify the time (or spatial) scale of forcing driver, aerosols. This study is focused on recently occurring dense haze episodes accompanied with severe visibility impairment from 2011 to 2013 at two adjacent monitoring stations (Baengnyeongdo and Seoul) in Korea. Baengnyeongdo is an island being located 200 km west from Seoul. First of all, we have tested various flow charts to classify the various categories of heavy haze events by making use of aerosol scattering coefficient, PM2.5, and time lag difference of PM2.5 increase time at both stations, backward trajectories, and the ratio of PM2.5 to PM10 specifically in the quantitative perspective. One of them is selected for this study. Long range transported haze (LH) and Yellow Sand (YS) show very distinctive time lags of both PM2.5 and PM10 between both stations, but much higher ratio of PM2.5 to PM10 for LH in comparison with YS. Meanwhile urban haze (UH) has a significant increase in PM2.5 only at Seoul as easily expected. Time scales (e-folding time) of aerosol light scattering coefficients for LH and UH are 6-12 hrs and 7-16 hrs, respectively calculated for several episodes according to the criteria developed, which eventually corresponds to spatial scale of 120 - 240 km, 140 - 320 km, respectively by assuming average boundary wind speed, 5.6 m/s (Anderson et al., 2003). In general, long-range transported hazes have larger temporal and spatial dimension (about meso-a scale) than domestic hazes, after carefully designed classification of haze episodes. These results can be an useful basis for the estimation of regional aerosol radiative forcings in East Asia.

  9. Regional Differences in Treatment Frequency and Case-Fatality Rates in Korean Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Using the Korea National Health Insurance Claims Database

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae-Seok; Kang, Hee-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Issues regarding healthcare disparity continue to increase in connection with access to quality care for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), even though the case-fatality rate (CFR) continues to decrease. We explored regional variation in AMI CFRs and examined whether the variation was due to disparities in access to quality medical services for AMI patients. A dataset was constructed from the Korea National Health Insurance Claims Database to conduct a retrospective cohort study of 95,616 patients who were admitted to a hospital in Korea from 2003 to 2007 with AMI. Each patient was followed in the claims database for information about treatment after admission or death. The procedure rate decreased as the region went “down” from Seoul to the county level, whereas the AMI CFR increased as the county level as a function of proximity to the county level (30-day AMI CFRs: Seoul, 16.4%; metropolitan areas, 16.2%, cities; 18.8%, counties, 39.4%). Even after adjusting for covariates, an identical regional variation in the odds of patients receiving treatment services and dying was identified. After adjusting for invasive and medical management variables in addition to earlier covariates, the death risk in the counties remained statistically significantly higher than in Seoul; however, the degree of the difference decreased greatly and the significant differences in metropolitan areas and cities disappeared. Policy interventions are needed to increase access to quality AMI care in county-level local areas because regional differences in the AMI CFR are likely caused by differences in the performance of medical and invasive management among the regions of Korea. Additionally, a public education program to increase the awareness of early symptoms and the necessity of visiting the hospital early should be established as the first priority to improve the outcome of AMI patents, especially in county-level local areas. PMID:25526465

  10. Korea's Robotland: Merging Intelligent Robotics Strategic Policy, Business Development, and Fun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Eugene

    South Korea specializes in the design and manufacture of service and entertainment robots for consumer use. The government of South Korea considers robotics one of the countries main growth industries. To boost robot industry and accelerate the social demand of intelligent robots, a theme park titled ’Robotland’ is being constructed in Korea near Incheon International airport, the gateway to Seoul. A total of 700 million will be invested by the Korean government, the city of Incheon and financial investors. The 760,000 square meter site (188 acres) will contains a number of displays featuring famous robots and robot characters from around the world. Ultra-modern rides and amusement facilities, exhibition halls, shopping arcades and hotels, featuring advanced ubiquitous environments, will also be included in the park. In addition, Robotland will contain R&D centers and educational institutions. The Grand opening is scheduled in 2012. In this session, attendees will hear of development plans for Robotland, along with the social and business issues that are driving the development of the world’s first theme park.

  11. Recent change in congenital syphilis in Korea: Retrospective 10 year study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sung-Han; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Sun-Hee; Lee, Jin; Yoon, Hoi Soo; Cha, Sung-Ho; Choi, Yong-Sung

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate recent clinical and anthropologic features of neonates with reactive serology for syphilis and their mothers from three institutions in Korea over an 11-year-period. The medical records of 20 neonates with reactive serology for syphilis and their mothers at three centers (Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, and Korea Electric Power Corporation Hospital) seen between January 2000 and December 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Among 20 mothers, 16 (80%) were native Korean and four (20%) were foreign-born immigrants. Two mothers (10%) were unmarried. The annual distribution of cases was three (15%) in 2000, one each (5%) in 2005 and 2006, respectively, two each (10%) in 2007 and 2008, respectively, six (30%) in 2009, and five (25%) in 2010. Just over half (55%) occurred across 2009 and 2010. All neonates, by definition, were diagnosed with presumptive congenital syphilis (CS). Among the neonates, four had positive cerebrospinal fluid venereal disease research laboratory test, and three exhibited symptoms and signs. In three centers in Seoul, Korea, the observed number of CS cases was higher in 2009 and 2010 than in previous years. This finding is consistent with a trend toward increasing prevalence of international marriage and suggests that more meticulous screening of CS is needed. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. [Statistical analysis of existing ancient medical works in Japan and Korea and the development value].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yong-Zhi; Zhang, Li-Jun; Li, Chun-Mei; Quan, Shi-Yu; Zhou, Min

    2011-03-01

    The category, number, date of writing, circulated copies and library collection situation of 12275 Japanese medical works before 1912 and 416 Korean medical works before 1910 were analyzed. Most of these medical books are clinical books, which reflected the emphasis on clinical practice and conclusions in the two countries. Japanese medical books were mainly completed between the 17 - 19th century and nearly all of them are conserved as copies, while in Korea the number is 39.6% and we don't know the time that more than half of Korean medical books were completed. The existing books in Japan are collected in more than 500 libraries, especially in 19 public and private libraries., such as Kyoto University Library, Tokyo University Library, Japan Library of Congress. In Korea, most of the books are conserved in Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies in Seoul National University. It is necessary for scholars of China, Japan and Korea to work together to study and utilize the ancient medical books of the three countries and to make them play a more important role in the development of Eastern traditional medicine.

  13. South Korea Leads the Warfight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    warfighting command in a doctrinally supporting relationship to the ROK armed forces. The evolution to a Korean -led defense of the Republic of Korea is a...T he Republic of Korea –U.S. alliance is embarking on the most profound transformation affecting American forces on the peninsula since the Korean ...War. For the last 57 years, the United States has led the war- fighting command responsible for the defense of the Republic of Korea (ROK). As the ROK

  14. Tsunami Catalog in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sobeom; Hyun, Seung Gyu; Noh, Myunghyun

    2015-04-01

    Significant tsunamis are described in historic and instrumental earthquake sources for all regions around the Korean Peninsula. According to the low seismicity near the Peninsula, there are relatively few tsunami events in Korea. Most of the tsunami events are associated with big earthquakes at the eastern margin of the East Sea. One historical event is associated with a volcanic eruption. For that reason, the eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula is the affectable area for tsunami. One historical event at the Yellow Sea area is inferred a result from a big earthquake in China. And one plate boundary earthquake between the Philippine Plate and the Eurasian Plate affected to an island located in south of the Korean Peninsula. We confirmed the historic tsunami events by review the foreign literatures. More detailed information is presented for the instrumental earthquake source events. This work was supported by the Nuclear Safety Research Program through the Korea Radiation Safety Foundation (KORSAFe) and the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), Republic of Korea (Grant No. 1305001).

  15. Impact of emission control strategy on NO 2 in urban areas of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shon, Zang-Ho; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Long-term trend in nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) levels was analyzed from 16 urban roadside (U-RS) locations in 7 major cities along with 5 reference background areas in Korea over an 11-year period (1998-2008). These NO 2 data were examined after being grouped into periods I (1998-2000) and II (2001-2008) in light of the major emission control strategy such as the natural gas vehicle supply (NGVS) program initiated since June 2000. There were contrasting signals between Seoul (capital) and others. Although the long-term trends were dominantly toward decline from most stations (5 out of 7) in Seoul, an increasing trend was dominant in other cities (7 out of 9 stations). A line of evidence collected in this study indicated that NO 2 levels and the emission ratio of NO 2 to NO x (f(NO 2)) in U-RS sites have gradually decreased over the years due to the combined effects of various control efforts (e.g., the implementation of NGVS and the use of low emission diesel engines).

  16. Characteristics of atmospheric visibility and its relationship with air pollution in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Young; Jo, Wan-Kuen; Chun, Ho-Hwan

    2014-09-01

    Although analysis of long-term data is necessary to obtain reliable information on characteristics of atmospheric visibility and its relationship with air pollution, it has rarely been performed. Therefore, a long-term evaluation of atmospheric visibility in characteristically different Korean cities, as well as a remote island, during 2001 to 2009, was performed in this study. In general, visibility decreased in the studied areas during the 9-yr study period. In addition, all areas displayed a distinct seasonal trend, with high visibility in the cold season relative to the warm season. Weekday visibility, however, did not significantly differ from weekend visibility. Similarly, the number of days per year for both low (<10 km) and high visibility (>19 km) fluctuated during the study period. Busan (a coastal city) exhibited the highest visibility, with an overall average of 17.6 km, followed by Daegu (a basin city), Ulsan (with concentrated petrochemical industries), Ullungdo (a remote island), and Seoul (the capital of Korea). Visibility was found to be significantly correlated with target air pollutants, except for ozone, for all metropolitan cities, whereas it was significantly correlated only with particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10) and ozone on the remote island (Ullungdo). Among the metropolitan cities, Seoul exhibited the lowest visibility for both the PM10 standard exceedance and non-exceedance days, followed by Ulsan, Daegu, and Busan. The results of this study can be used to establish effective strategies for improving urban visibility and air quality.

  17. Discovering the knowledge creation process of an expert group in women-friendly policy: The policy case of Seoul City.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Sam; Nam, SungHee; Kim, Yuna

    2016-01-01

    This research explores how expert knowledge is created in the process of women-friendly policy making, based on actor network theory (ANT). To address this purpose, this study uses the "Women's Happiness in the City of Seoul" policy initiated by the local government of Seoul as one example of policy development. Research findings demonstrate that knowledge creation in expert groups followed the four stages suggested by ANT. In addition, this study found that various types of knowledge emerged from individual experts. This research elucidates the process of knowledge creation and its meanings for women-friendly policy.

  18. Projections of Future Summer Weather in Seoul and Their Impacts on Urban Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. O.; Kim, J. H.; Yun, J. I.

    2015-12-01

    Climate departure from the past variability was projected to start in 2042 for Seoul. In order to understand the implication of climate departure in Seoul for urban agriculture, we evaluated the daily temperature for the June-September period from 2041 to 2070, which were projected by the RCP8.5 climate scenario. These data were analyzed with respect to climate extremes and their effects on growth of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum), one of the major crops in urban farming. The mean daily maximum and minimum temperatures in 2041-2070 approached to the 90th percentile in the past 30 years (1951- 1980). However, the frequency of extreme events such as heat waves and tropical nights appeared to exceed the past variability. While the departure of mean temperature might begin in or after 2040, the climate departure in the sense of extreme weather events seems already in progress. When the climate scenario data were applied to the growth and development of hot pepper, the departures of both planting date and harvest date are expected to follow those of temperature. However, the maximum duration for hot pepper cultivation, which is the number of days between the first planting and the last harvest, seems to have already deviated from the past variability.

  19. The First Survey of Forensically Important Entomofauna Collected from Medicolegal Autopsies in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sang Eon; Lee, Hyun Ju; Park, Ji Hye; Ko, Kwang Soo; Kim, Yu-Hoon; Kim, Kyung Ryoul; Park, Seong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Forensic entomology applies insect evidence to legal problems such as the estimation of minimum postmortem interval (mPMI). For this purpose, knowledge of the insect fauna that are attracted to human cadavers in each geographic region is a prerequisite. Despite many studies investigating the insect fauna attracted to meat, there has been no survey of the entomofauna on human cadavers in the East Asian temperate climate zone, particularly in Korea. Therefore, this study reports the entomofauna collected from medicolegal autopsies in northeastern Seoul and its suburbs. Insect samples were collected from 35 medicolegal autopsies in 2010, 2011, and 2013. Molecular and morphological methods were utilized for taxonomic identification. Among 1398 individual samples belonging to 3 orders, 13 families, 18 genera, and 32 species, the dominant family and species were Calliphoridae and Lucilia sericata, respectively. Despite its limited scale, this study provides a snapshot of the general entomofauna that are attracted to human cadavers in this region. PMID:26185759

  20. Characterization of microbial community during Asian dust events in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunghee; Choi, Bora; Yi, Seung-Muk; Ko, Gwangpyo

    2009-10-01

    An Asian dust event, also sometimes known as a Yellow Sand event, is a seasonal meteorological phenomenon affecting East Asia, typically in the early spring. Because of the significant ecological and health effects of these events on East Asia, and the large amount of dust that is transported from the desert in China to Korea and Japan, these events have been receiving increased attention. It is likely that these storms often provide long-range transport to various microorganisms. However, despite a certain level of attention to the chemical analysis of these storms, microbiological studies of Yellow Sand dust have been scarce. We collected a total of 30 microbiological air samples using a PM(2.5) cyclone sampler in Seoul, Korea from April 2007 to March 2008. Six of these samples were collected during Yellow Sand events, while 24 were from non-Yellow Sand events. Chemical analysis was performed on the samples using a thermal-optical transmittance (TOT) method. Total nucleic acids were also extracted, and the 16S rDNA was amplified by PCR and analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Dendrogram analysis, based on DGGE, indicated that the microbial profiles from the Yellow Sand were distinctive from those of the non-Yellow Sand samples. Microorganisms identified in Yellow Sand samples included Aquabacterium sp., Flavobacteriales bacterium sp., Prevotellaceae bacterium sp., and others, whereas microorganisms in non-Yellow Sand samples included Propionibacterium sp., Bacillus sp., Acinetobacter sp., and others. These results suggest that, as a result of Yellow Sand events, humans in the affected regions are exposed to communities of microorganisms that might cause various adverse health effects.

  1. Low consumption of fruits and dairy foods is associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults from outpatient clinics in and near Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Song, SuJin; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Hong, Soyoung; Shin, Sangah; Song, YoonJu; Baik, Hyun Wook; Joung, Hyojee

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to examine differences in nutrient intake and food consumption by the presence of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS Study subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from four outpatient clinics in and near the Seoul metropolitan area of South Korea between 2006 and 2012. A total of 668 subjects (413 men and 255 women) aged ≥ 30 y were included in the final data analyses. For each subject, daily nutrient intake and food consumption were calculated using three days of dietary intake data obtained from a combination of 24-hour recalls and dietary records. To evaluate food consumption, mean number of servings consumed per day and percentages of recommended number of servings for six food groups were calculated. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The general linear model was performed to examine differences in nutrient intake and food consumption by sex and the presence of metabolic syndrome after adjustment for potential confounding variables. RESULTS Nutrient intake did not differ by the presence of metabolic syndrome in both men and women. Men with metabolic syndrome had lower consumption and percentage of the recommendation for fruits compared with those without metabolic syndrome (1.6 vs. 1.1 servings/day, P-value = 0.001; 63.5 vs. 49.5%, P-value = 0.013). Women with metabolic syndrome showed lower consumption and percentage of the recommendation for dairy foods than those without metabolic syndrome (0.8 vs. 0.5 servings/day, P-value = 0.001; 78.6 vs. 48.9%, P-value = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Low intakes of fruits and dairy foods might be associated with the risk of having metabolic syndrome among Korean adults. Dietary advice on increasing consumption of these foods is needed to prevent and attenuate the risk of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26425287

  2. Analysis of Aerosol Distribution over North East Asia Using a Geostationary Satellite Measurement during Filed Campaigns of DRAGON-Asia 2012 and MAPS-Seoul 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, M.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W.; Choi, M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Lim, J.; Ahn, J.

    2015-12-01

    Considering diverse source and high concentration of aerosol, numerous manners have been applied to detect aerosol properties in North East Asia (NEA). Above all, a geostationary orbit satellite, COMS has monitored atmosphere and ocean conditions over the NEA using two payloads of Meteorological Imager (MI) and Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) since 2010. By using the MI measurements, an AOD retrieval algorithm was developed (Kim et al., 2014). Additionally, a number of ground-based network such as Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), Sky Radiometer Network (SKYNET), and Mie-scattering Light Detector and Ranging (LIDAR) Network have been in operation to capture aerosol variability. And, occasionally, field campaigns were conducted. In 2012 (March to May), the DRAGON-Asia campaign was performed by AERONET science team and NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research), and 40 sun/sky-radiometer was deployed. Subsequently, MAPS-Seoul campaign for detecting air quality was performed with 8 AERONET sites and 6 Pandora instruments in Korea. Those ground-based measurements provide validation dataset for satellite retrieval algorithm, as well as detect detail of aerosol characteristics at each local point. Thus, in this study, the AODs obtained from the aforementioned campaigns were applied to assess and improve the accuracy of MI AOD. For the DRAGON-Asia 2012, the comparison between MI AOD and AERONET AOD shows correlation coefficient of 0.85, regression slope of 1.00 and RMSE of 0.18. Furthermore, AOPs obtained from those field campaign results and the MI AOD were analyzed to understand temporal and spatial variance of aerosol in NEA during spring.

  3. Clinical Validation of Anyplex II HPV HR Detection Test for Cervical Cancer Screening in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sunkyung; Lee, Byungdoo; Lee, Kap No; Kim, Yonggoo; Oh, Eun-Jee

    2016-03-01

    The Anyplex II HPV HR detection kit (Seegene Inc, Seoul, Korea) is a new, multiplex, real-time polymerase chain reaction assay to detect individual 14 high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) types in a single tube. To evaluate the clinical performance of the HPV HR kit in predicting high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical intraepithelial lesions grade 2 or worse in cervical cancer screening. We analyzed 1137 cervical samples in Huro Path medium (CelltraZone, Seoul, Korea) from Korean women. The clinical performance of the HPV HR kit was compared with Hybrid Capture 2 (Qiagen, Valencia, California) using the noninferiority score test in a routine cervical cancer screening setting. The intralaboratory and interlaboratory agreements of HPV HR were also evaluated. Overall agreement between the 2 assays was 92.4% (1051 of 1137) with a κ value of 0.787. Clinical sensitivity of HPV HR for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical intraepithelial lesions grade 2 or worse was 94.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89.2-99.7) and 92.5% (95% CI, 84.3-100.0), respectively. The respective values for Hybrid Capture 2 were 93.1% (95% CI, 87.2-98.9) and 87.5% (95% CI, 77.3-99.7). Clinical sensitivity and specificity of HPV HR were not inferior to those of Hybrid Capture 2 (P = .005 and P = .04, respectively). The HPV HR showed good intralaboratory and interlaboratory reproducibility at 98.0% (κ = 0.953) and 97.4% (κ = 0.940), respectively. The HPV HR demonstrates comparable performance to the Hybrid Capture 2 test and can be useful for HPV-based cervical cancer screening testing.

  4. Asian dust effect on cause-specific mortality in five cities across South Korea and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashima, Saori; Yorifuji, Takashi; Bae, Sanghyuk; Honda, Yasushi; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-03-01

    Desert dust is considered to be potentially toxic and its toxicity may change during long-range transportation. In Asian countries, the health effects of desert dust in different locations are not well understood. We therefore evaluated the city-combined and city-specific effects of Asian dust events on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in five populous cities in South Korea (Seoul) and Japan (Nagasaki, Matsue, Osaka and Tokyo). We obtained daily mean concentrations of Asian dust using light detection and ranging (lidar) between 2005 and 2011. We then evaluated city-specific and pooled associations of Asian dust with daily mortality for elderly residents (≥65 years old) using time-series analyses. Each 10 μg/m3 increase in the concentration of same-day (lag 0) or previous-day (lag 1) Asian dust was significantly associated with an elevated pooled risk of all-cause mortality (relative risk (RR): 1.003 [95% CI: 1.001-1.005] at lag 0 and 1.001 [95% CI: 1.000-1.003] at lag 1) and cerebrovascular disease (RR: 1.006 [95% CI: 1.000-1.011] at lag 1). This association was especially apparent in Seoul and western Japan (Nagasaki and Matsue). Conversely, no significant associations were observed in Tokyo, which is situated further from the origin of Asian dust and experiences low mean concentrations of Asian dust. Adverse health effects on all-cause and cerebrovascular disease mortality were observed in South Korea and Japan. However, the effects of Asian dust differed across the cities and adverse effects were more apparent in cities closer to Asian dust sources.

  5. Microbiological examination of vegetable seed sprouts in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoikyung; Lee, Youngjun; Beuchat, Larry R; Yoon, Bong-June; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2009-04-01

    Sprouted vegetable seeds used as food have been implicated as sources of outbreaks of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections. We profiled the microbiological quality of sprouts and seeds sold at retail shops in Seoul, Korea. Ninety samples of radish sprouts and mixed sprouts purchased at department stores, supermarkets, and traditional markets and 96 samples of radish, alfalfa, and turnip seeds purchased from online stores were analyzed to determine the number of total aerobic bacteria (TAB) and molds or yeasts (MY) and the incidence of Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and Enterobacter sakazakii. Significantly higher numbers of TAB (7.52 log CFU/g) and MY (7.36 log CFU/g) were present on mixed sprouts than on radish sprouts (6.97 and 6.50 CFU/g, respectively). Populations of TAB and MY on the sprouts were not significantly affected by location of purchase. Radish seeds contained TAB and MY populations of 4.08 and 2.42 log CFU/g, respectively, whereas populations of TAB were only 2.54 to 2.84 log CFU/g and populations of MY were 0.82 to 1.69 log CFU/g on alfalfa and turnip seeds, respectively. Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 were not detected on any of the sprout and seed samples tested. E. sakazakii was not found on seeds, but 13.3% of the mixed sprout samples contained this potentially pathogenic bacterium.

  6. Analysis of Scientific Publication Networks among Medical Schools in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jin Oh; Park, Seo Hyun

    2010-06-01

    This research was intended to analyze the special characteristics and structure of social networks among Korean medical schools for the purpose of providing knowledge regarding medical field structure, dynamics, and potential paradigm development. A collaborative 12-year data set of 35,469 published articles in the SCOPUS® database was analyzed. Among ISI subcategories, 61 having more than 20 articles were scrutinized. Following identification of correspondence and co-authorship, centralization indices and Key Player analysis were run for each subcategory. Medical schools were grouped into uniform clusters with convergence of iterated correlation (CONCOR) for structural equivalence. Finally, multidimensional scaling was used to visualize similarities. All centralization indexes analyzed demonstrated a shift in the degree of centralization in the network of medical schools throughout the period examined. Betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality in particular revealed a dramatic change indicating minimization of the role of a specific "gatekeeper". Key Player analysis confirmed Seoul National University as a constant 'key player' throughout the period evaluated and for the subcategories examined as well. This study provided insight into the scientific network among the medical schools of Korea. By understanding this network, a strategy to strengthen the basis of research may be developed.

  7. Fires and smoke in Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite detected several fires burning in South Korea on June 6, 2002. The smoke is blanketing both South and North Korea, and may be mingling with smoke from other fires in China. Beneath the haze, colored water at the southern tip of the Peninsula suggests sediment or phytoplankton in the coastal waters.

  8. Fires and smoke in Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite detected several fires burning in South Korea on June 6, 2002. The smoke is blanketing both South and North Korea, and may be mingling with smoke from other fires in China. Beneath the haze, colored water at the southern tip of the Peninsula suggests sediment or phytoplankton in the coastal waters.

  9. North Korea: A Geographical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palka, Eugene J., Ed.; Galgano, Francis A., Ed.

    North Korea is a country about the size of the state of New York, inhabited by about 23 million people. It came into existence after the conclusion of World War II following decades of occupation of the Korean Peninsula by the Japanese empire. Dividing the peninsula into North and South Korea was the politically expedient solution to one of the…

  10. North Korea Drought

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-06-29

    North Korea's state news agency reported the country is facing its worst drought in a century. Rice-growing provinces have been badly affected and more than 30% of rice paddies were parching up. A Landsat 7 image from June 29, 2002, compared with an ASTER image from June 26, 2015, shows the disparity in the rice crop. The images display vegetation in red, and bare fields in dark blue. The images cover an area of 27 x 34.5 km, and are located at 38.5 degrees north, 125.6 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19501

  11. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  12. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  13. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  14. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  15. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  16. The application of the biosphere reserve concept to urban areas: the case of green rooftops for habitat network in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwi-Gon

    2004-06-01

    This article consists of two parts. The first shows how the principles of the ecosystem approach can be applied to green rooftops, and the second attempts to illustrate it through a case study. In particular, it suggests new approaches and techniques for creation of green rooftops in a perspective of urban habitat network and urban biosphere reserve. To endow urban rooftops with the roles and functions of urban habitat network and urban biosphere reserve, it is necessary to apply "an ecosystem approach to urban management." In this article, an ecosystem approach to urban management is illustrated with Seoul as an example. The Habitat Network in Seoul will be reviewed with a focus on the model suggested by MAB Urban Group. Then, the roles and functions of Myeongdong UNESCO Green Rooftop and its possible contribution to building the Seoul Urban Biosphere Network will be described. The UNESCO Green Rooftop is 628 m(2) and was created on the 12th floor rooftop of UNESCO Building in Myeongdong 2-ga, Jung-ku, Seoul. In the green rooftop, which was created with goals of securing green areas and biotopes in downtown, creating an urban econetwork, securing a base for urban ecosystem study and environment education, and disseminating an idea of coexistence between nature and humankind, wetland, meadow, scrub and woodland, wall revegetation, and a vegetable field are created. Also, rainwater recycling facilities and a solar energy water circulation system were set up. Rest facilities including observation and education facilities were built. Based on the Seoul example, as well as urban biosphere reserve models suggested by the MAB Urban Group, we suggest several principles to be applied for a green rooftops to qualify as a category of urban biosphere reserves.

  17. Design Features and Commissioning of the Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) at Seoul National University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    J. Chung, K.; H. An, Y.; K. Jung, B.; Y. Lee, H.; C., Sung; S. Na, Y.; S. Hahm, T.; S. Hwang, Y.

    2013-03-01

    A new spherical torus called VEST (Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus) is designed, constructed and successfully commissioned at Seoul National University. A unique design feature of the VEST is two partial solenoid coils installed at both vertical ends of a center stack, which can provide sufficient magnetic fluxes to initiate tokamak plasmas while keeping a low aspect ratio configuration in the central region. According to initial double null merging start-up scenario using the partial solenoid coils, appropriate power supplies for driving a toroidal field coil, outer poloidal field coils, and the partial solenoid coils are fabricated and successfully commissioned. For reliable start-up, a pre-ionization system with two cost-effective homemade magnetron power supplies is also prepared. In addition, magnetic and spectroscopic diagnostics with appropriate data acquisition and control systems are well prepared for initial operation of the device. The VEST is ready for tokamak plasma operation by completing and commissioning most of the designed components.

  18. Exposure level and distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi in Seoul metropolitan subway stations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Youn; Kim, Yoon Shin; Kim, Daekeun; Kim, Hyeon Tae

    2011-01-01

    The exposure level and distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi were assessed in the workers' activity areas (station office, bedroom, ticket office and driver's seat) and passengers' activity areas (station precinct, inside the passenger carriage, and platform) of the Seoul metropolitan subway. Among investigated areas, the levels of airborne bacteria and fungi in the workers' bedroom and station precincts were relatively high. No significant difference was found in the concentration of airborne bacteria and fungi between the underground and above ground activity areas of the subway. The genera identified in all subway activity areas with a 5% or greater detection rate were Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Bacillus and Corynebacterium for airborne bacteria and Penicillium, Cladosporium, Chrysosporium, Aspergillus for airborne fungi. Staphylococcus and Micrococcus comprised over 50% of the total airborne bacteria and Penicillium and Cladosporium comprised over 60% of the total airborne fungi, thus these four genera are the predominant genera in the subway station.

  19. First evidence of Seoul hantavirus in the wild rat population in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Verner-Carlsson, Jenny; Lõhmus, Mare; Sundström, Karin; Strand, Tanja M; Verkerk, Monique; Reusken, Chantal; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; van de Goot, Frank; Lundkvist, Åke

    2015-01-01

    We report the first detection of Seoul hantavirus (SEOV)-specific antibodies in the wild brown rat population in the Netherlands. SEOV-reactive antibodies were found in three rats out of 16 in a repeated series of tests including immunofluorescence assay, immunoblot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Focus reduction neutralization test confirmed the presence of SEOV-specific antibodies, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed the presence of hantaviral RNA. This discovery follows the recent findings of SEOV infections in wild and pet brown rats and humans in England, Wales, France, Belgium, and Sweden, indicating an even higher importance of this hantavirus for public health in large areas of Europe.

  20. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Sun; Chey, Jeanyung

    2016-11-01

    Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea, albeit its relatively short history, has advanced dramatically. We review a brief history and current status of clinical neuropsychology in South Korea. The history, the educational pathway, the training pathway, the certification process, and careers in clinical neuropsychology in South Korea are reviewed. We have reviewed the neuropsychological services, including assessment and treatment, research on neurological and psychiatric populations, and neuropsychology education and the requirements related to education, training, and board examinations of those providing neuropsychological services in South Korea. We also describe how the Korean Society for Neuropsychology Research, the first and only meeting for neuropsychologists in the country established in 1999, has played a major role in how clinical neuropsychology is practiced and developed as a professional field in South Korea. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea has achieved major progress over just a quarter of a century, and its future is promising in light of the increasing demand for neuropsychological services and advances in neuroscience in the country. Challenges that the community of clinical neuropsychologists are currently facing in South Korea, including formalizing neuropsychological curriculum and training programs and developing advanced credentialing procedures, are discussed.

  1. Current status of brachytherapy in Korea: a national survey of radiation oncologists.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haeyoung; Kim, Joo Young; Kim, Juree; Park, Won; Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Hak Jae; Kim, Yong Bae

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to acquire information on brachytherapy resources in Korea through a national survey of radiation oncologists. Between October 2014 and January 2015, a questionnaire on the current status of brachytherapy was distributed to all 86 radiation oncology departments in Korea. The questionnaire was divided into sections querying general information on human resources, brachytherapy equipment, and suggestions for future directions of brachytherapy policy in Korea. The response rate of the survey was 88.3%. The average number of radiation oncologists per center was 2.3. At the time of survey, 28 centers (36.8%) provided brachytherapy to patients. Among the 28 brachytherapy centers, 15 (53.5%) were located in in the capital Seoul and its surrounding metropolitan areas. All brachytherapy centers had a high-dose rate system using (192)Ir (26 centers) or (60)Co (two centers). Among the 26 centers using (192)Ir sources, 11 treated fewer than 40 patients per year. In the two centers using (60)Co sources, the number of patients per year was 16 and 120, respectively. The most frequently cited difficulties in performing brachytherapy were cost related. A total of 21 centers had a plan to sustain the current brachytherapy system, and four centers noted plans to upgrade their brachytherapy system. Two centers stated that they were considering discontinuation of brachytherapy due to cost burdens of radioisotope source replacement. The present study illustrated the current status of brachytherapy in Korea. Financial difficulties were the major barriers to the practice of brachytherapy.

  2. Odd-numbered perfluorocarboxylates predominate over perfluorooctanoic acid in serum samples from Japan, Korea and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kouji H; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Niisoe, Tamon; Takanaka, Katsunobu; Kamiyama, Sigetosi; Watanabe, Takao; Moon, Chan-seok; Yang, Hye-ran; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Koizumi, Akio

    2011-10-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has recently attracted attention as a potential health risk following environmental contamination. However, information detailing exposure to perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) other than PFOA is limited. We measured the concentrations of PFCAs (from perfluorohexanoic acid to perfluorotetradecanoic acid) in serum samples obtained from patients in Japan (Sendai, Takayama, Kyoto and Osaka) between 2002 and 2009, Korea (Busan and Seoul) between 1994 and 2008 and Vietnam (Hanoi) in 2007/2008. Total PFCA levels (geometric mean) were increased from 8.9 ng mL(-1) to 10.3 ng mL(-1) in Japan; from 7.0 ng mL(-1) to 9.2 ng mL(-1) in Korea; and were estimated at 4.7 ng mL(-1) in Vietnam. PFCAs of greater length than PFOA were significantly increased in Sendai, Takayama and Kyoto, Japan, and levels of long-chain PFCAs exceeded PFOA levels in serum. Among these PFCAs, perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) was the predominant component (28.5%), followed by perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA 17.5%), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA 7.9%), perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA 6.1%) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA 1.8%). Odd-numbered PFCAs (PFNA, PFUnDA and PFTrDA) were also observed in Korea and Vietnam and their presence increased significantly in Korea between 1994 and 2007/2008. The proportion of long-chain PFCAs in serum was relatively high compared to reports in Western countries. Further investigations into the sources and exposure routes are needed to predict the future trajectory of these serum PFCA levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. North Korean refugee health in South Korea (NORNS) study: study design and methods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the health status of North Korean refugees (NKRs), and changes in health during the resettlement process, is important from both the humanitarian standpoint and the scientific perspective. The NOrth Korean Refugee health iN South Korea (NORNS) study aims to document the health status and health determinants of North Korean refugees, to observe various health outcomes as they occur while adapting to the westernized lifestyle of South Korea, and to explain the mechanisms of how health of migrants and refugees changes in the context of new environmental risks and opportunities. Methods The NORNS study was composed of an initial survey and a follow-up survey 3.5 years apart. Participants were recruited voluntarily among those aged 30 or more living in Seoul. The survey consists of a health questionnaire and medical examination. The health questionnaire comprises the following six domains: 1) demographic and migration information 2) disease history, 3) mental health, 4) health-related lifestyle, 5) female reproductive health, and 6) sociocultural adaptation. The medical examination comprises anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and atherosclerosis, and various biochemical measurements. Prevalence of several diseases able to be diagnosed from the medical examination, the changes between the two surveys, and the association between the outcome and other measurements, such as length of stay and extent of adaptation in South Korea will be investigated. Furthermore, the outcome will be compared to a South Korean counterpart cohort to evaluate the relative health status of NKRs. Discussion The NORNS study targeting adult NKRs in South Korea is a valuable study because various scales and medical measurements are employed for the first time. The results obtained from this study are expected to be utilized for developing a health policy for NKRs and North Korean people after unification. Additionally, since NKRs are an immigrant group who are the

  4. Trend Analysis of GPS Precipitable Water Vapor Above South Korea Over the Last 10 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Dong-Hyo; Cho, Jungho

    2010-09-01

    We analyzed global positioning system (GPS)-derived precipitable water vapor (PWV) trends of the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 5 stations (Seoul, Daejeon, Mokpo, Milyang, Sokcho) where Korea Meteorological Administration meteorological data can be obtained at the same place. In the least squares analysis, the GPS PWV time series showed consistent positive trends (0.11 mm/year) over South Korea from 2000 to 2009. The annual increase of GPS PWV was comparable with the 0.17 mm/year and 0.02 mm/year from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Earth Observing Laboratory and Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder, respectively. For seasonal analysis, the increasing tendency was found by 0.05 mm/year, 0.16 mm/year, 0.04 mm/year in spring (March-May), summer (June-August) and winter (December-February), respectively. However, a negative trend (-0.14 mm/year) was seen in autumn (September-November). We examined the relationship between GPS PWV and temperature which is the one of the climatic elements. Two elements trends increased during the same period and the correlation coefficient was about 0.8. Also, we found the temperature rise has increased more GPS PWV and observed a stronger positive trend in summer than in winter. This is characterized by hot humid summer and cold dry winter of Korea climate and depending on the amount of water vapor the air contains at a certain temperature. In addition, it is assumed that GPS PWV positive trend is caused by increasing amount of saturated water vapor due to temperature rise in the Korean Peninsula. In the future, we plan to verify GPS PWV effectiveness as a tool to monitor changes in precipitable water through cause analysis of seasonal trends and indepth/ long-term comparative analysis between GPS PWV and other climatic elements.

  5. Potential Impact of the National Plan for Future Electric Power Supply on Air Quality in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, C.; Hong, J.

    2014-12-01

    Korean Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) announced the national plan for Korea's future electric power supply (2013 - 2027) in 2013. According to the plan, the national demand for electricity will be increased by 60% compared to that of 2010 and primary energy sources for electric generation will still lean on the fossil fuels such as petroleum, LNG, and coal, which would be a potential threat to air quality of Korea. This study focused on two subjects: (1) How the spatial distribution of the primary air pollutant's emissions (i.e., NOx, SOx, CO, PM) will be changed and (2) How the primary emission changes will influence on the national ambient air quality including ozone in 2027. We used GEOS-Chem model simulation with modification of Korean emissions inventory (Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS)) to simulate the current and future air quality in Korea. The national total emissions of CO, NOx, SOx, PM in year 2027 will be increased by 3%, 8%, 13%, 2%, respectively compared to 2010 and there are additional concern that the future location of the power plants will be closer to the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), where there are approximately 20 million population vulnerable to the potentially worsened air quality. While there are slight increase of concentration of CO, NOx, SOx, and PM in 2027, the O3 concentration is expected to be similar to the level of 2010. Those results may imply the characteristics of air pollution in East Asia such as potentially severe O3 titration and poorer O3/CO or O3/NOx ratio. Furthermore, we will discuss on the impact of transboundary pollution transport from China in the future, which is one of the large factors to control the air quality of Korea.

  6. Psychological, Social, and Environmental Factors Associated With Utilization of Senior Centers Among Older Adults in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Shik; Harada, Kazuhiro; Park, Jong-Hwan; So, Jae-Moo; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among the psychological, social, and environmental factors influencing the utilization of senior centers among older adults in Korea. Methods A questionnaire survey was administered to two types of older adults who lived in Seoul, Korea: 262 older adults who used senior centers (3 places) and 156 older adults who did not use senior centers. Results Our results showed clearly that the utilization of the senior centers in Korea is affected by higher self-efficacy (odds ratio [OR], 6.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.31 to 12.32), higher perceived benefits (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.16 to 4.36), lower perceived barriers (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 3.07 to 11.45), higher family support (OR, 4.21; 95% CI, 2.02 to 8.77), and higher support from friends (OR, 4.08; 95% CI, 2.38 to 7.81). The results also showed that participants whose total travel time was 15 to 29 minutes (OR, 2.84; 95% CI, 1.21 to 3.64) or less than 14 minutes (OR, 4.68; 95% CI, 3.41 to 8.41) were more likely to use a senior center than those who had to travel more than 30 minutes. Conclusions This study showed that the utilization of senior centers in Korea is affected by psychological, social, and environmental factors, specifically by self-efficacy, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, social support, convenience of transportation, and total travel time to the senior centers. The effects of longer-term utilization of the senior centers by non-users on health-related outcomes in a large population warrant attention. PMID:22880156

  7. North Korean refugee health in South Korea (NORNS) study: study design and methods.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yo Han; Lee, Won Jin; Kim, Yun Jeong; Cho, Myong Jin; Kim, Joo Hyung; Lee, Yun Jeong; Kim, Hee Young; Choi, Dong Seop; Kim, Sin Gon; Robinson, Courtland

    2012-03-08

    Understanding the health status of North Korean refugees (NKRs), and changes in health during the resettlement process, is important from both the humanitarian standpoint and the scientific perspective. The NOrth Korean Refugee health iN South Korea (NORNS) study aims to document the health status and health determinants of North Korean refugees, to observe various health outcomes as they occur while adapting to the westernized lifestyle of South Korea, and to explain the mechanisms of how health of migrants and refugees changes in the context of new environmental risks and opportunities. The NORNS study was composed of an initial survey and a follow-up survey 3.5 years apart. Participants were recruited voluntarily among those aged 30 or more living in Seoul. The survey consists of a health questionnaire and medical examination. The health questionnaire comprises the following six domains: 1) demographic and migration information 2) disease history, 3) mental health, 4) health-related lifestyle, 5) female reproductive health, and 6) sociocultural adaptation. The medical examination comprises anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and atherosclerosis, and various biochemical measurements. Prevalence of several diseases able to be diagnosed from the medical examination, the changes between the two surveys, and the association between the outcome and other measurements, such as length of stay and extent of adaptation in South Korea will be investigated. Furthermore, the outcome will be compared to a South Korean counterpart cohort to evaluate the relative health status of NKRs. The NORNS study targeting adult NKRs in South Korea is a valuable study because various scales and medical measurements are employed for the first time. The results obtained from this study are expected to be utilized for developing a health policy for NKRs and North Korean people after unification. Additionally, since NKRs are an immigrant group who are the same race and have the same

  8. Books and National Development. Seminar Report April 27-29, 1968, Academy House, Seoul.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korean Publishers Association, Seoul.

    Representatives from Korea, China, Indonesia, Japan, Thailand, the United States and Southeast Asian Ministers of Education (SEAMES) attended an international seminar to reaffirm the importance of books as national development tools, to seek measures for having it reflected in the national policies and to promote international cooperation in book…

  9. Occupational Asthma in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoo Sang

    2010-01-01

    Occupational asthma (OA) is the leading occupational respiratory disease. Cases compensated as OA by the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service (COMWEL) (218 cases), cases reported by a surveillance system (286 cases), case reports by related scientific journals and cases confirmed by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI) over 15 yr from 1992 to 2006 were analyzed. Annual mean incidence rate was 1.6 by compensation and 3.5 by surveillance system, respectively. The trend appeared to increase according to the surveillance system. Incidence was very low compared with other countries. The most frequently reported causative agent was isocyanate followed by reactive dye in dyeing factories. Other chemicals, metals and dust were also found as causative agents. OA was underreported according to compensation and surveillance system data. In conclusion, a more effective surveillance system is needed to evaluate OA causes and distribution, and to effectively prevent newly developing OA. PMID:21258586

  10. Occupational Infection in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Jae Sim

    2010-01-01

    Occupational infection is a human disease caused by work-associated exposure to microbial agents through human and environmental contact. According to the literature, occupational infection was the third leading cause of occupational disease (861 cases, 8.0%), and health care, agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers were risk groups in Korea. In addition, most high-risk groups have not been protected by workers' compensation, which could lead to underestimation of the exact spectrum and magnitude of the problem, and may also result in a lack of development and implementation of occupational infection management. Through a review of national guidelines and documentations on prevention and control of occupational infection, a management strategy would promote adherence to worker safety regulations if it is explicit with regard to the agent and mode of infection in each of the high-risk groups. PMID:21258592

  11. Baektu Mountain, China & North Korea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-14

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows Baektu Mountain, an active volcano on the border between North Korea and China. Rising to 2744 m, its summit caldera is filled with a crater lake, Heaven Lake.

  12. EPA Collaboration with South Korea

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA, the Ministry of Environment of Korea, and partner agencies in both countries cooperate to strengthen environmental governance, improve air and water quality, and reduce exposure to toxic chemicals.

  13. South Korea and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Se Ho

    1988-01-01

    Examines projections about the future of Korea, predicting a highly diversified society built upon industrialization and moving toward an information society. Discusses the growing middle class and its societal implications and considers the effects of the country's increasing democratization. (GEA)

  14. A Study on the Selection of Optimal Probability Distributions for Analyzing of Extreme Precipitation Events over the Republic of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hansu; Choi, Youngeun

    2014-05-01

    This study determined the optimal statistical probability distributions to estimate maximum probability precipitation in the Republic of Korea and examined whether there were any distinct changes on distribution types and extreme precipitation characteristics. Generalized Pareto distribution, and three parameter Burr distribution were most selected distributions for annual maximum series in the Republic of Korea. Furthermore, in the seasonal basis, the most selected distributions was three parameter Dagum distribution for spring, three parameter Burr distribution for summer, generalized Pareto distribution for autumn, three parameter log logistic distribution, generalized Pareto distribution and log-Pearson type III distribution for winter. Maximum probability precipitation was derived from selected optimal probability distributions and compared with that from Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs(MOLTMA). Maximum probability precipitation in this study was greater than that of MOLTMA as the duration time and return periods increased. This difference was statistically significant when apply Wilcoxon signed rank test. Because of different distributions, as the return period is longer, greater maximum probability precipitation value were estimated. Annual maximum series from 1973 to 2012 showed that the median was the highest in the south coastal region, but as a duration time was getting longer, Seoul, Gyeonggido, and Gangwondo had higher median values, which located in the central part of Korea. The months of annual maximum series occurrence were concentrated between June and September. Typhoons affected on annual maximum series occurrence in September. Seasonal maximum probability precipitation was greater in most of the south coastal region, and Seoul, Gyeonggido and Gangwondo had greater maximum probability precipitation in summer. Gangwondo had greater maximum probability precipitation in autumn while Ulleung and Daegwallyeong had a greater one in

  15. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-06

    Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within a year. JongAng Ilbo (internet version), March 13, 2007. 30 Abductions by N. Korea not...3007. 33 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea claims U.S. will remove sanctions, International Herald Tribune, September 4, 2007, p. 5...spring of 2007 to smuggle conventional arms, including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers, to the Tamil Tigers in Sri

  16. Regional differences in treatment frequency and case-fatality rates in korean patients with acute myocardial infarction using the Korea national health insurance claims database: findings of a large retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae-Seok; Kang, Hee-Chung

    2014-12-01

    Issues regarding healthcare disparity continue to increase in connection with access to quality care for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), even though the case-fatality rate (CFR) continues to decrease. We explored regional variation in AMI CFRs and examined whether the variation was due to disparities in access to quality medical services for AMI patients. A dataset was constructed from the Korea National Health Insurance Claims Database to conduct a retrospective cohort study of 95,616 patients who were admitted to a hospital in Korea from 2003 to 2007 with AMI. Each patient was followed in the claims database for information about treatment after admission or death. The procedure rate decreased as the region went "down" from Seoul to the county level, whereas the AMI CFR increased as the county level as a function of proximity to the county level (30-day AMI CFRs: Seoul, 16.4%; metropolitan areas, 16.2%, cities; 18.8%, counties, 39.4%). Even after adjusting for covariates, an identical regional variation in the odds of patients receiving treatment services and dying was identified. After adjusting for invasive and medical management variables in addition to earlier covariates, the death risk in the counties remained statistically significantly higher than in Seoul; however, the degree of the difference decreased greatly and the significant differences in metropolitan areas and cities disappeared. Policy interventions are needed to increase access to quality AMI care in county-level local areas because regional differences in the AMI CFR are likely caused by differences in the performance of medical and invasive management among the regions of Korea. Additionally, a public education program to increase the awareness of early symptoms and the necessity of visiting the hospital early should be established as the first priority to improve the outcome of AMI patents, especially in county-level local areas.

  17. U.S.-South Korea Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-08

    synch, and at times and in many ways contradictory. Presidents Kim Dae-jung (1998- 2003) and Roh Moo -hyun (2003-2008) pursued a “sunshine policy” of...boost in recent years after a period of strain under the George W. Bush and Roh Moo -hyun Administrations. Even before the Cheonan sinking, South...of U.S. forces if there were a war on the peninsula. In 2007, Secretary Rumsfeld accepted a proposal by then- South Korean President Roh Moo -hyun to

  18. Broadcasting health programmes among audience and professionals in Korea: perceptions and needs.

    PubMed

    Park, C Y; Yi, J J; Joo, M H; You, H S

    2001-01-01

    Mass media has become an essential part of modern society, and it should be noted that mass media plays an important role in delivering information even in the area of health. This study was intended to investigate the perceptions of and needs for broadcasting health programmes among audience and related professionals in Korea, which will serve to help in the development of valuable health programmes. Data were collected through a series of self-administered questionnaire surveys conducted on two types of subjects sampled from residents in the areas around Seoul, Korea, and health or broadcasting professionals working on health programmes. There were some discrepancies in the perceptions of and needs for health programmes between audience and professionals, especially the main audience age group and image, needs for topics and mode of health programme. In conclusion, in order to enhance current health programmes which focus on aspects of diagnosis and treatment of diseases, the range of health programmes should be expanded to fulfill various needs.

  19. Clinical characteristics of pediatric thalassemia in Korea: a single institute experience.

    PubMed

    Hong, Che Ry; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Lee, Ji Won; Kim, Hyery; Kim, Nam Hee; Park, Kyung Duk; Park, June Dong; Seong, Moon-Woo; Park, Sung Sup; Shin, Hee Young; Ahn, Hyo Seop

    2013-11-01

    Few literatures have elaborated on the clinical characteristics of children with thalassemia from low-prevalence areas. A retrospective analysis was conducted on children genetically confirmed with thalassemia at Seoul National University Children's Hospital in Korea. Nine children (1α thalassemia trait, 6β thalassemia minor, 2β thalassemia intermedia) were diagnosed with thalassemia at median age of 4.3 yr old with median hemoglobin of 9.7 g/dL. Seven (78%) children were incidentally found to be anemic and only 2 with β thalassemia intermedia had presenting symptoms. Five children (56%) were initially misdiagnosed with iron deficiency anemia. Despite the comorbidities due to α thalassemia mental retardation syndrome, the child with α thalassemia trait had mild hematologic profile. Children with β thalassemia intermedia had the worst phenotypes due to dominantly inherited mutations. None of the children was transfusion dependent and most of them had no complications associated with thalassemia. Only 1 child (11%) with codon 60 (T→A) mutation of the HBB gene needed red blood cell transfusions. He also had splenomegaly, cholelithiasis, and calvarial vault thickening. Pediatricians in Korea must acknowledge thalassemia as a possible diagnosis in children with microcytic hypochromic hemolytic anemia. High level of suspicion will allow timely diagnosis and managements.

  20. Knowledge and Opinions of Deceased Organ Donation Among Middle and High School Students in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, J; Choi, D; Park, Y

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents are an important target group for organ donation education. As yet, little is known about the attitude of Korean adolescents toward deceased organ donation, or the factors related to their decision. In this study, we explored the knowledge and opinions of deceased organ donation among middle and high school students in Korea. A self-reported survey was conducted among middle and high school students in Seoul, Korea. The questionnaire assessed knowledge, personal experience, and opinions of organ donation. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine significant factors associated with willingness to become an organ donor. Of the 323 students, 161 (49.8%) were willing to be a deceased donor, and the other 162 (50.2%) were unwilling or unsure. Neither level of knowledge nor experience of recent public information on organ donation affected students' decisions. Instead, a cohesive family environment and family discussion were strong predictors of the willingness of Korean middle and high school students to be an organ donor. A donation education program that promotes family communication and discussion about organ donation could increase willingness to be an organ donor among Korean adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of Sequence Variation and Risk Association of Human Papillomavirus 52 Variants Circulating in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Youn Jin; Ki, Eun Young; Zhang, Chuqing; Ho, Wendy C. S.; Lee, Sung-Jong; Jeong, Min Jin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV) 52 is a carcinogenic, high-risk genotype frequently detected in cervical cancer cases from East Asia, including Korea. Materials and Methods Sequences of HPV52 detected in 91 cervical samples collected from women attending Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital were analyzed. HPV52 genomic sequences were obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based sequencing and analyzed using Seq-Scape software, and phylogenetic trees were constructed using MEGA6 software. Results Of the 91 cervical samples, 40 were normal, 22 were low-grade lesions, 21 were high-grade lesions and 7 were squamous cell carcinomas. Four HPV52 variant lineages (A, B, C and D) were identified. Lineage B was the most frequently detected lineage, followed by lineage C. By analyzing the two most frequently detected lineages (B and C), we found that distinct variations existed in each lineage. We also found that a lineage B-specific mutation K93R (A379G) was associated with an increased risk of cervical neoplasia. Conclusions To our knowledge, we are the first to reveal the predominance of the HPV52 lineages, B and C, in Korea. We also found these lineages harbored distinct genetic alterations that may affect oncogenicity. Our findings increase our understanding on the heterogeneity of HPV52 variants, and may be useful for the development of new diagnostic assays and therapeutic vaccines. PMID:27977741

  2. Seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. in clinically healthy racing horses in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Byeong Yeal; Lee, Kyung Woo; Ha, Tae Young

    2010-02-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance, and has a worldwide distribution. The present study aimed to determine leptospiral seroprevalence in clinically healthy racing horses from all three racecourses in Korea. Serum samples from 1,226 racing horses were examined using a microscopic agglutination test to detect the presence of antibodies against 18 Leptospira serovars. Of the tested samples, 307 (25.0%) were found to be positive. The distribution of seroprevalence differed significantly by racecourse (P=0.004); the Jeju course had the highest incidence (31.1%), followed by the Seoul (25.2%) and Busan (19.5%) racecourses. Seasonal variation in seropositivity was also apparent (P=0.000), being lower in spring (13.0%) and winter (12.5%), and higher in summer (36.7%) and autumn (34.7%). No significant age- or gender-related difference in seroprevalence was noted in this study (P>0.05). Seroprevalence was higher (P=0.006) among ponies than among thoroughbreds. Sejroe was the most frequently detected serovar (n=236), followed by Bratislava (n=35), Ballum (n=16), Autumnalis (n=10), and Canicola (n=10). The majority of serum titers were relatively low; most values ranged from 1:100 (n=217) to 1:200 (n=69). These results suggest that the Sejroe serovar may be maintained in the racing horse population in Korea.

  3. Performance of Momguard, a new non-invasive prenatal testing protocol developed in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Young; Cho, Dae-Yeon; Won, Hye-Sung; Hwang, Ah Reum; Jeong, Bada; Kim, Jihun; Oh, Mijin

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the performance of Momguard, non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) for detecting trisomy (T) 21, T18, T13, and sex-chromosome abnormalities recently developed in Korea. This preliminary study formed part of a large prospective cohort study conducted at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. Only pregnant women who underwent both NIPT and confirmatory karyotyping were included in this study. NIPT results were compared with those of karyotype analyses. Among 93 eligible cases, NIPT results could not be obtained in one case due to a low fetal cell-free DNA fraction. Based on NIPT, eight cases of fetal aneuploidies, including T21 (n=5), T18 (n=2), and T13 (n=1), were identified. For T21 and T18, the sensitivity and specificity of NIPT were both 100%, with a false-positive and false-negative rate of 0% and a positive-predictive value of 100%. One patient classified as having intermediate risk for T13 by NIPT was confirmed to have T13 by karyotyping, and there were no false-negative cases. No cases of sex-chromosome anomalies were detected by NIPT or karyotyping during the study period. Momguard is a reliable screening tool for detecting T21 and T18. For T13 and sex-chromosome anomalies, further prospective studies are necessary to confirm its utility.

  4. Costs for 5-year lung cancer survivors in a tertiary care hospital in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Sik; Kim, Seon Ha; Park, Sue Kyung; Park, Byung-Joo; Kim, Young Tae; Lee, Sang-Min; Yim, Jae-Joon; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Shim, Young-Soo; Yang, Seok-Chul

    2010-05-01

    As the population of patients with lung cancer increases, the expenditure on lung cancer treatment will become a huge economic burden in many countries. To support public health services for the treatment of lung cancer, the calculation of lung cancer-specific costs is important. This study included newly diagnosed 76 lung cancer patients who had survived for at least 5 years after the diagnosis in a tertiary care hospital in South Korea. Direct medical costs were calculated from health care claims obtained from Seoul National University Hospital, which included out-of-pocket expenditures. Direct non-medical and indirect costs were calculated from national statistics. Mean direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and indirect costs amounted to $21,321, $6444 and $4943 respectively, based on an exchange rate of Korean Won 1200=US $1. The average cost for treatment of one lung cancer patient for all 5 years was $32,708. This constituted 44.7% of the per capita income during the same 5-year period. The economic burden of lung cancer treatment is significant in Korea. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Design and development of 500 m long HTS cable system in the KEPCO power grid, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, S. H.; Lim, J. H.; Yang, B. M.; Lee, S. K.; Jang, H. M.; Kim, Y. H.; Yang, H. S.; Kim, D. L.; Kim, H. R.; Yim, S. W.; Won, Y. J.; Hwang, S. D.

    2010-11-01

    In Korea, two long-term field demonstrations for high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable have been carried out for several years; Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) and LS Cable Ltd. (LSC) independently. Encouraged at the result of the projects performed in parallel, a new project targeting the real grid operation was launched in the fourth quarter of 2008 with the Korean government's financial support. KEPCO and LSC are jointly collaborating in the selection of substation, determination of cable specification, design of cryogenic system, and the scheme of protection coordination. A three phase 500 m long HTS cable at a distribution level voltage of 22.9 kV is to be built at 154/22.9 kV Icheon substation located in near Seoul. A hybrid cryogenic system reflecting the contingency plan is being designed including cryocoolers. The HTS cable system will be installed in the second quarter of 2010, being commissioned by the fall of 2010. This paper describes the objectives of the project and design issues of the cable and cryogenic system in detail.

  6. Effects of Auricular Acupressure Therapy on Stress and Sleep Disturbance of Middle-Aged Women in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Cha, Nam Hyun; Park, Yi Kyun; Sok, Sohyune R

    This study sought to examine the effect of auricular acupressure therapy on the stress and sleep status of middle-aged women in South Korea. A quasi-experimental pretest/posttest control group design was employed. The study sample consisted of 67 middle-aged women (experimental: 35 samples; control: 32 samples) in Seoul, South Korea. Auricular acupressure therapy including the auricular acupressure needle on the skin paper tape was applied on an ear for 2 weeks, 2 times per week. The acupoints were Gyogam, Sinmun, Bushin, Naebunbi, and Pijilha. For the placebo control group, only the skin paper tape without the auricular acupressure needle was applied on the same acupoints. Measures were a stress scale, cortisol level in blood, and a sleep status scale. The findings showed that there were significant differences on stress (physical: t = 2.170, P < .033; psychological: t = 2.117, P < .037), cortisol level in blood (t = 2.277, P < .025), and sleep status (t = -3.127, P < .004). Health care providers should consider providing auricular acupressure therapy as an alternative method for reducing physical and psychological stress, cortisol level in blood, and sleep disturbance of middle-aged women in South Korea.

  7. Seasonal variation of organic aerosol in PM2.5 at Anmyeondo, a background site in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Kim, E. S.; Kim, Y. P.; Jung, C. H.; Lee, J.

    2016-12-01

    Routine measurements of PM2.5 and chemical speciation for 100 individual organic compounds were carried out to understand seasonal variation of organic compounds at a background area in Korea between 2015 and 2016. Organic compounds analyzed in this study were classified into five groups, n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), fatty acids (FA), dicarboxylic acids (DCAs), and sugar. Further, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and Humic Like Substance-Carbon (HULIS-C) in PM2.5 were simultaneously analyzed to make mass balance of carbonaceous aerosol in PM2.5 at a background site in Korea. PAHs concentrations at this site was lower than that at Seoul, a representative urban site in Korea. PAHs and n-Alkanes concentrations showed clear seasonal variation with summer minimum and winter maximum, while, seasonal variation of DCAs and Sugars were different with PAHs and n-Alkanes.WSOC concentrations were highly correlated with SOC (Secondary Organic Carbon) concentrations which were estimated by the EC tracer method. The results indicate the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is major factor for the determination of WSOC concentrations in this region. HULIS-C as known one of brown carbon was major component of WSOC which accounts for 39 to 99% in WSOC. The average concentrations of HULIS-C was 2.02±1.42 and the highest concentration was observed in fall.

  8. [Hundred years' psychiatry in Korea (1899-1999)].

    PubMed

    Rhi, B Y

    1999-01-01

    The western medical knowledges of the human anatomy and physiology including knowledges of central nervous system have probably been introduced into Korea by Prince Sohyŏn Seja in 1645. The authentic education for the western medicine at the governmental and private medical schools, however, originated from 1899 and the education of mental disease was included in curriculum of Tai-Han-uiwon, the governmental medical school before 1910. In 1913 the first department of psychiatry (Department of Mental Disease) was established at the Chongdokbu-uiwon, the clinic of the Japanese colonial government, the former Korean governmental hospital which has later developed to the Kyŏngs ŏng Imperial University Hospital. On the other hand, there was in Severance Hospital Medical College, one Australian missionary psychiatrist McLaren, who has served at Paton Memorial Hospital in Jinju, Korea from 1911, taught neurology and psychiatry from 1913 at Severance Hospital Medical College, established psychiatry ward in 1923 at the Hospital, conducted the ward in humanistic way until 1940. It was the German psychiatry which the Japanese psychiatrists have brought to the Korean peninsula and it remained as major trends of psychiatry in Korea during the Japanese occupation between 1911 and 1945. The academic levels of Kyŏngsŏng Imperial University in psychiatry as well as the quality of mental care seemed to be almost equivocal to the psychiatry in Japan. However, psychiatrists scope of social psychiatric issues and of the research interests seemed to be somewhat narrow. Due to the political discrimination for the Korean students, the Koreans had less opportunity for the promotion at the university than Japanese residents in Korea. In 1945, after the end of the Pacific War only about 11 Korean psychiatrists were left in Korea, who organized Korean Neuropsychiatric Association. The Department of Neuropsychiatry of Seoul National University (former Department of Neurology and

  9. Atmospheric versus lithogenic contribution to the composition of first- and second-order stream waters in Seoul and its vicinity.

    PubMed

    Chae, Gi-Tak; Yun, Seong-Taek; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Lee, Pyeong-Koo; Choi, Byoung-Young

    2004-03-01

    The spatial variations in the chemistry of first- and second-order stream waters (N = 65) were investigated in the easterly bound of Seoul in order to assess the effects of urban air pollution on surface water chemistry. The sulfate (SO4(2-)) was high (range 3.9-17.8 mg l(-1), mean 11.8 mg l(-1)) within 30 km away from the center of Seoul, compared to the levels (range 1.1-7.7 mg l(-1), mean 4.3 mg l(-1)) observed in remote areas (30-70 km away). Both graphical examination and statistical evaluation (variogram) of sulfate concentration data consistently showed the decrease of sulfate concentration with increasing distance. The results of mass balance modeling also indicate that the concentrations of SO4(2-), Cl- and Na+ may be affected mainly by dry/wet deposition. However, the spatial variations of major cations such as Ca2+ and Na+ are well explained by the reaction of rainwater with diverse rocks in the watercourse. The water type was found to change from Ca(-Na)-SO4) type to Ca(-a)-HCO3 type with the increasing distance. It is thus inferred that the pollutants like SO2 emitted from strong man-made source areas of Seoul are transported to the considerable distance (at least 30 km away) by westerlies and that such mechanism may lead to the changes of the anion composition in surface water. In the remote area (> 30 km away from Seoul), the stream water chemistry appears to be influenced more effectively by the weathering of rock-forming minerals.

  10. Optimization of Seoul-Fluor-based lipid droplet bioprobes and their application in microalgae for bio-fuel study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngjun; Na, Sangcheol; Lee, Sanghee; Jeon, Noo Li; Park, Seung Bum

    2013-05-01

    We synthesized a series of Seoul-Fluor-based lipid droplet bioprobes with a linear range of lipophilicity and identified SF44 and SF58 as SF-based LD bioprobes in microalgae for biofuel research as well as in mammalian cells. Unlike Nile Red, SF-based bioprobes can stain algal LDs with excellent efficiency under the non-invasive and non-cytotoxic conditions.

  11. Korea Research Reactor -1 & 2 Decommissioning Project in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S. K.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. J.; Park, J. H.

    2003-02-24

    Korea Research Reactor 1 (KRR-1), the first research reactor in Korea, has been operated since 1962, and the second one, Korea Research Reactor 2 (KRR-2) since 1972. The operation of both of them was phased out in 1995 due to their lifetime and operation of the new and more powerful research reactor, HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor; 30MW). Both are TRIGA Pool type reactors in which the cores are small self-contained units sitting in tanks filled with cooling water. The KRR-1 is a TRIGA Mark II, which could operate at a level of up to 250 kW. The second one, the KRR-2 is a TRIGA Mark III, which could operate at a level of up 2,000 kW. The decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) project of these two research reactors, the first D & D project in Korea, was started in January 1997 and will be completed to stage 3 by 2008. The aim of this decommissioning program is to decommission the KRR-1 & 2 reactors and to decontaminate the residual building structure s and the site to release them as unrestricted areas. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) submitted the decommissioning plan and the environmental impact assessment reports to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) for the license in December 1998, and was approved in November 2000.

  12. Social status does not predict responses to Seoul virus infection or reproductive success among male Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Hinson, Ella R; Hannah, Michele F; Norris, Douglas E; Glass, Gregory E; Klein, Sabra L

    2006-03-01

    Trade-offs exist among life history strategies that are used to increase survival and reproduction; such that, males that engage in more competitive behaviors may be more susceptible to infection. Hantaviruses are transmitted horizontally between rodents through the passage of virus in saliva during wounding and male rodents are more likely to be infected with hantaviruses than females. To determine whether a trade-off exists between dominance and susceptibility to Seoul virus infection, male Long Evans rats were group housed (3/cage) with a female rat and aggressive and subordinate behaviors were monitored during a 10 day group housing condition. After behavioral testing, males were individually housed, inoculated with Seoul virus, and blood, saliva, and fecal samples were collected. Dominant males initiated more aggressive encounters than subordinate males. Dominant and subordinate males, however, had similar steroid hormone concentrations, anti-Seoul virus IgG responses, and weight gain over the course of infection. A similar proportion of dominant and subordinate males shed virus in saliva and feces during infection. Using microsatellite DNA markers paternity was assigned to pups derived during the group housing period. In contrast to our initial hypothesis, dominant and subordinate males sired a similar percentage of pups. Taken together, host social status may not predict reproductive success or susceptibility to hantaviruses in rodent reservoir populations.

  13. Long-term trend of the mass and chemical species' concentrations in PM2.5 at Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S.; Kim, Y. P.; Lim, H. J.; Shin, H. J.; Moon, K. J.; Hong, Y. D.; Park, S.

    2015-12-01

    Particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) has detrimental effects on human health as well as the environmental effects such as climate change. Thus, understanding trends of the mass concentration and chemical compounds of PM2.5 is needed to establish appropriate policy. The objectives of this study are (1) collecting data and understanding temporal trend of chemical components in PM2.5 at Seoul, and (2) verifying the possible reasons of the trends. The literature data of the mass concentrations of chemical composition of PM2.5, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, OC (Organic Carbon), and EC (Element Carbon) from 1985 to 2014 at Seoul were collected and their trends were analyzed. The annual concentrations of particulate matters both PM10 and PM2.5 at Seoul have been continuously decreased. The concentrations of ionic component in PM2.5 showed different trends, sulfate decreased during the 1990s but no trend was observed after 2000s while nitrate and ammonium increased during the 2000s. The trend of OC showed no distinctive trend while the EC concentrations decreased.

  14. Modeling of a 22.9 kV 50 MVA superconducting power cable based on PSCAD/EMTDC for application to the Icheon substation in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Yoon, J.; Lee, B.; Yang, B.

    2011-11-01

    Two projects for high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable have been carried out in Korea since 2001. One of them is a HTS cable project in DAPAS (Development of Advanced Power system by Applied Superconductivity technologies) program funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. In this project, LS Cable Ltd. (LSC) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) jointly developed a 22.9 kV, 50 MVA, 3 phase, 100 m HTS cable using first generation (1G) HTS wire in 2006. The HTS cable system has been tested in a power test center of Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). LSC and KEPCO have been developing a 22.9 kV, 50 MVA, 3 phase, 500 m HTS cable system using second generation (2G) HTS wire since 2008, based on the technology of the DAPAS project. This project is called as GENI (Green Superconducting Electric Power Network at the Icheon Substation) project. The target of GENI project is to install and operate the HTS cable system in the Icheon substation located in near Seoul. In order to analyze the Icheon substation power system employing the HTS cable, an analysis model of the HTS cable is necessary. This paper describes the development of an analysis model for the 22.9 kV, 50 MVA HTS cable that will be applied to the Icheon substation in Korea.

  15. Relationship between low blood lead levels and growth in children of white-collar civil servants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Rokho; Kim, Ho; Paek, Domyung

    2008-03-01

    The study examined the relationship between low blood lead levels and the physical growth of children in Seoul, Korea. Data were collected from 108 children (62 boys, 46 girls) aged 5-13 years, and the mean of the blood lead levels was 2.4microg/100ml (SD=0.7). The data analyzed included the blood lead levels, height, total arm length, weight, body mass index (BMI), and father's level of education. We used four multiple linear regression models with height, total arm length, weight, and BMI as the dependent variables, and age, sex, father's level of education, and blood lead levels as independent variables. In the multiple linear regression analysis, we found statistically significant, negative associations of height (p<0.02) and total arm length (p<0.01) with blood lead levels, but no association between blood lead or weight and BMI. Our study suggests that low blood lead levels specifically influence children's physical growth.

  16. Occupational Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun A

    2010-01-01

    Korea has industrialized since the 1970s. Pneumoconiosis in coal miners was the most common occupational disease in the 1970s to 1980s. With the industrialization, the use of many chemicals have increased since the 1970s. As a consequence, there were outbreaks of occupational diseases caused by poisonous chemicals, such as heavy metal poisoning, solvent poisoning and occupational asthma in the late 1980s and early 1990s with civil movement for democracy. Many actions have been taken for prevention by the government, employers and employees or unions. In the 1990s most chemical related diseases and pneumoconiosis have rapidly decreased due to improving work environment. In the late 1990s, cerebro-cardiovascular diseases related to job stress or work overloads have abruptly increased especially after the economic crisis in 1998. After the year 2000, musculoskeletal disorders became a major problem especially in assembly lines in the manufacturing industry and they were expanded to the service industry. Mental diseases related to job stress have increased. Infectious diseases increased in health care workers and afforestation workers. Occupational cancers are increasing because of their long latency, although the use of carcinogenic substances are reduced, limited, and even banned. PMID:21258589

  17. Dust Obscures Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The dust cloud over eastern Asia was so thick on March 21, 2002, that the Korean Peninsula completely disappeared from view in this Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) image of the region. Parts of South Korea report that visibility at the surface is less than 50 m (165 feet). Airports throughout the region canceled flights due to the poor visibility. Eyewitnesses in China report that the dust was so thick in Beijing at times that visibility was limited to 100 m (330 feet), while in parts of the Gansu Province visibility was reported at less than 10 m (33 feet). Chinese officials say this is the worst dust storm to hit in more than 10 years. Dust from an earlier event still colors the air to the east of Japan. (The island of Honshu is just peeking out from under the cloud cover in these images.) Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  18. 78 FR 66785 - Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation AGENCY: Nuclear... APR1400 Standard Plant Design submitted by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) and Korea...

  19. [Public perceptions of the risk of Asian dust storms in Seoul and its metropolitan area].

    PubMed

    Im, Hyoung-June; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Ha, Mina; Lee, Sang Gyu; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Ha, Eun Hee; Cho, Soo-Hun

    2006-05-01

    In spite of the recent increased concern for Asian dust storms, there are few studies concerning how dangerous the general public recognizes these dust storms to be. This study examined the public's perceptions of the risk of the Asian dust storms and also the source of the information concerning the risk. A telephone interview survey using a standardized questionnaire was done for the adults living in Seoul and its metropolitan area from May 15th, 2003 to May 16th, 2003. The contents of the questionnaire were the sociodemographic characteristics, the perceptions of risk to the Asian dust storms, and the coping strategy of the study participants. The study participants get their information on Asian dust storms mainly from TV newscasts and they have a good knowledge of them. They regard it as one of the most dangerous health risks, along with dioxin. They think that it is associated with allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis and bronchial asthma, etc. Of the 500 study participants, 201(40.2%) persons suffered bodily discomforts during the Asian dust storm period. Although there are uncertainties about the health risks of Asian dust storms, the public thinks these dust storms are very dangerous to health in many ways. This negative perception will not disappear easily. To fill the gap of the public's perceptions of the risk and the objective evidence of its health effects, more studies about its health effects and the methods to reduce exposure are required.

  20. Design and Construction of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) at Seoul National University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Younghwa; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Jung, Bongki; Lee, Hyunyeong; Sung, Choongki; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Na, Yong-Su; Hwang, Yong-Seok

    2011-10-01

    A new spherical torus, named as VEST (Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus), has been built at Seoul National University to investigate versatile research topics such as double null merging start-up, divertor engineering and non-inductive current drive. VEST is characterized by two partial solenoid coils installed at both vertical ends of a center stack, which will be used for double null merging start-up schemes. A poloidal field (PF) coil system including the partial solenoids for break-down and a long solenoid for the sustainment of merged plasma has been designed by solving circuit equations for the PF coils and vacuum vessel elements in consideration of required volt-second, null configuration and eddy current. To supply required currents to the PF coils and solenoids, power supplies based on double-swing circuit have been designed and fabricated with capacitor banks and thyristor switch assemblies. Also a power supply utilizing cost-effective commercial batteries has been developed for toroidal field(TF) coils. Detailed descriptions on the design of VEST and some initial test results will be presented.

  1. Design of interferometer system on Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) at Seoul National University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, D. H.; An, Y. H.; Chung, K. J.; Hwang, Y. S.

    2012-01-01

    A 94 GHz heterodyne interferometer system was designed to measure the plasma density of VEST (Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus), which was recently built at Seoul National University. Two 94 GHz Gunn oscillators with a frequency difference of 40 MHz were used in the microwave electronics part of a heterodyne interferometer system. A compact beam focusing system utilizing a pair of plano-convex lenses and a concave mirror was designed to maximize the effective beam reception and spatial resolution. Beam path analysis based on Gaussian optics was used in the design of the beam focusing system. The design of the beam focusing system and the beam path analysis were verified with a couple of experiments that were done within an experimental framework that considered the real dimensions of a vacuum vessel. Optimum distances between the optical components and the beam radii along the beam path obtained from the experiments were in good agreement with the beam path analysis using the Gaussian optics. Both experimentation and numerical calculations confirmed that the designed beam focusing system maximized the spatial resolution of the measurement; moreover, the beam waist was located at the center of the plasma to generate a phase shift more effectively in plasmas. The interferometer system presented in this paper is expected to be used in the measurements of line integrated plasma densities during the start-up phase of VEST.

  2. Urban Flood Management with Integrated Inland-River System in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Y. I.; Kim, J. S.; Yuk, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Global warming and climate change have caused significant damage and loss of life worldwide. The pattern of natural disasters has gradually diversified and their frequency is increasing. The impact of climate change on flood risk in urban rivers is of particular interest because these areas are typically densely populated. The occurrence of urban river flooding due to climate change not only causes significant loss of life and property but also causes health and social problems. It is therefore necessary to develop a scientific urban flood management system to cope with and reduce the impacts of climate change, including flood damage. In this study, we are going to introduce Integrated Inland-River Flood Analysis System in Seoul to conduct predictions on flash rain or short-term rainfall by using radar and satellite information and perform prompt and accurate prediction on the inland flooded areas. In addition, this urban flood management system can be used as a tool for decision making of systematic disaster prevention through real-time monitoring.

  3. Changes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area Urban Heat Environment with Residential Redevelopment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Je-Woo; Hong, Jinkyu

    2016-04-01

    Since the industrial revolution, the geographical extent of cities has increased around the world. In particular, following three decades of rapid regional economic growth, many Asian megacities have emerged and continue to expand. Short-term urban redevelopment is, therefore, inevitable. However, in this region the microclimatic impacts of urban redevelopment have not been extensively investigated using long-term in-situ observations. In this study, changes in surface sensible heat exchange, heat storage, and anthropogenic heat emissions due to urban residential redevelopment were quantified and analyzed based on a three-year micrometeorological record from the Seoul metropolitan area. The results show that following urban redevelopment of compact high-rise residential buildings, 1) the daily minimum air temperature near the ground surface increased by ˜0.6 K; 2) the ratio between surface sensible heat and net radiation increased by ˜ 9% (summer) to 31% (winter), anthropogenic heat emissions increased by 12 Wm-2 (spring) to 26 Wm-2 (summer), and daily maximum heat storage ranged by 35 Wm-2 (spring) to 55 Wm-2 (summer), and; 3) there was a transition of local circulation with changes in the surface properties of heat sources and roughness.

  4. Inferring the Chemical Composition of Columnar Aerosols from AERONET Data Downwind of Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Ghim, Y. S.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are complex mixtures of numerous chemical species which reflect the diversity of process mechanisms and emission sources. Many efforts have been devoted to obtain quantitative aerosol chemical information using the data from ground-based optical measurement network, e.g., AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork). The data include complex refractive indices which depend on aerosol chemical composition. To infer the aerosol chemical composition, it is necessary to assume a mixing rule to explain the existence of chemical species within aerosols. In this study, we assumed the Maxwell-Garnett mixing rule for selected aerosol components including black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), mineral dust (MD) embedded in the homogeneous host. The volume average mixing rule was assumed for the host consisting of water and ammonium sulfate. A CIMEL sunphotometer was operated at Hankuk_UFS (Hankuk University of Foreign Studies; 37.34° N, 127.27° E, 167 m above sea level) located about 35 km southeast of Seoul. We also measured inorganic ions using the Particle-Into-Liquid Sampler at intervals of 25 minutes during intensive measurement periods and BC using the Multiangle Absorption Photometer at intervals of 10 minutes throughout the study period. Filter sampling was also conducted on a daily basis for measuring the concentrations of major components. Concentrations of chemical components of columnar aerosols estimated from AERONET data were compared with those measured at the surface.

  5. An assessment of mineral dust impact from China and Mongolia on air quality in the Seoul Metropolitan Area with a full year simulation for 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Youn-Seo; Kim, Sung-Tae; Yun, Hui-Young; Choi, Dae-Ryun; Cho, Jin-Sik

    2013-04-01

    Asian mineral dust from Gobi Desert, sand desert, Loess Plateau and barren mixed soil in Northern China and Mongolia has a major impact on the air quality in the SMA (Seoul Metropolitan Area). These mineral aerosols increase PM10 concentration over 1000 μg/m3 during the dust storm event and they also increase PM10 background concentrations as the fugitive soil dust during the non-dust period in Korea. The mineral dust modifies the formation mechanism of inorganic aerosols via the chemical interactions with atmospheric gas species. The PM10 prediction by a regional chemical transport model without the dust emission shows an intrinsic tendency to underestimation according to previous studies in this region, especially for the soil originated coarse PM. This is partially due to the uncertainty of fugitive dust emissions. The US EPA Models-3/CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality model) v5.0 by modifying the fugitive dust module was used to simulate the chemical transport including the mineral aerosols. The Asian Dust Aerosol Model 2 (ADAM2) and Westpal schemes for the dust emission with CMAQ were tested for their applicability in assessing the impact of mineral dust on air quality in the SMA for a full year of 2009. The performance of available dust emission schemes to depict not only the high PM10 concentrations and onset time for the dust storm period but also the level of background PM10 concentration for the non-dust event were evaluated against the surface measurements of and satellite measurements over East Asia. The surface observations were from EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring NETwork in East Asia), API (Air Pollution Index) monitoring sites in China and the intensive monitoring stations in the SMA. The results show that the CMAQ predictions of PM10 with ADAM2 and Westpal scheme are relatively in a good agreement with the observations and influence of mineral dusts on the sulfate and nitrate formations is significant when the dust mixes with anthropogenic

  6. Distribution of lichen flora on South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jae-Seoun; Harada, Hiroshi; Oh, Soon-Ok; Lim, Kwang-Mi; Kang, Eui-Sung; Lee, Seung Mi; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Jae-Sung; Koh, Young Jin

    2004-06-01

    After an overview on the temporary situation of the lichenology in South Korea, localities of 95 macrolichen taxa are reported for South Korea. In this revised lichen flora of South Korea, 16 species are apparently new to the territory. Voucher specimens have been deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) at Sunchon National University in Korea, and duplicates have also been donated to the National History Museum and Institute, in Chiba, (CBM) Japan.

  7. Discovery, understanding, and bioapplication of organic fluorophore: a case study with an indolizine-based novel fluorophore, Seoul-Fluor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunha; Lee, Youngjun; Lee, Sanghee; Park, Seung Bum

    2015-03-17

    Owing to its high sensitivity and great applicability, the fluorescence phenomenon has been considered as an inevitable research tool in the modern scientific fields of chemistry, biology, materials science, biomedical science, and their interfaces. Many strategies have been pursued to understand and manipulate the photophysical properties of fluorescent materials, but the scientific community has been focused on the repeated application of existing organic fluorophores or the identification of unique fluorescence properties in a trial-and-error basis without systematic studies. Moreover, recent studies are emphasizing the necessity of deeper understanding about the structure-photophysical property relationship of organic fluorophores for the development of better fluorescent probes. Herein, we provide an overview of a novel fluorescent molecular framework, Seoul-Fluor, which can be rationally engineered to furnish a wide variety of fluorophores in terms of the photophysical properties. Seoul-Fluor is built on an indolizine-based fluorescent platform with three different positions to introduce various substituents: R(1) and R(2) substituents for electronic perturbation; R(3) substituent as a functional handle for bioconjugation. Over the past decade, we have demonstrated that the Seoul-Fluor system has (i) tunable and predictable emission wavelength covering a full visible-color range; (ii) controllable quantum yield via photoinduced electron transfer phenomenon; and (iii) environment-sensitive fluorogenic properties that can be modified through intramolecular charge transfer processes. We convincingly demonstrated the prediction of photophysical properties, that is, emission wavelength and quantum yield, through the construction of a systematic set of analogues and the subsequent analysis of their photophysical properties without the highly sophisticated theoretical support. Guided by quantifiable parameters such as the Hammett substituent constants or energy

  8. 75 FR 67912 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... 31 CFR Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury...'') is issuing regulations with respect to North Korea to implement Executive Order 13466 of June 26... issuing the North Korea Sanctions Regulations, 31 CFR part 510 (the ``Regulations''), to implement E.O...

  9. 76 FR 35740 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION... amending the North Korea Sanctions Regulations to implement Executive Order 13570 of April 18, 2011. OFAC..., the Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control published the North Korea Sanctions...

  10. [Diagnosis and treatment guidelines for Helicobacter pylori infection in Korea].

    PubMed

    Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Jae J; Choe, Yon Ho; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Jin Il; Chung, In-Sik

    2009-11-01

    Eleven years has passed since the guideline of the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research group for H. pylori infection was produced in 1998. During this period the research for H. pylori has much progressed that H. pylori is now regarded as the major cause of gastric cancer. The seroprevalence of H. pylori in Korea was found to be decreased especially below the age of 40s and in the area of Seoul-Gyeonggi province, and annual reinfection rate of H. pylori has decreased up to 2.94%. In the aspect of diagnostic tests of H. pylori the biopsy is recommended in the body instead of antrum in the subjects with atrophic gastritis and/or intestinal metaplasia for the modified Giemsa staining or Warthin Starry silver staining. The urea breath test is the test of choice to confirm eradication when follow-up endoscopy is not necessary. Definite indication for H. pylori eradication is early gastric cancer in addition to the previous indications of peptic ulcer including scar and Marginal zone B cell lymphoma (MALT type). Treatment is also recommended for the relatives of gastric cancer patient, unexplained iron deficiency anemia, and chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. One or two week treatment of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) based triple therapy consisting of one PPI and two antibiotics, clarithromycin and amoxicillin, is recommended as the first line treatment regimen. In the case of treatment failure, one or two weeks of quadruple therapy (PPI+metronidazole+tetracycline+bismuth) is recommended. Herein, Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research proposes a diagnostic and treatment guideline based on currently available evidence.

  11. Computation of geographic variables for air pollution prediction models in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Eum, Youngseob; Song, Insang; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Leem, Jong-Han; Kim, Sun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Recent cohort studies have relied on exposure prediction models to estimate individuallevel air pollution concentrations because individual air pollution measurements are not available for cohort locations. For such prediction models, geographic variables related to pollution sources are important inputs. We demonstrated the computation process of geographic variables mostly recorded in 2010 at regulatory air pollution monitoring sites in South Korea. On the basis of previous studies, we finalized a list of 313 geographic variables related to air pollution sources in eight categories including traffic, demographic characteristics, land use, transportation facilities, physical geography, emissions, vegetation, and altitude. We then obtained data from different sources such as the Statistics Geographic Information Service and Korean Transport Database. After integrating all available data to a single database by matching coordinate systems and converting non-spatial data to spatial data, we computed geographic variables at 294 regulatory monitoring sites in South Korea. The data integration and variable computation were performed by using ArcGIS version 10.2 (ESRI Inc., Redlands, CA, USA). For traffic, we computed the distances to the nearest roads and the sums of road lengths within different sizes of circular buffers. In addition, we calculated the numbers of residents, households, housing buildings, companies, and employees within the buffers. The percentages of areas for different types of land use compared to total areas were calculated within the buffers. For transportation facilities and physical geography, we computed the distances to the closest public transportation depots and the boundary lines. The vegetation index and altitude were estimated at a given location by using satellite data. The summary statistics of geographic variables in Seoul across monitoring sites showed different patterns between urban background and urban roadside sites. This study

  12. Computation of geographic variables for air pollution prediction models in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Eum, Youngseob; Song, Insang; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Leem, Jong-Han; Kim, Sun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Recent cohort studies have relied on exposure prediction models to estimate individuallevel air pollution concentrations because individual air pollution measurements are not available for cohort locations. For such prediction models, geographic variables related to pollution sources are important inputs. We demonstrated the computation process of geographic variables mostly recorded in 2010 at regulatory air pollution monitoring sites in South Korea. On the basis of previous studies, we finalized a list of 313 geographic variables related to air pollution sources in eight categories including traffic, demographic characteristics, land use, transportation facilities, physical geography, emissions, vegetation, and altitude. We then obtained data from different sources such as the Statistics Geographic Information Service and Korean Transport Database. After integrating all available data to a single database by matching coordinate systems and converting non-spatial data to spatial data, we computed geographic variables at 294 regulatory monitoring sites in South Korea. The data integration and variable computation were performed by using ArcGIS version 10.2 (ESRI Inc., Redlands, CA, USA). For traffic, we computed the distances to the nearest roads and the sums of road lengths within different sizes of circular buffers. In addition, we calculated the numbers of residents, households, housing buildings, companies, and employees within the buffers. The percentages of areas for different types of land use compared to total areas were calculated within the buffers. For transportation facilities and physical geography, we computed the distances to the closest public transportation depots and the boundary lines. The vegetation index and altitude were estimated at a given location by using satellite data. The summary statistics of geographic variables in Seoul across monitoring sites showed different patterns between urban background and urban roadside sites. This study

  13. Lactational exposure to short-chain chlorinated paraffins in China, Korea, and Japan.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yang; Harada, Kouji H; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Niisoe, Tamon; Wang, Peiyu; Shi, Yuhui; Yang, Hye-Ran; Takasuga, Takumi; Koizumi, Akio

    2017-04-01

    To investigate short-chain chlorinated paraffin (SCCP) levels in human breast milk, pooled breast milk samples (BMSs) collected between 2007 and 2010 from Chinese (Beijing, n = 17), Korean (Seoul, Busan, n = 16), and Japanese (Kyoto, Sendai, n = 44) women were analyzed. SCCPs found in air samples in Beijing (n = 4, in 2008) were also analyzed and compared with BMSs to estimate the possible source of contamination in Beijing. The electron-capture negative ionization method demonstrated the different sensitivities for SCCPs, and pentachlorinated alkanes had the highest method detection limit (MDL) among congeners. In Beijing, SCCPs were detected in 8 of 17 pooled BMSs at concentrations more than the highest MDL of each homolog. The total SCCP concentration ranged from below the MDL to 54 ng g(-1) lipid weight. Among the SCCP homologs, polychlorinated tridecanes were most frequently detected in Beijing. In Korea and Japan, no samples contained detectable total SCCP concentrations at more than the highest MDL. In Seoul, only two samples showed trace levels of polychlorinated undecanes. In Kyoto and Sendai, congeners of polychlorinated dodecanes were most frequently detected. C10 components were the major contributors to the SCCPs in the atmosphere of Beijing. Congener profiles in breast milk in Beijing provided a clear contrast to the profiles found in food and air. The unique congener profiles necessitate the monitoring of breast milk for exposure of infants to SCCPs. The calculated mean exposure of SCCPs in 1-year-olds in China was 337 ng (kg body weight)(-1) d(-1). These results demonstrate the body burden of SCCPs in the study areas and potential lactational exposure to SCCPs in Asian countries.

  14. Levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid in female serum samples from Japan in 2008, Korea in 1994-2008 and Vietnam in 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kouji H; Yang, Hye-Ran; Moon, Chan-Seok; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Inoue, Kayoko; Niisoe, Tamon; Watanabe, Takao; Kamiyama, Shigetoshi; Takenaka, Katsunobu; Kim, Min-Young; Watanabe, Kiyohiko; Takasuga, Takumi; Koizumi, Akio

    2010-04-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have recently received attention owing to their widespread contamination in the environment. One of major manufacturers, 3M Company voluntarily phased out PFOS production in 2002. We measured the PFOS and PFOA concentrations in serum samples from Japan (Sendai, Takayama and Osaka), Korea (Busan and Seoul) and Vietnam (Hanoi) to evaluate the possible effects of the phase-out on the serum levels. There were spatial differences in both the serum PFOS and PFOA concentrations. The serum PFOS concentrations (ngmL(-1)) evaluated as the geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) in 2007-2008 ranged from 4.86 (1.45) in Sendai, Japan, to 9.36 (1.42) in Busan, Korea. The serum PFOA concentrations ranged from 0.575 (2.32) in Hanoi, Vietnam, to 14.2 (1.73) in Osaka, Japan. Historically archived samples collected from Korea in 1994-2008 revealed that the serum PFOA concentrations increased by 1.24-fold in Busan from 2000 to 2008 and 1.41-fold in Seoul from 1994 to 2007. On the other hand, the serum PFOS concentrations did not change from 1994 to 2007/2008. The serum PFOS levels in Japan in 2008 were significantly decreased compared with previously reported values (22.3-66.7% of the values in 2003/2004). However, the serum PFOA levels showed a clear decline from 2003 to 2008 in a high-exposed area, Osaka, but not in low-exposed areas in Japan. The trends toward decreases were not uniformly observed in Asian countries, unlike the case for the United States, suggesting that local factors associated with the production and introduction histories in each country overwhelm the effects of the phase-out. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Health impact assessment in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Eunjeong; Lee, Youngsoo; Harris, Patrick; Koh, Kwangwook; Kim, Keonyeop

    2011-07-15

    Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

  16. [A study on the local marriage network in Korea].

    PubMed

    Kim, J S

    1987-12-01

    Place of residence has traditionally been an important factor in Korea in mate selection. This study examines the local marriage network in Korean society, its variation by year of marriage, and general characteristics of the married women. Data are drawn from the 1986 national sample survey on the family life cycle implemented by the Korea Institute for Population and Health. Questionnaires were administered to 3013 wives aged 15-64. Major study findings follow. 1) The local marriage rate within the same region by birthplace is strikingly high in Kyongsangdo and Chonla-do. Local marriage rates are 79.5% in both of these regions, 33.5% in Seoul, 35.2% in Busan, 50% in Kyonggi-do, 48.1% in Kangwon-do, and 60.7% in Chungchung-do. 2) The local marriage rate within the same county or the same city be residence before marriage has rapidly been declining in rural areas since 1960. This is largely due to industrialization, urbanization, and better transportation. The marriage rate in rural areas was 62% among marriages in the 1940s, 47.1% in the 1960s, 43% in the 1980s, and 70.9%, 88.4%, and 70.7% respectively in urban areas. 3) The proportion of local marriages within the same city or county is 55.1% among arranged marriages and 72.3% among romantic marriages. 4) Pre-marital employment seems to have some effects on the extent of mate-selection. Wives who worked before marriage were more likely to marry men in the same city or county. The local marriage rate within the same city or county is 63.2% among wives with work experience, and 58.5% among wives without work experience. 5) The more educated the woman, the higher the local marriage rate within the same city or county. 56.6% of those who attended middle school married men in the same city or county as theirs, 61.4% of wives with a high school education, and 76.6% of wives with college or more education. 63.8% of wives who never attended school married men in the same city or county. In summary, restrictions on

  17. Source apportionment of PM2.5 in Incheon, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Ban, S.; Lee, C.; Yi, S.; Zoh, K.

    2011-12-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected at a centrally located urban monitoring site in Incheon, Korea, every third day from Jun 2009 to may 2010 and analyzed their chemical species. In this study, we investigated the source of PM2.5 using Positive Matrix Factorization(PMF), the source area from Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) and Conditional Probability Function(CPF), and characterized source variation among episode, non-episode, yellow sand events. Incheon, study site, is located at the mid-western tip of the Korean Peninsula with a population of 2.6 million people and area of 1029.4 km2, respectively. As a transportation hub, the city also holds the importance of meteological/geological aspect affecting the air quality of capital region, in that is prevailing westerlies zone and a air passageway from China to Japan passing through seoul, korea. In the study, the Four channel based on Annular Denuder System(ADS) were used for sample collection(URG co, USA). The filter samples were analyzed with respect to species type such as ion group, metal, and OC/EC compound using ion chromatography, ICP/MS, and NIOSH TOT method, respectively. The PM2.5 concentration was 43ug/m3 that is almost three times higher than the US NAAQS annual PM2.5 standard of 15ug/m3. Nine PM2.5 sources were resolved from PMF analysis that provided reasonable source profiles and interesting insights into the source contributions to the ambient mass concentrations. The major sources of PM2.5 were secondary nitrate(26.4%), secondary sulfate(17.3%), gasoline(16.4%), and residual oil combustion(13.5%), with lesser contributions from biomass burning (7.5%), road dust(6.9%), soil (5.5%), coal fire powerplant (4.0%), and free sea salt(2.4%). CPF results identified possible local source directions such as motor vehicles, free sea salt. PSCF results indicated that likely pollution areas increased secondary particle concentrations(sulfate and nitrate) in Incheon to be the major industrial areas in China

  18. Factors influencing consumer demand for U.S. pork exported to the Republic of Korea (South Korea).

    PubMed

    Vonada, M L; Bidner, B S; Belk, K E; McKeith, F K; Lloyd, W R; O'Connor, M E; Smith, G C

    2001-04-01

    The potential market for single-ribbed bellies and Boston butts in South Korea was characterized and quantitative selection criteria were identified for use by U.S. packers when selecting pork for export. South Korean retail meat market managers and traders/wholesalers in Seoul and Pusan were interviewed and asked to identify the quality attributes that are considered when making pork-purchasing decisions. In addition, pork labeling characteristics and meat display case measurements and space allocations were recorded in each retail store. Data from box labels were recorded in retail storage coolers to characterize pork products currently being merchandized in South Korea. Sample retail packages of belly and butt slices were collected and sent to a commercial laboratory for analysis of iodine values, ether-extractable fat content, total aerobic plate count (APC), total coliform count (TCC), and generic Escherichia coli count (ECC). No quality attributes of U.S. products exceeded the expectations of retailers. Quality attributes of U.S. pork products that exceeded the expectations of traders included presence of foreign material, marbling, tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall eating satisfaction. Traders/wholesalers assigned negative ratings for overall workmanship and adherence to purchase criteria for U.S. pork products. Retail APC for South Korean belly samples were higher (P < 0.05) than APC for U.S. belly samples. Retail TCC and ECC for butts and belly samples and APC for butt samples did not differ by country of origin. Retail prices for South Korean bellies were higher (P < 0.05) than prices for retail U.S. and Danish bellies. Pork butt prices did not differ (P > 0.05) by country of origin. Beef, pork, and poultry products comprised 66.8, 27.8, and 5.4%, respectively, of the total meat display case frontage. U.S. beef products occupied, on average, 18% of the total beef display area, whereas U.S. pork products comprised 2.6% of the total pork display

  19. Migration of Norway rats resulted in the worldwide distribution of Seoul hantavirus today.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xian-Dan; Guo, Wen-Ping; Wang, Wen; Zou, Yang; Hao, Zong-Yu; Zhou, Dun-Jin; Dong, Xue; Qu, Yong-Gang; Li, Ming-Hui; Tian, Hai-Feng; Wen, Jian-Fan; Plyusnin, Alexander; Xu, Jianguo; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Despite the worldwide distribution, most of the known Seoul viruses (SEOV) are closely related to each other. In this study, the M and the S segment sequences of SEOV were recovered from 130 lung tissue samples (mostly of Norway rats) and from six patient serum samples by reverse transcription-PCR. Genetic analysis revealed that all sequences belong to SEOV and represent 136 novel strains. Phylogenetic analysis of all available M and S segment sequences of SEOV, including 136 novel Chinese strains, revealed four distinct groups. All non-Chinese SEOV strains and most of the Chinese variants fell into the phylogroup A, while the Chinese strains originating from mountainous areas clustered into three other distinct groups (B, C, and D). We estimated that phylogroup A viruses may have arisen only within the last several centuries. All non-Chinese variants appeared to be directly originated from China. Thus, phylogroup A viruses distributed worldwide may share a recent ancestor, whereas SEOV seems to be as diversified genetically as other hantaviruses. In addition, all available mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of Norway rats, including our 44 newly recovered mtDNA sequences, were divided into two phylogenetic groups. The first group, which is associated with the group A SEOV variants, included most of rats from China and also all non-Chinese rats, while the second group consisted of a few rats originating only from mountain areas in China. We hypothesize that an ancestor of phylogroup A SEOV variants was first exported from China to Europe and then spread through the New World following the migration of Norway rats.

  20. Installation of platform screen doors and their impact on indoor air quality: Seoul subway trains.

    PubMed

    Son, Youn-Suk; Jeon, Jae-Sik; Lee, Hyung Joo; Ryu, In-Cheol; Kim, Jo-Chun

    2014-09-01

    In this study, variations of particulate matter (PM) concentrations in subway trains following installation of platform screen doors (PSDs) in the Seoul subway system were investigated. PM samples were collected in the trains on subway lines 1-8 before and after installation of PSDs. It was found that the mean PM10 concentration in the trains after PSDs installation increased significantly by 29.9% compared to that before installation. In particular, the increase of PM10 in line 6 was the highest at 103%. When the relationship between PM10 and PM2.5 was compared, coefficients of determination (r2) before and after PSDs installations were 0.696 and 0.169, respectively. This suggests that air mixing between the platform and the tunnel after PSDs installation was extremely restricted. In addition, the indoor/outdoor PM10 ratio following PSDs installation increased from 1.32 to 2.97 relative to the period with no installed PSDs. Furthermore, this study revealed that PM levels in subway trains increased significantly after all underground PSDs were put in use. Several potential factors were examined that could result in this PM increase, such as train ventilation systems, operational conditions, passenger volume, subway depth, and the length of underground segments. Implications: PM10 concentrations inside the subway trains increased after PSDs installation. This indicates that air quality in trains was very seriously impacted by PSDs. PM10 levels were also influenced by the tunnel depth and length of the underground segments. To prevent the adverse effect on human health by PM10 emitted from the tunnel, an applicable ventilation system to reduce PM10 is required inside trains and tunnels.

  1. Migration of Norway Rats Resulted in the Worldwide Distribution of Seoul Hantavirus Today

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xian-Dan; Guo, Wen-Ping; Wang, Wen; Zou, Yang; Hao, Zong-Yu; Zhou, Dun-Jin; Dong, Xue; Qu, Yong-Gang; Li, Ming-Hui; Tian, Hai-Feng; Wen, Jian-Fan; Plyusnin, Alexander; Xu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Despite the worldwide distribution, most of the known Seoul viruses (SEOV) are closely related to each other. In this study, the M and the S segment sequences of SEOV were recovered from 130 lung tissue samples (mostly of Norway rats) and from six patient serum samples by reverse transcription-PCR. Genetic analysis revealed that all sequences belong to SEOV and represent 136 novel strains. Phylogenetic analysis of all available M and S segment sequences of SEOV, including 136 novel Chinese strains, revealed four distinct groups. All non-Chinese SEOV strains and most of the Chinese variants fell into the phylogroup A, while the Chinese strains originating from mountainous areas clustered into three other distinct groups (B, C, and D). We estimated that phylogroup A viruses may have arisen only within the last several centuries. All non-Chinese variants appeared to be directly originated from China. Thus, phylogroup A viruses distributed worldwide may share a recent ancestor, whereas SEOV seems to be as diversified genetically as other hantaviruses. In addition, all available mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of Norway rats, including our 44 newly recovered mtDNA sequences, were divided into two phylogenetic groups. The first group, which is associated with the group A SEOV variants, included most of rats from China and also all non-Chinese rats, while the second group consisted of a few rats originating only from mountain areas in China. We hypothesize that an ancestor of phylogroup A SEOV variants was first exported from China to Europe and then spread through the New World following the migration of Norway rats. PMID:22090114

  2. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (31st, Seoul, Korea, July 8-13, 2007). Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jeong-Ho, Ed.; Lew, Hee-Chan, Ed.; Park, Kyo-Sik Park, Ed.; Seo, Dong-Yeop, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This second volume of the 31st annual proceedings of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education conference presents research reports for author surnames beginning Alc- through Hal-. Reports include: (1) How Do Your Students Think about Proof? A DVD Resource for Mathematicians (Lara Alcock); (2) Teachers' Conceptions of…

  3. WHO Meeting on EMF Biological Effects and Standards Harmonization in Asia and Oceania, 22-24 October, 2001, Shilla Hotel, Seoul, Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-24

    notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not...CHINA Huai Chian 12:00-12:20 EMF SAFETY STANDARDS IN JAPAN Masao Taki 12:20-12:40 EMF SAFETY STANDARDS IN MALAYSIA Ahmed Farag 112:40-13:00 EMF STANDARDS...FIELD EXPOSURE STANDARD IN CHINA Huai Chian 69 EMF SAFETY STANDARDS IN JAPAN Masao Taki 71 EMF SAFETY STANDARDS IN MALAYSIA Ahmed Farag 73 EMF STANDARDS

  4. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (31st, Seoul, Korea, July 8-13, 2007). Volume 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jeong-Ho, Ed.; Lew, Hee-Chan, Ed.; Park, Kyo-Sik, Ed.; Seo, Dong-Yeop, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This fourth and final volume of the 31st annual proceedings of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education conference presents research reports for author surnames beginning Na- through Zod-. Reports include: (1) Mathematically Gifted Students' Problem Solving Approaches on Conditional Probability (GwiSoo Na, DaeHee Han,…

  5. The International Conference on Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (1st) Held in Seoul, Korea on 4-6 May 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    the indirect immunotluorescence antibody (IPA) technique was applied usinq VOero E6 cells infected with hanta- virus strains 76-118, NE-lUtllnis, NE...Accumulated. Father norotyptn; of ibe, A? virus atninu isoklte4 in Chins fznm various zvr- ce-z it- panfels of VIteqbs and molecular &nalysis of 1he...A brief overy±ewo atThe present, knowledre, -of -the rat ty- reFin Cihina is riven. 21 Serological evidence of human and rodent infections suggests

  6. VET through One's Lifetime: New Approaches and Implementation. Proceedings of the KRIVET International Conference on VET (2nd, Seoul, Korea, October 15-16, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korea Research Inst. for Vocational Education and Training, Seoul.

    This document contains 13 papers from an international conference on new approaches to and implementation of lifelong vocational education and training (VET) and technical and vocational education and training (TVET). The document begins with two keynote speeches and five topic presentations, which are titled as follows: "Current Issues…

  7. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (31st, Seoul, Korea, July 8-13, 2007). Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jeong-Ho, Ed.; Lew, Hee-Chan, Ed.; Park, Kyo-Sik Park, Ed.; Seo, Dong-Yeop, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This third volume of the 31st annual proceedings of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education conference presents research reports for author surnames beginning Han- through Miy-. Reports include: (1) Elementary Education Students' Memories of Mathematics in Family Context (Markku S. Hannula, Raimo Kaasila, Erkki…

  8. UNESCO-UNEVOC Regional Forum Asia and Pacific: Advancing TVET for Youth Employability and Sustainable Development (Seoul, Republic of Korea, September 4-6, 2013). Meeting Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    To strengthen global and regional harmonization for the advancement of TVET transformation through the